Science.gov

Sample records for neurotensin receptor type

  1. Activation of Neurotensin Receptor Type 1 Attenuates Locomotor Activity

    PubMed Central

    Vadnie, Chelsea A.; Hinton, David J.; Choi, Sun; Choi, YuBin; Ruby, Christina L.; Oliveros, Alfredo; Prieto, Miguel L.; Park, Jun Hyun; Choi, Doo-Sup

    2014-01-01

    Intracerebroventricular administration of neurotensin (NT) suppresses locomotor activity. However, the brain regions that mediate the locomotor depressant effect of NT and receptor subtype-specific mechanisms involved are unclear. Using a brain-penetrating, selective NT receptor type 1 (NTS1) agonist PD149163, we investigated the effect of systemic and brain region-specific NTS1 activation on locomotor activity. Systemic administration of PD149163 attenuated the locomotor activity of C57BL/6J mice both in a novel environment and in their homecage. However, mice developed tolerance to the hypolocomotor effect of PD149163 (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.). Since NTS1 is known to modulate dopaminergic signaling, we examined whether PD149163 blocks dopamine receptor-mediated hyperactivity. Pretreatment with PD149163 (0.1 or 0.05 mg/kg, i.p.) inhibited D2R agonist bromocriptine (8 mg/kg, i.p.)-mediated hyperactivity. D1R agonist SKF81297 (8 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced hyperlocomotion was only inhibited by 0.1 mg/kg of PD149163. Since the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) have been implicated in the behavioral effects of NT, we examined whether microinjection of PD149163 into these regions reduces locomotion. Microinjection of PD149163 (2 pmol) into the NAc, but not the mPFC suppressed locomotor activity. In summary, our results indicate that systemic and intra-NAc activation of NTS1 is sufficient to reduce locomotion and NTS1 activation inhibits D2R-mediated hyperactivity. Our study will be helpful to identify pharmacological factors and a possible therapeutic window for NTS1-targeted therapies for movement disorders. PMID:24929110

  2. Lack of neurotensin type 1 receptor facilitates contextual fear memory depending on the memory strength.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Daisuke; Wada, Etsuko; Amano, Taiju; Wada, Keiji; Sekiguchi, Masayuki

    2010-09-01

    Neurotensin is known to have antipsychotic-like behavioral and neurochemical effects, but its participation in fear memory has not been fully elucidated. Here, we report that a lack of type 1 neurotensin receptor (Ntsr1) increases the behavioral fear response elicited by weak fear memory. Adult Ntsr1-knockout (KO) mice and their wild-type (WT) littermates were compared in contextual fear conditioning. The mice were exposed twice for 3min to the context 24 and 48h after conditioning (first and second exposure, respectively), and freezing response of mice at the exposure was measured to evaluate fear memory. Ntsr1-KO mice showed a higher freezing rate than WT mice at both first and second exposures under the condition where a relatively weak unconditioned stimulus (footshock) was applied and thus elicited a relatively lower freezing rate. The difference in the first exposure between Ntsr1-KO and WT mice disappeared under the condition where a more intense unconditioned stimulus was used. The enhancement of freezing response in Ntsr1-KO mice at second exposure was abolished by propranolol, a beta-adrenergic blocker that suppresses fear memory reconsolidation, and suppressed by MK-801, an NMDA receptor antagonist. These results suggest that Ntsr1 plays inhibitory roles in weak fear memory. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Altered Morphine-Induced Analgesia in Neurotensin Type 1 Receptor Null Mice

    PubMed Central

    Roussy, Geneviève; Beaudry, Hélène; Lafrance, Mylène; Belleville, Karine; Beaudet, Nicolas; Wada, Keiji; Gendron, Louis; Sarret, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Both neurotensin (NT) and opioid agonists have been shown to induce antinociception in rodents after central administration. Besides, previous studies have revealed the existence of functional interactions between NT and opioid systems in the regulation of pain processing. We recently demonstrated that NTS1 receptors play a key role in the mediation of the analgesic effects of NT in long-lasting pain. In the present study, we therefore investigated whether NTS1 gene deletion affected the antinociceptive action of mu opioid drugs. To this end, pain behavioral responses to formalin were determined following systemic administration of morphine in both male and female NTS1 knockout mice. Acute injection of morphine (2 or 5 mg/kg) produced strong antinociceptive effects in both male and female wild-type littermates, with no significant sex differences. On the other hand, morphine analgesia was considerably reduced in NTS1-deficient mice of both sexes compared to their respective controls, indicating that the NTS1 receptor actively participates in mu opioid alleviating pain. By examining specifically the flinching, licking and biting nociceptive behaviors, we also showed that the functional crosstalk between NTS1 and mu opioid receptors influences the supraspinally-mediated behaviors. Interestingly, sexual dimorphic action of morphine-induced pain inhibition was found in NTS1 null mice in the formalin test, suggesting that the endogenous NT system interacts differently with the opioid network in male and female mice. Altogether, these results demonstrated that NTS1 receptor activation operates downstream to the opioidergic transmission and that NTS1-selective agonists combined with morphine may act synergistically to reduce persistent pain. PMID:20727387

  4. Probing the environment of neurotensin whilst bound to the neurotensin receptor by solid state NMR.

    PubMed

    Williamson, P T F; Bains, S; Chung, C; Cooke, R; Watts, A

    2002-05-08

    A functionally active analogue of neurotensin, neurotensin(8-13), has been observed whilst bound to the agonist-binding site of the rat neurotensin receptor by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Through the application of slow magic angle sample spinning and high-power proton decoupling, sufficient resolution and sensitivity were obtained in the carbon-13 spectrum to allow an assignment of many of the side chain resonances arising from uniformly carbon-13/nitrogen-15-labelled neurotensin(8-13) whilst bound to the neurotensin receptor. Significant perturbations in carbon-13 chemical shift were observed upon the binding of the neurotensin(8-13) to the receptor. Most importantly significant shifts were observed in both the carboxy terminus and tyrosine side chain of the neurotensin(8-13), suggesting that these sites are important in the interaction of the neurotensin with the agonist-binding site on the neurotensin receptor. Conversely, no perturbations were observed for the carbon-13 sites within the guanidinium groups of the arginine side chains, indicating little interaction with the receptor-binding site, or a shielding of the local environment by the surrounding nitrogen atoms. These NMR observations lend further support to previous structure-activity studies, site-directed mutagenesis and modelling studies of the agonist-binding site of the neurotensin receptor, from which the same specific residues for which NMR perturbations were observed are important for neurotensin receptor activation by neurotensin.

  5. Neurotensin receptor type 1: Escherichia coli expression, purification, characterization and biophysical study.

    PubMed

    Harding, P J; Attrill, H; Ross, S; Koeppe, J R; Kapanidis, A N; Watts, A

    2007-08-01

    NT (neurotensin) is an endogenous tridecapeptide neurotransmitter found in the central nervous system and gastrointestinal tract. One receptor for NT, NTS1, belongs to the GPCR (G-protein-coupled receptor) superfamily, has seven putative transmembrane domains, and is being studied by a range of single-molecule, functional and structural approaches. To enable biophysical characterization, sufficient quantities of the receptor need to be expressed and purified in an active form. To this end, rat NTS1 has been expressed in Escherichia coli in an active ligand-binding form at the cell membrane and purified in sufficient amounts for structural biology studies either with or without fluorescent protein [YFP (yellow fluorescent protein) and CFP (cyan fluorescent protein)] fusions. Ligand binding has been demonstrated in a novel SPR (surface plasmon resonance) approach, as well as by conventional radioligand binding measurements. These improvements in production of NTS1 now open up the possibility of direct structural studies, such as solid-state NMR to interrogate the NT-binding site, EM (electron microscopy), and X-ray crystallography and NMR.

  6. ML314: A Biased Neurotensin Receptor Ligand for Methamphetamine Abuse.

    PubMed

    Barak, Larry S; Bai, Yushi; Peterson, Sean; Evron, Tama; Urs, Nikhil M; Peddibhotla, Satyamaheshwar; Hedrick, Michael P; Hershberger, Paul; Maloney, Patrick R; Chung, Thomas D Y; Rodriguiz, Ramona M; Wetsel, William C; Thomas, James B; Hanson, Glen R; Pinkerton, Anthony B; Caron, Marc G

    2016-07-15

    Pharmacological treatment for methamphetamine addiction will provide important societal benefits. Neurotensin receptor NTR1 and dopamine receptor distributions coincide in brain areas regulating methamphetamine-associated reward, and neurotensin peptides produce behaviors opposing psychostimulants. Therefore, undesirable methamphetamine-associated activities should be treatable with druggable NTR1 agonists, but no such FDA-approved therapeutics exist. We address this limitation with proof-of-concept data for ML314, a small-molecule, brain penetrant, β-arrestin biased, NTR1 agonist. ML314 attenuates amphetamine-like hyperlocomotion in dopamine transporter knockout mice, and in C57BL/6J mice it attenuates methamphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion, potentiates the psychostimulant inhibitory effects of a ghrelin antagonist, and reduces methamphetamine-associated conditioned place preference. In rats, ML314 blocks methamphetamine self-administration. ML314 acts as an allosteric enhancer of endogenous neurotensin, unmasking stoichiometric numbers of hidden NTR1 binding sites in transfected-cell membranes or mouse striatal membranes, while additionally supporting NTR1 endocytosis in cells in the absence of NT peptide. These results indicate ML314 is a viable, preclinical lead for methamphetamine abuse treatment and support an allosteric model of G protein-coupled receptor signaling.

  7. Structure and dynamics of a constitutively active neurotensin receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Krumm, Brian E.; Lee, Sangbae; Bhattacharya, Supriyo; Botos, Istvan; White, Courtney F.; Du, Haijuan; Vaidehi, Nagarajan; Grisshammer, Reinhard

    2016-12-07

    Many G protein-coupled receptors show constitutive activity, resulting in the production of a second messenger in the absence of an agonist; and naturally occurring constitutively active mutations in receptors have been implicated in diseases. To gain insight into mechanistic aspects of constitutive activity, we report here the 3.3 Å crystal structure of a constitutively active, agonist-bound neurotensin receptor (NTSR1) and molecular dynamics simulations of agonist-occupied and ligand-free receptor. Comparison with the structure of a NTSR1 variant that has little constitutive activity reveals uncoupling of the ligand-binding domain from conserved connector residues, that effect conformational changes during GPCR activation. Furthermore, molecular dynamics simulations show strong contacts between connector residue side chains and increased flexibility at the intracellular receptor face as features that coincide with robust signalling in cells. In conclusion, the loss of correlation between the binding pocket and conserved connector residues, combined with altered receptor dynamics, possibly explains the reduced neurotensin efficacy in the constitutively active NTSR1 and a facilitated initial engagement with G protein in the absence of agonist.

  8. Structure and dynamics of a constitutively active neurotensin receptor

    DOE PAGES

    Krumm, Brian E.; Lee, Sangbae; Bhattacharya, Supriyo; ...

    2016-12-07

    Many G protein-coupled receptors show constitutive activity, resulting in the production of a second messenger in the absence of an agonist; and naturally occurring constitutively active mutations in receptors have been implicated in diseases. To gain insight into mechanistic aspects of constitutive activity, we report here the 3.3 Å crystal structure of a constitutively active, agonist-bound neurotensin receptor (NTSR1) and molecular dynamics simulations of agonist-occupied and ligand-free receptor. Comparison with the structure of a NTSR1 variant that has little constitutive activity reveals uncoupling of the ligand-binding domain from conserved connector residues, that effect conformational changes during GPCR activation. Furthermore, molecularmore » dynamics simulations show strong contacts between connector residue side chains and increased flexibility at the intracellular receptor face as features that coincide with robust signalling in cells. In conclusion, the loss of correlation between the binding pocket and conserved connector residues, combined with altered receptor dynamics, possibly explains the reduced neurotensin efficacy in the constitutively active NTSR1 and a facilitated initial engagement with G protein in the absence of agonist.« less

  9. Structure and dynamics of a constitutively active neurotensin receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Krumm, Brian E.; Lee, Sangbae; Bhattacharya, Supriyo; Botos, Istvan; White, Courtney F.; Du, Haijuan; Vaidehi, Nagarajan; Grisshammer, Reinhard

    2016-12-07

    Many G protein-coupled receptors show constitutive activity, resulting in the production of a second messenger in the absence of an agonist; and naturally occurring constitutively active mutations in receptors have been implicated in diseases. To gain insight into mechanistic aspects of constitutive activity, we report here the 3.3 Å crystal structure of a constitutively active, agonist-bound neurotensin receptor (NTSR1) and molecular dynamics simulations of agonist-occupied and ligand-free receptor. Comparison with the structure of a NTSR1 variant that has little constitutive activity reveals uncoupling of the ligand-binding domain from conserved connector residues, that effect conformational changes during GPCR activation. Furthermore, molecular dynamics simulations show strong contacts between connector residue side chains and increased flexibility at the intracellular receptor face as features that coincide with robust signalling in cells. The loss of correlation between the binding pocket and conserved connector residues, combined with altered receptor dynamics, possibly explains the reduced neurotensin efficacy in the constitutively active NTSR1 and a facilitated initial engagement with G protein in the absence of agonist.

  10. Structure and dynamics of a constitutively active neurotensin receptor

    PubMed Central

    Krumm, Brian E.; Lee, Sangbae; Bhattacharya, Supriyo; Botos, Istvan; White, Courtney F.; Du, Haijuan; Vaidehi, Nagarajan; Grisshammer, Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    Many G protein-coupled receptors show constitutive activity, resulting in the production of a second messenger in the absence of an agonist; and naturally occurring constitutively active mutations in receptors have been implicated in diseases. To gain insight into mechanistic aspects of constitutive activity, we report here the 3.3 Å crystal structure of a constitutively active, agonist-bound neurotensin receptor (NTSR1) and molecular dynamics simulations of agonist-occupied and ligand-free receptor. Comparison with the structure of a NTSR1 variant that has little constitutive activity reveals uncoupling of the ligand-binding domain from conserved connector residues, that effect conformational changes during GPCR activation. Furthermore, molecular dynamics simulations show strong contacts between connector residue side chains and increased flexibility at the intracellular receptor face as features that coincide with robust signalling in cells. The loss of correlation between the binding pocket and conserved connector residues, combined with altered receptor dynamics, possibly explains the reduced neurotensin efficacy in the constitutively active NTSR1 and a facilitated initial engagement with G protein in the absence of agonist. PMID:27924846

  11. Purification of a rat neurotensin receptor expressed in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, J; Grisshammer, R

    1996-01-01

    A truncated rat neurotensin receptor (NTR), expressed in Escherichia coli with the maltose-binding protein fused to its N-terminus and the 13 amino acid Bio tag fused to its C-terminus, was purified to apparent homogeneity in two steps by use of the monomeric avidin system followed by a novel neurotensin column. This purification protocol was developed by engineering a variety of affinity tags on to the C-terminus of NTR. Surprisingly, expression levels varied considerably depending on the C-terminal tag used. Functional expression of NTR was highest (800 receptors/cell) when thioredoxin was placed between the receptor C-terminus and the tag, indicating a stabilizing effect of the thioredoxin moiety. Several affinity chromatography methods were tested for purification. NTR with the in vivo-biotinylated Bio tag was purified with the highest efficiency compared with NTR with the Strep tag or a hexa-histidine tail. Co-expression of biotin ligase improved considerably the in vivo biotinylation of the Bio tag and, therefore, the overall purification yield. Proteolysis of the NTR fusion protein was prevented by removing a protease-sensitive site discovered at the N-terminus of NTR. The ligand binding properties of the purified receptor were similar to those of the membrane-bound protein and the native receptor. The scale-up of this purification scheme, to provide sufficient protein for biophysical studies, is in progress. PMID:8760379

  12. Altered Sleep and Affect in the Neurotensin Receptor 1 Knockout Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, Karrie; Winrow, Christopher J.; Gotter, Anthony L.; Millstein, Joshua; Arbuzova, Janna; Brunner, Joseph; Kasarskis, Andrew; Vitaterna, Martha H.; Renger, John J.; Turek, Fred W.

    2012-01-01

    Study Objective: Sleep and mood disorders have long been understood to have strong genetic components, and there is considerable comorbidity of sleep abnormalities and mood disorders, suggesting the involvement of common genetic pathways. Here, we examine a candidate gene implicated in the regulation of both sleep and affective behavior using a knockout mouse model. Design: Previously, we identified a quantitative trait locus (QTL) for REM sleep amount, REM sleep bout number, and wake amount in a genetically segregating population of mice. Here, we show that traits mapping to this QTL correlated with an expression QTL for neurotensin receptor 1 (Ntsr1), a receptor for neurotensin, a ligand known to be involved in several psychiatric disorders. We examined sleep as well as behaviors indicative of anxiety and depression in the NTSR1 knockout mouse. Measurements and Results: NTSR1 knockouts had a lower percentage of sleep time spent in REM sleep in the dark phase and a larger diurnal variation in REM sleep duration than wild types under baseline conditions. Following sleep deprivation, NTSR1 knockouts exhibited more wake and less NREM rebound sleep. NTSR1 knockouts also showed increased anxious and despair behaviors. Conclusions: Here we illustrate a link between expression of the Ntsr1 gene and sleep traits previously associated with a particular QTL. We also demonstrate a relationship between Ntsr1 and anxiety and despair behaviors. Given the considerable evidence that anxiety and depression are closely linked with abnormalities in sleep, the data presented here provide further evidence that neurotensin and Ntsr1 may be a component of a pathway involved in both sleep and mood disorders. Citation: Fitzpatrick K; Winrow CJ; Gotter AL; Millstein J; Arbuzova J; Brunner J; Kasarskis A; Vitaterna MH; Renger JJ; Turek FW. Altered sleep and affect in the neurotensin receptor 1 knockout mouse. SLEEP 2012;35(7):949-956. PMID:22754041

  13. Neurotensin receptor binding levels in basal ganglia are not altered in Huntington's chorea or schizophrenia

    SciTech Connect

    Palacios, J.M.; Chinaglia, G.; Rigo, M.; Ulrich, J.; Probst, A. )

    1991-02-01

    Autoradiographic techniques were used to examine the distribution and levels of neurotensin receptor binding sites in the basal ganglia and related regions of the human brain. Monoiodo ({sup 125}I-Tyr3)neurotensin was used as a ligand. High amounts of neurotensin receptor binding sites were found in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Lower but significant quantities of neurotensin receptor binding sites characterized the caudate, putamen, and nucleus accumbens, while very low quantities were seen in both medial and lateral segments of the globus pallidus. In Huntington's chorea, the levels of neurotensin receptor binding sites were found to be comparable to those of control cases. Only slight but not statistically significant decreases in amounts of receptor binding sites were detected in the dorsal part of the head and in the body of caudate nucleus. No alterations in the levels of neurotensin receptor binding sites were observed in the substantia nigra pars compacta and reticulata. These results suggest that a large proportion of neurotensin receptor binding sites in the basal ganglia are located on intrinsic neurons and on extrinsic afferent fibers that do not degenerate in Huntington's disease.

  14. Mechanisms of Radiosensitization by the Neurotensin Receptor Antagonist SR48692 in Prostate Cancer Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    Neurotensin Receptor Antagonist SR48692 in Prostate Cancer Models PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jaroslaw Dziegielewski, Ph.D...Receptor Antagonist 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER SR48692 in Prostate Cancer Models 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-08-1-0114 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...neurotensin receptor by SR48692 drug could sensitize cancer cells to radiation. SR48692 activity was measured in PC3, C42 and LNCaP prostate cancer

  15. Mediation by neurotensin-receptors of effects of neurotensin on self-stimulation of the medial prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, R.; Sabater, R.; Sáez, J. A.; Montes, R.; Alba, F.; Ferrer, J. M.

    1996-01-01

    1 Intracortical microinjections of neurotensin (NT) selectively decreased intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) of the medial prefrontal cortex in the rat. 2 To elucidate whether this effect is mediated by NT receptors or by the formation of NT-dopamine complexes, we investigated the effects on ICSS of intracortical microinjections of neurotensin (1-11), an NT fragment that forms extracellular complexes with dopamine but does not bind to NT receptors. 3 We also studied the effects of the peripheral administration of SR 48692, a selective antagonist of NT receptors, on the inhibition of ICSS produced by the intracortical administration of NT. 4 Unilateral microinjections of neurotensin (1-11) at doses of 10, 20 and 40 nmol into the medial prefrontal cortex did not change the basal ICSS rate of this area. 5 The intraperitoneal administration of SR 48692 at doses of 0.08 and 0.16 mg kg-1 30 min before microinjection of 10 nmol of NT into the medial prefrontal cortex, antagonized the inhibition of ICSS produced by the neuropeptide. 6 These results demonstrate that the inhibitory effect of NT on ICSS is mediated by NT receptors. PMID:8886412

  16. Identification of 1-({[1-(4-Fluorophenyl)-5-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1H-pyrazol-3-yl]carbonyl}amino)cyclohexane Carboxylic Acid as a Selective Nonpeptide Neurotensin Receptor Type 2 Compound

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Compounds active at neurotensin receptors (NTS1 and NTS2) exert analgesic effects on different types of nociceptive modalities, including thermal, mechanical, and chemical stimuli. The NTS2 preferring peptide JMV-431 (2) and the NTS2 selective nonpeptide compound levocabastine (6) have been shown to be effective in relieving the pain associated with peripheral neuropathies. With the aim of identifying novel nonpeptide compounds selective for NTS2, we examined analogues of SR48692 (5a) using a FLIPR calcium assay in CHO cells stably expressing rat NTS2. This led to the discovery of the NTS2 selective nonpeptide compound 1-({[1-(4-fluorophenyl)-5-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1H-pyrazol-3-yl]carbonyl}amino)cyclohexane carboxylic acid (NTRC-739, 7b) starting from the nonselective compound 5a. PMID:24856674

  17. Interaction of lipids with the neurotensin receptor 1.

    PubMed

    Bolivar, Juan H; Muñoz-García, Juan C; Castro-Dopico, Tomas; Dijkman, Patricia M; Stansfeld, Phillip J; Watts, Anthony

    2016-06-01

    Information about lipid-protein interactions for G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) is scarce. Here, we use electron spin resonance (ESR) and spin-labelled lipids to study lipid interactions with the rat neurotensin receptor 1 (NTS1). A fusion protein containing rat NTS1 fully able to bind its ligand neurotensin was reconstituted into phosphatidylcholine (PC) bilayers at specific lipid:protein molar ratios. The fraction of motionally restricted lipids in the range of 40:1 to 80:1 lipids per receptor suggested an oligomeric state of the protein, and the result was unaffected by increasing the hydrophobic thickness of the lipid bilayer from C-18 to C-20 or C-22 chain length PC membranes. Comparison of the ESR spectra of different spin-labelled lipids allowed direct measurement of lipid binding constants relative to PC (Kr), with spin-labelled phosphatidylethanolamine (PESL), phosphatidylserine (PSSL), stearic acid (SASL), and a spin labelled cholesterol analogue (CSL) Kr values of 1.05±0.05, 1.92±0.08, 5.20±0.51 and 0.91±0.19, respectively. The results contrast with those from rhodopsin, the only other GPCR studied this way, which has no selectivity for the lipids analysed here. Molecular dynamics simulations of NTS1 in bilayers are in agreement with the ESR data, and point to sites in the receptor where PS could interact with higher affinity. Lipid selectivity could be necessary for regulation of ligand binding, oligomerisation and/or G protein activation processes. Our results provide insight into the potential modulatory mechanisms that lipids can exert on GPCRs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Endogenous CNS expression of neurotensin and neurotensin receptors is altered during the postpartum period in outbred mice.

    PubMed

    Driessen, Terri M; Zhao, Changjiu; Whittlinger, Anna; Williams, Horecia; Gammie, Stephen C

    2014-01-01

    Neurotensin (NT) is a neuropeptide identical in mice and humans that is produced and released in many CNS regions associated with maternal behavior. NT has been linked to aspects of maternal care and previous studies have indirectly suggested that endogenous NT signaling is altered in the postpartum period. In the present study, we directly examine whether NT and its receptors exhibit altered gene expression in maternal relative to virgin outbred mice using real time quantitative PCR (qPCR) across multiple brain regions. We also examine NT protein levels using anti-NT antibodies and immunohistochemistry in specific brain regions. In the medial preoptic area (MPOA), which is critical for maternal behaviors, mRNA of NT and NT receptor 3 (Sort1) were significantly up-regulated in postpartum mice compared to virgins. NT mRNA was also elevated in postpartum females in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis dorsal. However, in the lateral septum, NT mRNA was down-regulated in postpartum females. In the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), Ntsr1 expression was down-regulated in postpartum females. Neurotensin receptor 2 (Ntsr2) expression was not altered in any brain region tested. In terms of protein expression, NT immunohistochemistry results indicated that NT labeling was elevated in the postpartum brain in the MPOA, lateral hypothalamus, and two subregions of PVN. Together, these findings indicate that endogenous changes occur in NT and its receptors across multiple brain regions, and these likely support the emergence of some maternal behaviors.

  19. Endogenous CNS Expression of Neurotensin and Neurotensin Receptors Is Altered during the Postpartum Period in Outbred Mice

    PubMed Central

    Driessen, Terri M.; Zhao, Changjiu; Whittlinger, Anna; Williams, Horecia; Gammie, Stephen C.

    2014-01-01

    Neurotensin (NT) is a neuropeptide identical in mice and humans that is produced and released in many CNS regions associated with maternal behavior. NT has been linked to aspects of maternal care and previous studies have indirectly suggested that endogenous NT signaling is altered in the postpartum period. In the present study, we directly examine whether NT and its receptors exhibit altered gene expression in maternal relative to virgin outbred mice using real time quantitative PCR (qPCR) across multiple brain regions. We also examine NT protein levels using anti-NT antibodies and immunohistochemistry in specific brain regions. In the medial preoptic area (MPOA), which is critical for maternal behaviors, mRNA of NT and NT receptor 3 (Sort1) were significantly up-regulated in postpartum mice compared to virgins. NT mRNA was also elevated in postpartum females in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis dorsal. However, in the lateral septum, NT mRNA was down-regulated in postpartum females. In the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), Ntsr1 expression was down-regulated in postpartum females. Neurotensin receptor 2 (Ntsr2) expression was not altered in any brain region tested. In terms of protein expression, NT immunohistochemistry results indicated that NT labeling was elevated in the postpartum brain in the MPOA, lateral hypothalamus, and two subregions of PVN. Together, these findings indicate that endogenous changes occur in NT and its receptors across multiple brain regions, and these likely support the emergence of some maternal behaviors. PMID:24416154

  20. NMR solution structure of neurotensin in membrane-mimetic environments: molecular basis for neurotensin receptor recognition.

    PubMed

    Coutant, Jérome; Curmi, Patrick A; Toma, Flavio; Monti, Jean-Pierre

    2007-05-15

    Neurotensin (NT) is a 13-residue neuropeptide that exerts multiple biological functions in the central and peripheral nervous system. Little is known about the structure of this neuropeptide, and what is known only concerns its C-terminal part. We determined here for the first time the structure of the full-length NT in membrane-mimicking environments by means of classical proton-proton distance constraints derived from solution-state NMR spectroscopy. NT was found to have a structure at both its N and C termini, whereas the central region of NT remains highly flexible. In TFE and HFIP solutions, the NT C-terminus presents an extended slightly incurved structure, whereas in DPC it has a beta turn. The N-terminal region of NT possesses great adaptability and accessibility to the microenvironment in the three media studied. Altogether, our work demonstrates a structure of NT fully compatible with its NTR-bound state.

  1. Automated large-scale purification of a recombinant g-protein-coupled neurotensin receptor.

    PubMed

    White, Jim F; Grisshammer, Reinhard

    2007-02-01

    Structure determination of G-protein-coupled receptors and other applications, such as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies, require milligram quantities of purified, functional receptor protein on a regular basis. This unit presents a step-by-step procedure for the automated two-column purification at the 10-milligram scale of a G protein-coupled receptor for neurotensin, expressed in functional form in Escherichia coli.

  2. Effects of Neurotensin-2 Receptor Deletion on Sensorimotor Gating and Locomotor Activity

    PubMed Central

    Feifel, David; Pang, Zheng; Shilling, Paul D.; Melendez, Gilia; Schreiber, Rudy; Button, Donald

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Endogenous neurotensin (NT) has been implicated in brain processes relevant to schizophrenia as well as the therapeutic effects of antipsychotic drugs (APDs) used to treat this disorder. Converging evidence suggests that NT1 receptors mediate the antipsychotic-like effects of NT, such as prepulse inhibition (PPI) elevation. However, the role of NT2 receptors in these effects is not known. To investigate the contribution of NT2 receptors to the regulation of PPI, we measured baseline PPI and acoustic startle response (ASR), in male and female wild type (WT) and NT2 knockout (KO) mice. For comparison, we also measured locomotor activity. Baseline PPI was significantly elevated in both male (P < 0.01) and female (P < 0.01) NT2 KO compared to WT mice, while ASR was significantly decreased in KO mice of both genders (P < 0.01). In contrast, female but not male KO mice exhibited significantly less baseline ambulations (P < 0.05). These data support the regulation of baseline PPI, ASR and locomotor activity by endogenous NT acting at the NT2 receptor. Further studies investigating the role of NT2 receptors in the modulation of APD-like effects are warranted. PMID:20399236

  3. Theranostic Value of Multimers: Lessons Learned from Trimerization of Neurotensin Receptor Ligands and Other Targeting Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Maschauer, Simone; Einsiedel, Jürgen; Reich, Dominik; Hübner, Harald; Gmeiner, Peter; Wester, Hans-Jürgen; Prante, Olaf; Notni, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    Neurotensin receptor 1 (NTS1) is overexpressed on a variety of cancer entities; for example, prostate cancer, ductal pancreatic adenocarcinoma, and breast cancer. Therefore, it represents an interesting target for the diagnosis of these cancers types by positron emission tomography (PET). The metabolically-stabilized neurotensin (NT) derivative peptide Nlys8-Lys9-Pro10-Tyr11-Tle12-Leu13-OH was elongated at the N-terminus with 6-azido norleucine and coupled with the 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-tris[(2-carboxyethyl)methylenephosphinic acid] (TRAP) chelator TRAP(alkyne)3 in order to synthesize a NT trimer with subnanomolar affinity and high stability. The 68Ga-labeled peptide [68Ga]Ga-TRAP(NT4)3 was characterized in vitro using the NTS1-expressing human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line HT29. It displayed fast and high internalization rates of >90%, but also fast efflux rates of 50% over 15 min. In vivo, [68Ga]Ga-TRAP(NT4)3 showed moderate HT29 tumor uptake values of 1.7 %ID/g at 60 min post-injection (p.i.), but also high uptake and retention in the kidneys and liver. A comparison of data for trimer/monomer pairs of NT ligands and other targeting vectors (peptides and peptoids targeting integrins αvβ3, α5β1, and αvβ6, the PSMA-ligand DUPA (2-[3-(1,3-dicarboxypropyl)-ureido]pentanedioic acid), and nitroimidazoles targeting hypoxia) revealed that multimers always exhibit higher target affinities and tumor uptake, but not necessarily improved tumor-to-tissue ratios. Thus, although in vitro data are not suitable for prediction of in vivo performance, multimers are potentially superior to monomers, particularly for applications where high tumor accumulation is crucial. PMID:28287433

  4. An autoradiographic study of neurotensin receptors in the human hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Najimi, Mohamed; Sarrieau, Alain; Kopp, Nicolas; Chigr, Fatiha

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to determine a detailed mapping of neurotensin (NT) in the human hypothalamus, the brain region involved in neuroendocrine control. For this, we investigated the presence and the distribution of neurotensin binding sites in the human hypothalamus, using an in vitro quantitative autoradiography technique and the selective radioligand monoiodo-Tyr3-neurotensin (2000Ci/mM). This study was performed on nine adult human postmortem hypothalami. We first determined the biochemical kinetics of the binding and found that binding affinity constants were of high affinity and do not differ significantly between all cases investigated. Our analysis of the autoradiographic distribution shows that NT binding sites are widely distributed throughout the rostrocaudal extent of the hypothalamus. However, the distribution of NT binding sites is not homogenous and regional variations exist. In general, the highest densities are mainly present in the anterior hypothalamic level, particularly in the preoptic region and the anterior boarding limit (i.e. the diagonal band of Broca). Important NT binding site densities are also present at the mediobasal hypothalamic level, particularly in the paraventricular, parafornical and dorsomedial nuclei. At the posterior level, relatively moderate densities could be observed in the mammillary complex subdivisions, apart from the supramammillary nucleus and the posterior hypothalamic area. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates the occurrence of high concentrations of NT binding sites in various structures in many regions in the human adult hypothalamus, involved in the control of neuroendocrine and/or neurovegetative functions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Neurotensin promotes the dendrite elongation and the dendritic spine maturation of the cerebral cortex in vitro.

    PubMed

    Gandou, Chihiro; Ohtani, Akiko; Senzaki, Kouji; Shiga, Takashi

    2010-03-01

    We examined roles of neurotensin in the dendrite formation and the maturation of dendritic spines in the rat cerebral cortex. Embryonic day (E) 18 cortical neurons were cultured for 2 or 4 days in the presence of neurotensin. The chronic treatment of cortical neurons with neurotensin for 4 days increased the dendritic length of non-GABAergic neurons. In addition, the acute treatment of cortical neurons for 24h at 3 days in vitro also increased the dendritic length of non-GABAergic neurons similarly but more strongly than the chronic treatment. In contrast, the acute treatment for 4h had no effects on the dendrite formation. Next, we examined the effects of neurotensin on the maturation of dendritic spines. E16 cortical neurons were cultured for 10 or 14 days in a basal medium and then treated with neurotensin for 24h. At 11 days in vitro, neurotensin increased the postsynaptic density (PSD) 95-positive dendritic protrusions (filopodia, puncta and spines) together with the increase of spine density and the decrease of puncta density. At 15 days in vitro, neurotensin decreased the puncta density. In addition, the immunohistochemical localization of neurotensin type 1 and type 3 receptors in cultured neurons suggested the differential contribution of the receptors in these effects. These findings suggest that neurotensin promotes the dendrite outgrowth and the maturation of dendritic spines of cultured cortical neurons, although further studies are needed to conclude that these roles of neurotensin are also the case in vivo.

  6. Structural prerequisites for G-protein activation by the neurotensin receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Krumm, Brian E.; White, Jim F.; Shah, Priyanka; Grisshammer, Reinhard

    2015-07-24

    We previously determined the structure of neurotensin receptor NTSR1 in an active-like conformation with six thermostabilizing mutations bound to the peptide agonist neurotensin. This receptor was unable to activate G proteins, indicating that the mutations restricted NTSR1 to relate agonist binding to G-protein activation. Here we analyse the effect of three of those mutations (E166A3.49, L310A6.37, F358A7.42) and present two structures of NTSR1 able to catalyse nucleotide exchange at Gα. The presence of F3587.42 causes the conserved W3216.48 to adopt a side chain orientation parallel to the lipid bilayer sealing the collapsed Na+ ion pocket and linking the agonist with residues in the lower receptor part implicated in GPCR activation. In the intracellular receptor half, the bulkier L3106.37 side chain dictates the position of R1673.50 of the highly conserved D/ERY motif. These residues, together with the presence of E1663.49 provide determinants for G-protein activation by NTSR1.

  7. Structural prerequisites for G-protein activation by the neurotensin receptor

    DOE PAGES

    Krumm, Brian E.; White, Jim F.; Shah, Priyanka; ...

    2015-07-24

    We previously determined the structure of neurotensin receptor NTSR1 in an active-like conformation with six thermostabilizing mutations bound to the peptide agonist neurotensin. This receptor was unable to activate G proteins, indicating that the mutations restricted NTSR1 to relate agonist binding to G-protein activation. Here we analyse the effect of three of those mutations (E166A3.49, L310A6.37, F358A7.42) and present two structures of NTSR1 able to catalyse nucleotide exchange at Gα. The presence of F3587.42 causes the conserved W3216.48 to adopt a side chain orientation parallel to the lipid bilayer sealing the collapsed Na+ ion pocket and linking the agonist withmore » residues in the lower receptor part implicated in GPCR activation. In the intracellular receptor half, the bulkier L3106.37 side chain dictates the position of R1673.50 of the highly conserved D/ERY motif. These residues, together with the presence of E1663.49 provide determinants for G-protein activation by NTSR1.« less

  8. Structural prerequisites for G-protein activation by the neurotensin receptor

    PubMed Central

    Krumm, Brian E.; White, Jim F.; Shah, Priyanka; Grisshammer, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    We previously determined the structure of neurotensin receptor NTSR1 in an active-like conformation with six thermostabilizing mutations bound to the peptide agonist neurotensin. This receptor was unable to activate G proteins, indicating that the mutations restricted NTSR1 to relate agonist binding to G-protein activation. Here we analyse the effect of three of those mutations (E166A3.49, L310A6.37, F358A7.42) and present two structures of NTSR1 able to catalyse nucleotide exchange at Gα. The presence of F3587.42 causes the conserved W3216.48 to adopt a side chain orientation parallel to the lipid bilayer sealing the collapsed Na+ ion pocket and linking the agonist with residues in the lower receptor part implicated in GPCR activation. In the intracellular receptor half, the bulkier L3106.37 side chain dictates the position of R1673.50 of the highly conserved D/ERY motif. These residues, together with the presence of E1663.49 provide determinants for G-protein activation by NTSR1. PMID:26205105

  9. Pharmacological activation of the neurotensin receptor 1 abrogates the methamphetamine-induced striatal apoptosis in the mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qingkun; Hazan, Ariela; Grinman, Eddie; Angulo, Jesus A

    2017-03-15

    Methamphetamine (METH) is a widely abused psychostimulant displaying potent addictive and neurotoxic properties. METH induces neurotoxicity of dopaminergic terminals and striatal neurons in the striatum. Despite much information on neurotransmitters, the role of neuropeptides is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the role of the neuropeptide neurotensin on the METH-induced apoptosis of some striatal neurons in mice. We observed that a single injection of METH (30mg/kg, ip) induced the loss of approximately 15% of striatal neurons. An agonist of the neurotensin receptor 1 (PD149163, ip at various doses) attenuated the METH-induced striatal neuron apoptosis. Utilizing quantitative real time PCR, we showed that METH also up-regulated neurotensin gene expression with 96% increase in preproneurotensin mRNA levels in the striatum as compared to the control. Additionally, NTR1 agonist (ip injection) attenuated hyperthermia at 2h post-METH injection; hyperthermia is a putative and significant component of METH-induced neurotoxicity. To investigate the role of neurotensin without affecting core body temperature, we performed stereotactic injection of PD149163 into the striatum and observed that this compound maintained attenuated the METH-induced apoptosis in the striatum, while leaving core body temperature unaffected. There was no effect of NTR1 agonist on METH-induced dopamine terminal degeneration, as evidenced by tyrosine hydroxylase levels determined by Western blot. These data indicate that the neuropeptide neurotensin modulates the striatal neuronal apoptosis induced by METH through diverse mechanisms that need to be investigated. Furthermore, due to its neuroprotective properties, neurotensin receptor agonists show potential as drug candidates for the treatment of METH abuse and some neurological disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Neurotensin-induced Proinflammatory Signaling in Human Colonocytes Is Regulated by β-Arrestins and Endothelin-converting Enzyme-1-dependent Endocytosis and Resensitization of Neurotensin Receptor 1*

    PubMed Central

    Law, Ivy Ka Man; Murphy, Jane E.; Bakirtzi, Kyriaki; Bunnett, Nigel W.; Pothoulakis, Charalabos

    2012-01-01

    The neuropeptide/hormone neurotensin (NT) mediates intestinal inflammation and cell proliferation by binding of its high affinity receptor, neurotensin receptor-1 (NTR1). NT stimulates IL-8 expression in NCM460 human colonic epithelial cells by both MAP kinase- and NF-κB-dependent pathways. Although the mechanism of NTR1 endocytosis has been studied, the relationship between NTR1 intracellular trafficking and inflammatory signaling remains to be elucidated. In the present study, we show that in NCM460 cells exposed to NT, β-arrestin-1 (βARR1), and β-arrestin-2 (βARR2) translocate to early endosomes together with NTR1. Endothelin-converting enzyme-1 (ECE-1) degrades NT in acidic conditions, and its activity is crucial for NTR1 recycling. Pretreatment of NCM460 cells with the ECE-1 inhibitor SM19712 or gene silencing of βARR1 or βARR2 inhibits NT-stimulated ERK1/2 and JNK phosphorylation, NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation and phosphorylation, and IL-8 secretion. Furthermore, NT-induced cell proliferation, but not IL-8 transcription, is attenuated by the JNK inhibitor, JNK(AII). Thus, NTR1 internalization and recycling in human colonic epithelial cells involves βARRs and ECE-1, respectively. Our results also indicate that βARRs and ECE-1-dependent recycling regulate MAP kinase and NF-κB signaling as well as cell proliferation in human colonocytes in response to NT. PMID:22416137

  11. Repeated ventral midbrain neurotensin injections sensitize to amphetamine-induced locomotion and ERK activation: A role for NMDA receptors.

    PubMed

    Voyer, David; Lévesque, Daniel; Rompré, Pierre-Paul

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that activation of ventral midbrain NMDA receptors is required to initiate sensitization by amphetamine. In view of the recent evidence that neurotensin modulates ventral midbrain glutamate neurotransmission, we tested the hypothesis that neurotensin is acting upstream to glutamate to initiate sensitization to the behavioral and neurochemical effects of amphetamine. During a first testing phase, adult male rats implanted with bilateral ventral midbrain cannulae were injected every second day for three days with D-[Tyr(11)]neurotensin (1.5 nmol/side), the preferred NMDA GluN2A/B antagonist, CPP (40 or 120 pmol/side), the selective GluN2B antagonist, Ro04-5595 (200 or 1200 pmol/side), CPP (40 or 120 pmol/side) + D-[Tyr(11)]neurotensin (1.5 nmol/side) or Ro04-5595 (200 or 1200 pmol/side) + D-[Tyr(11)]neurotensin (1.5 nmol/side) and locomotor activity was measured immediately after the injection. Five days after the last central injection, the locomotor response or the expression of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (pERK1/2) in neurons of different limbic nuclei was measured following a systemic injection of amphetamine sulfate (0.75 mg/kg, i.p.). Results show that amphetamine induced significantly stronger locomotor activity and pERK1/2 expression in the nucleus accumbens shell and infralimbic cortex in neurotensin pre-exposed animals than in controls (vehicle pre-exposed). These sensitization effects initiated by neurotensin were prevented by CPP, but not Ro04-5595. These results support the hypothesis that neurotensin is stimulating glutamate neurotransmission to initiate neural changes that sub-serve amphetamine sensitization and that glutamate is acting on NMDA receptors that are mostly likely composed of GluN2A, but not GluN2B, subunits. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Ionotropic glutamate receptors'. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The anorectic effect of neurotensin is mediated via a histamine H1 receptor in mice.

    PubMed

    Ohinata, Kousaku; Shimano, Tomoko; Yamauchi, Rena; Sakurada, Shinobu; Yanai, Kazuhiko; Yoshikawa, Masaaki

    2004-12-01

    Neurotensin (NT), a tridecapeptide found in the mammalian brain and peripheral tissues, induces a decrease in food intake after central administration. In this investigation, we examine whether the histaminergic system is involved in NT-induced suppression of feeding. Intracerebroventricular injection of NT (0.1-1 nmol/mouse) led to dose-dependent inhibition of food intake in fasted ddY mice. The anorectic effect induced by NT (0.1 nmol/mouse) was ameliorated upon co-administration of pyrilamine (3 nmol/mouse), an antagonist for histomine H1 receptor. The NT-induced anorectic effect was partially ameliorated in H1 knockout mice. The findings suggest that the H1 receptor in part mediates the NT-induced suppression of food intake.

  13. A Review of the Role of Neurotensin and Its Receptors in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Shengyang; Fiorentino, Francesca; Rasheed, Shahnawaz; Darzi, Ara; Tekkis, Paris

    2017-01-01

    Neurotensin (NTS) is a physiologically occurring hormone which affects the function of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. In recent years, NTS, acting through its cellular receptors (NTSR), has been implicated in the carcinogenesis of several cancers. In colorectal cancer (CRC), a significant body of evidence, from in vitro and in vivo studies, is available which elucidates the molecular biology of NTS/NTSR signalling and the resultant growth of CRC cells. There is growing clinical data from human studies which corroborate the role NTS/NTSR plays in the development of human CRC. Furthermore, blockade and modulation of the NTS/NTSR signalling pathways appears to reduce CRC growth in cell cultures and animal studies. Lastly, NTS/NTSR also shows potential of being utilised as a diagnostic biomarker for cancers as well as targets for functional imaging. We summarise the existing evidence and understanding of the role of NTS and its receptors in CRC. PMID:28316623

  14. Elucidation by NMR solution of neurotensin in small unilamellar vesicle environment: molecular surveys for neurotensin receptor recognition.

    PubMed

    Da Costa, Grégory; Bondon, Arnaud; Delalande, Olivier; Mouret, Liza; Monti, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Neurotensin (NT) is a tridecapeptide, hormone in the periphery and neurotransmitter in the brain. We used high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to resolve the three-dimensional structure of NT in a small unilamellar vesicle (SUV) environment. We demonstrate that if the dynamic of the association-dissociation processes of peptide to SUV binding is rapid enough, structural determination can be obtained by solution NMR experiments. Thus, according to the global dynamic of the system, SUVs seem to be an effective model to mimic biological membranes, especially since the lipid composition can be modified or sterols may be added to closely mimic the biological membranes studied. An animated Interactive 3D Complement (I3DC) is available in Proteopedia at http://proteopedia.org/w/Journal:JBSD:2.

  15. Activation of EGFR, HER2 and HER3 by neurotensin/neurotensin receptor 1 renders breast tumors aggressive yet highly responsive to lapatinib and metformin in mice.

    PubMed

    Dupouy, Sandra; Doan, Van Kien; Wu, Zherui; Mourra, Najat; Liu, Jin; De Wever, Olivier; Llorca, Frédérique Penault; Cayre, Anne; Kouchkar, Amal; Gompel, Anne; Forgez, Patricia

    2014-09-30

    A present challenge in breast oncology research is to identify therapeutical targets which could impact tumor progression. Neurotensin (NTS) and its high affinity receptor (NTSR1) are up regulated in 20% of breast cancers, and NTSR1 overexpression was shown to predict a poor prognosis for 5 year overall survival in invasive breast carcinomas. Interactions between NTS and NTSR1 induce pro-oncogenic biological effects associated with neoplastic processes and tumor progression. Here, we depict the cellular mechanisms activated by NTS, and contributing to breast cancer cell aggressiveness. We show that neurotensin (NTS) and its high affinity receptor (NTSR1) contribute to the enhancement of experimental tumor growth and metastasis emergence in an experimental mice model. This effect ensued following EGFR, HER2, and HER3 over-expression and autocrine activation and was associated with an increase of metalloproteinase MMP9, HB-EGF and Neuregulin 2 in the culture media. EGFR over expression ensued in a more intense response to EGF on cellular migration and invasion. Accordingly, lapatinib, an EGFR/HER2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor, as well as metformin, reduced the tumor growth of cells overexpressing NTS and NTSR1. All cellular effects, such as adherence, migration, invasion, altered by NTS/NTSR1 were abolished by a specific NTSR1 antagonist. A strong statistical correlation between NTS-NTSR1-and HER3 (p< 0.0001) as well as NTS-NTSR1-and HER3- HER2 (p< 0.001) expression was found in human breast tumors. Expression of NTS/NTSR1 on breast tumoral cells creates a cellular context associated with cancer aggressiveness by enhancing epidermal growth factor receptor activity. We propose the use of labeled NTS/NTSR1 complexes to enlarge the population eligible for therapy targeting HERs tyrosine kinase inhibitor or HER2 overexpression.

  16. Sustained neurotensin exposure promotes cell surface recruitment of NTS2 receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Perron, Amelie; Sharif, Nadder; Gendron, Louis; Lavallee, Mariette; Stroh, Thomas; Mazella, Jean; Beaudet, Alain . E-mail: abeaudet@frsq.gouv.qc.ca

    2006-05-12

    In this study, we investigated whether persistent agonist stimulation of NTS2 receptors gives rise to down-regulation, in light of reports that their activation induced long-lasting effects. To address this issue, we incubated COS-7 cells expressing the rat NTS2 with neurotensin (NT) for up to 24 h and measured resultant cell surface [{sup 125}I]-NT binding. We found that NTS2-expressing cells retained the same surface receptor density despite efficient internalization mechanisms. This preservation was neither due to NTS2 neosynthesis nor recycling since it was not blocked by cycloheximide or monensin. However, it appeared to involve translocation of spare receptors from internal stores, as NT induced NTS2 migration from trans-Golgi network to endosome-like structures. This stimulation-induced regulation of cell surface NTS2 receptors was even more striking in rat spinal cord neurons. Taken together, these results suggest that sustained NTS2 activation promotes recruitment of intracellular receptors to the cell surface, thereby preventing functional desensitization.

  17. The conformation of neurotensin bound to its G protein-coupled receptor.

    PubMed

    Luca, Sorin; White, Jim F; Sohal, Awinder K; Filippov, Dmitri V; van Boom, Jacques H; Grisshammer, Reinhard; Baldus, Marc

    2003-09-16

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) mediate the perception of smell, light, taste, and pain. They are involved in signal recognition and cell communication and are some of the most important targets for drug development. Because currently no direct structural information on high-affinity ligands bound to GPCRs is available, rational drug design is limited to computational prediction combined with mutagenesis experiments. Here, we present the conformation of a high-affinity peptide agonist (neurotensin, NT) bound to its GPCR NTS-1, determined by direct structural methods. Functional receptors were expressed in Escherichia coli, purified in milligram amounts by using optimized procedures, and subsequently reconstituted into lipid vesicles. Solid-state NMR experiments were tailored to allow for the unequivocal detection of microgram quantities of 13C,15N-labeled NT(8-13) in complex with functional NTS-1. The NMR data are consistent with a disordered state of the ligand in the absence of receptor. Upon receptor binding, the peptide undergoes a linear rearrangement, adopting a beta-strand conformation. Our results provide a viable structural template for further pharmacological investigations.

  18. Neurotensin NTS1 and NTS2 receptor agonists produce anxiolytic-like effects in the 22-kHz ultrasonic vocalization model in rats.

    PubMed

    Steele, Floyd F; Whitehouse, Shannon C; Aday, Jacob S; Prus, Adam J

    2017-03-01

    Neurotensin is a neuropeptide neurotransmitter that interacts with multiple neurotransmitter systems, including those regulating amygdalar function, via NTS1 and NTS2 receptors. Both receptors are expressed in the amygdala and agonists for NTS1 or NTS2 receptors have exhibited anxiolytic effects in animal models. Systemic adminstration of NTS1 receptor agonist PD149163 was recently shown to reduce footshock conditioned 22-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations in rats, suggesting that PD149163 produced an anxiolytic effect. The effects that neurotensin may have or a selective NTS2 receptor agonist may have on 22-kHz vocalizations has yet to be examined. The current study evaluated the effects of intracerebroventricularly administered neurotensin (0.1-10.0μg), PD149163 (0.1-10.0ng), or the NTS2 receptor agonist JMV-431 (0.1-1.0μg) on footshock conditioned 22-kHz vocalizations in male Wistar rats. Neurotensin, PD149163, and JMV-431 all significantly reduced the number 22-kHz calls. No changes in call duration were found, suggesting that non-specific drug effects do not account for the reductions in 22-kHz calls. These data support anxiolytic effects produced by activation of NTS1 or NTS2 receptors, and suggest that neurotensin plays a natural role in the expression of conditioned USVs. These data suggest that both receptor subtypes are putative pharmacologic targets.

  19. The Neurotensin Receptor-1 Pathway Contributes to Human Ductal Breast Cancer Progression

    PubMed Central

    Dupouy, Sandra; Viardot-Foucault, Véronique; Alifano, Marco; Souazé, Frédérique; Plu-Bureau, Geneviève; Chaouat, Marc; Lavaur, Anne; Hugol, Danielle; Gespach, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Background The neurotensin (NTS) and its specific high affinity G protein coupled receptor, the NT1 receptor (NTSR1), are considered to be a good candidate for one of the factors implicated in neoplastic progression. In breast cancer cells, functionally expressed NT1 receptor coordinates a series of transforming functions including cellular migration and invasion. Methods and Results we investigated the expression of NTS and NTSR1 in normal human breast tissue and in invasive ductal breast carcinomas (IDCs) by immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. NTS is expressed and up-regulated by estrogen in normal epithelial breast cells. NTS is also found expressed in the ductal and invasive components of IDCs. The high expression of NTSR1 is associated with the SBR grade, the size of the tumor, and the number of metastatic lymph nodes. Furthermore, the NTSR1 high expression is an independent factor of prognosis associated with the death of patients. Conclusion these data support the activation of neurotensinergic deleterious pathways in breast cancer progression. PMID:19156213

  20. Synthesis of a (68)ga-labeled peptoid-Peptide hybrid for imaging of neurotensin receptor expression in vivo.

    PubMed

    Maschauer, Simone; Einsiedel, Jürgen; Hocke, Carsten; Hübner, Harald; Kuwert, Torsten; Gmeiner, Peter; Prante, Olaf

    2010-08-12

    The neurotensin receptor subtype 1 (NTS1) represents an attractive molecular target for imaging various tumors. Positron emission tomography (PET) gained widespread importance due to its sensitivity. We combined the design of a metabolically stable neurotensin analogue with a (68)Ga-radiolabeling approach. The (68)Ga-labeled peptoid-peptide hybrid [(68)Ga]3 revealed high stability, specific tumor uptake (0.7%ID/g, 65 min p.i.), and advantageous biokinetics in vivo using HT29 tumor-bearing nude mice. Because of the ability to internalize into NTS1-expressing tumor cells, [(68)Ga]3 proved to be highly suitable for a reliable and practical visualization of NTS1-expressing tumors in vivo by small animal PET.

  1. Synthesis of a 68Ga-Labeled Peptoid−Peptide Hybrid for Imaging of Neurotensin Receptor Expression in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The neurotensin receptor subtype 1 (NTS1) represents an attractive molecular target for imaging various tumors. Positron emission tomography (PET) gained widespread importance due to its sensitivity. We combined the design of a metabolically stable neurotensin analogue with a 68Ga-radiolabeling approach. The 68Ga-labeled peptoid−peptide hybrid [68Ga]3 revealed high stability, specific tumor uptake (0.7%ID/g, 65 min p.i.), and advantageous biokinetics in vivo using HT29 tumor-bearing nude mice. Because of the ability to internalize into NTS1-expressing tumor cells, [68Ga]3 proved to be highly suitable for a reliable and practical visualization of NTS1-expressing tumors in vivo by small animal PET. PMID:24900199

  2. In vivo gene transfer to dopamine neurons of rat substantia nigra via the high-affinity neurotensin receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Maya, I.; Navarro-Quiroga, I.; Meraz-Ríos, M. A.; Aceves, J.; Martinez-Fong, D.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recently, we synthesized a nonviral gene vector capable of transfecting cell lines taking advantage of neurotensin (NT) internalization. The vector is NT cross-linked with poly-L-lysine, to which a plasmid DNA was bound to form a complex (NT-polyplex). Nigral dopamine neurons are able to internalize NT, thus representing a target for gene transfer via NT-polyplex. This hypothesis was tested here using reporter genes encoding green fluorescent protein or chloramphenicol acetyl transferase. MATERIALS AND METHODS: NT-polyplex was injected into the substantia nigra. Double immunofluorescence labeling was used to reveal the cell type involved in the propidium iodide-labeled polyplex internalization and reporter gene expression. RESULTS: Polyplex internalization was observed within dopamine neurons but not within glial cells, and was prevented by both hypertonic sucrose solution and SR-48692, a selective nonpeptide antagonist of NT receptors. Reporter gene expression was observed in dopamine neurons from 48 hr up to 15 days after NT-polyplex injection, and was prevented by SR-48692. However, no expression was seen when the NT-polyplex was injected into the ansiform lobule of the cerebellum, which contains low- but not high-affinity NT receptors. Neither internalization nor expression was observed in cultured glial cells, despite the NT-polyplex binding to those cells that was prevented by levocabastine, a low-affinity NT receptor antagonist. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that high-affinity NT receptors mediate the uptake of NT-polyplex with the subsequent reporter gene expression in vivo. NT polyfection may be used to transfer genes of physiologic interest to nigrostriatal dopamine neurons, and to produce transgenic animal models of dopamine-related diseases. PMID:11471555

  3. Differential expression and tumorigenic function of neurotensin receptor 1 in neuroendocrine tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Tae; Li, Jing; Song, Jun; Lee, Eun Y.; Weiss, Heidi L.; Townsend, Courtney M.; Evers, B. Mark

    2015-01-01

    Neurotensin (NTS), localized predominantly to the small bowel, stimulates the growth of a variety of cancers, including neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), mainly through its interaction with the high-affinity NTS receptor 1 (NTSR1). Here, we observed increased expression of NTSR1 in almost all tested clinical NET samples, but not in normal tissues. Through RT-PCR analysis, we found that the expression of NTSR1 and NTSR2 was either variable (NTSR1) or absent (NTSR2) in human NET cell lines. In contrast, NTSR3 and NTS were expressed in all NET cells. Treatment with 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine, a demethylating agent, increased levels of NTSR1 and NTSR2 suggesting that DNA methylation contributes to NTSR1/2 expression patterns, which was confirmed by methylation analyses. In addition, we found that knockdown of NTSR1 decreased proliferation, expression levels of growth-related proteins, and anchorage-independent growth of BON human carcinoid cells. Moreover, stable silencing of NTSR1 suppressed BON cell growth, adhesion, migration and invasion. Our results show that high expression of NTSR1 is found in clinical NETs and that promoter methylation is an important mechanism controlling the differential expression of NTSR1 and silencing of NTSR2 in NET cells. Furthermore, knockdown of NTSR1 in BON cells suppressed oncogenic functions suggesting that NTSR1 contributes to NET tumorigenesis. PMID:26298774

  4. The Neurotensin-1 Receptor Agonist PD149163 Blocks Fear-Potentiated Startle

    PubMed Central

    Shilling, Paul D.; Feifel, David

    2014-01-01

    Preliminary evidence suggests that the neuropeptide, neurotensin (NT) may regulate fear/anxiety circuits. We investigated the effects of PD149163, a NT-1 receptor agonist, on fear-potentiated startle (FPS). Sprague Dawley rats were trained to associate a white light with a mild foot shock. In one experiment, animals were treated with either subcutaneous vehicle or PD149163 (0.01, 0.1 or 1.0 mg/kg) twenty-four hours after training. Twenty minutes later their acoustic startle response in the presence or absence of the white light was tested. In a second experiment, saline and 1.0 mg/kg PD149163 were tested using a separate group of rats. In the first experiment, PD149163 produced a non-significant decrease in baseline acoustic startle at all three doses. As expected, saline treated rats exhibited significant FPS. An ANOVA of percentage FPS revealed no significant effect of treatment group overall but the high dose group did not display FPS strongly suggesting an FPS effect at this dose. This finding was confirmed in the second experiment where the high dose of PD149163 reduced percent FPS relative to saline (P<0.05). These data suggest that systemically administered NT-1 agonists modulate the neural circuitry that regulates fear and anxiety to produce dose-dependent anxiolytic-like effects on FPS. PMID:18577396

  5. Neurotensin receptor antagonist administered during cocaine withdrawal decreases locomotor sensitization and conditioned place preference.

    PubMed

    Felszeghy, Klara; Espinosa, José Manuel; Scarna, Hélène; Bérod, Anne; Rostène, William; Pélaprat, Didier

    2007-12-01

    Chronic use of psychostimulants induces enduringly increased responsiveness to a subsequent psychostimulant injection and sensitivity to drug-associated cues, contributing to drug craving and relapse. Neurotensin (NT), a neuropeptide functionally linked to dopaminergic neurons, was suggested to participate in these phenomena. We and others have reported that SR 48692, an NT receptor antagonist, given in pre- or co-treatments with cocaine or amphetamine, alters some behavioral effects of these drugs in rats. However, its efficacy when applied following repeated cocaine administration remains unknown. We, therefore, evaluated the ability of SR 48692, administered after a cocaine regimen, to interfere with the expression of locomotor sensitization and conditioned place preference (CPP) in rats. We demonstrated that the expression of locomotor sensitization, induced by four cocaine injections (15 mg/kg, i.p.) every other day and a cocaine challenge 1 week later, was attenuated by a subsequent 2-week daily administration of SR 48692 (1 mg/kg, i.p.). Furthermore, the expression of cocaine-induced CPP was suppressed by a 10-day SR 48692 treatment started after the conditioning period (four 15 mg/kg cocaine injections every other day). Taken together, our data show that a chronic SR 48692 treatment given after a cocaine regimen partly reverses the expression of locomotor sensitization and CPP in the rat, suggesting that NT participates in the maintenance of these behaviors. Our results support the hypothesis that targeting neuromodulatory systems, such as the NT systems may offer new strategies in the treatment of drug addiction.

  6. [Neurotensin: reception and intracellular mechanisms of signaling].

    PubMed

    Osadchiĭ, O E

    2006-01-01

    The review coveres the features of neurotensin receptor, functional role ot its structural elements, nature of conjugation with effectoral cell systems, and mechanisms of receptor decensitization developing as results of prolonged effect of agonist. The author provides pharmacological description of neurotensin antagonists and special features of three subtypes of its receptors. The author reviews the research results establishing a correlation between structural modification of various section of neurotensin molecula and manifestations of its physiological activity. Special focus is mage on discussion of neurotensin's physiological effects developing as results of its modulating impact on discharge of other biologically active substances.

  7. Neurotensin receptor 1 overexpression in inflammatory bowel diseases and colitis-associated neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Gui, Xianyong; Liu, Shuhong; Yan, Yuchu; Gao, Zuhua

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To explore the association of neurotensin receptor 1 (NTSR1) with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and colitis-associated neoplasia. METHODS: NTSR1 was detected by immunohistochemistry in clinical samples of colonic mucosa with IBD colitis, colitis-associated raised low-grade dysplasia (LGD) including dysplasia-associated lesions or masses (DALMs, n = 18) and adenoma-like dysplastic polyps (ALDPs, n = 4), colitis-associated high-grade dysplasia (HGD, n = 11) and colitis-associated colorectal carcinoma (CACRC, n = 13), sporadic colorectal adenomatous polyp (SAP, n = 17), and sporadic colorectal carcinoma (SCRC, n = 12). The immunoreactivity of NTSR1 was semiquantitated (as negative, 1+, 2+, and 3+) and compared among different conditions. RESULTS: NTSR1 was not detected in normal mucosa but was expressed similarly in both active and inactive colitis. LGD showed a significantly stronger expression as compared with non-dysplastic colitic mucosa, with significantly more cases showing > 2+ intensity (68.75% in LGD vs 32.26% in nondysplastic mucosa, P = 0.001). However, no significant difference existed between DALMs and ALDPs. CACRC and HGD showed a further stronger expression, with significantly more cases showing 3+ intensity than that in LGD (61.54% vs 12.50% for CACRC vs LGD, P = 0.022; 58.33% vs 12.50% for CACRC/HGD vs LGD, P = 0.015). No significant difference existed between colitis-associated and non-colitic sporadic neoplasia. CONCLUSION: NTSR1 in colonic epithelial cells is overexpressed in IBD, in a stepwise fashion with sequential progress from inflammation to dysplasia and carcinoma. PMID:23901225

  8. Focal Adhesion Kinase-Dependent Role of the Soluble Form of Neurotensin Receptor-3/Sortilin in Colorectal Cancer Cell Dissociation

    PubMed Central

    Béraud-Dufour, Sophie; Devader, Christelle; Massa, Fabienne; Roulot, Morgane; Coppola, Thierry; Mazella, Jean

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present review is to unravel the mechanisms of action of the soluble form of the neurotensin (NT) receptor-3 (NTSR3), also called Sortilin, in numerous physiopathological processes including cancer development, cardiovascular diseases and depression. Sortilin/NTSR3 is a transmembrane protein thought to exert multiple functions both intracellularly and at the level of the plasma membrane. The Sortilin/NTSR3 extracellular domain is released by shedding from all the cells expressing the protein. Although the existence of the soluble form of Sortilin/NTSR3 (sSortilin/NTSR3) has been evidenced for more than 10 years, the studies focusing on the role of this soluble protein at the mechanistic level remain rare. Numerous cancer cells, including colonic cancer cells, express the receptor family of neurotensin (NT), and particularly Sortilin/NTSR3. This review aims to summarize the functional role of sSortilin/NTSR3 characterized in the colonic cancer cell line HT29. This includes mechanisms involving signaling cascades through focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a key pathway leading to the weakening of cell–cell and cell–extracellular matrix adhesions, a series of events which could be responsible for cancer metastasis. Finally, some future approaches targeting the release of sNTSR3 through the inhibition of matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) are suggested. PMID:27834811

  9. Neurotensin decreases high affinity [3H]-ouabain binding to cerebral cortex membranes.

    PubMed

    Rosin, Carina; Ordieres, María Graciela López; Arnaiz, Georgina Rodríguez de Lores

    2011-12-10

    Previous work from this laboratory showed the ability of neurotensin to inhibit synaptosomal membrane Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity, the effect being blocked by SR 48692, a non-peptidic antagonist for high affinity neurotensin receptor (NTS1) [López Ordieres and Rodríguez de Lores Arnaiz 2000; 2001]. To further study neurotensin interaction with Na(+), K(+)-ATPase, peptide effect on high affinity [(3)H]-ouabain binding was studied in cerebral cortex membranes. It was observed that neurotensin modified binding in a dose-dependent manner, leading to 80% decrease with 1 × 10(-4)M concentration. On the other hand, the single addition of 1 × 10(-6)M, 1 × 10(-5)M and 1 × 10(-4)M SR 48692 (Sanofi-Aventis, U.S., Inc.) decreased [(3)H]-ouabain binding (in %) to 87 ± 16; 74 ± 16 and 34 ± 17, respectively. Simultaneous addition of neurotensin and SR 48692 led to additive or synergic effects. Partial NTS2 agonist levocabastine inhibited [(3)H]-ouabain binding likewise. Saturation assays followed by Scatchard analyses showed that neurotensin increased K(d) value whereas failed to modify B(max) value, indicating a competitive type interaction of the peptide at Na(+), K(+)-ATPase ouabain site. At variance, SR 48692 decreased B(max) value whereas it did not modify K(d) value. [(3)H]-ouabain binding was also studied in cerebral cortex membranes obtained from rats injected i. p. 30 min earlier with 100 μg and 250 μg/kg SR 48692. It was observed that the 250 μg/kg SR 48692 dose led to 19% decrease in basal [(3)H]-ouabain binding. After SR 48692 treatments, addition of 1 × 10(-6)M led to additive or synergic effect. Results suggested that [(3)H]-ouabain binding inhibition by neurotensin hardly involves NTS1 receptor.

  10. Role of [Ca2+]i in "Ca2+ stores depletion-Ca2+ entry coupling' in fibroblasts expressing the rat neurotensin receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Gailly, P; Hermans, E; Gillis, J M

    1996-01-01

    1. Transfected Chinese hamster ovary fibroblasts expressing the rat neurotensin receptor were used to study the 'Ca2+ stores depletion-Ca2+ entry coupling' which follows stimulation with neurotensin and liberation of InsP3. 2. This coupling could be dissociated in time. Firstly, stores depletion was produced by neurotensin or thapsigargin which caused a first [Ca2+]i transient in a Ca(2+)-free external medium. Secondly, readmission of external Ca2+ produced an influx of Ca2+ and a second [Ca2+]i transient. 3. Various concentrations of thapsigargin (20 nM to 1 microM) were used to produce complete stores depletion with small or large first peaks of [Ca2+]i. Upon return to external Ca2+, small or large second [Ca2+]i peaks were observed. The amplitudes of both peaks were positively correlated. 4. The Ca2+ entry which followed stores depletion could occur at very low basal values of [Ca2+]i, was accelerated by okadaic acid and inhibited by staurosporine and the calmodulin antagonist W-7. 5. It is concluded that the rise in [Ca2+]i during Ca2+ stores depletion is an essential parameter which determines the size of the subsequent Ca2+ entry. PMID:8815199

  11. Discovery of ML314, a Brain Penetrant Nonpeptidic β-Arrestin Biased Agonist of the Neurotensin NTR1 Receptor

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The neurotensin 1 receptor (NTR1) is an important therapeutic target for a range of disease states including addiction. A high-throughput screening campaign, followed by medicinal chemistry optimization, led to the discovery of a nonpeptidic β-arrestin biased agonist for NTR1. The lead compound, 2-cyclopropyl-6,7-dimethoxy-4-(4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-piperazin-1-yl)quinazoline, 32 (ML314), exhibits full agonist behavior against NTR1 (EC50 = 2.0 μM) in the primary assay and selectivity against NTR2. The effect of 32 is blocked by the NTR1 antagonist SR142948A in a dose-dependent manner. Unlike peptide-based NTR1 agonists, compound 32 has no significant response in a Ca2+ mobilization assay and is thus a biased agonist that activates the β-arrestin pathway rather than the traditional Gq coupled pathway. This bias has distinct biochemical and functional consequences that may lead to physiological advantages. Compound 32 displays good brain penetration in rodents, and studies examining its in vivo properties are underway. PMID:24611085

  12. In Silico Investigation of the Neurotensin Receptor 1 Binding Site: Overlapping Binding Modes for Small Molecule Antagonists and the Endogenous Peptide Agonist.

    PubMed

    Lückmann, Michael; Holst, Birgitte; Schwartz, Thue W; Frimurer, Thomas M

    2016-01-01

    The neurotensin receptor 1 (NTSR1) belongs to the family of 7TM, G protein-coupled receptors, and is activated by the 13-amino-acid peptide neurotensin (NTS) that has been shown to play important roles in neurological disorders and the promotion of cancer cells. Recently, a high-resolution x-ray crystal structure of NTSR1 in complex with NTS8-13 has been determined, providing novel insights into peptide ligand recognition by 7TM receptors. SR48692, a potent and selective small molecule antagonist has previously been used extensively as a tool compound to study NTSR1 receptor signaling properties. To investigate the binding mode of SR48692 and other small molecule compounds to NTSR1, we applied an Automated Ligand-guided Backbone Ensemble Receptor Optimization protocol (ALiBERO), taking receptor flexibility and ligand knowledge into account. Structurally overlapping binding poses for SR48692 and NTS8-13 were observed, despite their distinct chemical nature and inverse pharmacological profiles. The optimized models showed significantly improved ligand recognition in a large-scale virtual screening assessment compared to the crystal structure. Our models provide new insights into small molecule ligand binding to NTSR1 and could facilitate the structure-based design of non-peptide ligands for the evaluation of the pharmacological potential of NTSR1 in neurological disorders and cancer. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Neurotensin activates GABAergic interneurons in the prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Petrie, Kimberly A; Schmidt, Dennis; Bubser, Michael; Fadel, Jim; Carraway, Robert E; Deutch, Ariel Y

    2005-02-16

    Converging data suggest a dysfunction of prefrontal cortical GABAergic interneurons in schizophrenia. Morphological and physiological studies indicate that cortical GABA cells are modulated by a variety of afferents. The peptide transmitter neurotensin may be one such modulator of interneurons. In the rat prefrontal cortex (PFC), neurotensin is exclusively localized to dopamine axons and has been suggested to be decreased in schizophrenia. However, the effects of neurotensin on cortical interneurons are poorly understood. We used in vivo microdialysis in freely moving rats to assess whether neurotensin regulates PFC GABAergic interneurons. Intra-PFC administration of neurotensin concentration-dependently increased extracellular GABA levels; this effect was impulse dependent, being blocked by treatment with tetrodotoxin. The ability of neurotensin to increase GABA levels in the PFC was also blocked by pretreatment with 2-[1-(7-chloro-4-quinolinyl)-5-(2,6-dimethoxyphenyl)pyrazole-3-yl)carbonylamino]tricyclo(3.3.1.1 [EC] .3.7)decan-2-carboxylic acid (SR48692), a high-affinity neurotensin receptor 1 (NTR1) antagonist. This finding is consistent with our observation that NTR1 was localized to GABAergic interneurons in the PFC, particularly parvalbumin-containing interneurons. Because neurotensin is exclusively localized to dopamine axons in the PFC, we also determined whether neurotensin plays a role in the ability of dopamine agonists to increase extracellular GABA levels. We found that D2 agonist-elicited increases in PFC GABA levels were blocked by pretreatment with SR48692, consistent with data indicating that D2 autoreceptor agonists increase neurotensin release from dopamine-neurotensin axons in the PFC. These findings suggest that neurotensin plays an important role in regulating prefrontal cortical interneurons and that it may be useful to consider neurotensin agonists as an adjunct in the treatment of schizophrenia.

  14. Repeated effects of the neurotensin receptor agonist PD149163 in three animal tests of antipsychotic activity: assessing for tolerance and cross-tolerance to clozapine

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Shinnyi; Davis, Collin; Jones, Sean; Li, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Neurotensin is an endogenous neuropeptide closely associated with the mesolimbic dopaminergic system and shown to possess antipsychotic-like effects. In particular, acute neurotensin receptor activation can inhibit conditioned avoidance response (CAR), attenuate phencyclidine (PCP)-induced prepulse inhibition (PPI) disruptions, and reverse PCP-induced hyperlocomotion. However, few studies have examined the long term effects of repeated neurotensin receptor activation and results are inconsistent. Since clinical administration of antipsychotic therapy often requires a prolonged treatment schedule, here we assessed the effects of repeated activation of neurotensin receptors using an NTS1 receptor selective agonist, PD149163, in 3 behavioral tests of antipsychotic activity. We also investigated whether reactivity to the atypical antipsychotic clozapine was altered following prior PD149163 treatment. Using both normal and prenatally immune activated rats generated through maternal immune activation with polyinosinic:polycytidilic acid, we tested PD149163 in CAR, PCP (1.5 mg/kg)-induced PPI disruption, and PCP (3.2 mg/kg)-induced hyperlocomotion. For each paradigm, rats were first repeatedly tested with vehicle or PD149163 (1.0, 4.0, 8.0 mg/kg, sc) along with vehicle or PCP for PPI and hyperlocomotion tests, then challenged with PD149163 after 2 drug-free days. All rats were then challenged with clozapine (5.0 mg/kg, sc). During the repeated test period, PD149163 exhibited antipsychotic-like effects in all three models. On the PD149163 challenge day, prior drug treatment only caused a tolerance effect in CAR. This tolerance in CAR was transferrable to clozapine, as it enhanced clozapine tolerance in the same group of animals. Although no tolerance effect was seen in the PD149163 challenge for the PCP-induced hyperlocomotion test, the clozapine challenge showed increased sensitivity in groups previously exposed to repeated PD149163 treatment. Our findings suggest

  15. Neurotensin is a proinflammatory neuropeptide in colonic inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Castagliuolo, Ignazio; Wang, Chi-Chung; Valenick, Leyla; Pasha, Asiya; Nikulasson, Sigfus; Carraway, Robert E.; Pothoulakis, Charalabos

    1999-01-01

    The neuropeptide neurotensin mediates several intestinal functions, including chloride secretion, motility, and cellular growth. However, whether this peptide participates in intestinal inflammation is not known. Toxin A, an enterotoxin from Clostridium difficile, mediates pseudomembranous colitis in humans. In animal models, toxin A causes an acute inflammatory response characterized by activation of sensory neurons and intestinal nerves and immune cells of the lamina propria. Here we show that neurotensin and its receptor are elevated in the rat colonic mucosa following toxin A administration. Pretreatment of rats with the neurotensin receptor antagonist SR-48,692 inhibits toxin A–induced changes in colonic secretion, mucosal permeability, and histologic damage. Exposure of colonic explants to toxin A or neurotensin causes mast cell degranulation, which is inhibited by SR-48,692. Because substance P was previously shown to mediate mast cell activation, we examined whether substance P is involved in neurotensin-induced mast cell degranulation. Our results show that neurotensin-induced mast cell degranulation in colonic explants is inhibited by the substance P (neurokinin-1) receptor antagonist CP-96,345, indicating that colonic mast activation in response to neurotensin involves release of substance P. We conclude that neurotensin plays a key role in the pathogenesis of C. difficile–induced colonic inflammation and mast cell activation. PMID:10079105

  16. Acute, but not repeated, administration of the neurotensin NTS1 receptor agonist PD149163 decreases conditioned footshock-induced ultrasonic vocalizations in rats

    PubMed Central

    Prus, Adam J.; Hillhouse, Todd M.; LaCrosse, Amber L.

    2014-01-01

    Neurotensin is an endogenous neuropeptide that has significant interactions with monoamine neurotransmitter systems. To date, neurotensin NTS1 receptor agonists, such as PD149163, have been primarily evaluated for the treatment for schizophrenia, drug addiction, and pain. Recently, PD149163 was found to attenuate fear-potentiated startle in rats, an experimental procedure used for screening anxiolytic drugs. The present study sought to extend these findings through testing PD149163 in a conditioned footshock-induced ultrasonic vocalization (USV) model. Conditioning was conducted in Male Wistar rats using chambers equipped with shock grid floors and an ultrasonic vocalization detector. PD149163 and the 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist buspirone produced a statistically significant reduction of 22 kHz USV counts. The typical antipsychotic haloperidol also reduced 22 kHz USV counts, but did so at cataleptic doses. Ten days of repeated administration of PD149163 abolished the inhibitory effects of PD149163 on 22 kHz USVs. These findings further support an anxiolytic profile for PD149163. However, tolerance to these effects may limit the utility of these drugs for the treatment of anxiety. PMID:24275076

  17. Synthetic neurotensin analogues are nontoxic analgesics for the rabbit cornea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Charles; Barbut, Denise; Heinemann, Murk H; Pasternak, Gavril; Rosenblatt, Mark I

    2014-05-13

    To characterize the analgesic potency and toxicity of topical synthetic neurotensin analogues, and localize neurotensin receptors in the cornea and trigeminal ganglion. Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometry was performed on the rabbit cornea to test the analgesic dose response and duration of effect for two synthetic neurotensin analogues: NT71 and NT72. Receptors for neurotensin were localized in the murine cornea and trigeminal ganglion using quantitative PCR (qPCR), Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. In vitro toxicity of NT71, NT72, and sodium channel blockers was evaluated using cytotoxicity, single-cell migration, and scratch closure assays performed on rabbit corneal epithelial cells. In vivo toxicity of these agents was assessed using a rabbit laser phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK) model and histology. NT71 and NT72 induced potent analgesic effects on the rabbit cornea at concentrations between 1.0 and 2.5 mg/mL, lasting up to 180 minutes. A site-specific distribution of neurotensin receptors was observed in the murine cornea and trigeminal ganglion. NT71 and NT72 did not cause any significant in vitro or in vivo toxicity, in contrast to sodium channel blockers. Synthetic neurotensin analogues are potent analgesics that avoid the toxicities associated with established topical analgesic agents. Receptors for neurotensin are present in both the cornea and trigeminal ganglion. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  18. Changes in [(3)H]-ouabain and [(3)H]-neurotensin binding to rat cerebral cortex membranes after administration of antipsychotic drugs haloperidol and clozapine.

    PubMed

    Rosin, Carina; López Ordieres, María Graciela; Rodríguez de Lores Arnaiz, Georgina

    2017-03-01

    Evidences indicate the relationship between neurotensinergic and dopaminergic systems. Neurotensin inhibits synaptosomal membrane Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity, an effect blocked by SR 48692, antagonist for high affinity neurotensin receptor (NTS1) type. Assays of high affinity [(3)H]-ouabain binding (to analyze K(+) site of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase) show that in vitro addition of neurotensin decreases binding. Herein potential interaction between NTS1 receptor, dopaminergic D2 receptor and Na(+), K(+)-ATPase was studied. To test the involvement of dopaminergic D2 receptors in [(3)H]-ouabain binding inhibition by neurotensin, Wistar rats were administered i.p.with antipsychotic drugs haloperidol (2mg/kg) and clozapine (3, 10 and 30mg/kg). Animals were sacrificed 18h later, cerebral cortices harvested, membrane fractions prepared and high affinity [(3)H]-ouabain binding assayed in the absence or presence of neurotensin at a 10 micromolar concentration. No differences versus controls for basal binding or for binding inhibition by neurotensin were recorded, except after 10mg/kg clozapine. Rats were administered with neurotensin (3, 10y 30μg, i.c.v.) and 60min later, animals were sacrificed, cerebral cortices harvested and processed to obtain membrane fractions for high affinity [(3)H]-ouabain binding assays. Results showed a slight but statistically significant decrease in binding with the 30μg neurotensin dose. To analyze the interaction between dopaminergic D2 and NTS1 receptors, [(3)H]-neurotensin binding to cortical membranes from rats injected with haloperidol (2mg/kg, i.p.) or clozapine (10mg/kg) was assayed. Saturation curves and Scatchard transformation showed that the only statistically significant change occurred in Bmax after haloperidol administration. Hill number was close to the unit in all cases. Results indicated that typical and atypical antipsychotic drugs differentially modulate the interaction between neurotensin and Na(+), K(+)-ATPase. At the same time

  19. Systemic administration of the neurotensin NTS₁-receptor agonist PD149163 improves performance on a memory task in naturally deficient male brown Norway rats.

    PubMed

    Keiser, Ashley A; Matazel, Katelin S; Esser, Melissa K; Feifel, David; Prus, Adam J

    2014-12-01

    Agonists for the neurotensin NTS₁ receptor consistently exhibit antipsychotic effects in animal models without producing catalepsy, suggesting that NTS₁-receptor agonists may be a novel class of drugs to treat schizophrenia. Moreover, studies utilizing NTS₁ agonists have reported improvements in some aspects of cognitive functioning, including prepulse inhibition and learning procedures, which suggest an ability of NTS₁-receptor agonists to diminish neurocognitive deficits. The present study sought to assess both baseline delay-induced memory performance and the effects of NTS₁-receptor activation on learning and memory consolidation in male Long-Evans and Brown Norway rats using a delayed nonmatch-to-position task radial arm-maze task. In the absence of drugs, Brown Norway rats displayed a significant increase in spatial memory errors following 3-, 7-, and 24-hr delay, whereas Long-Evans rats exhibited an increase in spatial memory errors following only a 7-, and 24-hr delay. With Brown Norway rats, administration of PD149163 before or after an information trial significantly reduced errors during a retention trial after a 24 hr delay. Administration of the NTS(1/2)-receptor antagonist SR142948 prior to the information trial did not affect retention-trial errors. These data are consistent with previous findings that Brown Norway rats have natural cognitive deficits and that they may be useful for assessing putative antipsychotic drugs for cognitive efficacy. Moreover, the results of this study support previous findings suggesting that NTS₁-receptor agonists may improve some aspects of cognitive functioning.

  20. A cleavable ligand column for the rapid isolation of large quantities of homogeneous and functional neurotensin receptor 1 variants from E. coli.

    PubMed

    Egloff, Pascal; Deluigi, Mattia; Heine, Philipp; Balada, Stefanie; Plückthun, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are key players of cell signaling, thus representing important drug targets for the treatment of human diseases. Since inherent difficulties in receptor production and handling have precluded the application of many in vitro experiments, major questions about GPCR mechanisms and dynamics remain elusive to date. We recently used directed evolution in Escherichia coli on neurotensin receptor 1 (NTR1) for the generation of GPCR variants with greatly elevated functional expression levels and with excellent stability in detergent micelles. In this work we outline a highly efficient purification method for our evolved receptor variants, which is based on the application of an inexpensive, disposable high-affinity ligand column as the initial purification step. The ligand resin allows isolation of correctly folded GPCR variants directly from whole E. coli cell lysates at the scale of 10mg and it permits preparations of agonist- and antagonist-bound receptor samples. The purification principle presented here was key to the first structures of signaling-active NTR1 variants (Egloff et al., 2014). Since E. coli is uniquely suitable for the production of fully deuterated proteins, our method provides the basis for an array of NMR experiments that were not feasible for GPCRs to date, but which will shed light on novel aspects of receptor function and dynamics.

  1. Characterization and distribution of binding sites for a new neurotensin receptor antagonist ligand, [3H]SR 48692, in the guinea pig brain1

    PubMed Central

    Betancur, Catalina; Canton, Maryse; Gully, Danielle; Vela, Gema; Pélaprat, Didier; Rostène, William

    1995-01-01

    SR 48692, a selective non-peptide antagonist of neurotensin (NT) receptors was recently developed. In the present work we studied the binding properties of the corresponding radioligand, 3H-SR 48692, in the adult guinea-pig brain. The characterization of 3H-SR 48692 binding was carried out on brain membrane preparations and the distribution of 3H-SR 48692 binding sites was determined by receptor autoradiography, and compared to that of 125I-NT binding sites. In brain homogenates, 3H-SR 48692 bound to a single population of sites with a Kd of 2.19 nM and a Bmax of 1.15 pmol/mg protein. This Bmax value was 20 times higher than that observed for 125I-NT. NT agonists were able to competitively interact with the entire population of binding sites labeled by 3H-SR 48692, but their affinities were much lower than those observed for 125I-NT. By contrast, NT antagonists exhibited similar abilities to inhibit the binding of both radioligands. The addition of unlabeled NT in saturation assays revealed a competitive inhibition of 3H-SR 48692 binding, suggesting that agonist and antagonists ligands bind to overlapping domains of the NT receptor. The autoradiographic distribution of the low-affinity NT binding sites detected by 3H-SR 48692 (96% of the receptors) was very similar to the distribution of high-affinity receptors labeled with 125I-NT (4% of the receptors). In addition, the binding of 3H-SR 48692 was insensitive to guanyl nucleotides. Taken together, these findings suggest that the binding sites detected by 3H-SR 48692 in the guinea-pig brain mainly represent the uncoupled form of the NT receptor. PMID:7791120

  2. Reduced peptide bond pseudopeptide analogues of neurotensin.

    PubMed

    Doulut, S; Rodriguez, M; Lugrin, D; Vecchini, F; Kitabgi, P; Aumelas, A; Martinez, J

    1992-01-01

    Pseudopeptide analogues of the C-terminal hexapeptide of neurotensin (H-Arg-Arg-Pro-Tyr-Ile-Leu-OH) were obtained by replacing each peptide bond by the reduced peptide bond CH2NH. The resulting analogues were then examined for their ability to inhibit binding of labeled neurotensin to new-born mouse brain membranes and for stimulation of guinea pig ileum contraction. Replacement of the Ile12-Leu13, Tyr11-Ile12, Pro10-Tyr11 and Lys9-Pro10 peptide bonds resulted in about 2000-, 3400-, 200- and 3400-fold losses, respectively, in binding affinity and 400-, 750-, 250- and 300-fold losses, respectively, in biological activity. Replacement of both Arg8 and Arg9 by lysine led to an analogue exhibiting the same pharmacological profile as the C-terminal hexapeptide of neurotensin. Interestingly, replacement of the Lys8-Lys9 peptide bond by the CH2NH bond produced an analogue exhibiting the same affinity for neurotensin receptors, but 10 times more potent in stimulating guinea pig ileum contraction. N-terminal protected analogues (by the Boc group) showed decreased potency as compared with their amino-free corresponding compounds.

  3. Neurotensin-induced Erk1/2 phosphorylation and growth of human colonic cancer cells are independent from growth factors receptors activation

    SciTech Connect

    Massa, Fabienne; Tormo, Aurelie; Beraud-Dufour, Sophie; Coppola, Thierry; Mazella, Jean

    2011-10-14

    Highlights: {yields} We compare intracellular pathways of NT and EGF in HT29 cells. {yields} NT does not transactivate EGFR. {yields} Transactivation of EGFR is not a general rule in cancer cell growth. -- Abstract: Neurotensin (NT) promotes the proliferation of human colonic cancer cells by undefined mechanisms. We already demonstrated that, in the human colon adenocarcinoma cell line HT29, the effects of NT were mediated by a complex formed between the NT receptor-1 (NTSR1) and-3 (NTSR3). Here we examined cellular mechanisms that led to NT-induced MAP kinase phosphorylation and growth factors receptors transactivation in colonic cancer cells and proliferation in HT29 cells. With the aim to identify upstream signaling involved in NT-elicited MAP kinase activation, we found that the stimulatory effects of the peptide were totally independent from the activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) both in the HT29 and the HCT116 cells. NT was unable to promote phosphorylation of EGFR and to compete with EGF for its binding to the receptor. Pharmacological approaches allowed us to differentiate EGF and NT signaling in HT29 cells since only NT activation of Erk1/2 was shown to be sensitive to PKC inhibitors and since only NT increased the intracellular level of calcium. We also observed that NT was not able to transactivate Insulin-like growth factor receptor. Our findings indicate that, in the HT29 and HCT116 cell lines, NT stimulates MAP kinase phosphorylation and cell growth by a pathway which does not involve EGF system but rather NT receptors which transduce their own intracellular effectors. These results indicate that depending on the cell line used, blocking EGFR is not the general rule to inhibit NT-induced cancer cell proliferation.

  4. The neurotensin agonist PD149163 increases Fos expression in the prefrontal cortex of the rat.

    PubMed

    Petrie, Kimberly A; Bubser, Michael; Casey, Cheryl D; Davis, M Duff; Roth, Bryan L; Deutch, Ariel Y

    2004-10-01

    Dopaminergic axons innervating the prefrontal cortex (PFC) target both pyramidal cells and GABAergic interneurons. Many of these dopamine (DA) axons in the rat coexpress the peptide neurotransmitter neurotensin. Previous electrophysiological data have suggested that neurotensin activates GABAergic interneurons in the PFC. Activation of D2-like DA receptors increases extracellular GABA levels in the PFC, as opposed to the striatum, where D2 receptor activation inhibits GABAergic neurons. Because activation of presynaptic D2 release-modulating autoreceptors in the PFC suppresses DA release but increases release of the cotransmitter neurotensin, D2 agonists may enhance the activity of GABAergic interneurons via release of neurotensin. In order to determine if neurotensin can activate GABAergic interneurons, we treated rats with the peptide neurotensin agonist, PD149163, and examined Fos expression in PFC neurons. Systemic administration of PD149163 increased overall Fos expression in the PFC, but not in the dorsal striatum. PD149163 induced Fos in PFC interneurons, as defined by the presence of calcium-binding proteins, and in pyramidal cells. Pretreatment with the high-affinity neurotensin antagonist, SR48692, blocked neurotensin agonist-induced Fos expression. These data suggest that neurotensin activates interneurons in the PFC of the rat.

  5. The low affinity neurotensin receptor antagonist levocabastine impairs brain nitric oxide synthesis and mitochondrial function by independent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Lores-Arnaiz, Silvia; Karadayian, Analía G; Gutnisky, Alicia; Rodríguez de Lores Arnaiz, Georgina

    2017-10-04

    Neurotensin is known to inhibit neuronal Na+, K+ -ATPase, an effect that is rescued by nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibition. However, whether the neurotensinergic and the nitrergic systems are independent pathways, or are mechanistically linked, is unknown. Here, we addressed this issue and found that the administration of NTS2 antagonist, levocabastine (50 μg/kg, i.p.) inhibited NO synthase (NOS) activity by 74 and 42% after 18 h in synaptosomal and mitochondrial fractions isolated from the Wistar rat cerebral cortex, respectively; these effects disappeared 36 h after levocabastine treatment. Intriguingly, whereas neuronal NOS (nNOS) protein abundance decreased (by 56%) in synaptosomes membranes, it was enhanced (by 86%) in mitochondria 18 h after levocabastine administration. Levocabastine enhanced the respiratory rate of synaptosomes in the presence of oligomycin, but it failed to alter the spare respiratory capacity; furthermore, the mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) complexes I-IV activities were severely diminished by levocabastine administration. The inhibition of NOS and MRC complexes activities were also observed after incubation of synaptosomes and mitochondria with levocabastine (1 μM) in vitro. These data indicate that the NTS2 antagonist levocabastine regulates NOS expression and activity at the synapse, suggesting an interrelationship between the neurotensinergic and the nitrergic systems. However, the bioenergetics effects of NTS2 activity inhibition are likely to be independent from the regulation of NO synthesis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. The quetiapine active metabolite N-desalkylquetiapine and the neurotensin NTS₁ receptor agonist PD149163 exhibit antidepressant-like effects on operant responding in male rats.

    PubMed

    Hillhouse, Todd M; Shankland, Zachary; Matazel, Katelin S; Keiser, Ashley A; Prus, Adam J

    2014-12-01

    Major depressive disorder is the most common mood disorder in the United States and European Union; however, the limitations of clinically available antidepressant drugs have led researchers to pursue novel pharmacological treatments. Clinical studies have reported that monotherapy with the atypical antipsychotic drug quetiapine produces a rapid reduction in depressive symptoms that is apparent after 1 week of treatment, and it is possible that the active metabolite N-desalkylquetiapine, which structurally resembles an antidepressant drug, produces antidepressant effects. Neuropharmacological evaluations of the neurotensin NTS1 receptor agonist PD149163 suggest antidepressant efficacy, but the effects of a NTS₁ receptor agonist in an antidepressant animal model have yet to be reported. The present study examined the antidepressant-like effects of N-desalkylquetiapine, PD14916, quetiapine, the tricyclic antidepressant drug imipramine, the atypical antipsychotic drug risperidone, and the typical antipsychotic drug raclopride on responding in male Sprague-Dawley rats trained on a differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate 72-s operant schedule, a procedure used for screening antidepressant drugs. Quetiapine, PD149163, risperidone, and imipramine exhibited antidepressant-like effects by increasing the number of reinforcers earned, decreasing the number of responses emitted, and shifting the interresponse time (IRT) distributions to the right. N-Desalkylquetiapine produced a partial antidepressant-like effect by decreasing the number of responses emitted and producing a rightward shift in the IRT distributions, but it did not significantly alter the number of reinforcers earned. Raclopride decreased reinforcers and responses. These data suggest that N-desalkylquetiapine likely contributes to quetiapine's antidepressant efficacy and identify NTS₁ receptor activation as a potential novel pharmacologic strategy for antidepressant drugs.

  7. Maternal separation enhances conditioned fear and decreases the mRNA levels of the neurotensin receptor 1 gene with hypermethylation of this gene in the rat amygdala.

    PubMed

    Toda, Hiroyuki; Boku, Shuken; Nakagawa, Shin; Inoue, Takeshi; Kato, Akiko; Takamura, Naoki; Song, Ning; Nibuya, Masashi; Koyama, Tsukasa; Kusumi, Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    Stress during postnatal development is associated with an increased risk for depression, anxiety disorders, and substance abuse later in life, almost as if mental illness is able to be programed by early life stressors. Recent studies suggest that such "programmed" effects can be caused by epigenetic regulation. With respect to conditioned fear, previous studies have indicated that early life stress influences its development in adulthood, whereas no potential role of epigenetic regulation has been reported. Neurotensin (NTS) is an endogenous neuropeptide that has receptors densely located in the amygdala and hippocampus. Recently, NTS systems have constituted an emerging target for the treatment of anxiety. The aim of the present work is to clarify whether the NTS system is involved in the disturbance of conditioned fear in rats stressed by maternal separation (MS). The results showed that MS enhanced freezing behaviors in fear-conditioned stress and reduced the gene expression of NTS receptor (NTSR) 1 but not of NTS or NTSR2 in the amygdalas of adult rats. The microinjection of a NTSR1 antagonist into the amygdala increased the percentage of freezing in conditioned fear, whereas the microinjection of NTSR1 agonist decreased freezing. These results suggest that NTSR1 in the amygdala may play a role in the effects of MS on conditioned fear stress in adult rats. Moreover, MS increased DNA methylation in the promoter region of NTSR1 in the amygdala. Taken together, MS may leave epigenetic marks in the NTSR1 gene in the amygdala, which may enhance conditioned fear in adulthood. The MS-induced alternations of DNA methylation in the promoter region of NTSR1 in the amygdala may be associated with vulnerability to the development of anxiety disorders and depression in adulthood.

  8. Secretion of neurotensin from a human pancreatic islet cell carcinoma cell line (QGP-1N).

    PubMed

    Tateishi, K; Funakoshi, A; Kitayama, N; Matsuoka, Y

    1993-12-10

    Effects of various secretagogues on secretion of neurotensin from a pancreatic islet cell carcinoma cell line (QGP-1N) were examined. Carbachol stimulated secretion of neurotensin concentration-dependently in the range of 10(-6) - 10(-4) M. The neurotensin secretion stimulated with 10(-5) M carbachol was completely inhibited by atropine at 10(-5) M. Phorbol ester and calcium ionophore (A23187) stimulated secretion of neurotensin. The removal of extracellular Ca2+ suppressed the secretion through the stimulation with 10(-5) M carbachol. Fluoride, an activator of guanine nucleotide-binding (G) protein, stimulated secretion of neurotensin. Neurotensin released into culture medium through stimulation with carbachol coeluted with neurotensin 1-13 on a gel-chromatography. Our results suggest that secretion of neurotensin from QGP-1N cells is mainly regulated by acetylcholine through muscarinic receptors coupled to G protein and that an increase in intracellular Ca2+ and protein kinase C play an important role in stimulus-secretion coupling.

  9. Pharmacological evidence for common mechanisms underlying the effects of neurotensin and neuroleptics on in vivo dopamine efflux in the rat nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    Blaha, C D; Phillips, A G

    1992-08-01

    The effects of the neuropeptide neurotensin and the typical neuroleptic haloperidol on dopamine efflux were compared in the posteromedial nucleus accumbens of the chloral hydrate-anesthetized rat using in vivo chronoamperometry. Both neurotensin and haloperidol administration elicited an immediate increase in dopamine efflux in the nucleus accumbens. Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid lactone, an agent known to block impulse flow in dopamine neurons, either prevented when given before neurotensin or reversed neurotensin-induced increases in accumbens dopamine efflux. Haloperidol-induced increases in accumbens dopamine efflux were similarly affected by gamma-hydroxybutyric acid lactone. The dopamine receptor agonist apomorphine reversed neurotensin- and haloperidol-induced increases in dopamine efflux. Amphetamine, administered during the peak dopamine stimulatory effects induced by neurotensin or haloperidol, resulted in increases above baseline which were significantly greater than the effects of amphetamine alone. These combined drug treatment effects on baseline dopamine efflux were additive, indicating that the effects of amphetamine were not potentiated by neurotensin or haloperidol pretreatments. These in vivo results suggest that neurotensin and haloperidol may augment dopamine efflux in the nucleus accumbens via common mechanisms of action which may involve activation of mesotelencephalic dopamine neuronal firing. The inability of neurotensin to block amphetamine-induced efflux in the nucleus accumbens further suggests that neurotensin blockade of amphetamine-elicited locomotor activity is mediated by an action of neurotensin postsynaptic to dopamine nerve terminals in the nucleus accumbens.

  10. Role of neurotensin in radiation-induced hypothermia in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Kandasamy, S.B.; Hunt, W.A.; Harris, A.H. )

    1991-05-01

    The role of neurotensin in radiation-induced hypothermia was examined. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of neurotensin produced dose-dependent hypothermia. Histamine appears to mediate neurotensin-induced hypothermia because the mast cell stabilizer disodium cromoglycate and antihistamines blocked the hypothermic effects of neurotensin. An ICV pretreatment with neurotensin antibody attenuated neurotensin-induced hypothermia, but did not attenuate radiation-induced hypothermia, suggesting that radiation-induced hypothermia was not mediated by neurotensin.

  11. Neurotensin (NTS) and its receptor (NTSR1) causes EGFR, HER2 and HER3 over-expression and their autocrine/paracrine activation in lung tumors, confirming responsiveness to erlotinib

    PubMed Central

    Lupo, Audrey Mansuet; Mourra, Najat; Takahashi, Takashi; Fléjou, Jean François; Trédaniel, Jean; Régnard, Jean François; Damotte, Diane; Alifano, Marco; Forgez, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in the signaling pathways of epidermal growth factor receptors (HERs) are associated with tumor aggressiveness. Neurotensin (NTS) and its high affinity receptor (NTSR1) are up regulated in 60% of lung cancers. In a previous clinical study, NTSR1 overexpression was shown to predict a poor prognosis for 5 year overall survival in a selected population of stage I lung adenocarcinomas treated by surgery alone. In a second study, shown here, the frequent and high expression of NTSR1 was correlated with a pejorative prognosis in 389 patients with stage I to III lung adenocarcinoma, and was an independent prognosis marker. Interactions between NTS and NTSR1 induce pro-oncogenic biological effects associated with neoplastic processes and tumor progression. Here we highlight the cellular mechanisms activated by Neurotensin (NTS) and its high affinity receptor (NTSR1) contributing to lung cancer cell aggressiveness. We show that the NTS autocrine and/or paracrine regulation causes EGFR, HER2, and HER3 over-expression and activation in lung tumor cells. The EGFR and HER3 autocrine activation is mediated by MMP1 activation and EGF “like” ligands (HB-EGF, Neuregulin 1) release. By establishing autocrine and/or paracrine NTS regulation, we show that tumor growth is modulated according to NTS expression, with a low growth rate in those tumors that do not express NTS. Accordingly, xenografted tumors expressing NTS and NTSR1 showed a positive response to erlotinib, whereas tumors void of NTSR1 expression had no detectable response. This is consistent with the presence of a NTS autocrine loop, leading to the sustained activation of EGFR and responsible for cancer aggressiveness. We propose the use of NTS/NTSR1 tumor expression, as a biomarker for the use of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors in patients lacking EGFR mutation. PMID:25249545

  12. Neurotensin Changes Propulsive Activity into a Segmental Motor Pattern in the Rat Colon

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hongfei; Chen, Ji-Hong; Yang, Zixian; Huang, Min; Yu, Yuanjie; Tan, Shiyun; Luo, Hesheng; Huizinga, Jan D

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Neurotensin is a gut-brain peptide with both inhibitory and excitatory actions on the colonic musculature; our objective was to understand the implications of this for motor patterns occurring in the intact colon of the rat. Methods The effects of neurotensin with concentrations ranging from 0.1–100 nM were studied in the intact rat colon in vitro, by investigating spatio-temporal maps created from video recordings of colonic motility before and after neurotensin. Results Low concentration of neurotensin (0.1–1 nM) inhibited propagating long distance contractions and rhythmic propagating motor complexes; in its place a slow propagating rhythmic segmental motor pattern developed. The neurotensin receptor 1 antagonist SR-48692 prevented the development of the segmental motor pattern. Higher concentrations of neurotensin (10 nM and 100 nM) were capable of restoring long distance contraction activity and inhibiting the segmental activity. The slow propagating segmental contraction showed a rhythmic contraction—relaxation cycle at the slow wave frequency originating from the interstitial cells of Cajal associated with the myenteric plexus pacemaker. High concentrations given without prior additions of low concentrations did not evoke the segmental motor pattern. These actions occurred when neurotensin was given in the bath solution or intraluminally. The segmental motor pattern evoked by neurotensin was inhibited by the neural conduction blocker lidocaine. Conclusions Neurotensin (0.1–1 nM) inhibits the dominant propulsive motor patterns of the colon and a distinct motor pattern of rhythmic slow propagating segmental contractions develops. This motor pattern has the hallmarks of haustral boundary contractions. PMID:26882114

  13. Neurotensin Induces Presynaptic Depression of D2 Dopamine Autoreceptor-Mediated Neurotransmission in Midbrain Dopaminergic Neurons.

    PubMed

    Piccart, Elisabeth; Courtney, Nicholas A; Branch, Sarah Y; Ford, Christopher P; Beckstead, Michael J

    2015-08-05

    Increased dopaminergic signaling is a hallmark of severe mesencephalic pathologies such as schizophrenia and psychostimulant abuse. Activity of midbrain dopaminergic neurons is under strict control of inhibitory D2 autoreceptors. Application of the modulatory peptide neurotensin (NT) to midbrain dopaminergic neurons transiently increases activity by decreasing D2 dopamine autoreceptor function, yet little is known about the mechanisms that underlie long-lasting effects. Here, we performed patch-clamp electrophysiology and fast-scan cyclic voltammetry in mouse brain slices to determine the effects of NT on dopamine autoreceptor-mediated neurotransmission. Application of the active peptide fragment NT8-13 produced synaptic depression that exhibited short- and long-term components. Sustained depression of D2 autoreceptor signaling required activation of the type 2 NT receptor and the protein phosphatase calcineurin. NT application increased paired-pulse ratios and decreased extracellular levels of somatodendritic dopamine, consistent with a decrease in presynaptic dopamine release. Surprisingly, we observed that electrically induced long-term depression of dopaminergic neurotransmission that we reported previously was also dependent on type 2 NT receptors and calcineurin. Because electrically induced depression, but not NT-induced depression, was blocked by postsynaptic calcium chelation, our findings suggest that endogenous NT may act through a local circuit to decrease presynaptic dopamine release. The current research provides a mechanism through which augmented NT release can produce a long-lasting increase in membrane excitability of midbrain dopamine neurons. Whereas plasticity of glutamate synapses in the brain has been studied extensively, demonstrations of plasticity at dopaminergic synapses have been more elusive. By quantifying inhibitory neurotransmission between midbrain dopaminergic neurons in brain slices from mice we have discovered that the modulatory

  14. Dopaminergic control of 125I-labeled neurotensin binding site density in corticolimbic structures of the rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Herve, D.; Tassin, J.P.; Studler, J.M.; Dana, C.; Kitabgi, P.; Vincent, J.P.; Glowinski, J.; Rostene, W.

    1986-08-01

    In the rat brain, destruction of dopaminergic cell groups by injections of 6-hydroxydopamine into the ventral mesencephalic tegmentum results in large decreases in the number of neurotensin binding sites in the mesencephalon and the striatum. In contrast, these lesions produce an increase in the number of /sup 125/I-labeled neurotensin binding sites in the lateral part of the prefrontal cortex despite a large decrease in cortical dopamine levels. Increases in the number of /sup 125/I-labeled neurotensin binding sites in this cortical area as well as in the entorhinal cortex, the nucleus accumbens, and the central part of the striatum were also obtained after chronic blockade of dopamine neurotransmission by a long-acting neuroleptic pipotiazine palmitic ester. We propose that dopamine inputs regulate the density of postsynaptic neurotensin binding sites through cortical and subcortical dopamine receptors. Therefore, some of the clinical effects of neuroleptics in schizophrenic patients could be partly related to changes in neurotensin neurotransmission.

  15. Safety of the intravenous administration of neurotensin-polyplex nanoparticles in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Maria E; Rembao, Jesus D; Hernandez-Baltazar, Daniel; Castillo-Rodriguez, Rosa A; Tellez-Lopez, Victor M; Flores-Martinez, Yazmin M; Orozco-Barrios, Carlos E; Rubio, Hector A; Sánchez-García, Aurora; Ayala-Davila, Jose; Arango-Rodriguez, Martha L; Pavón, Lenin; Mejia-Castillo, Teresa; Forgez, Patricia; Martinez-Fong, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Neurotensin (NTS)-polyplex is a gene nanocarrier that has potential nanomedicine-based applications for the treatment of Parkinson's disease and cancers of cells expressing NTS receptor type 1. We assessed the acute inflammatory response to NTS-polyplex carrying a reporter gene in BALB/c mice. The intravenous injection of NTS-polyplex caused the specific expression of the reporter gene in gastrointestinal cells. Six hours after an intravenous injection of propidium iodide labeled-NTS-polyplex, fluorescent spots were located in the cells of the organs with a mononuclear phagocyte system, suggesting NTS-polyplex clearance. In contrast to lipopolysaccharide and carbon tetrachloride, NTS-polyplex did not increase the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, bilirubin, aspartate transaminase, and alanine transaminase. NTS-polyplex increased the levels of serum amyloid A and alkaline phosphatase, but these levels normalized after 24 h. Compared to carrageenan, the local injection of NTS-polyplex did not produce inflammation. Our results support the safety of NTS-polyplex. This study focuses on the safety of neurotensin (NTS)-polyplex, a gene nanocarrier that has potential in the treatment of Parkinson's disease and cancers of cells expressing NTS receptor type 1. NTS polyplex demonstrates a better safety profile compared with carrageenan, lipopolysaccharide, and carbon tetrachloride in a murine model. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Amphetamine-elicited striatal Fos expression is attenuated in neurotensin null mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Fadel, Jim; Dobner, Paul R; Deutch, Ariel Y

    2006-07-10

    Neurotensin (NT) has been suggested to interact with dopamine systems in different forebrain sites to exert both antipsychotic- and psychostimulant-like effects. We previously found that genetic or pharmacological manipulations that disrupt endogenous NT signaling attenuate antipsychotic drug-induced Fos expression in the dorsolateral and central striatum but not other striatal regions. To assess the role of NT in psychostimulant responses, we examined the ability of d-amphetamine (AMP) to induce Fos in wild-type and NT null mutant mice. AMP-elicited Fos expression was significantly attenuated in the medial striatum of NT null mutant mice, but was unaffected in other striatal territories. Similar results were obtained in rats and mice pretreated with the high affinity neurotensin receptor (NTR1) antagonist SR 48692. The effect of the NTR1 antagonist was particularly apparent in the striatal patch (striosome) compartment, as defined by mu-opioid receptor immunoreactivity. These data suggest that NT is required for the full activation by AMP of medial striatal neurons.

  17. The effects of acute exposure to ethanol on neurotensin and guanine nucleotide-stimulation of phospholipase C activity in intact NIE-115 neuroblastoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, T.L. )

    1990-01-01

    Both ethanol and neurotensin produce sedation and hypothermia. When administered in combination the behavioral effects of these two substances are potentiated. In order to better understand the biochemical nature of this interaction, the direct effects of ethanol on neurotensin receptors and an associated signal transduction process were determined in NIE-115 neuroblastoma cells. Ethanol in physiologically relevant concentrations significantly reduced neurotensin stimulated ({sup 3}H)inositol phosphate production while having no effect on the specific binding of ({sup 3}H)neurotensin. In addition, ethanol up to 200 mM had no effect on GTPYS mediated ({sup 3}H)inositol phosphate production. The results indicate that acute exposure ethanol partially disrupts the normal coupling of activated neurotensin receptors to the guanine nucleotide binding protein associated with phospholipase C.

  18. Neurotensin increases mortality and mast cells reduce neurotensin levels in a mouse model of sepsis.

    PubMed

    Piliponsky, Adrian M; Chen, Ching-Cheng; Nishimura, Toshihiko; Metz, Martin; Rios, Eon J; Dobner, Paul R; Wada, Etsuko; Wada, Keiji; Zacharias, Sherma; Mohanasundaram, Uma M; Faix, James D; Abrink, Magnus; Pejler, Gunnar; Pearl, Ronald G; Tsai, Mindy; Galli, Stephen J

    2008-04-01

    Sepsis is a complex, incompletely understood and often fatal disorder, typically accompanied by hypotension, that is considered to represent a dysregulated host response to infection. Neurotensin (NT) is a 13-amino-acid peptide that, among its multiple effects, induces hypotension. We find that intraperitoneal and plasma concentrations of NT are increased in mice after severe cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), a model of sepsis, and that mice treated with a pharmacological antagonist of NT, or NT-deficient mice, show reduced mortality during severe CLP. In mice, mast cells can degrade NT and reduce NT-induced hypotension and CLP-associated mortality, and optimal expression of these effects requires mast cell expression of neurotensin receptor 1 and neurolysin. These findings show that NT contributes to sepsis-related mortality in mice during severe CLP and that mast cells can lower NT concentrations, and suggest that mast cell-dependent reduction in NT levels contributes to the ability of mast cells to enhance survival after CLP.

  19. Neurotensin excitation of serotonergic neurons in the rat nucleus raphe magnus: ionic and molecular mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Li, A H; Yeh, T H; Tan, P P; Hwang, H M; Wang, H L

    2001-06-01

    To understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which neurotensin (NT) induces an analgesic effect in the nucleus raphe magnus (NRM), whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were performed to investigate the electrophysiological effects of NT on acutely dissociated NRM neurons. Two subtypes of neurons, primary serotonergic and secondary non-serotonergic cells, were identified from acutely isolated NRM neurons. During current-clamp recordings, NT depolarized NRM serotonergic neurons and evoked action potentials. Voltage-clamp recordings showed that NT excited serotonergic neurons by enhancing a voltage-insensitive and non-selective cationic conductance. Both SR48692, a selective antagonist of subtype 1 neurotensin receptor (NTR-1), and SR 142948A, a non-selective antagonist of NTR-1 and subtype 2 neurotensin receptor (NTR-2), failed to prevent neurotensin from exciting NRM serotonergic neurons. NT-evoked cationic current was inhibited by the intracellular administration of GDP-beta-S. NT failed to induce cationic currents after dialyzing serotonergic neurons with the anti-G(alphaq/11) antibody. Cellular Ca(2+) imaging study using fura-2 showed that NT induced the calcium release from the intracellular store. NT-evoked current was blocked after the internal perfusion of heparin, an IP(3) receptor antagonist, or BAPTA, a fast Ca(2+) chelator. It is concluded that neurotensin enhancement of the cationic conductance of NRM serotonergic neurons is mediated by a novel subtype of neurotensin receptors. The coupling mechanism via G(alphaq/11) proteins is likely to involve the generation of IP(3), and subsequent IP(3)-evoked Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores results in activating the non-selective cationic conductance.

  20. Modulation of the neurotensin solution structure in the presence of ganglioside GM1 bicelle.

    PubMed

    Khatun, Ummul Liha; Goswami, Sudipto Kishore; Mukhopadhyay, Chaitali

    2012-07-01

    Neurotensin (NT) is an endogenous tridecapeptide neurotransmitter that shows multiple biological function in central and peripheral nervous systems. Gangliosides are glycosphingolipids, most abundant in the plasma membrane of nerve cells. Here we investigate the change of neurotensin solution structure induced by isotropic CHAPS-PC bicelles with and without ganglioside GM1 using solution state NMR spectroscopy. In aqueous solution the peptide is predominately unstructured. In the presence of bicelle overall structure of the peptide is stabilized. In CHAPS-PC bicelle neurotensin adopts 3(10) helical structure. In the presence of GM1 containing bicelle, the peptide adopts predominately 3(10) helical structures with small amount of α-helical structure. These results are consistent with the CD spectroscopic results. Neurotensin interacts better with GM1 containing bicelle than that of the CHAPS-PC bicelle. Docking studies between the Neurotensin Receptor3 (NTS3) and different NT conformations also indicated better binding of the NT conformation obtained in presence of GM1-containing bicelles.

  1. Syntheses, receptor bindings, in vitro and in vivo stabilities and biodistributions of DOTA-neurotensin(8-13) derivatives containing β-amino acid residues - a lesson about the importance of animal experiments.

    PubMed

    Sparr, Christof; Purkayastha, Nirupam; Yoshinari, Tomohiro; Seebach, Dieter; Maschauer, Simone; Prante, Olaf; Hübner, Harald; Gmeiner, Peter; Kolesinska, Beata; Cescato, Renzo; Waser, Beatrice; Reubi, Jean Claude

    2013-12-01

    Neurotensin(8-13) (NTS(8-13)) analogs with C- and/or N-terminal β-amino acid residues and three DOTA derivatives thereof have been synthesized (i.e., 1-6). A virtual docking experiment showed almost perfect fit of one of the 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) derivatives, 6a, into a crystallographically identified receptor NTSR1 (Fig.1). The affinities for the receptors of the NTS analogs and derivatives are low, when determined with cell-membrane homogenates, while, with NTSR1-exhibiting cancer tissues, affinities in the single-digit nanomolar range can be observed (Table 2). Most of the β-amino acid-containing NTS(8-13) analogs (Table 1 and Fig.2), including the (68) Ga complexes of the DOTA-substituted ones (6; Figs.2 and 5), are stable for ca. 1 h in human serum and plasma, and in murine plasma. The biodistributions of two (68) Ga complexes (of 6a and 6b) in HT29 tumor-bearing nude mice, in the absence and in the presence of a blocking compound, after 10, 30, and 60 min (Figs. 3 and 4) lead to the conclusion that the amount of specifically bound radioligand is rather low. This was confirmed by PET-imaging experiments with the tumor-bearing mice (Fig.6). Comparison of the in vitro plasma stability (after 1 h) with the ex vivo blood content (after 10-15 min) of the two (68) Ga complexes shows that they are rapidly cleaved in the animals (Fig.5).

  2. Multiple toxic doses of methamphetamine alter neurotensin concentrations in various region of the rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, G.R.; Merchant, K.; Gibb, J.W.; Letter, A.A.

    1986-03-05

    The authors have previously reported that multiple high doses of methamphetamine (METH) alter neuronal monoamine metabolism and release. Recently, Hokfelt et al. showed that neurotensin, a tridecapeptide, has neurotransmitter properties which may be involved with DA neuronal activity. In the present study they investigated the possible effects of METH on the CNS neurotensin system. Five doses of METH (15 mg/kg) were administered every 6 h; control and treated rats were sacrificed 18 h after the last dose and concentrations of neurotensin-like immuno-reactivity (NTLI) were measured by radioimmunoassay. NTLI was elevated 200-300% in the nucleus accumbens, neostriatum, and substantia nigra; 30-40% increases in NTLI were measured in the hippocampus and hypothalamus. No change was observed in amygdala, A-10 or periaqueductal gray. In contrast to the above measured areas, the frontal lobe and olfactory bulb showed decreases of 25-35%. These findings demonstrate that METH treatment alters the activities of several CNS neurotensin systems, possibly due to the influence of this drug on DA pathways. The variability in the type and magnitude of these responses suggests that DA and neurotensin systems interact by more than one mechanism.

  3. The actions of neurotensin in rat bladder detrusor contractility

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xingyou; Bai, Xinyu; Zhao, Jiang; Wang, Liang; Wang, Qingqing; Li, Longkun

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the expression, distribution and function of neurotensin (NTs) and two main neurotensin receptors (NTSR), NTSR1 and NTSR2 in normal rat urinary bladders. NTs is primarily located in the suburothelium and the interstitium of smooth muscle bundles. The NTSR1 and NTSR2 receptor subtypes are found to co-localize with smooth muscle cells (SMCs). NTs not only can directly act on bladder SMCs to induce intracellular calcium mobilization by activating the phospholipase C/inositol triphosphate (PLC/IP3) pathway, promoting extracellular calcium influx through a non-selective cation channels, but may be also involved in the modulation of the cholinergic system. Nowadays, the selective antimuscarinic drugs (solifenacin) and the selective beta 3-adrenergic agonist (mirabegron) are used as the first-line pharmacotherapy for overactive bladder (OAB), but without satisfactory treatment benefits in some patients. This study provided evidence suggesting that bladder NTs may play an important role in the regulation of micturition. Further research is needed to investigate the effects of NTs on bladder contractility and the underlying mechanism, which might reveal that the administration of NTSR antagonists can potentially relieve the symptoms of OAB by coordination with antimuscarinic pharmacotherapy. PMID:26053252

  4. Telmisartan attenuates the inflamed mesenteric adipose tissue in spontaneous colitis by mechanisms involving regulation of neurotensin/microRNA-155 pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Zuo, Lugen; Zhu, Weiming; Gong, Jianfeng; Zhang, Wei; Guo, Zhen; Gu, Lili; Li, Ning; Li, Jieshou

    2015-02-15

    Mesenteric adipose tissue hypertrophy is unique to Crohn's disease while the molecular basis of the crosstalk between MAT and the intestinal inflammation is largely unknown. Telmisartan is an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker and a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-receptor-γ agonist which has beneficial effects on fat distribution and pro-inflammatory adipokine expression. We evaluated the effect of telmisartan upon mesenteric adipose tissue alterations and inflammatory features in IL-10(-)/(-) mice. We found that treatment with telmisartan significantly ameliorated the severity of colitis in IL-10(-)/(-) mice. Additionally, administration of telmisartan was associated with restoration of mesenteric adipose tissue adipocyte morphology and the expression of adipokines. Furthermore, telmisartan treatment suppressed the neurotensin/microRNA-155 pathway in mesenteric adipose tissue from spontaneous colitis which was confirmed by an in vitro study using cultured mesenteric adipose tissue from Crohn's disease patients. Administration of telmisartan showed promising results in spontaneous colitis which was associated with the attenuated mesenteric adipose tissue alteration which at least in part, was associated with its activity in the regulation of the neurotensin/microRNA-155 pathway. These results support the hypothesis that regulating the abnormal immune response in adipose tissue is an important target for the treatment of Crohn's disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Systemically and Topically Active Antinociceptive Neurotensin Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Grace C.; Matulonis, Joshua E.; Richelson, Elliott; Barbut, Denise

    2010-01-01

    Neurotensin is a neurotransmitter/modulator with a wide range of actions. Using a series of 10 stable analogs, we have examined neurotensin antinociception in mice. By incorporating (2S)-2-amino-3-(1H-4-indoyl)propanoic acid (l-neoTrp), a series of neurotensin analogs have been synthesized that are stable in serum and are systemically active in vivo. When administered in mice, they all were antinociceptive in the radiant heat tail-flick assay. Time-action curves revealed a peak effect at 30 min and a duration of action ranging from 2 to 4 h. Dose-response curves revealed that two compounds were partial agonists with maximal responses below 75%, whereas all of the remaining compounds displayed a full response. Overall, the compounds were quite potent, with ED50 values similar to those of opioids. At peak effect, the ED50 values ranged from 0.91 to 9.7 mg/kg s.c. Two of the analogs were active topically. Together, these studies support the potential of neurotensin analogs as analgesics. They are active systemically and by using them topically, it may be possible to avoid problematic side effects, such as hypothermia and hypotension. PMID:20576795

  6. The effect of neurotensin in human keratinocytes--implication on impaired wound healing in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Moura, Liane I F; Cruz, Maria T; Carvalho, Eugénia

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic foot ulcers are an important complication of diabetes mellitus characterized by chronic, non-healing ulcers resulting from poor proliferation and migration of fibroblasts and keratinocytes, thus impairing a correct re-epithelialization of wounded tissues. This healing process can be modulated by neuropeptides released from peripheral nerves; however, little is known regarding the role of neurotensin (NT) as a modulator of human keratinocyte function under hyperglycemic conditions. Therefore, this work is focused on the effect of NT in human keratinocytes, under normal and hyperglycemic conditions at different functional levels, namely NT receptors, cytokine, and growth factor expression, as well as proliferation and migration. Human keratinocyte cells were maintained at either 10/30 mM glucose and treated with or without NT (10 nM). The results show that NT did not affect keratinocyte viability. In addition, NT and all NT receptor expression levels were significantly reduced by hyperglycemia; however, NT treatment stimulated expression of NT and neurotensin receptor 2 (NTR2) while neurotensin receptor 1 (NTR1) and neurotensin receptor 3 (NTR3) expression levels were unchanged. Keratinocyte proliferation was not affected by NT and hyperglycemia, while cell migration was reduced by NT treatment. These results demonstrated that hyperglycemic conditions strongly impaired endogenous NT and NTR2 expression in keratinocytes. Despite the addition of exogenous NT to stimulate the endogenous NT and NTR2 expression, these changes do not translate into functional modifications on keratinocytes, particularly in terms of migration, proliferation, and production of cytokines or growth factors. These results suggest that NT production by keratinocytes may exert a paracrine effect on other skin cells, namely fibroblasts, macrophages, and dendritic cells for correct wound healing.

  7. Prostate Cancer Cell Growth: Stimulatory Role of Neurotensin and Mechanism of Inhibition by Flavonoids as Related to Protein Kinase C

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Res Commun 2002;295:482–8. [78] Souaze F, Viardot- Foucault V, Roullet N, Toy-Miou-Leong M, Gompel A, Bruyneel E, et al. Neurotensin receptor 1 gene...Stapleton D, Campbell DJ, Chen ZP, Murthy S, Walter M, Gupta A, Adams JJ, Katsis F, van Denderen B, Jennings IG, Iseli T, Michell BJ, Witters LA. AMP

  8. Expression and purification of recombinant neurotensin in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Williamson, P T; Roth, J F; Haddingham, T; Watts, A

    2000-07-01

    An expression system has been designed for the rapid and economic expression of recombinant neurotensin for biophysical studies. A synthetic gene for neurotensin (Glu(1)-Leu(2)-Tyr(3)-Glu(4)-Asn(5)-Lys(6)-Pro(7)-Arg(8)-Arg(9)-Pro(1 0)-Tyr(11)-Ile(12)-Leu(13)) was cloned into the pGEX-5X-2 vector to allow expression of neurotensin as a glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion protein. The inclusion of a methionine residue between the glutathione S-transferase and the neurotensin has facilitated the rapid cleavage of the neurotensin from its carrier protein. Purification of recombinant neurotensin was performed by reverse-phase HPLC. This method produced a relatively high yield of peptide and offers the potential for economic partial or uniform labeling of small peptides (<15 amino acids) with isotopes for NMR or other biophysical techniques.

  9. Elucidating the Role of Neurotensin in the Pathophysiology and Management of Major Mental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Boules, Mona M; Fredrickson, Paul; Muehlmann, Amber M; Richelson, Elliott

    2014-01-01

    Neurotensin (NT) is a neuropeptide that is closely associated with, and is thought to modulate, dopaminergic and other neurotransmitter systems involved in the pathophysiology of various mental disorders. This review outlines data implicating NT in the pathophysiology and management of major mental disorders such as schizophrenia, drug addiction, and autism. The data suggest that NT receptor analogs have the potential to be used as novel therapeutic agents acting through modulation of neurotransmitter systems dys-regulated in these disorders. PMID:25379273

  10. Neurotensin-polyplex-mediated brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene delivery into nigral dopamine neurons prevents nigrostriatal degeneration in a rat model of early Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Chan, Nancy G; Bannon, Michael J; Orozco-Barrios, Carlos E; Escobedo, Lourdes; Zamudio, Sergio; De la Cruz, Fidel; Gongora-Alfaro, Jose L; Armendáriz-Borunda, Juan; Reyes-Corona, David; Espadas-Alvarez, Armando J; Flores-Martínez, Yazmin M; Ayala-Davila, Jose; Hernandez-Gutierrez, Maria E; Pavón, Lenin; García-Villegas, Refugio; Nadella, Rasajna; Martinez-Fong, Daniel

    2015-07-22

    The neurotrophin Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) influences nigral dopaminergic neurons via autocrine and paracrine mechanisms. The reduction of BDNF expression in Parkinson's disease substantia nigra (SN) might contribute to the death of dopaminergic neurons because inhibiting BDNF expression in the SN causes parkinsonism in the rat. This study aimed to demonstrate that increasing BDNF expression in dopaminergic neurons of rats with one week of 6-hydroxydopamine lesion recovers from parkinsonism. The plasmids phDAT-BDNF-flag and phDAT-EGFP, coding for enhanced green fluorescent protein, were transfected using neurotensin (NTS)-polyplex, which enables delivery of genes into the dopaminergic neurons via neurotensin-receptor type 1 (NTSR1) internalization. Two weeks after transfections, RT-PCR and immunofluorescence techniques showed that the residual dopaminergic neurons retain NTSR1 expression and susceptibility to be transfected by the NTS-polyplex. phDAT-BDNF-flag transfection did not increase dopaminergic neurons, but caused 7-fold increase in dopamine fibers within the SN and 5-fold increase in innervation and dopamine levels in the striatum. These neurotrophic effects were accompanied by a significant improvement in motor behavior. NTS-polyplex-mediated BDNF overexpression in dopaminergic neurons has proven to be effective to remit hemiparkinsonism in the rat. This BDNF gene therapy might be helpful in the early stage of Parkinson's disease.

  11. Immunohistochemical localization of neurotensin in hamster adrenal medulla.

    PubMed

    Pelto-Huikko, M; Salminen, T; Partanen, M; Toivanen, M; Hervonen, A

    1985-04-01

    Neurotensin-like immunoreactivity was localized in nerve fibers and terminals of hamster adrenal medulla at light and electron microscopy using the peroxidase-antiperoxidase method. Numerous varicose neurotensin-immunoreactive nerves and terminals were found among nonlabeled cell groups situated peripherally in the adrenal medulla. Combined formaldehyde-glutaraldehyde (Faglu) fluorescence and immunohistochemistry of the same vibratome section showed that only norepinephrine cells were innervated by neurotensin-immunoreactive nerves. All norepinephrine cells seemed to be innervated by neurotensin-immunoreactive nerves. Neurotensin-immunoreactive nerves disappeared after extrinsic denervation of the adrenal gland. By electron microscopy numerous neurotensin-immunoreactive terminals were seen to make synaptic contacts with norepinephrine cells and with autonomic ganglion cells present in small numbers among norepinephrine cells. In the terminals neurotensin-like immunoreactivity was localized mainly in large dense-cored vesicles, but some precipitates were also associated with small vesicles, diffusely scattered in the axoplasm. The present findings suggest that in the hamster adrenal medulla part of the nerve terminals arising from splanchnic nerves contain neurotensin-like peptide. The functional significance of these nerves in the hamster adrenal medulla remains to be elucidated.

  12. Hypothalamic leptin-neurotensin-hypocretin neuronal networks in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Levitas-Djerbi, Talia; Yelin-Bekerman, Laura; Lerer-Goldshtein, Tali; Appelbaum, Lior

    2015-04-01

    Neurotensin (NTS) is a 13 amino acid neuropeptide that is expressed in the hypothalamus. In mammals, NTS-producing neurons that express leptin receptor (LepRb) regulate the function of hypocretin/orexin (HCRT) and dopamine neurons. Thus, the hypothalamic leptin-NTS-HCRT neuronal network orchestrates key homeostatic output, including sleep, feeding, and reward. However, the intricate mechanisms of the circuitry and the unique role of NTS-expressing neurons remain unclear. We studied the NTS neuronal networks in zebrafish and cloned the genes encoding the NTS neuropeptide and receptor (NTSR). Similar to mammals, the ligand is expressed primarily in the hypothalamus, while the receptor is expressed widely throughout the brain in zebrafish. A portion of hypothalamic nts-expressing neurons are inhibitory and some coexpress leptin receptor (lepR1). As in mammals, NTS and HCRT neurons are localized adjacently in the hypothalamus. To track the development and axonal projection of NTS neurons, the NTS promoter was isolated. Transgenesis and double labeling of NTS and HCRT neurons showed that NTS axons project toward HCRT neurons, some of which express ntsr. Moreover, another target of NTS neurons is ntsr-expressing dopaminergeric neurons. These findings suggest structural circuitry between leptin, NTS, and hypocretinergic or dopaminergic neurons and establish the zebrafish as a model to study the role of these neuronal circuits in the regulation of feeding, sleep, and reward.

  13. Five Stabilized 111In-labeled neurotensin analogs in nude mice bearing HT29 tumors.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Paul J J M; de Visser, Moniaue; Verwijnen, Suzanne M; Bernard, Bert F; Srinivasan, Ananth; Erion, Jack L; Breeman, Wouter A P; Vulto, Arnold G; Krenning, Eric P; de Jong, Marion

    2007-06-01

    Neurotensin (NT) receptors are overexpressed in different human tumors, such as human ductal pancreatic adenocarcinoma. New stable neurotensin analogs with high receptor affinity have been synthesized by replacing arginine residues with lysine and arginine derivatives. The aim of this study was to explore the biodistribution, tumor uptake, kidney localization, and stability characteristics of these new analogs in order to develop new diagnostic tools for exocrine pancreatic cancer. Four (111)In-labeled DTPA-chelated NT analogs and one (111)In-labeled DOTA-chelated NT analog were evaluated in NMRI nude mice bearing NT receptor-positive HT29 tumors. Experiments with a coinjection of unlabeled NT or lysine were performed to investigate receptor-mediated uptake and kidney protection, respectively. In addition, the in vivo serum stability of the most promising analog was analyzed. In the biodistribution study in mice, at 4 hours postinjection, a low percentage of the injected dose per gram (%ID/g) of tissue for all compounds was found in NT receptor-negative organs, such as the blood, spleen, pancreas, liver, muscle, and femur. A high uptake was found in the colon, intestine, kidneys, and in implanted HT29 tumors. The coinjection of excess unlabeled neurotensin significantly reduced tumor uptake, showing tumor uptake to be receptor-mediated. To a lesser extent, this was also observed for the colon, but not for other tissues. We concluded that DTPA-(Pip)Gly-Pro-(PipAm)Gly-Arg-Pro-Tyr-tBuGly-Leu-OH and the DOTA-linked counterpart have the most favorable biodistribution properties regarding tumor uptake.

  14. Neurotensin modulation of acetylcholine, GABA, and aspartate release from rat prefrontal cortex studied in vivo with microdialysis.

    PubMed

    Petkova-Kirova, Polina; Rakovska, Angelina; Della Corte, Laura; Zaekova, Galina; Radomirov, Radomir; Mayer, Aliz

    2008-09-30

    The effects of the peptide transmitter neurotensin (NT) on the release of acetylcholine (ACh), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamate (Glu), aspartate (Asp), and taurine from the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of freely moving rats were studied by transversal microdialysis. Neurotensin (0.2 and 1 microM) administered locally in the PFC produced a concentration-dependent increase in the extracellular levels of ACh, GABA, and Asp, but not of Glu or taurine. The increase produced by 1 microM NT reached a maximum of about 240% for ACh, 370% for GABA, and 380% for Asp. Lower doses of NT (0.05 microM) did not cause a significant change in ACh, GABA, or Asp output in the PFC. Higher concentrations of NT (2 microM) did not induce further increases in the level of neurotransmitters. A high-affinity selective neurotensin receptor (NTR1) antagonist SR 48692 (0.5 microM) perfused locally blocked neurotensin (1 microM)-evoked ACh, GABA, and Asp release. Local infusion of the sodium channel blocker tetrodotoxin (TTX) (1 microM) decreased the release of ACh, had no significant effect on GABA or Asp release, and prevented the 1 microM neurotensin-induced increase in ACh, GABA, and Asp output. Removal of calcium from the Ringer's solution prevented the peptide from having any effects on the neurotransmitters. Thus, in vivo NT plays a modulatory role in the PFC by interacting with cortical neurons releasing GABA and Asp and with ACh-containing neurons projecting to the PFC. The NT effects are of neural origin, as they are TTX-sensitive, and mediated by the NTR1 receptor, as they are antagonized by SR 48692.

  15. The effect of the stereoisomers of butaclamol on neurotensin content in discrete regions of the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Bissette, G; Dauer, W T; Kilts, C D; O'Connor, L; Nemeroff, C B

    1988-12-01

    The prevailing hypothesis concerning the mechanism of antipsychotic drug action is principally based on the striking correlation between their clinical potency and their potency in blockade of D2 dopamine receptors. However, most of these compounds also have effects at serotonin, acetylcholine, histamine, and alpha-adrenergic receptors and have recently been shown to alter the concentrations of certain neuropeptides in the rat brain after chronic drug administration. One such neuropeptide that is increased in concentration in dopamine terminal regions by clinically effective neuroleptic drugs is neurotensin (NT). Neurotensin is closely associated with dopamine neurons, as demonstrated by evidence derived from anatomic, physiologic, and pharmacologic studies. In this report, we determined the effects of chronic administration of the potent D2 receptor antagonist (+)-butaclamol and its inactive (-) stereoisomer on regional brain NT content. Moreover, we sought to determine whether the effects of haloperidol on NT concentrations can be antagonized by concomitant administration of an indirect dopamine agonist, d-amphetamine. Neurotensin content in the caudate nucleus and nucleus accumbens of the rat were significantly increased by 3 weeks of daily injections of haloperidol or (+)-butaclamol, but not (-)-butaclamol. d-Amphetamine did not alter this effect of haloperidol on NT concentrations in either the nucleus accumbens or caudate nucleus. These data are concordant with the hypothesis that D2 receptor blockade is required for NT concentration increases after antipsychotic drug treatment and that the increase in synaptic cleft dopamine content produced by d-amphetamine cannot reverse this effect of dopamine receptor antagonists.

  16. Response of neurotensin basal ganglia systems during extinction of methamphetamine self-administration in rat.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Glen R; Hoonakker, Amanda J; Robson, Christina M; McFadden, Lisa M; Frankel, Paul S; Alburges, Mario E

    2013-08-01

    Because of persistent social problems caused by methamphetamine (METH), new therapeutic strategies need to be developed. Thus, we investigated the response of central nervous system neurotensin (NT) systems to METH self-administration (SA) and their interaction with basal ganglia dopamine (DA) pathways. Neurotensin is a peptide associated with inhibitory feedback pathways to nigrostriatal DA projections. We observed that NT levels decreased in rats during extinction of METH SA when lever pressing resulted in intravenous infusions of saline rather than METH. Thus, 6 h after the first session of extinction, NT levels were 53, 42, and 49% of corresponding controls in the anterior dorsal striatum, posterior dorsal striatum, and globus pallidus, respectively. NT levels were also significantly reduced in corresponding yoked rats in the anterior dorsal striatum (64% of control), but not the other structures examined. The reductions in NT levels in the anterior dorsal striatum particularly correlated with the lever pressing during the first session of extinction (r =s; 0.745). These, and previously reported findings, suggest that the extinction-related reductions in NT levels were mediated by activation of D2 receptors. Finally, administration of the neurotensin receptor 1 (NTR1) agonist [PD149163 [Lys(CH2NH)Lys-Pro,Trp-tert-Leu-Leu-Oet]; 0.25 or 0.5 mg/kg] diminished lever pressing during the first extinction session, whereas the NTR1 antagonist [SR48692 [2-[(1-(7-chloro-4-quinolinyl)-5-(2,6-imethoxyphenyl)pyrazol-3-yl)carbonylamino]tricyclo(3.3.1.1.(3.7))decan-2-carboxylic acid]; 0.3 mg/kg per administration] attenuated the reduction of lever pressing during the second to fourth days of extinction. In summary, these findings support the hypothesis that some of the endogenous basal ganglia NT systems contribute to the elimination of contingent behavior during the early stages of the METH SA extinction process.

  17. Response of Neurotensin Basal Ganglia Systems during Extinction of Methamphetamine Self-Administration in Rat

    PubMed Central

    Hoonakker, Amanda J.; Robson, Christina M.; McFadden, Lisa M.; Frankel, Paul S.; Alburges, Mario E.

    2013-01-01

    Because of persistent social problems caused by methamphetamine (METH), new therapeutic strategies need to be developed. Thus, we investigated the response of central nervous system neurotensin (NT) systems to METH self-administration (SA) and their interaction with basal ganglia dopamine (DA) pathways. Neurotensin is a peptide associated with inhibitory feedback pathways to nigrostriatal DA projections. We observed that NT levels decreased in rats during extinction of METH SA when lever pressing resulted in intravenous infusions of saline rather than METH. Thus, 6 h after the first session of extinction, NT levels were 53, 42, and 49% of corresponding controls in the anterior dorsal striatum, posterior dorsal striatum, and globus pallidus, respectively. NT levels were also significantly reduced in corresponding yoked rats in the anterior dorsal striatum (64% of control), but not the other structures examined. The reductions in NT levels in the anterior dorsal striatum particularly correlated with the lever pressing during the first session of extinction (r =s; 0.745). These, and previously reported findings, suggest that the extinction-related reductions in NT levels were mediated by activation of D2 receptors. Finally, administration of the neurotensin receptor 1 (NTR1) agonist [PD149163 [Lys(CH2NH)Lys-Pro,Trp-tert-Leu-Leu-Oet]; 0.25 or 0.5 mg/kg] diminished lever pressing during the first extinction session, whereas the NTR1 antagonist [SR48692 [2-[(1-(7-chloro-4-quinolinyl)-5-(2,6-imethoxyphenyl)pyrazol-3-yl)carbonylamino]tricyclo(3.3.1.1.(3.7))decan-2-carboxylic acid]; 0.3 mg/kg per administration] attenuated the reduction of lever pressing during the second to fourth days of extinction. In summary, these findings support the hypothesis that some of the endogenous basal ganglia NT systems contribute to the elimination of contingent behavior during the early stages of the METH SA extinction process. PMID:23685547

  18. Identification of Dmt-D-Lys-Phe-Phe-OH as a highly antinociceptive tetrapeptide metabolite of the opioid-neurotensin hybrid peptide PK20.

    PubMed

    Kleczkowska, Patrycja; Bojnik, Engin; Leśniak, Anna; Kosson, Piotr; Van den Eynde, Isabelle; Ballet, Steven; Benyhe, Sandor; Tourwé, Dirk; Lipkowski, Andrzej W

    2013-01-01

    Recently, we presented a novel compound (PK20, Dmt-D-Lys-Phe-Phe-Lys-Lys-Pro-Phe-Tle-Leu-OH) that targets single entity opioid and neurotensin pharmacophores. This endomorphin-2-like opioid peptide was introduced as a highly active analgesic because it elicited a strong dose- and time-dependent antinociceptive response when administered centrally and peripherally. Its pain-relieving activity was observed as rapidly as 5 min after drug injection. Such promising results led us to perform further studies, such as determining the resistance to enzymatic degradation, which resulted in obtaining a very stable opioid pharmacore PK20 metabolite. The synthesis of PK20 and its N-terminal tetrapeptide fragment has been accomplished using solid phase peptide chemistry. The biological stability of peptides has been measured in human serum and analyzed by HPLC/MS. Peptides were pharmacologically characterized in in vitro MOP and DOP receptor binding as well as [(35)S]GTPγS receptor binding assays. Antinociceptive properties of compounds were measured by in vivo assays in C57Bl6 mice after intravenous or intrathecal applications. Dmt-D-Lys-Phe-Phe-OH (PK20M), an N-terminal tetrapeptide metabolite of the opioid-neurotensin hybrid peptide PK20, is characterized by a long duration of action, as demonstrated by a preserved, long-lasting analgesic effect even 2 h post-injection (average % MPE = 69.33). In rat brain membranes, PK20M efficiently displaced both the MOP and DOP receptor selective radioprobes [(3)H]DAMGO and [(3)H]DIDI (pKi of 9.52 and 7.86, respectively) and potently stimulated [(35)S]GTPγS binding, proving full agonism at both receptor types. In the [(35)S]GTPγS assay, which measured the agonist-mediated G protein activation, PK20M together with PK20 and Met-enkephalin were potent stimulators of the regulatory G proteins. The relative affinities of PK20M for the μ and δ receptor subtypes revealed μ-receptor selectivity. The novel MOP receptor selective metabolite

  19. Emerging role of neurotensin in regulation of the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Osadchii, Oleg E

    2015-09-05

    There is increasing evidence in support of an important role played by neurotensin (NT), a tridecapeptide originally found in bovine hypothalamus, in regulation of cardiovascular system. Elevated systemic levels of NT may contribute to pathogenesis of acute circulatory disoders, and predict the risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in population-based studies. Within cardiovascular system, NT-containing neural fibers are found in close contact with atrial and ventricular cardiac myocytes, cardiac conduction system, intracardiac ganglia, as well as coronary vessels in humans and various animal species. The density of NT-immunoreactive innervation is reduced in cardiac disease. NT produces a variety of cardiovascular actions including effects on heart rate, myocardial contractility, systemic blood pressure, coronary vascular tone, venous smooth muscle tone, and regional blood flow in gastrointestinal tract, cutaneous and adipose tissue. NT could trigger cardiovascular reflexes by stimulating primary visceral afferents synaptically connected with preganglionic sympathetic neurons at the spinal cord. Structural determinants of biological activity of NT reside primarily in the C-terminal portion of its molecule which is responsible for receptor activation. NT effects are mediated via activation of NT receptors, or produced indirectly via stimulation of release of various endogenous neuromodulators/neurotransmitters such as histamine, catecholamines and prostaglandins. Three subtypes of NT receptor (NTS1, NTS2 and NTS3) have been shown to be expressed in the myocardium. NTS1, a high-affinity NT binding site coupled to phospholipase C-inositoltrisphosphate transduction pathway, is thought to mediate NT-induced cardiovascular responses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Probing conformational disorder in neurotensin by two-dimensional solid-state NMR and comparison to molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Heise, Henrike; Luca, Sorin; de Groot, Bert L; Grubmüller, Helmut; Baldus, Marc

    2005-09-01

    An approach is introduced to characterize conformational ensembles of intrinsically unstructured peptides on the atomic level using two-dimensional solid-state NMR data and their combination with molecular dynamics simulations. For neurotensin, a peptide that binds with high affinity to a G-protein coupled receptor, this method permits the investigation of the changes in conformational preferences of a neurotransmitter transferred from a frozen aqueous solution via a lipid model phase to the receptor-bound form. The results speak against a conformational pre-organization of the ligand in detergents in which the receptor has been shown to be functional. Further extensions to the study of protein folding are possible.

  1. The role of neurotensin in positive reinforcement in the rat central nucleus of amygdala.

    PubMed

    László, Kristóf; Tóth, Krisztián; Kertes, Erika; Péczely, László; Lénárd, László

    2010-04-02

    In the central nervous system neurotensin (NT) acts as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. It was shown that NT has positive reinforcing effects after its direct microinjection into the ventral tegmental area. The central nucleus of amygdala (CeA), part of the limbic system, plays an important role in learning, memory, regulation of feeding, anxiety and emotional behavior. By means of immunohistochemical and radioimmune methods it was shown that the amygdaloid body is relatively rich in NT immunoreactive elements and NT receptors. The aim of our study was to examine the possible effects of NT on reinforcement and anxiety in the CeA. In conditioned place preference test male Wistar rats were microinjected bilaterally with 100 or 250 ng NT in volume of 0.4 microl or 35 ng neurotensin receptor 1 (NTS1) antagonist SR 48692 alone, or NTS1 antagonist 15 min before 100 ng NT treatment. Hundred or 250 ng NT significantly increased the time rats spent in the treatment quadrant. Prior treatment with the non-peptide NTS1 antagonist blocked the effects of NT. Antagonist itself did not influence the reinforcing effect. In elevated plus maze test we did not find differences among the groups as far as the anxiety index (time spent on the open arms) was concerned. Our results suggest that in the rat ACE NT has positive reinforcing effects. We clarified that NTS1s are involved in this action. It was also shown that NT does not influence anxiety behavior.

  2. Positive reinforcing effect of neurotensin microinjection into the ventral pallidum in conditioned place preference test.

    PubMed

    Ollmann, Tamás; Péczely, László; László, Kristóf; Kovács, Anita; Gálosi, Rita; Berente, Eszter; Karádi, Zoltán; Lénárd, László

    2015-02-01

    The ventral pallidum (VP) is innervated by the mesolimbic dopaminergic system and it has a key role in motivation, reward, and memory processes. Neurotensin (NT) is an important neuromodulator which has been shown to modulate reinforcement in the ventral tegmental area, in the ventral mesencephalic region and in the central nucleus of amygdala. Neurotensin receptor 1 (NTR1) has already been detected in the VP in abundance, but its role in rewarding and reinforcing processes is not fully understood yet. In our present experiments, the effects of NT on positive reinforcement were investigated in the VP. In conditioned place preference (CPP) test, male Wistar rats were microinjected bilaterally with 100 ng or 250 ng NT in the volume of 0.4 μl. In other groups of animals, 35 ng NTR1 antagonist SR 48692 was applied by itself, or microinjected 15 min before 100 ng NT treatment. One hundred ng dose of NT induced CPP, whereas animals injected with 250 ng NT did not exhibit significant differences from the vehicle group. Antagonist pretreatment inhibited the effect of NT, while the antagonist applied by itself had no effect. Our results show that NT injected into the VP is involved in positive reinforcement. This effect is specific to NTR1 receptors because the development of CPP can be prevented by specific antagonist.

  3. Cannabinoid receptor type-1: breaking the dogmas

    PubMed Central

    Busquets Garcia, Arnau; Soria-Gomez, Edgar; Bellocchio, Luigi; Marsicano, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is abundantly expressed in the brain. This system regulates a plethora of physiological functions and is composed of cannabinoid receptors, their endogenous ligands (endocannabinoids), and the enzymes involved in the metabolism of endocannabinoids. In this review, we highlight the new advances in cannabinoid signaling, focusing on a key component of the ECS, the type-1 cannabinoid receptor (CB 1). In recent years, the development of new imaging and molecular tools has demonstrated that this receptor can be distributed in many cell types (e.g., neuronal or glial cells) and intracellular compartments (e.g., mitochondria). Interestingly, cellular and molecular effects are differentially mediated by CB 1 receptors according to their specific localization (e.g., glutamatergic or GABAergic neurons). Moreover, this receptor is expressed in the periphery, where it can modulate periphery-brain connections. Finally, the better understanding of the CB 1 receptor structure led researchers to propose interesting and new allosteric modulators. Thus, the advances and the new directions of the CB 1 receptor field will provide new insights and better approaches to profit from its interesting therapeutic profile. PMID:27239293

  4. Structure-antinociceptive activity studies with neurotensin.

    PubMed Central

    Furuta, S.; Kisara, K.; Sakurada, S.; Sakurada, T.; Sasaki, Y.; Suzuki, K.

    1984-01-01

    The antinociceptive effects of synthetic neurotensin (NT), its fragments and analogues administered into the lateral cerebroventricle have been compared in the conscious mouse. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of NT produced a dose-dependent antinociceptive effect in the tail pressure test. The NT fragments and analogues, NT(8-13), NT(8-10), NT(9-13), NT(9-11), NT(8-11) NHEt and NT(9-11) NHEt were also effective antinociceptive peptides. The potency of NT(8-13) and the duration of its effects were found to be approximately equal to those of NT. The antinociceptive effects produced by NT, NT(8-13) and NT(9-13) were significantly reversed by the opioid antagonist naloxone but not by thyrotropin releasing hormone. It is concluded that NT(8-13) is required for the full expression of the antinociceptive effects of NT which may be mediated in part through the brain opioid system. PMID:6435708

  5. Differential response of neurotensin to methamphetamine self-administration.

    PubMed

    Frankel, Paul S; Hoonakker, Amanda J; Hanson, Glen R

    2008-10-01

    Neurotensin (NT) is a tridecapeptide associated with extrapyramidal and limbic pathways and is thought to inhibit dopamine (DA) functions in nigrostriatal, mesocortical, and mesolimbic systems. Because of these effects, NT has been referred to as an endogenous neuroleptic. We previously reported that low, high, and multiple doses of psychostimulants such as methamphetamine (METH) have profound effects on tissue levels, expression of associated mRNA, and release of NT in DA-linked brain structures via activation of DA D-1 and D-2 receptors. In order to investigate the potential clinical significance of responses by NT systems to these stimulants, we have examined METH in a self-administration paradigm and evaluated changes in tissue levels of NT in limbic and extrapyramidal regions. After food training, adult Sprague-Dawley rats were allowed to self-administer (i.v.) METH (0.03 or 0.06 mg/0.01 mL) by lever-pressing (FR = 5) during 4-hr sessions until a cumulative total of approximately 3-4 mg was infused. Animals were sacrificed 6 hr after the last infusion of drug, and NT tissue levels were determined by established RIA techniques. For comparisons, the treatment sessions also included yoked animals that received identical quantities and/or patterns of either METH or saline solution. The results demonstrated four distinct patterns of NT response including (1) regions of no NT changes in either self-administering or yoked METH groups; (2) regions of comparably increased NT levels in both METH-treated groups; (3) regions where self-administration of METH potentiated the increased NT levels relative to yoked METH groups; and (4) a region of increased NT levels only in self-administering, and not yoked, METH-treated groups.

  6. Neurotensin expression and outcome of malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Alifano, Marco; Loi, Mauro; Camilleri-Broet, Sophie; Dupouy, Sandra; Régnard, Jean François; Forgez, Patricia

    2010-02-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma is a frequently fatal disease and the impact of available treatments is globally poor. Identification of new prognostic factors would help in the understanding of disease progression and, possibly, patient management. Here, we evaluate the prognostic impact of the neurotensin (NTS) and its cognate receptor (NTSR1) known for mediating cellular proliferation, survival, invasiveness, and mobility. We studied a series of 52 consecutive patients with epithelioid malignant mesothelioma undergoing management with curative intent, by immunohistochemistry for the expression of NTS and NTSR1. Specimens were scored as 0, 1, or 2 for less than 10%, between 10 and 50%, or more than 50% of NTS positive staining in tumor cells, respectively. Immunohistochemistry revealed that NTS and NTSR1 expression was found in 71.1% and 90.4% of malignant mesotheliomas, respectively. Using univariate analysis, expression of NTS was significantly (p = 0.015) related with a poor prognosis, with median survivals of 11.0 months, 18.4 months, and 29.8 months in patients showing expression scored as 2, 1, and 0, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that expression of NTS (p = 0.007) and non-surgical therapy (p = 0.004) were independent predictors of poor prognosis. In order to evaluate the role of NTS/NTSR1 complex in mesothelioma progression, in vitro cell invasion assays and wound healing were performed on the mesothelioma cell line, MSTO-211H, and showed that inhibition of the NTS system resulted in a significant reduction of both migration and collagen invasion of mesothelioma cells. The expression of NTS is identified as a prognostic marker in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma (Patent EP 08305971.7).

  7. Neurotensin enhances estradiol induced DNA synthesis in immature rat uterus

    SciTech Connect

    Mistry, A.; Vijayan, E.

    1985-05-27

    Systemic administration of Neurotensin, a tridecapeptide, in immature rats treated with estradiol benzoate significantly enhances uterine DNA synthesis as reflected by the incorporation of /sup 3/H-thymidine. The peptide may have a direct action on the uterus. Substance P, a related peptide, had no effect on uterine DNA synthesis. 18 references, 4 tables.

  8. New hydroxamate inhibitors of neurotensin-degrading enzymes. Synthesis and enzyme active-site recognition.

    PubMed

    Bourdel, E; Doulut, S; Jarretou, G; Labbe-Jullie, C; Fehrentz, J A; Doumbia, O; Kitabgi, P; Martinez, J

    1996-08-01

    Selective and mixed inhibitors of the three zinc metallopeptidases that degrade neurotensin (NT), e.g. endopeptidase 24-16 (EC 3.4.24.16), endopeptidase 24-11 (EC 3.4.24.11 or neutral endopeptidase, NEP) and endopeptidase 24-15 (EC 3.4.24.15), and leucine-aminopeptidase (type IV-S), that degrades the NT-related peptides, Neuromedin N (NN), are of great interest. On the structural basis of compound JMV 390-1 (N-[3-[(hydroxyamino)carbonyl]-1-oxo-2(R)-benzylpropyl]-L- isoleucyl-L-leucine), which was a full inhibitor of the major NT degrading enzymes, several hydroxamate inhibitors corresponding to the general formula HONHCO-CH2-CH(CH2-C6H5)CO-X-Y-OH (with X-Y = dipeptide) have been synthesized. Compound 7a (X-Y = Ile-Ala) was nearly 40-times more potent in inhibiting EC 24-16 than NEP and more than 800-times more potent than EC 24-15, with an IC50 (12 nM) almost equivalent to that of compound JMV 390-1. Therefore, this compound is an interesting selective inhibitor of EC 24-16, and should be an interesting probe to explore the physiological involvement of EC 24-16 in the metabolism of neurotensin.

  9. The neurotensin gene is a downstream target for Ras activation.

    PubMed Central

    Evers, B M; Zhou, Z; Celano, P; Li, J

    1995-01-01

    Ras regulates novel patterns of gene expression and the differentiation of various eukaryotic cell types. Stable transfection of Ha-ras into the human colon cancer line CaCo2 results in the morphologic differentiation to a small bowel phenotype. The purpose of our study was to determine whether the Ras regulatory pathway plays a role in the expression of the neurotensin gene (NT/N), a terminally differentiated endocrine product specifically localized in the gastrointestinal tract to the adult small bowel. We found that CaCo2-ras cells, but not parental CaCo2, express high levels of the human NT/N gene and, moreover, that this increase in gene expression is regulated at the level of transcription. Transfection experiments using NT/N-CAT mutation constructs identify the proximal 200 bp of NT/N flanking sequence as sufficient for maximal Ras-mediated NT/N reporter gene induction. Furthermore, a proximal AP-1/CRE motif is crucial for this Ras-mediated NT/N activation. Wild-type Ha-ras induces NT/N gene expression, albeit at lower levels than activated Ras; a dominant-negative Raf blocks this NT/N induction, suggesting that Raf lies down-stream of Ras in this pathway. In addition, postconfluent cultures of CaCo2 cells, which are differentiated to a small bowel phenotype, express the NT/N gene by 6 d after reaching confluency; this increase of NT/N expression is associated with concomitant increases of cellular p21ras protein. We conclude that Ras (both wild-type and activated) enhances expression of the NT/N gene in the gut-derived CaCo2 cell line, suggesting an important role for the Ras signaling pathway in NT/N gene transcription. Our results underscore the possibility that tissue-specific genes (such as NT/N) expressed in distinct subpopulations of the gut may be subject to Ras regulation. Finally, we speculate that the NT/N gene and the CaCo2 and CaCo2-ras cell systems will provide unique models to further define the cellular mechanisms leading to mammalian

  10. Novel bioactive and stable neurotensin peptide analogues capable of delivering radiopharmaceuticals and molecular beacons to tumors.

    PubMed

    Achilefu, Samuel; Srinivasan, Ananthacari; Schmidt, Michelle A; Jimenez, Hermo N; Bugaj, Joseph E; Erion, Jack L

    2003-07-17

    The prevalence of neurotensin receptor (NTR) in several human tumors makes it an attractive target for the delivery of cytotoxic drugs and imaging agents. Native neurotensin (NT) is a tridecapeptide that binds to NTR and induces tumor growth. Unfortunately, NT has a short plasma half-life, which hinders its use for in vivo biomedical applications. Numerous reports suggest that Arg(8)-Arg(9) and Tyr(11)-Ile(12) amide bonds are particularly susceptible to degradation by proteolytic enzymes. Predicated on this observation, we substituted Arg(8), Arg(9), and Ile(12) amino acids with the corresponding commercially available mimics. These surrogate amino acids are amenable to standard Fmoc peptide synthesis strategy, and the resulting compounds are stable in biological media for >4 h and bind to NTR with high affinity. Furthermore, conjugating DTPA to the new peptides and subsequent labeling with (111)In-DTPA for nuclear imaging or fluorescein for optical imaging did not diminish the NTR binding affinities of the peptides. In vivo biodistribution of a representative (111)In-DTPA-NT peptide analogue in SCID mice bearing NTR-positive human adenocarcinoma (HT29) xenograft shows that the compound was primarily retained in tumor tissue (2.2% ID/g) and the kidneys (4.8% ID/g) at 4 h postinjection. Coinjection of cold NT and the radiolabeled NT peptide analogue inhibited the tumor but not the kidney uptake, demonstrating that retention of the radiolabeled compound in tumor tissue was mediated by NTR specific uptake while it accumulates in the kidneys by a nonspecific mechanism. These findings show that the new NT peptide analogues are robust and can deliver imaging agents to NTR-positive tumors such as pancreatic cancer.

  11. Action of neurotensin on size, composition, and growth of pancreas and stomach in the rat.

    PubMed

    Feurle, G E; Müller, B; Ohnheiser, G; Baća, I

    1985-12-01

    Since the gastrointestinal peptide neurotensin has a stimulatory effect on the secretion of the exocrine pancreas and an inhibitory effect on secretion and motility of the stomach, we investigated whether chronic parenteral administration of neurotensin would affect pancreatic and gastric growth. We therefore infused synthetic neurotensin subcutaneously (dose, 43 and 282 pmol X kg-1 X min-1) in 20 Wistar rats for 2 weeks using Alzet osmotic minipumps and compared pancreatic weight, DNA, RNA, protein, lipase, amylase, pancreatic polypeptide and insulin with these parameters in 10 control rats from the same litter with subcutaneously implanted plastic cylinders approximately the size of the minipumps. In another experiment, synthetic neurotensin (836 pmol X kg-1) was injected intraperitoneally three times a day for 3 days in 12 rats. Thereafter, we measured pancreatic DNA and in vitro incorporation of [3H]thymidine into pancreatic DNA. These effects were compared with the actions of caerulein and normal saline. Long term infusion of the high neurotensin dose induced an increase of pancreatic weight (control: 0.87 g, neurotensin: 1.02 g) and of DNA (control: 2.5 micrograms; neurotensin: 3.5 micrograms) and pancreatic polypeptide (control: 2.4 ng; neurotensin: 7.4 ng) contents, whereas pancreatic protein, RNA, amylase and lipase contents were not stimulated. In relation to DNA, these parameters even were significantly depressed. Insulin remained unchanged. Intraperitoneal injection of neurotensin induced an increase of pancreatic DNA content and stimulated [3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA (control: 11 000 dpm/g; neurotensin: 15 800 dpm/g pancreas). Moreover, long-term neurotensin infusion with the high dose led to a rise in protein concentration and an increase in the thickness of the gastric antrum; antral DNA concentration was insignificantly stimulated. Parenteral neurotensin in the doses and at the times administered, led therefore, to hyperplasia of the

  12. [Implication of the neuropeptides methionine enkephalin, neurotensin and somatostatin of the caudal trigeminal nucleus in the experimental migraine].

    PubMed

    Samsam, M; Coveñas, R; Yajeya, J; Ahangari, R; Narváez, J A; Montes-Gonzalo, M C; González-Barón, S

    Primary peptidergic sensory neurons of the trigeminal ganglion that innervate the cerebral dura have been involved in the pathogenesis of headache, including the migraine. In addition, it is known that nociceptive central processes of the trigeminal neurons terminate in the caudal trigeminal nucleus. Moreover, the electrical stimulation of the trigeminal ganglion has been used as an experimental model in order to study the vascular headache, including the migraine. To study whether there is or not a decrease of the immunoreactivity for methionine enkephalin, somatostatin and neurotensin in the caudal trigeminal nucleus after electrical stimulation of the trigeminal ganglion. The trigeminal ganglia of Wistar albino rats of both sexes were electrically stimulated (frequency, 5 Hz; duration, 5 ms; intensity, 0,8 1.4 mA) and unilaterally for five minutes. Sections of the medulla oblongata containing the caudal trigeminal nucleus were obtained and processed for immunocytochemistry, in which specific antibodies were used against methionine enkephalin, neurotensin and somatostatin 28. In stimulated animals, we observed a decrease in the immunoreactivity for the three neuropeptides studied in the stimulated (ipsilateral) side, in comparison with the not stimulated side (contralateral). In control animals (not stimulated) the degree of the immunoreactivity was the same on both sides. 1. The decrease of the immunoreactivity in the ipsilateral side (stimulated) suggests that methionine enkephalin, neurotensin and somatostatin 28 are released in the caudal trigeminal nucleus after electrical stimulation of the trigeminal ganglion; 2. Methionine enkephalin and somatostatin 28 could act in the caudal trigeminal nucleus as inhibitors (with antinociceptive action) of another released exciters neuropeptides (with nociceptive action); and 3. These data will allow in the future to try new therapeutic strategies (e.g., the inhibition of the receptors implicated.), in order to

  13. Neurotensin and bombesin, a relationship between their effects on body temperature and locomotor activity?

    PubMed

    van Wimersma Greidanus, T B; Schijff, J A; Noteboom, J L; Spit, M C; Bruins, L; van Zummeren, B M; Rinkel, G J

    1984-08-01

    Neurotensin and bombesin have been tested for their effects on body temperature and locomotor activity in an open field. Both peptides induce hypothermia and suppress ambulation and rearing. The time curves of the hypothermic effects of both peptides appear to be rather similar, although bombesin is a more potent hypothermic agent than neurotensin. The time curves of the effects on locomotor activity appear to be quite different. The suppressive effect of neurotensin on locomotor activity is relatively short lasting and reaches its maximum at approximately 32 minutes. The effect of bombesin follows a different time curve and shows two peaks, suggesting that two different mechanisms are involved in the suppressive action of bombesin on locomotor activity. Calculation of the correlation coefficients between the effects of neurotensin and of bombesin on body temperature and on locomotor activity (ambulation) suggest that a causal relationship between these two effects is not likely, in particular for neurotensin.

  14. Suicide HSVtk Gene Delivery by Neurotensin-Polyplex Nanoparticles via the Bloodstream and GCV Treatment Specifically Inhibit the Growth of Human MDA-MB-231 Triple Negative Breast Cancer Tumors Xenografted in Athymic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Castillo-Rodríguez, Rosa A.; Arango-Rodríguez, Martha L.; Escobedo, Lourdes; Hernandez-Baltazar, Daniel; Gompel, Anne

    2014-01-01

    The human breast adenocarcinoma cell line MDA-MB-231 has the triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) phenotype, which is an aggressive subtype with no specific treatment. MDA-MB-231 cells express neurotensin receptor type 1 (NTSR1), which makes these cells an attractive target of therapeutic genes that are delivered by the neurotensin (NTS)-polyplex nanocarrier via the bloodstream. We addressed the relevance of this strategy for TNBC treatment using NTS-polyplex nanoparticles harboring the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSVtk) suicide gene and its complementary prodrug ganciclovir (GCV). The reporter gene encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) was used as a control. NTS-polyplex successfully transfected both genes in cultured MDA-MB-231 cells. The transfection was demonstrated pharmacologically to be dependent on activation of NTSR1. The expression of HSVtk gene decreased cell viability by 49% (P<0.0001) and induced apoptosis in cultured MDA-MB-231 cells after complementary GCV treatment. In the MDA-MB-231 xenograft model, NTS-polyplex nanoparticles carrying either the HSVtk gene or GFP gene were injected into the tumors or via the bloodstream. Both routes of administration allowed the NTS-polyplex nanoparticles to reach and transfect tumorous cells. HSVtk expression and GCV led to apoptosis, as shown by the presence of cleaved caspase-3 and Apostain immunoreactivity, and significantly inhibited the tumor growth (55–60%) (P<0.001). At the end of the experiment, the weight of tumors transfected with the HSVtk gene was 55% less than that of control tumors (P<0.05). The intravenous transfection did not induce apoptosis in peripheral organs. Our results offer a promising gene therapy for TNBC using the NTS-polyplex nanocarrier. PMID:24824754

  15. Suicide HSVtk gene delivery by neurotensin-polyplex nanoparticles via the bloodstream and GCV Treatment specifically inhibit the growth of human MDA-MB-231 triple negative breast cancer tumors xenografted in athymic mice.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Rodríguez, Rosa A; Arango-Rodríguez, Martha L; Escobedo, Lourdes; Hernandez-Baltazar, Daniel; Gompel, Anne; Forgez, Patricia; Martínez-Fong, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The human breast adenocarcinoma cell line MDA-MB-231 has the triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) phenotype, which is an aggressive subtype with no specific treatment. MDA-MB-231 cells express neurotensin receptor type 1 (NTSR1), which makes these cells an attractive target of therapeutic genes that are delivered by the neurotensin (NTS)-polyplex nanocarrier via the bloodstream. We addressed the relevance of this strategy for TNBC treatment using NTS-polyplex nanoparticles harboring the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSVtk) suicide gene and its complementary prodrug ganciclovir (GCV). The reporter gene encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) was used as a control. NTS-polyplex successfully transfected both genes in cultured MDA-MB-231 cells. The transfection was demonstrated pharmacologically to be dependent on activation of NTSR1. The expression of HSVtk gene decreased cell viability by 49% (P<0.0001) and induced apoptosis in cultured MDA-MB-231 cells after complementary GCV treatment. In the MDA-MB-231 xenograft model, NTS-polyplex nanoparticles carrying either the HSVtk gene or GFP gene were injected into the tumors or via the bloodstream. Both routes of administration allowed the NTS-polyplex nanoparticles to reach and transfect tumorous cells. HSVtk expression and GCV led to apoptosis, as shown by the presence of cleaved caspase-3 and Apostain immunoreactivity, and significantly inhibited the tumor growth (55-60%) (P<0.001). At the end of the experiment, the weight of tumors transfected with the HSVtk gene was 55% less than that of control tumors (P<0.05). The intravenous transfection did not induce apoptosis in peripheral organs. Our results offer a promising gene therapy for TNBC using the NTS-polyplex nanocarrier.

  16. Design and structure-activity relationships of C-terminal cyclic neurotensin fragment analogues.

    PubMed

    Sefler, A M; He, J X; Sawyer, T K; Holub, K E; Omecinsky, D O; Reily, M D; Thanabal, V; Akunne, H C; Cody, W L

    1995-01-20

    Neurotensin (NT) is a linear tridecapeptide with a broad range of central and peripheral pharmacological effects. The C-terminal hexapeptide of NT (NT8-13) has been shown to possess similar properties to NT itself, and in fact, an analogue of NT8-13 (N alpha MeArg8-Lys-Pro-Trp-Tle-Leu13, Tle = tert-leucine) has been reported to possess central activity after peripheral administration. Cyclic derivatives of this hexapeptide were synthesized by a combination of solution and solid-phase peptide synthetic methodologies, and several analogues had low nanomolar binding affinity for the NT receptor. In particular, cyclo[Arg-Lys-Pro-Trp-Glu]-Leu (cyclized between the alpha amine of Arg and the gamma carboxylate of Glu) possessed 16 nM NT receptor affinity and was determined to be an agonist in vitro. 1H-NMR and 13C-edited 1H-NMR spectroscopy were performed on this and related cyclic analogues to help identify structural properties which may be important for receptor recognition. These cyclic peptides represent novel molecular probes to further investigate NT receptor pharmacology, as well as to advance our understanding of the structure-conformation relationships of NT and to help establish a working basis for additional pharmacophore mapping studies.

  17. Identification of the first small-molecule ligand of the neuronal receptor sortilin and structure determination of the receptor–ligand complex

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Jacob Lauwring; Schrøder, Tenna Juul; Christensen, Søren; Strandbygård, Dorthe; Pallesen, Lone Tjener; García-Alai, Maria Marta; Lindberg, Samsa; Langgård, Morten; Eskildsen, Jørgen Calí; David, Laurent; Tagmose, Lena; Simonsen, Klaus Baek; Maltas, Philip James; Rønn, Lars Christian Biilmann; de Jong, Inge E. M.; Malik, Ibrahim John; Egebjerg, Jan; Karlsson, Jens-Jacob; Uppalanchi, Srinivas; Sakumudi, Durga Rao; Eradi, Pradheep; Watson, Steven P.; Thirup, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Sortilin is a type I membrane glycoprotein belonging to the vacuolar protein sorting 10 protein (Vps10p) family of sorting receptors and is most abundantly expressed in the central nervous system. Sortilin has emerged as a key player in the regulation of neuronal viability and has been implicated as a possible therapeutic target in a range of disorders. Here, the identification of AF40431, the first reported small-molecule ligand of sortilin, is reported. Crystals of the sortilin–AF40431 complex were obtained by co-crystallization and the structure of the complex was solved to 2.7 Å resolution. AF40431 is bound in the neurotensin-binding site of sortilin, with the leucine moiety of AF40431 mimicking the binding mode of the C-terminal leucine of neurotensin and the 4-methyl­umbelliferone moiety of AF40431 forming π-stacking with a phenylalanine. PMID:24531479

  18. Type 3 Muscarinic Receptors Contribute to Clearance of Citrobacter rodentium

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Although the alpha 7 nicotinic receptor exerts anti-inflammatory effects on immune cells, the role of muscarinic receptors in mucosal homeostasis, response to enteric pathogens, and modulation of immune cell function is undefined. The contribution of type 3 muscarinic receptor (M3R) to mucosal homeo...

  19. Increased Brain Neurotensin and NTSR2 Lead to Weak Nociception in NTSR3/Sortilin Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Devader, Christelle; Moreno, Sébastien; Roulot, Morgane; Deval, Emmanuel; Dix, Thomas; Morales, Carlos R.; Mazella, Jean

    2016-01-01

    The neuropeptide neurotensin (NT) elicits numerous pharmacological effects through three different receptors (NTSR1, NTSR2, and NTSR3 also called sortilin). Pharmacological approaches and generation of NTSR1 and NTSR2-deficient mice allowed to determine the NT-induced antipsychotic like behavior, the inhibitory of weak fear memory and the nociceptive signaling in a rat formalin tonic pain model to NTSR1. Conversely, the effects of NT on thermal and tonic nociceptions were mediated by NTSR2. However, the role of NTSR3/sortilin on the neurotensinergic system was not investigated. Here, by using C57Bl/6J mouse model in which the gene coding for NTSR3/sortilin has been inactivated, we observed a modification of the expression of both NTSR2 and NT itself. Quantitative PCR and protein expression using Western blot analyses and AlphaLisa™ technology resulted in the observation that brain NTSR2 as well as brain and blood NT were 2-fold increased in KO mice leading to a resistance of these mice to thermal and chemical pain. These data confirm that NTSR3/sortilin interacts with other NT receptors (i.e., NTSR2) and that its deletion modifies also the affinity of this receptor to NT. PMID:27932946

  20. Effect of a novel neurotensin analog, NT69L, on nicotine-induced alterations in monoamine levels in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yanqi; Boules, Mona; Shaw, Amanda M; Williams, Katrina; Fredrickson, Paul; Richelson, Elliott

    2008-09-22

    NT69L, is a novel neurotensin (8-13) analog that participates in the modulation of the dopaminergic pathways implicated in addiction to psychostimulants. NT69L blocks nicotine-induced hyperactivity as well as the initiation and expression of sensitization in rats. Recent evidence suggests that stimulation of mesocorticolimbic dopamine system, with influences from the other monoamine systems, e.g. norepinephrine and serotonin, is involved in nicotine's reinforcing properties. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of pretreatment with NT69L on nicotine-induced changes in monoamine levels in the rat brain using in vivo microdialysis. Acute or chronic (0.4 mg/kg, sc, once daily for 2 weeks) administration of nicotine elicited increases in extracellular levels of dopamine, dopamine metabolites, norepinephrine, or serotonin in medial prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens shell, and core of rats. Pretreatment with NT69L (1 mg/kg, intraperitoneally, ip) administered 40 min before nicotine injection significantly attenuated the acute nicotine-evoked increases in norepinephrine levels in medial prefrontal cortex, dopamine and serotonin in nucleus accumbens shell. After chronic nicotine administration, pretreatment of NT69L markedly reversed the increase in dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens core. NT69L's attenuation of some of the biochemical effects of acute and chronic nicotine is consistent with this peptide's attenuation of nicotine-induced behavioral effects. These data further support a role for NT69L or other neurotensin receptor agonists to treat nicotine addiction.

  1. Neurotensin induces hyperplasia of the pancreas and growth of the gastric antrum in rats.

    PubMed

    Feurle, G E; Müller, B; Rix, E

    1987-01-01

    We investigated whether chronic subcutaneous infusion of neurotensin during 14 days would affect pancreatic and gastric growth of rats. In another experiment, neurotensin (836 pmol/kg) was injected intraperitoneally three times a day for three days in 12 rats. Thereafter, pancreatic DNA and in vitro incorporation of 3H-thymidine into pancreatic DNA was determined. Long term infusion of 282 pmol/kg neurotensin induced an increase of pancreatic weight, DNA, and pancreatic polypeptide, whereas pancreatic protein, RNA, amylase and lipase contents were not increased. In relation to DNA, even these parameters were significantly depressed. Insulin remained unchanged. Neurotensin, therefore, caused hyperplasia of the pancreas. Intraperitoneal injection of neurotensin induced an increase of pancreatic DNA content and stimulated 3H-thymidine incorporation into DNA, whereas caerulein only augmented 3H-thymidine incorporation. Moreover, long term neurotensin infusion led to a rise in protein concentration and an increase in the thickness of the gastric antrum; antral DNA concentration was insignificantly stimulated. Neurotensin, therefore, can act as a trophic factor on pancreas and gastric antrum of the rat.

  2. Assignment and conformation of neurotensin in aqueous solution by 1H NMR.

    PubMed

    Nieto, J L; Rico, M; Santoro, J; Herranz, J; Bermejo, F J

    1986-09-01

    A complete assignment of exchangeable and unexchangeable proton resonances of neurotensin 1-13 in aqueous solution has been carried out with the help of its 1-8 and 8-13 fragments. To detect formation of a secondary structure, the effects of peptide fragmentation, temperature decrease, pH changes and addition of denaturing agents on the neurotensin 1H NMR spectrum were investigated. The small changes observed in all cases support the conclusion that neurotensin exists mainly as a flexible random coiled polypeptidic chain in aqueous solution in agreement with previous CD studies.

  3. A neurotensin analog blocks cocaine-conditioned place preference and reinstatement.

    PubMed

    Boules, Mona; Netz, Rebecca; Fredrickson, Paul A; Richelson, Elliott

    2016-04-01

    Neurotensin (NT) is a neuropeptide that acts as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator in the central nervous system. Several studies suggest a therapeutic role for NT analogs in nicotine and other psychostimulant addictions. We studied the effects of the nonselective NT receptor agonist NT69L, which has equal affinity for the two major NT receptors, NTS1 and NTS2, on the expression of cocaine-conditioned place preference (cocaine-CPP) and reinstatement after extinction. Robust cocaine-CPP was obtained after 5 days of conditioning. Extinction was induced using eight repeated daily injections of saline. Reinstatement was prompted by priming with one injection of cocaine (12 mg/kg intraperitoneally). On the test day, NT69L (1 mg/kg intraperitoneally) was administered 30 min before assessing cocaine-CPP. Extinction led to the loss of cocaine-CPP. One injection of cocaine (12 mg/kg intraperitoneally) for cocaine priming reinstated cocaine-CPP. NT69L blocked cocaine-CPP reinstatement in cocaine-primed animals. In addition, NT69L blocked cocaine-CPP reinstatement when administered before priming with cocaine. Thus, the NT agonist NT69L blocked both cocaine-CPP and reinstatement to cocaine preference. NT69L may exert this action by modulating the mesocorticolimbic dopamine and glutamatergic pathways involved in addiction and relapse processes. Therefore, NT agonists may represent a novel therapy for the treatment of addiction to cocaine and possibly to other psychostimulants.

  4. Use of Molecular Modeling to Design Selective-NTS2 Neurotensin Analogues.

    PubMed

    Fanelli, Roberto; Floquet, Nicolas; Besserer-Offroy, Élie; Delort, Bartholomé; Vivancos, Mélanie; Longpré, Jean-Michel; Renault, Pedro; Martinez, Jean; Sarret, Philippe; Cavelier, Florine

    2017-04-03

    Neurotensin exerts potent analgesia by acting at both NTS1 and NTS2 receptors, whereas NTS1 activation also results in other physiological effects, such as hypotension and hypothermia. Here, we used molecular modeling approach to design highly-selective NTS2 ligands by investigating the docking of novel NT[8-13] compounds at both NTS1 and NTS2 sites. Molecular dynamics simulations revealed an interaction of the Tyr(11) residue of NT[8-13] with an acidic residue (Glu(179)) located in the ECL2 of hNTS2 or with a basic residue (Arg(212)) at the same position in hNTS1. The importance of the residue at position 11 for NTS1/NTS2 selectivity was further demonstrated by the design of new NT analogues bearing basic (Lys, Orn) or acid (Asp or Glu) function. As predicted by the molecular dynamics simulations, binding of NT[8-13] analogues harboring a Lys(11) exhibited higher affinity toward the hNTS1-R212E mutant receptor, in which Arg(212) was substituted by the negatively charged Glu residue.

  5. Structure-Activity Relationship Studies of Amino Acid Substitutions in Radiolabeled Neurotensin Conjugates.

    PubMed

    Mascarin, Alba; Valverde, Ibai E; Mindt, Thomas L

    2016-01-05

    Radiolabeled derivatives of the peptide neurotensin (NT) and its binding sequence NT(8-13) have been studied as potential imaging probes and therapeutics for NT-1-receptor-positive cancer. However, a direct comparison of reported NT analogues, even if radiolabeled with the same radionuclide, is difficult because different techniques and models have been used for preclinical evaluations. In an effort to identify a suitable derivative of NT(8-13) for radiotracer development, we herein report a side-by-side in vitro comparison of radiometallated NT derivatives bearing some of the most commonly reported amino acid substitutions in their sequence. Performed investigations include cell internalization experiments, determinations of receptor affinity, measurements of the distribution coefficient, and blood serum stability studies. Of the [(177)Lu]-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA)-labeled examples studied, analogues of NT(8-13) containing a short hydrophilic tetraethylene glycol (PEG4 ) spacer between the peptide and the radiometal complex, and a minimum number of substitutions of amino acid residues, exhibited the most promising properties in vitro. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Neurotensin agonist attenuates nicotine potentiation to cocaine sensitization.

    PubMed

    Fredrickson, Paul; Boules, Mona; Stennett, Bethany; Richelson, Elliott

    2014-03-01

    Tobacco usage typically precedes illicit drug use in adolescent and young adult populations. Several animal studies suggest nicotine increases the risk for subsequent cocaine abuse, and may be a negative prognostic factor for treatment of cocaine addiction; i.e., a "gateway drug". Neurotensin (NT) is a 13-amino acid neuropeptide that modulates dopamine, acetylcholine, glutamate, and GABA neurotransmission in brain reward pathways. NT69L, a NT(8-13) analog, blocks behavioral sensitization (an animal model for psychostimulant addiction) to nicotine, and nicotine self-administration in rats. The present study tested the effect of NT69L on the potentiating effects of nicotine on cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization. Male Wistar rats were injected daily for seven days with nicotine or saline (control) followed by four daily injections of cocaine. NT69L was administered 30 min prior to the last cocaine injection. Behavior was recorded with the use of activity chambers. Subchronic administration of nicotine enhanced cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization in Wistar rats, consistent with an hypothesized gateway effect. These behavioral effects of cocaine were attenuated by pretreatment with NT69L. The effect of the neurotensin agonist on cocaine sensitization in the nicotine treated group indicated a possible therapeutic effect for cocaine addiction, even in the presence of enhanced behavioral sensitization induced by nicotine.

  7. Impact of the proline residue on ligand binding of neurotensin receptor 2 (NTS2)-selective peptide-peptoid hybrids.

    PubMed

    Held, Cornelia; Hübner, Harald; Kling, Ralf; Nagel, Yvonne A; Wennemers, Helma; Gmeiner, Peter

    2013-05-01

    To investigate the binding mode and structure-activity relationships (SARs) of selective neurotensin receptor 2 (NTS2) ligands, novel peptide-peptoid hybrids that simulate the function of the endogenous ligand were developed. Starting from our recently described NTS2 ligands of type 1, structural variants of type 2 and the metabolically stable analogues 3 a,b were developed. Replacement of the proline unit by a collection of structural surrogates and evaluation of the respective molecular probes for NTS2 affinity and selectivity indicated similar SARs as described for NT(8-13) derivatives bound to the subtype NTS1. Peptide-peptoid hybrids 2 d, 3 a,b showed substantial NTS2 binding affinity (Ki =8.1-16 nM) and 2400-8600-fold selectivity over NTS1. The thiazolidine derivative 3 b showed metabolic stability over 32 h in a serum degradation assay. In an inositol phosphate accumulation assay, the neurotensin mimetics 3 a and 3 b displayed an inhibition of constitutive activity exceeding 1.7-2.0 times the activity of NT(8-13). The fluorinated derivative 3 a could afford attractive opportunities to detect NTS2 by (19) F magnetic resonance imaging.

  8. Neurotensin-like immunoreactivity in the brain of the chicken, Gallus domesticus

    PubMed Central

    ESPOSITO, VINCENZO; DE GIROLAMO, PAOLO; GARGIULO, GIULIANA

    1997-01-01

    The distribution of neurons containing neurotensin in the central nervous system of the chicken was studied immunohistochemically. The majority of the neurotensin-immunoreactive (-ir) cell bodies were located in the hypothalamus. Extensive groups of labelled perikarya were found in the hypothalamic periventricular nucleus and in the magnocellular periventricular nucleus. In addition, ir-perikarya were scattered throughout the lateral hypothalamic area and in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus. The only extrahypothalamic site of ir-perikarya was in the region immediately under the lateral forebrain bundle. Immunoreactive fibres were detected in the hippocampus, the parahippocampal area, the hypothalamus, the region of the tractus corticohabenular and corticoseptal tracts, the median eminence, the region above the posterior commissure and in the intercollicular nucleus. The distribution pattern of the neurotensin-ir neurons suggests that neurotensin-like peptides are involved in the hypophysiotropic functions. PMID:9449073

  9. Effects of neurotensin on small bowel propulsion in intact and vagotomized rats.

    PubMed

    Wilén, T; Gustavsson, S; Jung, B

    1982-09-01

    The effects of intravenous infusion of neurotensin on small bowel motility was studied in conscious rats. During 1 h a standardized test meal of glucose, polyethyleneglycol (PEG) 3000, phenol red and 125I-labelled polyvinylpyrrolidone was administered via a permanent gastric catheter and simultaneously the bile-excreted radio-pharmaceutic 99Tcm-Solco-HIDA was infused intravenously. Immediately after the infusions the gastrointestinal specimen was excised and examined for distribution of radioactivity. Both doses of neurotensin (0.1 and 0.3 microgram . kg-1 . h-1) resulted in an increase in the neurotensin-like immunoreactivity (NTLI) of plasma to levels similar to that found after a fatty meal. Concurrently the small bowel transport pattern was changed from an interdigestive state to one similar to that found after a meal. In animals not receiving the gastric test meal, neurotensin (0.1-0.5 microgram . kg-1 . h-) had no effect on motility. Infusion of the gastric test meal alone did not change the interdigestive motility or the NTLI value. This indicates that the presence of gastric infusates potentiates the effect of neurotensin on small bowel motility. The motility response to neurotensin did not differ between intact and vagotomized animals. This contrasts to earlier findings that the small bowel motility response to a fatty meal is dependent on intact vagal function. Thus, a difference in the mechanism responsible for the motility responses between a fatty meal and neurotensin exists. In view of this finding it seems reasonable to assume that neurotensin cannot be the only factor responsible for the shift in motility found after a fatty meal.

  10. Enkephalin, neurotensin, and substance P immunoreactivite neurones of the rat GP following 6-hydroxydopamine lesion of the substantia nigra.

    PubMed

    Martorana, A; Fusco, F R; D'Angelo, V; Sancesario, G; Bernardi, G

    2003-10-01

    The ascending dopaminergic tract influences the activity of GP neurones in normal conditions. Its lesion may lead to an up-regulation of activity in this nucleus that is contrary to what would be expected based on the current model of the basal ganglia function. In this study we investigated the occurrence of enkephalin, neurotensin, and substance P immunoreactivity of the rat globus pallidus (GP) following lesion of the nigrostriatal pathway induced by the injection of the toxin 6-hydroxydopamine into the substantia nigra. Since 60-65% of GP neurones are immunopositive for parvalbumin, the immunoreactivity for peptides was evaluated, considering the different content in parvalbumin of pallidal neurones types, at early and chronic phases of denervation. Our results showed that a lesion of the nigrostriatal pathway induced the expression of enkephalin, neurotensin, and substance P immunoreactivity in numerous pallidal cell bodies. Each subgroup of neurones showed a different pattern of distribution. These modifications equally involved the two main subclasses of neurones. However parvalbumin-negative neurones were modified to a larger extent than the parvalbumin-positive ones. These data indicate that nigrostriatal lesion induces in a wide and unexpected peptide synthesis at least in three different subgroups of GP neurones. These modifications might be useful to further histochemically characterise neurones of the GP.

  11. Neurotensin and substance P: differential effects on plasma cholesterol levels in conscious ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Raju, K; Vijayan, E

    1981-08-01

    Circulating plasma cholesterol levels were measured in conscious ovariectomized rats, bearing an indwelling silastic catheter in the external jugular vein, after intravenous (i.v.) pulse injection of 100 microliter 0.9% NaCl containing varying doses of neurotensin and/or substance P. Control injections of saline or decapeptide LH-RH or phosphate buffer did not modify plasma cholesterol levels. 10 or 20 micrograms doses of neurotensin produced a significant and dose-related increase in plasma cholesterol levels while similar doses of substance P had an opposite effect and induced a significant decline in plasma cholesterol levels in ovariectomized rats. 4-APP, a drug which selectively inhibits hepatic secretion of lipoproteins, significantly lowers plasma cholesterol to levels comparable to those produced by substance P. 4-APP and substance P induced hypocholesterolemia was readily reversed by a single dose of neurotensin. These findings indicate that neurotensin acts to increase circulating cholesterol levels and substance P antagonizes this hypercholesterolemic effect of neurotensin presumably by acting at some step in cholesterol transport. Reversal of the inhibitory effects of 4-APP and substance P on blood cholesterol by neurotensin may be through its action on hepatic secretion of lipoproteins, since 4-APP is known to lower circulating cholesterol by its specific action on hepatic secretion of lipoproteins.

  12. Cannabinoid type 1 receptor: another arrow in the adipocytes' bow.

    PubMed

    Bellocchio, L; Cervino, C; Vicennati, V; Pasquali, R; Pagotto, U

    2008-05-01

    The endocannabinoid system has recently emerged as an important modulator of several functions of adipose tissue, including cell proliferation, differentiation and secretion. Here, we will review the effects of cannabinoid type 1 (CB(1)) receptor activation/blockade in adipocytes by summarising the data in the literature since the discovery of the presence of this receptor in adipose tissue. We will also discuss our original data obtained in mouse 3T3-L1 adipocyte cells using WIN55 212, a CB(1)/CB(2) receptor agonist and SR141716 (rimonabant), a specific CB(1) receptor antagonist, respectively, in different experimental settings.

  13. Effect of methamphetamine self-administration on neurotensin systems of the basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Frankel, Paul S; Hoonakker, Amanda J; Alburges, Mario E; McDougall, Jacob W; McFadden, Lisa M; Fleckenstein, Annette E; Hanson, Glen R

    2011-03-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) dependence causes alarming personal and social damage. Even though many of the problems associated with abuse of METH are related to its profound actions on dopamine (DA) basal ganglia systems, there currently are no approved medications to treat METH addiction. For this reason, we and others have examined the METH-induced responses of neurotensin (NT) systems in the basal ganglia. This neuropeptide is associated with inhibitory feedback pathways to nigrostriatal DA projections, and NT tissue levels are elevated in response to high doses of noncontingent METH because of its increased synthesis in the striatonigral pathway. The present study reports the contingent responses of NT in the basal ganglia to self-administration of METH (SAM). Intravenous infusions of METH linked to appropriate lever-pressing behavior by rats significantly elevated NT content in both dorsal striatum (210%) and substantia nigra (202%). In these same structures, NT levels were also elevated in yoked METH animals (160 and 146%, respectively) but not as much as in the SAM rats. These effects were blocked by a D1, but not D2, antagonist. A NT agonist administered before the day 5 of operant behavior blocked lever-pressing behavior in responding rats, but a NT antagonist had no significant effect on this behavior. These are the first reports that NT systems associated with striatonigral pathway are significantly altered during METH self-administration, and our findings suggest that activation of NT receptors during maintenance of operant responding reduces the associated lever-pressing behavior.

  14. Neurotensin Modulates the Migratory and Inflammatory Response of Macrophages under Hyperglycemic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Moura, Liane I. F.; Silva, Lucília; Leal, Ermelindo C.; Tellechea, Ana; Cruz, Maria Teresa; Carvalho, Eugénia

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) are characterized by an unsatisfactory inflammatory and migratory response. Skin inflammation involves the participation of many cells and particularly macrophages. Macrophage function can be modulated by neuropeptides; however, little is known regarding the role of neurotensin (NT) as a modulator of macrophages under inflammatory and hyperglycemic conditions. RAW 264.7 cells were maintained at 10/30 mM glucose, stimulated with/without LPS (1 μg/mL), and treated with/without NT(10 nM). The results show that NT did not affect macrophage viability. However, NT reverted the hyperglycemia-induced impair in the migration of macrophages. The expression of IL-6 and IL-1β was significantly increased under 10 mM glucose in the presence of NT, while IL-1β and IL-12 expression significantly decreased under inflammatory and hyperglycemic conditions. More importantly, high glucose modulates NT and NT receptor expression under normal and inflammatory conditions. These results highlight the effect of NT on cell migration, which is strongly impaired under hyperglycemic conditions, as well as its effect in decreasing the proinflammatory status of macrophages under hyperglycemic and inflammatory conditions. These findings provide new insights into the potential therapeutic role of NT in chronic wounds, such as in DFU, characterized by a deficit in the migratory properties of cells and a chronic proinflammatory status. PMID:24000330

  15. Diverse Roles of Neurotensin Agonists in the Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Boules, Mona; Li, Zhimin; Smith, Kristin; Fredrickson, Paul; Richelson, Elliott

    2013-01-01

    Neurotensin (NT) is a tridecapeptide that is found in the central nervous system (CNS) and the gastrointestinal tract. NT behaves as a neurotransmitter in the brain and as a hormone in the gut. Additionally, NT acts as a neuromodulator to several neurotransmitter systems including dopaminergic, sertonergic, GABAergic, glutamatergic, and cholinergic systems. Due to its association with such a wide variety of neurotransmitters, NT has been implicated in the pathophysiology of several CNS disorders such as schizophrenia, drug abuse, Parkinson’s disease (PD), pain, central control of blood pressure, eating disorders, as well as, cancer and inflammation. The present review will focus on the role that NT and its analogs play in schizophrenia, endocrine function, pain, psychostimulant abuse, and PD. PMID:23526754

  16. Intrarenal dopamine D1-like receptor stimulation induces natriuresis via an angiotensin type-2 receptor mechanism.

    PubMed

    Salomone, Leslie J; Howell, Nancy L; McGrath, Helen E; Kemp, Brandon A; Keller, Susanna R; Gildea, John J; Felder, Robin A; Carey, Robert M

    2007-01-01

    We explored the effects of direct renal interstitial stimulation of dopamine D(1)-like receptors with fenoldopam, a selective D(1)-like receptor agonist, on renal sodium excretion and angiotensin type-2 (AT(2)) receptor expression and cellular distribution in rats on a high-sodium intake. In contrast to vehicle-infused rats, sodium excretion increased in fenoldopam-infused rats during each of three 1-hour experimental periods (<0.001). Blood pressure was unaffected by vehicle or fenoldopam. In plasma membranes of renal cortical cells, fenoldopam increased D(1) receptor expression by 38% (P<0.05) and AT(2) receptor expression by 69% (P<0.01). In plasma membranes of renal proximal tubule cells, fenoldopam increased AT(2) receptor expression by 108% (P<0.01). In outer apical membranes of proximal tubule cells, fenoldopam increased AT(2) receptor expression by 59% (P<0.01). No significant change in total AT(2) receptor protein expression was detectable in response to fenoldopam. Fenoldopam-induced natriuresis was abolished when either PD-123319, a specific AT(2) receptor antagonist, or SCH-23390, a potent D(1)-like receptor antagonist, was coinfused with F (P<0.001). In summary, direct renal D(1)-like receptor activation increased urinary sodium excretion and the plasma membrane expression of AT(2) receptors in renal cortical and proximal tubule cells. D(1)-like receptor-induced natriuresis was abolished by intrarenal AT(2) receptor inhibition. These findings suggest that dopaminergic regulation of sodium excretion involves recruitment of AT(2) receptors to the outer plasma membranes of renal proximal tubule cells and that dopamine-induced natriuresis requires AT(2) receptor activation.

  17. Autoradiographic localization of mu and delta opioid receptors in the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system

    SciTech Connect

    Dilts, R.P. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    In vitro autoradiographic techniques were coupled with selective chemical lesions of the A10 dopamine cells and intrinsic perikarya of the region to delineate the anatomical localization of mu and delta opioid receptors, as well as, neurotensin receptors. Mu opioid receptors were labeled with {sup 125}I-DAGO. Delta receptors were labeled with {sup 125}I-DPDPE. Neurotensin receptors were labeled with {sup 125}I-NT3. Unilateral lesions of the dopamine perikarya were produced by injections of 6-OHDA administered in the ventral mesencephalon. Unilateral lesions of intrinsic perikarya were induced by injections of quinolinic acid in to the A10 dopamine cell region. Unilateral lesions produced with 6-OHDA resulted in the loss of neurotensin receptors in the A10 region and within the terminal fields. Mu opioid receptors were unaffected by this treatment, but delta opioid receptors increased in the contralateral striatum and nucleus accumbens following 6-OHDA administration. Quinolinic acid produced a reduction of mu opioid receptors within the A10 region with a concomitant reduction in neurotensin receptors in both the cell body region and terminal fields. These results are consistent with a variety of biochemical and behavioral data which suggest the indirect modulation of dopamine transmission by the opioids. In contrast these results strongly indicate a direct modulation of the mesolimbic dopamine system by neurotensin.

  18. Role of endopeptidase 3.4.24.16 in the catabolism of neurotensin, in vivo, in the vascularly perfused dog ileum.

    PubMed

    Barelli, H; Fox-Threlkeld, J E; Dive, V; Daniel, E E; Vincent, J P; Checler, F

    1994-05-01

    1. The degradation of tritiated and unlabelled neurotensin (NT) following close intra-arterial infusion of the peptides in ileal segments of anaesthetized dogs was examined. 2. Intact NT and its catabolites recovered in the venous effluents were purified by chromatography on Sep-Pak columns followed by reverse-phase h.p.l.c. and identified by their retention times or by radioimmunoassay. 3. The half-life of neurotensin was estimated to be between 2 and 6 min. Four labelled catabolites, corresponding to free tyrosine, neurotensin (1-8), neurotensin (1-10) and neurotensin (1-11), were detected. 4. Neurotensin (1-11) was mainly generated by a phosphoramidon-sensitive cleavage, probably elicited by endopeptidase 24-11. 5. Two endopeptidase 3.4.24.16 inhibitors, phosphodiepryl 03 and the dipeptide Pro-Ile, dose-dependently potentiated the recovery of intact neurotensin. Furthermore, both agents inhibited the formation of neurotensin (1-10), the product that results from the hydrolysis of neurotensin by purified endopeptidase 3.4.24.16. In contrast, the endopeptidase 3.4.24.15 inhibitor Cpp-AAY-pAB neither protected neurotensin from degradation nor modified the production of neurotensin (1-10). 6. Our study is the first evidence to indicate that endopeptidase 3.4.24.16 contributes to the catabolism of neurotensin, in vivo, in the dog intestine.

  19. Use of antiserum to neurotensin reveals a physiological role for the peptide in rat prolactin release.

    PubMed Central

    Vijayan, E; Carraway, R; Leeman, S E; McCann, S M

    1988-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that the brain peptide neurotensin can stimulate prolactin release by direct action on the pituitary gland, whereas its action within the hypothalamus is inhibitory. The inhibitory action is mediated by the release of dopamine into the hypophyseal portal veins, which deliver the neurotransmitter to the anterior pituitary gland to inhibit prolactin release. Our experiments were done to evaluate the physiologic significance of these neurotensin actions by injecting the globulin fraction of highly specific neurotensin antiserum either intravenously or intraventricularly. Injection into the third ventricle of either 1 or 3 microliter of neurotensin antiserum significantly increased plasma prolactin concentrations in (i) ovariectomized and (ii) ovariectomized estrogen- and progesterone-primed rats within 1 hr of injection. The response was more pronounced in the ovariectomized than in the ovariectomized estrogen- and progesterone-treated animals and was dose related. Intraventricular injection of these doses of neurotensin antiserum also evoked elevations in plasma prolactin in intact males, which were significant but smaller in magnitude than those seen in female rats. To evaluate the effect of the antiserum on the pituitary directly, the antiserum was injected intravenously at a dose of 40 microliter, which was sufficient to block the blood pressure-lowering effect of neurotensin. After the intravenous injection of antiserum, a highly significant suppression of plasma prolactin occurred, detectable when first measured at 1 hr after injection in both ovariectomized and ovariectomized estrogen- and progesterone-treated animals; however, the intravenous injection of antiserum had no significant effect on the prolactin release in males. These data indicate the physiological significance of the hypothalamic inhibitory actions of neurotensin on prolactin release, which are probably mediated by its stimulation of dopamine release that in turn

  20. Constitutively Active ALK2 Receptor Mutants Require Type II Receptor Cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Bagarova, Jana; Vonner, Ashley J.; Armstrong, Kelli A.; Börgermann, Jan; Lai, Carol S. C.; Deng, Donna Y.; Beppu, Hideyuki; Alfano, Ivan; Filippakopoulos, Panagis; Morrell, Nicholas W.; Bullock, Alex N.; Knaus, Petra; Mishina, Yuji

    2013-01-01

    Constitutively activating mutations in receptor kinases recruit downstream effector pathways independently of upstream signaling, with consequences ranging from developmental syndromes to cancer. Classic fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is a congenital syndrome resulting from highly conserved activating mutations of the glycine-serine-rich (GS) regulatory domain of ACVR1, encoding bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) type I receptor ALK2, which lead to inappropriate signaling and heterotopic ossification of soft tissues. It is unclear if constitutively active mutant ALK2 receptors (caALK2) can function independently of signaling complexes with type II receptors and ligands. We found that ablation of BmpRII and ActRIIa abrogated BMP ligand-mediated and caALK2-mediated signaling and transcription in cells and disrupted caALK2-induced heterotopic ossification in mice. Signaling via GS domain ALK2 mutants could be restored by the expression of either BMP type II receptor. The contribution of BMP type II receptors was independent of their ligand-binding or kinase function but was dependent upon an intact cytoplasmic domain. These data demonstrate that GS domain ALK2 mutants act independently of upstream signaling but may require a nonenzymatic scaffolding function provided by type II receptors to form functional, apparently ligand-independent signaling complexes. These findings define the minimal requirements for signaling of GS domain ALK2 mutants, with implications for the therapeutic targeting of their activity in disease. PMID:23572558

  1. The bovine peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor: A receptor with low affinity for benzodiazepines

    SciTech Connect

    Parola, A.L.; Laird, H.E. II )

    1991-01-01

    The density of bovine peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptors (PBR) in four tissues was highest in adrenal cortex. The adrenal cortex PBR cofractionated with a mitochondrial membrane marker enzyme and could be solubilized with intact ligand binding properties using digitonin. The membrane bound and soluble mitochondrial receptors were pharmacologically characterized and showed the rank order of potency to inhibit ({sup 3}H)PK 11195 binding was PK 11195 > protoporphyrin IX > benzodiazepines. ({sup 3}H)PK 11195 binding to bovine adrenal mitochondria was unaffected by diethylpyrocarbonate, a histidine residue modifying reagent that decreased binding to rat liver mitochondria by 70%. ({sup 3}H)PK 14105 photolabeled the bovine PBR and the Mr was estimated under nondenaturing and denaturing conditions. These results demonstrate the bovine peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor is pharmacologically and biochemically distinct from the rat receptor, but the receptor component photolabeled by an isoquinoline ligand has a similar molecular weight.

  2. Type 2 Diabetes and ADP Receptor Blocker Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Samoš, Matej; Fedor, Marián; Kovář, František; Mokáň, Michal; Bolek, Tomáš; Galajda, Peter; Kubisz, Peter; Mokáň, Marián

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with several abnormalities in haemostasis predisposing to thrombosis. Moreover, T2D was recently connected with a failure in antiplatelet response to clopidogrel, the most commonly used ADP receptor blocker in clinical practice. Clopidogrel high on-treatment platelet reactivity (HTPR) was repeatedly associated with the risk of ischemic adverse events. Patients with T2D show significantly higher residual platelet reactivity on ADP receptor blocker therapy and are more frequently represented in the group of patients with HTPR. This paper reviews the current knowledge about possible interactions between T2D and ADP receptor blocker therapy. PMID:26824047

  3. Analysis of argentinated peptide complexes using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry: Peptide = oxytocin, arg(8) -vasopressin, bradykinin, bombesin, somatostatin, neurotensin.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Shyam L; Dhiman, Vikas; Jayasekharan, T; Sahoo, N K

    2016-06-15

    The increased use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) for various biological applications, and over-expression of various peptide receptors in different tumors/cancer cells, necessitate the need for dedicated investigations on the intrinsic binding ability of Ag with various biologically important peptides for better understanding of AgNPs-peptide interactions and for the future development of contrasting agents as well as drugs for imaging/biomedical applications. The [M+(Ag)n ](+) complexes are prepared and characterized using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOFMS). Silver complexes of the peptides [M+(Ag)n ](+) , where M = oxytocin, arg(8) -vasopressin, bradykinin, bombesin, somatostatin, and neurotensin, have been investigated for their intrinsic Ag(+) -binding ability. Unusual binding of up to seven Ag(+) with these small peptides is observed. The mass spectra show n = 1-5 for bombesin and somatostatin, n = 1-6 for bradykinin and arg(8) -vasopressin, and n = 1-7 for oxytocin and neurotensin. In addition, oxytocin and arg(8) -vasopressin show the formation of dimers and their complexes [M2 +(Ag)n ](+) with n = 1-8 and n = 1-5, respectively. The possible amino acid residues responsible for Ag(+) binding in each peptide have been identified on the basis of density functional theory (DFT)-calculated binding energy values of Ag(+) towards individual amino acids. Mass spectrometric evidence indicates that the peptides, viz., oxytocin, arg(8) -vasopressin, bradykinin, bombesin, somatostatin, and neurotensin, show greater affinity for Ag(+) . Hence, they may be used as carriers for AgNPs in targeted drug delivery as well as an alternative for iodinated contrasting agents in dual energy X-ray imaging techniques. Radio-labeled Ag with these peptides can also be used in radio-pharmaceuticals for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. A neurotensin analog, NT69L, attenuates intravenous nicotine self-administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Boules, Mona; Oliveros, Alfredo; Liang, Yanqi; Williams, Katrina; Shaw, Amanda; Robinson, Jessica; Fredrickson, Paul; Richelson, Elliott

    2011-02-01

    NT69L is a neurotensin analog that blocks nicotine-induced locomotor activity and has sustained efficacy in a rat model of nicotine-induced sensitization when administered peripherally. Additionally, NT69L attenuates food-reinforcement in rats. The present study tested the effect of acute administration of NT69L on nicotine self-infusion in Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were trained to self-infuse nicotine intravenously (0.03mg/kg per infusion) following operant training. Once the rats acquired stable responding to nicotine self-infusion they were pretreated with NT69L (1mg/kg, i.p.) or saline 30min before being assessed for nicotine self-infusion. Pretreatment with NT69L significantly attenuated nicotine self-infusion under FR1 (fixed ratio of 1) and FR5 schedule of reinforcement as compared to saline pretreatment. Control rats that were response-independent "yoked" as well as rats that self-infused saline or NT69L showed minimal responses, indicating that nicotine served as a reinforcer. Additionally, NT69L modulated serum corticosterone; brain norepinephrine serotonin; and dopamine receptors mRNA levels altered in the nicotine self-infused rats after a 24h withdrawal period. Pretreatment with NT69L significantly decreased the nicotine-induced increase in serum corticosterone levels and striatal norepinephrine and increased the nicotine-induced reduction in serotonin in both the striatum and the prefrontal cortex (PFC). NT69L might modulate dopamine neurotransmission implicated in the reinforcing effects of nicotine by modulating tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine receptor mRNA levels in the PFC and striatum. These data support further study of the effects of NT analogs on attenuating the reinforcing effects of psychostimulants.

  5. Metabotropic glutamate receptor type 1 autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Chiriboga, A. Sebastian; Komorowski, Lars; Kümpfel, Tania; Probst, Christian; Hinson, Shannon R.; Pittock, Sean J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To describe retrospectively the clinical associations of immunoglobulin G (IgG) targeting metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGluR1-IgG). Methods: Specimens of 9 patients evaluated on a service basis in the Mayo Clinic Neuroimmunology Laboratory by tissue-based immunofluorescence assay (IFA) yielded a robust, synaptic immunostaining pattern consistent with mGluR1-IgG (serum, 9; CSF, 2 available). Transfected HEK293 cell-based assay (CBA) confirmed mGluR1 specificity in all 11 specimens. A further 2 patients were detected in Germany primarily by CBA. Results: The median symptom onset age for the 11 patients was 58 years (range 33–81 years); 6 were male. All 9 Mayo Clinic patients had subacute onset of cerebellar ataxia, 4 had dysgeusia, 1 had psychiatric symptoms, and 1 had cognitive impairment. All were evaluated for malignancy, but only 1 was affected (cutaneous T-cell lymphoma). One developed ataxia post–herpes zoster infection. Head MRIs were generally atrophic or normal-appearing, and CSF was inflammatory in just 1 of 5 tested, though mGluR1-IgG was detected in both specimens submitted. Five patients improved (attributable to immunotherapy in 4, spontaneously in 1), 3 stabilized (attributable to immunotherapy in 2, cancer therapy in 1), and 1 progressively declined (untreated). The 2 German patients had ataxia, but fulfilled multiple sclerosis diagnostic criteria (1 relapsing-remitting, 1 progressive). However, both had histories of hematologic malignancy (acute lymphocytic leukemia and mantle cell lymphoma), and had mGluR1-IgG detected in serum by CBA (weakly positive on tissue-based IFA). Conclusions: mGluR1 autoimmunity represents a treatable form of cerebellar ataxia. Dysgeusia may be a diagnostic clue. Paraneoplastic, parainfectious, or idiopathic causes may occur. PMID:26888994

  6. Inactivation of neurotensin and neuromedin N by Zn metallopeptidases.

    PubMed

    Kitabgi, Patrick

    2006-10-01

    The two related peptides neurotensin (NT) and neuromedin N (NN) are efficiently inactivated by peptidases in vitro. Whereas NT is primarily degraded by a combination of three Zn metallo-endopeptidases, namely endopeptidases 24.11, 24.15 and 24.16, in all systems examined, NN is essentially inactivated by the Zn metallo-exopeptidase aminopeptidase M. In this paper we review the work that has led to the identification of the NT- and NN-degrading enzymes and to the purification and cloning of EP 24.16, a previously unidentified peptidase. We provide a brief description of the three NT-inactivating endopeptidases and of their specific and mixed inhibitors, some of them developed in the course of studying NT degradation. Finally, we review in vivo data obtained with these inhibitors that strongly support a physiological role for EP 24.11, 24.15 and 24.16 in the termination of NT-generated signals and for aminopeptidase in terminating NN action. Knowledge of the NT and NN inactivation mechanisms offers the perspective to develop metabolically stable analogs of these peptides with potential therapeutic value.

  7. Is the positivity of estrogen receptor or progesterone receptor different between type 1 and type 2 endometrial cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Fang; Gao, Yifei; Ding, Jingxin; Chen, Qi

    2017-01-01

    Endometrial cancer is a major cancer in women and traditionally divided into type 1 and type 2. It is well known that type 2 endometrial cancer has a poor prognosis. Studies have suggested that estrogen receptor (ER) or progesterone receptor (PR) positive are positively associated with endometrial cancer survive. However whether the positivity of ER or PR is different between cancer types has not been investigated yet. In this retrospective study, the positivity of ER or PR was analysed in 1054 women with primary diagnosed endometrial cancer taking into account cancer types and menopausal status from the largest university teaching women's hospital in China. The positivity of ER or PR (over 90%) was significantly higher in type 1 compared to that in type 2 endometrial cancer (71% or 64%) in both premenopausal and postmenopausal women. There was no different in positivity of ER or PR in type 1 endometrial cancer between premenopausal and postmenopausal women. However, in type 2 endometrial cancer, the positivity of ER or PR in premenopausal women was significantly higher compared to that in postmenopausal women. Our data demonstrate that both ER and PR positivity are significantly higher in type 1 endometrial cancer (92%) compared to type 2 (72% ER positive, 65% PR positive). Menopausal status is not associated with the positivity of ER or PR in type 1 endometrial cancer. Our data may provide some novel insights why Asian women have better outcomes of endometrial cancer which was reported in the literature. PMID:27888807

  8. Is the positivity of estrogen receptor or progesterone receptor different between type 1 and type 2 endometrial cancer?

    PubMed

    Shen, Fang; Gao, Yifei; Ding, Jingxin; Chen, Qi

    2017-01-03

    Endometrial cancer is a major cancer in women and traditionally divided into type 1 and type 2. It is well known that type 2 endometrial cancer has a poor prognosis. Studies have suggested that estrogen receptor (ER) or progesterone receptor (PR) positive are positively associated with endometrial cancer survive. However whether the positivity of ER or PR is different between cancer types has not been investigated yet. In this retrospective study, the positivity of ER or PR was analysed in 1054 women with primary diagnosed endometrial cancer taking into account cancer types and menopausal status from the largest university teaching women's hospital in China. The positivity of ER or PR (over 90%) was significantly higher in type 1 compared to that in type 2 endometrial cancer (71% or 64%) in both premenopausal and postmenopausal women. There was no different in positivity of ER or PR in type 1 endometrial cancer between premenopausal and postmenopausal women. However, in type 2 endometrial cancer, the positivity of ER or PR in premenopausal women was significantly higher compared to that in postmenopausal women. Our data demonstrate that both ER and PR positivity are significantly higher in type 1 endometrial cancer (92%) compared to type 2 (72% ER positive, 65% PR positive). Menopausal status is not associated with the positivity of ER or PR in type 1 endometrial cancer. Our data may provide some novel insights why Asian women have better outcomes of endometrial cancer which was reported in the literature.

  9. Amphioxus expresses both vertebrate-type and invertebrate-type dopamine D(1) receptors.

    PubMed

    Burman, Chloe; Evans, Peter D

    2010-12-01

    The cephalochordate amphioxus (Branchiostoma floridae) has recently been placed as the most basal of all the chordates, which makes it an ideal organism for studying the molecular basis of the evolutionary transition from invertebrates to vertebrates. The biogenic amine, dopamine regulates many aspects of motor control in both vertebrates and invertebrates, and in both cases, its receptors can be divided into two main groups (D1 and D2) based on sequence similarity, ligand affinity and effector coupling. A bioinformatic study shows that amphioxus has at least three dopamine D1-like receptor sequences. We have recently characterized one of these receptors, AmphiD1/β, which was found to have high levels of sequence similarity to both vertebrate D1 receptors and to β-adrenergic receptors, but functionally appeared to be a vertebrate-type dopamine D(1) receptor. Here, we report on the cloning of two further dopamine D(1) receptors (AmphiAmR1 and AmphiAmR2) from adult amphioxus cDNA libraries and their pharmacological characterisation subsequent to their expression in cell lines. AmphiAmR1 shows closer structural similarities to vertebrate D(1)-like receptors but shows some pharmacological similarities to invertebrate "DOP1" dopamine D(1)-like receptors. In contrast, AmphiAmR2 shows closer structural and pharmacological similarities to invertebrate "INDR"-like dopamine D(1)-like receptors.

  10. The transforming growth factor beta type II receptor can replace the activin type II receptor in inducing mesoderm.

    PubMed Central

    Bhushan, A; Lin, H Y; Lodish, H F; Kintner, C R

    1994-01-01

    The type II receptors for the polypeptide growth factors transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) and activin belong to a new family of predicted serine/threonine protein kinases. In Xenopus embryos, the biological effects of activin and TGF-beta 1 are strikingly different; activin induces a full range of mesodermal cell types in the animal cap assay, while TGF-beta 1 has no effects, presumably because of the lack of functional TGF-beta receptors. In order to assess the biological activities of exogenously added TGF-beta 1, RNA encoding the TGF-beta type II receptor was introduced into Xenopus embryos. In animal caps from these embryos, TGF-beta 1 and activin show similar potencies for induction of mesoderm-specific mRNAs, and both elicit the same types of mesodermal tissues. In addition, the response of animal caps to TGF-beta 1, as well as to activin, is blocked by a dominant inhibitory ras mutant, p21(Asn-17)Ha-ras. These results indicate that the activin and TGF-beta type II receptors can couple to similar signalling pathways and that the biological specificities of these growth factors lie in their different ligand-binding domains and in different competences of the responding cells. Images PMID:8196664

  11. Striatal dopamine type 2 receptor availability in anorexia nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Broft, Allegra; Slifstein, Mark; Osborne, Joseph; Kothari, Paresh; Morim, Simon; Shingleton, Rebecca; Kenney, Lindsay; Vallabhajosula, Shankar; Attia, Evelyn; Martinez, Diana; Walsh, B. Timothy

    2016-01-01

    The neurobiology of anorexia nervosa remains incompletely understood. Here we utilized PET imaging with the radiotracer [11C]raclopride to measure striatal dopamine type 2 (D2) receptor availability in patients with anorexia nervosa. 25 women with anorexia nervosa who were receiving treatment in an inpatient program participated, as well as 25 control subjects. Patients were scanned up to two times with the PET tracer [11C]raclopride: once while underweight, and once upon weight restoration. Control subjects underwent one PET scan. In the primary analyses, there were no significant differences between underweight patients (n=21) and control subjects (n=25) in striatal D2 receptor binding potential. Analysis of subregions (sensorimotor striatum, associative striatum, limbic striatum) did not reveal differences between groups. In patients completing both scans (n=15), there were no detectable changes in striatal D2 receptor binding potential after weight restoration. In this sample, there were no differences in striatal D2 receptor binding potential between patients with anorexia nervosa and control subjects. Weight restoration was not associated with a change in striatal D2 receptor binding. These findings suggest that disturbances in reward processing in this disorder are not attributable to abnormal D2 receptor characteristics, and that other reward-related neural targets may be of greater relevance. PMID:26272038

  12. Striatal dopamine type 2 receptor availability in anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Broft, Allegra; Slifstein, Mark; Osborne, Joseph; Kothari, Paresh; Morim, Simon; Shingleton, Rebecca; Kenney, Lindsay; Vallabhajosula, Shankar; Attia, Evelyn; Martinez, Diana; Timothy Walsh, B

    2015-09-30

    The neurobiology of anorexia nervosa remains incompletely understood. Here we utilized PET imaging with the radiotracer [(11)C]raclopride to measure striatal dopamine type 2 (D2) receptor availability in patients with anorexia nervosa. 25 women with anorexia nervosa who were receiving treatment in an inpatient program participated, as well as 25 control subjects. Patients were scanned up to two times with the PET tracer [(11)C]raclopride: once while underweight, and once upon weight restoration. Control subjects underwent one PET scan. In the primary analyses, there were no significant differences between underweight patients (n=21) and control subjects (n=25) in striatal D2 receptor binding potential. Analysis of subregions (sensorimotor striatum, associative striatum, limbic striatum) did not reveal differences between groups. In patients completing both scans (n=15), there were no detectable changes in striatal D2 receptor binding potential after weight restoration. In this sample, there were no differences in striatal D2 receptor binding potential between patients with anorexia nervosa and control subjects. Weight restoration was not associated with a change in striatal D2 receptor binding. These findings suggest that disturbances in reward processing in this disorder are not attributable to abnormal D2 receptor characteristics, and that other reward-related neural targets may be of greater relevance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Characterization of Promoter Elements Regulating the Expression of the Human Neurotensin/Neuromedin N Gene*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaofu; Gulhati, Pat; Li, Jing; Dobner, Paul R.; Weiss, Heidi; Townsend, Courtney M.; Evers, B. Mark

    2011-01-01

    Expression of the gene encoding neurotensin/neuromedin N (NT/N) is mostly limited to the brain and specialized enteroendocrine N cells in the distal small intestine. We have identified key regulatory elements in the promoter region that are involved in human NT/N (hNT/N) gene expression in the novel human endocrine cell line, BON, which resembles intestinal N cells in several important aspects including NT/N precursor protein processing, ratios of different NT/N mRNA isoforms, and high levels of constitutive expression of the NT/N gene. In this study, we demonstrated multiple cis-regulatory elements including a proximal region containing a cAMP-responsive element (CRE)/AP-1-like element that binds both the AP-1 and CRE-binding protein (CREB)/ATF proteins (c-Jun, ATF-1, ATF-2, JunD, and CREB). Similar to the rat NT/N gene, this region is critical for constitutive hNT/N gene expression. Moreover, we identified a novel region that binds the orphan hormone receptor, NR2F2. We have demonstrated that the C terminus of NR2F2 strongly represses hNT/N transcription, whereas an N-terminal domain antagonizes this repressive effect. Regulation of NT/N expression by NR2F2 may have important consequences for lipid metabolism. We speculate that a complex interplay between the proximal CRE/AP-1-like motif and NR2F2 binding region exists to regulate hNT/N expression, which is critical for the high level of constitutive expression of NT/N in enteroendocrine cells. Finally, the BON cell line provides a unique model to characterize the factors regulating expression of the hNT/N gene and to better understand the mechanisms responsible for terminal differentiation of the N cell lineage in the gut. PMID:21030593

  14. Evidence that neurotensin mediates postprandial intestinal hyperemia in the python, Python regius.

    PubMed

    Skovgaard, Nini; Conlon, J Michael; Wang, Tobias

    2007-09-01

    Digestion of large meals in pythons produces substantial increases in heart rate and cardiac output, as well as a dilation of the mesenteric vascular bed leading to intestinal hyperemia, but the mediators of these effects are unknown. Bolus intra-arterial injections of python neurotensin ([His(3), Val(4), Ala(7)]NT) (1 - 1,000 pmol/kg) into the anesthetized ball python Python regius (n = 7) produced a dose-dependent vasodilation that was associated with a decrease in systemic pressure (P(sys)) and increase in systemic blood flow (Q(sys)). There was no effect on pulmonary pressure and conductance. A significant (P < 0.05) increase in heart rate (f(H)) and total cardiac output (Q(tot)) was seen only at high doses (>30 pmol/kg). The systemic vasodilation and increase in Q(tot) persisted after beta-adrenergic blockade with propranolol, but the rise in f(H) was abolished. Also, the systemic vasodilation persisted after histamine H(2)-receptor blockade. In unanesthetized pythons (n = 4), bolus injection of python NT in a dose as low as 1 pmol/kg produced a significant increase in blood flow to the mesenteric artery (177% +/- 54%; mean +/- SE) and mesenteric conductance (219% +/- 74%) without any increase in Q(sys), systemic conductance, P(sys), and f(H). The data provide evidence that NT is an important hormonal mediator of postprandial intestinal hyperemia in the python, but its involvement in mediating the cardiac responses to digestion may be relatively minor.

  15. An obligatory role for neurotensin in high-fat-diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Song, Jun; Zaytseva, Yekaterina Y; Liu, Yajuan; Rychahou, Piotr; Jiang, Kai; Starr, Marlene E; Kim, Ji Tae; Harris, Jennifer W; Yiannikouris, Frederique B; Katz, Wendy S; Nilsson, Peter M; Orho-Melander, Marju; Chen, Jing; Zhu, Haining; Fahrenholz, Timothy; Higashi, Richard M; Gao, Tianyan; Morris, Andrew J; Cassis, Lisa A; Fan, Teresa W-M; Weiss, Heidi L; Dobner, Paul R; Melander, Olle; Jia, Jianhang; Evers, B Mark

    2016-05-19

    Obesity and its associated comorbidities (for example, diabetes mellitus and hepatic steatosis) contribute to approximately 2.5 million deaths annually and are among the most prevalent and challenging conditions confronting the medical profession. Neurotensin (NT; also known as NTS), a 13-amino-acid peptide predominantly localized in specialized enteroendocrine cells of the small intestine and released by fat ingestion, facilitates fatty acid translocation in rat intestine, and stimulates the growth of various cancers. The effects of NT are mediated through three known NT receptors (NTR1, 2 and 3; also known as NTSR1, 2, and NTSR3, respectively). Increased fasting plasma levels of pro-NT (a stable NT precursor fragment produced in equimolar amounts relative to NT) are associated with increased risk of diabetes, cardiovascular disease and mortality; however, a role for NT as a causative factor in these diseases is unknown. Here we show that NT-deficient mice demonstrate significantly reduced intestinal fat absorption and are protected from obesity, hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance associated with high fat consumption. We further demonstrate that NT attenuates the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and stimulates fatty acid absorption in mice and in cultured intestinal cells, and that this occurs through a mechanism involving NTR1 and NTR3 (also known as sortilin). Consistent with the findings in mice, expression of NT in Drosophila midgut enteroendocrine cells results in increased lipid accumulation in the midgut, fat body, and oenocytes (specialized hepatocyte-like cells) and decreased AMPK activation. Remarkably, in humans, we show that both obese and insulin-resistant subjects have elevated plasma concentrations of pro-NT, and in longitudinal studies among non-obese subjects, high levels of pro-NT denote a doubling of the risk of developing obesity later in life. Our findings directly link NT with increased fat absorption and obesity and

  16. Effect of low doses of methamphetamine on rat limbic-related neurotensin systems.

    PubMed

    Alburges, Mario E; Hoonakker, Amanda J; Cordova, Nathaniel M; Robson, Christina M; McFadden, Lisa M; Martin, Amber L; Hanson, Glen R

    2015-08-01

    Administration of methamphetamine (METH) alters limbic-related (LR) neurotensin (NT) systems. Thus, through a D1-receptor mechanism, noncontingent high doses (5-15 mg kg(-1)), and likely self-administration, of METH appears to reduce NT release causing its accumulation and an elevation of NT-like immunoreactivity (NTLI) in limbic-related NT pathways. For comparison, we tested the effect of low doses of METH, that are more like those used in therapy, on NTLI in the core and shell of the nucleus accumbens (NAc and NAs), prefrontal cortex (PFC), ventral tegmental area (VTA), the lateral habenula (Hb) and basolateral amygdala (Amyg). METH at the dose of 0.25 mg kg(-1) in particular, but not 1.00 mg kg(-1), decreased NTLI concentration in all of the LR structures studied, except for the prefrontal cortex; however, these effects were rapid and brief being observed at 5 h but not at 24 h after treatment. In all of the LR areas where NTLI levels were reduced after the low dose of METH, the effect was blocked by pretreatment with either a D1 or a D2 antagonist. Thus, opposite to high doses like those associated with abuse, the therapeutic-like low-dose METH treatment induced reduction in NT tissue levels likely reflected an increase in NT release and a short-term depletion of the levels of this neuropeptide in LR structures, manifesting features comparable to the response of basal ganglia NT systems to similar low doses of METH.

  17. Distribution of sup 125 I-neurotensin binding sites in human forebrain: Comparison with the localization of acetylcholinesterase

    SciTech Connect

    Szigethy, E.; Quirion, R.; Beaudet, A. )

    1990-07-22

    The distribution of 125I-neurotensin binding sites was compared with that of acetylcholinesterase reactivity in the human basal forebrain by using combined light microscopic radioautography/histochemistry. High 125I-neurotensin binding densities were observed in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, islands of Calleja, claustrum, olfactory tubercle, and central nucleus of the amygdala; lower levels were seen in the caudate, putamen, medial septum, diagonal band nucleus, and nucleus basalis of Meynert. Adjacent sections processed for cholinesterase histochemistry demonstrated a regional overlap between the distribution of labeled neurotensin binding sites and that of intense acetylcholinesterase staining in all of the above regions, except in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, claustrum, and central amygdaloid nucleus, where dense 125I-neurotensin labeling was detected over areas containing only weak to moderate cholinesterase staining. At higher magnification, 125I-neurotensin-labeled binding sites in the islands of Calleja, supraoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus, medial septum, diagonal band nucleus, and nucleus basalis of Meynert were selectively associated with neuronal perikarya found to be cholinesterase-positive in adjacent sections. Moderate 125I-neurotensin binding was also apparent over the cholinesterase-reactive neuropil of these latter three regions. These data suggest that neurotensin (NT) may directly influence the activity of magnocellular cholinergic neurons in the human basal forebrain, and may be involved in the physiopathology of dementing disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, in which these neurons have been shown to be affected.

  18. Identification of type II and type III pyoverdine receptors from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    de Chial, Magaly; Ghysels, Bart; Beatson, Scott A; Geoffroy, Valérie; Meyer, Jean Marie; Pattery, Theresa; Baysse, Christine; Chablain, Patrice; Parsons, Yasmin N; Winstanley, Craig; Cordwell, Stuart J; Cornelis, Pierre

    2003-04-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces, under conditions of iron limitation, a high-affinity siderophore, pyoverdine (PVD), which is recognized at the level of the outer membrane by a specific TonB-dependent receptor, FpvA. So far, for P. aeruginosa, three different PVDs, differing in their peptide chain, have been described (types I-III), but only the FpvA receptor for type I is known. Two PVD-producing P. aeruginosa strains, one type II and one type III, were mutagenized by a mini-TnphoA3 transposon. In each case, one mutant unable to grow in the presence of the strong iron chelator ethylenediaminedihydroxyphenylacetic acid (EDDHA) and the cognate PVD was selected. The first mutant, which had an insertion in the pvdE gene, upstream of fpvA, was unable to take up type II PVD and showed resistance to pyocin S3, which is known to use type II FpvA as receptor. The second mutant was unable to take up type III PVD and had the transposon insertion in fpvA. Cosmid libraries of the respective type II and type III PVD wild-type strains were constructed and screened for clones restoring the capacity to grow in the presence of PVD. From the respective complementing genomic fragments, type II and type III fpvA sequences were determined. When in trans, type II and type III fpvA restored PVD production, uptake, growth in the presence of EDDHA and, in the case of type II fpvA, pyocin S3 sensitivity. Complementation of fpvA mutants obtained by allelic exchange was achieved by the presence of cognate fpvA in trans. All three receptors posses an N-terminal extension of about 70 amino acids, similar to FecA of Escherichia coli, but only FpvAI has a TAT export sequence at its N-terminal end.

  19. Evidence for Heterodimerization and Functional Interaction of the Angiotensin Type 2 Receptor and the Receptor MAS.

    PubMed

    Leonhardt, Julia; Villela, Daniel C; Teichmann, Anke; Münter, Lisa-Marie; Mayer, Magnus C; Mardahl, Maibritt; Kirsch, Sebastian; Namsolleck, Pawel; Lucht, Kristin; Benz, Verena; Alenina, Natalia; Daniell, Nicholas; Horiuchi, Masatsugu; Iwai, Masaru; Multhaup, Gerhard; Schülein, Ralf; Bader, Michael; Santos, Robson A; Unger, Thomas; Steckelings, Ulrike Muscha

    2017-06-01

    The angiotensin type 2 receptor (AT2R) and the receptor MAS are receptors of the protective arm of the renin-angiotensin system. They mediate strikingly similar actions. Moreover, in various studies, AT2R antagonists blocked the effects of MAS agonists and vice versa. Such cross-inhibition may indicate heterodimerization of these receptors. Therefore, this study investigated the molecular and functional interplay between MAS and the AT2R. Molecular interactions were assessed by fluorescence resonance energy transfer and by cross correlation spectroscopy in human embryonic kidney-293 cells transfected with vectors encoding fluorophore-tagged MAS or AT2R. Functional interaction of AT2R and MAS was studied in astrocytes with CX3C chemokine receptor-1 messenger RNA expression as readout. Coexpression of fluorophore-tagged AT2R and MAS resulted in a fluorescence resonance energy transfer efficiency of 10.8 ± 0.8%, indicating that AT2R and MAS are capable to form heterodimers. Heterodimerization was verified by competition experiments using untagged AT2R and MAS. Specificity of dimerization of AT2R and MAS was supported by lack of dimerization with the transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily C-member 6. Dimerization of the AT2R was abolished when it was mutated at cysteine residue 35. AT2R and MAS stimulation with the respective agonists, Compound 21 or angiotensin-(1-7), significantly induced CX3C chemokine receptor-1 messenger RNA expression. Effects of each agonist were blocked by an AT2R antagonist (PD123319) and also by a MAS antagonist (A-779). Knockout of a single of these receptors made astrocytes unresponsive for both agonists. Our results suggest that MAS and the AT2R form heterodimers and that-at least in astrocytes-both receptors functionally depend on each other. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Activation of AMPK Stimulates Neurotensin Secretion in Neuroendocrine Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Song, Jun; Weiss, Heidi L.; Weiss, Todd; Townsend, Courtney M.

    2016-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a critical fuel-sensing enzyme, regulates the metabolic effects of various hormones. Neurotensin (NT) is a 13-amino acid peptide predominantly localized in enteroendocrine cells of the small bowel and released by fat ingestion. Increased fasting plasma levels of pro-NT (a stable NT precursor fragment produced in equimolar amounts relative to NT) are associated with an increased risk of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and mortality; however, the mechanisms regulating NT release are not fully defined. We previously reported that inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1) increases NT secretion and gene expression through activation of the MEK/ERK pathway. Here, we show that activation of AMPK increases NT secretion from endocrine cell lines (BON and QGP-1) and isolated mouse crypt cells enriched for NT-positive cells. In addition, plasma levels of NT increase in mice treated with 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside, a pharmacologic AMPK activator. Small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of AMPKα decrease, whereas overexpression of the subunit significantly enhances, NT secretion from BON cells treated with AMPK activators or oleic acid. Similarly, small interfering RNA knockdown of the upstream AMPK kinases, liver kinase B1 and Ca2+ calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 2, also attenuate NT release and AMPK phosphorylation. Moreover, AMPK activation increases NT secretion through inhibition of mTORC1 signaling. Together, our findings show that AMPK activation enhances NT release through inhibition of mTORC1 signaling, thus demonstrating an important cross talk regulation for NT secretion. PMID:26528831

  1. Activation of AMPK Stimulates Neurotensin Secretion in Neuroendocrine Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Song, Jun; Weiss, Heidi L; Weiss, Todd; Townsend, Courtney M; Evers, B Mark

    2016-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a critical fuel-sensing enzyme, regulates the metabolic effects of various hormones. Neurotensin (NT) is a 13-amino acid peptide predominantly localized in enteroendocrine cells of the small bowel and released by fat ingestion. Increased fasting plasma levels of pro-NT (a stable NT precursor fragment produced in equimolar amounts relative to NT) are associated with an increased risk of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and mortality; however, the mechanisms regulating NT release are not fully defined. We previously reported that inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1) increases NT secretion and gene expression through activation of the MEK/ERK pathway. Here, we show that activation of AMPK increases NT secretion from endocrine cell lines (BON and QGP-1) and isolated mouse crypt cells enriched for NT-positive cells. In addition, plasma levels of NT increase in mice treated with 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside, a pharmacologic AMPK activator. Small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of AMPKα decrease, whereas overexpression of the subunit significantly enhances, NT secretion from BON cells treated with AMPK activators or oleic acid. Similarly, small interfering RNA knockdown of the upstream AMPK kinases, liver kinase B1 and Ca(2+) calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 2, also attenuate NT release and AMPK phosphorylation. Moreover, AMPK activation increases NT secretion through inhibition of mTORC1 signaling. Together, our findings show that AMPK activation enhances NT release through inhibition of mTORC1 signaling, thus demonstrating an important cross talk regulation for NT secretion.

  2. Response of limbic neurotensin systems to methamphetamine self-administration.

    PubMed

    Hanson, G R; Hoonakker, A J; Alburges, M E; McFadden, L M; Robson, C M; Frankel, P S

    2012-02-17

    Methamphetamine (METH) abuse is personally and socially devastating. Although effects of METH on dopamine (DA) systems likely contribute to its highly addictive nature, no medications are approved to treat METH dependence. Thus, we and others have studied the METH-induced responses of neurotensin (NT) systems. NT is associated with inhibitory feedback action on DA projections, and NT levels are elevated in both the nucleus accumbens and dorsal striatum after noncontingent treatment with high doses of METH. In the present study, we used a METH self-administration (SA) model (linked to lever pressing) to demonstrate that substitution of an NT agonist for METH, while not significantly affecting motor activity, dramatically reduced lever pressing but was not self-administered per se. We also found that nucleus accumbens NT levels were elevated via a D1 mechanism after five sessions in rats self-administering METH (SAM), with a lesser effect in corresponding yoked rats. Extended (15 daily sessions) exposure to METH SA manifested similar NT responses; however, more detailed analyses revealed (i) 15 days of METH SA significantly elevated NT levels in the nucleus accumbens shell and dorsal striatum, but not the nucleus accumbens core, with a lesser effect in the corresponding yoked METH rats; (ii) the elevation of NT in both the nucleus accumbens shell and dorsal striatum significantly correlated with the total amount of METH received in the self-administering, but not the corresponding yoked METH rats; and (iii) an NT agonist blocked, but an NT antagonist did not alter, lever-pressing behavior on day 15 in SAM rats. After 5 days in SAM animals, NT levels were also elevated in the ventral tegmental area, but not frontal cortex of rats self-administering METH.

  3. Neurotensin analog NT77 induces regulated hypothermia in the rat.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Christopher J; McMahon, Beth; Richelson, Elliott; Padnos, Beth; Katz, Laurence

    2003-10-03

    The potential use of hypothermia as a therapeutic treatment for stroke and other pathological insults has prompted the search for drugs that can lower core temperature. Ideally, a drug is needed that reduces the set-point for control of core temperature (T(c)) and thereby induces a regulated reduction in T(c). To this end, a neurotensin analog (NT77) that crosses the blood brain barrier and induces hypothermia was assessed for its effects on the set-point for temperature regulation in the Sprague-Dawley rat by measuring behavioral and autonomic thermoregulatory responses. Following surgical implanation of radiotransmitters to monitor T(c), rats were placed in a temperature gradient and allowed to select from a range of ambient temperatures (T(a)) while T(c) was monitored by radiotelemetry. There was an abrupt decrease in selected T(a) from 29 to 16 degrees C and a concomitant reduction in T(c) from 37.4 to 34.0 degrees C 1 hr after IP injection of 5.0 mg/kg NT77. Selected T(a) and T(c) then recovered to control levels by 1.5 hr and 4 hr, respectively. Oxygen consumption (M) and heat loss (H) were measured in telemetered rats housed in a direct calorimeter maintained at a T(a) of 23.5 degrees C. Injection of NT77 initially led to a reduction in M, little change in H, and marked decrease in T(c). H initially rose but decreased around the time of the maximal decrease in T(c). Overall, NT77 appears to induce a regulated hypothermic response because the decrease in T(c) was preceded by a reduction in heat production, no change in heat loss, and preference for cold T(a)'s. Inducing a regulated hypothermic response with drugs such as NT77 may be an important therapy for ischemic disease and other insults.

  4. Cloning and sequence analysis of cDNA for the canine neurotensin/neuromedin N precursor

    SciTech Connect

    Dobner, P.R.; Barber, D.L.; Villa-Komaroff, L.; McKiernan, C.

    1987-05-01

    Cloned cDNAs encoding neurotensin were isolated from a cDNA library derived from primary cultures of canine enteric mucosa cells. Nucleotide sequence analysis using /sup 32/P-labeled nucleotides, has revealed the primary structure of a 170-amino acid precursor protein that encodes both neurotensin and the neurotensin-like peptide neuromedin N. The peptide-coding domains are located in tandem near the carboxyl terminus of the precursor and are bounded and separated by the paired, basic amino acid residues Lys-Arg. An additional coding domain, resembling neuromedin N, occurs immediately after an Arg-Arg basic amino acid pair located in the central region of the precursor. Additional amino acid homologies suggest that tandem duplications have contributed to the structure of the gene. RNA blot analysis, using the cloned cDNA probe, has revealed several mRNA species ranging in size from 500 to 980 nucleotides in the canine enteric mucosa. In contrast a single RNA species of 1500 nucleotides was detected in bovine hypothalamus poly-(A)/sup +/ RNA. The ability of the canine probe to cross-hybridize with bovine mRNA suggest that this probe can be used to isolate neurotensin/neuromedin N genes from other mammalian species.

  5. Neurotensin-loaded collagen dressings reduce inflammation and improve wound healing in diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Moura, Liane I F; Dias, Ana M A; Suesca, Edward; Casadiegos, Sergio; Leal, Ermelindo C; Fontanilla, Marta R; Carvalho, Lina; de Sousa, Hermínio C; Carvalho, Eugénia

    2014-01-01

    Impaired wound healing is an important clinical problem in diabetes mellitus and results in failure to completely heal diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs), which may lead to lower extremity amputations. In the present study, collagen based dressings were prepared to be applied as support for the delivery of neurotensin (NT), a neuropeptide that acts as an inflammatory modulator in wound healing. The performance of NT alone and NT-loaded collagen matrices to treat wounds in streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic induced mice was evaluated. Results showed that the prepared dressings were not-cytotoxic up to 72h after contact with macrophages (Raw 264.7) and human keratinocyte (HaCaT) cell lines. Moreover, those cells were shown to adhere to the collagen matrices without noticeable change in their morphology. NT-loaded collagen dressings induced faster healing (17% wound area reduction) in the early phases of wound healing in diabetic wounded mice. In addition, they also significantly reduced inflammatory cytokine expression namely, TNF-α (p<0.01) and IL-1β (p<0.01) and decreased the inflammatory infiltrate at day 3 post-wounding (inflammatory phase). After complete healing, metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) is reduced in diabetic skin (p<0.05) which significantly increased fibroblast migration and collagen (collagen type I, alpha 2 (COL1A2) and collagen type III, alpha 1 (COL3A1)) expression and deposition. These results suggest that collagen-based dressings can be an effective support for NT release into diabetic wound enhancing the healing process. Nevertheless, a more prominent scar is observed in diabetic wounds treated with collagen when compared to the treatment with NT alone. © 2013.

  6. Cardiovascular effects of the angiotensin type 2 receptor.

    PubMed

    Faria-Costa, Gabriel; Leite-Moreira, Adelino; Henriques-Coelho, Tiago

    2014-01-01

    The angiotensin type 2 receptor, AT2R, has been described as having opposite effects to the angiotensin type 1 receptor, AT1R. Although the quantities of the AT2R found in the adult are low, its expression rises in pathological situations. The AT2R has three major signaling pathways: activation of serine/threonine phosphatases (promoting apoptosis and antioxidant effects), activation of the bradykinin/NO/cGMP pathway (promoting vasodilation), and activation of phospholipase A2 (associated with regulation of potassium currents). The AT2R appears to have effects in vascular remodeling, atherosclerosis prevention and blood pressure lowering (when associated with an AT1R inhibitor). After myocardial infarction, the AT2R appears to decrease infarct size, cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis, and to improve cardiac function. However, its role in the heart is controversial. In the kidney, the AT2R promotes natriuresis. Until now, treatment directed at the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system has been based on angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin type 1 receptor blockers. The study of the AT2R has been revolutionized by the discovery of a direct agonist, C21, which promises to become part of the treatment of cardiovascular disease.

  7. EGFR Transactivation by Peptide G Protein-Coupled Receptors in Cancer.

    PubMed

    Moody, Terry W; Nuche-Berenguer, Bernardo; Nakamura, Taichi; Jensen, Robert T

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer kills approximately 1.3 million citizens in the world annually. The tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) erlotinib and gefitinib are effective anti-tumor agents especially in lung cancer patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations. The goal is to increase the potency of TKI in lung cancer patients with wild type EGFR. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) transactivate the wild type EGFR in lung cancer cells. The GPCR can be activated by peptide agonists causing phosphatidylinositol turnover or stimulation of adenylylcyclase. Recently, nonpeptide antagonists were found to inhibit the EGFR transactivation caused by peptides. Nonpeptide antagonists for bombesin (BB), neurotensin (NTS) and cholecystokinin (CCK) inhibit lung cancer growth and increase the cytotoxicity of gefitinib. The results suggest that GPCR transactivation of the EGFR may play an important role in cancer cell proliferation.

  8. Central- and peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptors: similar regulation by stress and GABA receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Rägo, L; Kiivet, R A; Harro, J; Pŏld, M

    1989-04-01

    Central- and peripheral-type benzodiazepine (BD) receptors were labelled either by 3H-flunitrazepam or 3H-Ro 5-4864 in vitro after stress and in vivo administration of GABAA and GABAB agonists. A significant increase in the density of cerebral cortex and kidney BD binding sites was observed in rats after forced swimming stress. Similar changes in both type of BD receptors were also followed when naive (stressed) and handling-habituated (unstressed) rats were used. Stress in both models was unable to change the affinity of BD receptors in cerebral cortex, but significantly lowered it in kidneys. Acute treatment of rats with muscimol (1.5 mg/kg) or (-)baclofen (5 mg/kg) resulted in marked increase in the affinity of BD binding not only in cerebral cortex but also in kidneys. After (-)baclofen treatment the number of BD binding sites was lowered in the structures studied. In a separate study mice selected according to their behavioral response to (-)baclofen (1 mg/kg) were studied. Two weeks after the selection it appeared that baclofen responders were behaviorally more "anxious" than baclofen nonresponders. The number of BD binding sites was reduced in cerebral cortex, cerebellum, heart and kidneys in baclofen responders as compared to baclofen nonresponders. In several cases the changes in peripheral BD binding sites were even more pronounced than those in central ones. The data presented here evidence that peripheral- and central-type BD receptors are regulated similarly by GABA and some models of stress. The physiological mechanisms involved in similar regulation of central- and peripheral-type BD receptors are yet unknown.

  9. Neurotensin high affinity binding sites and endopeptidase 24. 11 are present respectively in the meningothelial and in the fibroblastic components of human meningiomas

    SciTech Connect

    Mailleux, P.; Przedborski, S.; Beaumont, A.; Verslijpe, M.; Depierreux, M.; Levivier, M.; Kitabgi, P.; Roques, B.P.; Vanderhaeghen, J.J. )

    1990-11-01

    The presence of neurotensin receptors and endopeptidase 24.11 (E-24.11) in 16 human meningioma specimens, obtained at surgery, was assessed by measuring the binding of {sup 125}I-(tyrosyl3)neurotensin(1-13) ({sup 125}I-NT) and the inhibitor {sup 3}H-N(2RS)-3-hydroxyaminocarbonyl-2-benzyl-1-(oxopropyl)glycine ({sup 3}H-HACBO-Gly), for the receptor and enzyme, respectively. E-24.11 activity was also measured. Autoradiography, on the 16 meningiomas, showed that specific {sup 125}I-NT labeling (nonspecific labeling was assessed in the presence of excess NT) was exclusively located in the meningothelial regions. In contrast, specific {sup 3}H-HACBO-Gly labeling (nonspecific labeling was assessed in the presence of an excess of the E-24.11 inhibitor thiorphan) was exclusively found in fibroblastic regions. No specific labeling of either ligand was found on collagen or blood vessels. In vitro binding assays were performed on membranes of 10 of the 16 meningiomas. In the 4 meningiomas rich in meningothelial cells, {sup 125}I-NT specifically bound to one population of sites with Bmax ranging from 57 to 405 fmol/mg protein and Kd around 0.3 nM. These sites share common properties with the brain NT receptor, since the carboxy terminal acetyl NT(8-13) fragment bound to the same sites but with a higher affinity. The carboxy terminal analogue of NT, neuromedin N, also bound to the same sites with a 10-fold lower affinity and the sites were bradykinin and levocabastine insensitive. In the 4 meningiomas rich in fibroblastic cells, {sup 3}H-HACBO-Gly specifically bound to one population of sites with Bmax ranging from 251 to 739 fmol/mg protein and Kd around 2.8 nM.

  10. African lungfish, Protopterus annectens, possess an arginine vasotocin receptor homologous to the tetrapod V2-type receptor.

    PubMed

    Konno, Norifumi; Hyodo, Susumu; Yamaguchi, Yoko; Kaiya, Hiroyuki; Miyazato, Mikiya; Matsuda, Kouhei; Uchiyama, Minoru

    2009-07-01

    In tetrapods, arginine vasopressin and its counterpart, arginine vasotocin (AVT), are involved in renal water conservation through vascular V1a-type and tubular V2-type receptors, and only the former has thus far been cloned in fish. We successfully cloned the V1a-type and V2-type AVT receptor from the kidney of the African lungfish, Protopterus annectens, and the deduced amino acid sequences exhibited high homology with amphibian V1a- and V2-type receptors, respectively. Functional analysis showed that AVT addition to CHO cells transfected with lungfish V1a-type receptor increased [Ca2+]i in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas CHO cells transfected with lungfish V2-type receptor responded with cAMP accumulation after AVT stimulation. Lungfish V2-type receptor mRNA was strongly expressed in the heart and kidney, while V1a-type receptor mRNA was ubiquitously expressed in all the tissues examined. In the kidney, immunohistochemistry using a specific antibody to lungfish V2-type receptor showed localization in the basolateral area of the cells in the late part of the distal tubules. Artificial estivation (EST) for 90 days significantly increased plasma osmolality and sodium and urea concentrations. There was no significant difference in the V2-type receptor mRNA and protein expression levels in the kidney between the freshwater and EST lungfish, while the AVT precursor mRNA level in the hypothalamus was remarkably higher in the EST lungfish. Our results indicate that African lungfish possess a functional V2-type receptor similar to that in tetrapods, suggesting that elevated plasma AVT during estivation exerts a renal tubular antidiuretic effect through the V2-type receptor expressed in the distal segments of lungfish kidney.

  11. Discoidin domain receptor 2 inhibits fibrillogenesis of collagen type 1.

    PubMed

    Mihai, Cosmin; Iscru, Daniel F; Druhan, Lawrence J; Elton, Terry S; Agarwal, Gunjan

    2006-09-01

    Discoidin domain receptors (DDR1 and DDR2) are widely expressed cell-surface receptors, which bind to and are activated by collagens, including collagen type 1. Activation of DDRs and the resulting downstream signaling is known to regulate the extracellular matrix. However, little is known about how DDRs interact with collagen and its direct impact on collagen regulation. Here, we have established that by binding to collagen, the extracellular domain (ECD) of DDR2 inhibits collagen fibrillogenesis and alters the morphology of collagen type 1 fibers. Our in vitro assays utilized DDR2-Fc fusion proteins, which contain only the ECD of DDR2. Using surface plasmon resonance, we confirmed that further oligomerization of DDR2-Fc (by means of anti-Fc antibody) greatly enhances its binding to immobilized collagen type 1. Collagen turbidity measurements and biochemical assays indicated that DDR2 delays the formation of collagen fibrils. Atomic force microscopy of soluble collagen revealed that a predominately monomeric state of collagen was present with DDR2, while control solutions had an abundance of polymeric collagen. Transmission electron microscopy of collagen fibers, showed that the native periodic banded structure of collagen fibers was weakened and nearly absent in the presence of DDR2. Further, using a cell-based assay we demonstrate that overexpression of full length DDR2 inhibits fibrillogenesis of collagen type 1. Our results demonstrate a novel and important functional role of the DDR2 ECD that may contribute to collagen regulation via modulation of fibrillogenesis.

  12. Multiple Sleep Alterations in Mice Lacking Cannabinoid Type 1 Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Bastianini, Stefano; Lo Martire, Viviana; Mazza, Roberta; Pagotto, Uberto; Quarta, Carmelo; Zoccoli, Giovanna

    2014-01-01

    Cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptors are highly expressed in the brain and play a role in behavior control. Endogenous cannabinoid signaling is modulated by high-fat diet (HFD). We investigated the consequences of congenital lack of CB1 receptors on sleep in mice fed standard diet (SD) and HFD. CB1 cannabinoid receptor knock-out (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice were fed SD or HFD for 4 months (n = 9–10 per group). Mice were instrumented with electroencephalographic (EEG) and electromyographic electrodes. Recordings were performed during baseline (48 hours), sleep deprivation (gentle handling, 6 hours), sleep recovery (18 hours), and after cage switch (insomnia model paradigm, 6 hours). We found multiple significant effects of genotype on sleep. In particular, KO spent more time awake and less time in non-rapid-eye-movement sleep (NREMS) and rapid-eye-movement sleep (REMS) than WT during the dark (active) period but not during the light (rest) period, enhancing the day-night variation of wake-sleep amounts. KO had slower EEG theta rhythm during REMS. REMS homeostasis after sleep deprivation was less effective in KO than in WT. Finally, KO habituated more rapidly to the arousing effect of the cage-switch test than WT. We did not find any significant effects of diet or of diet x genotype interaction on sleep. The occurrence of multiple sleep alterations in KO indicates important roles of CB1 cannabinoid receptors in limiting arousal during the active period of the day, in sleep regulation, and in sleep EEG in mice. PMID:24586776

  13. Microbiota regulates type 1 diabetes through Toll-like receptors

    PubMed Central

    Burrows, Michael P.; Volchkov, Pavel; Kobayashi, Koichi S.; Chervonsky, Alexander V.

    2015-01-01

    Deletion of the innate immune adaptor myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88) in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse model of type 1 diabetes (T1D) results in microbiota-dependent protection from the disease: MyD88-negative mice in germ-free (GF), but not in specific pathogen-free conditions develop the disease. These results could be explained by expansion of particular protective bacteria (“specific lineage hypothesis”) or by dominance of negative (tolerizing) signaling over proinflammatory signaling (“balanced signal hypothesis”) in mutant mice. Here we found that colonization of GF mice with a variety of intestinal bacteria was capable of reducing T1D in MyD88-negative (but not wild-type NOD mice), favoring the balanced signal hypothesis. However, the receptors and signaling pathways involved in prevention or facilitation of the disease remained unknown. The protective signals triggered by the microbiota were revealed by testing NOD mice lacking MyD88 in combination with knockouts of several critical components of innate immune sensing for development of T1D. Only MyD88- and TIR-domain containing adapter inducing IFN β (TRIF) double deficient NOD mice developed the disease. Thus, TRIF signaling (likely downstream of Toll-like receptor 4, TLR4) serves as one of the microbiota-induced tolerizing pathways. At the same time another TLR (TLR2) provided prodiabetic signaling by controlling the microbiota, as reduction in T1D incidence caused by TLR2 deletion was reversed in GF TLR2-negative mice. Our results support the balanced signal hypothesis, in which microbes provide signals that both promote and inhibit autoimmunity by signaling through different receptors, including receptors of the TLR family. PMID:26216961

  14. Multiple sleep alterations in mice lacking cannabinoid type 1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Silvani, Alessandro; Berteotti, Chiara; Bastianini, Stefano; Lo Martire, Viviana; Mazza, Roberta; Pagotto, Uberto; Quarta, Carmelo; Zoccoli, Giovanna

    2014-01-01

    Cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptors are highly expressed in the brain and play a role in behavior control. Endogenous cannabinoid signaling is modulated by high-fat diet (HFD). We investigated the consequences of congenital lack of CB1 receptors on sleep in mice fed standard diet (SD) and HFD. CB1 cannabinoid receptor knock-out (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice were fed SD or HFD for 4 months (n = 9-10 per group). Mice were instrumented with electroencephalographic (EEG) and electromyographic electrodes. Recordings were performed during baseline (48 hours), sleep deprivation (gentle handling, 6 hours), sleep recovery (18 hours), and after cage switch (insomnia model paradigm, 6 hours). We found multiple significant effects of genotype on sleep. In particular, KO spent more time awake and less time in non-rapid-eye-movement sleep (NREMS) and rapid-eye-movement sleep (REMS) than WT during the dark (active) period but not during the light (rest) period, enhancing the day-night variation of wake-sleep amounts. KO had slower EEG theta rhythm during REMS. REMS homeostasis after sleep deprivation was less effective in KO than in WT. Finally, KO habituated more rapidly to the arousing effect of the cage-switch test than WT. We did not find any significant effects of diet or of diet x genotype interaction on sleep. The occurrence of multiple sleep alterations in KO indicates important roles of CB1 cannabinoid receptors in limiting arousal during the active period of the day, in sleep regulation, and in sleep EEG in mice.

  15. Toll-like receptor 2 and type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Sepehri, Zahra; Kiani, Zohre; Nasiri, Ali Akbar; Kohan, Farhad

    2016-01-01

    Innate immunity plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and related complications. Since the toll-like receptors (TLRs) are central to innate immunity, it appears that they are important participants in the development and pathogenesis of the disease. Previous investigations demonstrated that TLR2 homodimers and TLR2 heterodimers with TLR1 or TLR6 activate innate immunity upon recognition of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Several DAMPs are released during type 2 diabetes, so it may be hypothesized that TLR2 is significantly involved in its progression. Here, we review recent data on the important roles and status of TLR2 in type 2 diabetes and related complications.

  16. Leptin Acts via Lateral Hypothalamic Area Neurotensin Neurons to Inhibit Orexin Neurons by Multiple GABA-Independent Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Goforth, Paulette B.; Leinninger, Gina M.; Patterson, Christa M.

    2014-01-01

    The adipocyte-derived hormone leptin modulates neural systems appropriately for the status of body energy stores. Leptin inhibits lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) orexin (OX; also known as hypocretin)-producing neurons, which control feeding, activity, and energy expenditure, among other parameters. Our previous results suggest that GABAergic LHA leptin receptor (LepRb)-containing and neurotensin (Nts)-containing (LepRbNts) neurons lie in close apposition with OX neurons and control Ox mRNA expression. Here, we show that, similar to leptin, activation of LHA Nts neurons by the excitatory hM3Dq DREADD (designer receptor exclusively activated by designer drugs) hyperpolarizes membrane potential and suppresses action potential firing in OX neurons in mouse hypothalamic slices. Furthermore, ablation of LepRb from Nts neurons abrogated the leptin-mediated inhibition, demonstrating that LepRbNts neurons mediate the inhibition of OX neurons by leptin. Leptin did not significantly enhance GABAA-mediated inhibitory synaptic transmission, and GABA receptor antagonists did not block leptin-mediated inhibition of OX neuron activity. Rather, leptin diminished the frequency of spontaneous EPSCs onto OX neurons. Furthermore, leptin indirectly activated an ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel in OX neurons, which was required for the hyperpolarization of OX neurons by leptin. Although Nts did not alter OX activity, galanin, which is coexpressed in LepRbNts neurons, inhibited OX neurons, whereas the galanin receptor antagonist M40 (galanin-(1–12)-Pro3-(Ala-Leu)2-Ala amide) prevented the leptin-induced hyperpolarization of OX cells. These findings demonstrate that leptin indirectly inhibits OX neurons by acting on LHA LepRbNts neurons to mediate two distinct GABA-independent mechanisms of inhibition: the presynaptic inhibition of excitatory neurotransmission and the opening of KATP channels. PMID:25143620

  17. Stabilised 111In-labelled DTPA- and DOTA-conjugated neurotensin analogues for imaging and therapy of exocrine pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    de Visser, M; Janssen, P J J M; Srinivasan, A; Reubi, J C; Waser, B; Erion, J L; Schmidt, M A; Krenning, E P; de Jong, M

    2003-08-01

    Neurotensin (NT) receptors are overexpressed in exocrine pancreatic cancer and Ewing's sarcoma. The potential utility of native NT in cancer diagnosis and therapy is, however, limited by its rapid degradation in vivo. Therefore, NT analogues were synthesised with modified lysine and arginine derivatives to enhance stability and coupled either to DTPA, to enable high specific activity labelling with indium-111 for imaging, or to DOTA, to enable high specific activity labelling with beta-emitting radionuclides, such as lutetium-177 and yttrium-90. Based on serum stability (4 h incubation at 37 degrees C in human serum) and receptor binding affinity, the five most promising analogues were selected and further evaluated in in vitro internalisation studies in human colorectal adenocarcinoma HT29 cells, which overexpress NT receptors. All five NT analogues bound with high affinity to NT receptors on human exocrine pancreatic tumour sections. The analogues could be labelled with (111)In to a high specific activity. The (111)In-labelled compounds were found to be very stable in serum. Incubation of HT29 cells with the (111)In-labelled analogues at 37 degrees C showed rapid receptor-mediated uptake and internalisation. The most promising analogue, peptide 2530 [DTPA-(Pip)Gly-Pro-(PipAm)Gly-Arg-Pro-Tyr-tBuGly-Leu-OH] was further tested in vivo in a biodistribution study using HT29 tumour-bearing nude mice. The results of this study showed low percentages of injected dose per gram tissue of this (111)In-labelled 2530 analogue in receptor-negative organs like blood, spleen, pancreas, liver, muscle and femur. Good uptake was found in the receptor-positive HT29 tumour and high uptake was present in the kidneys. Co-injection of excess unlabelled NT significantly reduced tumour uptake, showing that tumour uptake is a receptor-mediated process. With their enhanced stability, maintained high receptor affinity and rapid receptor-mediated internalisation, the (111)In-labelled DTPA

  18. Functional CB2 type cannabinoid receptors at CNS synapses.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Nicola H; Stanford, Ian M; Woodhall, Gavin L

    2009-09-01

    To date, it has been thought that cannabinoid receptors in CNS are primarily of the CB1R subtype, with CB2R expressed only in glia and peripheral tissues. However, evidence for the expression of CB2 type cannabinoid receptors at neuronal sites in the CNS is building through anatomical localization of receptors and mRNA in neurons and behavioural studies of central effects of CB2R agonists. In the medial entorhinal area of the rat, we found that blockade of CB1R did not occlude suppression of GABAergic inhibition by the non-specific endogenous cannabinoid 2-AG, suggesting that CB1R could not account fully for the effects of 2-AG. Suppression could be mimicked using the CB2R agonist JWH-133 and reversed by the CB2R inverse agonist AM-630, indicating the presence of functional CB2R. When we reversed the order of drug application AM-630 blocked the effects of the CB2R agonist JWH-133, but not the CB1R inverse agonist LY320135. JTE-907, a CB2R inverse agonist structurally unrelated to AM-630 elicited increased GABAergic neurotransmission at picomolar concentrations. Analysis of mIPSCs revealed that CB2R effects were restricted to action potential dependent, but not action potential independent GABA release. These data provide pharmacological evidence for functional CB2R at CNS synapses.

  19. C-type lectin receptors in tuberculosis: what we know.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Surabhi; Klassert, Tilman E; Slevogt, Hortense

    2016-12-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the etiologic agent of tuberculosis (TB), is recognized by a number of pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs), either soluble or predominantly expressed on the surface of various cells of innate and adaptive immunity. C-type lectin receptors (CTLRs) are a class of PRRs which can recognize a variety of endogenous and exogenous ligands, thereby playing a crucial role in immunity, as well as in maintaining homeostasis. Mtb surface ligands, including mannose-capped lipoarabinomannan and cord factor, are important immune modulators which recently have been found to be directly recognized by several CTLRs. Receptor ligation is followed by cellular activation, mainly via nuclear factor κB mediated by a series of adaptors with subsequent expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Mtb recognition by CTLRs and their cross talk with other PRRs on immune cells is of key importance for the better understanding of the Mtb-induced complexity of the host immune responses. Epidemiological studies have shown that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in several PRRs, as well as the adaptors in their signaling cascades, are directly involved in the susceptibility for developing disease and the disease outcome. In addition, an increasing number of CTLRs have been studied for their functional effects in the pathogenesis of TB. This review summarizes current knowledge regarding the various roles played by different CTLRs in TB, as well as the role of their SNPs associated with disease susceptibility and outcome in different human populations.

  20. Effect of ghrelin receptor antagonist on meal patterns in cholecystokinin type 1 receptor null mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jennifer; Martin, Elizabeth; Paulino, Gabriel; de Lartigue, Guillaume; Raybould, Helen E

    2011-05-03

    Vagal afferent neurons (VAN) express the cholecystokinin (CCK) type 1 receptor (CCK₁R) and, as predicted by the role of CCK in inducing satiation, CCK₁R⁻/⁻ mice ingest larger and longer meals. However, after a short fast, CCK₁R⁻/⁻ mice ingesting high fat (HF) diets initiate feeding earlier than wild-type mice. We hypothesized that the increased drive to eat in CCK₁R⁻/⁻ mice eating HF diet is mediated by ghrelin, a gut peptide that stimulates food intake. The decrease in time to first meal, and the increase in meal size and duration in CCK₁R⁻/⁻ compared to wild-type mice ingesting high fat (HF) diet were reversed by administration of GHSR1a antagonist D-(Lys3)-GHRP-6 (p<0.05). Administration of the GHSR1a antagonist significantly increased expression of the neuropeptide cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) in VAN of HF-fed CCK₁R⁻/⁻ but not wild-type mice. Administration of the GHSR1a antagonist decreased neuronal activity measured by immunoreactivity for fos protein in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) and the arcuate nucleus of both HF-fed wild-type and CCK₁R⁻/⁻ mice. The data show that hyperphagia in CCK₁R⁻/⁻ mice ingesting HF diet is reversed by blockade of the ghrelin receptor, suggesting that in the absence of the CCK₁R, there is an increased ghrelin-dependent drive to feed. The site of action of ghrelin receptors is unclear, but may involve an increase in expression of CART peptide in VAN in HF-fed CCK₁R⁻/⁻ mice.

  1. Immunolocalization of cannabinoid receptor type 1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors, and transient receptor potential vanilloid channels in pterygium.

    PubMed

    Assimakopoulou, Martha; Pagoulatos, Dionysios; Nterma, Pinelopi; Pharmakakis, Nikolaos

    2017-10-01

    Cannabinoids, as multi‑target mediators, activate cannabinoid receptors and transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) channels. There is evidence to support a functional interaction of cannabinoid receptors and TRPV channels when they are coexpressed. Human conjunctiva demonstrates widespread cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1), CB2 and TRPV channel localization. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression profile for cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2) and TRPV channels in pterygium, an ocular surface lesion originating from the conjunctiva. Semi‑serial paraffin‑embedded sections from primary and recurrent pterygium samples were immunohistochemically examined with the use of specific antibodies. All of the epithelial layers in 94, 78, 96, 73 and 80% of pterygia cases, exhibited CB1, CB2, TRPV1, TRPV2 and TRPV3 cytoplasmic immunoreactivity, respectively. The epithelium of all pterygia cases (100%) showed strong, mainly nuclear, TRPV4 immunolocalization. In the pterygium stroma, scattered cells demonstrated intense CB2 immunoreactivity, whereas vascular endothelial cells were immunopositive for the cannabinoid receptors and all TRPV channels. Quantitative analyses of the immunohistochemical findings in epithelial cells demonstrated a significantly higher expression level in conjunctiva compared with primary pterygia (P=0.04) for CB1, but not for CB2 (P>0.05). Additionally, CB1 and CB2 were significantly highly expressed in primary pterygia (P=0.01), compared with recurrent pterygia. Furthermore, CB1 expression levels were significantly correlated with CB2 expression levels in primary pterygia (P=0.005), but not in recurrent pterygia (P>0.05). No significant difference was detected for all TRPV channel expression levels between pterygium (primary or recurrent) and conjunctival tissues (P>0.05). A significant correlation between the TRPV1 and TRPV3 expression levels (P<0.001) was detected independently of pterygium recurrence. Finally, TRPV

  2. Obtaining anti-type 1 melatonin receptor antibodies by immunization with melatonin receptor-expressing cells.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Nelia; Wijkhuisen, Anne; Savatier, Alexandra; Moulharat, Natacha; Ferry, Gilles; Léonetti, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Antibodies (Abs) specific to cell-surface receptors are attractive tools for studying the physiological role of such receptors or for controlling their activity. We sought to obtain such antibodies against the type 1 receptor for melatonin (MT1). For this, we injected mice with CHO cells transfected with a plasmid encoding human MT1 (CHO-MT1-h), in the presence or absence of an adjuvant mixture containing Alum and CpG1018. As we previously observed that the immune response to a protein antigen is increased when it is coupled to a fusion protein, called ZZTat101, we also investigated if the association of ZZTat101 with CHO-MT1-h cells provides an immunogenic advantage. We measured similar levels of anti-CHO and anti-MT1-h Ab responses in animals injected with either CHO-MT1-h cells or ZZTat101/CHO-MT1-h cells, with or without adjuvant, indicating that neither the adjuvant mixture nor ZZTat101 increased the anti-cell immune response. Then, we investigated whether the antisera also recognized murine MT1 (MT1-m). Using cloned CHO cells transfected with a plasmid encoding MT1-m, we found that antisera raised against CHO-MT1-h cells also bound the mouse receptor. Altogether our studies indicate that immunizing approaches based on MT1-h-expressing CHO cells allow the production of polyclonal antibodies against MT1 receptors of different origins. This paves the way to preparation of MT1-specific monoclonal antibodies.

  3. Conformations of neurotensin in solution and in membrane environments studied by 2-D NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Xu, G Y; Deber, C M

    1991-06-01

    Two-dimensional HOHAHA and ROESY nuclear magnetic resonance techniques are used to obtain complete proton resonance assignments and to perform a conformational investigation of the neuropeptide neurotensin (pGlu-Leu-Tyr-Glu-Asn-Lys-Pro-Arg-Arg-Pro-Tyr-Ile-Leu) in aqueous solution, methanol, and membrane-mimetic [deuterated sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS)] environments. Results suggest the absence of discernible elements of secondary structure in water and methanol. ROESY spectra confirm that Lys-Pro and Arg-Pro peptide bonds are all-trans, but that a significant population of cis Arg-Pro bonds arises in aqueous solution, which increases in the environment of SDS micelles. The conformational ensemble of the peptide is observed to narrow as it becomes bound through its cationic mid-region to SDS micelles, with the accompanying advent of local extended structure. The overall results indicate the inherent conformational flexibility of neurotensin, and emphasize the environmental dependence of conformation in peptides of medium length.

  4. Role of peptide primary sequence in polyphenol-protein recognition: an example with neurotensin.

    PubMed

    Richard, T; Vitrac, X; Merillon, J M; Monti, J P

    2005-11-30

    Polyphenols are known for their impact on health and one of their major properties is the formation of complexes with proteins. To investigate the involvement of polyphenol-protein complexes in health, the interactions between bioactive polyphenols and neurotensin were examined by structural NMR and molecular modeling. Neurotensin is a linear bioactive tridecapeptide and polyphenols seem to affect the NT metabolism. We studied the polyphenols resveratrol and its glucoside the piceid in order to observe the possible role of glucose group and the penta-O-galloyl-D-glucopyranose (PGG). NMR data and molecular modeling showed that interaction occurred with the three polyphenols involving hydrophobic stacking and hydrogen bonds. Moreover, the peptide primary sequence plays a role in the specificity of complex formation.

  5. Ionotropic AMPA-type glutamate and metabotropic GABAB receptors: determining cellular physiology by proteomes.

    PubMed

    Bettler, Bernhard; Fakler, Bernd

    2017-03-07

    Ionotropic AMPA-type glutamate receptors and G-protein-coupled metabotropic GABAB receptors are key elements of neurotransmission whose cellular functions are determined by their protein constituents. Over the past couple of years unbiased proteomic approaches identified comprehensive sets of protein building blocks of these two types of neurotransmitter receptors in the brain (termed receptor proteomes). This provided the opportunity to match receptor proteomes with receptor physiology and to study the structural organization, regulation and function of native receptor complexes in an unprecedented manner. In this review we discuss the principles of receptor architecture and regulation emerging from the functional characterization of the proteomes of AMPA and GABAB receptors. We also highlight progress in unraveling the role of unexpected protein components for receptor physiology.

  6. A type 1 cholecystokinin receptor mutant that mimics the dysfunction observed for wild type receptor in a high cholesterol environment.

    PubMed

    Desai, Aditya J; Harikumar, Kaleeckal G; Miller, Laurence J

    2014-06-27

    Cholecystokinin (CCK) stimulates the type 1 CCK receptor (CCK1R) to elicit satiety after a meal. Agonists with this activity, although potentially useful for treatment of obesity, can also have side effects and toxicities of concern, making the development of an intrinsically inactive positive allosteric modulator quite attractive. Positive allosteric modulators also have the potential to correct the defective receptor-G protein coupling observed in the high membrane cholesterol environment described in metabolic syndrome. Current model systems to study CCK1R in such an environment are unstable and expensive to maintain. We now report that the Y140A mutation within a cholesterol-binding motif and the conserved, class A G protein-coupled receptor-specific (E/D)RY signature sequence results in ligand binding and activity characteristics similar to wild type CCK1R in a high cholesterol environment. This is true for natural CCK, as well as ligands with distinct chemistries and activity profiles. Additionally, the Y140A construct also behaved like CCK1R in high cholesterol in regard to its internalization, sensitivity to a nonhydrolyzable GTP analog, and anisotropy of a bound fluorescent CCK analog. Chimeric CCK1R/CCK2R constructs that systematically changed the residues in the allosteric ligand-binding pocket were studied in the presence of Y140A. This established increased importance of unique residues within TM3 and reduced the importance of TM2 for binding in the presence of this mutation, with the agonist trigger likely pulled away from its Leu(356) target on TM7. The distinct conformation of this intramembranous pocket within Y140A CCK1R provides an opportunity to normalize this by using a small molecule allosteric ligand, thereby providing safe and effective correction of the coupling defect in metabolic syndrome.

  7. Identification of the first small-molecule ligand of the neuronal receptor sortilin and structure determination of the receptor–ligand complex

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, Jacob Lauwring; Schrøder, Tenna Juul; Christensen, Søren; Pallesen, Lone Tjener; García-Alai, Maria Marta; Lindberg, Samsa; Langgård, Morten; Eskildsen, Jørgen Calí; David, Laurent; Tagmose, Lena; Simonsen, Klaus Baek; Maltas, Philip James; Rønn, Lars Christian Biilmann; Jong, Inge E. M. de; Malik, Ibrahim John; Egebjerg, Jan; Karlsson, Jens-Jacob; Watson, Steven P.

    2014-02-01

    The identification of the first small-molecule ligand of the neuronal receptor sortilin and structure determination of the receptor–ligand complex are reported. Sortilin is a type I membrane glycoprotein belonging to the vacuolar protein sorting 10 protein (Vps10p) family of sorting receptors and is most abundantly expressed in the central nervous system. Sortilin has emerged as a key player in the regulation of neuronal viability and has been implicated as a possible therapeutic target in a range of disorders. Here, the identification of AF40431, the first reported small-molecule ligand of sortilin, is reported. Crystals of the sortilin–AF40431 complex were obtained by co-crystallization and the structure of the complex was solved to 2.7 Å resolution. AF40431 is bound in the neurotensin-binding site of sortilin, with the leucine moiety of AF40431 mimicking the binding mode of the C-terminal leucine of neurotensin and the 4-methylumbelliferone moiety of AF40431 forming π-stacking with a phenylalanine.

  8. Simvastatin enhances bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II expression

    SciTech Connect

    Hu Hong; Sung, Arthur; Zhao, Guohua; Shi, Lingfang; Qiu Daoming; Nishimura, Toshihiko; Kao, Peter N. . E-mail: peterkao@stanford.edu

    2006-01-06

    Statins confer therapeutic benefits in systemic and pulmonary vascular diseases. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) receptors serve essential signaling functions in cardiovascular development and skeletal morphogenesis. Mutations in BMP receptor type II (BMPR2) are associated with human familial and idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension, and pathologic neointimal proliferation of vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells within small pulmonary arteries. In severe experimental pulmonary hypertension, simvastatin reversed disease and conferred a 100% survival advantage. Here, modulation of BMPR2 gene expression by simvastatin is characterized in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T, pulmonary artery smooth muscle, and lung microvascular endothelial cells (HLMVECs). A 1.4 kb BMPR2 promoter containing Egr-1 binding sites confers reporter gene activation in 293T cells which is partially inhibited by simvastatin. Simvastatin enhances steady-state BMPR2 mRNA and protein expression in HLMVEC, through posttranscriptional mRNA stabilization. Simvastatin induction of BMPR2 expression may improve BMP-BMPR2 signaling thereby enhancing endothelial differentiation and function.

  9. The discoidin domain receptor DDR2 is a receptor for type X collagen.

    PubMed

    Leitinger, Birgit; Kwan, Alvin P L

    2006-08-01

    During endochondral ossification, collagen X is deposited in the hypertrophic zone of the growth plate. Our previous results have shown that collagen X is capable of interacting directly with chondrocytes, primarily via integrin alpha2beta1. In this study, we determined whether collagen X could also interact with the non-integrin collagen receptors, discoidin domain receptors (DDRs), DDR1 or DDR2. The widely expressed DDRs are receptor tyrosine kinases that are activated by a number of different collagen types. Collagen X was found to be a much better ligand for DDR2 than for DDR1. Collagen X bound to the DDR2 extracellular domain with high affinity and stimulated DDR2 autophosphorylation, the first step in transmembrane signalling. Expression of DDR2 in the epiphyseal plate was confirmed by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. The spatial expression of DDR2 in the hypertrophic zone of the growth plate is consistent with a physiological interaction of DDR2 with collagen X. Surprisingly, the discoidin domain of DDR2, which fully contains the binding sites for the fibrillar collagens I and II, was not sufficient for collagen X binding. The nature of the DDR2 binding site(s) within collagen X was further analysed. In addition to a collagenous domain, collagen X contains a C-terminal NC1 domain. DDR2 was found to recognise the triple-helical region of collagen X as well as the NC1 domain. Binding to the collagenous region was dependent on the triple-helical conformation. DDR2 autophosphorylation was induced by the collagen X triple-helical region but not the NC1 domain, indicating that the triple-helical region of collagen X contains a specific DDR2 binding site that is capable of receptor activation. Our study is the first to describe a non-fibrillar collagen ligand for DDR2 and will form the basis for further studies into the biological function of collagen X during endochondral ossification.

  10. Urokinase type plasminogen activator receptor expression in colorectal neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, S; Hayashi, Y; Wang, Y; Nakamura, T; Morita, Y; Kawasaki, K; Ohta, K; Aoyama, N; Kim, S; Itoh, H; Kuroda, Y; Doe, W

    1998-01-01

    Background—The urokinase type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) may play a critical role in cancer invasion and metastasis. 
Aims—To study the involvement of uPAR in colorectal carcinogenesis. 
Methods—The cellular expression and localisation of uPAR were investigated in colorectal adenomas and invasive carcinomas by in situ hybridisation, immunohistochemistry, and northern and western blot analyses. 
Results—uPAR mRNA expression was found mainly in the cytoplasm of dysplastic epithelial cells of 30% of adenomas with mild (19%), moderate (21%), and severe (47%) dysplasia, and in that of carcinomatous cells of 85% of invasive carcinomas: Dukes' stages A (72%), B (93%), and C (91%). Some stromal cells in the adjacent neoplastic epithelium were faintly positive. Immunoreactivity for uPAR was detected in dysplastic epithelial cells of 14% of adenomas and in carcinomatous cells of 49% of invasive carcinomas. uPAR mRNA and protein concentrations were significantly higher in severe than in mild or moderate dysplasia (p<0.05); they were notably higher in Dukes' stage A than in severe dysplasia (p<0.05), and significantly higher in Dukes' stage B than in stage A (p<0.05), but those in stage B were not different from those in stage C or in metastatic colorectal carcinomas of the liver. 
Conclusions—Colorectal adenoma uPAR, expressed essentially in dysplastic epithelial cells, was upregulated with increasing severity of atypia, and increased notably during the critical transition from severe dysplasic adenoma to invasive carcinoma. These findings implicate uPAR expression in the invasive and metastatic processes of colorectal cancer. 

 Keywords: urokinase type plasminogen activator receptor; colorectal adenoma; colorectal cancer; adenoma-carcinoma sequence PMID:9824607

  11. Purification and characterization of human endopeptidase 3.4.24.16. Comparison with the porcine counterpart indicates a unique cleavage site on neurotensin.

    PubMed

    Vincent, B; Vincent, J P; Checler, F

    1996-02-12

    We have purified and characterized human brain endopeptidase 3.4.24.16. The enzyme behaved as a 72 kDa protein and belonged to the metalloprotease family. Human endopeptidase 3.4.24.16 cleaved neurotensin at a unique site at the Pro10-Tyr11 bond, leading to the formation of neurotensin(1-10) and neurotensin(11-13). The kinetic parameters displayed by human endopeptidase 3.4.24.16 towards a series of natural neuropeptides indicated that bradykinin was the most efficiently proteolysed. Angiotensin I, dynorphins 1-8 and 1-9 and substance P also behaved as good substrates while neuromedin N, angiotensin II, leucine and methionine enkephalin and neurokinin A resisted degradation by human endopeptidase 3.4.24.16. We have purified the porcine counterpart of endopeptidase 3.4.24.16 and compared its ability to cleave neurotensin with that of the enzyme from human origin. It appeared that, besides a major production of neurotensin(1-10), an additional formation of neurotensin(1-8) was observed with the pig enzyme, suggesting a cleavage of neurotensin not only at the Pro10-Tyr11 bond but also at the Arg8-Arg9 peptidyl bond. The latter cleavage appeared reminiscent of endopeptidase 3.4.24.15 since this peptidase was reported to cleave neurotensin at the Arg8-Arg9 bond. Our study indicated that neurotensin(1-10) formation by porcine endopeptidase 3.4.24.16 could be potently blocked with the selective endopeptidase 3.4.24.16 dipeptide inhibitor Pro-Ile without interfering with neurotensin(1-8) formation. By contrast, the formation of the latter product was highly potentiated by dithiothreitol and inhibited by the endopeptidase 3.4.24.15 inhibitor Cpp-Ala-Ala-Tyr-pAB, two effects that were not observed for neurotensin(1-10) production. Altogether, our results indicate that porcine endopeptidase 3.4.24.16 cleaves neurotensin at a unique site, leading to the formation of neurotensin(1-10) and that the production of neurotensin(1-8) is due to contaminating endopeptidase 3.4.24.15.

  12. New therapeutic strategies targeting D1-type dopamine receptors for neuropsychiatric disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Cho; Alberico, Stephanie L; Emmons, Eric; Narayanan, Nandakumar S

    2015-06-01

    The neurotransmitter dopamine acts via two major classes of receptors, D1-type and D2-type. D1 receptors are highly expressed in the striatum and can also be found in the cerebral cortex. Here we review the role of D1 dopamine signaling in two major domains: L-DOPA-induced dyskinesias in Parkinson's disease and cognition in neuropsychiatric disorders. While there are many drugs targeting D2-type receptors, there are no drugs that specifically target D1 receptors. It has been difficult to use selective D1-receptor agonists for clinical applications due to issues with bioavailability, binding affinity, pharmacological kinetics, and side effects. We propose potential therapies that selectively modulate D1 dopamine signaling by targeting second messengers downstream of D1 receptors, allosteric modulators, or by making targeted modifications to D1-receptor machinery. The development of therapies specific to D1-receptor signaling could be a new frontier in the treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders.

  13. Cholinergic Receptor Substrates of Neuronal Plasticity and Learning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-29

    M2, GABAA, L2, P1, 5-HT1 , Mp opoid, delta opiod and neurotensin receptors. Additional assays of nor-epinephrine (NE), serotonin (5-HT) and of...specific to GABAA and opiod receptors, are in preparation. b. OXO Binding in Limbic Thalamus. OXO binding increased significantly during training, in the...battery of behavioral treatments followed by assay for M2 GABAA, and opiod receptors. 5. Cholinergic deafferentation of cingulate cortex induced by

  14. Angiotensin-(1-7) Suppresses Hepatocellular Carcinoma Growth and Angiogenesis via Complex Interactions of Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor, Angiotensin II Type 2 Receptor and Mas Receptor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanping; Li, Bin; Wang, Ximing; Li, Guishuang; Shang, Rui; Yang, Jianmin; Wang, Jiali; Zhang, Meng; Chen, Yuguo; Zhang, Yun; Zhang, Cheng; Hao, Panpan

    2015-07-27

    We recently confirmed that angiotensin II (Ang II) type 1 receptor (AT1R) was overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma tissue using a murine hepatoma model. Angiotensin(Ang)-(1-7) has been found beneficial in ameliorating lung cancer and prostate cancer. Which receptor of Ang-(1-7) is activated to mediate its effects is much speculated. This study was designed to investigate the effects of Ang-(1-7) on hepatocellular carcinoma, as well as the probable mechanisms. H22 hepatoma-bearing mice were randomly divided into five groups for treatment: mock group, low-dose Ang-(1-7), high-dose Ang-(1-7), high-dose Ang-(1-7) + A779 and high-dose Ang-(1-7) + PD123319. Ang-(1-7) treatment inhibited tumor growth time- and dose-dependently by arresting tumor proliferation and promoting tumor apoptosis as well as inhibiting tumor angiogenesis. The effects of Ang-(1-7) on tumor proliferation and apoptosis were reversed by coadministration with A779 or PD123319, whereas the effects on tumor angiogenesis were completely reversed by A779 but not by PD123319. Moreover, Ang-(1-7) downregulated AT1R mRNA, upregulated mRNA levels of Ang II type 2 receptor (AT2R) and Mas receptor (MasR) and p38-MAPK phosphorylation and suppressed H22 cell-endothelial cell communication. Thus, Ang-(1-7) administration suppresses hepatocellular carcinoma via complex interactions of AT1R, AT2R and MasR and may provide a novel and promising approach for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  15. Angiotensin-(1–7) Suppresses Hepatocellular Carcinoma Growth and Angiogenesis via Complex Interactions of Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor, Angiotensin II Type 2 Receptor and Mas Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yanping; Li, Bin; Wang, Ximing; Li, Guishuang; Shang, Rui; Yang, Jianmin; Wang, Jiali; Zhang, Meng; Chen, Yuguo; Zhang, Yun; Zhang, Cheng; Hao, Panpan

    2015-01-01

    We recently confirmed that angiotensin II (Ang II) type 1 receptor (AT1R) was overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma tissue using a murine hepatoma model. Angiotensin(Ang)-(1–7) has been found beneficial in ameliorating lung cancer and prostate cancer. Which receptor of Ang-(1–7) is activated to mediate its effects is much speculated. This study was designed to investigate the effects of Ang-(1–7) on hepatocellular carcinoma, as well as the probable mechanisms. H22 hepatoma-bearing mice were randomly divided into five groups for treatment: mock group, low-dose Ang-(1–7), high-dose Ang-(1–7), high-dose Ang-(1–7) + A779 and high-dose Ang-(1–7) + PD123319. Ang-(1–7) treatment inhibited tumor growth time- and dose-dependently by arresting tumor proliferation and promoting tumor apoptosis as well as inhibiting tumor angiogenesis. The effects of Ang-(1–7) on tumor proliferation and apoptosis were reversed by coadministration with A779 or PD123319, whereas the effects on tumor angiogenesis were completely reversed by A779 but not by PD123319. Moreover, Ang-(1–7) downregulated AT1R mRNA, upregulated mRNA levels of Ang II type 2 receptor (AT2R) and Mas receptor (MasR) and p38-MAPK phosphorylation and suppressed H22 cell–endothelial cell communication. Thus, Ang-(1–7) administration suppresses hepatocellular carcinoma via complex interactions of AT1R, AT2R and MasR and may provide a novel and promising approach for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:26225830

  16. The Administration of Levocabastine, a NTS2 Receptor Antagonist, Modifies Na(+), K(+)-ATPase Properties.

    PubMed

    Gutnisky, Alicia; López Ordieres, María Graciela; Rodríguez de Lores Arnaiz, Georgina

    2016-06-01

    Neurotensin behaves as a neuromodulator or as a neurotransmitter interacting with NTS1 and NTS2 receptors. Neurotensin in vitro inhibits synaptosomal membrane Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity. This effect is prevented by administration of SR 48692 (antagonist for NTS1 receptor). The administration of levocabastine (antagonist for NTS2 receptor) does not prevent Na(+), K(+)-ATPase inhibition by neurotensin when the enzyme is assayed with ATP as substrate. Herein levocabastine effect on Na(+), K(+)-ATPase K(+) site was explored. For this purpose, levocabastine was administered to rats and K(+)-p-nitrophenylphosphatase (K(+)-p-NPPase) activity in synaptosomal membranes and [(3)H]-ouabain binding to cerebral cortex membranes were assayed in the absence (basal) and in the presence of neurotensin. Male Wistar rats were administered with levocabastine (50 μg/kg, i.p., 30 min) or the vehicle (saline solution). Synaptosomal membranes were obtained from cerebral cortex by differential and gradient centrifugation. The activity of K(+)-p-NPPase was determined in media laking or containing ATP plus NaCl. In such phosphorylating condition enzyme behaviour resembles that observed when ATP hydrolyses is recorded. In the absence of ATP plus NaCl, K(+)-p-NPPase activity was similar for levocabastine or vehicle injected (roughly 11 μmole hydrolyzed substrate per mg protein per hour). Such value remained unaltered by the presence of 3.5 × 10(-6) M neurotensin. In the phosphorylating medium, neurotensin decreased (32 %) the enzyme activity in membranes obtained from rats injected with the vehicle but failed to alter those obtained from rats injected with levocabastine. Levocabastine administration enhanced (50 %) basal [(3)H]-ouabain binding to cerebral cortex membranes but failed to modify neurotensin inhibitory effect on this ligand binding. It is concluded that NTS2 receptor blockade modifies the properties of neuronal Na(+), K(+)-ATPase and that neurotensin effect on Na(+), K

  17. Interleukin-1 receptor accessory protein interacts with the type II interleukin-1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Malinowsky, D; Lundkvist, J; Layé, S; Bartfai, T

    1998-06-16

    Stably transfected HEK-293 cells express on their surface the murine type II IL-1 receptor (mIL-1RII) as demonstrated by FACS analysis using the mAb 4E2, however binding of [125I]-hrIL-1beta to these cells is nearly absent. Saturable high affinity binding of [125I]-hrIL-1beta is observed when the murine IL-1 receptor accessory protein (mIL-1RAcP) is coexpressed with mIL-1RII. Binding of [125I]-hrIL-1beta to mIL-1RII-mIL-1RAcP complex can be inhibited either with antibodies to mIL-1RII (mAb 4E2), or by antibodies to mIL-1RAcP (mAb 4C5). The number of high affinity binding sites in cells stably transfected with the cDNA for mIL-1RII is dependent on the dose of cDNA for mIL-1RAcP used to transfect the cells. The high affinity complex between mIL-1RII and mIL-1RAcP is not preformed by interaction between the intracellular domains of these two transmembrane proteins, rather it appears to require the extracellular portions of mIL-1RII and mIL-1RAcP and the presence of a ligand. We suggest that in addition to its earlier described decoy receptor role, IL-1RII may modulate the responsiveness of cells to IL-1 by binding the IL-1RAcP in unproductive/non-signalling complexes and thus reducing the number of signalling IL-1RI-IL-1RAcP-agonist complexes when IL-1 is bound.

  18. A paradoxical regulation of the dopamine D3 receptor expression suggests the involvement of an anterograde factor from dopamine neurons.

    PubMed Central

    Lévesque, D; Martres, M P; Diaz, J; Griffon, N; Lammers, C H; Sokoloff, P; Schwartz, J C

    1995-01-01

    The effects of interruption of dopaminergic transmission or sustained blockade of dopamine receptors by neuroleptics on the dopamine D3 receptor in the shell of the nucleus accumbens were investigated in rats. In this brain area the D3 receptor is abundant and may mediate antipsychotic drug effects. The D3 receptor density and mRNA abundance were evaluated with 7-[3H]hydroxy-N,N-di-n-propyl-2-aminotetralin and by quantitative PCR or image analysis of in situ hybridization signals, respectively. Unilateral dopamine neuron degeneration by 6-hydroxydopamine or sections triggered, after a few days, a marked decrease (up to 50%) in D3 receptor binding and mRNA in the nucleus accumbens. In contrast, a 2-week treatment with the neuroleptic haloperidol (20 mg/kg) had no effect on D3 receptor density and mRNA but enhanced D2 receptor density and mRNA level by > 50%. In addition, tolerance to the haloperidol-induced change of neurotensin mRNA mediated by the D2 receptor developed, but there was no tolerance to the opposite change mediated by the D3 receptor. Reserpine, a monoamine-depleting drug with antipsychotic activity, did not modify D3 receptor mRNA. These observations reinforce the idea that the D3 receptor may be an important target for neuroleptics whose antipsychotic actions, but not extrapyramidal motor actions, do not display tolerance. The D3 receptor mRNA level was also decreased by a unilateral injection in dopamine cell body areas of colchicine, a drug blocking the anterograde axonal transport, or by baclofen, a type A gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor agonist reducing dopamine neuron activity, but not by sustained blockade of D1-like and D2-like, neurotensin, or cholecystokinin receptors. We therefore propose that an anterograde factor present in mesolimbic dopaminergic neurons, but distinct from dopamine and known peptide cotransmitters, plays a positive role on transcription of the D3 receptor gene. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7878047

  19. Critical role of the endogenous interferon ligand-receptors in type I and type II interferons response.

    PubMed

    Lasfar, Ahmed; Cook, Jeffry R; Cohen Solal, Karine A; Reuhl, Kenneth; Kotenko, Sergei V; Langer, Jerome A; Laskin, Debra L

    2014-07-01

    Separate ligand-receptor paradigms are commonly used for each type of interferon (IFN). However, accumulating evidence suggests that type I and type II IFNs may not be restricted to independent pathways. Using different cell types deficient in IFNAR1, IFNAR2, IFNGR1, IFNGR2 and IFN-γ, we evaluated the contribution of each element of the IFN system to the activity of type I and type II IFNs. We show that deficiency in IFNAR1 or IFNAR2 is associated with impairment of type II IFN activity. This impairment, presumably resulting from the disruption of the ligand-receptor complex, is obtained in all cell types tested. However, deficiency of IFNGR1, IFNGR2 or IFN-γ was associated with an impairment of type I IFN activity in spleen cells only, correlating with the constitutive expression of type II IFN (IFN-γ) observed on those cells. Therefore, in vitro the constitutive expression of both the receptors and the ligands of type I or type II IFN is critical for the enhancement of the IFN activity. Any IFN deficiency can totally or partially impair IFN activity, suggesting the importance of type I and type II IFN interactions. Taken together, our results suggest that type I and type II IFNs may regulate biological activities through distinct as well as common IFN receptor complexes. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. The type I interferon receptor mediates tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 2.

    PubMed

    Platanias, L C; Uddin, S; Yetter, A; Sun, X J; White, M F

    1996-01-05

    Binding of interferon alpha (IFN alpha) to its receptor induces activation of the Tyk-2 and Jak-1 tyrosine kinases and tyrosine phosphorylation of multiple downstream signaling elements, including the Stat components of the interferon-stimulated gene factor 3 (ISGF-3). IFN alpha also induces tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1, the principle substrate of the insulin receptor. In this study we demonstrate that various Type I IFNs rapidly stimulate tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-2. This is significant since IRS-2 is the major IRS protein found in hematopoietic cells. The IFN alpha-induced phosphorylated form of IRS-2 associates with the p85 regulatory subunit of the phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase, suggesting that this kinase participates in an IFN alpha-signaling cascade downstream of IRS-2. We also provide evidence for an interaction of IRS-2 with Tyk-2, suggesting that Tyk-2 is the kinase that phosphorylates this protein during IFN alpha stimulation. A conserved region in the pleckstrin homology domain of IRS-2 may be required for the interaction of IRS-2 with Tyk-2, as shown by the selective binding of glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion proteins containing the IRS-2-IH1PH or IRS-1-IH1PH domains to Tyk-2 but not other Janus kinases in vitro.

  1. Use of Enterally Delivered Angiotensin II Type Ia Receptor Antagonists to Reduce the Severity of Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Okawada, Manabu; Koga, Hiroyuki; Larsen, Scott D.; Showalter, Hollis D.; Turbiak, Anjanette J.; Jin, Xiaohong; Lucas, Peter C.; Lipka, Elke; Hillfinger, John; Kim, Jae Seung

    2011-01-01

    Background Renin-angiotensin system blockade reduces inflammation in several organ systems. Having found a fourfold increase in angiotensin II type Ia receptor expression in a dextran sodium sulfate colitis model, we targeted blockade with angiotensin II type Ia receptor antagonists to prevent colitis development. Because hypotension is a major complication of angiotensin II type Ia receptor antagonists use, we hypothesized that use of angiotensin II type Ia receptor antagonists compounds which lack cell membrane permeability, and thus enteric absorption, would allow for direct enteral delivery at far higher concentrations than would be tolerated systemically, yet retain efficacy. Methods Based on the structure of the angiotensin II type Ia receptor antagonist losartan, deschloro-losartan was synthesized, which has extremely poor cell membrane permeability. Angiotensin II type Ia receptor antagonist efficacy was evaluated by determining the ability to block NF-κB activation in vitro. Dextran sodium sulfate colitis was induced in mice and angiotensin II type Ia receptor antagonist efficacy delivered transanally was assessed. Results In vitro, deschloro-losartan demonstrated near equal angiotensin II type Ia receptor blockade compared to losartan as well as another angiotensin II type Ia receptor antagonist, candesartan. In the dextran sodium sulfate model, each compound significantly improved clinical and histologic scores and epithelial cell apoptosis. Abundance of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL6 mRNA were significantly decreased with each compound. In vitro and in vivo intestinal drug absorption, as well as measures of blood pressure and mucosal and colonic blood flow, showed significantly lower uptake of deschloro-losartan compared to losartan and candesartan. Conclusions This study demonstrated efficacy of high-dose angiotensin II type Ia receptor antagonists in this colitis model. We postulate that a specially designed angiotensin II type Ia receptor antagonist with

  2. Type 1 Taste Receptors in Taste and Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kochem, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Our sense of taste allows us to evaluate the nutritive value of foods prior to ingesting them. Sweet taste signals the presence of sugars, and savory taste signals the presence of amino acids. The ability to identify these macronutrients in foods was likely crucial for the survival of our species when nourishing food sources were sparse. In modern, industrialized settings, taste perception continues to play an important role in human health as we attempt to prevent and treat conditions stemming from overnutrition. Recent research has revealed that type 1 taste receptors (T1Rs), which are largely responsible for sweet and umami taste, may also influence the absorption and metabolism of the foods we eat. Preliminary research shows that T1Rs contribute to intestinal glucose absorption, blood sugar and insulin regulation, and the body's responses to excessive energy intake. In light of these findings, T1Rs have come to be understood as nutrient sensors, among other roles, that facilitate the selection, digestion, and metabolism of foods. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Subunit dissociation and activation of wild-type and mutant glucocorticoid receptors.

    PubMed

    Gehring, U; Mugele, K; Arndt, H; Busch, W

    1987-09-01

    Apparent molecular weights of wild-type and nti ('increased nuclear transfer') mutant glucocorticoid receptors were obtained from Stokes radii and sedimentation coefficients. At low salt concentrations molecular forms of Mr 328,000 and 298,000 of the wild-type and mutant, respectively, were predominant. Increasing ionic strength resulted in receptor dissociation. Dissociated forms of Mr 130,000 and 63,000 of the wild-type and mutant, respectively, were obtained at 300 mM KCl and above. Some metal oxi-anions prevented dissociation. Receptor activation to allow DNA binding produced the dissociated forms which could be separated from non-activated receptors by filtration through DNA-cellulose or by DEAE-cellulose chromatography. Non-activated wild-type and nti receptors eluted from DEAE-cellulose under identical conditions while activated wild-type and nti receptors eluted differently. Partially proteolyzed wild-type receptors behaved identically to nti receptors. We conclude that the large forms of wild-type and nti receptors are heteromeric and contain only one hormone-building polypeptide per complex.

  4. Radionuclide imaging of small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) using 99mTc-labeled neurotensin peptide 8-13.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kaijun; An, Rui; Gao, Zairong; Zhang, Yongxue; Aruva, Mohan R

    2006-05-01

    To prepare 99m technetium (99mTc)-labeled neurotensin (NT) peptide and to evaluate the feasibility of imaging oncogene NT receptors overexpressed in human small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) cells. The NT analogue (Nalpha-His)Ac-NT(8-13) was synthesized such that histidine was attached at the N-terminus. The analogue was labeled with [99mTc(H2O)3(CO)3] at pH 7. 99mTc-(Nalpha-His)Ac-NT(8-13) in vitro stability was determined by challenging it with 100 times the molar excess of DTPA, human serum albumin (HSA) and cysteine. The affinity, 99mTc-(Nalpha-His)Ac-NT(8-13) binding to SCLC cell line NCI-H446, was studied in vitro. Biodistribution and imaging with 99mTc-(Nalpha-His)Ac-NT(8-13) were performed at 4 and 12 h postinjection, and tissue distribution and imaging after receptor blocking were carried out at 4 h in nude mice bearing human SCLC tumor. Blood clearance was determined in normal mice. The affinity constant (Kd) of 99mTc-(Nalpha-His)Ac-NT(8-13) to SCLC cells was 0.56 nmol/L. When challenged with 100 times the molar excess of DTPA, HSA or cysteine, more than 97+/-1.8% radioactivity remained as 99mTc-(Nalpha-His)Ac-NT(8-13). Tumor-to-muscle ratio was 3.35+/-1.01 at 4 h and 4.20+/-1.35 at 12 h postinjection. The excretory route of 99mTc-(Nalpha-His)Ac-NT(8-13) was chiefly through the renal pathway. In the receptor-blocking group treated with unlabeled (Nalpha-His)Ac-NT(8-13), tumor-to-muscle ratio at 4 h was 1.25+/-0.55. The results suggest that 99mTc-(Nalpha-His)Ac-NT(8-13) specifically binds to the SCLC cells and made 99mTc-(Nalpha-His)Ac-NT(8-13) a desirable compound for further studies in planar or SPECT imaging of oncogene receptors overexpressed in SCLC cells.

  5. Cannabinoid type 1 receptor antagonists for smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Cahill, Kate; Ussher, Michael H

    2011-03-16

    Selective type 1 cannabinoid (CB1) receptor antagonists may assist with smoking cessation by restoring the balance of the endocannabinoid system, which can be disrupted by prolonged use of nicotine. They also seeks to address many smokers' reluctance to persist with a quit attempt because of concerns about weight gain. To determine whether selective CB1 receptor antagonists (currently rimonabant and taranabant) increase the numbers of people stopping smoking To assess their effects on weight change in successful quitters and in those who try to quit but fail. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Review Group specialized register for trials, using the terms ('rimonabant' or 'taranabant') and 'smoking' in the title or abstract, or as keywords. We also searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsycINFO, using major MESH terms. We acquired electronic or paper copies of posters of preliminary trial results presented at the American Thoracic Society Meeting in 2005, and at the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco European Meeting 2006. We also attempted to contact the authors of ongoing studies of rimonabant, and Sanofi Aventis (manufacturers of rimonabant). The most recent search was in January 2011. Types of studies Randomized controlled trialsTypes of participants Adult smokersTypes of interventions Selective CB1 receptor antagonists, such as rimonabant and taranabant. Types of outcome measures The primary outcome is smoking status at a minimum of six months after the start of treatment. We preferred sustained cessation rates to point prevalence, and biochemically verified cessation to self-reported quitting. We regarded smokers who drop out or are lost to follow up as continuing smokers. We have noted any adverse effects of treatment.A secondary outcome is weight change associated with the cessation attempt. Two authors checked the abstracts for relevance, and attempted to acquire full trial reports. One author extracted the data, and a second author checked

  6. Ligand-induced interaction between. alpha. - and. beta. -type platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptors: Role of receptor heterodimers in kinase activation

    SciTech Connect

    Kanakaraj, P.; Raj, S.; Bishayee, S. ); Khan, S.A. )

    1991-02-19

    Two types of PDGF receptors have been cloned and sequenced. Both receptors are transmembrane glycoproteins with a ligand-stimulatable tyrosine kinase site. The authors have shown earlier that ligand-induced activation of the {beta}-type PDGF receptor is due to the conversion of the monomeric form of the receptor to the dimeric form. In the present studies, they have established the ligand-binding specificity of two receptor types and extended it further to investigate the ligand-induced association state of the {alpha}-receptor and the role of {alpha}-receptor in the activation of {beta}-receptor. These studies were conducted with cells that express one or the other type of PDGF receptor as well as with cells that express both types of receptors. Moreover, ligand-binding characteristics of the receptor were confirmed by immunoprecipitation of the receptor-{sup 125}I-PDGF covalent complex with type-specific anti-PDGF receptor antibodies. These studies revealed that all three isoforms of PDGF bind to {alpha}-receptor, and such binding leads to dimerization as well as activation of the receptor. In contrast, {beta}-receptor can be activated only by PDGF BB and not by PDGF AB or PDGF AA. However, by using antipeptide antibodies that are specific for {alpha}- or {beta}-type PDGF receptor, they demonstrated that in the presence of {alpha}-receptor, {beta}-receptor kinase can be activated by PDGF AB. They present here direct evidence that strongly suggests that such PDGF AB induced activation of {beta}-receptor is due to the formation of a noncovalently linked {alpha}-{beta} receptor heterodimer.

  7. Structural Analysis of Botulinum Neurotoxin Type G Receptor Binding

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, John; Karalewitz, Andrew; Benefield, Desire A.; Mushrush, Darren J.; Pruitt, Rory N.; Spiller, Benjamin W.; Barbieri, Joseph T.; Lacy, D. Borden

    2010-10-19

    Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) binds peripheral neurons at the neuromuscular junction through a dual-receptor mechanism that includes interactions with ganglioside and protein receptors. The receptor identities vary depending on BoNT serotype (A-G). BoNT/B and BoNT/G bind the luminal domains of synaptotagmin I and II, homologous synaptic vesicle proteins. We observe conditions under which BoNT/B binds both Syt isoforms, but BoNT/G binds only SytI. Both serotypes bind ganglioside G{sub T1b}. The BoNT/G receptor-binding domain crystal structure provides a context for examining these binding interactions and a platform for understanding the physiological relevance of different Syt receptor isoforms in vivo.

  8. On the terminal homologation of physiologically active peptides as a means of increasing stability in human serum--neurotensin, opiorphin, B27-KK10 epitope, NPY.

    PubMed

    Seebach, Dieter; Lukaszuk, Aneta; Patora-Komisarska, Krystyna; Podwysocka, Dominika; Gardiner, James; Ebert, Marc-Olivier; Reubi, Jean Claude; Cescato, Renzo; Waser, Beatrice; Gmeiner, Peter; Hübner, Harald; Rougeot, Catherine

    2011-05-01

    The terminal homologation by CH(2) insertion into the peptides mentioned in the title is described. This involves replacement of the N-terminal amino acid residue by a β(2) - and of the C-terminal amino acid residue by a β(3) -homo-amino acid moiety (β(2) hXaa and β(3) hXaa, resp.; Fig. 1). In this way, the structure of the peptide chain from the N-terminal to the C-terminal stereogenic center is identical, and the modified peptide is protected against cleavage by exopeptidases (Figs. 2 and 3). Neurotensin (NT; 1) and its C-terminal fragment NT(8-13) are ligands of the G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) NT1, NT2, NT3, and NT analogs are promising tools to be used in cancer diagnostics and therapy. The affinities of homologated NT analogs, 2b-2e, for NT1 and NT2 receptors were determined by using cell homogenates and tumor tissues (Table 1); in the latter experiments, the affinities for the NT1 receptor are more or less the same as those of NT (0.5-1.3 vs. 0.6 nM). At the same time, one of the homologated NT analogs, 2c, survives in human plasma for 7 days at 37° (Fig. 6). An NMR analysis of NT(8-13) (Tables 2 and 4, and Fig. 8) reveals that this N-terminal NT fragment folds to a turn in CD(3) OH. - In the case of the human analgesic opiorphin (3a), a pentapeptide, and of the HIV-derived B27-KK10 (4a), a decapeptide, terminal homologation (→3b and 4b, resp.) led to a 7- and 70-fold half-life increase in plasma (Fig. 9). With N-terminally homologated NPY, 5c, we were not able to determine serum stability; the peptide consisting of 36 amino acid residues is subject to cleavage by endopetidases. Three of the homologated compounds, 2b, 2c, and 5c, were shown to be agonists (Fig. 7 and 11). A comparison of terminal homologation with other stability-increasing terminal modifications of peptides is performed (Fig. 5), and possible applications of the neurotensin analogs, described herein, are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Verlag Helvetica Chimica

  9. C-type lectin-like receptors of the dectin-1 cluster: ligands and signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Plato, Anthony; Willment, Janet A; Brown, Gordon D

    2013-04-01

    Innate immunity is constructed around genetically encoded receptors that survey the intracellular and extracellular environments for signs of invading microorganisms. These receptors recognise the invader and through complex intracellular networks of molecular signaling, they destroy the threat whilst instructing effective adaptive immune responses. Many of these receptors, like the Toll-like receptors in particular, are well-known for their ability to mediate downstream responses upon recognition of exogenous or endogenous ligands; however, the emerging family known as the C-type lectin-like receptors contains many members that have a huge impact on immune and homeostatic regulation. Of particular interest here are the C-type lectin-like receptors that make up the Dectin-1 cluster and their intracellular signaling motifs that mediate their functions. In this review, we aim to draw together current knowledge of ligands, motifs and signaling pathways, present downstream of Dectin-1 cluster receptors, and discuss how these dictate their role within biological systems.

  10. Differential properties of type I and type II benzodiazepine receptors in mammalian CNS neurones.

    PubMed

    Yakushiji, T; Shirasaki, T; Munakata, M; Hirata, A; Akaike, N

    1993-07-01

    1. The effects of benzodiazepine receptor (BZR) partial agonists, Y-23684 and CL218,872, were compared with its full agonist, diazepam, on gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-induced Cl- current (ICl) in acutely dissociated rat cerebral cortex (CTX), cerebellar Purkinje (CPJ) and spinal ventral horn (SVH) neurones, by the whole-cell mode patch-clamp technique. 2. The GABA-induced responses were essentially the same in both SVH and CPJ neurones, but the KD value of the GABA response in CTX neurone was lower than those in the other two brain regions. 3. Enhancement of the GABA response by the two partial agonists was about one-third of that by diazepam in the SVH neurones (where type II subtype of BZR, BZ2, is predominant), whereas these partial agonists potentiated the GABA response as much as diazepam in CPJ neurones (where the type I subtype of BZR, BZ1, is predominant). In CTX neurones where both type I and II variants are expressed, the augmentation ratio of the GABA response by diazepam was between the values in CPJ and SVH neurones. 4. In concentration-response relationships of BZR partial agonists, the threshold concentrations, KD values and maximal augmentation ratio of the GABA response were similar in all CTX, CPJ and SVH neurones. Also, in all preparations, the threshold concentration and KD values of diazepam action were 10 fold less than those induced by partial agonists. 5. All BZR agonists shifted the concentration-response relationship for GABA to the left without changing the maximum current amplitude, indicating that activation of both BZ1 and BZ2 increase the affinity of the GABAA receptor for GABA. 6. The results are important in clarifying the mechanism of anxiety and might explain the anxioselectivity of BZR partial agonists.

  11. Differential properties of type I and type II benzodiazepine receptors in mammalian CNS neurones.

    PubMed Central

    Yakushiji, T.; Shirasaki, T.; Munakata, M.; Hirata, A.; Akaike, N.

    1993-01-01

    1. The effects of benzodiazepine receptor (BZR) partial agonists, Y-23684 and CL218,872, were compared with its full agonist, diazepam, on gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-induced Cl- current (ICl) in acutely dissociated rat cerebral cortex (CTX), cerebellar Purkinje (CPJ) and spinal ventral horn (SVH) neurones, by the whole-cell mode patch-clamp technique. 2. The GABA-induced responses were essentially the same in both SVH and CPJ neurones, but the KD value of the GABA response in CTX neurone was lower than those in the other two brain regions. 3. Enhancement of the GABA response by the two partial agonists was about one-third of that by diazepam in the SVH neurones (where type II subtype of BZR, BZ2, is predominant), whereas these partial agonists potentiated the GABA response as much as diazepam in CPJ neurones (where the type I subtype of BZR, BZ1, is predominant). In CTX neurones where both type I and II variants are expressed, the augmentation ratio of the GABA response by diazepam was between the values in CPJ and SVH neurones. 4. In concentration-response relationships of BZR partial agonists, the threshold concentrations, KD values and maximal augmentation ratio of the GABA response were similar in all CTX, CPJ and SVH neurones. Also, in all preparations, the threshold concentration and KD values of diazepam action were 10 fold less than those induced by partial agonists. 5. All BZR agonists shifted the concentration-response relationship for GABA to the left without changing the maximum current amplitude, indicating that activation of both BZ1 and BZ2 increase the affinity of the GABAA receptor for GABA.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8395299

  12. Mapping General Anesthetic Sites in Heteromeric γ-Aminobutyric Acid Type A Receptors Reveals a Potential For Targeting Receptor Subtypes.

    PubMed

    Forman, Stuart A; Miller, Keith W

    2016-11-01

    IV general anesthetics, including propofol, etomidate, alphaxalone, and barbiturates, produce important actions by enhancing γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptor activation. In this article, we review scientific studies that have located and mapped IV anesthetic sites using photoaffinity labeling and substituted cysteine modification protection. These anesthetics bind in transmembrane pockets between subunits of typical synaptic GABAA receptors, and drugs that display stereoselectivity also show remarkably selective interactions with distinct interfacial sites. These results suggest strategies for developing new drugs that selectively modulate distinct GABAA receptor subtypes.

  13. In vivo type 1 cannabinoid receptor availability in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Rawaha; Goffin, Karolien; Van den Stock, Jan; De Winter, François-Laurent; Cleeren, Evy; Bormans, Guy; Tournoy, Jos; Persoons, Philippe; Van Laere, Koen; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu

    2014-02-01

    The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is an important modulatory and potentially neuroprotective homeostatic system in the brain. In Alzheimer's disease (AD), the role of type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB₁R) is unclear, with contradictory findings in post-mortem studies showing upregulation, downregulation or unchanged CB₁R status. We have investigated CB₁R availability in vivo in patients with AD, in relation to amyloid deposition, cognitive functioning and apolipoprotein E (ApoE) genotype. Eleven AD patients and 7 healthy volunteers (HV) underwent combined [¹⁸F]MK-9470 PET and [¹¹C]PIB PET scans to assess CB₁R availability and amyloid deposition, respectively, and T1 volumetric MRI for partial volume correction. We found no difference in CB₁R availability between AD and HV, VOI-based fractional uptake values (FUR) were 0.043±0.01 for AD and 0.045±0.01 for controls (p=0.9). CB₁R availability did not correlate with neuropsychological test scores and was not modulated by ApoE genotype. As expected, global [¹¹C]PIB SUVR (standardized uptake value ratio) was increased in AD (SUVR 1.9±0.3) compared to HV (1.2±0.1) with p<0.001, but no correlation was found between amyloid β (Aβ) deposition and CB₁R availability. In conclusion, we found no in vivo evidence for a difference in CB₁R availability in AD compared to age-matched controls. Taken together with recently reported in vivo CB₁R changes in Parkinson's and Huntington's disease, these data suggest that the CB₁R is differentially involved in neurodegenerative disorders. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V. and ECNP.

  14. Microscopy of multiple visual receptor types in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Stark, William S; Thomas, Charles F

    2004-12-15

    To take advantage of specialized microscopic methods and transgenic stocks, to understand the properties of each rhodopsin now that Drosophila's six rhodopsins (Rh1-Rh6) have been isolated. The visual pigment containing organelles, the rhabdomeres, were imaged in live flies with the pseudopupil in standard and confocal microscopes. Five transgenic Drosophila strains in which Rh2-Rh6 replaced the native Rh1 in R1-6 receptors were compared with normal controls (Rh1 in R1-6) for two lines of work: (1) autofluorescence of rhodopsin; and (2) imaging rhodopsin. Other transgenic Drosophila in which the Rh1, Rh3, and Rh4 promoters drive the green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter were used for other purposes, especially distinguishing the R7/8 types. We show, for the first time, that visual pigment appears pink in white light, especially for Rh1 and Rh6. While showing that rhodopsin-metarhodopsin conversions were understood by their respective wavelengths, we discovered that, for Rh6, rhodopsin and metarhodopsin could not be spectrally separated. Relative fluorescent emission, Rh1=Rh5>Rh6>Rh2>Rh4>Rh3, was of little value in explaining differences between bright and dim autofluorescence in R7. Rather, analysis of GFP driven by Rh3 and Rh4 promoters show that the rhabdomeres with bright autofluorescence are the ones that contain Rh4. Careful imaging provides a useful approach to analyzing Drosophila rhodopsins. Amid a considerable body of microscopic data, we identify the sources of bright and dim R7 rhabdomeres, and we demonstrate the unique properties of Rh6.

  15. How does the angiotensin II type 1 receptor 'trump' the type 2 receptor in blood pressure control?

    PubMed

    Schalekamp, Maarten A D H; Danser, A H Jan

    2013-04-01

    A kinetic model for the binding of angiotensin II (Ang II) to AT1 receptors (AT1Rs) in arterioles did suggest a novel mechanism of association rate amplification and facilitated Ang II diffusion in vivo. To examine how this mechanism, acting on AT1R, will affect the stimulation of AT2R. The model distinguishes between the diffusion of plasma Ang II across the endothelium layer (thickness 10(-4) - 5 × 10(-4) cm) into the vascular smooth muscle (VSM) layer (5 × 10(-4) cm), and the diffusion of tissue Ang II from perivascular interstitium (thickness of micromilieu fluid layer at abluminal VSM surface 10(-6) - 10(-5) cm, i.e. 1 to 10 times the glycocalyx). Thus, Ang II concentration [Ang II] is taken to be 0 at the abluminal and adluminal VSM cell surfaces, respectively. Tissue Ang II is defined as originating from local generation and/or from the capillary circulation. [Ang II]/AT1R and [Ang II]/AT2R occupancy curves for the two directions of diffusion are constructed from the model-based calculations. Ang II, at 10(-15)-10(-13) mol/ml (~1-100 pg/ml), is much less likely to react with vascular AT2R than AT1R, though it has similar affinity for the receptor types. With plasma [Ang II] = 10(-15)-10(-13) mol/ml, AT2R occupancy is less than 10% of maximum on endothelium, and virtually 0 on VSM, whereas AT1R occupancy on VSM is virtually 0 at plasma [Ang II] < 10(-14) mol/ml, and between 0 and 30% at plasma [Ang II] = 10(-13) mol/ml. With tissue [Ang II] = 10(-15)-10(-13) mol/ml, VSM AT2R occupancy is close to 0, whereas VSM AT1R occupancy is 40-60% in the absence of endocytotic AT1R down-regulation, and up to 70-90% in its presence. The threshold concentration of Ang II needed for response is much higher for AT2R than for AT1R. Plasma Ang II rather than tissue Ang II is the agonist of AT2R, and the reverse applies to AT1R. Thus, AT2R stimulation may come into play only at unusually high circulating levels of Ang II.

  16. Expression of Interleukin-1 and Interleukin-1 Receptors Type 1 and Type 2 in Hodgkin Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Oelmann, Elisabeth; Stein, Harald; Berdel, Wolfgang E; Herbst, Hermann

    2015-01-01

    Signaling through the IL-1-receptor type 1 (IL-1R1), IL-1 is required for initiation and maintenance of diverse activities of the immune system. A second receptor, IL-1R2, blocks IL-1 signal transduction. We studied expression of IL-1beta, IL-1R1, and IL-1R2 in 17 Hodgkin lymphomas (HL) by in situ hybridization (ISH). IL-1beta expressing cells, morphologically consistent with endothelial cells and fibroblasts, occurred in all HL tissues with elevated transcript levels in areas of active fibrosis. Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells of all cases expressed low IL-1R1 transcript levels in some tumor cells, and high levels of IL-1R2 in large proportions of HRS cells. Only few bystander cells showed low levels of IL-1R1 and IL-1R2 RNA. Supernatants of 4 out of 7 HL-derived cell lines contained soluble IL-1R2 protein at high levels. HL patient sera carried variably amounts of IL-1R2 protein with significantly increased titers in patients with active disease compared to patients in complete remission and control individuals without HL. Western blots and co-immunoprecipitations showed binding of the IL-1R2 to the intracellular IL-1R-accessory protein (IL-1IRAcP). These data suggest functions of the IL-1R2 as a "decoy-receptor" sequestrating paracrine IL-1 extracellularly and intracellularly by engaging IL-1IRAcP, thus depriving IL1-R1 molecules of their extracellular and intracellular ligands. Expression of IL1-R2 by HRS cells seems to contribute to local and systemic modulation of immune function in HL.

  17. A Transmembrane Accessory Subunit that Modulates Kainate-Type Glutamate Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; St-Gelais, Fannie; Grabner, Chad P.; Trinidad, Jonathan C.; Sumioka, Akio; Morimoto-Tomita, Megumi; Kim, Kwang S.; Straub, Christoph; Burlingame, Alma L.; Howe, James R.; Tomita, Susumu

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Glutamate receptors play major roles in excitatory transmission in the vertebrate brain. Among ionotropic glutamate receptors (AMPA, kainate, NMDA), AMPA receptors mediate fast synaptic transmission and require TARP auxiliary subunits. NMDA receptors and kainate receptors play roles in synaptic transmission, but it remains uncertain whether these ionotropic glutamate receptors also have essential subunits. Using a proteomic screen, we have identified NETO2, a brain-specific protein of unknown function, as an interactor with kainate-type glutamate receptors. NETO2 modulates the channel properties of recombinant and native kainate receptors without affecting trafficking of the receptors and also modulates kainate-receptor-mediated mEPSCs. Furthermore, we found that kainate receptors regulate the surface expression of NETO2 and that NETO2 protein levels and surface expression are decreased in mice lacking the kainate receptor GluR6. The results show that NETO2 is a kainate receptor subunit with significant effects on glutamate signaling mechanisms in brain. PMID:19217376

  18. Administration of a soluble activin type IIB receptor promotes skeletal muscle growth independent of fiber type.

    PubMed

    Cadena, Samuel M; Tomkinson, Kathleen N; Monnell, Travis E; Spaits, Matthew S; Kumar, Ravindra; Underwood, Kathryn W; Pearsall, R Scott; Lachey, Jennifer L

    2010-09-01

    This is the first report that inhibition of negative regulators of skeletal muscle by a soluble form of activin type IIB receptor (ACE-031) increases muscle mass independent of fiber-type expression. This finding is distinct from the effects of selective pharmacological inhibition of myostatin (GDF-8), which predominantly targets type II fibers. In our study 8-wk-old C57BL/6 mice were treated with ACE-031 or vehicle control for 28 days. By the end of treatment, mean body weight of the ACE-031 group was 16% greater than that of the control group, and wet weights of soleus, plantaris, gastrocnemius, and extensor digitorum longus muscles increased by 33, 44, 46 and 26%, respectively (P<0.05). Soleus fiber-type distribution was unchanged with ACE-031 administration, and mean fiber cross-sectional area increased by 22 and 28% (P<0.05) in type I and II fibers, respectively. In the plantaris, a predominantly type II fiber muscle, mean fiber cross-sectional area increased by 57% with ACE-031 treatment. Analysis of myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform transcripts by real-time PCR indicated no change in transcript levels in the soleus, but a decline in MHC I and IIa in the plantaris. In contrast, electrophoretic separation of total soleus and plantaris protein indicated that there was no change in the proportion of MHC isoforms in either muscle. Thus these data provide optimism that ACE-031 may be a viable therapeutic in the treatment of musculoskeletal diseases. Future studies should be undertaken to confirm that the observed effects are not age dependent or due to the relatively short study duration.

  19. Prostate Cancer Cell Growth: Stimulatory Role of Neurotensin And Mechanism of Inhibition by Flavonoids as Related to Protein Kinase C

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    Denderen B, Jennings IG, Iseli T, Michell BJ, Witters LA. AMP-activated protein kinase, super metabolic regulator. Biochem Soc Trans 2003;31(Pt 1):162–8...Forgez P. Neurotensin counteracts apoptosis in breast cancer cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2002;295:482–8. [78] Souaze F, Viardot- Foucault V, Roullet N

  20. Dopamine modulation of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) receptor in dorsal root ganglia neurons

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Saikat; Rebecchi, Mario; Kaczocha, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Key points Transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) receptors transduce noxious thermal stimuli and are responsible for the thermal hyperalgesia associated with inflammatory pain.A large population of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons, including the C low threshold mechanoreceptors (C‐LTMRs), express tyrosine hydroxylase, and probably release dopamine.We found that dopamine and SKF 81297 (an agonist at D1/D5 receptors), but not quinpirole (an agonist at D2 receptors), downregulate the activity of TRPV1 channels in DRG neurons.The inhibitory effect of SKF 81297 on TRPV1 channels was strongly dependent on external calcium and preferentially linked to calcium–calmodulin‐dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII).We suggest that modulation of TRPV1 channels by dopamine in nociceptive neurons may represent a way for dopamine to modulate incoming noxious stimuli. Abstract The transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) receptor plays a key role in the modulation of nociceptor excitability. To address whether dopamine can modulate the activity of TRPV1 channels in nociceptive neurons, the effects of dopamine and dopamine receptor agonists were tested on the capsaicin‐activated current recorded from acutely dissociated small diameter (<27 μm) dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons. Dopamine or SKF 81297 (an agonist at D1/D5 receptors), caused inhibition of both inward and outward currents by ∼60% and ∼48%, respectively. The effect of SKF 81297 was reversed by SCH 23390 (an antagonist at D1/D5 receptors), confirming that it was mediated by activation of D1/D5 dopamine receptors. In contrast, quinpirole (an agonist at D2 receptors) had no significant effect on the capsaicin‐activated current. Inhibition of the capsaicin‐activated current by SKF 81297 was mediated by G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), and highly dependent on external calcium. The inhibitory effect of SKF 81297 on the capsaicin‐activated current was not affected when

  1. Localization of the ANG II type 2 receptor in the microcirculation of skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nora, E. H.; Munzenmaier, D. H.; Hansen-Smith, F. M.; Lombard, J. H.; Greene, A. S.; Cowley, A. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Only functional studies have suggested the presence of the ANG II type 2 (AT2) receptor in the microcirculation. To determine the distribution of this receptor in the rat skeletal muscle microcirculation, a polyclonal rabbit anti-rat antiserum was developed and used for immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. The antiserum was prepared against a highly specific and antigenic AT2-receptor synthetic peptide and was validated by competition and sensitivity assays. Western blot analysis demonstrated a prominent, single band at approximately 40 kDa in cremaster and soleus muscle. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed a wide distribution of AT2 receptors throughout the skeletal muscle microcirculation in large and small microvessels. Microanatomic studies displayed an endothelial localization of the AT2 receptor, whereas dual labeling with smooth muscle alpha-actin also showed colocalization of the AT2 receptor with vascular smooth muscle cells. Other cells associated with the microvessels also stained positive for AT2 receptors. Briefly, this study confirms previous functional data and localizes the AT2 receptor to the microcirculation. These studies demonstrate that the AT2 receptor is present on a variety of vascular cell types and that it is situated in a fashion that would allow it to directly oppose ANG II type 1 receptor actions.

  2. Localization of the ANG II type 2 receptor in the microcirculation of skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nora, E. H.; Munzenmaier, D. H.; Hansen-Smith, F. M.; Lombard, J. H.; Greene, A. S.; Cowley, A. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Only functional studies have suggested the presence of the ANG II type 2 (AT2) receptor in the microcirculation. To determine the distribution of this receptor in the rat skeletal muscle microcirculation, a polyclonal rabbit anti-rat antiserum was developed and used for immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. The antiserum was prepared against a highly specific and antigenic AT2-receptor synthetic peptide and was validated by competition and sensitivity assays. Western blot analysis demonstrated a prominent, single band at approximately 40 kDa in cremaster and soleus muscle. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed a wide distribution of AT2 receptors throughout the skeletal muscle microcirculation in large and small microvessels. Microanatomic studies displayed an endothelial localization of the AT2 receptor, whereas dual labeling with smooth muscle alpha-actin also showed colocalization of the AT2 receptor with vascular smooth muscle cells. Other cells associated with the microvessels also stained positive for AT2 receptors. Briefly, this study confirms previous functional data and localizes the AT2 receptor to the microcirculation. These studies demonstrate that the AT2 receptor is present on a variety of vascular cell types and that it is situated in a fashion that would allow it to directly oppose ANG II type 1 receptor actions.

  3. [Neurotensin liberation during the consumption of mineral water from Bad Mergentheimer Karlsquelle].

    PubMed

    Eberhardt, G; Dersidan, A; Nustede, R; Schafmayer, A

    1991-09-01

    The contraction of the gallbladder mainly mediated by CCK after oral administration of pharmacological doses of magnesium sulfate is familiar. The same applies to the cholekinetic action of courses of sulfatic mineral water treatment. It was demonstrated in 12 patients in a controlled study that besides other known secretions of gastrointestinal hormones, there is also a significant rise of the plasma level of neurotensin when Bad Mergentheimer Karlsquelle mineral water containing sulfate (3.7 g SO4/l) is drunk on an empty stomach (300 ml, 26 degrees C). This was significantly greater (basal values 6.8 +/- 4.1 pg/ml and a maximum of 15.7 +/- 8.1 pg/ml after 40 min) than in a control group consisting of the same patients who had drunk tapwater. Whereas the involvement of the neuropeptide neurotensin in the regulation of the exocrine functions of the pancreas has been established, its effect in the regulation of gallbladder contraction is probably of rather minor significance compared to CCK.

  4. The alpha9 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor shares pharmacological properties with type A gamma-aminobutyric acid, glycine, and type 3 serotonin receptors.

    PubMed

    Rothlin, C V; Katz, E; Verbitsky, M; Elgoyhen, A B

    1999-02-01

    In the present study, we provide evidence that the alpha9 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) shares pharmacological properties with members of the Cys-loop family of receptors. Thus, the type A gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor antagonist bicuculline, the glycinergic antagonist strychnine, and the type 3 serotonin receptor antagonist ICS-205,930 block ACh-evoked currents in alpha9-injected Xenopus laevis oocytes with the following rank order of potency: strychnine > ICS-205,930 > bicuculline. Block by antagonists was reflected in an increase in the acetylcholine (ACh) EC50 value, with no changes in agonist maximal response or Hill coefficient, which suggests a competitive type of block. Moreover, whereas neither gamma-aminobutyric acid nor glycine modified ACh-evoked currents, serotonin blocked responses to ACh in a concentration-dependent manner. The present results suggest that the alpha9 nAChR must conserve in its primary structure some residues responsible for ligand binding common to other Cys-loop receptors. In addition, it adds further evidence that the alpha9 nAChR and the cholinergic receptor present at the base of cochlear outer hair cells have similar pharmacological properties.

  5. Opposite regulation of brain angiotensin type 1 and type 2 receptors in cold-induced hypertension.

    PubMed

    Peng, J F; Phillips, M I

    2001-03-02

    Rats exposed chronically to mild cold (5 degrees C/41 degrees F) develop hypertension. This cold-induced hypertension (CIH) is an environmentally induced, non-surgical, non-pharmacological and non-genetic model for studying hypertension in rats. The blood renin angiotensin system (RAS) appears to play a role in both initiating and maintaining the high blood pressure in CIH. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the role of brain angiotensin type 1 and type 2 receptors (AT1R and AT2R) in CIH. Sprague-Dawley adult male rats were used. Thirty-six rats were kept in a cold room at 5 degrees C and the other 36 were kept at 24 degrees C as controls. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was recorded by tail cuff. The SBP was elevated in rats exposed to cold within 1 week (n=12, P>0.05), significantly increased at 3 weeks (P<0.05) and reached a maximum (125%) at 5 weeks (P<0.01). Three subgroups of the cold-treated and the controls were sacrificed at 1, 3 and 5 weeks. Specific brain sections were removed, either for reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to measure mRNA, or for autoradiography to measure receptor binding for AT1R and AT2R. The AT1R mRNA was increased significantly in hypothalamus and brainstem after the first week in cold-treated rats and was maintained throughout the time of exposure to cold (n=6, P<0.01). AT1R binding significantly increased initially in hypothalamus and thereafter in brainstem. The mRNA and the receptor binding for AT2R decreased significantly (P<0.01, n=6) in nucleus of inferior olive and locus coeruleus of brainstem in cold-treated rats after exposure to cold. The experiments show differential regulation of RAS components, AT1R and AT2R, in different brain areas in cold-exposed rats and provide evidence that up-regulated AT1R and down-regulated AT2R in different brain areas are involved in CIH. The opposing directions of expression of AT1R and AT2R suggest that they play counterbalancing roles in brain function.

  6. Role of CXC chemokine receptor type 4 as a lactoferrin receptor.

    PubMed

    Takayama, Yoshiharu; Aoki, Reiji; Uchida, Ryo; Tajima, Atsushi; Aoki-Yoshida, Ayako

    2017-02-01

    Lactoferrin exerts its biological activities by interacting with receptors on target cells, including LDL receptor-related protein-1 (LRP-1/CD91), intelectin-1 (omentin-1), and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). However, the effects mediated by these receptors are not sufficient to fully explain the many functions of lactoferrin. C-X-C-motif cytokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) is a ubiquitously expressed G-protein coupled receptor for stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1/CXCL12). Lactoferrin was found to be as capable as SDF-1 in blocking infection by an HIV variant that uses CXCR4 as a co-receptor (X4-tropic HIV), suggesting that lactoferrin interacts with CXCR4. We addressed whether CXCR4 acts as a lactoferrin receptor using HaCaT human keratinocytes and Caco-2 human intestinal cells. We found that bovine lactoferrin interacted with CXCR4-containing lipoparticles, and that this interaction was not antagonized by SDF-1. In addition, activation of Akt in response to lactoferrin was abrogated by AMD3100, a small molecule inhibitor of CXCR4, or by a CXCR4-neutralizing antibody, suggesting that CXCR4 functions as a lactoferrin receptor able to mediate activation of the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway. Lactoferrin stimulation mimicked many aspects of SDF-1-induced CXCR4 activity, including receptor dimerization, tyrosine phosphorylation, and ubiquitination. Cycloheximide chase assays indicated that turnover of CXCR4 was accelerated in response to lactoferrin. These results indicate that CXCR4 is a potent lactoferrin receptor that mediates lactoferrin-induced activation of Akt signaling.

  7. The Pseudo Signal Peptide of the Corticotropin-releasing Factor Receptor Type 2A Prevents Receptor Oligomerization*

    PubMed Central

    Teichmann, Anke; Rutz, Claudia; Kreuchwig, Annika; Krause, Gerd; Wiesner, Burkhard; Schülein, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    N-terminal signal peptides mediate the interaction of native proteins with the translocon complex of the endoplasmic reticulum membrane and are cleaved off during early protein biogenesis. The corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 2a (CRF2(a)R) possesses an N-terminal pseudo signal peptide, which represents a so far unique domain within the large protein family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). In contrast to a conventional signal peptide, the pseudo signal peptide remains uncleaved and consequently forms a hydrophobic extension at the N terminus of the receptor. The functional consequence of the presence of the pseudo signal peptide is not understood. Here, we have analyzed the significance of this domain for receptor dimerization/oligomerization in detail. To this end, we took the CRF2(a)R and the homologous corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 1 (CRF1R) possessing a conventional cleaved signal peptide and conducted signal peptide exchange experiments. Using single cell and single molecule imaging methods (fluorescence resonance energy transfer and fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy, respectively) as well as biochemical experiments, we obtained two novel findings; we could show that (i) the CRF2(a)R is expressed exclusively as a monomer, and (ii) the presence of the pseudo signal peptide prevents its oligomerization. Thus, we have identified a novel functional domain within the GPCR protein family, which plays a role in receptor oligomerization and which may be useful to study the functional significance of this process in general. PMID:22689579

  8. Identification of cannabinoid type 1 receptor in dog hair follicles.

    PubMed

    Mercati, Francesca; Dall'Aglio, Cecilia; Pascucci, Luisa; Boiti, Cristiano; Ceccarelli, Piero

    2012-01-01

    In veterinary medicine, there is an increasing interest in the study of the endo-cannabinoid system and the possible use of the cannabinoids for the treatment of several diseases. Cannabinoid receptors (CB) are widely distributed in human and laboratory animal tissues, justifying the involvement of the endo-cannabinoid system in a great number of metabolic ways. Since there are no data regarding cannabinoid receptors in hair follicles of domestic animals, we investigated the presence and localization of CB1 receptor in dog hair follicles. By using a goat anti-CB1 polyclonal antibody, we observed CB1 receptor in the proximal part of both primary and secondary hair follicles. Staining was localized in the inner root sheath cells. We suppose that the endo-cannabinoid system is involved in the molecular mechanisms regulating hair follicle activity in dog. The identification of CB1 receptor at the level of the inner root sheath may help in the understanding of hair follicle biology and the possibility that cannabinoid molecules could be considered as suitable therapeutic tools in dog.

  9. Type 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGlu1) trigger the gating of GluD2 delta glutamate receptors

    PubMed Central

    Ady, Visou; Perroy, Julie; Tricoire, Ludovic; Piochon, Claire; Dadak, Selma; Chen, Xiaoru; Dusart, Isabelle; Fagni, Laurent; Lambolez, Bertrand; Levenes, Carole

    2014-01-01

    The orphan GluD2 receptor belongs to the ionotropic glutamate receptor family but does not bind glutamate. Ligand-gated GluD2 currents have never been evidenced, and whether GluD2 operates as an ion channel has been a long-standing question. Here, we show that GluD2 gating is triggered by type 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors, both in a heterologous expression system and in Purkinje cells. Thus, GluD2 is not only an adhesion molecule at synapses but also works as a channel. This gating mechanism reveals new properties of glutamate receptors that emerge from their interaction and opens unexpected perspectives regarding synaptic transmission and plasticity. PMID:24357660

  10. The structure of the follistatin:activin complex reveals antagonism of both type I and type II receptor binding

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, T.B.; Lerch, T.F.; Cook, R.W.; Woodruff, T.K.; Jardetzky, T.S.

    2010-03-08

    TGF-{beta} ligands stimulate diverse cellular differentiation and growth responses by signaling through type I and II receptors. Ligand antagonists, such as follistatin, block signaling and are essential regulators of physiological responses. Here we report the structure of activin A, a TGF-{beta} ligand, bound to the high-affinity antagonist follistatin. Two follistatin molecules encircle activin, neutralizing the ligand by burying one-third of its residues and its receptor binding sites. Previous studies have suggested that type I receptor binding would not be blocked by follistatin, but the crystal structure reveals that the follistatin N-terminal domain has an unexpected fold that mimics a universal type I receptor motif and occupies this receptor binding site. The formation of follistatin:BMP:type I receptor complexes can be explained by the stoichiometric and geometric arrangement of the activin:follistatin complex. The mode of ligand binding by follistatin has important implications for its ability to neutralize homo- and heterodimeric ligands of this growth factor family.

  11. Insulin Receptor and GPCR Crosstalk Stimulates YAP via PI3K and PKD in Pancreatic Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Hao, Fang; Xu, Qinhong; Zhao, Yinglan; Stevens, Jan V; Young, Steven H; Sinnett-Smith, James; Rozengurt, Enrique

    2017-07-01

    We examined the impact of crosstalk between the insulin receptor and G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling pathways on the regulation of Yes-associated protein (YAP) localization, phosphorylation, and transcriptional activity in the context of human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Stimulation of PANC-1 or MiaPaCa-2 cells with insulin and neurotensin, a potent mitogenic combination of agonists for these cells, promoted striking YAP nuclear localization and decreased YAP phosphorylation at Ser(127) and Ser(397) Challenging PDAC cells with either insulin or neurotensin alone modestly induced the expression of YAP/TEAD-regulated genes, including connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61 (CYR61), and CXCL5, whereas the combination of neurotensin and insulin induced a marked increase in the level of expression of these genes. In addition, siRNA-mediated knockdown of YAP/TAZ prevented the increase in the expression of these genes. A small-molecule inhibitor (A66), selective for the p110α subunit of PI3K, abrogated the increase in phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate production and the expression of CTGF, CYR61, and CXCL5 induced by neurotensin and insulin. Furthermore, treatment of PDAC cells with protein kinase D (PKD) family inhibitors (CRT0066101 or kb NB 142-70) or with siRNAs targeting the PKD family prevented the increase of CTGF, CYR61, and CXCL5 mRNA levels in response to insulin and neurotensin stimulation. Thus, PI3K and PKD mediate YAP activation in response to insulin and neurotensin in pancreatic cancer cells.Implications: Inhibitors of PI3K or PKD disrupt crosstalk between insulin receptor and GPCR signaling systems by blocking YAP/TEAD-regulated gene expression in pancreatic cancer cells. Mol Cancer Res; 15(7); 929-41. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  12. Amphioxus: beginning of vertebrate and end of invertebrate type GnRH receptor lineage.

    PubMed

    Tello, Javier A; Sherwood, Nancy M

    2009-06-01

    In vertebrates, activation of the GnRH receptor is necessary to initiate the reproductive cascade. However, little is known about the characteristics of GnRH receptors before the vertebrates evolved. Recently genome sequencing was completed for amphioxus, Branchiostoma floridae. To understand the GnRH receptors (GnRHR) from this most basal chordate, which is also classified as an invertebrate, we cloned and characterized four GnRHR cDNAs encoded in the amphioxus genome. We found that incubation of GnRH1 (mammalian GnRH) and GnRH2 (chicken GnRH II) with COS7 cells heterologously expressing the amphioxus GnRHRs caused potent intracellular inositol phosphate turnover in two of the receptors. One of the two receptors displayed a clear preference for GnRH1 over GnRH2, a characteristic not previously seen outside the type I mammalian GnRHRs. Phylogenetic analysis grouped the four receptors into two paralogous pairs, with one pair grouping basally with the vertebrate GnRH receptors and the other grouping with the octopus GnRHR-like sequence and the related receptor for insect adipokinetic hormone. Pharmacological studies showed that octopus GnRH-like peptide and adipokinetic hormone induced potent inositol phosphate turnover in one of these other two amphioxus receptors. These data demonstrate the functional conservation of two distinct types of GnRH receptors at the base of chordates. We propose that one receptor type led to vertebrate GnRHRs, whereas the other type, related to the mollusk GnRHR-like receptor, was lost in the vertebrate lineage. This is the first report to suggest that distinct invertebrate and vertebrate GnRHRs are present simultaneously in a basal chordate, amphioxus.

  13. Identification of Growth Hormone Receptor in Plexiform Neurofibromas of Patients with Neurofibromatosis Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, Karin Soares Gonçalves; Barboza, Eliane Porto; da Fonseca, Eliene Carvalho

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of growth hormone receptor in plexiform neurofibromas of neurofibromatosis type 1 patients. INTRODUCTION The development of multiple neurofibromas is one of the major features of neurofibromatosis type 1. Since neurofibromas commonly grow during periods of hormonal change, especially during puberty and pregnancy, it has been suggested that hormones may influence neurofibromatosis type 1 neurofibromas. A recent study showed that the majority of localized neurofibromas from neurofibromatosis type 1 patients have growth hormone receptor. METHODS Growth hormone receptor expression was investigated in 5 plexiform neurofibromas using immunohistochemistry. RESULTS Four of the 5 plexiform neurofibromas were immunopositive for growth hormone receptor. CONCLUSION This study suggests that growth hormone may influence the development of plexiform neurofibromas in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1. PMID:18297205

  14. Bioactive peptides derived from natural proteins with respect to diversity of their receptors and physiological effects.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Masaaki

    2015-10-01

    We have found various bioactive peptides derived from animal and plant proteins, which interact with receptors for endogenous bioactive peptides such as opioids, neurotensin, complements C3a and C5a, oxytocin, and formyl peptides etc. Among them, rubiscolin, a δ opioid peptide derived from plant RuBisCO, showed memory-consolidating, anxiolytic-like, and food intake-modulating effects. Soymorphin, a μ opioid peptide derived from β-conglycinin showed anxiolytic-like, anorexigenic, hypoglycemic, and hypotriglyceridemic effects. β-Lactotensin derived from β-lactoglobulin, the first natural ligand for the NTS2 receptor, showed memory-consolidating, anxiolytic-like, and hypocholesterolemic effects. Weak agonist peptides for the complements C3a and C5a receptors were released from many proteins and exerted various central effects. Peptides showing anxiolytic-like antihypertensive and anti-alopecia effects via different types of receptors such as OT, FPR and AT2 were also obtained. Based on these study, new functions and post-receptor mechanisms of receptor commom to endogenous and exogenous bioactive peptides have been clarified. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Severe type A insulin resistance syndrome due to a mutation in the insulin receptor gene].

    PubMed

    Ros, P; Colino-Alcol, E; Grasso, V; Barbetti, F; Argente, J

    2015-01-01

    Insulin resistance syndromes without lipodystrophy are an infrequent and heterogeneous group of disorders with variable clinical phenotypes, associated with hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. The three conditions related to mutations in the insulin receptor gene are leprechaunism or Donohue syndrome, Rabson-Mendenhall syndrome, and Type A syndrome. A case is presented on a patient diagnosed with type A insulin resistance, defined by the triad of extreme insulin resistance, acanthosis nigricans, and hyperandrogenism, carrying a heterozygous mutation in exon 19 of the insulin receptor gene coding for its tyrosine kinase domain that is crucial for the catalytic activity of the receptor. The molecular basis of the syndrome is reviewed, focusing on the structure-function relationships of the insulin receptor, knowing that the criteria for survival are linked to residual insulin receptor function. It is also pointed out that, although type A insulin resistance appears to represent a somewhat less severe condition, these patients have a high morbidity and their treatment is still unsatisfactory.

  16. Expression of Interleukin-1 and Interleukin-1 Receptors Type 1 and Type 2 in Hodgkin Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Oelmann, Elisabeth; Stein, Harald; Berdel, Wolfgang E.; Herbst, Hermann

    2015-01-01

    Signaling through the IL-1-receptor type 1 (IL-1R1), IL-1 is required for initiation and maintenance of diverse activities of the immune system. A second receptor, IL-1R2, blocks IL-1 signal transduction. We studied expression of IL-1beta, IL-1R1, and IL-1R2 in 17 Hodgkin lymphomas (HL) by in situ hybridization (ISH). IL-1beta expressing cells, morphologically consistent with endothelial cells and fibroblasts, occurred in all HL tissues with elevated transcript levels in areas of active fibrosis. Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells of all cases expressed low IL-1R1 transcript levels in some tumor cells, and high levels of IL-1R2 in large proportions of HRS cells. Only few bystander cells showed low levels of IL-1R1 and IL-1R2 RNA. Supernatants of 4 out of 7 HL-derived cell lines contained soluble IL-1R2 protein at high levels. HL patient sera carried variably amounts of IL-1R2 protein with significantly increased titers in patients with active disease compared to patients in complete remission and control individuals without HL. Western blots and co-immunoprecipitations showed binding of the IL-1R2 to the intracellular IL-1R-accessory protein (IL-1IRAcP). These data suggest functions of the IL-1R2 as a „decoy-receptor” sequestrating paracrine IL-1 extracellularly and intracellularly by engaging IL-1IRAcP, thus depriving IL1-R1 molecules of their extracellular and intracellular ligands. Expression of IL1-R2 by HRS cells seems to contribute to local and systemic modulation of immune function in HL. PMID:26406983

  17. Mechanism of partial agonism in AMPA-type glutamate receptors

    PubMed Central

    Salazar, Hector; Eibl, Clarissa; Chebli, Miriam; Plested, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Neurotransmitters trigger synaptic currents by activating ligand-gated ion channel receptors. Whereas most neurotransmitters are efficacious agonists, molecules that activate receptors more weakly—partial agonists—also exist. Whether these partial agonists have weak activity because they stabilize less active forms, sustain active states for a lesser fraction of the time or both, remains an open question. Here we describe the crystal structure of an α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate receptor (AMPAR) ligand binding domain (LBD) tetramer in complex with the partial agonist 5-fluorowillardiine (FW). We validate this structure, and others of different geometry, using engineered intersubunit bridges. We establish an inverse relation between the efficacy of an agonist and its promiscuity to drive the LBD layer into different conformations. These results suggest that partial agonists of the AMPAR are weak activators of the receptor because they stabilize multiple non-conducting conformations, indicating that agonism is a function of both the space and time domains. PMID:28211453

  18. POLLUTANT PARTICLES PRODUCE VASOCONSTRICTION AND ENHANCE MAPK SIGNALING VIA ANGIOTENSIN TYPE 1 RECEPTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM) is associated with acute cardiovascular mortality and morbidity, but the mechanisms are not entirely clear. In this study, we hypothesized that PM may activate the angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R), a G protein-coupled receptor that regulates ...

  19. POLLUTANT PARTICLES PRODUCE VASOCONSTRICTION AND ENHANCE MAPK SIGNALING VIA ANGIOTENSIN TYPE 1 RECEPTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM) is associated with acute cardiovascular mortality and morbidity, but the mechanisms are not entirely clear. In this study, we hypothesized that PM may activate the angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R), a G protein-coupled receptor that regulates ...

  20. Modulation of direct pathway striatal projection neurons by muscarinic M₄-type receptors.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Flores, Teresa; Hernández-González, Omar; Pérez-Ramírez, María B; Lara-González, Esther; Arias-García, Mario A; Duhne, Mariana; Pérez-Burgos, Azucena; Prieto, G Aleph; Figueroa, Alejandra; Galarraga, Elvira; Bargas, José

    2015-02-01

    Models of basal ganglia (BG) function posit a dynamic balance between two classes of striatal projection neurons (SPNs): direct pathway neurons (dSPNs) that facilitate movements, and indirect pathway neurons (iSPNs) that repress movement execution. Two main modulatory transmitters regulate the output of these neurons: dopamine (DA) and acetylcholine (ACh). dSPNs express D1-type DA, M1-and M4-type ACh receptors, while iSPNs express D2-type DA and M1-type ACh receptors. Actions of M1-, D1-, and D2-receptors have been extensively reported, but we still ignore most actions of muscarinic M4-type receptors. Here, we used whole-cell recordings in acutely dissociated neurons, pharmacological tools such as mamba-toxins, and BAC D(1 or 2)-eGFP transgenic mice to show that activation of M4-type receptors with bath applied muscarine enhances Ca(2+)-currents through CaV1-channels in dSPNs and not in iSPNs. This action increases excitability of dSPNs after both direct current injection and synaptically driven stimulation. The increases in Ca(2+)-current and excitability were blocked specifically by mamba toxin-3, suggesting mediation via M4-type receptors. M4-receptor activation also increased network activity of dSPNs but not of iSPNs as seen with calcium-imaging techniques. Moreover, actions of D1-type and M4-type receptors may add to produce a larger enhancement of excitability of dSPNs or, paradoxically, oppose each other depending on the order of their activation. Possible implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Post-natal development of type 1 cannabinoid receptor immunoreactivity in the rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Morozov, Yury M; Freund, Tamás F

    2003-09-01

    Type 1 cannabinoid receptors, selectively located on axon terminals of GABAergic interneurons in the hippocampus, are known to be involved in endocannabinoid-mediated retrograde synaptic signalling. The question arises whether type 1 cannabinoid receptors appear on these axons during early post-natal life, when GABAergic transmission is still depolarizing, and whether there are any developmental changes in the cellular or subcellular expression pattern. Here we demonstrate, using single and double immunocytochemical methods at the light and electron microscopic levels, that type 1 cannabinoid receptors are expressed only on the membrane of axon terminals and pre-terminal axons but not on the soma-dendritic membrane at all examined timepoints between post-natal days 0 and 20, similar to the adult distribution. All type 1 cannabinoid receptor-positive boutons formed symmetric synapses. Granular labelling in the somata was already strong at post-natal day 0 and corresponded to multivesicular bodies, lysosomes, Golgi apparatus and rough endoplasmic reticulum. The type 1 cannabinoid receptor-positive axons were shown to originate largely from cholecystokinin-immunoreactive basket and bistratified neurons throughout the hippocampus (90% of all type 1 cannabinoid receptor-containing cells) and dentate gyrus (70% of all type 1 cannabinoid receptor-containing cells). The remaining cells have not been identified but probably belong to the somatostatin- and/or neuropeptide Y-containing subsets, as cholecystokinin-negative, type 1 cannabinoid receptor-positive axons have been observed in strata moleculare and lacunosum-moleculare of the dentate gyrus and CA1-3, respectively, where these neurons are known to arborize. No cell types were found that expressed type 1 cannabinoid receptors transiently at some developmental stage. We conclude that the cellular and subcellular pattern of type 1 cannabinoid receptor expression during early post-natal life is similar to the adult

  2. Signalling properties and pharmacology of a 5-HT7 -type serotonin receptor from Tribolium castaneum.

    PubMed

    Vleugels, R; Lenaerts, C; Vanden Broeck, J; Verlinden, H

    2014-04-01

    In the last decade, genome sequence data and gene structure information on invertebrate receptors has been greatly expanded by large sequencing projects and cloning studies. This information is of great value for the identification of receptors; however, functional and pharmacological data are necessary for an accurate receptor classification and for practical applications. In insects, an important group of neurotransmitter and neurohormone receptors, for which ample sequence information is available but pharmacological information is missing, are the biogenic amine G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). In the present study, we investigated the sequence information, pharmacology and signalling properties of a 5-HT7 -type serotonin receptor from the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Trica5-HT7 ). The receptor encoding cDNA shows considerable sequence similarity with cognate 5-HT7 receptors and phylogenetic analysis also clusters the receptor within this 5-HT receptor group. Real-time reverse transcription PCR demonstrated high expression levels in the brain, indicating the possible importance of this receptor in neural processes. Trica5-HT7 was dose-dependently activated by 5-HT, which induced elevated intracellular cyclic AMP levels but had no effect on calcium signalling. The synthetic agonists, α-methyl 5-HT, 5-methoxytryptamine, 5-carboxamidotryptamine and 8-hydroxy-2-(dipropylamino)tetralin hydrobromide, showed a response, although with a much lower potency and efficacy than 5-HT. Ketanserin and methiothepin were the most potent antagonists. Both showed characteristics of competitive inhibition on Trica5-HT7 . The signalling pathway and pharmacological profile offer important information that will facilitate functional and comparative studies of 5-HT receptors in insects and other invertebrates. The pharmacology of invertebrate 5-HT receptors differs considerably from that of vertebrates. The present study may therefore contribute to establishing a more

  3. The Angiotensin II Type 2 Receptor in Brain Functions: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Guimond, Marie-Odile; Gallo-Payet, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) is the main active product of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), mediating its action via two major receptors, namely, the Ang II type 1 (AT1) receptor and the type 2 (AT2) receptor. Recent results also implicate several other members of the renin-angiotensin system in various aspects of brain functions. The first aim of this paper is to summarize the current state of knowledge regarding the properties and signaling of the AT2 receptor, its expression in the brain, and its well-established effects. Secondly, we will highlight the potential role of the AT2 receptor in cognitive function, neurological disorders and in the regulation of appetite and the possible link with development of metabolic disorders. The potential utility of novel nonpeptide selective AT2 receptor ligands in clarifying potential roles of this receptor in physiology will also be discussed. If confirmed, these new pharmacological tools should help to improve impaired cognitive performance, not only through its action on brain microcirculation and inflammation, but also through more specific effects on neurons. However, the overall physiological relevance of the AT2 receptor in the brain must also consider the Ang IV/AT4 receptor. PMID:23320146

  4. Rising stars: modulation of brain functions by astroglial type-1 cannabinoid receptors.

    PubMed

    Metna-Laurent, Mathilde; Marsicano, Giovanni

    2015-03-01

    The type-1-cannabinoid (CB1 ) receptor is amongst the most widely expressed G protein-coupled receptors in the brain. In few decades, CB1 receptors have been shown to regulate a large array of functions from brain cell development and survival to complex cognitive processes. Understanding the cellular mechanisms underlying these functions of CB1 is complex due to the heterogeneity of the brain cell types on which the receptor is expressed. Although the large majority of CB1 receptors act on neurons, early studies pointed to a direct control of CB1 receptors over astroglial functions including brain energy supply and neuroprotection. In line with the growing concept of the tripartite synapse highlighting astrocytes as direct players in synaptic plasticity, astroglial CB1 receptor signaling recently emerged as the mediator of several forms of synaptic plasticity associated to important cognitive functions. Here, we shortly review the current knowledge on CB1 receptor-mediated astroglial functions. This functional spectrum is large and most of the mechanisms by which CB1 receptors control astrocytes, as well as their consequences in vivo, are still unknown, requiring innovative approaches to improve this new cannabinoid research field. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor: a protein of mitochondrial outer membranes utilizing porphyrins as endogenous ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, S.H.; Verma, A.; Trifiletti, R.R.

    1987-10-01

    The peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor is a site identified by its nanomolar affinity for (/sup 3/H)diazepam, similar to the affinity of diazepam for the central-type benzodiazepine receptor in the brain. The peripheral type benzodiazepine receptor occurs in many peripheral tissues but has discrete localizations as indicated by autoradiographic studies showing uniquely high densities of the receptors in the adrenal cortex and in Leydig cells of the testes. Subcellular localization studies reveal a selective association of the receptors with the outer membrane of mitochondria. Photoaffinity labeling of the mitochondrial receptor with (/sup 3/H)flunitrazepam reveals two discrete labeled protein bands of 30 and 35 kDa, respectively. The 35-kDa band appears to be identical with the voltage-dependent anion channel protein porin. Fractionation of numerous peripheral tissues reveals a single principal endogenous ligand for the receptor, consisting of porphyrins, which display nanomolar affinity. Interactions of porphyrins with the mitochondrial receptor may clarify its physiological role and account for many pharmacological actions of benzodiazepines.

  6. New therapeutic strategies targeting D1-type dopamine receptors for neuropsychiatric disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Cho; Alberico, Stephanie L.; Emmons, Eric; Narayanan, Nandakumar S.

    2017-01-01

    The neurotransmitter dopamine acts via two major classes of receptors, D1-type and D2-type. D1 receptors are highly expressed in the striatum and can also be found in the cerebral cortex. Here we review the role of D1 dopamine signaling in two major domains: L-DOPA-induced dyskinesias in Parkinson’s disease and cognition in neuropsychiatric disorders. While there are many drugs targeting D2-type receptors, there are no drugs that specifically target D1 receptors. It has been difficult to use selective D1-receptor agonists for clinical applications due to issues with bioavailability, binding affinity, pharmacological kinetics, and side effects. We propose potential therapies that selectively modulate D1 dopamine signaling by targeting second messengers downstream of D1 receptors, allosteric modulators, or by making targeted modifications to D1-receptor machinery. The development of therapies specific to D1-receptor signaling could be a new frontier in the treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders. PMID:28280503

  7. Angiotensin II type 2-receptor: new clinically validated target in the treatment of neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Rice, A S C; Smith, M T

    2015-02-01

    Neuropathic pain is a large unmet medical need. The angiotensin II type 2 (AT2 ) receptor is a target with promising data in rodent models of peripheral neuropathic pain. The AT2 receptor has attracted attention on the basis of human data from a proof-of-concept clinical trial showing that oral EMA401, a highly selective, peripherally restricted, small molecule AT2 receptor antagonist, at 100 mg twice-daily for 4 weeks, alleviated postherpetic neuralgia, an often intractable type of peripheral neuropathic pain. © 2014 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  8. Removal of melatonin receptor type 1 induces insulin resistance in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Contreras-Alcantara, Susana; Baba, Kenkichi; Tosini, Gianluca

    2010-09-01

    The incidence of obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes (T2D) is increasing at an alarming rate worldwide. Emerging experimental evidence suggests that the hormone melatonin plays an important role in the regulation of glucose metabolisms. In this study, we report that removal of melatonin receptor type 1 (MT1) significantly impairs the ability of mice to metabolize glucose and such inability is probably due to an increased insulin resistance in these mice. Our data suggest that MT1 receptors are implicated in the pathogenesis of T2D and open the door for a detailed exploration on the mechanisms by which MT1 receptors signaling may affect glucose metabolism.

  9. A novel IL-1 receptor, cloned from B cells by mammalian expression, is expressed in many cell types.

    PubMed Central

    McMahan, C J; Slack, J L; Mosley, B; Cosman, D; Lupton, S D; Brunton, L L; Grubin, C E; Wignall, J M; Jenkins, N A; Brannan, C I

    1991-01-01

    cDNA clones corresponding to an Mr approximately 80,000 receptor (type I receptor) for interleukin-1 (IL-1) have been isolated previously by mammalian expression. Here, we report the use of an improved expression cloning method to isolate human and murine cDNA clones encoding a second type (Mr approximately 60,000) of IL-1 receptor (type II receptor). The mature type II IL-1 receptor consists of (i) a ligand binding portion comprised of three immunoglobulin-like domains; (ii) a single transmembrane region; and (iii) a short cytoplasmic domain of 29 amino acids. This last contrasts with the approximately 215 amino acid cytoplasmic domain of the type I receptor, and suggests that the two IL-1 receptors may interact with different signal transduction pathways. The type II receptor is expressed in a number of different tissues, including both B and T lymphocytes, and can be induced in several cell types by treatment with phorbol ester. Both IL-1 receptors appear to be well conserved in evolution, and map to the same chromosomal location. Like the type I receptor, the human type II IL-1 receptor can bind all three forms of IL-1 (IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta and IL-1ra). Vaccinia virus contains an open reading frame bearing strong resemblance to the type II IL-1 receptor. Images PMID:1833184

  10. Rational drug design and synthesis of molecules targeting the angiotensin II type 1 and type 2 receptors.

    PubMed

    Kellici, Tahsin F; Tzakos, Andreas G; Mavromoustakos, Thomas

    2015-03-02

    The angiotensin II (Ang II) type 1 and type 2 receptors (AT1R and AT2R) orchestrate an array of biological processes that regulate human health. Aberrant function of these receptors triggers pathophysiological responses that can ultimately lead to death. Therefore, it is important to design and synthesize compounds that affect beneficially these two receptors. Cardiovascular disease, which is attributed to the overactivation of the vasoactive peptide hormone Αng II, can now be treated with commercial AT1R antagonists. Herein, recent achievements in rational drug design and synthesis of molecules acting on the two AT receptors are reviewed. Quantitative structure activity relationships (QSAR) and molecular modeling on the two receptors aim to assist the search for new active compounds. As AT1R and AT2R are GPCRs and drug action is localized in the transmembrane region the role of membrane bilayers is exploited. The future perspectives in this field are outlined. Tremendous progress in the field is expected if the two receptors are crystallized, as this will assist the structure based screening of the chemical space and lead to new potent therapeutic agents in cardiovascular and other diseases.

  11. Effect of the nonpeptide neurotensin antagonist, SR 48692, and two enantiomeric analogs, SR 48527 and SR 49711, on neurotensin binding and contractile responses in guinea pig ileum and colon.

    PubMed

    Labbé-Jullié, C; Deschaintres, S; Gully, D; Le Fur, G; Kitabgi, P

    1994-10-01

    The tridecapeptide neurotensin (NT) contracts the guinea pig ileum through a neurogenic process that is mediated in part by acetylcholine and substance P and relaxes the guinea pig colon through a direct action on smooth muscle cells involving the opening of Ca(++)-dependent K+ channels. The non-peptide NT antagonist, SR 48692 (2-[1-(7-chloro-4-quinolinyl)-5-(2,6- dimethoxyphenyl)pyrazol-3-yl)carbonylamino]tricyclo-(3.3.1.1 .3.7)decan-2- carboxylic acid), potently inhibited NT binding to membranes prepared from the guinea pig ileum and colon with Ki values of approximately 3 nM. SR 48527 ((S)-(+)-[1-(7-chloro-4-quinolinyl)-5-(2,6-dimethoxyphenyl)pyrazol-3- yl)carbonylamino]cyclohexylacetic acid) and SR 49711 ((R)-(-)-[1-(7-chloro-4-quinolinyl)-5-(2,6-dimethoxyphenyl)pyrazol- 3-yl)carbonylamino]cyclohexylacetic acid), two enantiomers structurally related to SR 48692, were respectively equipotent with and a 100-fold less potent than SR 48692 in inhibiting NT binding in both tissues. In both membrane preparations, NT binding was increased by Mg++ and decreased by Na+ and guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate, whereas SR 48692 binding was not significantly affected by these agents. SR 48692 inhibited NT-induced contraction and relaxation in guinea pig ileum and colon preparations, respectively, with Ki values between 4 and 5 nM. As in binding studies, SR 48527 was as potent, whereas SR 49711 was 100-fold less potent than SR 48692 in antagonizing NT responses in both the guinea pig ileum and colon. Altogether, our results show that NT receptors in the guinea pig ileum and colon, although functionally distinct, are coupled to G-proteins and display similar biochemical and pharmacological properties, in particular with regard to their sensitivity and stereoselectivity toward nonpeptide antagonists related to SR 48692. Because of their high potency to antagonize NT actions in intestinal preparations, SR 48692 and SR 48527 represent useful tools to study the physiological

  12. Signal transduction differences between 5-hydroxytryptamine type 2A and type 2C receptor systems.

    PubMed

    Berg, K A; Clarke, W P; Sailstad, C; Saltzman, A; Maayani, S

    1994-09-01

    The cDNAs for human 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)2C and 5-HT2A receptors were stably transfected separately into parent Chinese hamster ovary cells, and cell lines in which levels of transfected receptor protein expression and accumulation of inositol phosphates in response to 5-HT were comparable were chosen for study. The effect of activation of these receptors on 5-HT1B-like receptor-mediated responsiveness (i.e., inhibition of forskolin-stimulated cAMP accumulation) was studied. Activation of 5-HT2C receptors with 5-HT (0.1-100 microM) abolished the 5-HT1B-like response, which returned when 5-HT2C receptors were blocked with mesulergine (1 microM). Furthermore, the maximal response to 5-carboxytryptamine was reduced in a concentration-dependent manner by the 5-HT2A/5-HT2C-selective partial agonist (+/-)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane. In contrast, activation of 5-HT2A receptors with either 5-HT or (+/-)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane did not alter the 5-HT1B-like response. The reduction of 5-HT1B-like responsiveness produced by 5-HT2C receptor activation was independent of protein kinase C activation and increases in the intracellular calcium concentration. Although 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors are strikingly similar in structure and pharmacology, and the signal transduction systems coupled to these receptors have been thought to be similar, if not identical, these data provide the first evidence for fundamental differences in the signal transduction systems of these 5-HT2 receptor subtypes.

  13. Elevated serum neurotensin and CRH levels in children with autistic spectrum disorders and tail-chasing Bull Terriers with a phenotype similar to autism.

    PubMed

    Tsilioni, I; Dodman, N; Petra, A I; Taliou, A; Francis, K; Moon-Fanelli, A; Shuster, L; Theoharides, T C

    2014-10-14

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by defects in communication and social interactions, as well as stereotypic behaviors. Symptoms typically worsen with anxiety and stress. ASD occur in early childhood, often present with regression and have a prevalence of 1 out of 68 children. The lack of distinct pathogenesis or any objective biomarkers or reliable animal models hampers our understanding and treatment of ASD. Neurotensin (NT) and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) are secreted under stress in various tissues, and have proinflammatory actions. We had previously shown that NT augments the ability of CRH to increase mast cell (MC)-dependent skin vascular permeability in rodents. CRH also induced NT receptor gene and protein expression in MCs, which have been implicated in ASD. Here we report that serum of ASD children (4-10 years old) has significantly higher NT and CRH levels as compared with normotypic controls. Moreover, there is a statistically significant correlation between the number of children with gastrointestinal symptoms and high serum NT levels. In Bull Terriers that exhibit a behavioral phenotype similar to the clinical presentation of ASD, NT and CRH levels are also significantly elevated, as compared with unaffected dogs of the same breed. Further investigation of serum NT and CRH, as well as characterization of this putative canine breed could provide useful insights into the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of ASD.

  14. [The search of small molecules with antipsychotic activity on the background of neurotensin].

    PubMed

    Ostrovskaia, R U; Gudasheva, T A; Krupina, N A; Seredin, S B

    2012-01-01

    Tridecapeptide neurotensin (NT) is known to exert the neuroleptic-like effects in case of its intracerebral administration. The group of systemically active dipeptides , acylprolyltyrosines, was constructed on the background of NT. Methyl ester of N-caproyl-L-prolyl-L-tyrosine (Dilept) was chosen for further development. The paper is dealing with main principles of Dilept'design and with analysis of the experimental data concerning its effect on the "translational" model of schizophrenia--the deficit of prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle-reaction caused by either dopamine-mimetic, apomorphine, or by the uncompetitive NMDA-blocker, ketamine. Dilept was shown to attenuate these deficits both in case ofintraperitoneal and peroral administration. Dilept is considered as a potential antipsychotic.

  15. Type-1 cannabinoid receptor activity during Alzheimer's disease progression.

    PubMed

    Manuel, Iván; González de San Román, Estíbaliz; Giralt, M Teresa; Ferrer, Isidro; Rodríguez-Puertas, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    The activity of CB1 cannabinoid receptors was studied in postmortem brain samples of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients during clinical deterioration. CB1 activity was higher at earlier AD stages in limited hippocampal areas and internal layers of frontal cortex, but a decrease was observed at the advanced stages. The pattern of modification appears to indicate initial hyperactivity of the endocannabinoid system in brain areas that lack classical histopathological markers at earlier stages of AD, indicating an attempt to compensate for the initial synaptic impairment, which is then surpassed by disease progression. These results suggest that initial CB1 stimulation might have therapeutic relevance.

  16. Release of avian neurotensin in response to intraluminal contents in the duodenum of chickens.

    PubMed

    DeGolier, Teresa F; Carraway, Robert E; Duke, Gary E

    2013-02-01

    Peripheral and hepatic-portal plasma levels of neurotensin (NT) in fed and fasted chickens were determined using RIA. Portal levels of NT(1-13) (fed = 61.3 ± 3.9 fmol/mL; fasted = 44.5 ± 3.9 fmol/mL) were significantly higher than peripheral levels (fed = 8.2 ± 3.3 fmol/mL; fasted = 7.8 ± 3.0 fmol/mL) collected from the wing vein, indicating that some NT is metabolized in the liver. Portal plasma levels of NT collected from fed birds were also significantly higher than portal plasma levels of NT collected from fasted birds. Neurotensin, as identified by HPLC, exhibited a 2-fold increase in plasma extracts following perfusion of the proximal ileum with a 10-mg sample of oleic acid, as compared with control samples of plasma collected before oleic acid perfusion. In whole-animal studies, the injection of a micellar solution of oleic acid into isolated segments of the duodenum resulted in elevated plasma immunoreactive NT in blood collected from the pancreaticoduodenal vein. Injection of a 1,000 mOsm sodium chloride solution had a slightly lesser and delayed effect compared with oleic acid, but a greater effect than 0.1 N hydrochloric acid in isotonic saline solution. Injection of an amino acid solution (10% Travasol), 300 mOsm glucose solution, or pure corn oil had no effect. These results demonstrate that intraduodenal oleic acid is a potent stimulus for the release of NT from the duodenum into the hepatic-portal circulation of chickens.

  17. Heterologous high yield expression and purification of neurotensin and its functional fragment in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Tapaneeyakorn, Satita; Ross, Simon; Attrill, Helen; Watts, Anthony

    2010-11-01

    Peptide synthesis is widely used for the production of small proteins and peptides, but producing uniformly isotopically labelled peptides for NMR and other biophysical studies could be limited for economic reasons. Here, we propose a use of a modified pGEV-1 plasmid to express neurotensin (NT(1-13)), pGlu(1)-Leu(2)-Tyr(3)-Glu(4)-Asn(5)-Lys(6)-Pro(7)-Arg(8)-Arg(9)-Pro(10)-Tyr(11)-Ile(12)-Leu(13)-OH, as a C-terminal fusion protein with the GB1 domain of streptococcal protein G. The free carboxyl-terminus is important for the function of several peptide hormones, including neurotensin. Therefore, for the pGEV-NT(1-13) construct, the C-terminal pGEV-encoded 6xHis tag was removed and an N-terminal 8xHis tag was introduced for affinity purification. To facilitate removal of tags using CNBr cleavage, a methionine was introduced at the N-terminal of the peptide. Furthermore, this pGEV-NT(1-13) plasmid was used as a template to include a Pro-7 to Met mutation for CNBr cleavage, giving NT(8-13), the sub-fragment crucial for the biological activity of this peptide. These two constructs are being used to produce uniformly labelled NT(1-13) and NT(8-13) in high yield and in a cost effective way, using cheap (15)N and/or (13)C source. The modification proposed here using the pGEV-1 plasmid could be an alternative option for the high expression of other isotopically labelled and unlabelled short peptides, including hormones and hydrophobic membrane peptides.

  18. Binding site and subclass specificity of the herpes simplex virus type 1-induced Fc receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Wiger, D; Michaelsen, T E

    1985-01-01

    Immunoglobulin Fc-binding activity was detected by indirect immunofluorescence employing fluorochrome conjugated F(ab')2 antibody fragments on acetone-fixed cell cultures infected with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). Using this method the Fc receptor-like activity seemed to be restricted to the IgG class of human immunoglobulins. While IgG1, IgG2, and IgG4 myeloma proteins bind to this putative Fc gamma receptor at a concentration of 0.002 mg/ml, IgG3 myeloma proteins were without activity at 0.1 mg/ml. The binding activity was associated with the Fc fragments of IgG, while the pFc' fragments of IgG appeared to be unable to bind in this assay system. The reactivity and specificity of the HSV-1 Fc receptor was independent of both the type of tissue culture cells used and the strain of HSV-1 inducing the Fc receptor-like activity. The HSV-1-induced Fc receptor has a similar specificity for human immunoglobulin class and subclasses as staphylococcal Protein A. However, these two Fc receptors exhibit at least one striking difference. The IgG3 G3m(st) protein which binds to Protein A does not bind to HSV-1-induced Fc receptor. A possible reaction site for the HSV-1 Fc receptor on IgG could be at or near Asp 276. Images Figure 1 PMID:2982735

  19. Enhancement of Adipocyte Browning by Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockade

    PubMed Central

    Tsukuda, Kana; Mogi, Masaki; Iwanami, Jun; Kanno, Harumi; Nakaoka, Hirotomo; Wang, Xiao-Li; Bai, Hui-Yu; Shan, Bao-Shuai; Kukida, Masayoshi; Higaki, Akinori; Yamauchi, Toshifumi; Min, Li-Juan; Horiuchi, Masatsugu

    2016-01-01

    Browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) has been highlighted as a new possible therapeutic target for obesity, diabetes and lipid metabolic disorders, because WAT browning could increase energy expenditure and reduce adiposity. The new clusters of adipocytes that emerge with WAT browning have been named ‘beige’ or ‘brite’ adipocytes. Recent reports have indicated that the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a role in various aspects of adipose tissue physiology and dysfunction. The biological effects of angiotensin II, a major component of RAS, are mediated by two receptor subtypes, angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) and type 2 receptor (AT2R). However, the functional roles of angiotensin II receptor subtypes in WAT browning have not been defined. Therefore, we examined whether deletion of angiotensin II receptor subtypes (AT1aR and AT2R) may affect white-to-beige fat conversion in vivo. AT1a receptor knockout (AT1aKO) mice exhibited increased appearance of multilocular lipid droplets and upregulation of thermogenic gene expression in inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT) compared to wild-type (WT) mice. AT2 receptor-deleted mice did not show miniaturization of lipid droplets or alteration of thermogenic gene expression levels in iWAT. An in vitro experiment using adipose tissue-derived stem cells showed that deletion of the AT1a receptor resulted in suppression of adipocyte differentiation, with reduction in expression of thermogenic genes. These results indicate that deletion of the AT1a receptor might have some effects on the process of browning of WAT and that blockade of the AT1 receptor could be a therapeutic target for the treatment of metabolic disorders. PMID:27992452

  20. Localization of the receptor gene for type D simian retroviruses on human chromosome 19.

    PubMed Central

    Sommerfelt, M A; Williams, B P; McKnight, A; Goodfellow, P N; Weiss, R A

    1990-01-01

    Simian retrovirus (SRV) serotypes 1 to 5 are exogenous type D viruses causing immune suppression in macaque monkeys. These viruses exhibit receptor interference with each other, with two endogenous type D viruses of the langur (PO-1-Lu) and squirrel monkey, and with two type C retroviruses, feline endogenous virus (RD114/CCC) and baboon endogenous virus (BaEV), indicating that each utilizes the same cell surface receptor (M. A. Sommerfelt and R. A. Weiss, Virology 176:58-69, 1990). Vesicular stomatitis virus pseudotype particles bearing envelope glycoproteins of RD114, BaEV, and the seven SRV strains were employed to detect receptors expressed in human-rodent somatic cell hybrids segregating human chromosomes. The only human chromosome common to all the susceptible hybrids was chromosome 19. By using hybrids retaining different fragments of chromosome 19, a provisional subchromosomal localization of the receptor gene was made to 19q13.1-13.2. Antibodies previously reported to be specific to a BaEV receptor (L. Thiry, J. Cogniaux-Leclerc, R. Olislager, S. Sprecher-Goldberger, and P. Burkens, J. Virol. 48:697-708, 1983) did not block BaEV, RD114, or SRV pseudotypes or syncytia. Antibodies to known surface markers determined by genes mapped to chromosome 19 did not block virus-receptor interaction. The identity of the receptor remains to be determined. PMID:2173788

  1. Receptor for detection of a Type II sex pheromone in the winter moth Operophtera brumata.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dan-Dan; Wang, Hong-Lei; Schultze, Anna; Froß, Heidrun; Francke, Wittko; Krieger, Jürgen; Löfstedt, Christer

    2016-01-05

    How signal diversity evolves under stabilizing selection in a pheromone-based mate recognition system is a conundrum. Female moths produce two major types of sex pheromones, i.e., long-chain acetates, alcohols and aldehydes (Type I) and polyenic hydrocarbons and epoxides (Type II), along different biosynthetic pathways. Little is known on how male pheromone receptor (PR) genes evolved to perceive the different pheromones. We report the identification of the first PR tuned to Type II pheromones, namely ObruOR1 from the winter moth, Operophtera brumata (Geometridae). ObruOR1 clusters together with previously ligand-unknown orthologues in the PR subfamily for the ancestral Type I pheromones, suggesting that O. brumata did not evolve a new type of PR to match the novel Type II signal but recruited receptors within an existing PR subfamily. AsegOR3, the ObruOR1 orthologue previously cloned from the noctuid Agrotis segetum that has Type I acetate pheromone components, responded significantly to another Type II hydrocarbon, suggesting that a common ancestor with Type I pheromones had receptors for both types of pheromones, a preadaptation for detection of Type II sex pheromone.

  2. Receptor for detection of a Type II sex pheromone in the winter moth Operophtera brumata

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dan-Dan; Wang, Hong-Lei; Schultze, Anna; Froß, Heidrun; Francke, Wittko; Krieger, Jürgen; Löfstedt, Christer

    2016-01-01

    How signal diversity evolves under stabilizing selection in a pheromone-based mate recognition system is a conundrum. Female moths produce two major types of sex pheromones, i.e., long-chain acetates, alcohols and aldehydes (Type I) and polyenic hydrocarbons and epoxides (Type II), along different biosynthetic pathways. Little is known on how male pheromone receptor (PR) genes evolved to perceive the different pheromones. We report the identification of the first PR tuned to Type II pheromones, namely ObruOR1 from the winter moth, Operophtera brumata (Geometridae). ObruOR1 clusters together with previously ligand-unknown orthologues in the PR subfamily for the ancestral Type I pheromones, suggesting that O. brumata did not evolve a new type of PR to match the novel Type II signal but recruited receptors within an existing PR subfamily. AsegOR3, the ObruOR1 orthologue previously cloned from the noctuid Agrotis segetum that has Type I acetate pheromone components, responded significantly to another Type II hydrocarbon, suggesting that a common ancestor with Type I pheromones had receptors for both types of pheromones, a preadaptation for detection of Type II sex pheromone. PMID:26729427

  3. Cannabinoid type 2 receptor as a target for chronic - pain.

    PubMed

    Beltramo, Massimiliano

    2009-01-01

    Availability of selective pharmacological tools enabled a great advance of our knowledge of cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) role in pathophysiology. In particular CB2 emerged as an interesting target for chronic pain treatment as demonstrated by several studies on inflammatory and neuropathic preclinal pain models. The mechanisms at the basis of CB2-mediated analgesia are still controversial but data are pointing out in two main directions: an effect on inflammatory cells and/or an action on nociceptors and spinal cord relay centers. In this review will be described the second messenger pathways activated by CB2 agonists, the data underpinning the analgesic profile of CB2 selective agonists and the mechanisms invoked to explain their analgesic action. Finally the ongoing clinical trials and the potential issues for the development of a CB2 agonist drug will be examined.

  4. Modulation of neurosteroid potentiation by protein kinases at synaptic- and extrasynaptic-type GABAA receptors

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Joanna M.; Thomas, Philip; Smart, Trevor G.

    2015-01-01

    GABAA receptors are important for inhibition in the CNS where neurosteroids and protein kinases are potent endogenous modulators. Acting individually, these can either enhance or depress receptor function, dependent upon the type of neurosteroid or kinase and the receptor subunit combination. However, in vivo, these modulators probably act in concert to fine-tune GABAA receptor activity and thus inhibition, although how this is achieved remains unclear. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between these modulators at synaptic-type α1β3γ2L and extrasynaptic-type α4β3δ GABAA receptors using electrophysiology. For α1β3γ2L, potentiation of GABA responses by tetrahydro-deoxycorticosterone was reduced after inhibiting protein kinase C, and enhanced following its activation, suggesting this kinase regulates neurosteroid modulation. In comparison, neurosteroid potentiation was reduced at α1β3S408A,S409Aγ2L receptors, and unaltered by PKC inhibitors or activators, indicating that phosphorylation of β3 subunits is important for regulating neurosteroid activity. To determine whether extrasynaptic-type GABAA receptors were similarly modulated, α4β3δ and α4β3S408A,S409Aδ receptors were investigated. Neurosteroid potentiation was reduced at both receptors by the kinase inhibitor staurosporine. By contrast, neurosteroid-mediated potentiation at α4S443Aβ3S408A,S409Aδ receptors was unaffected by protein kinase inhibition, strongly suggesting that phosphorylation of α4 and β3 subunits is required for regulating neurosteroid activity at extrasynaptic receptors. Western blot analyses revealed that neurosteroids increased phosphorylation of β3S408,S409 implying that a reciprocal pathway exists for neurosteroids to modulate phosphorylation of GABAA receptors. Overall, these findings provide important insight into the regulation of GABAA receptors in vivo, and into the mechanisms by which GABAergic inhibitory transmission may be simultaneously tuned by

  5. Parathyroid Hormone Receptor Type 1/Indian Hedgehog Expression Is Preserved in the Growth Plate of Human Fetuses Affected with Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor Type 3 Activating Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Cormier, Sarah; Delezoide, Anne-Lise; Benoist-Lasselin, Catherine; Legeai-Mallet, Laurence; Bonaventure, Jacky; Silve, Caroline

    2002-01-01

    The fibroblast growth factor receptor type 3 (FGFR3) and Indian hedgehog (IHH)/parathyroid hormone (PTH)/PTH-related peptide receptor type 1 (PTHR1) systems are both essential regulators of endochondral ossification. Based on mouse models, activation of the FGFR3 system is suggested to regulate the IHH/PTHR1 pathway. To challenge this possible interaction in humans, we analyzed the femoral growth plates from fetuses carrying activating FGFR3 mutations (9 achondroplasia, 21 and 8 thanatophoric dysplasia types 1 and 2, respectively) and 14 age-matched controls by histological techniques and in situ hybridization using riboprobes for human IHH, PTHR1, type 10 and type 1 collagen transcripts. We show that bone-perichondrial ring enlargement and growth plate increased vascularization in FGFR3-mutated fetuses correlate with the phenotypic severity of the disease. PTHR1 and IHH expression in growth plates, bone-perichondrial rings and vascular canals is not affected by FGFR3 mutations, irrespective of the mutant genotype and age, and is in keeping with cell phenotypes. These results indicate that in humans, FGFR3 signaling does not down-regulate the main players of the IHH/PTHR1 pathway. Furthermore, we show that cells within the bone-perichondrial ring in controls and patients express IHH, PTHR1, and type 10 and type 1 collagen transcripts, suggesting that bone-perichondrial ring formation involves cells of both chondrocytic and osteoblastic phenotypes. PMID:12368206

  6. Mechanisms of Radiosensitization by the Neurotensin Receptor Antagonist SR48692 in Prostate Cancer Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    the author( s ) and should not be construed as an official Department of the Army position, policy or decision unless so designated by other...COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...5e. TASK NUMBER E-Mail: 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT

  7. Glomerular Glucocorticoid Receptors Expression and Clinicopathological Types of Childhood Nephrotic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gamal, Yasser; Badawy, Ahlam; Swelam, Salwa; Tawfeek, Mostafa S K; Gad, Eman Fathalla

    2017-02-01

    Glucocorticoids are primary therapy of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS). However, not all children respond to steroid therapy. We assessed glomerular glucocorticoid receptor expression in fifty-one children with INS and its relation to response to steroid therapy and to histopathological type. Clinical, laboratory and glomerular expression of glucocorticoid receptors were compared between groups with different steroid response. Glomerular glucocorticoid expression was slightly higher in controls than in minimal change early responders, which in turn was significantly higher than in minimal change late responders. There was significantly lower glomerular glucocorticoid receptor expression in steroid-resistance compared to early responders, late responders and controls. Glomerular glucocorticoid expression was significantly higher in all minimal change disease (MCD) compared to focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. In INS, response to glucocorticoid is dependent on glomerular expression of receptors and peripheral expression. Evaluation of glomerular glucocorticoid receptor expression at time of diagnosis of NS can predict response to steroid therapy.

  8. [Serotonin receptors in the brain of animals selected for their domesticated type of behavior].

    PubMed

    Maslova, G B; Avgustinovich, D F

    1989-01-01

    Participation was studied of central serotonin receptors of the first and second types in behaviour change of animals selected by the character of defensive reaction to man. Serotonin receptors were determined by radioligand method by binding of the brain preparations 3H-serotonin and 3H-spiperone. An increase of C2 receptors number was found in the frontal brain cortex of the tame brown rats in comparison with the aggressive ones. Differences were not found in specific C1-receptor binding in the frontal brain cortex of tame and aggressive brown rats, silver foxes and American minks in various relatively early selection stages. It is supposed that disappearance of aggressive reaction to man at domestication is connected with an increase of C2 receptors number.

  9. A type 1 serine/threonine kinase receptor that can dorsalize mesoderm in Xenopus.

    PubMed Central

    Mahony, D; Gurdon, J B

    1995-01-01

    We have cloned a type I serine/threonine kinase receptor, XTrR-I, from Xenopus. XTrR-I (Xenopus transforming growth factor beta-related receptor type I) is expressed in all regions of embryos throughout early development. Overexpression of this receptor does not affect ectoderm or endoderm but dorsalizes the mesoderm such that muscle appears in ventral mesoderm and notochord appears in lateral mesoderm normally fated to become muscle. In addition, overexpression of XTrR-I in UV-treated embryos is able to cause formation of a partial dorsal axis. These results suggest that XTrR-I encodes a receptor which responds in normal development to a transforming growth factor beta-like ligand so as to promote dorsalization. Its function would therefore be to direct mesodermalized tissue into muscle or notochord. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7604016

  10. Molecular piracy of mammalian interleukin-8 receptor type B by herpesvirus saimiri.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, S K; Murphy, P M

    1993-10-05

    Viruses are known to acquire and modify the genes of their hosts to attain a survival advantage in the host environment. Herpesvirus saimiri (HVS) is a T-lymphotropic virus that causes fatal lymphoproliferative diseases in several non-human primates. The gene ECRF3 of HVS was most likely acquired from a primate host. ECRF3 encodes a putative seven-transmembrane-domain receptor that is remotely related (approximately 30% amino acid identity) to the known mammalian alpha and beta chemokine receptors, namely interleukin-8 receptor (IL8R) types A and B and the MIP-1 alpha/RANTES receptor, respectively. Chemokines regulate the trafficking, activation, and, in some cases, proliferation of myeloid and lymphoid cell types. We now show that ECRF3 encodes a functional receptor for the alpha chemokines IL-8, GRO/melanoma growth stimulatory activity (MGSA), and NAP-2 but not for beta chemokines, a specificity identical to that of IL8RB. Paradoxically, IL8RA shares 77% amino acid identity with IL8RB but is not a receptor for GRO/MGSA or NAP-2. This is the first functional characterization of a viral seven-transmembrane-domain receptor. It suggests a novel role for alpha chemokines in the pathogenesis of HVS infection by transmembrane signaling via the product of ECRF3.

  11. Histamine receptor type coupled to nitric oxide-induced relaxation of guinea-pig nasal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Bockman, C S; Zeng, W

    2002-01-01

    1 The aim of this study was to characterize the histamine receptor type mediating relaxation of the vascular bed of the nasal mucosa from the guinea-pig, and to determine the role of cyclo-oxygenase products and nitric oxide in this relaxant response to histamine. These studies were performed in isolated nasal mucosae examined in vitro to obtain potencies of histamine receptor-type selective agonists in causing vasorelaxation and to determine affinities of histamine receptor antagonists for inhibiting histamine-induced relaxation. 2 After contraction of nasal mucosae with noradrenaline, histamine caused a maximal relaxation response that was 75 +/- 6% of the contraction caused by noradrenaline with a mean EC50 value of 4.3 +/- 0.5 microM. Neither dimaprit (H2-receptor selective) nor R-alpha-methylhistamine (H3-receptor selective) caused significant relaxation of nasal mucosae. In contrast, betahistine (H1-receptor selective) caused an 81 +/- 7% relaxation of noradrenaline-induced tone with an EC50 value of 15 +/- 1 microM. 3 pA2 experiments were performed to obtain KB values of chlorpheniramine (H1-receptor selective) and diphenhydramine (H1-receptor selective) for blocking histamine-stimulated relaxation of nasal mucosae. KB values for chlorpheniramine (0.87 nM) and diphenhydramine (7.4 nM) were consistent with their interaction at the H1-receptor type. Additionally, neither 10 microM cimetidine (H2-receptor selective) nor 1 microM thioperamide (H3-receptor selective) had any effect on the relaxation curve for histamine. 4 In the presence of 10 microM indomethacin (cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor), histamine caused a maximal relaxation response of 73 +/- 5% of the noradrenaline-induced tone with an EC50 value of 2.9 +/- 0.2 microM, which was not different from control values (EC50 = 5.0 +/- 0.4 microM; maximal relaxation = 71 +/- 6%). In contrast, 200 microM NG-nitro-L-arginine (nitric oxide synthase inhibitor) completely inhibited histamine-induced relaxation of nasal

  12. Reassessment of the Unique Mode of Binding between Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor and Their Blockers

    PubMed Central

    Matsuo, Yoshino; Saku, Keijiro; Karnik, Sadashiva S.

    2013-01-01

    While the molecular structures of angiotensin II (Ang II) type 1 (AT1) receptor blockers (ARBs) are very similar, they are also slightly different. Although each ARB has been shown to exhibit a unique mode of binding to AT1 receptor, different positions of the AT1 receptor have been analyzed and computational modeling has been performed using different crystal structures for the receptor as a template and different kinds of software. Therefore, we systematically analyzed the critical positions of the AT1 receptor, Tyr113, Tyr184, Lys199, His256 and Gln257 using a mutagenesis study, and subsequently performed computational modeling of the binding of ARBs to AT1 receptor using CXCR4 receptor as a new template and a single version of software. The interactions between Tyr113 in the AT1 receptor and the hydroxyl group of olmesartan, between Lys199 and carboxyl or tetrazole groups, and between His256 or Gln257 and the tetrazole group were studied. The common structure, a tetrazole group, of most ARBs similarly bind to Lys199, His256 and Gln257 of AT1 receptor. Lys199 in the AT1 receptor binds to the carboxyl group of EXP3174, candesartan and azilsartan, whereas oxygen in the amidecarbonyl group of valsartan may bind to Lys199. The benzimidazole portion of telmisartan may bind to a lipophilic pocket that includes Tyr113. On the other hand, the n-butyl group of irbesartan may bind to Tyr113. In conclusion, we confirmed that the slightly different structures of ARBs may be critical for binding to AT1 receptor and for the formation of unique modes of binding. PMID:24260317

  13. Agonist mediated fetal muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptor desensitization

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The exposure of a developing embryo or fetus to teratogenic alkaloids from plants has the potential to cause developmental defects in livestock due to the inhibition of fetal movement by alkaloids. The mechanism behind the inhibition of fetal movement is the desensitization of fetal muscle-type nico...

  14. Role of σ1 Receptors in Learning and Memory and Alzheimer's Disease-Type Dementia.

    PubMed

    Maurice, Tangui; Goguadze, Nino

    2017-01-01

    The present chapter will review the role of σ1 receptor in learning and memory and neuroprotection , against Alzheimer's type dementia. σ1 Receptor agonists have been tested in a variety of pharmacological and pathological models of learning impairments in rodents these last past 20 years. Their anti-amnesic effects have been explained by the wide-range modulatory role of σ1 receptors on Ca(2+) mobilizations, neurotransmitter responses, and particularly glutamate and acetylcholine systems, and neurotrophic factors. Recent observations from genetic and pharmacological studies have shown that σ1 receptor can also be targeted in neurodegenerative diseases, and particularly Alzheimer's disease . Several compounds, acting partly through the σ1 receptor, have showed effective neuroprotection in transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer's disease . We will review the data and discuss the possible mechanisms of action, particularly focusing on oxidative stress and mitochondrial integrity, trophic factors and a novel hypothesis suggesting a functional interaction between the σ1 receptor and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Finally, we will discuss the pharmacological peculiarities of non-selective σ1 receptor ligands, now developed as neuroprotectants in Alzheimer's disease , and positive modulators, recently described and that showed efficacy against learning and memory deficits.

  15. Upregulation of Cannabinoid Type 1 Receptors in Dopamine D2 Receptor Knockout Mice Is Reversed by Chronic Forced Ethanol Consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Thanos, P.K.; Wang, G.; Thanos, P.K.; Gopez, V.; Delis, F.; Michaelides, M.; Grand, D.K.; Wang, G.-J.; Kunos, G.; Volkow, N.D.

    2011-01-01

    The anatomical proximity of the cannabinoid type 1 (CNR1/CB1R) and the dopamine D2 receptors (DRD2), their ability to form CB1R-DRD2 heteromers, their opposing roles in locomotion, and their involvement in ethanol's reinforcing and addictive properties prompted us to study the levels and distribution of CB1R after chronic ethanol intake, in the presence and absence of DRD2. We monitored the drinking patterns and locomotor activity of Drd2+/+ and Drd2-/- mice consuming either water or a 20% (v/v) ethanol solution (forced ethanol intake) for 6 months and used the selective CB1 receptor antagonist [{sup 3}H]SR141716A to quantify CB1R levels in different brain regions with in vitro receptor autoradiography. We found that the lack of DRD2 leads to a marked upregulation (approximately 2-fold increase) of CB1R in the cerebral cortex, the caudate-putamen, and the nucleus accumbens, which was reversed by chronic ethanol intake. The results suggest that DRD2-mediated dopaminergic neurotransmission and chronic ethanol intake exert an inhibitory effect on cannabinoid receptor expression in cortical and striatal regions implicated in the reinforcing and addictive properties of ethanol.

  16. Expression and nuclear translocation of glucocorticoid receptors in type 2 taste receptor cells.

    PubMed

    Parker, M Rockwell; Feng, Dianna; Chamuris, Brianna; Margolskee, Robert F

    2014-06-13

    Stress increases the secretion of glucocorticoids (GCs), potent steroid hormones that exert their effects on numerous target tissues by acting through glucocorticoid receptors (GRs). GC signaling significantly affects ingestive behavior and taste preferences in humans and rodent models, but far less is known about the hormonal modulation of the peripheral sensory system that detects and assesses nutrient content of foods. A previous study linked restraint stress in rats to diminished expression of mRNA for one subunit of the sweet taste receptor (Tas1r3) in taste tissue and reduced gustatory nerve excitation by sweet compounds. Using RT-PCR, we detected mRNAs for GRα in circumvallate taste papillae and in oral epithelium devoid of taste buds ("non-taste" tissue). Further, circumvallate tissue was significantly enriched in GR mRNA compared to non-taste tissue based on quantitative PCR. Histologically, GR protein was expressed in all taste bud populations examined (circumvallate, foliate and fungiform papillae). Using transgenic mice expressing green fluorescent protein, almost all (97%) Tas1r3-positive taste cells (sweet-/umami-sensitive) expressed GR compared to a significantly smaller percentage (89%) of TrpM5-positive taste cells (sweet-, umami- and bitter-sensitive). When mice (n=4) were restrain stressed, GR protein mobilized to the nucleus in Tas1r3-GFP taste cells (1.7-fold over controls). Our results suggest that GR can be activated in taste receptor cells and may play a role in specific taste qualities (e.g., sweet, umami, and bitter) to shape how the taste system responds to stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Patterning in the regeneration of type I cutaneous receptors

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, P. R.; English, Kathleen B.; Horch, K. W.; Stensaas, L. J.

    1974-01-01

    1. Type I sensory fibres in cat hairy skin innervate structures characterized by twenty to fifty specialized epithelial (Merkel) cells aggregated in a small dome-shaped elevation. Only one fibre enters each dome and it branches repeatedly to supply at least one terminal to each Merkel cell. After the nerve is cut, the Merkel cells and the dome ultimately disappear. 2. The distribution of domes on the posterior thigh was mapped before interruption of the femoral cutaneous nerve and after its regeneration. Regeneration after nerve crush was apparently complete, producing a coincidence pattern similar to those seen in control studies where the nerve was not damaged. After cutting the nerve fewer domes returned, but coincidence of regenerated femoral cutaneous domes with old sites generally was significantly greater than would be expected by chance alone. Non-femoral cutaneous fibres sprouting into the denervated femoral cutaneous field tended to form domes at old sites. Domes were also reformed on scars where domes had been excised. 3. Domes appearing at new locations and on excision scars were often small and close together (clustered). Individual domes in a cluster could be innervated by different Type I fibres. 4. Type I fibres are directed by some mechanism to sites formerly occupied by domes and to sites where domes are being induced. ImagesPlate 2Plate 3Plate 4Plate 1 PMID:4818522

  18. Orphan nuclear receptor oestrogen-related receptor γ (ERRγ) plays a key role in hepatic cannabinoid receptor type 1-mediated induction of CYP7A1 gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yaochen; Kim, Don-Kyu; Lee, Ji-Min; Park, Seung Bum; Jeong, Won-IL; Kim, Seong Heon; Lee, In-Kyu; Lee, Chul-Ho; Chiang, John Y.L.; Choi, Hueng-Sik

    2017-01-01

    Bile acids are primarily synthesized from cholesterol in the liver and have important roles in dietary lipid absorption and cholesterol homoeostasis. Detailed roles of the orphan nuclear receptors regulating cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), the rate-limiting enzyme in bile acid synthesis, have not yet been fully elucidated. In the present study, we report that oestrogen-related receptor γ (ERRγ) is a novel transcriptional regulator of CYP7A1 expression. Activation of cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1 receptor) signalling induced ERRγ-mediated transcription of the CYP7A1 gene. Overexpression of ERRγ increased CYP7A1 expression in vitro and in vivo, whereas knockdown of ERRγ attenuated CYP7A1 expression. Deletion analysis of the CYP7A1 gene promoter and a ChIP assay revealed an ERRγ -binding site on the CYP7A1 gene promoter. Small heterodimer partner (SHP) inhibited the transcriptional activity of ERRγ and thus regulated CYP7A1 expression. Overexpression of ERRγ led to increased bile acid levels, whereas an inverse agonist of ERRγ, GSK5182, reduced CYP7A1 expression and bile acid synthesis. Finally, GSK5182 significantly reduced hepatic CB1 receptor-mediated induction of CYP7A1 expression and bile acid synthesis in alcohol-treated mice. These results provide the molecular mechanism linking ERRγ and bile acid metabolism. PMID:26348907

  19. Orphan nuclear receptor oestrogen-related receptor γ (ERRγ) plays a key role in hepatic cannabinoid receptor type 1-mediated induction of CYP7A1 gene expression.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yaochen; Kim, Don-Kyu; Lee, Ji-Min; Park, Seung Bum; Jeong, Won-Il; Kim, Seong Heon; Lee, In-Kyu; Lee, Chul-Ho; Chiang, John Y L; Choi, Hueng-Sik

    2015-09-01

    Bile acids are primarily synthesized from cholesterol in the liver and have important roles in dietary lipid absorption and cholesterol homoeostasis. Detailed roles of the orphan nuclear receptors regulating cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), the rate-limiting enzyme in bile acid synthesis, have not yet been fully elucidated. In the present study, we report that oestrogen-related receptor γ (ERRγ) is a novel transcriptional regulator of CYP7A1 expression. Activation of cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1 receptor) signalling induced ERRγ-mediated transcription of the CYP7A1 gene. Overexpression of ERRγ increased CYP7A1 expression in vitro and in vivo, whereas knockdown of ERRγ attenuated CYP7A1 expression. Deletion analysis of the CYP7A1 gene promoter and a ChIP assay revealed an ERRγ-binding site on the CYP7A1 gene promoter. Small heterodimer partner (SHP) inhibited the transcriptional activity of ERRγ and thus regulated CYP7A1 expression. Overexpression of ERRγ led to increased bile acid levels, whereas an inverse agonist of ERRγ, GSK5182, reduced CYP7A1 expression and bile acid synthesis. Finally, GSK5182 significantly reduced hepatic CB1 receptor-mediated induction of CYP7A1 expression and bile acid synthesis in alcohol-treated mice. These results provide the molecular mechanism linking ERRγ and bile acid metabolism. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  20. Expression of type 1 corticotropin-releasing factor receptor in the guinea pig enteric nervous system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sumei; Gao, Xiang; Gao, Na; Wang, Xiyu; Fang, Xiucai; Hu, Hong-Zhen; Wang, Guo-Du; Xia, Yun; Wood, Jackie D

    2005-01-17

    Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), immunohistochemistry, electrophysiological recording, and intraneuronal injection of the neuronal tracer biocytin were integrated in a study of the functional expression of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptors in the guinea pig enteric nervous system. RT-PCR revealed expression of CRF1 receptor mRNA, but not CRF2, in both myenteric and submucosal plexuses. Immunoreactivity for the CRF1 receptor was distributed widely in the myenteric plexus of the stomach and small and large intestine and in the submucosal plexus of the small and large intestine. CRF1 receptor immunoreactivity was coexpressed with calbindin, choline acetyltransferase, and substance P in the myenteric plexus. In the submucosal plexus, CRF1 receptor immunoreactivity was found in neurons that expressed calbindin, substance P, choline acetyltransferase, or neuropeptide Y. Application of CRF evoked slowly activating depolarizing responses associated with elevated excitability in both myenteric and submucosal neurons. Histological analysis of biocytin-filled neurons revealed that both uniaxonal neurons with S-type electrophysiological behavior and neurons with AH-type electrophysiological behavior and Dogiel II morphology responded to CRF. The CRF-evoked depolarizing responses were suppressed by the CRF1/CRF2 receptor antagonist astressin and the selective CRF1 receptor antagonist NBI27914 and were unaffected by the selective CRF2 receptor antagonist antisauvagine-30. The findings support the hypothesis that the CRF1 receptor mediates the excitatory actions of CRF on neurons in the enteric nervous system. Actions on enteric neurons might underlie the neural mechanisms by which stress-related release of CRF in the periphery alters intestinal propulsive motor function, mucosal secretion, and barrier functions.

  1. Down-regulation of pancreatic transcription factors and incretin receptors in type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kaneto, Hideaki; Matsuoka, Taka-aki

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is one of the most prevalent and serious metabolic diseases. Under diabetic conditions, chronic hyperglycemia and subsequent induction of oxidative stress deteriorate pancreatic β-cell function, which leads to the aggravation of type 2 diabetes. Although such phenomena are well known as glucose toxicity, its molecular mechanism remains unclear. In this review article, we describe the possible molecular mechanism for β-cell dysfunction found in type 2 diabetes, focusing on (1) oxidative stress, (2) pancreatic transcription factors (PDX-1 and MafA) and (3) incretin receptors (GLP-1 and GIP receptors). Under such conditions, nuclear expression levels of PDX-1 and MafA are decreased, which leads to suppression of insulin biosynthesis and secretion. In addition, expression levels of GLP-1 and GIP receptors are decreased, which likely contributes to the impaired incretin effects found in diabetes. Taken together, it is likely that down-regulation of pancreatic transcription factors (PDX-1 and MafA) and down-regulation of incretin receptors (GLP-1 and GIP receptors) explain, at least in part, the molecular mechanism for β-cell dysfunction found in type 2 diabetes. PMID:24379916

  2. Distinct activities of GABA agonists at synaptic- and extrasynaptic-type GABAA receptors

    PubMed Central

    Mortensen, Martin; Ebert, Bjarke; Wafford, Keith; Smart, Trevor G

    2010-01-01

    The activation characteristics of synaptic and extrasynaptic GABAA receptors are important for shaping the profile of phasic and tonic inhibition in the central nervous system, which will critically impact on the activity of neuronal networks. Here, we study in isolation the activity of three agonists, GABA, muscimol and 4,5,6,7-tetrahydoisoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridin-3(2H)-one (THIP), to further understand the activation profiles of α1β3γ2, α4β3γ2 and α4β3δ receptors that typify synaptic- and extrasynaptic-type receptors expressed in the hippocampus and thalamus. The agonists display an order of potency that is invariant between the three receptors, which is reliant mostly on the agonist dissociation constant. At δ subunit-containing extrasynaptic-type GABAA receptors, both THIP and muscimol additionally exhibited, to different degrees, superagonist behaviour. By comparing whole-cell and single channel currents induced by the agonists, we provide a molecular explanation for their different activation profiles. For THIP at high concentrations, the unusual superagonist behaviour on α4β3δ receptors is a consequence of its ability to increase the duration of longer channel openings and their frequency, resulting in longer burst durations. By contrast, for muscimol, moderate superagonist behaviour was caused by reduced desensitisation of the extrasynaptic-type receptors. The ability to specifically increase the efficacy of receptor activation, by selected exogenous agonists over that obtained with the natural transmitter, may prove to be of therapeutic benefit under circumstances when synaptic inhibition is compromised or dysfunctional. PMID:20176630

  3. Sex Differences in Midbrain Dopamine D2-Type Receptor Availability and Association with Nicotine Dependence.

    PubMed

    Okita, Kyoji; Petersen, Nicole; Robertson, Chelsea L; Dean, Andy C; Mandelkern, Mark A; London, Edythe D

    2016-11-01

    Women differ from men in smoking-related behaviors, among them a greater difficulty in quitting smoking. Unlike female smokers, male smokers have lower striatal dopamine D2-type receptor availability (binding potential, BPND) than nonsmokers and exhibit greater smoking-induced striatal dopamine release. Because dopamine D2-type autoreceptors in the midbrain influence striatal dopamine release, a function that has been linked to addiction, we tested for sex differences in midbrain dopamine D2-type receptor BPND and in relationships between midbrain BPND, nicotine dependence and striatal dopamine D2-type receptor BPND. Positron emission tomography was used with [(18)F]fallypride to measure BPND in a midbrain region, encompassing the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area, in 18 daily smokers (7 women, 11 men) and 19 nonsmokers (10 women, 9 men). A significant sex-by-group interaction reflected greater midbrain BPND in female but not male smokers than in corresponding nonsmokers (F1, 32=5.089, p=0.03). Midbrain BPND was positively correlated with BPND in the caudate nucleus and putamen in nonsmokers and female smokers but not in male smokers and with nicotine dependence in female but not in male smokers. Striatal BPND was correlated negatively with nicotine dependence and smoking exposure. These findings extend observations on dopamine D2-type receptors in smokers and suggest a sex difference in how midbrain dopamine D2-type autoreceptors influence nicotine dependence.

  4. Two functional growth hormone secretagogue receptor (ghrelin receptor) type 1a and 2a in goldfish, Carassius auratus.

    PubMed

    Kaiya, Hiroyuki; Miura, Tohru; Matsuda, Kouhei; Miyazato, Mikiya; Kangawa, Kenji

    2010-10-07

    Here we report the identification and characterization of ghrelin (GRLN) receptors in goldfish Carassius auratus. We identified four distinct mRNAs generated from four different genes. Those were roughly divided into two types, based on the number of amino acids and amino acid sequence similarity; one composed of 360-amino acids, which is similar to zebrafish GHS-R1a (showing 94-96% identity) and the other encodes a 366- or 367-amino acid protein, which demonstrated 95% identity to zebrafish GHS-R2a. We therefore designated these proteins as goldfish GHS-R1a type 1 (1a-1) and type 2 (1a-2) and GHS-R2a type 1 (2a-1) and type 2 (2a-2). GHS-R1a and 2a proteins share 74% sequence identity with each other. In functional analyses, three of these four receptors (except 2a-2 receptor), were activated by goldfish GRLN or GHS. The GRLN activity was inhibited by [D-Lys(3)] GHRP-6 but not by des-acyl goldfish GRLN. Expression levels of GHS-R1a mRNA were 2- to 50-folds higher than those of GHS-R2a, and GHS-R2a-2 mRNA expression was 1/25 of GHS-R2a-1. GHS-R1a-1 and 1a-2 mRNAs were mainly detected in the central nervous system (CNS), pituitary, liver, intestine and testis, whereas GHS-R2a-1 and 2a-2 mRNAs were predominantly expressed in the CNS, body kidney, ovary and testis. A 7-day fasting led to a decrease in GHS-R1a-1 mRNA expression in the vagal lobe, but stimulated GHS-R1a-2 mRNA in the liver, although no change was observed in GHS-R2a mRNAs. These results indicate that goldfish has four GHS-Ra that is divided into two types, 1a and 2a; and each receptor expression is separately regulated with GHS-R1a acts on energy metabolism.

  5. Activation and modulation of recombinantly expressed serotonin receptor type 3A by terpenes and pungent substances.

    PubMed

    Ziemba, Paul M; Schreiner, Benjamin S P; Flegel, Caroline; Herbrechter, Robin; Stark, Timo D; Hofmann, Thomas; Hatt, Hanns; Werner, Markus; Gisselmann, Günter

    2015-11-27

    Serotonin receptor type 3 (5-HT3 receptor) is a ligand-gated ion channel that is expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) as well as in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The receptor plays an important role in regulating peristalsis of the gastrointestinal tract and in functions such as emesis, cognition and anxiety. Therefore, a variety of pharmacologically active substances target the 5-HT3 receptor to treat chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. The 5-HT3 receptors are activated, antagonized, or modulated by a wide range of chemically different substances, such as 2-methyl-serotonin, phenylbiguanide, setrones, or cannabinoids. Whereas the action of all of these substances is well described, less is known about the effect of terpenoids or fragrances on 5-HT3A receptors. In this study, we screened a large number of natural odorous and pungent substances for their pharmacological action on recombinantly expressed human 5-HT3A receptors. The receptors were functionally expressed in Xenopus oocytes and characterized by electrophysiological recordings using the two-electrode voltage-clamp technique. A screening of two odorous mixes containing a total of 200 substances revealed that the monoterpenes, thymol and carvacrol, act as both weak partial agonists and positive modulators on the 5-HT3A receptor. In contrast, the most effective blockers were the terpenes, citronellol and geraniol, as well as the pungent substances gingerol, capsaicin and polygodial. In our study, we identified new modulators of 5-HT3A receptors out of the classes of monoterpenes and vanilloid substances that frequently occur in various plants.

  6. Two types of extrajunctional L-glutamate receptors in locust muscle fibres.

    PubMed Central

    Cull-Candy, S G

    1976-01-01

    L-glutamate applied iontophoretically to the extrajunctional membrane of locust muscle produced a biphasic response, depolarization followed by hyperpolarization (i.e. DH-response). Applying L-glutamate and DL-ibotenate from multibarrel micropipettes allowed comparison of their extrajunctional responses. While glutamate produced a two component response, ibotenate produced a single component H-response. 2. The equilibrium values for the H-responses to L-glutamate and DL-ibotenate applied at the same extrajunctional site were very similar. The equilibrium value was 59-5 +/- 5-4 mV indicating an increased Cl- conductance. The H-response was reversed and abolished in Cl- free medium. Picrotoxin 10(-3) M selectively blocked the H-component of the DH-response in a reversible manner. 3. The possibility that the D- and H-responses arose from the activation of two distinct types of extrajunctional glutamate receptors was investigated. Desensitization of the glutamate H-response by ibotenate and vice versa indicated the presence of an extrajunctional H-receptor sensitive to glutamate and ibotenate and an extrajunctional D-receptor sensitive to glutamate and insensitive to ibotenate. The junctional depolarizing response to glutamate was insensitive to ibotenate. 4. The presence of junctionally occurring H-receptors could not be discounted, although, if present, they were not measurably activated by the excitatory transmitter. 5. Double logarithmic plots (coulomb dose vs. response) for the actions of glutamate and ibotenate on H-receptors had values of 0-75, indicating that both drugs act on the same receptors with similar mechanisms. The value for the action of glutamate on the D-receptors was 1-5. 6. While the extrajunctional D-receptors show analogies to the extrajunctional ACh receptors in vertebrate muscle, the significance of the extrajunctional H-receptors remains speculative. PMID:1255528

  7. Effects of angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker on bones in mice with type 1 diabetes induced by streptozotocin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Diao, Teng-Yue; Gu, Sa-Sa; Wu, Shu-Yan; Gebru, Yoseph A; Chen, Xi; Wang, Jing-Yu; Ran, Shu; Wong, Man-Sau

    2014-09-01

    This study was performed to address the pathological roles of the skeletal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in type 1 diabetes-induced osteoporosis and the effects of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker losartan on bones in diabetic mice. Bone histomorphology was detected by H&E staining, Safranin O staining and X-ray radiography. Micro-CT was performed for the analysis of bone parameters. Gene and protein expression were determined by RT-PCR and immunoblotting. Type 1 diabetic mice displayed osteopenia phenotype, and losartan treatment had no osteoprotective effects on diabetic mice as shown by the reduction of bone mineral density and microarchitectural parameters at the proximal metaphysis of the tibia. The mRNA expression of AGT, renin receptor and ACE, and protein expression of renin and AT1R were markedly up-regulated in the bones of vehicle-treated diabetic mice compared to those of non-diabetic mice. The treatment with losartan further significantly increased the expression of AGT, renin, angiotensin II and AT1R, and reduced the expression of AT2R receptor as compared to those of diabetic mice. Local bone RAS functionally played a role in the development of type 1 diabetic osteoporosis, and losartan had no bone-sparing function in diabetes mice because of enhance skeletal RAS activity. © The Author(s) 2013.

  8. Type II Turn of Receptor-bound Salmon Calcitonin Revealed by X-ray Crystallography.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Eva; Hansen, Jakob Lerche; Hansen, Ann Maria Kruse; Shaw, Allan Christian; Becker, Peter; Schäffer, Lauge; Reedtz-Runge, Steffen

    2016-06-24

    Calcitonin is a peptide hormone consisting of 32 amino acid residues and the calcitonin receptor is a Class B G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). The crystal structure of the human calcitonin receptor ectodomain (CTR ECD) in complex with a truncated analogue of salmon calcitonin ([BrPhe(22)]sCT(8-32)) has been determined to 2.1-Å resolution. Parallel analysis of a series of peptide ligands showed that the rank order of binding of the CTR ECD is identical to the rank order of binding of the full-length CTR, confirming the structural integrity and relevance of the isolated CTR ECD. The structure of the CTR ECD is similar to other Class B GPCRs and the ligand binding site is similar to the binding site of the homologous receptors for the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and adrenomedulin (AM) recently published (Booe, J. M., Walker, C. S., Barwell, J., Kuteyi, G., Simms, J., Jamaluddin, M. A., Warner, M. L., Bill, R. M., Harris, P. W., Brimble, M. A., Poyner, D. R., Hay, D. L., and Pioszak, A. A. (2015) Mol. Cell 58, 1040-1052). Interestingly the receptor-bound structure of the ligand [BrPhe(22)]sCT(8-32) differs from the receptor-bound structure of the homologous ligands CGRP and AM. They all adopt an extended conformation followed by a C-terminal β turn, however, [BrPhe(22)]sCT(8-32) adopts a type II turn (Gly(28)-Thr(31)), whereas CGRP and AM adopt type I turns. Our results suggest that a type II turn is the preferred conformation of calcitonin, whereas a type I turn is the preferred conformation of peptides that require RAMPs; CGRP, AM, and amylin. In addition the structure provides a detailed molecular explanation and hypothesis regarding ligand binding properties of CTR and the amylin receptors.

  9. Song in an Affiliative Context Relates to the Neural Expression of Dopamine- and Neurotensin-Related Genes in Male European Starlings.

    PubMed

    Merullo, Devin P; Angyal, Caroline S; Stevenson, Sharon A; Riters, Lauren V

    2016-01-01

    Some animals, including songbirds, vocalize at high rates when alone or in large groups. In songbirds, vocal behavior in these contexts is important for song learning and group cohesion. It is not obviously targeted at any particular individual and is described as 'undirected'. Studies suggest a role for dopamine (DA) in undirected song. The neuropeptide neurotensin (NT) can enhance dopaminergic signaling upon binding to the NT receptor 1 (NTR1) and is found in regions where DA can influence song, including the ventral tegmental area (VTA), septum, and the song control nucleus Area X. To begin to test the hypothesis that NT and DA in these regions interact to influence undirected song, we used quantitative real-time PCR to relate undirected singing to mRNA expression of NT, NTR1, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH; a synthetic enzyme for DA) and D1 and D2 receptors in male European starlings. TH and NT expression in VTA, and NT and D1 expression in Area X, positively correlated with song. NT markers also correlated positively with DA markers in VTA. Given the role of VTA projections to Area X in song learning, these results suggest that interactions between NT and DA in these regions may contribute to vocal learning. In septum, NTR1 expression positively correlated with song and NT and DA markers were correlated, suggesting that NT in this region may influence dopaminergic transmission to facilitate undirected vocalizations. Overall, these findings implicate interactions between NT and DA in affiliative communication. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. G protein-coupled receptor kinase and beta-arrestin-mediated desensitization of the angiotensin II type 1A receptor elucidated by diacylglycerol dynamics.

    PubMed

    Violin, Jonathan D; Dewire, Scott M; Barnes, William G; Lefkowitz, Robert J

    2006-11-24

    Receptor desensitization progressively limits responsiveness of cells to chronically applied stimuli. Desensitization in the continuous presence of agonist has been difficult to study with available assay methods. Here, we used a fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based live cell assay for the second messenger diacylglycerol to measure desensitization of a model seven-transmembrane receptor, the Gq-coupled angiotensin II type 1(A) receptor, expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. In response to angiotensin II, we observed a transient diacylglycerol response reflecting activation and complete desensitization of the receptor within 2-5 min. By utilizing a variety of approaches including graded tetracycline-inducible receptor expression, mutated receptors, and overexpression or short interfering RNA-mediated silencing of putative components of the cellular desensitization machinery, we conclude that the rate and extent of receptor desensitization are critically determined by the following: receptor concentration in the plasma membrane; the presence of phosphorylation sites on the carboxyl terminus of the receptor; kinase activity of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2, but not of G protein-coupled receptor kinases 3, 5, or 6; and stoichiometric expression of beta-arrestin. The findings introduce the use of the biosensor diacylglycerol reporter as a powerful means for studying Gq-coupled receptor desensitization and document that, at the levels of receptor overexpression commonly used in such studies, the properties of the desensitization process are markedly perturbed and do not reflect normal cellular physiology.

  11. Protective role for type 4 metabotropic glutamate receptors against ischemic brain damage.

    PubMed

    Moyanova, Slavianka G; Mastroiacovo, Federica; Kortenska, Lidia V; Mitreva, Rumiana G; Fardone, Erminia; Santolini, Ines; Sobrado, Mónica; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Bruno, Valeria; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Ngomba, Richard T

    2011-04-01

    We examined the influence of type 4 metabotropic glutamate (mGlu4) receptors on ischemic brain damage using the permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model in mice and the endothelin-1 (Et-1) model of transient focal ischemia in rats. Mice lacking mGlu4 receptors showed a 25% to 30% increase in infarct volume after MCAO as compared with wild-type littermates. In normal mice, systemic injection of the selective mGlu4 receptor enhancer, N-phenyl-7-(hydroxyimino)cyclopropa[b]chromen-1a-caboxamide (PHCCC; 10  mg/kg, subcutaneous, administered once 30  minutes before MCAO), reduced the extent of ischemic brain damage by 35% to 45%. The drug was inactive in mGlu4 receptor knockout mice. In the Et-1 model, PHCCC administered only once 20  minutes after ischemia reduced the infarct volume to a larger extent in the caudate/putamen than in the cerebral cortex. Ischemic rats treated with PHCCC showed a faster recovery of neuronal function, as shown by electrocorticographic recording and by a battery of specific tests, which assess sensorimotor deficits. These data indicate that activation of mGlu4 receptors limit the development of brain damage after permanent or transient focal ischemia. These findings are promising because selective mGlu4 receptor enhancers are under clinical development for the treatment of Parkinson's disease and other central nervous system disorders.

  12. E-type prostanoid receptor 4 (EP4) in disease and therapy

    PubMed Central

    Konya, Viktoria; Marsche, Gunther; Schuligoi, Rufina; Heinemann, Akos

    2013-01-01

    The large variety of biological functions governed by prostaglandin (PG) E2 is mediated by signaling through four distinct E-type prostanoid (EP) receptors. The availability of mouse strains with genetic ablation of each EP receptor subtype and the development of selective EP agonists and antagonists have tremendously advanced our understanding of PGE2 as a physiologically and clinically relevant mediator. Moreover, studies using disease models revealed numerous conditions in which distinct EP receptors might be exploited therapeutically. In this context, the EP4 receptor is currently emerging as most versatile and promising among PGE2 receptors. Anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombotic and vasoprotective effects have been proposed for the EP4 receptor, along with its recently described unfavorable tumor-promoting and pro-angiogenic roles. A possible explanation for the diverse biological functions of EP4 might be the multiple signaling pathways switched on upon EP4 activation. The present review attempts to summarize the EP4 receptor-triggered signaling modules and the possible therapeutic applications of EP4-selective agonists and antagonists. PMID:23523686

  13. Functional interaction of hybrid response elements with wild-type and mutant steroid hormone receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Truss, M; Chalepakis, G; Slater, E P; Mader, S; Beato, M

    1991-01-01

    Steroid hormone receptors can be divided into two subfamilies according to the structure of their DNA binding domains and the nucleotide sequences which they recognize. The glucocorticoid receptor and the progesterone receptor (PR) recognize an imperfect palindrome (glucocorticoid responsive element/progesterone responsive element [GRE/PRE]) with the conserved half-sequence TGTYCY, whereas the estrogen receptor (ER) recognizes a palindrome (estrogen responsive element) with the half-sequence TGACC. A series of symmetric and asymmetric variants of these hormone responsive elements (HREs) have been tested for receptor binding and for the ability to mediate induction in vivo. High-resolution analysis demonstrates that the overall number and distribution of contacts with the N-7 position of guanines and with the phosphate backbone of various HREs are quite similar for PR and ER. However, PR and glucocorticoid receptor, but not ER, are able to contact the 5'-methyl group of thymines found in position 3 of HREs, as shown by potassium permanganate interference. The ER mutant HE84, which contains a single amino acid exchange, Glu-203 to Gly, in the knuckle of ER, creates a promiscuous ER that is able to bind to GRE/PREs by contacting this thymine. Elements with the sequence GGTCAcagTGTYCT that represent hybrids between an estrogen response element and a GRE/PRE respond to estrogens, glucocorticoids, and progestins in vivo and bind all three wild-type receptors in vitro. These hybrid HREs could serve to confer promiscuous gene regulation. Images PMID:2038329

  14. Tumor-promoting effects of cannabinoid receptor type 1 in human melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Carpi, Sara; Fogli, Stefano; Polini, Beatrice; Montagnani, Valentina; Podestà, Adriano; Breschi, Maria Cristina; Romanini, Antonella; Stecca, Barbara; Nieri, Paola

    2017-04-01

    The role of endocannabinoid system in melanoma development and progression is actually not fully understood. This study was aimed at clarifying whether cannabinoid-type 1 (CB1) receptor may function as tumor-promoting or -suppressing signal in human cutaneous melanoma. CB1 receptor expression was measured in human melanoma cell lines by real-time PCR. A genetic deletion of CB1 receptors in selected melanoma cells was carried out by using three different short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs). Performance of target gene silencing was verified by real-time PCR and Western blot. The effects of CB1 receptor silencing on cell growth, clonogenicity, migration capability, cell cycle progression, and activation of mitogenic signals was tested. Lentiviral shRNAs vectors targeting different regions of the human CB1 gene led to a significant reduction in CB1 receptor mRNA and a near complete loss of CB1 receptor protein, compared to control vector (LV-c). The number of viable cells, the colony-forming ability and cell migration were significantly reduced in cells transduced with CB1 lentiviral shRNAs compared to LV-c. Cell cycle analyses showed arrest at G1/S phase. p-Akt and p-ERK expression were decreased in transduced versus control cells. Findings of this study suggest that CB1 receptor might function as tumor-promoting signal in human cutaneous melanoma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Abuse and Dependence Liability of Benzodiazepine-Type Drugs: GABAA Receptor Modulation and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Licata, Stephanie C.; Rowlett, James K.

    2008-01-01

    Benzodiazepine-type drugs (benzodiazepines and the newer non-benzodiazepines) are similar to older sedative/hypnotic drugs, such as the barbiturates, in that they act at the GABAA receptor (9, 188). Unfortunately, benzodiazepine-type drugs also retain the liability for abuse and dependence associated with the earlier anxiolytics (133, 208). Action at GABAA receptors likely plays a key role in both the therapeutic as well as abuse-related effects of this important class of drugs. While the extent to which therapeutic efficacy and abuse potential can be dissociated is not yet understood fully, the biochemical processes underlying these behavioral effects are even less understood. A more comprehensive understanding of the etiology of benzodiazepine-type drug-induced abuse and dependence is likely to provide information that can inform drug development strategies to help design anxiolytics and hypnotics that have maximum clinical benefit with reduced abuse potential. Thus, this review will explore issues related to the abuse and dependence potential of benzodiazepine-type drugs and the role that GABAA receptors play in this phenomenon. Further, this review will discuss putative intracellular events that may occur as a result of the interaction between benzodiazepine-type drugs and GABAA receptors, and how those events may ultimately give rise to the abuse-related behaviors associated with these drugs. PMID:18295321

  16. Type I receptors in parotid, colon, and pituitary are aldosterone selective in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Sheppard, K.; Funder, J.W. )

    1987-10-01

    Previous in vivo studies have demonstrated that type I receptors in the rat kidney are aldosterone selective, whereas those in the hippocampus do not appear to discriminate between aldosterone and corticosterone. The authors have injected mature rats with ({sup 3}H)aldosterone or ({sup 3}H)corticosterone plus 100-fold excess of RU 28362, with or without unlabeled aldosterone or corticosterone, and compared type I receptor occupancy in two classic mineralocorticoid target tissues (parotid and colon) and in the pituitary. Mature rats were killed 10-180 min after tracer administration; ({sup 3}H)aldosterone was well taken up and retained in all tissues, whereas ({sup 3}H)corticosterone was significantly retained only in the pituitary 10 min after tracer administration. To assess a possible role for corticosterone-binding globulin (CBG) in conferring aldosterone specificity on type I receptors, 10-day-old rats (with very low levels of CBG) were similarly injected. In the colon and parotid, ({sup 3}H)aldosterone binding was at least an order of magnitude higher than that of corticosterone; in the pituitary aldosterone binding was approximately three times that of corticosterone. They interpret these data as evidence that in the parotid and colon type I receptors are aldosterone selective by a non-CBG-requiring mechanism, whereas in the pituitary there appear to be both aldosterone-selective and nonselective type I sites.

  17. Immunohistochemical expression of Type IV Collagen and Autocrine Motility Factor Receptor in Odontogenic Tumours

    PubMed Central

    Sethi, Sneha

    2014-01-01

    Background: Autocrine motility factor receptor (AMFR) is a tumour motility stimulating protein secreted by tumour cells. The protein encoded by this gene is a glycosylated transmembrane protein and a receptor for autocrine motility factor. It has been known to play a role in progression of neoplastic lesions. Basement membranes are specialized extracellular matrices that serve as structural barriers as well as substrates for cellular interactions. The network of type IV collagen is thought to define the scaffold integrating other components such as laminins and perlecan into highly organized supramolecular architecture. The aim of this study was to determine and evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of Type IV Collagen and Autocrine motility factor receptor in odontogenic lesions. Materials and Methods: Immunohistochemical expression of Type IV Collagen and Autocrine motility factor receptor was evaluated in 31 odontogenic lesions, including unicystic ameloblastoma, multicystic ameloblastoma, keratocystic odontogenic tumour and ameloblastic carcinoma. Normal follicular tissue formed the control. Results: Maximum expression for Type IV Collagen was seen in multicystic ameloblastoma and minimum expression in keratocystic odontogenic tumour. The maximum expression of AMFR was seen in ameloblastic carcinoma and minimum expression in multicystic ameloblastoma. Conclusion: The results of this study suggested an association of loss of expression of type IV Collagen with progression of lesion. AMFR expression was found to be associated with the aggressive potential of tumours. PMID:25478440

  18. Roles for receptors, pheromones, G proteins, and mating type genes during sexual reproduction in Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyojeong; Wright, Sara J; Park, Gyungsoon; Ouyang, Shouqiang; Krystofova, Svetlana; Borkovich, Katherine A

    2012-04-01

    Here we characterize the relationship between the PRE-2 pheromone receptor and its ligand, CCG-4, and the general requirements for receptors, pheromones, G proteins, and mating type genes during fusion of opposite mating-type cells and sexual sporulation in the multicellular fungus Neurospora crassa. PRE-2 is highly expressed in mat a cells and is localized in male and female reproductive structures. Δpre-2 mat a females do not respond chemotropically to mat A males (conidia) or form mature fruiting bodies (perithecia) or meiotic progeny (ascospores). Strains with swapped identity due to heterologous expression of pre-2 or ccg-4 behave normally in crosses with opposite mating-type strains. Coexpression of pre-2 and ccg-4 in the mat A background leads to self-attraction and development of barren perithecia without ascospores. Further perithecial development is achieved by inactivation of Sad-1, a gene required for meiotic gene silencing. Findings from studies involving forced heterokaryons of opposite mating-type strains show that presence of one receptor and its compatible pheromone is necessary and sufficient for perithecial development and ascospore production. Taken together, the results demonstrate that although receptors and pheromones control sexual identity, the mating-type genes (mat A and mat a) must be in two different nuclei to allow meiosis and sexual sporulation to occur.

  19. Adenosine-A1 Receptor Agonist Induced Hyperalgesic Priming Type II

    PubMed Central

    Araldi, Dioneia; Ferrari, Luiz F.; Levine, Jon D.

    2016-01-01

    We have recently shown that repeated exposure of the peripheral terminal of the primary afferent nociceptor to the mu-opioid receptor (MOR) agonist DAMGO ([D-Ala2, N-Me-Phe4, Gly5-ol]-Enkephalin acetate salt) induces a model of the transition to chronic pain that we have termed Type II hyperalgesic priming. Similar to Type I hyperalgesic priming, there is a markedly prolonged response to subsequent administration of proalgesic cytokines, prototypically prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). However, Type II hyperalgesic priming differs from Type I in being rapidly induced, protein kinase A (PKA), rather than PKCε dependent, not reversed by a protein translation inhibitor, occurring in female as well as in male rats, and isolectin B4-negative neuron dependent. We report that as with the repeated injection of a MOR agonist, the repeated administration of an agonist at the A1-adenosine receptor, also a Gi-protein coupled receptor, N6-Cyclopentyladenosine (CPA), also produces priming similar to DAMGO-induced Type II hyperalgesic priming. In this study we demonstrate that priming induced by repeated exposure to this A1-adenosine receptor agonist shares the same mechanisms as MOR-agonist induced priming. However, the prolongation of PGE2 hyperalgesia induced by repeated administration of CPA depends on G-protein αi subunit activation, differently from DAMGO-induced Type II priming, in which it depends on the β/γ subunit. These data implicate a novel form of Gi-protein signaling pathway in the Type II hyperalgesic priming induced by repeated administration of an agonist at A1-adenosine receptor to the peripheral terminal of the nociceptor. PMID:26588695

  20. Neutrophil Resolvin E1 Receptor Expression and Function in Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Freire, Marcelo O; Dalli, Jesmond; Serhan, Charles N; Van Dyke, Thomas E

    2017-01-15

    Unresolved inflammation is key in linking metabolic dysregulation and the immune system in type 2 diabetes. Successful regulation of acute inflammation requires biosynthesis of specialized proresolving lipid mediators, such as E-series resolvin (RvE) 1, and activation of cognate G protein-coupled receptors. RvE1 binds to leukotriene B4 (BLT-1) on neutrophils and to ERV-1/ChemR23 on monocyte/macrophages. We show novel actions of RvE1 and expression patterns of neutrophil receptors in type 2 diabetes. Neutrophils from healthy subjects express functional BLT-1, low levels of minimally functional ERV-1, and inversed coexpression when compared to neutrophils from type 2 diabetes subjects. Stimulation with TNF-α or LPS increased the expression of ERV-1 by healthy and diabetic neutrophils. RvE1 counteracted LPS and TNF-α induction of ERV-1 overexpression and endogenous diabetic overexpression, activating phagocytosis and resolution signals. Functional ERV-1 was determined by phosphorylation of the signaling protein ribosomal S6. Receptor-antagonism experiments revealed that the increase in phosphorylation of ribosomal S6 was mediated by BLT-1 in healthy subject neutrophils and by ERV-1 in diabetes. Metabololipidomics reveal a proinflammatory profile in diabetic serum. Cell phagocytosis is impaired in type 2 diabetes and requires RvE1 for activation. The dose of RvE1 required to activate resolution signals in type 2 diabetic neutrophils was significantly higher than in healthy controls. RvE1 rescues the dysregulation seen on neutrophil receptor profile and, following a therapeutic dosage, activates phagocytosis and resolution signals in type 2 diabetes. These findings reveal the importance of resolution receptors in health, disease, and dysregulation of inflammation in type 2 diabetes.

  1. Adenosine-A1 receptor agonist induced hyperalgesic priming type II.

    PubMed

    Araldi, Dioneia; Ferrari, Luiz F; Levine, Jon D

    2016-03-01

    We have recently shown that repeated exposure of the peripheral terminal of the primary afferent nociceptor to the mu-opioid receptor (MOR) agonist DAMGO ([D-Ala, N-Me-Phe, Gly-ol]-enkephalin acetate salt) induces a model of transition to chronic pain that we have termed type II hyperalgesic priming. Similar to type I hyperalgesic priming, there is a markedly prolonged response to subsequent administration of proalgesic cytokines, prototypically prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). However, type II hyperalgesic priming differs from type I in being rapidly induced, protein kinase A (PKA), rather than PKCε dependent, not reversed by a protein translation inhibitor, occurring in female as well as in male rats, and isolectin B4-negative neuron dependent. We report that, as with the repeated injection of a MOR agonist, the repeated administration of an agonist at the A1-adenosine receptor, also a Gi-protein coupled receptor, N-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA), also produces priming similar to DAMGO-induced type II hyperalgesic priming. In this study, we demonstrate that priming induced by repeated exposure to this A1-adenosine receptor agonist shares the same mechanisms, as MOR-agonist induced priming. However, the prolongation of PGE2 hyperalgesia induced by repeated administration of CPA depends on G-protein αi subunit activation, differently from DAMGO-induced type II priming, in which it depends on the β/γ subunit. These data implicate a novel form of Gi-protein signaling pathway in the type II hyperalgesic priming induced by repeated administration of an agonist at A1-adenosine receptor to the peripheral terminal of the nociceptor.

  2. A novel role for calmodulin: Ca2+-independent inhibition of type-1 inositol trisphosphate receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Cardy, T J; Taylor, C W

    1998-01-01

    Calmodulin inhibits both inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) binding to, and IP3-evoked Ca2+ release by, cerebellar IP3 receptors [Patel, Morris, Adkins, O'Beirne and Taylor (1997) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S.A. 94, 11627-11632]. In the present study, full-length rat type-1 and -3 IP3 receptors were expressed at high levels in insect Spodoptera frugiperda 9 cells and the effects of calmodulin were examined. In the absence of Ca2+, calmodulin caused a concentration-dependent and reversible inhibition of [3H]IP3 binding to type-1 IP3 receptors by decreasing their apparent affinity for IP3. The effect was not reproduced by high concentrations of troponin C, parvalbumin or S-100. Increasing the medium free [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]m) inhibited [3H]IP3 binding to type-1 receptors, but the further inhibition caused by a submaximal concentration of calmodulin was similar at each [Ca2+]m. In the absence of Ca2+, 125I-calmodulin bound to a single site on each type-1 receptor subunit and to an additional site in the presence of Ca2+. There was no detectable binding of 125I-calmodulin to type-3 receptors and binding of [3H]IP3 was insensitive to calmodulin at all [Ca2+]m. Both peptide and conventional Ca2+-calmodulin antagonists affected neither [3H]IP3 binding directly nor the inhibitory effect of calmodulin in the absence of Ca2+, but each caused a [Ca2+]m-dependent reversal of the inhibition of [3H]IP3 binding caused by calmodulin. Camstatin, a peptide that binds to calmodulin equally well in the presence or absence of Ca2+, reversed the inhibitory effects of calmodulin on [3H]IP3 binding at all [Ca2+]m. We conclude that calmodulin specifically inhibits [3H]IP3 binding to type-1 IP3 receptors: the first example of a protein regulated by calmodulin in an entirely Ca2+-independent manner. Inhibition of type-1 IP3 receptors by calmodulin may dynamically regulate their sensitivity to IP3 in response to the changes in cytosolic free calmodulin concentration thought to accompany stimulation

  3. Nuclear receptor/microRNA circuitry links muscle fiber type to energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Gan, Zhenji; Rumsey, John; Hazen, Bethany C; Lai, Ling; Leone, Teresa C; Vega, Rick B; Xie, Hui; Conley, Kevin E; Auwerx, Johan; Smith, Steven R; Olson, Eric N; Kralli, Anastasia; Kelly, Daniel P

    2013-06-01

    The mechanisms involved in the coordinate regulation of the metabolic and structural programs controlling muscle fitness and endurance are unknown. Recently, the nuclear receptor PPARβ/δ was shown to activate muscle endurance programs in transgenic mice. In contrast, muscle-specific transgenic overexpression of the related nuclear receptor, PPARα, results in reduced capacity for endurance exercise. We took advantage of the divergent actions of PPARβ/δ and PPARα to explore the downstream regulatory circuitry that orchestrates the programs linking muscle fiber type with energy metabolism. Our results indicate that, in addition to the well-established role in transcriptional control of muscle metabolic genes, PPARβ/δ and PPARα participate in programs that exert opposing actions upon the type I fiber program through a distinct muscle microRNA (miRNA) network, dependent on the actions of another nuclear receptor, estrogen-related receptor γ (ERRγ). Gain-of-function and loss-of-function strategies in mice, together with assessment of muscle biopsies from humans, demonstrated that type I muscle fiber proportion is increased via the stimulatory actions of ERRγ on the expression of miR-499 and miR-208b. This nuclear receptor/miRNA regulatory circuit shows promise for the identification of therapeutic targets aimed at maintaining muscle fitness in a variety of chronic disease states, such as obesity, skeletal myopathies, and heart failure.

  4. Cripto forms a complex with activin and type II activin receptors and can block activin signaling

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Peter C.; Harrison, Craig A.; Vale, Wylie

    2003-01-01

    Activin, nodal, Vg1, and growth and differentiation factor 1 are members of the transforming growth factor β superfamily and signal via the activin type II (ActRII/IIB) and type I (ALK4) serine/threonine kinase receptors. Unlike activins, however, signaling by nodal, Vg1, and growth and differentiation factor 1 requires a coreceptor from the epidermal growth factor-Cripto-FRL1-Cryptic protein family such as Cripto. Cripto has important roles during development and oncogenesis and binds nodal or related ligands and ALK4 to facilitate assembly of type I and type II receptor signaling complexes. Because Cripto mediates signaling via activin receptors and binds directly to ALK4, we tested whether transfection with Cripto would affect the ability of activin to signal and/or interact with its receptors. Here we show that Cripto can form a complex with activin and ActRII/IIB. We were unable to detect activin binding to Cripto in the absence of ActRII/IIB, indicating that unlike nodal, activin requires type II receptors to bind Cripto. If cotransfected with ActRII/IIB and ALK4, Cripto inhibited crosslinking of activin to ALK4 and the association of ALK4 with ActRII/IIB. In addition, Cripto blocked activin signaling when transfected into either HepG2 cells or 293T cells. We have also shown that under conditions in which Cripto facilitates nodal signaling, it antagonizes activin. Inhibition of activin signaling provides an additional example of a Cripto effect on the regulation of signaling by transforming growth factor-β superfamily members. Because activin is a potent inhibitor of cell growth in multiple cell types, these results provide a mechanism that may partially explain the oncogenic action of Cripto. PMID:12682303

  5. [Functional properties of taste bud cells. Mechanisms of afferent neurotransmission in Type II taste receptor cells].

    PubMed

    Romanov, R A

    2013-01-01

    Taste Bud cells are heterogeneous in their morphology and functionality. These cells are responsible for sensing a wide variety of substances and for associating detected compounds with a different taste: bitter, sweet, salty, sour and umami. Today we know that each of the five basic tastes corresponds to distinct cell populations organized into three basic morpho-functional cell types. In addition, some receptor cells of the taste bud demonstrate glia-related functions. In this article we expand on some properties of these three morphological receptor cell types. Main focus is devoted to the Type II cells and unusual mechanism for afferent neurotransmission in these cells. Taste cells of the Type II consist of three populations detecting bitter, sweet and umami tastes, and, thus, evoke a serious scientific interest.

  6. Presynaptic inhibition of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) receptors by noradrenaline in nociceptive neurons.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Saikat; Elvezio, Vincent; Kaczocha, Martin; Rebecchi, Mario; Puopolo, Michelino

    2017-04-15

    The transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) receptor is a polymodal molecular integrator in the pain pathway expressed in Aδ- and C-fibre nociceptors and is responsible for the thermal hyperalgesia associated with inflammatory pain. Noradrenaline strongly inhibited the activity of TRPV1 channels in dorsal root ganglia neurons. The effect of noradrenaline was reproduced by clonidine and antagonized by yohimbine, consistent with contribution of α2 adrenergic receptors. The inhibitory effect of noradrenaline on TRPV1 channels was dependent on calcium influx and linked to calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. In spinal cord slices, clonidine reduced the frequency of capsaicin-induced miniature EPSCs in the presence of tetrodotoxin and ω-conotoxin-MVIIC, consistent with inhibition of presynaptic TRPV1 channels by α2 adrenergic receptors. We suggest that modulation of presynaptic TRPV1 channels in nociceptive neurons by descending noradrenergic inputs may constitute a mechanism for noradrenaline to modulate incoming noxious stimuli in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. The transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) receptor is a well-known contributor to nociceptor excitability. To address whether noradrenaline can down-regulate TRPV1 channel activity in nociceptors and reduce their synaptic transmission, the effects of noradrenaline and clonidine were tested on the capsaicin-activated current recorded from acutely dissociated small diameter (<27 μm) dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons and on miniature (m)EPSCs recorded from large lamina I neurons in horizontal spinal cord slices. Noradrenaline or clonidine inhibited the capsaicin-activated current by ∼60%, and the effect was reversed by yohimbine, confirming that it was mediated by activation of α2 adrenergic receptors. Similarly, clonidine reduced the frequency of capsaicin-induced mEPSCs by ∼60%. Inhibition of capsaicin-activated current by noradrenaline was mediated by GTP

  7. Localization of type I interferon receptor limits interferon-induced TLR-3 in epithelial cells

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study aimed to expand on the role of type I IFNs in the influenza-induced upregulation of TLR3 and determine whether and how the localization of the IFN-alpha/beta receptor (IFNAR) in respiratory epithelial cells could modify IFN-induced responses. Using differentiated prima...

  8. Three mutations switch H7N9 influenza to human-type receptor specificity.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Robert P; Peng, Wenjie; Grant, Oliver C; Thompson, Andrew J; Zhu, Xueyong; Bouwman, Kim M; de la Pena, Alba T Torrents; van Breemen, Marielle J; Ambepitiya Wickramasinghe, Iresha N; de Haan, Cornelis A M; Yu, Wenli; McBride, Ryan; Sanders, Rogier W; Woods, Robert J; Verheije, Monique H; Wilson, Ian A; Paulson, James C

    2017-06-01

    The avian H7N9 influenza outbreak in 2013 resulted from an unprecedented incidence of influenza transmission to humans from infected poultry. The majority of human H7N9 isolates contained a hemagglutinin (HA) mutation (Q226L) that has previously been associated with a switch in receptor specificity from avian-type (NeuAcα2-3Gal) to human-type (NeuAcα2-6Gal), as documented for the avian progenitors of the 1957 (H2N2) and 1968 (H3N2) human influenza pandemic viruses. While this raised concern that the H7N9 virus was adapting to humans, the mutation was not sufficient to switch the receptor specificity of H7N9, and has not resulted in sustained transmission in humans. To determine if the H7 HA was capable of acquiring human-type receptor specificity, we conducted mutation analyses. Remarkably, three amino acid mutations conferred a switch in specificity for human-type receptors that resembled the specificity of the 2009 human H1 pandemic virus, and promoted binding to human trachea epithelial cells.

  9. Cortical Serotonin Type-2 Receptor Density in Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Jeremy; Anderson, George M.; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Hall, Geoffrey B. C.; Nahmias, Claude; Thompson, Ann; Szatmari, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Parents (N = 19) of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and adult controls (N = 17) underwent positron emission tomography (PET) using [[superscript 18]F]setoperone to image cortical serotonin type-2 (5-HT2) receptors. The 5-HT2 binding potentials (BPs) were calculated by ratioing [[superscript 18]F]setoperone intensity in regions of…

  10. Localization of type I interferon receptor limits interferon-induced TLR-3 in epithelial cells

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study aimed to expand on the role of type I IFNs in the influenza-induced upregulation of TLR3 and determine whether and how the localization of the IFN-alpha/beta receptor (IFNAR) in respiratory epithelial cells could modify IFN-induced responses. Using differentiated prima...

  11. Characterization of additional novel immune type receptors in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mining of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) expressed sequence tag databases identified seven new novel immune type receptors (IpNITRs). These differed in sequence, but not structure, from previously described IpNITR1-11. IpNITR12a, 12b, 13 and 14, encode proteins containing a single variable (V...

  12. Cortical Serotonin Type-2 Receptor Density in Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Jeremy; Anderson, George M.; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Hall, Geoffrey B. C.; Nahmias, Claude; Thompson, Ann; Szatmari, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Parents (N = 19) of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and adult controls (N = 17) underwent positron emission tomography (PET) using [[superscript 18]F]setoperone to image cortical serotonin type-2 (5-HT2) receptors. The 5-HT2 binding potentials (BPs) were calculated by ratioing [[superscript 18]F]setoperone intensity in regions of…

  13. Angiotensin II Type 2 Receptor and Receptor Mas Are Colocalized and Functionally Interdependent in Obese Zucker Rat Kidney.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sanket N; Ali, Quaisar; Samuel, Preethi; Steckelings, Ulrike Muscha; Hussain, Tahir

    2017-10-01

    The actions of angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R) and the receptor Mas (MasR) are complex but show similar pronatriuretic function; particularly, AT2R expression and natriuretic function are enhanced in obese/diabetic rat kidney. In light of some reports suggesting a potential positive interaction between these receptors, we tested hypothesis that renal AT2R and MasR physically interact and are interdependent to stimulate cell signaling and promote natriuresis in obese rats. We found that infusion of AT2R agonist C21 in obese Zucker rats (OZR) increased urine flow and urinary Na excretion which were attenuated by simultaneous infusion of the AT2R antagonist PD123319 or the MasR antagonist A-779. Similarly, infusion of MasR agonist Ang-(1-7) in OZR increased urine flow and urinary Na excretion, which were attenuated by simultaneous infusion of A-779 or PD123319. Experiment in isolated renal proximal tubules of OZR revealed that both the agonists C21 and Ang-(1-7) stimulated NO which was blocked by either of the receptor antagonists. Dual labeling of AT2R and MasR in OZR kidney sections and human proximal tubule epithelial cells showed that AT2R and MasR are colocalized. The AT2R also coimmunoprecipitated with MasR in cortical homogenate of OZR. Immunoblotting of cortical homogenate cross-linked with zero-length oxidative (sulfhydryl groups) cross-linker cupric-phenanthroline revealed a shift of AT2R and MasR bands upward with overlapping migration for their complexes which were sensitive to the reducing β-mercaptoethanol, suggesting involvement of -SH groups in cross-linking. Collectively, the study reveals that AT2R and MasR are colocalized and functionally interdependent in terms of stimulating NO and promoting diuretic/natriuretic response. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Exercise reduces adipose tissue via cannabinoid receptor type 1 which is regulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{delta}

    SciTech Connect

    Yan Zhencheng; Liu Daoyan; Zhang Lili; Shen Chenyi; Ma Qunli; Cao Tingbing; Wang Lijuan; Nie Hai; Zidek, Walter; Tepel, Martin; Zhu Zhiming . E-mail: zhuzm@yahoo.com

    2007-03-09

    Obesity is one major cardiovascular risk factor. We tested effects of endurance exercise on cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{delta} (PPAR-{delta})-dependent pathways in adipose tissue. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to standard laboratory chow or a high-fat diet without and with regular endurance exercise. Exercise in rats on high-fat diet significantly reduced visceral fat mass, blood pressure, and adipocyte size (each p < 0.05). Adipocyte hypertrophy induced by high-fat diet was accompanied by increased CB1 expression in adipose tissue, whereas exercise significantly reduced CB1 expression (each p < 0.05). CB1 receptor expression and adipocyte differentiation were directly regulated by PPAR-{delta}. Adipocyte hypertrophy induced by high-fat diet was accompanied by reduced PPAR-{delta}. Furthermore, selective silencing of PPAR-{delta} by RNA interference in 3T3-L1-preadipocyte cells significantly increased CB1 expression from 1.00 {+-} 0.06 (n = 3) to 1.91 {+-} 0.06 (n = 3; p < 0.01) and increased adipocyte differentiation, whereas adenovirus-mediated overexpression of PPAR-{delta} significantly reduced CB1 expression to 0.39 {+-} 0.03 (n = 3; p < 0.01) and reduced adipocyte differentiation. In the presence of the CB1 antagonist rimonabant adipocyte differentiation in stimulated 3T3 L1 preadipocyte cells was significantly reduced. The study indicates that high-fat diet-induced hypertrophy of adipocytes is associated with increased CB1 receptor expression which is directly regulated by PPAR-{delta}. Both CB1 and PPAR-{delta} are intimately involved in therapeutic interventions against a most important cardiovascular risk factor.

  15. Interactions between Type III receptor tyrosine phosphatases and growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases regulate tracheal tube formation in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Mili; Scott, Matthew P; Zinn, Kai

    2012-06-15

    The respiratory (tracheal) system of the Drosophila melanogaster larva is an intricate branched network of air-filled tubes. Its developmental logic is similar in some ways to that of the vertebrate vascular system. We previously described a unique embryonic tracheal tubulogenesis phenotype caused by loss of both of the Type III receptor tyrosine phosphatases (RPTPs), Ptp4E and Ptp10D. In Ptp4E Ptp10D double mutants, the linear tubes in unicellular and terminal tracheal branches are converted into bubble-like cysts that incorporate apical cell surface markers. This tube geometry phenotype is modulated by changes in the activity or expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (Egfr) tyrosine kinase (TK). Ptp10D physically interacts with Egfr. Here we demonstrate that the Ptp4E Ptp10D phenotype is the consequence of the loss of negative regulation by the RPTPs of three growth factor receptor TKs: Egfr, Breathless and Pvr. Reducing the activity of any of the three kinases by tracheal expression of dominant-negative mutants suppresses cyst formation. By competing dominant-negative and constitutively active kinase mutants against each other, we show that the three RTKs have partially interchangeable activities, so that increasing the activity of one kinase can compensate for the effects of reducing the activity of another. This implies that SH2-domain downstream effectors that are required for the phenotype are likely to be able to interact with phosphotyrosine sites on all three receptor TKs. We also show that the phenotype involves increases in signaling through the MAP kinase and Rho GTPase pathways.

  16. Interactions between Type III receptor tyrosine phosphatases and growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases regulate tracheal tube formation in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Mili; Scott, Matthew P.; Zinn, Kai

    2012-01-01

    Summary The respiratory (tracheal) system of the Drosophila melanogaster larva is an intricate branched network of air-filled tubes. Its developmental logic is similar in some ways to that of the vertebrate vascular system. We previously described a unique embryonic tracheal tubulogenesis phenotype caused by loss of both of the Type III receptor tyrosine phosphatases (RPTPs), Ptp4E and Ptp10D. In Ptp4E Ptp10D double mutants, the linear tubes in unicellular and terminal tracheal branches are converted into bubble-like cysts that incorporate apical cell surface markers. This tube geometry phenotype is modulated by changes in the activity or expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (Egfr) tyrosine kinase (TK). Ptp10D physically interacts with Egfr. Here we demonstrate that the Ptp4E Ptp10D phenotype is the consequence of the loss of negative regulation by the RPTPs of three growth factor receptor TKs: Egfr, Breathless and Pvr. Reducing the activity of any of the three kinases by tracheal expression of dominant-negative mutants suppresses cyst formation. By competing dominant-negative and constitutively active kinase mutants against each other, we show that the three RTKs have partially interchangeable activities, so that increasing the activity of one kinase can compensate for the effects of reducing the activity of another. This implies that SH2-domain downstream effectors that are required for the phenotype are likely to be able to interact with phosphotyrosine sites on all three receptor TKs. We also show that the phenotype involves increases in signaling through the MAP kinase and Rho GTPase pathways. PMID:23213447

  17. TβRIII independently binds type I and type II TGF-β receptors to inhibit TGF-β signaling.

    PubMed

    Tazat, Keren; Hector-Greene, Melissa; Blobe, Gerard C; Henis, Yoav I

    2015-10-01

    Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) receptor oligomerization has important roles in signaling. Complex formation among type I and type II (TβRI and TβRII) TGF-β receptors is well characterized and is essential for signal transduction. However, studies on their interactions with the type III TGF-β coreceptor (TβRIII) in live cells and their effects on TGF-β signaling are lacking. Here we investigated the homomeric and heteromeric interactions of TβRIII with TβRI and TβRII in live cells by combining IgG-mediated patching/immobilization of a given TGF-β receptor with fluorescence recovery after photobleaching studies on the lateral diffusion of a coexpressed receptor. Our studies demonstrate that TβRIII homo-oligomerization is indirect and depends on its cytoplasmic domain interactions with scaffold proteins (mainly GIPC). We show that TβRII and TβRI bind independently to TβRIII, whereas TβRIII augments TβRI/TβRII association, suggesting that TβRI and TβRII bind to TβRIII simultaneously but not as a complex. TβRIII expression inhibited TGF-β-mediated Smad2/3 signaling in MDA-MB-231 cell lines, an effect that depended on the TβRIII cytoplasmic domain and did not require TβRIII ectodomain shedding. We propose that independent binding of TβRI and TβRII to TβRIII competes with TβRI/TβRII signaling complex formation, thus inhibiting TGF-β-mediated Smad signaling. © 2015 Tazat et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  18. TβRIII independently binds type I and type II TGF-β receptors to inhibit TGF-β signaling

    PubMed Central

    Tazat, Keren; Hector-Greene, Melissa; Blobe, Gerard C.; Henis, Yoav I.

    2015-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) receptor oligomerization has important roles in signaling. Complex formation among type I and type II (TβRI and TβRII) TGF-β receptors is well characterized and is essential for signal transduction. However, studies on their interactions with the type III TGF-β coreceptor (TβRIII) in live cells and their effects on TGF-β signaling are lacking. Here we investigated the homomeric and heteromeric interactions of TβRIII with TβRI and TβRII in live cells by combining IgG-mediated patching/immobilization of a given TGF-β receptor with fluorescence recovery after photobleaching studies on the lateral diffusion of a coexpressed receptor. Our studies demonstrate that TβRIII homo-oligomerization is indirect and depends on its cytoplasmic domain interactions with scaffold proteins (mainly GIPC). We show that TβRII and TβRI bind independently to TβRIII, whereas TβRIII augments TβRI/TβRII association, suggesting that TβRI and TβRII bind to TβRIII simultaneously but not as a complex. TβRIII expression inhibited TGF-β–mediated Smad2/3 signaling in MDA-MB-231 cell lines, an effect that depended on the TβRIII cytoplasmic domain and did not require TβRIII ectodomain shedding. We propose that independent binding of TβRI and TβRII to TβRIII competes with TβRI/TβRII signaling complex formation, thus inhibiting TGF-β–mediated Smad signaling. PMID:26269580

  19. Transgenic Expression of an Altered Angiotensin type I AT1 Receptor Resulting in Marked Modulation of Vascular Type I Collagen

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jun; Taylor, Linda; Rich, Celeste; Toselli, Paul; Stone, Philip; Green, Daniel; Warburton, Rod; Hill, Nicholas; Goldstein, Ronald; Polgar, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The angiotensin II type I receptor (AT1) was modified by replacing its third intracellular loop and C-terminal tail with the corresponding regions from the bradykinin B2 receptor. Transgenic mice were produced that overexpress this mutated receptor (AB3T). Considerably less collagen content in the intact aorta and in primary aortic smooth muscle (aSMCs) cultures was observed in the transgenic mice. On the other hand, elastin content remained unchanged as measured by western blot, and insoluble amino acid quantitation. The contraction of isolated aortas also remained unaltered. The aSMCs derived from the transgenic mice showed a reduction in angiotensin II responsive type I collagen production. In aSMCs from transgenic mice, the cascade of Akt to the mammalian target rapamycin (mTOR) to p70 S6 kinase (p70S6K) was not angiotensin II activated, while in the aSMCs from wild type mice the cascade was angiotensin II activated. Angiotensin activation of Smad2 and Stat3 was also reduced in the AB3T aSMCs. However, no change in the effect of transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) on type I collagen production was observed. Also, the activation of ERK and JNK and G protein linked signaling remained unaltered in response to angiotensin II. Akt and PI3K activation inhibitors blocked angiotensin II stimulated type I collagen expression in WT aSMCs, whereas ERK inhibitor had no such effect. Our results point to an Akt/ mTOR/ p70S6K regulation of collagen production by angiotensin II with participation of Smad2 and Stat3 cascades in this process. PMID:21751211

  20. Transgenic expression of an altered angiotensin type I AT1 receptor resulting in marked modulation of vascular type I collagen.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jun; Taylor, Linda; Rich, Celeste; Toselli, Paul; Stone, Philip; Green, Daniel; Warburton, Rod; Hill, Nicholas; Goldstein, Ronald; Polgar, Peter

    2012-05-01

    The angiotensin II (AngII) type I receptor (AT1) was modified by replacing its third intracellular loop and C-terminal tail with the corresponding regions from the bradykinin B2 receptor. Transgenic mice were produced that overexpress this mutated receptor (AB3T). Considerably less collagen content in the intact aorta and in primary aortic smooth muscle cells (aSMCs) cultures was observed in the transgenic mice. On the other hand, elastin content remained unchanged as measured by Western blot, and insoluble amino acid quantitation. The contraction of isolated aortas also remained unaltered. The aSMCs derived from the transgenic mice showed a reduction in AngII responsive type I collagen production. In aSMCs from transgenic mice, the cascade of Akt to the mammalian target rapamycin (mTOR) to p70 S6 kinase (p70S6K) was not AngII activated, while in the aSMCs from wild-type (WT) mice the cascade was AngII activated. Angiotensin activation of Smad2 and Stat3 was also reduced in the AB3T aSMCs. However, no change in the effect of transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) on type I collagen production was observed. Also, the activation of ERK and JNK and G-protein linked signaling remained unaltered in response to AngII. Akt and PI3K activation inhibitors blocked AngII-stimulated type I collagen expression in WT aSMCs, whereas ERK inhibitor had no such effect. Our results point to an Akt/mTOR/p70S6K regulation of collagen production by AngII with participation of Smad2 and Stat3 cascades in this process.

  1. Rat kidney endopeptidase 24.16. Purification, physico-chemical characteristics and differential specificity towards opiates, tachykinins and neurotensin-related peptides.

    PubMed

    Barelli, H; Vincent, J P; Checler, F

    1993-01-15

    Endopeptidase 24.16 was purified from rat kidney homogenate on the basis of its ability to generate the biologically inactive degradation products neurotensin (1-10) and neurotensin (11-13). On SDS gels of the proteins pooled after the last purification step, the enzyme appeared homogeneous and behaved as a 70-kDa monomer. The peptidase was not sensitive to specific inhibitors of aminopeptidases, pyroglutamyl aminopeptidase I, endopeptidase 24.11, endopeptidase 24.15, proline endopeptidase and angiotensin-converting enzyme but was potently inhibited by several metal chelators such as o-phenanthroline and EDTA and was blocked by divalent cations. The specificity of endopeptidase 24.16 towards peptides of the tachykinin, opioid and neurotensin families was examined by competition experiments of tritiated neurotensin hydrolysis as well as HPLC analysis. These results indicated that endopeptidase 24.16 could discriminate between peptides belonging to the same family. Neurotensin, Lys8-Asn9-neurotensin(8-13) and xenopsin were efficiently hydrolysed while neuromedin N and kinetensin underwent little if any proteolysis by the peptidase. Analogously, substance P and dynorphins (1-7) and (1-8) were readily proteolysed by endopeptidase 24.16 while neurokinin A, amphibian tachykinins and leucine or methionine enkephalins totally resisted degradation. By Triton X-114 phase separation, 15-20% of endopeptidase 24.16 partitioned in the detergent phase, indicating that renal endopeptidase 24.16 might exist in a genuine membrane-bound form. The equipotent solubilization of the enzyme by seven detergents of various critical miscellar concentrations confirmed the occurrence of a membrane-bound counterpart of endopeptidase 24.16. Furthermore, the absence of release elicited by phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C suggested that the enzyme was not attached by a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol anchor in the membrane of renal microvilli. Finally, endopeptidase 24.16 could not be

  2. Collagen type I as a ligand for receptor-mediated signaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boraschi-Diaz, Iris; Wang, Jennifer; Mort, John S.; Komarova, Svetlana V.

    2017-05-01

    Collagens form the fibrous component of the extracellular matrix in all multi-cellular animals. Collagen type I is the most abundant collagen present in skin, tendons, vasculature, as well as the organic portion of the calcified tissue of bone and teeth. This review focuses on numerous receptors for which collagen acts as a ligand, including integrins, discoidin domain receptors DDR1 and 2, OSCAR, GPVI, G6b-B and Lair-1 of the leukocyte receptor complex and mannose family receptor uPARAP/Endo 180. We explore the process of collagen production and self-assembly, as well as its degradation by collagenases and gelatinases in order to predict potential temporal and spatial sites of action of different collagen receptors. While the interactions of the mature collagen matrix with integrins and DDR are well-appreciated, potential signals from immature matrix as well as collagen degradation products are possible but not yet described. The role of multiple collagen receptors in physiological processes and their contribution to pathophysiology of diseases affecting collagen homeostasis require further studies.

  3. Receptor dimerization dynamics as a regulatory valve for plasticity of type I interferon signaling.

    PubMed

    Wilmes, Stephan; Beutel, Oliver; Li, Zhi; Francois-Newton, Véronique; Richter, Christian P; Janning, Dennis; Kroll, Cindy; Hanhart, Patrizia; Hötte, Katharina; You, Changjiang; Uzé, Gilles; Pellegrini, Sandra; Piehler, Jacob

    2015-05-25

    Type I interferons (IFNs) activate differential cellular responses through a shared cell surface receptor composed of the two subunits, IFNAR1 and IFNAR2. We propose here a mechanistic model for how IFN receptor plasticity is regulated on the level of receptor dimerization. Quantitative single-molecule imaging of receptor assembly in the plasma membrane of living cells clearly identified IFN-induced dimerization of IFNAR1 and IFNAR2. The negative feedback regulator ubiquitin-specific protease 18 (USP18) potently interferes with the recruitment of IFNAR1 into the ternary complex, probably by impeding complex stabilization related to the associated Janus kinases. Thus, the responsiveness to IFNα2 is potently down-regulated after the first wave of gene induction, while IFNβ, due to its ∼100-fold higher binding affinity, is still able to efficiently recruit IFNAR1. Consistent with functional data, this novel regulatory mechanism at the level of receptor assembly explains how signaling by IFNβ is maintained over longer times compared with IFNα2 as a temporally encoded cause of functional receptor plasticity. © 2015 Wilmes et al.

  4. Urokinase type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) as a new therapeutic target in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Montuori, Nunzia; Pesapane, Ada; Rossi, Francesca W; Giudice, Valentina; De Paulis, Amato; Selleri, Carmine; Ragno, Pia

    2016-01-01

    The urokinase (uPA)-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is a GPI-anchored receptor that focuses urokinase (uPA) proteolytic activity on the cell surface. uPAR also regulates cell adhesion, migration and proliferation, protects from apoptosis and contributes to epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), independently of uPA enzymatic activity. Indeed, uPAR interacts with beta1, beta2 and beta3 integrins, thus regulating their activities. uPAR cross-talks with receptor tyrosine kinases through integrins and regulates cancer cell dormancy, proliferation and angiogenesis. Moreover, uPAR mediates uPA-dependent cell migration and chemotaxis induced by fMet-Leu-Phe (fMLF), through its association with fMLF-receptors (fMLF-Rs). Further, uPAR is an adhesion receptor because it binds vitronectin (VN), a component of provisional extracellular matrix. High uPAR expression predicts for more aggressive disease in several cancer types for its ability to increase invasion and metastasis. In fact, uPAR has been hypothesized to be the link between tumor cell dormancy and proliferation that usually precedes the onset of metastasis. Thus, inhibiting uPAR could be a feasible approach to affect tumor growth and metastasis. Here, we review the more recent advances in the development of uPAR-targeted anti-cancer therapeutic agents suitable for further optimization or ready for the evaluation in early clinical trials. PMID:27896223

  5. Toremifene decreases type I, type II and increases type III receptors in desmoid and fibroma and inhibits TGFbeta1 binding in desmoid fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Stabellini, Giordano; Balducci, Chiara; Lilli, Cinzia; Marinucci, Lorella; Becchetti, Ennio; Carinci, Francesco; Calastrini, Carla; Dolci, Claudia; Lumare, Eleonora; Locci, Paola

    2008-09-01

    Tissue infiltration is different in desmoid and fibroma tumours. Both produce high levels of transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFbeta1), which is related to extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation which in turn regulates cell function and cell migration. Interactions between collagen, proteoglycans and cell surface fibronectin are involved in the assembly and functions of the ECM. As toremifene inhibits collagen and TGFbeta1 synthesis, we tested it in normal, desmoid and fibroma fibroblasts. We will report the changes in glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and collagen synthesis, TGFbeta1 activity, fibronectin mRNA expression and TGFbeta1 receptors after toremifene treatment in normal, fibroma and desmoid fibroblasts. We evaluated GAG and collagen synthesis with 3H-glucosamine and 3H-proline incorporation, TGFbeta1 activity with the ELISA method, TGFbeta1 receptor affinity with 125I-TGFbeta1 binding and total RNA with Northern blot analysis. GAG and collagen synthesis, TGFbeta1 activity and fibronectin levels were higher in fibroma and desmoid than normal fibroblasts. The increase was greater in desmoid than fibroma tumour cells. Toremifene treatment reduced GAG and collagen synthesis, TGFbeta1 activity and fibronectin levels in all cell cultures. The percentage reduction in GAG was similar in all cultures; the reduction in collagen synthesis and TGFbeta1 activity was the highest in desmoid fibroblasts. TGFbeta1 receptors were higher in fibroma and desmoid cells than controls. Toremifene reduced TGFbeta1 receptors only in desmoid fibroblasts, with no effect on the changes in type I, II, and III receptors. Our data show that toremifene modifies the ECM components that regulate cytokine activity and cell migration. The reduction in receptor number only in desmoid cells suggests that toremifene may reduce TGFbeta1's affinity for its receptors. Synthesis of a substance regulating protein kinase activity, which is directly involved in the link between TGFbeta1 and its receptors

  6. Neurotensin, a novel target of Wnt/β-catenin pathway, promotes growth of neuroendocrine tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Tae; Liu, Chunming; Zaytseva, Yekaterina Y; Weiss, Heidi L; Townsend, Courtney M; Evers, B Mark

    2015-03-15

    Wnt/β-catenin signaling plays a pivotal role in regulating cell growth and differentiation by activation of the β-catenin/T-cell factor (TCF) complex and subsequent regulation of a set of target genes that have one or more TCF-binding elements (TBEs). Hyperactivation of this pathway has been implicated in numerous malignancies including human neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Neurotensin (NT), an intestinal hormone, induces proliferation of several gastrointestinal (GI) cancers including cancers of the pancreas and colon. Here, we analyzed the human NT promoter in silico and found at least four consensus TBEs within the proximal promoter region. Using a combination of ChIP and luciferase reporter assays, we identified one TBE (located ∼900 bp proximal from the transcription start site) that was immunoprecipitated efficiently by TCF4-targeting antibody; mutation of this site attenuated the responsiveness to β-catenin. We also confirmed that the promoter activity and the mRNA and protein expression levels of NT were increased by various Wnt pathway activators and decreased by Wnt inhibitors in NET cell lines BON and QGP-1, which express and secrete NT. Similarly, the intracellular content and secretion of NT were induced by Wnt3a in these cells. Finally, inhibition of NT signaling suppressed cell proliferation and anchorage-independent growth and decreased expression levels of growth-related proteins in NET cells. Our results indicate that NT is a direct target of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and may be a mediator for NET cell growth.

  7. Neurotensin is increased in serum of young children with autistic disorder

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of pervasive neurodevelopmental disorders diagnosed in early childhood. They are associated with a set of "core symptoms" that include disabilities in social interaction skills, verbal and non-verbal communication, as well as repetitive and stereotypic behaviors. There is no definite pathogenetic mechanism or diagnostic tests. Many children with ASD also have "allergic-like" symptoms, but test negative implying mast cell activation by non-allergic triggers. We measured by Milliplex arrays serum levels of 3 neuropeptides that could stimulate mast cells in children with autistic disorder (n = 19; 16 males and 3 females; mean age 3.0 ± 0.4 years) and healthy, unrelated controls (n = 16; 13 males and 3 females; mean age 3 ± 1.2 years). Only neurotensin (NT) was significantly increased from 60.5 ± 6.0 pg/ml in controls to 105.6 ± 12.4 pg/ml in autistic disorder (p = 0.004). There was no statistically significant difference in the serum levels of β-endorphin or substance P (SP). NT could stimulate immune cells, especially mast cells, and/or have direct effects on brain inflammation and ASD. PMID:20731814

  8. Neurotensin is increased in serum of young children with autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Angelidou, Asimenia; Francis, Konstantinos; Vasiadi, Magdalini; Alysandratos, Konstantinos-Dionysios; Zhang, Bodi; Theoharides, Athanasios; Lykouras, Lefteris; Sideri, Kyriaki; Kalogeromitros, Dimitrios; Theoharides, Theoharis C

    2010-08-23

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of pervasive neurodevelopmental disorders diagnosed in early childhood. They are associated with a set of "core symptoms" that include disabilities in social interaction skills, verbal and non-verbal communication, as well as repetitive and stereotypic behaviors. There is no definite pathogenetic mechanism or diagnostic tests. Many children with ASD also have "allergic-like" symptoms, but test negative implying mast cell activation by non-allergic triggers. We measured by Milliplex arrays serum levels of 3 neuropeptides that could stimulate mast cells in children with autistic disorder (n = 19; 16 males and 3 females; mean age 3.0 ± 0.4 years) and healthy, unrelated controls (n = 16; 13 males and 3 females; mean age 3 ± 1.2 years). Only neurotensin (NT) was significantly increased from 60.5 ± 6.0 pg/ml in controls to 105.6 ± 12.4 pg/ml in autistic disorder (p = 0.004). There was no statistically significant difference in the serum levels of β-endorphin or substance P (SP). NT could stimulate immune cells, especially mast cells, and/or have direct effects on brain inflammation and ASD.

  9. Effects of Peripheral Neurotensin on Appetite Regulation and Its Role in Gastric Bypass Surgery.

    PubMed

    Ratner, Cecilia; Skov, Louise J; Raida, Zindy; Bächler, Thomas; Bellmann-Sickert, Kathrin; Le Foll, Christelle; Sivertsen, Bjørn; Dalbøge, Louise S; Hartmann, Bolette; Beck-Sickinger, Annette G; Madsen, Andreas N; Jelsing, Jacob; Holst, Jens J; Lutz, Thomas A; Andrews, Zane B; Holst, Birgitte

    2016-09-01

    Neurotensin (NT) is a peptide expressed in the brain and in the gastrointestinal tract. Brain NT inhibits food intake, but the effects of peripheral NT are less investigated. In this study, peripheral NT decreased food intake in both mice and rats, which was abolished by a NT antagonist. Using c-Fos immunohistochemistry, we found that peripheral NT activated brainstem and hypothalamic regions. The anorexigenic effect of NT was preserved in vagotomized mice but lasted shorter than in sham-operated mice. This in combination with a strong increase in c-Fos activation in area postrema after ip administration indicates that NT acts both through the blood circulation and the vagus. To improve the pharmacokinetics of NT, we developed a pegylated NT peptide, which presumably prolonged the half-life, and thus, the effect on feeding was extended compared with native NT. On a molecular level, the pegylated NT peptide increased proopiomelanocortin mRNA in the arcuate nucleus. We also investigated the importance of NT for the decreased food intake after gastric bypass surgery in a rat model of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). NT was increased in plasma and in the gastrointestinal tract in RYGB rats, and pharmacological antagonism of NT increased food intake transiently in RYGB rats. Taken together, our data suggest that NT is a metabolically active hormone, which contributes to the regulation of food intake.

  10. Desynchronization of the Rat Cortical Network and Excitation of White Matter Neurons by Neurotensin.

    PubMed

    Case, Lovisa; Lyons, David J; Broberger, Christian

    2017-04-01

    Cortical network activity correlates with vigilance state: Deep sleep is characterized by slow, synchronized oscillations, whereas desynchronized, stochastic discharge is typical of the waking state. Neuropeptides, such as orexin and substance P but also neurotensin (NT), promote arousal. Relatively little is known about if NT can directly affect the cortical network, and if so, through which mechanisms and cellular targets. Here, we addressed these issues using rat in vitro cortex preparations. Following NT application specifically to deeper layers, slow oscillation activity was attenuated with a significant reduction in UP state frequency. The cortical response to thalamic stimulation exhibited enhanced temporal precision in the presence of NT, consistent with the transition in vivo from sleep to wakefulness. These changes were associated with a relative shift toward inhibition in the excitation/inhibition balance. Whole-cell recordings from layer 6 revealed presynaptically driven NT-induced inhibition of pyramidal neurons and excitation of fast-spiking interneurons. Deeper in the cortex, neurons within the white matter (WM) were strongly depolarized by NT application. The colocalization of NT and tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivities in deep layer fibers throughout the cortical mantle indicates mediation via dopaminergic systems. These data suggest a cortical mechanism for NT-induced wakefulness and support a role for WM neurons in state control. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. High affinity binding of (/sup 3/H)neurotensin of rat uterus

    SciTech Connect

    Pettibone, D.J.; Totaro, J.A.

    1987-11-01

    (/sup 3/H)Neurotensin (NT) was found to bind specifically and with high affinity to crude membranes prepared from rat uterus. Scatchard analysis of saturation binding studies indicated that (/sup 3/H)NT apparently binds to two sites (high affinity Kd 0.5 nM; low affinity Kd 9 nM) with the density of high affinity sites (41 fmoles/mg prot.) being about one-third that of the low affinity sites (100 fmoles/mg prot.). In competition studies, NT and various fragments inhibited (/sup 3/H)NT binding with the following potencies (approximately IC50): NT 8-13 (0.4 nM), NT 1-13 (4 nM), NT 9-13 (130 nM), NT 1-11, NT 1-8 (greater than 100 microM). Quantitatively similar results were obtained using brain tissue. These findings raise the possibility of a role for NT in uterine function.

  12. Severe Atherosclerosis and Hypercholesterolemia in Mice Lacking Both the Melanocortin Type 4 Receptor and Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Meusel, Andrej; Teupser, Daniel; Ricken, Albert; Thiery, Joachim; Schiller, Jürgen; Huster, Daniel; Schöneberg, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    Dysfunction of the melanocortin system can result in severe obesity accompanied with dyslipidemia and symptoms of the metabolic syndrome but the effect on vascular atherogenesis is not known. To study the impact of obesity and dyslipidemia on the cardiovascular system, we generated mice double-deficient for the melanocortin type 4 receptor (Mc4rmut mice) and the LDL receptor (Ldlr-/- mice). Mc4rmut mice develop obesity due to hyperphagia. Double-mutant mice (Mc4rmut;Ldlr-/-) exhibited massive increases in body weight, plasma cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels and developed atherosclerosis. Atherosclerotic lesion size was affected throughout the aortic root and brachiocephalic artery not only under semisynthetic, cholesterol-containing diet but also under cholesterol-free standard chow. The Mc4rmut mice developed a hepatic steatosis which contributes to increased plasma cholesterol levels even under cholesterol-free standard chow. Transcripts of cholesterol biosynthesis components and liver cholesterol levels did not significantly differ between wild-type and all mutant mouse strains but RNA sequencing data and biochemical measurements point to an altered bile acid elimination in Mc4rmut;Ldlr-/-. Therefore, the unchanged endogenous cholesterol biosynthesis together with a reduced hepatic VLDL and LDL-cholesterol clearance most likely led to increased plasma lipid levels and consequently to atherosclerosis in this animal model. Our data indicate that dysfunction of the melanocortin-regulated food intake and the resulting obesity significantly add to the proatherogenic lipoprotein profile caused by LDL receptor deficiency and, therefore, can be regarded as relevant risk factor for atherosclerosis. PMID:28030540

  13. Targeting Anti-Insulin B Cell Receptors Improves Receptor Editing in Type 1 Diabetes-Prone Mice1, 2, 3

    PubMed Central

    Bonami, Rachel H.; Thomas, James W.

    2015-01-01

    Autoreactive B lymphocytes that commonly arise in the developing repertoire can be salvaged by receptor editing, a central tolerance mechanism that alters BCR specificity through continued L chain rearrangement. It is unknown whether autoantigens with weak cross-linking potential, such as insulin, elicit receptor editing, or if this process is dysregulated in related autoimmunity. To resolve these issues, an editing-competent model was developed in which anti-insulin Vκ125 was targeted to the Igκ locus and paired with anti-insulin VH125Tg. Physiologic, circulating insulin increased RAG-2 expression and was associated with BCR replacement that eliminated autoantigen recognition in a proportion of developing anti-insulin B lymphocytes. The proportion of anti-insulin B cells that underwent receptor editing was reduced in the type 1 diabetes-prone NOD strain relative to a non-autoimmune strain. Resistance to editing was associated with increased surface IgM expression on immature (but not transitional or mature) anti-insulin B cells in the NOD strain. The actions of mAb123 on central tolerance were also investigated, as selective targeting of insulin-occupied BCR by mAb123 eliminates anti-insulin B lymphocytes and prevents type 1 diabetes. Autoantigen-targeting by mAb123 increased RAG-2 expression and dramatically enhanced BCR replacement in newly developed B lymphocytes. Administering F(ab’)2123 induced IgM downregulation and reduced the frequency of anti-insulin B lymphocytes within the polyclonal repertoire of VH125Tg/NOD mice, suggesting enhanced central tolerance by direct BCR interaction. These findings indicate that weak or faulty checkpoints for central tolerance can be overcome by autoantigen-specific immunomodulatory therapy. PMID:26432895

  14. Expression and potential role of ErbB receptors in type II endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Androutsopoulos, Georgios; Adonakis, Georgios; Liava, Anna; Ravazoula, Panagiota; Decavalas, Georgios

    2013-06-01

    Endometrial cancer is the most common malignancy of the female genital tract. Based on clinical and pathological features, endometrial cancer is classified into two types. The aim of our study was to describe the expression and the potential clinical role of ErbB receptors in Greek patients with type II endometrial cancer. Between 1991 and 2008, 10 women with histologically confirmed type II endometrial cancer were referred to the Department of Gynecologic Oncology of the University of Patras Medical School. Tissue specimens from endometrial lesions were immunostained for EGFR, ErbB-2, ErbB-3 and ErbB-4. For EGFR, 5 cases were positive (50%) and 5 cases were negative. For ErbB-2, 9 cases were positive (90%) and 1 case was negative. For ErbB-3, all cases were positive. For ErbB-4, 7 cases were positive (70%) and 3 cases were negative. Also for all ErbB receptors, 5 cases were positive (50%). During follow up, 3 patients died from their disease. All of them had papillary serous endometrial cancer and 2 of them were positive for all ErbB receptors. Although our study was based on a small number of cases, it is obvious that we had high expression levels of ErbB receptors in patients with type II endometrial cancer. Also the majority of patients with dismal outcome were positive for all ErbB receptors. This is very important, as ErbB-targeted therapies may be clinically active as adjuvant therapy in well-defined subgroups of type II EC patients with EGFR and ErbB-2 overexpression. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. THE NEURONAL DISTRIBUTION OF CANNABINOID RECEPTOR TYPE 1 IN THE TRIGEMINAL GANGLION OF THE RAT

    PubMed Central

    PRICE, T. J.; HELESIC, G.; PARGHI, D.; HARGREAVES, K. M.; FLORES, C. M.

    2007-01-01

    Cannabinoid compounds have been shown to produce antinociception and antihyperalgesia by acting upon cannabinoid receptors located in both the CNS and the periphery. A potential mechanism by which cannabinoids could inhibit nociception in the periphery is the activation of cannabinoid receptors located on one or more classes of primary nociceptive neurons. To address this hypothesis, we evaluated the neuronal distribution of cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) in the trigeminal ganglion (TG) of the adult rat through combined in situ hybridization (ISH) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). CB1 receptor mRNA was localized mainly to medium and large diameter neurons of the maxillary and mandibular branches of the TG. Consistent with this distribution, in a de facto nociceptive sensory neuron population that exhibited vanilloid receptor type 1 immunoreactivity, colocalization with CB1 mRNA was also sparse (<5%). Furthermore, very few neurons (approximately 5%) in the peptidergic (defined as calcitonin gene-related peptide- or substance P-immunoreactive) or the isolectin B4-binding sensory neuron populations contained CB1 mRNA. In contrast, and consistent with the neuron-size distribution for CB1, nearly 75% of CB1-positive neurons exhibited N52-immunoreactivity, a marker of myelinated axons. These results indicate that in the rat TG, CB1 receptors are expressed predominantly in neurons that are not thought to subserve nociceptive neurotransmission in the noninjured animal. Taken together with the absence of an above background in situ signal for CB2 mRNA in TG neurons, these findings suggest that the peripherally mediated antinociceptive effects of cannabinoids may involve either as yet unidentified receptors or interaction with afferent neuron populations that normally subserve non-nociceptive functions. PMID:12849749

  16. Altered hepatic lipid metabolism in mice lacking both the melanocortin type 4 receptor and low density lipoprotein receptor

    PubMed Central

    Garten, Antje; Popkova, Yulia; Penke, Melanie; Franke, Christin; Ricken, Albert; Schulz, Angela; Kiess, Wieland; Huster, Daniel; Schöneberg, Torsten; Schiller, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is often associated with dyslipidemia and hepatosteatosis. A number of animal models of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are established but they significantly differ in the molecular and biochemical changes depending on the genetic modification and diet used. Mice deficient for melanocortin type 4 receptor (Mc4rmut) develop hyperphagia, obesity, and subsequently NAFLD already under regular chow and resemble more closely the energy supply-driven obesity found in humans. This animal model was used to assess the molecular and biochemical consequences of hyperphagia-induced obesity on hepatic lipid metabolism. We analyzed transcriptome changes in Mc4rmut mice by RNA sequencing and used high resolution 1H magic angle spinning NMR spectroscopy and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry to assess changes in the lipid composition. On the transcriptomic level we found significant changes in components of the triacylglycerol metabolism, unsaturated fatty acids biosynthesis, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signaling pathways, and lipid transport and storage compared to the wild-type. These findings were supported by increases in triacylglycerol, monounsaturated fatty acid, and arachidonic acid levels. The transcriptome signatures significantly differ from those of other NAFLD mouse models supporting the concept of hepatic subphenotypes depending on the genetic background and diet. Comparative analyses of our data with previous studies allowed for the identification of common changes and genotype-specific components and pathways involved in obesity-associated NAFLD. PMID:28207798

  17. C-type lectins do not act as functional receptors for filovirus entry into cells

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuno, Keita; Nakayama, Eri; Noyori, Osamu; Marzi, Andrea; Ebihara, Hideki; Irimura, Tatsuro; Feldmann, Heinz; Takada, Ayato

    2010-12-03

    Research highlights: {yields} Filovirus glycoprotein (GP) having a deficient receptor binding region were generated. {yields} Mutant GPs mediated virus entry less efficiently than wild-type GP. {yields} Mutant GPs bound to C-type lectins but not mediated entire steps of cellular entry. {yields} C-type lectins do not independently mediate filovirus entry into cells. {yields} Other molecule(s) are required for C-type lectin-mediated entry of filoviruses. -- Abstract: Cellular C-type lectins have been reported to facilitate filovirus infection by binding to glycans on filovirus glycoprotein (GP). However, it is not clearly known whether interaction between C-type lectins and GP mediates all the steps of virus entry (i.e., attachment, internalization, and membrane fusion). In this study, we generated vesicular stomatitis viruses pseudotyped with mutant GPs that have impaired structures of the putative receptor binding regions and thus reduced ability to infect the monkey kidney cells that are routinely used for virus propagation. We found that infectivities of viruses with the mutant GPs dropped in C-type lectin-expressing cells, parallel with those in the monkey kidney cells, whereas binding activities of these GPs to the C-type lectins were not correlated with the reduced infectivities. These results suggest that C-type lectin-mediated entry of filoviruses requires other cellular molecule(s) that may be involved in virion internalization or membrane fusion.

  18. Inhibition of Adult Rat Retinal Ganglion Cells by D1-type Dopamine Receptor Activation

    PubMed Central

    Hayashida, Yuki; Rodríguez, Carolina Varela; Ogata, Genki; Partida, Gloria J.; Oi, Hanako; Stradleigh, Tyler W.; Lee, Sherwin C.; Colado, Anselmo Felipe; Ishida, Andrew T.

    2011-01-01

    The spike output of neural pathways can be regulated by modulating output neuron excitability and/or their synaptic inputs. Dopaminergic interneurons synapse onto cells that route signals to mammalian retinal ganglion cells, but it is unknown whether dopamine can activate receptors in these ganglion cells and, if it does, how this affects their excitability. Here, we show D1a-receptor-like immunoreactivity in ganglion cells identified in adult rats by retrogradely transported dextran, and that dopamine, D1-type receptor agonists, and cAMP analogs inhibit spiking in ganglion cells dissociated from adult rats. These ligands curtailed repetitive spiking during constant current injections, and reduced the number and rate of rise of spikes elicited by fluctuating current injections without significantly altering the timing of the remaining spikes. Consistent with mediation by D1-type receptors, SCH-23390 reversed the effects of dopamine on spikes. Contrary to a recent report, spike inhibition by dopamine was not precluded by blocking Ih. Consistent with the reduced rate of spike rise, dopamine reduced voltage-gated Na+ current (INa) amplitude and tetrodotoxin, at doses that reduced INa as moderately as dopamine, also inhibited spiking. These results provide the first direct evidence that D1-type dopamine receptor activation can alter mammalian retinal ganglion cell excitability, and demonstrate that dopamine can modulate spikes in these cells by a mechanism different from the pre- and postsynaptic means proposed by previous studies. To our knowledge, our results also provide the first evidence that dopamine receptor activation can reduce excitability without altering the temporal precision of spike firing. PMID:19940196

  19. Cloning, characterization, and functional studies of a nonintegrin platelet receptor for type I collagen.

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, T M; Rinaldy, A; Kang, A H

    1997-01-01

    A cDNA (1.6 kb) encoding a platelet protein receptor that binds type I collagen has been isolated from a human bone marrow cDNA library by using a degenerate oligonucleotide probe derived from the amino acid sequence of a CNBr fragment of the purified receptor. Computer search revealed that this cDNA represents the coding sequence of a unique protein. Using the prokaryotic expression system pKK 223-3-65 cDNA, a 54-kD recombinant protein was obtained and purified to apparent homogeneity. In an eukaryotic expression vector (pcDNA3-65 cDNA), a 65-kD protein was identified that was recognized by monoclonal anti-65 kD antibody (anti-65m). The recombinant protein binds to type I, but not to type III collagen by affinity column chromatography. The binding of the recombinant protein to type I collagen-coated Petri dishes is inhibited by anti-65m in a dose-dependent manner. The pcDNA3-65 cDNA-transfected nonadherent T cells express the protein, allowing them to attach to a type I collagen matrix, and are inhibited by anti-65m in a dose-dependent manner. Like the receptor protein purified from platelet membranes, the recombinant protein inhibits type I collagen-induced platelet aggregation and the adhesion of [14C]serotonin-labeled platelets to type I collagen in a dose-dependent manner. The recombinant protein neither binds to type III collagen-coated Petri dishes nor inhibits type III collagen and ADP-induced platelet aggregation, indicating specificity for type I collagen. PMID:9239397

  20. Cloning, characterization, and functional studies of a nonintegrin platelet receptor for type I collagen.

    PubMed

    Chiang, T M; Rinaldy, A; Kang, A H

    1997-08-01

    A cDNA (1.6 kb) encoding a platelet protein receptor that binds type I collagen has been isolated from a human bone marrow cDNA library by using a degenerate oligonucleotide probe derived from the amino acid sequence of a CNBr fragment of the purified receptor. Computer search revealed that this cDNA represents the coding sequence of a unique protein. Using the prokaryotic expression system pKK 223-3-65 cDNA, a 54-kD recombinant protein was obtained and purified to apparent homogeneity. In an eukaryotic expression vector (pcDNA3-65 cDNA), a 65-kD protein was identified that was recognized by monoclonal anti-65 kD antibody (anti-65m). The recombinant protein binds to type I, but not to type III collagen by affinity column chromatography. The binding of the recombinant protein to type I collagen-coated Petri dishes is inhibited by anti-65m in a dose-dependent manner. The pcDNA3-65 cDNA-transfected nonadherent T cells express the protein, allowing them to attach to a type I collagen matrix, and are inhibited by anti-65m in a dose-dependent manner. Like the receptor protein purified from platelet membranes, the recombinant protein inhibits type I collagen-induced platelet aggregation and the adhesion of [14C]serotonin-labeled platelets to type I collagen in a dose-dependent manner. The recombinant protein neither binds to type III collagen-coated Petri dishes nor inhibits type III collagen and ADP-induced platelet aggregation, indicating specificity for type I collagen.

  1. Structure-Function Basis of Attenuated Inverse Agonism of Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers for Active-State Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Unal, Hamiyet; Karnik, Sadashiva S.; Node, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Ligand-independent signaling by the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) can be activated in clinical settings by mechanical stretch and autoantibodies as well as receptor mutations. Transition of the AT1R to the activated state is known to lower inverse agonistic efficacy of clinically used AT1R blockers (ARBs). The structure-function basis for reduced efficacy of inverse agonists is a fundamental aspect that has been understudied not only in relation to the AT1R but also regarding other homologous receptors. Here, we demonstrate that the active-state transition in the AT1R indeed attenuates an inverse agonistic effect of four biphenyl-tetrazole ARBs through changes in specific ligand-receptor interactions. In the ground state, tight interactions of four ARBs with a set of residues (Ser109TM3, Phe182ECL2, Gln257TM6, Tyr292TM7, and Asn295TM7) results in potent inverse agonism. In the activated state, the ARB-AT1R interactions shift to a different set of residues (Val108TM3, Ser109TM3, Ala163TM4, Phe182ECL2, Lys199TM5, Tyr292TM7, and Asn295TM7), resulting in attenuated inverse agonism. Interestingly, V108I, A163T, N295A, and F182A mutations in the activated state of the AT1R shift the functional response to the ARB binding toward agonism, but in the ground state the same mutations cause inverse agonism. Our data show that the second extracellular loop is an important regulator of the functional states of the AT1R. Our findings suggest that the quest for discovering novel ARBs, and improving current ARBs, fundamentally depends on the knowledge of the unique sets of residues that mediate inverse agonistic potency in the two states of the AT1R. PMID:26121982

  2. Structure-Function Basis of Attenuated Inverse Agonism of Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers for Active-State Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor.

    PubMed

    Takezako, Takanobu; Unal, Hamiyet; Karnik, Sadashiva S; Node, Koichi

    2015-09-01

    Ligand-independent signaling by the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) can be activated in clinical settings by mechanical stretch and autoantibodies as well as receptor mutations. Transition of the AT1R to the activated state is known to lower inverse agonistic efficacy of clinically used AT1R blockers (ARBs). The structure-function basis for reduced efficacy of inverse agonists is a fundamental aspect that has been understudied not only in relation to the AT1R but also regarding other homologous receptors. Here, we demonstrate that the active-state transition in the AT1R indeed attenuates an inverse agonistic effect of four biphenyl-tetrazole ARBs through changes in specific ligand-receptor interactions. In the ground state, tight interactions of four ARBs with a set of residues (Ser109(TM3), Phe182(ECL2), Gln257(TM6), Tyr292(TM7), and Asn295(TM7)) results in potent inverse agonism. In the activated state, the ARB-AT1R interactions shift to a different set of residues (Val108(TM3), Ser109(TM3), Ala163(TM4), Phe182(ECL2), Lys199(TM5), Tyr292(TM7), and Asn295(TM7)), resulting in attenuated inverse agonism. Interestingly, V108I, A163T, N295A, and F182A mutations in the activated state of the AT1R shift the functional response to the ARB binding toward agonism, but in the ground state the same mutations cause inverse agonism. Our data show that the second extracellular loop is an important regulator of the functional states of the AT1R. Our findings suggest that the quest for discovering novel ARBs, and improving current ARBs, fundamentally depends on the knowledge of the unique sets of residues that mediate inverse agonistic potency in the two states of the AT1R.

  3. Type I macrophage scavenger receptor contains α-helical and collagen-like coiled coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Freeman, Mason; Rohrer, Lucia; Zabrecky, James; Matsudaira, Paul; Krieger, Monty

    1990-02-01

    The macrophage scavenger receptor is a trimeric membrane glycoprotein with unusual ligand-binding properties which has been implicated in the development of atherosclerosis. The trimeric structure of the bovine type I scavenger receptor, deduced by complementary DNA cloning, contains three extracellular C-terminal cysteine-rich domains connected to the transmembrane domain by a long fibrous stalk. This stalk structure, composed of an a-helical coiled coil and a collagen-like triple helix, has not previously been observed in an integral membrane protein.

  4. Neurotensin neural mRNA expression correlates with vocal communication and other highly-motivated social behaviors in male European starlings.

    PubMed

    Merullo, Devin P; Cordes, Melissa A; Susan DeVries, M; Stevenson, Sharon A; Riters, Lauren V

    2015-11-01

    Vocalizations coordinate social interactions in many species and often are important for behaviors such as mate attraction or territorial defense. Although the neural circuitry underlying vocal communication is well-known for some animal groups, such as songbirds, the motivational processes that regulate vocal signals are not as clearly understood. Neurotensin (NT) is a neuropeptide implicated in motivation that can modulate the activity of dopaminergic neurons. Dopaminergic projections from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) are key to mediating highly motivated, goal-directed behaviors, including sexually-motivated birdsong. However, the role of NT in modifying vocal communication or other social behaviors has not been well-studied. Here in European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) we analyzed relationships between sexually-motivated song and NT and NT1 receptor (NTSR1) expression in VTA. Additionally, we examined NT and NTSR1 expression in four regions that receive dopaminergic projections from VTA and are involved in courtship song: the medial preoptic nucleus (POM), the lateral septum (LS), Area X, and HVC. Relationships between NT and NTSR1 expression and non-vocal courtship and agonistic behaviors were also examined. NT expression in Area X positively related to sexually-motivated song production. NT expression in POM positively correlated with non-vocal courtship behavior and agonistic behavior. NT expression in POM was greatest in males owning nesting sites, and the opposite pattern was observed for NTSR1 expression in LS. These results are the first to implicate NT in Area X in birdsong, and further highlight NT as a potential neuromodulator for the control of vocal communication and other social behaviors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Neurotensin neural mRNA expression correlates with vocal communication and other highly-motivated social behaviors in male European starlings

    PubMed Central

    Merullo, Devin P.; Cordes, Melissa A.; DeVries, M. Susan; Stevenson, Sharon A.; Riters, Lauren V.

    2015-01-01

    Vocalizations coordinate social interactions in many species and often are important for behaviors such as mate attraction or territorial defense. Although the neural circuitry underlying vocal communication is well-known for some species, such as songbirds, the motivational processes that regulate vocal signals are not as clearly understood. Neurotensin (NT) is a neuropeptide implicated in motivation that can modulate the activity of dopaminergic neurons. Dopaminergic projections from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) are key to mediating highly motivated, goal-directed behaviors, including sexually-motivated birdsong. However, the role of NT in modifying vocal communication or other social behaviors has not been well-studied. Here in European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) we analyzed relationships between sexually-motivated song and NT and NT1 receptor (NTSR1) expression in VTA. Additionally, we examined NT and NTSR1 expression in four regions that receive dopaminergic projections from VTA and are involved in courtship song: the medial preoptic nucleus (POM), the lateral septum (LS), Area X, and HVC. Relationships between NT and NTSR1 expression and non-vocal courtship and agonistic behaviors were also examined. NT expression in Area X positively related to sexuallymotivated song production. NT expression in POM positively correlated with non-vocal courtship behavior and agonistic behavior. NT expression in POM was greatest in males owning nesting sites, and the opposite pattern was observed for NTSR1 expression in LS. These results are the first to implicate NT in Area X in birdsong, and further highlight NT as a potential neuromodulator for the control of vocal communication and other social behaviors. PMID:26192712

  6. Opposing roles for cannabinoid receptor type-1 (CB₁) and transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 channel (TRPV1) on the modulation of panic-like responses in rats.

    PubMed

    Casarotto, Plínio C; Terzian, Ana Luisa B; Aguiar, Daniele C; Zangrossi, Hélio; Guimarães, Francisco S; Wotjak, Carsten T; Moreira, Fabrício A

    2012-01-01

    The midbrain dorsal periaqueductal gray (dPAG) has an important role in orchestrating anxiety- and panic-related responses. Given the cellular and behavioral evidence suggesting opposite functions for cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB₁) and transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 channel (TRPV1), we hypothesized that they could differentially influence panic-like reactions induced by electrical stimulation of the dPAG. Drugs were injected locally and the expression of CB₁ and TRPV1 in this structure was assessed by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. The CB₁-selective agonist, ACEA (0.01, 0.05 and 0.5 pmol) increased the threshold for the induction of panic-like responses solely at the intermediary dose, an effect prevented by the CB₁-selective antagonist, AM251 (75 pmol). Panicolytic-like effects of ACEA at the higher dose were unmasked by pre-treatment with the TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine (0.1 nmol). Similarly to ACEA, capsazepine (1 and 10 nmol) raised the threshold for triggering panic-like reactions, an effect mimicked by another TRPV1 antagonist, SB366791 (1 nmol). Remarkably, the effects of both capsazepine and SB366791 were prevented by AM251 (75 pmol). These pharmacological data suggest that a common endogenous agonist may have opposite functions at a given synapse. Supporting this view, we observed that several neurons in the dPAG co-expressed CB₁ and TRPV1. Thus, the present work provides evidence that an endogenous substance, possibly anandamide, may exert both panicolytic and panicogenic effects via its actions at CB₁ receptors and TRPV1 channels, respectively. This tripartite set-point system might be exploited for the pharmacotherapy of panic attacks and anxiety-related disorders.

  7. Extracellular regulation of type IIa receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases: mechanistic insights from structural analyses

    PubMed Central

    Coles, Charlotte H.; Jones, E. Yvonne; Aricescu, A. Radu

    2016-01-01

    The receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases (RPTPs) exhibit a wide repertoire of cellular signalling functions. In particular, type IIa RPTP family members have recently been highlighted as hubs for extracellular interactions in neurons, regulating neuronal extension and guidance, as well as synaptic organisation. In this review, we will discuss the recent progress of structural biology investigations into the architecture of type IIa RPTP ectodomains and their interactions with extracellular ligands. Structural insights, in combination with biophysical and cellular studies, allow us to begin to piece together molecular mechanisms for the transduction and integration of type IIa RPTP signals and to propose hypotheses for future experimental validation. PMID:25234613

  8. The TAM family receptor tyrosine kinase TYRO3 is a negative regulator of type 2 immunity.

    PubMed

    Chan, Pamela Y; Carrera Silva, Eugenio A; De Kouchkovsky, Dimitri; Joannas, Leonel D; Hao, Liming; Hu, Donglei; Huntsman, Scott; Eng, Celeste; Licona-Limón, Paula; Weinstein, Jason S; Herbert, De'Broski R; Craft, Joseph E; Flavell, Richard A; Repetto, Silvia; Correale, Jorge; Burchard, Esteban G; Torgerson, Dara G; Ghosh, Sourav; Rothlin, Carla V

    2016-04-01

    Host responses against metazoan parasites or an array of environmental substances elicit type 2 immunity. Despite its protective function, type 2 immunity also drives allergic diseases. The mechanisms that regulate the magnitude of the type 2 response remain largely unknown. Here, we show that genetic ablation of a receptor tyrosine kinase encoded byTyro3in mice or the functional neutralization of its ortholog in human dendritic cells resulted in enhanced type 2 immunity. Furthermore, the TYRO3 agonist PROS1 was induced in T cells by the quintessential type 2 cytokine, interleukin-4. T cell-specificPros1knockouts phenocopied the loss ofTyro3 Thus, a PROS1-mediated feedback from adaptive immunity engages a rheostat, TYRO3, on innate immune cells to limit the intensity of type 2 responses.

  9. The TAM family receptor tyrosine kinase TYRO3 is a negative regulator of type 2 immunity

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Pamela Y.; Carrera Silva, Eugenio A.; De Kouchkovsky, Dimitri; Joannas, Leonel D.; Hao, Liming; Hu, Donglei; Huntsman, Scott; Eng, Celeste; Licona-Limón, Paula; Weinstein, Jason S.; Herbert, De’Broski R.; Craft, Joseph E.; Flavell, Richard A.; Repetto, Silvia; Correale, Jorge; Burchard, Esteban G.; Torgerson, Dara G.; Ghosh, Sourav; Rothlin, Carla V.

    2016-01-01

    Host responses against metazoan parasites or an array of environmental substances elicit type 2 immunity. Despite its protective function, type 2 immunity also drives allergic diseases. The mechanisms that regulate the magnitude of the type 2 response remain largely unknown. Here, we show that genetic ablation of a receptor tyrosine kinase encoded by Tyro3 in mice or the functional neutralization of its ortholog in human dendritic cells resulted in enhanced type 2 immunity. Furthermore, the TYRO3 agonist PROS1 was induced in T cells by the quintessential type 2 cytokine, interleukin-4. T cell–specific Pros1 knockouts phenocopied the loss of Tyro3. Thus, a PROS1-mediated feedback from adaptive immunity engages a rheostat, TYRO3, on innate immune cells to limit the intensity of type 2 responses. PMID:27034374

  10. Arrestin interactions with G protein-coupled receptors. Direct binding studies of wild type and mutant arrestins with rhodopsin, beta 2-adrenergic, and m2 muscarinic cholinergic receptors.

    PubMed

    Gurevich, V V; Dion, S B; Onorato, J J; Ptasienski, J; Kim, C M; Sterne-Marr, R; Hosey, M M; Benovic, J L

    1995-01-13

    Arrestins play an important role in quenching signal transduction initiated by G protein-coupled receptors. To explore the specificity of arrestin-receptor interaction, we have characterized the ability of various wild-type arrestins to bind to rhodopsin, the beta 2-adrenergic receptor (beta 2AR), and the m2 muscarinic cholinergic receptor (m2 mAChR). Visual arrestin was found to be the most selective arrestin since it discriminated best between the three different receptors tested (highest binding to rhodopsin) as well as between the phosphorylation and activation state of the receptor (> 10-fold higher binding to the phosphorylated light-activated form of rhodopsin compared to any other form of rhodopsin). While beta-arrestin and arrestin 3 were also found to preferentially bind to the phosphorylated activated form of a given receptor, they only modestly discriminated among the three receptors tested. To explore the structural characteristics important in arrestin function, we constructed a series of truncated and chimeric arrestins. Analysis of the binding characteristics of the various mutant arrestins suggests a common molecular mechanism involved in determining receptor binding selectivity. Structural elements that contribute to arrestin binding include: 1) a C-terminal acidic region that serves a regulatory role in controlling arrestin binding selectivity toward the phosphorylated and activated form of a receptor, without directly participating in receptor interaction; 2) a basic N-terminal domain that directly participates in receptor interaction and appears to serve a regulatory role via intramolecular interaction with the C-terminal acidic region; and 3) two centrally localized domains that are directly involved in determining receptor binding specificity and selectivity. A comparative structure-function model of all arrestins and a kinetic model of beta-arrestin and arrestin 3 interaction with receptors are proposed.

  11. Assessment of 5-HT7 Receptor Agonists Selectivity Using Nociceptive and Thermoregulation Tests in Knockout versus Wild-Type Mice

    PubMed Central

    Brenchat, Alex; Rocasalbas, Maria; Zamanillo, Daniel; Hamon, Michel; Vela, José Miguel; Romero, Luz

    2012-01-01

    No study has ever examined the effect of 5-HT7 receptor agonists on nociception by using 5-HT7 receptor knockout mice. Basal sensitivity to noxious heat stimuli and formalin-induced nociception in both phase I and II of the formalin test did not differ in 5-HT7 receptor knockout mice and paired wild-type controls. Similarly, there was no significant difference in basal body temperature between both genotypes. Subcutaneous administration of 5-HT7 receptor agonists AS-19 (10 mg/kg), E-57431 (10 mg/kg), and E-55888 (20 mg/kg) significantly reduced formalin-induced licking/biting behavior during the phase II of the test in wild-type but not in 5-HT7 receptor knockout mice. At these active analgesic doses, none of the three 5-HT7 receptor agonists modified the basal body temperature neither in wild-type nor in 5-HT7 receptor knockout mice. However, a significant decrease in body temperature was observed at a higher dose (20 mg/kg) of AS-19 and E-57431 in both genotypes. Our data strongly suggest that the 5-HT7 receptor agonists AS-19, E-57431, and E-55888 produce antinociception in the formalin test by activating 5-HT7 receptors. These results also strengthen the idea that the 5-HT7 receptor plays a role in thermoregulation, but by acting in concert with other receptors. PMID:22761612

  12. The inhibition of release by mGlu7 receptors is independent of the Ca2+ channel type but associated to GABAB and adenosine A1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Martín, Ricardo; Ladera, Carolina; Bartolomé-Martín, David; Torres, Magdalena; Sánchez-Prieto, José

    2008-09-01

    Neurotransmitter release is inhibited by G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) through signalling pathways that are negatively coupled to Ca2+ channels and adenylyl cyclase. Through Ca2+ imaging and immunocytochemistry, we have recently shown that adenosine A1, GABAB and the metabotropic glutamate type 7 receptors coexist in a subset of cerebrocortical nerve terminals. As these receptors inhibit glutamate release through common intracellular signalling pathways, their co-activation occluded each other responses. Here we have addressed whether the occlusion of receptor responses is restricted to the glutamate release mediated by N-type Ca2+ channels by analysing this process in nerve terminals from mice lacking the alpha1B subunit (Cav 2.2) of these channels. We found that glutamate release from cerebrocortical nerve terminals without these channels, in which release relies exclusively on P/Q type Ca2+ channels, is not modulated by mGlu7 receptors. Furthermore, there is no occlusion of the release inhibition by GABAB and adenosine A1. Hence, in the cerebrocortical preparation, these three receptors only appear to coexist in N-type channel containing nerve terminals. In contrast, in hippocampal nerve terminals lacking this subunit, where mGlu7 receptors modulate glutamate release via P/Q type channels, the occlusion of inhibitory responses by co-stimulation of adenosine A1, GABAB and mGlu7 receptors was observed. Thus, occlusion of the responses by the three GPCRs is independent of the Ca2+ channel type but rather, it is associated to functional mGlu7 receptors.

  13. γ-Aminobutyric Acid Type B (GABAB) Receptor Internalization Is Regulated by the R2 Subunit*

    PubMed Central

    Hannan, Saad; Wilkins, Megan E.; Dehghani-Tafti, Ebrahim; Thomas, Philip; Baddeley, Stuart M.; Smart, Trevor G.

    2011-01-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid type B (GABAB) receptors are important for slow synaptic inhibition in the CNS. The efficacy of inhibition is directly related to the stability of cell surface receptors. For GABAB receptors, heterodimerization between R1 and R2 subunits is critical for cell surface expression and signaling, but how this determines the rate and extent of receptor internalization is unknown. Here, we insert a high affinity α-bungarotoxin binding site into the N terminus of the R2 subunit and reveal its dominant role in regulating the internalization of GABAB receptors in live cells. To simultaneously study R1a and R2 trafficking, a new α-bungarotoxin binding site-labeling technique was used, allowing α-bungarotoxin conjugated to different fluorophores to selectively label R1a and R2 subunits. This approach demonstrated that R1a and R2 are internalized as dimers. In heterologous expression systems and neurons, the rates and extents of internalization for R1aR2 heteromers and R2 homomers are similar, suggesting a regulatory role for R2 in determining cell surface receptor stability. The fast internalization rate of R1a, which has been engineered to exit the endoplasmic reticulum, was slowed to that of R2 by truncating the R1a C-terminal tail or by removing a dileucine motif in its coiled-coil domain. Slowing the rate of internalization by co-assembly with R2 represents a novel role for GPCR heterodimerization whereby R2 subunits, via their C terminus coiled-coil domain, mask a dileucine motif on R1a subunits to determine the surface stability of the GABAB receptor. PMID:21724853

  14. The soluble form of IL-1 receptor accessory protein enhances the ability of soluble type II IL-1 receptor to inhibit IL-1 action.

    PubMed

    Smith, Dirk E; Hanna, Roberta; Della Friend; Moore, Heather; Chen, Hongbo; Farese, Ann M; MacVittie, Thomas J; Virca, G Duke; Sims, John E

    2003-01-01

    Regulation of the activity of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1 is complex, involving transcriptional and translational control, precursor processing, a receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), and a decoy receptor. Here we report that the soluble form of the IL-1 receptor accessory protein (AcP) increases the affinity of binding of human IL-1alpha and IL-1beta to the soluble human type II IL-1 receptor by approximately 100-fold, while leaving unaltered the low binding affinity of IL-1ra. Soluble AcP is present in normal human serum at an average concentration greater than 300 ng/ml. These findings suggest that the soluble form of IL-1R AcP contributes to the antagonism of IL-1 action by the type II decoy receptor, adding another layer of complexity to the regulation of IL-1 action.

  15. The blunt trichoid sensillum of female mosquitoes, Anopheles gambiae: odorant binding protein and receptor types.

    PubMed

    Schultze, Anna; Breer, Heinz; Krieger, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    In order to find a blood host and to select appropriate oviposition sites female Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes rely on olfactory cues which are sensed by olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) located within morphologically different sensilla hairs. While the sharp type trichoid sensilla are most abundant and intensely studied, the striking blunt type trichoid sensilla exist only in small numbers and their specific function is unknown. It has been suggested that they may play a role in the detection of chemical cues indicating oviposition sites. With the aim of identifying molecular elements in blunt type trichoid sensilla, which may be relevant for chemosensory function of this sensillum type, experiments were performed which include whole mount fluorescence in situ hybridization (WM-FISH) and fluorescence immunohistochemistry (WM-FIHC). The studies were concentrated on odorant binding proteins (AgOBPs) and odorant receptors (AgORs). WM-FISH approaches using a probe for the plus-C class AgOBP47 led to the labeling of cells, which resembled in number and antennal distribution pattern the blunt type trichoid sensilla. Moreover, WM-FIHC with an antiserum for AgOBP47 allowed to assign the AgOBP47-expressing cells to blunt type trichoid sensilla and to allocate the protein within the sensillum hair shafts. The result of double WM-FISH-experiments and combined WM-FIHC/FISH approaches indicated that the AgOBP47-expressing cells are co-localized with cells, which express AgOR11, AgOR13 and AgOR55. In addition, it turned out that the two receptor types AgOR13 and AgOR55 are co-expressed in the same cells. Together, the results indicate that the blunt type trichoid sensilla contain a characteristic binding protein, plus-C AgOBP47, in the sensillum lymph and two sensory neurons, one cell which express the odorant receptor AgOR11 and a second cell which express the receptor types AgOR13 and AgOR55. The expression of characteristic chemosensory elements in blunt type trichoid

  16. Two types of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in Drosophila and other arthropods.

    PubMed

    Collin, Caitlin; Hauser, Frank; Gonzalez de Valdivia, Ernesto; de Valdivia, Ernesto Gonzalez; Li, Shizhong; Reisenberger, Julia; Carlsen, Eva M M; Khan, Zaid; Hansen, Niels O; Puhm, Florian; Søndergaard, Leif; Niemiec, Justyna; Heninger, Magdalena; Ren, Guilin R; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J P

    2013-09-01

    Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) play a central role in the mammalian nervous system. These receptors are G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), which are activated by the agonists acetylcholine and muscarine, and blocked by a variety of antagonists. Mammals have five mAChRs (m1-m5). In this study, we cloned two structurally related GPCRs from the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, which, after expression in Chinese hamster ovary cells, proved to be muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. One mAChR (the A-type; encoded by gene CG4356) is activated by acetylcholine (EC50, 5 × 10(-8) M) and muscarine (EC50, 6 × 10(-8) M) and blocked by the classical mAChR antagonists atropine, scopolamine, and 3-quinuclidinyl-benzilate (QNB), while the other (the B-type; encoded by gene CG7918) is also activated by acetylcholine, but has a 1,000-fold lower sensitivity to muscarine, and is not blocked by the antagonists. A- and B-type mAChRs were also cloned and functionally characterized from the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum. Recently, Haga et al. (Nature 2012, 482: 547-551) published the crystal structure of the human m2 mAChR, revealing 14 amino acid residues forming the binding pocket for QNB. These residues are identical between the human m2 and the D. melanogaster and T. castaneum A-type mAChRs, while many of them are different between the human m2 and the B-type receptors. Using bioinformatics, one orthologue of the A-type and one of the B-type mAChRs could also be found in all other arthropods with a sequenced genome. Protostomes, such as arthropods, and deuterostomes, such as mammals and other vertebrates, belong to two evolutionarily distinct lineages of animal evolution that split about 700 million years ago. We found that animals that originated before this split, such as cnidarians (Hydra), had two A-type mAChRs. From these data we propose a model for the evolution of mAChRs.

  17. Minimally Modified LDL Upregulates Endothelin Type A Receptors in Rat Coronary Arterial Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; Cao, Lei; Xu, Cang-Bao; Wang, Jun-Jie

    2013-01-01

    Minimally modified low-density lipoprotein (mmLDL) is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The present study investigated the effects of mmLDL on the expression of endothelin type A (ETA) receptors in coronary arteries. Rat coronary arteries were organ-cultured for 24 h. The contractile responses were recorded using a myographic system. ETA receptor mRNA and protein expressions were determined using real-time PCR and western blotting, respectively. The results showed that organ-culturing in the presence of mmLDL enhanced the arterial contractility mediated by the ETA receptor in a concentration-dependent and time-dependent manner. Culturing with mmLDL (10 μg/mL) for 24 h shifted the concentration-contractile curves toward the left significantly with increased Emax of 228% ± 20% from control of 100% ± 10% and significantly increased ETA receptor mRNA and protein levels. Inhibition of the protein kinase C, extracellular signal-related kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), or NF-κB activities significantly attenuated the effects of mmLDL. The c-Jun N-terminal kinase inhibitor or the p38 pathway inhibitor, however, had no such effects. The results indicate that mmLDL upregulates the ETA receptors in rat coronary arterial smooth muscle cells mainly via activating protein kinase C, ERK1/2, and the downstream transcriptional factor, NF-κB. PMID:23861561

  18. Cationic modulation of rho 1-type gamma-aminobutyrate receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Calvo, D J; Vazquez, A E; Miledi, R

    1994-01-01

    A study was made of the effects of di- and trivalent cations on homomeric rho 1-type gamma-aminobutyrate (GABA rho 1) receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes after injection of mRNA coding for the GABA rho 1 subunit. GABA elicited large currents with a Kd approximately 1 microM. The properties of these GABA rho 1 receptors were similar to those of native bicuculline-resistant GABA receptors expressed by retinal mRNA. GABA rho 1 currents showed very little desensitization, were blocked by picrotoxin but not by bicuculline, and were not modulated by barbiturates, benzodiazepines, or beta-carbolines. Zn2+ reversibly decreased GABA rho 1 responses (IC50 = 22 microM). Other divalent cations were also tested and their rank order of potency was: Zn2+ approximately Ni2+ approximately Cu2+ >> Cd2+, whereas Ba2+, Co2+, Sr2+, Mn2+, Mg2+, and Ca2+ showed little or no effect. In contrast, La3+ reversibly potentiated the GABA currents mediated by homomeric GABA rho 1 receptors, with an EC50 = 135 microM and a maximal potentiation of about 100% (GABA, 1 microM; La3+, 1 mM). Other lanthanides showed similar effects (Lu3+ > Eu3+ > Tb3+ > Gd3+ > Er3% > Nd3+ > La3+ > Ce3+). Thus, GABA rho 1 receptors contain sites for cationic recognition, and in particular, Zn2+ may play a role during synaptic transmission in the retina. Images Fig. 3 PMID:7809110

  19. Characterization of an invertebrate-type dopamine receptor of the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana.

    PubMed

    Troppmann, Britta; Balfanz, Sabine; Krach, Christian; Baumann, Arnd; Blenau, Wolfgang

    2014-01-06

    We have isolated a cDNA coding for a putative invertebrate-type dopamine receptor (Peadop2) from P. americana brain by using a PCR-based strategy. The mRNA is present in samples from brain and salivary glands. We analyzed the distribution of the PeaDOP2 receptor protein with specific affinity-purified polyclonal antibodies. On Western blots, PeaDOP2 was detected in protein samples from brain, subesophageal ganglion, thoracic ganglia, and salivary glands. In immunocytochemical experiments, we detected PeaDOP2 in neurons with their somata being located at the anterior edge of the medulla bilaterally innervating the optic lobes and projecting to the ventro-lateral protocerebrum. In order to determine the functional and pharmacological properties of the cloned receptor, we generated a cell line constitutively expressing PeaDOP2. Activation of PeaDOP2-expressing cells with dopamine induced an increase in intracellular cAMP. In contrast, a C-terminally truncated splice variant of this receptor did not exhibit any functional property by itself. The molecular and pharmacological characterization of the first dopamine receptor from P. americana provides the basis for forthcoming studies focusing on the significance of the dopaminergic system in cockroach behavior and physiology.

  20. Characterization of an Invertebrate-Type Dopamine Receptor of the American Cockroach, Periplaneta americana

    PubMed Central

    Troppmann, Britta; Balfanz, Sabine; Krach, Christian; Baumann, Arnd; Blenau, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    We have isolated a cDNA coding for a putative invertebrate-type dopamine receptor (Peadop2) from P. americana brain by using a PCR-based strategy. The mRNA is present in samples from brain and salivary glands. We analyzed the distribution of the PeaDOP2 receptor protein with specific affinity-purified polyclonal antibodies. On Western blots, PeaDOP2 was detected in protein samples from brain, subesophageal ganglion, thoracic ganglia, and salivary glands. In immunocytochemical experiments, we detected PeaDOP2 in neurons with their somata being located at the anterior edge of the medulla bilaterally innervating the optic lobes and projecting to the ventro-lateral protocerebrum. In order to determine the functional and pharmacological properties of the cloned receptor, we generated a cell line constitutively expressing PeaDOP2. Activation of PeaDOP2-expressing cells with dopamine induced an increase in intracellular cAMP. In contrast, a C-terminally truncated splice variant of this receptor did not exhibit any functional property by itself. The molecular and pharmacological characterization of the first dopamine receptor from P. americana provides the basis for forthcoming studies focusing on the significance of the dopaminergic system in cockroach behavior and physiology. PMID:24398985

  1. Cannabinoid type-1 receptor signaling in central serotonergic neurons regulates anxiety-like behavior and sociability

    PubMed Central

    Häring, Martin; Enk, Vanessa; Aparisi Rey, Alejandro; Loch, Sebastian; Ruiz de Azua, Inigo; Weber, Tillmann; Bartsch, Dusan; Monory, Krisztina; Lutz, Beat

    2015-01-01

    The endocannabinoid (eCB) system possesses neuromodulatory functions by influencing the release of various neurotransmitters, including γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate. A functional interaction between eCBs and the serotonergic system has already been suggested. Previously, we showed that cannabinoid type-1 (CB1) receptor mRNA and protein are localized in serotonergic neurons of the raphe nuclei, implying that the eCB system can modulate serotonergic functions. In order to substantiate the physiological role of the CB1 receptor in serotonergic neurons of the raphe nuclei, we generated serotonergic 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) neuron-specific CB1 receptor-deficient mice, using the Cre/loxP system with a tamoxifen-inducible Cre recombinase under the control of the regulatory sequences of the tryptophan hydroxylase 2 gene (TPH2-CreERT2), thus, restricting the recombination to 5-HT neurons of the central nervous system (CNS). Applying several different behavioral paradigms, we revealed that mice lacking the CB1 receptor in serotonergic neurons are more anxious and less sociable than control littermates. Thus, we were able to show that functional CB1 receptor signaling in central serotonergic neurons modulates distinct behaviors in mice. PMID:26388750

  2. Angiotensin II enhances endothelin-1-induced vasoconstriction through upregulating endothelin type A receptor.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yan-Jie; Kwok, Ching-Fai; Juan, Chi-Chang; Hsu, Yung-Pei; Shih, Kuang-Chung; Chen, Chin-Chang; Ho, Low-Tone

    2014-08-22

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is the most potent vasoconstrictor by binding to endothelin receptors (ETAR) in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). The complex of angiotensin II (Ang II) and Ang II type one receptor (AT1R) acts as a transient constrictor of VSMCs. The synergistic effect of ET-1 and Ang II on blood pressure has been observed in rats; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. We hypothesize that Ang II leads to enhancing ET-1-mediated vasoconstriction through the activation of endothelin receptor in VSMCs. The ET-1-induced vasoconstriction, ET-1 binding, and endothelin receptor expression were explored in the isolated endothelium-denuded aortae and A-10 VSMCs. Ang II pretreatment enhanced ET-1-induced vasoconstriction and ET-1 binding to the aorta. Ang II enhanced ETAR expression, but not ETBR, in aorta and increased ET-1 binding, mainly to ETAR in A-10 VSMCs. Moreover, Ang II-enhanced ETAR expression was blunted and ET-1 binding was reduced by AT1R antagonism or by inhibitors of PKC or ERK individually. In conclusion, Ang II enhances ET-1-induced vasoconstriction by upregulating ETAR expression and ET-1/ETAR binding, which may be because of the AngII/Ang II receptor pathways and the activation of PKC or ERK. These findings suggest the synergistic effect of Ang II and ET-1 on the pathogenic development of hypertension. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Diagnostic and prognostic value of scavenger receptor class B type 1 in clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guanghua; Lou, Ning; Xu, Yuchen; Shi, Hangchuan; Ruan, Hailong; Xiao, Wen; Liu, Lei; Xiao, Haibing; Qiu, Bin; Bao, Lin; Yuan, Changfei; Chen, Ke; Yang, Hongmei; Zhang, Xiaoping

    2017-05-01

    Aberrant expression of scavenger receptor class B type 1 has been reported in several human cancers. Nevertheless, the roles of scavenger receptor class B type 1 in clear cell renal cell carcinoma remain unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic value of scavenger receptor class B type 1 in clear cell renal cell carcinoma. The messenger RNA level of scavenger receptor class B type 1 in clear cell renal cell carcinoma tissues was detected by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, while protein level was determined by western blot and immunohistochemistry. The lipid content between clear cell renal cell carcinoma tissues and normal kidney tissues was differentiated by Oil Red O and hematoxylin-eosin staining. The diagnostic value of scavenger receptor class B type 1 was determined by receiver operating characteristic curve. The prognostic significance of scavenger receptor class B type 1 was assessed by Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression analysis. Our results showed that the expression of scavenger receptor class B type 1 in clear cell renal cell carcinoma tissues at both messenger RNA and protein level was much higher than that in normal kidney tissues. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis exhibited a significant value of area under the curve (0.8486, 95% confidence interval: 0.7926-0.9045) with strong sensitivity (0.75, 95% confidence interval: 0.6535-0.8312) and specificity (0.90, 95% confidence interval: 0.8238-0.9510). Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that patients with higher scavenger receptor class B type 1 expression had shorter progression-free survival time. Cox analysis indicated that scavenger receptor class B type 1 was an independent prognostic biomarker. In conclusion, our findings implied that scavenger receptor class B type 1 might serve as a diagnostic and independent prognostic biomarker in clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

  4. Analgesic effect of a mixed T-type channel inhibitor/CB2 receptor agonist

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cannabinoid receptors and T-type calcium channels are potential targets for treating pain. Here we report on the design, synthesis and analgesic properties of a new mixed cannabinoid/T-type channel ligand, NMP-181. Results NMP-181 action on CB1 and CB2 receptors was characterized in radioligand binding and in vitro GTPγ[35S] functional assays, and block of transiently expressed human Cav3.2 T-type channels by NMP-181 was analyzed by patch clamp. The analgesic effects and in vivo mechanism of action of NMP-181 delivered spinally or systemically were analyzed in formalin and CFA mouse models of pain. NMP-181 inhibited peak CaV3.2 currents with IC50 values in the low micromolar range and acted as a CB2 agonist. Inactivated state dependence further augmented the inhibitory action of NMP-181. NMP-181 produced a dose-dependent antinociceptive effect when administered either spinally or systemically in both phases of the formalin test. Both i.t. and i.p. treatment of mice with NMP-181 reversed the mechanical hyperalgesia induced by CFA injection. NMP-181 showed no antinocieptive effect in CaV3.2 null mice. The antinociceptive effect of intrathecally delivered NMP-181 in the formalin test was reversed by i.t. treatment of mice with AM-630 (CB2 antagonist). In contrast, the NMP-181-induced antinociception was not affected by treatment of mice with AM-281 (CB1 antagonist). Conclusions Our work shows that both T-type channels as well as CB2 receptors play a role in the antinociceptive action of NMP-181, and also provides a novel avenue for suppressing chronic pain through novel mixed T-type/cannabinoid receptor ligands. PMID:23815854

  5. Sex- and age-related differences in the chronic pressure-natriuresis relationship: role of the angiotensin type 2 receptor.

    PubMed

    Mirabito, Katrina M; Hilliard, Lucinda M; Kett, Michelle M; Brown, Russell D; Booth, Sean C; Widdop, Robert E; Moritz, Karen M; Evans, Roger G; Denton, Kate M

    2014-10-15

    Sex hormones regulate the renin-angiotensin system. For example, estrogen enhances expression of the angiotensin type 2 receptor. We hypothesized that activation of the angiotensin type 2 receptor shifts the chronic pressure-natriuresis relationship leftward in females compared with males and that this effect is lost with age. Mean arterial pressure was measured by radiotelemetry in adult (4 mo old) and aged (14 mo old) wild-type and angiotensin type 2 receptor knockout male and female mice. Chronic pressure-natriuresis curves were constructed while mice were maintained on a normal-salt (0.26%) diet and following 6 days of high salt (5.0%) diet. Mean arterial pressure was lower in adult wild-type females than males (88 ± 1 and 97 ± 1 mmHg, respectively), a difference that was maintained with age, but was absent in adult knockout mice. In wild-type females, the chronic pressure-natriuresis relationship was shifted leftward compared with knockout females, an effect that was lost with age. In males, the chronic pressure-natriuresis relationship was not influenced by angiotensin type 2 receptor deficiency. Compared with age-matched females, the chronic pressure-natriuresis relationships in male mice were shifted rightward. Renal expression of the angiotensin type 2 receptor was fourfold greater in adult wild-type females than males. With age, the angiotensin type 2 receptor-to-angiotensin type 1 receptor balance was reduced in females. Conversely, in males, angiotensin receptor expression did not vary significantly with age. In conclusion, the angiotensin type 2 receptor modulates the chronic pressure-natriuresis relationship in an age- and sex-dependent manner. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  6. β-Adrenergic Receptor-Mediated Cardiac Contractility is Inhibited via Vasopressin Type 1A-Receptor-Dependent Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Tilley, Douglas G.; Zhu, Weizhong; Myers, Valerie D.; Barr, Larry A.; Gao, Erhe; Li, Xue; Song, Jianliang; Carter, Rhonda L.; Makarewich, Catherine A.; Yu, Daohai; Troupes, Constantine D.; Grisanti, Laurel A.; Coleman, Ryan C.; Koch, Walter J.; Houser, Steven R.; Cheung, Joseph Y.; Feldman, Arthur M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Enhanced arginine vasopressin (AVP) levels are associated with increased mortality during end-stage human heart failure (HF), and cardiac AVP type 1A receptor (V1AR) expression becomes increased. Additionally, mice with cardiac-restricted V1AR overexpression develop cardiomyopathy and decreased β-adrenergic receptor (βAR) responsiveness. This led us to hypothesize that V1AR signaling regulated βAR responsiveness and in doing so contributes to HF development. Methods and Results Transaortic constriction resulted in decreased cardiac function and βAR density and increased cardiac V1AR expression, effects reversed by a V1AR-selective antagonist. Molecularly, V1AR stimulation led to decreased βAR ligand affinity, as well as βAR-induced Ca2+ mobilization and cAMP generation in isolated adult cardiomyocytes, effects recapitulated via ex vivo Langendorff analysis. V1AR-mediated regulation of βAR responsiveness was demonstrated to occur in a previously unrecognized Gq protein-independent/GRK-dependent manner. Conclusions This newly discovered relationship between cardiac V1AR and βAR may be informative for the treatment of patients with acute decompensated HF and elevated AVP. PMID:25205804

  7. Activation and desensitization of nicotinic alpha7-type acetylcholine receptors by benzylidene anabaseines and nicotine.

    PubMed

    Papke, Roger L; Kem, William R; Soti, Ferenc; López-Hernández, Gretchen Y; Horenstein, Nicole A

    2009-05-01

    Nicotinic receptor activation is inextricably linked to desensitization. This duality affects our ability to develop useful therapeutics targeting nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR). Nicotine and some alpha7-selective experimental partial agonists produce a transient activation of alpha7 receptors followed by a period of prolonged residual inhibition or desensitization (RID). The object of the present study was to determine whether RID was primarily due to prolonged desensitization or due to channel block. To make this determination, we used agents that varied significantly in their production of RID and two alpha7-selective positive allosteric modulators (PAMs): 5-hydroxyindole (5HI), a type 1 PAM that does not prevent desensitization; and 1-(5-chloro-2,4-dimethoxy-phenyl)-3-(5-methyl-isoxanol-3-yl)-urea (PNU-120596), a type 2 PAM that reactivates desensitized receptors. The RID-producing compounds nicotine and 3-(2,4-dimethoxybenzylidene)anabaseine (diMeOBA) could obscure the potentiating effects of 5HI. However, through the use of nicotine, diMeOBA, and the RID-negative compound 3-(2,4-dihydroxybenzylidene)anabaseine (diOHBA) in combination with PNU-120596, we confirmed that diMeOBA produces short-lived channel block of alpha7 but that RID is because of the induction of a desensitized state that is stable in the absence of PNU-120596 and activated in the presence of PNU-120596. In contrast, diOHBA produced channel block but only readily reversible desensitization, whereas nicotine produced desensitization that could be converted into activation by PNU-120596 but no demonstrable channel block. Steady-state currents through receptors that would otherwise be desensitized could also be produced by the application of PNU-120596 in the presence of a physiologically relevant concentration of choline (60 microM), which may be significant for the therapeutic development of type 2 PAMs.

  8. Largest vertebrate vomeronasal type 1 receptor gene repertoire in the semiaquatic platypus.

    PubMed

    Grus, Wendy E; Shi, Peng; Zhang, Jianzhi

    2007-10-01

    Vertebrate vomeronasal chemoreception plays important roles in many aspects of an organism's daily life, such as mating, territoriality, and foraging. Vomeronasal type 1 receptors (V1Rs) and vomeronasal type 2 receptors (V2Rs), 2 large families of G protein-coupled receptors, serve as vomeronasal receptors to bind to various pheromones and odorants. Contrary to the previous observations of reduced olfaction in aquatic and semiaquatic mammals, we here report the surprising finding that the platypus, a semiaquatic monotreme, has the largest V1R repertoire and nearly largest combined repertoire of V1Rs and V2Rs of all vertebrates surveyed, with 270 intact genes and 579 pseudogenes in the V1R family and 15 intact genes, 55 potentially intact genes, and 57 pseudogenes in the V2R family. Phylogenetic analysis shows a remarkable expansion of the V1R repertoire and a moderate expansion of the V2R repertoire in platypus since the separation of monotremes from placentals and marsupials. Our results challenge the view that olfaction is unimportant to aquatic mammals and call for further study into the role of vomeronasal reception in platypus physiology and behavior.

  9. Age-associated repression of type 1 inositol 1, 4, 5-triphosphate receptor impairs muscle regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bora; Lee, Seung-Min; Bahn, Young Jae; Lee, Kwang-Pyo; Kang, Moonkyung; Kim, Yeon-Soo; Woo, Sun-Hee; Lim, Jae-Young; Kim, Eunhee; Kwon, Ki-Sun

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle mass and power decrease with age, leading to impairment of mobility and metabolism in the elderly. Ca2+ signaling is crucial for myoblast differentiation as well as muscle contraction through activation of transcription factors and Ca2+-dependent kinases and phosphatases. Ca2+ channels, such as dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR), two-pore channel (TPC) and inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor (ITPR), function to maintain Ca2+ homeostasis in myoblasts. Here, we observed a significant decrease in expression of type 1 IP3 receptor (ITPR1), but not types 2 and 3, in aged mice skeletal muscle and isolated myoblasts, compared with those of young mice. ITPR1 knockdown using shRNA-expressing viruses in C2C12 myoblasts and tibialis anterior muscle of mice inhibited myotube formation and muscle regeneration after injury, respectively, a typical phenotype of aged muscle. This aging phenotype was associated with repression of muscle-specific genes and activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-Ras-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. ERK inhibition by U0126 not only induced recovery of myotube formation in old myoblasts but also facilitated muscle regeneration after injury in aged muscle. The conserved decline in ITPR1 expression in aged human skeletal muscle suggests utility as a potential therapeutic target for sarcopenia, which can be treated using ERK inhibition strategies. PMID:27658230

  10. Detection of interleukin-1 receptors in human epidermis. Induction of the type II receptor after organ culture and in psoriasis.

    PubMed Central

    Groves, R. W.; Sherman, L.; Mizutani, H.; Dower, S. K.; Kupper, T. S.

    1994-01-01

    Normal human epidermis is a rich source of biologically active interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha). Keratinocytes both synthesize this cytokine and respond to it via cell surface receptors (IL-1R), suggesting that the IL-1 system may play an important role in normal epidermal physiology and inflammation. In this study, we have examined the expression of IL-1R in normal and psoriatic epidermis, as judged at a functional level by the capacity to bind 125I-labeled IL-1 alpha (the principal IL-1 species present in epidermis) and by immunostaining with antibodies specific for each species of IL-1R. IL-1R was not readily detectable by either technique in normal, freshly isolated human epidermis. However, in lesional psoriasis or normal epidermis after 24 hours of organ culture, expression of IL-1R was dramatically induced, especially in basal keratinocytes. Immunostaining and antibody blocking studies demonstrated the induced IL-1R to be the type II species, a nonsignal transducing molecule previously demonstrated only on leukocytes. The Ka of this receptor was comparable to that previously demonstrated in vitro. mRNA for both species of IL-1R could be demonstrated by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in fresh and cultured epidermis. These in vivo findings were confirmed in culture, where normal human keratinocytes expressed few IL-1R at rest but large numbers of type II IL-1R after activation by phorbol ester or interferon-gamma. We conclude that under resting conditions, epidermal expression of IL-1R is low. However, the potential for keratinocytes in vivo to express large numbers of the nonsignal transducing type II IL-1R is evident from both organ cultured and psoriatic epidermis. The in vitro induction of keratinocyte IL-1R by interferon-gamma suggests that this cytokine may be involved in the induction of type II IL-1R in inflammatory skin disease. The presence of bioactive IL-1 in epidermis, coupled with the inducible expression of the decoy type II IL

  11. Increase of cardiac M2-muscarinic receptor gene expression in type-1 but not in type-2 diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Liang-Ming; Chang, Cheng Kuei; Cheng, Kai-Chun; Kou, Dai-Huang; Liu, I-Min; Cheng, Juei-Tang

    2008-08-22

    Changes of cardiac M2-muscarinic receptor (M2-mAChR) gene expression was investigated in type-1 like diabetic rats induced by intravenous injection of streptozotocin (STZ) and type-2 like diabetic rats induced by fed with fructose-rich chow. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) in STZ-diabetic rats was significantly lower than that in age-matched non-diabetic rats, while the SBP in type-2 like diabetic rats was higher than in non-diabetic rats. Also, the mRNA or protein level of cardiac M2-mAChR in STZ-diabetic rats was markedly higher than non-diabetic rats, but it was not observed in type-2 like diabetic rats as compared to age-matched non-diabetic rats. Arecaidine propargyl ester (APE), the agonist of M2-mAChR, produced a marked reduction of heart rate in STZ-diabetic rats but made less influence on heart rate in fructose-fed rats or non-diabetic rats. The results suggest that cardiac M2-mAChR gene expression is raised in type-1 like diabetic rats but not in type-2 like diabetic rats, this difference mainly due to hyperglycemia, for the production of hypotension in diabetic disorders.

  12. Ligand-induced type II interleukin-4 receptor dimers are sustained by rapid re-association within plasma membrane microcompartments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, David; Moraga, Ignacio; Winkelmann, Hauke; Birkholz, Oliver; Wilmes, Stephan; Schulte, Markos; Kraich, Michael; Kenneweg, Hella; Beutel, Oliver; Selenschik, Philipp; Paterok, Dirk; Gavutis, Martynas; Schmidt, Thomas; Garcia, K. Christopher; Müller, Thomas D.; Piehler, Jacob

    2017-07-01

    The spatiotemporal organization of cytokine receptors in the plasma membrane is still debated with models ranging from ligand-independent receptor pre-dimerization to ligand-induced receptor dimerization occurring only after receptor uptake into endosomes. Here, we explore the molecular and cellular determinants governing the assembly of the type II interleukin-4 receptor, taking advantage of various agonists binding the receptor subunits with different affinities and rate constants. Quantitative kinetic studies using artificial membranes confirm that receptor dimerization is governed by the two-dimensional ligand-receptor interactions and identify a critical role of the transmembrane domain in receptor dimerization. Single molecule localization microscopy at physiological cell surface expression levels, however, reveals efficient ligand-induced receptor dimerization by all ligands, largely independent of receptor binding affinities, in line with the similar STAT6 activation potencies observed for all IL-4 variants. Detailed spatiotemporal analyses suggest that kinetic trapping of receptor dimers in actin-dependent microcompartments sustains robust receptor dimerization and signalling.

  13. Microvascular vasodilator properties of the angiotensin II type 2 receptor in a mouse model of type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Begorre, Marc-Antoine; Dib, Abdallah; Habchi, Khalil; Guihot, Anne-Laure; Bourreau, Jennifer; Vessieres, Emilie; Blondeau, Bertrand; Loufrani, Laurent; Chabbert, Marie; Henrion, Daniel; Fassot, Céline

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes Mellitus is associated with severe cardiovascular disorders involving the renin-angiotensin system, mainly through activation of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R). Although the type 2 receptor (AT2R) opposes the effects of AT1R, with vasodilator and anti-trophic properties, its role in diabetes is debatable. Thus we investigated AT2R-mediated dilatation in a model of type 1 diabetes induced by streptozotocin in 5-month-old male mice lacking AT2R (AT2R−/y). Glucose tolerance was reduced and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress (cyclooxygenase-2, gp91phox p22phox and p67phox) were increased in AT2R−/y mice compared to wild-type (WT) animals. Streptozotocin-induced hyperglycaemia was higher in AT2R−/y than in WT mice. Arterial gp91phox and MnSOD expression levels in addition to blood 8-isoprostane and creatinine were further increased in diabetic AT2R−/y mice compared to diabetic WT mice. AT2R-dependent dilatation in both isolated mesenteric resistance arteries and perfused kidneys was greater in diabetic mice than in non-diabetic animals. Thus, in type 1 diabetes, AT2R may reduce glycaemia and display anti-oxidant and/or anti-inflammatory properties in association with greater vasodilatation in mesenteric arteries and in the renal vasculature, a major target of diabetes. Therefore AT2R might represent a new therapeutic target in diabetes. PMID:28361992

  14. Defective insulin secretion in pancreatic β cells lacking type 1 IGF receptor

    PubMed Central

    Xuan, Shouhong; Kitamura, Tadahiro; Nakae, Jun; Politi, Katerina; Kido, Yoshiaki; Fisher, Peter E.; Morroni, Manrico; Cinti, Saverio; White, Morris F.; Herrera, Pedro L.; Accili, Domenico; Efstratiadis, Argiris

    2002-01-01

    Defective insulin secretion is a feature of type 2 diabetes that results from inadequate compensatory increase of β cell mass and impaired glucose-dependent insulin release. β cell proliferation and secretion are thought to be regulated by signaling through receptor tyrosine kinases. In this regard, we sought to examine the potential proliferative and/or antiapoptotic role of IGFs in β cells by tissue-specific conditional mutagenesis ablating type 1 IGF receptor (IGF1R) signaling. Unexpectedly, lack of functional IGF1R did not affect β cell mass, but resulted in age-dependent impairment of glucose tolerance, associated with a decrease of glucose- and arginine-dependent insulin release. These observations reveal a requirement of IGF1R-mediated signaling for insulin secretion. PMID:12370279

  15. Attenuated sensitivity to neuroactive steroids in γ-aminobutyrate type A receptor delta subunit knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Mihalek, Robert M.; Banerjee, Pradeep K.; Korpi, Esa R.; Quinlan, Joseph J.; Firestone, Leonard L.; Mi, Zhi-Ping; Lagenaur, Carl; Tretter, Verena; Sieghart, Werner; Anagnostaras, Stephan G.; Sage, Jennifer R.; Fanselow, Michael S.; Guidotti, Alessandro; Spigelman, Igor; Li, Zhiwei; DeLorey, Timothy M.; Olsen, Richard W.; Homanics, Gregg E.

    1999-01-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) type A receptors mediate fast inhibitory synaptic transmission and have been implicated in responses to sedative/hypnotic agents (including neuroactive steroids), anxiety, and learning and memory. Using gene targeting technology, we generated a strain of mice deficient in the δ subunit of the GABA type A receptors. In vivo testing of various behavioral responses revealed a strikingly selective attenuation of responses to neuroactive steroids, but not to other modulatory drugs. Electrophysiological recordings from hippocampal slices revealed a significantly faster miniature inhibitory postsynaptic current decay time in null mice, with no change in miniature inhibitory postsynaptic current amplitude or frequency. Learning and memory assessed with fear conditioning were normal. These results begin to illuminate the novel contributions of the δ subunit to GABA pharmacology and sedative/hypnotic responses and behavior and provide insights into the physiology of neurosteroids. PMID:10536021

  16. Receptor-type guanylate cyclase is required for carbon dioxide sensation by Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Hallem, Elissa A.; Spencer, W. Clay; McWhirter, Rebecca D.; Zeller, Georg; Henz, Stefan R.; Rätsch, Gunnar; Miller, David M.; Horvitz, H. Robert; Sternberg, Paul W.; Ringstad, Niels

    2011-01-01

    CO2 is both a critical regulator of animal physiology and an important sensory cue for many animals for host detection, food location, and mate finding. The free-living soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans shows CO2 avoidance behavior, which requires a pair of ciliated sensory neurons, the BAG neurons. Using in vivo calcium imaging, we show that CO2 specifically activates the BAG neurons and that the CO2-sensing function of BAG neurons requires TAX-2/TAX-4 cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels and the receptor-type guanylate cyclase GCY-9. Our results delineate a molecular pathway for CO2 sensing and suggest that activation of a receptor-type guanylate cyclase is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism by which animals detect environmental CO2. PMID:21173231

  17. Receptor-type guanylate cyclase is required for carbon dioxide sensation by Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Hallem, Elissa A; Spencer, W Clay; McWhirter, Rebecca D; Zeller, Georg; Henz, Stefan R; Rätsch, Gunnar; Miller, David M; Horvitz, H Robert; Sternberg, Paul W; Ringstad, Niels

    2011-01-04

    CO(2) is both a critical regulator of animal physiology and an important sensory cue for many animals for host detection, food location, and mate finding. The free-living soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans shows CO(2) avoidance behavior, which requires a pair of ciliated sensory neurons, the BAG neurons. Using in vivo calcium imaging, we show that CO(2) specifically activates the BAG neurons and that the CO(2)-sensing function of BAG neurons requires TAX-2/TAX-4 cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels and the receptor-type guanylate cyclase GCY-9. Our results delineate a molecular pathway for CO(2) sensing and suggest that activation of a receptor-type guanylate cyclase is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism by which animals detect environmental CO(2).

  18. Hippocampal pyramidal neurons comprise two distinct cell types that are countermodulated by metabotropic receptors

    PubMed Central

    Graves, Austin R; Moore, Shannon J; Bloss, Erik B; Mensh, Brett D; Kath, William L; Spruston, Nelson

    2012-01-01

    Summary Relating the function of neuronal cell types to information processing and behavior is a central goal of neuroscience. In the hippocampus, pyramidal cells in CA1 and the subiculum process sensory and motor cues to form a cognitive map encoding spatial, contextual, and emotional information, which they transmit throughout the brain. Do these cells constitute a single class, or are there multiple cell types with specialized functions? Using unbiased cluster analysis, we show that there are two morphologically and electrophysiologically distinct principal cell types that carry hippocampal output. We show further that these two cell types are inversely modulated by the synergistic action of glutamate and acetylcholine acting on metabotropic receptors that are central to hippocampal function. Combined with prior connectivity studies, our results support a model of hippocampal processing in which the two pyramidal cell types are predominantly segregated into two parallel pathways that process distinct modalities of information. PMID:23177962

  19. The activating receptor NKp46 is essential for the development of type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Gur, Chamutal; Porgador, Angel; Elboim, Moran; Gazit, Roi; Mizrahi, Saar; Stern-Ginossar, Noam; Achdout, Hagit; Ghadially, Hormas; Dor, Yuval; Nir, Tomer; Doviner, Victoria; Hershkovitz, Oren; Mendelson, Michal; Naparstek, Yaakov; Mandelboim, Ofer

    2010-02-01

    The mechanism of action of natural killer (NK) cells in type 1 diabetes is still unknown. Here we show that the activating receptor NKp46 recognizes mouse and human ligands on pancreatic beta cells. NK cells appeared in the pancreas when insulitis progressed to type 1 diabetes, and NKp46 engagement by beta cells led to degranulation of NK cells. NKp46-deficient mice had less development of type 1 diabetes induced by injection of a low dose of streptozotocin. Injection of soluble NKp46 proteins into nonobese diabetic mice during the early phase of insulitis and the prediabetic stage prevented the development of type 1 diabetes. Our findings demonstrate that NKp46 is essential for the development of type 1 diabetes and highlight potential new therapeutic modalities for this disease.

  20. Angiotensin II Type 2 Receptor Decreases Transforming Growth Factor-β Type II Receptor Expression and Function in Human Renal Proximal Tubule Cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hui-Lin; Liao, Xiao-Hui; Liu, Qi; Zhang, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), via its receptors, induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and plays an important role in the development of renal tubulointersitial fibrosis. Angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R), which mediates beneficial renal physiological functions, has received attention as a prospective therapeutic target for renoprotection. In this study, we investigated the effect and underlying mechanism of AT2R on the TGF-β receptor II (TGF-βRII) expression and function in human proximal tubular cells (HK-2). Here, we show that the AT2R agonist CGP42112A decreased TGF-βRII protein expression in a concentration- and time-dependent manner in HK-2 cells. The inhibitory effect of the AT2R on TGF-βRII expression was blocked by the AT2R antagonists PD123319 or PD123177. Stimulation with TGF-β1 enhanced EMT in HK-2 cells, which was prevented by pre-treatment with CGP42112A. One of mechanisms in this regulation is associated with the increased TGF-βRII degradation after activation of AT2R. Furthermore, laser confocal immunofluorescence microscopy showed that AT2R and TGF-βRII colocalized in HK-2 cells. AT2R and TGF-βRII coimmunoprecipitated and this interaction was increased after AT2R agonist stimulation for 30 min. The inhibitory effect of the AT2R on TGF-βRII expression was also blocked by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME, indicating that nitric oxide is involved in the signaling pathway. Taken together, our study indicates that the renal AT2R regulates TGF-βRII expression and function via the nitric oxide pathway, which may be important in the control of renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis.

  1. Localization of Type I Interferon Receptor Limits Interferon-Induced TLR3 in Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ciencewicki, Jonathan M.; Brighton, Luisa E.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that influenza infections increase Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) expression and that type I interferons (IFNs) may play a role in this response. This study aimed to expand on the role of type I IFNs in the influenza-induced upregulation of TLR3 and determine whether and how the localization of the IFN-α/β receptor (IFNAR) in respiratory epithelial cells could modify IFN-induced responses. Using differentiated primary human airway epithelial cells this study demonstrates that soluble mediators secreted in response to influenza infection upregulate TLR3 expression in naive cells. This response was associated with an upregulation of type I IFNs and stimulation with type I, but not type II, IFNs enhanced TLR3 expression. Interestingly, although influenza infection results in IFN-β release both toward the apical and basolateral sides of the epithelium, TLR3 expression is only enhanced in cells stimulated with IFN-β from the basolateral side. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrates that IFNAR expression is limited to the basolateral side of differentiated human airway epithelial cells. However, non- or poorly differentiated epithelial cells express IFNAR more toward the apical side. These data demonstrate that restricted expression of the IFNAR in the differentiated airway epithelium presents a potential mechanism of regulating type I IFN-induced TLR3 expression. PMID:19231996

  2. Brain microvessel endothelin type A receptors are coupled to ceramide production.

    PubMed

    Collado, M Pilar; Latorre, Eduardo; Fernández, Inmaculada; Aragonés, M Dolores; Catalán, R Edgardo

    2003-06-20

    Treatment of brain microvessels with endothelin-1 evoked an early decrease in the sphingomyelin levels concomitantly with an increase in those of ceramides. These responses were time- and concentration-dependent. Evidence also shows that endothelin type A receptors are involved. This is the first report on the involvement of an agonist in the regulation of the ceramide signal transduction system on blood-brain barrier and shows a new pathway likely involved in the regulation of the cerebral microvascular functioning.

  3. Different Involvement of Type 1, 2, and 3 Ryanodine Receptors in Memory Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galeotti, Nicoletta; Quattrone, Alessandro; Vivoli, Elisa; Norcini, Monica; Bartolini, Alessandro; Ghelardini, Carla

    2008-01-01

    The administration of the ryanodine receptor (RyR) agonist 4-Cmc (0.003-9 nmol per mouse intracerebroventricularly [i.c.v.]) ameliorated memory functions, whereas the RyR antagonist ryanodine (0.0001-1 nmol per mouse i.c.v.) induced amnesia in the mouse passive avoidance test. The role of the type 1, 2, and 3 RyR isoforms in memory processes was…

  4. Impaired Expression of Type I and Type II Interferon Receptors in HCV-Associated Chronic Liver Disease and Liver Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Partha K.; Gunduz, Feyza; Hazari, Sidhartha; Kurt, Ramazan; Panigrahi, Rajesh; Poat, Bret; Bruce, David; Cohen, Ari J.; Behorquez, Humberto E.; Carmody, Ian; Loss, George; Balart, Luis A.; Wu, Tong; Dash, Srikanta

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Chronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)-infected patients with liver cirrhosis (LC) respond poorly to interferon-alpha (IFN-α) and ribavirin (RBV) combination therapy, but the reason for this is unclear. We previously reported that HCV-infection induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and autophagy response that selectively down regulates the type I IFN-α receptor-1 (IFNAR1) and RBV transporters (CNT1 and ENT1), leading to IFN-α/RBV resistance. The goal of this study is to verify whether an increase in ER stress and autophagy response is also associated with the reduced expression of IFNAR1 and RBV transporters in chronic HCV-infected patients. Methods Primary human hepatocytes (PHH) were infected with cell culture grown HCV particles (JFH-ΔV3-Rluc). HCV replication was confirmed by the detection of viral RNA by RT-qPCR and HCV-core protein by Western blotting. The ER stress and autophagy response and expression of IFN receptors and RBV transporters in HCV infected PHH and liver tissues derived from patients were measured by Western blotting. Result HCV infection of PHH showed impaired expression of IFNAR1, IFNγR1 (Type II IFN receptor) and RBV transporters but not IL10Rβ (Type III IFN-λ receptor). ER stress markers (BiP, IRE1α and peIF2α) and autophagy response (LC3II, Beclin 1 and ATG5) were induced in HCV infected chronic liver disease (CLD) and LC patients. Liver biopsies (CLD) show a 50% reduced expression of IFNAR1 and RBV transporters. Furthermore, the expression of IFNAR1 and RBV transporters was impaired in almost all LC patients. Conclusion HCV infection induces ER stress and autophagy response in infected PHH and chronically infected liver tissues. The expression of IFNAR1, IFNγR1 and RBV transporters were significantly impaired in CLD and cirrhotic livers. Our study provides a potential explanation for the reduced response rate of IFN-α and RBV combination therapy in HCV infected patients with liver cirrhosis. PMID:25265476

  5. Neurotensin, a novel target of Wnt/β-catenin pathway, promotes growth of neuroendocrine tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Tae; Liu, Chunming; Zaytseva, Yekaterina Y.; Weiss, Heidi L.; Townsend, Courtney M.; Evers, B. Mark

    2014-01-01

    Wnt/β-catenin signaling plays a pivotal role in regulating cell growth and differentiation by activation of the β-catenin/T-cell factor (TCF) complex and subsequent regulation of a set of target genes that have one or more TCF-binding elements (TBEs). Hyperactivation of this pathway has been implicated in numerous malignancies including human neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Neurotensin (NT), an intestinal hormone, induces proliferation of several gastrointestinal (GI) cancers including cancers of the pancreas and colon. Here, we analyzed the human NT promoter in silico and found at least four consensus TBEs within the proximal promoter region. Using a combination of ChIP and luciferase reporter assays, we identified one TBE (located approximately 900 bp proximal from the transcription start site) that was immunoprecipitated efficiently by TCF4-targeting antibody; mutation of this site attenuated the responsiveness to β-catenin. We also confirmed that the promoter activity and the mRNA and protein expression levels of NT were increased by various Wnt pathway activators and decreased by Wnt inhibitors in NET cell lines BON and QGP-1, which express and secrete NT. Similarly, the intracellular content and secretion of NT were induced by Wnt3a in these cells. Finally, inhibition of NT signaling suppressed cell proliferation and anchorage-independent growth and decreased expression levels of growth-related proteins in NET cells. Our results indicate that NT is a direct target of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and may be a mediator for NET cell growth. PMID:25098665

  6. Neurotensin in the posterior thalamic paraventricular nucleus: inhibitor of pharmacologically relevant ethanol drinking.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Surya; Badve, Preeti S; Curtis, Genevieve R; Leibowitz, Sarah F; Barson, Jessica R

    2017-09-06

    Individuals prone to ethanol overconsumption may have preexisting neurochemical disturbances that contribute to their vulnerability. This study examined the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (PVT), a limbic structure recently shown to participate in ethanol intake. To identify individuals prone to ethanol overconsumption, we tested Long-Evans rats in behavioral paradigms and found high levels of vertical time (rearing behavior) in a novel activity chamber to be a consistent predictor of subsequent excessive 20 percent ethanol drinking under the intermittent access model. Examining neurochemicals in the PVT, we found before ethanol exposure that prone rats with high rearing, compared with non-prone rats, had significantly lower levels of neurotensin (NTS) mRNA and peptide in the posterior (pPVT) but not anterior (aPVT) subregion of the PVT. Our additional finding that ethanol intake has no significant impact on either rearing or NTS levels indicates that these measures, which are different in prone rats before ethanol consumption, remain stable after ethanol consumption. The possibility that NTS directly controls ethanol drinking is supported by our finding that NTS administration specifically suppresses ethanol drinking when injected into the pPVT but not aPVT, with this effect occurring exclusively in higher drinkers that presumably have lower endogenous levels of NTS. Further, an NTS antagonist in the pPVT augments intake in lower drinkers with presumably more endogenous NTS, while NTS in the pPVT inhibits novelty-induced rearing that predicts excessive drinking. Together, these results provide strong evidence that low endogenous levels of NTS in the pPVT contribute to an increased propensity toward excessive ethanol drinking. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  7. Haemodynamic and abdominal motor reflexes elicited by neurotensin in anaesthetized guinea-pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Rioux, F.; Lemieux, M.

    1992-01-01

    1. Single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of neurotensin (NT) (0.14- 140 nmol kg-1) in anaesthetized guinea-pigs were found to trigger transient abdominal wall contractions (TAWC) accompanied by relatively sustained increases of systemic blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR). The modification of the latter NT effects by various drugs and surgical manipulations was examined to obtain some insight into the nature of, and possible relationship between, these responses. 2. The abdominal motor response (i.e. TAWC) to i.p. NT (14 nmol kg-1) was inhibited by prior i.v. injection of the guinea-pigs with pancuronium (0.27 mumol kg-1), morphine (1.5 and 15 mumol kg-1), clonidine (0.34 mumol kg-1), by concomitant i.p. injection of procaine 2% w/v, or by acute spinalization. It was potentiated by naloxone (2.8 and 28 mumol kg-1), but not affected by i.v. injection of autonomic drugs (i.e. pentolinium, prazosin, yohimbine and atropine), by capsaicin desensitization, or by acute bilateral cervical vagotomy. In spinalized animals a sustained abdominal wall contraction (SAWC) was unmasked, which was resistant to i.v. morphine, clonidine or baclofen but suppressed by i.v. pancuronium or i.p. lignocaine 2% w/v. 3. Haemodynamic responses to i.p. NT were not affected by i.v. pancuronium, morphine, naloxone, atropine, or by vagotomy. They were inhibited by i.v. pentolinium or clonidine (BP, HR), i.v. prazosin (BP), i.p. procaine 2% w/v (BP, HR), capsaicin desensitization or acute spinalization (BP, HR). Yohimbine (i.v.) potentiated BP and HR increases caused by i.p. NT.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1504727

  8. Neurotensin releases norepinephrine differentially from perfused hypothalamus of sated and fasted rat

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, T.F.; Rezvani, A.H.; Hepler, J.R.; Myers, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    The central injection of neurotensin (NT) has been reported to attenuate the intake of food in the fasted animal. To determine whether endogenous norepinephrine (NE) is involved in the satiating effect of NT, the in vivo activity of NE in circumscribed sites in the hypothalamus of the unanesthetized rat was examined. Bilateral guide tubes for push-pull perfusion were implanted stereotaxically to rest permanently above one of several intended sites of perfusion, which included the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), ventromedial nucleus (VMN), and the lateral hypothalamic (LH) area. After endogenous stores of NE at a specific hypothalamic locus were radiolabeled by microinjection of 0.02-0.5 ..mu..Ci of (/sup 3/H)NE, an artificial cerebrospinal fluid was perfused at the site at a rate of 20 ..mu..l/min over successive intervals of 5.0 min. When 0.05 or 0.1 ..mu..g/..mu..l NT was added to the perfusate, the peptide served either to enhance or educe the local release of NE at 50% of the sites of perfusion. In these experiments, the circumscribed effect of NT on the characteristics of catecholamine efflux depended entirely on the state of hunger or satiety of the rat. That is, when NT was perfused in the fully satiated rat, NE release was augmented within the PVn or VMN; conversely, NE release was inhibited in the LH. in the animal fasted for 18-22 h, NT exerted an opposite effect on the activity of NE within the same anatomical loci in that the efflux of NE was enhanced in the LH but attenuated or unaffected in the PVN or VMN. Taken together, these observations provide experimental support for the view-point that NT could act as a neuromodulator of the activity of hypothalamic noradrenergic neurons that are thought to play a functional role in the regulation of food intake.

  9. Renoprotective effects of a combined endothelin type A/type B receptor antagonist in experimental malignant hypertension.

    PubMed

    Kohno, M; Yokokawa, K; Yasunari, K; Kano, H; Minami, M; Ueda, M; Tatsumi, Y; Yoshikawa, J

    1997-09-01

    We previously showed that plasma endothelin-1 (ET-1) concentration was increased in deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt-induced malignant hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). In contrast, in normal SHR, this value is similar to that seen in Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the new combined ET type A/type B (ETA/B) receptor antagonist, TAK-044, on the development of hypertension in this model of malignant hypertension. TAK-044 10 mg/kg, which effectively blocks both ETA and ETB receptors, was administered intraperitoneally once per day for 4 weeks in DOCA-salt SHR, and the effects on ET-1 and other parameters were compared with the same values in untreated WKY rats, untreated DOCA-salt SHR, and hydralazine-treated DOCA-salt SHR. DOCA-salt caused marked increases in blood pressure, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine, and plasma ET-1 concentrations in SHR. Both TAK-044 and hydralazine significantly suppressed the increase in blood pressure in DOCA-salt SHR to the same extent. Both treatments also suppressed the increase in BUN and serum creatinine, but this attenuation was less marked with hydralazine than with TAK-044. Neither TAK-044 nor hydralazine affected plasma ET-1 concentration in this model. TAK-044 significantly reduced kidney weight in DOCA-salt SHR, whereas the decrease seen with hydralazine was less marked. Prevention of DOCA-salt-induced renal structural injury (mesangial hypercellularity, glomerular sclerotic changes, and tubulointerstitial damage) in this model was clearly greater with TAK-044 treatment than with hydralazine treatment. These results suggest that endogenous ET-1 may, at least in part, contribute to renal functional and structural damage in malignant DOCA-salt SHR. Our results raise the possibility of renoprotective effects of ETA/B receptor blockers in certain forms of malignant hypertension.

  10. Patterns of Müllerian Inhibiting Substance Type II and Candidate Type I Receptors in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer†

    PubMed Central

    Basal, E.; Ayeni, T.; Zhang, Q.; Langstraat, C.; Donahoe, P.K.; Pepin, D.; Yin, X.; Leof, E.; Cliby, W.

    2016-01-01

    The MIS pathway is a potential therapeutic target in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC): signaling requires both type II (T2R) and type I receptors (T1R), and results in growth inhibition. MISR2 is expressed in EOC, but the prevalence and relative contributions of candidate T1R remain unknown. We sought to: a) determine expression of T1R in EOC; b) assess impact of T1R expression with clinical outcomes; c) verify MIS-dependent Smad signaling and growth inhibition in primary EOC cell cultures. Tissue microarrays (TMA) were developed for analysis of T1Rs (ALK2/3/6) and MISR2 expression. Primary cell cultures were initiated from ascites harvested at surgery which were used to characterize response to MIS. TMA’s from 311 primary cancers demonstrated the most common receptor combinations were: MISR2+/ALK2+3+6+ (36%); MISR2+/ALK2+3+6- (34%); MISR2-/ALK2+3+6- (18%); and MISR2-/ALK2+3+6+ (6.8%). No differences in overall survival (OS) were noted between combinations. The ALK6 receptor was least often expressed T1R and was associated with lower OS in early stage disease only (p =0.03). Most primary cell cultures expressed MISR2 (14/22 (63.6%)): 95% of these express ALK 2 and ALK3, whereas 54.5% expressed ALK6. MIS-dependent Smad phosphorylation was seen in the majority of cultures (75%). Treatment with MIS led to reduced cell viability at an average of 71% (range: 57–87%) in primary cultures. MIS signaling is dependent upon the presence of both MISR2 and specific T1R. In the majority of EOC, the T1R required for MIS-dependent signaling are present and such cells demonstrate appropriate response to MIS. PMID:26917267

  11. Atlantic salmon possesses two clusters of type I interferon receptor genes on different chromosomes, which allows for a larger repertoire of interferon receptors than in zebrafish and mammals.

    PubMed

    Sun, Baojian; Greiner-Tollersrud, Linn; Koop, Ben F; Robertsen, Børre

    2014-12-01

    Mammalian type I interferons (IFNs) signal through a receptor composed of the IFNAR1 and IFNAR2 chains. In zebrafish two-cysteine IFNs utilize a receptor composed of CRFB1 and CRFB5, while four-cysteine IFNs signal through a receptor formed by CRFB2 and CRFB5. In the present work two CRFB clusters were identified in different chromosomes of Atlantic salmon. Genes of three CRFB5s, one CRFB1, one CRFB2 and the novel CRFB5x were identified, cloned and studied functionally. All CRFBs were expressed in 10 different organs, but the relative expression of CRFBs varied. Mx-reporter assay was used to study which CRFBs might be involved in receptors for salmon IFNa, IFNb and IFNc. The results of Mx-reporter assays suggest that IFNa signals through a receptor composed of CRFB1a as the long chain and either CRFB5a, CRFB5b or CRFB5c as the short chain; IFNc signals through a receptor with CRFB5a or CRFB5c as the short chain while IFNb may signal through a receptor with CRFB5x as a short chain. Taken together, the present work demonstrates that Atlantic salmon has a more diverse repertoire of type I IFN receptors compared to zebrafish or mammals.

  12. Structural Basis of Interaction Between Urokinase-type Plasminogen Activator and its Receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Barinka,C.; Parry, G.; Callahan, J.; Shaw, D.; Kuo, A.; Cines, B.; Mazar, A.; Lubkowski, J.

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that binding of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) to its high-affinity receptor (uPAR) orchestrates uPAR interactions with other cellular components that play a pivotal role in diverse (patho-)physiological processes, including wound healing, angiogenesis, inflammation, and cancer metastasis. However, notwithstanding the wealth of biochemical data available describing the activities of uPAR, little is known about the exact mode of uPAR/uPA interactions or the presumed conformational changes that accompany uPA/uPAR engagement. Here, we report the crystal structure of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR), which contains the three domains of the wild-type receptor but lacks the cell-surface anchoring sequence, in complex with the amino-terminal fragment of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (ATF), at the resolution of 2.8 {angstrom}. We report the 1.9 {angstrom} crystal structure of free ATF. Our results provide a structural basis, represented by conformational changes induced in uPAR, for several published biochemical observations describing the nature of uPAR/uPA interactions and provide insight into mechanisms that may be responsible for the cellular responses induced by uPA binding.

  13. Structure and function of the type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor.

    PubMed

    Adams, T E; Epa, V C; Garrett, T P; Ward, C W

    2000-07-01

    The type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R), a transmembrane tyrosine kinase, is widely expressed across many cell types in foetal and postnatal tissues. Activation of the receptor following binding of the secreted growth factor ligands IGF-1 and IGF-2 elicits a repertoire of cellular responses including proliferation, and the protection of cells from programmed cell death or apoptosis. As a result, signalling through the IGF-1R is the principal pathway responsible for somatic growth in foetal mammals, whereas somatic growth in postnatal animals is achieved through the synergistic interaction of growth hormone and the IGFs. Forced overexpression of the IGF-1R results in the malignant transformation of cultured cells: conversely, downregulation of IGF-1R levels can reverse the transformed phenotype of tumour cells, and may render them sensitive to apoptosis in vivo. Elevated levels of IGF-IR are observed in a variety of human tumour types, whereas epidemiological studies implicate the IGF-1 axis as a predisposing factor in the pathogenesis of human breast and prostate cancer. The IGF-1R has thus emerged as a therapeutic target for the development of antitumour agents. Recent progress towards the elucidation of the three-dimensional structure of the extracellular domain of the IGF-1R represents an opportunity for the rational assembly of small molecule antagonists of receptor function for clinical use.

  14. Leptin- and Leptin Receptor-Deficient Rodent Models: Relevance for Human Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bingxuan; P., Charukeshi Chandrasekera; Pippin, John J.

    2014-01-01

    Among the most widely used animal models in obesity-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) research are the congenital leptin- and leptin receptor-deficient rodent models. These include the leptin-deficient ob/ob mice and the leptin receptor-deficient db/db mice, Zucker fatty rats, Zucker diabetic fatty rats, SHR/N-cp rats, and JCR:LA-cp rats. After decades of mechanistic and therapeutic research schemes with these animal models, many species differences have been uncovered, but researchers continue to overlook these differences, leading to untranslatable research. The purpose of this review is to analyze and comprehensively recapitulate the most common leptin/leptin receptor-based animal models with respect to their relevance and translatability to human T2DM. Our analysis revealed that, although these rodents develop obesity due to hyperphagia caused by abnormal leptin/leptin receptor signaling with the subsequent appearance of T2DM-like manifestations, these are in fact secondary to genetic mutations that do not reflect disease etiology in humans, for whom leptin or leptin receptor deficiency is not an important contributor to T2DM. A detailed comparison of the roles of genetic susceptibility, obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, and diabetic complications as well as leptin expression, signaling, and other factors that confound translation are presented here. There are substantial differences between these animal models and human T2DM that limit reliable, reproducible, and translatable insight into human T2DM. Therefore, it is imperative that researchers recognize and acknowledge the limitations of the leptin/leptin receptor-based rodent models and invest in research methods that would be directly and reliably applicable to humans in order to advance T2DM management. PMID:24809394

  15. Activation Induces Structural Changes in the Liganded Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor*

    PubMed Central

    Clément, Martin; Cabana, Jérôme; Holleran, Brian J.; Leduc, Richard; Guillemette, Gaétan; Lavigne, Pierre; Escher, Emanuel

    2009-01-01

    The octapeptide hormone angiotensin II (AngII) binds to and activates the human angiotensin II type 1 receptor (hAT1) of the G protein-coupled receptor class A family. Several activation mechanisms have been proposed for this family, but they have not yet been experimentally validated. We previously used the methionine proximity assay to show that 11 residues in transmembrane domain (TMD) III, VI, and VII of the hAT1 receptor reside in close proximity to the C-terminal residue of AngII. With the exception of a single change in TMD VI, the same contacts are present on N111G-hAT1, a constitutively active mutant; this N111G-hAT1 is a model for the active form of the receptor. In this study, two series of 53 individual methionine mutations were constructed in TMD I, II, IV, and V on both receptor forms. The mutants were photolabeled with a neutral antagonist, 125I-[Sar1,p-benzoyl-l-Phe8]AngII, and the resulting complexes were digested with cyanogen bromide. Although no new contacts were found for the hAT1 mutants, two were found in the constitutively active mutants, Phe-77 in TMD II and Asn-200 in TMD V. To our knowledge, this is the first time that a direct ligand contact with TMD II and TMD V has been reported. These contact point differences were used to identify the structural changes between the WT-hAT1 and N111G-hAT1 complexes through homology-based modeling and restrained molecular dynamics. The model generated revealed an important structural rearrangement of several TMDs from the basal to the activated form in the WT-hAT1 receptor. PMID:19635801

  16. Optimization of Escherichia coli cultivation methods for high yield neuropeptide Y receptor type 2 production.

    PubMed

    Berger, Christian; Montag, Cindy; Berndt, Sandra; Huster, Daniel

    2011-03-01

    The recombinant expression of human G protein-coupled receptors usually yields low production levels using commonly available cultivation protocols. Here, we describe the development of a high yield production protocol for the human neuropeptide Y receptor type 2 (Y2R), which provides the determination of expression levels in a time, media composition, and process parameter dependent manner. Protein was produced by Escherichia coli in a defined medium composition suitable for isotopic labeling required for investigations by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The Y2 receptor was fused to a C-terminal 8x histidine tag by means of the pET vector system for easy one-step purification via affinity chromatography, yielding a purity of 95-99% for every condition tested, which was determined by SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis. The Y2 receptor was expressed as inclusion body aggregates in complex media and minimal media, using different carbon sources. We investigated the influences of media composition, temperature, pH, and set specific growth rate on cell behavior, biomass wet weight specific and culture volume specific amounts of the target protein, which had been identified by inclusion body preparation, solubilization, followed by purification and spectrometric determination of the protein concentration. The developed process control strategy led to very high reproducibility of cell growth and protein concentrations with a maximum yield of 800 μg purified Y2 receptor per gram wet biomass when glycerol was used as carbon source in the mineral salt medium composition (at 38 °C, pH 7.0, and a set specific growth rate of 0.14 g/(gh)). The maximum biomass specific amount of purified Y2 receptor enabled the production of 35 mg Y2R per liter culture medium at an optical density (600 nm) of 25.

  17. Characterization of a tyramine receptor type 2 from hemocytes of rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shun-Fan; Xu, Gang; Ye, Gong-Yin

    2015-04-01

    Calcium acts as a second messenger in many cell types, including insect hemocytes. Intracellular calcium level has a definite role in innate and adaptive immune signaling. Biogenic amines such as octopamine (OA), tyramine (TA), dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) play various important physiological roles in insects by activating distinct G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that share a putative seven transmembrane domain structure. OA and 5-HT have been shown that can mediate insect hemocytic immune reactions to infections and invasions. Here, we showed that TA increase hemocyte spreading in the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis. Furthermore, we cloned a cDNA encoding a tyramine receptor type 2 from the hemocytes in the C. suppressalis, viz., CsTA2, which shares high sequence similarity to members of the invertebrate tyramine receptor family. The CsTA2 receptor was stably expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells, and its ligand response has been examined. Receptor activation with TA induced a dose-dependent increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in cells, with an EC50 value of 18.7±5.3 nM, whereas OA, DA, 5-HT and other potential agonists did not have this response. The mRNA is present in various tissues including nerve cord, hemocytes, fat body, midgut, Malpighian tubules, and epidermis in the larval stage. Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry assay displayed that CsTA2 was detected and presented on hemocytes. We also showed that TA induced Ca(2+) release from the hemocytes of C. suppressalis.

  18. Neurotensin polyplex as an efficient carrier for delivering the human GDNF gene into nigral dopamine neurons of hemiparkinsonian rats.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Barrios, Juan A; Lindahl, Maria; Bannon, Michael J; Anaya-Martínez, Veronica; Flores, Gonzalo; Navarro-Quiroga, Ivan; Trudeau, Louis E; Aceves, Jorge; Martinez-Arguelles, Daniel B; Garcia-Villegas, Refugio; Jiménez, Ismael; Segovia, Jose; Martinez-Fong, Daniel

    2006-12-01

    Recently we showed that the neurotensin polyplex is a nanoparticle carrier system that targets reporter genes in nigral dopamine neurons in vivo. Herein, we report its first practical application in experimental parkinsonism, which consisted of transfecting dopamine neurons with the gene coding for human glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (hGDNF). Hemiparkinsonism was induced in rats by a single dose of 6-hydroxydopamine (30 microg) into the ventrolateral part of the striatum. We showed that transfection of the hGDNF gene into the substantia nigra of rats 1 week after the neurotoxin injection produced biochemical, anatomical, and functional recovery from hemiparkinsonism. RT-PCR analysis showed mRNA expression of exogenous hGDNF in the transfected substantia nigra. Western blot analysis verified transgene expression by recognizing the flag epitope added at the C-terminus of the hGDNF polypeptide, which was found mainly in dopamine neurons by double immunofluorescence techniques. These data indicate that the neurotensin polyplex holds great promise for the neuroprotective therapy of Parkinson disease.

  19. Imbalance of angiotensin type 1 receptor and angiotensin II type 2 receptor in the rostral ventrolateral medulla: potential mechanism for sympathetic overactivity in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lie; Wang, Wei-Zhong; Wang, Wei; Zucker, Irving H

    2008-10-01

    Upregulation of angiotensin II type 1 receptors (AT(1)R) in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) contributes to the sympathoexcitation in the chronic heart failure (CHF). However, the role of angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT(2)R) is not clear. In this study, we measured AT(1)R and AT(2)R protein expression in the RVLM and determined their effects on renal sympathetic nerve activity, blood pressure, and heart rate in anesthetized sham and CHF rats. We found that (1) although AT(1)R expression in the RVLM was upregulated, the AT(2)R was significantly downregulated (CHF: 0.06+/-0.02 versus sham: 0.15+/-0.02, P<0.05); (2) simultaneously stimulating RVLM AT(1)R and AT(2)R by angiotensin II evoked sympathoexcitation, hypertension, and tachycardia in both sham and CHF rats with greater responses in CHF; (3) stimulating RVLM AT1R with angiotensin II plus the specific AT(2)R antagonist PD123319 induced a larger sympathoexcitatory response than simultaneously stimulating AT(1)R and AT(2)R in sham rats, but not in CHF; (4) activating RVLM AT(2)R with CGP42112 induced a sympathoinhibition, hypotension, and bradycardia only in sham rats (renal sympathetic nerve activity: 36.4+/-5.1% of baseline versus 102+/-3.9% of baseline in artificial cerebrospinal fluid, P<0.05); (5) pretreatment with 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid, a general inhibitor of arachidonic acid metabolism, into the RVLM attenuates the CGP42112-induced sympathoinhibition. These results suggest that AT(2)R in the RVLM exhibits an inhibitory effect on sympathetic outflow, which is, at least partially, mediated by an arachidonic acid metabolic pathway. These data implicate a downregulation in the AT(2)R as a contributory factor in the sympathoexcitation in CHF.

  20. Fscn1 is required for the trafficking of TGF-β family type I receptors during endoderm formation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhaoting; Ning, Guozhu; Xu, Ranran; Cao, Yu; Meng, Anming; Wang, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Microtubules function in TGF-β signalling by facilitating the cytoplasmic trafficking of internalized receptors and the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of Smads. However, nothing is known about whether actin filaments are required for these processes. Here we report that zebrafish actin-bundling protein fscn1a is highly expressed in mesendodermal precursors and its expression is directly regulated by the TGF-β superfamily member Nodal. Knockdown or knockout of fscn1a leads to a reduction of Nodal signal transduction and endoderm formation in zebrafish embryos. Fscn1 specifically interacts with TGF-β family type I receptors, and its depletion disrupts the association between receptors and actin filaments and sequesters the internalized receptors into clathrin-coated vesicles. Therefore, Fscn1 acts as a molecular linker between TGF-β family type I receptors and the actin filaments to promote the trafficking of internalized receptors from clathrin-coated vesicles to early endosomes during zebrafish endoderm formation. PMID:27545838

  1. Enterotoxin/guanylin receptor type guanylyl cyclases in non-mammalian vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Nakauchi, Mina; Suzuki, Norio

    2005-05-01

    Cyclic GMP is a ubiquitous intracellular second messenger produced by guanylyl cyclases (GCs). The enterotoxin/guanylin receptor type membrane GC (designated as GC-C in mammals) is activated by exogenous ligands such as heat-stable enterotoxins (STa), small peptides secreted by some pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli which cause severe secretory diarrhea and also activated by endogenous ligands such as guanylin and uroguanylin. The STa/guanylin receptor type membrane GC, as well as other type membrane GCs, is composed of an extracellular domain, a single transmembrane domain, and an intracellular region comprising a kinase-like domain and a catalytic domain. The STa/guanylin receptor type membrane GC is identified in various vertebrates including fishes, amphibians, reptiles, and birds, implying that it serves some important and undefined physiological roles in the intestine of non-mammalian vertebrates, e.g. the regulation of water and salt absorption. In mammals, only a single membrane GC (GC-C) is known to be the STa/guanylin receptor. On the contrary, two membrane GC cDNAs are cloned from the intestine of the European eel Anguilla anguilla (GC-C1 and GC-C2) and the medaka fish Oryzias latipes (OlGC6 and OlGC9). OlGC6 and OlGC9 are structurally distinct and show different ligand responsibility. Accumulated evidences indicate that the transcriptional regulatory mechanism of the human GC-C gene is different from that of the corresponding medaka fish GC gene; the human GC-C gene is regulated by Cdx2 and/or HNF-4, and the medaka fish OlGC6 gene is regulated by OlPC4, which is a medaka fish homologue of the mammalian transcriptional positive co-factor 4 (PC4). Furthermore, the transcriptional regulatory mechanism of the OlGC9 gene is different from those of both the OlGC6 and human GC-C genes, indicating that the study on these two medaka fish GCs will be useful for further understanding of the STa/guanylin receptor type membrane GC in the vertebrates.

  2. Deletion of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 receptors exaggerates renal damage in deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt hypertension.

    PubMed

    Wang, Youping; Babánková, Dagmar; Huang, Jie; Swain, Greg M; Wang, Donna H

    2008-08-01

    To determine whether the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) channel provides protection against hypertension-induced renal damage, hypertension was induced by uninephrectomy and by giving deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt in wild-type (WT) and TRPV1-null mutant (TRPV1-/-) mice. Mean arterial pressure, as determined by radiotelemetry, increased significantly and reached the peak 7 days after DOCA-salt treatment in both WT and TRPV1-/- mice. There was no difference in mean arterial pressure between the 2 strains at the baseline or at the peak that lasted for 4 treatment weeks. DOCA-salt treatment in both WT and TRPV1-/- mice led to increased urinary excretion of albumin and 8-isoprostane, glomerulosclerosis, renal cortical tubulointerstitial injury, tubulointerstitial fibrosis, increased number of tubular proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive cells, and renal monocyte/macrophage infiltration, all of which were much more severe in DOCA-salt-treated TRPV1-/- compared with DOCA-salt-treated WT mice. Renal TRPV1 protein expression, but not the renal anandamide content, was elevated in DOCA-salt-treated WT compared with vehicle-treated WT mice. Renal anandamide levels were markedly elevated in DOCA-salt-treated TRPV1-/- but not in vehicle-treated TRPV1-/- mice. Thus, our data show that ablation of the TRPV1 gene exacerbates renal damage induced by DOCA-salt hypertension, indicating that TRPV1 may constitute a protective mechanism against end-organ damage induced by hypertension.

  3. [Association of vitamin D receptor gene polymorphism with type 1 diabetes mellitus in two Spanish populations].

    PubMed

    Martí, Gertrudis; Audí, Laura; Esteban, Cristina; Oyarzábal, Miren; Chueca, María; Gussinyé, Miquel; Yeste, Diego; Fernández-Cancio, Mónica; Andaluz, Pilar; Carrascosa, Antonio

    2004-09-11

    In order to assess whether vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms are involved in the genetic regulation of type 1 diabetes susceptibility, a case-control study was conducted in two Spanish populations with different genetic backgrounds. 155 patients with childhood-onset type 1 diabetes and 280 healthy controls from Barcelona, and 89 patients and 116 controls from Navarre were studied for vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms in peripheral blood DNA. Intron 8 (BsmI) and exon 2 (FokI) segments were amplified by PCR and sequenced to determine each corresponding genotype. Differences for allele, genotype and combined haplotype and genotype distribution between patients and controls within each population and between the two populations were analyzed. BsmI genotype and allele frequencies showed a tendency towards increased bb genotype and b allele frequencies in Barcelona patients and the tendency was inverse in Navarre. FokI polymorphism distribution analysis showed a significant decrease in ff genotype (p = 0.016) in patients versus controls from Navarre. Combined genotypes showed homozygous bb/FF genotype to be increased in Barcelona patients (p = 0.04) whereas homozygous bb/ff genotype was decreased in Navarre patients (p = 0.02) versus their corresponding controls. BF haplotype frequency distribution between patients and controls was inverse and significantly different between Barcelona and Navarre (p = 0.04). Combined genotypes for vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms at intron 8 and exon 2 suggest that the more active form of vitamin D receptor gene (FF genotype) can be increased in Mediterranean diabetic patients whereas the less active form (ff genotype) can be decreased in those from Navarre. Our results suggest that, in both groups, the F allele of exon 2 VDR gene polymorphism may increase type 1 diabetes susceptibility.

  4. Understanding CELSRs - Cadherin EGF LAG seven-pass G-type receptors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao-Jing; Zhang, Dao-Lai; Xu, Zhi-Gang; Ma, Ming-Liang; Wang, Wen-Bo; Li, Lin-Lin; Han, Xiao-Lin; Huo, Yuqing; Yu, Xiao; Sun, Jin-Peng

    2014-01-01

    The cadherin EGF LAG seven-pass G-type receptors (CELSRs) are a special subgroup of adhesion G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), which are pivotal regulators of many biological processes such as neuronal/endocrine cell differentiation, vessel valve formation and the control of planar cell polarity during embryonic development. All three members of the CELSR family (CELSR1-3) have large ecto-domains that form homophilic interactions and encompass more than 2,000 amino acids. Mutations in the ecto-domain or other gene locations of CELSRs are associated with neural tube defects (NTDs) and other diseases in humans. Celsr knockout (KO) animals have many developmental defects. Therefore, specific agonists or antagonists of CELSR members may have therapeutic potential. Although significant progress has been made regarding the functions and biochemical properties of CELSRs, our knowledge of these receptors is still lacking, especially considering that they are broadly distributed but have few characterized functions in a limited number of tissues. The dynamic activation and inactivation of CELSRs and the presence of endogenous ligands beyond homophilic interactions remain elusive, as do the regulatory mechanisms and downstream signaling of these receptors. Given this motivation, future studies with more advanced cell biology or biochemical tools, such as conditional KO mice, may provide further insights into the mechanisms underlying CELSR function, laying the foundation for the design of new CELSR-targeted therapeutic reagents. PMID:25280249

  5. Role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors gene polymorphisms in type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dong, Chen; Zhou, Hui; Shen, Chong; Yu, Lu-Gang; Ding, Yi; Zhang, Yong-Hong; Guo, Zhi-Rong

    2015-05-15

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are the serious public health problems worldwide. Moreover, it is estimated that MetS patients have about five-fold greater risk of the T2DM development compared with people without the syndrome. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors are a subgroup of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors which play an important role in the pathogenesis of MetS and T2DM. All three members of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) nuclear receptor subfamily, PPARα, PPARβ/δ and PPARγ are critical in regulating insulin sensitivity, adipogenesis, lipid metabolism, and blood pressure. Recently, more and more studies indicated that the gene polymorphism of PPARs, such as Leu(162)Val and Val(227)Ala of PPARα, +294T > C of PPARβ/δ, Pro(12)Ala and C1431T of PPARγ, are significantly associated with the onset and progressing of MetS and T2DM in different population worldwide. Furthermore, a large body of evidence demonstrated that the glucose metabolism and lipid metabolism were influenced by gene-gene interaction among PPARs genes. However, given the complexity pathogenesis of metabolic disease, it is unlikely that genetic variation of a single locus would provide an adequate explanation of inter-individual differences which results in diverse clinical syndromes. Thus, gene-gene interactions and gene-environment interactions associated with T2DM and MetS need future comprehensive studies.

  6. Structural and functional characterization of a novel type of ligand-independent RXR-USP receptor.

    PubMed

    Iwema, Thomas; Billas, Isabelle M L; Beck, Yannick; Bonneton, François; Nierengarten, Hélène; Chaumot, Arnaud; Richards, Geoff; Laudet, Vincent; Moras, Dino

    2007-08-22

    Retinoid X receptor (RXR) and Ultraspiracle (USP) play a central role as ubiquitous heterodimerization partners of many nuclear receptors. While it has long been accepted that a wide range of ligands can activate vertebrate/mollusc RXRs, the existence and necessity of specific endogenous ligands activating RXR-USP in vivo is still matter of intense debate. Here we report the existence of a novel type of RXR-USP with a ligand-independent functional conformation. Our studies involved Tribolium USP (TcUSP) as representative of most arthropod RXR-USPs, with high sequence homology to vertebrate/mollusc RXRs. The crystal structure of the ligand-binding domain of TcUSP was solved in the context of the functional heterodimer with the ecdysone receptor (EcR). While EcR exhibits a canonical ligand-bound conformation, USP adopts an original apo structure. Our functional data demonstrate that TcUSP is a constitutively silent partner of EcR, and that none of the RXR ligands can bind and activate TcUSP. These findings together with a phylogenetic analysis suggest that RXR-USPs have undergone remarkable functional shifts during evolution and give insight into receptor-ligand binding evolution and dynamics.

  7. Angiotensin II type 1/adenosine A 2A receptor oligomers: a novel target for tardive dyskinesia.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Paulo A de; Dalton, James A R; López-Cano, Marc; Ricarte, Adrià; Morató, Xavier; Matheus, Filipe C; Cunha, Andréia S; Müller, Christa E; Takahashi, Reinaldo N; Fernández-Dueñas, Víctor; Giraldo, Jesús; Prediger, Rui D; Ciruela, Francisco

    2017-05-12

    Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a serious motor side effect that may appear after long-term treatment with neuroleptics and mostly mediated by dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs). Striatal D2R functioning may be finely regulated by either adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) or angiotensin receptor type 1 (AT1R) through putative receptor heteromers. Here, we examined whether A2AR and AT1R may oligomerize in the striatum to synergistically modulate dopaminergic transmission. First, by using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer, we demonstrated a physical AT1R-A2AR interaction in cultured cells. Interestingly, by protein-protein docking and molecular dynamics simulations, we described that a stable heterotetrameric interaction may exist between AT1R and A2AR bound to antagonists (i.e. losartan and istradefylline, respectively). Accordingly, we subsequently ascertained the existence of AT1R/A2AR heteromers in the striatum by proximity ligation in situ assay. Finally, we took advantage of a TD animal model, namely the reserpine-induced vacuous chewing movement (VCM), to evaluate a novel multimodal pharmacological TD treatment approach based on targeting the AT1R/A2AR complex. Thus, reserpinized mice were co-treated with sub-effective losartan and istradefylline doses, which prompted a synergistic reduction in VCM. Overall, our results demonstrated the existence of striatal AT1R/A2AR oligomers with potential usefulness for the therapeutic management of TD.

  8. GABA type a receptor trafficking and the architecture of synaptic inhibition.

    PubMed

    Lorenz-Guertin, Joshua M; Jacob, Tija C

    2017-09-13

    Ubiquitous expression of GABA type A receptors (GABAA R) in the central nervous system establishes their central role in coordinating most aspects of neural function and development. Dysregulation of GABAergic neurotransmission manifests in a number of human health disorders and conditions that in certain cases can be alleviated by drugs targeting these receptors. Precise changes in the quantity or activity of GABAA Rs localized at the cell surface and at GABAergic postsynaptic sites directly impact the strength of inhibition. The molecular mechanisms constituting receptor trafficking to and from these compartments therefore dictate the efficacy of GABAA R function. Here we review the current understanding of how GABAA Rs traffic through biogenesis, plasma membrane transport, and degradation. Emphasis is placed on discussing novel GABAergic synaptic proteins, receptor and scaffolding post-translational modifications, activity-dependent changes in GABAA R confinement, and neuropeptide and neurosteroid mediated changes. We further highlight modern techniques currently advancing the knowledge of GABAA R trafficking and clinically relevant neurodevelopmental diseases connected to GABAergic dysfunction. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes by Free Fatty Acid Receptor Agonists

    PubMed Central

    Watterson, Kenneth R.; Hudson, Brian D.; Ulven, Trond; Milligan, Graeme

    2014-01-01

    Dietary free fatty acids (FFAs), such as ω-3 fatty acids, regulate metabolic and anti-inflammatory processes, with many of these effects attributed to FFAs interacting with a family of G protein-coupled receptors. Selective synthetic ligands for free fatty acid receptors (FFA1-4) have consequently been developed as potential treatments for type 2 diabetes (T2D). In particular, clinical studies show that Fasiglifam, an agonist of the long-chain FFA receptor, FFA1, improved glycemic control and reduced HbA1c levels in T2D patients, with a reduced risk of hypoglycemia. However, this ligand was removed from clinical trials due to potential liver toxicity and determining if this is a target or a ligand-specific feature is now of major importance. Pre-clinical studies also show that FFA4 agonism increases insulin sensitivity, induces weight loss, and reduces inflammation and the metabolic and anti-inflammatory effects of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are linked with FFA2 and FFA3 activation. In this review, we therefore show that FFA receptor agonism is a potential clinical target for T2D treatment and discuss ongoing drug development programs within industry and academia aimed at improving the safety and effectiveness of these potential treatments. PMID:25221541

  10. Transferrin receptor-1 gene polymorphisms are associated with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Real, José Manuel; Mercader, Josep Maria; Ortega, Francisco José; Moreno-Navarrete, Jose Maria; López-Romero, Pedro; Ricart, Wifredo

    2010-07-01

    Iron is involved in oxidative stress and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Transferrin receptor (TFRC) constitutes the major receptor by which most cells take up iron. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether TFRC gene polymorphisms are associated with T2D. We evaluated TFRC gene polymorphism (rs3817672, 210AG, S142G) in a sample of T2D patients and nondiabetic controls (n = 722), and 39 SNPs within the TFRC genomic region analysed by the Welcome Trust Case Control Consortium (WTCCC) (1921 T2D subjects and 3000 controls). In a subset of subjects, glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity were also studied. The frequency of the G allele at the position 210 of the TFRC gene was significantly higher in T2D patients. Both GG and GA genotypes had a 69% (P < 0.01) greater risk of developing T2D estimated under a dominant model. The increased prevalence of the G allele run in parallel to increased sex-adjusted log-serum ferritin and slightly increased soluble transferrin receptor among patients with T2D. Furthermore, post-load glucose and insulin sensitivity were significantly associated with circulating soluble transferrin receptor, and insulin sensitivity was significantly associated with serum ferritin among G allele carriers, (r = -0.33, P = 0.001) but not in AA homozygotes. Sixteen other TFRC SNPs were also associated to T2D according to the Welcome Trust Case Control Consortium data. TFRC gene variants are associated with T2D.

  11. Type I insulin-like growth factor receptor signaling in skeletal muscle regeneration and hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Philippou, A; Halapas, A; Maridaki, M; Koutsilieris, M

    2007-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is able not only to increase its mass as an adaptation to mechanical loading generated by and imposed upon muscle but also to regenerate after damage, via its intrinsic regulation of gene transcription. Both cellular processes, muscle regeneration and hypertrophy, are mediated by the activation, proliferation and differentiation of muscle satellite cells and appear to be modulated by the mitotic and myogenic activity of locally produced insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), which functions in an autocrine/paracrine mode. Differentiation of satellite cells into myoblasts involves the regulation of skeletal muscle-specific proteins belonging to the family of myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs). The endocrine, autocrine and paracrine functions of IGF-1 are mediated through binding to the type I IGF receptor (IGF-1.R), which is a ligand-activated receptor tyrosine kinase. The binding of IGF-1 to IGF-1.R induces its autophosphorylation, which recruits specific cytoplasmic molecules containing the Insulin Receptor Substrate Proteins (IRS). The recruitment of IRS proteins by IGF-1/IGF-1.R binding is a critical level at which the proliferative and differentiative actions of IGF-1 diverge. Specific signaling pathways downstream of IGF-1, potentially involved in the mitogenic and myogenic responses and mediating skeletal muscle protein synthesis and hypertrophy following exercise-induced muscle overloading and damage, are discussed. A potential alternative activation of different signaling pathway(s) via a different receptor remains to be demonstrated.

  12. Ligand-induced internalization of the type 1 cholecystokinin receptor independent of recognized signaling activity.

    PubMed

    Cawston, Erin E; Harikumar, Kaleeckal G; Miller, Laurence J

    2012-02-01

    distinct from that being studied. This interpretation was further supported by the inability of peptide 309-323 to inhibit its d-Trp-OPE-stimulated internalization. Thus the 309-323 region of the type 1 CCK receptor affects antagonist-stimulated internalization of this receptor, although its mechanism and interacting partner are not yet clear.

  13. Modulation of strain-specific differences in gene expression by cannabinoid type 2 receptor deficiency.

    PubMed

    Sophocleous, Antonia; Sims, Andrew H; Idris, Aymen I; Ralston, Stuart H

    2014-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that the skeletal consequences of cannabinoid receptor deficiency differ in different strains of mice. In order to explore the mechanisms responsible, we analysed global gene expression in bone from wild-type CD1 mice and littermates with targeted inactivation of the type 2 cannabinoid receptor (Cnr2 (-/-)) and compared the results with those obtained from a similar analysis of wild-type and Cnr2 (-/-) C57BL/6 mice. Trabecular bone volume was increased in Cnr2 (-/-) CD1 mice compared with wild-type littermates but decreased in Cnr2 (-/-) C57BL/6 mice. Microarray analysis identified 354 genes in which substantial differences in gene expression (>1.5-fold) were observed that were specifically affected by Cnr2 deficiency. Bioinformatic analysis of data from wild-type mice of each strain revealed Cnr2-dependent differences in expression of genes clustering within the gene ontology (GO) terms immune response (p < 0.0001), positive regulation of response to stimulus (p < 0.0001), nucleotide binding (p = 0.002), and ribonucleotide binding (p = 0.003). Bioinformatic analysis of data from Cnr2 (-/-) mice of each strain revealed associations between GO terms corresponding to the extracellular region (p = 0.002), the cell surface (p = 0.02), antigen binding (p = 0.03), external side of plasma membrane (p = 0.04), and regulation of the force of heart contraction (p = 0.04). We conclude that Cnr2 deficiency affects expression of a large number of genes in different strains of mice, and that these differences are likely to be responsible in part for the differences in skeletal phenotype that we and others have observed in mice with defective cannabinoid receptor signalling in different genetic backgrounds.

  14. A cell surface receptor complex for collagen type I recognizes the Arg- Gly-Asp sequence

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    To isolate collagen-binding cell surface proteins, detergent extracts of surface-iodinated MG-63 human osteosarcoma cells were chromatographed on affinity matrices of either type I collagen- Sepharose or Sepharose carrying a collagen-like triple-helical peptide. The peptide was designed to be triple helical and to contain the sequence Arg-Gly-Asp, which has been implicated as the cell attachment site of fibronectin, vitronectin, fibrinogen, and von Willebrand factor, and is also present in type I collagen. Three radioactive polypeptides having apparent molecular masses of 250 kD, 70 kD, and 30 kD were distinguishable in that they showed affinity toward the collagen and collagen-like peptide affinity columns, and could be specifically eluted from these columns with a solution of an Arg-Gly- Asp-containing peptide, Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Thr-Pro. These collagen-binding polypeptides associated with phosphatidylcholine liposomes, and the resulting liposomes bound specifically to type I collagen or the collagen-like peptide but not to fibronectin or vitronectin or heat- denatured collagen. The binding of these liposomes to type I collagen could be inhibited with the peptide Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Thr-Pro and with EDTA, but not with a variant peptide Gly-Arg-Gly-Glu-Ser-Pro. We conclude from these data that these three polypeptides are membrane molecules that behave as a cell surface receptor (or receptor complex) for type I collagen by interacting with it through the Arg-Gly-Asp tripeptide adhesion signal. The lack of binding to denatured collagen suggests that the conformation of the Arg-Gly-Asp sequence is important in the recognition of collagen by the receptor complex. PMID:3469204

  15. Effect of a novel selective and potent phosphinic peptide inhibitor of endopeptidase 3.4.24.16 on neurotensin-induced analgesia and neuronal inactivation.

    PubMed

    Vincent, B; Jiracek, J; Noble, F; Loog, M; Roques, B; Dive, V; Vincent, J P; Checler, F

    1997-06-01

    1. We have examined a series of novel phosphinic peptides as putative potent and selective inhibitors of endopeptidase 3.4.24.16. 2. The most selective inhibitor, Pro-Phe-psi(PO2CH2)-Leu-Pro-NH2 displayed a Ki value of 12 nM towards endopeptidase 3.4.24.16 and was 5540 fold less potent on its related peptidase endopeptidase 3.4.24.15. Furthermore, this inhibitor was 12.5 less potent on angiotensin-converting enzyme and was unable to block endopeptidase 3.4.24.11, aminopeptidases B and M, dipeptidylaminopeptidase IV and proline endopeptidase. 3. The effect of Pro-Phe-psi(PO2CH2)-Leu-Pro-NH2, in vitro and in vivo, on neurotensin metabolism in the central nervous system was examined. 4. Pro-Phe-psi(PO2CHH2)-Leu-Pro-NH2 dose-dependently inhibited the formation of neurotensin 1-10 and concomittantly protected neurotensin from degradation by primary cultured neurones from mouse embryos. 5. Intracerebroventricular administration of Pro-Phe-psi(PO2CH2)-Leu-Pro-NH2 significantly potentiated the neurotensin-induced antinociception of mice in the hot plate test. 6. Altogether, our study has established Pro-Phe-psi(PO2CH2)-Leu-Pro-NH2 as a fully selective and highly potent inhibitor of endopeptidase 3.4.24.16 and demonstrates, for the first time, the contribution of this enzyme in the central metabolism of neurotensin.

  16. Plant-derived cannabinoids modulate the activity of transient receptor potential channels of ankyrin type-1 and melastatin type-8.

    PubMed

    De Petrocellis, Luciano; Vellani, Vittorio; Schiano-Moriello, Aniello; Marini, Pietro; Magherini, Pier Cosimo; Orlando, Pierangelo; Di Marzo, Vincenzo

    2008-06-01

    The plant cannabinoids (phytocannabinoids), cannabidiol (CBD), and Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) were previously shown to activate transient receptor potential channels of both vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) and ankyrin type 1 (TRPA1), respectively. Furthermore, the endocannabinoid anandamide is known to activate TRPV1 and was recently found to antagonize the menthol- and icilin-sensitive transient receptor potential channels of melastatin type 8 (TRPM8). In this study, we investigated the effects of six phytocannabinoids [i.e., CBD, THC, CBD acid, THC acid, cannabichromene (CBC), and cannabigerol (CBG)] on TRPA1- and TRPM8-mediated increase in intracellular Ca2+ in either HEK-293 cells overexpressing the two channels or rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) sensory neurons. All of the compounds tested induced TRPA1-mediated Ca2+ elevation in HEK-293 cells with efficacy comparable with that of mustard oil isothiocyanates (MO), the most potent being CBC (EC(50) = 60 nM) and the least potent being CBG and CBD acid (EC(50) = 3.4-12.0 microM). CBC also activated MO-sensitive DRG neurons, although with lower potency (EC(50) = 34.3 microM). Furthermore, although none of the compounds tested activated TRPM8-mediated Ca2+ elevation in HEK-293 cells, they all, with the exception of CBC, antagonized this response when it was induced by either menthol or icilin. CBD, CBG, THC, and THC acid were equipotent (IC(50) = 70-160 nM), whereas CBD acid was the least potent compound (IC(50) = 0.9-1.6 microM). CBG inhibited Ca2+ elevation also in icilin-sensitive DRG neurons with potency (IC(50) = 4.5 microM) similar to that of anandamide (IC(50) = 10 microM). Our findings suggest that phytocannabinoids and cannabis extracts exert some of their pharmacological actions also by interacting with TRPA1 and TRPM8 channels, with potential implications for the treatment of pain and cancer.

  17. Estimation of the receptor-state affinity constants of ligands in functional studies using wild type and constitutively active mutant receptors: Implications for estimation of agonist bias.

    PubMed

    Ehlert, Frederick J; Stein, Richard S L

    We describe a method for estimating the affinities of ligands for active and inactive states of a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). Our protocol involves measuring agonist-induced signaling responses of a wild type GPCR and a constitutively active mutant of it under control conditions and after partial receptor inactivation or reduced receptor expression. Our subsequent analysis is based on the assumption that the activating mutation increases receptor isomerization into the active state without affecting the affinities of ligands for receptor states. A means of confirming this assumption is provided. Global nonlinear regression analysis yields estimates of 1) the active (Kact) and inactive (Kinact) receptor-state affinity constants, 2) the isomerization constant of the unoccupied receptor (Kq-obs), and 3) the sensitivity constant of the signaling pathway (KE-obs). The latter two parameters define the output response of the receptor, and hence, their ratio (Kq-obs/KE) is a useful measure of system bias. If the cellular system is reasonably stable and the Kq-obs and KE-obs values of the signaling pathway are known, the Kact and Kinact values of additional agonists can be estimated in subsequent experiments on cells expressing the wild type receptor. We validated our method through computer simulation, an analytical proof, and analysis of previously published data. Our approach provides 1) a more meaningful analysis of structure-activity relationships, 2) a means of validating in silico docking experiments on active and inactive receptor structures and 3) an absolute, in contrast to relative, measure of agonist bias.

  18. cDNA cloning and expression of the human A-type platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor establishes structural similarity to the B-type PDGF receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Claesson-Welsh, L.; Eriksson, A.; Westermark, B.; Heldin, C.H. )

    1989-07-01

    The primary structure of the human A-type receptor for platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) has been determined. A 6.5-kilobase (kb) transcript was identified through low-stringency hybridization with a probe derived from the B-type PDGF receptor cDNA. The sequence of a cDNA clone corresponding to the 6.5-kb transcript contains an open reading frame that predicts a 1,089-amino acid growth factor receptor-like molecule, which displays 44% overall amino acid similarity with the PDGF B-type receptor. The two receptors have a similar domain organization, with five immunoglobulin-like domains extracellularly and an intracellular split protein tyrosine kinase domain. Transfection of the new cDNA into COS cells led to the expression of a protein specifically recognized by an antiserum previously shown to react with the PDGF A-type receptor. The expressed protein was shown to display high-affinity binding of all three {sup 125}I-labeled dimeric forms of PdGF A and B chains in a manner that is characteristic for the PDGF A-type receptor.

  19. Monoglyceride lipase deficiency causes desensitization of intestinal cannabinoid receptor type 1 and increased colonic μ-opioid receptor sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Taschler, U; Eichmann, T O; Radner, F P W; Grabner, G F; Wolinski, H; Storr, M; Lass, A; Schicho, R; Zimmermann, R

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Monoglyceride lipase (MGL) degrades 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG), an endogenous agonist of cannabinoid receptors (CB1/2). Because the CB1 receptor is involved in the control of gut function, we investigated the effects of pharmacological inhibition and genetic deletion of MGL on intestinal motility. Furthermore, we determined whether defective 2-AG degradation affects μ-opioid receptorreceptor) signalling, a parallel pathway regulating gut motility. Experimental Approach Gut motility was investigated by monitoring Evans Blue transit and colonic bead propulsion in response to MGL inhibition and CB1 receptor or μ receptor stimulation. Ileal contractility was investigated by electrical field stimulation. CB1 receptor expression in ileum and colon was assessed by immunohistochemical analyses. Key Results Pharmacological inhibition of MGL slowed down whole gut transit in a CB1 receptor-dependent manner. Conversely, genetic deletion of MGL did not affect gut transit despite increased 2-AG levels. Notably, MGL deficiency caused complete insensitivity to CB1 receptor agonist-mediated inhibition of whole gut transit and ileal contractility suggesting local desensitization of CB1 receptors. Accordingly, immunohistochemical analyses of myenteric ganglia of MGL-deficient mice revealed that CB1 receptors were trapped in endocytic vesicles. Finally, MGL-deficient mice displayed accelerated colonic propulsion and were hypersensitive to μ receptor agonist-mediated inhibition of colonic motility. This phenotype was reproduced by chronic pharmacological inhibition of MGL. Conclusion and Implications Constantly elevated 2-AG levels induce severe desensitization of intestinal CB1 receptors and increased sensitivity to μ receptor-mediated inhibition of colonic motility. These changes should be considered when cannabinoid-based drugs are used in the therapy of gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:26075589

  20. Identification and developmental analysis of endothelin receptor type-A expressing cells in the mouse kidney.

    PubMed

    Kitazawa, Taro; Sato, Takahiro; Nishiyama, Koichi; Asai, Rieko; Arima, Yuichiro; Uchijima, Yasunobu; Kurihara, Yukiko; Kurihara, Hiroki

    2011-10-01

    The endothelin (Edn) system plays pleiotropic roles in renal function and various disease processes through two distinct G protein-coupled receptors, Edn receptors type-A (Ednra) and type-B (Ednrb). However, difficulties in the accurate identification of receptor-expressing cells in situ have made it difficult to dissect their diverse action in renal (patho)physiology. We have recently established mouse lines in which lacZ and EGFP are 'knocked-in' to the Ednra locus to faithfully mark Ednra-expressing cells. Here we analyzed these mice for their expression in the kidney to characterize Ednra-expressing cells. Ednra expression was first observed in undifferentiated mesenchymal cells around the ureteric bud at E12.5. Thereafter, Ednra expression was widely observed in vascular smooth muscle cells, JG cells and mesenchymal cells in the interstitium. After growth, the expression became confined to vascular smooth muscle cells, pericytes and renin-producing JG cells. By contrast, most cells in the nephron and vascular endothelial cells did not express Ednra. These results indicate that Ednra expression may be linked with non-epithelial fate determination and differentiation of metanephric mesenchyme. Ednra-lacZ/EGFP knock-in mice may serve as a useful tool in studies on renal function and pathophysiology of various renal diseases.

  1. The TGFβ type II receptor plays a critical role in the endothelial cells during cardiac development.

    PubMed

    Robson, Andrew; Allinson, Kathleen R; Anderson, Robert H; Henderson, Deborah J; Arthur, Helen M

    2010-09-01

    TGFβ signalling is required for normal cardiac development. To investigate which cell types are involved, we used mice carrying a floxed Type II TGFβ receptor (Tgfbr2fl) allele and Cre-lox genetics to deplete this receptor in different regions of the heart. The three target tissues and corresponding Cre transgenic lines were atrioventricular myocardium (using cGata6-Cre), ventricular myocardium (using Mlc2v-Cre), and vascular endothelium (using tamoxifen-activated Cdh5(PAC)-CreERT2). Spatio-temporal Cre activity in each case was tracked via lacZ activation from the Rosa26R locus. Atrioventricular-myocardial-specific Tgfbr2 knockout (KO) embryos had short septal leaflets of the tricuspid valve, whereas ventricular myocardial-specific KO embryos mainly exhibited a normal cardiac phenotype. Inactivation of Tgfbr2 in endothelial cells from E11.5 resulted in deficient ventricular septation, accompanied by haemorrhage from cerebral blood vessels. We conclude that TGFβ signalling through the Tgfbr2 receptor, in endothelial cells, plays an important role in cardiac development, and is essential for cerebral vascular integrity.

  2. Immunohistochemistry Detected and Localized Cannabinoid Receptor Type 2 in Bovine Fetal Pancreas at Late Gestation

    PubMed Central

    Dall’Aglio, Cecilia; Polisca, Angela; Cappai, Maria Grazia; Mercati, Francesca; Troisi, Alessandro; Pirino, Carolina; Scocco, Paola; Maranesi, Margherita

    2017-01-01

    At present, data on the endocannabinoid system expression and distribution in the pancreatic gland appear scarce and controversial as descriptions are limited to humans and laboratory animals. Since the bovine pancreas is very similar to the human in endocrine portion development and control, studies on the fetal gland could prove to be very interesting, as an abnormal maternal condition during late pregnancy may be a predisposing trigger for adult metabolic disorders. The present investigation studied cannabinoid receptor type 2 presence and distribution in the bovine fetal pancreas towards the end of gestation. Histological analyses revealed numerous endocrinal cell clusters or islets which were distributed among exocrine adenomeri in connectival tissue. Immunohistochemistry showed that endocrine-islets contained some CB2-positive cells with a very peculiar localization that is a few primarily localized at the edges of islets and some of them also scattered in the center of the cluster. Characteristically, also the epithelium of the excretory ducts and the smooth muscle layers of the smaller arteries, in the interlobular glandular septa, tested positive for the CB2 endocannabinoid receptor. Consequently, the endocannabinoid system, via the cannabinoid receptor type 2, was hypothesized to play a major role in controlling pancreas function from normal fetal development to correct metabolic functioning in adulthood. PMID:28348424

  3. Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor-Dependent GLP-1 and PYY Secretion in Mice and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Pais, Ramona; Rievaj, Juraj; Larraufie, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) is the key hormone mediator of the renin angiotensin system, which regulates blood pressure and fluid and electrolyte balance in the body. Here we report that in the colonic epithelium, the Ang II type 1 receptor is highly and exclusively expressed in enteroendocrine L cells, which produce the gut hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 and peptide YY (PYY). Ang II stimulated glucagon-like peptide-1 and PYY release from primary cultures of mouse and human colon, which was antagonized by the specific Ang II type 1 receptor blocker candesartan. Ang II raised intracellular calcium levels in L cells in primary cultures, recorded by live-cell imaging of L cells specifically expressing the fluorescent calcium sensor GCaMP3. In Ussing chamber recordings, Ang II reduced short circuit currents in mouse distal colon preparations, which was antagonized by candesartan or a specific neuropeptide Y1 receptor inhibitor but insensitive to amiloride. We conclude that Ang II stimulates PYY secretion, in turn inhibiting epithelial anion fluxes, thereby reducing net fluid secretion into the colonic lumen. Our findings highlight an important role of colonic L cells in whole-body fluid homeostasis by controlling water loss through the intestine. PMID:27447725

  4. Dopamine and Angiotensin Type 2 Receptors Cooperatively Inhibit Sodium Transport in Human Renal Proximal Tubule Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gildea, John J.; Wang, Xiaoli; Shah, Neema; Tran, Hanh; Spinosa, Michael; Van Sciver, Robert; Sasaki, Midori; Yatabe, Junichi; Carey, Robert M.; Jose, Pedro A.; Felder, Robin A.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known regarding how the kidney shifts from a sodium and water reclaiming state (antinatriuresis) to a state where sodium and water are eliminated (natriuresis). In human renal proximal tubule cells (RPTCs), sodium reabsorption is decreased by the dopamine D1-like receptors (D1R/D5R) and the angiotensin type 2 receptor (AT2R), while the angiotensin type 1 receptor increases sodium reabsorption. Aberrant control of these opposing systems is thought to lead to sodium retention and subsequently hypertension. We show that D1R/D5R stimulation increased plasma membrane AT2R 4-fold via a D1R-mediated, cAMP-coupled, and PP2A-dependent specific signaling pathway. D1R/D5R stimulation also reduced the ability of angiotensin II to stimulate phospho-ERK, an effect that was partially reversed by an AT2R antagonist. Fenoldopam did not increase AT2R recruitment in RPTCs with D1Rs uncoupled from adenylyl cyclase, suggesting a role of cAMP in mediating these events. D1Rs and AT2Rs heterodimerized and cooperatively increased cAMP and cGMP production, PP2A activation, sodium-potassium-ATPase internalization and sodium transport inhibition. These studies shed new light on the regulation of renal sodium transport by the dopaminergic and angiotensin systems and potential new therapeutic targets for selectively treating hypertension. PMID:22710646

  5. Dopamine and angiotensin type 2 receptors cooperatively inhibit sodium transport in human renal proximal tubule cells.

    PubMed

    Gildea, John J; Wang, Xiaoli; Shah, Neema; Tran, Hanh; Spinosa, Michael; Van Sciver, Robert; Sasaki, Midori; Yatabe, Junichi; Carey, Robert M; Jose, Pedro A; Felder, Robin A

    2012-08-01

    Little is known regarding how the kidney shifts from a sodium and water reclaiming state (antinatriuresis) to a state where sodium and water are eliminated (natriuresis). In human renal proximal tubule cells, sodium reabsorption is decreased by the dopamine D(1)-like receptors (D(1)R/D(5)R) and the angiotensin type 2 receptor (AT(2)R), whereas the angiotensin type 1 receptor increases sodium reabsorption. Aberrant control of these opposing systems is thought to lead to sodium retention and, subsequently, hypertension. We show that D(1)R/D(5)R stimulation increased plasma membrane AT(2)R 4-fold via a D(1)R-mediated, cAMP-coupled, and protein phosphatase 2A-dependent specific signaling pathway. D(1)R/D(5)R stimulation also reduced the ability of angiotensin II to stimulate phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase, an effect that was partially reversed by an AT(2)R antagonist. Fenoldopam did not increase AT(2)R recruitment in renal proximal tubule cells with D(1)Rs uncoupled from adenylyl cyclase, suggesting a role of cAMP in mediating these events. D(1)Rs and AT(2)Rs heterodimerized and cooperatively increased cAMP and cGMP production, protein phosphatase 2A activation, sodium-potassium-ATPase internalization, and sodium transport inhibition. These studies shed new light on the regulation of renal sodium transport by the dopaminergic and angiotensin systems and potential new therapeutic targets for selectively treating hypertension.

  6. The safety and tolerability of GLP-1 receptor agonists in the treatment of type-2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Russell-Jones, D

    2010-09-01

    Established therapies for type-2 diabetes effectively reduce blood glucose, but are often associated with adverse effects that pose risks to patient's health or diminish adherence to treatment. Weight gain, hypoglycaemia and gastrointestinal symptoms are commonly reported and some agents may not be safe for use in patients with renal impairment or elevated cardiovascular risk. New treatments based on the action of the endogenous human hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), including exenatide and liraglutide, are available. These therapies provide a novel pharmacological approach to glycaemic control via multiple mechanisms of action, and accordingly exhibit different safety and tolerability profiles than conventional treatments. GLP-1 receptor agonists stimulate insulin release only in the presence of elevated blood glucose and are therefore associated with a fairly low risk of hypoglycaemia. Gastrointestinal symptoms are common but transient, and there appears to be little potential for interaction with other drugs. GLP-1 receptor agonists are associated with weight loss rather than weight gain. As protein-based therapies, these agents have the potential to induce antibody formation, but the impact on efficacy and safety is minor. GLP-1 receptor agonists thus offer a new and potentially useful option for clinicians concerned about some of the common adverse effects of type-2 diabetes therapies.

  7. Group 2 innate lymphoid cells express functional NKp30 receptor inducing type 2 cytokine production1

    PubMed Central

    Salimi, Maryam; Xue, Luzheng; Jolin, Helen; Hardman, Clare; Cousins, David J.; McKenzie, Andrew N.J.; Ogg, Graham S.

    2016-01-01

    Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) are important in effector functions for eliciting allergic inflammation, parasite defence, epithelial repair and lipid homeostasis. ILC2 lack rearranged antigen-specific receptors, and while many soluble factors such as cytokines and lipid mediators can influence ILC2, direct interaction of these cells with microenvironment and other cells has been less explored. Natural cytotoxicity receptors are expressed by subsets of ILC1 and ILC3 and thought to be important for their effector function, but have not been shown to be expressed by ILC2. Therefore, we sought to investigate the expression and functional properties of the natural cytotoxicity receptor NKp30 on human group 2 innate lymphoid cells. A subset of ex vivo and cultured ILC2 express NKp30 that upon interaction with its cognate activatory ligand B7-H6 induces rapid production of type 2 cytokines. This interaction can be blocked by NKp30 blocking antibody and an inhibitory ligand, galectin-3. Higher expression of B7-H6 was observed in lesional skin biopsies of patients with atopic dermatitis; and incubation of keratinocytes with pro-inflammatory and type 2 cytokines upregulated B7-H6 leading to increased ILC2 cytokine production. NKp30-B7-H6 interaction is a novel cell contact mechanism that mediates activation of ILC2 and identifies a potential target for the development of novel therapeutics for atopic dermatitis and other atopic diseases. PMID:26582946

  8. Angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker inhibits arterial calcification in a pre-clinical model.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Zachary B; Boughner, Derek R; Drangova, Maria; Rogers, Kem A

    2011-04-01

    Arterial calcification is a common complication of several disorders and is a strong predictor of mortality. The mechanism underlying arterial calcification is not fully understood and as such, no pharmaceutical therapies are currently available which impede its progression. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of an angiotensin II (AngII) type 1 receptor blocker (ARB) on arterial calcification. Male New Zealand White rabbits were fed an atherogenic diet to induce atherosclerosis and arterial calcification over a period of 12 weeks, with an ARB administered in the final 4 weeks. Using clinically relevant micro-computed tomography, we found that animals fed the atherogenic diet displayed extensive arterial calcification when compared with control. In contrast, administration of the ARB completely inhibited calcification (2.80 ± 1.17 vs. 0.01 ± 0.01% calcified tissue in cholesterol and ARB-treated, respectively; n = 6 and 5; P < 0.05). Calcified regions were characterized by up-regulation of bone morphogenetic protein 2, osteocalcin, and the AngII type 1 receptor and concomitant down-regulation of α-smooth muscle actin, consistent with a phenotypic switch from vascular to osteoblast-like cells. These data provide the first evidence that angiotensin receptor blockade can inhibit arterial calcification by disrupting vascular osteogenesis and suggest that ARBs may be a novel treatment option for patients suffering from vascular calcification.

  9. Overactive cannabinoid 1 receptor in podocytes drives type 2 diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Jourdan, Tony; Szanda, Gergő; Rosenberg, Avi Z; Tam, Joseph; Earley, Brian James; Godlewski, Grzegorz; Cinar, Resat; Liu, Ziyi; Liu, Jie; Ju, Cynthia; Pacher, Pál; Kunos, George

    2014-12-16

    Diabetic nephropathy is a major cause of end-stage kidney disease, and overactivity of the endocannabinoid/cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1R) system contributes to diabetes and its complications. Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats develop type 2 diabetic nephropathy with albuminuria, reduced glomerular filtration, activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), oxidative/nitrative stress, podocyte loss, and increased CB1R expression in glomeruli. Peripheral CB1R blockade initiated in the prediabetic stage prevented these changes or reversed them when animals with fully developed diabetic nephropathy were treated. Treatment of diabetic ZDF r