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Sample records for neurotensin receptor type

  1. Increased Ethanol Consumption and Preference in Mice Lacking Neurotensin Receptor Type 2

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Moonnoh R.; Hinton, David J.; Unal, Sencan S.; Richelson, Elliott; Choi, Doo-Sup

    2010-01-01

    Background Neurotensin receptors (NTS) regulate a variety of the biological functions of neurotensin (NT) in the central nervous system. Although NT and NT receptor type 1 (NTS1) are implicated in some of the behavioral effects of ethanol, the functional roles of NT receptor type 2 (NTS2) in ethanol intoxication and consumption remain unknown. Here we investigated behavioral effects mediated by NTS2 in response to ethanol, which are implicated in ethanol consumption and preference, using NTS2 null mice. Method First, we examined ethanol-induced locomotion, ataxia, hypnosis, and hypothermia in NTS2 null mice. Next, we measured ethanol consumption and preference in NTS2 null mice by giving them free choice between ethanol- and tap water-containing bottles. Then using a brain-permeable neurotensin analog, NT69L, we examined the role of NTS2 in locomotor activity and ataxia. Finally, we examined the effect of NT69L on ethanol consumption and preference in NTS2 null mice. Results We found that NTS2 null mice appear less sensitive to the acute hypnotic effects of ethanol and consumed more ethanol compared to wild-type littermates in a two-bottle choice experiment, even though ethanol-induced locomotion, ataxia, and hypothermia were similar between genotypes. Interestingly, the administration of NT69L for 4 consecutive days significantly reduced alcohol consumption and preference in wild-type littermates as well as in NTS2 null mice. Conclusions Our findings suggest that NTS2 regulates ethanol-induced hypnosis and ethanol consumption. PMID:21039631

  2. Neurotensin receptor type 1 regulates ethanol intoxication and consumption in mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Moonnoh R.; Hinton, David J.; Song, Jane Y.; Lee, Kyung Won; Choo, Christopher; Johng, Heidi; Unal, Sencan S.; Richelson, Elliott; Choi, Doo-Sup

    2010-01-01

    Neurotensin receptor type 1 (NTS1) is known to mediate a variety of biological functions of neurotensin (NT) in the central nervous system. In this study, we found that NTS1 null mice displayed decreased sensitivity to the ataxic effect of ethanol on the rotarod and increased ethanol consumption when given free choice between ethanol and tap water containing bottles. Interestingly, the administration of NT69L, a brain-permeable NT analog, increased ethanol sensitivity in wild-type littermates but had no such effect in NTS1 null mice, suggesting that NTS1 contributes to NT-mediated ethanol intoxication. Furthermore, the daily treatment of NT69L, for 4 consecutive days, significantly reduced alcohol preference and consumption in wild-type littermates but had no such effects in NTS1 null mice in a two-bottle drinking experiment. Our study provides evidence for one possible pharmacological role of NT69L in which it increases sensitivity to the ataxic effect, and decreases voluntary consumption, of ethanol. Our study also demonstrates NTS1-mediated behavioral effects of NT69L. Therefore, our findings will be useful for understanding some aspects of alcoholism as well as to develop novel pharmacological therapeutic options for humans. PMID:20122953

  3. Identification of N-[(5-{[(4-Methylphenyl)sulfonyl]amino}-3-(trifluoroacetyl)-1H-indol-1-yl)acetyl]-l-leucine (NTRC-824), a Neurotensin-like Nonpeptide Compound Selective for the Neurotensin Receptor Type 2

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Compounds acting via the neurotensin receptor type 2 (NTS2) are known to be active in animal models of acute and chronic pain. To identify novel NTS2 selective analgesics, we searched for NTS2 selective nonpeptide compounds using a FLIPR assay and identified the title compound (NTRC-824, 5) that, to our knowledge, is the first nonpeptide that is selective for NTS2 versus NTS1 and behaves like the endogenous ligand neurotensin in the functional assay. PMID:25157640

  4. Thermostabilisation of the neurotensin receptor NTS1

    PubMed Central

    Shibata, Yoko; White, Jim F.; Serrano-Vega, Maria J.; Magnani, Francesca; Aloia, Amanda L.; Grisshammer, Reinhard; Tate, Christopher G.

    2009-01-01

    Structural studies on G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been hampered for many years by their instability in detergent solution and by the number of potential conformations that receptors can adopt. Recently, the structures of the β1 and β2 adrenergic receptors and the adenosine A2a receptor were determined with antagonist bound, a receptor conformation that is thought to be more stable than the agonist-bound state. In contrast to these receptors, the neurotensin receptor NTS1 is much less stable in detergent solution. We have therefore used a systematic mutational approach coupled to activity assays to identify receptor mutants suitable for crystallisation, both alone and in complex with the peptide agonist, neurotensin. The best receptor mutant, NTS1-7m, contained 4 point mutations. It showed increased stability compared to the wild type receptor, in the absence of ligand, after solubilisation with a variety of detergents. In addition, NTS1-7m bound to neurotensin was more stable than unliganded NTS1-7m. Of the four thermostabilising mutations, only one residue (A86L) is predicted to be in the lipid environment. In contrast, I260A appears to be buried within the transmembrane helix bundle, F342A may form a distant part of the putative ligand binding site, whereas F358A is likely to be in a region important for receptor activation. NTS1-7m binds neurotensin with a similar affinity to the wild-type receptor. However, agonist dissociation was slower, and NTS1-7m activated G proteins poorly. The affinity of NTS1-7m for the antagonist SR48692 was also lower than that of the wild-type receptor. Thus we have successfully stabilised NTS1 in an agonist-binding conformation that does not efficiently couple to G proteins. PMID:19422831

  5. Cardio-respiratory effects of systemic neurotensin injection are mediated through activation of neurotensin NTS₁ receptors.

    PubMed

    Kaczyńska, Katarzyna; Szereda-Przestaszewska, Małgorzata

    2012-09-15

    The purpose of our study was to determine the cardio-respiratory pattern exerted by the systemic injection of neurotensin, contribution of neurotensin NTS(1) receptors and the neural pathways mediating the responses. The effects of an intravenous injection (i.v.) of neurotensin were investigated in anaesthetized, spontaneously breathing rats in following experimental schemes: (i) control animals before and after midcervical vagotomy; (ii) in three separate subgroups of rats: neurally intact, vagotomized at supranodosal level and initially midcervically vagotomized exposed to section of the carotid sinus nerves (CSNs); (iii) in the intact rats 2 minutes after blockade of neurotensin NTS(1) receptors with SR 142948. Intravenous injection of 10 μg/kg of neurotensin in the intact rats evoked prompt increase in the respiratory rate followed by a prolonged slowing down coupled with augmented tidal volume. Midcervical vagotomy precluded the effects of neurotensin on the frequency of breathing, while CSNs section reduced the increase in tidal volume. In all the neural states neurotensin caused significant fall in mean arterial blood pressure preceded by prompt hypertensive response. The cardio-respiratory effects of neurotensin were blocked by pre-treatment with NTS(1) receptor antagonist. The results of this study showed that neurotensin acting through NTS(1) receptors augments the tidal component of the breathing pattern in a large portion via carotid body afferentation whereas the respiratory timing response to neurotensin depends entirely on the intact midcervical vagi. Blood pressure effects evoked by an intravenous neurotensin occur outside vagal and CSNs pathways and might result from activation of the peripheral vascular NTS(1) receptors.

  6. Relevant genomics of neurotensin receptor in cancer.

    PubMed

    Elek, J; Pinzon, W; Park, K H; Narayanan, R

    2000-01-01

    The expressed sequence tag (EST) databases are an attractive starting point for gene discovery for diseases like cancer. Validation of gene targets from these sequences (both known and novel) in cancers requires a comprehensive expression profiling. We identified from the Cancer Gene Anatomy Project database (CGAP), a hit called neurotensin receptor (NT-r) that was expressed in the pancreatic cancer cDNA libraries. Neurotensin (NT), a neuroendocrine peptide, exerts trophic effects in vivo and stimulates the growth of cancer-derived cell lines in vitro. High affinity neurotensin receptors (NT-r) are expressed in cancer-derived cell lines and in some primary tumors. To date, a comprehensive expression profile of the NT-r in diverse cancers and normal tissues has not been reported. A cancer-selective expression of NT-r, if demonstrable, may provide a basis for a diagnostic and potential therapeutic utility. We demonstrate that the NT-r is expressed in a variety of cancer-derived cell lines as well as primary tumors, but only in a select few normal tissues. The expression of NT, on the other hand, was detected in many normal tissues, but not in the cancer-derived cell lines. The NT expression however, was detected in the primary tumors. We further demonstrate that NT expression is stimulated by androgen deprivation in the prostate cancer models. These results demonstrate the usefulness of a panel of cDNA repository for rapid validation of potential cancer targets.

  7. Characterization of high affinity neurotensin receptor NTR1 in HL-60 cells and its down regulation during granulocytic differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Se-Young; Chae, Hee-Don; Park, Tae-Ju; Ha, Hyunjung; Kim, Kyong-Tai

    1999-01-01

    We investigated responses to neurotensin in human promyelocytic leukaemia HL-60 cells. Neurotensin increased the cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) in a concentration-dependent manner and also produced inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3). Among the tested neurotensin analogues, neurotensin 8-13, neuromedin-N, and xenopsin also increased [Ca2+]i, whereas neurotensin 1–11 and neurotensin 1–8 did not elicit detectable responses. SR48692, an antagonist of NTR1 neurotensin receptors, blocked the neurotensin-induced [Ca2+]i increase, whereas levocabastine, which is known as an NTR2 neurotensin receptor antagonist, did not attenuate the neurotensin-evoked effect. The expression of NTR1 neurotensin receptors was confirmed by Northern blot analysis and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT–PCR). During 1.25% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO)-triggered granulocytic differentiation of HL-60 cells, the neurotensin-induced [Ca2+]i rise became gradually smaller and completely disappeared 4 days after treatment with DMSO. The mRNA level for neurotensin receptors was also decreased after differentiation. The results show that HL-60 cells express NTR1 neurotensin receptors and suggest that granulocytic differentiation involves transcriptional regulation of the receptors resulting in down-regulation of the neurotensin-induced signalling. PMID:10193787

  8. Structure of the agonist-bound neurotensin receptor.

    PubMed

    White, Jim F; Noinaj, Nicholas; Shibata, Yoko; Love, James; Kloss, Brian; Xu, Feng; Gvozdenovic-Jeremic, Jelena; Shah, Priyanka; Shiloach, Joseph; Tate, Christopher G; Grisshammer, Reinhard

    2012-10-25

    Neurotensin (NTS) is a 13-amino-acid peptide that functions as both a neurotransmitter and a hormone through the activation of the neurotensin receptor NTSR1, a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). In the brain, NTS modulates the activity of dopaminergic systems, opioid-independent analgesia, and the inhibition of food intake; in the gut, NTS regulates a range of digestive processes. Here we present the structure at 2.8 Å resolution of Rattus norvegicus NTSR1 in an active-like state, bound to NTS(8-13), the carboxy-terminal portion of NTS responsible for agonist-induced activation of the receptor. The peptide agonist binds to NTSR1 in an extended conformation nearly perpendicular to the membrane plane, with the C terminus oriented towards the receptor core. Our findings provide, to our knowledge, the first insight into the binding mode of a peptide agonist to a GPCR and may support the development of non-peptide ligands that could be useful in the treatment of neurological disorders, cancer and obesity.

  9. Neurotensin receptor binding levels in basal ganglia are not altered in Huntington's chorea or schizophrenia

    SciTech Connect

    Palacios, J.M.; Chinaglia, G.; Rigo, M.; Ulrich, J.; Probst, A. )

    1991-02-01

    Autoradiographic techniques were used to examine the distribution and levels of neurotensin receptor binding sites in the basal ganglia and related regions of the human brain. Monoiodo ({sup 125}I-Tyr3)neurotensin was used as a ligand. High amounts of neurotensin receptor binding sites were found in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Lower but significant quantities of neurotensin receptor binding sites characterized the caudate, putamen, and nucleus accumbens, while very low quantities were seen in both medial and lateral segments of the globus pallidus. In Huntington's chorea, the levels of neurotensin receptor binding sites were found to be comparable to those of control cases. Only slight but not statistically significant decreases in amounts of receptor binding sites were detected in the dorsal part of the head and in the body of caudate nucleus. No alterations in the levels of neurotensin receptor binding sites were observed in the substantia nigra pars compacta and reticulata. These results suggest that a large proportion of neurotensin receptor binding sites in the basal ganglia are located on intrinsic neurons and on extrinsic afferent fibers that do not degenerate in Huntington's disease.

  10. Excitatory neurotensin receptors on the smooth muscle of the rat fundus: possible implications in gastric motility.

    PubMed Central

    Huidobro-Toro, J. P.; Kullak, A.

    1985-01-01

    Picomolar concentrations of neurotensin caused concentration-dependent contractions of the longitudinal musculature of the fundus of the rat stomach. The EC50 of neurotensin was approximately 1.5 nM. On a molar basis neurotensin was about 5-10 times more potent than 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and approximately 80 times as active as acetylcholine in producing similar contractions. Studies with structurally related peptides indicated that whereas the carboxy terminal portion of neurotensin was essential for biological activity, a substantial part of its amino terminus end could be removed without affecting its potency. The EC50 for the neurotensin fragment 8-13 was identical to that of neurotensin, however its 1-8 or 1-11 fragments were completely inactive. Tetrodotoxin did not modify the potency of neurotensin or structurally related analogues suggesting that the neurotensin receptor is probably located on the smooth muscle membrane. In addition, the potency of neurotensin in contracting the fundus was not modified by pretreatment with atropine, methysergide or diphenhydramine. Fade to the contractile response of neurotensin was followed by the development of tachyphylaxis; desensitization was concentration-dependent and characterized by a shift in the agonist concentration-response curve to the right and downwards. Desensitization with a priming concentration of neurotensin (approx. EC50) caused a substantial blockade of its excitability. There was cross-desensitization between neurotensin and the contractile activity of neurotensin 8-13 or xenopsin, but not with angiotensin II, bradykinin, substance P, acetylcholine, 5-HT or histamine. Pretreatment of the fundus strip with verapamil 0.3-1 microM antagonized in a concentration-dependent fashion the neurotensin-induced contractions but not the muscular contractions caused by acetylcholine. It is concluded that neurotensin activates a specific excitatory receptor probably located on the cell membrane of the smooth

  11. (18)F- and (68)Ga-Labeled Neurotensin Peptides for PET Imaging of Neurotensin Receptor 1.

    PubMed

    Maschauer, Simone; Einsiedel, Jürgen; Hübner, Harald; Gmeiner, Peter; Prante, Olaf

    2016-07-14

    The neurotensin (NT) receptor-1 (NTS1) is overexpressed in a variety of carcinomas and is therefore an interesting target for imaging with positron emission tomography (PET). The aim of this study was the development of new NT derivatives based on the metabolically stable peptide sequence NLys-Lys-Pro-Tyr-Tle-Leu suitable for PET imaging. The NT peptides were synthesized by solid-phase supported peptide synthesis and elongated with respective chelators (NODA-GA, DOTA) for (68)Ga-labeling or propargylglycine for (18)F-labeling via copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition. Receptor affinities of the peptides for NTS1 were in the range of 19-110 nM. Biodistribution studies using HT29 tumor-bearing mice showed highest tumor uptake for [(68)Ga]6 and [(68)Ga]8 and specific binding in small-animal PET studies. The tumor uptake of (68)Ga-labeled peptides in vivo significantly correlated with the in vitro Ki values for NTS1. [(68)Ga]8 displayed an excellent tumor-to-background ratio and could therefore be considered as an appropriate molecular probe for NTS1 imaging by PET. PMID:27336295

  12. Dopamine D2 receptor signaling dynamics of dopamine D2-neurotensin 1 receptor heteromers.

    PubMed

    Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel O; Ravani, Annalisa; Tarakanov, Alexander O; Brito, Ismel; Narvaez, Manuel; Romero-Fernandez, Wilber; Corrales, Fidel; Agnati, Luigi F; Tanganelli, Sergio; Ferraro, Luca; Fuxe, Kjell

    2013-05-24

    Biochemical, histochemical and coimmunoprecipitation experiments have indicated the existence of antagonistic dopamine D2 (D2R) and neurotensin 1 (NTS1R) receptor-receptor interactions in the dorsal and ventral striatum indicating a potential role of these receptor-receptor interactions in Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia. By means of Bioluminiscence Resonance energy transfer (BRET(2)) evidence has for the first time been obtained in the current study for the existence of both D2LR/NTS1R and D2SR/NTS1R heteromers in living HEK293T cells. Through confocal laser microscopy the NTS1R(GFP2) and D2R(YFP) were also shown to be colocated in the plasma membrane of these cells. A bioinformatic analysis suggests the existence of a basic set of three homology protriplets (TVM, DLL and/or LRA) in the two participating receptors which may contribute to the formation of the D2R/NTS1R heteromers by participating in guide-clasp interactions in the receptor interface. The CREB reporter gene assay indicated that the neurotensin receptor agonist JMV 449 markedly reduced the potency of the D2R like agonist quinpirole to inhibit the forskolin induced increase of the CREB signal. In contrast, the neurotensin agonist was found to markedly increase the quinpirole potency to activate the MAPK pathway as also studied with luciferase reporter gene assay measuring the degree of SRE activity as well as with ERK1/2 phosphorylation assays. These dynamic changes in D2R signaling produced by the neurotensin receptor agonist may involve antagonistic allosteric receptor-receptor interactions in the D2LR-NTS1R heteromers at the plasma membrane level (CREB pathway) and synergistic interactions in PKC activation at the cytoplasmatic level (MAPK pathway).

  13. Modulation of spike clustering by NMDA receptors and neurotensin in rat supraoptic nucleus neurons.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Ariane; Walsh, Michael; Okuda, Tika; Choe, Katrina Y; Zaelzer, Cristian; Bourque, Charles W

    2014-10-01

    Magnocellular neurosecretory cells (MNCs) in the rat supraoptic nucleus display clustered firing during hyperosmolality or dehydration. This response is beneficial because this type of activity potentiates vasopressin secretion from axon terminals in the neurohypophysis and thus promotes homoeostatic water reabsorption from the kidney. However, the mechanisms which lead to the generation of clustering activity in MNCs remain unknown. Previous work has shown that clustered firing can be induced in these neurons through the pharmacological activation of NMDA receptors (NMDARs) and that silent pauses observed during this activity are mediated by apamin-sensitive calcium activated potassium (SK) channels. However, it remains unknown if clustered firing can be induced in situ by endogenous glutamate release from axon terminals. Here we show that electrical stimulation of glutamatergic osmosensory afferents in the organum vasculosum lamina terminalis (OVLT) can promote clustering in MNCs via NMDARs and apamin-sensitive channels.We also show that the rate of spike clustering induced by NMDA varies as a bell-shaped function of voltage, and that partial inhibition of SK channels can increase cluster duration and reduce the rate of clustering. Finally,we show that MNCs express neurotensin type 2 receptors, and that activation of these receptors can simultaneously depolarize MNCs and suppress clustered firing induced by bath application of NMDA or by repetitive stimulation of glutamate afferents. These studies reveal that spike clustering can be induced in MNCs by glutamate release from afferent nerve terminals and that that this type of activity can be fine-tuned by neuromodulators such as neurotensin.

  14. The Internalization of Neurotensin by the Low-Affinity Neurotensin Receptors (NTSR2 and vNTSR2) Activates ERK 1/2 in Glioma Cells and Allows Neurotensin-Polyplex Transfection of tGAS1.

    PubMed

    Ayala-Sarmiento, Alberto E; Martinez-Fong, Daniel; Segovia, José

    2015-08-01

    Glioblastoma is the most malignant primary brain tumor and is very resistant to treatment; hence, it has a poor prognosis. Neurotensin receptor type 1 (NTSR1) plays a key role in cancer malignancy and has potential therapeutic applications. However, the presence and function of neurotensin (NTS) receptors in glioblastoma is not clearly established. RT-PCR assays showed that healthy (non-tumor) astroglial cells and C6 glioma cells express NTSR2 and its isoform (vNTSR2) rather than NTSR1. In glioma cells, NTS promotes the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK 1/2), an effect that was completely abolished by blocking the internalization of the NTS/NTSR complex. We demonstrated pharmacologically that the internalization is dependent on the activation of NTSR2 receptors and it was prevented by levocabastine, a NTSR2 receptor antagonist. The internalization of NTSR2 and vNTSR2 was further demonstrated by its ability to mediate gene transfer (transfection) via the NTS-polyplex system. Expression of reporter transgenes and of the pro-apoptotic soluble form of growth arrest specific 1 (tGAS1) was observed in glioma cells. A significant reduction on the viability of C6 cells was determined when tGAS1 was transfected into glioma cells. Conversely, astroglial cells could neither internalize NTS nor activate ERK 1/2 and could not be transfected by the NTS-polyplex. These results demonstrate that the internalization process of NTSR2 receptors is a key regulator necessary to trigger the activation of the ERK 1/2. Our data support a new internalization pathway in glioma C6 cells that involve NTSR2/vNTSR2, which can be used to selectively transfer therapeutic genes using the NTS-polyplex system.

  15. Biochemical and pharmacological profile of a potent and selective nonpeptide antagonist of the neurotensin receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Gully, D; Canton, M; Boigegrain, R; Jeanjean, F; Molimard, J C; Poncelet, M; Gueudet, C; Heaulme, M; Leyris, R; Brouard, A

    1993-01-01

    We describe the characteristics of SR 48692, a selective, nonpeptide antagonist of the neurotensin receptor. In vitro, this compound competitively inhibits 125I-labeled neurotensin binding to the high-affinity binding site present in brain tissue from various species with IC50 values of 0.99 +/- 0.14 nM (guinea pig), 4.0 +/- 0.4 nM (rat mesencephalic cells), 7.6 +/- 0.6 nM (COS-7 cells transfected with the cloned high-affinity rat brain receptor), 13.7 +/- 0.3 nM (newborn mouse brain), 17.8 +/- 0.9 nM (newborn human brain), 8.7 +/- 0.7 nM (adult human brain), and 30.3 +/- 1.5 nM (HT-29 cells). It also displaces 125I-labeled neurotensin from the low-affinity levocabastine-sensitive binding sites but at higher concentrations (34.8 +/- 8.3 nM for adult mouse brain and 82.0 +/- 7.4 nM for adult rat brain). In guinea pig striatal slices, SR 48692 blocks K(+)-evoked release of [3H]dopamine stimulated by neurotensin with a potency (IC50 = 0.46 +/- 0.02 nM) that correlates with its binding affinity. In a cell line derived from a human colon carcinoma (HT-29), SR 48692 competitively antagonizes neurotensin-induced intracellular Ca2+ mobilization with a pA2 (-log Kapp) values of 8.13 +/- 0.03, which is consistent with results obtained in binding studies. Moreover, SR 48692 is devoid of any intrinsic agonist activity. This compound is also active in vivo, since it reverses at low dose (80 micrograms/kg) the turning behavior induced by intrastriatal injection of neurotensin in mice with similar potency whatever the route of administration (i.p. or orally) and with a long duration of action (6 hr). Thus, being a potent and selective neurotensin receptor antagonist, SR 48692 may be considered as a powerful tool for investigating the role of neurotensin in physiological and pathological processes. Images PMID:8380498

  16. Neurotensin-induced miR-133α expression regulates neurotensin receptor 1 recycling through its downstream target aftiphilin.

    PubMed

    Law, Ivy Ka Man; Jensen, Dane; Bunnett, Nigel W; Pothoulakis, Charalabos

    2016-01-01

    Neurotensin (NT) triggers signaling in human colonic epithelial cells by activating the G protein-coupled receptor, the neurotensin receptor 1 (NTR1). Activated NTR1 traffics from the plasma membrane to early endosomes, and then recycles. Although sustained NT/NTR1 signaling requires efficient NTR1 recycling, little is known about the regulation of NTR1 recycling. We recently showed that NT/NTR1 signaling increases expression of miR-133α. Herein, we studied the mechanism of NT-regulated miR-133α expression and examined the role of miR-133α in intracellular NTR1 trafficking in human NCM460 colonocytes. We found that NT-induced miR-133α upregulation involves the negative transcription regulator, zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 1. Silencing of miR-133α or overexpression of aftiphilin (AFTPH), a binding target of miR-133α, attenuated NTR1 trafficking to plasma membrane in human colonocytes, without affecting NTR1 internalization. We localized AFTPH to early endosomes and the trans-Golgi network (TGN) in unstimulated human colonic epithelial cells. AFTPH overexpression reduced NTR1 localization in early endosomes and increased expression of proteins related to endosomes and the TGN trafficking pathway. AFTPH overexpression and de-acidification of intracellular vesicles increased NTR1 expression. Our results suggest a novel mechanism of GPCR trafficking in human colonic epithelial cells by which a microRNA, miR-133α regulates NTR1 trafficking through its downstream target AFTPH. PMID:26902265

  17. Neurotensin-induced miR-133α expression regulates neurotensin receptor 1 recycling through its downstream target aftiphilin

    PubMed Central

    Law, Ivy Ka Man; Jensen, Dane; Bunnett, Nigel W.; Pothoulakis, Charalabos

    2016-01-01

    Neurotensin (NT) triggers signaling in human colonic epithelial cells by activating the G protein-coupled receptor, the neurotensin receptor 1 (NTR1). Activated NTR1 traffics from the plasma membrane to early endosomes, and then recycles. Although sustained NT/NTR1 signaling requires efficient NTR1 recycling, little is known about the regulation of NTR1 recycling. We recently showed that NT/NTR1 signaling increases expression of miR-133α. Herein, we studied the mechanism of NT-regulated miR-133α expression and examined the role of miR-133α in intracellular NTR1 trafficking in human NCM460 colonocytes. We found that NT-induced miR-133α upregulation involves the negative transcription regulator, zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 1. Silencing of miR-133α or overexpression of aftiphilin (AFTPH), a binding target of miR-133α, attenuated NTR1 trafficking to plasma membrane in human colonocytes, without affecting NTR1 internalization. We localized AFTPH to early endosomes and the trans-Golgi network (TGN) in unstimulated human colonic epithelial cells. AFTPH overexpression reduced NTR1 localization in early endosomes and increased expression of proteins related to endosomes and the TGN trafficking pathway. AFTPH overexpression and de-acidification of intracellular vesicles increased NTR1 expression. Our results suggest a novel mechanism of GPCR trafficking in human colonic epithelial cells by which a microRNA, miR-133α regulates NTR1 trafficking through its downstream target AFTPH. PMID:26902265

  18. An autoradiographic study of neurotensin receptors in the human hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Najimi, Mohamed; Sarrieau, Alain; Kopp, Nicolas; Chigr, Fatiha

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to determine a detailed mapping of neurotensin (NT) in the human hypothalamus, the brain region involved in neuroendocrine control. For this, we investigated the presence and the distribution of neurotensin binding sites in the human hypothalamus, using an in vitro quantitative autoradiography technique and the selective radioligand monoiodo-Tyr3-neurotensin (2000Ci/mM). This study was performed on nine adult human postmortem hypothalami. We first determined the biochemical kinetics of the binding and found that binding affinity constants were of high affinity and do not differ significantly between all cases investigated. Our analysis of the autoradiographic distribution shows that NT binding sites are widely distributed throughout the rostrocaudal extent of the hypothalamus. However, the distribution of NT binding sites is not homogenous and regional variations exist. In general, the highest densities are mainly present in the anterior hypothalamic level, particularly in the preoptic region and the anterior boarding limit (i.e. the diagonal band of Broca). Important NT binding site densities are also present at the mediobasal hypothalamic level, particularly in the paraventricular, parafornical and dorsomedial nuclei. At the posterior level, relatively moderate densities could be observed in the mammillary complex subdivisions, apart from the supramammillary nucleus and the posterior hypothalamic area. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates the occurrence of high concentrations of NT binding sites in various structures in many regions in the human adult hypothalamus, involved in the control of neuroendocrine and/or neurovegetative functions.

  19. Constitutive Dimerization of the G-Protein Coupled Receptor, Neurotensin Receptor 1, Reconstituted into Phospholipid Bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Harding, Peter J.; Attrill, Helen; Boehringer, Jonas; Ross, Simon; Wadhams, George H.; Smith, Eleanor; Armitage, Judith P.; Watts, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    Neurotensin receptor 1 (NTS1), a Family A G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR), was expressed in Escherichia coli as a fusion with the fluorescent proteins eCFP or eYFP. A fluorophore-tagged receptor was used to study the multimerization of NTS1 in detergent solution and in brain polar lipid bilayers, using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). A detergent-solubilized receptor was unable to form FRET-competent complexes at concentrations of up to 200 nM, suggesting that the receptor is monomeric in this environment. When reconstituted into a model membrane system at low receptor density, the observed FRET was independent of agonist binding, suggesting constitutive multimer formation. In competition studies, decreased FRET in the presence of untagged NTS1 excludes the possibility of fluorescent protein-induced interactions. A simulation of the experimental data indicates that NTS1 exists predominantly as a homodimer, rather than as higher-order multimers. These observations suggest that, in common with several other Family A GPCRs, NTS1 forms a constitutive dimer in lipid bilayers, stabilized through receptor-receptor interactions in the absence of other cellular signaling components. Therefore, this work demonstrates that well-characterized model membrane systems are useful tools for the study of GPCR multimerization, allowing fine control over system composition and complexity, provided that rigorous control experiments are performed. PMID:19186134

  20. MiRNA mimic screen for improved expression of functional neurotensin receptor from HEK293 cells.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Su; Chen, Yu-Chi; Betenbaugh, Michael J; Martin, Scott E; Shiloach, Joseph

    2015-08-01

    Obtaining adequate quantities of functional mammalian membrane proteins has been a bottleneck in their structural and functional studies because the expression of these proteins from mammalian cells is relatively low. To explore the possibility of enhancing expression of these proteins using miRNA, a stable T-REx-293 cell line expressing the neurotensin receptor type 1 (NTSR1), a hard-to-express G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), was constructed. The cell line was then subjected to human miRNA mimic library screening. In parallel, an HEK293 cell line expressing luciferase was also screened with the same human miRNA mimic library. Five microRNA mimics: hsa-miR-22-5p, hsa-miR-18a-5p, hsa-miR-22-3p, hsa-miR-429, and hsa-miR-2110were identified from both screens. They led to 48% increase in the expression of functional NTSR1 and to 239% increase of luciferase expression. These miRNAs were also effective in enhancing the expression of secretedglypican-3 hFc-fusion protein from HEK293 cells.The results indicate that these molecules may have a wide role in enhancing the production of proteins with biomedical interest.

  1. Ventral Midbrain NTS1 Receptors Mediate Conditioned Reward Induced by the Neurotensin Analog, D-Tyr[11]neurotensin

    PubMed Central

    Rouibi, Khalil; Bose, Poulomee; Rompré, Pierre-Paul; Warren, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed at characterizing the mechanisms by which neurotensin (NT) is acting within the ventral midbrain to induce a psychostimulant-like effect. In a first experiment, we determine which subtype(s) of NT receptors is/are involved in the reward-inducing effect of ventral midbrain microinjection of NT using the conditioned place-preference (CPP) paradigm. In a second study, we used in vitro patch clamp recording technique to characterize the NT receptor subtype(s) involved in the modulation of glutamatergic neurotransmission (excitatory post-synaptic current, EPSC) in ventral tegmental neurons that expressed (Ih+), or do not express (Ih-), a hyperpolarization-activated cationic current. Behavioral studies were performed with adult male Long-Evans rats while electrophysiological recordings were obtained from brain slices of rat pups aged between 14 and 21 days. Results show that bilateral ventral midbrain microinjections of 1.5 and 3 nmol of D-Tyr[11]NT induced a CPP that was respectively attenuated or blocked by co-injection with 1.2 nmol of the NTS1/NTS2 antagonist, SR142948, and the preferred NTS1 antagonist, SR48692. In electrophysiological experiments, D-Tyr[11]NT (0.01-0.5 μM) attenuated glutamatergic EPSC in Ih+ but enhanced it in Ih- neurons. The attenuation effect (Ih+ neurons) was blocked by SR142948 (0.1 μM) while the enhancement effect (Ih- neurons) was blocked by both antagonists (0.1 μM). These findings suggest that (i) NT is acting on ventral midbrain NTS1 receptors to induce a rewarding effect and (ii) that this psychostimulant-like effect could be due to a direct action of NT on dopamine neurons and/or an enhancement of glutamatergic inputs to non-dopamine (Ih-) neurons. PMID:26733785

  2. Structure-Based Evolution of Subtype-Selective Neurotensin Receptor Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Schaab, Carolin; Kling, Ralf Christian; Einsiedel, Jürgen; Hübner, Harald; Clark, Tim; Seebach, Dieter; Gmeiner, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Subtype-selective agonists of the neurotensin receptor NTS2 represent a promising option for the treatment of neuropathic pain, as NTS2 is involved in the mediation of μ-opioid-independent anti-nociceptive effects. Based on the crystal structure of the subtype NTS1 and previous structure–activity relationships (SARs) indicating a potential role for the sub-pocket around Tyr11 of NT(8–13) in subtype-specific ligand recognition, we have developed new NTS2-selective ligands. Starting from NT(8–13), we replaced the tyrosine unit by β2-amino acids (type 1), by heterocyclic tyrosine bioisosteres (type 2) and peptoid analogues (type 3). We were able to evolve an asymmetric synthesis of a 5-substituted azaindolylalanine and its application as a bioisostere of tyrosine capable of enhancing NTS2 selectivity. The S-configured test compound 2 a, [(S)-3-(pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridine-5-yl)-propionyl11]NT(8–13), exhibits substantial NTS2 affinity (4.8 nm) and has a nearly 30-fold NTS2 selectivity over NTS1. The (R)-epimer 2 b showed lower NTS2 affinity but more than 600-fold selectivity over NTS1. PMID:25478316

  3. Structure-based evolution of subtype-selective neurotensin receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Schaab, Carolin; Kling, Ralf Christian; Einsiedel, Jürgen; Hübner, Harald; Clark, Tim; Seebach, Dieter; Gmeiner, Peter

    2014-10-01

    Subtype-selective agonists of the neurotensin receptor NTS2 represent a promising option for the treatment of neuropathic pain, as NTS2 is involved in the mediation of μ-opioid-independent anti-nociceptive effects. Based on the crystal structure of the subtype NTS1 and previous structure-activity relationships (SARs) indicating a potential role for the sub-pocket around Tyr11 of NT(8-13) in subtype-specific ligand recognition, we have developed new NTS2-selective ligands. Starting from NT(8-13), we replaced the tyrosine unit by β(2)-amino acids (type 1), by heterocyclic tyrosine bioisosteres (type 2) and peptoid analogues (type 3). We were able to evolve an asymmetric synthesis of a 5-substituted azaindolylalanine and its application as a bioisostere of tyrosine capable of enhancing NTS2 selectivity. The S-configured test compound 2 a, [(S)-3-(pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridine-5-yl)-propionyl(11)]NT(8-13), exhibits substantial NTS2 affinity (4.8 nm) and has a nearly 30-fold NTS2 selectivity over NTS1. The (R)-epimer 2 b showed lower NTS2 affinity but more than 600-fold selectivity over NTS1. PMID:25478316

  4. Structural prerequisites for G-protein activation by the neurotensin receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Krumm, Brian E.; White, Jim F.; Shah, Priyanka; Grisshammer, Reinhard

    2015-07-24

    We previously determined the structure of neurotensin receptor NTSR1 in an active-like conformation with six thermostabilizing mutations bound to the peptide agonist neurotensin. This receptor was unable to activate G proteins, indicating that the mutations restricted NTSR1 to relate agonist binding to G-protein activation. Here we analyse the effect of three of those mutations (E166A3.49, L310A6.37, F358A7.42) and present two structures of NTSR1 able to catalyse nucleotide exchange at Gα. The presence of F3587.42 causes the conserved W3216.48 to adopt a side chain orientation parallel to the lipid bilayer sealing the collapsed Na+ ion pocket and linking the agonist with residues in the lower receptor part implicated in GPCR activation. In the intracellular receptor half, the bulkier L3106.37 side chain dictates the position of R1673.50 of the highly conserved D/ERY motif. These residues, together with the presence of E1663.49 provide determinants for G-protein activation by NTSR1.

  5. Structural prerequisites for G-protein activation by the neurotensin receptor

    DOE PAGES

    Krumm, Brian E.; White, Jim F.; Shah, Priyanka; Grisshammer, Reinhard

    2015-07-24

    We previously determined the structure of neurotensin receptor NTSR1 in an active-like conformation with six thermostabilizing mutations bound to the peptide agonist neurotensin. This receptor was unable to activate G proteins, indicating that the mutations restricted NTSR1 to relate agonist binding to G-protein activation. Here we analyse the effect of three of those mutations (E166A3.49, L310A6.37, F358A7.42) and present two structures of NTSR1 able to catalyse nucleotide exchange at Gα. The presence of F3587.42 causes the conserved W3216.48 to adopt a side chain orientation parallel to the lipid bilayer sealing the collapsed Na+ ion pocket and linking the agonist withmore » residues in the lower receptor part implicated in GPCR activation. In the intracellular receptor half, the bulkier L3106.37 side chain dictates the position of R1673.50 of the highly conserved D/ERY motif. These residues, together with the presence of E1663.49 provide determinants for G-protein activation by NTSR1.« less

  6. Effects of the neurotensin NTS₁ receptor agonist PD149163 on visual signal detection in rats.

    PubMed

    Hillhouse, Todd M; Prus, Adam J

    2013-12-01

    Antipsychotic drugs provide limited efficacy for cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. Recent studies have found that the neurotensin NTS1 receptor agonist and putative atypical antipsychotic drug PD149163 reverses deficits in sensory-gating and novel object recognition, suggesting that this compound may have the potential to improve cognitive functioning in schizophrenia. The present study sought to extend these investigations by evaluating the effects of PD149163 on sustained attention using a visual signal detection operant task in rats. PD149163, the atypical antipsychotic drug clozapine, and the dopamine D2/3 receptor antagonist raclopride all significantly decreased percent "hit" accuracy, while none of these compounds altered "correct rejections" (compared to vehicle control). Clozapine and raclopride significantly increased response latency, while high doses of PD149163 and raclopride significantly increased trial omissions. Nicotine, which was tested as a positive control, significantly improved overall performance in this task and did not affect response latency or trial omissions. The present findings suggest that neurotensin NTS1 receptor agonists, like antipsychotic drugs, may inhibit sustained attention in this task despite having different pharmacological mechanisms of action.

  7. Nigral neurotensin receptor regulation of nigral glutamate and nigroventral thalamic GABA transmission: a dual-probe microdialysis study in intact conscious rat brain.

    PubMed

    Ferraro, L; Tomasini, M C; Fernandez, M; Bebe, B W; O'Connor, W T; Fuxe, K; Glennon, J C; Tanganelli, S; Antonelli, T

    2001-01-01

    Dual-probe microdialysis in the awake rat was employed to investigate the effects of intranigral perfusion with the tridecapeptide neurotensin on local dialysate glutamate and GABA levels in the substantia nigra pars reticulata and on dialysate GABA levels in the ventral thalamus. Intranigral neurotensin (10-300nM, 60min) dose-dependently increased (+29+/-3% and +46+/-3% vs basal for the 100 and 300nM concentrations, respectively) local dialysate glutamate levels, while the highest 300nM concentration of the peptide exerted a long-lasting and prolonged reduction in both local and ventral thalamic (-20+/-4% and -22+/-2%, respectively) GABA levels. Intranigral perfusion with the inactive neurotensin fragment neurotensin(1-7) (10-300nM, 60min) was without effect. Furthermore, the non-peptide neurotensin receptor antagonist SR 48692 (0.2mg/kg) and tetrodotoxin (1microM) fully counteracted the intranigral neurotensin (300nM)-induced increase in local glutamate. SR 48692 (0.2mg/kg) also counteracted the decreases in nigral and ventral thalamic GABA release induced by the peptide. In addition, intranigral perfusion with the dopamine D(2) receptor antagonist raclopride (1microM) fully antagonized the neurotensin (300nM)-induced decreases in nigral and ventral thalamic GABA levels. The ability of nigral neurotensin receptor activation to differently influence glutamate and GABA levels, whereby it increases nigral glutamate and decreases both nigral and ventral thalamic GABA levels, suggests the involvement of neurotensin receptor in the regulation of basal ganglia output at the level of the nigra.

  8. Elucidation by NMR solution of neurotensin in small unilamellar vesicle environment: molecular surveys for neurotensin receptor recognition.

    PubMed

    Da Costa, Grégory; Bondon, Arnaud; Delalande, Olivier; Mouret, Liza; Monti, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Neurotensin (NT) is a tridecapeptide, hormone in the periphery and neurotransmitter in the brain. We used high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to resolve the three-dimensional structure of NT in a small unilamellar vesicle (SUV) environment. We demonstrate that if the dynamic of the association-dissociation processes of peptide to SUV binding is rapid enough, structural determination can be obtained by solution NMR experiments. Thus, according to the global dynamic of the system, SUVs seem to be an effective model to mimic biological membranes, especially since the lipid composition can be modified or sterols may be added to closely mimic the biological membranes studied. An animated Interactive 3D Complement (I3DC) is available in Proteopedia at http://proteopedia.org/w/Journal:JBSD:2. PMID:22928939

  9. Activation of EGFR, HER2 and HER3 by neurotensin/neurotensin receptor 1 renders breast tumors aggressive yet highly responsive to lapatinib and metformin in mice

    PubMed Central

    Mourra, Najat; Liu, Jin; De Wever, Olivier; Llorca, Frédérique Penault; Cayre, Anne; Kouchkar, Amal; Gompel, Anne; Forgez, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    A present challenge in breast oncology research is to identify therapeutical targets which could impact tumor progression. Neurotensin (NTS) and its high affinity receptor (NTSR1) are up regulated in 20% of breast cancers, and NTSR1 overexpression was shown to predict a poor prognosis for 5 year overall survival in invasive breast carcinomas. Interactions between NTS and NTSR1 induce pro-oncogenic biological effects associated with neoplastic processes and tumor progression. Here, we depict the cellular mechanisms activated by NTS, and contributing to breast cancer cell aggressiveness. We show that neurotensin (NTS) and its high affinity receptor (NTSR1) contribute to the enhancement of experimental tumor growth and metastasis emergence in an experimental mice model. This effect ensued following EGFR, HER2, and HER3 over-expression and autocrine activation and was associated with an increase of metalloproteinase MMP9, HB-EGF and Neuregulin 2 in the culture media. EGFR over expression ensued in a more intense response to EGF on cellular migration and invasion. Accordingly, lapatinib, an EGFR/HER2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor, as well as metformin, reduced the tumor growth of cells overexpressing NTS and NTSR1. All cellular effects, such as adherence, migration, invasion, altered by NTS/NTSR1 were abolished by a specific NTSR1 antagonist. A strong statistical correlation between NTS-NTSR1-and HER3 (p< 0.0001) as well as NTS-NTSR1-and HER3- HER2 (p< 0.001) expression was found in human breast tumors. Expression of NTS/NTSR1 on breast tumoral cells creates a cellular context associated with cancer aggressiveness by enhancing epidermal growth factor receptor activity. We propose the use of labeled NTS/NTSR1 complexes to enlarge the population eligible for therapy targeting HERs tyrosine kinase inhibitor or HER2 overexpression. PMID:25249538

  10. β-Lactotensin derived from bovine β-lactoglobulin exhibits anxiolytic-like activity as an agonist for neurotensin NTS(2) receptor via activation of dopamine D(1) receptor in mice.

    PubMed

    Hou, I-Ching; Suzuki, Chihiro; Kanegawa, Norimasa; Oda, Ayako; Yamada, Ayako; Yoshikawa, Masaaki; Yamada, Daisuke; Sekiguchi, Masayuki; Wada, Etsuko; Wada, Keiji; Ohinata, Kousaku

    2011-11-01

    β-Lactotensin (His-Ile-Arg-Leu) is a bioactive peptide derived from bovine milk β-lactoglobulin, acting as a natural agonist for neurotensin receptors. We found that β-lactotensin exhibited anxiolytic-like activity in an elevated plus-maze test after its intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration in mice. β-Lactotensin was also orally active. The anxiolytic-like activity of β-lactotensin after i.p. administration was blocked by levocabastine, an antagonist for the neurotensin NTS(2) receptor. β-Lactotensin had anxiolytic-like activity in wild-type but not Ntsr2-knockout mice. β-Lactotensin increased intracellular Ca(2+) flux in glial cells derived from wild-type mice but not Ntsr2 knockout mice. These results suggest that β-lactotensin acts as an NTS(2) receptor agonist having anxiolytic-like activity. The anxiolytic-like activity of β-lactotensin was also blocked by SCH23390 and SKF83566, antagonists for dopamine D(1) receptor, but not by raclopride, an antagonist for D(2) receptor. Taken together, β-lactotensin may exhibit anxiolytic-like activity via NTS(2) receptor followed by D(1) receptor.

  11. Blockade of mast cell histamine secretion in response to neurotensin by SR 48692, a nonpeptide antagonist of the neurotensin brain receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, L A; Cochrane, D E; Carraway, R E; Feldberg, R S

    1995-01-01

    1. Pretreatment of rat isolated mast cells with SR 48692, a nonpeptide antagonist of the neurotensin (NT) receptor, prevented histamine secretion in response to NT. 2. This inhibition was rapid in onset (approximately 1 min) and dependent upon the concentration of SR 48692 (IC50 approximately 1-10 nM). 3. SR 48692 (1-1000 nM) did not inhibit histamine secretion elicited by substance P, bradykinin or compound 48/80, or by anti-IgE stimulation of sensitized mast cells. 4. When SR 48692 was injected intradermally (5 pmol in 50 microliters) into anaesthetized rats, 15 min before the intradermal injection of NT, it reduced the effect of NT on vascular permeability. 5. When injected intravenously, SR 48692 attenuated the effects of NT on haematocrit and blood stasis. 6. These results demonstrate that SR 48692 selectively antagonizes the actions of NT on rat isolated mast cells as well as mast cells in vivo. Given the demonstrated specific interaction of SR 48692 with receptors for NT in brain, our results suggest the presence of specific NT receptors on mast cells. PMID:7541694

  12. Neurotensin co-expressed in orexin-producing neurons in the lateral hypothalamus plays an important role in regulation of sleep/wakefulness states.

    PubMed

    Furutani, Naoki; Hondo, Mari; Kageyama, Haruaki; Tsujino, Natsuko; Mieda, Michihiro; Yanagisawa, Masashi; Shioda, Seiji; Sakurai, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    Both orexin and neurotensin are expressed in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) and have been implicated in the regulation of feeding, motor activity and the reward system. A double label immunofluorescence and in situ hybridization studies showed that neurotensin colocalizes with orexin in neurons of the LHA. Pharmacological studies suggested that neurotensin excites orexin-producing neurons (orexin neurons) through activation of neurotensin receptor-2 (NTSR-2) and non-selective cation channels. In situ hybridization study showed that most orexin neurons express neurotensin receptor-2 mRNA but not neurotensin receptor-1 (Ntsr-1) mRNA. Immunohistochemical studies showed that neurotensin-immunoreactive fibers make appositions to orexin neurons. A neurotensin receptor antagonist decreased Fos expression in orexin neurons and wakefulness time in wild type mice when administered intraperitoneally. However, the antagonist did not evoke any effect on these parameters in orexin neuron-ablated mice. These observations suggest the importance of neurotensin in maintaining activity of orexin neurons. The evidence presented here expands our understanding of the regulatory mechanism of orexin neurons.

  13. [Neurotensin: reception and intracellular mechanisms of signaling].

    PubMed

    Osadchiĭ, O E

    2006-01-01

    The review coveres the features of neurotensin receptor, functional role ot its structural elements, nature of conjugation with effectoral cell systems, and mechanisms of receptor decensitization developing as results of prolonged effect of agonist. The author provides pharmacological description of neurotensin antagonists and special features of three subtypes of its receptors. The author reviews the research results establishing a correlation between structural modification of various section of neurotensin molecula and manifestations of its physiological activity. Special focus is mage on discussion of neurotensin's physiological effects developing as results of its modulating impact on discharge of other biologically active substances.

  14. Immunological recognition of different forms of the neurotensin receptor in transfected cells and rat brain.

    PubMed Central

    Boudin, H; Grauz-Guyon, A; Faure, M P; Forgez, P; Lhiaubet, A M; Dennis, M; Beaudet, A; Rostene, W; Pelaprat, D

    1995-01-01

    In this work, the molecular forms of the rat neurotensin receptor (NTR) expressed in transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, in infected Sf9 insect cells and in rat cerebral cortex were immunologically detected by means of an anti-peptide antibody raised against a fragment of the third intracellular loop of the receptor. Immunoblot experiments against a fusion protein indicated that the anti-peptide antibody recognized, under denaturing conditions, the corresponding amino acid sequence within the NTR. In immunoblot analysis of membranes from NTR-transfected CHO cells, high levels of immunoreactivity were observed between 60 and 72 kDa, while only a faint labelling was observed at 47 kDa, the molecular mass deduced for the rat NTR cDNA. The bands of high molecular mass were no longer observed after deglycosylation of membrane proteins by peptide N-glycosidase F, indicating that they represented glycosylated forms of the receptor. Extracts of membranes derived from baculovirus-infected Sf9 insect-cells expressing the NTR provided a quite different immunoblot pattern, since the major band detected in that case was at 47 kDa, the molecular size of the non-glycosylated receptor. Taken together, these data show that, while most of the NTR protein was glycosylated in CHO cells, it was unglycosylated in Sf9 insect-cells. In addition, molecular sizes of the receptor proteins observed in these two cell lines differed from those obtained for the NTR endogenously expressed in the rat cerebral cortex of 7 day-old rats, where bands at 56 and 54 kDa were detected. Binding experiments carried out on membrane preparations obtained from baculovirus-infected Sf9 cells demonstrated that the immunogenic sequence was still accessible to the antibody when the receptor was embedded in the cell membrane. Immunohistochemical studies carried out on both transfected CHO cells and infected Sf9 cells confirmed this interpretation and further indicated that the antibody could be applied

  15. Function and mechanism of neurotensin (NTS) and its receptor 1 (NTSR1) in occurrence and development of tumors.

    PubMed

    Hu, Huan-rong; Dong, Zhen; Yi, Liang; He, Xiao-yan; Zhang, Yan-li; Liu, Ya-ling; Cui, Hong-juan

    2015-07-01

    As a neuropeptide, neurotensin (NTS) is widely expressed in central and peripheral nervous system, which is mainly mediated byneurotensin receptor1 (NTSR1) to activate the related downstream signaling pathways. After summarized the function and mechanism of NTS/NTSR1 in various malignant tumors, we found that NTS/NTSR1 played essential roles during tumor initiation and development. NTS/NTSR1 regulates tumor initiation, proliferation, apoptosis, metastasis and differentiation mainly through three pathways, including IP3/Ca2+ /PKC/MAPKs pathway, MMPs/EGFR/MAPKs (PI3K/Akt) pathway, or Rho-GTPsaes and non-receptor tyrosine kinase pathway. Besides, NTS/NTSR1 is also regulated by some upstream pathways and some traditional Chinese medicine preparations and traditional Chinese medicine therapies. In this article, we summarized the function of NTS/NTSR1 and its mechanisms, and discussed the prospective in its application to clinical diagnosis and drugs targeting.

  16. Heterodimerization of apelin receptor and neurotensin receptor 1 induces phosphorylation of ERK(1/2) and cell proliferation via Gαq-mediated mechanism.

    PubMed

    Bai, Bo; Cai, Xin; Jiang, Yunlu; Karteris, Emmanouil; Chen, Jing

    2014-10-01

    Dimerization of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) is crucial for receptor function including agonist affinity, efficacy, trafficking and specificity of signal transduction, including G protein coupling. Emerging data suggest that the cardiovascular system is the main target of apelin, which exerts an overall neuroprotective role, and is a positive regulator of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in heart failure. Moreover, ACE2 cleaves off C-terminal residues of vasoactive peptides including apelin-13, and neurotensin that activate the apelin receptor (APJ) and neurotensin receptor 1 (NTSR1) respectively, that belong to the A class of GPCRs. Therefore, based on the similar mode of modification by ACE2 at peptide level, the homology at amino acid level and the capability of forming dimers with other GPCRs, we have been suggested that APJ and NTSR1 can form a functional heterodimer. Using co-immunoprecipitation, BRET and FRET, we provided conclusive evidence of heterodimerization between APJ and NTSR1 in a constitutive and induced form. Upon agonist stimulation, hetrodimerization enhanced ERK(1/2) activation and increased proliferation via activation of Gq α-subunits. These novel data provide evidence for a physiological role of APJ/NTSR1 heterodimers in terms of ERK(1/2) activation and increased intracellular calcium and induced cell proliferation and provide potential new pharmaceutical targets for cardiovascular disease.

  17. Improved radiosynthesis and preliminary in vivo evaluation of a (18)F-labeled glycopeptide-peptoid hybrid for PET imaging of neurotensin receptor 2.

    PubMed

    Maschauer, Simone; Greff, Cornelia; Einsiedel, Jürgen; Ott, Julian; Tripal, Philipp; Hübner, Harald; Gmeiner, Peter; Prante, Olaf

    2015-07-15

    The neurotensin receptor 2 (NTS2) is an attractive target for cancer imaging, as it is overexpressed in a variety of tumor types including prostate, pancreas and breast carcinoma. The aim of this study was the development of the first NTS2 subtype selective (18)F-labeled radioligand for imaging NTS2 expression in vivo by positron emission tomography (PET). The radiosynthesis of glycopeptoid (18)F-4 was realized by copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC), applying the prosthetic group 6-deoxy-6-[(18)F]fluoroglucosyl azide for (18)F-fluoroglycosylation of the alkyne-terminated NT(8-13) analog Pra-N-Me-Arg-Arg-Pro-N-homo-Tyr-Ile-Leu-OH. The binding affinity of the peptide-peptoid 4 for NTS2 was 7nM with excellent subtype selectivity over NTS1 (260-fold). In vitro autoradiography studies of rat brain slices confirmed the high selectivity of (18)F-4 for NTS2. Biodistribution experiments using HT29 and PC3 tumor-bearing nude mice revealed high renal and only moderate tumor uptake, while PET imaging experiments revealed specific binding of (18)F-4 in NTS2-positive tumors. As (18)F-4 displayed high stability in vitro but fast degradation in vivo, future work will focus on the development of metabolically more stable NT(8-13) analogs.

  18. In Silico Investigation of the Neurotensin Receptor 1 Binding Site: Overlapping Binding Modes for Small Molecule Antagonists and the Endogenous Peptide Agonist.

    PubMed

    Lückmann, Michael; Holst, Birgitte; Schwartz, Thue W; Frimurer, Thomas M

    2016-01-01

    The neurotensin receptor 1 (NTSR1) belongs to the family of 7TM, G protein-coupled receptors, and is activated by the 13-amino-acid peptide neurotensin (NTS) that has been shown to play important roles in neurological disorders and the promotion of cancer cells. Recently, a high-resolution x-ray crystal structure of NTSR1 in complex with NTS8-13 has been determined, providing novel insights into peptide ligand recognition by 7TM receptors. SR48692, a potent and selective small molecule antagonist has previously been used extensively as a tool compound to study NTSR1 receptor signaling properties. To investigate the binding mode of SR48692 and other small molecule compounds to NTSR1, we applied an Automated Ligand-guided Backbone Ensemble Receptor Optimization protocol (ALiBERO), taking receptor flexibility and ligand knowledge into account. Structurally overlapping binding poses for SR48692 and NTS8-13 were observed, despite their distinct chemical nature and inverse pharmacological profiles. The optimized models showed significantly improved ligand recognition in a large-scale virtual screening assessment compared to the crystal structure. Our models provide new insights into small molecule ligand binding to NTSR1 and could facilitate the structure-based design of non-peptide ligands for the evaluation of the pharmacological potential of NTSR1 in neurological disorders and cancer. PMID:27491650

  19. Neurotensin release by rat hypothalamic fragments in vitro.

    PubMed

    Maeda, K; Frohman, L A

    1981-04-01

    The release of neurotensin by hypothalami from male rats was investigated in vitro using tissue fragments incubated in Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate-glucose buffer at 37 degrees C. Neurotensin was measured by radioimmunoassay using an antibody directed toward the C-terminal portion of the peptide. Neurotensin-like immunoreactivity released into the incubation medium eluted from Sephadex G-25 in a position identical to that of the synthetic peptide and serial dilutions of incubation medium were parallel to those of synthetic neurotensin in the radioimmunoassay. Neurotensin-like immunoreactivity released into the incubation medium was degraded during the incubation period by released hypothalamic peptidases. The addition of bacitracin (0.5 mg/ml) to the medium partially prevented this degradation. Neurotensin release was stimulated by dibutyryl cyclic AMP (10(-4) M) and by depolarizing concentrations of potassium. The latter effect was shown to be Ca2+-dependent. Dopamine (10(-4)--10(-6) M) stimulated neurotensin release in a dose-dependent manner and this effect was blocked by the dopamine receptor antagonist, haloperidol. Neurotensin release was not stimulated by either norepinephrine (10(-4) M) or serotonin (10(-4) M). The results indicate that neurotensin is released by the hypothalamus in vitro; its release is stimulated by membrane depolarization in a Ca2+-dependent manner and may involve an adenylate cyclase mechanism; and dopamine appears to serve as a stimulatory neurotransmitter for neurotensin-containing neurons.

  20. Systemic administration of the neurotensin NTS1 receptor agonist PD149163 improves performance on a memory task in naturally deficient male Brown Norway rats

    PubMed Central

    Keiser, Ashley A.; Matazel, Katelin S.; Esser, Melissa K.; Feifel, David; Prus, Adam J.

    2014-01-01

    Agonists for neurotensin NTS1 receptor consistently exhibit antipsychotic effects in animal models without producing catalepsy, suggesting that NTS1 receptor agonists may be a novel class of drugs to treat schizophrenia. Moreover, studies utilizing NTS1 agonists have reported improvements in some aspects of cognitive functioning, including prepulse inhibition and learning procedures, that suggest an ability of NTS1 receptor agonists to diminish neurocognitive deficits. The present study sought to assess both baseline delay-induced memory performance and the effects of NTS1 receptor activation on learning and memory consolidation in male Long Evans and Brown Norway rats using a delayed non-match to position radial arm maze task. In the absence of drugs, Brown Norway rats displayed a significant increase in spatial memory errors following a 3, 7, and 24 hour delay, whereas Long Evans rats exhibited an increase in spatial memory errors following only a 7 and 24 hour delay. With Brown Norway rats, administration of PD149163 before or after an information trial significantly reduced errors during a retention trial after a 24 hour delay. Administration of the NTS1/2 receptor antagonist SR142948 prior to the information trial did not affect retention trial errors. These data are consistent with previous findings that Brown Norway rats have natural cognitive deficits and that they may be useful for assessing putative antipsychotic drugs for cognitive efficacy. Moreover, this study supports previous findings suggesting that NTS1 receptor agonists may improve some aspects of cognitive functioning. PMID:25222546

  1. Systemic administration of the neurotensin NTS₁-receptor agonist PD149163 improves performance on a memory task in naturally deficient male brown Norway rats.

    PubMed

    Keiser, Ashley A; Matazel, Katelin S; Esser, Melissa K; Feifel, David; Prus, Adam J

    2014-12-01

    Agonists for the neurotensin NTS₁ receptor consistently exhibit antipsychotic effects in animal models without producing catalepsy, suggesting that NTS₁-receptor agonists may be a novel class of drugs to treat schizophrenia. Moreover, studies utilizing NTS₁ agonists have reported improvements in some aspects of cognitive functioning, including prepulse inhibition and learning procedures, which suggest an ability of NTS₁-receptor agonists to diminish neurocognitive deficits. The present study sought to assess both baseline delay-induced memory performance and the effects of NTS₁-receptor activation on learning and memory consolidation in male Long-Evans and Brown Norway rats using a delayed nonmatch-to-position task radial arm-maze task. In the absence of drugs, Brown Norway rats displayed a significant increase in spatial memory errors following 3-, 7-, and 24-hr delay, whereas Long-Evans rats exhibited an increase in spatial memory errors following only a 7-, and 24-hr delay. With Brown Norway rats, administration of PD149163 before or after an information trial significantly reduced errors during a retention trial after a 24 hr delay. Administration of the NTS(1/2)-receptor antagonist SR142948 prior to the information trial did not affect retention-trial errors. These data are consistent with previous findings that Brown Norway rats have natural cognitive deficits and that they may be useful for assessing putative antipsychotic drugs for cognitive efficacy. Moreover, the results of this study support previous findings suggesting that NTS₁-receptor agonists may improve some aspects of cognitive functioning.

  2. The quetiapine active metabolite N-desalkylquetiapine and the neurotensin NTS₁ receptor agonist PD149163 exhibit antidepressant-like effects on operant responding in male rats.

    PubMed

    Hillhouse, Todd M; Shankland, Zachary; Matazel, Katelin S; Keiser, Ashley A; Prus, Adam J

    2014-12-01

    Major depressive disorder is the most common mood disorder in the United States and European Union; however, the limitations of clinically available antidepressant drugs have led researchers to pursue novel pharmacological treatments. Clinical studies have reported that monotherapy with the atypical antipsychotic drug quetiapine produces a rapid reduction in depressive symptoms that is apparent after 1 week of treatment, and it is possible that the active metabolite N-desalkylquetiapine, which structurally resembles an antidepressant drug, produces antidepressant effects. Neuropharmacological evaluations of the neurotensin NTS1 receptor agonist PD149163 suggest antidepressant efficacy, but the effects of a NTS₁ receptor agonist in an antidepressant animal model have yet to be reported. The present study examined the antidepressant-like effects of N-desalkylquetiapine, PD14916, quetiapine, the tricyclic antidepressant drug imipramine, the atypical antipsychotic drug risperidone, and the typical antipsychotic drug raclopride on responding in male Sprague-Dawley rats trained on a differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate 72-s operant schedule, a procedure used for screening antidepressant drugs. Quetiapine, PD149163, risperidone, and imipramine exhibited antidepressant-like effects by increasing the number of reinforcers earned, decreasing the number of responses emitted, and shifting the interresponse time (IRT) distributions to the right. N-Desalkylquetiapine produced a partial antidepressant-like effect by decreasing the number of responses emitted and producing a rightward shift in the IRT distributions, but it did not significantly alter the number of reinforcers earned. Raclopride decreased reinforcers and responses. These data suggest that N-desalkylquetiapine likely contributes to quetiapine's antidepressant efficacy and identify NTS₁ receptor activation as a potential novel pharmacologic strategy for antidepressant drugs.

  3. Maternal separation enhances conditioned fear and decreases the mRNA levels of the neurotensin receptor 1 gene with hypermethylation of this gene in the rat amygdala.

    PubMed

    Toda, Hiroyuki; Boku, Shuken; Nakagawa, Shin; Inoue, Takeshi; Kato, Akiko; Takamura, Naoki; Song, Ning; Nibuya, Masashi; Koyama, Tsukasa; Kusumi, Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    Stress during postnatal development is associated with an increased risk for depression, anxiety disorders, and substance abuse later in life, almost as if mental illness is able to be programed by early life stressors. Recent studies suggest that such "programmed" effects can be caused by epigenetic regulation. With respect to conditioned fear, previous studies have indicated that early life stress influences its development in adulthood, whereas no potential role of epigenetic regulation has been reported. Neurotensin (NTS) is an endogenous neuropeptide that has receptors densely located in the amygdala and hippocampus. Recently, NTS systems have constituted an emerging target for the treatment of anxiety. The aim of the present work is to clarify whether the NTS system is involved in the disturbance of conditioned fear in rats stressed by maternal separation (MS). The results showed that MS enhanced freezing behaviors in fear-conditioned stress and reduced the gene expression of NTS receptor (NTSR) 1 but not of NTS or NTSR2 in the amygdalas of adult rats. The microinjection of a NTSR1 antagonist into the amygdala increased the percentage of freezing in conditioned fear, whereas the microinjection of NTSR1 agonist decreased freezing. These results suggest that NTSR1 in the amygdala may play a role in the effects of MS on conditioned fear stress in adult rats. Moreover, MS increased DNA methylation in the promoter region of NTSR1 in the amygdala. Taken together, MS may leave epigenetic marks in the NTSR1 gene in the amygdala, which may enhance conditioned fear in adulthood. The MS-induced alternations of DNA methylation in the promoter region of NTSR1 in the amygdala may be associated with vulnerability to the development of anxiety disorders and depression in adulthood. PMID:24831231

  4. Maternal Separation Enhances Conditioned Fear and Decreases the mRNA Levels of the Neurotensin Receptor 1 Gene with Hypermethylation of This Gene in the Rat Amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Toda, Hiroyuki; Boku, Shuken; Nakagawa, Shin; Inoue, Takeshi; Kato, Akiko; Takamura, Naoki; Song, Ning; Nibuya, Masashi; Koyama, Tsukasa; Kusumi, Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    Stress during postnatal development is associated with an increased risk for depression, anxiety disorders, and substance abuse later in life, almost as if mental illness is able to be programed by early life stressors. Recent studies suggest that such “programmed” effects can be caused by epigenetic regulation. With respect to conditioned fear, previous studies have indicated that early life stress influences its development in adulthood, whereas no potential role of epigenetic regulation has been reported. Neurotensin (NTS) is an endogenous neuropeptide that has receptors densely located in the amygdala and hippocampus. Recently, NTS systems have constituted an emerging target for the treatment of anxiety. The aim of the present work is to clarify whether the NTS system is involved in the disturbance of conditioned fear in rats stressed by maternal separation (MS). The results showed that MS enhanced freezing behaviors in fear-conditioned stress and reduced the gene expression of NTS receptor (NTSR) 1 but not of NTS or NTSR2 in the amygdalas of adult rats. The microinjection of a NTSR1 antagonist into the amygdala increased the percentage of freezing in conditioned fear, whereas the microinjection of NTSR1 agonist decreased freezing. These results suggest that NTSR1 in the amygdala may play a role in the effects of MS on conditioned fear stress in adult rats. Moreover, MS increased DNA methylation in the promoter region of NTSR1 in the amygdala. Taken together, MS may leave epigenetic marks in the NTSR1 gene in the amygdala, which may enhance conditioned fear in adulthood. The MS-induced alternations of DNA methylation in the promoter region of NTSR1 in the amygdala may be associated with vulnerability to the development of anxiety disorders and depression in adulthood. PMID:24831231

  5. Mimicking of Arginine by Functionalized N(ω)-Carbamoylated Arginine As a New Broadly Applicable Approach to Labeled Bioactive Peptides: High Affinity Angiotensin, Neuropeptide Y, Neuropeptide FF, and Neurotensin Receptor Ligands As Examples.

    PubMed

    Keller, Max; Kuhn, Kilian K; Einsiedel, Jürgen; Hübner, Harald; Biselli, Sabrina; Mollereau, Catherine; Wifling, David; Svobodová, Jaroslava; Bernhardt, Günther; Cabrele, Chiara; Vanderheyden, Patrick M L; Gmeiner, Peter; Buschauer, Armin

    2016-03-10

    Derivatization of biologically active peptides by conjugation with fluorophores or radionuclide-bearing moieties is an effective and commonly used approach to prepare molecular tools and diagnostic agents. Whereas lysine, cysteine, and N-terminal amino acids have been mostly used for peptide conjugation, we describe a new, widely applicable approach to peptide conjugation based on the nonclassical bioisosteric replacement of the guanidine group in arginine by a functionalized carbamoylguanidine moiety. Four arginine-containing peptide receptor ligands (angiotensin II, neurotensin(8-13), an analogue of the C-terminal pentapeptide of neuropeptide Y, and a neuropeptide FF analogue) were subject of this proof-of-concept study. The N(ω)-carbamoylated arginines, bearing spacers with a terminal amino group, were incorporated into the peptides by standard Fmoc solid phase peptide synthesis. The synthesized chemically stable peptide derivatives showed high receptor affinities with Ki values in the low nanomolar range, even when bulky fluorophores had been attached. Two new tritiated tracers for angiotensin and neurotensin receptors are described.

  6. In Vivo Monitoring of the Antiangiogenic Effect of Neurotensin Receptor-Mediated Radiotherapy by Small-Animal Positron Emission Tomography: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Maschauer, Simone; Ruckdeschel, Tina; Tripal, Philipp; Haubner, Roland; Einsiedel, Jürgen; Hübner, Harald; Gmeiner, Peter; Kuwert, Torsten; Prante, Olaf

    2014-01-01

    The neurotensin receptor (NTS1) has emerged as an interesting target for molecular imaging and radiotherapy of NTS-positive tumors due to the overexpression in a range of tumors. The aim of this study was to develop a 177Lu-labeled NTS1 radioligand, its application for radiotherapy in a preclinical model and the imaging of therapy success by small-animal positron emission tomography (µPET) using [68Ga]DOTA-RGD as a specific tracer for imaging angiogenesis. The 177Lu-labeled peptide was subjected to studies on HT29-tumor-bearing nude mice in vivo, defining four groups of animals (single dose, two fractionated doses, four fractionated doses and sham-treated animals). Body weight and tumor diameters were determined three times per week. Up to day 28 after treatment, µPET studies were performed with [68Ga]DOTA-RGD. At days 7–10 after treatment with four fractionated doses of 11–14 MBq (each at days 0, 3, 6 and 10), the tumor growth was slightly decreased in comparison with untreated animals. Using a single high dose of 51 MBq, a significantly decreased tumor diameter of about 50% was observed with the beginning of treatment. Our preliminary PET imaging data suggested decreased tumor uptake values of [68Ga]DOTA-RGD in treated animals compared to controls at day 7 after treatment. This pilot study suggests that early PET imaging with [68Ga]DOTA-RGD in radiotherapy studies to monitor integrin expression could be a promising tool to predict therapy success in vivo. Further successive PET experiments are needed to confirm the significance and predictive value of RGD-PET for NTS-mediated radiotherapy. PMID:24743103

  7. In vivo monitoring of the antiangiogenic effect of neurotensin receptor-mediated radiotherapy by small-animal positron emission tomography: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Maschauer, Simone; Ruckdeschel, Tina; Tripal, Philipp; Haubner, Roland; Einsiedel, Jürgen; Hübner, Harald; Gmeiner, Peter; Kuwert, Torsten; Prante, Olaf

    2014-01-01

    The neurotensin receptor (NTS1) has emerged as an interesting target for molecular imaging and radiotherapy of NTS-positive tumors due to the overexpression in a range of tumors. The aim of this study was to develop a 177Lu-labeled NTS1 radioligand, its application for radiotherapy in a preclinical model and the imaging of therapy success by small-animal positron emission tomography (µPET) using [68Ga]DOTA-RGD as a specific tracer for imaging angiogenesis. The 177Lu-labeled peptide was subjected to studies on HT29-tumor-bearing nude mice in vivo, defining four groups of animals (single dose, two fractionated doses, four fractionated doses and sham-treated animals). Body weight and tumor diameters were determined three times per week. Up to day 28 after treatment, µPET studies were performed with [68Ga]DOTA-RGD. At days 7-10 after treatment with four fractionated doses of 11-14 MBq (each at days 0, 3, 6 and 10), the tumor growth was slightly decreased in comparison with untreated animals. Using a single high dose of 51 MBq, a significantly decreased tumor diameter of about 50% was observed with the beginning of treatment. Our preliminary PET imaging data suggested decreased tumor uptake values of [68Ga]DOTA-RGD in treated animals compared to controls at day 7 after treatment. This pilot study suggests that early PET imaging with [68Ga]DOTA-RGD in radiotherapy studies to monitor integrin expression could be a promising tool to predict therapy success in vivo. Further successive PET experiments are needed to confirm the significance and predictive value of RGD-PET for NTS-mediated radiotherapy. PMID:24743103

  8. Neurotensin (NTS) and its receptor (NTSR1) causes EGFR, HER2 and HER3 over-expression and their autocrine/paracrine activation in lung tumors, confirming responsiveness to erlotinib

    PubMed Central

    Lupo, Audrey Mansuet; Mourra, Najat; Takahashi, Takashi; Fléjou, Jean François; Trédaniel, Jean; Régnard, Jean François; Damotte, Diane; Alifano, Marco; Forgez, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in the signaling pathways of epidermal growth factor receptors (HERs) are associated with tumor aggressiveness. Neurotensin (NTS) and its high affinity receptor (NTSR1) are up regulated in 60% of lung cancers. In a previous clinical study, NTSR1 overexpression was shown to predict a poor prognosis for 5 year overall survival in a selected population of stage I lung adenocarcinomas treated by surgery alone. In a second study, shown here, the frequent and high expression of NTSR1 was correlated with a pejorative prognosis in 389 patients with stage I to III lung adenocarcinoma, and was an independent prognosis marker. Interactions between NTS and NTSR1 induce pro-oncogenic biological effects associated with neoplastic processes and tumor progression. Here we highlight the cellular mechanisms activated by Neurotensin (NTS) and its high affinity receptor (NTSR1) contributing to lung cancer cell aggressiveness. We show that the NTS autocrine and/or paracrine regulation causes EGFR, HER2, and HER3 over-expression and activation in lung tumor cells. The EGFR and HER3 autocrine activation is mediated by MMP1 activation and EGF “like” ligands (HB-EGF, Neuregulin 1) release. By establishing autocrine and/or paracrine NTS regulation, we show that tumor growth is modulated according to NTS expression, with a low growth rate in those tumors that do not express NTS. Accordingly, xenografted tumors expressing NTS and NTSR1 showed a positive response to erlotinib, whereas tumors void of NTSR1 expression had no detectable response. This is consistent with the presence of a NTS autocrine loop, leading to the sustained activation of EGFR and responsible for cancer aggressiveness. We propose the use of NTS/NTSR1 tumor expression, as a biomarker for the use of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors in patients lacking EGFR mutation. PMID:25249545

  9. Neurotensin (NTS) and its receptor (NTSR1) causes EGFR, HER2 and HER3 over-expression and their autocrine/paracrine activation in lung tumors, confirming responsiveness to erlotinib.

    PubMed

    Younes, Mohamad; Wu, Zherui; Dupouy, Sandra; Lupo, Audrey Mansuet; Mourra, Najat; Takahashi, Takashi; Fléjou, Jean François; Trédaniel, Jean; Régnard, Jean François; Damotte, Diane; Alifano, Marco; Forgez, Patricia

    2014-09-30

    Alterations in the signaling pathways of epidermal growth factor receptors (HERs) are associated with tumor aggressiveness. Neurotensin (NTS) and its high affinity receptor (NTSR1) are up regulated in 60% of lung cancers. In a previous clinical study, NTSR1 overexpression was shown to predict a poor prognosis for 5 year overall survival in a selected population of stage I lung adenocarcinomas treated by surgery alone. In a second study, shown here, the frequent and high expression of NTSR1 was correlated with a pejorative prognosis in 389 patients with stage I to III lung adenocarcinoma, and was an independent prognosis marker. Interactions between NTS and NTSR1 induce pro-oncogenic biological effects associated with neoplastic processes and tumor progression. Here we highlight the cellular mechanisms activated by Neurotensin (NTS) and its high affinity receptor (NTSR1) contributing to lung cancer cell aggressiveness. We show that the NTS autocrine and/or paracrine regulation causes EGFR, HER2, and HER3 over-expression and activation in lung tumor cells. The EGFR and HER3 autocrine activation is mediated by MMP1 activation and EGF "like" ligands (HB-EGF, Neuregulin 1) release. By establishing autocrine and/or paracrine NTS regulation, we show that tumor growth is modulated according to NTS expression, with a low growth rate in those tumors that do not express NTS. Accordingly, xenografted tumors expressing NTS and NTSR1 showed a positive response to erlotinib, whereas tumors void of NTSR1 expression had no detectable response. This is consistent with the presence of a NTS autocrine loop, leading to the sustained activation of EGFR and responsible for cancer aggressiveness. We propose the use of NTS/NTSR1 tumor expression, as a biomarker for the use of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors in patients lacking EGFR mutation.

  10. Role of neurotensin in radiation-induced hypothermia in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Kandasamy, S.B.; Hunt, W.A.; Harris, A.H. )

    1991-05-01

    The role of neurotensin in radiation-induced hypothermia was examined. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of neurotensin produced dose-dependent hypothermia. Histamine appears to mediate neurotensin-induced hypothermia because the mast cell stabilizer disodium cromoglycate and antihistamines blocked the hypothermic effects of neurotensin. An ICV pretreatment with neurotensin antibody attenuated neurotensin-induced hypothermia, but did not attenuate radiation-induced hypothermia, suggesting that radiation-induced hypothermia was not mediated by neurotensin.

  11. Neurotensin Changes Propulsive Activity into a Segmental Motor Pattern in the Rat Colon

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hongfei; Chen, Ji-Hong; Yang, Zixian; Huang, Min; Yu, Yuanjie; Tan, Shiyun; Luo, Hesheng; Huizinga, Jan D

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Neurotensin is a gut-brain peptide with both inhibitory and excitatory actions on the colonic musculature; our objective was to understand the implications of this for motor patterns occurring in the intact colon of the rat. Methods The effects of neurotensin with concentrations ranging from 0.1–100 nM were studied in the intact rat colon in vitro, by investigating spatio-temporal maps created from video recordings of colonic motility before and after neurotensin. Results Low concentration of neurotensin (0.1–1 nM) inhibited propagating long distance contractions and rhythmic propagating motor complexes; in its place a slow propagating rhythmic segmental motor pattern developed. The neurotensin receptor 1 antagonist SR-48692 prevented the development of the segmental motor pattern. Higher concentrations of neurotensin (10 nM and 100 nM) were capable of restoring long distance contraction activity and inhibiting the segmental activity. The slow propagating segmental contraction showed a rhythmic contraction—relaxation cycle at the slow wave frequency originating from the interstitial cells of Cajal associated with the myenteric plexus pacemaker. High concentrations given without prior additions of low concentrations did not evoke the segmental motor pattern. These actions occurred when neurotensin was given in the bath solution or intraluminally. The segmental motor pattern evoked by neurotensin was inhibited by the neural conduction blocker lidocaine. Conclusions Neurotensin (0.1–1 nM) inhibits the dominant propulsive motor patterns of the colon and a distinct motor pattern of rhythmic slow propagating segmental contractions develops. This motor pattern has the hallmarks of haustral boundary contractions. PMID:26882114

  12. Neurotensin Decreases the Proinflammatory Status of Human Skin Fibroblasts and Increases Epidermal Growth Factor Expression

    PubMed Central

    Miguel Neves, Bruno; Cruz, Maria Teresa; Carvalho, Eugénia

    2014-01-01

    Fibroblasts colonization into injured areas during wound healing (WH) is responsible for skin remodelling and is also involved in the modulation of inflammation, as fibroblasts are immunologically active. Herein, we aimed to determine neurotensin effect on the immunomodulatory profile of fibroblasts, both in homeostatic and inflammatory conditions. Neurotensin mediated responses occurred through NTR1 or NTR3 receptors, while under inflammatory conditions NTR1 expression increase seemed to modulate neurotensin responses. Among different immunomodulatory genes, CCL11, IL-8, and IL-6 were the most expressed genes, while CCL4 and EGF were the less expressed genes. After neurotensin exposure, IL-8 mRNA expression was increased while CCL11 was decreased, suggesting a proinflammatory upregulation and chemoattractant ability downregulation of fibroblasts. Under inflammatory conditions, gene expression was significantly increased. After neurotensin exposure, CCL4 and IL-6 mRNA expression were decreased while CCL11 was increased, suggesting again a decrease in the chemoattractant capacity of fibroblasts and in their proinflammatory status. Furthermore, the expression of EGF, a crucial growth factor for skin cells proliferation and WH, was increased in all conditions. Overall, neurotensin, released by nerve fibers or skin cells, may be involved in the decrease of the chemotaxis and the proinflammatory status in the proliferation and remodelling phases of WH. PMID:25180119

  13. Neurotensin decreases the proinflammatory status of human skin fibroblasts and increases epidermal growth factor expression.

    PubMed

    Pereira da Silva, Lucília; Miguel Neves, Bruno; Moura, Liane; Cruz, Maria Teresa; Carvalho, Eugénia

    2014-01-01

    Fibroblasts colonization into injured areas during wound healing (WH) is responsible for skin remodelling and is also involved in the modulation of inflammation, as fibroblasts are immunologically active. Herein, we aimed to determine neurotensin effect on the immunomodulatory profile of fibroblasts, both in homeostatic and inflammatory conditions. Neurotensin mediated responses occurred through NTR1 or NTR3 receptors, while under inflammatory conditions NTR1 expression increase seemed to modulate neurotensin responses. Among different immunomodulatory genes, CCL11, IL-8, and IL-6 were the most expressed genes, while CCL4 and EGF were the less expressed genes. After neurotensin exposure, IL-8 mRNA expression was increased while CCL11 was decreased, suggesting a proinflammatory upregulation and chemoattractant ability downregulation of fibroblasts. Under inflammatory conditions, gene expression was significantly increased. After neurotensin exposure, CCL4 and IL-6 mRNA expression were decreased while CCL11 was increased, suggesting again a decrease in the chemoattractant capacity of fibroblasts and in their proinflammatory status. Furthermore, the expression of EGF, a crucial growth factor for skin cells proliferation and WH, was increased in all conditions. Overall, neurotensin, released by nerve fibers or skin cells, may be involved in the decrease of the chemotaxis and the proinflammatory status in the proliferation and remodelling phases of WH. PMID:25180119

  14. The effects of acute exposure to ethanol on neurotensin and guanine nucleotide-stimulation of phospholipase C activity in intact NIE-115 neuroblastoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, T.L. )

    1990-01-01

    Both ethanol and neurotensin produce sedation and hypothermia. When administered in combination the behavioral effects of these two substances are potentiated. In order to better understand the biochemical nature of this interaction, the direct effects of ethanol on neurotensin receptors and an associated signal transduction process were determined in NIE-115 neuroblastoma cells. Ethanol in physiologically relevant concentrations significantly reduced neurotensin stimulated ({sup 3}H)inositol phosphate production while having no effect on the specific binding of ({sup 3}H)neurotensin. In addition, ethanol up to 200 mM had no effect on GTPYS mediated ({sup 3}H)inositol phosphate production. The results indicate that acute exposure ethanol partially disrupts the normal coupling of activated neurotensin receptors to the guanine nucleotide binding protein associated with phospholipase C.

  15. NT79: A novel neurotensin analog with selective behavioral effects.

    PubMed

    Boules, Mona; Liang, Yanqi; Briody, Siobhan; Miura, Tomofumi; Fauq, Irfan; Oliveros, Alfredo; Wilson, Mina; Khaniyev, Shaheen; Williams, Katrina; Li, Zhimin; Qi, Yanfei; Katovich, Michael; Richelson, Elliott

    2010-01-13

    Neurotensin, a tridecapeptide, is widely distributed in the brain and gastrointestinal tract. It possesses analgesic, hypothermic, and antipsychotic-like properties. Neurotensin's effects are mediated mainly through two receptor subtypes, NTS1 and NTS2. Activation of NTS1 has been implicated in most of the pharmacological effects of neurotensin but is associated with hypothermia and hypotension. We report on a novel neurotensin analog with higher selectivity to NTS2, namely, NT79, which exhibits selective behavioral effects. NT79 was tested in animal models for pain (thermal-hot plate test; visceral-acetic acid-induced writhing test), and in animal models that are predictive of antipsychotic-like effects (apomorphine-induced climbing; d-amphetamine-induced hyperactivity; disruption of prepulse inhibition). Its effects on body temperature and on blood pressure were also determined. Neurochemical changes in extracellular neurotransmitters were measured using in vivo microdialysis while the rats were simultaneously evaluated for acetic acid-induced writhing with and without pretreatment with NT79. Binding data at molecularly cloned hNTS1 and hNTS2 suggest selectivity for hNTS2. NT79 blocked the acetic acid-induced writhing with an ED(50) of 0.14 microg/kg while having no effect on thermal nociception. The writhing was paralleled by an increase in 5-HT which was attenuated by NT79. NT79 demonstrated antipsychotic-like effects by blocking apomorphine-induced climbing, d-amphetamine-induced hyperactivity, and reducing d-amphetamine- and DOI-induced disruption of prepulse inhibition. Uniquely, it caused no significant hypothermia and was without effect on blood pressure. NT79, with its higher selectivity to NTS2, may be potentially useful to treat visceral pain, and psychosis without concomitant side effects of hypothermia or hypotension.

  16. Serotoninergic mechanisms of the effects of neurotensin on passive avoidance behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Shugalev, N P; Stavrovskaya, A V; Ol'shanskii, A S; Hartmann, G; Lenard, L

    2008-06-01

    The aim of the present work was to identify the features of the actions of neurotensin on administration into the substantia nigra or dorsal cervical nucleus on the reproduction of passive avoidance reactions in rats. The results showed that the action of neurotensin administered into the substantia nigra was accompanied by sharp reductions in passive avoidance reactions, while administration into the dorsal cervical nucleus, conversely, led to increases in these reactions and slowing of their extinction. The effects of microinjections of the serotonin 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist 8-hydroxydipropylaminotetraline (8-OH-DPAT) into these brain structures were analogous to the effects of neurotensin. The different behavioral effects of administration of neurotensin corresponded to identifiable changes in the levels of serotonin and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in the caudate nuclei of the brain. These data led to the conclusion that the effects of neurotensin on passive avoidance behavior are associated with the regulation of the emotional state of the animals via actions on the functions of brain serotoninergic structures.

  17. Multiple toxic doses of methamphetamine alter neurotensin concentrations in various region of the rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, G.R.; Merchant, K.; Gibb, J.W.; Letter, A.A.

    1986-03-05

    The authors have previously reported that multiple high doses of methamphetamine (METH) alter neuronal monoamine metabolism and release. Recently, Hokfelt et al. showed that neurotensin, a tridecapeptide, has neurotransmitter properties which may be involved with DA neuronal activity. In the present study they investigated the possible effects of METH on the CNS neurotensin system. Five doses of METH (15 mg/kg) were administered every 6 h; control and treated rats were sacrificed 18 h after the last dose and concentrations of neurotensin-like immuno-reactivity (NTLI) were measured by radioimmunoassay. NTLI was elevated 200-300% in the nucleus accumbens, neostriatum, and substantia nigra; 30-40% increases in NTLI were measured in the hippocampus and hypothalamus. No change was observed in amygdala, A-10 or periaqueductal gray. In contrast to the above measured areas, the frontal lobe and olfactory bulb showed decreases of 25-35%. These findings demonstrate that METH treatment alters the activities of several CNS neurotensin systems, possibly due to the influence of this drug on DA pathways. The variability in the type and magnitude of these responses suggests that DA and neurotensin systems interact by more than one mechanism.

  18. The actions of neurotensin in rat bladder detrusor contractility

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xingyou; Bai, Xinyu; Zhao, Jiang; Wang, Liang; Wang, Qingqing; Li, Longkun

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the expression, distribution and function of neurotensin (NTs) and two main neurotensin receptors (NTSR), NTSR1 and NTSR2 in normal rat urinary bladders. NTs is primarily located in the suburothelium and the interstitium of smooth muscle bundles. The NTSR1 and NTSR2 receptor subtypes are found to co-localize with smooth muscle cells (SMCs). NTs not only can directly act on bladder SMCs to induce intracellular calcium mobilization by activating the phospholipase C/inositol triphosphate (PLC/IP3) pathway, promoting extracellular calcium influx through a non-selective cation channels, but may be also involved in the modulation of the cholinergic system. Nowadays, the selective antimuscarinic drugs (solifenacin) and the selective beta 3-adrenergic agonist (mirabegron) are used as the first-line pharmacotherapy for overactive bladder (OAB), but without satisfactory treatment benefits in some patients. This study provided evidence suggesting that bladder NTs may play an important role in the regulation of micturition. Further research is needed to investigate the effects of NTs on bladder contractility and the underlying mechanism, which might reveal that the administration of NTSR antagonists can potentially relieve the symptoms of OAB by coordination with antimuscarinic pharmacotherapy. PMID:26053252

  19. Elucidating the Role of Neurotensin in the Pathophysiology and Management of Major Mental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Boules, Mona M; Fredrickson, Paul; Muehlmann, Amber M; Richelson, Elliott

    2014-01-01

    Neurotensin (NT) is a neuropeptide that is closely associated with, and is thought to modulate, dopaminergic and other neurotransmitter systems involved in the pathophysiology of various mental disorders. This review outlines data implicating NT in the pathophysiology and management of major mental disorders such as schizophrenia, drug addiction, and autism. The data suggest that NT receptor analogs have the potential to be used as novel therapeutic agents acting through modulation of neurotransmitter systems dys-regulated in these disorders. PMID:25379273

  20. Mephedrone alters basal ganglia and limbic neurotensin systems.

    PubMed

    German, Christopher L; Hoonakker, Amanda H; Fleckenstein, Annette E; Hanson, Glen R

    2014-08-01

    Mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone) is a synthetic cathinone designer drug that alters pre-synaptic dopamine (DA) activity like many psychostimulants. However, little is known about the post-synaptic dopaminergic impacts of mephedrone. The neuropeptide neurotensin (NT) provides inhibitory feedback for basal ganglia and limbic DA pathways, and post-synaptic D1 -like and D2 -like receptor activity affects NT tissue levels. This study evaluated how mephedrone alters basal ganglia and limbic system NT content and the role of NT receptor activation in drug consumption behavior. Four 25 mg/kg injections of mephedrone increased NT content in basal ganglia (striatum, substantia nigra and globus pallidus) and the limbic regions (nucleus accumbens core), while a lower dosage (5 mg/kg/injection) only increased striatal NT content. Mephedrone-induced increases in basal ganglia NT levels were mediated by D1 -like receptors in the striatum and the substantia nigra by both D1 -like and D2 -like receptors in the globus pallidus. Mephedrone increased substance P content, another neuropeptide, in the globus pallidus, but not in the dorsal striatum or substantia nigra. Finally, the NT receptor agonist PD149163 blocked mephedrone self-administration, suggesting reduced NT release, as indicated by increased tissue levels, likely contributing to patterns of mephedrone consumption.

  1. Hypothalamic leptin-neurotensin-hypocretin neuronal networks in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Levitas-Djerbi, Talia; Yelin-Bekerman, Laura; Lerer-Goldshtein, Tali; Appelbaum, Lior

    2015-04-01

    Neurotensin (NTS) is a 13 amino acid neuropeptide that is expressed in the hypothalamus. In mammals, NTS-producing neurons that express leptin receptor (LepRb) regulate the function of hypocretin/orexin (HCRT) and dopamine neurons. Thus, the hypothalamic leptin-NTS-HCRT neuronal network orchestrates key homeostatic output, including sleep, feeding, and reward. However, the intricate mechanisms of the circuitry and the unique role of NTS-expressing neurons remain unclear. We studied the NTS neuronal networks in zebrafish and cloned the genes encoding the NTS neuropeptide and receptor (NTSR). Similar to mammals, the ligand is expressed primarily in the hypothalamus, while the receptor is expressed widely throughout the brain in zebrafish. A portion of hypothalamic nts-expressing neurons are inhibitory and some coexpress leptin receptor (lepR1). As in mammals, NTS and HCRT neurons are localized adjacently in the hypothalamus. To track the development and axonal projection of NTS neurons, the NTS promoter was isolated. Transgenesis and double labeling of NTS and HCRT neurons showed that NTS axons project toward HCRT neurons, some of which express ntsr. Moreover, another target of NTS neurons is ntsr-expressing dopaminergeric neurons. These findings suggest structural circuitry between leptin, NTS, and hypocretinergic or dopaminergic neurons and establish the zebrafish as a model to study the role of these neuronal circuits in the regulation of feeding, sleep, and reward.

  2. Effects of differentiation on purinergic and neurotensin-mediated calcium signaling in human HT-29 colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Mohammad A; Peters, Amelia A; Roberts-Thomson, Sarah J; Monteith, Gregory R

    2013-09-13

    Calcium signaling is a key regulator of processes important in differentiation. In colon cancer cells differentiation is associated with altered expression of specific isoforms of calcium pumps of the endoplasmic reticulum and the plasma membrane, suggesting that differentiation of colon cancer cells is associated with a major remodeling of calcium homeostasis. Purinergic and neurotensin receptor activation are known regulators of cytosolic free Ca(2+) levels in colon cancer cells. This study aimed to assess changes in cytosolic free Ca(2+) levels in response to ATP and neurotensin with differentiation induced by sodium butyrate or culturing post-confluence. Parameters assessed included peak cytosolic free Ca(2+) level after activation; time to reach peak cytosolic free Ca(2+) and the EC50 of dose response curves. Our results demonstrate that differentiation of HT-29 colon cancer cells is associated with a remodeling of both ATP and neurotensin mediated Ca(2+) signaling. Neurotensin-mediated calcium signaling appeared more sensitive to differentiation than ATP-mediated Ca(2+) signaling.

  3. Emerging role of neurotensin in regulation of the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Osadchii, Oleg E

    2015-09-01

    There is increasing evidence in support of an important role played by neurotensin (NT), a tridecapeptide originally found in bovine hypothalamus, in regulation of cardiovascular system. Elevated systemic levels of NT may contribute to pathogenesis of acute circulatory disoders, and predict the risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in population-based studies. Within cardiovascular system, NT-containing neural fibers are found in close contact with atrial and ventricular cardiac myocytes, cardiac conduction system, intracardiac ganglia, as well as coronary vessels in humans and various animal species. The density of NT-immunoreactive innervation is reduced in cardiac disease. NT produces a variety of cardiovascular actions including effects on heart rate, myocardial contractility, systemic blood pressure, coronary vascular tone, venous smooth muscle tone, and regional blood flow in gastrointestinal tract, cutaneous and adipose tissue. NT could trigger cardiovascular reflexes by stimulating primary visceral afferents synaptically connected with preganglionic sympathetic neurons at the spinal cord. Structural determinants of biological activity of NT reside primarily in the C-terminal portion of its molecule which is responsible for receptor activation. NT effects are mediated via activation of NT receptors, or produced indirectly via stimulation of release of various endogenous neuromodulators/neurotransmitters such as histamine, catecholamines and prostaglandins. Three subtypes of NT receptor (NTS1, NTS2 and NTS3) have been shown to be expressed in the myocardium. NTS1, a high-affinity NT binding site coupled to phospholipase C-inositoltrisphosphate transduction pathway, is thought to mediate NT-induced cardiovascular responses.

  4. Cannabinoid receptor type-1: breaking the dogmas

    PubMed Central

    Busquets Garcia, Arnau; Soria-Gomez, Edgar; Bellocchio, Luigi; Marsicano, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is abundantly expressed in the brain. This system regulates a plethora of physiological functions and is composed of cannabinoid receptors, their endogenous ligands (endocannabinoids), and the enzymes involved in the metabolism of endocannabinoids. In this review, we highlight the new advances in cannabinoid signaling, focusing on a key component of the ECS, the type-1 cannabinoid receptor (CB 1). In recent years, the development of new imaging and molecular tools has demonstrated that this receptor can be distributed in many cell types (e.g., neuronal or glial cells) and intracellular compartments (e.g., mitochondria). Interestingly, cellular and molecular effects are differentially mediated by CB 1 receptors according to their specific localization (e.g., glutamatergic or GABAergic neurons). Moreover, this receptor is expressed in the periphery, where it can modulate periphery-brain connections. Finally, the better understanding of the CB 1 receptor structure led researchers to propose interesting and new allosteric modulators. Thus, the advances and the new directions of the CB 1 receptor field will provide new insights and better approaches to profit from its interesting therapeutic profile. PMID:27239293

  5. [The effect of neurotensin on the cardiovascular system].

    PubMed

    Osadchiĭ, O E; Pokrovskiĭ, V M

    1998-01-01

    Neurotensin is a peptide involved in regulation of cardiovascular system. Neurotensin immunoreactivity is found in myocardium, conduction system of the heart, intracardiac ganglion cells, coronary vessels. High content of this peptide is also determined in structures of sympathoadrenal system. This creates the possibility of hormonal neurotensin action on the heart following sympathetic activation. Neurotensin accelerates heart rate, increases myocardial contractility, affects central haemodynamics, regional blood flow and coronary circulation. Neurotensin modulates autonomic influences on the heart and plays role in mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmogenesis, especially in dynamics of vagally induced cardiac rhythm disorders. Cardiovascular effects of this peptide may be associated with direct influence on the heart and vessels, stimulating action on release of histamine and catecholamines and activation of capsaicin-sensitive afferent neurons which contain calcitonin-gene related peptide and substance P. Cardiovascular action of neurotensin is species dependent and it is followed by pronounced tachyphylaxis. Cellular mechanism of neurotensin action is associated with stimulation of phosphoinositide turnover, elevation of intracellular calcium and cyclic nucleotides level.

  6. Scavenger receptor class B type I: a multifunctional receptor.

    PubMed

    Valacchi, Giuseppe; Sticozzi, Claudia; Lim, Yunsook; Pecorelli, Alessandra

    2011-07-01

    The scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-B1) plays an important role in meditating the uptake of HDL-derived cholesterol and cholesteryl ester in the liver and steroidogenic tissues. In addition to being ubiquitous, SR-B1 is a high-density lipoprotein (HDL) receptor in many tissues, though the mechanism by which SR-B1 does this is unclear. Other than its role as an HDL receptor, SR-B1 is also involved in pathogen recognition; its expression can be modulated by lipopolysaccharide and oxidative stress; and it plays a significant role in the uptake of lipid soluble vitamins, such as vitamin E and carotenoids. In this short review, we have summarized the biological aspects to which SR-B1 has been thus far associated.

  7. Pleiotropic effects of bombesin and neurotensin on intestinal mucosa: not just trefoil peptides.

    PubMed

    Assimakopoulos, Stelios-F; Scopa, Chrisoula-D; Nikolopoulou, Vassiliki-N; Vagianos, Constantine-E

    2008-06-14

    Bombesin and neurotensin are neuropeptides which exert a wide spectrum of biological actions on gastrointestinal tissues influencing intestinal growth and adaptation, intestinal motility, blood flow, secretion, nutrient absorption and immune response. Based mainly on their well-established potent enterotrophic effect, numerous experimental studies investigated their potential positive effect on the atrophic or injured intestinal mucosa. These peptides proved to be effective mucosa-healing factors, but the potential molecular and cellular mechanisms for this action remained unresolved. In a recently published study (World J Gastroenterol 2008; 14(8): 1222-1230), it was shown that their protective effect on the intestine in experimentally induced inflammatory bowel disease was related to anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antiapoptotic actions. These results are in close agreement with our previous studies on jaundiced and hepatectomized rats that showed a regulatory effect of bombesin and neurotensin on critical cellular processes such as enterocyte' proliferation and death, oxidative stress and redox equilibrium, tight junctions' formation and function, and inflammatory response. The pleiotropic effects of bombesin and neurotensin on diverse types of intestinal injury may justify their consideration for clinical trials. PMID:18567096

  8. Angiotensin type 2 receptor actions contribute to angiotensin type 1 receptor blocker effects on kidney fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Naito, Takashi; Ma, Li-Jun; Yang, Haichun; Zuo, Yiqin; Tang, Yiwei; Han, Jee Young; Kon, Valentina

    2010-01-01

    Angiotensin type 1 (AT1) receptor blocker (ARB) ameliorates progression of chronic kidney disease. Whether this protection is due solely to blockade of AT1, or whether diversion of angiotensin II from the AT1 to the available AT2 receptor, thus potentially enhancing AT2 receptor effects, is not known. We therefore investigated the role of AT2 receptor in ARB-induced treatment effects in chronic kidney disease. Adult rats underwent 5/6 nephrectomy. Glomerulosclerosis was assessed by renal biopsy 8 wk later, and rats were divided into four groups with equivalent glomerulosclerosis: no further treatment, ARB, AT2 receptor antagonist, or combination. By week 12 after nephrectomy, systolic blood pressure was decreased in all treatment groups, but proteinuria was decreased only with ARB. Glomerulosclerosis increased significantly in AT2 receptor antagonist vs. ARB. Kidney cortical collagen content was decreased in ARB, but increased in untreated 5/6 nephrectomy, AT2 receptor antagonist, and combined groups. Glomerular cell proliferation increased in both untreated 5/6 nephrectomy and AT2 receptor antagonist vs. ARB, and phospho-Erk2 was increased by AT2 receptor antagonist. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 mRNA and protein were increased at 12 wk by AT2 receptor antagonist in contrast to decrease with ARB. Podocyte injury is a key component of glomerulosclerosis. We therefore assessed effects of AT1 vs. AT2 blockade on podocytes and interaction with plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. Cultured wild-type podocytes, but not plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 knockout, responded to angiotensin II with increased collagen, an effect that was completely blocked by ARB with lesser effect of AT2 receptor antagonist. We conclude that the benefical effects on glomerular injury achieved with ARB are contributed to not only by blockade of the AT1 receptor, but also by increasing angiotensin effects transduced through the AT2 receptor. PMID:20042458

  9. Neurotensin in the lateral hypothalamic area: origin and function.

    PubMed

    Allen, G V; Cechetto, D F

    1995-11-01

    The origin of neurotensin in the lateral hypothalamus was investigated by means of fluorescent retrograde tract tracing and neurotensin-like immunoreactivity. Following fluorescent retrograde tract tracing with FluoroGold combined with neurotensin immunohistochemistry in the rat brain, numerous neurotensin-immunoreactive neurons with projections to the posterior lateral hypothalamic area were identified in the central nucleus of the amygdala, perifornical area and the parabrachial nucleus. Fewer numbers of neurotensin-positive neurons with projections to the lateral hypothalamic area were observed in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, lateral septal nucleus, medial preoptic area, peri- and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus, anterior lateral hypothalamic area and dorsal raphe nucleus. In addition, the role of neurotensin in the modulation of autonomic regulatory input from the insula was investigated. The lateral hypothalamic area was surveyed for single units responding to electrical stimulation (500-900 microA, 0.5 Hz) of sites in the insular cortex from which cardiovascular pressor or depressor responses could be elicited. These units were tested for the influence of neurotensin on responses to stimulation of the insular cortex. Of 60 spontaneously firing neurons, 27 units responded to electrical stimulation of cardiovascular sites in the insula. Of the units responding to stimulation of cardiovascular sites in the insula, 14 units showed excitation only, 10 units showed excitation followed by inhibition and three units showed inhibition. Iontophoresis of 0.1-1.0 mM neurotensin (25-100 nA, pH 5.0-6.0) potentiated six of the excitatory responses and showed no effect on the inhibitory responses. In addition, nine neurons showed an increase in spontaneous activity with iontophoresis of neurotensin. Of these neurons, three were excited by insular stimulation and six did not respond. These findings indicate the likely origin of neurotensin in the

  10. CLAVATA 1-type receptors in plant development.

    PubMed

    Hazak, Ora; Hardtke, Christian S

    2016-08-01

    A fundamental aspect of plant development is the coordination of growth through endogenous signals and its integration with environmental inputs. Similar to animals, plants frequently use cell surface-localized receptors to monitor such stimuli, for instance through plasma membrane-integral receptor-like kinases (RLKs). Compared to other organisms, plants possess a large number of RLKs (more than 600 in Arabidopsis thaliana), which implies that ligand-receptor-mediated molecular mechanisms regulate a wide range of processes during plant development. Here, we focus on A. thaliana RLKs of the CLAVATA 1 (CLV1) type, which orchestrate key steps during plant development, including the regulation of meristem maintenance, anther development, vascular tissue formation, and root system architecture. These receptors are regulated by small signalling peptides that belong to the family of CLE (CLV3 / EMBRYO SURROUNDING REGION) ligands. We discuss different aspects of plant development that are regulated by these receptors in light of their molecular mechanism of action. As so often, the intensive research on this group of plant RLKs has raised many intriguing questions, which remain to be answered. PMID:27340234

  11. Type-2 cannabinoid receptors in neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Bisogno, Tiziana; Oddi, Sergio; Piccoli, Alessandra; Fazio, Domenico; Maccarrone, Mauro

    2016-09-01

    Based on its wide expression in immune cells, type-2 cannabinoid (CB2) receptors were traditionally thought to act as "peripheral receptors" with an almost exclusively immunomodulatory function. However, their recent identification in mammalian brain areas, as well as in distinct neuronal cells, has opened the way to a re-consideration of CB2 signaling in the context of brain pathophysiology, synaptic plasticity and neuroprotection. To date, accumulated evidence from several independent preclinical studies has offered new perspectives on the possible involvement of CB2 signaling in brain and spinal cord traumatic injury, as well as in the most relevant neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and Huntington's chorea. Here, we will review available information on CB2 in these disease conditions, along with data that support also its therapeutic potential to treat them. PMID:27450295

  12. The role of neurotensin in positive reinforcement in the rat central nucleus of amygdala.

    PubMed

    László, Kristóf; Tóth, Krisztián; Kertes, Erika; Péczely, László; Lénárd, László

    2010-04-01

    In the central nervous system neurotensin (NT) acts as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. It was shown that NT has positive reinforcing effects after its direct microinjection into the ventral tegmental area. The central nucleus of amygdala (CeA), part of the limbic system, plays an important role in learning, memory, regulation of feeding, anxiety and emotional behavior. By means of immunohistochemical and radioimmune methods it was shown that the amygdaloid body is relatively rich in NT immunoreactive elements and NT receptors. The aim of our study was to examine the possible effects of NT on reinforcement and anxiety in the CeA. In conditioned place preference test male Wistar rats were microinjected bilaterally with 100 or 250 ng NT in volume of 0.4 microl or 35 ng neurotensin receptor 1 (NTS1) antagonist SR 48692 alone, or NTS1 antagonist 15 min before 100 ng NT treatment. Hundred or 250 ng NT significantly increased the time rats spent in the treatment quadrant. Prior treatment with the non-peptide NTS1 antagonist blocked the effects of NT. Antagonist itself did not influence the reinforcing effect. In elevated plus maze test we did not find differences among the groups as far as the anxiety index (time spent on the open arms) was concerned. Our results suggest that in the rat ACE NT has positive reinforcing effects. We clarified that NTS1s are involved in this action. It was also shown that NT does not influence anxiety behavior.

  13. Neurotensin-produced antinociception in the rostral ventromedial medulla is partially mediated by spinal cord norepinephrine

    PubMed Central

    Buhler, A. V.; Proudfit, H. K.; Gebhart, G. F.

    2008-01-01

    Microinjection of neurotensin (NT) into the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) produces dose-dependent antinociception. Here we show that antinociception produced by intra RVM microinjection of neurotensin (NT) or the selective NT receptor subtype 1 (NTR1) agonist PD149163 can be partially blocked by intrathecal (i.t.) yohimbine, an α2-adrenoceptor antagonist and by methysergide, a serotonin receptor antagonist. Antinociception produced by the NTR2 agonist beta-lactotensin (β-LT) is blocked by intrathecal (i.t.) yohimbine, but not by methysergide i.t.. It is not known which noradrenergic cell group is involved in this newly identified noradrenergic component of NTR-mediated antinociception. These experiments provide the first evidence that selective activation of NTR2 in the RVM produces antinociception. These results also provide evidence that activation of NTR1 in the RVM produces antinociception through spinal release of norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin, and that activation of NTR2 in the RVM produces antinociception mediated by spinal release of NE. PMID:17664042

  14. Exogenous neurotensin modulates sperm function in Japanese Black cattle

    PubMed Central

    UMEZU, Kohei; HIRADATE, Yuuki; OIKAWA, Toshinori; ISHIGURO, Hirotoshi; NUMABE, Takashi; HARA, Kenshiro; TANEMURA, Kentaro

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the conception rates after artificial insemination have been pointed out to decline continuously. To overcome this problem, the control of frozen and thawed sperm quality is required. However, the mechanism of bovine sperm functional regulation is still largely unknown. In mammals, the ejaculated sperm are capable of showing fertilizing ability during migration in the female reproductive organs. It is well known that these female organs secrete several factors contributing to sperm capacitation. We previously reported that neurotensin (NT) secreted from the oviduct and cumulus cells enhanced sperm capacitation and acrosome reaction in mice. In this study, we confirmed the expression of the NT receptor (NTR1) in the bovine sperm neck region and the secretion of NT in the bovine uterus and oviduct. The similar expression patterns of NT and NTR1 suggests a conserved mechanism of sperm functional regulation between mouse and cattle. Thus, we examined the effects of exogenous NT on the bovine sperm functions. First, we showed that NT induced sperm protein tyrosine phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that NT enhances sperm capacitation. Second, we showed that NT induced acrosome reactions of capacitated sperm in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that NT facilitates acrosome reaction. Finally, we used a computer-aided sperm analysis system to show that NT did not have a great effect on sperm motility. These results suggest that NT acts as a facilitator of sperm capacitation and acrosome reaction in the female reproductive tracts in cattle, highlighting the importance of NT-mediated signaling to regulate sperm functions. PMID:27210588

  15. Exogenous neurotensin modulates sperm function in Japanese Black cattle.

    PubMed

    Umezu, Kohei; Hiradate, Yuuki; Oikawa, Toshinori; Ishiguro, Hirotoshi; Numabe, Takashi; Hara, Kenshiro; Tanemura, Kentaro

    2016-08-25

    Recently, the conception rates after artificial insemination have been pointed out to decline continuously. To overcome this problem, the control of frozen and thawed sperm quality is required. However, the mechanism of bovine sperm functional regulation is still largely unknown. In mammals, the ejaculated sperm are capable of showing fertilizing ability during migration in the female reproductive organs. It is well known that these female organs secrete several factors contributing to sperm capacitation. We previously reported that neurotensin (NT) secreted from the oviduct and cumulus cells enhanced sperm capacitation and acrosome reaction in mice. In this study, we confirmed the expression of the NT receptor (NTR1) in the bovine sperm neck region and the secretion of NT in the bovine uterus and oviduct. The similar expression patterns of NT and NTR1 suggests a conserved mechanism of sperm functional regulation between mouse and cattle. Thus, we examined the effects of exogenous NT on the bovine sperm functions. First, we showed that NT induced sperm protein tyrosine phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that NT enhances sperm capacitation. Second, we showed that NT induced acrosome reactions of capacitated sperm in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that NT facilitates acrosome reaction. Finally, we used a computer-aided sperm analysis system to show that NT did not have a great effect on sperm motility. These results suggest that NT acts as a facilitator of sperm capacitation and acrosome reaction in the female reproductive tracts in cattle, highlighting the importance of NT-mediated signaling to regulate sperm functions. PMID:27210588

  16. NHERF-1 regulation of EGF and neurotensin signalling in HT-29 epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, Wade A.; Monteith, Gregory R.; Poronnik, Philip

    2013-03-22

    Highlights: ► NHERF-1 expression was abundant throughout HT-29 cells consistent with a cancerous phenotype. ► Knockdown of NHERF-1 lead to a significant reduction in cell proliferation. ► EGF and neurotensin-mediated proliferation was inhibited by knockdown of NHERF-1. ► Neurotensin-mediated Ca{sup 2+} response was abolished by knockdown of NHERF-1. -- Abstract: Neurotensin receptors (NT-R) and the epidermal growth factor receptors (EGF-R) are commonly overexpressed in many epithelial origin tumours. In addition to their role as mitogenic mediators through specific cell signalling, recent studies indicate that the activity/expression of scaffold proteins responsible for the assembly and coordination of the signalling complexes may also have central roles in epithelial transformation. In particular, the “epithelial” PSD-95/Dlg/Zo-1 (PDZ) scaffold/adapter protein, Na{sup +}/H{sup +} exchanger regulatory factor isoform one (NHERF-1), has been identified as a potential regulator of cellular transformation. NHERF-1 is a known regulator of EGF-R function and plays numerous roles in G-protein-coupled receptor signalling. Because of the synergistic signalling between these two potent mitogens, we investigated a potential role for NHERF-1 in the molecular mechanism linking the aberrant proliferative phenotype initiated by some G-Protein-coupled receptor activators in the colon adenocarcinoma HT-29 cell line. Knockdown (80%) of endogenous NHERF-1 leads to significant reduction in proliferation rate; an effect that could not be recovered by exogenous application of either NT or EGF. Inhibition of the EGF-R with AG1487 also inhibited proliferation and this effect could not be recovered with NT. Knockdown of NHERF-1 significantly altered the expression of the EGF-R, and almost completely abolished the NT-mediated increases in intracellular free Ca{sup 2+}. Knockdown of NHERF-1 also attenuated UTP-mediated purinergic Ca{sup 2+} signalling. Taken together, these data

  17. 5-Hydroxytryptamine type 7 receptor neuroprotection against NMDA-induced excitotoxicity is PDGFβ receptor dependent.

    PubMed

    Vasefi, Maryam S; Kruk, Jeff S; Heikkila, John J; Beazely, Michael A

    2013-04-01

    The serotonin (5-HT) type 7 receptor is expressed throughout the CNS including the hippocampus. Long-term (2-24 h) activation of 5-HT7 receptors regulates growth factor receptor expression, including the expression of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) β receptors. Direct activation of PDGFβ receptors in primary hippocampal and cortical neurons inhibits NMDA receptor activity and attenuates NMDA receptor-induced neurotoxicity. Our objective was to investigate whether the 5-HT7 receptor-induced increase in PDGFβ receptor expression would be similarly neuroprotective. We demonstrate that 5-HT7 receptor agonist treatment in primary hippocampal neurons also increases the expression of phospholipase C (PLC) γ, a downstream effector of PDGFβ receptors associated with the inhibition of NMDA receptor activity. To determine if the up-regulation of PDGFβ receptors is neuroprotective, primary hippocampal neurons were incubated with the 5-HT7 receptor agonist, LP 12, for 24 h. Indeed, LP 12 treatment prevented NMDA-induced neurotoxicity and this effect was dependent on PDGFβ receptor kinase activity. Treatment of primary neurons with LP 12 also differentially altered NMDA receptor subunit expression, reducing the expression of NR1 and NR2B, but not NR2A. These findings demonstrate the potential for providing growth factor receptor-dependent neuroprotective effects using small-molecule ligands of G protein-coupled receptors.

  18. Type 3 Muscarinic Receptors Contribute to Clearance of Citrobacter rodentium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although the alpha 7 nicotinic receptor exerts anti-inflammatory effects on immune cells, the role of muscarinic receptors in mucosal homeostasis, response to enteric pathogens, and modulation of immune cell function is undefined. The contribution of type 3 muscarinic receptor (M3R) to mucosal homeo...

  19. Murine gammaherpesvirus targets type I IFN receptor but not type III IFN receptor early in infection.

    PubMed

    Lopušná, Katarína; Benkóczka, Tímea; Lupták, Jakub; Matúšková, Radka; Lukáčiková, Ľubomíra; Ovečková, Ingrid; Režuchová, Ingeborg

    2016-07-01

    The innate immune response represents a primary line of defense against invading viral pathogens. Since epithelial cells are the primary site of gammaherpesvirus replication during infection in vivo and there are no information on activity of IFN-III signaling against gammaherpesviruses in this cell type, in present study, we evaluated the expression profile and virus-host interactions in mouse mammary epithelial cell (NMuMG) infected with three strains of murine gammaherpesvirus, MHV-68, MHV-72 and MHV-4556. Studying three strains of murine gammaherpesvirus, which differ in nucleotide sequence of some structural and non-structural genes, allowed us to compare the strain-dependent interactions with host organism. Our results clearly demonstrate that: (i) MHV-68, MHV-72 and MHV-4556 differentially interact with intracellular signaling and dysregulate IFN signal transduction; (ii) MHV-68, MHV-72 and MHV-4556 degrade type I IFN receptor in very early stages of infection (2-4hpi), but not type III IFN receptor; (iii) type III IFN signaling might play a key role in antiviral defense of epithelial cells in early stages of murine gammaherpesvirus replication; (iv) NMuMG cells are an appropriate model for study of not only type I IFN signaling, but also type III IFN signaling pathway. These findings are important for better understanding of individual virus-host interactions in lytic as well as in persistent gammaherpesvirus replication and help us to elucidate IFN-III function in early events of virus infection. PMID:27152708

  20. Neurotensin enhances estradiol induced DNA synthesis in immature rat uterus

    SciTech Connect

    Mistry, A.; Vijayan, E.

    1985-05-27

    Systemic administration of Neurotensin, a tridecapeptide, in immature rats treated with estradiol benzoate significantly enhances uterine DNA synthesis as reflected by the incorporation of /sup 3/H-thymidine. The peptide may have a direct action on the uterus. Substance P, a related peptide, had no effect on uterine DNA synthesis. 18 references, 4 tables.

  1. Histamine release by neurotensin in the rat hindquarter: structure-activity studies.

    PubMed

    Kerouac, R; St-Pierre, S; Rioux, F

    1984-01-01

    Histamine releasing effects of neurotensin (NT) and several NT fragments and structural analogues were measured in the rat perfused hindquarter. The results show that the chemical groups responsible for histamine release are located in the C-terminal sequence Arg9-Pro10-Tyr11-Ile12-Leu13-OH. Both the spatial configuration and positive charge of Arg8 and Arg9 appear to contribute to the histamine releasing effect of NT. Optimization of the histamine releasing effect of NT requires both a free C-terminal carboxyl group and the presence in position 11 of NT of an aromatic residue, with the L-configuration, bearing an heteroatom capable of hydrogen bonding with the receptor. The results indicate that the structural requirements of NT to induce histamine release from the rat perfused hindquarter are similar to those involved in other peripheral biological actions of NT.

  2. Targeting neurotensin as a potential novel approach for the treatment of autism.

    PubMed

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad

    2010-10-01

    The pathophysiology of autism remains obscure. Recently, serum neurotensin levels in children with autistic disorder have been found to be higher than those of normal children. Neurotensin is known to intensify neuronal NMDA-mediated glutamate signaling, which may cause apoptosis in autism. Further, an imbalance of glutamate/GABAergic system in autism has been described. These observations lead to a postulate that neurotensin may accentuate the hyperglutaminergic state in autism, leading to apoptosis. Targeting neurotensin might be a possible novel approach for the treatment of autism.

  3. Identification and functional characterization of a stable, centrally active derivative of the neurotensin (8-13) fragment as a potential first-in-class analgesic.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Francis M; Shaner, Brooke E; May, Lisa A; Zotian, Lyndsay; Brower, Justin O; Woods, R Jeremy; Cash, Michael; Morrow, Dustin; Massa, Fabienne; Mazella, Jean; Dix, Thomas A

    2010-06-24

    The neurotensin hexapapetide fragment NT(8-13) is a potent analgesic when administered directly to the central nervous system but does not cross the blood-brain barrier. A total of 43 novel derivatives of NT(8-13) were evaluated, with one, ABS212 (1), being most active in four rat models of pain when administered peripherally. Compound 1 binds to human neurotensin receptors 1 and 2 with IC(50) of 10.6 and 54.2 nM, respectively, and tolerance to the compound in a rat pain model did not develop after 12 days of daily administration. When it was administered peripherally, serum levels and neurotensin receptor binding potency of 1 peaked within 5 min and returned to baseline within 90-120 min; however, analgesic activity remained near maximum for >240 min. This could be due to its metabolism into an active fragment; however, all 4- and 5-mer hydrolysis products were inactive. This pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic dichotomy is discussed. Compound 1 is a candidate for development as a first-in-class analgesic.

  4. Neurotensin: immunohistochemical localization in rat central nervous system.

    PubMed Central

    Uhl, G R; Kuhar, M J; Snyder, S H

    1977-01-01

    Neurotensin immunofluorescence was examined in the rat central nervous system using a well-characterized antiserum directed against this tridecapeptide. Morphological characteristics of the fluorescence indicate its association with neuronal cell bodies and processes in the brain and with cells of the anterior pituitary. Fluorescence is seen in many brain areas, with notable densities in the substantia gelatinosa zones of the spinal cord and trigeminal nucleus, central amygdaloid nucleus, anterior pituitary, median eminence, and preoptic and basal hypothalamic areas. Images PMID:333458

  5. Suicide HSVtk Gene Delivery by Neurotensin-Polyplex Nanoparticles via the Bloodstream and GCV Treatment Specifically Inhibit the Growth of Human MDA-MB-231 Triple Negative Breast Cancer Tumors Xenografted in Athymic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Castillo-Rodríguez, Rosa A.; Arango-Rodríguez, Martha L.; Escobedo, Lourdes; Hernandez-Baltazar, Daniel; Gompel, Anne

    2014-01-01

    The human breast adenocarcinoma cell line MDA-MB-231 has the triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) phenotype, which is an aggressive subtype with no specific treatment. MDA-MB-231 cells express neurotensin receptor type 1 (NTSR1), which makes these cells an attractive target of therapeutic genes that are delivered by the neurotensin (NTS)-polyplex nanocarrier via the bloodstream. We addressed the relevance of this strategy for TNBC treatment using NTS-polyplex nanoparticles harboring the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSVtk) suicide gene and its complementary prodrug ganciclovir (GCV). The reporter gene encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) was used as a control. NTS-polyplex successfully transfected both genes in cultured MDA-MB-231 cells. The transfection was demonstrated pharmacologically to be dependent on activation of NTSR1. The expression of HSVtk gene decreased cell viability by 49% (P<0.0001) and induced apoptosis in cultured MDA-MB-231 cells after complementary GCV treatment. In the MDA-MB-231 xenograft model, NTS-polyplex nanoparticles carrying either the HSVtk gene or GFP gene were injected into the tumors or via the bloodstream. Both routes of administration allowed the NTS-polyplex nanoparticles to reach and transfect tumorous cells. HSVtk expression and GCV led to apoptosis, as shown by the presence of cleaved caspase-3 and Apostain immunoreactivity, and significantly inhibited the tumor growth (55–60%) (P<0.001). At the end of the experiment, the weight of tumors transfected with the HSVtk gene was 55% less than that of control tumors (P<0.05). The intravenous transfection did not induce apoptosis in peripheral organs. Our results offer a promising gene therapy for TNBC using the NTS-polyplex nanocarrier. PMID:24824754

  6. Suicide HSVtk gene delivery by neurotensin-polyplex nanoparticles via the bloodstream and GCV Treatment specifically inhibit the growth of human MDA-MB-231 triple negative breast cancer tumors xenografted in athymic mice.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Rodríguez, Rosa A; Arango-Rodríguez, Martha L; Escobedo, Lourdes; Hernandez-Baltazar, Daniel; Gompel, Anne; Forgez, Patricia; Martínez-Fong, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The human breast adenocarcinoma cell line MDA-MB-231 has the triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) phenotype, which is an aggressive subtype with no specific treatment. MDA-MB-231 cells express neurotensin receptor type 1 (NTSR1), which makes these cells an attractive target of therapeutic genes that are delivered by the neurotensin (NTS)-polyplex nanocarrier via the bloodstream. We addressed the relevance of this strategy for TNBC treatment using NTS-polyplex nanoparticles harboring the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSVtk) suicide gene and its complementary prodrug ganciclovir (GCV). The reporter gene encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) was used as a control. NTS-polyplex successfully transfected both genes in cultured MDA-MB-231 cells. The transfection was demonstrated pharmacologically to be dependent on activation of NTSR1. The expression of HSVtk gene decreased cell viability by 49% (P<0.0001) and induced apoptosis in cultured MDA-MB-231 cells after complementary GCV treatment. In the MDA-MB-231 xenograft model, NTS-polyplex nanoparticles carrying either the HSVtk gene or GFP gene were injected into the tumors or via the bloodstream. Both routes of administration allowed the NTS-polyplex nanoparticles to reach and transfect tumorous cells. HSVtk expression and GCV led to apoptosis, as shown by the presence of cleaved caspase-3 and Apostain immunoreactivity, and significantly inhibited the tumor growth (55-60%) (P<0.001). At the end of the experiment, the weight of tumors transfected with the HSVtk gene was 55% less than that of control tumors (P<0.05). The intravenous transfection did not induce apoptosis in peripheral organs. Our results offer a promising gene therapy for TNBC using the NTS-polyplex nanocarrier. PMID:24824754

  7. Suicide HSVtk gene delivery by neurotensin-polyplex nanoparticles via the bloodstream and GCV Treatment specifically inhibit the growth of human MDA-MB-231 triple negative breast cancer tumors xenografted in athymic mice.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Rodríguez, Rosa A; Arango-Rodríguez, Martha L; Escobedo, Lourdes; Hernandez-Baltazar, Daniel; Gompel, Anne; Forgez, Patricia; Martínez-Fong, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The human breast adenocarcinoma cell line MDA-MB-231 has the triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) phenotype, which is an aggressive subtype with no specific treatment. MDA-MB-231 cells express neurotensin receptor type 1 (NTSR1), which makes these cells an attractive target of therapeutic genes that are delivered by the neurotensin (NTS)-polyplex nanocarrier via the bloodstream. We addressed the relevance of this strategy for TNBC treatment using NTS-polyplex nanoparticles harboring the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSVtk) suicide gene and its complementary prodrug ganciclovir (GCV). The reporter gene encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) was used as a control. NTS-polyplex successfully transfected both genes in cultured MDA-MB-231 cells. The transfection was demonstrated pharmacologically to be dependent on activation of NTSR1. The expression of HSVtk gene decreased cell viability by 49% (P<0.0001) and induced apoptosis in cultured MDA-MB-231 cells after complementary GCV treatment. In the MDA-MB-231 xenograft model, NTS-polyplex nanoparticles carrying either the HSVtk gene or GFP gene were injected into the tumors or via the bloodstream. Both routes of administration allowed the NTS-polyplex nanoparticles to reach and transfect tumorous cells. HSVtk expression and GCV led to apoptosis, as shown by the presence of cleaved caspase-3 and Apostain immunoreactivity, and significantly inhibited the tumor growth (55-60%) (P<0.001). At the end of the experiment, the weight of tumors transfected with the HSVtk gene was 55% less than that of control tumors (P<0.05). The intravenous transfection did not induce apoptosis in peripheral organs. Our results offer a promising gene therapy for TNBC using the NTS-polyplex nanocarrier.

  8. Hippocampal type I and type II corticosteroid receptors are differentially regulated by chronic prazosin treatment.

    PubMed

    Kabbaj, M; Le Moal, M; Maccari, S

    1996-08-01

    Two types of hippocampal corticosteroid receptors play an important role in regulating the secretion of corticosterone: type I receptors are thought to regulate both the basal and stress induced release of corticosterone whereas type II receptors seem to be involved only in the stress response. Although these receptors are known to be regulated by circulating levels of corticosterone, there is also evidence for a direct neural control independent of hormonal influences. Furthermore, several studies suggest differential regulation of type I and type II corticosteroid receptors, with greater hormonal control of type II and greater neural control of type I. In order to investigate this theory of differential regulation of type I and type II corticosteroid receptors, we studied the effect of chronic treatment with either vehicle or the alpha 1 noradrenergic antagonist prazosin (0.5 mg/kg, i.p), on hippocampal corticosteroid receptors. Rats in one group had intact adrenal glands, whereas rats in a second group were adrenalectomized, their plasma corticosterone levels being maintained in the physiological range by implantation of corticosterone pellets. Thus, in the first group, the effects of drug-induced changes in both noradrenergic transmission and corticosterone secretion on corticosteroid receptors were investigated, whereas in the second group, the influence of altered noradrenergic transmission was effectively isolated. The results of this experiment show that, in comparison to the vehicle treatment, chronic treatment with the alpha 1 receptor antagonist prazosin decreased the number of type I corticosteroid receptors in adrenalectomized animals with corticosterone substitutive therapy. This effect on type I was not evident in adrenal-intact animals. In contrast, the prazosin treatment reduced the number of type II corticosteroid receptors in adrenal-intact animals, but not in adrenalectomized animals with corticosterone substitutive therapy. It has also been

  9. Hippocampal type I and type II corticosteroid receptors are modulated by central noradrenergic systems.

    PubMed

    Maccari, S; Mormède, P; Piazza, P V; Simon, H; Angelucci, L; Le Moal, M

    1992-01-01

    The effects of corticosteroids on various brain functions, including the negative feedback control of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, are mediated by two types of receptors (type I, or mineralocorticoid, and type II, or glucocorticoid) in the central nervous system. Although receptor numbers are thought to be regulated by circulating levels of corticosterone, there may be a direct neural control of corticosteroid receptors. In the present experiments, we demonstrate that 6-OHDA lesioning of noradrenergic (NA) ascending pathways in the pedunculus cerebellaris superior (PCS) reduces corticosterone secretion in response to novelty and increases the number of hippocampal type I corticosteroid receptors in rats 24 hr after adrenalectomy. The same lesion in adrenalectomized animals in which corticosterone levels were maintained within normal limits by corticosterone replacement implants also led to an increase in the number of type I corticosterone receptors and a decrease in the apparent affinity (Kd) of type II receptors in the hippocampus. These results suggest that the NA system may regulate HPA axis activity via a direct control of the number of type I receptors and the apparent affinity of type II receptors in the hippocampus. The possibility that there is a neural control of corticosteroid receptors may throw light on mechanisms controlling HPA axis activity and may suggest other approaches to the treatment of dysregulation of the HPA axis observed during stress and in certain psychopathological conditions. PMID:1332096

  10. Agonist-promoted ubiquitination differentially regulates receptor trafficking of endothelin type A and type B receptors.

    PubMed

    Terada, Koji; Horinouchi, Takahiro; Fujioka, Yoichiro; Higashi, Tsunehito; Nepal, Prabha; Horiguchi, Mika; Karki, Sarita; Hatate, Chizuru; Hoshi, Akimasa; Harada, Takuya; Mai, Yosuke; Ohba, Yusuke; Miwa, Soichi

    2014-12-19

    Two types of G protein-coupled receptors for endothelin-1 (ET-1), ET type A receptor (ETAR) and ETBR, closely resemble each other, but upon ET-1 stimulation, they follow totally different intracellular trafficking pathways; ETAR is recycled back to plasma membrane, whereas ETBR is targeted to lysosome for degradation. However, the mechanisms for such different fates are unknown. Here we demonstrated that ETBR but not ETAR was ubiquitinated on the cell surface following ET-1 stimulation and that ETBR was internalized and degraded in lysosome more rapidly than ETAR. The mutant ETBR (designated "5KR mutant") in which 5 lysine residues in the C-tail were substituted to arginine was not ubiquitinated, and its rates of internalization and degradation after ET-1 stimulation became slower, being comparable with those of ETAR. Confocal microscopic study showed that following ET-1 stimulation, ETAR and 5KR mutant of ETBR were co-localized mainly with Rab11, a marker of recycling endosome, whereas ETBR was co-localized with Rab7, a marker of late endosome/lysosome. In the 5KR mutant, ET-1-induced ERK phosphorylation and an increase in the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration upon repetitive ET-1 stimulation were larger. A series of ETBR mutants (designated "4KR mutant"), in which either one of 5 arginine residues of the 5KR mutant was reverted to lysine, were normally ubiquitinated, internalized, and degraded, with ERK phosphorylation being normalized. These results demonstrate that agonist-induced ubiquitination at either lysine residue in the C-tail of ETBR but not ETAR switches intracellular trafficking from recycling to plasma membrane to targeting to lysosome, causing decreases in the cell surface level of ETBR and intracellular signaling.

  11. The bovine peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor: A receptor with low affinity for benzodiazepines

    SciTech Connect

    Parola, A.L.; Laird, H.E. II )

    1991-01-01

    The density of bovine peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptors (PBR) in four tissues was highest in adrenal cortex. The adrenal cortex PBR cofractionated with a mitochondrial membrane marker enzyme and could be solubilized with intact ligand binding properties using digitonin. The membrane bound and soluble mitochondrial receptors were pharmacologically characterized and showed the rank order of potency to inhibit ({sup 3}H)PK 11195 binding was PK 11195 > protoporphyrin IX > benzodiazepines. ({sup 3}H)PK 11195 binding to bovine adrenal mitochondria was unaffected by diethylpyrocarbonate, a histidine residue modifying reagent that decreased binding to rat liver mitochondria by 70%. ({sup 3}H)PK 14105 photolabeled the bovine PBR and the Mr was estimated under nondenaturing and denaturing conditions. These results demonstrate the bovine peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor is pharmacologically and biochemically distinct from the rat receptor, but the receptor component photolabeled by an isoquinoline ligand has a similar molecular weight.

  12. Effects of atropine and tetrodotoxin on neurotensin-induced ileal sodium transport in the dog.

    PubMed Central

    Mailman, D.

    1988-01-01

    1. Neurotensin was infused intravenously, in the presence or absence of intravenous atropine or intraarterial tetrodotoxin, into dogs anaesthetized with sodium pentobarbitone. Net and unidirectional fluxes of sodium and blood flows in the ileum were measured. Arterial and mesenteric venous blood pressures, haematocrits and plasma total solids were also determined. 2. Neurotensin caused a transient increase in net sodium absorption which was not associated with significant changes in unidirectional fluxes. This was followed by prolonged net secretion which was associated with an increase in unidirectional sodium secretion and a smaller decrease in sodium absorption. Potassium secretion was also increased when net sodium secretion increased. 3. Neurotensin increased haematocrit and total solids and decreased arterial pressure at the same time that secretion occurred. 4. Atropine blocked all the cardiovascular effects of neurotensin and reduced its early effects on both absorption and secretion but not the later effects on secretion. Tetrodotoxin only blocked the increase in absorption but not the secretion or the cardiovascular effects. 5. It was concluded that there is a cholinergic step in the cardiovascular effects of neurotensin and that the early effects of neurotensin on secretion are due to active secretion supported by fluid leakage from the plasma. The later effects of neurotensin on secretion do not have a cholinergic step and are due primarily to an active secretion. The increased absorption is mediated partly through intrinsic nerves of the gut. PMID:3401630

  13. Neurotensin self-injection in the ventral tegmental area.

    PubMed

    Glimcher, P W; Giovino, A A; Hoebel, B G

    1987-02-10

    Earlier work with the conditioned place-preference paradigm suggested that neurotensin (NT) acts as a behavioral reinforcer when microinjected into the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of the midbrain. We report here that animals will perform an operant task to obtain microinfusions of NT into the VTA. Rats reliably pressed a lever to obtain NT infusions while neglecting an identical but inactive lever. Substitution of saline for NT initiated response extinction; following the reintroduction of NT, reliable responding resumed. These results extend earlier work suggesting that NT in the VTA can be a positive reinforcer.

  14. Autoradiographic localization of mu and delta opioid receptors in the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system

    SciTech Connect

    Dilts, R.P. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    In vitro autoradiographic techniques were coupled with selective chemical lesions of the A10 dopamine cells and intrinsic perikarya of the region to delineate the anatomical localization of mu and delta opioid receptors, as well as, neurotensin receptors. Mu opioid receptors were labeled with {sup 125}I-DAGO. Delta receptors were labeled with {sup 125}I-DPDPE. Neurotensin receptors were labeled with {sup 125}I-NT3. Unilateral lesions of the dopamine perikarya were produced by injections of 6-OHDA administered in the ventral mesencephalon. Unilateral lesions of intrinsic perikarya were induced by injections of quinolinic acid in to the A10 dopamine cell region. Unilateral lesions produced with 6-OHDA resulted in the loss of neurotensin receptors in the A10 region and within the terminal fields. Mu opioid receptors were unaffected by this treatment, but delta opioid receptors increased in the contralateral striatum and nucleus accumbens following 6-OHDA administration. Quinolinic acid produced a reduction of mu opioid receptors within the A10 region with a concomitant reduction in neurotensin receptors in both the cell body region and terminal fields. These results are consistent with a variety of biochemical and behavioral data which suggest the indirect modulation of dopamine transmission by the opioids. In contrast these results strongly indicate a direct modulation of the mesolimbic dopamine system by neurotensin.

  15. 1,2,3-Triazole Stabilized Neurotensin-Based Radiopeptidomimetics for Improved Tumor Targeting.

    PubMed

    Mascarin, Alba; Valverde, Ibai E; Vomstein, Sandra; Mindt, Thomas L

    2015-10-21

    Neurotensin (NT) is a regulatory peptide with nanomolar affinity toward NT receptors, which are overexpressed by different clinically relevant tumors. Its binding sequence, NT(8-13), represents a promising vector for the development of peptidic radiotracers for tumor imaging and therapy. The main drawback of the peptide is its short biological half-life due to rapid proteolysis in vivo. Herein, we present an innovative strategy for the stabilization of peptides using nonhydrolizable 1,4-disubstituted, 1,2,3-triazoles as amide bond surrogates. A "triazole scan" of the peptide sequence yielded novel NT(8-13) analogues with enhanced stability, retained receptor affinity, and improved tumor targeting properties in vivo. The synthesis of libraries of triazole-based peptidomimetics was achieved efficiently on solid support by a combination of Fmoc-peptide chemistry, diazo transfer reactions, and the Cu(I)-catalyzed alkyne azide cycloaddition (CuAAC) employing methods that are fully compatible with standard solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) chemistry. Thus, the amide-to-triazole substitution strategy may represent a general methodology for the metabolic stabilization of biologically active peptides. PMID:26347939

  16. Structure-Activity Relationship Studies of Amino Acid Substitutions in Radiolabeled Neurotensin Conjugates.

    PubMed

    Mascarin, Alba; Valverde, Ibai E; Mindt, Thomas L

    2016-01-01

    Radiolabeled derivatives of the peptide neurotensin (NT) and its binding sequence NT(8-13) have been studied as potential imaging probes and therapeutics for NT-1-receptor-positive cancer. However, a direct comparison of reported NT analogues, even if radiolabeled with the same radionuclide, is difficult because different techniques and models have been used for preclinical evaluations. In an effort to identify a suitable derivative of NT(8-13) for radiotracer development, we herein report a side-by-side in vitro comparison of radiometallated NT derivatives bearing some of the most commonly reported amino acid substitutions in their sequence. Performed investigations include cell internalization experiments, determinations of receptor affinity, measurements of the distribution coefficient, and blood serum stability studies. Of the [(177)Lu]-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA)-labeled examples studied, analogues of NT(8-13) containing a short hydrophilic tetraethylene glycol (PEG4 ) spacer between the peptide and the radiometal complex, and a minimum number of substitutions of amino acid residues, exhibited the most promising properties in vitro. PMID:26593062

  17. Structure-Activity Relationship Studies of Amino Acid Substitutions in Radiolabeled Neurotensin Conjugates.

    PubMed

    Mascarin, Alba; Valverde, Ibai E; Mindt, Thomas L

    2016-01-01

    Radiolabeled derivatives of the peptide neurotensin (NT) and its binding sequence NT(8-13) have been studied as potential imaging probes and therapeutics for NT-1-receptor-positive cancer. However, a direct comparison of reported NT analogues, even if radiolabeled with the same radionuclide, is difficult because different techniques and models have been used for preclinical evaluations. In an effort to identify a suitable derivative of NT(8-13) for radiotracer development, we herein report a side-by-side in vitro comparison of radiometallated NT derivatives bearing some of the most commonly reported amino acid substitutions in their sequence. Performed investigations include cell internalization experiments, determinations of receptor affinity, measurements of the distribution coefficient, and blood serum stability studies. Of the [(177)Lu]-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA)-labeled examples studied, analogues of NT(8-13) containing a short hydrophilic tetraethylene glycol (PEG4 ) spacer between the peptide and the radiometal complex, and a minimum number of substitutions of amino acid residues, exhibited the most promising properties in vitro.

  18. High Cell Surface Death Receptor Expression Determines Type I Versus Type II Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Xue Wei; Peterson, Kevin L.; Dai, Haiming; Schneider, Paula; Lee, Sun-Hee; Zhang, Jin-San; Koenig, Alexander; Bronk, Steve; Billadeau, Daniel D.; Gores, Gregory J.; Kaufmann, Scott H.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that there are two signaling pathways leading from ligation of the Fas receptor to induction of apoptosis. Type I signaling involves Fas ligand-induced recruitment of large amounts of FADD (FAS-associated death domain protein) and procaspase 8, leading to direct activation of caspase 3, whereas type II signaling involves Bid-mediated mitochondrial perturbation to amplify a more modest death receptor-initiated signal. The biochemical basis for this dichotomy has previously been unclear. Here we show that type I cells have a longer half-life for Fas message and express higher amounts of cell surface Fas, explaining the increased recruitment of FADD and subsequent signaling. Moreover, we demonstrate that cells with type II Fas signaling (Jurkat or HCT-15) can signal through a type I pathway upon forced receptor overexpression and that shRNA-mediated Fas down-regulation converts cells with type I signaling (A498) to type II signaling. Importantly, the same cells can exhibit type I signaling for Fas and type II signaling for TRAIL (TNF-α-related apoptosis-inducing ligand), indicating that the choice of signaling pathway is related to the specific receptor, not some other cellular feature. Additional experiments revealed that up-regulation of cell surface death receptor 5 levels by treatment with 7-ethyl-10-hydroxy-camptothecin converted TRAIL signaling in HCT116 cells from type II to type I. Collectively, these results suggest that the type I/type II dichotomy reflects differences in cell surface death receptor expression. PMID:21865165

  19. Neurotensin agonist attenuates nicotine potentiation to cocaine sensitization.

    PubMed

    Fredrickson, Paul; Boules, Mona; Stennett, Bethany; Richelson, Elliott

    2014-03-01

    Tobacco usage typically precedes illicit drug use in adolescent and young adult populations. Several animal studies suggest nicotine increases the risk for subsequent cocaine abuse, and may be a negative prognostic factor for treatment of cocaine addiction; i.e., a "gateway drug". Neurotensin (NT) is a 13-amino acid neuropeptide that modulates dopamine, acetylcholine, glutamate, and GABA neurotransmission in brain reward pathways. NT69L, a NT(8-13) analog, blocks behavioral sensitization (an animal model for psychostimulant addiction) to nicotine, and nicotine self-administration in rats. The present study tested the effect of NT69L on the potentiating effects of nicotine on cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization. Male Wistar rats were injected daily for seven days with nicotine or saline (control) followed by four daily injections of cocaine. NT69L was administered 30 min prior to the last cocaine injection. Behavior was recorded with the use of activity chambers. Subchronic administration of nicotine enhanced cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization in Wistar rats, consistent with an hypothesized gateway effect. These behavioral effects of cocaine were attenuated by pretreatment with NT69L. The effect of the neurotensin agonist on cocaine sensitization in the nicotine treated group indicated a possible therapeutic effect for cocaine addiction, even in the presence of enhanced behavioral sensitization induced by nicotine. PMID:25379267

  20. Striatal dopamine type 2 receptor availability in anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Broft, Allegra; Slifstein, Mark; Osborne, Joseph; Kothari, Paresh; Morim, Simon; Shingleton, Rebecca; Kenney, Lindsay; Vallabhajosula, Shankar; Attia, Evelyn; Martinez, Diana; Timothy Walsh, B

    2015-09-30

    The neurobiology of anorexia nervosa remains incompletely understood. Here we utilized PET imaging with the radiotracer [(11)C]raclopride to measure striatal dopamine type 2 (D2) receptor availability in patients with anorexia nervosa. 25 women with anorexia nervosa who were receiving treatment in an inpatient program participated, as well as 25 control subjects. Patients were scanned up to two times with the PET tracer [(11)C]raclopride: once while underweight, and once upon weight restoration. Control subjects underwent one PET scan. In the primary analyses, there were no significant differences between underweight patients (n=21) and control subjects (n=25) in striatal D2 receptor binding potential. Analysis of subregions (sensorimotor striatum, associative striatum, limbic striatum) did not reveal differences between groups. In patients completing both scans (n=15), there were no detectable changes in striatal D2 receptor binding potential after weight restoration. In this sample, there were no differences in striatal D2 receptor binding potential between patients with anorexia nervosa and control subjects. Weight restoration was not associated with a change in striatal D2 receptor binding. These findings suggest that disturbances in reward processing in this disorder are not attributable to abnormal D2 receptor characteristics, and that other reward-related neural targets may be of greater relevance.

  1. Striatal dopamine type 2 receptor availability in anorexia nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Broft, Allegra; Slifstein, Mark; Osborne, Joseph; Kothari, Paresh; Morim, Simon; Shingleton, Rebecca; Kenney, Lindsay; Vallabhajosula, Shankar; Attia, Evelyn; Martinez, Diana; Walsh, B. Timothy

    2016-01-01

    The neurobiology of anorexia nervosa remains incompletely understood. Here we utilized PET imaging with the radiotracer [11C]raclopride to measure striatal dopamine type 2 (D2) receptor availability in patients with anorexia nervosa. 25 women with anorexia nervosa who were receiving treatment in an inpatient program participated, as well as 25 control subjects. Patients were scanned up to two times with the PET tracer [11C]raclopride: once while underweight, and once upon weight restoration. Control subjects underwent one PET scan. In the primary analyses, there were no significant differences between underweight patients (n=21) and control subjects (n=25) in striatal D2 receptor binding potential. Analysis of subregions (sensorimotor striatum, associative striatum, limbic striatum) did not reveal differences between groups. In patients completing both scans (n=15), there were no detectable changes in striatal D2 receptor binding potential after weight restoration. In this sample, there were no differences in striatal D2 receptor binding potential between patients with anorexia nervosa and control subjects. Weight restoration was not associated with a change in striatal D2 receptor binding. These findings suggest that disturbances in reward processing in this disorder are not attributable to abnormal D2 receptor characteristics, and that other reward-related neural targets may be of greater relevance. PMID:26272038

  2. Mechanisms contributing to the regional haemodynamic effects of neurotensin in conscious, unrestrained Long Evans rats.

    PubMed Central

    Bachelard, H.; Gardiner, S. M.; Kemp, P. A.; Bennett, T.

    1992-01-01

    1. The regional haemodynamic effects of i.v. bolus doses of neurotensin (10-1000 ng) were assessed in conscious, unrestrained Long Evans rats chronically instrumented with miniaturized, pulsed Doppler probes. 2. Neurotensin caused increases in blood pressure, together with dose-related tachycardias and constrictions in the renal, superior mesenteric and hindquarters vascular beds. The tachycardia elicited by the 1000 ng dose of neurotensin was preceded by a transient bradycardia. 3. In the presence of phentolamine, the pressor effect of neurotensin (1000 ng) was converted into a hypotensive effect, accompanied by reduced tachycardic and constrictor responses in the renal, superior mesenteric and hindquarters vascular beds. The tachycardia was not preceded by a bradycardia. 4. In the presence of phentolamine and propranolol, the pressor and bradycardic responses to neurotensin were unaffected, whereas the tachycardia was abolished. The renal vasconstrictor effect was smaller, while the constrictions in the superior mesenteric and hindquarters vascular beds were not different from those in untreated rats. 5. In rats neonatally treated with capsaicin (50 mg kg-1, s.c.), the pressor effects elicited by neurotensin (300 and 1000 ng) were reduced as were the constrictor responses in the renal (at the dose of 300 ng), superior mesenteric (at the dose of 300 ng) and hindquarters (at both doses) vascular beds. The bradycardia elicited by neurotensin (1000 ng) was absent, whereas the tachycardia was potentiated. 6. The results indicate that in conscious, intact rats neurotensin appears to exert cardiovascular influences through activation of sympathoadrenal mechanisms and also through non-adrenergic effects on the heart, renal, superior mesenteric and hindquarters vascular beds. The latter effects appear to involve capsaicin-sensitive nerves. PMID:1596682

  3. Mechanisms contributing to the regional haemodynamic effects of neurotensin in conscious, unrestrained Long Evans rats.

    PubMed

    Bachelard, H; Gardiner, S M; Kemp, P A; Bennett, T

    1992-01-01

    1. The regional haemodynamic effects of i.v. bolus doses of neurotensin (10-1000 ng) were assessed in conscious, unrestrained Long Evans rats chronically instrumented with miniaturized, pulsed Doppler probes. 2. Neurotensin caused increases in blood pressure, together with dose-related tachycardias and constrictions in the renal, superior mesenteric and hindquarters vascular beds. The tachycardia elicited by the 1000 ng dose of neurotensin was preceded by a transient bradycardia. 3. In the presence of phentolamine, the pressor effect of neurotensin (1000 ng) was converted into a hypotensive effect, accompanied by reduced tachycardic and constrictor responses in the renal, superior mesenteric and hindquarters vascular beds. The tachycardia was not preceded by a bradycardia. 4. In the presence of phentolamine and propranolol, the pressor and bradycardic responses to neurotensin were unaffected, whereas the tachycardia was abolished. The renal vasconstrictor effect was smaller, while the constrictions in the superior mesenteric and hindquarters vascular beds were not different from those in untreated rats. 5. In rats neonatally treated with capsaicin (50 mg kg-1, s.c.), the pressor effects elicited by neurotensin (300 and 1000 ng) were reduced as were the constrictor responses in the renal (at the dose of 300 ng), superior mesenteric (at the dose of 300 ng) and hindquarters (at both doses) vascular beds. The bradycardia elicited by neurotensin (1000 ng) was absent, whereas the tachycardia was potentiated. 6. The results indicate that in conscious, intact rats neurotensin appears to exert cardiovascular influences through activation of sympathoadrenal mechanisms and also through non-adrenergic effects on the heart, renal, superior mesenteric and hindquarters vascular beds. The latter effects appear to involve capsaicin-sensitive nerves.

  4. A neurotensin antagonist, SR 48692, inhibits colonic responses to immobilization stress in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Castagliuolo, I; Leeman, S E; Bartolak-Suki, E; Nikulasson, S; Qiu, B; Carraway, R E; Pothoulakis, C

    1996-01-01

    We previously reported that short-term immobilization stress of rats causes increased colonic mucin release, goblet cell depletion, prostaglandin E2 secretion, and colonic mast cell activation, as well as increased colonic motility. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether neurotensin (NT), a peptide expressed in both brain and digestive tract, participates in these responses. Rats were pretreated with SR 48692 (1 mg/kg, i.p.), an NT antagonist, 15 min before immobilization (30 min). The administration of the antagonist significantly inhibited stress-mediated secretion of colonic mucin, prostaglandin E2, and a product of rat mast cells, rat mast cell protease II (P < 0.05), but did not alter the increase in fecal pellet output caused by immobilization stress. Immobilization stress also resulted in a quantifiable decrease in the abundance of NT receptor mRNA in rat colon compared with that in colonic tissues from nonimmobilized rats as measured by densitometric analysis of in situ hybridization studies (P < 0.03). We conclude that the peptide NT is involved in colonic goblet cell release and mucosal mast cell activation after immobilization stress. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8901630

  5. Neurotensin and cholecystokinin depress motility in isolated Lumbricus terrestris crop-gizzard preparations.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Sara; DeGolier, Teresa F

    2008-12-01

    The effects of neurotensin (NT) and cholecystokinin (CCK) were studied on isolated crop-gizzard preparations of Lumbricus terrestris suspended in a smooth muscle organ bath. Changes in the amplitude and frequency of contractions associated with spontaneous motility were observed in response to neurotransmitters known to have an excitatory effect (acetylcholine) and an inhibitory effect (serotonin); and to the hormones NT and CCK, which in vertebrate models have both been shown to inhibit gastric motility. The overall contractile amplitude and frequency of crop-gizzard contractions were decreased in response to increasing concentrations of NT and CCK. In general, both hormone-induced responses were similar when compared at equal molar concentrations. Cholecystokinin, however, did exhibit a greater reduction in contractile frequency than NT. It is speculated that possible desensitization of earthworm NT-receptors to higher hormone concentrations resulted in a depressed maximal response in the concentration-response curve. Despite that possibility, the overall hormonal inhibition was statistically significant. These results infer that NT- and CCK-induced inhibition of crop-gizzard motility may have a modulatory role in the transport of nutrients and overall efficiency of worm metabolism. PMID:18790067

  6. Identification of type II and type III pyoverdine receptors from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    de Chial, Magaly; Ghysels, Bart; Beatson, Scott A; Geoffroy, Valérie; Meyer, Jean Marie; Pattery, Theresa; Baysse, Christine; Chablain, Patrice; Parsons, Yasmin N; Winstanley, Craig; Cordwell, Stuart J; Cornelis, Pierre

    2003-04-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces, under conditions of iron limitation, a high-affinity siderophore, pyoverdine (PVD), which is recognized at the level of the outer membrane by a specific TonB-dependent receptor, FpvA. So far, for P. aeruginosa, three different PVDs, differing in their peptide chain, have been described (types I-III), but only the FpvA receptor for type I is known. Two PVD-producing P. aeruginosa strains, one type II and one type III, were mutagenized by a mini-TnphoA3 transposon. In each case, one mutant unable to grow in the presence of the strong iron chelator ethylenediaminedihydroxyphenylacetic acid (EDDHA) and the cognate PVD was selected. The first mutant, which had an insertion in the pvdE gene, upstream of fpvA, was unable to take up type II PVD and showed resistance to pyocin S3, which is known to use type II FpvA as receptor. The second mutant was unable to take up type III PVD and had the transposon insertion in fpvA. Cosmid libraries of the respective type II and type III PVD wild-type strains were constructed and screened for clones restoring the capacity to grow in the presence of PVD. From the respective complementing genomic fragments, type II and type III fpvA sequences were determined. When in trans, type II and type III fpvA restored PVD production, uptake, growth in the presence of EDDHA and, in the case of type II fpvA, pyocin S3 sensitivity. Complementation of fpvA mutants obtained by allelic exchange was achieved by the presence of cognate fpvA in trans. All three receptors posses an N-terminal extension of about 70 amino acids, similar to FecA of Escherichia coli, but only FpvAI has a TAT export sequence at its N-terminal end. PMID:12686625

  7. The type I interleukin-1 receptor mediates fever in the rat as shown by interleukin-1 receptor subtype selective ligands.

    PubMed

    Malinowsky, D; Chai, Z; Bristulf, J; Simoncsits, A; Bartfai, T

    1995-12-01

    The interleukin-1 (IL-1) system possesses two distinct receptors (type I and type II) which, together with the accessory protein, mediate a multitude of responses to IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta, including fever. So far, no receptor subtype-specific ligands have been described. Since both types of IL-1 receptors occur in the thermoregulatory areas it was unclear which IL-1 receptor type mediates fever. We report here that for a series of deletion mutants of human recombinant IL-1 beta (hrIL-1 beta), the affinity of these ligands for the type I IL-1 receptor correlates with their efficacy to evoke the fever response (hrIL-1 beta > des-SND52-54 > des-QGE48-50 > des-I56). Thus, the results suggest that agonist occupancy of the type I IL-1 receptor is essential for IL-1 beta-mediated fever.

  8. Expression of neurotensin messenger RNA in a human carcinoid tumor.

    PubMed Central

    Evers, B M; Ishizuka, J; Townsend, C M; Rajaraman, S; Thompson, J C

    1991-01-01

    Neurotensin (NT), a distal gut peptide, has important regulatory and trophic effects throughout the gut; however the intracellular mechanisms that regulate the gene expression and release of human NT are not known. The purpose of this endeavor was to study a functioning human pancreatic carcinoid cell line (called BON) in vitro that expresses the NT gene, and to study the effect of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signal-transduction pathway on the expression and release of human NT. RNA was prepared from BON cell line (which has been established in this laboratory); the RNA was analyzed for NT mRNA expression by Northern hybridization with a complementary DNA probe. RNA blot analysis demonstrated that the NT gene is expressed in BON and is transcribed to two mRNAs of 1.0- and 1.5-kb sizes. In the second part of this study, BON cells were treated with either forskolin (FSK), which increases intracellular levels of cAMP, or with serotonin (5-HT), which reduces cAMP in BON cells. Forskolin produced a dose-dependent increase in NT peptide release and, furthermore, FSK (10(-6) mol/L) rapidly increased NT mRNA abundance 1 hour after addition; conversely, 5-HT (10(-5) mol/L) decreased NT mRNA at 1 hour. Neurotensin mRNA levels returned to control values by 3 hours after either FSK or 5-HT, which suggests that the transcript half-life for NT is relatively short. These findings show that the expression and peptide release of human NT is mediated, in part, by the cAMP signal-transduction pathway. Our human carcinoid cell line will provide a useful model to study the in vitro regulation of NT gene expression and peptide release. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:1659338

  9. Selective modulation of wild type receptor functions by mutants of G-protein-coupled receptors.

    PubMed

    Le Gouill, C; Parent, J L; Caron, C A; Gaudreau, R; Volkov, L; Rola-Pleszczynski, M; Stanková, J

    1999-04-30

    Members of the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family are involved in most aspects of higher eukaryote biology, and mutations in their coding sequence have been linked to several diseases. In the present study, we report that mutant GPCR can affect the functional properties of the co-expressed wild type (WT) receptor. Mutants of the human platelet-activating factor receptor that fail to show any detectable ligand binding (N285I and K298stop) or coupling to a G-protein (D63N, D289A, and Y293A) were co-expressed with the WT receptor in Chinese hamster ovary and COS-7 cells. In this context, N285I and K298stop mutant receptors inhibited 3H-WEB2086 binding and surface expression. Co-transfection with D63N resulted in a constitutively active receptor phenotype. Platelet-activating factor-induced inositol phosphate production in cells transfected with a 1:1 ratio of WT:D63N was higher than with the WT cDNA alone but was abolished with a 1:3 ratio. We confirmed that these findings could be extended to other GPCRs by showing that co-expression of the WT C-C chemokine receptor 2b with a carboxyl-terminal deletion mutant (K311stop), resulted in a decreased affinity and responsiveness to MCP-1. A better understanding of this phenomenon could lead to important tools for the prevention or treatment of certain diseases. PMID:10212233

  10. Use of antiserum to neurotensin reveals a physiological role for the peptide in rat prolactin release.

    PubMed Central

    Vijayan, E; Carraway, R; Leeman, S E; McCann, S M

    1988-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that the brain peptide neurotensin can stimulate prolactin release by direct action on the pituitary gland, whereas its action within the hypothalamus is inhibitory. The inhibitory action is mediated by the release of dopamine into the hypophyseal portal veins, which deliver the neurotransmitter to the anterior pituitary gland to inhibit prolactin release. Our experiments were done to evaluate the physiologic significance of these neurotensin actions by injecting the globulin fraction of highly specific neurotensin antiserum either intravenously or intraventricularly. Injection into the third ventricle of either 1 or 3 microliter of neurotensin antiserum significantly increased plasma prolactin concentrations in (i) ovariectomized and (ii) ovariectomized estrogen- and progesterone-primed rats within 1 hr of injection. The response was more pronounced in the ovariectomized than in the ovariectomized estrogen- and progesterone-treated animals and was dose related. Intraventricular injection of these doses of neurotensin antiserum also evoked elevations in plasma prolactin in intact males, which were significant but smaller in magnitude than those seen in female rats. To evaluate the effect of the antiserum on the pituitary directly, the antiserum was injected intravenously at a dose of 40 microliter, which was sufficient to block the blood pressure-lowering effect of neurotensin. After the intravenous injection of antiserum, a highly significant suppression of plasma prolactin occurred, detectable when first measured at 1 hr after injection in both ovariectomized and ovariectomized estrogen- and progesterone-treated animals; however, the intravenous injection of antiserum had no significant effect on the prolactin release in males. These data indicate the physiological significance of the hypothalamic inhibitory actions of neurotensin on prolactin release, which are probably mediated by its stimulation of dopamine release that in turn

  11. African lungfish, Protopterus annectens, possess an arginine vasotocin receptor homologous to the tetrapod V2-type receptor.

    PubMed

    Konno, Norifumi; Hyodo, Susumu; Yamaguchi, Yoko; Kaiya, Hiroyuki; Miyazato, Mikiya; Matsuda, Kouhei; Uchiyama, Minoru

    2009-07-01

    In tetrapods, arginine vasopressin and its counterpart, arginine vasotocin (AVT), are involved in renal water conservation through vascular V1a-type and tubular V2-type receptors, and only the former has thus far been cloned in fish. We successfully cloned the V1a-type and V2-type AVT receptor from the kidney of the African lungfish, Protopterus annectens, and the deduced amino acid sequences exhibited high homology with amphibian V1a- and V2-type receptors, respectively. Functional analysis showed that AVT addition to CHO cells transfected with lungfish V1a-type receptor increased [Ca2+]i in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas CHO cells transfected with lungfish V2-type receptor responded with cAMP accumulation after AVT stimulation. Lungfish V2-type receptor mRNA was strongly expressed in the heart and kidney, while V1a-type receptor mRNA was ubiquitously expressed in all the tissues examined. In the kidney, immunohistochemistry using a specific antibody to lungfish V2-type receptor showed localization in the basolateral area of the cells in the late part of the distal tubules. Artificial estivation (EST) for 90 days significantly increased plasma osmolality and sodium and urea concentrations. There was no significant difference in the V2-type receptor mRNA and protein expression levels in the kidney between the freshwater and EST lungfish, while the AVT precursor mRNA level in the hypothalamus was remarkably higher in the EST lungfish. Our results indicate that African lungfish possess a functional V2-type receptor similar to that in tetrapods, suggesting that elevated plasma AVT during estivation exerts a renal tubular antidiuretic effect through the V2-type receptor expressed in the distal segments of lungfish kidney.

  12. Targeting C-Type Lectin Receptors for Cancer Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Huimin; Kamiya, Tomomori; Suabjakyong, Papawee; Tsuji, Noriko M.

    2015-01-01

    C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) are a large family of soluble and trans-membrane pattern recognition receptors that are widely and primarily expressed on myeloid cells. CLRs are important for cell–cell communication and host defense against pathogens through the recognition of specific carbohydrate structures. Similar to a family of Toll-like receptors, CLRs signaling are involved in the various steps for initiation of innate immune responses and promote secretion of soluble factors such as cytokines and interferons. Moreover, CLRs contribute to endocytosis and antigen presentation, thereby fine-tune adaptive immune responses. In addition, there may also be a direct activation of acquired immunity. On the other hand, glycans, such as mannose structures, Lewis-type antigens, or GalNAc are components of tumor antigens and ligate CLRs, leading to immunoregulation. Therefore, agonists or antagonists of CLRs signaling are potential therapeutic reagents for cancer immunotherapy. We aim to overview the current knowledge of CLRs signaling and the application of their ligands on tumor-associating immune response. PMID:26379663

  13. Attenuated Purinergic Receptor Function in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Thaning, Pia; Bune, Laurids T.; Hellsten, Ylva; Pilegaard, Henriette; Saltin, Bengt; Rosenmeier, Jaya B.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Extracellular nucleotides and nucleosides are involved in regulation of skeletal muscle blood flow. Diabetes induces cardiovascular dysregulation, but the extent to which the vasodilatatory capacity of nucleotides and nucleosides is affected in type 2 diabetes is unknown. The present study investigated 1) the vasodilatatory effect of ATP, uridine-triphosphate (UTP), and adenosine (ADO) and 2) the expression and distribution of P2Y2 and P2X1 receptors in skeletal muscles of diabetic subjects. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In 10 diabetic patients and 10 age-matched control subjects, leg blood flow (LBF) was measured during intrafemoral artery infusion of ATP, UTP, and ADO, eliciting a blood flow equal to knee-extensor exercise at 12 W (∼2.6 l/min). RESULTS The vasodilatatory effect of the purinergic system was 50% lower in the diabetic group as exemplified by an LBF increase of 274 ± 37 vs. 143 ± 26 ml/μmol ATP × kg, 494 ± 80 vs. 234 ± 39 ml/μmol UTP × kg, and 14.9 ± 2.7 vs. 7.5 ± 0.6 ml/μmol ADO × kg in control and diabetic subjects, respectively, thus making the vasodilator potency as follows: UTP control subjects (100) > ATP control subjects (55) > UTP diabetic subjects (47) > ATP diabetic subjects (29) > ADO control subjects (3) > ADO diabetic subjects (1.5). The distribution and mRNA expression of receptors were similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS The vasodilatatory effect of the purinergic system is severely reduced in type 2 diabetic patients. The potency of nucleotides varies with the following rank order: UTP > ATP > ADO. This is not due to alterations in receptor distribution and mRNA expression, but may be due to differences in receptor sensitivity. PMID:19808895

  14. Cannabinoid-1 receptor antagonists in type-2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Scheen, André J

    2007-12-01

    Type-2 diabetes is closely related to abdominal obesity and is generally associated with other cardiometabolic risk factors, resulting in a risk of major cardiovascular disease. Several animal and human observations suggest that the endocannabinoid system is over-active in the presence of abdominal obesity and/or diabetes. Both central and peripheral endocannabinoid actions, via the activation of CB1 receptors, promote weight gain and associated metabolic changes. Rimonabant, the first selective CB(1) receptor blocker in clinical use, has been shown to reduce body weight, waist circumference, triglycerides, blood pressure, insulin resistance index and C-reactive protein levels, and to increase high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and adiponectin concentrations in both non-diabetic and diabetic overweight/obese patients. In addition, a 0.5-0.7% reduction in HbA1c levels was observed in metformin- or sulphonylurea-treated patients with type-2 diabetes and in drug-naïve diabetic patients. Almost half of the metabolic changes, including HbA1c reduction, could not be explained by weight loss, suggesting that there are direct peripheral effects. Rimonabant was generally well-tolerated, and the safety profile was similar in diabetic and non-diabetic patients, with a higher incidence of depressed mood disorders, nausea and dizziness. In conclusion, the potential role of rimonabant in overweight/obese patients with type-2 diabetes and at high risk of cardiovascular disease deserves much consideration.

  15. Obtaining anti-type 1 melatonin receptor antibodies by immunization with melatonin receptor-expressing cells.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Nelia; Wijkhuisen, Anne; Savatier, Alexandra; Moulharat, Natacha; Ferry, Gilles; Léonetti, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Antibodies (Abs) specific to cell-surface receptors are attractive tools for studying the physiological role of such receptors or for controlling their activity. We sought to obtain such antibodies against the type 1 receptor for melatonin (MT1). For this, we injected mice with CHO cells transfected with a plasmid encoding human MT1 (CHO-MT1-h), in the presence or absence of an adjuvant mixture containing Alum and CpG1018. As we previously observed that the immune response to a protein antigen is increased when it is coupled to a fusion protein, called ZZTat101, we also investigated if the association of ZZTat101 with CHO-MT1-h cells provides an immunogenic advantage. We measured similar levels of anti-CHO and anti-MT1-h Ab responses in animals injected with either CHO-MT1-h cells or ZZTat101/CHO-MT1-h cells, with or without adjuvant, indicating that neither the adjuvant mixture nor ZZTat101 increased the anti-cell immune response. Then, we investigated whether the antisera also recognized murine MT1 (MT1-m). Using cloned CHO cells transfected with a plasmid encoding MT1-m, we found that antisera raised against CHO-MT1-h cells also bound the mouse receptor. Altogether our studies indicate that immunizing approaches based on MT1-h-expressing CHO cells allow the production of polyclonal antibodies against MT1 receptors of different origins. This paves the way to preparation of MT1-specific monoclonal antibodies.

  16. Effects of the Hybridization of Opioid and Neurotensin Pharmacophores on Cell Survival in Rat Organotypic Hippocampal Slice Cultures.

    PubMed

    Kleczkowska, Patrycja; Kawalec, Maria; Bujalska-Zadrozny, Magdalena; Filip, Małgorzata; Zablocka, Barbara; Lipkowski, Andrzej W

    2015-11-01

    Several neurotransmitter and neuromodulatory systems can control physiological glutamatergic activity. For example, opioid receptor ligands were shown to partially inhibit N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor-dependent glutamatergic excitotoxicity. Also, the endogenous tridecapeptide neurotensin (NT) was found to modulate excessive glutamate release and glutamate receptor activity in neurons. Alternatively to the one target-one drug approach, it has been well documented that hybrid compounds encompassing two pharmacophores in one molecular scaffold can represent more potent drugs. Moreover, such structures with dual activity can potentially enable a reduction of undesirable side effects and/or improved bioavailability. Herein, we describe the neuroprotective potential of an opioid-NT hybrid peptide (PK20), which was recently designed and synthesized within our group. The protective properties of PK20, assessed in an in vitro model of excitotoxic injury in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures subjected to NMDA, were compared to the effects caused by NT. Our results indicate that PK20 is a potent anti-neurodegenerative agent. Moreover, co-administered with NMDA, PK20 (25-100 ng/ml) dose-dependently reduced hippocampal cell death, determined by a decrease in the propidium iodide signal. We also report for the first time the significant NT-induced neuroprotective effect, as its application (50-100 ng/ml) to hippocampal slice cultures protected CA1 damage against neurotoxicity caused by NMDA.

  17. Effect of low doses of methamphetamine on rat limbic-related neurotensin systems.

    PubMed

    Alburges, Mario E; Hoonakker, Amanda J; Cordova, Nathaniel M; Robson, Christina M; McFadden, Lisa M; Martin, Amber L; Hanson, Glen R

    2015-08-01

    Administration of methamphetamine (METH) alters limbic-related (LR) neurotensin (NT) systems. Thus, through a D1-receptor mechanism, noncontingent high doses (5-15 mg kg(-1)), and likely self-administration, of METH appears to reduce NT release causing its accumulation and an elevation of NT-like immunoreactivity (NTLI) in limbic-related NT pathways. For comparison, we tested the effect of low doses of METH, that are more like those used in therapy, on NTLI in the core and shell of the nucleus accumbens (NAc and NAs), prefrontal cortex (PFC), ventral tegmental area (VTA), the lateral habenula (Hb) and basolateral amygdala (Amyg). METH at the dose of 0.25 mg kg(-1) in particular, but not 1.00 mg kg(-1), decreased NTLI concentration in all of the LR structures studied, except for the prefrontal cortex; however, these effects were rapid and brief being observed at 5 h but not at 24 h after treatment. In all of the LR areas where NTLI levels were reduced after the low dose of METH, the effect was blocked by pretreatment with either a D1 or a D2 antagonist. Thus, opposite to high doses like those associated with abuse, the therapeutic-like low-dose METH treatment induced reduction in NT tissue levels likely reflected an increase in NT release and a short-term depletion of the levels of this neuropeptide in LR structures, manifesting features comparable to the response of basal ganglia NT systems to similar low doses of METH.

  18. An obligatory role for neurotensin in high-fat-diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Song, Jun; Zaytseva, Yekaterina Y; Liu, Yajuan; Rychahou, Piotr; Jiang, Kai; Starr, Marlene E; Kim, Ji Tae; Harris, Jennifer W; Yiannikouris, Frederique B; Katz, Wendy S; Nilsson, Peter M; Orho-Melander, Marju; Chen, Jing; Zhu, Haining; Fahrenholz, Timothy; Higashi, Richard M; Gao, Tianyan; Morris, Andrew J; Cassis, Lisa A; Fan, Teresa W-M; Weiss, Heidi L; Dobner, Paul R; Melander, Olle; Jia, Jianhang; Evers, B Mark

    2016-05-11

    Obesity and its associated comorbidities (for example, diabetes mellitus and hepatic steatosis) contribute to approximately 2.5 million deaths annually and are among the most prevalent and challenging conditions confronting the medical profession. Neurotensin (NT; also known as NTS), a 13-amino-acid peptide predominantly localized in specialized enteroendocrine cells of the small intestine and released by fat ingestion, facilitates fatty acid translocation in rat intestine, and stimulates the growth of various cancers. The effects of NT are mediated through three known NT receptors (NTR1, 2 and 3; also known as NTSR1, 2, and NTSR3, respectively). Increased fasting plasma levels of pro-NT (a stable NT precursor fragment produced in equimolar amounts relative to NT) are associated with increased risk of diabetes, cardiovascular disease and mortality; however, a role for NT as a causative factor in these diseases is unknown. Here we show that NT-deficient mice demonstrate significantly reduced intestinal fat absorption and are protected from obesity, hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance associated with high fat consumption. We further demonstrate that NT attenuates the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and stimulates fatty acid absorption in mice and in cultured intestinal cells, and that this occurs through a mechanism involving NTR1 and NTR3 (also known as sortilin). Consistent with the findings in mice, expression of NT in Drosophila midgut enteroendocrine cells results in increased lipid accumulation in the midgut, fat body, and oenocytes (specialized hepatocyte-like cells) and decreased AMPK activation. Remarkably, in humans, we show that both obese and insulin-resistant subjects have elevated plasma concentrations of pro-NT, and in longitudinal studies among non-obese subjects, high levels of pro-NT denote a doubling of the risk of developing obesity later in life. Our findings directly link NT with increased fat absorption and obesity and

  19. Histamine 3 receptor activation reduces the expression of neuronal angiotensin II type 1 receptors in the heart.

    PubMed

    Hashikawa-Hobara, Narumi; Chan, Noel Yan-Ki; Levi, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    In severe myocardial ischemia, histamine 3 (H₃) receptor activation affords cardioprotection by preventing excessive norepinephrine release and arrhythmias; pivotal to this action is the inhibition of neuronal Na⁺/H⁺ exchanger (NHE). Conversely, angiotensin II, formed locally by mast cell-derived renin, stimulates NHE via angiotensin II type 1 (AT₁) receptors, facilitating norepinephrine release and arrhythmias. Thus, ischemic dysfunction may depend on a balance between the NHE-modulating effects of H₃ receptors and AT₁ receptors. The purpose of this investigation was therefore to elucidate the H₃/AT₁ receptor interaction in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion. We found that H₃ receptor blockade with clobenpropit increased norepinephrine overflow and arrhythmias in Langendorff-perfused guinea pig hearts subjected to ischemia/reperfusion. This coincided with increased neuronal AT₁ receptor expression. NHE inhibition with cariporide prevented both increases in norepinephrine release and AT₁ receptor expression. Moreover, norepinephrine release and AT₁ receptor expression were increased by the nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor N(G)-methyl-L-arginine and the protein kinase C activator phorbol myristate acetate. H₃ receptor activation in differentiated sympathetic neuron-like PC12 cells permanently transfected with H₃ receptor cDNA caused a decrease in protein kinase C activity and AT₁ receptor protein abundance. Collectively, our findings suggest that neuronal H₃ receptor activation inhibits NHE by diminishing protein kinase C activity. Reduced NHE activity sequentially causes intracellular acidification, increased NO synthesis, and diminished AT₁ receptor expression. Thus, H₃ receptor-mediated NHE inhibition in ischemia/reperfusion not only opposes the angiotensin II-induced stimulation of NHE in cardiac sympathetic neurons, but also down-regulates AT₁ receptor expression. Cardioprotection ultimately results from the combined

  20. Histamine 3 Receptor Activation Reduces the Expression of Neuronal Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptors in the Heart

    PubMed Central

    Hashikawa-Hobara, Narumi; Chan, Noel Yan-Ki

    2012-01-01

    In severe myocardial ischemia, histamine 3 (H3) receptor activation affords cardioprotection by preventing excessive norepinephrine release and arrhythmias; pivotal to this action is the inhibition of neuronal Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE). Conversely, angiotensin II, formed locally by mast cell-derived renin, stimulates NHE via angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptors, facilitating norepinephrine release and arrhythmias. Thus, ischemic dysfunction may depend on a balance between the NHE-modulating effects of H3 receptors and AT1 receptors. The purpose of this investigation was therefore to elucidate the H3/AT1 receptor interaction in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion. We found that H3 receptor blockade with clobenpropit increased norepinephrine overflow and arrhythmias in Langendorff-perfused guinea pig hearts subjected to ischemia/reperfusion. This coincided with increased neuronal AT1 receptor expression. NHE inhibition with cariporide prevented both increases in norepinephrine release and AT1 receptor expression. Moreover, norepinephrine release and AT1 receptor expression were increased by the nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor NG-methyl-l-arginine and the protein kinase C activator phorbol myristate acetate. H3 receptor activation in differentiated sympathetic neuron-like PC12 cells permanently transfected with H3 receptor cDNA caused a decrease in protein kinase C activity and AT1 receptor protein abundance. Collectively, our findings suggest that neuronal H3 receptor activation inhibits NHE by diminishing protein kinase C activity. Reduced NHE activity sequentially causes intracellular acidification, increased NO synthesis, and diminished AT1 receptor expression. Thus, H3 receptor-mediated NHE inhibition in ischemia/reperfusion not only opposes the angiotensin II-induced stimulation of NHE in cardiac sympathetic neurons, but also down-regulates AT1 receptor expression. Cardioprotection ultimately results from the combined attenuation of angiotensin II and

  1. Mapping of neurotensin in the alpaca (Lama pacos) brainstem.

    PubMed

    de Souza, E; Aguilar, L A; Díaz-Cabiale, Z; Narváez, J A; Coveñas, R

    2014-08-01

    We studied the distribution of cell bodies and fibres containing neurotensin (NT) in the brainstem of the alpaca using an indirect immunoperoxidase technique. Immunoreactive fibres were widely distributed throughout the brainstem, whereas the distribution of cell bodies was less widespread. Immunoreactive perikarya were only found in the mesencephalic and bulbar reticular formation, periaqueductal grey, nucleus of the solitary tract, laminar spinal trigeminal nucleus and in the inferior colliculus. A high density of fibres containing NT was found in the dorsal nucleus of the raphe, marginal nucleus of the brachium conjunctivum, locus coeruleus, inferior colliculus, inter-peduncular nucleus, substantia nigra, periaqueductal grey, reticular formation of the mesencephalon, pons and medulla oblongata, nucleus of the solitary tract, laminar spinal trigeminal nucleus, hypoglossal nucleus, inferior central nucleus and in the tegmental reticular nucleus. The widespread distribution indicates that NT might be involved in multiple physiological actions in the alpaca brainstem; this must be investigated in the future as alpacas lives from 0 m above sea level to altitudes of up 5000 m and hence the involvement of this neuropeptide in special and unique regulatory physiological mechanisms could be suggested.

  2. Distribution of sup 125 I-neurotensin binding sites in human forebrain: Comparison with the localization of acetylcholinesterase

    SciTech Connect

    Szigethy, E.; Quirion, R.; Beaudet, A. )

    1990-07-22

    The distribution of 125I-neurotensin binding sites was compared with that of acetylcholinesterase reactivity in the human basal forebrain by using combined light microscopic radioautography/histochemistry. High 125I-neurotensin binding densities were observed in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, islands of Calleja, claustrum, olfactory tubercle, and central nucleus of the amygdala; lower levels were seen in the caudate, putamen, medial septum, diagonal band nucleus, and nucleus basalis of Meynert. Adjacent sections processed for cholinesterase histochemistry demonstrated a regional overlap between the distribution of labeled neurotensin binding sites and that of intense acetylcholinesterase staining in all of the above regions, except in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, claustrum, and central amygdaloid nucleus, where dense 125I-neurotensin labeling was detected over areas containing only weak to moderate cholinesterase staining. At higher magnification, 125I-neurotensin-labeled binding sites in the islands of Calleja, supraoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus, medial septum, diagonal band nucleus, and nucleus basalis of Meynert were selectively associated with neuronal perikarya found to be cholinesterase-positive in adjacent sections. Moderate 125I-neurotensin binding was also apparent over the cholinesterase-reactive neuropil of these latter three regions. These data suggest that neurotensin (NT) may directly influence the activity of magnocellular cholinergic neurons in the human basal forebrain, and may be involved in the physiopathology of dementing disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, in which these neurons have been shown to be affected.

  3. Adenosine, type 1 receptors: role in proximal tubule Na+ reabsorption

    PubMed Central

    Welch, William J

    2015-01-01

    Adenosine type 1 receptor (A1-AR) antagonists induce diuresis and natriuresis in experimental animals and humans. Much of this effect is due to inhibition of A1-ARs in the proximal tubule, which is responsible for 60–70% of the reabsorption of filtered Na+ and fluid. Intratubular application of receptor antagonists indicates that A1-AR mediates a portion of Na+ uptake in PT and PT cells, via multiple transport systems, including Na+/H+ exchanger-3 (NHE3), Na+/PO4− co-transporter and Na+-dependent glucose transporter, SGLT. Renal microperfusion and recollection studies have shown that fluid reabsorption is reduced by A1-AR antagonists and is lower in A1-AR KO mice., compared to WT mice. Absolute proximal reabsorption (APR) measured by free-flow micropuncture is equivocal, with studies that show either lower APR or similar APR in A1-AR KO mice, compared to WT mice. Inhibition of A1-ARs lowers elevated blood pressure in models of salt-sensitive hypertension, partially due to their effects in the proximal tubule. PMID:25345761

  4. Simvastatin enhances bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II expression

    SciTech Connect

    Hu Hong; Sung, Arthur; Zhao, Guohua; Shi, Lingfang; Qiu Daoming; Nishimura, Toshihiko; Kao, Peter N. . E-mail: peterkao@stanford.edu

    2006-01-06

    Statins confer therapeutic benefits in systemic and pulmonary vascular diseases. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) receptors serve essential signaling functions in cardiovascular development and skeletal morphogenesis. Mutations in BMP receptor type II (BMPR2) are associated with human familial and idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension, and pathologic neointimal proliferation of vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells within small pulmonary arteries. In severe experimental pulmonary hypertension, simvastatin reversed disease and conferred a 100% survival advantage. Here, modulation of BMPR2 gene expression by simvastatin is characterized in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T, pulmonary artery smooth muscle, and lung microvascular endothelial cells (HLMVECs). A 1.4 kb BMPR2 promoter containing Egr-1 binding sites confers reporter gene activation in 293T cells which is partially inhibited by simvastatin. Simvastatin enhances steady-state BMPR2 mRNA and protein expression in HLMVEC, through posttranscriptional mRNA stabilization. Simvastatin induction of BMPR2 expression may improve BMP-BMPR2 signaling thereby enhancing endothelial differentiation and function.

  5. Inactivating mutations of the mineralocorticoid receptor in Type I pseudohypoaldosteronism.

    PubMed

    Sartorato, P; Khaldi, Y; Lapeyraque, A-L; Armanini, D; Kuhnle, U; Salomon, R; Caprio, M; Viengchareun, S; Lombès, M; Zennaro, M-C

    2004-03-31

    Type I pseudohypoaldosteronism (PHA1) is a rare form of mineralocorticoid resistance characterized by neonatal renal salt wasting and failure to thrive. Typical biochemical features include high levels of plasma aldosterone and renin, hyponatremia and hyperkalemia. Different mutations of the human mineralocorticoid receptor (hMR) gene have been identified in subjects affected by the autosomal dominant or sporadic form of the disease. Our laboratory has investigated a large number of subjects with familial and sporadic PHA1. Several different mutations have been detected, which are localized in different coding exons of the hMR gene. These mutations either create truncated proteins, either affect specific amino acids involved in receptor function. In this paper, we review hMR mutations described to date in PHA1 and their functional characterization. We discuss the absence of mutations in some kindreds and the role of precise phenotypic and biological examination of patients to allow for identification of other genes potentially involved in the disease. PMID:15134810

  6. Adenovirus Type 37 Uses Sialic Acid as a Cellular Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Arnberg, Niklas; Edlund, Karin; Kidd, Alistair H.; Wadell, Göran

    2000-01-01

    Two cellular receptors for adenovirus, coxsackievirus-adenovirus receptor (CAR) and major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) α2, have recently been identified. In the absence of CAR, MHC-I α2 has been suggested to serve as a cellular attachment protein for subgenus C adenoviruses, while members from all subgenera except subgenus B have been shown to interact with CAR. We have found that adenovirus type 37 (Ad37) attachment to CAR-expressing CHO cells was no better than that to CHO cells lacking CAR expression, suggesting that CAR is not used by Ad37 during attachment. Instead, we have identified sialic acid as a third adenovirus receptor moiety. First, Ad37 attachment to both CAR-expresing CHO cells and MHC-I α2-expressing Daudi cells was sensitive to neuraminidase treatment, which eliminates sialic acid on the cell surface. Second, Ad37 attachment to sialic acid-expressing Pro-5 cells was more than 10-fold stronger than that to the Pro-5 subline Lec2, which is deficient in sialic acid expression. Third, neuraminidase treatment of A549 cells caused a 60% decrease in Ad37 replication in a fluorescent-focus assay. Moreover, the receptor sialoconjugate is most probably a glycoprotein rather than a ganglioside, since Ad37 attachment to sialic acid-expressing Pro-5 cells was sensitive to protease treatment. Ad37 attachment to Pro-5 cells occurs via α(2→3)-linked sialic acid saccharides rather than α(2→6)-linked ones, since (i) α(2→3)-specific but not α(2→6)-specific lectins blocked Ad37 attachment to Pro-5 cells and (ii) pretreatment of Pro-5 cells with α(2→3)-specific neuraminidase resulted in decreased Ad37 binding. Taken together, these results suggest that, unlike Ad5, Ad37 makes use of α(2→3)-linked sialic acid saccharides on glycoproteins for entry instead of using CAR or MHC-I α2. PMID:10590089

  7. Neurotensin-loaded collagen dressings reduce inflammation and improve wound healing in diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Moura, Liane I F; Dias, Ana M A; Suesca, Edward; Casadiegos, Sergio; Leal, Ermelindo C; Fontanilla, Marta R; Carvalho, Lina; de Sousa, Hermínio C; Carvalho, Eugénia

    2014-01-01

    Impaired wound healing is an important clinical problem in diabetes mellitus and results in failure to completely heal diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs), which may lead to lower extremity amputations. In the present study, collagen based dressings were prepared to be applied as support for the delivery of neurotensin (NT), a neuropeptide that acts as an inflammatory modulator in wound healing. The performance of NT alone and NT-loaded collagen matrices to treat wounds in streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic induced mice was evaluated. Results showed that the prepared dressings were not-cytotoxic up to 72h after contact with macrophages (Raw 264.7) and human keratinocyte (HaCaT) cell lines. Moreover, those cells were shown to adhere to the collagen matrices without noticeable change in their morphology. NT-loaded collagen dressings induced faster healing (17% wound area reduction) in the early phases of wound healing in diabetic wounded mice. In addition, they also significantly reduced inflammatory cytokine expression namely, TNF-α (p<0.01) and IL-1β (p<0.01) and decreased the inflammatory infiltrate at day 3 post-wounding (inflammatory phase). After complete healing, metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) is reduced in diabetic skin (p<0.05) which significantly increased fibroblast migration and collagen (collagen type I, alpha 2 (COL1A2) and collagen type III, alpha 1 (COL3A1)) expression and deposition. These results suggest that collagen-based dressings can be an effective support for NT release into diabetic wound enhancing the healing process. Nevertheless, a more prominent scar is observed in diabetic wounds treated with collagen when compared to the treatment with NT alone. PMID:24161538

  8. Interleukin-1 receptor accessory protein interacts with the type II interleukin-1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Malinowsky, D; Lundkvist, J; Layé, S; Bartfai, T

    1998-06-16

    Stably transfected HEK-293 cells express on their surface the murine type II IL-1 receptor (mIL-1RII) as demonstrated by FACS analysis using the mAb 4E2, however binding of [125I]-hrIL-1beta to these cells is nearly absent. Saturable high affinity binding of [125I]-hrIL-1beta is observed when the murine IL-1 receptor accessory protein (mIL-1RAcP) is coexpressed with mIL-1RII. Binding of [125I]-hrIL-1beta to mIL-1RII-mIL-1RAcP complex can be inhibited either with antibodies to mIL-1RII (mAb 4E2), or by antibodies to mIL-1RAcP (mAb 4C5). The number of high affinity binding sites in cells stably transfected with the cDNA for mIL-1RII is dependent on the dose of cDNA for mIL-1RAcP used to transfect the cells. The high affinity complex between mIL-1RII and mIL-1RAcP is not preformed by interaction between the intracellular domains of these two transmembrane proteins, rather it appears to require the extracellular portions of mIL-1RII and mIL-1RAcP and the presence of a ligand. We suggest that in addition to its earlier described decoy receptor role, IL-1RII may modulate the responsiveness of cells to IL-1 by binding the IL-1RAcP in unproductive/non-signalling complexes and thus reducing the number of signalling IL-1RI-IL-1RAcP-agonist complexes when IL-1 is bound.

  9. The apelin receptor inhibits the angiotensin II type 1 receptor via allosteric trans-inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Siddiquee, K; Hampton, J; McAnally, D; May, LT; Smith, LH

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose The apelin receptor (APJ) is often co-expressed with the angiotensin II type-1 receptor (AT1) and acts as an endogenous counter-regulator. Apelin antagonizes Ang II signalling, but the precise molecular mechanism has not been elucidated. Understanding this interaction may lead to new therapies for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. Experimental Approach The physical interaction of APJ and AT1 receptors was detected by co-immunoprecipitation and bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET). Functional and pharmacological interactions were measured by G-protein-dependent signalling and recruitment of β-arrestin. Allosterism and cooperativity between APJ and AT1 were measured by radioligand binding assays. Key Results Apelin, but not Ang II, induced APJ : AT1 heterodimerization forced AT1 into a low-affinity state, reducing Ang II binding. Likewise, apelin mediated a concentration-dependent depression in the maximal production of inositol phosphate (IP1) and β-arrestin recruitment to AT1 in response to Ang II. The signal depression approached a limit, the magnitude of which was governed by the cooperativity indicative of a negative allosteric interaction. Fitting the data to an operational model of allosterism revealed that apelin-mediated heterodimerization significantly reduces Ang II signalling efficacy. These effects were not observed in the absence of apelin. Conclusions and Implications Apelin-dependent heterodimerization between APJ and AT1 causes negative allosteric regulation of AT1 function. As AT1 is significant in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease, these findings suggest that impaired apelin and APJ function may be a common underlying aetiology. Linked Article This article is commented on by Goupil et al., pp. 1101–1103 of this issue. To view this commentary visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.12040 PMID:22935142

  10. Response of limbic neurotensin systems to methamphetamine self-administration.

    PubMed

    Hanson, G R; Hoonakker, A J; Alburges, M E; McFadden, L M; Robson, C M; Frankel, P S

    2012-02-17

    Methamphetamine (METH) abuse is personally and socially devastating. Although effects of METH on dopamine (DA) systems likely contribute to its highly addictive nature, no medications are approved to treat METH dependence. Thus, we and others have studied the METH-induced responses of neurotensin (NT) systems. NT is associated with inhibitory feedback action on DA projections, and NT levels are elevated in both the nucleus accumbens and dorsal striatum after noncontingent treatment with high doses of METH. In the present study, we used a METH self-administration (SA) model (linked to lever pressing) to demonstrate that substitution of an NT agonist for METH, while not significantly affecting motor activity, dramatically reduced lever pressing but was not self-administered per se. We also found that nucleus accumbens NT levels were elevated via a D1 mechanism after five sessions in rats self-administering METH (SAM), with a lesser effect in corresponding yoked rats. Extended (15 daily sessions) exposure to METH SA manifested similar NT responses; however, more detailed analyses revealed (i) 15 days of METH SA significantly elevated NT levels in the nucleus accumbens shell and dorsal striatum, but not the nucleus accumbens core, with a lesser effect in the corresponding yoked METH rats; (ii) the elevation of NT in both the nucleus accumbens shell and dorsal striatum significantly correlated with the total amount of METH received in the self-administering, but not the corresponding yoked METH rats; and (iii) an NT agonist blocked, but an NT antagonist did not alter, lever-pressing behavior on day 15 in SAM rats. After 5 days in SAM animals, NT levels were also elevated in the ventral tegmental area, but not frontal cortex of rats self-administering METH.

  11. The types II and III transforming growth factor-beta receptors form homo-oligomers

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Affinity-labeling experiments have detected hetero-oligomers of the types I, II, and III transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) receptors which mediate intracellular signaling by TGF-beta, but the oligomeric state of the individual receptor types remains unknown. Here we use two types of experiments to show that a major portion of the receptor types II and III forms homo-oligomers both in the absence and presence of TGF-beta. Both experiments used COS-7 cells co-transfected with combinations of these receptors carrying different epitope tags at their extracellular termini. In immunoprecipitation experiments, radiolabeled TGF-beta was bound and cross-linked to cells co-expressing two differently tagged type II receptors. Sequential immunoprecipitations using anti-epitope monoclonal antibodies showed that type II TGF-beta receptors form homo-oligomers. In cells co- expressing epitope-tagged types II and III receptors, a low level of co- precipitation of the ligand-labeled receptors was observed, indicating that some hetero-oligomers of the types II and III receptors exist in the presence of ligand. Antibody-mediated cross-linking studies based on double-labeling immunofluorescence explored co-patching of the receptors at the cell surface on live cells. In cells co-expressing two differently tagged type II receptors or two differently tagged type III receptors, forcing one receptor into micropatches by IgG induced co- patching of the receptor carrying the other tag, labeled by noncross- linking monovalent Fab'. These studies showed that homo-oligomers of the types II and III receptors exist on the cell surface in the absence or presence of TGF-beta 1 or -beta 2. In cells co-expressing types II and III receptors, the amount of heterocomplexes at the cell surface was too low to be detected in the immunofluorescence co-patching experiments, confirming that hetero-oligomers of the types II and III receptors are minor and probably transient species. PMID:8027173

  12. Critical role of the endogenous interferon ligand-receptors in type I and type II interferons response.

    PubMed

    Lasfar, Ahmed; Cook, Jeffry R; Cohen Solal, Karine A; Reuhl, Kenneth; Kotenko, Sergei V; Langer, Jerome A; Laskin, Debra L

    2014-07-01

    Separate ligand-receptor paradigms are commonly used for each type of interferon (IFN). However, accumulating evidence suggests that type I and type II IFNs may not be restricted to independent pathways. Using different cell types deficient in IFNAR1, IFNAR2, IFNGR1, IFNGR2 and IFN-γ, we evaluated the contribution of each element of the IFN system to the activity of type I and type II IFNs. We show that deficiency in IFNAR1 or IFNAR2 is associated with impairment of type II IFN activity. This impairment, presumably resulting from the disruption of the ligand-receptor complex, is obtained in all cell types tested. However, deficiency of IFNGR1, IFNGR2 or IFN-γ was associated with an impairment of type I IFN activity in spleen cells only, correlating with the constitutive expression of type II IFN (IFN-γ) observed on those cells. Therefore, in vitro the constitutive expression of both the receptors and the ligands of type I or type II IFN is critical for the enhancement of the IFN activity. Any IFN deficiency can totally or partially impair IFN activity, suggesting the importance of type I and type II IFN interactions. Taken together, our results suggest that type I and type II IFNs may regulate biological activities through distinct as well as common IFN receptor complexes.

  13. The transient receptor potential type vanilloid 1 suppresses skin carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Bode, Ann M.; Cho, Yong-Yeon; Zheng, Duo; Zhu, Feng; Ericson, Marna E; Ma, Wei-Ya; Yao, Ke; Dong, Zigang

    2008-01-01

    Blockade of the transient receptor potential channel vanilloid subfamily 1 (TRPV1) is suggested as a therapeutic approach to pain relief. However, TRPV1 is a widely expressed protein whose function might be critical in various non-neuronal physiological conditions. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a receptor tyrosine kinase that is overexpressed in many human epithelial cancers and is a potential target for anticancer drugs. Here we show that TRPV1 interacts with the EGFR leading to EGFR degradation. Notably, the absence of TRPV1 in mice results in a striking increase in skin carcinogenesis. The TRPV1 is the first membrane receptor shown to have a tumor-suppressing effect associated with the downregulation of another membrane receptor. The data suggest that even though a great deal of interest has focused on the TRPV1 as a target for pain relief, the chronic blockade of this pain receptor might increase the risk for cancer development. PMID:19155296

  14. Identification of the first small-molecule ligand of the neuronal receptor sortilin and structure determination of the receptor–ligand complex

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, Jacob Lauwring; Schrøder, Tenna Juul; Christensen, Søren; Pallesen, Lone Tjener; García-Alai, Maria Marta; Lindberg, Samsa; Langgård, Morten; Eskildsen, Jørgen Calí; David, Laurent; Tagmose, Lena; Simonsen, Klaus Baek; Maltas, Philip James; Rønn, Lars Christian Biilmann; Jong, Inge E. M. de; Malik, Ibrahim John; Egebjerg, Jan; Karlsson, Jens-Jacob; Watson, Steven P.

    2014-02-01

    The identification of the first small-molecule ligand of the neuronal receptor sortilin and structure determination of the receptor–ligand complex are reported. Sortilin is a type I membrane glycoprotein belonging to the vacuolar protein sorting 10 protein (Vps10p) family of sorting receptors and is most abundantly expressed in the central nervous system. Sortilin has emerged as a key player in the regulation of neuronal viability and has been implicated as a possible therapeutic target in a range of disorders. Here, the identification of AF40431, the first reported small-molecule ligand of sortilin, is reported. Crystals of the sortilin–AF40431 complex were obtained by co-crystallization and the structure of the complex was solved to 2.7 Å resolution. AF40431 is bound in the neurotensin-binding site of sortilin, with the leucine moiety of AF40431 mimicking the binding mode of the C-terminal leucine of neurotensin and the 4-methylumbelliferone moiety of AF40431 forming π-stacking with a phenylalanine.

  15. Mineralocorticoid Receptor Mutations and a Severe Recessive Pseudohypoaldosteronism Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Hubert, Edwige-Ludiwyne; Teissier, Raphaël; Fernandes-Rosa, Fábio L.; Fay, Michel; Rafestin-Oblin, Marie-Edith; Jeunemaitre, Xavier; Metz, Chantal; Escoubet, Brigitte

    2011-01-01

    Pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1 (PHA1) is a rare genetic disease of mineralocorticoid resistance characterized by salt wasting and failure to thrive in infancy. Here we describe the first case of a newborn with severe recessive PHA1 caused by two heterozygous mutations in NR3C2, gene coding for the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR). Independent segregation of the mutations occurred in the family, with p.Ser166X being transmitted from the affected father and p.Trp806X from the asymptomatic mother Whereas the truncated MR166X protein was degraded, MR806X was expressed both at the mRNA and protein level. Functional studies demonstrated that despite its inability to bind aldosterone, MR806X had partial ligand-independent transcriptional activity. Partial nuclear localization of MR806X in the absence of hormone was identified as a prerequisite to initiate transcription. This exceptional case broadens the spectrum of clinical phenotypes of PHA1 and demonstrates that minimal residual activity of MR is compatible with life. It also suggests that rare hypomorphic NR3C2 alleles may be more common than expected from the prevalence of detected PHA1 cases. This might prove relevant for patient's care in neonatal salt losing disorders and may affect renal salt handling and blood pressure in the general population. PMID:21903996

  16. Release of mast cell mediators, vasoconstriction and edema in the isolated, perfused head of the rat following intracarotid infusion of neurotensin.

    PubMed

    Rioux, F; Kérouac, R; St-Pierre, S

    1985-03-01

    Intracarotid infusions of neurotensin (NT) into the isolated, perfused head of rats trigger concentration-dependent histamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) release from the perfused organ. The secretory event was accompanied by a concentration-dependent rise in perfusion pressure and facilitation of edema formation. The three NT effects were markedly reduced in heads derived from rats pretreated with high doses of compound 48/80 to produce mast cell depletion. The vasoconstrictor response to NT was greatly attenuated by the 5-HT receptor antagonist methysergide but unaffected by antihistaminic drugs. The results were interpreted as an indication that NT stimulates histamine and 5-HT release from mast cells of the rat perfused head. The results also suggest that the vasoconstrictor response to NT in the rat head is mediated by mast cell 5-HT. The potentiation of edema formation by NT was attributed to the action of mast cell mediators (most likely histamine and 5-HT) released by NT on microvessels.

  17. Distribution of neurotensin/neuromedin N mRNA in rat forebrain: Unexpected abundance in hippocampus and subiculum

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, M.J.; Miller, M.A.; Dorsa, D.M.; Bullock, B.P.; Helloni, R.H. Jr.; Dobner, P.R.; Leeman, S.E. )

    1989-07-01

    The authors have used in situ hybridization to determine the regional distribution of mRNA encoding the neurotensin/neuromedin N (NT/N) precursor in the forebrain of the adult male rat. Cells containing NT/N mRNA are widely distributed in the forebrain. These areas include the septum, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, preoptic area, hypothalamus, amygdala, accumbens nucleus, caudate-putamen, and piriform and retrosplenial cortex. In general, the regional distribution of NT/N mRNA corresponds to the previously determined distribution of neurotensin-immunoreactive cell bodies; however, several notable exceptions were observed. The most striking difference occurs specifically in the CA1 region of the hippocampus, where intense labeling is associated with the pyramidal cell layer despite the reported absence of neurotensin-immunoreactive cells in this region. A second major discrepancy between NT/N mRNA abundance and neurotensin-immunoreactivity occurs in the intensely labeled subiculum, a region that contains only scattered neurotensin-immunoreactive cells in the adult. These results suggest that, in specific regions of the forebrain, NT/N precursor is processed to yield products other than neurotensin. In addition, these results provide an anatomical basis for studying the physiological regulation of NT/N mRNA levels in the forebrain.

  18. Structural Analysis of Botulinum Neurotoxin Type G Receptor Binding

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, John; Karalewitz, Andrew; Benefield, Desire A.; Mushrush, Darren J.; Pruitt, Rory N.; Spiller, Benjamin W.; Barbieri, Joseph T.; Lacy, D. Borden

    2010-10-19

    Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) binds peripheral neurons at the neuromuscular junction through a dual-receptor mechanism that includes interactions with ganglioside and protein receptors. The receptor identities vary depending on BoNT serotype (A-G). BoNT/B and BoNT/G bind the luminal domains of synaptotagmin I and II, homologous synaptic vesicle proteins. We observe conditions under which BoNT/B binds both Syt isoforms, but BoNT/G binds only SytI. Both serotypes bind ganglioside G{sub T1b}. The BoNT/G receptor-binding domain crystal structure provides a context for examining these binding interactions and a platform for understanding the physiological relevance of different Syt receptor isoforms in vivo.

  19. Loss of striatal type 1 cannabinoid receptors is a key pathogenic factor in Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Blázquez, Cristina; Chiarlone, Anna; Sagredo, Onintza; Aguado, Tania; Pazos, M Ruth; Resel, Eva; Palazuelos, Javier; Julien, Boris; Salazar, María; Börner, Christine; Benito, Cristina; Carrasco, Carolina; Diez-Zaera, María; Paoletti, Paola; Díaz-Hernández, Miguel; Ruiz, Carolina; Sendtner, Michael; Lucas, José J; de Yébenes, Justo G; Marsicano, Giovanni; Monory, Krisztina; Lutz, Beat; Romero, Julián; Alberch, Jordi; Ginés, Silvia; Kraus, Jürgen; Fernández-Ruiz, Javier; Galve-Roperh, Ismael; Guzmán, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Endocannabinoids act as neuromodulatory and neuroprotective cues by engaging type 1 cannabinoid receptors. These receptors are highly abundant in the basal ganglia and play a pivotal role in the control of motor behaviour. An early downregulation of type 1 cannabinoid receptors has been documented in the basal ganglia of patients with Huntington's disease and animal models. However, the pathophysiological impact of this loss of receptors in Huntington's disease is as yet unknown. Here, we generated a double-mutant mouse model that expresses human mutant huntingtin exon 1 in a type 1 cannabinoid receptor-null background, and found that receptor deletion aggravates the symptoms, neuropathology and molecular pathology of the disease. Moreover, pharmacological administration of the cannabinoid Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol to mice expressing human mutant huntingtin exon 1 exerted a therapeutic effect and ameliorated those parameters. Experiments conducted in striatal cells show that the mutant huntingtin-dependent downregulation of the receptors involves the control of the type 1 cannabinoid receptor gene promoter by repressor element 1 silencing transcription factor and sensitizes cells to excitotoxic damage. We also provide in vitro and in vivo evidence that supports type 1 cannabinoid receptor control of striatal brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression and the decrease in brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels concomitant with type 1 cannabinoid receptor loss, which may contribute significantly to striatal damage in Huntington's disease. Altogether, these results support the notion that downregulation of type 1 cannabinoid receptors is a key pathogenic event in Huntington's disease, and suggest that activation of these receptors in patients with Huntington's disease may attenuate disease progression.

  20. The type 2 vascular endothelial growth factor receptor recruits insulin receptor substrate-1 in its signalling pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Senthil, Duraisamy; Ghosh Choudhury, Goutam; Bhandari, Basant K; Kasinath, Balakuntalam S

    2002-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) isoforms exert their biological effects through receptors that possess intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity. Whether VEGF binding to its receptors recruits insulin receptor substrate (IRS) family of docking proteins to the receptor is not known. Following incubation of mouse kidney proximal tubular epithelial cells with VEGF, we observed an increase in tyrosine phosphorylation of several proteins, including one of approximately 200 kDa, suggesting possible regulation of phosphorylation of IRS proteins. VEGF augmented tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1 in kidney epithelial cells and rat heart endothelial cells in a time-dependent manner. In the epithelial cells, association of IRS-1 with type 2 VEGF receptor was promoted by VEGF. VEGF also increased association of IRS-1 with the p85 regulatory subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase), and PI 3-kinase activity in IRS-1 immunoprecipitates was increased in VEGF-treated cells. Incubation of epithelial cells with antisense IRS-1 oligonucleotide, but not sense oligonucleotide, reduced expression of the protein and VEGF-induced PI 3-kinase activity in IRS-1 immunoprecipitates. Additionally, VEGF-induced protein synthesis was also impaired by antisense but not sense IRS-1 oligonucleotide. These data provide the first evidence that binding of VEGF to its type 2 receptor promotes association of IRS-1 with the receptor complex. This association may account for some of the increase in VEGF-induced PI 3-kinase activity, and the increase in de novo protein synthesis seen in renal epithelial cells. PMID:12153400

  1. Ventral Tegmental Area Neurotensin Signaling Links the Lateral Hypothalamus to Locomotor Activity and Striatal Dopamine Efflux in Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Christa M.; Wong, Jenny-Marie T.; Leinninger, Gina M.; Allison, Margaret B.; Mabrouk, Omar S.; Kasper, Chelsea L.; Gonzalez, Ian E.; Mackenzie, Alexander; Jones, Justin C.

    2015-01-01

    Projections from the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) innervate components of the mesolimbic dopamine (MLDA) system, including the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and nucleus accumbens (NAc), to modulate motivation appropriately for physiologic state. Neurotensin (NT)-containing LHA neurons respond to multiple homeostatic challenges and project to the VTA, suggesting that these neurons could link such signals to MLDA function. Indeed, we found that pharmacogenetic activation of LHA NT neurons promoted prolonged DA-dependent locomotor activity and NAc DA efflux, suggesting the importance of VTA neurotransmitter release by LHA NT neurons for the control of MLDA function. Using a microdialysis-mass spectrometry technique that we developed to detect endogenous NT in extracellular fluid in the mouse brain, we found that activation of LHA NT cells acutely increased the extracellular concentration of NT (a known activator of VTA DA cells) in the VTA. In contrast to the prolonged elevation of extracellular NAc DA, however, VTA NT concentrations rapidly returned to baseline. Intra-VTA infusion of NT receptor antagonist abrogated the ability of LHA NT cells to increase extracellular DA in the NAc, demonstrating that VTA NT promotes NAc DA release. Thus, transient LHA-derived NT release in the VTA couples LHA signaling to prolonged changes in DA efflux and MLDA function. PMID:25734363

  2. Neurotensin analog NT77 induces regulated hypothermia in the rat.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Christopher J; McMahon, Beth; Richelson, Elliott; Padnos, Beth; Katz, Laurence

    2003-10-01

    The potential use of hypothermia as a therapeutic treatment for stroke and other pathological insults has prompted the search for drugs that can lower core temperature. Ideally, a drug is needed that reduces the set-point for control of core temperature (T(c)) and thereby induces a regulated reduction in T(c). To this end, a neurotensin analog (NT77) that crosses the blood brain barrier and induces hypothermia was assessed for its effects on the set-point for temperature regulation in the Sprague-Dawley rat by measuring behavioral and autonomic thermoregulatory responses. Following surgical implanation of radiotransmitters to monitor T(c), rats were placed in a temperature gradient and allowed to select from a range of ambient temperatures (T(a)) while T(c) was monitored by radiotelemetry. There was an abrupt decrease in selected T(a) from 29 to 16 degrees C and a concomitant reduction in T(c) from 37.4 to 34.0 degrees C 1 hr after IP injection of 5.0 mg/kg NT77. Selected T(a) and T(c) then recovered to control levels by 1.5 hr and 4 hr, respectively. Oxygen consumption (M) and heat loss (H) were measured in telemetered rats housed in a direct calorimeter maintained at a T(a) of 23.5 degrees C. Injection of NT77 initially led to a reduction in M, little change in H, and marked decrease in T(c). H initially rose but decreased around the time of the maximal decrease in T(c). Overall, NT77 appears to induce a regulated hypothermic response because the decrease in T(c) was preceded by a reduction in heat production, no change in heat loss, and preference for cold T(a)'s. Inducing a regulated hypothermic response with drugs such as NT77 may be an important therapy for ischemic disease and other insults. PMID:12967685

  3. DNA binding properties of dioxin receptors in wild-type and mutant mouse hepatoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Cuthill, S.; Poellinger, L.

    1988-04-19

    The current model of action of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (dioxin) entails stimulation of target gene transcription via the formation of dioxin-receptor complexes and subsequent accumulation of the complexes within the cell nucleus. Here, the authors have analyzed the DNA binding properties of the dioxin receptor in wild-type mouse hepatoma (Hepa 1c1c7) cells and a class of nonresponsive mutant cells which fail to accumulate dioxin-receptor complexes within the nucleus in vivo. In vitro, both the wild-type and mutant (/sup 3/H)dioxin-receptor complexes exhibited low affinity for DNA-cellulose (5-8% and around 4% retention, respectively) in the absence of prior biochemical manipulations. However, following chromatography on heparin-Sepharose, the wild-type but not the mutant dioxin receptor was transformed to a species with an increased affinity for DNA (40-50% retention on DNA-cellulose). The gross molecular structure of the mutant, non DNA binding dioxin receptor did not appear to be altered as compared to that of the wild-type receptor. These results imply that the primary deficiency in the mutant dioxin receptor form may reside at the DNA binding level and that, in analogy to steroid hormone receptors, DNA binding of the receptor may be an essential step in the regulation of target gene transcription by dioxin.

  4. B-type receptor for platelet-derived growth factor mediates a chemotactic response by means of ligand-induced activation of the receptor protein-tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Westermark, B; Siegbahn, A; Heldin, C H; Claesson-Welsh, L

    1990-01-01

    Porcine aorta endothelial cells are devoid of receptors for platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). We have transfected such cells with cDNA for the PDGF B-type receptor, both the wild-type receptor and a mutant form of the receptor (K634A), in which the putative nucleotide-binding lysine of the protein-tyrosine domain has been changed to alanine. Immunoprecipitation studies of metabolically labeled cells showed that both types of receptors were synthesized and processed to the mature form of Mr 190,000. In cells expressing the wild-type receptor, PDGF-BB, the natural ligand for the B-type receptor, induced membrane ruffling and reorganization of actin. Such a response has previously been seen in cells expressing the natural PDGF B-type receptor in response to PDGF-BB. No such effect was induced in nontransfected cells or in cells expressing the K634A mutant receptor. PDGF was also shown to be chemotactic for cells expressing the wild-type receptor, whereas no chemotactic response was elicited in control cells or in cells expressing the K634A mutant receptor. Our study thus provides formal evidence that the PDGF B-type receptor mediates a motility response including actin reorganization and chemotaxis. Furthermore, the results establish a role for the receptor-associated protein-tyrosine kinase in the transduction of the chemotactic signal. Images PMID:2153283

  5. Differential properties of type I and type II benzodiazepine receptors in mammalian CNS neurones.

    PubMed Central

    Yakushiji, T.; Shirasaki, T.; Munakata, M.; Hirata, A.; Akaike, N.

    1993-01-01

    1. The effects of benzodiazepine receptor (BZR) partial agonists, Y-23684 and CL218,872, were compared with its full agonist, diazepam, on gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-induced Cl- current (ICl) in acutely dissociated rat cerebral cortex (CTX), cerebellar Purkinje (CPJ) and spinal ventral horn (SVH) neurones, by the whole-cell mode patch-clamp technique. 2. The GABA-induced responses were essentially the same in both SVH and CPJ neurones, but the KD value of the GABA response in CTX neurone was lower than those in the other two brain regions. 3. Enhancement of the GABA response by the two partial agonists was about one-third of that by diazepam in the SVH neurones (where type II subtype of BZR, BZ2, is predominant), whereas these partial agonists potentiated the GABA response as much as diazepam in CPJ neurones (where the type I subtype of BZR, BZ1, is predominant). In CTX neurones where both type I and II variants are expressed, the augmentation ratio of the GABA response by diazepam was between the values in CPJ and SVH neurones. 4. In concentration-response relationships of BZR partial agonists, the threshold concentrations, KD values and maximal augmentation ratio of the GABA response were similar in all CTX, CPJ and SVH neurones. Also, in all preparations, the threshold concentration and KD values of diazepam action were 10 fold less than those induced by partial agonists. 5. All BZR agonists shifted the concentration-response relationship for GABA to the left without changing the maximum current amplitude, indicating that activation of both BZ1 and BZ2 increase the affinity of the GABAA receptor for GABA.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8395299

  6. The Administration of Levocabastine, a NTS2 Receptor Antagonist, Modifies Na(+), K(+)-ATPase Properties.

    PubMed

    Gutnisky, Alicia; López Ordieres, María Graciela; Rodríguez de Lores Arnaiz, Georgina

    2016-06-01

    Neurotensin behaves as a neuromodulator or as a neurotransmitter interacting with NTS1 and NTS2 receptors. Neurotensin in vitro inhibits synaptosomal membrane Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity. This effect is prevented by administration of SR 48692 (antagonist for NTS1 receptor). The administration of levocabastine (antagonist for NTS2 receptor) does not prevent Na(+), K(+)-ATPase inhibition by neurotensin when the enzyme is assayed with ATP as substrate. Herein levocabastine effect on Na(+), K(+)-ATPase K(+) site was explored. For this purpose, levocabastine was administered to rats and K(+)-p-nitrophenylphosphatase (K(+)-p-NPPase) activity in synaptosomal membranes and [(3)H]-ouabain binding to cerebral cortex membranes were assayed in the absence (basal) and in the presence of neurotensin. Male Wistar rats were administered with levocabastine (50 μg/kg, i.p., 30 min) or the vehicle (saline solution). Synaptosomal membranes were obtained from cerebral cortex by differential and gradient centrifugation. The activity of K(+)-p-NPPase was determined in media laking or containing ATP plus NaCl. In such phosphorylating condition enzyme behaviour resembles that observed when ATP hydrolyses is recorded. In the absence of ATP plus NaCl, K(+)-p-NPPase activity was similar for levocabastine or vehicle injected (roughly 11 μmole hydrolyzed substrate per mg protein per hour). Such value remained unaltered by the presence of 3.5 × 10(-6) M neurotensin. In the phosphorylating medium, neurotensin decreased (32 %) the enzyme activity in membranes obtained from rats injected with the vehicle but failed to alter those obtained from rats injected with levocabastine. Levocabastine administration enhanced (50 %) basal [(3)H]-ouabain binding to cerebral cortex membranes but failed to modify neurotensin inhibitory effect on this ligand binding. It is concluded that NTS2 receptor blockade modifies the properties of neuronal Na(+), K(+)-ATPase and that neurotensin effect on Na(+), K

  7. An obligatory role for neurotensin in high-fat-diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Song, Jun; Zaytseva, Yekaterina Y; Liu, Yajuan; Rychahou, Piotr; Jiang, Kai; Starr, Marlene E; Kim, Ji Tae; Harris, Jennifer W; Yiannikouris, Frederique B; Katz, Wendy S; Nilsson, Peter M; Orho-Melander, Marju; Chen, Jing; Zhu, Haining; Fahrenholz, Timothy; Higashi, Richard M; Gao, Tianyan; Morris, Andrew J; Cassis, Lisa A; Fan, Teresa W-M; Weiss, Heidi L; Dobner, Paul R; Melander, Olle; Jia, Jianhang; Evers, B Mark

    2016-05-19

    Obesity and its associated comorbidities (for example, diabetes mellitus and hepatic steatosis) contribute to approximately 2.5 million deaths annually and are among the most prevalent and challenging conditions confronting the medical profession. Neurotensin (NT; also known as NTS), a 13-amino-acid peptide predominantly localized in specialized enteroendocrine cells of the small intestine and released by fat ingestion, facilitates fatty acid translocation in rat intestine, and stimulates the growth of various cancers. The effects of NT are mediated through three known NT receptors (NTR1, 2 and 3; also known as NTSR1, 2, and NTSR3, respectively). Increased fasting plasma levels of pro-NT (a stable NT precursor fragment produced in equimolar amounts relative to NT) are associated with increased risk of diabetes, cardiovascular disease and mortality; however, a role for NT as a causative factor in these diseases is unknown. Here we show that NT-deficient mice demonstrate significantly reduced intestinal fat absorption and are protected from obesity, hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance associated with high fat consumption. We further demonstrate that NT attenuates the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and stimulates fatty acid absorption in mice and in cultured intestinal cells, and that this occurs through a mechanism involving NTR1 and NTR3 (also known as sortilin). Consistent with the findings in mice, expression of NT in Drosophila midgut enteroendocrine cells results in increased lipid accumulation in the midgut, fat body, and oenocytes (specialized hepatocyte-like cells) and decreased AMPK activation. Remarkably, in humans, we show that both obese and insulin-resistant subjects have elevated plasma concentrations of pro-NT, and in longitudinal studies among non-obese subjects, high levels of pro-NT denote a doubling of the risk of developing obesity later in life. Our findings directly link NT with increased fat absorption and obesity and

  8. Modulation of neurosteroid potentiation by protein kinases at synaptic- and extrasynaptic-type GABAA receptors.

    PubMed

    Adams, Joanna M; Thomas, Philip; Smart, Trevor G

    2015-01-01

    GABAA receptors are important for inhibition in the CNS where neurosteroids and protein kinases are potent endogenous modulators. Acting individually, these can either enhance or depress receptor function, dependent upon the type of neurosteroid or kinase and the receptor subunit combination. However, in vivo, these modulators probably act in concert to fine-tune GABAA receptor activity and thus inhibition, although how this is achieved remains unclear. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between these modulators at synaptic-type α1β3γ2L and extrasynaptic-type α4β3δ GABAA receptors using electrophysiology. For α1β3γ2L, potentiation of GABA responses by tetrahydro-deoxycorticosterone was reduced after inhibiting protein kinase C, and enhanced following its activation, suggesting this kinase regulates neurosteroid modulation. In comparison, neurosteroid potentiation was reduced at α1β3(S408A,S409A)γ2L receptors, and unaltered by PKC inhibitors or activators, indicating that phosphorylation of β3 subunits is important for regulating neurosteroid activity. To determine whether extrasynaptic-type GABAA receptors were similarly modulated, α4β3δ and α4β3(S408A,S409A)δ receptors were investigated. Neurosteroid potentiation was reduced at both receptors by the kinase inhibitor staurosporine. By contrast, neurosteroid-mediated potentiation at α4(S443A)β3(S408A,S409A)δ receptors was unaffected by protein kinase inhibition, strongly suggesting that phosphorylation of α4 and β3 subunits is required for regulating neurosteroid activity at extrasynaptic receptors. Western blot analyses revealed that neurosteroids increased phosphorylation of β3(S408,S409) implying that a reciprocal pathway exists for neurosteroids to modulate phosphorylation of GABAA receptors. Overall, these findings provide important insight into the regulation of GABAA receptors in vivo, and into the mechanisms by which GABAergic inhibitory transmission may be simultaneously

  9. Localization of the ANG II type 2 receptor in the microcirculation of skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nora, E. H.; Munzenmaier, D. H.; Hansen-Smith, F. M.; Lombard, J. H.; Greene, A. S.; Cowley, A. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Only functional studies have suggested the presence of the ANG II type 2 (AT2) receptor in the microcirculation. To determine the distribution of this receptor in the rat skeletal muscle microcirculation, a polyclonal rabbit anti-rat antiserum was developed and used for immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. The antiserum was prepared against a highly specific and antigenic AT2-receptor synthetic peptide and was validated by competition and sensitivity assays. Western blot analysis demonstrated a prominent, single band at approximately 40 kDa in cremaster and soleus muscle. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed a wide distribution of AT2 receptors throughout the skeletal muscle microcirculation in large and small microvessels. Microanatomic studies displayed an endothelial localization of the AT2 receptor, whereas dual labeling with smooth muscle alpha-actin also showed colocalization of the AT2 receptor with vascular smooth muscle cells. Other cells associated with the microvessels also stained positive for AT2 receptors. Briefly, this study confirms previous functional data and localizes the AT2 receptor to the microcirculation. These studies demonstrate that the AT2 receptor is present on a variety of vascular cell types and that it is situated in a fashion that would allow it to directly oppose ANG II type 1 receptor actions.

  10. Type 1 receptor tyrosine kinases are differentially phosphorylated in mammary carcinoma and differentially associated with steroid receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Bacus, S. S.; Chin, D.; Yarden, Y.; Zelnick, C. R.; Stern, D. F.

    1996-01-01

    The neu/erbB-2/HER-2 proto-oncogene is amplified and/or overexpressed in up to 30% of mammary carcinomas and has been variably correlated with poor prognosis. The signaling activity of the encoded receptor tyrosine kinase is regulated by interactions with other type 1 receptors and their ligands. We have used a novel approach, phosphorylation-sensitive anti-Neu antibodies, to quantify signaling by Neu and epidermal growth factor receptor in a panel of frozen sections of mammary carcinoma specimens. We also determined the relationship of Neu, phosphorylated Neu (and epidermal growth factor receptor), and phosphotyrosine to the expression of Neu-related receptors (epidermal growth factor receptor, HER-3, and HER-4) and to prognostic factors (estrogen and progesterone receptor). We found that tyrosine phosphorylation of Neu (and hence signaling activity) is highly variable among mammary carcinomas. Neu and HER-4 were associated with divergent correlates, suggesting that they have profoundly different biological activities. These results have implications for etiology of mammary carcinoma for clinical evaluation of mammary carcinoma patients, and for development of Neu-targeted therapeutic strategies. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8579117

  11. Type 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGlu1) trigger the gating of GluD2 delta glutamate receptors

    PubMed Central

    Ady, Visou; Perroy, Julie; Tricoire, Ludovic; Piochon, Claire; Dadak, Selma; Chen, Xiaoru; Dusart, Isabelle; Fagni, Laurent; Lambolez, Bertrand; Levenes, Carole

    2014-01-01

    The orphan GluD2 receptor belongs to the ionotropic glutamate receptor family but does not bind glutamate. Ligand-gated GluD2 currents have never been evidenced, and whether GluD2 operates as an ion channel has been a long-standing question. Here, we show that GluD2 gating is triggered by type 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors, both in a heterologous expression system and in Purkinje cells. Thus, GluD2 is not only an adhesion molecule at synapses but also works as a channel. This gating mechanism reveals new properties of glutamate receptors that emerge from their interaction and opens unexpected perspectives regarding synaptic transmission and plasticity. PMID:24357660

  12. The hypothermic action of carbachol in the rat brain periaqueductal grey area may involve neurotensin.

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, E. C.; Slater, P.; Widdowson, P. S.

    1986-01-01

    Neurotensin (NT) and carbachol both caused hypothermia when injected into the periaqueductal grey area (PAG) of rat brain. Atropine prevented carbachol- but not NT-induced hypothermia. NT-induced hypothermia was unaffected by various neurotransmitter agonists and antagonists in the PAG. Both NT antibodies and thyrotrophin releasing hormone prevented carbachol hypothermia. It is concluded that the hypothermic action of carbachol in the PAG is mediated via endogenous NT. PMID:3742153

  13. [Severe type A insulin resistance syndrome due to a mutation in the insulin receptor gene].

    PubMed

    Ros, P; Colino-Alcol, E; Grasso, V; Barbetti, F; Argente, J

    2015-01-01

    Insulin resistance syndromes without lipodystrophy are an infrequent and heterogeneous group of disorders with variable clinical phenotypes, associated with hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. The three conditions related to mutations in the insulin receptor gene are leprechaunism or Donohue syndrome, Rabson-Mendenhall syndrome, and Type A syndrome. A case is presented on a patient diagnosed with type A insulin resistance, defined by the triad of extreme insulin resistance, acanthosis nigricans, and hyperandrogenism, carrying a heterozygous mutation in exon 19 of the insulin receptor gene coding for its tyrosine kinase domain that is crucial for the catalytic activity of the receptor. The molecular basis of the syndrome is reviewed, focusing on the structure-function relationships of the insulin receptor, knowing that the criteria for survival are linked to residual insulin receptor function. It is also pointed out that, although type A insulin resistance appears to represent a somewhat less severe condition, these patients have a high morbidity and their treatment is still unsatisfactory.

  14. POLLUTANT PARTICLES PRODUCE VASOCONSTRICTION AND ENHANCE MAPK SIGNALING VIA ANGIOTENSIN TYPE 1 RECEPTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM) is associated with acute cardiovascular mortality and morbidity, but the mechanisms are not entirely clear. In this study, we hypothesized that PM may activate the angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R), a G protein-coupled receptor that regulates ...

  15. Differential regulation of types-1 and -3 inositol trisphosphate receptors by cytosolic Ca2+.

    PubMed Central

    Cardy, T J; Traynor, D; Taylor, C W

    1997-01-01

    Biphasic regulation of inositol trisphosphate (IP3)-stimulated Ca2+ mobilization by cytosolic Ca2+ is believed to contribute to regenerative intracellular Ca2+ signals. Since cells typically express several IP3 receptor isoforms and the effects of cytosolic Ca2+ are not mediated by a single mechanism, it is important to resolve the properties of each receptor subtype. Full-length rat types-1 and -3 IP3 receptors were expressed in insect Sf9 cells at levels 10-40-fold higher than the endogenous receptors. The expressed receptors were glycosylated and assembled into tetramers, and binding of [3H]IP3 to each subtype was regulated by cytosolic Ca2+. The effects of increased [Ca2+] on native cerebellar and type-1 receptors expressed in Sf9 cells were indistinguishable. A maximally effective increase in [Ca2+] reversibly inhibited [3H]IP3 binding by approx. 50% by decreasing the number of IP3-binding sites (Bmax) without affecting their affinity for IP3. The effects of Ca2+ on type-3 receptors were more complex: increasing [Ca2+] first stimulated [3H]IP3 binding by increasing Bmax, and then inhibited it by causing a substantial decrease in the affinity of the receptor for IP3. The different effects of Ca2+ on the receptor subtypes were not a consequence of limitations in the availability of accessory proteins or of artifactual effects of Ca2+ on membrane structure. We conclude that Ca2+ can inhibit IP3 binding to types-1 and -3 IP3 receptors although by different mechanisms, and that IP3 binding to type-3 receptors is stimulated at intermediate [Ca2+]. A consequence of these differences is that, at resting cytosolic [Ca2+], type-3 receptors are more sensitive than type-1 receptors to IP3, but the situation reverses at higher cytosolic [Ca2+]. Such differences may be important in generating the spatially and temporally complex changes in cytosolic [Ca2+] evoked by receptors linked to IP3 formation. PMID:9396721

  16. Binding of type II nuclear receptors and estrogen receptor to full and half-site estrogen response elements in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Klinge, C M; Bodenner, D L; Desai, D; Niles, R M; Traish, A M

    1997-01-01

    The mechanism by which retinoids, thyroid hormone (T3) and estrogens modulate the growth of breast cancer cells is unclear. Since nuclear type II nuclear receptors, including retinoic acid receptor (RAR), retinoid X receptor (RXR) and thyroid hormone receptor (TR), bind direct repeats (DR) of the estrogen response elements (ERE) half-site (5'-AGGTCA-3'), we examined the ability of estrogen receptor (ER) versus type II nuclear receptors, i.e. RARalpha, beta and gamma, RXRbeta, TRalpha and TRbeta, to bind various EREs in vitro . ER bound a consensus ERE, containing a perfectly palindromic 17 bp inverted repeat (IR), as a homodimer. In contrast, ER did not bind to a single ERE half-site. Likewise, ER did not bind two tandem (38 bp apart) half-sites, but low ER binding was detected to three tandem copies of the same half-site. RARalpha,beta or gamma bound both ERE and half-site constructs as a homodimer. RXRbeta did not bind full or half-site EREs, nor did RXRbeta enhance RARalpha binding to a full ERE. However, RARalpha and RXRbeta bound a half-site ERE cooperatively forming a dimeric complex. The RARalpha-RXRbeta heterodimer bound the Xenopus vitellogenin B1 estrogen responsive unit, with two non-consensus EREs, with higher affinity than one or two copies of the full or half-site ERE. Both TRalpha and TRbeta bound the full and the half-site ERE as monomers and homodimers and cooperatively as heterodimers with RXRbeta. We suggest that the cellular concentrations of nuclear receptors and their ligands, and the nature of the ERE or half-site sequence and those of its flanking sequences determine the occupation of EREs in estrogen-regulated genes in vivo . PMID:9115356

  17. [Gastroprotective action of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF): involvement of glucocorticoids and CRF receptors type 2].

    PubMed

    Filaretova, L P; Bagaeva, T R; Morozova, O Iu

    2012-12-01

    The stress response involves the activation of two corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptors types 1 and 2. The pituitary type 1 CRF receptors represent the primary receptors to activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis and, consequently, glucocorticoid production. Exogenous CRF induces an increase in glucocorticoid production and may protect the gastric mucosa against stress-induced injury. Here we examined contribution of glucocorticoids and CRF receptors type 2 to gastroprotective effect of exogenous CRF. Gastric injury was induced by 3 him-mobilization (at 10 degrees C) in conscious rats or 3.5 h gastric ischemia-reperfusion in anaesthetized rats. Intraperitoneal administration of CRF at the doses of 1.25 or 2.5 Mg/kg increased plasma corticosterone levels and suppressed the occurrence of gastric erosion induced by each stimulus. Metyrapone injected before CRF caused an inhibition of CRF-induced corticosterone response and prevented the protective effect of CRF on the gastric mucosa against erosion caused by immobilization (at 10 degrees C). However, metyrapone injection did not influence the protective effect of CRF on the gastric mucosa against ischemia-reperfusion-induced lesion. The protective effect of CRF on the gastric mucosa against ischemia-reperfusion-induced lesion was prevented by the nonselective CRF receptor antagonist astressin and selective type 2 CRF receptor antagonist astressin2-B. The results obtained suggest that exogenous CRF may protect the gastric mucosa against injury through involvement of glucocorticoids and also through CRF receptors type 2.

  18. The biological function of type I receptors of bone morphogenetic protein in bone

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shuxian; Svoboda, Kathy K H; Feng, Jian Q; Jiang, Xinquan

    2016-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) have multiple roles in skeletal development, homeostasis and regeneration. BMPs signal via type I and type II serine/threonine kinase receptors (BMPRI and BMPRII). In recent decades, genetic studies in humans and mice have demonstrated that perturbations in BMP signaling via BMPRI resulted in various diseases in bone, cartilage, and muscles. In this review, we focus on all three types of BMPRI, which consist of activin-like kinase 2 (ALK2, also called type IA activin receptor), activin-like kinase 3 (ALK3, also called BMPRIA), and activin-like kinase 6 (ALK6, also called BMPRIB). The research areas covered include the current progress regarding the roles of these receptors during myogenesis, chondrogenesis, and osteogenesis. Understanding the physiological and pathological functions of these receptors at the cellular and molecular levels will advance drug development and tissue regeneration for treating musculoskeletal diseases and bone defects in the future. PMID:27088043

  19. Signalling properties and pharmacology of a 5-HT7 -type serotonin receptor from Tribolium castaneum.

    PubMed

    Vleugels, R; Lenaerts, C; Vanden Broeck, J; Verlinden, H

    2014-04-01

    In the last decade, genome sequence data and gene structure information on invertebrate receptors has been greatly expanded by large sequencing projects and cloning studies. This information is of great value for the identification of receptors; however, functional and pharmacological data are necessary for an accurate receptor classification and for practical applications. In insects, an important group of neurotransmitter and neurohormone receptors, for which ample sequence information is available but pharmacological information is missing, are the biogenic amine G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). In the present study, we investigated the sequence information, pharmacology and signalling properties of a 5-HT7 -type serotonin receptor from the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Trica5-HT7 ). The receptor encoding cDNA shows considerable sequence similarity with cognate 5-HT7 receptors and phylogenetic analysis also clusters the receptor within this 5-HT receptor group. Real-time reverse transcription PCR demonstrated high expression levels in the brain, indicating the possible importance of this receptor in neural processes. Trica5-HT7 was dose-dependently activated by 5-HT, which induced elevated intracellular cyclic AMP levels but had no effect on calcium signalling. The synthetic agonists, α-methyl 5-HT, 5-methoxytryptamine, 5-carboxamidotryptamine and 8-hydroxy-2-(dipropylamino)tetralin hydrobromide, showed a response, although with a much lower potency and efficacy than 5-HT. Ketanserin and methiothepin were the most potent antagonists. Both showed characteristics of competitive inhibition on Trica5-HT7 . The signalling pathway and pharmacological profile offer important information that will facilitate functional and comparative studies of 5-HT receptors in insects and other invertebrates. The pharmacology of invertebrate 5-HT receptors differs considerably from that of vertebrates. The present study may therefore contribute to establishing a more

  20. The Angiotensin II Type 2 Receptor in Brain Functions: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Guimond, Marie-Odile; Gallo-Payet, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) is the main active product of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), mediating its action via two major receptors, namely, the Ang II type 1 (AT1) receptor and the type 2 (AT2) receptor. Recent results also implicate several other members of the renin-angiotensin system in various aspects of brain functions. The first aim of this paper is to summarize the current state of knowledge regarding the properties and signaling of the AT2 receptor, its expression in the brain, and its well-established effects. Secondly, we will highlight the potential role of the AT2 receptor in cognitive function, neurological disorders and in the regulation of appetite and the possible link with development of metabolic disorders. The potential utility of novel nonpeptide selective AT2 receptor ligands in clarifying potential roles of this receptor in physiology will also be discussed. If confirmed, these new pharmacological tools should help to improve impaired cognitive performance, not only through its action on brain microcirculation and inflammation, but also through more specific effects on neurons. However, the overall physiological relevance of the AT2 receptor in the brain must also consider the Ang IV/AT4 receptor. PMID:23320146

  1. Rising stars: modulation of brain functions by astroglial type-1 cannabinoid receptors.

    PubMed

    Metna-Laurent, Mathilde; Marsicano, Giovanni

    2015-03-01

    The type-1-cannabinoid (CB1 ) receptor is amongst the most widely expressed G protein-coupled receptors in the brain. In few decades, CB1 receptors have been shown to regulate a large array of functions from brain cell development and survival to complex cognitive processes. Understanding the cellular mechanisms underlying these functions of CB1 is complex due to the heterogeneity of the brain cell types on which the receptor is expressed. Although the large majority of CB1 receptors act on neurons, early studies pointed to a direct control of CB1 receptors over astroglial functions including brain energy supply and neuroprotection. In line with the growing concept of the tripartite synapse highlighting astrocytes as direct players in synaptic plasticity, astroglial CB1 receptor signaling recently emerged as the mediator of several forms of synaptic plasticity associated to important cognitive functions. Here, we shortly review the current knowledge on CB1 receptor-mediated astroglial functions. This functional spectrum is large and most of the mechanisms by which CB1 receptors control astrocytes, as well as their consequences in vivo, are still unknown, requiring innovative approaches to improve this new cannabinoid research field.

  2. Peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor: a protein of mitochondrial outer membranes utilizing porphyrins as endogenous ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, S.H.; Verma, A.; Trifiletti, R.R.

    1987-10-01

    The peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor is a site identified by its nanomolar affinity for (/sup 3/H)diazepam, similar to the affinity of diazepam for the central-type benzodiazepine receptor in the brain. The peripheral type benzodiazepine receptor occurs in many peripheral tissues but has discrete localizations as indicated by autoradiographic studies showing uniquely high densities of the receptors in the adrenal cortex and in Leydig cells of the testes. Subcellular localization studies reveal a selective association of the receptors with the outer membrane of mitochondria. Photoaffinity labeling of the mitochondrial receptor with (/sup 3/H)flunitrazepam reveals two discrete labeled protein bands of 30 and 35 kDa, respectively. The 35-kDa band appears to be identical with the voltage-dependent anion channel protein porin. Fractionation of numerous peripheral tissues reveals a single principal endogenous ligand for the receptor, consisting of porphyrins, which display nanomolar affinity. Interactions of porphyrins with the mitochondrial receptor may clarify its physiological role and account for many pharmacological actions of benzodiazepines.

  3. Endocannabinoids Stimulate Human Melanogenesis via Type-1 Cannabinoid Receptor*

    PubMed Central

    Pucci, Mariangela; Pasquariello, Nicoletta; Battista, Natalia; Di Tommaso, Monia; Rapino, Cinzia; Fezza, Filomena; Zuccolo, Michela; Jourdain, Roland; Finazzi Agrò, Alessandro; Breton, Lionel; Maccarrone, Mauro

    2012-01-01

    We show that a fully functional endocannabinoid system is present in primary human melanocytes (normal human epidermal melanocyte cells), including anandamide (AEA), 2-arachidonoylglycerol, the respective target receptors (CB1, CB2, and TRPV1), and their metabolic enzymes. We also show that at higher concentrations AEA induces normal human epidermal melanocyte apoptosis (∼3-fold over controls at 5 μm) through a TRPV1-mediated pathway that increases DNA fragmentation and p53 expression. However, at lower concentrations, AEA and other CB1-binding endocannabinoids dose-dependently stimulate melanin synthesis and enhance tyrosinase gene expression and activity (∼3- and ∼2-fold over controls at 1 μm). This CB1-dependent activity was fully abolished by the selective CB1 antagonist SR141716 or by RNA interference of the receptor. CB1 signaling engaged p38 and p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinases, which in turn activated the cyclic AMP response element-binding protein and the microphthalmia-associated transcription factor. Silencing of tyrosinase or microphthalmia-associated transcription factor further demonstrated the involvement of these proteins in AEA-induced melanogenesis. In addition, CB1 activation did not engage the key regulator of skin pigmentation, cyclic AMP, showing a major difference compared with the regulation of melanogenesis by α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone through melanocortin 1 receptor. PMID:22431736

  4. Bioactive peptides derived from natural proteins with respect to diversity of their receptors and physiological effects.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Masaaki

    2015-10-01

    We have found various bioactive peptides derived from animal and plant proteins, which interact with receptors for endogenous bioactive peptides such as opioids, neurotensin, complements C3a and C5a, oxytocin, and formyl peptides etc. Among them, rubiscolin, a δ opioid peptide derived from plant RuBisCO, showed memory-consolidating, anxiolytic-like, and food intake-modulating effects. Soymorphin, a μ opioid peptide derived from β-conglycinin showed anxiolytic-like, anorexigenic, hypoglycemic, and hypotriglyceridemic effects. β-Lactotensin derived from β-lactoglobulin, the first natural ligand for the NTS2 receptor, showed memory-consolidating, anxiolytic-like, and hypocholesterolemic effects. Weak agonist peptides for the complements C3a and C5a receptors were released from many proteins and exerted various central effects. Peptides showing anxiolytic-like antihypertensive and anti-alopecia effects via different types of receptors such as OT, FPR and AT2 were also obtained. Based on these study, new functions and post-receptor mechanisms of receptor commom to endogenous and exogenous bioactive peptides have been clarified.

  5. Rational drug design and synthesis of molecules targeting the angiotensin II type 1 and type 2 receptors.

    PubMed

    Kellici, Tahsin F; Tzakos, Andreas G; Mavromoustakos, Thomas

    2015-03-02

    The angiotensin II (Ang II) type 1 and type 2 receptors (AT1R and AT2R) orchestrate an array of biological processes that regulate human health. Aberrant function of these receptors triggers pathophysiological responses that can ultimately lead to death. Therefore, it is important to design and synthesize compounds that affect beneficially these two receptors. Cardiovascular disease, which is attributed to the overactivation of the vasoactive peptide hormone Αng II, can now be treated with commercial AT1R antagonists. Herein, recent achievements in rational drug design and synthesis of molecules acting on the two AT receptors are reviewed. Quantitative structure activity relationships (QSAR) and molecular modeling on the two receptors aim to assist the search for new active compounds. As AT1R and AT2R are GPCRs and drug action is localized in the transmembrane region the role of membrane bilayers is exploited. The future perspectives in this field are outlined. Tremendous progress in the field is expected if the two receptors are crystallized, as this will assist the structure based screening of the chemical space and lead to new potent therapeutic agents in cardiovascular and other diseases.

  6. Detachment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 from germinal centers by blocking complement receptor type 2.

    PubMed

    Kacani, L; Prodinger, W M; Sprinzl, G M; Schwendinger, M G; Spruth, M; Stoiber, H; Döpper, S; Steinhuber, S; Steindl, F; Dierich, M P

    2000-09-01

    After the transition from the acute to the chronic phase of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, complement mediates long-term storage of virions in germinal centers (GC) of lymphoid tissue. The contribution of particular complement receptors (CRs) to virus trapping in GC was studied on tonsillar specimens from HIV-infected individuals. CR2 (CD21) was identified as the main binding site for HIV in GC. Monoclonal antibodies (MAb) blocking the CR2-C3d interaction were shown to detach 62 to 77% of HIV type 1 from tonsillar cells of an individual in the presymptomatic stage. Although they did so at a lower efficiency, these antibodies were able to remove HIV from tonsillar cells of patients under highly active antiretroviral therapy, suggesting that the C3d-CR2 interaction remains a primary entrapment mechanism in treated patients as well. In contrast, removal of HIV was not observed with MAb blocking CR1 or CR3. Thus, targeting CR2 may facilitate new approaches toward a reduction of residual virus in GC.

  7. Detachment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 from germinal centers by blocking complement receptor type 2.

    PubMed

    Kacani, L; Prodinger, W M; Sprinzl, G M; Schwendinger, M G; Spruth, M; Stoiber, H; Döpper, S; Steinhuber, S; Steindl, F; Dierich, M P

    2000-09-01

    After the transition from the acute to the chronic phase of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, complement mediates long-term storage of virions in germinal centers (GC) of lymphoid tissue. The contribution of particular complement receptors (CRs) to virus trapping in GC was studied on tonsillar specimens from HIV-infected individuals. CR2 (CD21) was identified as the main binding site for HIV in GC. Monoclonal antibodies (MAb) blocking the CR2-C3d interaction were shown to detach 62 to 77% of HIV type 1 from tonsillar cells of an individual in the presymptomatic stage. Although they did so at a lower efficiency, these antibodies were able to remove HIV from tonsillar cells of patients under highly active antiretroviral therapy, suggesting that the C3d-CR2 interaction remains a primary entrapment mechanism in treated patients as well. In contrast, removal of HIV was not observed with MAb blocking CR1 or CR3. Thus, targeting CR2 may facilitate new approaches toward a reduction of residual virus in GC. PMID:10933708

  8. Cannabinoid Type 2 Receptors Mediate a Cell Type-Specific Plasticity in the Hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Stempel, A Vanessa; Stumpf, Alexander; Zhang, Hai-Ying; Özdoğan, Tuğba; Pannasch, Ulrike; Theis, Anne-Kathrin; Otte, David-Marian; Wojtalla, Alexandra; Rácz, Ildikó; Ponomarenko, Alexey; Xi, Zheng-Xiong; Zimmer, Andreas; Schmitz, Dietmar

    2016-05-18

    Endocannabinoids (eCBs) exert major control over neuronal activity by activating cannabinoid receptors (CBRs). The functionality of the eCB system is primarily ascribed to the well-documented retrograde activation of presynaptic CB1Rs. We find that action potential-driven eCB release leads to a long-lasting membrane potential hyperpolarization in hippocampal principal cells that is independent of CB1Rs. The hyperpolarization, which is specific to CA3 and CA2 pyramidal cells (PCs), depends on the activation of neuronal CB2Rs, as shown by a combined pharmacogenetic and immunohistochemical approach. Upon activation, they modulate the activity of the sodium-bicarbonate co-transporter, leading to a hyperpolarization of the neuron. CB2R activation occurred in a purely self-regulatory manner, robustly altered the input/output function of CA3 PCs, and modulated gamma oscillations in vivo. To conclude, we describe a cell type-specific plasticity mechanism in the hippocampus that provides evidence for the neuronal expression of CB2Rs and emphasizes their importance in basic neuronal transmission. PMID:27133464

  9. Type-1 cannabinoid receptor activity during Alzheimer's disease progression.

    PubMed

    Manuel, Iván; González de San Román, Estíbaliz; Giralt, M Teresa; Ferrer, Isidro; Rodríguez-Puertas, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    The activity of CB1 cannabinoid receptors was studied in postmortem brain samples of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients during clinical deterioration. CB1 activity was higher at earlier AD stages in limited hippocampal areas and internal layers of frontal cortex, but a decrease was observed at the advanced stages. The pattern of modification appears to indicate initial hyperactivity of the endocannabinoid system in brain areas that lack classical histopathological markers at earlier stages of AD, indicating an attempt to compensate for the initial synaptic impairment, which is then surpassed by disease progression. These results suggest that initial CB1 stimulation might have therapeutic relevance.

  10. Identification of a novel V1-type AVP receptor based on the molecular recognition theory.

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, V. L.; Ruiz-Opazo, N.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The molecular recognition theory predicts that binding domains of peptide hormones and their corresponding receptor binding domains evolved from complementary strands of genomic DNA, and that a process of selective evolutionary mutational events within these primordial domains gave rise to the high affinity and high specificity of peptide hormone-receptor interactions observed today in different peptide hormone-receptor systems. Moreover, this theory has been broadened as a general hypothesis that could explain the evolution of intermolecular protein-protein and intramolecular peptide interactions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Applying a molecular cloning strategy based on the molecular recognition theory, we screened a rat kidney cDNA library with a vasopressin (AVP) antisense oligonucleotide probe, expecting to isolate potential AVP receptors. RESULTS: We isolated a rat kidney cDNA encoding a functional V1-type vasopressin receptor. Structural analysis identified a 135 amino acid-long polypeptide with a single transmembrane domain, quite distinct from the rhodopsin-based G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. Functional analysis of the expressed V1-type receptor in Cos-1 cells revealed AVP-specific binding, AVP-specific coupling to Ca2+ mobilizing transduction system, and characteristic V1-type antagonist inhibition. CONCLUSIONS: This is the second AVP receptor cDNA isolated using AVP antipeptide-based oligonucleotide screening, thus providing compelling evidence in support of the molecular recognition theory as the basis of the evolution of this peptide hormone-receptor system, as well as adds molecular complexity and diversity to AVP receptor systems. PMID:11683375

  11. Modulation of neurosteroid potentiation by protein kinases at synaptic- and extrasynaptic-type GABAA receptors

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Joanna M.; Thomas, Philip; Smart, Trevor G.

    2015-01-01

    GABAA receptors are important for inhibition in the CNS where neurosteroids and protein kinases are potent endogenous modulators. Acting individually, these can either enhance or depress receptor function, dependent upon the type of neurosteroid or kinase and the receptor subunit combination. However, in vivo, these modulators probably act in concert to fine-tune GABAA receptor activity and thus inhibition, although how this is achieved remains unclear. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between these modulators at synaptic-type α1β3γ2L and extrasynaptic-type α4β3δ GABAA receptors using electrophysiology. For α1β3γ2L, potentiation of GABA responses by tetrahydro-deoxycorticosterone was reduced after inhibiting protein kinase C, and enhanced following its activation, suggesting this kinase regulates neurosteroid modulation. In comparison, neurosteroid potentiation was reduced at α1β3S408A,S409Aγ2L receptors, and unaltered by PKC inhibitors or activators, indicating that phosphorylation of β3 subunits is important for regulating neurosteroid activity. To determine whether extrasynaptic-type GABAA receptors were similarly modulated, α4β3δ and α4β3S408A,S409Aδ receptors were investigated. Neurosteroid potentiation was reduced at both receptors by the kinase inhibitor staurosporine. By contrast, neurosteroid-mediated potentiation at α4S443Aβ3S408A,S409Aδ receptors was unaffected by protein kinase inhibition, strongly suggesting that phosphorylation of α4 and β3 subunits is required for regulating neurosteroid activity at extrasynaptic receptors. Western blot analyses revealed that neurosteroids increased phosphorylation of β3S408,S409 implying that a reciprocal pathway exists for neurosteroids to modulate phosphorylation of GABAA receptors. Overall, these findings provide important insight into the regulation of GABAA receptors in vivo, and into the mechanisms by which GABAergic inhibitory transmission may be simultaneously tuned by

  12. Characterization of the inhibitory effect of [D-Trp11]-NT toward some biological actions of neurotensin in rats.

    PubMed

    Rioux, F; Kérouac, R; St-Pierre, S

    1983-07-01

    We assessed the influence of various doses of [D-Trp11]-NT on the increase of histaminemia and hematocrit, and decrease of blood pressure, caused by intravenous injections of neurotensin (NT), substance P (SP) and compound 48/80 (C48/80) in anesthetized rats. [D-Trp11]-NT was found to inhibit dose-dependently and selectively the changes of histaminemia, hematocrit and blood pressure caused by NT. Since the highest dose of [D-Trp11]-NT utilized exhibited slight NT-like activity, we tested the possibility that desensitization rather than true pharmacological antagonism was responsible for the inhibitory action of [D-Trp11]-NT toward NT. This hypothesis was verified by evaluating the influence of intravenous infusions of sub-stimulatory and slightly active doses of NT on NT-induced effects. The sub-stimulatory dose (0.1 nmoles kg-1 min-1) as well as a higher dose rate (0.2 nmole kg-1 min-1) of NT were found to inhibit markedly the changes of histaminemia, hematocrit and blood pressure evoked by bolus doses of NT, without altering the effects of C48/80 on the same parameters. These results suggest that the inhibitory action of [D-Trp11]-NT toward NT-induced changes of histaminemia, hematocrit and blood pressure could be the result of receptor desensitization rather than to a true pharmacological antagonism. The results also suggest that the sensitivity of target tissues to exogenous NT could be modulated to some extent by endogenous circulating levels of NT.

  13. Participation of mast cell 5-hydroxytryptamine in the vasoconstrictor effect of neurotensin in the rat perfused hindquarter.

    PubMed

    Kérouac, R; St-Pierre, S; Rioux, F

    1984-03-01

    Neurotensin (NT) (1 X 10(-8) - 1.5 X 10(-6) g ml-1) caused a transient, dose-dependent increase in perfusion pressure in the rat perfused hindquarter. The vasoconstrictor effect of NT was associated with a short-lived, dose-dependent release of histamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in the hindquarter effluent. Compound 48/80, a classical mast cell secretagogue, also elicited a vasoconstrictor effect in, and release of histamine from, the rat hindquarter. The vasoconstrictor effect and the release of histamine and 5-HT evoked by NT were much smaller in hindquarters derived from rats pretreated with compound 48/80 for 4 days to cause mast cell depletion than in hindquarters derived from control rats. The mast cell inhibitor cromoglycate (4 mg ml-1) inhibited by about 50% the histamine releasing effect and vasoconstriction produced by the lowest concentrations of NT utilized. The histamine releasing effect of compound 48/80 was more sensitive to blockade by cromoglycate than that of NT. The steroidal antiinflammatory and antiallergic drug dexamethasone did not affect the histamine and 5-HT releasing effect of NT. The vasoconstrictor effects of NT, compound 48/80 and 5-HT were markedly reduced by the 5-HT receptor antagonist methysergide (1 X 10(-7) g ml-1). Histamine (1 X 10(-6) - 10(-4) g ml-1) evoked a decrease in perfusion pressure in hindquarters pre-exposed to noradrenaline. The results suggest the participation of mast cell 5-HT in the vasoconstrictor effect of NT in the rat perfused hindquarter.

  14. Receptor for detection of a Type II sex pheromone in the winter moth Operophtera brumata.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dan-Dan; Wang, Hong-Lei; Schultze, Anna; Froß, Heidrun; Francke, Wittko; Krieger, Jürgen; Löfstedt, Christer

    2016-01-01

    How signal diversity evolves under stabilizing selection in a pheromone-based mate recognition system is a conundrum. Female moths produce two major types of sex pheromones, i.e., long-chain acetates, alcohols and aldehydes (Type I) and polyenic hydrocarbons and epoxides (Type II), along different biosynthetic pathways. Little is known on how male pheromone receptor (PR) genes evolved to perceive the different pheromones. We report the identification of the first PR tuned to Type II pheromones, namely ObruOR1 from the winter moth, Operophtera brumata (Geometridae). ObruOR1 clusters together with previously ligand-unknown orthologues in the PR subfamily for the ancestral Type I pheromones, suggesting that O. brumata did not evolve a new type of PR to match the novel Type II signal but recruited receptors within an existing PR subfamily. AsegOR3, the ObruOR1 orthologue previously cloned from the noctuid Agrotis segetum that has Type I acetate pheromone components, responded significantly to another Type II hydrocarbon, suggesting that a common ancestor with Type I pheromones had receptors for both types of pheromones, a preadaptation for detection of Type II sex pheromone. PMID:26729427

  15. Receptor for detection of a Type II sex pheromone in the winter moth Operophtera brumata

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dan-Dan; Wang, Hong-Lei; Schultze, Anna; Froß, Heidrun; Francke, Wittko; Krieger, Jürgen; Löfstedt, Christer

    2016-01-01

    How signal diversity evolves under stabilizing selection in a pheromone-based mate recognition system is a conundrum. Female moths produce two major types of sex pheromones, i.e., long-chain acetates, alcohols and aldehydes (Type I) and polyenic hydrocarbons and epoxides (Type II), along different biosynthetic pathways. Little is known on how male pheromone receptor (PR) genes evolved to perceive the different pheromones. We report the identification of the first PR tuned to Type II pheromones, namely ObruOR1 from the winter moth, Operophtera brumata (Geometridae). ObruOR1 clusters together with previously ligand-unknown orthologues in the PR subfamily for the ancestral Type I pheromones, suggesting that O. brumata did not evolve a new type of PR to match the novel Type II signal but recruited receptors within an existing PR subfamily. AsegOR3, the ObruOR1 orthologue previously cloned from the noctuid Agrotis segetum that has Type I acetate pheromone components, responded significantly to another Type II hydrocarbon, suggesting that a common ancestor with Type I pheromones had receptors for both types of pheromones, a preadaptation for detection of Type II sex pheromone. PMID:26729427

  16. Substantial expression of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) receptor type I in human uveal melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Schally, Andrew V.; Block, Norman L; Dezso, Balazs; Olah, Gabor; Rozsa, Bernadett; Fodor, Klara; Buglyo, Armin; Gardi, Janos; Berta, Andras; Halmos, Gabor

    2013-01-01

    Uveal melanoma is the most common primary intraocular malignancy in adults, with a very high mortality rate due to frequent liver metastases. Consequently, the therapy of uveal melanoma remains a major clinical challenge and new treatment approaches are needed. For improving diagnosis and designing a rational and effective therapy, it is essential to elucidate molecular characteristics of this malignancy. The aim of this study therefore was to evaluate as a potential therapeutic target the expression of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) receptor in human uveal melanoma. The expression of LHRH ligand and LHRH receptor transcript forms was studied in 39 human uveal melanoma specimens by RT-PCR using gene specific primers. The binding charachteristics of receptors for LHRH on 10 samples were determined by ligand competition assays. The presence of LHRH receptor protein was further evaluated by immunohistochemistry. The expression of mRNA for type I LHRH receptor was detected in 18 of 39 (46%) of tissue specimens. mRNA for LHRH-I ligand could be detected in 27 of 39 (69%) of the samples. Seven of 10 samples investigated showed high affinity LHRH-I receptors. The specific presence of full length LHRH receptor protein was further confirmed by immunohistochemistry. A high percentage of uveal melanomas express mRNA and protein for type-I LHRH receptors. Our results support the merit of further investigation of LHRH receptors in human ophthalmological tumors. Since diverse analogs of LHRH are in clinical trials or are already used for the treatment of various cancers, these analogs could be considered for the LHRH receptor-based treatment of uveal melanoma. PMID:24077773

  17. Investigation of the Fate of Type I Angiotensin Receptor after Biased Activation

    PubMed Central

    Szakadáti, Gyöngyi; Tóth, András D.; Oláh, Ilona; Erdélyi, László Sándor; Balla, Tamas; Várnai, Péter; Balla, András

    2015-01-01

    Biased agonism on the type I angiotensin receptor (AT1-R) can achieve different outcomes via activation of G protein–dependent and –independent cellular responses. In this study, we investigated whether the biased activation of AT1-R can lead to different regulation and intracellular processing of the receptor. We analyzed β-arrestin binding, endocytosis, and subsequent trafficking steps, such as early and late phases of recycling of AT1-R in human embryonic kidney 293 cells expressing wild-type or biased mutant receptors in response to different ligands. We used Renilla luciferase–tagged receptors and yellow fluorescent protein–tagged β-arrestin2, Rab5, Rab7, and Rab11 proteins in bioluminescence resonance energy transfer measurements to follow the fate of the receptor after stimulation. We found that not only is the signaling of the receptor different upon using selective ligands, but the fate within the cells is also determined by the type of the stimulation. β-arrestin binding and the internalization kinetics of the angiotensin II–stimulated AT1-R differed from those stimulated by the biased agonists. Similarly, angiotensin II–stimulated wild-type AT1-R showed differences compared with a biased mutant AT1-R (DRY/AAY AT1-R) with regards to β-arrestin binding and endocytosis. We found that the differences in the internalization kinetics of the receptor in response to biased agonist stimulation are due to the differences in plasma membrane phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate depletion. Moreover, the stability of the β-arrestin binding is a major determinant of the later fate of the internalized AT1-R receptor. PMID:25804845

  18. Investigation of the fate of type I angiotensin receptor after biased activation.

    PubMed

    Szakadáti, Gyöngyi; Tóth, András D; Oláh, Ilona; Erdélyi, László Sándor; Balla, Tamas; Várnai, Péter; Hunyady, László; Balla, András

    2015-06-01

    Biased agonism on the type I angiotensin receptor (AT1-R) can achieve different outcomes via activation of G protein-dependent and -independent cellular responses. In this study, we investigated whether the biased activation of AT1-R can lead to different regulation and intracellular processing of the receptor. We analyzed β-arrestin binding, endocytosis, and subsequent trafficking steps, such as early and late phases of recycling of AT1-R in human embryonic kidney 293 cells expressing wild-type or biased mutant receptors in response to different ligands. We used Renilla luciferase-tagged receptors and yellow fluorescent protein-tagged β-arrestin2, Rab5, Rab7, and Rab11 proteins in bioluminescence resonance energy transfer measurements to follow the fate of the receptor after stimulation. We found that not only is the signaling of the receptor different upon using selective ligands, but the fate within the cells is also determined by the type of the stimulation. β-arrestin binding and the internalization kinetics of the angiotensin II-stimulated AT1-R differed from those stimulated by the biased agonists. Similarly, angiotensin II-stimulated wild-type AT1-R showed differences compared with a biased mutant AT1-R (DRY/AAY AT1-R) with regards to β-arrestin binding and endocytosis. We found that the differences in the internalization kinetics of the receptor in response to biased agonist stimulation are due to the differences in plasma membrane phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate depletion. Moreover, the stability of the β-arrestin binding is a major determinant of the later fate of the internalized AT1-R receptor.

  19. Functional Overexpression of Vomeronasal Receptors Using a Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 (HSV-1)-Derived Amplicon

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Benjamin; Alonso, María Teresa; Zufall, Frank; Leinders-Zufall, Trese; Chamero, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    In mice, social behaviors such as mating and aggression are mediated by pheromones and related chemosignals. The vomeronasal organ (VNO) detects olfactory information from other individuals by sensory neurons tuned to respond to specific chemical cues. Receptors expressed by vomeronasal neurons are implicated in selective detection of these cues. Nearly 400 receptor genes have been identified in the mouse VNO, but the tuning properties of individual receptors remain poorly understood, in part due to the lack of a robust heterologous expression system. Here we develop a herpes virus-based amplicon delivery system to overexpress three types of vomeronasal receptor genes and to characterize cell responses to their proposed ligands. Through Ca2+ imaging in native VNO cells we show that virus-induced overexpression of V1rj2, V2r1b or Fpr3 caused a pronounced increase of responsivity to sulfated steroids, MHC-binding peptide or the synthetic hexapeptide W-peptide, respectively. Other related ligands were not recognized by infected individual neurons, indicating a high degree of selectivity by the overexpressed receptor. Removal of G-protein signaling eliminates Ca2+ responses, indicating that the endogenous second messenger system is essential for observing receptor activation. Our results provide a novel expression system for vomeronasal receptors that should be useful for understanding the molecular logic of VNO ligand detection. Functional expression of vomeronasal receptors and their deorphanization provides an essential requirement for deciphering the neural mechanisms controlling behavior. PMID:27195771

  20. Functional Overexpression of Vomeronasal Receptors Using a Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 (HSV-1)-Derived Amplicon.

    PubMed

    Stein, Benjamin; Alonso, María Teresa; Zufall, Frank; Leinders-Zufall, Trese; Chamero, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    In mice, social behaviors such as mating and aggression are mediated by pheromones and related chemosignals. The vomeronasal organ (VNO) detects olfactory information from other individuals by sensory neurons tuned to respond to specific chemical cues. Receptors expressed by vomeronasal neurons are implicated in selective detection of these cues. Nearly 400 receptor genes have been identified in the mouse VNO, but the tuning properties of individual receptors remain poorly understood, in part due to the lack of a robust heterologous expression system. Here we develop a herpes virus-based amplicon delivery system to overexpress three types of vomeronasal receptor genes and to characterize cell responses to their proposed ligands. Through Ca2+ imaging in native VNO cells we show that virus-induced overexpression of V1rj2, V2r1b or Fpr3 caused a pronounced increase of responsivity to sulfated steroids, MHC-binding peptide or the synthetic hexapeptide W-peptide, respectively. Other related ligands were not recognized by infected individual neurons, indicating a high degree of selectivity by the overexpressed receptor. Removal of G-protein signaling eliminates Ca2+ responses, indicating that the endogenous second messenger system is essential for observing receptor activation. Our results provide a novel expression system for vomeronasal receptors that should be useful for understanding the molecular logic of VNO ligand detection. Functional expression of vomeronasal receptors and their deorphanization provides an essential requirement for deciphering the neural mechanisms controlling behavior. PMID:27195771

  1. Effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonists in rats with heart failure. Role of kinins and angiotensin II type 2 receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Y H; Yang, X P; Sharov, V G; Nass, O; Sabbah, H N; Peterson, E; Carretero, O A

    1997-01-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) improve cardiac function and remodeling and prolong survival in patients with heart failure (HF). Blockade of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) with an angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist (AT1-ant) may have a similar beneficial effect. In addition to inhibition of the RAS, ACEi may also act by inhibiting kinin destruction, whereas AT1-ant may block the RAS at the level of the AT1 receptor and activate the angiotensin II type 2 (AT2) receptor. Using a model of HF induced by myocardial infarction (MI) in rats, we studied the role of kinins in the cardioprotective effect of ACEi. We also investigated whether an AT1-ant has a similar effect and whether these effects are partly due to activation of the AT2 receptor. Two months after MI, rats were treated for 2 mo with: (a) vehicle; (b) the ACEi ramipril, with and without the B2 receptor antagonist icatibant (B2-ant); or (c) an AT1-ant with and without an AT2-antagonist (AT2-ant) or B2-ant. Vehicle-treated rats had a significant increase in left ventricular end-diastolic (LVEDV) and end-systolic volume (LVESV) as well as interstitial collagen deposition and cardiomyocyte size, whereas ejection fraction was decreased. Left ventricular remodeling and cardiac function were improved by the ACEi and AT1-ant. The B2-ant blocked most of the cardioprotective effect of the ACEi, whereas the effect of the AT1-ant was blocked by the AT2-ant. The decreases in LVEDV and LVESV caused by the AT1-ant were also partially blocked by the B2-ant. We concluded that (a) in HF both ACEi and AT1-ant have a cardioprotective effect, which could be due to either a direct action on the heart or secondary to altered hemodynamics, or both; and (b) the effect of the ACEi is mediated in part by kinins, whereas that of the AT1-ant is triggered by activation of the AT2 receptor and is also mediated in part by kinins. We speculate that in HF, blockade of AT1 receptors increases both renin and

  2. Upregulation of Cannabinoid Type 1 Receptors in Dopamine D2 Receptor Knockout Mice Is Reversed by Chronic Forced Ethanol Consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Thanos, P.K.; Wang, G.; Thanos, P.K.; Gopez, V.; Delis, F.; Michaelides, M.; Grand, D.K.; Wang, G.-J.; Kunos, G.; Volkow, N.D.

    2011-01-01

    The anatomical proximity of the cannabinoid type 1 (CNR1/CB1R) and the dopamine D2 receptors (DRD2), their ability to form CB1R-DRD2 heteromers, their opposing roles in locomotion, and their involvement in ethanol's reinforcing and addictive properties prompted us to study the levels and distribution of CB1R after chronic ethanol intake, in the presence and absence of DRD2. We monitored the drinking patterns and locomotor activity of Drd2+/+ and Drd2-/- mice consuming either water or a 20% (v/v) ethanol solution (forced ethanol intake) for 6 months and used the selective CB1 receptor antagonist [{sup 3}H]SR141716A to quantify CB1R levels in different brain regions with in vitro receptor autoradiography. We found that the lack of DRD2 leads to a marked upregulation (approximately 2-fold increase) of CB1R in the cerebral cortex, the caudate-putamen, and the nucleus accumbens, which was reversed by chronic ethanol intake. The results suggest that DRD2-mediated dopaminergic neurotransmission and chronic ethanol intake exert an inhibitory effect on cannabinoid receptor expression in cortical and striatal regions implicated in the reinforcing and addictive properties of ethanol.

  3. Forskolin inhibits histamine release by neurotensin in the rat perfused hind limb.

    PubMed

    Kérouac, R; St-Pierre, S; Rioux, F

    1984-08-01

    We have assessed the influence of forskolin, a potent activator of adenylate cyclase, on histamine release by neurotensin (NT) in the rat perfused hind limb. The results indicate that forskolin, in concentrations known to increase the cyclic AMP content of various tissues, markedly inhibits the histamine releasing effect of NT. The inhibitory action of forskolin was mimicked by a synthetic cyclic AMP derivative and by 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-xanthine (IBMX), a potent phosphodiesterase inhibitor. Our results suggest that the inhibitory action of forskolin toward histamine release by NT in the rat hind limb mast cells results from the activation of a cyclic AMP-generating system in mast cells.

  4. Agonist mediated fetal muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptor desensitization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The exposure of a developing embryo or fetus to teratogenic alkaloids from plants has the potential to cause developmental defects in livestock due to the inhibition of fetal movement by alkaloids. The mechanism behind the inhibition of fetal movement is the desensitization of fetal muscle-type nico...

  5. Signal Transduction Pathway Analysis in Desmoid-type Fibromatosis: TGFβ, COX2 and Sex Steroid Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Mignemi, Nicholas A.; Itani, Doha M.; Fasig, John H.; Keedy, Vicki L.; Hande, Kenneth R.; Whited, Brent W.; Homlar, Kelly C.; Correa, Hernan; Coffin, Cheryl M.; Black, Jennifer O.; Yi, Yajun; Halpern, Jennifer L.; Holt, Ginger E.; Schwartz, Herbert S.; Schoenecker, Jonathan G.; Cates, Justin M. M.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Despite reports of sex steroid receptor and COX2 expression in desmoid-type fibromatosis, responses to single agent therapy with anti-estrogens and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are unpredictable. Perhaps combination pharmacotherapy might be more effective in desmoid tumors that co-express these targets. Clearly, a further understanding of the signaling pathways deregulated in desmoid tumors is essential for development of targeted molecular therapy. Transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are important regulators of fibroblast proliferation and matrix deposition, but little is known about the TGFβ superfamily in fibromatosis. A tissue microarray representing 27 desmoid tumors was constructed; 14 samples of healing scar and 6 samples of normal fibrous tissue were included for comparison. Expression of selected receptors and activated downstream transcription factors of TGFβ family signaling pathways, β-catenin, sex steroid hormone receptors and COX2 were assessed by immunohistochemistry; patterns of co-expression were explored via correlational statistical analyses. In addition to β-catenin, immunoreactivity for phosphorylated SMAD2/3 (indicative of active TGFβ signaling) and COX2 was significantly increased in desmoid tumors compared to healing scar and quiescent fibrous tissue. Low levels of phosphorylated SMAD1/5/8 were detected in only a minority of cases. TGFβ receptor type 1 and androgen receptor were expressed in both desmoid tumors and scar, but not in fibrous tissue. Estrogen receptor-β was present in all cases studied. TGFβ signaling appears to be activated in desmoid-type fibromatosis and phosphorylated SMAD2/3 and COX2 immunoreactivity may be of diagnostic utility in these tumors. Given the frequency of androgen receptor, estrogen receptor-β and COX2 co-expression in desmoid tumors, further assessment of the efficacy of combination pharmacotherapy using hormonal agonists/antagonists together

  6. Distinct activities of GABA agonists at synaptic- and extrasynaptic-type GABAA receptors.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Martin; Ebert, Bjarke; Wafford, Keith; Smart, Trevor G

    2010-04-15

    The activation characteristics of synaptic and extrasynaptic GABA(A) receptors are important for shaping the profile of phasic and tonic inhibition in the central nervous system, which will critically impact on the activity of neuronal networks. Here, we study in isolation the activity of three agonists, GABA, muscimol and 4,5,6,7-tetrahydoisoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridin-3(2H)-one (THIP), to further understand the activation profiles of alpha 1 beta 3 gamma 2, alpha 4 beta 3 gamma 2 and alpha 4 beta 3 delta receptors that typify synaptic- and extrasynaptic-type receptors expressed in the hippocampus and thalamus. The agonists display an order of potency that is invariant between the three receptors, which is reliant mostly on the agonist dissociation constant. At delta subunit-containing extrasynaptic-type GABA(A) receptors, both THIP and muscimol additionally exhibited, to different degrees, superagonist behaviour. By comparing whole-cell and single channel currents induced by the agonists, we provide a molecular explanation for their different activation profiles. For THIP at high concentrations, the unusual superagonist behaviour on alpha 4 beta 3 delta receptors is a consequence of its ability to increase the duration of longer channel openings and their frequency, resulting in longer burst durations. By contrast, for muscimol, moderate superagonist behaviour was caused by reduced desensitisation of the extrasynaptic-type receptors. The ability to specifically increase the efficacy of receptor activation, by selected exogenous agonists over that obtained with the natural transmitter, may prove to be of therapeutic benefit under circumstances when synaptic inhibition is compromised or dysfunctional.

  7. Cinnabarinic acid, an endogenous metabolite of the kynurenine pathway, activates type 4 metabotropic glutamate receptors.

    PubMed

    Fazio, F; Lionetto, L; Molinaro, G; Bertrand, H O; Acher, F; Ngomba, R T; Notartomaso, S; Curini, M; Rosati, O; Scarselli, P; Di Marco, R; Battaglia, G; Bruno, V; Simmaco, M; Pin, J P; Nicoletti, F; Goudet, C

    2012-05-01

    Cinnabarinic acid is an endogenous metabolite of the kynurenine pathway that meets the structural requirements to interact with glutamate receptors. We found that cinnabarinic acid acts as a partial agonist of type 4 metabotropic glutamate (mGlu4) receptors, with no activity at other mGlu receptor subtypes. We also tested the activity of cinnabarinic acid on native mGlu4 receptors by examining 1) the inhibition of cAMP formation in cultured cerebellar granule cells; 2) protection against excitotoxic neuronal death in mixed cultures of cortical cells; and 3) protection against 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine toxicity in mice after local infusion into the external globus pallidus. In all these models, cinnabarinic acid behaved similarly to conventional mGlu4 receptor agonists, and, at least in cultured neurons, the action of low concentrations of cinnabarinic acid was largely attenuated by genetic deletion of mGlu4 receptors. However, high concentrations of cinnabarinic acid were still active in the absence of mGlu4 receptors, suggesting that the compound may have off-target effects. Mutagenesis and molecular modeling experiments showed that cinnabarinic acid acts as an orthosteric agonist interacting with residues of the glutamate binding pocket of mGlu4. Accordingly, cinnabarinic acid did not activate truncated mGlu4 receptors lacking the N-terminal Venus-flytrap domain, as opposed to the mGlu4 receptor enhancer, N-phenyl-7-(hydroxyimino)cyclopropa[b]chromen-1a-carboxamide (PHCCC). Finally, we could detect endogenous cinnabarinic acid in brain tissue and peripheral organs by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Levels increased substantially during inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide. We conclude that cinnabarinic acid is a novel endogenous orthosteric agonist of mGlu4 receptors endowed with neuroprotective activity. PMID:22311707

  8. Activation and modulation of recombinantly expressed serotonin receptor type 3A by terpenes and pungent substances.

    PubMed

    Ziemba, Paul M; Schreiner, Benjamin S P; Flegel, Caroline; Herbrechter, Robin; Stark, Timo D; Hofmann, Thomas; Hatt, Hanns; Werner, Markus; Gisselmann, Günter

    2015-11-27

    Serotonin receptor type 3 (5-HT3 receptor) is a ligand-gated ion channel that is expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) as well as in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The receptor plays an important role in regulating peristalsis of the gastrointestinal tract and in functions such as emesis, cognition and anxiety. Therefore, a variety of pharmacologically active substances target the 5-HT3 receptor to treat chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. The 5-HT3 receptors are activated, antagonized, or modulated by a wide range of chemically different substances, such as 2-methyl-serotonin, phenylbiguanide, setrones, or cannabinoids. Whereas the action of all of these substances is well described, less is known about the effect of terpenoids or fragrances on 5-HT3A receptors. In this study, we screened a large number of natural odorous and pungent substances for their pharmacological action on recombinantly expressed human 5-HT3A receptors. The receptors were functionally expressed in Xenopus oocytes and characterized by electrophysiological recordings using the two-electrode voltage-clamp technique. A screening of two odorous mixes containing a total of 200 substances revealed that the monoterpenes, thymol and carvacrol, act as both weak partial agonists and positive modulators on the 5-HT3A receptor. In contrast, the most effective blockers were the terpenes, citronellol and geraniol, as well as the pungent substances gingerol, capsaicin and polygodial. In our study, we identified new modulators of 5-HT3A receptors out of the classes of monoterpenes and vanilloid substances that frequently occur in various plants. PMID:26456648

  9. Type II Turn of Receptor-bound Salmon Calcitonin Revealed by X-ray Crystallography.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Eva; Hansen, Jakob Lerche; Hansen, Ann Maria Kruse; Shaw, Allan Christian; Becker, Peter; Schäffer, Lauge; Reedtz-Runge, Steffen

    2016-06-24

    Calcitonin is a peptide hormone consisting of 32 amino acid residues and the calcitonin receptor is a Class B G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). The crystal structure of the human calcitonin receptor ectodomain (CTR ECD) in complex with a truncated analogue of salmon calcitonin ([BrPhe(22)]sCT(8-32)) has been determined to 2.1-Å resolution. Parallel analysis of a series of peptide ligands showed that the rank order of binding of the CTR ECD is identical to the rank order of binding of the full-length CTR, confirming the structural integrity and relevance of the isolated CTR ECD. The structure of the CTR ECD is similar to other Class B GPCRs and the ligand binding site is similar to the binding site of the homologous receptors for the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and adrenomedulin (AM) recently published (Booe, J. M., Walker, C. S., Barwell, J., Kuteyi, G., Simms, J., Jamaluddin, M. A., Warner, M. L., Bill, R. M., Harris, P. W., Brimble, M. A., Poyner, D. R., Hay, D. L., and Pioszak, A. A. (2015) Mol. Cell 58, 1040-1052). Interestingly the receptor-bound structure of the ligand [BrPhe(22)]sCT(8-32) differs from the receptor-bound structure of the homologous ligands CGRP and AM. They all adopt an extended conformation followed by a C-terminal β turn, however, [BrPhe(22)]sCT(8-32) adopts a type II turn (Gly(28)-Thr(31)), whereas CGRP and AM adopt type I turns. Our results suggest that a type II turn is the preferred conformation of calcitonin, whereas a type I turn is the preferred conformation of peptides that require RAMPs; CGRP, AM, and amylin. In addition the structure provides a detailed molecular explanation and hypothesis regarding ligand binding properties of CTR and the amylin receptors.

  10. Polymorphisms in the Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Genes Affect the Expression Levels of Membrane-Bound Type I and Type II Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Sennikov, Sergey V.; Vasilyev, Filipp F.; Lopatnikova, Julia A.; Shkaruba, Nadezhda S.; Silkov, Alexander N.

    2014-01-01

    The level of TNF receptors on various cells of immune system and its association with the gene polymorphism were investigated. Determining the levels of membrane-bound TNFα receptors on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was performed by flow cytometry using BD QuantiBRITE calibration particles. Soluble TNFα receptor (sTNFRs) levels were determined by ELISA and genotyping was determined by PCR-RFLP. Homozygous TT individuals at SNP −609G/T TNFRI (rs4149570) showed lower levels of sTNFRI compared to GG genotype carriers. Homozygous carriers of CC genotype at SNP −1207G/C TNFRI (rs4149569) had lower expression densities of membrane-bound TNFRI on intact CD14+ monocytes compared to individuals with the GC genotype. The frequency differences in the CD3+ and CD19+ cells expressing TNFRII in relation to SNP −1709A/T TNFRII (rs652625) in healthy individuals were also determined. The genotype CC in SNP −3609C/T TNFRII (rs590368) was associated with a lower percentage of CD14+ cells expressing TNFRII compared to individuals with the CT genotype. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis had no significant changes in the frequencies of genotypes. Reduced frequency was identified for the combination TNFRI −609GT + TNFRII −3609CC only. The polymorphisms in genes represent one of cell type-specific mechanisms affecting the expression levels of membrane-bound TNFα receptors and TNFα-mediated signaling. PMID:24782596

  11. ACVR1B (ALK4, activin receptor type 1B) gene mutations in pancreatic carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Su, Gloria H.; Bansal, Ravi; Murphy, Kathleen M.; Montgomery, Elizabeth; Yeo, Charles J.; Hruban, Ralph H.; Kern, Scott E.

    2001-01-01

    DPC4 is known to mediate signals initiated by type β transforming growth factor (TGFβ) as well as by other TGFβ superfamily ligands such as activin and BMP (bone morphogenic proteins), but mutational surveys of such non-TGFβ receptors have been negative to date. Here we describe the gene structure and novel somatic mutations of the activin type I receptor, ACVR1B, in pancreatic cancer. ACVR1B has not been described previously as a mutated tumor-suppressor gene. PMID:11248065

  12. Differential brain angiotensin-II type I receptor expression in hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Braga, Valdir A

    2011-09-01

    Blood-borne angiotensin-II (Ang-II) has profound effects in the brain. We tested the hypothesis that Ang-II-dependent hypertension involves differential Ang-II type I (AT(1)) receptors expression in the subfornical organ (SFO) and the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM). Male Wistar rats were implanted with 14-day osmotic minipump filled with Ang-II (150 ng/kg/min) or saline. AT(1) receptor mRNA levels were detected in the SFO and RVLM by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Ang-II caused hypertension (134 ± 10 mmHg vs. 98 ± 9 mmHg, n = 9, p < 0.05). RT-PCR revealed that Ang-II infusion induced increased AT(1) receptor mRNA levels in RVLM and decreased in SFO. Our data suggest that Ang-II-induced hypertension involves differential expression of brain AT(1) receptors. PMID:21897104

  13. Recognition of a Functional Peroxisome Type 1 Target by the Dynamic Import Receptor Pex5p

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Will A.; Filipp, Fabian V.; Kursula, Petri; Schüller, Nicole; Erdmann, Ralf; Schliebs, Wolfgang; Sattler, Michael; Wilmanns, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Summary Peroxisomes require the translocation of folded and functional target proteins of various sizes across the peroxisomal membrane. We have investigated the structure and function of the principal import receptor Pex5p, which recognizes targets bearing a C-terminal peroxisomal targeting signal type 1. Crystal structures of the receptor in the presence and absence of a peroxisomal target, sterol carrier protein 2, reveal major structural changes from an open, snail-like conformation into a closed, circular conformation. These changes are caused by a long loop C terminal to the 7-fold tetratricopeptide repeat segments. Mutations in residues of this loop lead to defects in peroxisomal import in human fibroblasts. The structure of the receptor/cargo complex demonstrates that the primary receptor-binding site of the cargo is structurally and topologically autonomous, enabling the cargo to retain its native structure and function. PMID:17157249

  14. CD46 Is a Cellular Receptor for All Species B Adenoviruses except Types 3 and 7

    PubMed Central

    Marttila, Marko; Persson, David; Gustafsson, Dan; Liszewski, M. Kathryn; Atkinson, John P.; Wadell, Göran; Arnberg, Niklas

    2005-01-01

    The 51 human adenovirus serotypes are divided into six species (A to F). Adenovirus serotypes from all species except species B utilize the coxsackie-adenovirus receptor for attachment to host cells in vitro. Species B adenoviruses primarily cause ocular and respiratory tract infections, but certain serotypes are also associated with renal disease. We have previously demonstrated that adenovirus type 11 (species B) uses CD46 (membrane cofactor protein) as a cellular receptor instead of the coxsackie-adenovirus receptor (A. Segerman et al., J. Virol. 77:9183-9191, 2003). In the present study, we found that transfection with human CD46 cDNA rendered poorly permissive Chinese hamster ovary cells more permissive to infection by all species B adenovirus serotypes except adenovirus types 3 and 7. Moreover, rabbit antiserum against human CD46 blocked or efficiently inhibited all species B serotypes except adenovirus types 3 and 7 from infecting human A549 cells. We also sequenced the gene encoding the fiber protein of adenovirus type 50 (species B) and compared it with the corresponding amino acid sequences from selected serotypes, including all other serotypes of species B. From the results obtained, we conclude that CD46 is a major cellular receptor on A549 cells for all species B adenoviruses except types 3 and 7. PMID:16254377

  15. Type I receptors in parotid, colon, and pituitary are aldosterone selective in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Sheppard, K.; Funder, J.W. )

    1987-10-01

    Previous in vivo studies have demonstrated that type I receptors in the rat kidney are aldosterone selective, whereas those in the hippocampus do not appear to discriminate between aldosterone and corticosterone. The authors have injected mature rats with ({sup 3}H)aldosterone or ({sup 3}H)corticosterone plus 100-fold excess of RU 28362, with or without unlabeled aldosterone or corticosterone, and compared type I receptor occupancy in two classic mineralocorticoid target tissues (parotid and colon) and in the pituitary. Mature rats were killed 10-180 min after tracer administration; ({sup 3}H)aldosterone was well taken up and retained in all tissues, whereas ({sup 3}H)corticosterone was significantly retained only in the pituitary 10 min after tracer administration. To assess a possible role for corticosterone-binding globulin (CBG) in conferring aldosterone specificity on type I receptors, 10-day-old rats (with very low levels of CBG) were similarly injected. In the colon and parotid, ({sup 3}H)aldosterone binding was at least an order of magnitude higher than that of corticosterone; in the pituitary aldosterone binding was approximately three times that of corticosterone. They interpret these data as evidence that in the parotid and colon type I receptors are aldosterone selective by a non-CBG-requiring mechanism, whereas in the pituitary there appear to be both aldosterone-selective and nonselective type I sites.

  16. Nuclear receptor/microRNA circuitry links muscle fiber type to energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Gan, Zhenji; Rumsey, John; Hazen, Bethany C; Lai, Ling; Leone, Teresa C; Vega, Rick B; Xie, Hui; Conley, Kevin E; Auwerx, Johan; Smith, Steven R; Olson, Eric N; Kralli, Anastasia; Kelly, Daniel P

    2013-06-01

    The mechanisms involved in the coordinate regulation of the metabolic and structural programs controlling muscle fitness and endurance are unknown. Recently, the nuclear receptor PPARβ/δ was shown to activate muscle endurance programs in transgenic mice. In contrast, muscle-specific transgenic overexpression of the related nuclear receptor, PPARα, results in reduced capacity for endurance exercise. We took advantage of the divergent actions of PPARβ/δ and PPARα to explore the downstream regulatory circuitry that orchestrates the programs linking muscle fiber type with energy metabolism. Our results indicate that, in addition to the well-established role in transcriptional control of muscle metabolic genes, PPARβ/δ and PPARα participate in programs that exert opposing actions upon the type I fiber program through a distinct muscle microRNA (miRNA) network, dependent on the actions of another nuclear receptor, estrogen-related receptor γ (ERRγ). Gain-of-function and loss-of-function strategies in mice, together with assessment of muscle biopsies from humans, demonstrated that type I muscle fiber proportion is increased via the stimulatory actions of ERRγ on the expression of miR-499 and miR-208b. This nuclear receptor/miRNA regulatory circuit shows promise for the identification of therapeutic targets aimed at maintaining muscle fitness in a variety of chronic disease states, such as obesity, skeletal myopathies, and heart failure.

  17. The platelet receptor for type III collagen (TIIICBP) is present in platelet membrane lipid microdomains (rafts).

    PubMed

    Maurice, Pascal; Waeckel, Ludovic; Pires, Viviane; Sonnet, Pascal; Lemesle, Monique; Arbeille, Brigitte; Vassy, Jany; Rochette, Jacques; Legrand, Chantal; Fauvel-Lafève, Françoise

    2006-04-01

    Platelet interactions with collagen are orchestrated by the presence or the migration of platelet receptor(s) for collagen into lipid rafts, which are specialized lipid microdomains from the platelet plasma membrane enriched in signalling proteins. Electron microscopy shows that in resting platelets, TIIICBP, a receptor specific for type III collagen, is present on the platelet membrane and associated with the open canalicular system, and redistributes to the platelet membrane upon platelet activation. After platelet lysis by 1% Triton X-100 and the separation of lipid rafts on a discontinuous sucrose gradient, TIIICBP is recovered in lipid raft-containing fractions and Triton X-100 insoluble fractions enriched in cytoskeleton proteins. Platelet aggregation, induced by type III collagen, was inhibited after disruption of the lipid rafts by cholesterol depletion, whereas platelet adhesion under static conditions did not require lipid raft integrity. These results indicate that TIIICBP, a platelet receptor involved in platelet interaction with type III collagen, is localized within platelet lipid rafts where it could interact with other platelet receptors for collagen (GP VI and alpha2beta1 integrin) for efficient platelet activation. PMID:16205938

  18. Dopamine D1 and corticotrophin-releasing hormone type-2α receptors assemble into functionally interacting complexes in living cells

    PubMed Central

    Fuenzalida, J; Galaz, P; Araya, K A; Slater, P G; Blanco, E H; Campusano, J M; Ciruela, F; Gysling, K

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Dopamine and corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH; also known as corticotrophin-releasing factor) are key neurotransmitters in the interaction between stress and addiction. Repeated treatment with cocaine potentiates glutamatergic transmission in the rat basolateral amygdala/cortex pathway through a synergistic action of D1-like dopamine receptors and CRH type-2α receptors (CRF2α receptors). We hypothesized that this observed synergism could be instrumented by heteromers containing the dopamine D1 receptor and CRF2α receptor. Experimental Approach D1/CRF2α receptor heteromerization was demonstrated in HEK293T cells using co-immunoprecipitation, BRET and FRET assays, and by using the heteromer mobilization strategy. The ability of D1 receptors to signal through calcium, when singly expressed or co-expressed with CRF2α receptors, was evaluated by the calcium mobilization assay. Key Results D1/CRF2α receptor heteromers were observed in HEK293T cells. When singly expressed, D1 receptors were mostly located at the cell surface whereas CRF2α receptors accumulated intracellularly. Interestingly, co-expression of both receptors promoted D1 receptor intracellular and CRF2α receptor cell surface targeting. The heteromerization of D1/CRF2α receptors maintained the signalling through cAMP of both receptors but switched D1 receptor signalling properties, as the heteromeric D1 receptor was able to mobilize intracellular calcium upon stimulation with a D1 receptor agonist. Conclusions and Implications D1 and CRF2α receptors are capable of heterodimerization in living cells. D1/CRF2α receptor heteromerization might account, at least in part, for the complex physiological interactions established between dopamine and CRH in normal and pathological conditions such as addiction, representing a new potential pharmacological target. PMID:25073922

  19. Amino acid sequence of the alpha subunit of human leukocyte adhesion receptor Mo1 (complement receptor type 3)

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    Mo1 (complement receptor type 3, CR3; CD11b/CD18) is an adhesion- promoting human leukocyte surface membrane heterodimer (alpha subunit 155 kD [CD11b] noncovalently linked to a beta subunit of 95 kD [CD18]). The complete amino acid sequence deduced from cDNA of the human alpha subunit is reported. The protein consists of 1,136 amino acids with a long amino-terminal extracytoplasmic domain, a 26-amino acid hydrophobic transmembrane segment, and a 19-carboxyl-terminal cytoplasmic domain. The extracytoplasmic region has three putative Ca2+- binding domains with good homology and one with weak homology to the "lock washer" Ca2+-binding consensus sequence. These metal-binding domains explain the divalent cation-dependent functions mediated by Mo1. The alpha subunit is highly homologous to the alpha subunit of leukocyte p150,95 and to a lesser extent, to the alpha subunit of other "integrin" receptors such as fibronectin, vitronectin, and platelet IIb/IIIa receptors in humans and position-specific antigen-2 (PS2) in Drosophila. Mo1 alpha, like p150, contains a unique 187-amino acid stretch NH2-terminal to the metal-binding domains. This region could be involved in some of the specific functions mediated by these leukocyte glycoproteins. PMID:2454931

  20. Regulation of type 1 inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor by dopamine receptors in cocaine-induced place conditioning.

    PubMed

    Kurokawa, Kazuhiro; Mizuno, Koji; Shibasaki, Masahiro; Ohkuma, Seitaro

    2012-02-01

    Recent study shows that type 1 inositol-1,4,5-triphosohate receptors (IP(3) Rs) may be involved in amphetamine-induced conditioned preference, but little is known about its role in psychological dependence on cocaine. This study investigated the role and regulation of IP(3) R-1 in mice with cocaine-induced place preference. The cocaine-induced place preference was dose-dependently inhibited by intracerebroventricular pretreatment with IP(3) R antagonists, 2-aminophenoxyethane-borate (2-APB), and xestospongin C. The levels of IP(3) R-1 in the frontal cortex and nucleus accumbens of cocaine-conditioned mice significantly increased, which was completely abolished by SCH23390 and sulpiride, selective dopamine D1 and D2 receptor antagonists, respectively. These findings suggest that IP(3) R-1-mediated intracellular signaling pathway may play an important role in the development of cocaine-induced place preference and that the expression of IP(3) R-1 is controlled by both dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in the frontal cortex and nucleus accumbens of mice with cocaine-induced place preference.

  1. Exercise reduces adipose tissue via cannabinoid receptor type 1 which is regulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{delta}

    SciTech Connect

    Yan Zhencheng; Liu Daoyan; Zhang Lili; Shen Chenyi; Ma Qunli; Cao Tingbing; Wang Lijuan; Nie Hai; Zidek, Walter; Tepel, Martin; Zhu Zhiming . E-mail: zhuzm@yahoo.com

    2007-03-09

    Obesity is one major cardiovascular risk factor. We tested effects of endurance exercise on cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{delta} (PPAR-{delta})-dependent pathways in adipose tissue. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to standard laboratory chow or a high-fat diet without and with regular endurance exercise. Exercise in rats on high-fat diet significantly reduced visceral fat mass, blood pressure, and adipocyte size (each p < 0.05). Adipocyte hypertrophy induced by high-fat diet was accompanied by increased CB1 expression in adipose tissue, whereas exercise significantly reduced CB1 expression (each p < 0.05). CB1 receptor expression and adipocyte differentiation were directly regulated by PPAR-{delta}. Adipocyte hypertrophy induced by high-fat diet was accompanied by reduced PPAR-{delta}. Furthermore, selective silencing of PPAR-{delta} by RNA interference in 3T3-L1-preadipocyte cells significantly increased CB1 expression from 1.00 {+-} 0.06 (n = 3) to 1.91 {+-} 0.06 (n = 3; p < 0.01) and increased adipocyte differentiation, whereas adenovirus-mediated overexpression of PPAR-{delta} significantly reduced CB1 expression to 0.39 {+-} 0.03 (n = 3; p < 0.01) and reduced adipocyte differentiation. In the presence of the CB1 antagonist rimonabant adipocyte differentiation in stimulated 3T3 L1 preadipocyte cells was significantly reduced. The study indicates that high-fat diet-induced hypertrophy of adipocytes is associated with increased CB1 receptor expression which is directly regulated by PPAR-{delta}. Both CB1 and PPAR-{delta} are intimately involved in therapeutic interventions against a most important cardiovascular risk factor.

  2. Molecular Mechanism of Action of Triazolobenzodiazepinone Agonists of the Type 1 Cholecystokinin Receptor. Possible Cooperativity across the Receptor Homodimeric Complex.

    PubMed

    Desai, Aditya J; Lam, Polo C H; Orry, Andrew; Abagyan, Ruben; Christopoulos, Arthur; Sexton, Patrick M; Miller, Laurence J

    2015-12-24

    The type 1 cholecystokinin receptor (CCK1R) has multiple physiologic roles relating to nutrient homeostasis, including mediation of postcibal satiety. This effect has been central in efforts to develop agonists of this receptor as part of a program to manage and/or prevent obesity. While a number of small molecule CCK1R agonists have been developed, none have yet been approved for clinical use, based on inadequate efficacy, side effects, or the potential for toxicity. Understanding the molecular details of docking and mechanism of action of these ligands can be helpful in the rational refinement and enhancement of small molecule drug candidates. In the current work, we have defined the mechanism of binding and activity of two triazolobenzodiazepinones, CE-326597 and PF-04756956, which are reported to be full agonist ligands. To achieve this, we utilized receptor binding with a series of allosteric and orthosteric radioligands at structurally related CCK1R and CCK2R, as well as chimeric CCK1R/CCK2R constructs exchanging residues in the allosteric pocket, and assessment of biological activity. These triazolobenzodiazepinones docked within the intramembranous small molecule allosteric ligand pocket, with higher affinity binding to CCK2R than CCK1R, yet with biological activity exclusive to or greatly enhanced at CCK1R. These ligands exhibited cooperativity with benzodiazepine binding across the CCK1R homodimeric complex, resulting in their ability to inhibit only a fraction of the saturable binding of a benzodiazepine radioligand, unlike other small molecule antagonists and agonists of this receptor. This may contribute to the understanding of the unique short duration and reversible gallbladder contraction observed in vivo upon administration of these drugs.

  3. Cortical Serotonin Type-2 Receptor Density in Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Jeremy; Anderson, George M.; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Hall, Geoffrey B. C.; Nahmias, Claude; Thompson, Ann; Szatmari, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Parents (N = 19) of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and adult controls (N = 17) underwent positron emission tomography (PET) using [[superscript 18]F]setoperone to image cortical serotonin type-2 (5-HT2) receptors. The 5-HT2 binding potentials (BPs) were calculated by ratioing [[superscript 18]F]setoperone intensity in regions of…

  4. Characterization of additional novel immune type receptors in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mining of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) expressed sequence tag databases identified seven new novel immune type receptors (IpNITRs). These differed in sequence, but not structure, from previously described IpNITR1-11. IpNITR12a, 12b, 13 and 14, encode proteins containing a single variable (V...

  5. Localization of type I interferon receptor limits interferon-induced TLR-3 in epithelial cells

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study aimed to expand on the role of type I IFNs in the influenza-induced upregulation of TLR3 and determine whether and how the localization of the IFN-alpha/beta receptor (IFNAR) in respiratory epithelial cells could modify IFN-induced responses. Using differentiated prima...

  6. Hemagglutinin of Influenza A Virus Antagonizes Type I Interferon (IFN) Responses by Inducing Degradation of Type I IFN Receptor 1

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Chuan; Vijayan, Madhuvanthi; Pritzl, Curtis J.; Fuchs, Serge Y.; McDermott, Adrian B.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Influenza A virus (IAV) employs diverse strategies to circumvent type I interferon (IFN) responses, particularly by inhibiting the synthesis of type I IFNs. However, it is poorly understood if and how IAV regulates the type I IFN receptor (IFNAR)-mediated signaling mode. In this study, we demonstrate that IAV induces the degradation of IFNAR subunit 1 (IFNAR1) to attenuate the type I IFN-induced antiviral signaling pathway. Following infection, the level of IFNAR1 protein, but not mRNA, decreased. Indeed, IFNAR1 was phosphorylated and ubiquitinated by IAV infection, which resulted in IFNAR1 elimination. The transiently overexpressed IFNAR1 displayed antiviral activity by inhibiting virus replication. Importantly, the hemagglutinin (HA) protein of IAV was proved to trigger the ubiquitination of IFNAR1, diminishing the levels of IFNAR1. Further, influenza A viral HA1 subunit, but not HA2 subunit, downregulated IFNAR1. However, viral HA-mediated degradation of IFNAR1 was not caused by the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response. IAV HA robustly reduced cellular sensitivity to type I IFNs, suppressing the activation of STAT1/STAT2 and induction of IFN-stimulated antiviral proteins. Taken together, our findings suggest that IAV HA causes IFNAR1 degradation, which in turn helps the virus escape the powerful innate immune system. Thus, the research elucidated an influenza viral mechanism for eluding the IFNAR signaling pathway, which could provide new insights into the interplay between influenza virus and host innate immunity. IMPORTANCE Influenza A virus (IAV) infection causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide and remains a major health concern. When triggered by influenza viral infection, host cells produce type I interferon (IFN) to block viral replication. Although IAV was shown to have diverse strategies to evade this powerful, IFN-mediated antiviral response, it is not well-defined if IAV manipulates the IFN receptor-mediated signaling

  7. Targeting Anti-Insulin B Cell Receptors Improves Receptor Editing in Type 1 Diabetes-Prone Mice.

    PubMed

    Bonami, Rachel H; Thomas, James W

    2015-11-15

    Autoreactive B lymphocytes that commonly arise in the developing repertoire can be salvaged by receptor editing, a central tolerance mechanism that alters BCR specificity through continued L chain rearrangement. It is unknown whether autoantigens with weak cross-linking potential, such as insulin, elicit receptor editing, or whether this process is dysregulated in related autoimmunity. To resolve these issues, we developed an editing-competent model in which anti-insulin Vκ125 was targeted to the Igκ locus and paired with anti-insulin VH125Tg. Physiologic, circulating insulin increased RAG-2 expression and was associated with BCR replacement that eliminated autoantigen recognition in a proportion of developing anti-insulin B lymphocytes. The proportion of anti-insulin B cells that underwent receptor editing was reduced in the type 1 diabetes-prone NOD strain relative to a nonautoimmune strain. Resistance to editing was associated with increased surface IgM expression on immature (but not transitional or mature) anti-insulin B cells in the NOD strain. The actions of mAb123 on central tolerance were also investigated, because selective targeting of insulin-occupied BCR by mAb123 eliminates anti-insulin B lymphocytes and prevents type 1 diabetes. Autoantigen targeting by mAb123 increased RAG-2 expression and dramatically enhanced BCR replacement in newly developed B lymphocytes. Administering F(ab')2123 induced IgM downregulation and reduced the frequency of anti-insulin B lymphocytes within the polyclonal repertoire of VH125Tg/NOD mice, suggesting enhanced central tolerance by direct BCR interaction. These findings indicate that weak or faulty checkpoints for central tolerance can be overcome by autoantigen-specific immunomodulatory therapy.

  8. Autoradiographic localization of epidermal growth factor receptors to all major uterine cell types

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, T.H.; Mukku, V.R.; Verner, G.; Kirkland, J.L.; Stancel, G.M.

    1988-03-01

    We have recently studied the structure and function of the uterine epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor, its hormonal regulation, and its possible role in estrogen-induced uterine DNA synthesis. Since the uterus is composed of multiple cell types, we sought, in the work reported here, to localize EGF binding in this organ by autoradiography. Prior to the actual autoradiography, we performed a companion series of experiments to insure that EGF binding to uterine tissue in situ represented a true receptor interaction. Uteri from immature female rats were incubated in vitro with 125I-EGF at 25 degrees C. Tissue binding was maximal within 120 min and remained constant for at least an additional 120 min. This binding of labeled EGF was largely abolished by excess unlabeled EGF but not by other growth factors, indicating that binding was to specific receptors. The binding of 125I-EGF was saturable and reached a plateau at 4-8 nM; specific binding was half-maximal at 1-2 nM EGF. In situ cross-linking studies revealed that 125I-EGF was bound predominantly to a 170,000 MW EGF receptor similar to that seen in isolated uterine membranes. Incubation of uteri with 125I-EGF followed by autoradiography revealed binding to epithelial cells, stroma, and myometrium. These results provide evidence for the presence of specific EGF receptors in all major uterine cell types of the immature rat.

  9. Characterization and in vivo regulation of V sub 1 -type vasopressin receptors in the rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Shewey, L.M.

    1988-01-01

    Specific, high affinity binding sites for ({sup 3}H)-arginine{sup 8}-vasopressin (AVP) have been characterized in Long-Evans rat septal membranes. Binding displacement studies with peptide analogs of AVP indicate that this binding site is similar to the V{sub 1} (pressor)-type receptor for AVP. When added to rat brain septal slices that had been pre-labeled with ({sup 3}H)-myoinositol, AVP stimulated the accumulation of ({sup 3}H)-inositol-1-phosphate (IP{sub 1}) in the presence of lithium in a dose-dependent manner. This stimulation was completely inhibited by the specific V{sub 1} antagonists, d(CH{sub 2}){sub 5}Tyr(Me)AVP, indicating that AVP stimulates hydrolysis of inositol phospholipids in rat brain septum through an interaction with V{sub 1}-type AVP receptors. Binding studies of AVP receptors in the septum of heterozygous (HE) and homozygous, Brattleboro (BB) rats revealed an increased number of receptors with a lower affinity for AVP in the HO-BB rat when compared to the HE-BB rat. AVP-stimulated accumulation of ({sup 3}H)-IP{sub 1} was significantly greater in the septum of the HO-BB rat than in the HE-BB rat. AVP receptor binding capacity correlated with release of ({sup 3}H)-IP{sub 1} for all three groups studied.

  10. THE NEURONAL DISTRIBUTION OF CANNABINOID RECEPTOR TYPE 1 IN THE TRIGEMINAL GANGLION OF THE RAT

    PubMed Central

    PRICE, T. J.; HELESIC, G.; PARGHI, D.; HARGREAVES, K. M.; FLORES, C. M.

    2007-01-01

    Cannabinoid compounds have been shown to produce antinociception and antihyperalgesia by acting upon cannabinoid receptors located in both the CNS and the periphery. A potential mechanism by which cannabinoids could inhibit nociception in the periphery is the activation of cannabinoid receptors located on one or more classes of primary nociceptive neurons. To address this hypothesis, we evaluated the neuronal distribution of cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) in the trigeminal ganglion (TG) of the adult rat through combined in situ hybridization (ISH) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). CB1 receptor mRNA was localized mainly to medium and large diameter neurons of the maxillary and mandibular branches of the TG. Consistent with this distribution, in a de facto nociceptive sensory neuron population that exhibited vanilloid receptor type 1 immunoreactivity, colocalization with CB1 mRNA was also sparse (<5%). Furthermore, very few neurons (approximately 5%) in the peptidergic (defined as calcitonin gene-related peptide- or substance P-immunoreactive) or the isolectin B4-binding sensory neuron populations contained CB1 mRNA. In contrast, and consistent with the neuron-size distribution for CB1, nearly 75% of CB1-positive neurons exhibited N52-immunoreactivity, a marker of myelinated axons. These results indicate that in the rat TG, CB1 receptors are expressed predominantly in neurons that are not thought to subserve nociceptive neurotransmission in the noninjured animal. Taken together with the absence of an above background in situ signal for CB2 mRNA in TG neurons, these findings suggest that the peripherally mediated antinociceptive effects of cannabinoids may involve either as yet unidentified receptors or interaction with afferent neuron populations that normally subserve non-nociceptive functions. PMID:12849749

  11. The neuronal distribution of cannabinoid receptor type 1 in the trigeminal ganglion of the rat.

    PubMed

    Price, T J; Helesic, G; Parghi, D; Hargreaves, K M; Flores, C M

    2003-01-01

    Cannabinoid compounds have been shown to produce antinociception and antihyperalgesia by acting upon cannabinoid receptors located in both the CNS and the periphery. A potential mechanism by which cannabinoids could inhibit nociception in the periphery is the activation of cannabinoid receptors located on one or more classes of primary nociceptive neurons. To address this hypothesis, we evaluated the neuronal distribution of cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) in the trigeminal ganglion (TG) of the adult rat through combined in situ hybridization (ISH) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). CB1 receptor mRNA was localized mainly to medium and large diameter neurons of the maxillary and mandibular branches of the TG. Consistent with this distribution, in a de facto nociceptive sensory neuron population that exhibited vanilloid receptor type 1 immunoreactivity, colocalization with CB1 mRNA was also sparse (<5%). Furthermore, very few neurons (approximately 5%) in the peptidergic (defined as calcitonin gene-related peptide- or substance P-immunoreactive) or the isolectin B4-binding sensory neuron populations contained CB1 mRNA. In contrast, and consistent with the neuron-size distribution for CB1, nearly 75% of CB1-positive neurons exhibited N52-immunoreactivity, a marker of myelinated axons. These results indicate that in the rat TG, CB1 receptors are expressed predominantly in neurons that are not thought to subserve nociceptive neurotransmission in the noninjured animal. Taken together with the absence of an above background in situ signal for CB2 mRNA in TG neurons, these findings suggest that the peripherally mediated antinociceptive effects of cannabinoids may involve either as yet unidentified receptors or interaction with afferent neuron populations that normally subserve non-nociceptive functions.

  12. Mutant activin-like kinase 2 in fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva are activated via T203 by BMP type II receptors.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Mai; Ohte, Satoshi; Osawa, Kenji; Miyamoto, Arei; Tsukamoto, Sho; Mizuta, Takato; Kokabu, Shoichiro; Suda, Naoto; Katagiri, Takenobu

    2015-01-01

    Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is a genetic disorder characterized by progressive heterotopic ossification in soft tissues, such as the skeletal muscles. FOP has been shown to be caused by gain-of-function mutations in activin receptor-like kinase (ALK)-2, which is a type I receptor for bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). In the present study, we examined the molecular mechanisms that underlie the activation of intracellular signaling by mutant ALK2. Mutant ALK2 from FOP patients enhanced the activation of intracellular signaling by type II BMP receptors, such as BMPR-II and activin receptor, type II B, whereas that from heart disease patients did not. This enhancement was dependent on the kinase activity of the type II receptors. Substitution mutations at all nine serine and threonine residues in the ALK2 glycine- and serine-rich domain simultaneously inhibited this enhancement by the type II receptors. Of the nine serine and threonine residues in ALK2, T203 was found to be critical for the enhancement by type II receptors. The T203 residue was conserved in all of the BMP type I receptors, and these residues were essential for intracellular signal transduction in response to ligand stimulation. The phosphorylation levels of the mutant ALK2 related to FOP were higher than those of wild-type ALK2 and were further increased by the presence of type II receptors. The phosphorylation levels of ALK2 were greatly reduced in mutants carrying a mutation at T203, even in the presence of type II receptors. These findings suggest that the mutant ALK2 related to FOP is enhanced by BMP type II receptors via the T203-regulated phosphorylation of ALK2.

  13. Direct angiotensin II type 2 receptor stimulation decreases dopamine synthesis in the rat striatum.

    PubMed

    Mertens, Birgit; Vanderheyden, Patrick; Michotte, Yvette; Sarre, Sophie

    2010-06-01

    A relationship between the central renin angiotensin system and the dopaminergic system has been described in the striatum. However, the role of the angiotensin II type 2 (AT(2)) receptor in this interaction has not yet been established. The present study examined the outcome of direct AT(2) receptor stimulation on dopamine (DA) release and synthesis by means of the recently developed nonpeptide AT(2) receptor agonist, compound 21 (C21). The effects of AT(2) receptor agonism on the release of DA and its major metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and on the activity of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in the catecholamine biosynthesis, were investigated using in vivo microdialysis. Local administration of C21 (0.1 and 1 microM) resulted in a decrease of the extracellular DOPAC levels, whereas extracellular DA concentrations remained unaltered, suggesting a reduced synthesis of DA. This effect was mediated by the AT(2) receptor since it could be blocked by the AT(2) receptor antagonist PD123319 (1 microM). A similar effect was observed after local striatal (10 nM) as well as systemic (0.3 and 3 mg/kg i.p.) administration of the AT(1) receptor antagonist, candesartan. TH activity as assessed by accumulation of extracellular levels of L-DOPA after inhibition of amino acid decarboxylase with NSD1015, was also reduced after local administration of C21 (0.1 and 1 microM) and candesartan (10 nM). Together, these data suggest that AT(1) and AT(2) receptors in the striatum exert an opposite effect on the modulation of DA synthesis rather than DA release. PMID:20097214

  14. Inhibition of Adult Rat Retinal Ganglion Cells by D1-type Dopamine Receptor Activation

    PubMed Central

    Hayashida, Yuki; Rodríguez, Carolina Varela; Ogata, Genki; Partida, Gloria J.; Oi, Hanako; Stradleigh, Tyler W.; Lee, Sherwin C.; Colado, Anselmo Felipe; Ishida, Andrew T.

    2011-01-01

    The spike output of neural pathways can be regulated by modulating output neuron excitability and/or their synaptic inputs. Dopaminergic interneurons synapse onto cells that route signals to mammalian retinal ganglion cells, but it is unknown whether dopamine can activate receptors in these ganglion cells and, if it does, how this affects their excitability. Here, we show D1a-receptor-like immunoreactivity in ganglion cells identified in adult rats by retrogradely transported dextran, and that dopamine, D1-type receptor agonists, and cAMP analogs inhibit spiking in ganglion cells dissociated from adult rats. These ligands curtailed repetitive spiking during constant current injections, and reduced the number and rate of rise of spikes elicited by fluctuating current injections without significantly altering the timing of the remaining spikes. Consistent with mediation by D1-type receptors, SCH-23390 reversed the effects of dopamine on spikes. Contrary to a recent report, spike inhibition by dopamine was not precluded by blocking Ih. Consistent with the reduced rate of spike rise, dopamine reduced voltage-gated Na+ current (INa) amplitude and tetrodotoxin, at doses that reduced INa as moderately as dopamine, also inhibited spiking. These results provide the first direct evidence that D1-type dopamine receptor activation can alter mammalian retinal ganglion cell excitability, and demonstrate that dopamine can modulate spikes in these cells by a mechanism different from the pre- and postsynaptic means proposed by previous studies. To our knowledge, our results also provide the first evidence that dopamine receptor activation can reduce excitability without altering the temporal precision of spike firing. PMID:19940196

  15. C-type lectins do not act as functional receptors for filovirus entry into cells

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuno, Keita; Nakayama, Eri; Noyori, Osamu; Marzi, Andrea; Ebihara, Hideki; Irimura, Tatsuro; Feldmann, Heinz; Takada, Ayato

    2010-12-03

    Research highlights: {yields} Filovirus glycoprotein (GP) having a deficient receptor binding region were generated. {yields} Mutant GPs mediated virus entry less efficiently than wild-type GP. {yields} Mutant GPs bound to C-type lectins but not mediated entire steps of cellular entry. {yields} C-type lectins do not independently mediate filovirus entry into cells. {yields} Other molecule(s) are required for C-type lectin-mediated entry of filoviruses. -- Abstract: Cellular C-type lectins have been reported to facilitate filovirus infection by binding to glycans on filovirus glycoprotein (GP). However, it is not clearly known whether interaction between C-type lectins and GP mediates all the steps of virus entry (i.e., attachment, internalization, and membrane fusion). In this study, we generated vesicular stomatitis viruses pseudotyped with mutant GPs that have impaired structures of the putative receptor binding regions and thus reduced ability to infect the monkey kidney cells that are routinely used for virus propagation. We found that infectivities of viruses with the mutant GPs dropped in C-type lectin-expressing cells, parallel with those in the monkey kidney cells, whereas binding activities of these GPs to the C-type lectins were not correlated with the reduced infectivities. These results suggest that C-type lectin-mediated entry of filoviruses requires other cellular molecule(s) that may be involved in virion internalization or membrane fusion.

  16. Structure-Function Basis of Attenuated Inverse Agonism of Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers for Active-State Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Unal, Hamiyet; Karnik, Sadashiva S.; Node, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Ligand-independent signaling by the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) can be activated in clinical settings by mechanical stretch and autoantibodies as well as receptor mutations. Transition of the AT1R to the activated state is known to lower inverse agonistic efficacy of clinically used AT1R blockers (ARBs). The structure-function basis for reduced efficacy of inverse agonists is a fundamental aspect that has been understudied not only in relation to the AT1R but also regarding other homologous receptors. Here, we demonstrate that the active-state transition in the AT1R indeed attenuates an inverse agonistic effect of four biphenyl-tetrazole ARBs through changes in specific ligand-receptor interactions. In the ground state, tight interactions of four ARBs with a set of residues (Ser109TM3, Phe182ECL2, Gln257TM6, Tyr292TM7, and Asn295TM7) results in potent inverse agonism. In the activated state, the ARB-AT1R interactions shift to a different set of residues (Val108TM3, Ser109TM3, Ala163TM4, Phe182ECL2, Lys199TM5, Tyr292TM7, and Asn295TM7), resulting in attenuated inverse agonism. Interestingly, V108I, A163T, N295A, and F182A mutations in the activated state of the AT1R shift the functional response to the ARB binding toward agonism, but in the ground state the same mutations cause inverse agonism. Our data show that the second extracellular loop is an important regulator of the functional states of the AT1R. Our findings suggest that the quest for discovering novel ARBs, and improving current ARBs, fundamentally depends on the knowledge of the unique sets of residues that mediate inverse agonistic potency in the two states of the AT1R. PMID:26121982

  17. Type I macrophage scavenger receptor contains α-helical and collagen-like coiled coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Freeman, Mason; Rohrer, Lucia; Zabrecky, James; Matsudaira, Paul; Krieger, Monty

    1990-02-01

    The macrophage scavenger receptor is a trimeric membrane glycoprotein with unusual ligand-binding properties which has been implicated in the development of atherosclerosis. The trimeric structure of the bovine type I scavenger receptor, deduced by complementary DNA cloning, contains three extracellular C-terminal cysteine-rich domains connected to the transmembrane domain by a long fibrous stalk. This stalk structure, composed of an a-helical coiled coil and a collagen-like triple helix, has not previously been observed in an integral membrane protein.

  18. C-C chemokine receptor type 4 antagonist Compound 22 ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Moriguchi, Kota; Miyamoto, Katsuichi; Tanaka, Noriko; Ueno, Rino; Nakayama, Takashi; Yoshie, Osamu; Kusunoki, Susumu

    2016-02-15

    Chemokines and chemokine receptors play important roles in the immune response. We previously reported the pathogenic role of C-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CCR4) in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Here, we examined whether CCR4 antagonism modulates the disease course of EAE. Wild-type and CCR4-knockout mice were induced EAE and were administered Compound 22, an antagonist of CCR4. Compound 22 significantly ameliorated the severity of EAE in wild-type mice, but not in the CCR4-knockout mice. Compound 22 inhibited Th1 and Th17 polarization of antigen-induced T-cell responses. Therefore, CCR4 antagonists might be potential therapeutic agents for multiple sclerosis. PMID:26857495

  19. Rectification of muscle and nerve deficits in paralyzed ryanodine receptor type 1 mutant embryos

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, M. Gartz; Niswander, Lee A.

    2015-01-01

    Locomotion and respiration require motor axon connectivity and activation of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Through a forward genetic screen for muscle weakness, we recently reported an allele of ryanodine receptor type 1 (Ryr1AG). Here we reveal a role for functional RyR1 during acetylcholine receptor (AChR) cluster formation and embryonic synaptic transmission. Ryr1AG homozygous embryos are non-motile. Motor axons extend past AChR clusters and enlarged AChR clusters are found under fasciculated nerves. Using physiological and pharmacological methods, we show that contractility can be resumed through the masking of a potassium leak, and evoked vesicular release can be resumed via bypassing the defect in RyR1 induced calcium release. Moreover, we show the involvement of ryanodine receptors in presynaptic release at the NMJ. This data provides evidence of a role for RyR1 on both the pre- and postsynaptic sides of the NMJ. PMID:26025922

  20. Neuronal-type alpha-bungarotoxin receptors and the alpha 5-nicotinic receptor subunit gene are expressed in neuronal and nonneuronal human cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Chini, B; Clementi, F; Hukovic, N; Sher, E

    1992-01-01

    alpha-Bungarotoxin (alpha Bgtx) is a toxin known to interact with muscle nicotinic receptors and with some neuronal nicotinic receptors. We show that alpha Bgtx binding sites are also expressed in nonmuscle and nonneuronal human cells, including small cell lung carcinoma and several epithelial cell lines. These receptors are immunologically related to the alpha Bgtx receptors of unknown function described in the nervous system and in the IMR32 neuroblastoma cell line and are distinct from muscle nicotinic receptors. We have also cloned from IMR32 cells the human alpha 5-nicotinic receptor subunit, which is supposed to participate in the formation of alpha Bgtx receptors. Transcripts corresponding to the alpha 5-subunit gene were found not only in neuroblastoma cells but also in all the cell lines expressing alpha Bgtx receptors, with the exception of the TE671 cell line, whose nicotinic receptor subunits are of the muscle type. We conclude that both alpha Bgtx receptors and the alpha 5-nicotinic subunit gene are not neuron-specific, as previously thought, but are expressed in a number of human cell lines of various origin. Images PMID:1542648

  1. Distribution of angiotensin type-1 receptor messenger RNA expression in the adult rat brain.

    PubMed

    Lenkei, Z; Palkovits, M; Corvol, P; Llorens-Cortes, C

    1998-02-01

    Angiotensin II and angiotensin III in the brain exert their various effects by acting on two pharmacologically well-defined receptors, the type-1 (AT1) and the type-2 (AT2) receptors. Receptor binding autoradiography has revealed the dominant presence of AT1 in brain nuclei involved in cardiovascular, body fluid and neuroendocrine control. The cloning of the AT1 complementary DNA has revealed the existence of two receptor subtypes in rodents, AT1A and AT1B. Using specific riboprobes for in situ hybridization, we have previously shown that the AT1A messenger RNA is predominantly expressed in the rat forebrain; in contrast the AT1B subtype predominates in the anterior pituitary. Using a similar technical approach, the aim of the present study was to establish the precise anatomical localization of cells synthetising the AT1A receptor in the adult rat brain. High AT1A messenger RNA expression was found in the vascular organ of the lamina terminalis, the median preoptic nucleus, the subfornical organ, the hypothalamic periventricular nucleus, the parvocellular parts of the paraventricular nucleus, the nucleus of the solitary tract and the area postrema, in agreement with previous autoradiographic studies, describing a high density of AT1 binding sites in these nuclei. In addition, AT1A messenger RNA expression was detected in several brain areas, where no AT1 binding was reported previously. Thus, we identify strong expression of AT1A messenger RNA expression in scattered cells of the lateral parts of the preoptic region, the lateral hypothalamus and several brainstem nuclei. In none of these structures was the AT1B messenger RNA detectable at the microscopic level. In conclusion, it is suggested that angiotensins may exert their central effects on body fluid and cardiovascular homeostasis mainly via the AT1A receptor subtype. PMID:9483539

  2. The TAM family receptor tyrosine kinase TYRO3 is a negative regulator of type 2 immunity.

    PubMed

    Chan, Pamela Y; Carrera Silva, Eugenio A; De Kouchkovsky, Dimitri; Joannas, Leonel D; Hao, Liming; Hu, Donglei; Huntsman, Scott; Eng, Celeste; Licona-Limón, Paula; Weinstein, Jason S; Herbert, De'Broski R; Craft, Joseph E; Flavell, Richard A; Repetto, Silvia; Correale, Jorge; Burchard, Esteban G; Torgerson, Dara G; Ghosh, Sourav; Rothlin, Carla V

    2016-04-01

    Host responses against metazoan parasites or an array of environmental substances elicit type 2 immunity. Despite its protective function, type 2 immunity also drives allergic diseases. The mechanisms that regulate the magnitude of the type 2 response remain largely unknown. Here, we show that genetic ablation of a receptor tyrosine kinase encoded byTyro3in mice or the functional neutralization of its ortholog in human dendritic cells resulted in enhanced type 2 immunity. Furthermore, the TYRO3 agonist PROS1 was induced in T cells by the quintessential type 2 cytokine, interleukin-4. T cell-specificPros1knockouts phenocopied the loss ofTyro3 Thus, a PROS1-mediated feedback from adaptive immunity engages a rheostat, TYRO3, on innate immune cells to limit the intensity of type 2 responses.

  3. The TAM family receptor tyrosine kinase TYRO3 is a negative regulator of type 2 immunity

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Pamela Y.; Carrera Silva, Eugenio A.; De Kouchkovsky, Dimitri; Joannas, Leonel D.; Hao, Liming; Hu, Donglei; Huntsman, Scott; Eng, Celeste; Licona-Limón, Paula; Weinstein, Jason S.; Herbert, De’Broski R.; Craft, Joseph E.; Flavell, Richard A.; Repetto, Silvia; Correale, Jorge; Burchard, Esteban G.; Torgerson, Dara G.; Ghosh, Sourav; Rothlin, Carla V.

    2016-01-01

    Host responses against metazoan parasites or an array of environmental substances elicit type 2 immunity. Despite its protective function, type 2 immunity also drives allergic diseases. The mechanisms that regulate the magnitude of the type 2 response remain largely unknown. Here, we show that genetic ablation of a receptor tyrosine kinase encoded by Tyro3 in mice or the functional neutralization of its ortholog in human dendritic cells resulted in enhanced type 2 immunity. Furthermore, the TYRO3 agonist PROS1 was induced in T cells by the quintessential type 2 cytokine, interleukin-4. T cell–specific Pros1 knockouts phenocopied the loss of Tyro3. Thus, a PROS1-mediated feedback from adaptive immunity engages a rheostat, TYRO3, on innate immune cells to limit the intensity of type 2 responses. PMID:27034374

  4. The TAM family receptor tyrosine kinase TYRO3 is a negative regulator of type 2 immunity.

    PubMed

    Chan, Pamela Y; Carrera Silva, Eugenio A; De Kouchkovsky, Dimitri; Joannas, Leonel D; Hao, Liming; Hu, Donglei; Huntsman, Scott; Eng, Celeste; Licona-Limón, Paula; Weinstein, Jason S; Herbert, De'Broski R; Craft, Joseph E; Flavell, Richard A; Repetto, Silvia; Correale, Jorge; Burchard, Esteban G; Torgerson, Dara G; Ghosh, Sourav; Rothlin, Carla V

    2016-04-01

    Host responses against metazoan parasites or an array of environmental substances elicit type 2 immunity. Despite its protective function, type 2 immunity also drives allergic diseases. The mechanisms that regulate the magnitude of the type 2 response remain largely unknown. Here, we show that genetic ablation of a receptor tyrosine kinase encoded byTyro3in mice or the functional neutralization of its ortholog in human dendritic cells resulted in enhanced type 2 immunity. Furthermore, the TYRO3 agonist PROS1 was induced in T cells by the quintessential type 2 cytokine, interleukin-4. T cell-specificPros1knockouts phenocopied the loss ofTyro3 Thus, a PROS1-mediated feedback from adaptive immunity engages a rheostat, TYRO3, on innate immune cells to limit the intensity of type 2 responses. PMID:27034374

  5. Cannabinoid type-1 receptor signaling in central serotonergic neurons regulates anxiety-like behavior and sociability

    PubMed Central

    Häring, Martin; Enk, Vanessa; Aparisi Rey, Alejandro; Loch, Sebastian; Ruiz de Azua, Inigo; Weber, Tillmann; Bartsch, Dusan; Monory, Krisztina; Lutz, Beat

    2015-01-01

    The endocannabinoid (eCB) system possesses neuromodulatory functions by influencing the release of various neurotransmitters, including γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate. A functional interaction between eCBs and the serotonergic system has already been suggested. Previously, we showed that cannabinoid type-1 (CB1) receptor mRNA and protein are localized in serotonergic neurons of the raphe nuclei, implying that the eCB system can modulate serotonergic functions. In order to substantiate the physiological role of the CB1 receptor in serotonergic neurons of the raphe nuclei, we generated serotonergic 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) neuron-specific CB1 receptor-deficient mice, using the Cre/loxP system with a tamoxifen-inducible Cre recombinase under the control of the regulatory sequences of the tryptophan hydroxylase 2 gene (TPH2-CreERT2), thus, restricting the recombination to 5-HT neurons of the central nervous system (CNS). Applying several different behavioral paradigms, we revealed that mice lacking the CB1 receptor in serotonergic neurons are more anxious and less sociable than control littermates. Thus, we were able to show that functional CB1 receptor signaling in central serotonergic neurons modulates distinct behaviors in mice. PMID:26388750

  6. Type III secretion needle proteins induce cell signaling and cytokine secretion via Toll-like receptors.

    PubMed

    Jessen, Danielle L; Osei-Owusu, Patrick; Toosky, Melody; Roughead, William; Bradley, David S; Nilles, Matthew L

    2014-06-01

    Pathogens are recognized by hosts by use of various receptors, including the Toll-like receptor (TLR) and Nod-like receptor (NLR) families. Ligands for these varied receptors, including bacterial products, are identified by the immune system, resulting in development of innate immune responses. Only a couple of components from type III secretion (T3S) systems are known to be recognized by TLR or NLR family members. Known T3S components that are detected by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are (i) flagellin, detected by TLR5 and NLRC4 (Ipaf); and (ii) T3S rod proteins (PrgJ and homologs) and needle proteins (PrgI and homologs), detected by NAIP and the NLRC4 inflammasome. In this report, we characterize the induction of proinflammatory responses through TLRs by the Yersinia pestis T3S needle protein, YscF, the Salmonella enterica needle proteins PrgI and SsaG, and the Shigella needle protein, MxiH. More specifically, we determine that the proinflammatory responses occur through TLR2 and -4. These data support the hypothesis that T3S needles have an unrecognized role in bacterial pathogenesis by modulating immune responses. PMID:24643544

  7. Type III Secretion Needle Proteins Induce Cell Signaling and Cytokine Secretion via Toll-Like Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Jessen, Danielle L.; Osei-Owusu, Patrick; Toosky, Melody; Roughead, William; Bradley, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Pathogens are recognized by hosts by use of various receptors, including the Toll-like receptor (TLR) and Nod-like receptor (NLR) families. Ligands for these varied receptors, including bacterial products, are identified by the immune system, resulting in development of innate immune responses. Only a couple of components from type III secretion (T3S) systems are known to be recognized by TLR or NLR family members. Known T3S components that are detected by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are (i) flagellin, detected by TLR5 and NLRC4 (Ipaf); and (ii) T3S rod proteins (PrgJ and homologs) and needle proteins (PrgI and homologs), detected by NAIP and the NLRC4 inflammasome. In this report, we characterize the induction of proinflammatory responses through TLRs by the Yersinia pestis T3S needle protein, YscF, the Salmonella enterica needle proteins PrgI and SsaG, and the Shigella needle protein, MxiH. More specifically, we determine that the proinflammatory responses occur through TLR2 and -4. These data support the hypothesis that T3S needles have an unrecognized role in bacterial pathogenesis by modulating immune responses. PMID:24643544

  8. Characterization of an invertebrate-type dopamine receptor of the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana.

    PubMed

    Troppmann, Britta; Balfanz, Sabine; Krach, Christian; Baumann, Arnd; Blenau, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    We have isolated a cDNA coding for a putative invertebrate-type dopamine receptor (Peadop2) from P. americana brain by using a PCR-based strategy. The mRNA is present in samples from brain and salivary glands. We analyzed the distribution of the PeaDOP2 receptor protein with specific affinity-purified polyclonal antibodies. On Western blots, PeaDOP2 was detected in protein samples from brain, subesophageal ganglion, thoracic ganglia, and salivary glands. In immunocytochemical experiments, we detected PeaDOP2 in neurons with their somata being located at the anterior edge of the medulla bilaterally innervating the optic lobes and projecting to the ventro-lateral protocerebrum. In order to determine the functional and pharmacological properties of the cloned receptor, we generated a cell line constitutively expressing PeaDOP2. Activation of PeaDOP2-expressing cells with dopamine induced an increase in intracellular cAMP. In contrast, a C-terminally truncated splice variant of this receptor did not exhibit any functional property by itself. The molecular and pharmacological characterization of the first dopamine receptor from P. americana provides the basis for forthcoming studies focusing on the significance of the dopaminergic system in cockroach behavior and physiology.

  9. Two types of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in Drosophila and other arthropods.

    PubMed

    Collin, Caitlin; Hauser, Frank; Gonzalez de Valdivia, Ernesto; de Valdivia, Ernesto Gonzalez; Li, Shizhong; Reisenberger, Julia; Carlsen, Eva M M; Khan, Zaid; Hansen, Niels O; Puhm, Florian; Søndergaard, Leif; Niemiec, Justyna; Heninger, Magdalena; Ren, Guilin R; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J P

    2013-09-01

    Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) play a central role in the mammalian nervous system. These receptors are G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), which are activated by the agonists acetylcholine and muscarine, and blocked by a variety of antagonists. Mammals have five mAChRs (m1-m5). In this study, we cloned two structurally related GPCRs from the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, which, after expression in Chinese hamster ovary cells, proved to be muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. One mAChR (the A-type; encoded by gene CG4356) is activated by acetylcholine (EC50, 5 × 10(-8) M) and muscarine (EC50, 6 × 10(-8) M) and blocked by the classical mAChR antagonists atropine, scopolamine, and 3-quinuclidinyl-benzilate (QNB), while the other (the B-type; encoded by gene CG7918) is also activated by acetylcholine, but has a 1,000-fold lower sensitivity to muscarine, and is not blocked by the antagonists. A- and B-type mAChRs were also cloned and functionally characterized from the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum. Recently, Haga et al. (Nature 2012, 482: 547-551) published the crystal structure of the human m2 mAChR, revealing 14 amino acid residues forming the binding pocket for QNB. These residues are identical between the human m2 and the D. melanogaster and T. castaneum A-type mAChRs, while many of them are different between the human m2 and the B-type receptors. Using bioinformatics, one orthologue of the A-type and one of the B-type mAChRs could also be found in all other arthropods with a sequenced genome. Protostomes, such as arthropods, and deuterostomes, such as mammals and other vertebrates, belong to two evolutionarily distinct lineages of animal evolution that split about 700 million years ago. We found that animals that originated before this split, such as cnidarians (Hydra), had two A-type mAChRs. From these data we propose a model for the evolution of mAChRs.

  10. PTPRD silencing by DNA hypermethylation decreases insulin receptor signaling and leads to type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yng-Tay; Lin, Wei-D; Liao, Wen-Lin; Lin, Ying-Ju; Chang, Jan-Gowth; Tsai, Fuu-Jen

    2015-05-30

    Genome-wide association study (GWAS) data showed that the protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type delta (PTPRD) is associated with increased susceptibility to type 2 diabetes (T2D) in Han Chinese. A replication study indicated that PTPRD is involved in the insulin signaling pathway; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. We evaluated PTPRD expression in patients with T2D and controls. PTPRD expression levels were lower in patients and were correlated with the duration of the disease. Overexpression of the human insulin receptor PPARγ2 in HepG2 cells induced overexpression of PTPRD and the insulin receptor. PTPRD knockdown, using a shRNA, resulted in down-regulation of the insulin receptor. These results indicate that PTPRD activates PPARγ2 in the insulin signaling pathway. Similar results for PTPRD expression were found using a T2D mouse model. Silencing of PTPRD was caused by DNA methylation in T2D mice and patients, and correlated with DNMT1 expression. Furthermore, we showed that a DNMT1 SNP (rs78789647) was correlated with susceptibility to T2D. This study shows for the first time that DNMT1 caused PTPRD DNA hypermethylation and induced insulin signaling silencing in T2D patients. Our findings contribute to a better understanding of the crucial roles of these regulatory elements in human T2D. PMID:26079428

  11. PTPRD silencing by DNA hypermethylation decreases insulin receptor signaling and leads to type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yng-Tay; Lin, Wei-De; Liao, Wen-Lin; Lin, Ying-Ju; Chang, Jan-Gowth; Tsai, Fuu-Jen

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association study (GWAS) data showed that the protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type delta (PTPRD) is associated with increased susceptibility to type 2 diabetes (T2D) in Han Chinese. A replication study indicated that PTPRD is involved in the insulin signaling pathway; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. We evaluated PTPRD expression in patients with T2D and controls. PTPRD expression levels were lower in patients and were correlated with the duration of the disease. Overexpression of the human insulin receptor PPARγ2 in HepG2 cells induced overexpression of PTPRD and the insulin receptor. PTPRD knockdown, using a shRNA, resulted in down-regulation of the insulin receptor. These results indicate that PTPRD activates PPARγ2 in the insulin signaling pathway. Similar results for PTPRD expression were found using a T2D mouse model. Silencing of PTPRD was caused by DNA methylation in T2D mice and patients, and correlated with DNMT1 expression. Furthermore, we showed that a DNMT1 SNP (rs78789647) was correlated with susceptibility to T2D. This study shows for the first time that DNMT1 caused PTPRD DNA hypermethylation and induced insulin signaling silencing in T2D patients. Our findings contribute to a better understanding of the crucial roles of these regulatory elements in human T2D. PMID:26079428

  12. Aldosterone-Induced Vascular Remodeling and Endothelial Dysfunction Require Functional Angiotensin Type 1a Receptors.

    PubMed

    Briet, Marie; Barhoumi, Tlili; Mian, Muhammad Oneeb Rehman; Coelho, Suellen C; Ouerd, Sofiane; Rautureau, Yohann; Coffman, Thomas M; Paradis, Pierre; Schiffrin, Ernesto L

    2016-05-01

    We investigated the role of angiotensin type 1a receptors (AGTR1a) in vascular injury induced by aldosterone activation of mineralocorticoid receptors in Agtr1a(-/-) and wild-type (WT) mice infused with aldosterone for 14 days while receiving 1% NaCl in drinking water. Aldosterone increased systolic blood pressure (BP) by ≈30 mm Hg in WT mice and ≈50 mm Hg in Agtr1a(-/-) mice. Aldosterone induced aortic and small artery remodeling, impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation in WT mice, and enhanced fibronectin and collagen deposition and vascular inflammation. None of these vascular effects were observed in Agtr1a(-/-) mice. Aldosterone effects were prevented by the AGTR1 antagonist losartan in WT mice. In contrast to aldosterone, norepinephrine caused similar BP increase and mesenteric artery remodeling in WT and Agtr1a(-/-) mice. Agtr1a(-/-) mice infused with aldosterone did not increase sodium excretion in response to a sodium chloride challenge, suggesting that sodium retention could contribute to the exaggerated BP rise induced by aldosterone. Agtr1a(-/-) mice had decreased mesenteric artery expression of the calcium-activated potassium channel Kcnmb1, which may enhance myogenic tone and together with sodium retention, exacerbate BP responses to aldosterone/salt in Agtr1a(-/-) mice. We conclude that although aldosterone activation of mineralocorticoid receptors raises BP more in Agtr1a(-/-) mice, AGTR1a is required for mineralocorticoid receptor stimulation to induce vascular remodeling and inflammation and endothelial dysfunction.

  13. PTPRD silencing by DNA hypermethylation decreases insulin receptor signaling and leads to type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yng-Tay; Lin, Wei-D; Liao, Wen-Lin; Lin, Ying-Ju; Chang, Jan-Gowth; Tsai, Fuu-Jen

    2015-05-30

    Genome-wide association study (GWAS) data showed that the protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type delta (PTPRD) is associated with increased susceptibility to type 2 diabetes (T2D) in Han Chinese. A replication study indicated that PTPRD is involved in the insulin signaling pathway; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. We evaluated PTPRD expression in patients with T2D and controls. PTPRD expression levels were lower in patients and were correlated with the duration of the disease. Overexpression of the human insulin receptor PPARγ2 in HepG2 cells induced overexpression of PTPRD and the insulin receptor. PTPRD knockdown, using a shRNA, resulted in down-regulation of the insulin receptor. These results indicate that PTPRD activates PPARγ2 in the insulin signaling pathway. Similar results for PTPRD expression were found using a T2D mouse model. Silencing of PTPRD was caused by DNA methylation in T2D mice and patients, and correlated with DNMT1 expression. Furthermore, we showed that a DNMT1 SNP (rs78789647) was correlated with susceptibility to T2D. This study shows for the first time that DNMT1 caused PTPRD DNA hypermethylation and induced insulin signaling silencing in T2D patients. Our findings contribute to a better understanding of the crucial roles of these regulatory elements in human T2D.

  14. Age-associated repression of type 1 inositol 1, 4, 5-triphosphate receptor impairs muscle regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bora; Lee, Seung-Min; Bahn, Young Jae; Lee, Kwang-Pyo; Kang, Moonkyung; Kim, Yeon-Soo; Woo, Sun-Hee; Lim, Jae-Young; Kim, Eunhee; Kwon, Ki-Sun

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle mass and power decrease with age, leading to impairment of mobility and metabolism in the elderly. Ca2+ signaling is crucial for myoblast differentiation as well as muscle contraction through activation of transcription factors and Ca2+-dependent kinases and phosphatases. Ca2+ channels, such as dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR), two-pore channel (TPC) and inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor (ITPR), function to maintain Ca2+ homeostasis in myoblasts. Here, we observed a significant decrease in expression of type 1 IP3 receptor (ITPR1), but not types 2 and 3, in aged mice skeletal muscle and isolated myoblasts, compared with those of young mice. ITPR1 knockdown using shRNA-expressing viruses in C2C12 myoblasts and tibialis anterior muscle of mice inhibited myotube formation and muscle regeneration after injury, respectively, a typical phenotype of aged muscle. This aging phenotype was associated with repression of muscle-specific genes and activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-Ras-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. ERK inhibition by U0126 not only induced recovery of myotube formation in old myoblasts but also facilitated muscle regeneration after injury in aged muscle. The conserved decline in ITPR1 expression in aged human skeletal muscle suggests utility as a potential therapeutic target for sarcopenia, which can be treated using ERK inhibition strategies. PMID:27658230

  15. Local application of neurotensin to abdominal organs triggers cardiovascular reflexes in guinea pigs: possible mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Rioux, F; Lemieux, M; Kérouac, R; Bernoussi, A; Roy, G

    1989-01-01

    Intraabdominal (IAB) injections or topical application of neurotensin (NT) to the serosal surface of the ileum or stomach evoked dose-dependent increases of blood pressure and of heart rate in anesthetized guinea pigs. These effects were markedly reduced by prior animal treatment with a ganglion blocker, alpha and beta adrenoceptor blockers, as well as by exposure of the abdominal organs to lidocaine, a local anesthetic. The blood pressure and heart rate responses to IAB injections or topical application of NT to the ileum or stomach were both inhibited by animal pretreatment with capsaicin. Cervical vagotomy or atropine pretreatment did not prevent or alter the cardiovascular responses to IAB injections of NT. These results suggest the presence in some organs and/or tissues of the abdominal cavity of sympathetic, capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerve fibers which, upon stimulation by NT, produce reflex increases of blood pressure and of heart rate.

  16. Characterization of the histamine releasing effect of neurotensin in the rat heart.

    PubMed

    Rioux, F; Kérouac, R; St-Pierre, S

    1985-01-01

    Bolus injections of neurotensin (NT) in the rat perfused heart elicited a transient, dose-dependent histamine release. The histamine releasing effect of NT appears to be independent of the heart rate and coronary perfusion pressure and it was not influenced by atropine, propanolol, prazosin, methysergide, ketanserin, indomethacin, morphine, lidocaine or by removal of the atria. However, it was potentiated by adenosine, inhibited by sub-stimulatory concentrations of NT and the mast cell membrane stabilizing drug cromoglycate but was unaltered by the calcium antagonist verapamil. The absence of calcium in the heart perfusate suppressed the histamine releasing effect of NT. These results suggest that the histamine releasing effect of NT in the rat heart results from a direct effect on ventricular mast cells and is calcium-dependent.

  17. Atlantic salmon possesses two clusters of type I interferon receptor genes on different chromosomes, which allows for a larger repertoire of interferon receptors than in zebrafish and mammals.

    PubMed

    Sun, Baojian; Greiner-Tollersrud, Linn; Koop, Ben F; Robertsen, Børre

    2014-12-01

    Mammalian type I interferons (IFNs) signal through a receptor composed of the IFNAR1 and IFNAR2 chains. In zebrafish two-cysteine IFNs utilize a receptor composed of CRFB1 and CRFB5, while four-cysteine IFNs signal through a receptor formed by CRFB2 and CRFB5. In the present work two CRFB clusters were identified in different chromosomes of Atlantic salmon. Genes of three CRFB5s, one CRFB1, one CRFB2 and the novel CRFB5x were identified, cloned and studied functionally. All CRFBs were expressed in 10 different organs, but the relative expression of CRFBs varied. Mx-reporter assay was used to study which CRFBs might be involved in receptors for salmon IFNa, IFNb and IFNc. The results of Mx-reporter assays suggest that IFNa signals through a receptor composed of CRFB1a as the long chain and either CRFB5a, CRFB5b or CRFB5c as the short chain; IFNc signals through a receptor with CRFB5a or CRFB5c as the short chain while IFNb may signal through a receptor with CRFB5x as a short chain. Taken together, the present work demonstrates that Atlantic salmon has a more diverse repertoire of type I IFN receptors compared to zebrafish or mammals. PMID:25149134

  18. Receptor-type guanylate cyclase is required for carbon dioxide sensation by Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Hallem, Elissa A; Spencer, W Clay; McWhirter, Rebecca D; Zeller, Georg; Henz, Stefan R; Rätsch, Gunnar; Miller, David M; Horvitz, H Robert; Sternberg, Paul W; Ringstad, Niels

    2011-01-01

    CO(2) is both a critical regulator of animal physiology and an important sensory cue for many animals for host detection, food location, and mate finding. The free-living soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans shows CO(2) avoidance behavior, which requires a pair of ciliated sensory neurons, the BAG neurons. Using in vivo calcium imaging, we show that CO(2) specifically activates the BAG neurons and that the CO(2)-sensing function of BAG neurons requires TAX-2/TAX-4 cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels and the receptor-type guanylate cyclase GCY-9. Our results delineate a molecular pathway for CO(2) sensing and suggest that activation of a receptor-type guanylate cyclase is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism by which animals detect environmental CO(2).

  19. Developmental expression and function analysis of protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type D in oligodendrocyte myelination.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Q; Tan, Z; Zhao, S; Huang, H; Zhao, X; Hu, X; Zhang, Y; Shields, C B; Uetani, N; Qiu, M

    2015-11-12

    Receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases (RPTPs) are extensively expressed in the central nervous system (CNS), and have distinct spatial and temporal patterns in different cell types during development. Previous studies have demonstrated possible roles for RPTPs in axon outgrowth, guidance, and synaptogenesis. In the present study, our results revealed that protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type D (PTPRD) was initially expressed in mature neurons in embryonic CNS, and later in oligodendroglial cells at postnatal stages when oligodendrocytes undergo active axonal myelination process. In PTPRD mutants, oligodendrocyte differentiation was normal and a transient myelination delay occurred at early postnatal stages, indicating the contribution of PTPRD to the initiation of axonal myelination. Our results also showed that the remyelination process was not affected in the absence of PTPRD function after a cuprizone-induced demyelination in adult animals.

  20. Receptor-type guanylate cyclase is required for carbon dioxide sensation by Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Hallem, Elissa A; Spencer, W Clay; McWhirter, Rebecca D; Zeller, Georg; Henz, Stefan R; Rätsch, Gunnar; Miller, David M; Horvitz, H Robert; Sternberg, Paul W; Ringstad, Niels

    2011-01-01

    CO(2) is both a critical regulator of animal physiology and an important sensory cue for many animals for host detection, food location, and mate finding. The free-living soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans shows CO(2) avoidance behavior, which requires a pair of ciliated sensory neurons, the BAG neurons. Using in vivo calcium imaging, we show that CO(2) specifically activates the BAG neurons and that the CO(2)-sensing function of BAG neurons requires TAX-2/TAX-4 cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels and the receptor-type guanylate cyclase GCY-9. Our results delineate a molecular pathway for CO(2) sensing and suggest that activation of a receptor-type guanylate cyclase is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism by which animals detect environmental CO(2). PMID:21173231

  1. Different Involvement of Type 1, 2, and 3 Ryanodine Receptors in Memory Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galeotti, Nicoletta; Quattrone, Alessandro; Vivoli, Elisa; Norcini, Monica; Bartolini, Alessandro; Ghelardini, Carla

    2008-01-01

    The administration of the ryanodine receptor (RyR) agonist 4-Cmc (0.003-9 nmol per mouse intracerebroventricularly [i.c.v.]) ameliorated memory functions, whereas the RyR antagonist ryanodine (0.0001-1 nmol per mouse i.c.v.) induced amnesia in the mouse passive avoidance test. The role of the type 1, 2, and 3 RyR isoforms in memory processes was…

  2. Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 and chemokines: beyond competition for common cellular receptors.

    PubMed

    Stantchev, T S; Broder, C C

    2001-01-01

    The chemokines and their receptors have been receiving exceptional attention in recent years following the discoveries that some chemokines could specifically block human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection and that certain chemokine receptors were the long-sought coreceptors which, along with CD4, are required for the productive entry of HIV-1 and HIV-2 isolates. Several chemokine receptors or orphan chemokine receptor-like molecules can support the entry of various viral strains, but the clinical significance of the CXCR4 and CCR5 coreceptors appear to overshadow a critical role for any of the other coreceptors and all HIV-1 and HIV-2 strains best employ one or both of these coreceptors. Binding of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 subunit to CD4 and/or an appropriate chemokine receptor triggers conformational changes in the envelope glycoprotein oligomer that allow it to facilitate the fusion of the viral and host cell membranes. During these interactions, gp120 appears to be capable of inducing a variety of signaling events, all of which are still not defined in detail. In addition, the more recently observed dichotomous effects, of both inhibition and enhancement, that chemokines and their receptor signaling events elicit on the HIV-1 entry and replication processes has once again highlighted the intricate and complex balance of factors that govern the pathogenic process. Here, we will review and discuss these new observations summarizing the potential significance these processes may have in HIV-1 infection. Understanding the complexities and significance of the signaling processes that the chemokines and viral products induce may substantially enhance our understanding of HIV-1 pathogenesis, and perhaps facilitate the discovery of new ways for the prevention and treatment of HIV-1 disease.

  3. Structural Basis of Interaction Between Urokinase-type Plasminogen Activator and its Receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Barinka,C.; Parry, G.; Callahan, J.; Shaw, D.; Kuo, A.; Cines, B.; Mazar, A.; Lubkowski, J.

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that binding of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) to its high-affinity receptor (uPAR) orchestrates uPAR interactions with other cellular components that play a pivotal role in diverse (patho-)physiological processes, including wound healing, angiogenesis, inflammation, and cancer metastasis. However, notwithstanding the wealth of biochemical data available describing the activities of uPAR, little is known about the exact mode of uPAR/uPA interactions or the presumed conformational changes that accompany uPA/uPAR engagement. Here, we report the crystal structure of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR), which contains the three domains of the wild-type receptor but lacks the cell-surface anchoring sequence, in complex with the amino-terminal fragment of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (ATF), at the resolution of 2.8 {angstrom}. We report the 1.9 {angstrom} crystal structure of free ATF. Our results provide a structural basis, represented by conformational changes induced in uPAR, for several published biochemical observations describing the nature of uPAR/uPA interactions and provide insight into mechanisms that may be responsible for the cellular responses induced by uPA binding.

  4. Mice lacking the PACAP type I receptor have impaired photic entrainment and negative masking.

    PubMed

    Hannibal, Jens; Brabet, Philippe; Fahrenkrug, Jan

    2008-12-01

    The retinohypothalamic tract (RHT) is a retinofugal neuronal pathway which, in mammals, mediates nonimage-forming vision to various areas in the brain involved in circadian timing, masking behavior, and regulation of the pupillary light reflex. The RHT costores the two neurotransmitters glutamate and pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP), which in a rather complex interplay are mediators of photic adjustment of the circadian system. To further characterize the role of PACAP/PACAP receptor type 1 (PAC1) receptor signaling in light entrainment of the clock and in negative masking behavior, we extended previous studies in mice lacking the PAC1 receptor (PAC1 KO) by examining their phase response to single light pulses using Aschoff type II regime, their ability to entrain to non-24-h light-dark (LD) cycles and large phase shifts of the LD cycle (jet lag), as well as their negative masking response during different light intensities. A prominent finding in PAC1 KO mice was a significantly decreased phase delay of the endogenous rhythm at early night. In accordance, PAC1 KO mice had a reduced ability to entrain to T cycles longer than 26 h and needed more time to reentrain to large phase delays, which was prominent at low light intensities. The data obtained at late night indicated that PACAP/PAC1 receptor signaling is less important during the phase-advancing part of the phase-response curve. Finally, the PAC1 KO mice showed impaired negative masking behavior at low light intensities. Our findings substantiate a role for PACAP/PAC1 receptor signaling in nonimage-forming vision and indicate that the system is particularly important at lower light intensities.

  5. Patterns of Müllerian Inhibiting Substance Type II and Candidate Type I Receptors in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer†

    PubMed Central

    Basal, E.; Ayeni, T.; Zhang, Q.; Langstraat, C.; Donahoe, P.K.; Pepin, D.; Yin, X.; Leof, E.; Cliby, W.

    2016-01-01

    The MIS pathway is a potential therapeutic target in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC): signaling requires both type II (T2R) and type I receptors (T1R), and results in growth inhibition. MISR2 is expressed in EOC, but the prevalence and relative contributions of candidate T1R remain unknown. We sought to: a) determine expression of T1R in EOC; b) assess impact of T1R expression with clinical outcomes; c) verify MIS-dependent Smad signaling and growth inhibition in primary EOC cell cultures. Tissue microarrays (TMA) were developed for analysis of T1Rs (ALK2/3/6) and MISR2 expression. Primary cell cultures were initiated from ascites harvested at surgery which were used to characterize response to MIS. TMA’s from 311 primary cancers demonstrated the most common receptor combinations were: MISR2+/ALK2+3+6+ (36%); MISR2+/ALK2+3+6- (34%); MISR2-/ALK2+3+6- (18%); and MISR2-/ALK2+3+6+ (6.8%). No differences in overall survival (OS) were noted between combinations. The ALK6 receptor was least often expressed T1R and was associated with lower OS in early stage disease only (p =0.03). Most primary cell cultures expressed MISR2 (14/22 (63.6%)): 95% of these express ALK 2 and ALK3, whereas 54.5% expressed ALK6. MIS-dependent Smad phosphorylation was seen in the majority of cultures (75%). Treatment with MIS led to reduced cell viability at an average of 71% (range: 57–87%) in primary cultures. MIS signaling is dependent upon the presence of both MISR2 and specific T1R. In the majority of EOC, the T1R required for MIS-dependent signaling are present and such cells demonstrate appropriate response to MIS. PMID:26917267

  6. Fscn1 is required for the trafficking of TGF-β family type I receptors during endoderm formation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhaoting; Ning, Guozhu; Xu, Ranran; Cao, Yu; Meng, Anming; Wang, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Microtubules function in TGF-β signalling by facilitating the cytoplasmic trafficking of internalized receptors and the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of Smads. However, nothing is known about whether actin filaments are required for these processes. Here we report that zebrafish actin-bundling protein fscn1a is highly expressed in mesendodermal precursors and its expression is directly regulated by the TGF-β superfamily member Nodal. Knockdown or knockout of fscn1a leads to a reduction of Nodal signal transduction and endoderm formation in zebrafish embryos. Fscn1 specifically interacts with TGF-β family type I receptors, and its depletion disrupts the association between receptors and actin filaments and sequesters the internalized receptors into clathrin-coated vesicles. Therefore, Fscn1 acts as a molecular linker between TGF-β family type I receptors and the actin filaments to promote the trafficking of internalized receptors from clathrin-coated vesicles to early endosomes during zebrafish endoderm formation. PMID:27545838

  7. Cell type-specific pharmacology of NMDA receptors using masked MK801

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yunlei; Lee, Peter; Sternson, Scott M

    2015-01-01

    N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDA-Rs) are ion channels that are important for synaptic plasticity, which is involved in learning and drug addiction. We show enzymatic targeting of an NMDA-R antagonist, MK801, to a molecularly defined neuronal population with the cell-type-selectivity of genetic methods and the temporal control of pharmacology. We find that NMDA-Rs on dopamine neurons are necessary for cocaine-induced synaptic potentiation, demonstrating that cell type-specific pharmacology can be used to dissect signaling pathways within complex brain circuits. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10206.001 PMID:26359633

  8. Striatal D1- and D2-type dopamine receptors are linked to motor response inhibition in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Chelsea L; Ishibashi, Kenji; Mandelkern, Mark A; Brown, Amira K; Ghahremani, Dara G; Sabb, Fred; Bilder, Robert; Cannon, Tyrone; Borg, Jacqueline; London, Edythe D

    2015-04-15

    Motor response inhibition is mediated by neural circuits involving dopaminergic transmission; however, the relative contributions of dopaminergic signaling via D1- and D2-type receptors are unclear. Although evidence supports dissociable contributions of D1- and D2-type receptors to response inhibition in rats and associations of D2-type receptors to response inhibition in humans, the relationship between D1-type receptors and response inhibition has not been evaluated in humans. Here, we tested whether individual differences in striatal D1- and D2-type receptors are related to response inhibition in human subjects, possibly in opposing ways. Thirty-one volunteers participated. Response inhibition was indexed by stop-signal reaction time on the stop-signal task and commission errors on the continuous performance task, and tested for association with striatal D1- and D2-type receptor availability [binding potential referred to nondisplaceable uptake (BPND)], measured using positron emission tomography with [(11)C]NNC-112 and [(18)F]fallypride, respectively. Stop-signal reaction time was negatively correlated with D1- and D2-type BPND in whole striatum, with significant relationships involving the dorsal striatum, but not the ventral striatum, and no significant correlations involving the continuous performance task. The results indicate that dopamine D1- and D2-type receptors are associated with response inhibition, and identify the dorsal striatum as an important locus of dopaminergic control in stopping. Moreover, the similar contribution of both receptor subtypes suggests the importance of a relative balance between phasic and tonic dopaminergic activity subserved by D1- and D2-type receptors, respectively, in support of response inhibition. The results also suggest that the stop-signal task and the continuous performance task use different neurochemical mechanisms subserving motor response inhibition. PMID:25878272

  9. Signalling versatility following self and non-self sensing by myeloid C-type lectin receptors

    PubMed Central

    Iborra, Salvador; Sancho, David

    2015-01-01

    Among myeloid immune receptors, C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) have a remarkable capacity to sense a variety of self and non-self ligands. The coupling of CLRs to different signal transduction modules is influenced not only by the receptor, but also by the nature, density and architecture of the ligand, which can affect the rate of receptor internalization and trafficking to diverse intracellular compartments. Understanding how the variety of self and non-self ligands triggers differential CLR signalling and function presents a fascinating biological challenge. Non-self ligands usually promote inflammation and immunity, whereas self ligands are frequently involved in communication and tolerance. But pathogens can mimic self-inhibitory signals to escape immune surveillance, and endogenous ligands can contribute to the sensing of pathogens through CLRs. In this review, we survey the complexity and flexibility in functional outcome found in the myeloid CLRs, which is not only based on their differing intracellular motifs, but is also conditioned by the physical nature, affinity and avidity of the ligand. PMID:25269828

  10. Understanding CELSRs - Cadherin EGF LAG seven-pass G-type receptors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao-Jing; Zhang, Dao-Lai; Xu, Zhi-Gang; Ma, Ming-Liang; Wang, Wen-Bo; Li, Lin-Lin; Han, Xiao-Lin; Huo, Yuqing; Yu, Xiao; Sun, Jin-Peng

    2014-01-01

    The cadherin EGF LAG seven-pass G-type receptors (CELSRs) are a special subgroup of adhesion G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), which are pivotal regulators of many biological processes such as neuronal/endocrine cell differentiation, vessel valve formation and the control of planar cell polarity during embryonic development. All three members of the CELSR family (CELSR1-3) have large ecto-domains that form homophilic interactions and encompass more than 2,000 amino acids. Mutations in the ecto-domain or other gene locations of CELSRs are associated with neural tube defects (NTDs) and other diseases in humans. Celsr knockout (KO) animals have many developmental defects. Therefore, specific agonists or antagonists of CELSR members may have therapeutic potential. Although significant progress has been made regarding the functions and biochemical properties of CELSRs, our knowledge of these receptors is still lacking, especially considering that they are broadly distributed but have few characterized functions in a limited number of tissues. The dynamic activation and inactivation of CELSRs and the presence of endogenous ligands beyond homophilic interactions remain elusive, as do the regulatory mechanisms and downstream signaling of these receptors. Given this motivation, future studies with more advanced cell biology or biochemical tools, such as conditional KO mice, may provide further insights into the mechanisms underlying CELSR function, laying the foundation for the design of new CELSR-targeted therapeutic reagents. PMID:25280249

  11. The cannabinoid type-1 receptor carboxyl-terminus, more than just a tail.

    PubMed

    Stadel, Rebecca; Ahn, Kwang H; Kendall, Debra A

    2011-04-01

    The cannabinoid type-1 (CB(1)) receptor is a G protein-coupled receptor that binds the main active ingredient of marijuana, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, and has been implicated in several disease states, including drug addiction, anxiety, depression, obesity, and chronic pain. In the two decades since the discovery of CB(1), studies at the molecular level have centered on the transmembrane core. This interest has now expanded as we discover that other regions of CB(1), including the CB(1) carboxyl-terminus, have critical structures that are important for CB(1) activity and regulation. Following the recent description of the three dimensional structure of the full-length CB(1) carboxyl-terminal tail [Biopolymers (2009) vol. 91, pp. 565-573], several residues and structural motifs including two α-helices (termed H8 and H9) have been postulated to interact with common G protein-coupled receptor accessory proteins, such as G-proteins and β-arrestins. This discourse will focus on the CB(1) carboxyl-terminus; our current understanding of the structural features of this region, evidence for its interaction with proteins, and the impact of structure on the binding and regulatory function of CB(1) accessory proteins. The involvement of the carboxyl-terminus in the receptor life cycle including activation, desensitization, and internalization will be highlighted.

  12. A feedback mechanism controlling SCRAMBLED receptor accumulation and cell-type pattern in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Su-Hwan; Schiefelbein, John

    2008-12-23

    Cellular pattern formation in the root epidermis of Arabidopsis occurs in a position-dependent manner, generating root-hair (H) cells contacting two underlying cortical cells and nonhair (N) cells contacting one cortical cell. SCRAMBLED (SCM), a leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase (LRR-RLK), mediates this process through its effect on a downstream transcription factor regulatory network. After perception of a positional cue, the SCM signaling pathway is proposed to preferentially repress WEREWOLF (WER) transcription factor expression in H cells and thereby bias the outcome of mutual lateral inhibition acting between H and N cells. However, the molecular mechanism responsible for this preferential SCM signaling is unknown. Here, we analyze the distribution of the SCM receptor and the biological effect of altering its accumulation pattern. We find that SCM expression and accumulation in the epidermal cell layer is necessary and sufficient to direct the cell-type pattern. Further, SCM preferentially accumulates in H cells, and this accumulation pattern is dependent on the downstream transcription factors. Thus, SCM participates in an autoregulatory feedback loop, enabling cells engaged in SCM signaling to maintain high levels of SCM receptor, which provides a simple mechanism for reinforcing a bias in receptor-mediated signaling to ensure robust pattern formation.

  13. Evidence for a role of endogenous neurotensin in the development of sensitization to the locomotor stimulant effect of morphine.

    PubMed

    Lévesque, Karine; Lamarche, Caroline; Rompré, Pierre-Paul

    2008-10-10

    This experiment was aimed at exploring the role of endogenous neurotensin in the development of sensitization to the locomotor stimulant effect of morphine. During the induction phase (Days 1, 3, 5 and 7), male Long-Evans adult rats were treated with the neurotensin antagonist SR-48692 (160, 320 or 640 microg/kg, i.p.) or its vehicle, followed by morphine (5.0 mg/kg, i.p.) or its vehicle, and their locomotor activity (ambulatory, non-ambulatory and vertical activity) was measured for 2 h. One week after the last injection, each group received a single injection of morphine (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) and their locomotor activity was again measured for 2 h (sensitization test, day 14). Results show that SR-48692 alone did not change locomotion. Morphine stimulated locomotor activity, an effect that was stronger on day 7 than on day 1. The two higher doses of SR-48692 attenuated the acute stimulant effect of morphine and prevented the observed increase from day 1 to day 7. The sensitization test on day 14 showed that rats pre-treated with morphine alone displayed significantly stronger ambulatory and vertical activity than vehicle pre-treated rats, a sensitization effect that was attenuated by SR-48692. The present results suggest that endogenous neurotensin contributes to the acute locomotor stimulant effect of morphine and to the induction of its sensitization. PMID:18706409

  14. 5-HT(1A) receptors transactivate the platelet-derived growth factor receptor type beta in neuronal cells.

    PubMed

    Kruk, Jeff S; Vasefi, Maryam S; Liu, Hui; Heikkila, John J; Beazely, Michael A

    2013-01-01

    In the absence of ligand, certain growth factor receptors can be activated via G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) activation in a process termed transactivation. Serotonin (5-HT) receptors can transactivate platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) β receptors in smooth muscle cells, but it is not known if similar pathways occur in neuronal cells. Here we show that 5-HT can transiently increase the phosphorylation of PDGFβ receptors through 5-HT(1A) receptors in a time- and dose-dependent manner in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. 5-HT also transactivates PDGFβ receptors in primary cortical neurons. This transactivation pathway is pertussis-toxin sensitive and Src tyrosine kinase-dependent. This pathway is also dependent on phospholipase C activity and intracellular calcium signaling. Several studies involving PDGFβ receptor transactivation by GPCRs have also demonstrated a PDGFβ receptor-dependent increase in the phosphorylation of ERK1/2. Yet in SH-SY5Y cells, 5-HT treatment causes a PDGFβ receptor-independent increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation. This crosstalk between 5-HT and PDGFβ receptors identifies a potentially important signaling link between the serotonergic system and growth factor signaling in neurons. PMID:23006663

  15. Muscarinic Type 3 Receptor Induces Cytoprotective Signaling in Salivary Gland Cells through Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Transactivation

    PubMed Central

    Kajiya, Mikihito; Ichimonji, Isao; Min, Christine; Zhu, Tongbo; Jin, Jun-O; Yu, Qing; Almazrooa, Soulafa A.; Cha, Seunghee

    2012-01-01

    Muscarinic type 3 receptor (M3R) plays a pivotal role in the induction of glandular fluid secretions. Although M3R is often the target of autoantibodies in Sjögren's syndrome (SjS), chemical agonists for M3R are clinically used to stimulate saliva secretion in patients with SjS. Aside from its activity in promoting glandular fluid secretion, however, it is unclear whether activation of M3R is related to other biological events in SjS. This study aimed to investigate the cytoprotective effect of chemical agonist-mediated M3R activation on apoptosis induced in human salivary gland (HSG) cells. Carbachol (CCh), a muscarinic receptor-specific agonist, abrogated tumor necrosis factor α/interferon γ-induced apoptosis through pathways involving caspase 3/7, but its cytoprotective effect was decreased by a M3R antagonist, a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor, a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt inhibitor, or an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor. Ligation of M3R with CCh transactivated EGFR and phosphorylated ERK and Akt, the downstream targets of EGFR. Inhibition of intracellular calcium release or protein kinase C δ, both of which are involved in the cell signaling of M3R-mediated fluid secretion, did not affect CCh-induced ERK or Akt phosphorylation. CCh stimulated Src phosphorylation and binding to EGFR. A Src inhibitor attenuated the CCh/M3R-induced cytoprotective effect and EGFR transactivation cascades. Overall, these results indicated that CCh/M3R induced transactivation of EGFR through Src activation leading to ERK and Akt phosphorylation, which in turn suppressed caspase 3/7-mediated apoptotic signals in HSG cells. This study, for the first time, proposes that CCh-mediated M3R activation can promote not only fluid secretion but also survival of salivary gland cells in the inflammatory context of SjS. PMID:22511543

  16. Gender-dependent association of type 2 diabetes with the vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor 1.

    PubMed

    Paladini, Fabiana; Adinolfi, Valerio; Cocco, Elisa; Ciociola, Ester; Tamburrano, Giulia; Cascino, Isabella; Lucantoni, Federica; Morano, Susanna; Sorrentino, Rosa

    2012-02-10

    Type 2 diabetes is characterized by an inadequate pancreatic beta-cell response to the progressive insulin resistance. Its pathogenesis is complex and has been connected with a state of preclinical chronic inflammation. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and its receptors play a relevant role in the homeostasis of insulin secretion as well as in the control of inflammation. In particular, VIP receptor 1 (VPAC1) has been found to be down-modulated during inflammation, and to be associated with several diseases. The objective of this study was to compare the distribution of SNPs mapping in the VIP receptor 1 gene in cases with type 2 diabetes and matched controls. Seven hundred cases with type 2 diabetes (423 males and 277 females) and 830 random controls (419 males and 411 females) were analyzed for the distribution of three common SNPs mapping in the VPAC1 gene. The results show a significantly different genotype distribution of the SNP rs9677 in the 3'-UTR of VPAC1 in female cases with type 2 diabetes compared to gender-matched controls (ptrend=6×10(-4)). The rs9677 CC genotype confers the highest risk (OR: 2.1) and correlates with worse clinical parameters such as higher level of total cholesterol, higher LDL/HDL ratio and a higher HbA1c concentration. The genetic association reported here indicates that VIP/VPAC1 signaling can be a relevant pathway in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes in females suggesting that at least some aspects of the genetic predisposition to this disease can be gender-specific.

  17. Monoglyceride lipase deficiency causes desensitization of intestinal cannabinoid receptor type 1 and increased colonic μ-opioid receptor sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Taschler, U; Eichmann, T O; Radner, F P W; Grabner, G F; Wolinski, H; Storr, M; Lass, A; Schicho, R; Zimmermann, R

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Monoglyceride lipase (MGL) degrades 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG), an endogenous agonist of cannabinoid receptors (CB1/2). Because the CB1 receptor is involved in the control of gut function, we investigated the effects of pharmacological inhibition and genetic deletion of MGL on intestinal motility. Furthermore, we determined whether defective 2-AG degradation affects μ-opioid receptorreceptor) signalling, a parallel pathway regulating gut motility. Experimental Approach Gut motility was investigated by monitoring Evans Blue transit and colonic bead propulsion in response to MGL inhibition and CB1 receptor or μ receptor stimulation. Ileal contractility was investigated by electrical field stimulation. CB1 receptor expression in ileum and colon was assessed by immunohistochemical analyses. Key Results Pharmacological inhibition of MGL slowed down whole gut transit in a CB1 receptor-dependent manner. Conversely, genetic deletion of MGL did not affect gut transit despite increased 2-AG levels. Notably, MGL deficiency caused complete insensitivity to CB1 receptor agonist-mediated inhibition of whole gut transit and ileal contractility suggesting local desensitization of CB1 receptors. Accordingly, immunohistochemical analyses of myenteric ganglia of MGL-deficient mice revealed that CB1 receptors were trapped in endocytic vesicles. Finally, MGL-deficient mice displayed accelerated colonic propulsion and were hypersensitive to μ receptor agonist-mediated inhibition of colonic motility. This phenotype was reproduced by chronic pharmacological inhibition of MGL. Conclusion and Implications Constantly elevated 2-AG levels induce severe desensitization of intestinal CB1 receptors and increased sensitivity to μ receptor-mediated inhibition of colonic motility. These changes should be considered when cannabinoid-based drugs are used in the therapy of gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:26075589

  18. Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor-Dependent GLP-1 and PYY Secretion in Mice and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Pais, Ramona; Rievaj, Juraj; Larraufie, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) is the key hormone mediator of the renin angiotensin system, which regulates blood pressure and fluid and electrolyte balance in the body. Here we report that in the colonic epithelium, the Ang II type 1 receptor is highly and exclusively expressed in enteroendocrine L cells, which produce the gut hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 and peptide YY (PYY). Ang II stimulated glucagon-like peptide-1 and PYY release from primary cultures of mouse and human colon, which was antagonized by the specific Ang II type 1 receptor blocker candesartan. Ang II raised intracellular calcium levels in L cells in primary cultures, recorded by live-cell imaging of L cells specifically expressing the fluorescent calcium sensor GCaMP3. In Ussing chamber recordings, Ang II reduced short circuit currents in mouse distal colon preparations, which was antagonized by candesartan or a specific neuropeptide Y1 receptor inhibitor but insensitive to amiloride. We conclude that Ang II stimulates PYY secretion, in turn inhibiting epithelial anion fluxes, thereby reducing net fluid secretion into the colonic lumen. Our findings highlight an important role of colonic L cells in whole-body fluid homeostasis by controlling water loss through the intestine. PMID:27447725

  19. Preparation of brain membranes containing a single type of opioid receptor highly selective for dynorphin.

    PubMed Central

    James, I F; Chavkin, C; Goldstein, A

    1982-01-01

    Opioid receptors on guinea pig brain membranes were alkylated by the naltrexone analogue beta-chlornaltrexamine. Binding of the prototypical mu and kappa ligands, [3H]dihydromorphine and [3H]ethylketocyclazocine, was more readily affected by the reagent than was binding of the delta ligand, 3H-labeled [D-Ala2, D-Leu5]enkephalin. Treatment of membranes with beta-chlornaltrexamine in the presence of dynorphin resulted in significant protection of [3H]ethylketocyclazocine binding sites, without protection of [3H]dihydromorphine or 3H-labeled [D-Ala2, D-Leu5]enkephalin sites. Similarly, [D-Ala2, D-Leu5]enkephalin and sufentanil selectively protected binding sites for 3H-labeled [D-Ala2, D-Leu5]enkephalin and [3H]dihydromorphine, respectively. Scatchard analysis of [3H]ethylketocyclazocine binding to untreated membranes suggested two types of binding site with 40-fold difference in affinities. Membranes treated with beta-chlornaltrexamine in the presence of dynorphin retained about 40% of the high-affinity sites and lost the low-affinity sites. Selective protection of sites with high affinity for dynorphin and ethylketocyclazocine was confirmed in competition binding assays. These results strongly suggest that the three types of opioid receptor are not interconvertible and provide further evidence that the endogenous peptide dynorphin is a highly selective ligand of the kappa opioid receptor. PMID:6130527

  20. Transforming growth factor receptor type II (ec-TβR II) behaves as a halophile.

    PubMed

    Saini, Komal; Khan, M Ashhar I; Chakrapani, Sumit; Deep, Shashank

    2015-01-01

    The members of transforming growth factor β family (TGF-β) are multifunctional proteins but their main role is to control cell proliferation and differentiation. Polypeptides of TGF-β family function by binding to two related, functionally distinct transmembrane receptor kinases, first to the type II (TβR II) followed by type I receptor (TβR I). The paper describes, in details, the stability of wt-ec-TβR II under different conditions. The stability of wt-ec-TβR II was observed at different pH and salt concentration using fluorescence spectroscopy. Stability of ec-TβR II decreases with decrease in pH. Interestingly, the addition of salt increases the stability of the TβRII at pH 5.0 as observed for halophiles. Computational analysis using DELPHI suggests that this is probably due to the decrease in repulsion between negatively charged residues at surface on the addition of salt. This is further confirmed by the change in the stability of receptor on mutation of some of the residues (D32A) at surface.

  1. Dopamine and angiotensin type 2 receptors cooperatively inhibit sodium transport in human renal proximal tubule cells.

    PubMed

    Gildea, John J; Wang, Xiaoli; Shah, Neema; Tran, Hanh; Spinosa, Michael; Van Sciver, Robert; Sasaki, Midori; Yatabe, Junichi; Carey, Robert M; Jose, Pedro A; Felder, Robin A

    2012-08-01

    Little is known regarding how the kidney shifts from a sodium and water reclaiming state (antinatriuresis) to a state where sodium and water are eliminated (natriuresis). In human renal proximal tubule cells, sodium reabsorption is decreased by the dopamine D(1)-like receptors (D(1)R/D(5)R) and the angiotensin type 2 receptor (AT(2)R), whereas the angiotensin type 1 receptor increases sodium reabsorption. Aberrant control of these opposing systems is thought to lead to sodium retention and, subsequently, hypertension. We show that D(1)R/D(5)R stimulation increased plasma membrane AT(2)R 4-fold via a D(1)R-mediated, cAMP-coupled, and protein phosphatase 2A-dependent specific signaling pathway. D(1)R/D(5)R stimulation also reduced the ability of angiotensin II to stimulate phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase, an effect that was partially reversed by an AT(2)R antagonist. Fenoldopam did not increase AT(2)R recruitment in renal proximal tubule cells with D(1)Rs uncoupled from adenylyl cyclase, suggesting a role of cAMP in mediating these events. D(1)Rs and AT(2)Rs heterodimerized and cooperatively increased cAMP and cGMP production, protein phosphatase 2A activation, sodium-potassium-ATPase internalization, and sodium transport inhibition. These studies shed new light on the regulation of renal sodium transport by the dopaminergic and angiotensin systems and potential new therapeutic targets for selectively treating hypertension.

  2. Human Cytomegalovirus Up-Regulates Endothelin Receptor Type B: Implication for Vasculopathies?

    PubMed Central

    Yaiw, Koon-Chu; Mohammad, Abdul-Aleem; Costa, Helena; Taher, Chato; Badrnya, Sigrun; Assinger, Alice; Wilhelmi, Vanessa; Ananthaseshan, Sharan; Estekizadeh, Atosa; Davoudi, Belghis; Ovchinnikova, Olga; Shlyakhto, Eugene; Rafnsson, Arnar; Khan, Zahidul; Butler, Lynn; Rahbar, Afsar; Pernow, John; Söderberg-Nauclér, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    Background. Both endothelin receptor type B ([ETBR], a G protein-coupled receptor that mediates the vascular effects of the potent vasoconstrictor endothelin-1) and human cytomegalovirus ([HCMV], a ubiquitous herpesvirus) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The effects of HCMV infection on ETBR expression are unknown. We hypothesized that HCMV may contribute to the pathogenesis of CVD via ETBR modulation. Methods. Human CMV effects on ETBR were studied in vitro in endothelial cells (ECs) and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and ex vivo in human carotid plaque tissue specimens. Expression of ETBR and viral immediate-early were quantified using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Functional consequences after ETBR blockade in ECs were examined by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide proliferation, wound healing, tube formation, and flow adhesion assays. Results. Human CMV is capable of upregulating both ETBR mRNA and protein expression in ECs and SMCs. The ETBR was also abundantly expressed in ECs, foam cells, and SMCs, and, more importantly, in HCMV-positive cells in human carotid plaques. Endothelin receptor type B blockade led to decreased proliferation and reduced tumor necrosis factor α-mediated leukocyte recruitment in both uninfected and HCMV-infected ECs. Direct HCMV infection was antimigratory and antiangiogenic in ECs. Conclusions. Human CMV may contribute to CVD via ETBR induction. PMID:26719843

  3. Group 2 innate lymphoid cells express functional NKp30 receptor inducing type 2 cytokine production1

    PubMed Central

    Salimi, Maryam; Xue, Luzheng; Jolin, Helen; Hardman, Clare; Cousins, David J.; McKenzie, Andrew N.J.; Ogg, Graham S.

    2016-01-01

    Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) are important in effector functions for eliciting allergic inflammation, parasite defence, epithelial repair and lipid homeostasis. ILC2 lack rearranged antigen-specific receptors, and while many soluble factors such as cytokines and lipid mediators can influence ILC2, direct interaction of these cells with microenvironment and other cells has been less explored. Natural cytotoxicity receptors are expressed by subsets of ILC1 and ILC3 and thought to be important for their effector function, but have not been shown to be expressed by ILC2. Therefore, we sought to investigate the expression and functional properties of the natural cytotoxicity receptor NKp30 on human group 2 innate lymphoid cells. A subset of ex vivo and cultured ILC2 express NKp30 that upon interaction with its cognate activatory ligand B7-H6 induces rapid production of type 2 cytokines. This interaction can be blocked by NKp30 blocking antibody and an inhibitory ligand, galectin-3. Higher expression of B7-H6 was observed in lesional skin biopsies of patients with atopic dermatitis; and incubation of keratinocytes with pro-inflammatory and type 2 cytokines upregulated B7-H6 leading to increased ILC2 cytokine production. NKp30-B7-H6 interaction is a novel cell contact mechanism that mediates activation of ILC2 and identifies a potential target for the development of novel therapeutics for atopic dermatitis and other atopic diseases. PMID:26582946

  4. Type 1 angiotensin II receptor subtypes in kidney of normal and salt-sensitive hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Bouby, N; Bankir, L; Llorens-Cortes, C

    1996-03-01

    We studied the localization and regulation of the two type 1 angiotensin II receptor subtypes AT(1A) and AT(1B) in different renal zones of the rat kidney by a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction amplification method. The yield of the reaction was quantified with an internal standard that was a 63-bp deleted mutant cRNA of the AT(1A) receptor. In kidneys of male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=4), the levels of AT(1A) and AT(1B) receptor mRNAs were highest in the inner stripe of the outer medulla, lowest in the inner medulla, and intermediate in the cortex and outer stripe of the outer medulla. Results (mean+/-SE) expressed in 10(5) molecules per microgram total RNA were for cortex outer stripe, inner stripe, and inner medulla, respectively, 171 +/- 15, 152 +/- 27, 322 +/- 10, and 73 +/- 3 for AT(1A), and 35 +/- 9, 26 +/- 1, 71 +/- 10, and 53 +/- 11 for AT(1B). In sabra rats sensitive (n=6) or resistant (n=6) to salt-induced hypertension and maintained on a normal salt diet, the percentage and level of each receptor subtype mRNA in cortex and outer stripe were similar in the two strains and comparable to those observed in Sprague-Dawley rats. However, AT(1A) of the inner stripe was significantly decreased in salt-resistant compared with salt-sensitive rats (166 +/- 28 and 318 +/- 58 10(5) molecules per microgram total RNA, respectively). These modifications were organ specific because no difference in the level of the receptor mRNAs was observed in the liver of the two Sabra rat strains, whereas a twofold increase in AT(1A) mRNA level but not in AT(1B) mRNA level was apparent in adrenal and in one renal zone, the inner stripe of the outer medulla, of hypertension-prone Sabra rats.

  5. Modulation of defensive behavior by Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid Type-1 (TRPV1) channels.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, D C; Moreira, F A; Terzian, A L; Fogaça, M V; Lisboa, S F; Wotjak, C T; Guimaraes, F S

    2014-10-01

    The Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid Type-1 (TRPV1) was first characterized in primary afferent fibers as a receptor for capsaicin (the pungent ingredient of chili peppers). Later on, this cation-permeable ion channel was also described in the central nervous system, where its main putative endogenous ligand is N-arachidonoyl ethanolamide (an endocannabinoid, also known as anandamide). Recent results employing genetic, pharmacological and histochemical techniques indicate that TRPV1 tonically modulate anxiety, fear and panic responses in brain regions related to defensive responses, such as the dorsal periaqueductal gray, the hippocampus and the medial prefrontal cortex. Genetic deletion or antagonism of this ion channel induces anxiolytic-like effects in several animal models. The main mechanism responsible for TRPV1-mediated effects on anxiety seems to involve facilitation of glutamatergic neurotransmission. In addition, there is evidence for interactions with other neurotransmitter systems, such as nitric oxide and endocannabinoids. PMID:24726577

  6. Modulation of defensive behavior by Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid Type-1 (TRPV1) channels.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, D C; Moreira, F A; Terzian, A L; Fogaça, M V; Lisboa, S F; Wotjak, C T; Guimaraes, F S

    2014-10-01

    The Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid Type-1 (TRPV1) was first characterized in primary afferent fibers as a receptor for capsaicin (the pungent ingredient of chili peppers). Later on, this cation-permeable ion channel was also described in the central nervous system, where its main putative endogenous ligand is N-arachidonoyl ethanolamide (an endocannabinoid, also known as anandamide). Recent results employing genetic, pharmacological and histochemical techniques indicate that TRPV1 tonically modulate anxiety, fear and panic responses in brain regions related to defensive responses, such as the dorsal periaqueductal gray, the hippocampus and the medial prefrontal cortex. Genetic deletion or antagonism of this ion channel induces anxiolytic-like effects in several animal models. The main mechanism responsible for TRPV1-mediated effects on anxiety seems to involve facilitation of glutamatergic neurotransmission. In addition, there is evidence for interactions with other neurotransmitter systems, such as nitric oxide and endocannabinoids.

  7. Signaling by myeloid C-type lectin receptors in immunity and homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Sancho, David; Reis e Sousa, Caetano

    2015-01-01

    Myeloid cells are key drivers of physiological responses to pathogen invasion or tissue damage. Members of the C-type lectin receptor (CLR) family stand out among the specialized receptors utilized by myeloid cells to orchestrate these responses. CLR ligands include carbohydrate, protein and lipid components of both pathogens and self, which variably trigger endocytic, phagocytic, pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory reactions. These varied outcomes rely on a versatile system for CLR signaling that includes tyrosine based motifs that recruit kinases, phosphatases or endocytic adaptors, as well as non-tyrosine based signals that modulate the activation of other pathways or couple to the uptake machinery. Here, we review the signaling properties of myeloid CLRs and how they impact the role of myeloid cells in innate and adaptive immunity. PMID:22224766

  8. Human Toll like receptor 4 gene expression of PBMCs in diabetes mellitus type 2 patients.

    PubMed

    Sepehri, Z; Kiani, Z; Nasiri, A A; Mashhadi, M A; Javadian, F; Haghighi, A; Kohan, F; Bahari, A; Sargazi, A

    2015-07-31

    Toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) is one of the most pivotal pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) in innate immune systems. In this study, we evaluate the expression of the TLR4 in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) in comparison to healthy controls. Expression of TLR4 in 32 human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of patients with DM2 and 20 control samples was assessed using Real—Time PCR technique. For each patient, body mass index (BMI) and blood glucose levels were measured. The results of Real—Time PCR showed a 5—folds increase in expression of TLR4 on the PBMCs of DM2 patients in comparison to controls. No correlation was observed between the TLR4 expression and sex or BMI. Our results confirmed that DM2 can increase TLR4 expression independent from sex, blood glucose concentrations and BMI.

  9. Bone Cell-autonomous Contribution of Type 2 Cannabinoid Receptor to Breast Cancer-induced Osteolysis*

    PubMed Central

    Sophocleous, Antonia; Marino, Silvia; Logan, John G.; Mollat, Patrick; Ralston, Stuart H.; Idris, Aymen I.

    2015-01-01

    The cannabinoid type 2 receptor (CB2) has previously been implicated as a regulator of tumor growth, bone remodeling, and bone pain. However, very little is known about the role of the skeletal CB2 receptor in the regulation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts changes associated with breast cancer. Here we found that the CB2-selective agonists HU308 and JWH133 reduced the viability of a variety of parental and bone-tropic human and mouse breast cancer cells at high micromolar concentrations. Under conditions in which these ligands are used at the nanomolar range, HU308 and JWH133 enhanced human and mouse breast cancer cell-induced osteoclastogenesis and exacerbated osteolysis, and these effects were attenuated in cultures obtained from CB2-deficient mice or in the presence of a CB2 receptor blocker. HU308 and JWH133 had no effects on osteoblast growth or differentiation in the presence of conditioned medium from breast cancer cells, but under these circumstances both agents enhanced parathyroid hormone-induced osteoblast differentiation and the ability to support osteoclast formation. Mechanistic studies in osteoclast precursors and osteoblasts showed that JWH133 and HU308 induced PI3K/AKT activity in a CB2-dependent manner, and these effects were enhanced in the presence of osteolytic and osteoblastic factors such as RANKL (receptor activator of NFκB ligand) and parathyroid hormone. When combined with published work, these findings suggest that breast cancer and bone cells exhibit differential responses to treatment with CB2 ligands depending upon cell type and concentration used. We, therefore, conclude that both CB2-selective activation and antagonism have potential efficacy in cancer-associated bone disease, but further studies are warranted and ongoing. PMID:26195631

  10. Efficient Modulation of γ-Aminobutyric Acid Type A Receptors by Piperine Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Piperine activates TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 receptor) receptors and modulates γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABAAR). We have synthesized a library of 76 piperine analogues and analyzed their effects on GABAAR by means of a two-microelectrode voltage-clamp technique. GABAAR were expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Structure–activity relationships (SARs) were established to identify structural elements essential for efficiency and potency. Efficiency of piperine derivatives was significantly increased by exchanging the piperidine moiety with either N,N-dipropyl, N,N-diisopropyl, N,N-dibutyl, p-methylpiperidine, or N,N-bis(trifluoroethyl) groups. Potency was enhanced by replacing the piperidine moiety by N,N-dibutyl, N,N-diisobutyl, or N,N-bistrifluoroethyl groups. Linker modifications did not substantially enhance the effect on GABAAR. Compound 23 [(2E,4E)-5-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-N,N-dipropyl-2,4-pentadienamide] induced the strongest modulation of GABAA (maximal GABA-induced chloride current modulation (IGABA-max = 1673% ± 146%, EC50 = 51.7 ± 9.5 μM), while 25 [(2E,4E)-5-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-N,N-dibutyl-2,4-pentadienamide] displayed the highest potency (EC50 = 13.8 ± 1.8 μM, IGABA-max = 760% ± 47%). Compound 23 induced significantly stronger anxiolysis in mice than piperine and thus may serve as a starting point for developing novel GABAAR modulators. PMID:24905252

  11. Transcriptional activation of estrogen receptor ERalpha and ERbeta by polycyclic musks is cell type dependent.

    PubMed

    Schreurs, Richard H M M; Quaedackers, Monique E; Seinen, Willem; van der Burg, Bart

    2002-08-15

    In the past decade the list of chemicals in the environment that are able to mimic the natural hormone estrogen, thereby disrupting endocrine function, has grown rapidly. These chemicals are able to bind to estrogen receptors (ERs) and influence estrogen signaling pathways, although several of them have structures that differ substantially from the endogenous hormone 17beta-estradiol. Because of their polycyclic nature, the polycyclic musks AHTN (6-acetyl-1,1,2,4,4,7-hexamethyltetraline) and HHCB (1,2,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethylcyclopenta-gamma-2-benzopyran) were assessed for interaction with estrogen receptors. These compounds are ubiquitously present in surface waters and have been identified in human milk fat and blood. Using sensitive in vitro reporter gene assays, we found that AHTN and HHCB act as selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), inducing both estrogenic and antiestrogenic activity dependent on the cell line and the ER subtype targeted. Weak estrogenic effects were observed only at relatively high concentrations (10 microM). Antiestrogenic effects were observed in various cell lines starting at concentrations of 0.1 microM. In comparison with the well-known SERM, 4-hydroxytamoxifen, AHTN and HHCB have a much lower potency in suppressing estradiol-induced transactivation. Results with various mutant ER receptor types suggest that binding sites of the musk compounds differ from 17beta-estradiol and 4-hydroxytamoxifen. The cell type dependency of ER transactivation shows that caution should be exerted when interpreting effects of estrogenic compounds using in vitro systems.

  12. Defective membrane expression of human growth hormone (GH) receptor causes Laron-type GH insensitivity syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Duquesnoy, P; Sobrier, M L; Amselem, S; Goossens, M

    1991-01-01

    Mutations in the growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene can cause growth hormone (GH) resistance. Given the sequence homology between the extracellular domain of the GHR and a soluble GH-binding protein (GH-BP), it is remarkable that GH-BP binding activity is absent from the serum of patients with Laron-type GH insensitivity, a hereditary form of severe dwarfism. We have previously identified a mutation within the extracellular domain of this receptor, replacing phenylalanine by serine at position 96 of the mature protein, in a patient with Laron syndrome. We have now investigated the effect of this Phe----Ser substitution on hormone binding activity by expressing the total human GHR cDNA and mutant form in eukaryotic cells. The wild-type protein expressed was able to bind GH but no plasma membrane binding was detectable on cells transfected with the mutant cDNA; this was also the case of cells transfected with a Phe96----Ala mutant cDNA, suggesting that the lack of binding activity is not due to a posttranslational modification of serine. Examination of the variant proteins in subcellular fractions revealed the presence of specific GH binding activity in the lysosomal fraction, whereas immunofluorescence studies located mutant proteins in the cytosol. Our findings suggest that these mutant GHRs fail to follow the correct intracellular transport pathway and underline the potential importance of this phenylalanine residue, which is conserved among the GH, prolactin, and erythropoietin receptors that belong to the same cytokine receptor superfamily. Images PMID:1719554

  13. Space and time: New considerations about the relationship between Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and type I interferons (IFNs).

    PubMed

    Perkins, Darren J; Vogel, Stefanie N

    2015-08-01

    The Toll like receptors (TLRs) and the type I interferons have critical roles to play in innate immunity. In this review we will discuss new developments relating to the important area of TLR/IFN cross regulation.

  14. Space and Time: New Considerations About the Relationship Between Toll-like Receptors (TLRs) and Type I Interferons (IFNs)

    PubMed Central

    Perkins, Darren J.; Vogel, Stefanie N.

    2015-01-01

    The Toll Like Receptors (TLRs) and the type I Interferons have critical roles to play in innate immunity. In this review we will discuss new developments relating to the important area of TLR/IFN cross regulation PMID:25819430

  15. The mouse glucocorticoid receptor: mapping of functional domains by cloning, sequencing and expression of wild-type and mutant receptor proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Danielsen, M; Northrop, J P; Ringold, G M

    1986-01-01

    We have isolated mouse glucocorticoid receptor (GR) cDNAs which, when expressed in transfected mammalian cells, produce a fully functional GR protein. Sequence analysis reveals an open reading frame of 2349 bp which could encode a protein of approximately 86,000 daltons. We have also isolated two receptor cDNAs from mouse S49 nuclear transfer-deficient (nt-) cells which encode mutant forms of the receptor protein. One cDNA encodes a protein that is unable to bind hormone and represents the endogenous hormone binding deficient receptor recently discovered in S49 cells. The lesion in this receptor is due to a single amino acid substitution (Glu-546 to Gly). The second cDNA from nt- cells produces a receptor protein that is able to bind hormone but has reduced nuclear binding. This cDNA, therefore, encodes for the S49 nt- receptor which has been shown to have reduced affinity for DNA. The lesion maps to a single amino acid substitution (Arg-484 to His) located in a highly Cys, Lys, Arg-rich region of the protein previously implicated in DNA binding. Our studies provide unambiguous identification of receptor domains and specific amino acids critical for the hormone and DNA binding properties of this transcriptional regulatory protein. Contained within the first 106 amino acids of the mouse GR is a stretch of nine glutamines with two prolines which are related to the family of transcribed repetitive elements, opa, found in Drosophila melanogaster. A truncated receptor lacking these 106 amino acids is functionally indistinguishable from the wild-type receptor. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:3780669

  16. Effect of P2X7 Receptor Knockout on AQP-5 Expression of Type I Alveolar Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ebeling, Georg; Bläsche, Robert; Hofmann, Falk; Augstein, Antje; Kasper, Michael; Barth, Kathrin

    2014-01-01

    P2X7 receptors, ATP-gated cation channels, are specifically expressed in alveolar epithelial cells. The pathophysiological function of this lung cell type, except a recently reported putative involvement in surfactant secretion, is unknown. In addition, P2X7 receptor-deficient mice show reduced inflammation and lung fibrosis after exposure with bleomycin. To elucidate the role of the P2X7 receptor in alveolar epithelial type I cells we characterized the pulmonary phenotype of P2X7 receptor knockout mice by using immunohistochemistry, western blot analysis and real-time RT PCR. No pathomorphological signs of fibrosis were found. Results revealed, however, a remarkable loss of aquaporin-5 protein and mRNA in young knockout animals. Additional in vitro experiments with bleomycin treated precision cut lung slices showed a greater sensitivity of the P2X7 receptor knockout mice in terms of aquaporin-5 reduction as wild type animals. Finally, P2X7 receptor function was examined by using the alveolar epithelial cell lines E10 and MLE-12 for stimulation experiments with bleomycin. The in vitro activation of P2X7 receptor was connected with an increase of aquaporin-5, whereas the inhibition of the receptor with oxidized ATP resulted in down regulation of aquaporin-5. The early loss of aquaporin-5 which can be found in different pulmonary fibrosis models does not implicate a specific pathogenetic role during fibrogenesis. PMID:24941004

  17. Impaired up-regulation of type II corticosteroid receptors in hippocampus of aged rats.

    PubMed

    Eldridge, J C; Fleenor, D G; Kerr, D S; Landfield, P W

    1989-01-30

    Several recent investigations have reported a decline of rat hippocampal corticosteroid-binding receptors (CSRs) with aging. This decline has been proposed to be an initial cause (through disinhibition) of the elevated adrenal steroid secretion that apparently occurs with aging; however, it could instead be an effect of corticoid elevation (through down-regulation). In order to assess the effects of age on CSR biosynthetic capacity in the absence of down-regulatory influences of endogenous corticoids, as well as to study aging changes in CSR plasticity, we examined the up-regulation of hippocampal CSR that follows adrenalectomy (ADX). The rat hippocampus contains at least two types of CSR binding and differential analysis of types I and II CSR was accomplished by selective displacement of [3H]corticosterone with RU-28362, a specific type II agonist. In young (3 months old) Fischer-344 rat hippocampus, up-regulation of type II binding above 2-day ADX baseline was present by 3-7 days and increased still further by 8-10 days post-ADX; type I CSR density did not change significantly between 1 and 10 days post-ADX. However, in aged (24-26 months old) rats, type II CSR up-regulation did not occur over the 10 day post-ADX period. Thus, the age-related impairment of type II up-regulation may reflect an intrinsic deficit in CSR biosynthesis or lability that is independent of the acute endogenous adrenal steroid environment.

  18. Characterization of porcine intestinal receptors for the K88ac fimbrial adhesin of Escherichia coli as mucin-type sialoglycoproteins.

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, A K; Baker, D R; Bosworth, B T; Casey, T A; Benfield, D A; Francis, D H

    1994-01-01

    We have previously identified two K88ac adhesion receptors (210 and 240 kDa) which are present in membrane preparations from adhesive but not nonadhesive porcine intestinal brush border cells; these adhesin receptors are postulated to be important determinants of the susceptibility of pigs to K88ac+ enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infections (A.K. Erickson, J.A. Willgohs, S.Y. McFarland, D.A. Benfield, and D.F. Francis, Infect. Immun. 60:983-988, 1992). We now describe a procedure for the purification of these two receptors. Receptors were solubilized from adhesive intestinal brush border vesicles using deoxycholate and were purified by gel filtration chromatography on Sepharose CL-4B and then by hydroxyapatite chromatography. Amino acid compositional analyses indicated that the two receptors have similar amino acid compositions. The most distinguishing characteristic of both receptors is a high percentage of threonine and proline residues. Neuraminidase treatment caused the K88ac adhesin receptors to migrate with a slower mobility on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis gels, indicating that these receptors are sialoglycoproteins. Results from lectin-binding studies indicated that the receptors contain O-linked oligosaccharides composed of galactosyl (beta-1,3)N-acetylgalactosamine, alpha-linked fucose, galactosyl(beta-1,4)N-acetylglucosamine, sialic acid, galactose, and N-acetylgalactosamine. Collectively, these characteristics indicate that the K88ac adhesin receptors are mucin-type sialoglycoproteins. Images PMID:7960120

  19. Spatial Distribution of the Cannabinoid Type 1 and Capsaicin Receptors May Contribute to the Complexity of Their Crosstalk

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jie; Varga, Angelika; Selvarajah, Srikumaran; Jenes, Agnes; Dienes, Beatrix; Sousa-Valente, Joao; Kulik, Akos; Veress, Gabor; Brain, Susan D.; Baker, David; Urban, Laszlo; Mackie, Ken; Nagy, Istvan

    2016-01-01

    The cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor and the capsaicin receptor (TRPV1) exhibit co-expression and complex, but largely unknown, functional interactions in a sub-population of primary sensory neurons (PSN). We report that PSN co-expressing CB1 receptor and TRPV1 form two distinct sub-populations based on their pharmacological properties, which could be due to the distribution pattern of the two receptors. Pharmacologically, neurons respond either only to capsaicin (COR neurons) or to both capsaicin and the endogenous TRPV1 and CB1 receptor ligand anandamide (ACR neurons). Blocking or deleting the CB1 receptor only reduces both anandamide- and capsaicin-evoked responses in ACR neurons. Deleting the CB1 receptor also reduces the proportion of ACR neurons without any effect on the overall number of capsaicin-responding cells. Regarding the distribution pattern of the two receptors, neurons express CB1 and TRPV1 receptors either isolated in low densities or in close proximity with medium/high densities. We suggest that spatial distribution of the CB1 receptor and TRPV1 contributes to the complexity of their functional interaction. PMID:27653550

  20. Association between Periodontal Disease and Inflammatory Arthritis Reveals Modulatory Functions by Melanocortin Receptor Type 3

    PubMed Central

    Montero-Melendez, Trinidad; Madeira, Mila F.M.; Norling, Lucy V.; Alsam, Asil; Curtis, Michael A.; da Silva, Tarcília A.; Perretti, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Because there is clinical evidence for an association between periodontal disease and rheumatoid arthritis, it is important to develop suitable experimental models to explore pathogenic mechanisms and therapeutic opportunities. The K/BxN serum model of inflammatory arthritis was applied using distinct protocols, and modulation of joint disruption afforded by dexamethasone and calcitonin was established in comparison to the melanocortin (MC) receptor agonist DTrp8–γ-melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH; DTrp). Wild-type and MC receptor type 3 (MC3)-null mice of different ages were also used. There was significant association between severity of joint disease, induced with distinct protocols and volumes of the arthritogenic K/BxN serum, and periodontal bone damage. Therapeutic treatment with 10 μg dexamethasone, 30 ng elcatonin, and 20 μg DTrp per mouse revealed unique and distinctive pharmacological properties, with only DTrp protecting both joint and periodontal tissue. Further analyses in nonarthritic animals revealed higher susceptibility to periodontal bone loss in Mc3r−/− compared with wild-type mice, with significant exacerbation at 14 weeks of age. These data reveal novel protective properties of endogenous MC3 on periodontal status in health and disease and indicate that MC3 activation could lead to the development of a new genus of anti-arthritic bone-sparing therapeutics. PMID:24979595

  1. Estrogen receptor alpha single nucleotide polymorphism as predictor of diabetes type 2 risk in hypogonadal men.

    PubMed

    Linnér, Carl; Svartberg, Johan; Giwercman, Aleksander; Giwercman, Yvonne Lundberg

    2013-06-01

    Estradiol (E2) is, apart from its role as a reproductive hormone, also important for cardiac function and bone maturation in both genders. It has also been shown to play a role in insulin production, energy expenditure and in inducing lipolysis. The aim of the study was to investigate if low circulating testosterone or E2 levels in combination with variants in the estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) and estrogen receptor beta (ESR2) genes were of importance for the risk of type-2 diabetes. The single nucleotide polymorphisms rs2207396 and rs1256049, in ESR1 and ESR2, respectively, were analysed by allele specific PCR in 172 elderly men from the population-based Tromsø study. The results were adjusted for age. In individuals with low total (≤11 nmol/L) or free testosterone (≤0.18 nmol/L) being carriers of the variant A-allele in ESR1 was associated with 7.3 and 15.9 times, respectively, increased odds ratio of being diagnosed with diabetes mellitus type 2 (p = 0.025 and p = 0.018, respectively). Lower concentrations of E2 did not seem to increase the risk of being diagnosed with diabetes. In conclusion, in hypogonadal men, the rs2207396 variant in ESR1 predicts the risk of type 2 diabetes.

  2. [Thiazolidinediones in type 2 diabetes. Role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma)].

    PubMed

    Dubois, M; Vantyghem, M-C; Schoonjans, K; Pattou, F

    2002-12-01

    Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) form a new class of oral antidiabetic agents. They improve insulin sensitivity and reduce glycemia, lipidemia and insulinemia in patients with type 2 diabetes. Their mechanism is original, since they activate the nuclear receptor Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor gamma (PPARgamma), altering the expression of genes involved in glucose and lipid homeostasis. Stimulating PPARgamma improves insulin sensitivity via several mechanisms: 1) it raises the expression of GLUT4 glucose transporter; 2) it regulates release of adipocyte-derived signaling factors that affect insulin sensitivity in muscle, and 3) it contributes to a turn-over in adipose tissue, inducing the production of smaller, more insulin sensitive adipocytes. TZDs also affect free fatty acids (FFA) lipotoxicity on islets, improving pancreatic B-cell function. In addition, triglycerides and FFA levels are lowered by TZDs. Two TZDs, rosiglitazone and pioglitazone, have recently obtained the European commercial licence, but their use is restricted to the association with metformin or sulfonylureas. At the moment, they are indicated in type 2 diabetes but could be of interest in a broader array of diseases related to insulin resistance. As for side effects, rosiglitazone and pioglitazone may cause increased plasma volume, edema and dose-related weight gain. TZDs offer an attractive option in the treatment of type 2 diabetes, though it may be too soon to determine if they prevent vascular complications, as do other oral antidiabetic agents. An important issue for the future will be to assess the influence of weight gain in the long time. PMID:12527853

  3. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Sense Three Dimensional Type I Collagen through Discoidin Domain Receptor 1.

    PubMed

    Lund, A W; Stegemann, J P; Plopper, G E

    2009-01-01

    The extracellular matrix provides structural and organizational cues for tissue development and defines and maintains cellular phenotype during cell fate determination. Multipotent mesenchymal stem cells use this matrix to tightly regulate the balance between their differentiation potential and self-renewal in the native niche. When understood, the mechanisms that govern cell-matrix crosstalk during differentiation will allow for efficient engineering of natural and synthetic matrices to specifically direct and maintain stem cell phenotype. This work identifies the discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1), a collagen activated receptor tyrosine kinase, as a potential link through which stem cells sense and respond to the 3D organization of their extracellular matrix microenvironment. DDR1 is dependent upon both the structure and proteolytic state of its collagen ligand and is specifically expressed and localized in three dimensional type I collagen culture. Inhibition of DDR1 expression results in decreased osteogenic potential, increased cell spreading, stress fiber formation and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Additionally, loss of DDR1 activity alters the cell-mediated organization of the naïve type I collagen matrix. Taken together, these results demonstrate a role for DDR1 in the stem cell response to and interaction with three dimensional type I collagen. Dynamic changes in cell shape in 3D culture and the tuning of the local ECM microstructure, directs crosstalk between DDR1 and two dimensional mechanisms of osteogenesis that can alter their traditional roles.

  4. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of mannose receptor C type 1 in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Liu, Lichun; Zhou, Yang; Zhao, Xiaoheng; Xi, Mingjun; Wei, Shun; Fang, Rui; Ji, Wei; Chen, Nan; Gu, Zemao; Liu, Xueqin; Wang, Weimin; Asim, Muhammad; Liu, Xiaoling; Lin, Li

    2014-03-01

    Mannose receptor C type 1 (MRC1) is a pattern-recognition receptor (PRR) which plays a significant role in immune responses. Much work on MRC1 has been done in mammals and birds while little in fish. In this study, we cloned and characterized MRC1 in grass carp (gcMR). The full-length gcMR contained 5291bp encoding a putative protein of 1432 amino acids. The predicted amino acid sequences showed that gcMR contained a signal peptide, a cysteine-rich (CR) domain, a fibronectin type II (FN II) domain, eight C-type lectin-like domains (CTLDs), a transmembrane domain and a short cytoplasmic domain. gcMR were constitutively expressed in different organs with the higher expression in spleen and head kidney. During embryonic development, gcMR transcript levels were highest at cleavage stage. The up-regulation expression of gcMR, IL-1β and TNF-α in liver, spleen, head kidney and intestine after Aeromonas hydrophila infection indicating it involved in innate immune regulation during bacterial infections. PMID:24184700

  5. BMP type I receptor ALK2 is required for angiotensin II-induced cardiac hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Shahid, Mohd; Spagnolli, Ester; Ernande, Laura; Thoonen, Robrecht; Kolodziej, Starsha A; Leyton, Patricio A; Cheng, Juan; Tainsh, Robert E T; Mayeur, Claire; Rhee, David K; Wu, Mei X; Scherrer-Crosbie, Marielle; Buys, Emmanuel S; Zapol, Warren M; Bloch, Kenneth D; Bloch, Donald B

    2016-04-15

    Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling contributes to the development of cardiac hypertrophy. However, the identity of the BMP type I receptor involved in cardiac hypertrophy and the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. By using quantitative PCR and immunoblotting, we demonstrated that BMP signaling increased during phenylephrine-induced hypertrophy in cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCs), as evidenced by increased phosphorylation of Smads 1 and 5 and induction of Id1 gene expression. Inhibition of BMP signaling with LDN193189 or noggin, and silencing of Smad 1 or 4 using small interfering RNA diminished the ability of phenylephrine to induce hypertrophy in NRCs. Conversely, activation of BMP signaling with BMP2 or BMP4 induced hypertrophy in NRCs. Luciferase reporter assay further showed that BMP2 or BMP4 treatment of NRCs repressed atrogin-1 gene expression concomitant with an increase in calcineurin protein levels and enhanced activity of nuclear factor of activated T cells, providing a mechanism by which BMP signaling contributes to cardiac hypertrophy. In a model of cardiac hypertrophy, C57BL/6 mice treated with angiotensin II (A2) had increased BMP signaling in the left ventricle. Treatment with LDN193189 attenuated A2-induced cardiac hypertrophy and collagen deposition in left ventricles. Cardiomyocyte-specific deletion of BMP type I receptor ALK2 (activin-like kinase 2), but not ALK1 or ALK3, inhibited BMP signaling and mitigated A2-induced cardiac hypertrophy and left ventricular fibrosis in mice. The results suggest that BMP signaling upregulates the calcineurin/nuclear factor of activated T cell pathway via BMP type I receptor ALK2, contributing to cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. PMID:26873969

  6. The role of ryanodine receptor type 3 in a mouse model of Alzheimer disease

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jie; Supnet, Charlene; Sun, Suya; Zhang, Hua; Good, Levi; Popugaeva, Elena; Bezprozvanny, Ilya

    2014-01-01

    Dysregulated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium (Ca2+) signaling is reported to play an important role in Alzheimer disease (AD) pathogenesis. The role of ER Ca2+ release channels, the ryanodine receptors (RyanRs), has been extensively studied in AD models and RyanR expression and activity are upregulated in the brains of various familial AD (FAD) models. The objective of this study was to utilize a genetic approach to evaluate the importance of RyanR type 3 (RyanR3) in the context of AD pathology. PMID:24476841

  7. The angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker candesartan suppresses proliferation and fibrosis in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Mitsuyoshi; Fushida, Sachio; Harada, Shinichi; Tsukada, Tomoya; Kinoshita, Jun; Oyama, Katsunobu; Tajima, Hidehiro; Ninomiya, Itasu; Fujimura, Takashi; Ohta, Tetsuo

    2014-12-01

    Gastric cancer with peritoneal dissemination has poor clinical prognosis because of the presence of rich stromal fibrosis and acquired drug resistance. Recently, Angiotensin II type I receptor blockers such as candesartan have attracted attention for their potential anti-fibrotic activity. We examined whether candesartan could attenuate tumor proliferation and fibrosis through the interaction between gastric cancer cell line (MKN45) cells and human peritoneal mesothelial cells. Candesartan significantly reduced TGF-β1 expression and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition-like change, while tumor proliferation and stromal fibrosis were impaired. Targeting the Angiotensin II signaling pathway may therefore be an efficient strategy for treatment of tumor proliferation and fibrosis. PMID:25224569

  8. Blocking 5-HT2 receptor restores cardiovascular disorders in type 1 experimental diabetes

    PubMed Central

    García-Pedraza, José-Ángel; Ferreira-Santos, Pedro; Aparicio, Rubén; Montero, María-José; Morán, Asunción

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether the serotonergic modulation, through selective 5-HT2 receptor blockade, restores cardiovascular disturbances in type 1 diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by alloxan (150 mg/kg, s.c.) and maintained for 4 weeks. 5-HT2 receptor was blocked by sarpogrelate (30 mg/kg.day; 14 days; p.o.). Systolic blood pressure (SBP), heart rate (HR), glycaemia and body weight (BW) were monitored periodically. Animals were sacrificed at the end of the study and the heart, right kidney and thoracic aorta were removed; plasma samples were also obtained. Left ventricular hypertrophy index (LVH) and renal hypertrophy index (RH) were determined. Vascular function was studied in aorta rings; additionally, superoxide anion (O2•−) production (by lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence) and lipid peroxidation (by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assay) were measured. Neither alloxan nor sarpogrelate treatments altered HR, LVH or endothelium-independent relaxation. SBP, glycaemia, BW, RH, O2•− production and lipid peroxidation were significantly altered in diabetic animals compared with controls. Sarpogrelate treatment considerably decreased SBP, RH, O2•− production and lipid peroxidation. Endothelium-dependent relaxation was severely reduced in diabetic animal aortas compared to controls; sarpogrelate treatment markedly improved it. Our outcomes show that selectively blocking 5-HT2 receptors has beneficial effects on impaired cardiovascular parameters in diabetes. PMID:27659784

  9. Overlapping binding sites drive allosteric agonism and positive cooperativity in type 4 metabotropic glutamate receptors.

    PubMed

    Rovira, Xavier; Malhaire, Fanny; Scholler, Pauline; Rodrigo, Jordi; Gonzalez-Bulnes, Patricia; Llebaria, Amadeu; Pin, Jean-Philippe; Giraldo, Jesús; Goudet, Cyril

    2015-01-01

    Type 4 metabotropic glutamate (mGlu4) receptors are emerging targets for the treatment of various disorders. Accordingly, numerous mGlu4-positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) have been identified, some of which also display agonist activity. To identify the structural bases for their allosteric action, we explored the relationship between the binding pockets of mGlu4 PAMs with different chemical scaffolds and their functional properties. By use of innovative mGlu4 biosensors and second-messenger assays, we show that all PAMs enhance agonist action on the receptor through different degrees of allosteric agonism and positive cooperativity. For example, whereas VU0155041 and VU0415374 display equivalent efficacies [log(τ(B)) = 1.15 ± 0.38 and 1.25 ± 0.44, respectively], they increase the ability of L-AP4 to stabilize the active conformation of the receptor by 4 and 39 times, respectively. Modeling and docking studies identify 2 overlapping binding pockets as follows: a first site homologous to the pocket of natural agonists of class A GPCRs linked to allosteric agonism and a second one pointing toward a site topographically homologous to the Na(+) binding pocket of class A GPCRs, occupied by PAMs exhibiting the strongest cooperativity. These results reveal that intrinsic efficacy and cooperativity of mGlu4 PAMs are correlated with their binding mode, and vice versa, integrating structural and functional knowledge from different GPCR classes. PMID:25342125

  10. Selective small molecule angiotensin II type 2 receptor antagonists for neuropathic pain: preclinical and clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Smith, Maree T; Anand, Praveen; Rice, Andrew S C

    2016-02-01

    Neuropathic pain affects up to 10% of the general population, but drug treatments recommended for the treatment of neuropathic pain are associated with modest efficacy and/or produce dose-limiting side effects. Hence, neuropathic pain is an unmet medical need. In the past 2 decades, research on the pathobiology of neuropathic pain has revealed many novel pain targets for use in analgesic drug discovery programs. However, these efforts have been largely unsuccessful as molecules that showed promising pain relief in rodent models of neuropathic pain generally failed to produce analgesia in early phase clinical trials in patients with neuropathic pain. One notable exception is the angiotensin II type 2 (AT2) receptor that has clinical validity on the basis of a successful double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial of EMA401, a highly selective, orally active, peripherally restricted AT2 receptor antagonist in patients with postherpetic neuralgia. In this study, we review research to date on target validation, efficacy, and mode of action of small molecule AT2 receptor antagonists in rodent models of peripheral neuropathic pain and in cultured human sensory neurons, the preclinical pharmacokinetics of these compounds, and the outcome of the above clinical trial.

  11. Mutations in the Endothelin Receptor Type A Cause Mandibulofacial Dysostosis with Alopecia

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Christopher T.; Weaver, K. Nicole; Zechi-Ceide, Roseli Maria; Madsen, Erik C.; Tavares, Andre L.P.; Oufadem, Myriam; Kurihara, Yukiko; Adameyko, Igor; Picard, Arnaud; Breton, Sylvain; Pierrot, Sébastien; Biosse-Duplan, Martin; Voisin, Norine; Masson, Cécile; Bole-Feysot, Christine; Nitschké, Patrick; Delrue, Marie-Ange; Lacombe, Didier; Guion-Almeida, Maria Leine; Moura, Priscila Padilha; Garib, Daniela Gamba; Munnich, Arnold; Ernfors, Patrik; Hufnagel, Robert B.; Hopkin, Robert J.; Kurihara, Hiroki; Saal, Howard M.; Weaver, David D.; Katsanis, Nicholas; Lyonnet, Stanislas; Golzio, Christelle; Clouthier, David E.; Amiel, Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    The endothelin receptor type A (EDNRA) signaling pathway is essential for the establishment of mandibular identity during development of the first pharyngeal arch. We report four unrelated individuals with the syndrome mandibulofacial dysostosis with alopecia (MFDA) who have de novo missense variants in EDNRA. Three of the four individuals have the same substitution, p.Tyr129Phe. Tyr129 is known to determine the selective affinity of EDNRA for endothelin 1 (EDN1), its major physiological ligand, and the p.Tyr129Phe variant increases the affinity of the receptor for EDN3, its non-preferred ligand, by two orders of magnitude. The fourth individual has a somatic mosaic substitution, p.Glu303Lys, and was previously described as having Johnson-McMillin syndrome. The zygomatic arch of individuals with MFDA resembles that of mice in which EDNRA is ectopically activated in the maxillary prominence, resulting in a maxillary to mandibular transformation, suggesting that the p.Tyr129Phe variant causes an EDNRA gain of function in the developing upper jaw. Our in vitro and in vivo assays suggested complex, context-dependent effects of the EDNRA variants on downstream signaling. Our findings highlight the importance of finely tuned regulation of EDNRA signaling during human craniofacial development and suggest that modification of endothelin receptor-ligand specificity was a key step in the evolution of vertebrate jaws. PMID:25772936

  12. Interferon Type I Receptor-Deficient Mice have Altered Disease Symptoms in Response to Influenza Virus

    PubMed Central

    Traynor, Tim R.; Majde, Jeannine A.; Bohnet, Stewart G.; Krueger, James M.

    2007-01-01

    The role of type I interferons (IFNs) in mediation of acute viral symptoms (fever, somnolence, anorexia, etc.) is unknown. To determine the role of type I IFN in selected symptom development, body temperature and sleep responses to a marginally lethal dose of X-31 influenza virus were examined in mice with a targeted mutation of the IFN receptor type I (IFN-RI knockouts) and compared to wild-type 129 SvEv control mice. Mice were monitored for 48 hr to determine baseline temperature and sleep profiles prior to infection, and then for 9 days following infection. Hypothermic responses to virus were perceptible beginning at 64 hr post-infection (PI) and were more marked in KO mice until 108 hr, when hypothermia became more exaggerated in wild-type controls. Temperatures of wild-type mice continued to decline through day 9 while temperatures in IFN-RI KO mice stabilized. Time spent in non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS) increased in KO mice when hypothermia was marked and then returned to baseline levels, while NREMS continued to increase in wild-type mice through day 9. Other sleep parameters [time spent in rapid eye movement sleep (REMS), relative NREMS EEG slow wave activity, NREMS EEG power density] were all reduced in wild-type mice compared to KOs from days 3 to 8 while REMS low frequency EEG power density increased in wild-type relative to KOs. In conclusion, our results indicate that the presence of functional type I IFN slightly ameliorates disease symptoms early in the X-31 infection while exacerbating disease symptoms later in the infection. PMID:17098395

  13. Variation in the interleukin-6 receptor gene associates with type 2 diabetes in Danish whites.

    PubMed

    Hamid, Yasmin H; Urhammer, Søren A; Jensen, Dorit P; Glümer, Charlotte; Borch-Johnsen, Knut; Jørgensen, Torben; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf

    2004-12-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a pleiotropic cytokine involved in the pathophysiology of various human diseases such as type 2 diabetes and obesity. IL-6 signals via a heterodimeric receptor complex consisting of a soluble IL-6 alpha-subunit (IL-6 receptor [IL6R]) and a signal transducing subunit (gp130). The IL6R gene maps to an important candidate locus for type 2 diabetes on chromosome 1q21. An Asp358Ala polymorphism of the IL6R has been reported to associate with obesity in Pima Indians. We investigated the Asp358Ala polymorphism in relation to type 2 diabetes, obesity, and other pre-diabetic quantitative traits among Danish whites. By applying a recessive genetic model in a case-control study of 1,349 type 2 diabetic patients and 4,596 glucose-tolerant control subjects, we found a significant difference in genotype distribution (P = 0.008) and in allele frequency (Ala-allele 38.3% [95% CI 36.5-40.1] in diabetic subjects vs. 41.2% [40.2-42.2] in control subjects; P = 0.007). The odds ratio for the Asp/Asp carriers versus Ala/Ala carriers was 1.38 (1.09-1.71). Among 4,251 middle-aged glucose-tolerant subjects, the Asp358Ala polymorphism was not associated with estimates of obesity, post-oral glucose tolerance test serum insulin release, or the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index. In conclusion, the Asp358Ala polymorphism of the IL6R associates with type 2 diabetes in Danish whites.

  14. Characterization of opioid receptor types modulating acetylcholine release in septal regions of the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Gazyakan, E; Hennegriff, M; Haaf, A; Landwehrmeyer, G B; Feuerstein, T J; Jackisch, R

    2000-07-01

    Presynaptic opioid receptors of the delta- and mu-types have been shown to inhibit the release of acetylcholine (ACh) in the rat striatum and hippocampus, respectively, but it is unknown whether opioid receptors modulate the release of ACh also in the region of origin of the hippocampal cholinergic innervation, the septum. To answer this question, slices (350 microm) of the medial septal area and of the diagonal band of Broca, as well as (for comparison) of the hippocampus, were prepared from adult male Wistar rats. The slices were incubated with [3H]choline, superfused in the presence of hemicholinium-3 (10 microM) and stimulated twice (S1, S2) by electrical fields (360 pulses, 3 Hz, 2 ms, 60 mA); opioid receptor agonists were present during S2. The preferential mu-agonist [D-Ala2,N-Me-Phe4,Gly-ol5]enkephalin (DAMGO) inhibited the evoked ACh release by maximally about 40% in hippocampal slices and acted even more strongly in the medial septal area, or the diagonal band of Broca (about 60% or 75% maximal inhibition, respectively). These effects were reduced or abolished by the preferential mu-antagonist naloxone, which showed no effects when given alone. Using naloxone in the presence of a cocktail of peptidase inhibitors, no evidence for an endogenous tone of opioid peptides was found in the medial septal area, diagonal band of Broca or the hippocampus. Using the preferential delta-agonist [D-Pen2, D-Pen5]enkephalin (DPDPE) and the delta-antagonist naltrindole, a delta-opioid receptor inhibiting evoked ACh release was clearly detectable both in the medial septal area and the diagonal band of Broca, but not in the hippocampus, whereas the preferential kappa-agonist trans-3,4-dichloro-N-methyl-N-[2(1-pyrrolidinyl)cyclo-hexyl] benzeneacetamide (U50,488H) had only weak or no effects. In addition to the functional experiments, double in-situ hybridization studies were performed, in which cells containing mRNA for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) were labeled by an

  15. Interactions of pyrethroid insecticides with GABA sub A and peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Devaud, L.L.

    1988-01-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides are potent proconvulsants in the rat. All pyrethroids evincing proconvulsant activity elicited a similar 25-30% maximal reduction of seizure threshold. The Type II pyrethroids were the most potent proconvulsants with 1R{alpha}S, cis cypermethrin having an ED{sub 50} value of 6.3 nmol/kg. The proconvulsant activity of both Type I and Type II pyrenthroids was blocked by pretreatment with PK 11195, the peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor (PTBR) antagonist. In contrast, phenytoin did not antagonize the proconvulsant activity of either deltamethrin or permethrin. Pyrethroids displaced the specific binding of ({sup 3}H)Ro5-4864 to rat brain membranes with a significant correlation between the log EC{sub 50} values for their activities as proconvulsants and the log IC{sub 50} values for their inhibition of ({sup 3}H)Ro5-4864 binding. Both Ro5-4864 and pyrethroid insecticides were found to influence specific ({sup 35}S)TBPS binding in a GABA-dependent manner. PK 11195 and the Type II pyrethroid, deltamethrin antagonized the Ro5-4864-induced modulation of ({sup 35}S)TBPS binding. Pyrethroid insecticides, Ro5-4864 and veratridine influenced GABA-gated {sup 36}Chloride influx. Moreover, the Type II pyrethroids elicited an increase in {sup 36}chloride influx in the absence of GABA-stimulation. Both of these actions were antagonized by PK 11195 and tetrodotoxin.

  16. A type III effector antagonises death receptor signalling during bacterial gut infection

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Jaclyn S; Giogha, Cristina; Ong, Sze Ying; Kennedy, Catherine L; Kelly, Michelle; Robinson, Keith S; Wong, Tania; Mansell, Ashley; Riedmaier, Patrice; Oates, Clare VL; Zaid, Ali; Mühlen, Sabrina; Crepin, Valerie F; Marches, Olivier; Ang, Ching-Seng; Williamson, Nicholas A; O’Reilly, Lorraine A; Bankovacki, Aleksandra; Nachbur, Ueli; Infusini, Giuseppe; Webb, Andrew I; Silke, John; Strasser, Andreas; Frankel, Gad; Hartland, Elizabeth L

    2013-01-01

    Successful infection by enteric bacterial pathogens depends on the ability of the bacteria to colonise the gut, replicate in host tissues and disseminate to other hosts. Pathogens such as Salmonella, Shigella and enteropathogenic and enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EPEC and EHEC), utilise a type III secretion system (T3SS) to deliver virulence effector proteins into host cells during infection that promote colonisation and interfere with antimicrobial host responses 1-3. Here we report that the T3SS effector NleB1 from EPEC binds to host cell death domain containing proteins and thereby inhibits death receptor signalling. Protein interaction studies identified FADD, TRADD and RIPK1 as binding partners of NleB1. NleB1 expressed ectopically or injected by the bacterial T3SS prevented Fas ligand or TNF-induced formation of the canonical death inducing signalling complex (DISC) and proteolytic activation of caspase-8, an essential step in death receptor induced apoptosis. This inhibition depended on the N-GlcNAc transferase activity of NleB1, which specifically modified Arg117 in the death domain of FADD. The importance of the death receptor apoptotic pathway to host defence was demonstrated using mice deficient in the FAS signalling pathway, which showed delayed clearance of the EPEC-like mouse pathogen Citrobacter rodentium and reversion to virulence of an nleB mutant. The activity of NleB suggests that EPEC and other attaching and effacing (A/E) pathogens antagonise death receptor induced apoptosis of infected cells, thereby blocking a major antimicrobial host response. PMID:24025841

  17. A type III effector antagonizes death receptor signalling during bacterial gut infection.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Jaclyn S; Giogha, Cristina; Ong, Sze Ying; Kennedy, Catherine L; Kelly, Michelle; Robinson, Keith S; Lung, Tania Wong Fok; Mansell, Ashley; Riedmaier, Patrice; Oates, Clare V L; Zaid, Ali; Mühlen, Sabrina; Crepin, Valerie F; Marches, Olivier; Ang, Ching-Seng; Williamson, Nicholas A; O'Reilly, Lorraine A; Bankovacki, Aleksandra; Nachbur, Ueli; Infusini, Giuseppe; Webb, Andrew I; Silke, John; Strasser, Andreas; Frankel, Gad; Hartland, Elizabeth L

    2013-09-12

    Successful infection by enteric bacterial pathogens depends on the ability of the bacteria to colonize the gut, replicate in host tissues and disseminate to other hosts. Pathogens such as Salmonella, Shigella and enteropathogenic and enterohaemorrhagic (EPEC and EHEC, respectively) Escherichia coli use a type III secretion system (T3SS) to deliver virulence effector proteins into host cells during infection that promote colonization and interfere with antimicrobial host responses. Here we report that the T3SS effector NleB1 from EPEC binds to host cell death-domain-containing proteins and thereby inhibits death receptor signalling. Protein interaction studies identified FADD, TRADD and RIPK1 as binding partners of NleB1. NleB1 expressed ectopically or injected by the bacterial T3SS prevented Fas ligand or TNF-induced formation of the canonical death-inducing signalling complex (DISC) and proteolytic activation of caspase-8, an essential step in death-receptor-induced apoptosis. This inhibition depended on the N-acetylglucosamine transferase activity of NleB1, which specifically modified Arg 117 in the death domain of FADD. The importance of the death receptor apoptotic pathway to host defence was demonstrated using mice deficient in the FAS signalling pathway, which showed delayed clearance of the EPEC-like mouse pathogen Citrobacter rodentium and reversion to virulence of an nleB mutant. The activity of NleB suggests that EPEC and other attaching and effacing pathogens antagonize death-receptor-induced apoptosis of infected cells, thereby blocking a major antimicrobial host response.

  18. Role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors gene polymorphisms in type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Chen; Zhou, Hui; Shen, Chong; Yu, Lu-Gang; Ding, Yi; Zhang, Yong-Hong; Guo, Zhi-Rong

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are the serious public health problems worldwide. Moreover, it is estimated that MetS patients have about five-fold greater risk of the T2DM development compared with people without the syndrome. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors are a subgroup of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors which play an important role in the pathogenesis of MetS and T2DM. All three members of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) nuclear receptor subfamily, PPARα, PPARβ/δ and PPARγ are critical in regulating insulin sensitivity, adipogenesis, lipid metabolism, and blood pressure. Recently, more and more studies indicated that the gene polymorphism of PPARs, such as Leu162Val and Val227Ala of PPARα, +294T > C of PPARβ/δ, Pro12Ala and C1431T of PPARγ, are significantly associated with the onset and progressing of MetS and T2DM in different population worldwide. Furthermore, a large body of evidence demonstrated that the glucose metabolism and lipid metabolism were influenced by gene-gene interaction among PPARs genes. However, given the complexity pathogenesis of metabolic disease, it is unlikely that genetic variation of a single locus would provide an adequate explanation of inter-individual differences which results in diverse clinical syndromes. Thus, gene-gene interactions and gene-environment interactions associated with T2DM and MetS need future comprehensive studies. PMID:25987964

  19. Evolution of spatially coexpressed families of type-2 vomeronasal receptors in rodents.

    PubMed

    Francia, Simona; Silvotti, Lucia; Ghirardi, Filippo; Catzeflis, François; Percudani, Riccardo; Tirindelli, Roberto

    2014-12-23

    The vomeronasal organ (VNO) is an olfactory structure for the detection of pheromones. VNO neurons express three groups of unrelated G-protein-coupled receptors. Type-2 vomeronasal receptors (V2Rs) are specifically localized in the basal neurons of the VNO and are believed to sense protein pheromones eliciting specific reproductive behaviors. In murine species, V2Rs are organized into four families. Family-ABD V2Rs are expressed monogenically and coexpress with family-C V2Rs of either subfamily C1 (V2RC1) or subfamily C2 (V2RC2), according to a coordinate temporal diagram. Neurons expressing the phylogenetically ancient V2RC1 coexpress family-BD V2Rs or a specific group of subfamily-A V2Rs (V2RA8-10), whereas a second neuronal subset (V2RC2-positive) coexpresses a recently expanded group of five subfamily-A V2Rs (V2RA1-5) along with vomeronasal-specific Major Histocompatibility Complex molecules (H2-Mv). Through database mining and Sanger sequencing, we have analyzed the onset, diversification, and expansion of the V2R-families throughout the phylogeny of Rodentia. Our results suggest that the separation of V2RC1 and V2RC2 occurred in a Cricetidae ancestor in coincidence with the evolution of the H2-Mv genes; this phylogenetic event did not correspond with the origin of the coexpressing V2RA1-5 genes, which dates back to an ancestral myomorphan lineage. Interestingly, the evolution of receptors within the V2RA1-5 group may be implicated in the origin and diversification of some of the V2R putative cognate ligands, the exocrine secreting peptides. The establishment of V2RC2, which probably reflects the complex expansion and diversification of family-A V2Rs, generated receptors that have probably acquired a more subtle functional specificity.

  20. Prevention of Paclitaxel-Induced Neuropathy Through Activation of the Central Cannabinoid Type 2 Receptor System

    PubMed Central

    Naguib, Mohamed; Xu, Jijun J.; Diaz, Philippe; Brown, David L.; Cogdell, David; Bie, Bihua; Hu, Jianhua; Craig, Suzanne; Hittelman, Walter N.

    2012-01-01

    Background Peripheral neuropathy is a major dose-limiting toxicity of chemotherapy, especially after multiple courses of paclitaxel. The development of paclitaxel-induced neuropathy is associated with the activation of microglia followed by the activation and proliferation of astrocytes, and the expression and release of proinflammatory cytokines in the spinal dorsal horn. Cannabinoid type 2 (CB2) receptors are expressed in the microglia in neurodegenerative disease models. Methods To explore the potential of CB2 agonists for preventing paclitaxel-induced neuropathy, we designed and synthesized a novel CB2-selective agonist, namely MDA7. The effect of MDA7 in preventing paclitaxel-induced allodynia was assessed in rats and in CB2+/+ and CB2–/– mice. We hypothesize that the CB2 receptor functions in a negative-feedback loop and that early MDA7 administration can blunt the neuroinflammatory response to paclitaxel and prevent mechanical allodynia through interference with specific signaling pathways. Results We found that MDA7 prevents paclitaxel-induced mechanical allodynia in rats and mice in a dose- and time-dependent manner without compromising paclitaxel's antineoplastic effect. MDA7's neuroprotective effect was absent in CB2-/- mice and was blocked by CB2 antagonists, suggesting that MDA7's action directly involves CB2 receptor activation. MDA7 treatment was found to interfere with early events in the paclitaxel-induced neuroinflammatory response as evidenced by relatively reduced Toll-like receptor and CB2 expression in the lumbar spinal cord, reduced levels of extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 activity, reduced numbers of activated microglia and astrocytes, and reduced secretion of proinflammatory mediators in vivo and in in vitro models. Conclusions Our findings suggest an innovative therapeutic approach to prevent chemotherapy-induced neuropathy and may permit more aggressive use of active chemotherapeutic regimens with reduced long-term sequelae

  1. Racial Differences in Resistance to P2Y12 Receptor Antagonists in Type 2 Diabetic Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Duvernay, Matthew T.; Holinstat, Michael; Colowick, Nancy E.; Hudson, Willie J.; Song, Yanna; Harrell, Frank E.

    2014-01-01

    Although resistance to the P2Y12 antagonist clopidogrel is linked to altered drug metabolism, some studies suggest that these pharmacokinetic abnormalities only partially account for drug resistance. To circumvent pharmacokinetic complications and target P2Y12 receptor function we applied the direct P2Y12 antagonist 2-methylthio-AMP (2-methylthioadenosine 5′-monophosphate triethylammonium salt) to purified platelets ex vivo. Platelets were purified from healthy and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients and stimulated with thrombin or the selective protease-activated receptor agonists, protease-activated receptor 1–activating peptide (PAR1-AP), or PAR4-AP. Platelet activation as measured by αIIbβ3 activation, and P-selectin expression was monitored in 141 subjects. Our results demonstrate that, compared with healthy subjects, platelets from diabetic patients are resistant to inhibition by 2-methylthio-AMP, demonstrating P2Y12 pharmacodynamic defects among diabetic patients. Inhibition of thrombin-mediated αIIbβ3 activation by 2-methylthio-AMP was lower in diabetic platelets versus healthy platelets. Subgroup analysis revealed a racial difference in the resistance to 2-methylthio-AMP. We found no resistance in platelets from diabetic African Americans; they were inhibited by 2-methylthio-AMP equally as well as platelets from healthy African Americans. In contrast, platelets from Caucasian patients with diabetes were resistant to P2Y12 antagonism compared with healthy Caucasians. Multivariable analysis demonstrated that other variables, such as obesity, age, or gender, could not account for the differential resistance to 2-methylthio-AMP among races. These results suggest that in addition to altered drug metabolism, P2Y12 receptor function itself is altered in the Caucasian diabetic population. The racial difference in platelet function in T2DM is a novel finding, which may lead to differences in treatment as well as new targets for antiplatelet therapy

  2. Tannic Acid Down-Regulates the Angiotensin Type 1 Receptor Through a MAPK-Dependent Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Yesudas, Rekha; Gumaste, Upendra; Snyder, Russell

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects of tannic acid (TA), a hydrolysable polyphenol, on angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) expression in continuously passaged rat liver epithelial cells. Under normal conditions, exposure of cells to TA resulted in the down-regulation of AT1R-specific binding in concentrations ranging from 12.5–100 μg/ml (7.34–58.78 μm) over a time period of 2–24 h with no change in receptor affinity to angiotensin II (AngII). The inhibitory effect of TA on AT1R was specific and reversible. In TA-treated cells, we observed a significant reduction in AngII-mediated intracellular calcium signaling, a finding consistent with receptor down-regulation. Under similar conditions, TA down-regulated AT1R mRNA expression without changing the rate of mRNA degradation, suggesting that TA's effect is mediated through transcriptional inhibition. Cells expressing recombinant AT1R without the native promoter show no change in receptor expression, whereas a pCAT reporter construct possessing the rat AT1R promoter was significantly reduced in activity. Furthermore, TA induced the phosphorylation of MAPK p42/p44. Pretreatment of the cells with a MAPK kinase (MEK)-specific inhibitor PD98059 prevented TA-induced MAPK phosphorylation and down-regulation of the AT1R. Moreover, there was no reduction in AngII-mediated intracellular calcium release upon MEK inhibition, suggesting that TA's observed inhibitory effect is mediated through MEK/MAPK signaling. Our findings demonstrate, for the first time, that TA inhibits AT1R gene expression and cellular response, suggesting the observed protective effects of dietary polyphenols on cardiovascular conditions may be, in part, through inhibition of AT1R expression. PMID:22322600

  3. Interleukin 1 (IL-1) type I receptors mediate activation of rat hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis and interleukin 6 production as shown by receptor type selective deletion mutants of IL-1beta.

    PubMed

    Van Dam, A M; Malinowsky, D; Lenczowski, M J; Bartfai, T; Tilders, F J

    1998-06-01

    The cytokine interleukin 1 (IL-1) plays an important role in the activation of the hypothalamus-pituary-adrenal (HPA)-axis and interleukin 6 (IL-6) production during infection or inflammation. Which of the interleukin-1 receptor types mediates these effects is not known. To investigate this issue a pharmacological approach was chosen by using recently developed IL-1 receptor type selective ligands. Rats were given one of various doses of recombinant human IL-1beta (rhIL-1beta; 1 and 10 microg/kg) and of several IL-1beta mutants (DeltaSND, DeltaQGE and DeltaI; 1, 10 and 100 microg/kg), that differ in their affinities for the IL-1 type I receptor but have similar affinities for the IL-1 type II receptor. One hour after intravenous administration of rhIL-1beta or IL-1beta mutants, plasma levels of ACTH, corticosterone (cort) and IL-6 were measured. Doses of 1 and 10 microg/kg rhIL-1beta markedly elevated plasma levels of ACTH, cort and IL-6. However, 10-100-fold higher doses of IL-1beta mutants DeltaSND and DeltaQGE and at least 100-fold higher doses of DeltaI have to be administered to increase plasma levels of ACTH, cort and IL-6. The potency differences correlate with their respective affinity for the type I receptor but not with that of the IL-1 type II receptor. It is concluded that IL-1beta induced ACTH, cort and IL-6 production is mediated by interleukin 1 type I receptors.

  4. Direct demonstration of unique mode of natural peptide binding to the type 2 cholecystokinin receptor using photoaffinity labeling

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Maoqing; Miller, Laurence J.

    2013-01-01

    Direct analysis of mode of peptide docking using intrinsic photoaffinity labeling has provided detailed insights for the molecular basis of cholecystokinin (CCK) interaction with the type 1 CCK receptor. In the current work, this technique has been applied to the closely related type 2 CCK receptor that also binds the natural full agonist peptide, CCK, with high affinity. A series of photolabile CCK analogue probes with sites of covalent attachment extending from position 26 through 32 were characterized, with the highest affinity analogues that possessed full biological activity utilized in photoaffinity labeling. The position 29 probe, incorporating a photolabile benzoyl-phenylalanine in that position, was shown to bind with high affinity and to be a full agonist, with potency not different from that of natural CCK, and to covalently label the type 2 CCK receptor in a saturable, specific and efficient manner. Using proteolytic peptide mapping, mutagenesis, and radiochemical Edman degradation sequencing, this probe was shown to establish a covalent bond with type 2 CCK receptor residue Phe120 in the first extracellular loop. This was in contrast to its covalent attachment to Glu345 in the third extracellular loop of the type 1 CCK receptor, directly documenting differences in mode of docking this peptide to these receptors. PMID:23770253

  5. M-type Phospholipase A2 Receptor Autoantibodies and Renal Function in Patients with Primary Membranous Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Hoxha, Elion; Harendza, Sigrid; Pinnschmidt, Hans; Panzer, Ulf

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives Loss of renal function in patients with primary membranous nephropathy cannot be reliably predicted by laboratory or clinical markers at the time of diagnosis. M-type phospholipase A2 receptor autoantibodies have been shown to be associated with changes in proteinuria. Their eventual effect on renal function, however, is unclear. Design, setting, participants, & measurements In this prospective, open, multicenter study, the potential role of M-type phospholipase A2 receptor autoantibodies levels on the increase of serum creatinine in 118 consecutive patients with membranous nephropathy and positivity for serum M-type phospholipase A2 receptor autoantibodies was analyzed. Patients were included in the study between April of 2010 and December of 2012 and observed until December of 2013. The clinical end point was defined as an increase of serum creatinine by ≥25% and serum creatinine reaching ≥1.3 mg/dl. Results Patients were divided into tertiles according to their M-type phospholipase A2 receptor autoantibody levels at the time of inclusion in the study: tertile 1 levels=20–86 units/ml (low), tertile 2 levels=87–201 units/ml (medium), and tertile 3 levels ≥202 units/ml (high). The median follow-up time of all patients in the study was 27 months (interquartile range=18–33 months). The clinical end point was reached in 69% of patients with high M-type phospholipase A2 receptor autoantibodies levels (tertile 3) but only 25% of patients with low M-type phospholipase A2 receptor autoantibodies levels. The average time to reach the study end point was 17.7 months in patients with high M-type phospholipase A2 receptor autoantibodies levels and 30.9 months in patients with low M-type phospholipase A2 receptor autoantibodies levels. A multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that high M-type phospholipase A2 receptor autoantibodies levels—in addition to men and older age—are an independent predictor for progressive loss of renal

  6. Opioid receptor types on adrenergic nerve terminals of rabbit ear artery.

    PubMed Central

    Fukuda, H.; Hosoki, E.; Ishida, Y.; Moritoki, H.

    1985-01-01

    Methionine enkephalin, leucine enkephalin, [D-Ala2, D-Leu5] enkephalin, alpha-neoendorphin, beta-endorphin, dynorphin (1-13) and ethylketocyclazocine inhibited the contractions of rabbit ear artery ring segments elicited by transmural nerve stimulation at 8 Hz. Ethylketocyclazocine, dynorphin (1-13) and leucine enkephalin produced partial inhibition, their apparent intrinsic activities (alpha) being 0.57, 0.75 and 0.66, respectively. Morphine and normorphine, which are agonists at mu-receptors, did not inhibit the response of the artery. Naloxone antagonized the actions of opioids and ethylketocyclazocine, and was more effective against methionine enkephalin, leucine enkephalin and [D-Ala2, D-Leu5] enkephalin than against alpha-neoendorphin, ethylketocyclazocine and dynorphin (1-13). The pA2 values of naloxone against so-called delta-agonists were approx. 8.5, and against so-called kappa-agonists were approx. 7.7. The supposed kappa-antagonist, Mr2266, was more effective than naloxone in antagonizing the actions of alpha-neoendorphin, and the kappa-agonists dynorphin (1-13) and ethylketocyclazocine. The pA2 values of Mr2266 against kappa-agonists were 8.5-9.0, and against delta-agonists were 7.8 or less. The opioid peptides and opioids tested did not cause dilatation of the artery previously contracted with histamine. These results suggest that the opioid peptides and ethylketocyclazocine acted on opioid receptors at adrenergic nerve terminals in the ear artery. The opioid receptors appear to be of the delta- and kappa-types, not the mu-type. PMID:2998521

  7. The evolution of HIV-1 interactions with coreceptors and mannose C-type lectin receptors.

    PubMed

    Borggren, Marie; Jansson, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    The phenotype of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) commonly evolves between and within infected individuals, at virus transmission, and during disease progression. This evolution includes altered interactions between the virus and its coreceptors, i.e., chemokine receptors, as well as mannose C-type lectin receptors (CLRs). Transmitted/founder viruses are predominantly restricted to CCR5, whereas the subsequent intrapatient evolution of HIV-1 coreceptor use during progressive disease can be subdivided into two distinct pathways. Accordingly, the CCR5-restricted virus population is either gradually replaced by virus variants able to use CXCR4 or evolves toward an altered, more flexible use of CCR5. Despite a strong dependency on these coreceptors for host cell entry, HIV-1 also interacts with other cell surface molecules during target cell attachment, including the CLRs. The virus interaction with the CLRs may result either in the efficient transfer of virus to CD4(+) T cells or in the degradation of the virus in endosomal compartments. The determinants of the diverse outcomes depend on which CLR is engaged and also on the glycan makeup of the envelope glycoproteins, which may evolve with the strength of the immune pressure during the disease course. With the current clinical introduction of CCR5 antagonists and the development of additional entry inhibitors, knowledge on the evolution and baseline characteristics of HIV-1 interactions with coreceptor and CLR interactions may play important roles for individualized and optimized treatment strategies. This review summarizes our current understanding of the evolution of HIV-1 interactions with these receptors. PMID:25595802

  8. Comparative effects of chlorpyrifos in wild type and cannabinoid Cb1 receptor knockout mice

    SciTech Connect

    Baireddy, Praveena; Liu, Jing; Hinsdale, Myron; Pope, Carey

    2011-11-15

    Endocannabinoids (eCBs) modulate neurotransmission by inhibiting the release of a variety of neurotransmitters. The cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN 55.212-2 (WIN) can modulate organophosphorus (OP) anticholinesterase toxicity in rats, presumably by inhibiting acetylcholine (ACh) release. Some OP anticholinesterases also inhibit eCB-degrading enzymes. We studied the effects of the OP insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) on cholinergic signs of toxicity, cholinesterase activity and ACh release in tissues from wild type (+/+) and cannabinoid CB1 receptor knockout (-/-) mice. Mice of both genotypes (n = 5-6/treatment group) were challenged with CPF (300 mg/kg, 2 ml/kg in peanut oil, sc) and evaluated for functional and neurochemical changes. Both genotypes exhibited similar cholinergic signs and cholinesterase inhibition (82-95% at 48 h after dosing) in cortex, cerebellum and heart. WIN reduced depolarization-induced ACh release in vitro in hippocampal slices from wild type mice, but had no effect in hippocampal slices from knockouts or in striatal slices from either genotype. Chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO, 100 {mu}M) reduced release in hippocampal slices from both genotypes in vitro, but with a greater reduction in tissues from wild types (21% vs 12%). CPO had no significant in vitro effect on ACh release in striatum. CPF reduced ACh release in hippocampus from both genotypes ex vivo, but reduction was again significantly greater in tissues from wild types (52% vs 36%). In striatum, CPF led to a similar reduction (20-23%) in tissues from both genotypes. Thus, while CB1 deletion in mice had little influence on the expression of acute toxicity following CPF, CPF- or CPO-induced changes in ACh release appeared sensitive to modulation by CB1-mediated eCB signaling in a brain-regional manner. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer C57Bl/6 mice showed dose-related cholinergic toxicity following subcutaneous chlorpyrifos exposure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wild type and

  9. Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products (RAGE) in Type 1 Diabetes Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Leung, Sherman S; Forbes, Josephine M; Borg, Danielle J

    2016-10-01

    The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a novel protein increasingly studied in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1D). RAGE is expressed by several immune cell types, including T cells, antigen-presenting cells, endothelial cells, and the endocrine cells of the pancreatic islets. RAGE binds various ligands including advanced glycation end products (AGEs), high-mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1), S100 proteins, β-amyloid, β-sheet fibrils, and lipopolysaccharide. AGEs are a particularly interesting ligand because their exogenous introduction into the body can be accelerated by the consumption of AGE-rich processed foods. This review will detail RAGE isoforms and its ligands and discuss how RAGE binding on the aforementioned cells could be linked to T1D pathogenesis. PMID:27612847

  10. Differential regulation of oxytocin receptor in various adipose tissue depots and skeletal muscle types in obese Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Gajdosechova, L; Krskova, K; Olszanecki, R; Zorad, S

    2015-07-01

    Multifunctional peptide oxytocin currently undergoes intensive research due to its proposed anti-obesity properties. Until now, little is known about regulation of oxytocin receptor in metabolically active tissues in obesity. The aim of the present study was to measure expression of oxytocin receptor upon obese phenotype with respect to the variety among adipose tissue and skeletal muscles with distinct anatomical localisation. Total homogenates were prepared from epididymal, retroperitoneal and inguinal adipose tissues as well as quadriceps and soleus muscle from lean and obese Zucker rats. Oxytocin receptor protein was determined by immunoblot. Interestingly, elevated oxytocin receptor was observed in epididymal adipose tissue of obese rats in contrast to its downregulation in subcutaneous and no change in retroperitoneal fat. In lean animals, oxytocin receptor protein was expressed at similar levels in all adipose depots. This uniformity was not observed in the case of skeletal muscle in which fibre type composition seems to be determinant of oxytocin receptor expression. Quadriceps muscle with the predominance of glycolytic fibres exhibits higher oxytocin receptor expression than almost exclusively oxidative soleus muscle. Oxytocin receptor protein levels were decreased in both skeletal muscles analysed upon obese phenotype. The present work demonstrates that even under identical endocrine circumstances, oxytocin receptor is differentially regulated in adipose tissue of obese rats depending on fat depot localisation. These results also imply which tissues may be preferentially targeted by oxytocin treatment in metabolic disease.

  11. Rundown of GABA type A receptors is a dysfunction associated with human drug-resistant mesial temporal lobe epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Ragozzino, D.; Palma, E.; Di Angelantonio, S.; Amici, M.; Mascia, A.; Arcella, A.; Giangaspero, F.; Cantore, G.; Di Gennaro, G.; Manfredi, M.; Esposito, V.; Quarato, P. P.; Miledi, R.; Eusebi, F.

    2005-01-01

    Pharmacotherapeutic strategies have been difficult to develop for several forms of temporal lobe epilepsy, which are consequently treated by surgical resection. To examine this problem, we have studied the properties of transmitter receptors of tissues removed during surgical treatment. We find that when cell membranes, isolated from the temporal neocortex of patients afflicted with drug-resistant mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), are injected into frog oocytes they acquire GABA type A receptors (GABAA-receptors) that display a marked rundown during repetitive applications of GABA. In contrast, GABAA-receptor function is stable in oocytes injected with cell membranes isolated from the temporal lobe of TLE patients afflicted with neoplastic, dysgenetic, traumatic, or ischemic temporal lesions (lesional TLE, LTLE). Use-dependent GABAA-receptor rundown is also found in the pyramidal neurons of TLE neocortical slices and is antagonized by BDNF. Pyramidal neurons in cortical slices of a traumatic LTLE patient did not show GABAA-receptor rundown. However, the apparent affinity of GABAA-receptor in oocytes microtransplanted with membranes from all of the epileptic patients studied was smaller than the affinity of receptors transplanted from the nonepileptic brain. We conclude that the use-dependent rundown of neocortical GABAA-receptor represents a TLE-specific dysfunction, whereas the reduced affinity may be a general feature of brains of both TLE and LTLE patients, and we speculate that our findings may help to develop new treatments for TLE and LTLE. PMID:16217016

  12. Computational identification of novel natural inhibitors of glucagon receptor for checking type II diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Interaction of the small peptide hormone glucagon with glucagon receptor (GCGR) stimulates the release of glucose from the hepatic cells during fasting; hence GCGR performs a significant function in glucose homeostasis. Inhibiting the interaction between glucagon and its receptor has been reported to control hepatic glucose overproduction and thus GCGR has evolved as an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of type II diabetes mellitus. Results In the present study, a large library of natural compounds was screened against 7 transmembrane domain of GCGR to identify novel therapeutic molecules that can inhibit the binding of glucagon with GCGR. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to study the dynamic behaviour of the docked complexes and the molecular interactions between the screened compounds and the ligand binding residues of GCGR were analysed in detail. The top scoring compounds were also compared with already documented GCGR inhibitors- MK-0893 and LY2409021 for their binding affinity and other ADME properties. Finally, we have reported two natural drug like compounds PIB and CAA which showed good binding affinity for GCGR and are potent inhibitor of its functional activity. Conclusion This study contributes evidence for application of these compounds as prospective small ligand molecules against type II diabetes. Novel natural drug like inhibitors against the 7 transmembrane domain of GCGR have been identified which showed high binding affinity and potent inhibition of GCGR PMID:25521597

  13. Mineralocorticoid specificity of renal type I receptors: in vivo binding studies

    SciTech Connect

    Sheppard, K.; Funder, J.W.

    1987-02-01

    The authors have injected rats with (TH)aldosterone or (TH) corticosterone, plus 100-fold excess of the highly specific glucocorticoid RU 28362, with or without excess unlabeled aldosterone or corticosterone and compared type I receptor occupancy in kidney and hippocampus. Thirty minutes after subcutaneous injection (TH)aldosterone was well retained in renal papilla-inner medulla, renal cortex-outer medulla, and hippocampus; in contrast, (TH)corticosterone was well retained only in hippocampus. Competition studies for (TH)aldosterone binding sites showed corticosterone to be a poor competitor in the kidney compared with hippocampus. Time-course studies, with rats killed 10-180 min after tracer administration, showed very low uptake/retention of (TH)corticosterone by kidney; in hippocampus (TH)corticosterone retention was similar to that of (TH)aldosterone in kidney, and retention of (TH)aldosterone by hippocampus was much more prolonged than of either tracer in any other tissue. Studies in 10-day-old rats, with very low levels of corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG), showed a high degree of aldosterone selectivity in both zones of the kidney, whereas 9TH)aldosterone and (TH)corticosterone were equivalently bound in hippocampus. They interpret these data as evidenced for a mechanism unrelated to extravascular CBG conferring mineralocorticoid specificity on renal type I receptors and propose two models derived from their findings consistent with such differential selectivity.

  14. Bone morphogenetic protein type IA receptor signaling regulates postnatal osteoblast function and bone remodeling.

    PubMed

    Mishina, Yuji; Starbuck, Michael W; Gentile, Michael A; Fukuda, Tomokazu; Kasparcova, Viera; Seedor, J Gregory; Hanks, Mark C; Amling, Michael; Pinero, Gerald J; Harada, Shun-ichi; Behringer, Richard R

    2004-06-25

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) function during various aspects of embryonic development including skeletogenesis. However, their biological functions after birth are less understood. To investigate the role of BMPs during bone remodeling, we generated a postnatal osteoblast-specific disruption of Bmpr1a that encodes the type IA receptor for BMPs in mice. Mutant mice were smaller than controls up to 6 months after birth. Irregular calcification and low bone mass were observed, but there were normal numbers of osteoblasts. The ability of the mutant osteoblasts to form mineralized nodules in culture was severely reduced. Interestingly, bone mass was increased in aged mutant mice due to reduced bone resorption evidenced by reduced bone turnover. The mutant mice lost more bone after ovariectomy likely resulting from decreased osteoblast function which could not overcome ovariectomy-induced bone resorption. In organ culture of bones from aged mice, ablation of the Bmpr1a gene by adenoviral Cre recombinase abolished the stimulatory effects of BMP4 on the expression of lysosomal enzymes essential for osteoclastic bone resorption. These results demonstrate essential and age-dependent roles for BMP signaling mediated by BMPRIA (a type IA receptor for BMP) in osteoblasts for bone remodeling. PMID:15090551

  15. Interleukin-1 stimulates the expression of type I and type II interleukin-1 receptors in the rat insulinoma cell line Rinm5F; sequencing a rat type II interleukin-1 receptor cDNA.

    PubMed

    Bristulf, J; Gatti, S; Malinowsky, D; Bjork, L; Sundgren, A K; Bartfai, T

    1994-01-01

    The insulin secreting rat Rinm5F cells are often used to study the cytotoxic actions of interleukin-1 (IL-1) on pancreatic beta-cells. We demonstrate here that Rinm5F insulinoma cells express both type I and type II interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R) mRNAs and gene products. IL-1R agonists, recombinant murine IL-1 alpha (rmIL-1 alpha, 10 ng/ml) and recombinant rat IL-1 beta (rrIL-1 beta, 100 pg/ml or 10 ng/ml) induce the upregulation of mRNA expression for both types of IL-1 receptors (IL-1Rs). This effect of rrIL-1 beta is antagonised by preincubation with recombinant human interleukin 1 receptor antagonist protein (rhIL-1ra, 5 micrograms/ml). Furthermore, this rrIL-1 beta induced upregulation of IL-1R mRNAs is blocked by actinomycin D (7.5 micrograms/ml), whereas cycloheximide (20 micrograms/ml) has no effect. The phorbol ester PMA (20 nM) upregulates the expression of mRNAs both IL-1 receptors, whereas glucose (50 mM) upregulates the expression of the type I IL-1R mRNA only. Pretreatment of cells with pertussis toxin (100 ng/ml) partially blocks the rrIL-1 beta induced expression of mRNA for the type I and, to a lesser extent, the type II IL-1R. Incubation of the cells with rrIL-1 beta also induces a time-dependent expression of c-fos, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) mRNAs. Binding studies with 125I-recombinant human IL-1 beta (125I-rhIL-1 beta) indicate that IL-1R gene products, with the ligand binding characteristics of the type I IL-1R, are constitutively present on Rinm5F cells. Treatment with rrIL-1 beta (6h) increases the number of 125I-rhIL-1 beta binding sites on Rinm5F cells. We have also demonstrated that the number of type II IL-1R binding sites increases after induction with rrIL-1 beta (6h), by indirect immunofluorescence using a monoclonal antibody (ALVA 42) raised against the human type II IL-1R. Furthermore, we have sequenced the type II IL-1R cDNA in the rat insulinoma Rinm5F cells. The comparison of the amino acid

  16. Primary Isolation Strain Determines Both Phage Type and Receptors Recognised by Campylobacter jejuni Bacteriophages

    PubMed Central

    Sørensen, Martine C. Holst; Gencay, Yilmaz Emre; Birk, Tina; Baldvinsson, Signe Berg; Jäckel, Claudia; Hammerl, Jens A.; Vegge, Christina S.; Neve, Horst; Brøndsted, Lone

    2015-01-01

    In this study we isolated novel bacteriophages, infecting the zoonotic bacterium Campylobacter jejuni. These phages may be used in phage therapy of C. jejuni colonized poultry to prevent spreading of the bacteria to meat products causing disease in humans. Many C. jejuni phages have been isolated using NCTC12662 as the indicator strain, which may have biased the selection of phages. A large group of C. jejuni phages rely on the highly diverse capsular polysaccharide (CPS) for infection and recent work identified the O-methyl phosphoramidate modification (MeOPN) of CPS as a phage receptor. We therefore chose seven C. jejuni strains each expressing different CPS structures as indicator strains in a large screening for phages in samples collected from free-range poultry farms. Forty-three phages were isolated using C. jejuni NCTC12658, NCTC12662 and RM1221 as host strains and 20 distinct phages were identified based on host range analysis and genome restriction profiles. Most phages were isolated using C. jejuni strains NCTC12662 and RM1221 and interestingly phage genome size (140 kb vs. 190 kb), host range and morphological appearance correlated with the isolation strain. Thus, according to C. jejuni phage grouping, NCTC12662 and NCTC12658 selected for CP81-type phages, while RM1221 selected for CP220-type phages. Furthermore, using acapsular ∆kpsM mutants we demonstrated that phages isolated on NCTC12658 and NCTC12662 were dependent on the capsule for infection. In contrast, CP220-type phages isolated on RM1221 were unable to infect non-motile ∆motA mutants, hence requiring motility for successful infection. Hence, the primary phage isolation strain determines both phage type (CP81 or CP220) as well as receptors (CPS or flagella) recognised by the isolated phages. PMID:25585385

  17. Toll-like receptor 3 gene polymorphisms in South African Blacks with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Pirie, F J; Pegoraro, R; Motala, A A; Rauff, S; Rom, L; Govender, T; Esterhuizen, T M

    2005-08-01

    Type 1 diabetes is the consequence of exposure of genetically susceptible individuals to specific environmental precipitants. The innate immune system provides the initial response to exogenous antigen and links with the adaptive immune system. The aim of this study was to assess the role of polymorphisms occurring in the cytoplasmic region of toll-like receptor (TLR) 3 gene and immediate 5' sequence, in subjects of Zulu descent with type 1 diabetes in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Seventy-nine subjects with type 1 diabetes and 74 healthy normal glucose tolerant gender-matched control subjects were studied. Parts of exon 4 and exon 3/intron 3 of the TLR3 gene were studied by polymerase chain reaction, direct sequencing and restriction enzyme digestion with Bts 1. Of the nine polymorphisms studied, a significant association with type 1 diabetes was found for the major allele in the 2593 C/T polymorphism and for the minor alleles in the 2642 C/A and 2690 A/G polymorphisms, which were found to be in complete linkage disequilibrium. Correction of the P-values for the number of alleles studied, however, rendered the results no longer significant. These results suggest that polymorphisms in the TLR3 gene, which is part of the innate immune system, may be associated with type 1 diabetes in this population. PMID:16029432

  18. Neuronal merlin influences ERBB2 receptor expression on Schwann cells through neuregulin 1 type III signalling

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Alexander; Kyselyova, Anna; Baader, Stephan L.; Jung, Marie Juliane; Zoch, Ansgar; Mautner, Victor-Felix

    2014-01-01

    Axonal surface proteins encompass a group of heterogeneous molecules, which exert a variety of different functions in the highly interdependent relationship between axons and Schwann cells. We recently revealed that the tumour suppressor protein merlin, mutated in the hereditary tumour syndrome neurofibromatosis type 2, impacts significantly on axon structure maintenance in the peripheral nervous system. We now report on a role of neuronal merlin in the regulation of the axonal surface protein neuregulin 1 important for modulating Schwann cell differentiation and myelination. Specifically, neuregulin 1 type III expression is reduced in sciatic nerve tissue of neuron-specific knockout animals as well as in biopsies from seven patients with neurofibromatosis type 2. In vitro experiments performed on both the P19 neuronal cell line and primary dorsal root ganglion cells demonstrate the influence of merlin on neuregulin 1 type III expression. Moreover, expression of ERBB2, a Schwann cell receptor for neuregulin 1 ligands is increased in nerve tissue of both neuron-specific merlin knockout animals and patients with neurofibromatosis type 2, demonstrating for the first time that axonal merlin indirectly regulates Schwann cell behaviour. Collectively, we have identified that neuronally expressed merlin can influence Schwann cell activity in a cell-extrinsic manner. PMID:24309211

  19. Electroreception in Gymnotus carapo: pre-receptor processing and the distribution of electroreceptor types.

    PubMed

    Castelló, M E; Aguilera, P A; Trujillo-Cenóz, O; Caputi, A A

    2000-11-01

    This paper describes the peripheral mechanisms involved in signal processing of self- and conspecific-generated electric fields by the electric fish Gymnotus carapo. The distribution of the different types of tuberous electroreceptor and the occurrence of particular electric field patterns close to the body of the fish were studied. The density of tuberous electroreceptors was found to be maximal on the jaw (foveal region) and very high on the dorsal region of the snout (parafoveal region), decaying caudally. Tuberous type II electroreceptors were much more abundant than type I electroreceptors. Type I electroreceptors occurred exclusively on the head and rostral trunk regions, while type II electroreceptors were found along as much as 90 % of the fish. Electrophysiological data indicated that conspecific- and self-generated electric currents are 'funnelled' by the high conductivity and geometry of the body of the fish. These currents are concentrated at the peri-oral zone, where most electroreceptors are located. Moreover, within this region, field vector directions were collimated, constituting the most efficient stimulus for electroreceptors. It can be concluded that the passive properties of the fish tissue represent a pre-receptor device that enhances exafferent and reafferent electrical signals at the fovea-parafoveal region.

  20. Phosphatase inhibitors remove the run-down of γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors in the human epileptic brain

    PubMed Central

    Palma, E.; Ragozzino, D. A.; Di Angelantonio, S.; Spinelli, G.; Trettel, F.; Martinez-Torres, A.; Torchia, G.; Arcella, A.; Di Gennaro, G.; Quarato, P. P.; Esposito, V.; Cantore, G.; Miledi, R.; Eusebi, F.

    2004-01-01

    The properties of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) type A receptors (GABAA receptors) microtransplanted from the human epileptic brain to the plasma membrane of Xenopus oocytes were compared with those recorded directly from neurons, or glial cells, in human brains slices. Cell membranes isolated from brain specimens, surgically obtained from six patients afflicted with drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) were injected into frog oocytes. Within a few hours, these oocytes acquired GABAA receptors that generated GABA currents with an unusual run-down, which was inhibited by orthovanadate and okadaic acid. In contrast, receptors derived from membranes of a nonepileptic hippocampal uncus, membranes from mouse brain, or recombinant rat α1β2γ2-GABA receptors exhibited a much less pronounced GABA-current run-down. Moreover, the GABAA receptors of pyramidal neurons in temporal neocortex slices from the same six epileptic patients exhibited a stronger run-down than the receptors of rat pyramidal neurons. Interestingly, the GABAA receptors of neighboring glial cells remained substantially stable after repetitive activation. Therefore, the excessive GABA-current run-down observed in the membrane-injected oocytes recapitulates essentially what occurs in neurons, rather than in glial cells. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses from the same TLE neocortex specimens revealed that GABAA-receptor β1, β2, β3, and γ2 subunit mRNAs were significantly overexpressed (8- to 33-fold) compared with control autopsy tissues. Our results suggest that an abnormal GABA-receptor subunit transcription in the TLE brain leads to the expression of run-down-enhanced GABAA receptors. Blockage of phosphatases stabilizes the TLE GABAA receptors and strengthens GABAergic inhibition. It may be that this process can be targeted to develop new treatments for intractable epilepsy. PMID:15218107

  1. Neurotensin neural mRNA expression correlates with vocal communication and other highly-motivated social behaviors in male European starlings.

    PubMed

    Merullo, Devin P; Cordes, Melissa A; Susan DeVries, M; Stevenson, Sharon A; Riters, Lauren V

    2015-11-01

    Vocalizations coordinate social interactions in many species and often are important for behaviors such as mate attraction or territorial defense. Although the neural circuitry underlying vocal communication is well-known for some animal groups, such as songbirds, the motivational processes that regulate vocal signals are not as clearly understood. Neurotensin (NT) is a neuropeptide implicated in motivation that can modulate the activity of dopaminergic neurons. Dopaminergic projections from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) are key to mediating highly motivated, goal-directed behaviors, including sexually-motivated birdsong. However, the role of NT in modifying vocal communication or other social behaviors has not been well-studied. Here in European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) we analyzed relationships between sexually-motivated song and NT and NT1 receptor (NTSR1) expression in VTA. Additionally, we examined NT and NTSR1 expression in four regions that receive dopaminergic projections from VTA and are involved in courtship song: the medial preoptic nucleus (POM), the lateral septum (LS), Area X, and HVC. Relationships between NT and NTSR1 expression and non-vocal courtship and agonistic behaviors were also examined. NT expression in Area X positively related to sexually-motivated song production. NT expression in POM positively correlated with non-vocal courtship behavior and agonistic behavior. NT expression in POM was greatest in males owning nesting sites, and the opposite pattern was observed for NTSR1 expression in LS. These results are the first to implicate NT in Area X in birdsong, and further highlight NT as a potential neuromodulator for the control of vocal communication and other social behaviors.

  2. Neurotensin-like immunoreactivities in human plasma: feeding responses and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Holst Pedersen, J; Fahrenkrug, J

    1986-01-01

    Feeding responses and day and night levels of plasma concentration of neurotensin (NT) and NT-fragments were studied in healthy subjects. Plasma levels were measured by three radioimmunoassays recognizing intact NT in addition to C- and N-terminal immunoreactivity. The metabolism of NT was studied following intravenous administration. In 106 subjects fasting levels of intact NT (median 18 pmol/l), C-terminal (median 30 pmol/l) and N-terminal immunoreactivity (median 95 pmol/l) were unrelated to sex or age. Postprandially plasma levels in seven subjects measured with all assays increased by a factor 1-3. Following a mixed meal the increase was biphasic, whereas the response to dairy cream was monophasic. Repetitive measurements during 24 hours showed that levels of N-terminal immunoreactivity fluctuated in a manner related to meal ingestion and were elevated throughout the daytime, whereas intact NT and C-terminal immunoreactivity changed little. Following intravenous infusion of 2.4 pmol/kg/min NT in 5 subjects the chromatographic pattern was similar to that seen postprandially. The plasma half life of intact NT and C-terminal immunoreactivity was 1.5 and 1.2 min, whereas that of N-terminal immunoreactivity was 10.0 min. The differences in circulating levels could be explained by these differences in metabolism, but the physiological significance remains to be elucidated.

  3. High affinity binding of (/sup 3/H)neurotensin of rat uterus

    SciTech Connect

    Pettibone, D.J.; Totaro, J.A.

    1987-11-01

    (/sup 3/H)Neurotensin (NT) was found to bind specifically and with high affinity to crude membranes prepared from rat uterus. Scatchard analysis of saturation binding studies indicated that (/sup 3/H)NT apparently binds to two sites (high affinity Kd 0.5 nM; low affinity Kd 9 nM) with the density of high affinity sites (41 fmoles/mg prot.) being about one-third that of the low affinity sites (100 fmoles/mg prot.). In competition studies, NT and various fragments inhibited (/sup 3/H)NT binding with the following potencies (approximately IC50): NT 8-13 (0.4 nM), NT 1-13 (4 nM), NT 9-13 (130 nM), NT 1-11, NT 1-8 (greater than 100 microM). Quantitatively similar results were obtained using brain tissue. These findings raise the possibility of a role for NT in uterine function.

  4. Effects of Peripheral Neurotensin on Appetite Regulation and Its Role in Gastric Bypass Surgery.

    PubMed

    Ratner, Cecilia; Skov, Louise J; Raida, Zindy; Bächler, Thomas; Bellmann-Sickert, Kathrin; Le Foll, Christelle; Sivertsen, Bjørn; Dalbøge, Louise S; Hartmann, Bolette; Beck-Sickinger, Annette G; Madsen, Andreas N; Jelsing, Jacob; Holst, Jens J; Lutz, Thomas A; Andrews, Zane B; Holst, Birgitte

    2016-09-01

    Neurotensin (NT) is a peptide expressed in the brain and in the gastrointestinal tract. Brain NT inhibits food intake, but the effects of peripheral NT are less investigated. In this study, peripheral NT decreased food intake in both mice and rats, which was abolished by a NT antagonist. Using c-Fos immunohistochemistry, we found that peripheral NT activated brainstem and hypothalamic regions. The anorexigenic effect of NT was preserved in vagotomized mice but lasted shorter than in sham-operated mice. This in combination with a strong increase in c-Fos activation in area postrema after ip administration indicates that NT acts both through the blood circulation and the vagus. To improve the pharmacokinetics of NT, we developed a pegylated NT peptide, which presumably prolonged the half-life, and thus, the effect on feeding was extended compared with native NT. On a molecular level, the pegylated NT peptide increased proopiomelanocortin mRNA in the arcuate nucleus. We also investigated the importance of NT for the decreased food intake after gastric bypass surgery in a rat model of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). NT was increased in plasma and in the gastrointestinal tract in RYGB rats, and pharmacological antagonism of NT increased food intake transiently in RYGB rats. Taken together, our data suggest that NT is a metabolically active hormone, which contributes to the regulation of food intake. PMID:27580810

  5. Effects of Peripheral Neurotensin on Appetite Regulation and Its Role in Gastric Bypass Surgery.

    PubMed

    Ratner, Cecilia; Skov, Louise J; Raida, Zindy; Bächler, Thomas; Bellmann-Sickert, Kathrin; Le Foll, Christelle; Sivertsen, Bjørn; Dalbøge, Louise S; Hartmann, Bolette; Beck-Sickinger, Annette G; Madsen, Andreas N; Jelsing, Jacob; Holst, Jens J; Lutz, Thomas A; Andrews, Zane B; Holst, Birgitte

    2016-09-01

    Neurotensin (NT) is a peptide expressed in the brain and in the gastrointestinal tract. Brain NT inhibits food intake, but the effects of peripheral NT are less investigated. In this study, peripheral NT decreased food intake in both mice and rats, which was abolished by a NT antagonist. Using c-Fos immunohistochemistry, we found that peripheral NT activated brainstem and hypothalamic regions. The anorexigenic effect of NT was preserved in vagotomized mice but lasted shorter than in sham-operated mice. This in combination with a strong increase in c-Fos activation in area postrema after ip administration indicates that NT acts both through the blood circulation and the vagus. To improve the pharmacokinetics of NT, we developed a pegylated NT peptide, which presumably prolonged the half-life, and thus, the effect on feeding was extended compared with native NT. On a molecular level, the pegylated NT peptide increased proopiomelanocortin mRNA in the arcuate nucleus. We also investigated the importance of NT for the decreased food intake after gastric bypass surgery in a rat model of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). NT was increased in plasma and in the gastrointestinal tract in RYGB rats, and pharmacological antagonism of NT increased food intake transiently in RYGB rats. Taken together, our data suggest that NT is a metabolically active hormone, which contributes to the regulation of food intake.

  6. Neurotensin stimulates histamine release from the isolated, spontaneously beating heart of rats.

    PubMed

    Rioux, F; Kérouac, R; St-Pierre, S

    1984-07-23

    Neurotensin (NT) evoked a transient, dose-dependent histamine release (ED50 170 ng ml-1) from the rat perfused heart. Histamine release by NT occurred within seconds and lasted less than 2 min. The histamine releasing effect of NT was followed by a dose-dependent increase of the perfusion pressure and a slight tachycardia. The histamine releasing effect of NT was completely abolished in hearts derived from rats pretreated for 3 days with high doses of compound 48/80. The coronary vasoconstrictor effect of NT was increased in hearts derived from compound 48/80-pretreated rats. The mast cell inhibitor cromoglycate markedly inhibited NT-induced histamine release without affecting the coronary vasoconstrictor effect of NT. The histamine releasing effect of NT was inhibited, while its coronary vasoconstrictor effect was markedly potentiated, in hearts derived from rats pretreated with the antiallergic and antiinflammatory steroid dexamethasone. The increase of perfusion pressure evoked by NT was not modified by antihistamine drugs. Infusions of exogenous histamine (10(-6)-10(-5) g ml-1) caused a dose-dependent coronary vasodilation in the rat perfused heart. The results suggest that NT stimulates histamine release from cardiac mast cells. These results together with those obtained in previous studies suggest that mast cell mediators (particularly histamine and serotonin) are unlikely to be responsible for the coronary vasoconstrictor effect of NT in the rat perfused heart.

  7. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Thiophene-Based Cannabinoid Receptor Type 2 Radiotracers for PET Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Haider, Ahmed; Müller Herde, Adrienne; Slavik, Roger; Weber, Markus; Mugnaini, Claudia; Ligresti, Alessia; Schibli, Roger; Mu, Linjing; Mensah Ametamey, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Over the past two decades, our understanding of the endocannabinoid system has greatly improved due to the wealth of results obtained from exploratory studies. Currently, two cannabinoid receptor subtypes have been well-characterized. The cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) is widely expressed in the central nervous system, while the levels of the cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2) in the brain and spinal cord of healthy individuals are relatively low. However, recent studies demonstrated a CB2 upregulation on activated microglia upon neuroinflammation, an indicator of neurodegeneration. Our research group aims to develop a suitable positron emission tomography (PET) tracer to visualize the CB2 receptor in patients suffering from neurodegenerative diseases. Herein we report two novel thiophene-based 11C-labeled PET ligands designated [11C]AAT-015 and [11C]AAT-778. The reference compounds were synthesized using Gewald reaction conditions to obtain the aminothiophene intermediates, followed by amide formation. Saponification of the esters provided their corresponding precursors. Binding affinity studies revealed Ki-values of 3.3 ± 0.5 nM (CB2) and 1.0 ± 0.2 μM (CB1) for AAT-015. AAT-778 showed similar Ki-values of 4.3 ± 0.7 nM (CB2) and 1.1 ± 0.1 μM (CB1). Radiosynthesis was carried out under basic conditions using [11C]iodomethane as methylating agent. After semi-preparative HPLC purification both radiolabeled compounds were obtained in 99% radiochemical purity and the radiochemical yields ranged from 12 to 37%. Specific activity was between 96 and 449 GBq/μmol for both tracers. In order to demonstrate CB2 specificity of [11C]AAT-015 and [11C]AAT-778, we carried out autoradiography studies using CB2-positive mouse/rat spleen tissues. The obtained results revealed unspecific binding in spleen tissue that was not blocked by an excess of CB2-specific ligand GW402833. For in vivo analysis, [11C]AAT-015 was administered to healthy rats via tail-vein injection

  8. Membrane Cholesterol Affects Stimulus-Activity Coupling in Type 1, but not Type 2, CCK Receptors: Use of Cell Lines with Elevated Cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    Harikumar, Kaleeckal G.; Potter, Ross M.; Patil, Achyut; Echeveste, Valerie

    2013-01-01

    The lipid microenvironment of membrane proteins can affect their structure, function, and regulation. We recently described differential effects of acute modification of membrane cholesterol on the function of type 1 and 2 cholecystokinin (CCK) receptors. We now explore the regulatory impact of chronic cholesterol modification on these receptors using novel receptor-bearing cell lines with elevated membrane cholesterol. Stable CCK1R and CCK2R expression was established in clonal lines of 25RA cells having gain-of-function in SCAP [sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) cleavage-activating protein] and SRD15 cells having deficiencies in Insig-1 and Insig-2 enzymes affecting HMG CoA reductase and SREBP. Increased cholesterol in the plasma membrane of these cells was directly demonstrated, and receptor binding and signaling characteristics were shown to reflect predicted effects on receptor function. In both environments, both types of CCK receptors were internalized and recycled normally in response to agonist occupation. No differences in receptor distribution within the membrane were appreciated at the light microscopic level in these CHO-derived cell lines. Fluorescence anisotropy was studied for these receptors occupied by fluorescent agonist and antagonist, as well as when tagged with YFP. These studies demonstrated increased anisotropy of the agonist ligand occupying the active state of the CCK1R in a cholesterol-enriched environment, mimicking fluorescence of the uncoupled, inactive state of this receptor, while there was no effect of increasing cholesterol on fluorescence at the CCK2R. These cell lines should be quite useful for examining the functional characteristics of potential drugs that might be used in an abnormal lipid environment. PMID:23306829

  9. Ancient Evolutionary Origin of Diversified Variable Regions Demonstrated by Crystal Structures of an Immune-Type Receptor in Amphioxus

    SciTech Connect

    Prada,J.; Haire, R.; Allaire, M.; Jakoncic, J.; Stojanoff, V.; Cannon, J.; Litman, G.; Ostrov, D.

    2006-01-01

    Although the origins of genes encoding the rearranging binding receptors remain obscure, it is predicted that their ancestral forms were nonrearranging immunoglobulin-type domains. Variable region-containing chitin-binding proteins (VCBPs) are diversified immune-type molecules found in amphioxus (Branchiostoma floridae), an invertebrate that diverged early in deuterostome phylogeny. To study the potential evolutionary relationships between VCBPs and vertebrate adaptive immune receptors, we solved the structures of both a single V-type domain (to 1.15 Angstroms) and a pair of V-type domains (to 1.85 Angstroms) from VCBP3. The deduced structures show integral features of the ancestral variable-region fold as well as unique features of variable-region pairing in molecules that may reflect characteristics of ancestral forms of diversified immune receptors found in modern-day vertebrates.

  10. Osmoregulatory thirst in mice lacking the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) and/or type 4 (TRPV4) receptor.

    PubMed

    Kinsman, Brian; Cowles, James; Lay, Jennifer; Simmonds, Sarah S; Browning, Kirsteen N; Stocker, Sean D

    2014-11-01

    Recent studies suggest the ability of the central nervous system to detect changes in osmolality is mediated by products of the genes encoding the transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) or vanilloid-4 (TRPV4) channel. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether deletion of TRPV1 and/or TRPV4 channels altered thirst responses to cellular dehydration in mice. Injection of 0.5 or 1.0 M NaCl produced dose-dependent increases in cumulative water intakes of wild-type (WT), TRPV1-/-, TRPV4-/-, and TRPV1-/-V4-/- mice. However, there were no differences in cumulative water intakes between WT versus any other strain despite similar increases in plasma electrolytes and osmolality. Similar results were observed after injection of hypertonic mannitol. This was a consistent finding regardless of the injection route (intraperitoneal vs. subcutaneous) or timed access to water (delayed vs. immediate). There were also no differences in cumulative intakes across strains after injection of 0.15 M NaCl or during a time-controlled period (no injection). Chronic hypernatremia produced by sole access to 2% NaCl for 48 h also produced similar increases in water intake across strains. In a final set of experiments, subcutaneous injection of 0.5 M NaCl produced similar increases in the number of Fos-positive nuclei within the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis and median preoptic nucleus across strains but significantly smaller number in the subfornical organ of WT versus TRPV1-/-V4-/- mice. Collectively, these findings suggest that TRPV1 and/or TRPV4 channels are not the primary mechanism by which the central nervous system responds to cellular dehydration during hypernatremia or hyperosmolality to increase thirst.

  11. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ activation with angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockade is pivotal for the prevention of blood-brain barrier impairment and cognitive decline in type 2 diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Min, Li-Juan; Mogi, Masaki; Shudou, Masachika; Jing, Fei; Tsukuda, Kana; Ohshima, Kousei; Iwanami, Jun; Horiuchi, Masatsugu

    2012-05-01

    We reported previously that an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker, telmisartan, improved cognitive decline with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ activation; however, the detailed mechanisms are unclear. Enhanced blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability with alteration of tight junctions is suggested to be related to diabetes mellitus. Therefore, we examined the possibility that telmisartan could attenuate BBB impairment with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ activation to improve diabetes mellitus-induced cognitive decline. Type 2 diabetic mice KKA(y) exhibited impairment of cognitive function, and telmisartan treatment attenuated this. Cotreatment with GW9662, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ antagonist, interfered with these protective effects of telmisartan against cognitive function. BBB permeability was increased in both the cortex and hippocampus in KKA(y) mice. Administration of telmisartan attenuated this increased BBB permeability. Coadministration of GW9662 reduced this effect of telmisartan. Significant decreases in expression of tight junction proteins and increases in matrix metalloproteinase expression, oxidative stress, and proinflammatory cytokine production were observed in the brain, and treatment with telmisartan restored these changes. Swollen astroglial end-feet in BBB were observed in KKA(y) mice, and this change in BBB ultrastructure was decreased in telmisartan. These effects of telmisartan were weakened by cotreatment with GW9662. In contrast, administration of another angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker, losartan, was less effective compared with telmisartan in terms of preventing BBB permeability and astroglial end-foot swelling, and coadministration of GW9662 did not affect the effects of losartan. These findings are consistent with the possibility that, in type 2 diabetic mice, angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockade with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ activation by telmisartan

  12. Elucidating determinants of aerosol composition through particle-type-based receptor modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, M. L.; Jeong, C.-H.; Slowik, J. G.; Chang, R. Y.-W.; Corbin, J. C.; Lu, G.; Mihele, C.; Rehbein, P. J. G.; Sills, D. M. L.; Abbatt, J. P. D.; Brook, J. R.; Evans, G. J.

    2011-03-01

    An aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS) was deployed at a semi-rural site in Southern Ontario to characterize the size and chemical composition of individual particles. Particle-type-based receptor modelling of these data was used to investigate the determinants of aerosol chemical composition in this region. Individual particles were classified into particle-types and positive matrix factorization (PMF) was applied to their temporal trends to separate and cross-apportion particle-types to factors. The extent of chemical processing for each factor was assessed by evaluating the internal and external mixing state of the characteristic particle-types. The nine factors identified helped to elucidate the coupled interactions of these determinants. Nitrate-laden dust was found to be the dominant type of locally emitted particles measured by ATOFMS. Several factors associated with aerosol transported to the site from intermediate local-to-regional distances were identified: the Organic factor was associated with a combustion source to the north-west; the ECOC Day factor was characterized by nearby local-to-regional carbonaceous emissions transported from the south-west during the daytime; and the Fireworks factor consisted of pyrotechnic particles from the Detroit region following holiday fireworks displays. Regional aerosol from farther emissions sources were reflected through three factors: two biomass burning factors and a highly chemically processed long range transport factor. The biomass burning factors were separated by PMF due to differences in chemical processing which were caused in part by the passage of two thunderstorm gust fronts with different air mass histories. The remaining two factors, ECOC Night and Nitrate Background, represented the night-time partitioning of nitrate to pre-existing particles of different origins. The distinct meteorological conditions observed during this month-long study in the summer of 2007 provided a unique range

  13. Elucidating determinants of aerosol composition through particle-type-based receptor modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, M. L.; Jeong, C.-H.; Slowik, J. G.; Chang, R. Y.-W.; Corbin, J. C.; Lu, G.; Mihele, C.; Rehbein, P. J. G.; Sills, D. M. L.; Abbatt, J. P. D.; Brook, J. R.; Evans, G. J.

    2011-08-01

    An aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS) was deployed at a semi-rural site in southern Ontario to characterize the size and chemical composition of individual particles. Particle-type-based receptor modelling of these data was used to investigate the determinants of aerosol chemical composition in this region. Individual particles were classified into particle-types and positive matrix factorization (PMF) was applied to their temporal trends to separate and cross-apportion particle-types to factors. The extent of chemical processing for each factor was assessed by evaluating the internal and external mixing state of the characteristic particle-types. The nine factors identified helped to elucidate the coupled interactions of these determinants. Nitrate-laden dust was found to be the dominant type of locally emitted particles measured by ATOFMS. Several factors associated with aerosol transported to the site from intermediate local-to-regional distances were identified: the Organic factor was associated with a combustion source to the north-west; the ECOC Day factor was characterized by nearby local-to-regional carbonaceous emissions transported from the south-west during the daytime; and the Fireworks factor consisted of pyrotechnic particles from the Detroit region following holiday fireworks displays. Regional aerosol from farther emissions sources was reflected through three factors: two Biomass Burning factors and a highly chemically processed Long Range Transport factor. The Biomass Burning factors were separated by PMF due to differences in chemical processing which were in part elucidated by the passage of two thunderstorm gust fronts with different air mass histories. The remaining two factors, ECOC Night and Nitrate Background, represented the night-time partitioning of nitrate to pre-existing particles of different origins. The distinct meteorological conditions observed during this month-long study in the summer of 2007 provided a unique

  14. GABAA Receptor α1 Subunit Mutation A322D Associated with Autosomal Dominant Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy Reduces the Expression and Alters the Composition of Wild Type GABAA Receptors*

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Li; Feng, Hua-Jun; Macdonald, Robert L.; Botzolakis, Emanuel J.; Hu, Ningning; Gallagher, Martin J.

    2010-01-01

    A GABAA receptor (GABAAR) α1 subunit mutation, A322D (AD), causes an autosomal dominant form of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (ADJME). Previous studies demonstrated that the mutation caused α1(AD) subunit misfolding and rapid degradation, reducing its total and surface expression substantially. Here, we determined the effects of the residual α1(AD) subunit expression on wild type GABAAR expression to determine whether the AD mutation conferred a dominant negative effect. We found that although the α1(AD) subunit did not substitute for wild type α1 subunits on the cell surface, it reduced the surface expression of α1β2γ2 and α3β2γ2 receptors by associating with the wild type subunits within the endoplasmic reticulum and preventing them from trafficking to the cell surface. The α1(AD) subunit reduced surface expression of α3β2γ2 receptors by a greater amount than α1β2γ2 receptors, thus altering cell surface GABAAR composition. When transfected into cultured cortical neurons, the α1(AD) subunit altered the time course of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic current kinetics and reduced miniature inhibitory postsynaptic current amplitudes. These findings demonstrated that, in addition to causing a heterozygous loss of function of α1(AD) subunits, this epilepsy mutation also elicited a modest dominant negative effect that likely shapes the epilepsy phenotype. PMID:20551311

  15. All-Atom Structural Models of the Transmembrane Domains of Insulin and Type 1 Insulin-Like Growth Factor Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadiarani, Hossein; Vashisth, Harish

    2016-01-01

    The receptor tyrosine kinase superfamily comprises many cell-surface receptors including the insulin receptor (IR) and type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF1R) that are constitutively homodimeric transmembrane glycoproteins. Therefore, these receptors require ligand-triggered domain rearrangements rather than receptor dimerization for activation. Specifically, binding of peptide ligands to receptor ectodomains transduces signals across the transmembrane domains for trans-autophosphorylation in cytoplasmic kinase domains. The molecular details of these processes are poorly understood in part due to the absence of structures of full-length receptors. Using MD simulations and enhanced conformational sampling algorithms, we present all-atom structural models of peptides containing 51 residues from the transmembrane and juxtamembrane regions of IR and IGF1R. In our models, the transmembrane regions of both receptors adopt helical conformations with kinks at Pro961 (IR) and Pro941 (IGF1R), but the C-terminal residues corresponding to the juxtamembrane region of each receptor adopt unfolded and flexible conformations in IR as opposed to a helix in IGF1R. We also observe that the N-terminal residues in IR form a kinked-helix sitting at the membrane–solvent interface, while homologous residues in IGF1R are unfolded and flexible. These conformational differences result in a larger tilt-angle of the membrane-embedded helix in IGF1R in comparison to IR to compensate for interactions with water molecules at the membrane–solvent interfaces. Our metastable/stable states for the transmembrane domain of IR, observed in a lipid bilayer, are consistent with a known NMR structure of this domain determined in detergent micelles, and similar states in IGF1R are consistent with a previously reported model of the dimerized transmembrane domains of IGF1R. Our all-atom structural models suggest potentially unique structural organization of kinase domains in each receptor. PMID

  16. Interaction between bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2 and estrogenic compounds in pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Fessel, Joshua P; Chen, Xinping; Frump, Andrea; Gladson, Santhi; Blackwell, Tom; Kang, Christie; Johnson, Jennifer; Loyd, James E; Hemnes, Anna; Austin, Eric; West, James

    2013-09-01

    Abstract The majority of heritable pulmonary arterial hypertension (HPAH) cases are associated with mutations in bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2 (BMPR2). BMPR2 mutation carries about a 20% lifetime risk of PAH development, but penetrance is approximately three times higher in females. Previous studies have shown a correlation between estrogen metabolism and penetrance, with increased levels of the estrogen metabolite 16α-hydroxyestrone (16αOHE) and reduced levels of the metabolite 2-methoxyestrogen (2ME) associated with increased risk of disease. The goal of this study was to determine whether 16αOHE increased and 2ME decreased penetrance of disease in Bmpr2 mutant mice and, if so, by what mechanism. We found that 16αOHE∶2ME ratio was high in male human HPAH patients. Bmpr2 mutant male mice receiving chronic 16αOHE had doubled disease penetrance, associated with reduced cardiac output. 2ME did not have a significant protective effect, either alone or in combination with 16αOHE. In control mice but not in Bmpr2 mutant mice, 16αOHE suppressed bone morphogenetic protein signaling, probably directly through suppression of Bmpr2 protein. Bmpr2 mutant pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells were insensitive to estrogen signaling through canonical pathways, associated with aberrant intracellular localization of estrogen receptor α. In both control and Bmpr2 mutant mice, 16αOHE was associated with suppression of cytokine expression but with increased alternate markers of injury, including alterations in genes related to thrombotic function, angiogenesis, planar polarity, and metabolism. These data support a causal relationship between increased 16αOHE and increased PAH penetrance, with the likely molecular mechanisms including suppression of BMPR2, alterations in estrogen receptor translocation, and induction of vascular injury and insulin resistance-related pathways.

  17. Studying Cerebellar Circuits by Remote Control of Selected Neuronal Types with GABAA Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Wisden, William; Murray, Andrew J.; McClure, Christina; Wulff, Peer

    2009-01-01

    Although GABAA receptor-mediated inhibition of cerebellar Purkinje cells by molecular layer interneurons (MLIs) has been studied intensely at the cellular level, it has remained unclear how this inhibition regulates cerebellum-dependent behaviour. We have implemented two complementary approaches to investigate the function of the MLI-Purkinje cell synapse on the behavioural level. In the first approach we permanently disrupted inhibitory fast synaptic transmission at the synapse by genetically removing the postsynaptic GABAA receptors from Purkinje cells (PC-Δγ2 mice). We found that chronic disruption of the MLI-Purkinje cell synapse strongly impaired cerebellar learning of the vestibular occular reflex (VOR), presumably by disrupting the temporal patterns of Purkinje cell activity. However, in PC-Δγ2 mice the baseline VOR reflex was only mildly affected; indeed PC-Δγ2 mice show no ataxia or gait abnormalities, suggesting that MLI control of Purkinje cell activity is either not involved in ongoing motor tasks or that the system compensates for its loss. To investigate the latter possibility we developed an alternative genetic technique; we made the MLI-Purkinje cell synapse selectively sensitive to rapid manipulation with the GABAA receptor modulator zolpidem (PC-γ2-swap mice). Minutes after intraperitoneal zolpidem injection, these PC-γ2-swap mice developed severe motor abnormalities, revealing a substantial contribution of the MLI-Purkinje cell synapses to real time motor control. The cell-type selective permanent knockout of synaptic GABAergic input and the fast reversible modulation of GABAergic input at the same synapse illustrate how pursuing both strategies gives a fuller view. PMID:20076763

  18. Activation of human 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 receptors via an allosteric transmembrane site.

    PubMed

    Lansdell, Stuart J; Sathyaprakash, Chaitra; Doward, Anne; Millar, Neil S

    2015-01-01

    In common with other members of the Cys-loop family of pentameric ligand-gated ion channels, 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 receptors (5-HT3Rs) are activated by the binding of a neurotransmitter to an extracellular orthosteric site, located at the interface of two adjacent receptor subunits. In addition, a variety of compounds have been identified that modulate agonist-evoked responses of 5-HT3Rs, and other Cys-loop receptors, by binding to distinct allosteric sites. In this study, we examined the pharmacological effects of a group of monoterpene compounds on recombinant 5-HT3Rs expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Two phenolic monoterpenes (carvacrol and thymol) display allosteric agonist activity on human homomeric 5-HT3ARs (64 ± 7% and 80 ± 4% of the maximum response evoked by the endogenous orthosteric agonist 5-HT, respectively). In addition, at lower concentrations, where agonist effects are less apparent, carvacrol and thymol act as potentiators of responses evoked by submaximal concentrations of 5-HT. By contrast, carvacrol and thymol have no agonist or potentiating activity on the closely related mouse 5-HT3ARs. Using subunit chimeras containing regions of the human and mouse 5-HT3A subunits, and by use of site-directed mutagenesis, we have identified transmembrane amino acids that either abolish the agonist activity of carvacrol and thymol on human 5-HT3ARs or are able to confer this property on mouse 5-HT3ARs. By contrast, these mutations have no significant effect on orthosteric activation of 5-HT3ARs by 5-HT. We conclude that 5-HT3ARs can be activated by the binding of ligands to an allosteric transmembrane site, a conclusion that is supported by computer docking studies. PMID:25338672

  19. Lung macrophage uptake of unopsonized environmental particulates: Role of scavenger-type receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Kobzik, L.

    1995-07-01

    The receptors responsible for avid alveolar macrophage (AM) phagocytosis of unopsonized environmental particulates have not been well defined. This study used flow cytometry to quantitate the effects of a panel of soluble ligands for macrophage adhesion receptors on AM binding of unopsonized environmental dusts (titanium dioxide, TiO{sub 2}; iron oxide, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}; {alpha}-quartz, SiO{sub 2}; diesel engine exhaust dust) or fluorescent latex beads. Polyanionic ligands of the macrophage scavenger receptor (SR) for acetylated-LDL caused marked inhibition of AM binding of the oxide particles and latex beads (e.g., TiO{sub 2} binding; polyinosinic acid (polyl), 10 {mu}g/ml: 70.2 {+-} 1.5% inhibition, mean {+-} SE, n = 11). In contrast, no inhibition was seen with the polyanions heparin and chondroitin sulfate (chond-S), or dextran, consistent with the known inhibitor profile of macrophage SRs for acetylated-LDL. AM uptake of latex or SiO{sub 2} beads instilled into lungs of hamsters was inhibited by administration of polyl but not chondroitin sulfate (AM beads per cell: control, 6.1 {+-} 0.7; polyl, 3.5 {+-} 0.2; chond-S, 5.1 {+-} 0.7, n {ge} 4, p < 0.05 for control vs polyl) indicating macrophage SRs operate in vivo as well as in vitro. In contrast, AM binding of the carbonaceous diesel dust particles was not inhibited by any ligand tested. AM uptake of unopsonized TiO{sub 2}, SR ligands or acetylated LDL caused no significant activation of AM respiratory burst or TNF production, consistent with past observations that opsonin-independent phagocytosis of inert particles by normal AMs is not accompanied by pro-inflammatory activation. These data implicate macrophage-type SRs in AM binding of charged environmental particles and indicate that distinct mechanisms mediate binding of carbonaceous dusts. 54 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Aberrant Methylation Inactivates Somatostatin and Somatostatin Receptor Type 1 in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Misawa, Kiyoshi; Misawa, Yuki; Kondo, Haruki; Mochizuki, Daiki; Imai, Atsushi; Fukushima, Hirofumi; Uehara, Takayuki; Kanazawa, Takeharu; Mineta, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to define somatostatin (SST) and somatostatin receptor type 1 (SSTR1) methylation profiles for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) tumors at diagnosis and follow up and to evaluate their prognostic significance and value as a biomarker. Methods Gene expression was measured by quantitative RT-PCR. Promoter methylation status was determined by quantitative methylation-specific PCR (Q-MSP) in HNSCC. Results Methylation was associated with transcription inhibition. SST methylation in 81% of HNSCC tumor specimens significantly correlated with tumor size (P = 0.043), stage (P = 0.008), galanin receptor type 2 (GALR2) methylation (P = 0.041), and tachykinin-1 (TAC1) (P = 0.040). SSTR1 hypermethylation in 64% of cases was correlated with tumor size (P = 0.037), stage (P = 0.037), SST methylation (P < 0.001), and expression of galanin (P = 0.03), GALR2 (P = 0.014), TAC1 (P = 0.023), and tachykinin receptor type 1 (TACR1) (P = 0.003). SST and SSTR1 promoter hypermethylation showed highly discriminating receiver operator characteristic curve profiles, which clearly distinguished HNSCC from adjacent normal mucosal tissues. Concurrent hypermethylation of galanin and SSTR1 promoters correlated with reduced disease-free survival (log-rank test, P = 0.0001). Among patients with oral cavity and oropharynx cancer, methylation of both SST and SSTR1 promoters correlated with reduced disease-free survival (log-rank test, P = 0.028). In multivariate logistic-regression analysis, concomitant methylation of galanin and SSTR1 was associated with an odds ratio for recurrence of 12.53 (95% CI, 2.62 to 59.8; P = 0.002). Conclusions CpG hypermethylation is a likely mechanism of SST and SSTR1 gene inactivation, supporting the hypothesis that SST and SSTR1 play a role in the tumorigenesis of HNSCC and that this hypermethylation may serve as an important biomarker. PMID:25734919

  1. Aspirin suppresses cardiac fibroblast proliferation and collagen formation through downregulation of angiotensin type 1 receptor transcription

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xianwei Lu, Jingjun; Khaidakov, Magomed; Mitra, Sona; Ding, Zufeng; Raina, Sameer; Goyal, Tanu; Mehta, Jawahar L.

    2012-03-15

    Aspirin (acetyl salicylic acid, ASA) is a common drug used for its analgesic and antipyretic effects. Recent studies show that ASA not only blocks cyclooxygenase, but also inhibits NADPH oxidase and resultant reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, a pathway that underlies pathogenesis of several ailments, including hypertension and tissue remodeling after injury. In these disease states, angiotensin II (Ang II) activates NADPH oxidase via its type 1 receptor (AT1R) and leads to fibroblast growth and collagen synthesis. In this study, we examined if ASA would inhibit NADPH oxidase activation, upregulation of AT1R transcription, and subsequent collagen generation in mouse cardiac fibroblasts challenged with Ang II. Mouse heart fibroblasts were isolated and treated with Ang II with or without ASA. As expected, Ang II induced AT1R expression, and stimulated cardiac fibroblast growth and collagen synthesis. The AT1R blocker losartan attenuated these effects of Ang II. Similarly to losartan, ASA, and its SA moiety suppressed Ang II-mediated AT1R transcription and fibroblast proliferation as well as expression of collagens and MMPs. ASA also suppressed the expression of NADPH oxidase subunits (p22{sup phox}, p47{sup phox}, p67{sup phox}, NOX2 and NOX4) and ROS generation. ASA did not affect total NF-κB p65, but inhibited its phosphorylation and activation. These observations suggest that ASA inhibits Ang II-induced NADPH oxidase expression, NF-κB activation and AT1R transcription in cardiac fibroblasts, and fibroblast proliferation and collagen expression. The critical role of NADPH oxidase activity in stimulation of AT1R transcription became apparent in experiments where ASA also inhibited AT1R transcription in cardiac fibroblasts challenged with H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Since SA had similar effect as ASA on AT1R expression, we suggest that ASA's effect is mediated by its SA moiety. -- Highlights: ► Aspirin in therapeutic concentrations decreases mouse cardiac fibroblast

  2. (/sup 3/H)Ethylketocyclazocine binding to mouse brain membranes: evidence for a kappa opioid receptor type

    SciTech Connect

    Garzon, J.; Sanchez-Blazquez, P.; Lee, N.M.

    1984-10-01

    The binding of the putative kappa agonist ethylketocyclazocine (EKC) to synaptosomal membranes of mouse brain was studied. This benzomorphan was able to bind to different opioid receptors. A portion of this binding was not inhibited by the agonist naloxone, even at high concentrations (10 microM). This population of receptors, to which opioate alkaloids and opiod peptides display very low affinity, is probably the sigma receptor. Another class of binding sites was identified by the simultaneous addition of the selective agonists Sandoz FK-33824 and D-Ala2-D-Leu5-enkephalin, which blocked the access of EKC to mu and delta opioid receptors, respectively, leaving a portion of naloxone-displaceable benzomorphan binding still detectable. Analysis of this remaining binding revealed a small population of receptors of high affinity, the kappa receptor. Therefore, EKC binds to the mu, delta, kappa and sigma receptors in the mouse brain, with similar affinities for the mu and kappa (0.22 and 0.15 nM). These results confirm the existence of a kappa opioid receptor type in the mouse brain.

  3. [Characteristics and types of GLP-1 receptor agonists. An opportunity for individualized therapy].

    PubMed

    Jódar, Esteban

    2014-09-01

    Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is secreted from enteroendocrine L-cells in response to oral nutrient intake and elicits glucose-stimulated insulin secretion while suppressing glucagon secretion. Moreover slows gastric emptying -reducing postprandial glycemic excursions-, reduces body weight, systolic blood pressure and has beneficial effects in the cardiovascular and central nervous systems. Since the 1990s, the efficacy of GLP-1 in reducing blood glucose levels in type 2 diabetes (DM2) was well known. However, GLP-1 should be administered by chronic subcutaneous infusion because of the rapid cleavage by the enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4). Hence, DPP-4 inhibitors -which increase pseudo-physiologically endogenous GLP-1 levels- were developed. In addition, several GLP-1 receptor agonists have been designed to avoid DPP-4-breakdown and/or rapid renal elimination and, therefore, induce a pharmacologic effect in the GLP-1 receptor: short-acting, long-acting, and prolonged-acting GLP-1 analogs. Each class has different structural, pharmacodynamic and clinical properties and could be administered in different therapeutical regimens giving us the opportunity to individualize the therapy of DM2.

  4. [Characteristics and types of GLP-1 receptor agonists. An opportunity for individualized therapy].

    PubMed

    Jódar, Esteban

    2014-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is secreted from enteroendocrine L-cells in response to oral nutrient intake and elicits glucose-stimulated insulin secretion while suppressing glucagon secretion. Moreover slows gastric emptying -reducing postprandial glycemic excursions-, reduces body weight, systolic blood pressure and has beneficial effects in the cardiovascular and central nervous systems. Since the 1990s, the efficacy of GLP-1 in reducing blood glucose levels in type 2 diabetes (DM2) was well known. However, GLP-1 should be administered by chronic subcutaneous infusion because of the rapid cleavage by the enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4). Hence, DPP-4 inhibitors -which increase pseudo-physiologically endogenous GLP-1 levels- were developed. In addition, several GLP-1 receptor agonists have been designed to avoid DPP-4-breakdown and/or rapid renal elimination and, therefore, induce a pharmacologic effect in the GLP-1 receptor: short-acting, long-acting, and prolonged-acting GLP-1 analogs. Each class has different structural, pharmacodynamic and clinical properties and could be administered in different therapeutical regimens giving us the opportunity to individualize the therapy of DM2.

  5. Computational and Experimental Prediction of Human C-Type Lectin Receptor Druggability

    PubMed Central

    Aretz, Jonas; Wamhoff, Eike-Christian; Hanske, Jonas; Heymann, Dario; Rademacher, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian C-type lectin receptors (CTLRS) are involved in many aspects of immune cell regulation such as pathogen recognition, clearance of apoptotic bodies, and lymphocyte homing. Despite a great interest in modulating CTLR recognition of carbohydrates, the number of specific molecular probes is limited. To this end, we predicted the druggability of a panel of 22 CTLRs using DoGSiteScorer. The computed druggability scores of most structures were low, characterizing this family as either challenging or even undruggable. To further explore these findings, we employed a fluorine-based nuclear magnetic resonance screening of fragment mixtures against DC-SIGN, a receptor of pharmacological interest. To our surprise, we found many fragment hits associated with the carbohydrate recognition site (hit rate = 13.5%). A surface plasmon resonance-based follow-up assay confirmed 18 of these fragments (47%) and equilibrium dissociation constants were determined. Encouraged by these findings we expanded our experimental druggability prediction to Langerin and MCL and found medium to high hit rates as well, being 15.7 and 10.0%, respectively. Our results highlight limitations of current in silico approaches to druggability assessment, in particular, with regard to carbohydrate-binding proteins. In sum, our data indicate that small molecule ligands for a larger panel of CTLRs can be developed. PMID:25071783

  6. Interferon alpha bioactivity critically depends on Scavenger receptor class B type I function.

    PubMed

    Vasquez, Marcos; Fioravanti, Jessica; Aranda, Fernando; Paredes, Vladimir; Gomar, Celia; Ardaiz, Nuria; Fernandez-Ruiz, Veronica; Méndez, Miriam; Nistal-Villan, Estanislao; Larrea, Esther; Gao, Qinshan; Gonzalez-Aseguinolaza, Gloria; Prieto, Jesus; Berraondo, Pedro

    2016-08-01

    Scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-B1) binds pathogen-associated molecular patterns participating in the regulation of the inflammatory reaction but there is no information regarding potential interactions between SR-B1 and the interferon system. Herein, we report that SR-B1 ligands strongly regulate the transcriptional response to interferon α (IFNα) and enhance its antiviral and antitumor activity. This effect was mediated by the activation of TLR2 and TLR4 as it was annulled by the addition of anti-TLR2 or anti-TLR4 blocking antibodies. In vivo, we maximized the antitumor activity of IFNα co-expressing in the liver a SR-B1 ligand and IFNα by adeno-associated viruses. This gene therapy strategy eradicated liver metastases from colon cancer with reduced toxicity. On the other hand, genetic and pharmacological inhibition of SR-B1 blocks the clathrin-dependent interferon receptor recycling pathway with a concomitant reduction in IFNα signaling and bioactivity. This effect can be applied to enhance cancer immunotherapy with oncolytic viruses. Indeed, SR-B1 antagonists facilitate replication of oncolytic viruses amplifying their tumoricidal potential. In conclusion, SR-B1 agonists behave as IFNα enhancers while SR-B1 inhibitors dampen IFNα activity. These results demonstrate that SR-B1 is a suitable pharmacology target to enhance cancer immunotherapy based on IFNα and oncolytic viruses. PMID:27622065

  7. Interferon alpha bioactivity critically depends on Scavenger receptor class B type I function

    PubMed Central

    Vasquez, Marcos; Fioravanti, Jessica; Aranda, Fernando; Paredes, Vladimir; Gomar, Celia; Ardaiz, Nuria; Fernandez-Ruiz, Veronica; Méndez, Miriam; Nistal-Villan, Estanislao; Larrea, Esther; Gao, Qinshan; Gonzalez-Aseguinolaza, Gloria; Prieto, Jesus; Berraondo, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-B1) binds pathogen-associated molecular patterns participating in the regulation of the inflammatory reaction but there is no information regarding potential interactions between SR-B1 and the interferon system. Herein, we report that SR-B1 ligands strongly regulate the transcriptional response to interferon α (IFNα) and enhance its antiviral and antitumor activity. This effect was mediated by the activation of TLR2 and TLR4 as it was annulled by the addition of anti-TLR2 or anti-TLR4 blocking antibodies. In vivo, we maximized the antitumor activity of IFNα co-expressing in the liver a SR-B1 ligand and IFNα by adeno-associated viruses. This gene therapy strategy eradicated liver metastases from colon cancer with reduced toxicity. On the other hand, genetic and pharmacological inhibition of SR-B1 blocks the clathrin-dependent interferon receptor recycling pathway with a concomitant reduction in IFNα signaling and bioactivity. This effect can be applied to enhance cancer immunotherapy with oncolytic viruses. Indeed, SR-B1 antagonists facilitate replication of oncolytic viruses amplifying their tumoricidal potential. In conclusion, SR-B1 agonists behave as IFNα enhancers while SR-B1 inhibitors dampen IFNα activity. These results demonstrate that SR-B1 is a suitable pharmacology target to enhance cancer immunotherapy based on IFNα and oncolytic viruses. PMID:27622065

  8. The M-type receptor PLA2R regulates senescence through the p53 pathway.

    PubMed

    Augert, Arnaud; Payré, Christine; de Launoit, Yvan; Gil, Jesus; Lambeau, Gérard; Bernard, David

    2009-03-01

    Senescence is a stable proliferative arrest induced by various stresses such as telomere erosion, oncogenic or oxidative stress. Compelling evidence suggests that it acts as a barrier against tumour development. Describing new mechanisms that favour an escape from senescence can thus reveal new insights into tumorigenesis. To identify new genes controlling the senescence programme, we performed a loss-of-function genetic screen in primary human fibroblasts. We report that knockdown of the M-type receptor PLA2R (phospholipase A2 receptor) prevents the onset of replicative senescence and diminishes stress-induced senescence. Interestingly, expression of PLA2R increases during replicative senescence, and its ectopic expression results in premature senescence. We show that PLA2R regulates senescence in a reactive oxygen species-DNA damage-p53-dependent manner. Taken together, our study identifies PLA2R as a potential new tumour suppressor gene crucial in the induction of cellular senescence through the activation of the p53 pathway.

  9. The M-type receptor PLA2R regulates senescence through the p53 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Augert, Arnaud; Payré, Christine; de Launoit, Yvan; Gil, Jesus; Lambeau, Gérard; Bernard, David

    2009-01-01

    Senescence is a stable proliferative arrest induced by various stresses such as telomere erosion, oncogenic or oxidative stress. Compelling evidence suggests that it acts as a barrier against tumour development. Describing new mechanisms that favour an escape from senescence can thus reveal new insights into tumorigenesis. To identify new genes controlling the senescence programme, we performed a loss-of-function genetic screen in primary human fibroblasts. We report that knockdown of the M-type receptor PLA2R (phospholipase A2 receptor) prevents the onset of replicative senescence and diminishes stress-induced senescence. Interestingly, expression of PLA2R increases during replicative senescence, and its ectopic expression results in premature senescence. We show that PLA2R regulates senescence in a reactive oxygen species–DNA damage–p53-dependent manner. Taken together, our study identifies PLA2R as a potential new tumour suppressor gene crucial in the induction of cellular senescence through the activation of the p53 pathway. PMID:19197340

  10. Retinoid X receptor α attenuates host antiviral response by suppressing type I interferon

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Feng; Liu, Su-Yang; Razani, Bahram; Arora, Neda; Li, Bing; Kagechika, Hiroyuki; Tontonoz, Peter; Núñez, Vanessa; Ricote, Mercedes; Cheng, Genhong

    2015-01-01

    The retinoid X receptor α (RXRα), a key nuclear receptor in metabolic processes, is down-regulated during host antiviral response. However, the roles of RXRα in host antiviral response are unknown. Here we show that RXRα overexpression or ligand activation increases host susceptibility to viral infections in vitro and in vivo, while Rxra −/− or antagonist treatment reduces infection by the same viruses. Consistent with these functional studies, ligand activation of RXR inhibits the expression of antiviral genes including type I interferon (IFN) and Rxra −/− macrophages produce more IFNβ than WT macrophages in response to polyI:C stimulation. Further results indicate that ligand activation of RXR suppresses the nuclear translocation of β-catenin, a co-activator of IFNβ enhanceosome. Thus, our studies have uncovered a novel RXR-dependent innate immune regulatory pathway, suggesting that the downregulation of RXR expression or RXR antagonist treatment benefits host antiviral response, whereas RXR agonist treatment may increase the risk of viral infections. PMID:25417649

  11. Statins Increase Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor Type 1 Gene Transcription through a Pregnane X Receptor Regulated Element

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Frederick M.; Linder, Kathryn M.; Cardozo, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) is a multifunctional protein that has important roles in inflammation and wound healing. Its aberrant regulation may contribute to many disease processes such as heart disease. The PAI-1 promoter is responsive to multiple inputs including cytokines, growth factors, steroids and oxidative stress. The statin drugs, atorvastatin, mevastatin and rosuvastatin, increased basal and stimulated expression of the PAI-1 promoter 3-fold. A statin-responsive, nuclear hormone response element was previously identified in the PAI-1 promoter, but it was incompletely characterized. We characterized this direct repeat (DR) of AGGTCA with a 3-nucleotide spacer at -269/-255 using deletion and directed mutagenesis. Deletion or mutation of this element increased basal transcription from the promoter suggesting that it repressed PAI-1 transcription in the unliganded state. The half-site spacing and the ligand specificity suggested that this might be a pregnane X receptor (PXR) responsive element. Computational molecular docking showed that atorvastatin, mevastatin and rosuvastatin were structurally compatible with the PXR ligand-binding pocket in its agonist conformation. Experiments with Gal4 DNA binding domain fusion proteins showed that Gal4-PXR was activated by statins while other DR + 3 binding nuclear receptor fusions were not. Overexpression of PXR further enhanced PAI-1 transcription in response to statins. Finally, ChIP experiments using Halo-tagged PXR and RXR demonstrated that both components of the PXR-RXR heterodimer bound to this region of the PAI-1 promoter. PMID:26379245

  12. Pyrazolo-triazolo-pyrimidines as adenosine receptor antagonists: Effect of the N-5 bond type on the affinity and selectivity at the four adenosine receptor subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Bolcato, Chiara; Cusan, Claudia; Pastorin, Giorgia; Cacciari, Barbara; Klotz, Karl Norbert; Morizzo, Erika

    2007-01-01

    In the last few years, many efforts have been made to search for potent and selective human A3 adenosine antagonists. In particular, one of the most promising human A3 adenosine receptor antagonists is represented by the pyrazolo-triazolo-pyrimidine family. This class of compounds has been strongly investigated from the point of view of structure-activity relationships. In particular, it has been observed that fundamental requisites for having both potency and selectivity at the human A3 adenosine receptors are the presence of a small substituent at the N8 position and an unsubstitued phenyl carbamoyl moiety at the N5 position. In this study, we report the role of the N5-bond type on the affinity and selectivity at the four adenosine receptor subtypes. The observed structure-activity relationships of this class of antagonists are also exhaustively rationalized using the recently published ligand-based homology modeling approach. PMID:18368532

  13. Receptor-level interrelationships of amino acids and the adequate amino acid type hormones in Tetrahymena: a receptor evolution model.

    PubMed

    Csaba, G; Darvas, Z

    1986-01-01

    Histidine stimulates the phagocytosis of Tetrahymena to the same extent as histamine, and also stimulates its division, which histamine does not. Tyrosine and diiodotyrosine equally stimulate the growth of the Tetrahymena. Both amino acids inhibit the characteristic influence of the adequate amino acid hormone when added to Tetrahymena culture 72 h in advance of it. Primary interaction with diiodotyrosine and tyrosine notably increases the cellular growth rate. Histamine has a similar, although less notable effect than histidine. In the light of these experimental observations there is reason to postulate that the receptors of the amino acid hormones have developed from amino acid receptors.

  14. Evolution of Spatially Coexpressed Families of Type-2 Vomeronasal Receptors in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Francia, Simona; Silvotti, Lucia; Ghirardi, Filippo; Catzeflis, François; Percudani, Riccardo; Tirindelli, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    The vomeronasal organ (VNO) is an olfactory structure for the detection of pheromones. VNO neurons express three groups of unrelated G-protein-coupled receptors. Type-2 vomeronasal receptors (V2Rs) are specifically localized in the basal neurons of the VNO and are believed to sense protein pheromones eliciting specific reproductive behaviors. In murine species, V2Rs are organized into four families. Family-ABD V2Rs are expressed monogenically and coexpress with family-C V2Rs of either subfamily C1 (V2RC1) or subfamily C2 (V2RC2), according to a coordinate temporal diagram. Neurons expressing the phylogenetically ancient V2RC1 coexpress family-BD V2Rs or a specific group of subfamily-A V2Rs (V2RA8-10), whereas a second neuronal subset (V2RC2-positive) coexpresses a recently expanded group of five subfamily-A V2Rs (V2RA1-5) along with vomeronasal-specific Major Histocompatibility Complex molecules (H2-Mv). Through database mining and Sanger sequencing, we have analyzed the onset, diversification, and expansion of the V2R-families throughout the phylogeny of Rodentia. Our results suggest that the separation of V2RC1 and V2RC2 occurred in a Cricetidae ancestor in coincidence with the evolution of the H2-Mv genes; this phylogenetic event did not correspond with the origin of the coexpressing V2RA1-5 genes, which dates back to an ancestral myomorphan lineage. Interestingly, the evolution of receptors within the V2RA1-5 group may be implicated in the origin and diversification of some of the V2R putative cognate ligands, the exocrine secreting peptides. The establishment of V2RC2, which probably reflects the complex expansion and diversification of family-A V2Rs, generated receptors that have probably acquired a more subtle functional specificity. PMID:25539725

  15. Evolution of spatially coexpressed families of type-2 vomeronasal receptors in rodents.

    PubMed

    Francia, Simona; Silvotti, Lucia; Ghirardi, Filippo; Catzeflis, François; Percudani, Riccardo; Tirindelli, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    The vomeronasal organ (VNO) is an olfactory structure for the detection of pheromones. VNO neurons express three groups of unrelated G-protein-coupled receptors. Type-2 vomeronasal receptors (V2Rs) are specifically localized in the basal neurons of the VNO and are believed to sense protein pheromones eliciting specific reproductive behaviors. In murine species, V2Rs are organized into four families. Family-ABD V2Rs are expressed monogenically and coexpress with family-C V2Rs of either subfamily C1 (V2RC1) or subfamily C2 (V2RC2), according to a coordinate temporal diagram. Neurons expressing the phylogenetically ancient V2RC1 coexpress family-BD V2Rs or a specific group of subfamily-A V2Rs (V2RA8-10), whereas a second neuronal subset (V2RC2-positive) coexpresses a recently expanded group of five subfamily-A V2Rs (V2RA1-5) along with vomeronasal-specific Major Histocompatibility Complex molecules (H2-Mv). Through database mining and Sanger sequencing, we have analyzed the onset, diversification, and expansion of the V2R-families throughout the phylogeny of Rodentia. Our results suggest that the separation of V2RC1 and V2RC2 occurred in a Cricetidae ancestor in coincidence with the evolution of the H2-Mv genes; this phylogenetic event did not correspond with the origin of the coexpressing V2RA1-5 genes, which dates back to an ancestral myomorphan lineage. Interestingly, the evolution of receptors within the V2RA1-5 group may be implicated in the origin and diversification of some of the V2R putative cognate ligands, the exocrine secreting peptides. The establishment of V2RC2, which probably reflects the complex expansion and diversification of family-A V2Rs, generated receptors that have probably acquired a more subtle functional specificity. PMID:25539725

  16. Activation of Cannabinoid Type 2 Receptors Inhibits HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein gp120-Induced Synapse Loss

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee Jung; Shin, Angela H.

    2011-01-01

    HIV-1 infection of the central nervous system is associated with dendritic and synaptic damage that correlates with cognitive decline in patients with HIV-1-associated dementia (HAD). HAD is due in part to the release of viral proteins from infected cells. Because cannabinoids modulate neurotoxic and inflammatory processes, we investigated their effects on changes in synaptic connections induced by the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120. Morphology and synapses between cultured hippocampal neurons were visualized by confocal imaging of neurons expressing DsRed2 and postsynaptic density protein 95 fused to green fluorescent protein (PSD95-GFP). Twenty-four-hour treatment with gp120 IIIB decreased the number of PSD95-GFP puncta by 37 ± 4%. The decrease was concentration-dependent (EC50 = 153 ± 50 pM). Synapse loss preceded cell death as defined by retention of DsRed2 fluorescence gp120 activated CXCR4 on microglia to evoke interleukin-1β (IL-1β) release. Pharmacological studies determined that sequential activation of CXCR4, the IL-1β receptor, and the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor was required. Expression of alternative reading frame polypeptide, which inhibits the ubiquitin ligase murine double minute 2, protected synapses, implicating the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Cannabimimetic drugs are of particular relevance to HAD because of their clinical and illicit use in patients with AIDS. The cannabinoid receptor full agonist [(R)-(+)-[2,3-dihydro-5-methyl-3[(4-morpholinyl)methyl]pyrrolo[1,2,3-de]-1,4-benzoxazinyl]-(1-naphthalenyl) methanone mesylate salt] (Win55,212-2) inhibited gp120-induced IL-1β production and synapse in a manner reversed by a cannabinoid type 2 receptor antagonist. In contrast, Win55,212-2 did not inhibit synapse loss elicited by exposure to the HIV-1 protein Tat. These results indicate that cannabinoids prevent the impairment of network function produced by gp120 and, thus, might have therapeutic potential in HAD. PMID:21670103

  17. Human GRK4γ142V Variant Promotes Angiotensin II Type I Receptor-Mediated Hypertension via Renal Histone Deacetylase Type 1 Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheng; Zeng, Chunyu; Villar, Van Anthony M; Chen, Shi-You; Konkalmatt, Prasad; Wang, Xiaoyan; Asico, Laureano D; Jones, John E; Yang, Yu; Sanada, Hironobu; Felder, Robin A; Eisner, Gilbert M; Weir, Matthew R; Armando, Ines; Jose, Pedro A

    2016-02-01

    The influence of a single gene on the pathogenesis of essential hypertension may be difficult to ascertain, unless the gene interacts with other genes that are germane to blood pressure regulation. G-protein-coupled receptor kinase type 4 (GRK4) is one such gene. We have reported that the expression of its variant hGRK4γ(142V) in mice results in hypertension because of impaired dopamine D1 receptor. Signaling through dopamine D1 receptor and angiotensin II type I receptor (AT1R) reciprocally modulates renal sodium excretion and blood pressure. Here, we demonstrate the ability of the hGRK4γ(142V) to increase the expression and activity of the AT1R. We show that hGRK4γ(142V) phosphorylates histone deacetylase type 1 and promotes its nuclear export to the cytoplasm, resulting in increased AT1R expression and greater pressor response to angiotensin II. AT1R blockade and the deletion of the Agtr1a gene normalize the hypertension in hGRK4γ(142V) mice. These findings illustrate the unique role of GRK4 by targeting receptors with opposite physiological activity for the same goal of maintaining blood pressure homeostasis, and thus making the GRK4 a relevant therapeutic target to control blood pressure.

  18. [Treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus--which role do GLP-1 receptor agonists play?].

    PubMed

    Lüdemann, J

    2011-07-21

    The results of the ACCORD-, ADVANCE- and VADT- and further recent studies raised doubts regarding whether the guidelined therapy of type 2 diabetes mellitus, which aims at achieving HbA1c values of < 6.5%, is always beneficial. The higher rate of severe hypoglycemia and weight gain under intensive glycemic control has raised debates of whether the current guidelines should be adopted accordingly. Modern state-of-the-art treatment should consider: a) early treatment start, b) sustained blood sugar decrease, and c) simultaneously prevention of hypoglycemia and weight gain, d) prevention of little investigated multiple glucose-lowering agents, e) easy handling and easy to be integrated into daily schedules. The present work reviews current options with regard to these requirements with special focus on the new GLP-1 receptor agonists. PMID:23964469

  19. Estrogens and Spermiogenesis: New Insights from Type 1 Cannabinoid Receptor Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Cacciola, Giovanna; Chioccarelli, Teresa; Fasano, Silvia; Pierantoni, Riccardo; Cobellis, Gilda

    2013-01-01

    Spermatogenesis is a complex mechanism which allows the production of male gametes; it consists of mitotic, meiotic, and differentiation phases. Spermiogenesis is the terminal differentiation process during which haploid round spermatids undergo several biochemical and morphological changes, including extensive remodelling of chromatin and nuclear shape. Spermiogenesis is under control of endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine factors, like gonadotropins and testosterone. More recently, emerging pieces of evidence are suggesting that, among these factors, estrogens may have a role. To date, this is a matter of debate and concern because of the agonistic and antagonistic estrogenic effects that environmental chemicals may have on animal and human with damaging outcome on fertility. In this review, we summarize data which fuel this debate, with a particular attention to our recent results, obtained using type 1 cannabinoid receptor knockout male mice as animal model. PMID:24324492

  20. Hypercholesterolemia, low density lipoprotein receptor and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin-type 9

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Hong-mei; Zhang, Da-wei

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is the main cause of mortality and morbidity in the world. Plasma levels of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) are positively correlated with the risk of atherosclerosis. High plasma LDL concentrations in patients with hypercholesterolemia lead to build-up of LDL in the inner walls of the arteries, which becomes oxidized and promotes the formation of foam cells, consequently initiating atherosclerosis. Plasma LDL is mainly cleared through the LDL receptor (LDLR) pathway. Mutations in the LDLR cause familiar hypercholesterolemia and increase the risk of premature coronary heart disease. The expression of LDLR is regulated at the transcriptional level via the sterol regulatory element binding protein 2 (SREBP-2) and at the posttranslational levels mainly through proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin-type 9 (PCSK9) and inducible degrader of the LDLR (IDOL). In this review, we summarize the latest advances in the studies of PCSK9. PMID:26445568

  1. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors as molecular targets in relation to obesity and type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Seda, Ondørej; Sedová, Lucie

    2007-06-01

    The three isotypes of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are currently perceived as major regulatory nodes (or hubs) of metabolic pathway networks, linking most prevalent diseases including Type 2 diabetes, obesity, dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis. The integrative functions of PPARs are also reflected in their ecogenetic profile, when the variants underlying pharmacogenetic interactions were also shown to modulate the effect of lifestyle factors. Despite their extensive clinical use, there are many outstanding issues, especially concerning their safety. Critical pharmacogenomic assessment is warranted for the new potent ligands of multiple PPAR isoforms as many have displayed serious side-effects in a limited number of treated subjects. Nevertheless, the advent of genomic, transcriptomic and system biology-level approaches, integrating knowledge from model systems and human biology, should greatly facilitate the transition to individualized PPAR-based therapies.

  2. Neuroprotective effect of angiotensin II type 2 receptor during cerebral ischemia/reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chun-Ye; Yin, Lin

    2016-07-01

    Angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R) activation has been shown to protect against stroke, but its precise mechanism remains poorly understood. We investigated whether the protective effect of AT2R against ischemia/reperfusion injury is mediated by the suppression of immune and inflammatory responses. Rat models of middle cerebral artery occlusion were intraperitoneally injected with physiological saline, the AT2R agonist CGP42112 (1 mg/kg per day) or antagonist PD123319 (1 mg/kg per day). In the CGP42112 group, AT2R expression increased, the infarct area decreased, interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α expression decreased, and interleukin-10 expression increased compared with the saline group. Antagonisin AT2R using PD123319 produced the opposite effects. These results indicate that AT2R activation suppresses immune and inflammatory responses, and protects against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. PMID:27630693

  3. Opioid antinociception and positive reinforcement are mediated by different types of opioid receptors.

    PubMed

    Pollerberg, G E; Costa, T; Shearman, G T; Herz, A; Reid, L D

    1983-10-17

    Fentanyl (FEN) and diprenorphine's (DIPR) potentials for analgesia and reinforcement were assayed using rats. Analgesia was measured by the classic tail-flick test. The test germane to opioid reinforcement involved measuring pressing rates for direct electrical stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus and ventral tegmental area. FEN, as does morphine and heroin, produced strong analgesia and enhanced pressing rates for brain stimulation. DIPR produced no analgesia and antagonized FEN's analgesia. DIPR, at doses antagonizing FEN's analgesia, enhanced pressing for brain stimulation. DIPR's enhancement of pressing was antagonized by naloxone (100 micrograms/kg). When FEN and DIPR were given concurrently, pressing for brain stimulation was not reduced and was greater than after FEN alone was given. These data support a conclusion that different types of receptors are associated with opioid analgesia and reinforcement.

  4. Neuroprotective effect of angiotensin II type 2 receptor during cerebral ischemia/reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Chun-ye; Yin, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R) activation has been shown to protect against stroke, but its precise mechanism remains poorly understood. We investigated whether the protective effect of AT2R against ischemia/reperfusion injury is mediated by the suppression of immune and inflammatory responses. Rat models of middle cerebral artery occlusion were intraperitoneally injected with physiological saline, the AT2R agonist CGP42112 (1 mg/kg per day) or antagonist PD123319 (1 mg/kg per day). In the CGP42112 group, AT2R expression increased, the infarct area decreased, interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α expression decreased, and interleukin-10 expression increased compared with the saline group. Antagonisin AT2R using PD123319 produced the opposite effects. These results indicate that AT2R activation suppresses immune and inflammatory responses, and protects against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury.

  5. Antibodies to m-type phospholipase A2 receptor in children with idiopathic membranous nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vinod; Ramachandran, Raja; Kumar, Ashwani; Nada, Ritambhra; Suri, Deepti; Gupta, Anju; Kohli, Harbir Singh; Gupta, Krishan Lal; Jha, Vivekanand

    2015-08-01

    Idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN), the commonest cause of adult nephrotic syndrome (NS), accounts for only a minority of paediatric NS. Antibodies to m-type phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) are seen in two-thirds of adult IMN cases. PLA2R staining in glomerular deposits is observed in 74% and 45% of adult and paediatric IMN cases, respectively. However, there are no reports of anti-PLA2R in paediatric IMN. We evaluated anti-PLA2R levels and PLA2R in gloemrular deposits in paediatric IMN seen at our center. Five cases were enrolled, all the cases stained for PLA2R in glomeruli and three (60%) had antibodies to PLA2R antigen. There was a parellel reduction in proteinuria and anti-PLA2R titer. The present report suggests that PLA2R has a contributory role in the pathogenesis of paediatric IMN.

  6. Primary focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis and soluble factor urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor.

    PubMed

    Trimarchi, Hernán

    2013-11-01

    Primary focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) may be due to genetic or acquired etiologies and is a common cause of nephrotic syndrome with high morbidity that often leads to end-stage renal failure. The different available therapeutic approaches are unsuccessful, in part due to partially deciphered heterogeneous and complex pathophysiological mechanisms. Moreover, the term FSGS, even in its primary form, comprises a histological description shared by a number of different causes with completely different molecular pathways of disease. This review focuses on the latest developments regarding the pathophysiology of primary acquired FSGS caused by soluble factor urokinase type plasminogen activator receptor, a circulating permeability factor involved in proteinuria and edema formation, and describes recent advances with potential success in therapy.

  7. Neuroprotective effect of angiotensin II type 2 receptor during cerebral ischemia/reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Chun-ye; Yin, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R) activation has been shown to protect against stroke, but its precise mechanism remains poorly understood. We investigated whether the protective effect of AT2R against ischemia/reperfusion injury is mediated by the suppression of immune and inflammatory responses. Rat models of middle cerebral artery occlusion were intraperitoneally injected with physiological saline, the AT2R agonist CGP42112 (1 mg/kg per day) or antagonist PD123319 (1 mg/kg per day). In the CGP42112 group, AT2R expression increased, the infarct area decreased, interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α expression decreased, and interleukin-10 expression increased compared with the saline group. Antagonisin AT2R using PD123319 produced the opposite effects. These results indicate that AT2R activation suppresses immune and inflammatory responses, and protects against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. PMID:27630693

  8. The autoimmunity-associated gene PTPN22 potentiates toll-like receptor-driven, type 1 interferon-dependent immunity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yaya; Shaked, Iftach; Stanford, Stephanie M; Zhou, Wenbo; Curtsinger, Julie M; Mikulski, Zbigniew; Shaheen, Zachary R; Cheng, Genhong; Sawatzke, Kristy; Campbell, Amanda M; Auger, Jennifer L; Bilgic, Hatice; Shoyama, Fernanda M; Schmeling, David O; Balfour, Henry H; Hasegawa, Kiminori; Chan, Andrew C; Corbett, John A; Binstadt, Bryce A; Mescher, Matthew F; Ley, Klaus; Bottini, Nunzio; Peterson, Erik J

    2013-07-25

    Immune cells sense microbial products through Toll-like receptors (TLR), which trigger host defense responses including type 1 interferons (IFNs) secretion. A coding polymorphism in the protein tyrosine phosphatase nonreceptor type 22 (PTPN22) gene is a susceptibility allele for human autoimmune and infectious disease. We report that Ptpn22 selectively regulated type 1 IFN production after TLR engagement in myeloid cells. Ptpn22 promoted host antiviral responses and was critical for TLR agonist-induced, type 1 IFN-dependent suppression of inflammation in colitis and arthritis. PTPN22 directly associated with TNF receptor-associated factor 3 (TRAF3) and promotes TRAF3 lysine 63-linked ubiquitination. The disease-associated PTPN22W variant failed to promote TRAF3 ubiquitination, type 1 IFN upregulation, and type 1 IFN-dependent suppression of arthritis. The findings establish a candidate innate immune mechanism of action for a human autoimmunity "risk" gene in the regulation of host defense and inflammation.

  9. Rab GTPases bind at a common site within the angiotensin II type I receptor carboxyl-terminal tail: evidence that Rab4 regulates receptor phosphorylation, desensitization, and resensitization.

    PubMed

    Esseltine, Jessica L; Dale, Lianne B; Ferguson, Stephen S G

    2011-01-01

    The human angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT₁R) is a member of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily and represents an important target for cardiovascular therapeutic intervention. Agonist-activation of the AT₁R induces β-arrestin-dependent endocytosis to early endosomes in which the receptor resides as a protein complex with the Rab GTPase Rab5. In the present study, we examined whether other Rab GTPases that regulate receptor trafficking through endosomal compartments also bind to the AT₁R. We find that Rab4, Rab7, and Rab11 all bind to the last 10 amino acid residues of the AT₁R carboxyl-terminal tail. Rab11 binds AT₁R more effectively than Rab5, whereas Rab4 binds less effectively than Rab5. Alanine scanning mutagenesis reveals that proline 354 and cysteine 355 contribute to Rab protein binding, and mutation of these residues does not affect G protein coupling. We find that the Rab GTPases each compete with one another for receptor binding and that although Rab4 interacts poorly with the AT₁R, it effectively displaces Rab11 from the receptor. In contrast, Rab11 overexpression does not prevent Rab4 binding to the AT₁R. Overexpression of wild-type Rab4, but not Rab11, facilitates AT₁R dephosphorylation, and a constitutively active Rab4-Q67L mutant reduces AT₁R desensitization and promotes AT₁R resensitization. Taken together, our data indicate that multiple Rab GTPases bind to a motif localized to the distal end of the AT₁R tail and that increased Rab4 activity may contribute to the regulation AT₁R desensitization and dephosphorylation.

  10. A covalently dimerized recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-15 variant identifies bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 1B as a key cell surface receptor on ovarian granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Pulkki, Minna M; Mottershead, David G; Pasternack, Arja H; Muggalla, Pranuthi; Ludlow, Helen; van Dinther, Maarten; Myllymaa, Samu; Koli, Katri; ten Dijke, Peter; Laitinen, Mika; Ritvos, Olli

    2012-03-01

    Genetic studies have identified bone morphogenetic protein-15 (BMP15) as an essential regulator of female fertility in humans and in sheep. Oocyte-derived BMP15 is a noncovalently linked dimeric growth factor mediating its effects to ovarian somatic cells in a paracrine manner. Although receptor ectodomains capable of binding BMP15 have previously been reported, no cell surface receptor complex involved in BMP15 signaling has previously been characterized. Here we have expressed and purified recombinant human BMP15 noncovalent and covalent dimer variants. The biological effects of these BMP15 variants were assessed in cultured human granulosa-luteal cells or COV434 granulosa cell tumor cells using BMP-responsive transcriptional reporter assays and an inhibin B ELISA. Biochemical characterization of ligand-receptor interactions was performed with affinity-labeling experiments using [(125)I]iodinated BMP15 variants. Both ligand variants were shown to form homodimers and to stimulate Smad1/5/8 signaling and inhibin B production in human granulosa cells in a similar manner. [(125)I]Iodination of both ligands was achieved, but only the covalent dimer variant retained receptor binding capacity. The [(125)I]BMP15(S356C) variant bound preferentially to endogenous BMP receptor 1B (BMPR1B) and BMPR2 receptors on COV434 cells. Binding experiments in COS cells with overexpression of these receptors confirmed that the [(125)I]BMP15(S356C) variant binds to BMPR1B and BMPR2 forming the BMP15 signaling complex. The results provide the first direct evidence in any species on the identification of specific cell surface receptors for a member of the GDF9/BMP15 subfamily of oocyte growth factors. The fact that BMP15 uses preferentially BMPR1B as its type I receptor suggests an important role for the BMPR1B receptor in human female fertility. The result is well in line with the demonstration of ovarian failure in a recently reported human subject with a homozygous BMPR1B loss

  11. The human gonadotropin releasing hormone type I receptor is a functional intracellular GPCR expressed on the nuclear membrane.

    PubMed

    Re, Michelle; Pampillo, Macarena; Savard, Martin; Dubuc, Céléna; McArdle, Craig A; Millar, Robert P; Conn, P Michael; Gobeil, Fernand; Bhattacharya, Moshmi; Babwah, Andy V

    2010-07-08

    The mammalian type I gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor (GnRH-R) is a structurally unique G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that lacks cytoplasmic tail sequences and displays inefficient plasma membrane expression (PME). Compared to its murine counterparts, the primate type I receptor is inefficiently folded and retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) leading to a further reduction in PME. The decrease in PME and concomitant increase in intracellular localization of the mammalian GnRH-RI led us to characterize the spatial distribution of the human and mouse GnRH receptors in two human cell lines, HEK 293 and HTR-8/SVneo. In both human cell lines we found the receptors were expressed in the cytoplasm and were associated with the ER and nuclear membrane. A molecular analysis of the receptor protein sequence led us to identify a putative monopartite nuclear localization sequence (NLS) in the first intracellular loop of GnRH-RI. Surprisingly, however, neither the deletion of the NLS nor the addition of the Xenopus GnRH-R cytoplasmic tail sequences to the human receptor altered its spatial distribution. Finally, we demonstrate that GnRH treatment of nuclei isolated from HEK 293 cells expressing exogenous GnRH-RI triggers a significant increase in the acetylation and phosphorylation of histone H3, thereby revealing that the nuclear-localized receptor is functional. Based on our findings, we conclude that the mammalian GnRH-RI is an intracellular GPCR that is expressed on the nuclear membrane. This major and novel discovery causes us to reassess the signaling potential of this physiologically and clinically important receptor.

  12. The Structure-Function Relationships of Complement Receptor Type 2 (CR2; CD21).

    PubMed

    Hannan, Jonathan Paul

    2016-01-01

    Human complement receptor type 2 (CR2; CD21) is a surface-associated glycoprotein which binds to a variety of endogenous ligands, including the complement component C3 fragments iC3b, C3dg and C3d, the low-affinity IgE receptor CD23, and the type I cytokine, interferon-alpha. CR2 links the innate complement-mediated immune response to pathogens and foreign antigens with the adaptive immune response by binding to C3d that is covalently attached to targets, and which results in a cell signalling phenomenon that lowers the threshold for B cell activation. Variations or deletions of the CR2 gene in humans, or the Cr2 gene in mice associate with a variety of autoimmune and inflammatory conditions. A number of infectious agents including Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and prions also bind to CR2 either directly or indirectly by means of C3d-targeted immune complexes. In this review we discuss the interactions that CR2 undertakes with its best characterized ligands C3d, CD23 and the EBV gp350/220 envelope protein. To date only a single physiologically relevant complex of CR2 with one of its ligands, C3d, has been elucidated. By contrast, the interactions with CD23 and EBV gp350/220, while being important from physiologic and disease-associated standpoints, respectively, are only incompletely understood. A detailed knowledge of the structure-function relationships that CR2 undergoes with its ligands is necessary to understand the implications of using recombinant CR2 in therapeutic or imaging agents, or alternatively targeting CR2 to down-regulate the antibody mediated immune response in cases of autoimmunity.

  13. Type 2 cannabinoid receptor contributes to the physiological regulation of spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Di Giacomo, Daniele; De Domenico, Emanuela; Sette, Claudio; Geremia, Raffaele; Grimaldi, Paola

    2016-04-01

    Type 2 cannabinoid receptor (CB2) has been proposed to play a pivotal role in meiotic entry of male germ cells, similar to retinoic acid (RA). In this study, we showed that activation of CB2with the specific agonist JWH133 [3-(1',1'-dimethylbutyl)-1-deoxy-8-THC] (IC5010(-6)M) mimics epigenetic events induced by RA (IC5010(-7)M) in spermatogonia. Both JWH133 and RA treatments stimulate the expression of the meiotic genes c-KitandStra8, by up-regulating H3K4me3 and down-regulating H3K9me2 levels in genomic regions flanking the transcription start site. Moreover, both agents increase the expression ofPrdm9, the gene encoding a meiosis-specific histone, H3K4me3 methyltransferase, which marks hotspots of recombination in prophase I, thus resulting in a global increase in H3K4me3. Notably, prolonged administration of JWH133 to immature 7 dpp CD-1 mice induced an acceleration of the onset of spermatogenesis, whereas the specific CB2antagonist delayed germ cell differentiation. Thus, both hyper- and hypostimulation of CB2disrupted the temporal dynamics of the spermatogenic cycle. These findings highlight the importance of proper CB2signaling for the maintenance of a correct temporal progression of spermatogenesis and suggest a possible adverse effect of cannabis in deregulating this process.-Di Giacomo, D., De Domenico, E., Sette, C., Geremia, R., Grimaldi, P. Type 2 cannabinoid receptor contributes to the physiological regulation of spermatogenesis. PMID:26671998

  14. Canavanine activates imidazoline I-2 receptors to reduce hyperglycemia in type 1-like diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chin-Hong; Chao, Pin-Chun; Niu, Ho-Shan; Huang, Gin-Chi; Chen, Li-Jen; Cheng, Juei-Tang

    2015-10-01

    Canavanine is a guanidinium derivative that has the basic structure of a ligand for the imidazoline receptor (I-R). Furthermore, canavanine is found in an herb that has been shown to improve diabetic disorders. Thus, the present study was designed to investigate the anti-hyperglycemic action of canavanine in rats with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1-like diabetes. Canavanine decreased hyperglycemia in the STZ-induced diabetic rats, and this action was blocked by the antagonist specific to imidazoline I-2 receptors (I-2R), BU224, in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, canavanine increased the plasma β-endorphin level, as measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and this increase was also blocked by BU224 in the same manner. Moreover, amiloride at a dose sufficient to block I-2AR attenuated the actions of canavanine, including the increased β-endorphin level and the antihyperglycemic effect. Otherwise, canavanine increased the radioactive glucose uptake into skeletal muscles isolated from the diabetic rats. Furthermore, canavanine increased the phosphorylation of AMPK measured using Western blot analysis in these isolated skeletal muscles in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, the insulin sensitivity of the diabetic rats was markedly increased by canavanine, and this action was also blocked by BU224. Overall, canavanine is capable of activating imidazoline I-2R; I-2AR is linked to an increase in the plasma level of β-endorphin, and I-2BR is related to effects on the glucose uptake by skeletal muscle that reduces hyperglycemia in type 1-like diabetic rats. Therefore, canavanine can be developed as effective agent to treat the diabetic disorders in the future. PMID:26362499

  15. The Structure-Function Relationships of Complement Receptor Type 2 (CR2; CD21).

    PubMed

    Hannan, Jonathan Paul

    2016-01-01

    Human complement receptor type 2 (CR2; CD21) is a surface-associated glycoprotein which binds to a variety of endogenous ligands, including the complement component C3 fragments iC3b, C3dg and C3d, the low-affinity IgE receptor CD23, and the type I cytokine, interferon-alpha. CR2 links the innate complement-mediated immune response to pathogens and foreign antigens with the adaptive immune response by binding to C3d that is covalently attached to targets, and which results in a cell signalling phenomenon that lowers the threshold for B cell activation. Variations or deletions of the CR2 gene in humans, or the Cr2 gene in mice associate with a variety of autoimmune and inflammatory conditions. A number of infectious agents including Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and prions also bind to CR2 either directly or indirectly by means of C3d-targeted immune complexes. In this review we discuss the interactions that CR2 undertakes with its best characterized ligands C3d, CD23 and the EBV gp350/220 envelope protein. To date only a single physiologically relevant complex of CR2 with one of its ligands, C3d, has been elucidated. By contrast, the interactions with CD23 and EBV gp350/220, while being important from physiologic and disease-associated standpoints, respectively, are only incompletely understood. A detailed knowledge of the structure-function relationships that CR2 undergoes with its ligands is necessary to understand the implications of using recombinant CR2 in therapeutic or imaging agents, or alternatively targeting CR2 to down-regulate the antibody mediated immune response in cases of autoimmunity. PMID:26916158

  16. Functional Interaction between Angiotensin II Receptor Type 1 and Chemokine (C-C Motif) Receptor 2 with Implications for Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Robyn S.; See, Heng B.; Johnstone, Elizabeth K. M.; McCall, Elizabeth A.; Williams, James H.; Kelly, Darren J.; Pfleger, Kevin D. G.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding functional interactions between G protein-coupled receptors is of great physiological and pathophysiological importance. Heteromerization provides one important potential mechanism for such interaction between different signalling pathways via macromolecular complex formation. Previous studies suggested a functional interplay between angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1) and Chemokine (C-C motif) Receptor 2 (CCR2). However the molecular mechanisms are not understood. We investigated AT1-CCR2 functional interaction in vitro using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer in HEK293 cells and in vivo using subtotal-nephrectomized rats as a well-established model for chronic kidney disease. Our data revealed functional heteromers of these receptors resulting in CCR2-Gαi1 coupling being sensitive to AT1 activation, as well as apparent enhanced β-arrestin2 recruitment with agonist co-stimulation that is synergistically reversed by combined antagonist treatment. Moreover, we present in vivo findings where combined treatment with AT1- and CCR2-selective inhibitors was synergistically beneficial in terms of decreasing proteinuria, reducing podocyte loss and preventing renal injury independent of blood pressure in the subtotal-nephrectomized rat model. Our findings further support a role for G protein-coupled receptor functional heteromerization in pathophysiology and provide insights into previous observations indicating the importance of AT1-CCR2 functional interaction in inflammation, renal and hypertensive disorders. PMID:25807547

  17. Microinjection of orexin-A into the rat locus coeruleus nucleus induces analgesia via cannabinoid type-1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Kargar, Hossein Mohammad-Pour; Azizi, Hossein; Mirnajafi-Zadeh, Javad; Reza, Mani Ali; Semnanian, Saeed

    2015-10-22

    Locus coeruleus (LC) nucleus is involved in noradrenergic descending pain modulation. LC receives dense orexinergic projections from the lateral hypothalamus. Orexin-A and -B are hypothalamic peptides which modulate a variety of brain functions via orexin type-1 (OX1) and orexin type-2 (OX2) receptors. Previous studies have shown that activation of OX1 receptors induces endocannabinoid synthesis and alters synaptic neurotransmission by retrograde signaling via affecting cannabinoid type-1 (CB1) receptors. In the present study the interaction of orexin-A and endocannabinoids was examined at the LC level in a rat model of inflammatory pain. Pain was induced by formalin (2%) injection into the hind paw. Intra-LC microinjection of orexin-A decreased the nociception score during both phases of formalin test. Furthermore, intra-LC microinjection of either SB-334867 (OX1 receptor antagonist) or AM251 (CB1 receptor antagonist) increased flinches and also the nociception score during phase 1, 2 and the inter-phase of formalin test. The analgesic effect of orexin-A was diminished by prior intra-LC microinjection of either SB-334867 or AM251. This data show that, activation of OX1 receptors in the LC can induce analgesia and also the blockade of OX1 or CB1 receptors is associated with hyperalgesia during formalin test. Our findings also suggest that CB1 receptors may modulate the analgesic effect of orexin-A. These results outline a new mechanism by which orexin-A modulates the nociceptive processing in the LC nucleus.

  18. PROXIMAL GUT MUCOSAL EPITHELIAL HOMEOSTASIS IN AGED IL-1 TYPE I RECEPTOR KNOCKOUT MICE AFTER STARVATION

    PubMed Central

    Song, Juquan; Wolf, Steven E.; Wu, Xiao-Wu; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Herndon, David N.; Jeschke, Marc G.

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that starvation induces small bowel atrophy, and that atrophy diminishes with aging. In this experiment, we assessed whether starvation-induced atrophy of proximal gut mucosa is associated with the Interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R) signaling pathway in aged mice. Materials and Methods Thirty 26-month-old IL-1R knockout mice and age-matched wild-type C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into two groups: ad libitum fed and fasted. Mice were euthanized 12 or 48 hours after starvation. The proximal small bowel was harvested for morphologic analysis. Gut epithelial cell proliferation was detected using immunohistochemical staining for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and apoptosis was identified using terminal deoxyuridine nick-end labeling (TUNEL) staining. Results Aged IL-1R knockout mice were larger than aged-matched wild-type mice (p<0.05). Proximal gut mucosal height and mucosal cell number were not different between aged IL-1R knockout and wild-type groups. The apoptosis index in gut epithelial cells was higher in fed IL-1R knockout versus wild-type mice (p<0.05), while no significant difference in cell proliferation between both groups. Mucosal atrophy was induced in both aged IL-1R knockout and wild-type groups by starvation (p<0.05), however, aged IL-1R knockout mice experienced greater losses in proximal gut weight, mucosal length, and corresponding cell number than did wild-type mice at the 12-hour time point (p<0.05). The apoptosis index in gut epithelial cells significantly increased in both groups after starvation (p<0.05). Starvation decreased cell proliferation in IL-1R knockout mice (p<0.05), but not in wild-type mice. Conclusions The response in aged IL-1R knockout mice differs from wild-type mice in that starvation increases atrophy and is associated with decreased cell proliferation rather than increased apoptosis. PMID:20605606

  19. Asymmetric Synthesis of Conformationally Constrained Fingolimod Analogues—Discovery of an Orally Active Sphingosine 1-Phosphate Receptor Type-1 Agonist and Receptor Type-3 Antagonist

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Ran; Snyder, Ashley H.; Kharel, Yugesh; Schaffter, Lisa; Sun, Qin; Kennedy, Perry C.; Lynch, Kevin R.; Macdonald, Timothy L.

    2010-01-01

    Compound 1 (FTY720, Fingolimod) represents a new generation of immunosuppressant that modulates lymphocyte trafficking by interacting with the S1P1 receptor. Compound 1 also provides a template molecule for studying the molecular biology of S1P receptors and related enzymes (kinases and phosphatases). In this study, two conformationally constrained analogues of 1 (3a and 3c) were asymmetrically synthesized in high optical purity. In vitro assessment documented that both analogues are Sphk2 substrates, their phosphorylated species are potent S1P1 receptor agonists, and 3a-P is a potent S1P3 antagonist. After oral administration in mice, both compounds evoked lymphopenia, but their duration of action differed markedly. PMID:17994678

  20. The Role of Dopamine in Reinforcement: Changes in Reinforcement Sensitivity Induced by D[subscript 1]-Type, D[subscript 2]-Type, and Nonselective Dopamine Receptor Agonists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bratcher, Natalie A.; Farmer-Dougan, Valeri; Dougan, James D.; Heidenreich, Byron A.; Garris, Paul A.

    2005-01-01

    Dose-dependent changes in sensitivity to reinforcement were found when rats were treated with low, moderate, and high doses of the partial dopamine D[subscript 1]-type receptor agonist SKF38393 and with the nonselective dopamine agonist apomorphine, but did not change when rats were treated with similar doses of the selective dopamine D[subscript…

  1. Neurotensin releases norepinephrine differentially from perfused hypothalamus of sated and fasted rat

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, T.F.; Rezvani, A.H.; Hepler, J.R.; Myers, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    The central injection of neurotensin (NT) has been reported to attenuate the intake of food in the fasted animal. To determine whether endogenous norepinephrine (NE) is involved in the satiating effect of NT, the in vivo activity of NE in circumscribed sites in the hypothalamus of the unanesthetized rat was examined. Bilateral guide tubes for push-pull perfusion were implanted stereotaxically to rest permanently above one of several intended sites of perfusion, which included the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), ventromedial nucleus (VMN), and the lateral hypothalamic (LH) area. After endogenous stores of NE at a specific hypothalamic locus were radiolabeled by microinjection of 0.02-0.5 ..mu..Ci of (/sup 3/H)NE, an artificial cerebrospinal fluid was perfused at the site at a rate of 20 ..mu..l/min over successive intervals of 5.0 min. When 0.05 or 0.1 ..mu..g/..mu..l NT was added to the perfusate, the peptide served either to enhance or educe the local release of NE at 50% of the sites of perfusion. In these experiments, the circumscribed effect of NT on the characteristics of catecholamine efflux depended entirely on the state of hunger or satiety of the rat. That is, when NT was perfused in the fully satiated rat, NE release was augmented within the PVn or VMN; conversely, NE release was inhibited in the LH. in the animal fasted for 18-22 h, NT exerted an opposite effect on the activity of NE within the same anatomical loci in that the efflux of NE was enhanced in the LH but attenuated or unaffected in the PVN or VMN. Taken together, these observations provide experimental support for the view-point that NT could act as a neuromodulator of the activity of hypothalamic noradrenergic neurons that are thought to play a functional role in the regulation of food intake.

  2. Partial blockade of neurotensin-induced hypotension in rats by nephrectomy captopril and saralasin. Possible mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Kérouac, R; St-Pierre, S; Manning, M; Rioux, F

    1983-04-01

    We have assessed the influence of acute bilateral nephrectomy, of captopril and saralasin, on the hypotensive activity of neurotensin (NT) and of various hypotensive drugs in pentobarbital-anesthetized rats. The results show that the hypotensive activity of NT and of compound 48/80 (C48/80), in contrast to that of histamine, of 5-hydroxytryptamine and of hexamethonium, is markedly reduced, especially for NT, in nephrectomized as compared to sham operated rats. The pretreatment of rats with captopril (10 mg kg-1, i.v.) or with saralasin (20 micrograms kg-1 min-1, i.v.) was found to inhibit significantly the hypotensive activity of NT and of C48/80. Adrenalectomy restored partially the hypotensive activity of NT in nephrectomized rats. The potent vasopressin antagonist [d(CH2)5 Tyr(Me)AVP] did not alter the refractoriness of nephrectomized rats to the hypotensive activity of NT. Neither nephrectomy nor saralasin were found to interfere with the ability of NT or of C48/80 to evoke an increase of plasma histamine level or of the hematocrit. The results were interpreted as an indication that NT produces part of its hypotensive effect in anesthetized rats by reducing the activity of the renin angiotensin system. The results also suggest that part of the refractoriness of nephrectomized rats to the hypotensive activity of NT could be due to the release of catecholamines from adrenal glands by NT. Endogenous vasopressin does not appear to contribute to the refractoriness of nephrectomized rats to the hypotensive action of NT.

  3. Haemodynamic and abdominal motor reflexes elicited by neurotensin in anaesthetized guinea-pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Rioux, F.; Lemieux, M.

    1992-01-01

    1. Single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of neurotensin (NT) (0.14- 140 nmol kg-1) in anaesthetized guinea-pigs were found to trigger transient abdominal wall contractions (TAWC) accompanied by relatively sustained increases of systemic blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR). The modification of the latter NT effects by various drugs and surgical manipulations was examined to obtain some insight into the nature of, and possible relationship between, these responses. 2. The abdominal motor response (i.e. TAWC) to i.p. NT (14 nmol kg-1) was inhibited by prior i.v. injection of the guinea-pigs with pancuronium (0.27 mumol kg-1), morphine (1.5 and 15 mumol kg-1), clonidine (0.34 mumol kg-1), by concomitant i.p. injection of procaine 2% w/v, or by acute spinalization. It was potentiated by naloxone (2.8 and 28 mumol kg-1), but not affected by i.v. injection of autonomic drugs (i.e. pentolinium, prazosin, yohimbine and atropine), by capsaicin desensitization, or by acute bilateral cervical vagotomy. In spinalized animals a sustained abdominal wall contraction (SAWC) was unmasked, which was resistant to i.v. morphine, clonidine or baclofen but suppressed by i.v. pancuronium or i.p. lignocaine 2% w/v. 3. Haemodynamic responses to i.p. NT were not affected by i.v. pancuronium, morphine, naloxone, atropine, or by vagotomy. They were inhibited by i.v. pentolinium or clonidine (BP, HR), i.v. prazosin (BP), i.p. procaine 2% w/v (BP, HR), capsaicin desensitization or acute spinalization (BP, HR). Yohimbine (i.v.) potentiated BP and HR increases caused by i.p. NT.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1504727

  4. Developmental regulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate- and kainate-type glutamate receptor expression in the rat spinal cord

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stegenga, S. L.; Kalb, R. G.

    2001-01-01

    Spinal motor neurons undergo experience-dependent development during a critical period in early postnatal life. It has been suggested that the repertoire of glutamate receptor subunits differs between young and mature motor neurons and contributes to this activity-dependent development. In the present study we examined the expression patterns of N-methyl-D-aspartate- and kainate-type glutamate receptor subunits during the postnatal maturation of the spinal cord. Young motor neurons express much higher levels of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit NR1 than do adult motor neurons. Although there are eight potential splice variants of NR1, only a subgroup is expressed by motor neurons. With respect to NR2 receptor subunits, young motor neurons express NR2A and C, while adult motor neurons express only NR2A. Young motor neurons express kainate receptor subunits GluR5, 6 and KA2 but we are unable to detect these or any other kainate receptor subunits in the adult spinal cord. Other spinal cord regions display a distinct pattern of developmental regulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate and kainate receptor subunit expression in comparison to motor neurons. Our findings indicate a precise spatio-temporal regulation of individual subunit expression in the developing spinal cord. Specific combinations of subunits in developing neurons influence their excitable properties and could participate in the emergence of adult neuronal form and function.

  5. Intracellular Ca2+ and not the extracellular matrix determines surface dynamics of AMPA-type glutamate receptors on aspiny neurons

    PubMed Central

    Klueva, Julia; Gundelfinger, Eckart D.; Frischknecht, R. Renato; Heine, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The perisynaptic extracellular matrix (ECM) contributes to the control of the lateral mobility of AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs) at spine synapses of principal hippocampal neurons. Here, we have studied the effect of the ECM on the lateral mobility of AMPARs at shaft synapses of aspiny interneurons. Single particle tracking experiments revealed that the removal of the hyaluronan-based ECM with hyaluronidase does not affect lateral receptor mobility on the timescale of seconds. Similarly, cross-linking with specific antibodies against the extracellular domain of the GluA1 receptor subunit, which affects lateral receptor mobility on spiny neurons, does not influence receptor mobility on aspiny neurons. AMPARs on aspiny interneurons are characterized by strong inward rectification indicating a significant fraction of Ca2+-permeable receptors. Therefore, we tested whether Ca2+ controls AMPAR mobility in these neurons. Application of the membrane-permeable Ca2+ chelator BAPTA-AM significantly increased the lateral mobility of GluA1-containing synaptic and extrasynaptic receptors. These data indicate that the perisynaptic ECM affects the lateral mobility differently on spiny and aspiny neurons. Although ECM structures on interneurons appear much more prominent, their influence on AMPAR mobility seems to be negligible at short timescales. PMID:25225098

  6. [Extrapancreatic effects of GLP-1 receptor agonists: an open window towards new treatment goals in type 2 diabetes].

    PubMed

    Salvador, Javier; Andrada, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    The wide ubiquity of GLP-1 receptors in the body has stimulated the search for different extrapancreatic actions of GLP-1 and its receptor agonists. Thus, severe cardioprotective effects directed on myocardial ischaemia and dysfunction as well as diverse antiaterogenic actions have been reported. Also, native and GLP-1 receptor agonists have demonstrated significant beneficial effects on liver steatosis and fibrosis and on neuronal protection in experimental models of Alzheimer, and Parkinson's disease as well as on cerebral ischaemia. Recent evidences suggest that these drugs may also be useful for prevention and treatment of diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy and peripheral neuropathy. Good results have also been reported in psoriasis. Despite we still need confirmation that these promising effects can be applied to clinical practice, they offer new interesting perspectives for treatment of type 2 diabetes associated complications and give to GLP-1 receptor agonists an even more integral position in diabetes therapy. PMID:25326841

  7. [Extrapancreatic effects of GLP-1 receptor agonists: an open window towards new treatment goals in type 2 diabetes].

    PubMed

    Salvador, Javier; Andrada, Patricia

    2014-09-01

    The wide ubiquity of GLP-1 receptors in the body has stimulated the search for different extrapancreatic actions of GLP-1 and its receptor agonists. Thus, severe cardioprotective effects directed on myocardial ischaemia and dysfunction as well as diverse antiaterogenic actions have been reported. Also, native and GLP-1 receptor agonists have demonstrated significant beneficial effects on liver steatosis and fibrosis and on neuronal protection in experimental models of Alzheimer, and Parkinson's disease as well as on cerebral ischaemia. Recent evidences suggest that these drugs may also be useful for prevention and treatment of diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy and peripheral neuropathy. Good results have also been reported in psoriasis. Despite we still need confirmation that these promising effects can be applied to clinical practice, they offer new interesting perspectives for treatment of type 2 diabetes associated complications and give to GLP-1 receptor agonists an even more integral position in diabetes therapy. PMID:25437463

  8. Neurotensin-based hybrid peptide's anti-inflammatory activity in murine model of a contact sensitivity response.

    PubMed

    Kaczyńska, Katarzyna; Kogut, Ewelina; Zając, Dominika; Jampolska, Monika; Andrzejewski, Kryspin; Sulejczak, Dorota; Lipkowski, Andrzej W; Kleczkowska, Patrycja

    2016-10-10

    The objective of the study was to investigate the possibility of modulation of skin inflammation by topical treatment with a novel compound: an opioid-neurotensin hybrid peptide PK20 encompassing endomorphin-2 analog and modified fragment of neurotensin (8-13). Contact sensitivity response was induced in mice by skin sensitization with dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) followed by topical hapten application on ears. Mice were treated locally with PK20 or pure cream 2h after the challenge with DNFB. 2 and 24h after hapten exposure, ear thickness was determined. Ears were collected for histology and homogenization. Supernatants were used for measurement of contents of cytokines and lipid peroxidation products. Treatment with PK20 reduced significantly the late phase of contact sensitivity response, which was revealed by ear thickness diminution and reduction of inflammatory cell infiltration. The average concentrations of IL-1α, MCP-1, TNF-α and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances were significantly decreased in the ears treated with the chimera in comparison to the control cream treated ears in DNFB sensitized/DNFB challenged group. We found that PK20 topical treatment alleviates hypersensitivity responses triggered by DNFB challenge and usage of the hybrid peptide may be a novel therapeutic strategy in the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases. However, the mechanism remains unclear and needs further investigation. PMID:27509866

  9. Neurotensin-based hybrid peptide's anti-inflammatory activity in murine model of a contact sensitivity response.

    PubMed

    Kaczyńska, Katarzyna; Kogut, Ewelina; Zając, Dominika; Jampolska, Monika; Andrzejewski, Kryspin; Sulejczak, Dorota; Lipkowski, Andrzej W; Kleczkowska, Patrycja

    2016-10-10

    The objective of the study was to investigate the possibility of modulation of skin inflammation by topical treatment with a novel compound: an opioid-neurotensin hybrid peptide PK20 encompassing endomorphin-2 analog and modified fragment of neurotensin (8-13). Contact sensitivity response was induced in mice by skin sensitization with dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) followed by topical hapten application on ears. Mice were treated locally with PK20 or pure cream 2h after the challenge with DNFB. 2 and 24h after hapten exposure, ear thickness was determined. Ears were collected for histology and homogenization. Supernatants were used for measurement of contents of cytokines and lipid peroxidation products. Treatment with PK20 reduced significantly the late phase of contact sensitivity response, which was revealed by ear thickness diminution and reduction of inflammatory cell infiltration. The average concentrations of IL-1α, MCP-1, TNF-α and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances were significantly decreased in the ears treated with the chimera in comparison to the control cream treated ears in DNFB sensitized/DNFB challenged group. We found that PK20 topical treatment alleviates hypersensitivity responses triggered by DNFB challenge and usage of the hybrid peptide may be a novel therapeutic strategy in the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases. However, the mechanism remains unclear and needs further investigation.

  10. Production of angiotensin II receptors type one (AT1) and type two (AT2) during the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes.

    PubMed

    Mallow, H; Trindl, A; Löffler, G

    2000-01-01

    During their development from progenitor cells, adipocytes not only express enzymatic activities necessary for the storage of triglycerides, but also achieve the capability to produce a number of endocrine factors such as leptin, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), complement factors, adiponectin/adipoQ, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), angiotensin II and others. Angiotensin II is produced from angiotensinogen by the proteolytic action of renin and angiotensin-converting enzyme; and several data point to the existence of a complete local renin-angiotensin system in adipose tissue, including angiotensin II receptors. In this study, we directly monitored the production of angiotensin II type one receptor (AT1) and angiotensin II type two receptor (AT2) proteins during the adipose conversion of murine 3T3-L1 preadipocytes by immunodetection with specific antibodies. AT1 receptors could be detected throughout the whole differentiation period. The strong AT2 signal in preadipocytes however was completely lost during the course of differentiation, which suggests that expression of AT2 receptors is inversely correlated to the adipose conversion program.

  11. The impact of tonic GABAA receptor-mediated inhibition on neuronal excitability varies across brain region and cell type

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Vallent; Maguire, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of GABAA receptor (GABAAR) subunits and the numerous configurations during subunit assembly give rise to a variety of receptors with different functional properties. This heterogeneity results in variations in GABAergic conductances across numerous brain regions and cell types. Phasic inhibition is mediated by synaptically-localized receptors with a low affinity for GABA and results in a transient, rapidly desensitizing GABAergic conductance; whereas, tonic inhibition is mediated by extrasynaptic receptors with a high affinity for GABA and results in a persistent GABAergic conductance. The specific functions of tonic versus phasic GABAergic inhibition in different cell types and the impact on specific neural circuits are only beginning to be unraveled. Here we review the diversity in the magnitude of tonic GABAergic inhibition in various brain regions and cell types, and highlight the impact on neuronal excitability in different neuronal circuits. Further, we discuss the relevance of tonic inhibition in various physiological and pathological contexts as well as the potential of targeting these receptor subtypes for treatment of diseases, such as epilepsy. PMID:24550784

  12. Targeting Sindbis virus-based vectors to Fc receptor-positive cell types

    SciTech Connect

    Klimstra, William B.; Williams, Jacqueline C.; Ryman, Kate D.; Heidner, Hans W. . E-mail: hans.heidner@utsa.edu

    2005-07-20

    Some viruses display enhanced infection for Fc receptor (FcR)-positive cell types when complexed with virus-specific immunoglobulin (Ig). This process has been termed antibody-dependent enhancement of viral infection (ADE). We reasoned that the mechanism of ADE could be exploited and adapted to target alphavirus-based vectors to FcR-positive cell types. Towards this goal, recombinant Sindbis viruses were constructed that express 1 to 4 immunoglobulin-binding domains of protein L (PpL) as N-terminal extensions of the E2 glycoprotein. PpL is a bacterial protein that binds the variable region of antibody kappa light chains from a range of mammalian species. The recombinant viruses incorporated PpL/E2 fusion proteins into the virion structure and recapitulated the species-specific Ig-binding phenotypes of native PpL. Virions reacted with non-immune serum or purified IgG displayed enhanced binding and ADE for several species-matched FcR-positive murine and human cell lines. ADE required virus expression of a functional PpL Ig-binding domain, and appeared to be Fc{gamma}R-mediated. Specifically, ADE did not occur with Fc{gamma}R-negative cells, did not require active complement proteins, and did not occur on Fc{gamma}R-positive murine cell lines when virions were bound by murine IgG-derived F(ab'){sub 2} fragments.

  13. Type I collagen aging impairs discoidin domain receptor 2-mediated tumor cell growth suppression

    PubMed Central

    Saby, Charles; Buache, Emilie; Brassart-Pasco, Sylvie; El Btaouri, Hassan; Courageot, Marie-Pierre; Van Gulick, Laurence; Garnotel, Roselyne; Jeannesson, Pierre; Morjani, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Tumor cells are confronted to a type I collagen rich environment which regulates cell proliferation and invasion. Biological aging has been associated with structural changes of type I collagen. Here, we address the effect of collagen aging on cell proliferation in a three-dimensional context (3D). We provide evidence for an inhibitory effect of adult collagen, but not of the old one, on proliferation of human fibrosarcoma HT-1080 cells. This effect involves both the activation of the tyrosine kinase Discoidin Domain Receptor 2 (DDR2) and the tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2. DDR2 and SHP-2 were less activated in old collagen. DDR2 inhibition decreased SHP-2 phosphorylation in adult collagen and increased cell proliferation to a level similar to that observed in old collagen. In the presence of old collagen, a high level of JAK2 and ERK1/2 phosphorylation was observed while expression of the cell cycle negative regulator p21CIP1 was decreased. Inhibition of DDR2 kinase function also led to an increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation and a decrease in p21CIP1 expression. Similar signaling profile was observed when DDR2 was inhibited in adult collagen. Altogether, these data suggest that biological collagen aging could increase tumor cell proliferation by reducingthe activation of the key matrix sensor DDR2. PMID:27121132

  14. Type I collagen aging impairs discoidin domain receptor 2-mediated tumor cell growth suppression.

    PubMed

    Saby, Charles; Buache, Emilie; Brassart-Pasco, Sylvie; El Btaouri, Hassan; Courageot, Marie-Pierre; Van Gulick, Laurence; Garnotel, Roselyne; Jeannesson, Pierre; Morjani, Hamid

    2016-05-01

    Tumor cells are confronted to a type I collagen rich environment which regulates cell proliferation and invasion. Biological aging has been associated with structural changes of type I collagen. Here, we address the effect of collagen aging on cell proliferation in a three-dimensional context (3D).We provide evidence for an inhibitory effect of adult collagen, but not of the old one, on proliferation of human fibrosarcoma HT-1080 cells. This effect involves both the activation of the tyrosine kinase Discoidin Domain Receptor 2 (DDR2) and the tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2. DDR2 and SHP-2 were less activated in old collagen. DDR2 inhibition decreased SHP-2 phosphorylation in adult collagen and increased cell proliferation to a level similar to that observed in old collagen.In the presence of old collagen, a high level of JAK2 and ERK1/2 phosphorylation was observed while expression of the cell cycle negative regulator p21CIP1 was decreased. Inhibition of DDR2 kinase function also led to an increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation and a decrease in p21CIP1 expression. Similar signaling profile was observed when DDR2 was inhibited in adult collagen. Altogether, these data suggest that biological collagen aging could increase tumor cell proliferation by reducingthe activation of the key matrix sensor DDR2. PMID:27121132

  15. Genetic polymorphism of estrogen receptor alpha gene in Egyptian women with type II diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Motawi, Tarek M.K.; El-Rehany, Mahmoud A.; Rizk, Sherine M.; Ramzy, Maggie M.; el-Roby, Doaa M.

    2015-01-01

    Estrogen might play an important role in type 2 diabetes mellitus pathogenesis. A number of polymorphisms have been reported in the estrogen receptor alpha gene including the XbaI and PvuII restriction enzyme polymorphisms. The aim of this study was to determine if ESRα gene polymorphisms are associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus and correlated with lipid profile. Ninety diabetic Egyptian patients were compared with forty healthy controls. ESRα genotyping of PvuII and XbaI was performed using restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Our study showed that there is more significant difference in the frequency of C and G polymorphic allele between patients and control groups in PvuII and XbaI respectively. Also carriers of minor C and G alleles of PvuII and XbaI gene polymorphisms were associated with increased fasting blood glucose and disturbance in lipid profile as there is an increase in total cholesterol, triglycerides and Low density lipoprotein. So findings of present study suggest the possibility that PvuII and XbaI polymorphisms in ERα are related to T2DM and with increased serum lipids among Egyptian population. PMID:26401488

  16. Different inactivating mutations of the mineralocorticoid receptor in fourteen families affected by type I pseudohypoaldosteronism.

    PubMed

    Sartorato, Paola; Lapeyraque, Anne-Laure; Armanini, Decio; Kuhnle, Ursula; Khaldi, Yasmina; Salomon, Rémi; Abadie, Véronique; Di Battista, Eliana; Naselli, Arturo; Racine, Alain; Bosio, Maurizio; Caprio, Massimiliano; Poulet-Young, Véronique; Chabrolle, Jean-Pierre; Niaudet, Patrick; De Gennes, Christiane; Lecornec, Marie-Hélène; Poisson, Elodie; Fusco, Anna Maria; Loli, Paola; Lombès, Marc; Zennaro, Maria-Christina

    2003-06-01

    We have analyzed the human mineralocorticoid receptor (hMR) gene in 14 families with autosomal dominant or sporadic pseudohypoaldosteronism (PHA1), a rare form of mineralocorticoid resistance characterized by neonatal renal salt wasting and failure to thrive. Six heterozygous mutations were detected. Two frameshift mutations in exon 2 (insT1354, del8bp537) and one nonsense mutation in exon 4 (C2157A, Cys645stop) generate truncated proteins due to premature stop codons. Three missense mutations (G633R, Q776R, L979P) differently affect hMR function. The DNA binding domain mutant R633 exhibits reduced maximal transactivation, although its binding characteristics and ED(50) of transactivation are comparable with wild-type hMR. Ligand binding domain mutants R776 and P979 present reduced or absent aldosterone binding, respectively, which is associated with reduced or absent ligand-dependent transactivation capacity. Finally, P979 possesses a transdominant negative effect on wild-type hMR activity, whereas mutations G633R and Q776R probably result in haploinsufficiency in PHA1 patients. We conclude that hMR mutations are a common feature of autosomal dominant PHA1, being found in 70% of our familial cases. Their absence in some families underscores the importance of an extensive investigation of the hMR gene and the role of precise diagnostic procedures to allow for identification of other genes potentially involved in the disease. PMID:12788847

  17. Different inactivating mutations of the mineralocorticoid receptor in fourteen families affected by type I pseudohypoaldosteronism.

    PubMed

    Sartorato, Paola; Lapeyraque, Anne-Laure; Armanini, Decio; Kuhnle, Ursula; Khaldi, Yasmina; Salomon, Rémi; Abadie, Véronique; Di Battista, Eliana; Naselli, Arturo; Racine, Alain; Bosio, Maurizio; Caprio, Massimiliano; Poulet-Young, Véronique; Chabrolle, Jean-Pierre; Niaudet, Patrick; De Gennes, Christiane; Lecornec, Marie-Hélène; Poisson, Elodie; Fusco, Anna Maria; Loli, Paola; Lombès, Marc; Zennaro, Maria-Christina

    2003-06-01

    We have analyzed the human mineralocorticoid receptor (hMR) gene in 14 families with autosomal dominant or sporadic pseudohypoaldosteronism (PHA1), a rare form of mineralocorticoid resistance characterized by neonatal renal salt wasting and failure to thrive. Six heterozygous mutations were detected. Two frameshift mutations in exon 2 (insT1354, del8bp537) and one nonsense mutation in exon 4 (C2157A, Cys645stop) generate truncated proteins due to premature stop codons. Three missense mutations (G633R, Q776R, L979P) differently affect hMR function. The DNA binding domain mutant R633 exhibits reduced maximal transactivation, although its binding characteristics and ED(50) of transactivation are comparable with wild-type hMR. Ligand binding domain mutants R776 and P979 present reduced or absent aldosterone binding, respectively, which is associated with reduced or absent ligand-dependent transactivation capacity. Finally, P979 possesses a transdominant negative effect on wild-type hMR activity, whereas mutations G633R and Q776R probably result in haploinsufficiency in PHA1 patients. We conclude that hMR mutations are a common feature of autosomal dominant PHA1, being found in 70% of our familial cases. Their absence in some families underscores the importance of an extensive investigation of the hMR gene and the role of precise diagnostic procedures to allow for identification of other genes potentially involved in the disease.

  18. The insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor causes acquired resistance to erlotinib in lung cancer cells with the wild-type epidermal growth factor receptor.

    PubMed

    Suda, Kenichi; Mizuuchi, Hiroshi; Sato, Katsuaki; Takemoto, Toshiki; Iwasaki, Takuya; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya

    2014-08-15

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy often provides a dramatic response in lung cancer patients with EGFR mutations. In addition, moderate clinical efficacy of the EGFR-TKI, erlotinib, has been shown in lung cancer patients with the wild-type EGFR. Numerous molecular mechanisms that cause acquired resistance to EGFR-TKIs have been identified in lung cancers with the EGFR mutations; however, few have been reported in lung cancers with the wild-type EGFR. We used H358 lung adenocarcinoma cells lacking EGFR mutations that showed modest sensitivity to erlotinib. The H358 cells acquired resistance to erlotinib via chronic exposure to the drug. The H358 erlotinib-resistant (ER) cells do not have a secondary EGFR mutation, neither MET gene amplification nor PTEN downregulation; these have been identified in lung cancers with the EGFR mutations. From comprehensive screening of receptor tyrosine kinase phosphorylation, we observed increased phosphorylation of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) in H358ER cells compared with parental H358 cells. H358ER cells responded to combined therapy with erlotinib and NVP-AEW541, an IGF1R-TKI. Our results indicate that IGF1R activation is a molecular mechanism that confers acquired resistance to erlotinib in lung cancers with the wild-type EGFR.

  19. Regulation of transient receptor potential channels of melastatin type 8 (TRPM8): effect of cAMP, cannabinoid CB(1) receptors and endovanilloids.

    PubMed

    De Petrocellis, Luciano; Starowicz, Katarzyna; Moriello, Aniello Schiano; Vivese, Marta; Orlando, Pierangelo; Di Marzo, Vincenzo

    2007-05-15

    The transient receptor potential channel of melastatin type 8 (TRPM8), which is gated by low (<25 degrees C) temperature and chemical compounds, is regulated by protein kinase C-mediated phosphorylation in a way opposite to that observed with the transient receptor potential channel of vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1), i.e. by being desensitized and not sensitized. As TRPV1 is sensitized also by protein kinase A (PKA)-mediated phosphorylation, we investigated the effect of two activators of the PKA pathway, 8-Br-cAMP and forskolin, on the activity of menthol and icilin at TRPM8 in HEK-293 cells stably overexpressing the channel (TRPM8-HEK-293 cells). We also studied the effect on TRPM8 of: (1) a series of compounds previously shown to activate or antagonize TRPV1, and (2) co-stimulation of transiently co-expressed cannabinoid CB(1) receptors. Both 8-Br-cAMP (100 microM) and forskolin (10 microM) right-shifted the dose-response curves for the TRPM8-mediated effect of icilin and menthol on intracellular Ca(2+). The inhibitory effects of 8-Br-cAMP and forskolin were attenuated by the selective PKA inhibitor Rp-cAMP-S. Stimulation of human CB(1) receptors transiently co-expressed in TRPM8-HEK-293 cells also inhibited TRPM8 response to icilin. Finally, some TRPV1 agonists and antagonists, but not iodinated antagonists, antagonized icilin- and much less so menthol-, induced TRPM8 activation. Importantly, the endovanilloids/endocannabinoids, anandamide and NADA, also antagonized TRPM8 at submicromolar concentrations. Although these findings need to be confirmed by experiments directly measuring TRPM8 activity in natively TRPM8-expressing cells, they support the notion that the same regulatory events have opposing actions on TRPM8 and TRPV1 receptors and identify anandamide and NADA as the first potential endogenous functional antagonists of TRPM8 channels.

  20. Angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonists in animal models of vascular, cardiac, metabolic and renal disease.

    PubMed

    Michel, Martin C; Brunner, Hans R; Foster, Carolyn; Huo, Yong

    2016-08-01

    We have reviewed the effects of angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonists (ARBs) in various animal models of hypertension, atherosclerosis, cardiac function, hypertrophy and fibrosis, glucose and lipid metabolism, and renal function and morphology. Those of azilsartan and telmisartan have been included comprehensively whereas those of other ARBs have been included systematically but without intention of completeness. ARBs as a class lower blood pressure in established hypertension and prevent hypertension development in all applicable animal models except those with a markedly suppressed renin-angiotensin system; blood pressure lowering even persists for a considerable time after discontinuation of treatment. This translates into a reduced mortality, particularly in models exhibiting marked hypertension. The retrieved data on vascular, cardiac and renal function and morphology as well as on glucose and lipid metabolism are discussed to address three main questions: 1. Can ARB effects on blood vessels, heart, kidney and metabolic function be explained by blood pressure lowering alone or are they additionally directly related to blockade of the renin-angiotensin system? 2. Are they shared by other inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin system, e.g. angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors? 3. Are some effects specific for one or more compounds within the ARB class? Taken together these data profile ARBs as a drug class with unique properties that have beneficial effects far beyond those on blood pressure reduction and, in some cases distinct from those of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. The clinical relevance of angiotensin receptor-independent effects of some ARBs remains to be determined. PMID:27130806

  1. Distribution of type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1)-immunoreactive axons in the mouse hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Wittmann, Gábor; Deli, Levente; Kalló, Imre; Hrabovszky, Erik; Watanabe, Masahiko; Liposits, Zsolt; Fekete, Csaba

    2007-07-10

    Type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1) is the principal receptor for endocannabinoids in the brain; it mainly occurs in preterminal/terminal axons and mediates retrograde neuronal signaling mechanisms. A large body of physiological and electrophysiological evidence indicates the critical role of CB1 in the regulation of hypothalamic functions. Conversely, the distribution of CB1-containing axons in the hypothalamus is essentially unknown. Therefore, we have analyzed the distribution and the ultrastructural characteristics of the CB1-immunoreactive (IR) axons in the mouse hypothalamus by using an antiserum against the C-terminal 31 amino acids of the mouse CB1. We found that CB1-IR axons innervated densely the majority of hypothalamic nuclei, except for the suprachiasmatic and lateral mammillary nuclei, in which only scattered CB1-IR fibers occurred. CB1-IR innervation of the arcuate, ventromedial, dorsomedial, and paraventricular nuclei and the external zone of the median eminence corroborated the important role of CB1 in the regulation of energy homeostasis and neuroendocrine functions. Ultrastructural studies to characterize the phenotype of CB1-IR fibers established that most CB1 immunoreactivity appeared in the preterminal and terminal portions of axons. The CB1-IR boutons formed axospinous, axodendritic, and axosomatic synapses. Analysis of labeled synapses in the paraventricular and arcuate nuclei detected approximately equal numbers of symmetric and asymmetric specializations. In conclusion, the study revealed the dense and differential CB1-IR innervation of most hypothalamic nuclei and the median eminence of the mouse brain. At the ultrastructural level, CB1-IR axons established communication with hypothalamic neurons via symmetric and asymmetric synapses indicating the occurrence of retrograde signaling by endocannabinoids in hypothalamic neuronal networks.

  2. Human scavenger receptor class B type II (SR-BII) and cellular cholesterol efflux.

    PubMed Central

    Mulcahy, Jane V; Riddell, Dave R; Owen, James S

    2004-01-01

    Although studies in recombinant cells indicate that scavenger receptor class B, type I (SR-BI) can promote cholesterol efflux, investigations in transgenic mice overexpressing or deficient in SR-BI endorse its physiological function as selectively sequestering cholesteryl esters from high-density lipoproteins (HDLs). Less clear is the role of SR-BII, a splice variant of the SR-B gene that differs only in the C-terminal cytoplasmic domain. Here, we identify several putative signalling motifs in the C-terminus of human SR-BII, which are absent from SR-BI, and hypothesize that these motifs interact with signalling molecules to mobilize stored cholesteryl esters and/or promote the efflux of intracellular free cholesterol. 'Pull-down' assays using a panel of tagged SH3 (Src homology 3) domains showed that cytoplasmic SR-BII, but not cytoplasmic SR-BI, bound the SH3 domain of phospholipase C-gamma1; this interaction was not, however, detected under more physiological conditions. Specific anti-peptide antisera identified SR-BII in human monocyte/macrophage THP-1 cells and, in recombinant cells, revealed receptor localization to caveolae, a plasma membrane microdomain that concentrates signal-transducer molecules and acts as a conduit for cholesterol flux between cells and lipoproteins. Consistent with its caveolar localization, expression of human SR-BII in recombinant Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-SR-BII) was associated with increased HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux. Nevertheless, when CHO-SR-BII cells were pre-loaded with cholesteryl [(3)H]oleate and incubated with HDL, cholesteryl ester stores were not reduced compared with control cells. We conclude that although human SR-BII is expressed by macrophages, contains cytoplasmic signalling motifs and localizes to caveolae, its ability to stimulate cholesterol efflux does not reflect enhanced hydrolysis of stored cholesteryl esters. PMID:14570588

  3. Agonistic antibody to angiotensin II type 1 receptor accelerates atherosclerosis in ApoE-/- mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Weijuan; Chen, Yaoqi; Li, Songhai; Guo, Xiaopeng; Zhou, Wenping; Zeng, Qiutang; Liao, Yuhua; Wei, Yumiao

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of agonistic antibody to angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1-AA) on atherosclerosis in male ApoE-/- mice which were employed to establish the animal models of AT1-AA in two ways. In the first group, mice were injected subcutaneously with conjugated AT1 peptide at multiple sites; in the second group, mice were infused with AT1-AA prepared from rabbits that were treated with AT1 peptide intraperitoneally. Mice in each group were further randomly divided into five subgroups and treated with AT1 peptide/AT1-AA, AT1 peptide/AT1-AA plus valsartan, AT1 peptide/AT1-AA plus fenofibrate, AT1 peptide/ AT1-AA plus pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) and control vehicle, respectively. Antibodies were detected in mice (except for mice in control group). Aortic atherosclerotic lesions were assessed by oil red O staining, while plasma CRP, TNF-α, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and H2O2 were determined by ELISA. CCR2 (the receptor of MCP-1), macrophages, and smooth muscle cells were detected by immunohistochemistry. P47phox, MCP-1 and eNOS were detected by RT-PCR, while P47phox, NF-κB and MCP-1 were detected by Western blot assay. The aortic atherosclerotic lesions were significantly increased in AT1 peptide/AT1-AA treated mice, along with simultaneous increases in inflammatory parameters. However, mice treated with valsartan, fenofibrate or PDTC showed alleviated progression of atherosclerosis and reductions in inflammatory parameters. Thus, AT1-AA may accelerate aortic atherosclerosis in ApoE-/- mice, which is mediated, at least in part, by the inflammatory reaction involving nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase, reactive oxygen species, and NF-κB. In addition, valsartan, fenofibrate and PDTC may inhibit the AT1-AA induced atherosclerosis. PMID:25628779

  4. High-Density Lipoproteins Rescue Diabetes-Impaired Angiogenesis via Scavenger Receptor Class B Type I.

    PubMed

    Tan, Joanne T M; Prosser, Hamish C G; Dunn, Louise L; Vanags, Laura Z; Ridiandries, Anisyah; Tsatralis, Tania; Leece, Laura; Clayton, Zoë E; Yuen, Sui Ching G; Robertson, Stacy; Lam, Yuen Ting; Celermajer, David S; Ng, Martin K C; Bursill, Christina A

    2016-10-01

    Disordered neovascularization and impaired wound healing are important contributors to diabetic vascular complications. We recently showed that high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) enhance ischemia-mediated neovascularization, and mounting evidence suggests HDL have antidiabetic properties. We therefore hypothesized that HDL rescue diabetes-impaired neovascularization. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice had reduced blood flow recovery and neovessel formation in a hindlimb ischemia model compared with nondiabetic mice. Reconstituted HDL (rHDL) infusions in diabetic mice restored blood flow recovery and capillary density to nondiabetic levels. Topical rHDL application rescued diabetes-impaired wound closure, wound angiogenesis, and capillary density. In vitro, rHDL increased key mediators involved in hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) stabilization, including the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathway, Siah1, and Siah2, and suppressed the prolyl hydroxylases (PHD) 2 and PHD3. rHDL rescued high glucose-induced impairment of tubulogenesis and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) A protein production, a finding associated with enhanced phosphorylation of proangiogenic mediators VEGF receptor 2 and endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Siah1/2 small interfering RNA knockdown confirmed the importance of HIF-1α stability in mediating rHDL action. Lentiviral short hairpin RNA knockdown of scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) in vitro and SR-BI(-/-) diabetic mice in vivo attenuated rHDL rescue of diabetes-impaired angiogenesis, indicating a key role for SR-BI. These findings provide a greater understanding of the vascular biological effects of HDL, with potential therapeutic implications for diabetic vascular complications. PMID:27284113

  5. Thyroid hormone exerts negative feedback on hypothalamic type 4 melanocortin receptor expression.

    PubMed

    Decherf, Stéphanie; Seugnet, Isabelle; Kouidhi, Soumaya; Lopez-Juarez, Alejandra; Clerget-Froidevaux, Marie-Stéphanie; Demeneix, Barbara A

    2010-03-01

    The type 4 melanocortin receptor MC4R, a key relay in leptin signaling, links central energy control to peripheral reserve status. MC4R activation in different brain areas reduces food intake and increases energy expenditure. Mice lacking Mc4r are obese. Mc4r is expressed by hypothalamic paraventricular Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) neurons and increases energy usage through activation of Trh and production of the thyroid hormone tri-iodothyronine (T(3)). These facts led us to test the hypothesis that energy homeostasis should require negative feedback by T(3) on Mc4r expression. Quantitative PCR and in situ hybridization showed hyperthyroidism reduces Mc4r mRNA levels in the paraventricular nucleus. Comparative in silico analysis of Mc4r regulatory regions revealed two evolutionarily conserved potential negative thyroid hormone-response elements (nTREs). In vivo ChIP assays on mouse hypothalamus demonstrated association of thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) with a region spanning one nTRE. Further, in vivo gene reporter assays revealed dose-dependent T(3) repression of transcription from the Mc4r promoter in mouse hypothalamus, in parallel with T(3)-dependent Trh repression. Mutagenesis of the nTREs in the Mc4r promoter demonstrated direct regulation by T(3), consolidating the ChIP results. In vivo shRNA knockdown, TR over-expression approaches and use of mutant mice lacking specific TRs showed that both TRalpha and TRbeta contribute to Mc4r regulation. T(3) repression of Mc4r transcription ensures that the energy-saving effects of T(3) feedback on Trh are not overridden by MC4R activation of Trh. Thus parallel repression by T(3) on hypothalamic Mc4r and Trh contributes to energy homeostasis.

  6. Thyroid hormone exerts negative feedback on hypothalamic type 4 melanocortin receptor expression

    PubMed Central

    Decherf, Stéphanie; Seugnet, Isabelle; Kouidhi, Soumaya; Lopez-Juarez, Alejandra; Clerget-Froidevaux, Marie-Stéphanie; Demeneix, Barbara A.

    2010-01-01

    The type 4 melanocortin receptor MC4R, a key relay in leptin signaling, links central energy control to peripheral reserve status. MC4R activation in different brain areas reduces food intake and increases energy expenditure. Mice lacking Mc4r are obese. Mc4r is expressed by hypothalamic paraventricular Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) neurons and increases energy usage through activation of Trh and production of the thyroid hormone tri-iodothyronine (T3). These facts led us to test the hypothesis that energy homeostasis should require negative feedback by T3 on Mc4r expression. Quantitative PCR and in situ hybridization showed hyperthyroidism reduces Mc4r mRNA levels in the paraventricular nucleus. Comparative in silico analysis of Mc4r regulatory regions revealed two evolutionarily conserved potential negative thyroid hormone-response elements (nTREs). In vivo ChIP assays on mouse hypothalamus demonstrated association of thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) with a region spanning one nTRE. Further, in vivo gene reporter assays revealed dose-dependent T3 repression of transcription from the Mc4r promoter in mouse hypothalamus, in parallel with T3-dependent Trh repression. Mutagenesis of the nTREs in the Mc4r promoter demonstrated direct regulation by T3, consolidating the ChIP results. In vivo shRNA knockdown, TR over-expression approaches and use of mutant mice lacking specific TRs showed that both TRα and TRβ contribute to Mc4r regulation. T3 repression of Mc4r transcription ensures that the energy-saving effects of T3 feedback on Trh are not overridden by MC4R activation of Trh. Thus parallel repression by T3 on hypothalamic Mc4r and Trh contributes to energy homeostasis. PMID:20160073

  7. Pharmacological benefits of selective modulation of cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2) in experimental Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Jayant, Shalini; Sharma, Brij Mohan; Bansal, Rani; Sharma, Bhupesh

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that pervasively affects the population across the world. Currently, there is no effective treatment available for this and existing drugs merely slow the progression of cognitive function decline. Thus, massive effort is required to find an intended therapeutic target to overcome this condition. The present study has been framed to investigate the ameliorative role of selective modulator of cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2), 1-phenylisatin in experimental AD condition. We have induced experimental AD in mice by using two induction models viz., intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of streptozotocin (STZ) and aluminum trichloride (AlCl3)+d-galactose. Morris water maze (MWM) and attentional set shifting test (ASST) were used to assess learning and memory. Hematoxylin-eosin and Congo red staining were used to examine the structural variation in brain. Brain oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid reactive substance and glutathione), nitric oxide levels (nitrites/nitrates), acetyl cholinesterase activity, myeloperoxidase and calcium levels were also estimated. i.c.v. STZ as well as AlCl3+d-galactose have impaired spatial and reversal learning with executive functioning, increased brain oxidative and nitrosative stress, cholinergic activity, inflammation and calcium levels. Furthermore, these agents have also enhanced the burden of Aβ plaque in the brain. Treatment with 1-phenylisatin and donepezil attenuated i.c.v. STZ as well as AlCl3+d-galactose induced impairment of learning-memory, brain biochemistry and brain damage. Hence, this study concludes that CB2 receptor modulation can be a potential therapeutic target for the management of AD. PMID:26577751

  8. Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor-Mediated Electrical Remodeling in Mouse Cardiac Myocytes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeremy; Gao, Junyuan; Cohen, Ira S; Mathias, Richard T

    2015-01-01

    We recently characterized an autocrine renin angiotensin system (RAS) in canine heart. Activation of Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptors (AT1Rs) induced electrical remodeling, including inhibition of the transient outward potassium current Ito, prolongation of the action potential (AP), increased calcium entry and increased contractility. Electrical properties of the mouse heart are very different from those of dog heart, but if a similar system existed in mouse, it could be uniquely studied through genetic manipulations. To investigate the presence of a RAS in mouse, we measured APs and Ito in isolated myocytes. Application of angiotensin II (A2) for 2 or more hours reduced Ito magnitude, without affecting voltage dependence, and prolonged APs in a dose-dependent manner. Based on dose-inhibition curves, the fast and slow components of Ito (Ito,fast and IK,slow) appeared to be coherently regulated by [A2], with 50% inhibition at an A2 concentration of about 400 nM. This very high K0.5 is inconsistent with systemic A2 effects, but is consistent with an autocrine RAS in mouse heart. Pre-application of the microtubule destabilizing agent colchicine eliminated A2 effects on Ito and AP duration, suggesting these effects depend on intracellular trafficking. Application of the biased agonist SII ([Sar1-Ile4-Ile8]A2), which stimulates receptor internalization without G protein activation, caused Ito reduction and AP prolongation similar to A2-induced changes. These data demonstrate AT1R mediated regulation of Ito in mouse heart. Moreover, all measured properties parallel those measured in dog heart, suggesting an autocrine RAS may be a fundamental feedback system that is present across species. PMID:26430746

  9. Prenatal nicotine exposure alters the types of nicotinic receptors that facilitate excitatory inputs to cardiac vagal neurons.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zheng-Gui; Wang, Xin; Evans, Cory; Gold, Allison; Bouairi, Evguenia; Mendelowitz, David

    2004-10-01

    Nicotinic receptors play an important role in modulating the activity of parasympathetic cardiac vagal neurons in the medulla. Previous work has shown nicotine acts via at least three mechanisms to excite brain stem premotor cardiac vagal neurons. Nicotine evokes a direct increase in holding current and facilitates both the frequency and amplitude of glutamatergic neurotransmission to cardiac vagal neurons. This study tests whether these nicotinic receptor-mediated responses are endogenously active, whether alpha4beta2 and alpha7 nicotinic receptors are involved, and whether prenatal exposure to nicotine alters the magnitude of these responses and the types of nicotinic receptors involved. Application of neostigmine (10 microM) significantly increased the holding current, amplitude, and frequency of miniature excitatory postsynaptic current (mEPSC) glutamatergic events in cardiac vagal neurons. In unexposed animals, the nicotine-evoked facilitation of mEPSC frequency, but not mEPSC amplitude or holding current, was blocked by alpha-bungarotoxin (100 nM). Prenatal nicotine exposure significantly exaggerated and altered the types of nicotinic receptors involved in these responses. In prenatal nicotine-exposed animals, alpha-bungarotoxin only partially reduced the increase in mEPSC frequency. In addition, in prenatal nicotine-exposed animals, the increase in holding current was partially dependent on alpha-7 subunit-containing nicotinic receptors, in contrast to unexposed animals in which alpha-bungarotoxin had no effect. These results indicate prenatal nicotine exposure, one of the highest risk factors for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), exaggerates the responses and changes the types of nicotinic receptors involved in exciting premotor cardiac vagal neurons. These alterations could be responsible for the pronounced bradycardia that occurs during apnea in SIDS victims.

  10. Influence of type-I Interferon receptor expression level on the response to type-I Interferons in human pancreatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Booy, Stephanie; van Eijck, Casper H J; Dogan, Fadime; van Koetsveld, Peter M; Hofland, Leo J

    2014-03-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a highly aggressive malignancy with limited treatment options. Type-I interferons (e.g. IFN-α/-β) have several anti-tumour activities. Over the past few years, clinical studies evaluating the effect of adjuvant IFN-α therapy in pancreatic cancer yielded equivocal results. Although IFN-α and -β act via the type-I IFN receptor, the role of the number of receptors present on tumour cells is still unknown. Therefore, this study associated, for the first time, in a large panel of pancreatic cancer cell lines the effects of IFN-α/-β with the expression of type-I IFN receptors. The anti-tumour effects of IFN-α or IFN-β on cell proliferation and apoptosis were evaluated in 11 human pancreatic cell lines. Type-I IFN receptor expression was determined on both the mRNA and protein level. After 7 days of incubation, IFN-α significantly reduced cell growth in eight cell lines by 5-67%. IFN-β inhibited cell growth statistically significant in all cell lines by 43-100%. After 3 days of treatment, IFN-β induced significantly more apoptosis than IFN-α. The cell lines variably expressed the type-I IFN receptor. The maximal inhibitory effect of IFN-α was positively correlated with the IFNAR-1 mRNA (P < 0.05, r = 0.63), IFNAR-2c mRNA (P < 0.05, r = 0.69) and protein expression (P < 0.05, r = 0.65). Human pancreatic cancer cell lines variably respond to IFN-α and -β. The expression level of the type-I IFN receptor is of predictive value for the direct anti-tumour effects of IFN-α treatment. More importantly, IFN-β induces anti-tumour effects already at much lower concentrations, is less dependent on interferon receptor expression and seems, therefore, more promising than IFN-α.

  11. Interleukin-1 interaction with neuroregulatory systems: selective enhancement by recombinant human and mouse interleukin-1 of in vitro opioid peptide receptor binding in rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Wiedermann, C.J.

    1989-02-01

    Interleukin-1 (IL-1) exerts a wide variety of biological effects on various cell types and may be regarded as a pleiotropic peptide hormone. Biological evidence suggests that IL-1 participates in the modulation of central nervous system physiology and behavior in a fashion characteristic of neuroendocrine hormones. In this investigation, recombinant (r) human (h) IL-1 and r mouse (m) IL-1 were examined for their modulation of opioid peptide receptor binding in vitro. Experiments were performed on frozen sections of rat brain. Receptor binding of radiolabeled substance P and of radiolabeled neurotensin were not significantly affected by the presence of rIL-1s. Recombinant IL-1s, however, significantly enhanced specific binding of 125I-beta-endorphin (125I-beta-END) and of D-ala2-(tyrosyl-3,5-3H)enkephalin-(5-D-leucine) (3H-D-ALA), equipotently and in a concentration-dependent manner with maximal activity occurring at a concentration of 10 LAF units/ml. The increased binding of 125I-beta-END and 3H-D-ALA was blocked steroselectively by (-)-naloxone and by etorphine, suggesting detection of opiate receptors. In addition, brain distribution patterns of receptors labeled in the presence of rIL-1s corresponded to patterns previously published for opiate receptors. Autoradiographic visualization of receptors revealed that rIL-1s in the different areas of the brain exert their effect on opioid binding with comparable potencies. The data suggest that certain central nervous system effects of IL-1s may be mediated by their selective interaction with opiatergic systems at the receptor level.

  12. Phylogeny of the vomeronasal system and of receptor cell types in the olfactory and vomeronasal epithelia of vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Eisthen, H L

    1992-10-01

    In this paper, the evolutionary origin of the vomeronasal system as a discrete sensory system separate from olfaction is examined. The presence of a discrete vomeronasal system appears to be a derived character in tetrapods, and its presence in larval amphibians indicates that the system did not arise as a terrestrial adaptation. The vomeronasal system has been lost independently in several taxa, including crocodilians, some bats, cetaceans, and some primates. The presence of microvillar receptor cells in the vomeronasal epithelium appears to be the ancestral condition for tetrapods, and alternative hypotheses concerning the ancestral condition for receptor cell types in the vertebrate olfactory epithelium are discussed. Finally, the possibility that the vomeronasal system is present in some fishes in a form that has not been recognized is discussed in relation to the phylogenetic distribution of receptor cell types in vertebrates. PMID:1392068

  13. Functional consequences of transferrin receptor-2 mutations causing hereditary hemochromatosis type 3

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Ricky; Shvartsman, Maya; Morán, Erica; Lois, Sergi; Aranda, Jessica; Barqué, Anna; de la Cruz, Xavier; Bruguera, Miquel; Vagace, José Manuel; Gervasini, Guillermo; Sanz, Cristina; Sánchez, Mayka

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) type 3 is an autosomal recessive disorder of iron metabolism characterized by excessive iron deposition in the liver and caused by mutations in the transferrin receptor 2 (TFR2) gene. Here, we describe three new HH type 3 Spanish families with four TFR2 mutations (p.Gly792Arg, c.1606-8A>G, Gln306*, and Gln672*). The missense variation p.Gly792Arg was found in homozygosity in two adult patients of the same family, and in compound heterozygosity in an adult proband that also carries a novel intronic change (c.1606-8A>G). Two new nonsense TFR2 mutations (Gln306* and Gln672*) were detected in a pediatric case. We examine the functional consequences of two TFR2 variants (p.Gly792Arg and c.1606-8A>G) using molecular and computational methods. Cellular protein localization studies using immunofluorescence demonstrated that the plasma membrane localization of p.Gly792Arg TFR2 is impaired. Splicing studies in vitro and in vivo reveal that the c.1606-8A>G mutation leads to the creation of a new acceptor splice site and an aberrant TFR2 mRNA. The reported mutations caused HH type 3 by protein truncation, altering TFR2 membrane localization or by mRNA splicing defect, producing a nonfunctional TFR2 protein and a defective signaling transduction for hepcidin regulation. TFR2 genotyping should be considered in adult but also in pediatric cases with early-onset of iron overload. PMID:26029709

  14. Inhibition of Activin Receptor Type IIB Increases Strength and Lifespan in Myotubularin-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lawlor, Michael W.; Read, Benjamin P.; Edelstein, Rachel; Yang, Nicole; Pierson, Christopher R.; Stein, Matthew J.; Wermer-Colan, Ariana; Buj-Bello, Anna; Lachey, Jennifer L.; Seehra, Jasbir S.; Beggs, Alan H.

    2011-01-01

    X-linked myotubular myopathy (XLMTM) is a congenital disorder caused by deficiency of the lipid phosphatase, myotubularin. Patients with XLMTM often have severe perinatal weakness that requires mechanical ventilation to prevent death from respiratory failure. Muscle biopsy specimens from patients with XLMTM exhibit small myofibers with central nuclei and central aggregations of organelles in many cells. It was postulated that therapeutically increasing muscle fiber size would cause symptomatic improvement in myotubularin deficiency. Recent studies have elucidated an important role for the activin-receptor type IIB (ActRIIB) in regulation of muscle growth and have demonstrated that ActRIIB inhibition results in significant muscle hypertrophy. To evaluate whether promoting muscle hypertrophy can attenuate symptoms resulting from myotubularin deficiency, the effect of ActRIIB-mFC treatment was determined in myotubularin-deficient (Mtm1δ4) mice. Compared with wild-type mice, untreated Mtm1δ4 mice have decreased body weight, skeletal muscle hypotrophy, and reduced survival. Treatment of Mtm1δ4 mice with ActRIIB-mFC produced a 17% extension of lifespan, with transient increases in weight, forelimb grip strength, and myofiber size. Pathologic analysis of Mtm1δ4 mice during treatment revealed that ActRIIB-mFC produced marked hypertrophy restricted to type 2b myofibers, which suggests that oxidative fibers in Mtm1δ4 animals are incapable of a hypertrophic response in this setting. These results support ActRIIB-mFC as an effective treatment for the weakness observed in myotubularin deficiency. PMID:21281811

  15. Hormonal regulation of type II glucocorticoid receptor messenger ribonucleic acid in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Peiffer, A; Lapointe, B; Barden, N

    1991-10-01

    Differences in the regulation of type II glucocorticoid receptor (GR) mRNA levels in female rat brain regions involved in the control of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis were studied by Northern blot analysis after chronic administration of corticosterone or dexamethasone to adrenalectomized (ADX), ovariectomized (OVX), and ADX/OVX animals. The effect of chronic estradiol or progesterone treatment of intact animals was also studied. Our results show that type II GR mRNA levels of ADX animals were significantly increased above control values in amygdala (140%) and hippocampus (196%), but not in hypothalamus. These increased transcript levels were down-regulated by corticosterone or dexamethasone, with the exception of those in the amygdala, where corticosterone had no effect. Ovariectomy significantly increased hypothalamic GR mRNA content (174%) over control values, and this increase was sensitive to dexamethasone. The combined effect of adrenalectomy/ovariectomy on GR mRNA levels was greater than that of adrenalectomy only in amygdala. Corticosterone increased amygdala transcript levels in OVX and ADX/OVX animals. Estradiol administration to intact animals raised the GR mRNA content of amygdala, while progesterone treatment had no effect on any of the brain regions studied. We conclude that there exists heterogeneity with respect to type II GR mRNA regulation by corticosterone and dexamethasone in brain regions of ADX female rats, and that certain limbic structures show greater sensitivity to these hormonal manipulations, suggesting a more prominent role in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Our results also suggest that circulating estrogens can influence the sensitivity of brain structures (i.e. hypothalamus and amygdala) to glucocorticoids by altering GR mRNA levels. These regions may represent integration sites at which gonadal steroids are able to alter stress hormone secretion.

  16. The Evaluation of Endothelin-1 and Endothelin Receptor Type A Gene Polymorphisms in Patients with Vitiligo

    PubMed Central

    Bingül, İlknur; Aydıngöz, İkbal Esen; Vural, Pervin; Doğru-Abbasoğlu, Semra; Uysal, Müjdat

    2016-01-01

    Background: Endothelin-1 (EDN1) and EDN receptor type A (EDNRA) are implicated in melanocyte functions. Aim and Objectives: This study examines the role of EDN1 (G5665T and T-1370G) and EDNRA (C + 70G and G-231A) polymorphisms as a risk factor for vitiligo, and evaluates the relationship between genotypes and clinical characteristics of vitiligo patients. Materials and Methods: We analyzed genotype/allele distributions of EDN1 and EDNRA polymorphisms in 100 patients with vitiligo and 185 healthy controls by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results: There was no notable risk for vitiligo afflicted by studied polymorphisms. However, the presence of EDNRA +70 variant G allele was found to be related with decreased risk for development of generalized type of vitiligo (odds ratio [OR]: 0.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.21–0.86, pcorr = 0.03) and showed protective effect against associated diseases seen in vitiligo (OR: 0.49, 95% CI = 0.27–0.88, pcorr = 0.034). Haplotype analysis demonstrated a strong (disequilibrium coefficient = 0.73, r2 = 0.405) linkage disequilibrium between EDN1 G5665T and T-1370G polymorphisms. The EDN1 5665/-1330 TT haplotype was over represented significantly in controls than in patients (P = 0.04). Conclusion: The studied polymorphisms do not seem to be a major risk for vitiligo. Haplotype analysis denoting protective effects against vitiligo may indicate an indirect interaction in the course of vitiligo. In addition, EDNRA + 70 polymorphism is protective against generalized type of vitiligo and associated diseases. PMID:26955120

  17. Type 1 chemokine receptor expression in Chagas' disease correlates with morbidity in cardiac patients.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Juliana A S; Bahia-Oliveira, Lilian M G; Rocha, Manoel Otávio C; Busek, Solange C U; Teixeira, Mauro M; Silva, João Santana; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo

    2005-12-01

    Chemokines and chemokine receptors (CKRs) control the migration of leukocytes during the inflammatory process and are important immunological markers of type 1 (CCR5 and CXCR3) and type 2 (CCR3 and CCR4) responses. The coexpression of CKRs (CCR2, CCR3, CCR5, CXCR3, and CXCR4) and intracellular cytokines (interleukin-10 [IL-10], IL-4, tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-alpha], and gamma interferon [IFN-gamma]) on T CD4+ and CD8+ peripheral cells from individuals with indeterminate (IND) or cardiac (CARD) clinical forms of Chagas' disease after in vitro stimulation with Trypanosoma cruzi antigens, were evaluated in this study. The percentage of T CD4+ and CD8+ cells coexpressing CCR5 and IFN-gamma, CXCR3 and IFN-gamma, and CXCR3 and TNF-alpha were higher in CARD than in IND individuals; on the other hand, the percentage of T CD4+ or CD8+ cells coexpressing CCR3 and IL-10 or coexpressing CCR3 and IL-4 were lower in CARD individuals than in IND individuals. In addition, a significant positive correlation between the expression of CCR5 or CXCR3 and IFN-gamma was observed in CARD individuals contrasting with a significant positive correlation between the expression of CCR3 and IL-4 and of CCR3 and IL-10 in IND patients. These results reinforce the hypothesis that a T. cruzi-exacerbated specific type 1 immune response developed by CARD chagasic patients is associated with the development of heart pathology.

  18. Inhibition of activin receptor type IIB increases strength and lifespan in myotubularin-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Lawlor, Michael W; Read, Benjamin P; Edelstein, Rachel; Yang, Nicole; Pierson, Christopher R; Stein, Matthew J; Wermer-Colan, Ariana; Buj-Bello, Anna; Lachey, Jennifer L; Seehra, Jasbir S; Beggs, Alan H

    2011-02-01

    X-linked myotubular myopathy (XLMTM) is a congenital disorder caused by deficiency of the lipid phosphatase, myotubularin. Patients with XLMTM often have severe perinatal weakness that requires mechanical ventilation to prevent death from respiratory failure. Muscle biopsy specimens from patients with XLMTM exhibit small myofibers with central nuclei and central aggregations of organelles in many cells. It was postulated that therapeutically increasing muscle fiber size would cause symptomatic improvement in myotubularin deficiency. Recent studies have elucidated an important role for the activin-receptor type IIB (ActRIIB) in regulation of muscle growth and have demonstrated that ActRIIB inhibition results in significant muscle hypertrophy. To evaluate whether promoting muscle hypertrophy can attenuate symptoms resulting from myotubularin deficiency, the effect of ActRIIB-mFC treatment was determined in myotubularin-deficient (Mtm1δ4) mice. Compared with wild-type mice, untreated Mtm1δ4 mice have decreased body weight, skeletal muscle hypotrophy, and reduced survival. Treatment of Mtm1δ4 mice with ActRIIB-mFC produced a 17% extension of lifespan, with transient increases in weight, forelimb grip strength, and myofiber size. Pathologic analysis of Mtm1δ4 mice during treatment revealed that ActRIIB-mFC produced marked hypertrophy restricted to type 2b myofibers, which suggests that oxidative fibers in Mtm1δ4 animals are incapable of a hypertrophic response in this setting. These results support ActRIIB-mFC as an effective treatment for the weakness observed in myotubularin deficiency. PMID:21281811

  19. C-type lectin-like domain and fibronectin-like type II domain of phospholipase A(2) receptor 1 modulate binding and migratory responses to collagen.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Soichiro; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Watanabe, Yosuke; Fujioka, Daisuke; Nakamura, Takamitsu; Nakamura, Kazuto; Obata, Jun-ei; Kugiyama, Kiyotaka

    2015-03-24

    Phospholipase A2 receptor 1 (PLA2R) mediates collagen-dependent migration. The mechanisms by which PLA2R interacts with collagen remain unclear. We produced HEK293 cells expressing full-length wild-type PLA2R or a truncated PLA2R that lacks fibronectin-like type II (FNII) domains or several regions of C-type lectin-like domain (CTLD). We show that the CTLD1-2 as well as the FNII domain of PLA2R are responsible for binding to collagen and for collagen-dependent migration. Thus, multiple regions and domains of the extracellular portion of PLA2R participate in the responses to collagen. These data suggest a potentially new mechanism for PLA2R-mediated biological response beyond that of a receptor for secretory PLA2.

  20. Distribution of type I interleukin-1 receptor messenger RNA in testis: an in situ histochemical study in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, E T; Wada, E; Carter, D B; Tracey, D E; Battey, J F; De Souza, E B

    1992-07-01

    The cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1) has been reported to inhibit the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, both through actions in brain and at the gonadal level. Recently, high affinity binding sites for 125I-recombinant human IL-1 alpha have been identified in the mouse testis with characteristics similar to those of type I IL-1 receptors on T lymphocytes and fibroblasts. The present study employed in situ hybridization histochemistry with 35S-labeled antisense cRNA probes derived from a murine type I IL-1 receptor cDNA to identify type I IL-1 receptor mRNA in the mouse testis. An intense signal was observed over interstitial cells, and over the cytoplasm of the epithelium of epididymal ducts, most prominently in the head region. The signal over seminiferous tubules, and over sperm cells within tubules and epididymal ducts, was comparable to background. This distribution of type I IL-1 receptor mRNA was similar to that recently reported for 125(I)I-IL-1-alpha binding sites, and supports evidence implicating IL-1 as a direct regulator of gonadal function.

  1. Discovery and characterization of ACT-335827, an orally available, brain penetrant orexin receptor type 1 selective antagonist.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Michel A; Gatfield, John; Brisbare-Roch, Catherine; Dietrich, Hendrik; Treiber, Alexander; Jenck, Francois; Boss, Christoph

    2013-06-01

    Stress relief: Orexin neuropeptides regulate arousal and stress processing through orexin receptor type 1 (OXR-1) and 2 (OXR-2) signaling. A selective OXR-1 antagonist, represented by a phenylglycine-amide substituted tetrahydropapaverine derivative (ACT-335827), is described that is orally available, penetrates the brain, and decreases fear, compulsive behaviors and autonomic stress reactions in rats.

  2. A leukocyte immune-type receptor (LITR) subset is a marker of antiviral cytotoxic cells in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, leukocyte immune type-receptors (LITRs) represent a multigene family that encodes immunoglobulin superfamily proteins that mediate activating or inhibitory signaling. Here we demonstrate the utility of mAb CC41 to monitor viral cytotoxic responses in catfish an...

  3. Angiotensin II type I and prostaglandin F2α receptors cooperatively modulate signaling in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Goupil, Eugénie; Fillion, Dany; Clément, Stéphanie; Luo, Xiaoyan; Devost, Dominic; Sleno, Rory; Pétrin, Darlaine; Saragovi, H Uri; Thorin, Éric; Laporte, Stéphane A; Hébert, Terence E

    2015-01-30

    The angiotensin II type I (AT1R) and the prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) F prostanoid (FP) receptors are both potent regulators of blood pressure. Physiological interplay between AT1R and FP has been described. Abdominal aortic ring contraction experiments revealed that PGF2α-dependent activation of FP potentiated angiotensin II-induced contraction, whereas FP antagonists had the opposite effect. Similarly, PGF2α-mediated vasoconstriction was symmetrically regulated by co-treatment with AT1R agonist and antagonist. The underlying canonical Gαq signaling via production of inositol phosphates mediated by each receptor was also regulated by antagonists for the other receptor. However, binding to their respective agonists, regulation of receptor-mediated MAPK activation and vascular smooth muscle cell growth were differentially or asymmetrically regulated depending on how each of the two receptors were occupied by either agonist or antagonist. Physical interactions between these receptors have never been reported, and here we show that AT1R and FP form heterodimeric complexes in both HEK 293 and vascular smooth muscle cells. These findings imply that formation of the AT1R/FP dimer creates a novel allosteric signaling unit that shows symmetrical and asymmetrical signaling behavior, depending on the outcome measured. AT1R/FP dimers may thus be important in the regulation of blood pressure.

  4. Scavenger Receptor C-Type Lectin Binds to the Leukocyte Cell Surface Glycan Lewis By a Novel Mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Feinberg, H.; Taylor, M.E.; Weis, W.I.; /Stanford U., Med. School /Imperial Coll., London

    2007-07-10

    The scavenger receptor C-type lectin (SRCL) is unique in the family of class A scavenger receptors, because in addition to binding sites for oxidized lipoproteins it also contains a C-type carbohydrate-recognition domain (CRD) that interacts with specific glycans. Both human and mouse SRCL are highly specific for the Lewis(x) trisaccharide, which is commonly found on the surfaces of leukocytes and some tumor cells. Structural analysis of the CRD of mouse SRCL in complex with Lewis(x) and mutagenesis show the basis for this specificity. The interaction between mouse SRCL and Lewis(x) is analogous to the way that selectins and DC-SIGN bind to related fucosylated glycans, but the mechanism of the interaction is novel, because it is based on a primary galactose-binding site similar to the binding site in the asialoglycoprotein receptor. Crystals of the human receptor lacking bound calcium ions reveal an alternative conformation in which a glycan ligand would be released during receptor-mediated endocytosis.

  5. Fc gamma receptor type III (CD16) is included in the zeta NK receptor complex expressed by human natural killer cells.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, P; Caligiuri, M; O'Brien, C; Manley, T; Ritz, J; Schlossman, S F

    1990-01-01

    We recently reported that CD3- natural killer (NK) cells express the zeta chain of the T-cell receptor complex (zeta NK) in association with higher molecular weight structures whose expression differs between individual NK cell clones. Because NK cell cytolytic activity is known to be triggered by perturbation of the type III Fc gamma receptor (CD16), we sought to determine whether this activating molecule is included in the zeta NK molecular complex. Biochemical evidence for a physical association between CD16 and zeta NK was obtained by comparing immunoprecipitates formed using monoclonal antibodies reactive with each of these molecules by SDS/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, immunoblotting, and peptide mapping. In both clonal and polyclonal populations of CD3- NK cells, CD16 and zeta NK specifically associated with one another. Functional evidence for a specific association between CD16 and zeta NK in intact cells was obtained by demonstrating a coordinate down-modulation of both of these molecules induced by either phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate or monoclonal antibodies reactive with CD16. Our results suggest that Fc gamma receptor type III (CD16) is included in the zeta NK complex and that this complex is likely to play an important role in NK cell activation. Images PMID:2138330

  6. Stabilizing effects of G protein on the active conformation of adenosine A1 receptor differ depending on G protein type.

    PubMed

    Tateyama, Michihiro; Kubo, Yoshihiro

    2016-10-01

    G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) trigger various cellular and physiological responses upon the ligand binding. The ligand binding induces conformational change in GPCRs which allows G protein to interact with the receptor. The interaction of G protein also affects the active conformation of GPCRs. In this study, we have investigated the effects of Gαi1, Gαo and chimeric Gαqi5 on the active conformation of the adenosine A1 receptor, as each Gα showed difference in the interaction with adenosine A1 receptor. The conformational changes in the adenosine A1 receptor were detected as the agonist-induced decreases in efficiency of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) between fluorescent proteins (FPs) fused at the two intracellular domains of the adenosine A1 receptor. Amplitudes of the agonist-induced FRET decreases were subtle when the FP-tagged adenosine A1 receptor was expressed alone, whereas they were significantly enhanced when co-expressed with Gαi1Gβ1Gγ22 (Gi1) or Gαqi5Gβ1Gγ22 (Gqi5) but not with GαοGβ1Gγ22 (Go). The enhancement of the agonist-induced FRET decrease in the presence of Gqi5 was significantly larger than that of Gi1. Furthermore, the FRET recovery upon the agonist removal in the presence of Gqi5 was significantly slower than that of Gi1. From these results it was revealed that the agonist-bound active conformation of adenosine A1 receptor is unstable without the binding of G protein and that the stabilizing effects of G protein differ depending on the types of G protein.

  7. Angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker losartan prevents and rescues cerebrovascular, neuropathological and cognitive deficits in an Alzheimer's disease model.

    PubMed

    Ongali, Brice; Nicolakakis, Nektaria; Tong, Xin-Kang; Aboulkassim, Tahar; Papadopoulos, Panayiota; Rosa-Neto, Pedro; Lecrux, Clotilde; Imboden, Hans; Hamel, Edith

    2014-08-01

    Angiotensin II (AngII) receptor blockers that bind selectively AngII type 1 (AT1) receptors may protect from Alzheimer's disease (AD). We studied the ability of the AT1 receptor antagonist losartan to cure or prevent AD hallmarks in aged (~18months at endpoint, 3months treatment) or adult (~12months at endpoint, 10months treatment) human amyloid precursor protein (APP) transgenic mice. We tested learning and memory with the Morris water maze, and evaluated neurometabolic and neurovascular coupling using [(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose-PET and laser Doppler flowmetry responses to whisker stimulation. Cerebrovascular reactivity was assessed with on-line videomicroscopy. We measured protein levels of oxidative stress enzymes (superoxide dismutases SOD1, SOD2 and NADPH oxidase subunit p67phox), and quantified soluble and deposited amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), AngII receptors AT1 and AT2, angiotensin IV receptor AT4, and cortical cholinergic innervation. In aged APP mice, losartan did not improve learning but it consolidated memory acquisition and recall, and rescued neurovascular and neurometabolic coupling and cerebrovascular dilatory capacity. Losartan normalized cerebrovascular p67phox and SOD2 protein levels and up-regulated those of SOD1. Losartan attenuated astrogliosis, normalized AT1 and AT4 receptor levels, but failed to rescue the cholinergic deficit and the Aβ pathology. Given preventively, losartan protected cognitive function, cerebrovascular reactivity, and AT4 receptor levels. Like in aged APP mice, these benefits occurred without a decrease in soluble Aβ species or plaque load. We conclude that losartan exerts potent preventive and restorative effects on AD hallmarks, possibly by mitigating AT1-initiated oxidative stress and normalizing memory-related AT4 receptors.

  8. Visualization of multiple opioid-receptor types in rat striatum after specific mesencephalic lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Eghbali, M.; Santoro, C.; Paredes, W.; Gardner, E.L.; Zukin, R.S.

    1987-09-01

    In order to gain insight into a possible modulatory role for ..mu.., delta, and kappa opioid receptors of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway, the authors investigated the topographical organization of the receptors with respect to pre- and postsynaptic membranes. Dopaminergic terminals projecting from the substantia nigra to the corpus striatum were destroyed by unilateral injection of 6-hydroxydopamine into the susbstantia nigra. Quantitative receptor assays using highly specific radioligands were used to measure the density of striatal ..mu.., delta, and kappa receptors before and after denervation. Quantitative in vitro autoradiography was used to visualize the neuroanatomical pattern of receptors on lesioned and nonlesioned sides of the brain under the light microscope. Loss of ..mu.. receptors in striatal patches was striking in the ventro-lateral areas of the striatum, whereas the most notable loss of delta receptors was found in the central striatum. Other brain areas did not differ significantly in ..mu.. receptor density between the lesioned and nonlesioned sides, as determined by autoradiography. These findings suggest that a high percentage of ..mu.. and delta receptors in the striatum are located on the nigrostriatal dopaminergic terminals and support the concept of a modulatory role for ..mu.. and delta opioid peptides in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway.

  9. γ-Aminobutyric acid type B (GABAB) receptor expression is needed for inhibition of N-type (Cav2.2) calcium channels by analgesic α-conotoxins.

    PubMed

    Cuny, Hartmut; de Faoite, Andrew; Huynh, Thuan G; Yasuda, Takahiro; Berecki, Géza; Adams, David J

    2012-07-01

    α-Conotoxins Vc1.1 and RgIA are small peptides isolated from the venom of marine cone snails. They have effective anti-nociceptive actions in rat models of neuropathic pain. Pharmacological studies in rodent dorsal root ganglion (DRG) show their analgesic effect is mediated by inhibition of N-type (Ca(v)2.2) calcium channels via a pathway involving γ-aminobutyric acid type B (GABA(B)) receptor. However, there is no direct demonstration that functional GABA(B) receptors are needed for inhibition of the Ca(v)2.2 channel by analgesic α-conotoxins. This study examined the effect of the GABA(B) agonist baclofen and α-conotoxins Vc1.1 and RgIA on calcium channel currents after transient knockdown of the GABA(B) receptor using RNA interference. Isolated rat DRG neurons were transfected with small interfering RNAs (siRNA) targeting GABA(B) subunits R1 and R2. Efficient knockdown of GABA(B) receptor expression at mRNA and protein levels was confirmed by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) and immunocytochemical analysis, respectively. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings conducted 2-4 days after transfection showed that inhibition of N-type calcium channels in response to baclofen, Vc1.1 and RgIA was significantly reduced in GABA(B) receptor knockdown DRG neurons. In contrast, neurons transfected with a scrambled nontargeting siRNA were indistinguishable from untransfected neurons. In the HEK 293 cell heterologous expression system, Vc1.1 and RgIA inhibition of Ca(v)2.2 channels needed functional expression of both human GABA(B) receptor subunits. Together, these results confirm that GABA(B) receptors must be activated for the modulation of N-type (Ca(v)2.2) calcium channels by analgesic α-conotoxins Vc1.1 and RgIA.

  10. The blockade of GABAA receptors attenuates the inhibitory effect of orexin type 1 receptors antagonist on morphine withdrawal syndrome in rats.

    PubMed

    Davoudi, Mahnaz; Azizi, Hossein; Mirnajafi-Zadeh, Javad; Semnanian, Saeed

    2016-03-23

    The aim of present study was to investigate the involvement of orexin-A neuropeptide in naloxone-induced morphine withdrawal syndrome via modulating neurons bearing GABAA receptors. The locus coeruleus (LC) is a sensitive site for expression of the somatic aspects of morphine withdrawal. Intra-LC microinjection of GABAA receptor agonist attenuates morphine withdrawal signs in rats. Here we studied the influence of LC orexin type 1 receptors blockade by SB-334867 in presence of bicuculline, a GABAA receptor antagonist, on naloxone-induced morphine withdrawal syndrome. Adult male Wistar rats, weighing 250-300 g, were rendered dependent on morphine by subcutaneous (s.c.) injection of increasing morphine doses (6, 16, 26, 36, 46, 56 and 66 mg/kg, 2 ml/kg) at set intervals of 24 h for 7 days. On 8th day, naloxone (3 mg/kg, s.c.) was injected and the somatic signs of morphine withdrawal were evaluated. Intra-LC microinjections (0.2 μl) of either bicuculline (15 μM) or SB-334867 (3 mM) or a combination of both chemicals were done immediately before naloxone injection. Intra-LC microinjection of bicuculline (15 μM) had no significant effect on morphine withdrawal signs, whereas intra-LC microinjection of SB-334867 considerably attenuated morphine withdrawal signs. However, the effect of SB-334867 in attenuating naloxone-induced morphine withdrawal signs was blocked in presence of bicuculline. This finding, for the first time, indicated that orexin-A may participate in expression of naloxone-induced morphine withdrawal syndrome partly through decreasing the activity of neurons bearing GABAA receptors.

  11. Cannabinoid type-1 receptors in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus inhibit stimulated food intake.

    PubMed

    Soria-Gómez, E; Massa, F; Bellocchio, L; Rueda-Orozco, P E; Ciofi, P; Cota, D; Oliet, S H R; Prospéro-García, O; Marsicano, G

    2014-03-28

    Cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1)-dependent signaling in the brain is known to modulate food intake. Recent evidence has actually shown that CB1 can both inhibit and stimulate food intake in fasting/refeeding conditions, depending on the specific neuronal circuits involved. However, the exact brain sites where this bimodal control is exerted and the underlying neurobiological mechanisms are not fully understood yet. Using pharmacological and electrophysiological approaches, we show that local CB1 blockade in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) increases fasting-induced hyperphagia in rats. Furthermore, local CB1 blockade in the PVN also increases the orexigenic effect of the gut hormone ghrelin in animals fed ad libitum. At the electrophysiological level, CB1 blockade in slices containing the PVN potentiates the decrease of the activity of PVN neurons induced by long-term application of ghrelin. Hence, the PVN is (one of) the site(s) where signals associated with the body's energy status determine the direction of the effects of endocannabinoid signaling on food intake.

  12. Muscarinic Receptors Control Frequency Tuning Through the Downregulation of an A-Type Potassium Current

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Lee D.; Krahe, Rüdiger; Bourque, Charles W.; Dunn, Robert J.; Chacron, Maurice J.

    2016-01-01

    The functional role of cholinergic input in the modulation of sensory responses was studied using a combination of in vivo and in vitro electrophysiology supplemented by mathematical modeling. The electrosensory system of weakly electric fish recognizes different environmental stimuli by their unique alteration of a self-generated electric field. Variations in the patterns of stimuli are primarily distinguished based on their frequency. Pyramidal neurons in the electrosensory lateral line lobe (ELL) are often tuned to respond to specific input frequencies. Alterations in the tuning of the pyramidal neurons may allow weakly electric fish to preferentially select for certain stimuli. Here we show that muscarinic receptor activation in vivo enhances the excitability, burst firing, and subsequently the response of pyramidal cells to naturalistic sensory input. Through a combination of in vitro electrophysiology and mathematical modeling, we reveal that this enhanced excitability and bursting likely results from the down-regulation of an A-type potassium current. Further, we provide an explanation of the mechanism by which these currents can mediate frequency tuning. PMID:17615127

  13. Endothelial Expression of Scavenger Receptor Class B, Type I Protects against Development of Atherosclerosis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Vaisman, Boris L.; Vishnyakova, Tatyana G.; Freeman, Lita A.; Amar, Marcelo J.; Demosky, Stephen J.; Liu, Chengyu; Stonik, John A.; Sampson, Maureen L.; Pryor, Milton; Bocharov, Alexander V.; Eggerman, Thomas L.; Patterson, Amy P.; Remaley, Alan T.

    2015-01-01

    The role of scavenger receptor class B, type I (SR-BI) in endothelial cells (EC) was examined in several novel transgenic mouse models expressing SR-BI in endothelium of mice with normal C57Bl6/N, apoE-KO, or Scarb1-KO backgrounds. Mice were also created expressing SR-BI exclusively in endothelium and liver. Endothelial expression of the Tie2-Scarb1 transgene had no significant effect on plasma lipoprotein levels in mice on a normal chow diet but on an atherogenic diet, significantly decreased plasma cholesterol levels, increased plasma HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, and protected mice against atherosclerosis. In 8-month-old apoE-KO mice fed a normal chow diet, the Tie2-Scarb1 transgene decreased aortic lesions by 24%. Mice expressing SR-BI only in EC and liver had a 1.5 ± 0.1-fold increase in plasma cholesterol compared to mice synthesizing SR-BI only in liver. This elevation was due mostly to increased HDL-C. In EC culture studies, SR-BI was found to be present in both basolateral and apical membranes but greater cellular uptake of cholesterol from HDL was found in the basolateral compartment. In summary, enhanced expression of SR-BI in EC resulted in a less atherogenic lipoprotein profile and decreased atherosclerosis, suggesting a possible role for endothelial SR-BI in the flux of cholesterol across EC. PMID:26504816

  14. A Soluble Activin Receptor Type IIB Does Not Improve Blood Glucose in Streptozotocin-Treated Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qian; Guo, Tingqing; Portas, Jennifer; McPherron, Alexandra C.

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), or insulin dependent DM, is accompanied by decreased muscle mass. The growth factor myostatin (MSTN) is a negative regulator of muscle growth, and a loss of MSTN signaling has been shown to increase muscle mass and prevent the development of obesity, insulin resistance and lipodystrophic diabetes in mice. The effects of MSTN inhibition in a T1DM model on muscle mass and blood glucose are unknown. We asked whether MSTN inhibition would increase muscle mass and decrease hyperglycemia in mice treated with streptozotocin (STZ) to destroy pancreatic beta cells. After diabetes developed, mice were treated with a soluble MSTN/activin receptor fused to Fc (ACVR2B:Fc). ACVR2B:Fc increased body weight and muscle mass compared to vehicle treated mice. Unexpectedly, ACVR2B:Fc reproducibly exacerbated hyperglycemia within approximately one week of administration. ACVR2B:Fc treatment also elevated serum levels of the glucocorticoid corticosterone. These results suggest that although MSTN/activin inhibitors increased muscle mass, they may be counterproductive in improving health in patients with T1DM. PMID:25561902

  15. Regulation of hair shedding by the type 3 IP3 receptor.

    PubMed

    Sato-Miyaoka, Mai; Hisatsune, Chihiro; Ebisui, Etsuko; Ogawa, Naoko; Takahashi-Iwanaga, Hiromi; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko

    2012-09-01

    Here we showed that the type 3 IP(3) receptor (IP(3)R3) is specifically expressed in hair follicles of the skin and plays an important role in the regulation of the hair cycle. We found that IP(3)R3-deficient (Itpr3(-/-)) mice had prominent alopecia, which was characterized by repeated hair loss and regrowth. The alopecic stripe runs along the body axis like a wave, suggesting disturbed hair-cycle regulation. Indeed, the hair follicles of the alopecic region were in the early anagen stage. Although the hair growth and proliferation activity of the hair matrix cells in the anagen phase were normal in Itpr3(-/-) mice, telogen club hairs in the telogen-anagen transition phase were loosely attached to the hair follicles and were easily removed in contrast to the more tightly attached club hairs of Itpr3(+/+) mice. Itpr3(-/-) keratinocytes surrounding the telogen club hairs have sparse cytokeratin filaments extending in random directions, as well as less developed desmosomes. Furthermore, nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 (NFATc1) failed to translocate into the nucleus of keratin 6-positive bulge cells in Itpr3(-/-) telogen follicles. We propose that hair shedding is actively controlled by the IP(3)R3/NFAT-dependent signaling pathway, possibly through the regulation of cytokeratin filaments in keratinocytes.

  16. Pentameric quaternary structure of the intracellular domain of serotonin type 3A receptors

    PubMed Central

    Pandhare, Akash; Grozdanov, Petar N.; Jansen, Michaela

    2016-01-01

    In spite of extensive efforts over decades an experimentally-derived structure of full-length eukaryotic pentameric ligand-gated ion channels (pLGICs) is still lacking. These pharmaceutically highly-relevant channels contain structurally well-conserved and characterized extracellular and transmembrane domains. The intracellular domain (ICD), however, has been orphaned in structural studies based on the consensus assumption of being largely disordered. In the present study, we demonstrate for the first time that the serotonin type 3A (5-HT3A) ICD assembles into stable pentamers in solution in the absence of the other two domains, thought to be the drivers for oligomerization. Additionally, the soluble 5-HT3A-ICD construct interacted with the protein RIC-3 (resistance to inhibitors of cholinesterase). The interaction provides evidence that the 5-HT3A-ICD is not only required but also sufficient for interaction with RIC-3. Our results suggest the ICD constitutes an oligomerization domain. This novel role significantly adds to its known contributions in receptor trafficking, targeting, and functional fine-tuning. The innate diversity of the ICDs with sizes ranging from 50 to 280 amino acids indicates new methodologies need to be developed to determine the structures of these domains. The use of soluble ICD proteins that we report in the present study constitutes a useful approach to address this gap. PMID:27045630

  17. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor signaling is critical in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell growth and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Bao, Ying-Na; Cao, Xue; Luo, Dong-Hua; Sun, Rui; Peng, Li-Xia; Wang, Lin; Yan, Yong-Pan; Zheng, Li-Sheng; Xie, Ping; Cao, Yun; Liang, Ying-Ying; Zheng, Fang-Jing; Huang, Bi-Jun; Xiang, Yan-Qun; Lv, Xing; Chen, Qiu-Yan; Chen, Ming-Yuan; Huang, Pei-Yu; Guo, Ling; Mai, Hai-Qiang; Guo, Xiang; Zeng, Yi-Xin; Qian, Chao-Nan

    2014-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is one of the most common malignancies in southern China and Southeast Asia, with the highest metastasis rate among head and neck cancers. The mechanisms underlying NPC progression remain poorly understood. Genome-wide expression profiling on 18 NPC vs. 18 noncancerous nasopharyngeal tissues together with GeneGo pathway analysis and expression verification in NPC cells and tissues revealed a potential role of urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) in NPC progression, which has not been investigated in NPC. We then observed that uPAR expression is increased in poorly differentiated, highly metastatic NPC cells compared with lowly metastatic cells or differentiated NPC cells. In vitro studies demonstrated that uPAR regulates NPC cell growth, colony formation, migration, and invasion and promotes the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Additional tumor xenograft and spontaneous metastasis experiments revealed that uPAR promotes NPC cell growth and metastasis in vivo. The JAK-STAT pathway is involved in uPAR-regulated signaling in NPC cells as determined by immunoblotting. Moreover, uPAR-mediated growth and motility is partially abolished upon treatment with the Jak1/Jak2 inhibitor INCB018424. We suppressed uPA expression in uPAR-overexpressing NPC cells and found that uPAR-mediated cellular growth and motility is not exclusively dependent on uPA. In summary, uPAR is a significant regulator of NPC progression and could serve as a promising therapeutic target. PMID:24763226

  18. Bile salt receptor complex activates a pathogenic type III secretion system.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Rivera-Cancel, Giomar; Kinch, Lisa N; Salomon, Dor; Tomchick, Diana R; Grishin, Nick V; Orth, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Bile is an important component of the human gastrointestinal tract with an essential role in food absorption and antimicrobial activities. Enteric bacterial pathogens have developed strategies to sense bile as an environmental cue to regulate virulence genes during infection. We discovered that Vibrio parahaemolyticus VtrC, along with VtrA and VtrB, are required for activating the virulence type III secretion system 2 in response to bile salts. The VtrA/VtrC complex activates VtrB in the presence of bile salts. The crystal structure of the periplasmic domains of the VtrA/VtrC heterodimer reveals a β-barrel with a hydrophobic inner chamber. A co-crystal structure of VtrA/VtrC with bile salt, along with biophysical and mutational analysis, demonstrates that the hydrophobic chamber binds bile salts and activates the virulence network. As part of a family of conserved signaling receptors, VtrA/VtrC provides structural and functional insights into the evolutionarily conserved mechanism used by bacteria to sense their environment. PMID:27377244

  19. Astrocytic expression of cannabinoid type 1 receptor in rat and human sclerotic hippocampi

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Xian-Dong; Wei, Dong; Li, Juan; Kang, Jun-Jun; Wu, Chen; Ma, Lei; Yang, Feng; Zhu, Ge-Min; Ou-Yang, Tang-Peng; Liu, Ying-Ying; Jiang, Wen

    2014-01-01

    Cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1R), which is traditionally located on axon terminals, plays an important role in the pathology of epilepsy and neurodegenerative diseases by modulating synaptic transmission. Using the pilocarpine model of chronic spontaneous recurrent seizures, which mimics the main features of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with hippocampal sclerosis (HS) in humans, we examined the expression of CB1R in hippocampal astrocytes of epileptic rats. Furthermore, we also examined the expression of astrocytic CB1R in the resected hippocampi from patients with medically refractory mesial TLE. Using immunofluorescent double labeling, we found increased expression of astrocytic CB1R in hippocampi of epileptic rats, whereas expression of astrocytic CB1R was not detectable in hippocampi of saline treated animals. Furthermore, CB1R was also found in some astrocytes in sclerotic hippocampi in a subset of patients with intractable mesial TLE. Detection with immune electron microscopy showed that the expression of CB1R was increased in astrocytes of epileptic rats and modest levels of CB1R were also found on the astrocytic membrane of sclerotic hippocampi. These results suggest that increased expression of astrocytic CB1R in sclerotic hippocampi might be involved in the cellular basis of the effects of cannabinoids on epilepsy. PMID:25031702

  20. Bile salt receptor complex activates a pathogenic type III secretion system

    PubMed Central

    Li, Peng; Rivera-Cancel, Giomar; Kinch, Lisa N; Salomon, Dor; Tomchick, Diana R; Grishin, Nick V; Orth, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Bile is an important component of the human gastrointestinal tract with an essential role in food absorption and antimicrobial activities. Enteric bacterial pathogens have developed strategies to sense bile as an environmental cue to regulate virulence genes during infection. We discovered that Vibrio parahaemolyticus VtrC, along with VtrA and VtrB, are required for activating the virulence type III secretion system 2 in response to bile salts. The VtrA/VtrC complex activates VtrB in the presence of bile salts. The crystal structure of the periplasmic domains of the VtrA/VtrC heterodimer reveals a β-barrel with a hydrophobic inner chamber. A co-crystal structure of VtrA/VtrC with bile salt, along with biophysical and mutational analysis, demonstrates that the hydrophobic chamber binds bile salts and activates the virulence network. As part of a family of conserved signaling receptors, VtrA/VtrC provides structural and functional insights into the evolutionarily conserved mechanism used by bacteria to sense their environment. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15718.001 PMID:27377244

  1. Alleviating pain hypersensitivity through activation of type 4 metabotropic glutamate receptor.

    PubMed

    Vilar, Bruno; Busserolles, Jérôme; Ling, Bing; Laffray, Sophie; Ulmann, Lauriane; Malhaire, Fanny; Chapuy, Eric; Aissouni, Youssef; Etienne, Monique; Bourinet, Emmanuel; Acher, Francine; Pin, Jean-Philippe; Eschalier, Alain; Goudet, Cyril

    2013-11-27

    Hyperactivity of the glutamatergic system is involved in the development of central sensitization in the pain neuraxis, associated with allodynia and hyperalgesia observed in patients with chronic pain. Herein we study the ability of type 4 metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGlu4) to regulate spinal glutamate signaling and alleviate chronic pain. We show that mGlu4 are located both on unmyelinated C-fibers and spinal neurons terminals in the inner lamina II of the spinal cord where they inhibit glutamatergic transmission through coupling to Cav2.2 channels. Genetic deletion of mGlu4 in mice alters sensitivity to strong noxious mechanical compression and accelerates the onset of the nociceptive behavior in the inflammatory phase of the formalin test. However, responses to punctate mechanical stimulation and nocifensive responses to thermal noxious stimuli are not modified. Accordingly, pharmacological activation of mGlu4 inhibits mechanical hypersensitivity in animal models of inflammatory or neuropathic pain while leaving acute mechanical perception unchanged in naive animals. Together, these results reveal that mGlu4 is a promising new target for the treatment of chronic pain. PMID:24285900

  2. The type I BMP receptor ACVR1/ALK2 is required for chondrogenesis during development

    PubMed Central

    Rigueur, Diana; Brugger, Sean; Anbarchian, Teni; Kim, Jong Kil; Lee, Yoo Jin; Lyons, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are crucial regulators of chondrogenesis. BMPs transduce their signals through three type I receptors: BMPR1A, BMPR1B, and ACVR1/ALK2. Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP), a rare disorder characterized by progressive ossification of connective tissue, is caused by an activating mutation in Acvr1 (the gene that encodes ACVR1/ALK2). However, there are few developmental defects associated with FOP. Thus, the role of ACVR1 in chondrogenesis during development is unknown. Here we report the phenotype of mice lacking ACVR1 in cartilage. Acvr1CKO mice are viable but exhibit defects in the development of cranial and axial structures. Mutants exhibit a shortened cranial base, and cervical vertebrae are hypoplastic. Acvr1CKO adult mice develop progressive kyphosis. These morphological defects were associated with decreased levels of Smad1/5 and p38 activation, and with reduced rates of chondrocyte proliferation in vertebral cartilage. We also tested whether ACVR1 exerts coordinated functions with BMPR1A and BMPR1B through analysis of double mutants. Acvr1/Bmpr1a and Acvr1/Bmpr1b mutant mice exhibited generalized perinatal lethal chondrodysplasia that was much more severe than in any of the corresponding mutant strains. These findings demonstrate that ACVR1 is required for chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation, particularly in craniofacial and axial elements, but exerts coordinated functions with both BMPR1A and BMPR1B throughout the developing endochondral skeleton. PMID:25413979

  3. Type Ib BMP receptors mediate the rate of commissural axon extension through inhibition of cofilin activity

    PubMed Central

    Yamauchi, Ken; Varadarajan, Supraja G.; Li, Joseph E.; Butler, Samantha J.

    2013-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) have unexpectedly diverse activities establishing different aspects of dorsal neural circuitry in the developing spinal cord. Our recent studies have shown that, in addition to spatially orienting dorsal commissural (dI1) axons, BMPs supply ‘temporal’ information to commissural axons to specify their rate of growth. This information ensures that commissural axons reach subsequent signals at particular times during development. However, it remains unresolved how commissural neurons specifically decode this activity of BMPs to result in their extending axons at a specific speed through the dorsal spinal cord. We have addressed this question by examining whether either of the type I BMP receptors (Bmpr), BmprIa and BmprIb, have a role controlling the rate of commissural axon growth. BmprIa and BmprIb exhibit a common function specifying the identity of dorsal cell fate in the spinal cord, whereas BmprIb alone mediates the ability of BMPs to orient axons. Here, we show that BmprIb, and not BmprIa, is additionally required to control the rate of commissural axon extension. We have also determined the intracellular effector by which BmprIb regulates commissural axon growth. We show that BmprIb has a novel role modulating the activity of the actin-severing protein cofilin. These studies reveal the mechanistic differences used by distinct components of the canonical Bmpr complex to mediate the diverse activities of the BMPs. PMID:23250207

  4. The influence of discoidin domain receptor 2 on the persistence length of collagen type I fibers.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, Lalitha; Agarwal, Gunjan

    2010-06-01

    Collagen fibers in the vertebrate tissue are responsible for its tensile strength. A disruption in the morphological or mechanical properties of collagen fibers is bound to impact tensile strength and contractility of tissues and affect several cellular processes. We had recently established that binding of discoidin domain receptor (DDR2) with collagen type I results in disruption of the native structure and morphology of collagen fibers. In this study we investigate if DDR2 affects the mechanical properties of collagen fibers. We used an analytical approach to determine the persistence length (P(L)) of collagen fibers from transmission electron microscope images of immobilized collagen. Fluctuations in the curvature of collagen fibers formed in-vitro (with or without recombinant DDR2) were analyzed to ascertain their P(L). The P(L) values and fiber-diameter measurements were utilized to estimate Young's Modulus (E) of collagen fibers. Our results show that DDR2 significantly reduced P(L) and E of collagen fibers. We further found that P(L) for native collagen fibers increases as a function of collagen concentration with little dependence on fiber diameter. These results signify a physiological role of DDR2 in modulating extracellular matrix stiffness, which may be of relevance for tissue engineering and medical implants especially in diseases where DDR2 is upregulated.

  5. Structure of an integrin with an [alpha]I domain, complement receptor type 4

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Can; Zhu, Jianghai; Chen, Xing; Mi, Lizhi; Nishida, Noritaka; Springer, Timothy A.

    2010-08-13

    We report the structure of an integrin with an {alpha}I domain, {alpha}{sub X}{beta}{sub 2}, the complement receptor type 4. It was earlier expected that a fixed orientation between the {alpha}I domain and the {beta}-propeller domain in which it is inserted would be required for allosteric signal transmission. However, the {alpha}I domain is highly flexible, enabling two {beta}I domain conformational states to couple to three {alpha}I domain states, and greater accessibility for ligand recognition. Although {alpha}{sub X}{beta}{sub 2} is bent similarly to integrins that lack {alpha}I domains, the terminal domains of the {alpha}- and {beta}-legs, calf-2 and {beta}-tail, are oriented differently than in {alpha}I-less integrins. Linkers extending to the transmembrane domains are unstructured. Previous mutations in the {beta}2-tail domain support the importance of extension, rather than a deadbolt, in integrin activation. The locations of further activating mutations and antibody epitopes show the critical role of extension, and conversion from the closed to the open headpiece conformation, in integrin activation. Differences among 10 molecules in crystal lattices provide unprecedented information on interdomain flexibility important for modelling integrin extension and activation.

  6. Crystal structures of wild type and disease mutant forms of the ryanodine receptor SPRY2 domain.

    PubMed

    Lau, Kelvin; Van Petegem, Filip

    2014-11-05

    Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) form channels responsible for the release of Ca(2+) from the endoplasmic and sarcoplasmic reticulum. The SPRY2 domain in the skeletal muscle isoform (RyR1) has been proposed as a direct link with L-type calcium channels (CaV1.1), allowing for direct mechanical coupling between plasma membrane depolarization and Ca(2+) release. Here we present the crystal structures of the SPRY2 domain from RyR1 and RyR2 at 1.34-1.84 Å resolution. They form two antiparallel β sheets establishing a core, and four additional modules of which several are required for proper folding. A buried disease mutation, linked to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and loss-of-function, induces local misfolding and strong destabilization. Isothermal titration calorimetry experiments negate the RyR1 SPRY2 domain as the major link with CaV1.1. Instead, docking into full-length RyR1 cryo-electron microscopy maps suggests that the SPRY2 domain forms a link between the N-terminal gating ring and the clamp region.

  7. A reassessment of soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor in glomerular disease

    PubMed Central

    Spinale, Joann M.; Mariani, Laura H.; Kapoor, Shiv; Zhang, Jidong; Weyant, Robert; Song, Peter X.; Wong, Hetty N.; Troost, Jonathan P.; Gadegbeku, Crystal A.; Gipson, Debbie S.; Kretzler, Matthias; Nihalani, Deepak; Holzman, Lawrence B.

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) is a causative circulating factor for and a biomarker of focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). Here we undertook validation of these assumptions in both mouse and human models. Injection of recombinant suPAR in wild-type mice did not induce proteinuria within 24 hours. Moreover, a disease phenotype was not seen in an inducible transgenic mouse model that maintained elevated suPAR concentrations for 6 weeks. Plasma and urine suPAR concentrations were evaluated as clinical biomarkers in 241 patients with glomerular disease from the prospective, longitudinal multi-center observational NEPTUNE cohort. The serum suPAR concentration at baseline inversely correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and the urine suPAR/creatinine ratio positively correlated with the urine protein/creatinine ratio. After adjusting for eGFR and urine protein, neither the serum nor urine suPAR level was an independent predictor of FSGS histopathology. A multivariable mixed-effects model of longitudinal data evaluated the association between the change in serum suPAR concentration from baseline with eGFR. After adjusting for baseline suPAR concentration, age, gender, proteinuria and time, the change in suPAR from baseline was associated with eGFR, but this association was not different for patients with FSGS as compared to other diagnoses. Thus, these results do not support a pathological role for suPAR in FSGS. PMID:25354239

  8. Soluble Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator Receptor Levels in Patients With Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Jimmi; Røge, Rasmus; Pristed, Sofie Gry; Viuff, Anne Grethe; Ullum, Henrik; Thørner, Lise Wegner; Werge, Thomas; Vang, Torkel

    2015-01-01