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Sample records for neurotrophic factor determined

  1. Methodological considerations to determine the effect of exercise on brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels.

    PubMed

    Pareja-Galeano, Helios; Alis, Rafael; Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Cabo, Helena; Cortell-Ballester, José; Gomez-Cabrera, Mari Carmen; Lucia, Alejandro; Viña, José

    2015-02-01

    Physical exercise up-regulates brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the brain and blood. However, there is yet no consensus about the adequate blood processing conditions to standardize its assessment. We aimed to find a reliable blood sample processing method to determine changes in BDNF due to exercise. Twelve healthy university students performed an incremental cycling test to exhaustion. At baseline, immediately after exercise, and 30 and 60 min of recovery, venous blood was drawn and processed under different conditions, i.e. whole blood, serum coagulated for 10 min and 24 h, total plasma, and platelet-free plasma. BDNF concentration was measured by ELISA. Exercise increased BDNF in whole blood and in serum coagulated for 24 h when corrected by hemoconcentration. We did not find effects of exercise on BDNF in serum coagulated for 10 min or in plasma samples. Plasma shows heterogeneous BDNF values in response to exercise that are not prevented when platelets are eliminated while homogeneous BDNF levels were found in whole blood or serum coagulated for 24 hour samples. In exercise studies, BDNF levels should be adjusted by hemoconcentration. Our data highlight the importance of blood sample selection since the differences between each one affect significantly the BDNF factor changes due to exercise. Copyright © 2014 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Determinants of neonatal brain-derived neurotrophic factor and association with child development.

    PubMed

    Ghassabian, Akhgar; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Chahal, Nikhita; McLain, Alexander C; Bell, Erin; Lawrence, David A; Yeung, Edwina H

    2017-10-01

    Using a population-based birth cohort in upstate New York (2008-2010), we examined the determinants of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) measured in newborn dried blood spots (n = 2,637). We also examined the association between neonatal BDNF and children's development. The cohort was initially designed to examine the influence of infertility treatment on child development but found no impact. Mothers rated children's development in five domains repeatedly through age 3 years. Socioeconomic and maternal lifestyle determinants of BDNF were examined using multivariable linear regression models. Generalized linear mixed models estimated odds ratios for neonatal BDNF in relation to failing a developmental domain. Smoking and drinking in pregnancy, nulliparity, non-White ethnicity/race, and prepregnancy obesity were associated with lower neonatal BDNF. Neonatal BDNF was not associated with failure for developmental domains; however, there was an interaction between BDNF and preterm birth. In preterm infants, a higher BDNF was associated with lower odds of failing any developmental domains, after adjusting for confounders and infertility treatment. This result was particularly significant for failure in communication. Our findings suggest that BDNF levels in neonates may be impacted by maternal lifestyle characteristics. More specifically, lower neonatal BDNF might be an early marker of aberrant neurodevelopment in preterm infants.

  3. Optimizing neurotrophic factor combinations for neurite outgrowth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deister, C.; Schmidt, C. E.

    2006-06-01

    Most neurotrophic factors are members of one of three families: the neurotrophins, the glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor family ligands (GFLs) and the neuropoietic cytokines. Each family activates distinct but overlapping cellular pathways. Several studies have shown additive or synergistic interactions between neurotrophic factors from different families, though generally only a single combination has been studied. Because of possible interactions between the neurotrophic factors, the optimum concentration of a factor in a mixture may differ from the optimum when applied individually. Additionally, the effect of combinations of neurotrophic factors from each of the three families on neurite extension is unclear. This study examines the effects of several combinations of the neurotrophin nerve growth factor (NGF), the GFL glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and the neuropoietic cytokine ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) on neurite outgrowth from young rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) explants. The combination of 50 ng ml-1 NGF and 10 ng ml-1 of each GDNF and CNTF induced the highest level of neurite outgrowth at a 752 ± 53% increase over untreated DRGs and increased the longest neurite length to 2031 ± 97 µm compared to 916 ± 64 µm for untreated DRGs. The optimum concentrations of the three factors applied in combination corresponded to the optimum concentration of each factor when applied individually. These results indicate that the efficacy of future therapies for nerve repair would be enhanced by the controlled release of a combination of neurotrophins, GFLs and neuropoietic cytokines at higher concentrations than used in previous conduit designs.

  4. [Neurotrophic factors and their importance in attention deficit hyperactivity disorde].

    PubMed

    Ramos-Quiroga, Josep A; Sánchez-Mora, Cristina; Corominas, Margarida; Martínez, Iris; Barrau, Víctor; Prats, Laura; Casas, Miguel; Ribasés, Marta

    2014-02-24

    The existing literature that reports findings linked with the involvement of neurotrophic factors in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is reviewed. Neurotrophins, a family of neurotrophic factors, are a kind of proteins that are specific to the nervous system and play an essential role in neuron survival, differentiation and proliferation during the development of the central and peripheral nervous system. These molecules stimulate axonal growth and exert an influence on the connections with the target tissue in order to establish the synaptic connections. The study of neurotrophins in ADHD, a neurodevelopmental disorder, is of interest mainly due to the functions that these proteins perform in the central nervous system. Studies on animal, pharmacological and molecular genetic models yield evidence that relates neurotrophins with the disorder. This work reviews the results from the studies conducted to date on ADHD and neurotrophic factors, especially brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Thus, although pharmacological studies suggest that the response to atomoxetine in adults with ADHD is not directly mediated by the effect on the BDNF, reductions in BDNF levels in the plasma of adult patients with ADHD have been reported. Further studies with broader samples and greater control of environmental factors that can regulate neurotrophin expression, such as diet, physical exercise and situations of social risk, are needed to be able to determine the role they play in the aetiology of ADHD.

  5. Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor: Determinants and relationship with depressive symptoms in a community population of middle-aged and elderly people

    PubMed Central

    Bus, Boudewijn AA; Tendolkar, Indira; Franke, Barbara; De Graaf, Jacqueline; Den Heijer, Martin; Buitelaar, Jan K; Voshaar, Richard C. Oude

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in major depressive disorder and neurodegenerative diseases. Clinical studies, showing decreased serum BDNF levels, are difficult to interpret due to limited knowledge of potential confounders and mixed results for age and sex effects. We explored potential determinants of serum BDNF levels in a community sample of 1230 subjects. Methods Multiple linear regression analyses with serum BDNF level as the dependent variable were conducted to explore the effect of four categories of potential BDNF determinants (sampling characteristics, sociodemographic variables, lifestyle factors and somatic diseases) and of self-reported depressive symptoms (Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI). Results Our results show that BDNF levels decline with age in women, whereas in men levels remain stable. Moreover, after controlling for age and gender, the assays still showed lower serum BDNF levels with higher BDI sum scores. Effects remained significant after correction for two main confounders (time of sampling and smoking), suggesting that they serve as molecular trait factors independent of lifestyle factors. Conclusions Given the age-sex interaction on serum BDNF levels and the known association between BDNF and gonadal hormones, research is warranted to delineate the effects of the latter interaction on the risk of psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:21247257

  6. Neurotrophic factors and female sexual development.

    PubMed

    Ojeda, S R; Dissen, G A; Junier, M P

    1992-04-01

    The concept is proposed that polypeptide neurotrophic factors contribute to the developmental regulation of ovarian and hypothalamic function in mammals. Nerve growth factor (NGF) and neurotrophin-3, two members of the neurotrophin family, have been identified in the rat ovary and one of its receptors has been localized to the innervation and thecal cells of developing follicles. Although NGF supports the sympathetic innervation of the gland, the extent to which follicles are innervated appears to be defined by the differential expression of NGF receptors in the theca of developing follicles. The presence of NGF receptors in steroid-producing cells suggests a direct involvement of neurotrophins in the regulation of gonadal endocrine function. Evidence is beginning to emerge suggesting that development of the reproductive hypothalamus is affected by insulin-like growth factor 1 secreted by peripheral tissues, and transforming growth factor alpha (TGF alpha) produced locally. In the rat hypothalamus, TGF alpha appears to be synthesized in both neurons and glial cells. In glial cells it may interact with epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptors to further enhance TGF alpha synthesis and to, perhaps, stimulate eicosanoid formation. In turn, one of these eicosanoids, prostaglandin E2, may act on luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) neurons to stimulate the release of LHRH in a genomic-independent manner. This provides the basis for the notion that during development LHRH secretion is regulated by a dual mechanism, one that involves transsynaptic effects exerted by neurotransmitters, the other that requires a glial-neuronal interaction and that may predominantly regulate release of the neuropeptide. An increased expression of the TGF alpha and EGF receptor genes in reactive astrocytes is postulated to contribute to the process by which hypothalamic injury causes sexual precocity. Morphological maturation of the reproductive hypothalamus is thought to occur during

  7. Neurotrophic factor - Characterization and partial purification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popiela, H.; Ellis, S.

    1981-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that neurotrophic activity is required for the normal proliferation and development of muscle cells. The present paper reports a study of the purification and characterization of a neurotrophic factor (NTF) from adult chicken ischiatic-peroneal nerves using two independent quantitative in vitro assay systems. The assays were performed by the measurement of the incorporation of tritiated thymidine or the sizes of single-cell clones by chick muscle cells grown in culture. The greatest amount of neutrotrophic activity is found to be extracted at a pH of 8; aqueous suspensions of the activity are stable to long-term storage at room temperature. The specific activity of the substance is doubled upon precipitation with ammonium sulfate or after gel filtration, and increase 4 to 5 fold after salt gradient elution from DEAE cellulose columns. The active fraction obtained after gel filtration and rechromatography on DEAE cellulose exhibits a 7 to 10-fold increase in specific activity. Electrophoresis of the most highly purified material yields a greatly concentrated band at around 80,000 daltons. Although NTF is purified almost 10-fold as indicated by the increase in specific activity, the maximum activity of the partially purified material is greatly reduced, possibly due to a requirement for a cofactor for the expression of maximum activity.

  8. Neurotrophic factor - Characterization and partial purification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popiela, H.; Ellis, S.

    1981-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that neurotrophic activity is required for the normal proliferation and development of muscle cells. The present paper reports a study of the purification and characterization of a neurotrophic factor (NTF) from adult chicken ischiatic-peroneal nerves using two independent quantitative in vitro assay systems. The assays were performed by the measurement of the incorporation of tritiated thymidine or the sizes of single-cell clones by chick muscle cells grown in culture. The greatest amount of neutrotrophic activity is found to be extracted at a pH of 8; aqueous suspensions of the activity are stable to long-term storage at room temperature. The specific activity of the substance is doubled upon precipitation with ammonium sulfate or after gel filtration, and increase 4 to 5 fold after salt gradient elution from DEAE cellulose columns. The active fraction obtained after gel filtration and rechromatography on DEAE cellulose exhibits a 7 to 10-fold increase in specific activity. Electrophoresis of the most highly purified material yields a greatly concentrated band at around 80,000 daltons. Although NTF is purified almost 10-fold as indicated by the increase in specific activity, the maximum activity of the partially purified material is greatly reduced, possibly due to a requirement for a cofactor for the expression of maximum activity.

  9. Neurotrophic Factors and Their Potential Applications in Tissue Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Le, Quynh-Thu

    2016-01-01

    Neurotrophic factors are growth factors that can nourish neurons and promote neuron survival and regeneration. They have been studied as potential drug candidates for treating neurodegenerative diseases. Since their identification, there are more and more evidences to indicate that neurotrophic factors are also expressed in non-neuronal tissues and regulate the survival, anti-inflammation, proliferation and differentiation in these tissues. This mini review summarizes the characteristics of the neurotrophic factors and their potential clinical applications in the regeneration of neuronal and non-neuronal tissues. PMID:26611762

  10. Neurotrophic Factors and Their Potential Applications in Tissue Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Nan; Le, Quynh-Thu

    2016-04-01

    Neurotrophic factors are growth factors that can nourish neurons and promote neuron survival and regeneration. They have been studied as potential drug candidates for treating neurodegenerative diseases. Since their identification, there are more and more evidences to indicate that neurotrophic factors are also expressed in non-neuronal tissues and regulate the survival, anti-inflammation, proliferation and differentiation in these tissues. This mini review summarizes the characteristics of the neurotrophic factors and their potential clinical applications in the regeneration of neuronal and non-neuronal tissues.

  11. [The research advance of brain derived neurotrophic factor].

    PubMed

    Liu, Z; Chen, J

    2000-12-01

    Recent research advances in neuroscience show that neurotrophic factors are proteins that affect selectively various kinds of neurons of CNS and PNS. Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is another neurotrophic factor that was first reported by Barde, a German chemist, thirty years later after the nerve growth factor had been found out. BDNF plays an important role in the growth, development, differentiation, maintenance and regeneration of various types of neurons in the CNS and has potential application to the treatment of brain injury and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's syndrome, Huntington's chorea and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. In this paper, the structure, function and potential clinical application of BDNF were reviewed.

  12. Neurotrophic Factor Control of Satiety and Body Weight

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Baoji; Xie, Xiangyang

    2016-01-01

    Energy balance, the relationship between energy intake and expenditure, is regulated by a complex interplay of hormones, brain circuits and peripheral tissues. Leptin is an adipocyte-derived cytokine that suppresses appetite and increases energy expenditure. Ironically, obese individuals have high levels of plasma leptin and are resistant to leptin treatment. Neurotrophic factors, particularly ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), are also important for the control of body weight. CNTF can overcome leptin resistance to reduce body weight, although CNTF and leptin activate similar signalling cascades. Mutations in the gene for BDNF lead to insatiable appetite and severe obesity. PMID:27052383

  13. Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor in Megakaryocytes.

    PubMed

    Chacón-Fernández, Pedro; Säuberli, Katharina; Colzani, Maria; Moreau, Thomas; Ghevaert, Cedric; Barde, Yves-Alain

    2016-05-06

    The biosynthesis of endogenous brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has thus far been examined in neurons where it is expressed at very low levels, in an activity-dependent fashion. In humans, BDNF has long been known to accumulate in circulating platelets, at levels far higher than in the brain. During the process of blood coagulation, BDNF is released from platelets, which has led to its extensive use as a readily accessible biomarker, under the assumption that serum levels may somehow reflect brain levels. To identify the cellular origin of BDNF in platelets, we established primary cultures of megakaryocytes, the progenitors of platelets, and we found that human and rat megakaryocytes express the BDNF gene. Surprisingly, the pattern of mRNA transcripts is similar to neurons. In the presence of thapsigargin and external calcium, the levels of the mRNA species leading to efficient BDNF translation rapidly increase. Under these conditions, pro-BDNF, the obligatory precursor of biologically active BDNF, becomes readily detectable. Megakaryocytes store BDNF in α-granules, with more than 80% of them also containing platelet factor 4. By contrast, BDNF is undetectable in mouse megakaryocytes, in line with the absence of BDNF in mouse serum. These findings suggest that alterations of BDNF levels in human serum as reported in studies dealing with depression or physical exercise may primarily reflect changes occurring in megakaryocytes and platelets, including the ability of the latter to retain and release BDNF.

  14. Novel CDNF/MANF family of neurotrophic factors.

    PubMed

    Lindholm, Päivi; Saarma, Mart

    2010-04-01

    Current therapeutic interventions for neurodegenerative diseases alleviate only disease symptoms, while treatments that could stop or reverse actual degenerative processes are not available. Parkinson's disease (PD) is a movement disorder with characteristic degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the midbrain. Few neurotrophic factors (NTFs) that promote survival, maintenance, and differentiation of affected brain neurons are considered as potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, it is important to search and study new NTFs that could also be used in therapy. In this review, we discuss novel evolutionary conserved family of NTFs consisting of two members in the vertebrates, cerebral dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF) and mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF). Invertebrates, including Drosophila and Caenorhabditis have a single protein homologous to vertebrate CDNF/MANF. Characteristic feature of these proteins is eight structurally conserved cysteine residues, which determine the protein fold. The crystal structure analysis revealed that CDNF and MANF consist of two domains; an amino-terminal saposin-like domain that may interact with lipids or membranes, and a presumably unfolded carboxy-terminal domain that may protect cells against endoplasmic reticulum stress. CDNF and MANF protect midbrain dopaminergic neurons and restore motor function in 6-hydroxydopamine rat model of PD in vivo. In line, Drosophila MANF is needed for the maintenance of dopaminergic neurites and dopamine levels in the fly, suggesting that the function of CDNF/MANF proteins is evolutionary conserved. Future studies will reveal the receptors and mode of action of these novel factors, which are potential therapeutic proteins for the treatment of PD.

  15. Oligodendroglia and neurotrophic factors in neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Bankston, Andrew N.; Mandler, Mariana D.; Feng, Yue

    2014-01-01

    Myelination by oligodendroglial cells (OLs) enables the propagation of action potentials along neuronal axons, which is essential for rapid information flow in the central nervous system (CNS). Besides saltatory conduction, the myelin sheath also protects axons against inflammatory and oxidative insults, and loss of myelin results in axonal damage and ultimately neuronal loss in demyelinating disorders. However, accumulating evidence indicates that OLs also provide support to neurons via mechanisms beyond the insulating function of myelin. More importantly, an increasing volume of reports indicates defects of OLs in numerous neurodegenerative diseases, sometimes even preceding neuronal loss in pre-symptomatic episodes, suggesting that OL pathology may be an important mechanism contributing to the initiation and/or progression of neurodegeneration. This review focuses on the emerging picture of neuronal support by OLs in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders through diverse molecular and cellular mechanisms, including direct neuron-myelin interaction, metabolic support by OLs, and neurotrophic factors produced by and/or acting on OLs. PMID:23558590

  16. Neurotrophic factor intervention restores auditory function in deafened animals

    PubMed Central

    Shinohara, Takayuki; Bredberg, Göran; Ulfendahl, Mats; Pyykkö, Ilmari; Olivius, N. Petri; Kaksonen, Risto; Lindström, Bo; Altschuler, Richard; Miller, Josef M.

    2002-01-01

    A primary cause of deafness is damage of receptor cells in the inner ear. Clinically, it has been demonstrated that effective functionality can be provided by electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve, thus bypassing damaged receptor cells. However, subsequent to sensory cell loss there is a secondary degeneration of the afferent nerve fibers, resulting in reduced effectiveness of such cochlear prostheses. The effects of neurotrophic factors were tested in a guinea pig cochlear prosthesis model. After chemical deafening to mimic the clinical situation, the neurotrophic factors brain-derived neurotrophic factor and an analogue of ciliary neurotrophic factor were infused directly into the cochlea of the inner ear for 26 days by using an osmotic pump system. An electrode introduced into the cochlea was used to elicit auditory responses just as in patients implanted with cochlear prostheses. Intervention with brain-derived neurotrophic factor and the ciliary neurotrophic factor analogue not only increased the survival of auditory spiral ganglion neurons, but significantly enhanced the functional responsiveness of the auditory system as measured by using electrically evoked auditory brainstem responses. This demonstration that neurotrophin intervention enhances threshold sensitivity within the auditory system will have great clinical importance for the treatment of deaf patients with cochlear prostheses. The findings have direct implications for the enhancement of responsiveness in deafferented peripheral nerves. PMID:11818566

  17. Neurotrophic factor intervention restores auditory function in deafened animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinohara, Takayuki; Bredberg, Göran; Ulfendahl, Mats; Pyykkö, Ilmari; Petri Olivius, N.; Kaksonen, Risto; Lindström, Bo; Altschuler, Richard; Miller, Josef M.

    2002-02-01

    A primary cause of deafness is damage of receptor cells in the inner ear. Clinically, it has been demonstrated that effective functionality can be provided by electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve, thus bypassing damaged receptor cells. However, subsequent to sensory cell loss there is a secondary degeneration of the afferent nerve fibers, resulting in reduced effectiveness of such cochlear prostheses. The effects of neurotrophic factors were tested in a guinea pig cochlear prosthesis model. After chemical deafening to mimic the clinical situation, the neurotrophic factors brain-derived neurotrophic factor and an analogue of ciliary neurotrophic factor were infused directly into the cochlea of the inner ear for 26 days by using an osmotic pump system. An electrode introduced into the cochlea was used to elicit auditory responses just as in patients implanted with cochlear prostheses. Intervention with brain-derived neurotrophic factor and the ciliary neurotrophic factor analogue not only increased the survival of auditory spiral ganglion neurons, but significantly enhanced the functional responsiveness of the auditory system as measured by using electrically evoked auditory brainstem responses. This demonstration that neurotrophin intervention enhances threshold sensitivity within the auditory system will have great clinical importance for the treatment of deaf patients with cochlear prostheses. The findings have direct implications for the enhancement of responsiveness in deafferented peripheral nerves.

  18. Neurotrophic factors and the pathophysiology of schizophrenic psychoses.

    PubMed

    Durany, Nuria; Thome, Johannes

    2004-09-01

    The aim of this review is to summarize the present state of findings on altered neurotrophic factor levels in schizophrenic psychoses, on variations in genes coding for neurotrophic factors, and on the effect of antipsychotic drugs on the expression level of neurotrophic factors. This is a conceptual paper that aims to establish the link between the neuromaldevelopment theory of schizophrenia and neurotrophic factors. An extensive literature review has been done using the Pub Med database, a service of the National Library of Medicine, which includes over 14 million citations for biomedical articles back to the 1950s. The majority of studies discussed in this review support the notion of alterations of neurotrophic factors at the protein and gene level, respectively, and support the hypothesis that these alterations could, at least partially, explain some of the morphological, cytoarchitectural and neurobiochemical abnormalities found in the brain of schizophrenic patients. However, the results are not always conclusive and the clinical significance of these alterations is not fully understood. It is, thus, important to further neurotrophic factor research in order to better understand the etiopathogenesis of schizophrenic psychoses and, thus, potentially develop new treatment strategies urgently needed for patients suffering from these devastating disorders.

  19. Hippocampal neurogenesis, neurotrophic factors and depression: possible therapeutic targets?

    PubMed

    Serafini, Gianluca; Hayley, Shawn; Pompili, Maurizio; Dwivedi, Yogesh; Brahmachari, Goutam; Girardi, Paolo; Amore, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Major depression is one of the leading causes of disability and psychosocial impairment worldwide. Although many advances have been made in the neurobiology of this complex disorder, the pathophysiological mechanisms are still unclear. Among the proposed theories, impaired neuroplasticity and hippocampal neurogenesis have received considerable attention. The possible association between hippocampal neurogenesis, neurotrophic factors, major depression, and antidepressant responses was critically analyzed using a comprehensive search of articles/book chapters in English language between 1980 and 2014. One common emerging theme was that chronic stress and major depression are associated with structural brain changes such as a loss of dendritic spines and synapses, as well as reduced dendritic arborisation, together with diminished glial cells in the hippocampus. Both central monoamines and neurotrophic factors were associated with a modulation of hippocampal progenitor proliferation and cell survival. Accordingly, antidepressants are generally suggested to reverse stress-induced structural changes augmenting dendritic arborisation and synaptogenesis. Such antidepressant consequences are supposed to stem from their stimulatory effects on neurotrophic factors, and possibly modulation of glial cells. Of course, accumulating evidence also suggested that glutamatergic systems are implicated in not only basic neuroplastic processes, but also in the core features of depression. Hence, it is critical that antidepressant strategies focus on links between the various neurotransmitter systems, neurotrophic processes of hippocampal neurogenesis, and neurotrophic factors with regards to depressive symptomology. The identification of novel alternative antidepressant medications that target these systems is discussed in this review.

  20. Poxue Huayu and Tianjing Busui Decoction for cerebral hemorrhage (Upregulation of neurotrophic factor expression): Upregulation of neurotrophic factor expression

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Jixiang; Zhou, Xiangyu; Wang, Jian; Zhao, Jianjun; Zhang, Pengguo

    2013-01-01

    This study established a rat model of cerebral hemorrhage by injecting autologous anticoagulated blood. Rat models were intragastrically administered 5, 10, 20 g/kg Poxue Huayu and Tianjing Busui Decoction, supplemented with Hirudo, raw rhubarb, raw Pollen Typhae, gadfly, Fructrs Trichosanthis, Radix Notoginseng, Rhizoma Acori Talarinowii, and glue of tortoise plastron, once a day, for 14 consecutive days. Results demonstrated that brain water content significantly reduced in rats with cerebral hemorrhage, and intracerebral hematoma volume markedly reduced after treatment. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that brain-derived neurotrophic factor, tyrosine kinase B and vascular endothelial growth factor expression noticeably increased around the surrounding hematoma. Reverse transcription-PCR revealed that brain-derived neurotrophic factor and tyrosine kinase B mRNA expression significantly increased around the surrounding hematoma. Neurologic impairment obviously reduced. These results indicated that Poxue Huayu and Tianjing Busui Decoction exert therapeutic effects on cerebral hemorrhage by upregulating the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor. PMID:25206512

  1. Glutamate and Neurotrophic Factors in Neuronal Plasticity and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mattson, Mark P.

    2008-01-01

    Glutamate’s role as a neurotransmitter at synapses has been known for 40 years, but glutamate has since been shown to regulate neurogenesis, neurite outgrowth, synaptogenesis and neuron survival in the developing and adult mammalian nervous system. Cell surface glutamate receptors are coupled to Ca2+ influx and release from endoplasmic reticulum stores which causes rapid (kinase- and protease-mediated) and delayed (transcription-dependent) responses that change the structure and function of neurons. Neurotrophic factors and glutamate interact to regulate developmental and adult neuroplasticity. For example, glutamate stimulates the production of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) which, in turn, modifies neuronal glutamate sensitivity, Ca2+ homeostasis and plasticity. Neurotrophic factors may modify glutamate signalling directly, by changing the expression of glutamate receptor subunits and Ca2+-regulating proteins, and also indirectly by inducing the production of antioxidant enzymes, energy-regulating proteins and anti-apoptotic Bcl2 family members. Excessive activation of glutamate receptors, under conditions of oxidative and metabolic stress, may contribute to neuronal dysfunction and degeneration in diseases ranging from stroke and Alzheimer’s disease to psychiatric disorders. By enhancing neurotrophic factor signalling, environmental factors such as exercise and dietary energy restriction, and chemicals such as antidepressants may optimize glutamatergic signalling and protect against neurological disorders. PMID:19076369

  2. Glutamate and neurotrophic factors in neuronal plasticity and disease.

    PubMed

    Mattson, Mark P

    2008-11-01

    Glutamate's role as a neurotransmitter at synapses has been known for 40 years, but glutamate has since been shown to regulate neurogenesis, neurite outgrowth, synaptogenesis, and neuron survival in the developing and adult mammalian nervous system. Cell-surface glutamate receptors are coupled to Ca(2+) influx and release from endoplasmic reticulum stores, which causes rapid (kinase- and protease-mediated) and delayed (transcription-dependent) responses that change the structure and function of neurons. Neurotrophic factors and glutamate interact to regulate developmental and adult neuroplasticity. For example, glutamate stimulates the production of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which, in turn, modifies neuronal glutamate sensitivity, Ca(2+) homeostasis, and plasticity. Neurotrophic factors may modify glutamate signaling directly, by changing the expression of glutamate receptor subunits and Ca(2+)-regulating proteins, and also indirectly by inducing the production of antioxidant enzymes, energy-regulating proteins, and antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family members. Excessive activation of glutamate receptors, under conditions of oxidative and metabolic stress, may contribute to neuronal dysfunction and degeneration in diseases ranging from stroke and Alzheimer's disease to psychiatric disorders. By enhancing neurotrophic factor signaling, environmental factors such as exercise and dietary energy restriction, and chemicals such as antidepressants may optimize glutamatergic signaling and protect against neurological disorders.

  3. Neurotrophic factors improve muscle reinnervation from embryonic neurons.

    PubMed

    Casella, Gizelda T B; Almeida, Vania W; Grumbles, Robert M; Liu, Yang; Thomas, Christine K

    2010-11-01

    Motoneurons die in diseases like amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and after spinal cord trauma, inducing muscle denervation. We tested whether transplantation of embryonic cells with neurotrophic factors into peripheral nerve of adult rats improves muscle reinnervation and motor unit function more than cells alone. One week after sciatic nerve section, embryonic ventral spinal cord cells were transplanted into the tibial nerve with or without glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, hepatocyte growth factor, and insulin-like growth factor-1. These cells represented the only neuron source for muscle reinnervation. Ten weeks after transplantation, all medial gastrocnemius muscles contracted in response to electrical stimulation of cell transplants with factors. Only 80% of muscles responded with cells alone. Factors and cells resulted in survival of more motoneurons and reinnervation of more muscle fibers for a given axon (motor unit) number. Greater reinnervation from embryonic cells may enhance muscle excitation by patterned electrical stimulation.

  4. Regulatory Mechanisms Involved in the Expression of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-03-01

    of Philosophy, 1996 Dissertation Advisor: Gregory P. Mueller, PhD. Associate Professor Department of Physiology Brain-derived neurotrophic factor ( BDNF ...postsynaptic effects of BDNF and GDNF, very few have addressed the regulatory mechanisms involved in the expression of these factors. In phase 1 of the project...five alternate first exons contained in the rat BDNF gene, including a novel one termed exon la, were isolated and found to be individually spliced to

  5. Human milk and formulae: neurotrophic and new biological factors.

    PubMed

    Serpero, Laura D; Frigiola, Alessandro; Gazzolo, Diego

    2012-03-01

    Mother milk is widely accepted to be a unique product believed to contain biological factors involved in the regulation of newborn optimal growth including brain when compared to milk-formula milks. In this setting, there is growing evidence that in milk-formula neuro-oxidative stress biomarkers, neurotrophic proteins and calcium binding proteins, known to be involved in a cascade of events leading to brain, cardiac and vascular development/damage, are to date lacking or at a lower concentration than breast milk. Therefore, this review is aimed at offering additional insights to the role in human milk of some selected biomarkers such as: i) neurotrophic factors such as Activin A; ii) Calcium binding protein such as S100B and, iii) heat shock protein known to be involved in oxidative stress response (namely hemeoxygenase-1, HO-1 or Heat shock Protein 32, HSP32). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Implementing neuronal plasticity in NeuroAIDS: the experience of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and other neurotrophic factors.

    PubMed

    Mocchetti, Italo; Bachis, Alessia; Campbell, Lee A; Avdoshina, Valeriya

    2014-03-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV) causes mild or severe neurological problems, termed HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND), even when HIV patients receive antiretroviral therapy. Thus, novel adjunctive therapies are necessary to reduce or abolish the neurotoxic effect of HIV. However, new therapies require a better understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms of HIV-induced neurotoxicity. HAND subjects are characterized by being profoundly depressed, and they experience deficits in memory, learning and movements. Experimental evidence has also shown that HIV reduces neurogenesis. These deficits resemble those occurring in premature brain aging or in a brain with impaired neural repair properties. Thus, it appears that HIV diminishes neuronal survival, along with reduced neuronal connections. These two phenomena should not occur in the adult and developing brain when synaptic plasticity is promoted by neurotrophic factors, polypeptides that are present in adult synapses. This review will outline experimental evidence as well as present emerging concepts for the use of neurotrophic factors and in particular brain-derived neurotrophic factor as an adjunct therapy to prevent HIV-mediated neuronal degeneration and restore the loss of synaptic connections.

  7. Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor, glial-derived neurotrophic factor, nerve growth factor, and neurotrophin-3 levels in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Bilgiç, Ayhan; Toker, Aysun; Işık, Ümit; Kılınç, İbrahim

    2017-03-01

    It has been suggested that neurotrophins are involved in the etiopathogenesis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study aimed to investigate whether there are differences in serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF), and neurotrophin-3 (NTF3) levels between children with ADHD and healthy controls. A total of 110 treatment-naive children with the combined presentation of ADHD and 44 healthy controls aged 8-18 years were enrolled in this study. The severity of ADHD symptoms was determined by scores on the Conners' Parent Rating Scale-Revised Short and Conners' Teacher Rating Scale-Revised Short. The severity of depression and anxiety symptoms of the children were evaluated by the self-report inventories. Serum levels of neurotrophins were measured using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. The multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) revealed a significant main effect of groups in the levels of serum neurotrophins, an effect that was independent of age, sex, and the severity of the depression and anxiety. The analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) indicated that the mean serum GDNF and NTF3 levels of ADHD patients were significantly higher than that of controls. However, serum BDNF and NGF levels did not show any significant differences between groups. No correlations between the levels of serum neurotrophins and the severity of ADHD were observed. These results suggest that elevated serum GDNF and NTF3 levels may be related to ADHD in children.

  8. Effect of neurotrophic factor, MDP, on rats' nerve regeneration.

    PubMed

    Fornazari, A A; Rezende, M R de; Mattar Jr, R; Taira, R I; Santos, G B dos; Paulos, R G

    2011-04-01

    Our objective was to determine the immune-modulating effects of the neurotrophic factor N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutamine (MDP) on median nerve regeneration in rats. We used male Wistar rats (120-140 days of age, weighing 250-332 g) and compared the results of three different techniques of nerve repair: 1) epineural neurorrhaphy using sutures alone (group S - 10 rats), 2) epineural neurorrhaphy using sutures plus fibrin tissue adhesive (FTA; group SF - 20 rats), and 3) sutures plus FTA, with MDP added to the FTA (group SFM - 20 rats). Functional assessments using the grasp test were performed weekly for 12 weeks to identify recovery of flexor muscle function in the fingers secondary to median nerve regeneration. Histological analysis was also utilized. The total number and diameter of myelinated fibers were determined in each proximal and distal nerve segment. Two indices, reported as percentage, were calculated from these parameters, namely, the regeneration index and the diameter change index. By the 8th week, superiority of group SFM over group S became apparent in the grasping test (P = 0.005). By the 12th week, rats that had received MDP were superior in the grasping test compared to both group S (P < 0.001) and group SF (P = 0.001). Moreover, group SF was better in the grasping test than group S (P = 0.014). However, no significant differences between groups were identified by histological analysis. In the present study, rats that had received MDP obtained better function, in the absence of any significant histological differences.

  9. Current advances in using neurotrophic factors to treat neurodegenerative disorders

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Neurotrophic factors are best known for their roles in both development and continued maintenance of the nervous system. Their strong potential to elicit pro-survival and pro-functional responses in neurons of the peripheral and central nervous system make them good drug candidates for treatment of a multitude of neurodegenerative disorders. However, significant obstacles remain and need to be overcome before translating the potential of neurotrophins into the therapeutic arena. This article addresses current efforts and advances in resolving these challenges and provides an overview of roadmaps for future translational research and neurotrophin-based drug developments. PMID:23210531

  10. Neurotrophic factors [activity-dependent neurotrophic factor (ADNF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)] interrupt excitotoxic neurodegenerative cascades promoted by a PS1 mutation

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Qing; Sebastian, Lois; Sopher, Bryce L.; Miller, Miles W.; Glazner, Gordon W.; Ware, Carol B.; Martin, George M.; Mattson, Mark P.

    1999-01-01

    Although an excitotoxic mechanism of neuronal injury has been proposed to play a role in chronic neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, and neurotrophic factors have been put forward as potential therapeutic agents, direct evidence is lacking. Taking advantage of the fact that mutations in the presenilin-1 (PS1) gene are causally linked to many cases of early-onset inherited Alzheimer’s disease, we generated PS1 mutant knock-in mice and directly tested the excitotoxic and neurotrophic hypotheses of Alzheimer’s disease. Primary hippocampal neurons from PS1 mutant knock-in mice exhibited increased production of amyloid β-peptide 42/43 and increased vulnerability to excitotoxicity, which occurred in a gene dosage-dependent manner. Neurons expressing mutant PS1 exhibited enhanced calcium responses to glutamate and increased oxyradical production and mitochondrial dysfunction. Pretreatment with either basic fibroblast growth factor or activity-dependent neurotrophic factor protected neurons expressing mutant PS1 against excitotoxicity. Both basic fibroblast growth factor and activity-dependent neurotrophic factor stabilized intracellular calcium levels and abrogated the increased oxyradical production and mitochondrial dysfunction otherwise caused by the PS1 mutation. Our data indicate that neurotrophic factors can interrupt excitotoxic neurodegenerative cascades promoted by PS1 mutations. PMID:10097174

  11. Delayed onset muscle soreness: Involvement of neurotrophic factors.

    PubMed

    Mizumura, Kazue; Taguchi, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) is quite a common consequence of unaccustomed strenuous exercise, especially exercise containing eccentric contraction (lengthening contraction, LC). Its typical sign is mechanical hyperalgesia (tenderness and movement related pain). Its cause has been commonly believed to be micro-damage of the muscle and subsequent inflammation. Here we present a brief historical overview of the damage-inflammation theory followed by a discussion of our new findings. Different from previous observations, we have observed mechanical hyperalgesia in rats 1-3 days after LC without any apparent microscopic damage of the muscle or signs of inflammation. With our model we have found that two pathways are involved in inducing mechanical hyperalgesia after LC: activation of the B2 bradykinin receptor-nerve growth factor (NGF) pathway and activation of the COX-2-glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) pathway. These neurotrophic factors were produced by muscle fibers and/or satellite cells. This means that muscle fiber damage is not essential, although it is sufficient, for induction of DOMS, instead, NGF and GDNF produced by muscle fibers/satellite cells play crucial roles in DOMS.

  12. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and its clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Bathina, Siresha; Das, Undurti N

    2015-12-10

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in neuronal survival and growth, serves as a neurotransmitter modulator, and participates in neuronal plasticity, which is essential for learning and memory. It is widely expressed in the CNS, gut and other tissues. BDNF binds to its high affinity receptor TrkB (tyrosine kinase B) and activates signal transduction cascades (IRS1/2, PI3K, Akt), crucial for CREB and CBP production, that encode proteins involved in β cell survival. BDNF and insulin-like growth factor-1 have similar downstream signaling mechanisms incorporating both p-CAMK and MAPK that increase the expression of pro-survival genes. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor regulates glucose and energy metabolism and prevents exhaustion of β cells. Decreased levels of BDNF are associated with neurodegenerative diseases with neuronal loss, such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis and Huntington's disease. Thus, BDNF may be useful in the prevention and management of several diseases including diabetes mellitus.

  13. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor in chronic periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Jôice Dias; Pereira, Daniele Sirineu; Madeira, Mila Fernandes Moreira; Queiroz-Junior, Celso Martins; Souza, Danielle Glória; Teixeira, Mauro Martins; Costa, José Eustáquio; Teixeira, Antônio Lúcio; da Silva, Tarcília Aparecida

    2014-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of the neurotrophic factor family. Outside the nervous system, BDNF has been shown to be expressed in various nonneural tissues, such as periodontal ligament, dental pulp, and odontoblasts. Although a role for BDNF in periodontal regeneration has been suggested, a function for BDNF in periodontal disease has not yet been studied. The aim of this study was to analyze the BDNF levels in periodontal tissues of patients with chronic periodontitis (CP) and periodontally healthy controls (HC). All subjects were genotyped for the rs4923463 and rs6265 BDNF polymorphisms. Periodontal tissues were collected for ELISA, myeloperoxidase (MPO), and microscopic analysis from 28 CP patients and 29 HC subjects. BDNF levels were increased in CP patients compared to HC subjects. A negative correlation was observed when analyzing concentration of BDNF and IL-10 in inflamed periodontium. No differences in frequencies of BDNF genotypes between CP and HC subjects were observed. However, BDNF genotype GG was associated with increased levels of BDNF, TNF-α, and CXCL10 in CP patients. In conclusion, BDNF seems to be associated with periodontal disease process, but the specific role of BDNF still needs to be clarified.

  14. Assembly of Neuronal Connectivity by Neurotrophic Factors and Leucine-Rich Repeat Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ledda, Fernanda; Paratcha, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    Proper function of the nervous system critically relies on sophisticated neuronal networks interconnected in a highly specific pattern. The architecture of these connections arises from sequential developmental steps such as axonal growth and guidance, dendrite development, target determination, synapse formation and plasticity. Leucine-rich repeat (LRR) transmembrane proteins have been involved in cell-type specific signaling pathways that underlie these developmental processes. The members of this superfamily of proteins execute their functions acting as trans-synaptic cell adhesion molecules involved in target specificity and synapse formation or working in cis as cell-intrinsic modulators of neurotrophic factor receptor trafficking and signaling. In this review, we will focus on novel physiological mechanisms through which LRR proteins regulate neurotrophic factor receptor signaling, highlighting the importance of these modulatory events for proper axonal extension and guidance, tissue innervation and dendrite morphogenesis. Additionally, we discuss few examples linking this set of LRR proteins to neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. PMID:27555809

  15. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neuropsychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Autry, Anita E; Monteggia, Lisa M

    2012-04-01

    Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is the most prevalent growth factor in the central nervous system (CNS). It is essential for the development of the CNS and for neuronal plasticity. Because BDNF plays a crucial role in development and plasticity of the brain, it is widely implicated in psychiatric diseases. This review provides a summary of clinical and preclinical evidence for the involvement of this ubiquitous growth factor in major depressive disorder, schizophrenia, addiction, Rett syndrome, as well as other psychiatric and neurodevelopmental diseases. In addition, the review includes a discussion of the role of BDNF in the mechanism of action of pharmacological therapies currently used to treat these diseases, such antidepressants and antipsychotics. The review also covers a critique of experimental therapies such as BDNF mimetics and discusses the value of BDNF as a target for future drug development.

  16. Towards Clinical Application of Neurotrophic Factors to the Auditory Nerve; Assessment of Safety and Efficacy by a Systematic Review of Neurotrophic Treatments in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Bezdjian, Aren; Kraaijenga, Véronique J. C.; Ramekers, Dyan; Versnel, Huib; Thomeer, Hans G. X. M.; Klis, Sjaak F. L.; Grolman, Wilko

    2016-01-01

    Animal studies have evidenced protection of the auditory nerve by exogenous neurotrophic factors. In order to assess clinical applicability of neurotrophic treatment of the auditory nerve, the safety and efficacy of neurotrophic therapies in various human disorders were systematically reviewed. Outcomes of our literature search included disorder, neurotrophic factor, administration route, therapeutic outcome, and adverse event. From 2103 articles retrieved, 20 randomized controlled trials including 3974 patients were selected. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (53%) was the most frequently reported indication for neurotrophic therapy followed by diabetic polyneuropathy (28%). Ciliary neurotrophic factor (50%), nerve growth factor (24%) and insulin-like growth factor (21%) were most often used. Injection site reaction was a frequently occurring adverse event (61%) followed by asthenia (24%) and gastrointestinal disturbances (20%). Eighteen out of 20 trials deemed neurotrophic therapy to be safe, and six out of 17 studies concluded the neurotrophic therapy to be effective. Positive outcomes were generally small or contradicted by other studies. Most non-neurodegenerative diseases treated by targeted deliveries of neurotrophic factors were considered safe and effective. Hence, since local delivery to the cochlea is feasible, translation from animal studies to human trials in treating auditory nerve degeneration seems promising. PMID:27898033

  17. Secretion of nerve growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor in co-culture of four cell types in cerebrospinal fluid-containing medium.

    PubMed

    Feng, Sanjiang; Zhuang, Minghua; Wu, Rui

    2012-12-25

    The present study co-cultured human embryonic olfactory ensheathing cells, human Schwann cells, human amniotic epithelial cells and human vascular endothelial cells in complete culture medium-containing cerebrospinal fluid. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect nerve growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor secretion in the supernatant of co-cultured cells. Results showed that the number of all cell types reached a peak at 7-10 days, and the expression of nerve growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor peaked at 9 days. Levels of secreted nerve growth factor were four-fold higher than brain-derived neurotrophic factor, which was three-fold higher than glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor. Increasing concentrations of cerebrospinal fluid (10%, 20% and 30%) in the growth medium caused a decrease of neurotrophic factor secretion. Results indicated co-culture of human embryonic olfactory ensheathing cells, human Schwann cells, human amniotic epithelial cells and human vascular endothelial cells improved the expression of nerve growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor. The reduction of cerebrospinal fluid extravasation at the transplant site after spinal cord injury is beneficial for the survival and secretion of neurotrophic factors from transplanted cells.

  18. Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor: Three Ligands, Many Actions.

    PubMed

    Hempstead, Barbara L

    2015-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of a family of neurotrophins which include nerve growth factor, neurotrophin 3, and neurotrophin 4. Studies over the last three decades have identified mature BDNF as a key regulator of neuronal differentiation, structure, and function; actions mediated by the TrkB receptor. More recently identified isoforms which are translated from the bdnf gene, including the uncleaved precursor, pro-BDNF, and the cleaved prodomain, have been found to elicit opposing functions in neurons through the activation of distinct receptors. This work emphasizes the critical roles for all three isoforms of BDNF in modulating neuronal activity that impact complex human behaviors including memory, anxiety, depression, and hyperphagia.

  19. Progesterone, brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neuroprotection.

    PubMed

    Singh, M; Su, C

    2013-06-03

    While the effects of progesterone in the CNS, like those of estrogen, have generally been considered within the context of reproductive function, growing evidence supports its importance in regulating non-reproductive functions including cognition and affect. In addition, progesterone has well-described protective effects against numerous insults in a variety of cell models, animal models and in humans. While ongoing research in several laboratories continues to shed light on the mechanism(s) by which progesterone and its related progestins exert their effects in the CNS, our understanding is still incomplete. Among the key mediators of progesterone's beneficial effects is the family of growth factors called neurotrophins. Here, we review the mechanisms by which progesterone regulates one important member of the neurotrophin family, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and provides support for its pivotal role in the protective program elicited by progesterone in the brain.

  20. Effect of microgravity on glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor and cerebral dopamine neurotrophic factor gene expression in the mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Tsybko, A S; Ilchibaeva, T V; Kulikov, A V; Kulikova, E A; Krasnov, I B; Sychev, V N; Shenkman, B S; Popova, N K; Naumenko, V S

    2015-09-01

    Mice were exposed to 1 month of space flight on the Russian biosatellite BION-M1 to determine its effect on the expression of genes involved in the maintenance of the mouse brain dopamine system. The current article focuses on the genes encoding glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and cerebral dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF). Space flight reduced expression of the GDNF gene in the striatum and hypothalamus but increased it in the frontal cortex and raphe nuclei area. At the same time, actual space flight reduced expression of the gene encoding CDNF in the substantia nigra but increased it in the raphe nuclei area. To separate the effects of space flight from environmental stress contribution, we analyzed expression of the investigated genes in mice housed for 1 month on Earth in the same shuttle cabins that were used for space flight and in mice of the vivarium control group. Shuttle cabin housing failed to alter the expression of the GDNF and CDNF genes in the brain structures investigated. Thus, actual long-term space flight produced dysregulation in genetic control of GDNF and CDNF genes. These changes may be related to downregulation of the dopamine system after space flight, which we have shown earlier. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Our results provide the first evidence of microgravity effects on expression of the GDNF and CDNF neurotrophic factor genes. A considerable decrease in mRNA level of GDNF and CDNF in the nigrostriatal dopamine system was found. Because both GDNF and CDNF play a significant role in maintenance and survival of brain dopaminergic neurons, we can assume that this dysregulation in genetic control of GDNF and CDNF genes in substantia nigra could be among the reasons for the deleterious effects of space flight on the dopamine system. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Ex vivo gene therapy: transplantation of neurotrophic factor-secreting cells for cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Yasuhara, Takao; Borlongan, Cesario V; Date, Isao

    2006-01-01

    Expressions of various neurotrophic factors or their receptors fluctuate after stroke, which in part prompted investigations into the efficacy of neurotrophic factors as treatment modality for stroke. The methods to deliver neurotrophic factors into the brain can be categorized into: 1) the surgical route of administration, such as intracerebral, intraventricular, intra-arterial, or intravenous systemic administration and 2) the manipulation of the therapeutic molecules via ex vivo or in vivo techniques. With ex vivo method, genetically engineered cells, including the use of autologous cells, have been explored. In this review, the potent therapeutic applications of neurotrophic factors in stroke are described, with emphasis on ex vivo methods, especially transplantation of encapsulated stem cells modified with adenovirus. Neurotrophic factor delivery, combined with ex vivo method, poses as novel treatment for stroke, although additional safety and efficacy studies remain to be examined.

  2. Prolongation of Relaxation Time in Extraocular Muscles With Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor in Adult Rabbit

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Krysta R.; Stevens, Shanlee M.; McLoon, Linda K.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We tested the hypothesis that short-term treatment with brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) would alter the contractile characteristics of rabbit extraocular muscle (EOM). Methods One week after injections of BDNF in adult rabbit superior rectus muscles, twitch properties were determined in treated and control muscles in vitro. Muscles were also examined for changes in mean cross-sectional areas, neuromuscular junction size, and percent of myofibers expressing specific myosin heavy chain isoforms, and sarcoendoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPases (SERCA) 1 and 2. Results Brain derived neurotrophic factor–treated muscles had prolonged relaxation times compared with control muscles. Time to 50% relaxation, time to 100% relaxation, and maximum rate of relaxation were increased by 24%, 27%, and 25%, respectively. No significant differences were seen in time to peak force, twitch force, or maximum rate of contraction. Brain derived neurotrophic factor treatment significantly increased mean cross-sectional areas of slow twitch and tonic myofibers, with increased areas ranging from 54% to 146%. Brain derived neurotrophic factor also resulted in an increased percentage of slow twitch myofibers in the orbital layers, ranging from 54% to 77%, and slow-tonic myofibers, ranging from 44% to 62%. No significant changes were seen SERCA1 or 2 expression or in neuromuscular junction size. Conclusions Short-term treatment with BDNF significantly prolonged the duration and rate of relaxation time and increased expression of both slow-twitch and slow-tonic myosin-expressing myofibers without changes in neuromuscular junctions or SERCA expression. The changes induced by BDNF treatment might have potential therapeutic value in dampening/reducing uncontrolled eye oscillations in nystagmus. PMID:27802489

  3. Exogenous gangliosides increase the release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

    PubMed

    Lim, Seung T; Esfahani, Kamilla; Avdoshina, Valeriya; Mocchetti, Italo

    2011-06-01

    Gangliosides are lipophilic compounds found in cell plasma membranes throughout the brain that play a role in neuronal plasticity and regeneration. Indeed, absence or abnormal accumulation of gangliosides has been shown to lead to neurological disorders. Experimental data have shown that exogenous gangliosides exhibit properties similar to the neurotrophins, a family of neurotrophic factors that are important in the survival and maintenance of neurons and prevention of neurological diseases. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is the most abundant of the neurotrophins. This work was done to reveal the neurotrophic mechanism of exogenous gangliosides. In particular, we examined whether gangliosides promote the release of BDNF. Rat hippocampal neurons or human neuroblastoma cells were transduced with a recombinant adenovirus expressing BDNF-flag to facilitate detection of BDNF. Release of BDNF was then determined by Western blot analysis and a two-site immunoassay of culture medium. The depolarizing agent KCl was used as a comparison. In hippocampal neurons, both GM1 ganglioside and KCl evoked within minutes the release of mature BDNF. In human cells, GM1 and other gangliosides released both mature BDNF and pro-BDNF. The effect of gangliosides was structure-dependent. In fact, GT1b preferentially released mature BDNF whereas GM1 released both mature and pro-BDNF. Ceramide and sphingosine did not modify the release of BDNF. This work provides additional experimental evidence that exogenous gangliosides can be used to enhance the neurotrophic factor environment and promote neuronal survival in neurological diseases. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Trends in neuropharmacology: in memory of Erminio Costa'. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Neuronal plasticity and neurotrophic factors in drug responses.

    PubMed

    Castrén, E; Antila, H

    2017-08-01

    Neurotrophic factors, particularly brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and other members of the neurotrophin family, are central mediators of the activity-dependent plasticity through which environmental experiences, such as sensory information are translated into the structure and function of neuronal networks. Synthesis, release and action of BDNF is regulated by neuronal activity and BDNF in turn leads to trophic effects such as formation, stabilization and potentiation of synapses through its high-affinity TrkB receptors. Several clinically available drugs activate neurotrophin signaling and neuronal plasticity. In particular, antidepressant drugs rapidly activate TrkB signaling and gradually increase BDNF expression, and the behavioral effects of antidepressants are mediated by and dependent on BDNF signaling through TrkB at least in rodents. These findings indicate that antidepressants, widely used drugs, effectively act as TrkB activators. They further imply that neuronal plasticity is a central mechanism in the action of antidepressant drugs. Indeed, it was recently discovered that antidepressants reactivate a state of plasticity in the adult cerebral cortex that closely resembles the enhanced plasticity normally observed during postnatal critical periods. This state of induced plasticity, known as iPlasticity, allows environmental stimuli to beneficially reorganize networks abnormally wired during early life. iPlasticity has been observed in cortical as well as subcortical networks and is induced by several pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments. iPlasticity is a new pharmacological principle where drug treatment and rehabilitation cooperate; the drug acts permissively to enhance plasticity and rehabilitation provides activity to guide the appropriate wiring of the plastic network. Optimization of iPlastic drug treatment with novel means of rehabilitation may help improve the efficacy of available drug treatments and expand the use of

  5. Role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Zuccato, Chiara; Cattaneo, Elena

    2007-04-01

    Neurotrophic factors are essential contributors to the survival of peripheral and central nervous system (CNS) neurons, and demonstration of their reduced availability in diseased brains indicates that they play a role in various neurological disorders. This paper will concentrate on the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the survival and activity of the neurons that die in Huntington's disease (HD) by reviewing the evidence indicating that it involves profound changes in BDNF levels and that attempts to restore these levels are therapeutically interesting. BDNF is a small dimeric protein that is widely expressed in adult mammalian brain and has been shown to promote the survival of all major neuronal types affected in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). Furthermore, cortical BDNF production is required for the correct activity of the corticostriatal synapse and the survival of the GABA-ergic medium-sized spiny striatal neurons that die in HD. We will highlight the available data concerning changes in BDNF levels in HD cells, mice and human postmortem samples, describe the molecular evidence underlying this alteration, and review the data concerning the impact of the experimental manipulation of BDNF levels on HD progression. Such studies have revealed a major loss of BDNF protein in the striatum of HD patients which may contribute to the clinical manifestations of the disease. They have also opened up a molecular window into the underlying pathogenic mechanism and new therapeutic perspectives by raising the possibility that one of the mechanisms triggering the reduction in BDNF in HD may also affect the activity of many other neuronal proteins.

  6. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor inhibits glucose intolerance after cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Shu, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Yongsheng; Xu, Han; Kang, Kai; Cai, Donglian

    2013-09-05

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor is associated with the insulin signaling pathway and glucose tabolism. We hypothesized that expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and its receptor may be involved in glucose intolerance following ischemic stress. To verify this hypothesis, this study aimed to observe the changes in brain-derived neurotrophic factor and tyrosine kinase B receptor expression in glucose metabolism-associated regions following cerebral ischemic stress in mice. At day 1 after middle cerebral artery occlusion, the expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor were significantly decreased in the ischemic cortex, hypothalamus, liver, skeletal muscle, and pancreas. The expression levels of tyrosine kinase B receptor were decreased in the hypothalamus and liver, and increased in the skeletal muscle and pancreas, but remained unchanged in the cortex. Intrahypothalamic administration of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (40 ng) suppressed the decrease in insulin receptor and tyrosine-phosphorylated insulin receptor expression in the liver and skeletal muscle, and inhibited the overexpression of gluconeogenesis-associated phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose-6-phosphatase in the liver of cerebral ischemic mice. However, serum insulin levels remained unchanged. Our experimental findings indicate that brain-derived neurotrophic factor can promote glucose metabolism, reduce gluconeogenesis, and decrease blood glucose levels after cerebral ischemic stress. The low expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor following cerebral ischemia may be involved in the development of glucose intolerance.

  7. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor inhibits glucose intolerance after cerebral ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Yongsheng; Xu, Han; Kang, Kai; Cai, Donglian

    2013-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor is associated with the insulin signaling pathway and glucose tabolism. We hypothesized that expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and its receptor may be involved in glucose intolerance following ischemic stress. To verify this hypothesis, this study aimed to observe the changes in brain-derived neurotrophic factor and tyrosine kinase B receptor expression in glucose metabolism-associated regions following cerebral ischemic stress in mice. At day 1 after middle cerebral artery occlusion, the expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor were significantly decreased in the ischemic cortex, hypothalamus, liver, skeletal muscle, and pancreas. The expression levels of tyrosine kinase B receptor were decreased in the hypothalamus and liver, and increased in the skeletal muscle and pancreas, but remained unchanged in the cortex. Intrahypothalamic administration of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (40 ng) suppressed the decrease in insulin receptor and tyrosine-phosphorylated insulin receptor expression in the liver and skeletal muscle, and inhibited the overexpression of gluconeogenesis-associated phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose-6-phosphatase in the liver of cerebral ischemic mice. However, serum insulin levels remained unchanged. Our experimental findings indicate that brain-derived neurotrophic factor can promote glucose metabolism, reduce gluconeogenesis, and decrease blood glucose levels after cerebral ischemic stress. The low expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor following cerebral ischemia may be involved in the development of glucose intolerance. PMID:25206547

  8. Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Gene Expression in Pediatric Bipolar Disorder: Effects of Treatment and Clinical Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pandey, Ghanshyam N.; Rizavi, Hooriyah S.; Dwivedi, Yogesh; Pavuluri, Mani N.

    2008-01-01

    The study determines the gene expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the lymphocytes of subjects with pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) before and during treatment with mood stabilizers and in drug-free normal control subjects. Results indicate the potential of BDNF levels as a biomarker for PBD and as a treatment predictor and…

  9. Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Gene Expression in Pediatric Bipolar Disorder: Effects of Treatment and Clinical Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pandey, Ghanshyam N.; Rizavi, Hooriyah S.; Dwivedi, Yogesh; Pavuluri, Mani N.

    2008-01-01

    The study determines the gene expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the lymphocytes of subjects with pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) before and during treatment with mood stabilizers and in drug-free normal control subjects. Results indicate the potential of BDNF levels as a biomarker for PBD and as a treatment predictor and…

  10. Regulation of ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor alpha in sciatic motor neurons following axotomy.

    PubMed

    MacLennan, A J; Devlin, B K; Neitzel, K L; McLaurin, D L; Anderson, K J; Lee, N

    1999-01-01

    Spinal motor neurons are one of the few classes of neurons capable of regenerating axons following axotomy. Injury-induced expression of neurotrophic factors and corresponding receptors may play an important role in this rare ability. A wide variety of indirect data suggests that ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor alpha may critically contribute to the regeneration of injured spinal motor neurons. We used immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization and retrograde tracing techniques to study the regulation of ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor alpha in axotomized sciatic motor neurons. Ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor alpha immunoreactivity, detected with two independent antisera, is increased in a subpopulation of caudal sciatic motor neuron soma one, two and six weeks after sciatic nerve transection and reattachment, while no changes are detected at one day and 15 weeks post-lesion. Ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor alpha messenger RNA levels are augmented in the same classes of neurons following an identical lesion, suggesting that increased synthesis contributes, at least in part, to the additional ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor alpha protein. Separating the proximal and distal nerve stumps with a plastic barrier does not noticeably affect the injury-induced change in ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor alpha regulation, thereby indicating that this injury response is not dependent on signals distal to the lesion traveling retrogradely through the nerve or signals generated by axonal growth through the distal nerve. The prolonged increases in ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor alpha protein and messenger RNA found in regenerating sciatic motor neurons contrast with the responses of non-regenerating central neurons, which are reported to display, at most, a short-lived increase in ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor alpha messenger RNA expression following injury. The present data are the first to demonstrate, in vivo, neuronal regulation of

  11. Role of neurotrophic factors in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Shih-Jen

    2016-11-30

    Neurotrophins (NTs), a family of proteins including nerve growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3, and neurotrophin-4, are essential for neural growth, survival, and differentiation, and are therefore crucial for brain development. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by problems of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity. ADHD is one of the most common childhood onset psychiatric disorders. Studies have suggested that both genetic and environmental factors influence the development of the disorder, although the precise causes of ADHD have not yet been identified. In this review, we assess the role of NTs in the pathophysiology of ADHD. Preclinical evidence indicates that BDNF knockout mice are hyperactive, and an ADHD rodent model exhibited decreased cerebral BDNF levels. Several lines of evidence from clinical studies, including blood level and genetic studies, have suggested that NTs are involved in the pathogenesis of ADHD and in the mechanism of biological treatments for ADHD. Future directions for research are proposed, such as using blood NTs as ADHD biomarkers, optimizing NT genetic studies in ADHD, considering NTs as a link between ADHD and other comorbid mental disorders, and investigating methods for optimally modulating NT signaling to discover novel therapeutics for treating ADHD.

  12. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, food intake regulation, and obesity.

    PubMed

    Rosas-Vargas, Haydeé; Martínez-Ezquerro, José Darío; Bienvenu, Thierry

    2011-08-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin that plays a fundamental role in development and plasticity of the central nervous system (CNS). It is currently recognized as a major participant in the regulation of food intake. Multiple studies have shown that different regulators of appetite such as leptin, insulin and pancreatic polypeptide (PP) potentially exert anorexigenic effects through BDNF. Low circulating levels of BDNF are associated with a higher risk of eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN). Strict food restriction reduces BDNF and may trigger binge-eating episodes and weight gain. The existence of mutations that cause haploinsufficiency of BDNF as well as some genetic variants, notably the BDNF p.Val66Met polymorphism, are also associated with the development of obese phenotypes and hyperphagia. However, association of the Met allele with AN and BN, which have different phenotypic characteristics, shows clearly the existence of other relevant factors that regulate eating behavior. This may, in part, be explained by the epigenetic regulation of BDNF through mechanisms like DNA methylation and histone acetylation. Environmental factors, primarily during early development, are crucial to the establishment of these stable but reversible changes that alter the transcriptional expression and are transgenerationally heritable, with potential concomitant effects on the development of eating disorders and body weight control.

  13. S100B protein, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor in human milk.

    PubMed

    Li, Ruisong; Xia, Wei; Zhang, Zhihong; Wu, Kun

    2011-01-01

    Human milk contains a wide variety of nutrients that contribute to the fulfillment of its functions, which include the regulation of newborn development. However, few studies have investigated the concentrations of S100B protein, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in human milk. The associations of the concentrations of S100B protein, BDNF, and GDNF with maternal factors are not well explored. To investigate the concentrations of S100B protein, BDNF, and GDNF in human milk and characterize the maternal factors associated with their levels in human milk, human milk samples were collected at days 3, 10, 30, and 90 after parturition. Levels of S100B protein, BDNF, and GDNF, and their mRNAs in the samples were detected. Then, these concentrations were compared with lactation and other maternal factors. S100B protein levels in human milk samples collected at 3, 10, 30, and 90 d after parturition were 1249.79±398.10, 1345.05±539.16, 1481.83±573.30, and 1414.39±621.31 ng/L, respectively. On the other hand, the BDNF concentrations in human milk samples were 10.99±4.55, 13.01±5.88, 13.35±6.43, and 2.83±5.47 µg/L, while those of GDNF were 10.90±1.65, 11.38±1., 11.29±3.10, and 11.40±2.21 g/L for the same time periods. Maternal post-pregnancy body mass index was positively associated with S100B levels in human milk (r = 0.335, P = 0.030<0.05). In addition, there was a significant correlation between the levels of S100B protein and BDNF (z = 2.09, P = 0.037<0.05). Delivery modes were negatively associated with the concentration of GDNF in human milk. S100B protein, BDNF, and GDNF are present in all samples of human milk, and they may be responsible for the long term effects of breast feeding.

  14. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression ex vivo in obesity.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Jung; Mari, David C; Whitehurst, Michael; Slusher, Aaron; Wilson, Alan; Shibata, Yoshimi

    2014-01-17

    Obesity is associated with an increased risk in neurodegenerative diseases. To counteract the neuronal damage, the human body increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression, leading to neuronal survival and plasticity. Recently, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) have been found to release BDNF as a potential neuroprotective role of inflammation. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine whether lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced PBMC activation would lead to differences in BDNF and inflammatory responses between obese and non-obese subjects. Thirty-one subjects (14 obese and 17 non-obese), ages 18 to 30years, were recruited. PBMCs were cultured for 24h with 10ng/mL LPS. BDNF, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were measured in both plasma and cell culture supernatants. Our results did not illustrate any differences in plasma BDNF levels between obese and non-obese groups. However, obese subjects elicited a greater plasma IL-6 production, which was positively associated with plasma BDNF. Furthermore, LPS-induced PBMCs expressed significantly higher BDNF and IL-6 levels in obese subjects compared to the non-obese subjects. Finally, these BDNF levels were positively correlated with IL-6 response ex vivo. These findings suggest that under a high inflammatory state, PBMCs produce greater BDNF and IL-6 expression which may play a collaborative role to protect against neuronal damage associated with obesity.

  15. Neurotrophic Factors Rescue Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Neurons and Improve Performance on a Spatial Learning Test

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yu-Shang; Danandeh, Andalib; Baratta, Janie; Lin, Ching-Yi; Yu, Jen; Robertson, Richard T.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether animals sustaining experimental damage to the basal forebrain cholinergic system would benefit from treatment with exogenous neurotrophic factors. Specifically, we set out to determine whether neurotrophic factors would rescue damaged cholinergic neurons and improve behavioral performance on a spatial learning and memory task. Adult rats received bilateral injections of either saline (controls) or 192 IgG-saporin to damage basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCNs). Two weeks later, animals received implants of an Alzet mini-pump connected to cannulae implanted bilaterally in the lateral ventricles. Animals received infusions of nerve growth factor (NGF), neurotrophin 3 (NT3), a combination of NGF and NT3, or a saline control over a 4-week period. Compared to saline-treated controls, animals sustaining saporin-induced damage to BFCNs took significantly more trials to learn a delayed match to position task and also performed more poorly on subsequent tests, with increasing delays between test runs. In contrast, animals infused with neurotrophins after saporin treatment performed significantly better than animals receiving saline infusions; no differences were detected for performance scores among animals infused with NGF, NT3, or a combination of NGF and NT3. Studies of ChAT immunnocytochemical labeling of BFCNs revealed a reduction in the numbers of ChAT-positive neurons in septum, nucleus of diagonal band, and nucleus basalis in animals treated with saporin followed by saline infusions, whereas animals treated with infusions of NGF, NT3 or a combination of NGF and NT3 showed only modest reductions in ChAT-positive neurons. Together, these data support the notion that administration of neurotrophic factors can rescue basal forebrain cholinergic neurons and improve learning and memory performance in rats. PMID:24017996

  16. Neurotrophic factors rescue basal forebrain cholinergic neurons and improve performance on a spatial learning test.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yu-Shang; Danandeh, Andalib; Baratta, Janie; Lin, Ching-Yi; Yu, Jen; Robertson, Richard T

    2013-11-01

    This study investigated whether animals sustaining experimental damage to the basal forebrain cholinergic system would benefit from treatment with exogenous neurotrophic factors. Specifically, we set out to determine whether neurotrophic factors would rescue damaged cholinergic neurons and improve behavioral performance on a spatial learning and memory task. Adult rats received bilateral injections of either saline (controls) or 192 IgG-saporin to damage basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCNs). Two weeks later, animals received implants of an Alzet mini-pump connected to cannulae implanted bilaterally in the lateral ventricles. Animals received infusions of nerve growth factor (NGF), neurotrophin 3 (NT3), a combination of NGF and NT3, or a saline control over a 4-week period. Compared to saline-treated controls, animals sustaining saporin-induced damage to BFCNs took significantly more trials to learn a delayed match to position task and also performed more poorly on subsequent tests, with increasing delays between test runs. In contrast, animals infused with neurotrophins after saporin treatment performed significantly better than animals receiving saline infusions; no differences were detected for performance scores among animals infused with NGF, NT3, or a combination of NGF and NT3. Studies of ChAT immunnocytochemical labeling of BFCNs revealed a reduction in the numbers of ChAT-positive neurons in septum, nucleus of diagonal band, and nucleus basalis in animals treated with saporin followed by saline infusions, whereas animals treated with infusions of NGF, NT3 or a combination of NGF and NT3 showed only modest reductions in ChAT-positive neurons. Together, these data support the notion that administration of neurotrophic factors can rescue basal forebrain cholinergic neurons and improve learning and memory performance in rats.

  17. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    O'Bryant, Sid E; Hobson, Valerie; Hall, James R; Waring, Stephen C; Chan, Wenyan; Massman, Paul; Lacritz, Laura; Cullum, C Munro; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon

    2009-01-01

    The current search for biomarkers that are diagnostic and/or prognostic of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is of vital importance given the rapidly aging population. It was recently reported that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) fluctuated according to AD severity, suggesting that BDNF might have utility for diagnostics and monitoring of therapeutic efficacy. The current study sought to examine whether BDNF levels varied according to AD severity, as previously reported. There were 196 participants (Probable AD, n = 98; Controls, n = 98) in the Texas Alzheimer's Research Consortium (TARC) Longitudinal Research Cohort available for analysis. BDNF levels were assayed via multiplex immunoassay. Regression analyses were utilized to examine the relation between BDNF levels, Mini-Mental Status Examination, and Clinical Dementia Rating scores adjusting for age and gender. In adjusted models, BDNF levels did not distinguish between AD patients and normal controls and did not significantly predict AD severity or global cognitive functioning. In conclusion, these findings do not support the notion that BDNF serves as a diagnostic marker for AD or disease severity. It is likely that the most accurate approach to identifying biomarkers of AD will be through an algorithmic approach that combines multiple markers reflective of various pathways.

  18. Chronic elevation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor by ampakines.

    PubMed

    Lauterborn, Julie C; Truong, Giang S; Baudry, Michel; Bi, Xiaoning; Lynch, Gary; Gall, Christine M

    2003-10-01

    The ampakine CX614 positively modulates alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor-gated currents and increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression. In rat hippocampal slice cultures, CX614 rapidly increases BDNF gene expression but with time, mRNA levels fall despite the continued presence of active drug. The present study examined this apparent refractory period and the possibility that spaced ampakine treatments could sustain elevated BDNF protein levels. In cultured hippocampal slices, CX614, a second ampakine CX546, and the cholinergic agonist carbachol each increased BDNF mRNA levels with acute (3-h) treatment. After 4-day pretreatment with CX614, fresh ampakine (CX614 or CX546) did not induce BDNF mRNA, whereas carbachol did. Western blots confirmed that after an extended period of ampakine treatment, AMPA receptor protein levels are indeed reduced, suggesting that with longer treatments receptor down-regulation mediates ampakine insensitivity. Finally, using a "24-h on/24-h off" CX614 treatment protocol, the ampakine refractory state was circumvented, BDNF mRNA was induced with each ampakine application, and elevated BDNF protein levels were maintained through 5 days in vitro. These results suggest that spaced ampakine treatments can be used to sustain elevated neurotrophin levels and to test the utility of this manipulation for neuroprotection by endogenous neurotrophins.

  19. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and cocaine addiction.

    PubMed

    McGinty, Jacqueline F; Whitfield, Timothy W; Berglind, William J

    2010-02-16

    The effects of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) on cocaine-seeking are brain region-specific. Infusion of BDNF into subcortical structures, like the nucleus accumbens and ventral tegmental area, enhances cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization and cocaine-seeking. Conversely, repeated administration of BDNF antiserum into the nucleus accumbens during chronic cocaine self-administration attenuates cocaine-induced reinstatement. In contrast, BDNF infusion into the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex immediately following a final session of cocaine self-administration attenuates relapse to cocaine-seeking after abstinence, as well as cue- and cocaine prime-induced reinstatement of cocaine-seeking following extinction. BDNF-induced alterations in the ERK-MAP kinase cascade and in prefronto-accumbens glutamatergic transmission are implicated in BDNF's ability to alter cocaine-seeking. Within 22 hours after infusion into the prefrontal cortex, BDNF increases BDNF protein in prefrontal cortical targets, including nucleus accumbens, and restores cocaine-mediated decreases in phospho-ERK expression in the nucleus accumbens. Furthermore, 3 weeks after BDNF infusion in animals with a cocaine self-administration history, suppressed basal levels of glutamate are normalized and a cocaine prime-induced increase in extracellular glutamate levels in the nucleus accumbens is prevented. Thus, BDNF may have local effects at the site of infusion and distal effects in target areas that are critical to mediating or preventing cocaine-induced dysfunctional neuroadaptations. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Tianeptine increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in the rat amygdala.

    PubMed

    Reagan, Lawrence P; Hendry, Robert M; Reznikov, Leah R; Piroli, Gerardo G; Wood, Gwendolyn E; McEwen, Bruce S; Grillo, Claudia A

    2007-06-22

    Chronic restraint stress affects hippocampal and amygdalar synaptic plasticity as determined by electrophysiological, morphological and behavioral measures, changes that are inhibited by some but not all antidepressants. The efficacy of some classes of antidepressants is proposed to involve increased phosphorylation of cAMP response element binding protein (CREB), leading to increased expression of neurotrophic factors, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Conversely, some studies suggest that acute and chronic stress downregulate BDNF expression and activity. Accordingly, the aim of the current study was to examine total and phosphorylated CREB (pCREB), as well as BDNF mRNA and protein levels in the hippocampus and amygdala of rats subjected to chronic restraint stress in the presence and absence of the antidepressant tianeptine. In the hippocampus, chronic restraint stress increased pCREB levels without affecting BDNF mRNA or protein expression. Tianeptine administration had no effect upon these measures in the hippocampus. In the amygdala, BDNF mRNA expression was not modulated in chronic restraint stress rats given saline in spite of increased pCREB levels. Conversely, BDNF mRNA levels were increased in the amygdala of chronic restraint stress/tianeptine rats in the absence of changes in pCREB levels when compared to non-stressed controls. Amygdalar BDNF protein increased while pCREB levels decreased in tianeptine-treated rats irrespective of stress conditions. Collectively, these results demonstrate that tianeptine concomitantly decreases pCREB while increasing BDNF expression in the rat amygdala, increases in neurotrophic factor expression that may participate in the enhancement of amygdalar synaptic plasticity mediated by tianeptine.

  1. Changes in neurotrophic and inflammatory factors in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with postherpetic neuralgia.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wenxing; Wang, Yong; Fang, Qiwu; Wu, Jianping; Gao, Xinyou; Liu, Hui; Cao, Liu; An, Jianxiong

    2017-01-10

    Inflammatory and neurotrophic factors are involved in postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), but the association of these factors in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) with the level of pain is poorly known. The present study aimed to examine the changes in neurotrophic and inflammatory factors in the CSF of patients with PHN and to study the correlation between these factors and the degree of pain. Fifty patients with PHN and 28 patients with hemifacial spasm (as controls) were recruited between May 2015 and March 2016. CSF levels of inflammatory and neurotrophic factors were measured by ELISA. Compared with controls, patients with PHN had lower CSF levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF), neurotrophin (NT)-3, NT-5, and P substance (all P<0.05), and higher CSF levels of interleukin (IL)-1β (P=0.050). Among patients with PHN, CSF BDNF levels were positively correlated to IL-8 (rs=0.229, P=0.04); glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) levels to IL-8 (rs=0.326, P=0.004) levels; NGF levels to tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels (rs=0.229, P=0.044); NT-3 levels to IL-1β (rs=0.228, P=0.045); and NT-5 levels to IL-8 (rs=0.388, P<0.001), and TNF-α (rs=0.445, P<0.001) levels. Inflammatory and neurotrophic factors were not correlated with the visual analog scale score and von Frey. Multivariable linear regression showed PHN was associated with NGF (P=0.038) and BDNF (P=0.029), independently from age and major medical history. In conclusion, patients with PHN showed low levels of BDNF, NGF, NT-3, and NT-5. Among patients with PHN, CSF levels of neurotrophic factors positively correlated with inflammatory factors.

  2. Morphine Withdrawal Increases Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Precursor.

    PubMed

    Bachis, Alessia; Campbell, Lee A; Jenkins, Kierra; Wenzel, Erin; Mocchetti, Italo

    2017-08-03

    Morphine has been shown to increase the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the brain. However, little is known about the effect of morphine withdrawal on BDNF and its precursor protein, or proBDNF, which induces neuronal apoptosis. In this work, we examined whether BDNF and proBDNF levels change in rats chronically injected with escalating doses of morphine and those who undergo spontaneous withdrawal for 60 h. We observed, in the frontal cortex and striatum, that the ratio of BDNF to proBDNF changed depending upon the experimental paradigm. Morphine treatment and morphine withdrawal increased both BDNF and proBDNF levels. However, the increase in proBDNF immunoreactivity in withdrawal rats was more robust than that observed in morphine-treated rats. proBDNF is processed either intracellularly by furin or extracellularly by the tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)/plasminogen system or matrix metalloproteases (MMPs). To examine the mechanisms whereby chronic morphine treatment and morphine withdrawal differentially affects BDNF/proBDNF, the levels MMP-3 and MMP-7, furin, and tPA were analyzed. We found that morphine increases tPA levels, whereas withdrawal causes a decrease. To confirm the involvement of tPA in the morphine-mediated effect on BDNF/proBDNF, we exposed cortical neurons to morphine in the presence of the tPA inhibitor plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). This inhibitor reversed the morphine-mediated decrease in proBDNF, supporting the hypothesis that morphine increases the availability of BDNF by promoting the extracellular processing of proBDNF by tPA. Because proBDNF could negatively influence synaptic repair, preventing withdrawal is crucial for reducing neurotoxic mechanisms associated with opioid abuse.

  3. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor concentrations in tetraplegic athletes.

    PubMed

    Zeller, S; Abel, T; Rojas-Vega, S; Foitschik, T; Strueder, H K

    2015-11-01

    A prospective cohort with acute tetraplegia. The purpose of this study was to investigate acute changes in serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentrations in tetraplegic spinal cord-injured (SCI) athletes during a typical training session of wheelchair rugby. German Sport University Cologne, Cologne, Germany. Eleven male SCI (AIS A and B) athletes completed a 90-min training session: The warm-up period included continuous pushing, submaximal increasing sprints and agility drills. The main training section comprised ball handling, passing drills, scrimmage activity and tactical practice. At the end of the training session, the athletes did moderate continuous pushing as a short cool-down. Venous blood samples were taken at rest before exercise, after the warm-up period and immediately following the first part of the main training section. Serum was pipetted after 30 min of blood sample resting and a subsequent centrifugation. BDNF concentrations were measured using an enzyme immunoassay ELISA kit. Heart rate (P < 0.01) and lactate (P = 0.04 and P < 0.01) concentration differed significantly in warm-up and main training part in comparison with basal values at rest. At rest, BDNF concentrations were 33.2 ± 21.6 ng ml(-1), after warm up 31.9 ± 18.9 ng ml(-1) and after the training session 29.9 ± 11 ng ml(-1), without significant differences (P > 0.05). A typical wheelchair rugby training session does not affect basal serum BDNF concentration in elite SCI athletes. In comparison with concentrations previously reported in healthy subjects, the current values at rest were slightly higher or rather at the upper limit.

  4. Beta hairpin peptide hydrogels as an injectable solid vehicle for neurotrophic growth factor delivery

    PubMed Central

    Lindsey, Stephan; Piatt, Joseph H.; Worthington, Peter; Sönmez, Cem; Satheye, Sameer; Schneider, Joel P.; Pochan, Darrin J.; Langhans, Sigrid A.

    2016-01-01

    There is intense interest in developing novel methods for the sustained delivery of low levels of clinical therapeutics. MAX8 is a peptide-based beta-hairpin hydrogel that has unique shear thinning properties that allow for immediate rehealing after the removal of shear forces, making MAX8 an excellent candidate for injectable drug delivery at a localized injury site. The current studies examined the feasibility of using MAX8 as a delivery system for Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) and Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), two neurotrophic growth factors currently used in experimental treatments of spinal cord injuries. Experiments determined that encapsulation of NGF and BDNF within MAX8 did not negatively impact gel formation or rehealing and that shear thinning did not result in immediate growth factor release. We found that increased NGF/BDNF dosages increased the amount and rate of growth factor release and that NGF/BDNF release was inversely related to the concentration of MAX8, indicating that growth factor release can be tuned by adjusting MAX8 concentrations. Encapsulation within MAX8 protected NGF and BDNF from in vitro degradation for up to 28 days. Released NGF resulted in the formation of neurite-like extensions in PC12 pheochromocytoma cells, demonstrating that NGF remains biologically active after release from encapsulation. Direct physical contact of PC12 cells with NGF-containing hydrogel did not inhibit neurite-like extension formation. On a molecular level, encapsulated growth factors activated the NGF/BDNF signaling pathways. Taken together, our data show MAX8 acts as a time-release gel, continually releasing low levels of growth factor over 21 days. MAX8 allows for greater dosage control and sustained therapeutic growth factor delivery, potentially alleviating side effects and improving the efficacy of current therapies. PMID:26225909

  5. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor modulates the dopaminergic network in the rat retina after axotomy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Jin; Song, Myoung-Chul; Kim, Hyun-Ju; Lim, Eun-Jin; Kim, In-Beom; Oh, Su-Ja; Moon, Jung-I L; Chun, Myung-Hoon

    2005-11-01

    Dopaminergic cells in the retina express the receptor for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which is the neurotrophic factor that influences the plasticity of synapses in the central nervous system. We sought to determine whether BDNF influences the network of dopaminergic amacrine cells in the axotomized rat retina, by immunocytochemistry with an anti-tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) antiserum. In the control retina, we found two types of TH-immunoreactive amacrine cells, type I and type II, in the inner nuclear layer adjacent to the inner plexiform layer (IPL). The type I amacrine cell varicosities formed ring-like structures in contact with AII amacrine cell somata in stratum 1 of the IPL. In the axotomized retinas, TH-labeled processes formed loose networks of fibers, unlike the dense networks in the control retina, and the ring-like structures were disrupted. In the axotomized retinas treated with BDNF, strong TH-immunoreactive varicosities were present in stratum 1 of the IPL and formed ring-like structures. Our data suggest that BDNF affects the expression of TH immunoreactivity in the axotomized rat retina and may therefore influence the retinal dopaminergic system.

  6. Novel combinatorial screening identifies neurotrophic factors for selective classes of motor neurons.

    PubMed

    Schaller, Sébastien; Buttigieg, Dorothée; Alory, Alysson; Jacquier, Arnaud; Barad, Marc; Merchant, Mark; Gentien, David; de la Grange, Pierre; Haase, Georg

    2017-03-21

    Numerous neurotrophic factors promote the survival of developing motor neurons but their combinatorial actions remain poorly understood; to address this, we here screened 66 combinations of 12 neurotrophic factors on pure, highly viable, and standardized embryonic mouse motor neurons isolated by a unique FACS technique. We demonstrate potent, strictly additive, survival effects of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), and Artemin through specific activation of their receptor complexes in distinct subsets of lumbar motor neurons: HGF supports hindlimb motor neurons through c-Met; CNTF supports subsets of axial motor neurons through CNTFRα; and Artemin acts as the first survival factor for parasympathetic preganglionic motor neurons through GFRα3/Syndecan-3 activation. These data show that neurotrophic factors can selectively promote the survival of distinct classes of embryonic motor neurons. Similar studies on postnatal motor neurons may provide a conceptual framework for the combined therapeutic use of neurotrophic factors in degenerative motor neuron diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, spinal muscular atrophy, and spinobulbar muscular atrophy.

  7. Reduced serum levels of oestradiol and brain derived neurotrophic factor in both diabetic women and HFD-feeding female mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Shan-Wen; Khandekar, Neeta; Tong, Shi-Fei; Yang, He-Qin; Wang, Wan-Ru; Huang, Xu-Feng; Song, Zhi-Yuan; Lin, Shu

    2017-04-01

    The estrogen levels in the pre and post menstrual phases interact with brain-derived neurotrophic factor in a complex manner, which influences the overall state of the body. To study the role of oestradiol and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in modulating obesity related type 2 diabetes and the interactions between two factors, we enrolled 15 diabetic premenopausal women and 15 diabetic postmenopausal women respectively, the same number of healthy pre and postmenopausal women were recruited as two control groups. The fasting blood glucose, insulin, lipids, estrogen, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels were measured through clinical tests. Additionally, we set up obese female mouse model to mimic human trial stated above, to verify the relationship between estrogen and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Our findings revealed that there is a moderately positive correlation between brain-derived neurotrophic factor and oestradiol in females, and decreased brain-derived neurotrophic factor may worsen impaired insulin function. The results further confirmed that high fat diet-fed mice which exhibited impaired glucose tolerance, showed lower levels of oestradiol and decreased expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA in the ventromedial hypothalamus. The level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor reduced on condition that the level of oestradiol is sufficiently low, such as women in postmenopausal period, which aggravates diabetes through feeding-related pathways. Increasing the level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor may help to alleviate the progression of the disease in postmenopausal women with diabetes.

  8. Dynamic plasticity: the role of glucocorticoids, brain-derived neurotrophic factor and other trophic factors.

    PubMed

    Gray, J D; Milner, T A; McEwen, B S

    2013-06-03

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a secreted protein that has been linked to numerous aspects of plasticity in the central nervous system (CNS). Stress-induced remodeling of the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and amygdala is coincident with changes in the levels of BDNF, which has been shown to act as a trophic factor facilitating the survival of existing and newly born neurons. Initially, hippocampal atrophy after chronic stress was associated with reduced BDNF, leading to the hypothesis that stress-related learning deficits resulted from suppressed hippocampal neurogenesis. However, recent evidence suggests that BDNF also plays a rapid and essential role in regulating synaptic plasticity, providing another mechanism through which BDNF can modulate learning and memory after a stressful event. Numerous reports have shown BDNF levels are highly dynamic in response to stress, and not only vary across brain regions but also fluctuate rapidly, both immediately after a stressor and over the course of a chronic stress paradigm. Yet, BDNF alone is not sufficient to effect many of the changes observed after stress. Glucocorticoids and other molecules have been shown to act in conjunction with BDNF to facilitate both the morphological and molecular changes that occur, particularly changes in spine density and gene expression. This review briefly summarizes the evidence supporting BDNF's role as a trophic factor modulating neuronal survival, and will primarily focus on the interactions between BDNF and other systems within the brain to facilitate synaptic plasticity. This growing body of evidence suggests a more nuanced role for BDNF in stress-related learning and memory, where it acts primarily as a facilitator of plasticity and is dependent upon the coactivation of glucocorticoids and other factors as the determinants of the final cellular response.

  9. DYNAMIC PLASTICITY: THE ROLE OF GLUCOCORTICOIDS, BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR AND OTHER TROPHIC FACTORS

    PubMed Central

    GRAY, J. D.; MILNER, T. A.; MCEWEN, B. S.

    2013-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a secreted protein that has been linked to numerous aspects of plasticity in the central nervous system (CNS). Stress-induced remodeling of the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and amygdala is coincident with changes in the levels of BDNF, which has been shown to act as a trophic factor facilitating the survival of existing and newly born neurons. Initially, hippocampal atrophy after chronic stress was associated with reduced BDNF, leading to the hypothesis that stress-related learning deficits resulted from suppressed hippocampal neurogenesis. However, recent evidence suggests that BDNF also plays a rapid and essential role in regulating synaptic plasticity, providing another mechanism through which BDNF can modulate learning and memory after a stressful event. Numerous reports have shown BDNF levels are highly dynamic in response to stress, and not only vary across brain regions but also fluctuate rapidly, both immediately after a stressor and over the course of a chronic stress paradigm. Yet, BDNF alone is not sufficient to effect many of the changes observed after stress. Glucocorticoids and other molecules have been shown to act in conjunction with BDNF to facilitate both the morphological and molecular changes that occur, particularly changes in spine density and gene expression. This review briefly summarizes the evidence supporting BDNF’s role as a trophic factor modulating neuronal survival, and will primarily focus on the interactions between BDNF and other systems within the brain to facilitate synaptic plasticity. This growing body of evidence suggests a more nuanced role for BDNF in stress-related learning and memory, where it acts primarily as a facilitator of plasticity and is dependent upon the coactivation of glucocorticoids and other factors as the determinants of the final cellular response. PMID:22922121

  10. Efficient Gene Therapy for Parkinson's Disease Using Astrocytes as Hosts for Localized Neurotrophic Factor Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Drinkut, Anja; Tereshchenko, Yuliya; Schulz, Jörg B; Bähr, Mathias; Kügler, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Current gene therapy approaches for Parkinson's disease (PD) deliver neurotrophic factors like glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) or neurturin via neuronal transgene expression. Since these potent signaling-inducing neurotrophic factors can be distributed through long-distance neuronal projections to unaffected brain sites, this mode of delivery may eventually cause side effects. To explore a localized and thus potentially safer alternative for gene therapy of PD, we expressed GDNF exclusively in astrocytes and evaluated the efficacy of this approach in the mouse 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and rat 6-hydroxy-dopamine (6-OHDA) models of PD. In terms of protection of dopaminergic cell bodies and projections, dopamine (DA) synthesis and behaviour, astrocyte-derived GDNF demonstrated the same efficacy as neuron-derived GDNF. In terms of safety, unilateral striatal GDNF expression in astrocytes did not result in delivery of bio-active GDNF to the contralateral hemispheres (potential off-target sites) as happened when GDNF was expressed in neurons. Thus, astrocytic GDNF expression represents a localized but efficient alternative to current gene therapeutic strategies for the treatment of PD, especially if viral vectors with enhanced tissue penetration are considered. Astrocytic neurotrophic factor expression may open new venues for neurotrophic factor-based gene therapy targeting severe diseases of the brain. PMID:22086235

  11. Triggering neurotrophic factor actions through adenosine A2A receptor activation: implications for neuroprotection

    PubMed Central

    Sebastião, Ana M; Ribeiro, Joaquim A

    2009-01-01

    G protein coupled receptors and tropomyosin-related kinase (Trk) receptors have distinct structure and transducing mechanisms; therefore, cross-talk among them was unexpected. Evidence has, however, accumulated showing that tonic adenosine A2A receptor activity is a required step to allow synaptic actions of neurotrophic factors, namely upon synaptic transmission at both pre- and post-synaptic level as well as upon synaptic plasticity. An enhancement of A2A receptor tonus upon ageing may partially compensate the loss of TrkB receptors, rescuing to certain degree the facilitatory action of brain derived neurotrophic factor in aged animals, which might prove particularly relevant in the prevention of neurodegeneration upon ageing. A2A receptors also trigger synaptic actions of other neurotrophic factors, such as glial derived neurotrophic factor at dopaminergic striatal nerve endings. The growing evidence that tonic adenosine A2A receptor activity is a crucial step to allow actions of neurotrophic factors in neurones will be reviewed and discussed in the light of therapeutic strategies for neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:19508402

  12. Neurotrophic factors and neural prostheses: potential clinical applications based upon findings in the auditory system.

    PubMed

    Pettingill, Lisa N; Richardson, Rachael T; Wise, Andrew K; O'Leary, Stephen J; Shepherd, Robert K

    2007-06-01

    Spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) are the target cells of the cochlear implant, a neural prosthesis designed to provide important auditory cues to severely or profoundly deaf patients. The ongoing degeneration of SGNs that occurs following a sensorineural hearing loss is, therefore, considered a limiting factor in cochlear implant efficacy. We review neurobiological techniques aimed at preventing SGN degeneration using exogenous delivery of neurotrophic factors. Application of these proteins prevents SGN degeneration and can enhance neurite outgrowth. Furthermore, chronic electrical stimulation of SGNs increases neurotrophic factor-induced survival and is correlated with functional benefits. The application of neurotrophic factors has the potential to enhance the benefits that patients can derive from cochlear implants; moreover, these techniques may be relevant for use with neural prostheses in other neurological conditions.

  13. Neurotrophic factors and neural prostheses: potential clinical applications based upon findings in the auditory system

    PubMed Central

    Pettingill, L.N.; Richardson, R.T.; Wise, A.K.; O'Leary, S.; Shepherd, R.K.

    2007-01-01

    Spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) are the target cells of the cochlear implant, a neural prosthesis designed to provide important auditory cues to severely or profoundly deaf patients. The ongoing degeneration of SGNs that occurs following a sensorineural hearing loss is therefore considered a limiting factor in cochlear implant efficacy. We review neurobiological techniques aimed at preventing SGN degeneration using exogenous delivery of neurotrophic factors. Application of these proteins prevents SGN degeneration and can enhance neurite outgrowth. Furthermore, chronic electrical stimulation of SGNs increases neurotrophic factor-induced survival and is correlated with functional benefits. The application of neurotrophic factors has the potential to enhance the benefits that patients can derive from cochlear implants; moreover, these techniques may be relevant for use with neural prostheses in other neurological conditions. PMID:17551571

  14. Are the neurotrophic factors a suitable therapeutic target for the prevention of epileptogenesis?

    PubMed

    Simonato, Michele; Zucchini, Silvia

    2010-07-01

    Neurotrophic factors are involved in the survival of neurons as well as in the proliferation and differentiation of neuronal precursors. Therefore, modulating their levels in lesion areas may exert favorable effects on seizure-induced damage. However, it is unclear if damage limitation or repair may prevent epileptogenesis; it is also uncertain which neurotrophic factor should be administered for limiting or repairing damage while avoiding possible proepileptic effects. We used viral vectors to locally supplement fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), when an epileptogenic damage was already in place. These vectors were tested in the pilocarpine model of status epilepticus-induced neurodegeneration and epileptogenesis. FGF-2/BDNF expressing vectors increased neuronogenesis, limited neuronal damage, and reduced the occurrence of spontaneous seizures. These findings are discussed with consideration of the hurdles that will have to be overcome before clinical application.

  15. Clinical application of neurotrophic factors: the potential for primary auditory neuron protection

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Lisa N.; Shepherd, Robert K.

    2007-01-01

    Sensorineural hearing loss, as a result of damage to or destruction of the sensory epithelia within the cochlea, is a common cause of deafness. The subsequent degeneration of the neural elements within the inner ear may impinge upon the efficacy of the cochlear implant. Experimental studies have demonstrated that neurotrophic factors can prevent this degeneration in animal models of deafness, and can even provide functional benefits. Neurotrophic factor therapy may, therefore, provide similar protective effects in humans, resulting in improved speech perception outcomes among cochlear implant patients. There are, however, numerous issues pertaining to delivery techniques and treatment regimes which need to be addressed prior to any clinical application. This review considers these issues in view of the potential therapeutic application of neurotrophic factors within the auditory system. PMID:16262651

  16. Parasite-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/trans-Sialidase of Trypanosoma cruzi Links Neurotrophic Signaling to Cardiac Innate Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Salvador, Ryan; Aridgides, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The Chagas' disease parasite Trypanosoma cruzi elicits a potent inflammatory response in acutely infected hearts that keeps parasitism in check and triggers cardiac abnormalities. A most-studied mechanism underlying innate immunity in T. cruzi infection is Toll-like receptor (TLR) activation by lipids and other parasite molecules. However, yet-to-be-identified pathways should exist. Here, we show that T. cruzi strongly upregulates monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1)/CCL2 and fractalkine (FKN)/CX3CL1 in cellular and mouse models of heart infection. Mechanistically, upregulation of MCP-1 and FKN stems from the interaction of parasite-derived neurotrophic factor (PDNF)/trans-sialidase with neurotrophic receptors TrkA and TrkC, as assessed by pharmacological inhibition, neutralizing antibodies, and gene silencing studies. Administration of a single dose of intravenous PDNF to naive mice results in a dose-dependent increase in MCP-1 and FKN in the heart and liver with pulse-like kinetics that peak at 3 h postinjection. Intravenous PDNF also augments MCP-1 and FKN in TLR signaling-deficient MyD88-knockout mice, underscoring the MyD88-independent action of PDNF. Although single PDNF injections do not increase MCP-1 and FKN receptors, multiple PDNF injections at short intervals up the levels of receptor transcripts in the heart and liver, suggesting that sustained PDNF triggers cell recruitment at infection sites. Thus, given that MCP-1 and FKN are chemokines essential to the recruitment of immune cells to combat inflammation triggers and to enhance tissue repair, our findings uncover a new mechanism in innate immunity against T. cruzi infection mediated by Trk signaling akin to an endogenous inflammatory and fibrotic pathway resulting from cardiomyocyte-TrkA recognition by matricellular connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2). PMID:24935974

  17. Aerobic exercise interacts with neurotrophic factors to predict cognitive functioning in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tatia M C; Wong, Mark Lawrence; Lau, Benson Wui-Man; Lee, Jada Chia-Di; Yau, Suk-Yu; So, Kwok-Fai

    2014-01-01

    Recent findings have suggested that aerobic exercise may have a positive effect on brain functioning, in addition to its well-recognized beneficial effects on human physiology. This study confirmed the cognitive effects of aerobic exercise on the human brain. It also examined the relationships between exercise and the serum levels of neurotrophic factors (BDNF, IGI-1, and VEGF). A total of 91 healthy teens who exercised regularly participated in this study. A between-group design was adopted to compare cognitive functioning subserved by the frontal and temporal brain regions and the serum levels of neurotrophic factors between 45 regular exercisers and 46 matched controls. The exercisers performed significantly better than the controls on the frontal and temporal functioning parameters measured. This beneficial cognitive effect was region-specific because no such positive cognitive effect on task-tapping occipital functioning was observed. With respect to the serum levels of the neurotrophic factors, a negative correlation between neurotrophic factors (BDNF and VEGF) with frontal and medial-temporal lobe function was revealed. Furthermore, the levels of BDNF and VEGF interacted with exercise status in predicting frontal and temporal lobe function. This is the first report of the interaction effects of exercise and neurotrophic factors on cognitive functioning. Herein, we report preliminary evidence of the beneficial effects of regular aerobic exercise in improving cognitive functions in teens. These beneficial effects are region-specific and are associated with the serum levels of neurotrophic factors. Our findings lay the path for future studies looking at ways to translate these beneficial effects to therapeutic strategies for adolescents.

  18. Post 6-OHDA lesion exposure to stress affects neurotrophic factor expression and aggravates motor impairment.

    PubMed

    Ngema, Phumzile Nomfundo; Mabandla, Musa Vuyisile

    2017-08-01

    Chronic exposure to stress amplifies locomotor deficits and exacerbates dopamine neuron loss in an animal model for Parkinson's disease. The release of neurotrophic factors such as glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) following neuronal injury attenuates exacerbated degeneration of these neurons. In this study, the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) was injected unilaterally into the medial forebrain bundle of male Sprague Dawley rats. A subset of these rats was subjected to post-lesion restraint stress after which the effect of exposure to stress on locomotor activity (forelimb akinesia test), neurotrophic factor (GDNF and NT-3) and corticosterone concentration was assessed. Exposure to post-lesion stress resulted in increased preference to use the unimpaired forelimb (forelimb ipsilateral to the lesioned hemisphere) in the forelimb akinesia test. The expected increase in both GDNF and NT-3 concentration following injury was not present in the stressed animals. However, both the non-stressed and stressed lesioned groups had decreased neurotrophic factor concentration at one and two weeks post lesion. This decrease was exaggerated in the stressed rats. The decrease in neurotrophic factor concentration was accompanied by an increase in corticosterone concentration in the stressed rats. These findings demonstrate that exposure to post-6-OHDA lesion stress exaggerates dopamine neurodegeneration and enhance motor impairment. This suggests that conditions that result in a hyper-activated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis such as depression which is concomitant to a Parkinson's disease diagnosis may be responsible for enhanced dopamine depletion by attenuating neurotrophic factor concentration elevation in the nigrostriatal pathway following neuronal injury.

  19. Randomized trial of ciliary neurotrophic factor delivered by encapsulated cell intraocular implants for retinitis pigmentosa.

    PubMed

    Birch, David G; Weleber, Richard G; Duncan, Jacque L; Jaffe, Glenn J; Tao, Weng

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate the safety and effect on visual function of ciliary neurotrophic factor delivered via an intraocular encapsulated cell implant for the treatment of retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Ciliary neurotrophic factor for late-stage retinitis pigmentosa study 3 (CNTF3; n = 65) and ciliary neurotrophic factor for early-stage retinitis pigmentosa study 4 (CNTF4; n = 68) were multicenter, sham-controlled dose-ranging studies. Patients were randomly assigned to receive a high- or low-dose implant in 1 eye and sham surgery in the fellow eye. The primary endpoints were change in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) at 12 months for CNTF3 and change in visual field sensitivity at 12 months for CNTF4. Patients had the choice of retaining or removing the implant at 12 months for CNTF3 and 24 months for CNTF4. There were no serious adverse events related to either the encapsulated cell implant or the surgical procedure. In CNTF3, there was no change in acuity in either ciliary neurotrophic factor- or sham-treated eyes at 1 year. In CNTF4, eyes treated with the high-dose implant showed a significant decrease in sensitivity while no change was seen in sham- and low dose-treated eyes at 12 months. The decrease in sensitivity was reversible upon implant removal. In both studies, ciliary neurotrophic factor treatment resulted in a dose-dependent increase in retinal thickness. Long-term intraocular delivery of ciliary neurotrophic factor is achieved by the encapsulated cell implant. Neither study showed therapeutic benefit in the primary outcome variable. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Brain derived neurotrophic factor inhibits apoptosis in enteric glia during gut inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Steinkamp, Martin; Schulte, Nadine; Spaniol, Ulrike; Pflüger, Carolin; Hartmann, Christoph; Kirsch, Joachim; von Boyen, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Enteric glia cells (EGCs) are essential for the integrity of the bowel. A loss of EGCs leads to a severe inflammation of the intestines. As a diminished EGC network is postulated in Crohn’s disease (CD), we aimed to investigate if EGCs could be a target of apoptosis during inflammation in CD, which can be influenced by Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Material/Methods GFAP, BDNF and cCaspase-3 were detected in the gut of patients with CD. Primary EGC cultures were established and cultivated. Tyrosine receptor kinase (TrkB) receptors on these cells were investigated by western blot and immunofluorescence. Rate of apoptosis was induced by tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interferon (IFN-γ). Apoptosis was determined by a fluorometric caspase 3/7 activation assay after preincubation of these cells with BDNF or neutralizing anti-BDNF antibodies. Results Mucosal GFAP-positive EGCs undergo apoptosis revealed by cCaspase-3 in the gut of patients with CD expressing BDNF highly. The combination of TNF-α and IFN-γ was able to induce apoptosis in primary EGCs, whereas these factors alone did not. Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) attenuate glia cell apoptosis to a small extent, but neutralizing antibodies against BDNF dramatically increased apoptosis. Conclusions Mucosal EGC apoptosis is an important finding in the gut of patients with CD. Proinflammatory cytokines, which are highly increased in CD, induce EGC apoptosis, whereas the neurotrophin BDNF might be protective for EGC. Since EGCs are implicated in the maintenance of the enteric mucosal integrity, EGC apoptosis may contribute to the pathophysiological changes in CD. PMID:22460084

  1. Vascular function and brain-derived neurotrophic factor: The functional capacity factor.

    PubMed

    Alomari, Mahmoud A; Khabour, Omar F; Maikano, Abubakar; Alawneh, Khaldoon

    2015-12-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is essential for neurocognitive function. This study aims at establishing a plausible link between level of serum BDNF, functional capacity (FC), and vascular function in 181 young (age 25.5±9.1 years old), apparently healthy adults. Fasting blood samples were drawn from participants' antecubital veins into plain glass tubes while they were in a sitting position to evaluate serum BDNF using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Mercury-in-silastic strain-gauge plethysmography was used to determine arterial function indices, blood flow and vascular resistance at rest and following 5 minutes of arterial ischemia. The 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) test was used to determine FC, according to the American Thoracic Society Committee on Proficiency Standards for Clinical Pulmonary Function Laboratories guidelines. It was conducted in an enclosed corridor on a flat surface with a circular track 33 meters long. The walking course was demarcated with bright colored cones. The 6MWD correlated with BDNF (r=0.3, p=0.000), as well as with forearm blood inflow (r=0.5, p=0.000) and vascular resistance (r = -0.4, p=0.000). Subsequent comparison showed that BDNF and blood inflow were greater (p<0.05) while vascular resistance was less (p<0.05) in participants who achieved a longer 6MWD. Similarly, BDNF correlated with forearm blood inflow (r=0.4, p=0.000) and vascular resistance (r = -0.4, p=0.000). Subsequent comparison showed improved vascular function (p<0.05) in the participants with greater BDNF. In conclusion, these findings might suggest that improved vascular function in individuals with greater FC is mediated, at least partially, by an enhanced serum BDNF level.

  2. Cell-based delivery of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Makar, Tapas K; Nimmagadda, Vamshi K C; Trisler, David; Bever, Christopher T

    2014-08-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a pleiotropic cytokine with neuroprotective properties that has been identified as a potential therapeutic agent for diseases of the central nervous system (CNS). The use of BDNF has been limited by a short serum half-life and poor penetration of the blood-brain barrier. To address this limitation we have explored cell-based approaches to delivery. We have used experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), an inflammatory disease of the CNS, as a model system. We engineered hematopoietic stem cells to produce BDNF to determine the feasibility and effectiveness of cell-based delivery of BDNF into the CNS in EAE. We review those studies here.

  3. Impact of aerobic training on immune-endocrine parameters, neurotrophic factors, quality of life and coordinative function in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Karl-Heinz; Gold, Stefan M; Witte, Jan; Bartsch, Katharina; Lang, Undine E; Hellweg, Rainer; Reer, Rüdiger; Braumann, Klaus-Michael; Heesen, Christoph

    2004-10-15

    In recent years it has become clear that multiple sclerosis (MS) patients benefit from physical exercise as performed in aerobic training but little is known about the effect on functional domains and physiological factors mediating these effects. We studied immunological, endocrine and neurotrophic factors as well as coordinative function and quality of life during an 8-week aerobic bicycle training in a waitlist control design. In the immune-endocrine study (1) 28 patients were included, the coordinative extension study (2) included 39 patients. Training was performed at 60% VO(2)max after determining individual exertion levels through step-by-step ergometry. Metabolic (lactate), endocrine (cortisol, adrendocortico-releasing hormone, epinephrine, norepinephrine), immune (IL-6, soluble IL-6 receptor), and neurotrophic (brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF)) parameters were compared from a prestudy and a poststudy endurance test at 60% VO(2)max for 30 min. In study (1), lowered lactate levels despite higher workload levels indicated a training effect. Disease-specific quality of life (as measured by the Hamburg Quality of Life Questionnaire for Multiple Sclerosis, HAQUAMS) significantly increased in the training group. No significant training effects were seen for endocrine and immune parameters or neurotrophins. In study (2), two out of three coordinative parameters of the lower extremities were significantly improved. In summary, low-level aerobic training in MS improves not only quality of life but also coordinative function and physical fitness.

  4. Polylactic-co-glycolic acid microspheres containing three neurotrophic factors promote sciatic nerve repair after injury.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qun; Li, Zhi-Yue; Zhang, Ze-Peng; Mo, Zhou-Yun; Chen, Shi-Jie; Xiang, Si-Yu; Zhang, Qing-Shan; Xue, Min

    2015-09-01

    A variety of neurotrophic factors have been shown to repair the damaged peripheral nerve. However, in clinical practice, nerve growth factor, neurotrophin-3 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor are all peptides or proteins that may be rapidly deactivated at the focal injury site; their local effective concentration time following a single medication cannot meet the required time for spinal axons to regenerate and cross the glial scar. In this study, we produced polymer sustained-release microspheres based on the polylactic-co-glycolic acid copolymer; the microspheres at 300-μm diameter contained nerve growth factor, neurotrophin-3 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Six microspheres were longitudinally implanted into the sciatic nerve at the anastomosis site, serving as the experimental group; while the sciatic nerve in the control group was subjected to the end-to-end anastomosis using 10/0 suture thread. At 6 weeks after implantation, the lower limb activity, weight of triceps surae muscle, sciatic nerve conduction velocity and the maximum amplitude were obviously better in the experimental group than in the control group. Compared with the control group, more regenerating nerve fibers were observed and distributed in a dense and ordered manner with thicker myelin sheaths in the experimental group. More angiogenesis was also visible. Experimental findings indicate that polylactic-co-glycolic acid composite microspheres containing nerve growth factor, neurotrophin-3 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor can promote the restoration of sciatic nerve in rats after injury.

  5. Polylactic-co-glycolic acid microspheres containing three neurotrophic factors promote sciatic nerve repair after injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qun; Li, Zhi-yue; Zhang, Ze-peng; Mo, Zhou-yun; Chen, Shi-jie; Xiang, Si-yu; Zhang, Qing-shan; Xue, Min

    2015-01-01

    A variety of neurotrophic factors have been shown to repair the damaged peripheral nerve. However, in clinical practice, nerve growth factor, neurotrophin-3 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor are all peptides or proteins that may be rapidly deactivated at the focal injury site; their local effective concentration time following a single medication cannot meet the required time for spinal axons to regenerate and cross the glial scar. In this study, we produced polymer sustained-release microspheres based on the polylactic-co-glycolic acid copolymer; the microspheres at 300-μm diameter contained nerve growth factor, neurotrophin-3 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Six microspheres were longitudinally implanted into the sciatic nerve at the anastomosis site, serving as the experimental group; while the sciatic nerve in the control group was subjected to the end-to-end anastomosis using 10/0 suture thread. At 6 weeks after implantation, the lower limb activity, weight of triceps surae muscle, sciatic nerve conduction velocity and the maximum amplitude were obviously better in the experimental group than in the control group. Compared with the control group, more regenerating nerve fibers were observed and distributed in a dense and ordered manner with thicker myelin sheaths in the experimental group. More angiogenesis was also visible. Experimental findings indicate that polylactic-co-glycolic acid composite microspheres containing nerve growth factor, neurotrophin-3 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor can promote the restoration of sciatic nerve in rats after injury. PMID:26604912

  6. Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Attracts Geniculate Ganglion Neurites during Embryonic Targeting

    PubMed Central

    Hoshino, Natalia; Vatterott, Phillip; Egwiekhor, Amina; Rochlin, M. William

    2010-01-01

    Geniculate axons are initially guided to discrete epithelial placodes in the lingual and palatal epithelium that subsequently differentiate into taste buds. In vivo approaches show that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA is concentrated in these placodes, that BDNF is necessary for targeting taste afferents to these placodes, and that BDNF misexpression disrupts guidance. We used an in vitro approach to determine whether BDNF may act directly on geniculate axons as a trophic factor and as an attractant, and whether there is a critical period for responsiveness to BDNF. We show that BDNF promotes neurite outgrowth from geniculate ganglion explants dissected from embryonic day (E) 15, E18, infant, and adult rats cultured in collagen gels, and that there is a concentration optimum for neurite extension. Gradients of BDNF derived from slow-release beads caused the greatest bias in neurite outgrowth at E15, when axons approach the immature gustatory papillae. Further, neurites advanced faster toward the BDNF bead than away from it, even if the average amount of neurotrophic factor encountered was the same. We also found that neurites that contact BDNF beads did not advance beyond them. At E18, when axons would be penetrating pregustatory epithelium in vivo, BDNF continued to exert a tropic effect on geniculate neurites. However, at postnatal and adult stages, the influence of BDNF was predominantly trophic. Our data support a role for BDNF acting as an attractant for geniculate axons during a critical period that encompasses initial targeting but not at later stages. PMID:20639634

  7. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor deficiency restricts proliferation of oligodendrocyte progenitors following cuprizone-induced demyelination.

    PubMed

    Tsiperson, Vladislav; Huang, Yangyang; Bagayogo, Issa; Song, Yeri; VonDran, Melissa W; DiCicco-Bloom, Emanuel; Dreyfus, Cheryl F

    2015-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of the neurotrophin family of growth factors that through its neurotrophic tyrosine kinase, receptor, type 2 (TrkB) receptor, increases 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine incorporation in oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) in culture. Roles in vivo are less well understood; however, increases in numbers of OPCs are restricted in BDNF+/- mice following cuprizone-elicited demyelination. Here, we investigate whether these blunted increases in OPCs are associated with changes in proliferation. BDNF+/+ and BDNF+/- mice were fed cuprizone-containing or control feed. To assess effects on OPC numbers, platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRα)+ or NG2+ cells were counted. To monitor DNA synthesis, 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) was injected intraperitoneally and colocalized with PDGFRα+ cells. Alternatively, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was colocalized with PDGFRα or NG2. Labeling indices were determined in the BDNF+/+ and BDNF+/- animals. After 4 or 5 weeks of control feed, BDNF+/- mice exhibit similar numbers of OPCs compared with BDNF+/+ animals. The labeling indices for EdU and PCNA also were not significantly different, suggesting that neither the DNA synthesis phase (S phase) nor the proliferative pool size was different between genotypes. In contrast, when mice were challenged by cuprizone for 4 or 5 weeks, increases in OPCs observed in BDNF+/+ mice were reduced in the BDNF+/- mice. This difference in elevations in cell number was accompanied by decreases in EdU labeling and PCNA labeling without changes in cell death, indicating a reduction in the DNA synthesis and the proliferative pool. Therefore, levels of BDNF influence the proliferation of OPCs resulting from a demyelinating lesion.

  8. Identification of Mesencephalic Astrocyte-Derived Neurotrophic Factor as a Novel Neuroprotective Factor for Retinal Ganglion Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Feng-Juan; Wu, Ji-Hong; Li, Ting-Ting; Du, Shan-Shan; Wu, Qiang

    2017-01-01

    Mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF), a newly discovered secreted neurotrophic factor, has been proven to not only protect dopaminergic neurons and other cell types but also regulate neuroinflammation and the immune response to promote tissue repair and regeneration. However, to date, there is no information regarding the relationship between MANF and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in the eye. In the current study, we first determined the expression of MANF in the retina and vitreous. Then, we examined the effect of MANF on RGCs using both in vivo and in vitro models and simultaneously explored the underlying neuroprotective mechanisms of MANF. Finally, we measured the concentrations of MANF in the vitreous of patients with different retinopathies. We demonstrated that MANF was highly expressed in RGCs and that exogenous MANF could protect RGCs from hypoxia-induced cell injury and apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo by preventing endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis. Furthermore, MANF can be detected in the vitreous humor, and the concentration changed under pathological conditions. Our results provide important evidence that MANF may be a potential therapeutic protein for a range of retinal pathologies in either the preclinical stage or after diagnosis to promote the survival of RGCs. Vitreous MANF may be a promising protein biomarker for the indirect assessment of retinal disorders, which could provide indirect evidence of retinal pathology. PMID:28367115

  9. Absence of hippocampal mossy fiber sprouting in transgenic mice overexpressing brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

    PubMed

    Qiao, X; Suri, C; Knusel, B; Noebels, J L

    2001-05-01

    Excess neuronal activity upregulates the expression of two neurotrophins, nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in adult hippocampus. Nerve growth factor has been shown to contribute the induction of aberrant hippocampal mossy fiber sprouting in the inner molecular layer of the dentate gyrus, however the role of prolonged brain-derived neurotrophic factor exposure is uncertain. We examined the distribution and plasticity of mossy fibers in transgenic mice with developmental overexpression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Despite 2--3-fold elevated BDNF levels in the hippocampus sufficient to increase the intensity of neuropeptide Y immunoreactivity in interneurons, no visible changes in mossy fiber Timm staining patterns were observed in the inner molecular layer of adult mutant hippocampus compared to wild-type mice. In addition, no changes of the mRNA expression of two growth-associated proteins, GAP-43 and SCG-10 were found. These data suggest that early and persistent elevations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in granule cells are not sufficient to elicit this pattern of axonal plasticity in the hippocampus.

  10. Interplay Between Nitric Oxide and Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor in Neuronal Plasticity.

    PubMed

    Biojone, Caroline; Casarotto, Plinio Cabrera; Joca, Samia Regiane; Castrén, Eero

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide is a gaseous neuromodulator that displays a core role in several neuronal processes. Beyond regulating the release of neurotransmitters, nitric oxide also plays a role in cell differentiation and maturation in the central nervous system. Although the mode of action of nitric oxide is not fully understood, it involves the activation of soluble guanylate cyclase as well as the nitration and S-nitrosylation of specific amino acid residues in other proteins. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor is a member of neurotrophic factor family and, acting through its receptor tropomyosinrelated kinase B, increases the production of nitric oxide, modulates neuronal differentiation and survival, and plays a crucial role in synaptic plasticity, such as long-term potentiation. Furthermore, nitric oxide is an important regulator of the production of these factors. The aim of the present review is to present a condensed view of the evidence related to the interaction between nitric oxide and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Additionally, we conducted bioinformatics analysis based on the amino acid sequences of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and tropomyosin-related kinase receptors, and proposed that nitric oxide might nitrate/S-nitrosylate these proteins. Thus, we suggest a putative direct mode of action between these molecules to be further explored.

  11. Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in childhood.

    PubMed

    Bryn, V; Halvorsen, B; Ueland, T; Isaksen, J; Kolkova, K; Ravn, K; Skjeldal, O H

    2015-07-01

    Neurotrophic factors are essential regulators of neuronal maturation including synaptic synthesis. Among those, Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been in particular focus in the understanding of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The aim of our study was to investigate whether BNDF could be used as diagnostic/biological marker for ASD. For this purpose we examined the plasma levels of BDNF and the precursors pro- BDNF in patients with ASD and compared it with non-autistic controls; determined whether there was a correlation between the BDNF and proBDNF levels and clinical severity. We also investigated the coding region of BDNF identify for well-variations which could be associated to ASD. The 65 ASD patients (51 boys) were enrolled from a recent completed epidemiological survey covering two counties (Oppland and Hedmark) in Norway. The mean age of the total number of children who participated in this study was 11,7 years. 30 non-autistic children were included as controls, 14 boys and 16 girls. The mean age was 11.3 years. Exclusion criteria for control group were individuals suffering from either neurological, endocrine, or immune insuffiency. Patients with ASD were characterized by moderately but significantly elevated plasma levels of BDNF compared to matched controls. No differences were observed in the proBDNF level between patients and controls. Within the ASD group, children with intellectual disability demonstrated increased BDNF, but not proBDNF levels, while the presence of ADHD had no impact on circulating proBDNF or BDNF. No further associations between plasma proBDNF or BDNF and other clinical demographics were observed. Copyright © 2015 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Does a period of detraining cause a decrease in serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor?

    PubMed

    Goekint, Maaike; Roelands, Bart; De Pauw, Kevin; Knaepen, Kristel; Bos, Inge; Meeusen, Romain

    2010-12-17

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is one of the neurotrophins promoting cognitive function and contributing to neurogenesis and neuroprotection. Available evidence suggests that exercise influences serum BDNF concentrations, but that the effect is transient. The purpose of this study is to determine whether a period of aerobic training, followed by a period of detraining, can influence basal serum BDNF levels in humans. Sixteen young, sedentary subjects were assigned to an experimental group (n=9) and a control group (n=7). The experimental group performed an aerobic training program during 8 weeks, followed by 8 weeks of detraining, during which subjects returned to their previous, sedentary activity level. The control group remained physically inactive during 16 weeks. In both groups, performance on short-term (Digit Span test) and mid-term memory (Recall of Images) was assessed. Aerobic training significantly increased the VO(2) peak in the experimental group, and these values returned to baseline after 8 weeks of detraining. Basal serum BDNF was not influenced by 8 weeks of aerobic training and detraining did not seem to have an effect on basal peripheral BDNF concentrations. Both training and detraining did not clearly influence short-term memory performance on the Digit Span test and no differences were present between the experimental and control group on the mid-term memory test. Future studies should focus on patient groups and elderly to further investigate the effect of training and detraining on neurotrophic factors and cognitive function, and on the effects of training and detraining on the BDNF response to acute exercise.

  13. Neurotrophic Factors (BDNF and GDNF) and the Serotonergic System of the Brain.

    PubMed

    Popova, N K; Ilchibaeva, T V; Naumenko, V S

    2017-03-01

    Neurotrophic factors play a key role in development, differentiation, synaptogenesis, and survival of neurons in the brain as well as in the process of their adaptation to external influences. The serotonergic (5-HT) system is another major factor in the development and neuroplasticity of the brain. In the present review, the results of our own research as well as data provided in the corresponding literature on the interaction of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) with the 5-HT-system of the brain are considered. Attention is given to comparison of BDNF and GDNF, the latter belonging to a different family of neurotrophic factors and being mainly considered as a dopaminergic system controller. Data cited in this review show that: (i) BDNF and GDNF interact with the 5-HT-system of the brain through feedback mechanisms engaged in autoregulation of the complex involving 5-HT-system and neurotrophic factors; (ii) GDNF, as well as BDNF, stimulates the growth of 5-HT neurons and affects the expression of key genes of the brain 5-HT-system - those coding tryptophan hydroxylase-2 and 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors. In turn, 5-HT affects the expression of genes that control BDNF and GDNF in brain structures; (iii) the difference between BDNF and GDNF is manifested in different levels and relative distribution of expression of these factors in brain structures (BDNF expression is highest in hippocampus and cortex, GDNF expression in the striatum), in varying reaction of 5-HT2A receptors on BDNF and GDNF administration, and in different effects on certain types of behavior.

  14. Interfering with perirhinal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression impairs recognition memory in rats

    PubMed Central

    Seoane, Ana; Tinsley, Chris J.; Brown, Malcolm W.

    2014-01-01

    The role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in recognition memory was investigated by locally infusing oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) into perirhinal cortex, a region of the temporal lobe essential for familiarity discrimination. Antisense but not sense BDNF ODN impaired consolidation of long-term (24h) but not shorter-term (20min) recognition memory. PMID:20087891

  15. Chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft combined with ciliary neurotrophic factor promotes sciatic nerve repair

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanru; Zhang, Hui; Katiella, Kaka; Huang, Wenhua

    2014-01-01

    A chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft can reduce postoperative immune rejection, similar to an autologous nerve graft, and can guide neural regeneration. However, it remains poorly understood whether a chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft combined with neurotrophic factors provides a good local environment for neural regeneration. This study investigated the repair of injured rat sciatic nerve using a chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft combined with ciliary neurotrophic factor. An autologous nerve anastomosis group and a chemical acellular allogeneic nerve bridging group were prepared as controls. At 8 weeks after repair, sciatic functional index, evoked potential amplitude of the soleus muscle, triceps wet weight recovery rate, total number of myelinated nerve fibers and myelin sheath thickness were measured. For these indices, values in the three groups showed the autologous nerve anastomosis group > chemically extracted acellular nerve graft + ciliary neurotrophic factor group > chemical acellular allogeneic nerve bridging group. These results suggest that chemically extracted acellular nerve grafts combined with ciliary neurotrophic factor can repair sciatic nerve defects, and that this repair is inferior to autologous nerve anastomosis, but superior to chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve bridging alone. PMID:25221592

  16. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor in human subjects with function-altering melanocortin-4 receptor variants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In rodents, hypothalamic brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression appears to be regulated by melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) activity. The impact of MC4R genetic variation on circulating BDNF in humans is unknown. The objective of this study is to compare BDNF concentrations of subjects wi...

  17. Chronic hyperoxia alters the expression of neurotrophic factors in the carotid body of neonatal rats.

    PubMed

    Dmitrieff, Elizabeth F; Wilson, Julia T; Dunmire, Kyle B; Bavis, Ryan W

    2011-02-15

    Chronic exposure to hyperoxia alters the postnatal development and innervation of the rat carotid body. We hypothesized that this plasticity is related to changes in the expression of neurotrophic factors or related proteins. Rats were reared in 60% O(2) from 24 to 36h prior to birth until studied at 3d of age (P3). Protein levels for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were significantly reduced (-70%) in the P3 carotid body, while protein levels for its receptor, tyrosine kinase B, and for glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) were unchanged. Transcript levels in the carotid body were downregulated for the GDNF receptor Ret (-34%) and the neuropeptide Vgf (-67%), upregulated for Cbln1 (+205%), and unchanged for Fgf2; protein levels were not quantified for these genes. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that Vgf and Cbln1 proteins are expressed within the carotid body glomus cells. These data suggest that BDNF, and perhaps other neurotrophic factors, contribute to abnormal carotid body function following perinatal hyperoxia.

  18. Differential Regulation of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Transcripts during the Consolidation of Fear Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ressler, Kerry J.; Rattiner, Lisa M.; Davis, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been implicated as a molecular mediator of learning and memory. The BDNF gene contains four differentially regulated promoters that generate four distinct mRNA transcripts, each containing a unique noncoding 5[prime]-exon and a common 3[prime]-coding exon. This study describes novel evidence for the…

  19. Prospects of Neurotrophic Factors for Parkinson's Disease: Comparison of Protein and Gene Therapy.

    PubMed

    Domanskyi, Andrii; Saarma, Mart; Airavaara, Mikko

    2015-08-01

    Neurotrophic factors (NTFs) hold great potential as therapeutic agents in the treatment of neurodegenerative conditions, including Parkinson's disease (PD), in which the progressive loss of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta causes severe motor symptoms. There is extensive evidence that in preclinical animal models of PD NTFs are both neuroprotective and neurorestorative. In particular, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), neurturin (NRTN), cerebral dopamine neurotrophic factor, and mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor have shown great potential to restore dopamine neurocircuitry. Although some previous clinical trials have demonstrated limited efficacy of GDNF and NRTN, there are several concerns raised with these studies. Moreover, open-label studies with GDNF as well as a study with NRTN showed clinical improvement, particularly in patients with early-stage PD. Indeed, as previous clinical trials with NTFs were associated with several technical problems, there is a great need for further investigations. In this review we discuss the emerging and existing possibilities to use NTFs as neurorestorative agents and the ways to improve their efficacy, and compare gene therapy and recombinant protein therapy approaches for restoring the dopamine circuitry in PD.

  20. The Effect of Repeated Electroacupuncture Analgesia on Neurotrophic and Cytokine Factors in Neuropathic Pain Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Junying; Duanmu, Chenlin; Feng, Xiumei; Yan, Yaxia

    2016-01-01

    Chronic pain is a common disability influencing quality of life. Results of previous studies showed that acupuncture has a cumulative analgesic effect, but the relationship with spinal cytokines neurotrophic factors released by astrocytes remains unknown. The present study was designed to observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) treatment on spinal cytokines neurotrophic factors in chronic neuropathic pain rats. The chronic neuropathic pain was established by chronic constrictive injury (CCI). EA treatment was applied at Zusanli (ST36) and Yanglingquan (GB34) (both bilateral) once a day, for 30 min. IL-1β mRNA, TNF-α mRNA, and IL-1 mRNA were detected by quantitative real-time PCR, and the proteins of BDNF, NGF, and NT3/4 were detected by Western blot. The expression levels of cytokines such as IL-1β mRNA, TNF-α mRNA, IL-6 mRNA, and neurotrophic factors such as BDNF, NGF, and NT3/4 in the spinal cord were increased significantly after CCI. The astrocytes released more IL-1β and BDNF after CCI. Repeated EA treatment could suppress the elevated expression of IL-1β mRNA, TNFα mRNA, and BDNF, NGF, and NT3/4 but had no effect on IL-6 mRNA. It is suggested that cytokines and neurotrophic factors which may be closely associated with astrocytes participated in the process of EA relieving chronic pain. PMID:27800006

  1. Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Levels in Autism: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saghazadeh, Amene; Rezaei, Nima

    2017-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. Altered blood BDNF levels have been frequently identified in people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). There are however wide discrepancies in the evidence. Therefore, we performed the present systematic review and meta-analysis aimed at…

  2. Differential Regulation of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Transcripts during the Consolidation of Fear Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ressler, Kerry J.; Rattiner, Lisa M.; Davis, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been implicated as a molecular mediator of learning and memory. The BDNF gene contains four differentially regulated promoters that generate four distinct mRNA transcripts, each containing a unique noncoding 5[prime]-exon and a common 3[prime]-coding exon. This study describes novel evidence for the…

  3. Human obesity associated with an intronic SNP in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor locus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a key role in energy balance. In population studies, SNPs of the BDNF locus have been linked to obesity, but the mechanism by which these variants cause weight gain is unknown. Here, we examined human hypothalamic BDNF expression in association with 44 ...

  4. Dynamic expression of neurotrophic factor receptors in postnatal spinal motoneurons and in mouse model of ALS.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiasheng; Huang, Eric J

    2006-07-01

    Neurotrophic factors support the survival of spinal motoneurons (MNs) and have been considered as strong candidates for treating motoneuron diseases. However, it is unclear if the right combination of neurotrophic factor receptors is present in postnatal spinal MNs. In this study, we show that the level of c-ret expression remains relatively stable in embryonic and postnatal spinal MNs. In contrast, the mRNA and protein of GFRalpha1 and -2 are progressively down-regulated in postnatal life. By 3 and 6 months of age, both receptors are barely detectable in spinal MNs. The down-regulation of GFRalpha1 appears accelerated in transgenic mice expressing mutant SOD1(G93A). Despite the progressive loss of GFRalpha1 and -2, phosphorylation of c-ret shows no detectable reduction on tyrosine residues or on serine 696. In addition to the GFRalpha subunits, expression of TrkB also shows a dynamic change. During embryogenesis, there is twice as much full-length TrkB as the truncated TrkB isoform. However, this ratio is reversed in postnatal spinal cord. Expression of the mutant SOD1(G93A) appears to have no effect on the TrkB receptor ratio. Taken together, our data indicate that the expression of neurotrophic factor receptors, GFRalpha1, -2, and TrkB, is not static, but undergoes dynamic changes in postnatal spinal MNs. These results provide insights into the use of neurotrophic factors as therapeutic agents for ALS.

  5. Effect of glatiramer acetate on peripheral blood brain-derived neurotrophic factor and phosphorylated TrkB levels in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Vacaras, Vitalie; Major, Zsigmond Z; Muresanu, Dafin F; Krausz, Tibor L; Marginean, Ioan; Buzoianu, Dana A

    2014-01-01

    Glatiramer acetate (GA) is one of the most widely used disease-modifying drugs for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis; is assumed to have inductor effects on neurotrophic factor expression. One of these neurotrophic factor systems is the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)/receptor tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) pathway. Peripheral blood is thought to contain soluble BDNF, and some blood cells express TrkB. We attempted to determine whether GA treatment leads to changes in plasma BDNF levels and TrkB activation. Such a phenomenon are relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients is significantly reduced; GA treatment is not influencing peripheral BDNF levels, after one year of sustained therapy, not from the point of view of total free BDNF nor the phosphorylated TrkB.

  6. Decreased plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor and vascular endothelial growth factor concentrations during military training.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Go; Tokuno, Shinichi; Nibuya, Masashi; Ishida, Toru; Yamamoto, Tetsuo; Mukai, Yasuo; Mitani, Keiji; Tsumatori, Gentaro; Scott, Daniel; Shimizu, Kunio

    2014-01-01

    Decreased concentrations of plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and serum BDNF have been proposed to be a state marker of depression and a biological indicator of loaded psychosocial stress. Stress evaluations of participants in military mission are critically important and appropriate objective biological parameters that evaluate stress are needed. In military circumstances, there are several problems to adopt plasma BDNF concentration as a stress biomarker. First, in addition to psychosocial stress, military missions inevitably involve physical exercise that increases plasma BDNF concentrations. Second, most participants in the mission do not have adequate quality or quantity of sleep, and sleep deprivation has also been reported to increase plasma BDNF concentration. We evaluated plasma BDNF concentrations in 52 participants on a 9-week military mission. The present study revealed that plasma BDNF concentration significantly decreased despite elevated serum enzymes that escaped from muscle and decreased quantity and quality of sleep, as detected by a wearable watch-type sensor. In addition, we observed a significant decrease in plasma vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) during the mission. VEGF is also neurotrophic and its expression in the brain has been reported to be up-regulated by antidepressive treatments and down-regulated by stress. This is the first report of decreased plasma VEGF concentrations by stress. We conclude that decreased plasma concentrations of neurotrophins can be candidates for mental stress indicators in actual stressful environments that include physical exercise and limited sleep.

  7. Identification of hypothalamic neuron-derived neurotrophic factor as a novel factor modulating appetite.

    PubMed

    Byerly, Mardi S; Swanson, Roy D; Semsarzadeh, Nina N; McCulloh, Patrick S; Kwon, Kiwook; Aja, Susan; Moran, Timothy H; Wong, G William; Blackshaw, Seth

    2013-06-15

    Disruption of finely coordinated neuropeptide signals in the hypothalamus can result in altered food intake and body weight. We identified neuron-derived neurotrophic factor (NENF) as a novel secreted protein through a large-scale screen aimed at identifying novel secreted hypothalamic proteins that regulate food intake. We observed robust Nenf expression in hypothalamic nuclei known to regulate food intake, and its expression was altered under the diet-induced obese (DIO) condition relative to the fed state. Hypothalamic Nenf mRNA was regulated by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling, itself an important regulator of appetite. Delivery of purified recombinant BDNF into the lateral cerebral ventricle decreased hypothalamic Nenf expression, while pharmacological inhibition of trkB signaling increased Nenf mRNA expression. Furthermore, recombinant NENF administered via an intracerebroventricular cannula decreased food intake and body weight and increased hypothalamic Pomc and Mc4r mRNA expression. Importantly, the appetite-suppressing effect of NENF was abrogated in obese mice fed a high-fat diet, demonstrating a diet-dependent modulation of NENF function. We propose the existence of a regulatory circuit involving BDNF, NENF, and melanocortin signaling. Our study validates the power of using an integrated experimental and bioinformatic approach to identify novel CNS-derived proteins with appetite-modulating function and reveals NENF as an important central modulator of food intake.

  8. Neurotrophic factors improve motoneuron survival and function of muscle reinnervated by embryonic neurons.

    PubMed

    Grumbles, Robert M; Sesodia, Sanjay; Wood, Patrick M; Thomas, Christine K

    2009-07-01

    Motoneuron death can occur over several spinal levels with disease or trauma, resulting in muscle denervation. We tested whether cotransplantation of embryonic neurons with 1 or more neurotrophic factors into peripheral nerve improved axon regeneration, muscle fiber area, reinnervation, and function to a greater degree than cell transplantation alone. Sciatic nerves of adult Fischer rats were cut to denervate muscles; 1 week later, embryonic ventral spinal cord cells (days 14-15) were transplanted into the tibial nerve stump as the only source of neurons for muscle reinnervation. Factors that promote motoneuron survival (cardiotrophin 1; fibroblast growth factor 2; glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor; insulin-like growth factor 1; leukemia inhibitory factor; and hepatocyte growth factor) were added to the transplant individually or in combinations. Inclusion of a single factor with the cells resulted in comparable myelinated axon counts, muscle fiber areas, and evoked electromyographic activity to cells alone 10 weeks after transplantation. Only cell transplantation with glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, hepatocyte growth factor, and insulin-like growth factor 1 significantly increased motoneuron survival, myelinated axon counts, muscle reinnervation, and evoked electromyographic activity compared with cells alone. Thus, immediate application of a specific combination of factors to dissociated embryonic neurons improves survival of motoneurons and the long-term function of reinnervated muscle.

  9. Gender and environmental effects on regional brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression after experimental traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Chen, X; Li, Y; Kline, A E; Dixon, C E; Zafonte, R D; Wagner, A K

    2005-01-01

    Alterations in brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression have been reported in multiple brain regions acutely after traumatic brain injury, however neither injury nor post-injury environmental enrichment has been shown to affect hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene expression in male rats chronically post-injury. Studies have demonstrated hormone-related neuroprotection for female rats after traumatic brain injury, and estrogen and exercise both influence brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels. Despite recent studies suggesting that exposure post-traumatic brain injury to environmental enrichment improves cognitive recovery in male rats, we have shown that environmental enrichment mediated improvements with spatial learning are gender specific and only positively affect males. Therefore the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of gender and environmental enrichment on chronic post-injury cortical and hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor protein expression. Sprague-Dawley male and cycling female rats were placed into environmental enrichment or standard housing after controlled cortical impact or sham surgery. Four weeks post-surgery, hippocampal and frontal cortex brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression were examined using Western blot. Results revealed significant increases in brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in the frontal cortex ipsilateral to injury for males (P=0.03). Environmental enrichment did not augment this effect. Neither environmental enrichment nor injury significantly affected cortical brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression for females. In the hippocampus ipsilateral to injury brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression for both males and females was half (49% and 51% respectively) of that observed in shams housed in the standard environment. For injured males, there was a trend in this region for environmental enrichment to restore brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels to sham values

  10. Association Between Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Genotype and Upper Extremity Motor Outcome After Stroke.

    PubMed

    Chang, Won Hyuk; Park, Eunhee; Lee, Jungsoo; Lee, Ahee; Kim, Yun-Hee

    2017-06-01

    The identification of intrinsic factors for predicting upper extremity motor outcome could aid the design of individualized treatment plans in stroke rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to identify prognostic factors, including intrinsic genetic factors, for upper extremity motor outcome in patients with subacute stroke. A total of 97 patients with subacute stroke were enrolled. Upper limb motor impairment was scored according to the upper limb of Fugl-Meyer assessment score at 3 months after stroke. The prediction of upper extremity motor outcome at 3 months was modeled using various factors that could potentially influence this impairment, including patient characteristics, baseline upper extremity motor impairment, functional and structural integrity of the corticospinal tract, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor genotype. Multivariate ordinal logistic regression models were used to identify the significance of each factor. The independent predictors of motor outcome at 3 months were baseline upper extremity motor impairment, age, stroke type, and corticospinal tract functional integrity in all stroke patients. However, in the group with severe motor impairment at baseline (upper limb score of Fugl-Meyer assessment <25), the number of Met alleles in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor genotype was also an independent predictor of upper extremity motor outcome 3 months after stroke. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor genotype may be a potentially useful predictor of upper extremity motor outcome in patients with subacute stroke with severe baseline motor involvement. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Increased synaptic inhibition in dentate gyrus of mice with reduced levels of endogenous brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

    PubMed

    Olofsdotter, K; Lindvall, O; Asztély, F

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the role of endogenous neurotrophins for inhibitory synaptic transmission in the dentate gyrus of adult mice. Heterozygous knockout (+/-) mice or neurotrophin scavenging proteins were used to reduce the levels of endogenous brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin-3. Patch-clamp recordings from dentate granule cells in brain slices showed that the frequency, but not the kinetics or amplitude, of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents was modulated in brain-derived neurotrophic factor +/- compared to wild-type (+/+) mice. Furthermore, paired-pulse depression of evoked inhibitory synaptic responses was increased in brain-derived neurotrophic factor +/- mice. Similar results were obtained in brain slices from brain-derived neurotrophic factor +/+ mice incubated with tyrosine receptor kinase B-immunoglobulin G, which scavenges endogenous brain-derived neurotrophic factor. The increased inhibitory synaptic activity in brain-derived neurotrophic factor +/- mice was accompanied by decreased excitability of the granule cells. No differences in the frequency, amplitude or kinetics of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents were seen between neurotrophin-3 +/- and +/+ mice. From these results we suggest that endogenous brain-derived neurotrophic factor, but not neurotrophin-3, has acute modulatory effects on synaptic inhibition onto dentate granule cells. The site of action seems to be located presynaptically, i.e. brain-derived neurotrophic factor regulates the properties of inhibitory interneurons, leading to increased excitability of dentate granule cells. We propose that through this mechanism, brain-derived neurotrophic factor can change the gating/filtering properties of the dentate gyrus for incoming information from the entorhinal cortex to hippocampus. This will have consequences for the recruitment of hippocampal neural circuitries both under physiological and pathological conditions, such as epileptogenesis.

  12. The role of neurotrophic factors conjugated to iron oxide nanoparticles in peripheral nerve regeneration: in vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Ziv-Polat, Ofra; Shahar, Abraham; Levy, Itay; Skaat, Hadas; Neuman, Sara; Fregnan, Federica; Geuna, Stefano; Grothe, Claudia; Haastert-Talini, Kirsten; Margel, Shlomo

    2014-01-01

    Local delivery of neurotrophic factors is a pillar of neural repair strategies in the peripheral nervous system. The main disadvantage of the free growth factors is their short half-life of few minutes. In order to prolong their activity, we have conjugated to iron oxide nanoparticles three neurotrophic factors: nerve growth factor (βNGF), glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), and basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2). Comparative stability studies of free versus conjugated factors revealed that the conjugated neurotrophic factors were significantly more stable in tissue cultures and in medium at 37°C. The biological effects of free versus conjugated neurotrophic factors were examined on organotypic dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cultures performed in NVR-Gel, composed mainly of hyaluronic acid and laminin. Results revealed that the conjugated neurotrophic factors enhanced early nerve fiber sprouting compared to the corresponding free factors. The most meaningful result was that conjugated-GDNF, accelerated the onset and progression of myelin significantly earlier than the free GDNF and the other free and conjugated factors. This is probably due to the beneficial and long-acting effect that the stabilized conjugated-GDNF had on neurons and Schwann cells. These conclusive results make NVR-Gel enriched with conjugated-GDNF, a desirable scaffold for the reconstruction of severed peripheral nerve.

  13. The roles of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor and nerve growth factor during the final stage of folliculogenesis: a focus on oocyte maturation.

    PubMed

    Linher-Melville, Katja; Li, Julang

    2013-02-01

    Neurotrophic factors were first identified to promote the growth, survival or differentiation of neurons and have also been associated with the early stages of ovarian folliculogenesis. More recently, their effects on the final stage of follicular development, including oocyte maturation and early embryonic development, have been reported. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF), which are expressed in numerous peripheral tissues outside of the CNS, most notably the ovary, are now known to stimulate oocyte maturation in various species, also enhancing developmental competence. The mechanisms that underlie their actions in antral follicles, as well as the targets ultimately controlled by these factors, are beginning to emerge. GDNF, BDNF and NGF, alone or in combination, could be added to the media currently utilized for in vitro oocyte maturation, thereby potentially increasing the production and/or quality of early embryos.

  14. Neuroprotective effects of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in seizures during development.

    PubMed

    Tandon, P; Yang, Y; Das, K; Holmes, G L; Stafstrom, C E

    1999-01-01

    Although the immature brain is highly susceptible to seizures, it is more resistant to seizure-induced neuronal loss than the adult brain. The developing brain contains high levels of neurotrophins which are involved in growth, differentiation and survival of neurons. To test the hypothesis that neurotrophins may protect the developing brain from seizure-induced neuronal loss, brain-derived neurotrophic factor up-regulation was blocked by intracerebroventricular infusion of an 18mer antisense oligodeoxynucleotide sequence to brain-derived neurotrophic factor in 19-day-old rats using micro-osmotic pumps. Control rats were infused with sense or missense oligodeoxynucleotide. Status epilepticus was induced by intraperitoneal administration of kainic acid 24 h after the start of oligodeoxynucleotide infusion. Seizure duration was significantly increased in the antisense oligodeoxynucleotide plus kainic acid group compared to groups that received kainic acid alone or kainic acid plus sense or missense oligodeoxynucleotide. There was no difference between groups in the latency to forelimb clonus. A twofold increase in brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels was observed in the hippocampus 20 h following kainic acid-induced seizures. This kainic acid-induced increase was absent in animals receiving infusion of antisense oligodeoxynucleotide to brain-derived neurotrophic factor at time of seizure induction. Hippocampi of rats in this group (antisense oligodeoxynucleotide plus kainic acid) showed a loss of CA1 and CA3 pyramidal cells and hilar interneurons. This neuronal loss was not dependent upon seizure duration since animals injected with diazepam to control seizure activity in the antisense plus kainic acid group also showed similar neuronal loss. Administration of kainic acid or infusion of antisense alone did not produce any cell loss in these regions. Induction of seizures at postnatal day 20, in the presence or absence of antisense oligonucleotide, did not produce

  15. Retrograde axonal transport of ciliary neurotrophic factor is increased by peripheral nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Curtis, R; Adryan, K M; Zhu, Y; Harkness, P J; Lindsay, R M; DiStefano, P S

    1993-09-16

    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) promotes the survival of several populations of neurons, including sensory and motor neurons. Although CNTF is abundant in adult sciatic nerve, the mature protein lacks a signal sequence and is not secreted; therefore, it has been proposed to act as a lesion factor. The identification of a functional CNTF receptor revealed ligand-specific phosphorylation cascades and gene induction. However, it is not clear how these signal-transducing events are elicited in neuronal cell bodies that may be distant from the source of CNTF. We report here that CNTF can be retrogradely transported by adult sensory neurons. More importantly, sensory and motor neurons both show greatly increased transport of CNTF following peripheral nerve lesion. Axotomy-induced increases in retrograde transport of neurotrophic factors may be an important response of neuronal cell bodies during regeneration.

  16. Pro- and anti-addictive neurotrophic factors and cytokines in psychostimulant addiction: mini review.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Kiyofumi; Nabeshima, Toshitaka

    2004-10-01

    Drug addiction is defined as a chronically relapsing disorder that is characterized by compulsive drug taking, inability to limit the intake, and intense drug craving. While the positive reinforcing effects of psychostimulants such as cocaine and amphetamines depend on the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system innervating nucleus accumbens, chronic drug exposure causes stable changes in the structure and function of the brain that may underlie the long-lived behavioral abnormalities in drug addiction. Recent evidence has suggested that various neurotrophic factors and cytokines are involved in the effects of psychomotor stimulants, suggesting that these factors play a role in drug addiction. In this article, a role of neurotrophic factors and cytokines in psychostimulant addiction is discussed.

  17. Fibrin-based microsphere reservoirs for delivery of neurotrophic factors to the brain.

    PubMed

    Samal, Juhi; Hoban, Deirdre B; Naughton, Carol; Concannon, Ruth; Dowd, Eilis; Pandit, Abhay

    2015-01-01

    The in vivo therapeutic potential of neurotrophic factors to modify neuronal dysfunctions is limited by their short half-life. A biomaterials-based intervention, which protects these factors and allows a controlled release, is required. Hollow fibrin microspheres were fabricated by charge manipulation using polystyrene templates and were loaded with NGF. Bioactivity of released NGF was demonstrated by neuronal outgrowth assay in PC-12 cells followed by in vivo assessment for NGF release and host response. Fibrin-based hollow spheres showed high loading efficiency (>80%). Neurotrophin encapsulation into the microspheres did not alter its bioactivity and controlled release of NGF was observed in the in vivo study. Fibrin hollow microspheres act as a suitable delivery platform for neurotrophic factors with tunable loading efficiency and maintaining their bioactive form after release in vivo.

  18. Nuclear/cytoplasmic shuttling of the transcription factor FoxO1 is regulated by neurotrophic factors.

    PubMed

    Gan, Lixia; Zheng, Wenhua; Chabot, Jean-Guy; Unterman, Terry G; Quirion, Remi

    2005-06-01

    FoxO1, a member of the FoxO subfamily of forkhead transcription factors, is an important target for insulin and growth factor signaling in the regulation of metabolism, cell cycle and proliferation, and survival in peripheral tissues. However, its role in the central nervous system is mostly unknown. In this study, we examined the effect of neurotrophic factors on nuclear/cytoplasmic shuttling of FoxO1. We showed that insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and nerve growth factor (NGF) potently induced the nuclear exclusion of FoxO1-green fluorescent protein (GFP) while neurotrophin (NT)-3 and NT-4 were much weaker and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) failed to induce FoxO1 translocation in PC12 cells. FoxO1 translocation was inhibited by LY294002, a well-established PI3K/Akt kinase inhibitor. Moreover, FoxO1 was phosphorylated at Thr24 and Ser256 residues by the above neurotrophic factors, with the exception of BDNF. Triple mutant FoxO1, in which three Akt/PKB phosphorylation sites (Thr24, Ser256 and Ser319) were mutated to alanine, resulted in the complete nuclear targeting of the expressed FoxO1-GFP fusion protein in the presence of the above neurotrophic factors in both PC12 cells and cultured hippocampal and cortical neurons. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that neurotrophic factors are able to regulate nuclear/cytoplasmic shuttling of FoxO1 via the PI3K/Akt pathway in neuronal cells.

  19. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor attenuates behavioural deficits and regulates nigrostriatal dopaminergic and peptidergic markers in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned adult rats: comparison of intraventricular and intranigral delivery.

    PubMed

    Lapchak, P A; Miller, P J; Collins, F; Jiao, S

    1997-05-01

    The effects of intranigrally- or intraventricularly-administered glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor were tested on low dose (0.05 mg/kg) apomorphine-induced rotations and tyrosine hydroxylase activity in the substantia nigra and striatum of stable 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats. In addition, we determined if 6-hydroxydopamine lesions in the absence or presence of treatment affected neuropeptide (substance P, met-enkephalin, dynorphin) content in the striatum. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, when administered intranigrally, prevented apomorphine-induced rotational behaviour for 11 weeks following a single injection. In comparison, intraventricularly-administered glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor produced a transient reduction in rotational behaviour that lasted for two to three weeks following a single injection. We also show that rotational behaviour is reduced following each subsequent intraventricular injection of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor given every six weeks, a time-point when baseline rotation deficits were re-established. Intranigrally- or intraventricularly-administered glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor significantly reduced weight gain in all 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats in this study. Following behavioural analysis where a confirmed improvement of behaviour was established, tissues were dissected for neurochemical analysis. In lesioned rats with intranigral injections of administered glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, significant increases of nigral, but not striatal tyrosine hydroxylase activity were measured. Additionally, 6-hydroxydopamine lesions significantly increased striatal dynorphin (61-139%) and met-enkephalin (81-139%), but not substance P levels. In these rats, intranigrally-administered glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor injections reversed lesion-induced increases in nigral dynorphin A levels and increased nigral dopamine levels, but did not alter nigral met

  20. Brain derived neurotrophic factor, cardiopulmonary fitness and cognition in patients with coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Swardfager, W.; Herrmann, N.; Marzolini, S.; Saleem, M.; Shammi, P.; Oh, P.I.; Albert, P.R.; Daigle, M.; Kiss, A.; Lanctôt, K.L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess serum brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentrations as a correlate of cardiopulmonary fitness and as a predictor of cognitive performance in subjects with coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods Serum BDNF concentrations were assayed by ELISA and fitness was assessed using a standardized exercise stress test. The Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE), California Verbal Learning Test 2nd Ed., Stroop, Trail Making Test B and the Digit Symbol-Coding task were administered. The val66met BDNF genotype and serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) concentrations were determined as potential confounders. Results In subjects with CAD (n = 88; 85.2% male, mean age 62.8 ± 10.5 yr), cardiopulmonary fitness was associated with higher serum BDNF concentrations (β = .305, p = .013). Higher serum BDNF concentrations were associated with higher MMSE scores (F(1, 87) = 15.406, p < .0005) and better performance on the Digit Symbol-Coding task (F(1, 87) = 9.620, p = .003). IL-6, TNF-α and the val66met genotype did not influence these results. Conclusion Serum BDNF concentrations were associated with cardiopulmonary fitness, psychomotor processing speed and overall cognition in subjects with CAD. PMID:21554945

  1. Panax notoginseng saponins improve recovery after spinal cord transection by upregulating neurotrophic factors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bo; Li, Yu; Li, Xuan-peng; Li, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Saponins extracted from Panax notoginseng are neuroprotective, but the mechanisms underlying this effect remain unclear. In the present study, we established a rat model of thoracic (T10) spinal cord transection, and injected Panax notoginseng saponins (100 mg/kg) or saline 30 minutes after injury. Locomotor functions were assessed using the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) scale from 1 to 30 days after injury, and immunohistochemistry was carried out in the ventral horn of the spinal cord at 1 and 7 days to determine expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Our results show that at 7–30 days post injury, the BBB score was higher in rats treated with Panax notoginseng saponins than in those that received saline. Furthermore, at 7 days, more NGF- and BDNF-immunoreactive neurons were observed in the ventral horn of the spinal cord of rats that had received Panax notoginseng saponins than in those that received saline. These results indicate that Panax notoginseng saponins caused an upregulation of NGF and BDNF in rats with spinal cord transection, and improved hindlimb motor function. PMID:26487862

  2. Neural progenitor cell implants modulate vascular endothelial growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in rat axotomized neurons.

    PubMed

    Talaverón, Rocío; Matarredona, Esperanza R; de la Cruz, Rosa R; Pastor, Angel M

    2013-01-01

    Axotomy of central neurons leads to functional and structural alterations which largely revert when neural progenitor cells (NPCs) are implanted in the lesion site. The new microenvironment created by NPCs in the host tissue might modulate in the damaged neurons the expression of a high variety of molecules with relevant roles in the repair mechanisms, including neurotrophic factors. In the present work, we aimed to analyze changes in neurotrophic factor expression in axotomized neurons induced by NPC implants. For this purpose, we performed immunofluorescence followed by confocal microscopy analysis for the detection of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) and nerve growth factor (NGF) on brainstem sections from rats with axotomy of abducens internuclear neurons that received NPC implants (implanted group) or vehicle injections (axotomized group) in the lesion site. Control abducens internuclear neurons were strongly immunoreactive to VEGF and BDNF but showed a weak staining for NT-3 and NGF. Comparisons between groups revealed that lesioned neurons from animals that received NPC implants showed a significant increase in VEGF content with respect to animals receiving vehicle injections. However, the immunoreactivity for BDNF, which was increased in the axotomized group as compared to control, was not modified in the implanted group. The modifications induced by NPC implants on VEGF and BDNF content were specific for the population of axotomized abducens internuclear neurons since the neighboring abducens motoneurons were not affected. Similar levels of NT-3 and NGF immunolabeling were obtained in injured neurons from axotomized and implanted animals. Among all the analyzed neurotrophic factors, only VEGF was expressed by the implanted cells in the lesion site. Our results point to a role of NPC implants in the modulation of neurotrophic factor expression by lesioned central neurons, which might

  3. Neural Progenitor Cell Implants Modulate Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Expression in Rat Axotomized Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Talaverón, Rocío; Matarredona, Esperanza R.; de la Cruz, Rosa R.; Pastor, Angel M.

    2013-01-01

    Axotomy of central neurons leads to functional and structural alterations which largely revert when neural progenitor cells (NPCs) are implanted in the lesion site. The new microenvironment created by NPCs in the host tissue might modulate in the damaged neurons the expression of a high variety of molecules with relevant roles in the repair mechanisms, including neurotrophic factors. In the present work, we aimed to analyze changes in neurotrophic factor expression in axotomized neurons induced by NPC implants. For this purpose, we performed immunofluorescence followed by confocal microscopy analysis for the detection of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) and nerve growth factor (NGF) on brainstem sections from rats with axotomy of abducens internuclear neurons that received NPC implants (implanted group) or vehicle injections (axotomized group) in the lesion site. Control abducens internuclear neurons were strongly immunoreactive to VEGF and BDNF but showed a weak staining for NT-3 and NGF. Comparisons between groups revealed that lesioned neurons from animals that received NPC implants showed a significant increase in VEGF content with respect to animals receiving vehicle injections. However, the immunoreactivity for BDNF, which was increased in the axotomized group as compared to control, was not modified in the implanted group. The modifications induced by NPC implants on VEGF and BDNF content were specific for the population of axotomized abducens internuclear neurons since the neighboring abducens motoneurons were not affected. Similar levels of NT-3 and NGF immunolabeling were obtained in injured neurons from axotomized and implanted animals. Among all the analyzed neurotrophic factors, only VEGF was expressed by the implanted cells in the lesion site. Our results point to a role of NPC implants in the modulation of neurotrophic factor expression by lesioned central neurons, which might

  4. Role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the aetiology of depression: implications for pharmacological treatment.

    PubMed

    Castrén, Eero; Rantamäki, Tomi

    2010-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a critical mediator of activity-dependent neuronal plasticity in the cerebral cortex. Deficits in neurotrophic factors have been proposed to underlie mood disorders. However, recent evidence suggests that mood disorders may be produced by abnormalities in the adaptation of neural networks to environmental conditions. Antidepressants may act by enhancing neuronal plasticity, which allows environmental inputs to modify the neuronal networks to better fine tune the individual to the outside world. Recent observations in the visual cortex directly support this idea. According to the network hypothesis of depression, changes in the levels of neurotrophins including BDNF may not directly produce depression or an antidepressant effect, but neurotrophins may act as critical tools in the process whereby environmental conditions guide neuronal networks to better adapt to the environment. This hypothesis suggests that antidepressant drugs should not be used alone but should always be combined with rehabilitation to guide the plastic networks within the brain.

  5. Acute strength exercise and the involvement of small or large muscle mass on plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels.

    PubMed

    Correia, Paulo Roberto; Pansani, Aline; Machado, Felipe; Andrade, Marilia; Silva, Antonio Carlos da; Scorza, Fulvio Alexandre; Cavalheiro, Esper Abrão; Arida, Ricardo Mario

    2010-01-01

    Blood neurotrophins, such as the brain-derived neurotrophic factor, are considered to be of great importance in mediating the benefits of physical exercise. In this study, the effect of acute strength exercise and the involvement of small versus large muscle mass on the levels of plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor were evaluated in healthy individuals. The concentric strengths of knee (large) and elbow (small) flexor and extensor muscles were measured on two separate days. Venous blood samples were obtained from 16 healthy subjects before and after exercise. The levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the plasma did not significantly increase after both arm and leg exercise. There was no significant difference in the plasma levels of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the arms and legs. The present results demonstrate that acute strength exercise does not induce significant alterations in the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor plasma concentrations in healthy individuals. Considering that its levels may be affected by various factors, such as exercise, these findings suggest that the type of exercise program may be a decisive factor in altering peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

  6. Electroacupuncture-regulated neurotrophic factor mRNA expression in the substantia nigra of Parkinson's disease rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuju; Fang, Jianqiao; Ma, Jun; Wang, Yanchun; Liang, Shaorong; Zhou, Dan; Sun, Guojie

    2013-02-25

    Acupuncture for the treatment of Parkinson's disease has a precise clinical outcome. This study investigated the effect of electroacupuncture at Fengfu (GV16) and Taichong (LR3) acupoints in rat models of Parkinson's disease induced by subcutaneous injection of rotenone into rat neck and back. Reverse transcription-PCR demonstrated that brain-derived neurotrophic factor and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA expression was significantly increased in the substantia nigra of rat models of Parkinson's disease, and that abnormal behavior of rats was significantly improved following electroacupuncture treatment. These results indicated that electroacupuncture treatment upregulated brain-derived neurotrophic factor and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA expression in the substantia nigra of rat models of Parkinson's disease. Thus, electroacupuncture may be useful in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

  7. Reduced neuroplasticity in aged rats: a role for the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, Francesca; Guidotti, Gianluigi; Racagni, Giorgio; Riva, Marco A

    2013-12-01

    Aging is a physiological process characterized by a significant reduction of neuronal plasticity that might contribute to the functional defects observed in old subjects. Even if the neurobiological mechanisms that contribute to such impairment remain largely unknown, a role for neurotrophic molecules, such as the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), has been postulated. On this basis, the purpose of this study was to provide a detailed investigation of the BDNF system, at transcriptional and translational levels, in the ventral and dorsal hippocampus and in the prefrontal cortex of middle-aged and old rats, compared with in adult animals. The expression of major players in BDNF regulation and response, including the transcription factors, calcium-responsive transcription factor, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) responsive element-binding protein (CREB), and neuronal Per Arnt Sim (PAS) domain protein 4, and the high-affinity receptor tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB), was also analyzed. Our results demonstrate that the BDNF system is affected at different levels in aged rats with global impairment including reduced transcription, impaired protein synthesis and processing, and decreased activation of the TrkB receptors. These modifications might contribute to the cognitive deficits associated with aging and suggest that pharmacological strategies aimed at restoring reduced neurotrophism might be useful to counteract age-related cognitive decline.

  8. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and its receptors in Bergmann glia cells.

    PubMed

    Poblete-Naredo, Irais; Guillem, Alain M; Juárez, Claudia; Zepeda, Rossana C; Ramírez, Leticia; Caba, Mario; Hernández-Kelly, Luisa C; Aguilera, José; López-Bayghen, Esther; Ortega, Arturo

    2011-12-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor is an abundant and widely distributed neurotrophin expressed in the Central Nervous System. It is critically involved in neuronal differentiation and survival. The expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and that of its catalytic active cognate receptor (TrkB) has been extensively studied in neuronal cells but their expression and function in glial cells is still controversial. Despite of this fact, brain-derived neurotrophic factor is released from astrocytes upon glutamate stimulation. A suitable model to study glia/neuronal interactions, in the context of glutamatergic synapses, is the well-characterized culture of chick cerebellar Bergmann glia cells. Using, this system, we show here that BDNF and its functional receptor are present in Bergmann glia and that BDNF stimulation is linked to the activation of the phosphatidyl-inositol 3 kinase/protein kinase C/mitogen-activated protein kinase/Activator Protein-1 signaling pathway. Accordingly, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) experiments predicted the expression of full-length and truncated TrkB isoforms. Our results suggest that Bergmann glia cells are able to express and respond to BDNF stimulation favoring the notion of their pivotal role in neuroprotection. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Static Magnetic Field Stimulation Enhances Oligodendrocyte Differentiation and Secretion of Neurotrophic Factors.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Ankshita; Teh, Daniel B Loong; Blasiak, Agata; Chai, Chou; Wu, Yang; Gharibani, Payam M; Yang, In Hong; Phan, Thang T; Lim, Kah Leong; Yang, Hyunsoo; Liu, Xiaogang; All, Angelo H

    2017-07-27

    The cellular-level effects of low/high frequency oscillating magnetic field on excitable cells such as neurons are well established. In contrast, the effects of a homogeneous, static magnetic field (SMF) on Central Nervous System (CNS) glial cells are less investigated. Here, we have developed an in vitro SMF stimulation set-up to investigate the genomic effects of SMF exposure on oligodendrocyte differentiation and neurotrophic factors secretion. Human oligodendrocytes precursor cells (OPCs) were stimulated with moderate intensity SMF (0.3 T) for a period of two weeks (two hours/day). The differential gene expression of cell activity marker (c-fos), early OPC (Olig1, Olig2. Sox10), and mature oligodendrocyte markers (CNP, MBP) were quantified. The enhanced myelination capacity of the SMF stimulated oligodendrocytes was validated in a dorsal root ganglion microfluidics chamber platform. Additionally, the effects of SMF on the gene expression and secretion of neurotrophic factors- BDNF and NT3 was quantified. We also report that SMF stimulation increases the intracellular calcium influx in OPCs as well as the gene expression of L-type channel subunits-CaV1.2 and CaV1.3. Our findings emphasize the ability of glial cells such as OPCs to positively respond to moderate intensity SMF stimulation by exhibiting enhanced differentiation, functionality as well as neurotrophic factor release.

  10. The expanding universe of neurotrophic factors: therapeutic potential in aging and age-associated disorders.

    PubMed

    Lanni, C; Stanga, S; Racchi, M; Govoni, S

    2010-01-01

    Multiple molecular, cellular, structural and functional changes occur in the brain during aging. Neural cells may respond to these changes adaptively by employing multiple mechanisms in order to maintain the integrity of nerve cell circuits and to facilitate responses to environmental demands. Otherwise, they may succumb to neurodegenerative cascades that result in disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. An important role in this balancement is played by neurotrophic factors, which are central to many aspects of nervous system function since they regulate the development, maintenance and survival of neurons and neuron-supporting cells such as glia and oligodendrocytes. A vast amount of evidence indicates that alterations in levels of neurotrophic factors or their receptors can lead to neuronal death and contribute to aging as well as to the pathogenesis of diseases of abnormal trophic support (such as neurodegenerative diseases and depression) and diseases of abnormal excitability (such as epilepsy and central pain sensitization). Cellular and molecular mechanisms by which neurotrophic factors may influence cell survival and excitability are also critically examined to provide novel concepts and targets for the treatment of physiological changes bearing detrimental functional alterations and of different diseases affecting the central nervous system during aging.

  11. Brain-derived and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor fusion protein immobilization to laminin

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Baoxin; Yuan, Junjie; Xu, Jiafeng; Chen, Xinwei; Ying, Xinjiang; Dong, Pin

    2017-01-01

    Damage to the recurrent laryngeal nerve often causes hoarseness, dyspnea, dysphagia, and sometimes asphyxia due to vocal cord paralysis which result in a reduction of quality of life. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) play critical roles in peripheral nerve regeneration. However, methods for efficiently delivering these molecules are lacking, which limits their use in clinical applications. The present study reports an effective strategy for targeting BDNF and GDNF to laminin by fusing the N-terminal domains of these molecules with agrin (NtA). More specifically, laminin-binding efficacy was assessed and sustained release assays of the delivery of BDNF or GDNF fused with NtA (LBD-BDNF or LBD-GDNF) to laminin were conducted in vitro. In addition, the bioactivity of LBD-BDNF and LBD-GDNF on laminin in vitro was investigated. LBD-BDNF and LBD-GDNF were each able to specifically bind to laminin and maintain their activity in vitro. Moreover, neurotrophic factors with NtA retained higher concentrations and bioactivity levels compared with those without NtA. The ratio of LBD-BDNF and LBD-GDNF that produced optimal effects was 4:6. BDNF and GDNF fused with NtA were effective in specifically binding to laminin. As laminin is a major component of the extracellular matrix, LBD-BDNF and LBD-GDNF may prove useful in the repair of peripheral nerve injuries. PMID:28123487

  12. Unconventional neurotrophic factors CDNF and MANF: Structure, physiological functions and therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Lindahl, Maria; Saarma, Mart; Lindholm, Päivi

    2017-01-01

    Cerebral dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF) and mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF) promote the survival of midbrain dopaminergic neurons which degenerate in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, CDNF and MANF are structurally and functionally clearly distinct from the classical, target-derived neurotrophic factors (NTFs) that are solely secreted proteins. In cells, CDNF and MANF localize in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and evidence suggests that MANF, and possibly CDNF, is important for the maintenance of ER homeostasis. MANF expression is particularly high in secretory tissues with extensive protein production and thus a high ER protein folding load. Deletion of MANF in mice results in a diabetic phenotype and the activation of unfolded protein response (UPR) in the pancreatic islets. However, information about the intracellular and extracellular mechanisms of MANF and CDNF action is still limited. Here we will discuss the structural motifs and physiological functions of CDNF and MANF as well as their therapeutic potential for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases and diabetes. Currently available knockout models of MANF and CDNF in mice, zebrafish and fruit fly will increase information about the biology of these interesting proteins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Differential gene expression of cytokines and neurotrophic factors in nerve and skin of patients with peripheral neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Üçeyler, Nurcan; Riediger, Nadja; Kafke, Waldemar; Sommer, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Pathophysiologically relevant alterations in cytokine and neurotrophic factor levels have been reported in neuropathy subtypes. We characterized gene expression profiles of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and neurotrophic factors in nerve and skin samples of patients with neuropathies of different etiologies. We prospectively studied 133 patients with neuropathies and compared data between subtypes and with healthy controls. All patients underwent sural nerve and/or skin punch biopsy at the lateral thigh and lower leg; controls received skin punch biopsies. Gene expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, TNF, IL-10), neurotrophic factors (BDNF, NGF, NT3, TrkA), and erythropoietin with the erythropoietin receptor (Epo, EpoR) was analyzed. Sural nerve gene expression of the investigated cytokines and neurotrophic factors did not differ between neuropathies of different etiologies; however, IL-6 (p < 0.01) and IL-10 (p < 0.05) expression was higher in painful compared to painless neuropathies. Skin IL-6 and IL-10 gene expression was increased in patients compared to controls (p < 0.05), and IL-10 expression was higher in lower leg skin of patients with non-inflammatory neuropathies compared to inflammatory neuropathies (p < 0.05). Proximal and distal skin neurotrophic factor and Epo gene expression of patients with neuropathies was reduced compared to controls (NGF, NT3, Epo; p < 0.05). Neuropathies are associated with an increase in cytokine expression and a decrease in neurotrophic factor expression including nerve and skin.

  14. NG2 expression in microglial cells affects the expression of neurotrophic and proinflammatory factors by regulating FAK phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Lie; Su, Qing; Jie, Xiang; Liu, Antang; Wang, Hui; He, Beiping; Jiang, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Neural/glial antigen 2 (NG2), a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, is significantly upregulated in a subset of glial cells in the facial motor nucleus (FMN) following CNS injury. NG2 is reported to promote the resulting inflammatory reaction, however, the mechanism by which NG2 mediates these effects is yet to be determined. In this study, we examined the changes in NG2 expressing microglial cells in the FMN in response to facial nerve axotomy (FNA) in mice. Our findings indicated that NG2 expression was progressively induced and upregulated specifically in the ipsilateral facial nucleus following FNA. To further investigate the effects of NG2 expression, in vivo studies in NG2-knockout mice and in vitro studies in rat microglial cells transfected with NG2 shRNAs were performed. Abolition of NG2 expression both in vitro and in vivo resulted in increased expression of neurotrophic factors (nerve growth factor and glial derived neurotrophic factor), decreased expression of inflammatory mediators (tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β) and decreased apoptosis in the ipsilateral facial nucleus in response to FNA. Furthermore, we demonstrated the role of FAK in these NG2-induced effects. Taken together, our findings suggest that NG2 expression mediates inflammatory reactions and neurodegeneration in microglial cells in response to CNS injury, potentially by regulating FAK phosphorylation. PMID:27306838

  15. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor differentially regulates excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission in hippocampal cultures.

    PubMed

    Bolton, M M; Pittman, A J; Lo, D C

    2000-05-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been postulated to be a key signaling molecule in regulating synaptic strength and overall circuit activity. In this context, we have found that BDNF dramatically increases the frequency of spontaneously initiated action potentials in hippocampal neurons in dissociated culture. Using analysis of unitary synaptic transmission and immunocytochemical methods, we determined that chronic treatment with BDNF potentiates both excitatory and inhibitory transmission, but that it does so via different mechanisms. BDNF strengthens excitation primarily by augmenting the amplitude of AMPA receptor-mediated miniature EPSCs (mEPSCs) but enhances inhibition by increasing the frequency of mIPSC and increasing the size of GABAergic synaptic terminals. In contrast to observations in other systems, BDNF-mediated increases in AMPA-receptor mediated mEPSC amplitudes did not require activity, because blocking action potentials with tetrodotoxin for the entire duration of BDNF treatment had no effect on the magnitude of this enhancement. These forms of synaptic regulations appear to be a selective action of BDNF because intrinsic excitability, synapse number, and neuronal survival are not affected in these cultures. Thus, although BDNF induces a net increase in overall circuit activity, this results from potentiation of both excitatory and inhibitory synaptic drive through distinct and selective physiological mechanisms.

  16. Increased serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor in male schizophrenic patients with metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chin-Chuen; Hung, Yi-Yung; Tsai, Meng-Chang; Huang, Tiao-Lai

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome was found in patients with schizophrenia. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was involved in energy metabolism and the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, but differently in males and females. We aimed to investigate the serum BDNF levels in patients with schizophrenia with and without metabolic syndrome. Patients with schizophrenia were recruited. Their demographic data were collected. Metabolic profiles and serum BDNF levels were measured. Clinical symptoms were evaluated with Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Metabolic syndrome was determined with the criteria provided by Ministry of Health and Welfare of Taiwan. Framingham Risk Score (FRS) for estimate of 10-year risk for coronary heart disease was provided by National Institutes of Health. Of the 81 participants, 40.7% had metabolic syndrome. Those with metabolic syndrome had higher FRS. Using analysis of covariance adjusted for age and body mass index, male patients with schizophrenia with metabolic syndrome had higher serum BDNF levels than those without (4.6 ± 4.7 vs 3.3 ± 3.8 ng/mL, P = .022). No statistical difference was found between female patients with and without metabolic syndrome. Significant differences of serum BDNF levels were found between male patients with schizophrenia with and without metabolic syndrome, but not in females. This finding suggested the gender difference behind the mechanism of BDNF in metabolic syndrome in schizophrenia. PMID:28562580

  17. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor gene therapy ameliorates chronic hyperprolactinemia in senile rats.

    PubMed

    Morel, G R; Sosa, Y E; Bellini, M J; Carri, N G; Rodriguez, S S; Bohn, M C; Goya, R G

    2010-05-19

    Progressive dysfunction of hypothalamic tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic (TIDA) neurons during normal aging is associated in the female rat with chronic hyperprolactinemia. We assessed the effectiveness of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) gene therapy to restore TIDA neuron function in senile female rats and reverse their chronic hyperprolactinemia. Young (2.5 months) and senile (29 months) rats received a bilateral intrahypothalamic injection (10(10) pfu) of either an adenoviral vector expressing the gene for beta-galactosidase; (Y-betagal and S-betagal, respectively) or a vector expressing rat GDNF (Y-GDNF and S-GDNF, respectively). Transgenic GDNF levels in supernatants of GDNF adenovector-transduced N2a neuronal cell cultures were 25+/-4 ng/ml, as determined by bioassay. In the rats, serum prolactin (PRL) was measured at regular intervals. On day 17 animals were sacrificed and neuronal nuclear antigen (NeuN) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactive cells counted in the arcuate-periventricular hypothalamic region. The S-GDNF but not the S-betagal rats, showed a significant reduction in body weight. The chronic hyperprolactinemia of the senile females was significantly ameliorated in the S-GDNF rats (P<0.05) but not in the S-betagal rats. Neither age nor GDNF induced significant changes in the number of NeuN and TH neurons. We conclude that transgenic GDNF ameliorates chronic hyperprolactinemia in aging female rats, probably by restoring TIDA neuron function.

  18. Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Scassellati, Catia; Zanardini, Roberta; Tiberti, Alessandra; Pezzani, Marco; Valenti, Vera; Effedri, Paola; Filippini, Elena; Conte, Stefano; Ottolini, Alberto; Gennarelli, Massimo; Bocchio-Chiavetto, Luisella

    2014-03-01

    It has been proposed that the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may be involved in attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) etiopathogenesis. Alterations in BDNF serum levels have been observed in childhood/adulthood neurodevelopmental pathologies, but no evidence is available for BDNF serum concentrations in ADHD. The study includes 45 drug-naïve ADHD children and 45 age-sex matched healthy subjects. Concentration of serum BDNF was determined by the ELISA method. BDNF serum levels in patients with ADHD were not different from those of controls (mean ± SD; ADHD: 39.33 ± 10.41 ng/ml; controls: 38.82 ± 8.29 ng/ml, t = -0.26, p = 0.80). Our findings indicate no alteration of serum BDNF levels in untreated patients with ADHD. A further stratification for cognitive, neuropsychological and psychopathological assessment in a larger sample could be useful to clarify the role of BDNF in the endophenotype characterization of ADHD.

  19. Brain derived neurotrophic factor treatment reduces inflammation and apoptosis in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Makar, Tapas K; Trisler, David; Sura, Karna T; Sultana, Shireen; Patel, Niraj; Bever, Christopher T

    2008-07-15

    Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS) which includes a neurodegenerative component. Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neuroprotective agent which might be useful in preventing neurodegeneration but its application has been limited because the blood brain barrier restricts its access to the CNS. We have developed a novel delivery system for BDNF using transformed bone marrow stem cells (BMSC) and undertook studies of EAE to determine whether the delivery of BDNF could reduce inflammation and apoptosis. Mice receiving BDNF producing BMSC had reduced clinical impairment compared to control mice receiving BMSC that did not produce BDNF. Pathological examination of brain and spinal cord showed a reduction in inflammatory infiltrating cells in treated compared to control mice. Apoptosis was reduced in brain and spinal cord based on TUNEL and cleaved Caspase-3 staining. Consistent with the known mechanism of action of BDNF on apoptosis, Bcl-2 and Akt were increased in treated mice. Further studies suggested that these increases could be mediated by inhibition of both caspase dependent and caspase independent pathways. These results suggest that the BDNF delivered by the transformed bone marrow stem cells reduced clinical severity, inflammation and apoptosis in this model.

  20. Effect of childhood maltreatment and brain-derived neurotrophic factor on brain morphology

    PubMed Central

    Schmaal, Lianne; Jansen, Rick; Milaneschi, Yuri; Opmeer, Esther M.; Elzinga, Bernet M.; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; Veltman, Dick J.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2016-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment (CM) has been associated with altered brain morphology, which may partly be due to a direct impact on neural growth, e.g. through the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) pathway. Findings on CM, BDNF and brain volume are inconsistent and have never accounted for the entire BDNF pathway. We examined the effects of CM, BDNF (genotype, gene expression and protein level) and their interactions on hippocampus, amygdala and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) morphology. Data were collected from patients with depression and/or an anxiety disorder and healthy subjects within the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) (N = 289). CM was assessed using the Childhood Trauma Interview. BDNF Val66Met genotype, gene expression and serum protein levels were determined in blood and T1 MRI scans were acquired at 3T. Regional brain morphology was assessed using FreeSurfer. Covariate-adjusted linear regression analyses were performed. Amygdala volume was lower in maltreated individuals. This was more pronounced in maltreated met-allele carriers. The expected positive relationship between BDNF gene expression and volume of the amygdala is attenuated in maltreated subjects. Finally, decreased cortical thickness of the ACC was identified in maltreated subjects with the val/val genotype. CM was associated with altered brain morphology, partly in interaction with multiple levels of the BNDF pathway. Our results suggest that CM has different effects on brain morphology in met-carriers and val-homozygotes and that CM may disrupt the neuroprotective effect of BDNF. PMID:27405617

  1. Ciliary neurotrophic factor prevents degeneration of adult rat substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Hagg, T; Varon, S

    1993-01-01

    We have investigated the neuroprotective effects of recombinant human ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) for injured dopaminergic neurons of the adult rat substantia nigra compacta. Fourteen days after a unilateral transection of the nigrostriatal pathway two-thirds of the neurons (identified by retrograde labeling) had degenerated. In sharp contrast, 73% (a few cases, > 90%) of this cell loss was prevented by continuous infusion of CNTF close to the injured neurons. However, CNTF did not prevent the disappearance of the transmitter-synthesizing enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase. Thus, CNTF has potent neurotrophic effects for injured adult rat dopaminergic substantia nigra neurons, whose degeneration plays a major causative role in Parkinson disease. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8101002

  2. Differential activation of dendritic cells by nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

    PubMed

    Noga, O; Peiser, M; Altenähr, M; Knieling, H; Wanner, R; Hanf, G; Grosse, R; Suttorp, N

    2007-11-01

    Neurotrophins are involved in inflammatory reactions influencing several cells in health and disease including allergy and asthma. Dendritic cells (DCs) play a major role in the induction of inflammatory processes with an increasing role in allergic diseases as well. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of neurotrophins on DC function. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells were generated from allergic and non-allergic donors. Neurotrophin receptors were demonstrated by western blotting, flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Activation of small GTPases was evaluated by pull-down assays. DCs were incubated with nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and supernatants were collected for measurement of IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p70, TNF-alpha and TGF-beta. Receptor proteins were detectable by western blot, fluorescence activated cell sorting analysis and fluorescence microscopy. Signalling after neurotrophin stimulation occurred in a ligand-specific pattern. NGF led to decreased RhoA and increased Rac activation, while BDNF affected RhoA and Rac activity in a reciprocal fashion. Cells of allergics released a significantly increased amount of IL-6, while for healthy subjects a significantly higher amount of IL-10 was found. These data indicate that DCs are activated by the neurotrophins NGF and BDNF by different pathways in a receptor-dependant manner. These cells then may initiate inflammatory responses based on allergic sensitization releasing preferred cytokines inducing tolerance or a T-helper type 2 response.

  3. Alterations in BDNF (brain derived neurotrophic factor) and GDNF (glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor) serum levels in bipolar disorder: The role of lithium.

    PubMed

    Tunca, Zeliha; Ozerdem, Aysegul; Ceylan, Deniz; Yalçın, Yaprak; Can, Güneş; Resmi, Halil; Akan, Pınar; Ergör, Gül; Aydemir, Omer; Cengisiz, Cengiz; Kerim, Doyuran

    2014-09-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been consistently reported to be decreased in mania or depression in bipolar disorders. Evidence suggests that Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has a role in the pathogenesis of mood disorders. Whether GDNF and BDNF act in the same way across different episodes in bipolar disorders is unclear. BDNF and GDNF serum levels were measured simultaneously by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method in 96 patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder according to DSM-IV (37 euthymic, 33 manic, 26 depressed) in comparison to 61 healthy volunteers. SCID- I and SCID-non patient version were used for clinical evaluation of the patients and healthy volunteers respectively. Correlations between the two trophic factor levels, and medication dose, duration and serum levels of lithium or valproate were studied across different episodes of illness. Patients had significantly lower BDNF levels during mania and depression compared to euthymic patients and healthy controls. GDNF levels were not distinctive. However GDNF/BDNF ratio was higher in manic state compared to euthymia and healthy controls. Significant negative correlation was observed between BDNF and GDNF levels in euthymic patients. While BDNF levels correlated positively, GDNF levels correlated negatively with lithium levels. Regression analysis confirmed that lithium levels predicted only GDNF levels positively in mania, and negatively in euthymia. Small sample size in different episodes and drug-free patients was the limitation of thestudy. Current data suggests that lithium exerts its therapeutic action by an inverse effect on BDNF and GDNF levels, possibly by up-regulating BDNF and down-regulating GDNF to achieve euthymia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. PERIPHERAL NERVE REGENERATION: CELL THERAPY AND NEUROTROPHIC FACTORS

    PubMed Central

    Sebben, Alessandra Deise; Lichtenfels, Martina; da Silva, Jefferson Luis Braga

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral nerve trauma results in functional loss in the innervated organ, and recovery without surgical intervention is rare. Many surgical techniques can be used for nerve repair. Among these, the tubulization technique can be highlighted: this allows regenerative factors to be introduced into the chamber. Cell therapy and tissue engineering have arisen as an alternative for stimulating and aiding peripheral nerve regeneration. Therefore, the aim of this review was to provide a survey and analysis on the results from experimental and clinical studies that used cell therapy and tissue engineering as tools for optimizing the regeneration process. The articles used came from the LILACS, Medline and SciELO scientific databases. Articles on the use of stem cells, Schwann cells, growth factors, collagen, laminin and platelet-rich plasma for peripheral nerve repair were summarized over the course of the review. Based on these studies, it could be concluded that the use of stem cells derived from different sources presents promising results relating to nerve regeneration, because these cells have a capacity for neuronal differentiation, thus demonstrating effective functional results. The use of tubes containing bioactive elements with controlled release also optimizes the nerve repair, thus promoting greater myelination and axonal growth of peripheral nerves. Another promising treatment is the use of platelet-rich plasma, which not only releases growth factors that are important in nerve repair, but also serves as a carrier for exogenous factors, thereby stimulating the proliferation of specific cells for peripheral nerve repair. PMID:27027067

  5. More inflammation but less brain-derived neurotrophic factor in antisocial personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tzu-Yun; Lee, Sheng-Yu; Hu, Ming-Chuan; Chen, Shiou-Lan; Chang, Yun-Hsuan; Chu, Chun-Hsien; Lin, Shih-Hsien; Li, Chia-Ling; Wang, Liang-Jen; Chen, Po See; Chen, Shih-Heng; Huang, San-Yuan; Tzeng, Nian-Sheng; Lee, I Hui; Chen, Kao Chin; Yang, Yen Kuang; Hong, Jau-Shyong; Lu, Ru-Band

    2017-11-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is highly comorbid with substance use disorders (SUDs). We hypothesize that chronic neuroinflammation and the loss of neurotrophic factors prompts the pathogenesis of both disorders. We used ELISA to measure plasma levels of proinflammatory (tumor necrosis factor-α [TNF-α], C-reactive protein [CRP]) and anti-inflammatory factors (transforming growth factor-β1 [TGF-β1] and interleukin-10 [IL-10]), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in male patients with ASPD (n=74), SUDs (n=168), ASPD comorbid with SUDs (ASPD+SUDs) (n=438), and Healthy Controls (HCs) (n=81). A multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) controlled for possible confounders was used to compare cytokines and BDNF levels between groups. The results of MANCOVA adjusted for age showed a significant (p<0.001) main effect of diagnosis on inflammatory factors and BDNF expression in these groups. ASPD, SUDs, and ASPD+SUDs patients had significantly (p<0.001) higher TNF-α levels but lower TGF-β1 and BDNF levels. SUDs and ASPD+SUDs patients had higher IL-10 levels than did ASPD patients and HCs. There was no difference in IL-10 levels between HCs and ASPD. Moreover, subgrouping SUDs and ASPD±SUDs into opioid use disorder (OUD) and other SUDs groups showed that the IL-10 levels were specifically higher in OUD and ASPD±OUD groups than other SUDs (P≤0.001). We conclude that uncontrolled inflammation and losing neurotrophic factors, with or without comorbid SUDs, underlies ASPD. IL-10 expression might be more specifically associated with OUD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor mediates the activity-dependent regulation of inhibition in neocortical cultures.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, L C; DeWan, A; Lauer, H M; Turrigiano, G G

    1997-06-15

    The excitability of cortical circuits is modulated by interneurons that release the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA. In primate and rodent visual cortex, activity deprivation leads to a decrease in the expression of GABA. This suggests that activity is able to adjust the strength of cortical inhibition, but this has not been demonstrated directly. In addition, the nature of the signal linking activity to GABA expression has not been determined. Activity is known to regulate the expression of the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and BDNF has been shown to influence the phenotype of GABAergic interneurons. We use a culture system from postnatal rat visual cortex to test the hypothesis that activity is regulating the strength of cortical inhibition through the regulation of BDNF. Cultures were double-labeled against GABA and the neuronal marker MAP2, and the percentage of neurons that were GABA-positive was determined. Blocking spontaneous activity in these cultures reversibly decreased the number of GABA-positive neurons without affecting neuronal survival. Voltage-clamp analysis of inhibitory currents demonstrated that activity blockade also decreased GABA-mediated inhibition onto pyramidal neurons and raised pyramidal neuron firing rates. All of these effects were prevented by incubation with BDNF during activity blockade, but not by neurotrophin 3 or nerve growth factor. Additionally, blockade of neurotrophin signaling mimicked the effects of activity blockade on GABA expression. These data suggest that activity regulates cortical inhibition through a BDNF-dependent mechanism and that this neurotrophin plays an important role in the control of cortical excitability.

  7. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor signaling is altered in the forebrain of Engrailed-2 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Zunino, G; Messina, A; Sgadò, P; Baj, G; Casarosa, S; Bozzi, Y

    2016-06-02

    Engrailed-2 (En2), a homeodomain transcription factor involved in regionalization and patterning of the midbrain and hindbrain regions has been associated to autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). En2 knockout (En2(-/-)) mice show ASD-like features accompanied by a significant loss of GABAergic subpopulations in the hippocampus and neocortex. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a crucial factor for the postnatal development of forebrain GABAergic neurons, and altered GABA signaling has been hypothesized to underlie the symptoms of ASD. Here we sought to determine whether interneuron loss in the En2(-/-) forebrain might be related to altered expression of BDNF and its signaling receptors. We first evaluated the expression of different BDNF mRNA isoforms in the neocortex and hippocampus of wild-type (WT) and En2(-/-) mice. Quantitative RT-PCR showed a marked down-regulation of several splicing variants of BDNF mRNA in the neocortex but not hippocampus of adult En2(-/-) mice, as compared to WT controls. Accordingly, levels of mature BDNF protein were lower in the neocortex but not hippocampus of En2(-/-) mice, as compared to WT. Increased levels of phosphorylated TrkB and decreased levels of p75 receptor were also detected in the neocortex of mutant mice. Accordingly, the expression of low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and RhoA, two genes regulated via p75 was significantly altered in forebrain areas of mutant mice. These data indicate that BDNF signaling alterations might be involved in the anatomical changes observed in the En2(-/-) forebrain and suggest a pathogenic role of altered BDNF signaling in this mouse model of ASD.

  8. Periocular injection of in situ hydrogels containing Leu-Ile, an inducer for neurotrophic factors, promotes retinal ganglion cell survival after optic nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Nakatani, Masayoshi; Shinohara, Yuko; Takii, Miki; Mori, Hisato; Asai, Nobuharu; Nishimura, Shigeru; Furukawa-Hibi, Yoko; Miyamoto, Yoshiaki; Nitta, Atsumi

    2011-12-01

    Intraocular administration of neurotrophic factors has been shown to delay irreversible degeneration of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). It would be beneficial for the treatment of optic nerve (ON) injury if such neurotrophic factors could be delivered in a less-invasive manner. The dipeptide leucine-isoleucine (Leu-Ile) appears to induce the production of neurotrophic factors, including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), in the brain. We therefore administered Leu-Ile via periocular depot injection in rats and investigated the dipeptide's ability to induce BDNF and GDNF in the retina and to delay RGC loss in an ON injury model. Poloxamer-alginate hydrogels containing Leu-Ile were injected into the subconjunctival space of intact or ON-injured rats. BDNF and GDNF levels in the retina were determined by an enzyme immunoassay. Survival of RGCs was assessed in retinal flatmounts. Activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) and cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) in the retina was examined by Western blotting. At 2 h after injection of fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated Leu-Ile, the fluorescence intensities in the retina were 4.3-fold higher than those in the saline control. Treatment with Leu-Ile significantly increased the retinal levels of BDNF at 6 h and GDNF at 6-72 h after injection. Treatment with Leu-Ile significantly increased RGC survival to 14 days after ON injury and enhanced the activation of ERK at 72 h and CREB at 48 h after injection in the ON-injured retina. These results suggest that periocular delivery of Leu-Ile induces BDNF and GDNF production in the retina, which may eventually enhance RGC survival after ON injury.

  9. Neurotrophic factor small-molecule mimetics mediated neuroregeneration and synaptic repair: emerging therapeutic modality for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Kazim, Syed Faraz; Iqbal, Khalid

    2016-07-11

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an incurable and debilitating chronic progressive neurodegenerative disorder which is the leading cause of dementia worldwide. AD is a heterogeneous and multifactorial disorder, histopathologically characterized by the presence of amyloid β (Aβ) plaques and neurofibrillary tangles composed of Aβ peptides and abnormally hyperphosphorylated tau protein, respectively. Independent of the various etiopathogenic mechanisms, neurodegeneration is a final common outcome of AD neuropathology. Synaptic loss is a better correlate of cognitive impairment in AD than Aβ or tau pathologies. Thus a highly promising therapeutic strategy for AD is to shift the balance from neurodegeneration to neuroregeneration and synaptic repair. Neurotrophic factors, by virtue of their neurogenic and neurotrophic activities, have potential for the treatment of AD. However, the clinical therapeutic usage of recombinant neurotrophic factors is limited because of the insurmountable hurdles of unfavorable pharmacokinetic properties, poor blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, and severe adverse effects. Neurotrophic factor small-molecule mimetics, in this context, represent a potential strategy to overcome these short comings, and have shown promise in preclinical studies. Neurotrophic factor small-molecule mimetics have been the focus of intense research in recent years for AD drug development. Here, we review the relevant literature regarding the therapeutic beneficial effect of neurotrophic factors in AD, and then discuss the recent status of research regarding the neurotrophic factor small-molecule mimetics as therapeutic candidates for AD. Lastly, we summarize the preclinical studies with a ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) small-molecule peptide mimetic, Peptide 021 (P021). P021 is a neurogenic and neurotrophic compound which enhances dentate gyrus neurogenesis and memory processes via inhibiting leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) signaling pathway and increasing

  10. c-Jun Gene-Modified Schwann Cells: Upregulating Multiple Neurotrophic Factors and Promoting Neurite Outgrowth

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Liangliang; Quan, Xin; Liu, Zhongyang; Ma, Teng; Wu, Yazhen; Ge, Jun; Zhu, Shu; Yang, Yafeng; Liu, Liang; Sun, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Genetically modified Schwann cells (SCs) that overexpress neurotrophic factors (NFs), especially those that overexpress multiple NFs, hold great potential for promoting nerve regeneration. Currently, only one NF can be upregulated in most genetically modified SCs, and simultaneously upregulating multiple NFs in SCs remains challenging. In this study, we found that the overexpression of c-Jun, a component of the AP-1 transcription factor, effectively upregulated the expression and secretion of multiple NFs, including glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, artemin, leukemia inhibitory factor, and nerve growth factor. The c-Jun gene-modified SCs showed a normal morphology in scanning electron microscopy and fluorescent staining analysis. In addition, the c-Jun-modified SCs showed enhanced proliferation and migration abilities compared with vector control cells. We used transwell chambers to establish coculture systems imitating the in vivo conditions in which transplanted SCs might influence native SCs and neurons. We found that the c-Jun-modified SCs enhanced native SC migration and promoted the proliferation of native SCs in the presence of axons. Further analysis revealed that in the c-Jun group, the average length and the total area of neurites divided by the total area of the explant body were μm 1180±25 and 6.4±0.4, respectively, which were significantly greater compared with the other groups. These findings raise the possibility of constructing an optimal therapeutic alternative for nerve repair using c-Jun-modified SCs, which have the potential to promote axonal regeneration and functional recovery by upregulating multiple NFs. In addition, these cells exhibit enhanced migration and proliferation abilities, enhance the biological functions of native SCs, and promote neurite outgrowth. PMID:25588149

  11. Time Course of Behavioral Alteration and mRNA Levels of Neurotrophic Factor Following Stress Exposure in Mouse.

    PubMed

    Hashikawa, Naoya; Ogawa, Takumi; Sakamoto, Yusuke; Ogawa, Mami; Matsuo, Yumi; Zamami, Yoshito; Hashikawa-Hobara, Narumi

    2015-08-01

    Stress is known to affect neurotrophic factor expression, which induces depression-like behavior. However, whether there are time-dependent changes in neurotrophic factor mRNA expression following stress remains unclear. In the present study, we tested whether chronic stress exposure induces long-term changes in depression-related behavior, serum corticosterone, and hippocampal proliferation as well as neurotrophic factor family mRNA levels, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), in the mouse hippocampus. The mRNA level of neurotrophic factors (BDNF, NGF, NT-3, and CNTF) was measured using the real-time PCR. The serum corticosterone level was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and, for each subject, the hippocampal proliferation was examined by 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine immunostaining. Mice exhibited depression-like behavior in the forced-swim test (FST) and decreased BDNF mRNA and hippocampal proliferation in the middle of the stress exposure. After 15 days of stress exposure, we observed increased immobility in the FST, serum corticosterone levels, and BDNF mRNA levels and degenerated hippocampal proliferation, maintained for at least 2 weeks. Anhedonia-like behavior in the sucrose preference test and NGF mRNA levels were decreased following 15 days of stress. NGF mRNA levels were significantly higher 1 week after stress exposure. The current data demonstrate that chronic stress exposure induces prolonged BDNF and NGF mRNA changes and increases corticosterone levels and depression-like behavior in the FST, but does not alter other neurotrophic factors or performance in the sucrose preference test.

  12. Post-injury regeneration in rat sciatic nerve facilitated by neurotrophic factors secreted by amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hung-Chuan; Cheng, Fu-Chou; Chen, Chun-Jung; Lai, Shu-Zhen; Lee, Chi-Wen; Yang, Dar-Yu; Chang, Ming-Hong; Ho, Shu-Peng

    2007-11-01

    Amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells have the ability to secrete neurotrophic factors that are able to promote neuron survival in vitro. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of neurotrophic factors secreted by rat amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells on regeneration of sciatic nerve after crush injury. Fifty Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 250-300 g were used. The left sciatic nerve was crushed with a vessel clamp. Rat amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells embedded in fibrin glue were delivered to the injured nerve. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunocytochemistry were used to detect neurotrophic factors secreted by the amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells. Nerve regeneration was assessed by motor function, electrophysiology, histology, and immunocytochemistry studies. Positive CD29/44, and negative CD11b/45, as well as high levels of expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, glia cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), nerve growth factor, and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) were demonstrated in amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells. Motor function recovery, the compound muscle action potential, and nerve conduction latency showed significant improvement in rats treated with amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells. ELISA measurement in retrieved nerves displayed statistically significant elevation of CNTF and NT-3. The immunocytochemical studies demonstrated positive staining for NT-3 and CNTF in transplanted cells. The histology and immunocytochemistry studies revealed less fibrosis and a high level of expression of S-100 and glial fibrillary acid protein at the crush site. Rat amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells may facilitate regeneration in the sciatic nerve after crush injury. The increased nerve regeneration found in this study may be due to the neurotrophic factors secreted by amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells.

  13. Evidence for neuroprotective effects of endogenous brain-derived neurotrophic factor after global forebrain ischemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Larsson, E; Nanobashvili, A; Kokaia, Z; Lindvall, O

    1999-11-01

    The levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) vary between different forebrain areas and show region-specific changes after cerebral ischemia. The present study explores the possibility that the levels of endogenous BDNF determine the susceptibility to ischemic neuronal death. To block BDNF activity the authors used the TrkB-Fc fusion protein, which was infused intraventricularly in rats during 1 week before and 1 week after 5 or 30 minutes of global forebrain ischemia. Ischemic damage was quantified in the striatum and hippocampal formation after 1 week of reperfusion using immunocytochemistry and stereological procedures. After the 30-minute insult, there was a significantly lower number of surviving CA4 pyramidal neurons, neuropeptide Y-immunoreactive dentate hilar neurons, and choline acetyltransferase- and TrkA-positive, cholinergic striatal interneurons in the TrkB-Fc-infused rats as compared to controls. In contrast, the TrkB-Fc treatment did not influence survival of CA1 or CA3 pyramidal neurons or striatal projection neurons. Also, after the mild ischemic insult (5 minutes), neuronal death in the CA1 region was similar in the TrkB-Fc-treated and control groups. These results indicate that endogenous BDNF can protect certain neuronal populations against ischemic damage. It is conceivable, though, that efficient neuroprotection after brain insults is dependent not only on this factor but on the concerted action of a large number of neurotrophic molecules.

  14. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor pathway, life stress, and chronic multi-site musculoskeletal pain

    PubMed Central

    Milaneschi, Yuri; Jansen, Rick; Elzinga, Bernet M; Dekker, Joost; Penninx, Brenda WJH

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) disturbances and life stress, both independently and in interaction, have been hypothesized to induce chronic pain. We examined whether (a) the BDNF pathway (val66met genotype, gene expression, and serum levels), (b) early and recent life stress, and (c) their interaction are associated with the presence and severity of chronic multi-site musculoskeletal pain. Methods Cross-sectional data are from 1646 subjects of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. The presence and severity of chronic multi-site musculoskeletal pain were determined using the Chronic Pain Grade (CPG) questionnaire. The BDNF val66met polymorphism, BDNF gene expression, and BDNF serum levels were measured. Early life stress before the age of 16 was assessed by calculating a childhood trauma index using the Childhood Trauma Interview. Recent life stress was assessed as the number of recent adverse life events using the List of Threatening Events Questionnaire. Results Compared to val66val, BDNF met carriers more often had chronic pain, whereas no differences were found for BDNF gene expression and serum levels. Higher levels of early and recent stress were both associated with the presence and severity of chronic pain (p < 0.001). No interaction effect was found for the BDNF pathway with life stress in the associations with chronic pain presence and severity. Conclusions This study suggests that the BDNF gene marks vulnerability for chronic pain. Although life stress did not alter the impact of BDNF on chronic pain, it seems an independent factor in the onset and persistence of chronic pain. PMID:27145806

  15. Neurotrophic factors and CNS disorders: findings in rodent models of depression and schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Angelucci, Francesco; Mathé, Aleksander A; Aloe, Luigi

    2004-01-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are proteins involved in neuronal survival and plasticity of dopaminergic, cholinergic and serotonergic neurons in the central nervous system (CNS). Loss of neurons in specific brain regions has been found in depression and schizophrenia, and this chapter summarizes the findings of altered neurotrophins in animal models of those two disorders under baseline condition and following antidepressive and antipsychotic treatments. In a model of depression (Flinders sensitive line/Flinders resistant line; FSL/FRL rats), increased NGF and BDNF concentrations were found in frontal cortex of female, and in occipital cortex of male 'depressed' FSL compared to FRL control rats. Using the same model, the effects of electroconvulsive stimuli (ECS) and chronic lithium treatment on brain NGF, BDNF and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factors were investigated. ECS and lithium altered the brain concentrations of neurotrophic factors in the hippocampus, frontal cortex, occipital cortex and striatum. ECS mimic the effects of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) that is an effective treatment for depression and also schizophrenia. Since NGF and BDNF may also be changed in the CNS of animal models of schizophrenia, we investigated whether treatment with antipsychotic drugs (haloperidol, risperidone, and olanzapine) affects the constitutive levels of NGF and BDNF in the CNS. Both typical and atypical antipsychotic drugs altered the regional brain levels of NGF and BDNF. Other studies also demonstrated that these drugs differentially altered neurotrophin mRNAs. Overall, these studies indicate that alteration of brain level of NGF and BDNF could constitute part of the biochemical alterations induced by antipsychotic drugs.

  16. Radix Bupleuri ameliorates depression by increasing nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xia; Feng, Qing; Xiao, Yong; Li, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chinese herb Radix Bupleuri has been regarded effective to improve treatment of depression, but the molecular mechanism remains unknown. Low levels of nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) increase the likelihood of developing the depression. Therefore, we want to know whether Radix Bupleuri affects the levels of these factors. Methods: A total 160 hemodialysis patients were diagnosed with depression and randomly assigned to two groups: Radix Bupleuri group (received 1 g root power of Radix Bupleuri in a capsule daily Radix Bupleuri) and control group (receive placebo). Results: After three-month follow-up, the patients who received Radix Bupleuri had greater improvement in depression symptoms, anxiety symptoms and general functioning via controls after three-month follow-up (P < 0.05). Serum NGF levels were significantly higher in subjects accepted Radix Bupleuris (178.64 ± 52.18 pg/mL) when compared to a control (103.54 ± 31.23 pg/ml) (P < 0.01). Similarly, serum BDNF levels were significantly higher in subjects accepted Radix Bupleuris (1635.26 ± 121.66 pg/ml) when compared to a control (516.38 ± 44.89 pg/ml) (P < 0.01). The serum levels of NGF and BDNF were negatively related with Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and positively related with scores of RAND-36 item Health Survey (RAND-36) (P < 0.01). Conclusion: Thus, Radix Bupleuri ameliorates the patients with depression by increasing serum levels of NGF and BDNF. Radix Bupleuri should be developed a new drug for the therapy of depression. PMID:26309578

  17. Up-regulation of neurotrophic factors by cinnamon and its metabolite sodium benzoate: therapeutic implications for neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Jana, Arundhati; Modi, Khushbu K; Roy, Avik; Anderson, John A; van Breemen, Richard B; Pahan, Kalipada

    2013-06-01

    This study underlines the importance of cinnamon, a widely-used food spice and flavoring material, and its metabolite sodium benzoate (NaB), a widely-used food preservative and a FDA-approved drug against urea cycle disorders in humans, in increasing the levels of neurotrophic factors [e.g., brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3)] in the CNS. NaB, but not sodium formate (NaFO), dose-dependently induced the expression of BDNF and NT-3 in primary human neurons and astrocytes. Interestingly, oral administration of ground cinnamon increased the level of NaB in serum and brain and upregulated the levels of these neurotrophic factors in vivo in mouse CNS. Accordingly, oral feeding of NaB, but not NaFO, also increased the level of these neurotrophic factors in vivo in the CNS of mice. NaB induced the activation of protein kinase A (PKA), but not protein kinase C (PKC), and H-89, an inhibitor of PKA, abrogated NaB-induced increase in neurotrophic factors. Furthermore, activation of cAMP response element binding (CREB) protein, but not NF-κB, by NaB, abrogation of NaB-induced expression of neurotrophic factors by siRNA knockdown of CREB and the recruitment of CREB and CREB-binding protein to the BDNF promoter by NaB suggest that NaB exerts its neurotrophic effect through the activation of CREB. Accordingly, cinnamon feeding also increased the activity of PKA and the level of phospho-CREB in vivo in the CNS. These results highlight a novel neutrophic property of cinnamon and its metabolite NaB via PKA - CREB pathway, which may be of benefit for various neurodegenerative disorders.

  18. Comparing interval and continuous exercise training regimens on neurotrophic factors in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Afzalpour, Mohammad Esmaiel; Chadorneshin, Hossein Taheri; Foadoddini, Mohsen; Eivari, Hossein Abtahi

    2015-08-01

    The research literature suggests that oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory factors influence neurotrophins in vitro. However, there is insufficient information about their effects on exercise training conditions, especially during high intensity trainings. This study aimed to compare the effects of 6weeks of high intensity interval and continuous training regimens on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in the rat brain. For this purpose, twenty-four Albino Wistar rats were divided into sedentary control (SC), high intensity interval training (HIIT), and continuous training (CT) groups. Both HIIT and CT regimens increased H2O2 level and TNF-α concentration in the brain, and the alterations made were greater following HIIT than CT. In addition, both HIIT and CT regimens increased BDNF and GDNF concentrations significantly, with a higher elevation following HIIT than CT. Furthermore, H2O2 level and TNF-α concentration correlated positively with both BDNF and GDNF concentrations. Generally, high intensity interval training regimen, rather than continuous training regimen, is highly potential to improve BDNF and GDNF through a greater increase in H2O2 and TNF-α as oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Stem cell-based delivery of brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene in the rat retina.

    PubMed

    Park, Hae-Young Lopilly; Kim, Jie Hyun; Sun Kim, Hwa; Park, Chan Kee

    2012-08-21

    As an alternative to a viral vector, the application of stem cells to transfer specific genes is under investigation in various organs. Using this strategy may provide more effective method to supply neurotrophic factor to the neurodegenerative diseases caused by neurotrophic factor deprivation. This study investigated the possibility and efficacy of stem cell-based delivery of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene to rat retina. Rat BDNF cDNA was transduced into rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs) using a retroviral vector. Its incorporation into the experimental rat retina and the expression of BDNF after intravitreal injection or subretinal injection were detected by real-time PCR, western blot analysis, and immunohistochemical staining. For the incorporated rMSCs, retinal-specific marker staining was performed to investigate the changes in morphology and the characteristics of the stem cells. Transduction of the rMSCs by retrovirus was effective, and the transduced rMSCs expressed high levels of the BDNF gene and protein. The subretinal injection of rMSCs produced rMSC migration and incorporation into the rat retina (about 15.7% incorporation rate), and retinal BDNF mRNA and protein expression was increased at 4 weeks after transplantation. When subretinal injection of rMSCs was applied to axotomized rat retina, it significantly increased the expression of BDNF until 4 weeks after transplantation. Some of the transplanted rMSCs exhibited morphological changes, but the retinal-specific marker stain was not sufficient to indicate whether neuronal differentiation had occurred. Using mesenchymal stem cells to deliver the BDNF gene to the retina may provide new treatment for glaucoma.

  20. Analysis of neurotrophic factors in limb and extraocular muscles of mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Harandi, Vahid M; Lindquist, Susanne; Kolan, Shrikant Shantilal; Brännström, Thomas; Liu, Jing-Xia

    2014-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is currently an incurable fatal motor neuron syndrome characterized by progressive weakness, muscle wasting and death ensuing 3-5 years after diagnosis. Neurotrophic factors (NTFs) are known to be important in both nervous system development and maintenance. However, the attempt to translate the potential of NTFs into the therapeutic options remains limited despite substantial number of approaches, which have been tested clinically. Using quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) technique, the present study investigated mRNA expression of four different NTFs: brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), neurotrophin-4/5 (NT-4) and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in limb muscles and extraocular muscles (EOMs) from SOD1G93A transgenic mice at early and terminal stages of ALS. General morphological examination revealed that muscle fibres were well preserved in both limb muscles and EOMs in early stage ALS mice. However, in terminal ALS mice, most muscle fibres were either atrophied or hypertrophied in limb muscles but unaffected in EOMs. qRT-PCR analysis showed that in early stage ALS mice, NT-4 was significantly down-regulated in limb muscles whereas NT-3 and GDNF were markedly up-regulated in EOMs. In terminal ALS mice, only GDNF was significantly up-regulated in limb muscles. We concluded that the early down-regulation of NT-4 in limb muscles is closely associated with muscle dystrophy and dysfunction at late stage, whereas the early up-regulations of GDNF and NT-3 in EOMs are closely associated with the relatively well-preserved muscle morphology at late stage. Collectively, the data suggested that comparing NTFs expression between limb muscles and EOMs from different stages of ALS animal models is a useful method in revealing the patho-physiology and progression of ALS, and eventually rescuing motor neuron in ALS patients.

  1. Possible protective action of neurotrophic factors and natural compounds against common neurodegenerative diseases

    PubMed Central

    Numakawa, Tadahiro

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that altered levels/function of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) play a role in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease. BDNF positively contributes to neural survival and synapse maintenance via stimulating its high affinity receptor TrkB, making upregulation of BDNF and/or activation of BDNF-related intracellular signaling an attractive approach to treating neurodegenerative diseases. In this short review, I briefly introduce small natural compounds such as flavonoids that successfully increase activation of the BDNF system and discuss their beneficial effects against neurodegeneration. PMID:25317165

  2. [Brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene (BDNF) polymorphism among Moscow citizens].

    PubMed

    2013-12-01

    Recent studies showed that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) can participate in pathogenesis of various CNS disorders, being connected with proliferation, differentiation, and survival of neurons. In present study, analysis of occurrence rate was performed for three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in BDNF gene (rs6267 (A/G) allele A-0.265; rs2049046 (A/T) allele A-0.407; rs11030107 (A/G) allele A-0.872) in randomized selection of Moscow citizens. Linkage disequilibrium of rs6165 and rs2049046 loci was shown. Differences in allele frequencies in studied selection and populations of other re- gions were discovered.

  3. Circulating levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor: correlation with mood, cognition and motor function.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Antonio Lucio; Barbosa, Izabela Guimarães; Diniz, Breno Satler; Kummer, Arthur

    2010-12-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is the most widely distributed neurotrophin in the CNS, where it plays several pivotal roles in synaptic plasticity and neuronal survival. As a consequence, BDNF has become a key target in the physiopathology of several neurological and psychiatric diseases. Recent studies have consistently reported altered levels of BDNF in the circulation (i.e., serum or plasma) of patients with major depression, bipolar disorder, Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease and Parkinson's disease. Correlations between serum BDNF levels and affective, cognitive and motor symptoms have also been described. BDNF appears to be an unspecific biomarker of neuropsychiatric disorders characterized by neurodegenerative changes.

  4. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and epilepsy--a missing link?

    PubMed

    Scharfman, Helen E

    2005-01-01

    It has been known for some time that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is critical to normal development of the CNS, and more recently, studies also have documented the ability of BDNF to modify adult CNS structure and function. Therefore, it is no surprise that BDNF has been linked to diseases, such as epilepsy, which may involve abnormal cortical development or altered brain structure and function after maturity. This review evaluates the evidence, particularly from recent studies, that BDNF contributes to the development of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE).

  5. Neurotrophic factors in Parkinson's disease are regulated by exercise: Evidence-based practice.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Paula Grazielle Chaves; Domingues, Daniel Desidério; de Carvalho, Litia Alves; Allodi, Silvana; Correa, Clynton Lourenço

    2016-04-15

    We carried out a qualitative review of the literature on the influence of forced or voluntary exercise in Parkinson's Disease (PD)-induced animals, to better understand neural mechanisms and the role of neurotrophic factors (NFs) involved in the improvement of motor behavior. A few studies indicated that forced or voluntary exercise may promote neuroprotection, through upregulation of NF expression, against toxicity of drugs that simulate PD. Forced training, such as treadmill exercise and forced-limb use, adopted in most studies, in addition to voluntary exercise on a running wheel are suitable methods for NFs upregulation.

  6. Exposure to Early Life Stress Results in Epigenetic Changes in Neurotrophic Factor Gene Expression in a Parkinsonian Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Mpofana, Thabisile; Daniels, Willie M. U.; Mabandla, Musa V.

    2016-01-01

    Early life adversity increases the risk of mental disorders later in life. Chronic early life stress may alter neurotrophic factor gene expression including those for brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and glial cell derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) that are important in neuronal growth, survival, and maintenance. Maternal separation was used in this study to model early life stress. Following unilateral injection of a mild dose of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), we measured corticosterone (CORT) in the blood and striatum of stressed and nonstressed rats; we also measured DNA methylation and BDNF and GDNF gene expression in the striatum using real time PCR. In the presence of stress, we found that there was increased corticosterone concentration in both blood and striatal tissue. Further to this, we found higher DNA methylation and decreased neurotrophic factor gene expression. 6-OHDA lesion increased neurotrophic factor gene expression in both stressed and nonstressed rats but this increase was higher in the nonstressed rats. Our results suggest that exposure to early postnatal stress increases corticosterone concentration which leads to increased DNA methylation. This effect results in decreased BDNF and GDNF gene expression in the striatum leading to decreased protection against subsequent insults later in life. PMID:26881180

  7. Serum and plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in abstinent alcoholics and social drinkers.

    PubMed

    D'Sa, Carrol; Dileone, Ralph J; Anderson, George M; Sinha, Rajita

    2012-05-01

    Although the effects of alcohol on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) have been extensively studied in rodents, BDNF levels have rarely been measured in abstinent, alcohol-dependent (AD) individuals. Interpretation of reported group comparisons of serum BDNF levels is difficult due to limited information regarding analytical variance, biological variability, and the relative contribution of platelet and plasma pools to serum BDNF. Analytical variance (intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation) of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was characterized. Within- and between-subject variability, and group differences in serum and plasma BDNF, was assessed on three separate days in 16, 4-week abstinent AD individuals (7M/9F) and 16 social drinkers (SDs; 8M/8F). Significantly higher mean (±sd) serum BDNF levels were observed for the AD group compared to the SD (p = 0.003). No significant difference in mean baseline plasma BDNF levels was observed between AD and SD groups. The low analytical variance, high day-to-day within-individual stability and the high degree of individuality demonstrates the potential clinical utility of measuring serum BDNF levels. The low correlations that we observed between plasma and serum levels are congruent with their representing separate pools of BDNF. The observation of higher basal serum BDNF in the AD group without a concomitant elevation in plasma BDNF levels indicates that the elevated serum BDNF in AD patients is not due to greater BDNF exposure. Further research is warranted to fully elucidate mechanisms underlying this alteration and determine the utility of serum BDNF as a predictor or surrogate marker of chronic alcohol abuse.

  8. Inflammation and activity augment brain-derived neurotrophic factor peripheral release.

    PubMed

    Qiao, L Y; Shen, S; Liu, M; Xia, C; Kay, J C; Zhang, Q L

    2016-03-24

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) release to nerve terminals in the central nervous system is crucial in synaptic transmission and neuronal plasticity. However, BDNF release peripherally from primary afferent neurons has not been investigated. In the present study, we show that BDNF is synthesized by primary afferent neurons located in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) in rat, and releases to spinal nerve terminals in response to depolarization or visceral inflammation. In two-compartmented culture that separates DRG neuronal cell bodies and spinal nerve terminals, application of 50mM K(+) to either the nerve terminal or the cell body evokes BDNF release to the terminal compartment. Inflammatory stimulation of the visceral organ (e.g. the urinary bladder) also facilitates an increase in spontaneous BDNF release from the primary afferent neurons to the axonal terminals. In the inflamed viscera, we show that BDNF immunoreactivity is increased in nerve fibers that are immuno-positive to the neuronal marker PGP9.5. Both BDNF and pro-BDNF levels are increased, however, pro-BDNF immunoreactivity is not expressed in PGP9.5-positive nerve-fiber-like structures. Determination of receptor profiles in the inflamed bladder demonstrates that BDNF high affinity receptor TrkB and general receptor p75 expression levels are elevated, with an increased level of TrkB tyrosine phosphorylation/activity. These results suggest a possibility of pro-proliferative effect in the inflamed bladder. Consistently we show that the proliferation marker Ki67 expression levels are enhanced in the inflamed organ. Our results imply that in vivo BDNF release to the peripheral organ is an important event in neurogenic inflammatory state.

  9. Cabergoline Decreases Alcohol Drinking and Seeking Behaviors Via Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor

    PubMed Central

    Carnicella, Sebastien; Ahmadiantehrani, Somayeh; He, Dao-Yao; Nielsen, Carsten K.; Bartlett, Selena E.; Janak, Patricia H.; Ron, Dorit

    2010-01-01

    Background Cabergoline is an ergotamine derivative that increases the expression of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in vitro. We recently showed that GDNF in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) reduces the motivation to consume alcohol. We therefore set out to determine whether cabergoline administration decreases alcohol-drinking and -seeking behaviors via GDNF. Methods Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA) were used to measure GDNF levels. Western blot analysis was used for phosphorylation experiments. Operant self-administration in rats and a two-bottle choice procedure in mice were used to assess alcohol-drinking behaviors. Instrumental performance tested during extinction was used to measure alcohol-seeking behavior. The [35S]GTPγS binding assay was used to assess the expression and function of the dopamine D2 receptor (D2R). Results We found that treatment of the dopaminergic-like cell line SH-SY5Y with cabergoline and systemic administration of cabergoline in rats resulted in an increase in GDNF level and in the activation of the GDNF pathway. Cabergoline treatment decreased alcohol-drinking and -seeking behaviors including relapse, and its action to reduce alcohol consumption was localized to the VTA. Finally, the increase in GDNF expression and the decrease in alcohol consumption by cabergoline were abolished in GDNF heterozygous knockout mice. Conclusions Together, these findings suggest that cabergoline-mediated upregulation of the GDNF pathway attenuates alcohol-drinking behaviors and relapse. Alcohol abuse and addiction are devastating and costly problems worldwide. This study puts forward the possibility that cabergoline might be an effective treatment for these disorders. PMID:19232578

  10. Intranasal administration: a potential solution for cross-BBB delivering neurotrophic factors.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Juehua; Jiang, Yongjun; Xu, Gelin; Liu, Xinfeng

    2012-05-01

    Neurotrophic factors (NTFs) are endogenous polypeptides that regulate the growth, survival, differentiation, and functioning of neurons. The neuroprotective effects of NTFs in experimental animals give strong rationale for developing therapies for neurological disorders. However, when NTFs are applied in clinical trials, great expectation leads to equal disappointment. NTFs are large molecular-weighted and hydrophilic proteins, which limits their access to the central nervous system (CNS) after systemic administration, principally due to poor blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and unfavorable pharmacokinetic profiles. Although intracerebral infusion may transport NTFs into the CNS, the invasiveness limits its clinical application. Intranasal administration has been under research for decades and presents promising outcomes in preclinical studies for brain delivering of NTFs. After intranasal delivery, NTFs gain direct and quick access into the CNS at concentrations high enough to elicit their biological effects, bypassing the BBB and minimizing systemic exposure. Due to its invasiveness and convenience, intranasal delivery is feasible for NTFs administration. Although direct evidence of nose-to-brain pathway in human is lacking due to ethical problems, the existence of the nose-to-cerebral spinal fluid pathway has been verified in men. Furthermore, there is abundant indirect evidence for the nose-to-brain pathway as determined by the efficacy of intranasally administered neuroproteins, such as insulin, oxytocin, and vasopressin in clinical trials. Based on the solid preclinical research supporting the efficacy of intranasal NTFs, and the successful clinical application of neuroproteins (not NTFs), it is time to evaluate clinical application of NTFs in treating both acute and chronic CNS diseases.

  11. Placental and cord blood brain derived neurotrophic factor levels are decreased in nondiabetic macrosomia.

    PubMed

    Cai, Qian-Ying; Zhang, Heng-Xin; Wang, Chen-Chen; Sun, Hao; Sun, Shu-Qiang; Wang, Yu-Huan; Yan, Hong-Tao; Yang, Xin-Jun

    2017-08-01

    To measure levels of placental brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene expression and umbilical cord blood BDNF in neonates with nondiabetic macrosomia and determine associations between these levels and macrosomia. This case-control study included 58 nondiabetic macrosomic and 59 normal birth weight mother-infant pairs. Data were collected from interviews and our hospital's database. BDNF gene expression was quantified in placental tissues using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (n = 117). Umbilical cord blood BDNF levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (n = 90). Multivariate logistic regression models were used to evaluate associations between BDNF levels and macrosomia. Placental BDNF gene expression (P = 0.026) and cord blood BDNF (P = 0.008) were lower in neonates with nondiabetic macrosomia than in normal birth weight controls. Cord blood BDNF was significantly lower in vaginally delivered macrosomic neonates than vaginally delivered controls (P = 0.014), but cord BDNF did not differ between vaginal and cesarean section delivery modes in macrosomic neonates. Cord blood BDNF was positively associated with gestational age in control neonates (r = 0.496, P < 0.001), but not in macrosomic neonates. Cord blood BDNF was positively associated with placental BDNF relative expression (r s = 0.245, P = 0.02) in the total group. Higher cord blood BDNF levels were independently associated with protection against nondiabetic macrosomia (adjusted odds ratio 0.992; 95% confidence interval 0.986-0.998). Both placental BDNF gene expression and cord blood BDNF were downregulated in neonates with nondiabetic macrosomia compared with normal birth weight neonates. Cord BDNF may partly derive from BDNF secreted by the placenta. Higher cord plasma BDNF levels protected against nondiabetic macrosomia.

  12. Blocking brain-derived neurotrophic factor inhibits injury-induced hyperexcitability of hippocampal CA3 neurons.

    PubMed

    Gill, Raminder; Chang, Philip K-Y; Prenosil, George A; Deane, Emily C; McKinney, Rebecca A

    2013-12-01

    Brain trauma can disrupt synaptic connections, and this in turn can prompt axons to sprout and form new connections. If these new axonal connections are aberrant, hyperexcitability can result. It has been shown that ablating tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB), a receptor for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), can reduce axonal sprouting after hippocampal injury. However, it is unknown whether inhibiting BDNF-mediated axonal sprouting will reduce hyperexcitability. Given this, our purpose here was to determine whether pharmacologically blocking BDNF inhibits hyperexcitability after injury-induced axonal sprouting in the hippocampus. To induce injury, we made Schaffer collateral lesions in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures. As reported by others, we observed a 50% reduction in axonal sprouting in cultures treated with a BDNF blocker (TrkB-Fc) 14 days after injury. Furthermore, lesioned cultures treated with TrkB-Fc were less hyperexcitable than lesioned untreated cultures. Using electrophysiology, we observed a two-fold decrease in the number of CA3 neurons that showed bursting responses after lesion with TrkB-Fc treatment, whereas we found no change in intrinsic neuronal firing properties. Finally, evoked field excitatory postsynaptic potential recordings indicated an increase in network activity within area CA3 after lesion, which was prevented with chronic TrkB-Fc treatment. Taken together, our results demonstrate that blocking BDNF attenuates injury-induced hyperexcitability of hippocampal CA3 neurons. Axonal sprouting has been found in patients with post-traumatic epilepsy. Therefore, our data suggest that blocking the BDNF-TrkB signaling cascade shortly after injury may be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of post-traumatic epilepsy.

  13. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene-modified bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    HAN, ZHONG-MIN; HUANG, HE-MEI; WANG, FEI-FEI

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of human brain-derived neurotrophic factor (hBDNF) on the differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into neuron-like cells. Lentiviral vectors carrying the hBDNF gene were used to modify the bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. The rat BMSCs were isolated, cultured and identified. A lentivirus bearing hBDNF and enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) genes was subcultured and used to infect the SD rat BMSCs. The expression of eGFP was observed under a fluorescence microscope to determine the infection rate and growth of the transfected cells. Methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) was used to detect the proliferation rate of cells following transfection. Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and western blot analysis were used to detect the expression levels of hBDNF. Differentiation of neuron-like cells was induced in vitro and the differentiation rate of the induced neural-like cells was compared with that in control groups and analyzed statistically. In the cultured cells, flow cytometry demonstrated positive expression of cluster of differentiation (CD)90 and CD44, and negative expression of CD34 and CD45. The proliferation rate of the rat BMSCs increased following gene transfection. The expression of hBDNF-eGFP was detected in the BMSCs of the experimental group. The differentiation rate of hBDNF-modified cells into neuron-like cells in the experimental group was higher compared with that in empty plasmid and untransfected negative control groups. The difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Thus, BDNF gene transfection is able to promote the differentiation of BMSCs into neuron-like cells. BDNF may play an important role in the differentiation of MSCs into neuron-like cells. PMID:25574226

  14. Putative neurotrophic factors and functional recovery from peripheral nerve damage in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Van der Zee, C. E.; Brakkee, J. H.; Gispen, W. H.

    1991-01-01

    1. In rats, recovery of sensory-motor function following a crush lesion of the sciatic or tibial nerve was monitored by measuring foot reflex withdrawal from a local noxious stimulation of the foot sole. 2. Putative neurotrophic compounds were tested on this functional recovery model: melanocortins (peptides derived from ACTH (corticotropin) and alpha-MSH (melanotropin], gangliosides and nimodipine were effective whereas isaxonine and TRH (thyrotropin releasing hormone) were not. 3. Structure-activity studies with melanocortins revealed a similar effectiveness of alpha-MSH, [N-Leu4, D-Phe7]-alpha-MSH, desacetyl-alpha-MSH and the ACTH analogue ORG 2766, questioning the validity of the previously suggested notion that the melanotrophic properties of these peptides are responsible for their neurotrophic effect. 4. As recovery of function after peripheral nerve damage follows a similar time course in hypophysectomized (five days post operation) and sham-operated rats, effective melanocortin therapy does not mimic an endogenous peptide signal in the repair process from pituitary origin. 5. Subcutaneous treatment with ORG 2766 (7.5 micrograms kg-1 48 h-1) facilitates recovery of function following peripheral nerve damage in young (6-7 weeks old), mature (5 month old) and old (20 month old) rats. 6. In view of the diversity in structure of the effective neurotrophic factors and the complexity of nerve repair, the present data support the notion that peripheral nerve repair may be facilitated by different humoral factors likely to be active on different aspects of the recovery process. PMID:1678980

  15. Glial cell derived neurotrophic factor induces spermatogonial stem cell marker genes in chicken mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Boozarpour, Sohrab; Matin, Maryam M; Momeni-Moghaddam, Madjid; Dehghani, Hesam; Mahdavi-Shahri, Naser; Sisakhtnezhad, Sajjad; Heirani-Tabasi, Asieh; Irfan-Maqsood, Muhammad; Bahrami, Ahmad Reza

    2016-06-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are known with the potential of multi-lineage differentiation. Advances in differentiation technology have also resulted in the conversion of MSCs to other kinds of stem cells. MSCs are considered as a suitable source of cells for biotechnology purposes because they are abundant, easily accessible and well characterized cells. Nowadays small molecules are introduced as novel and efficient factors to differentiate stem cells. In this work, we examined the potential of glial cell derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) for differentiating chicken MSCs toward spermatogonial stem cells. MSCs were isolated and characterized from chicken and cultured under treatment with all-trans retinoic acid (RA) or glial cell derived neurotrophic factor. Expression analysis of specific genes after 7days of RA treatment, as examined by RT-PCR, proved positive for some germ cell markers such as CVH, STRA8, PLZF and some genes involved in spermatogonial stem cell maintenance like BCL6b and c-KIT. On the other hand, GDNF could additionally induce expression of POU5F1, and NANOG as well as other genes which were induced after RA treatment. These data illustrated that GDNF is relatively more effective in diverting chicken MSCs towards Spermatogonial stem cell -like cells in chickens and suggests GDNF as a new agent to obtain transgenic poultry, nevertheless, exploitability of these cells should be verified by more experiments.

  16. Preferential Enhancement of Sensory and Motor Axon Regeneration by Combining Extracellular Matrix Components with Neurotrophic Factors

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Daniel; González-Pérez, Francisco; Giudetti, Guido; Micera, Silvestro; Udina, Esther; Del Valle, Jaume; Navarro, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    After peripheral nerve injury, motor and sensory axons are able to regenerate but inaccuracy of target reinnervation leads to poor functional recovery. Extracellular matrix (ECM) components and neurotrophic factors (NTFs) exert their effect on different neuronal populations creating a suitable environment to promote axonal growth. Here, we assessed in vitro and in vivo the selective effects of combining different ECM components with NTFs on motor and sensory axons regeneration and target reinnervation. Organotypic cultures with collagen, laminin and nerve growth factor (NGF)/neurotrophin-3 (NT3) or collagen, fibronectin and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) selectively enhanced sensory neurite outgrowth of DRG neurons and motor neurite outgrowth from spinal cord slices respectively. For in vivo studies, the rat sciatic nerve was transected and repaired with a silicone tube filled with a collagen and laminin matrix with NGF/NT3 encapsulated in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres (MP) (LM + MP.NGF/NT3), or a collagen and fibronectin matrix with BDNF in PLGA MPs (FN + MP.BDNF). Retrograde labeling and functional tests showed that LM + MP.NGF/NT3 increased the number of regenerated sensory neurons and improved sensory functional recovery, whereas FN + MP.BDNF preferentially increased regenerated motoneurons and enhanced motor functional recovery. Therefore, combination of ECM molecules with NTFs may be a good approach to selectively enhance motor and sensory axons regeneration and promote appropriate target reinnervation. PMID:28036084

  17. Axon Guidance of Sympathetic Neurons to Cardiomyocytes by Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (GDNF)

    PubMed Central

    Takagishi, Yoshiko; Opthof, Tobias; Fu, Xianming; Hirabayashi, Masumi; Watabe, Kazuhiko; Jimbo, Yasuhiko; Kodama, Itsuo; Komuro, Issei

    2013-01-01

    Molecular signaling of cardiac autonomic innervation is an unresolved issue. Here, we show that glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) promotes cardiac sympathetic innervation in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, ventricular myocytes (VMs) and sympathetic neurons (SNs) isolated from neonatal rat ventricles and superior cervical ganglia were cultured at a close distance. Then, morphological and functional coupling between SNs and VMs was assessed in response to GDNF (10 ng/ml) or nerve growth factor (50 ng/ml). As a result, fractions of neurofilament-M-positive axons and synapsin-I-positive area over the surface of VMs were markedly increased with GDNF by 9-fold and 25-fold, respectively, compared to control without neurotrophic factors. Pre- and post-synaptic stimulation of β1-adrenergic receptors (BAR) with nicotine and noradrenaline, respectively, resulted in an increase of the spontaneous beating rate of VMs co-cultured with SNs in the presence of GDNF. GDNF overexpressing VMs by adenovirus vector (AdGDNF-VMs) attracted more axons from SNs compared with mock-transfected VMs. In vivo, axon outgrowth toward the denervated myocardium in adult rat hearts after cryoinjury was also enhanced significantly by adenovirus-mediated GDNF overexpression. GDNF acts as a potent chemoattractant for sympathetic innervation of ventricular myocytes, and is a promising molecular target for regulation of cardiac function in diseased hearts. PMID:23843937

  18. Differential expression of human placental neurotrophic factors in preterm and term deliveries.

    PubMed

    Dhobale, Madhavi V; Pisal, Hemlata R; Mehendale, Savita S; Joshi, Sadhana R

    2013-12-01

    Neurotrophic factors such as brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) are involved in development of the placenta and fetal brain. A series of human and animal studies in our department have shown that micronutrients (folic acid, vitamin B12) and omega 3 fatty acids like DHA are all interlinked in the one carbon cycle. Any alterations in one carbon components will lead to changes in methylation patterns that further affect the gene expression at critical periods of development resulting in complications during pregnancy. This may further contribute to risk for neurodevelopmental disorders in children born preterm. Therefore this study for the first time examines the mRNA levels from preterm and term placentae. A total number of 38 women delivering preterm (<37 weeks gestation) and 37 women delivering at term (=>37 weeks gestation) were recruited. The mRNA levels of BDNF and NGF were analyzed by real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Our results indicate that BDNF and NGF mRNA levels were lower in preterm group as compared to term group. There was a positive association of placental BDNF and NGF mRNA levels with cord plasma BDNF and NGF levels. The differential expression of BDNF and NGF gene in preterm placentae may also alter the vascular development in preterm deliveries. Our data suggests that the reduced mRNA levels of BDNF and NGF may possibly be a result of altered epigenetic mechanisms and may have an implication for altered fetal programming in children born preterm.

  19. Preferential Enhancement of Sensory and Motor Axon Regeneration by Combining Extracellular Matrix Components with Neurotrophic Factors.

    PubMed

    Santos, Daniel; González-Pérez, Francisco; Giudetti, Guido; Micera, Silvestro; Udina, Esther; Del Valle, Jaume; Navarro, Xavier

    2016-12-29

    After peripheral nerve injury, motor and sensory axons are able to regenerate but inaccuracy of target reinnervation leads to poor functional recovery. Extracellular matrix (ECM) components and neurotrophic factors (NTFs) exert their effect on different neuronal populations creating a suitable environment to promote axonal growth. Here, we assessed in vitro and in vivo the selective effects of combining different ECM components with NTFs on motor and sensory axons regeneration and target reinnervation. Organotypic cultures with collagen, laminin and nerve growth factor (NGF)/neurotrophin-3 (NT3) or collagen, fibronectin and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) selectively enhanced sensory neurite outgrowth of DRG neurons and motor neurite outgrowth from spinal cord slices respectively. For in vivo studies, the rat sciatic nerve was transected and repaired with a silicone tube filled with a collagen and laminin matrix with NGF/NT3 encapsulated in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres (MP) (LM + MP.NGF/NT3), or a collagen and fibronectin matrix with BDNF in PLGA MPs (FN + MP.BDNF). Retrograde labeling and functional tests showed that LM + MP.NGF/NT3 increased the number of regenerated sensory neurons and improved sensory functional recovery, whereas FN + MP.BDNF preferentially increased regenerated motoneurons and enhanced motor functional recovery. Therefore, combination of ECM molecules with NTFs may be a good approach to selectively enhance motor and sensory axons regeneration and promote appropriate target reinnervation.

  20. Neurotrophic growth factor responses to lower body resistance training in older adults.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Jeremy J; Scribbans, Trisha D; Bentley, Robert F; Kellawan, J Mikhail; Gurd, Brendon; Tschakovsky, Michael E

    2016-03-01

    Resistance exercise is an efficacious stimulus for improving cognitive function in older adults, which may be mediated by the upregulation of blood-borne neurotrophic growth factors (NTFs) like brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). However, the NTF response to resistance exercise and training in older adults is poorly understood. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to characterize the timing and magnitude of the NTF response following an acute bout of resistance exercise before and after 8 weeks of resistance training. Ten cognitively normal, older adults (ages 60-77 years, five men) were examined. The acute NTF response to resistance exercise was assessed via serum samples drawn at designated time points following exercise. This procedure was then repeated following 8 weeks of resistance training. BDNF increased immediately post-exercise (Δ9% pre-training, Δ11% post-training) then returned to resting levels while IGF-1 remained stable following resistance exercise before and after 8 weeks of resistance training. Basal levels of both NTFs were unaffected by the 8 week training period. We report a transient increase in serum BDNF following a bout of resistance exercise in older adults, which could have implications for the design of interventions seeking to maximize cognitive function in older adults.

  1. Coupling energy metabolism with a mechanism to support brain-derived neurotrophic factor-mediated synaptic plasticity.

    PubMed

    Vaynman, S; Ying, Z; Wu, A; Gomez-Pinilla, F

    2006-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity and behaviors are likely dependent on the capacity of neurons to meet the energy demands imposed by neuronal activity. We used physical activity, a paradigm intrinsically associated with energy consumption/expenditure and cognitive enhancement, to study how energy metabolism interacts with the substrates for neuroplasticity. We found that in an area critical for learning and memory, the hippocampus, exercise modified aspects of energy metabolism by decreasing oxidative stress and increasing the levels of cytochrome c oxidase-II, a specific component of mitochondrial machinery. We infused 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, a modulator of energy metabolism, directly into the hippocampus during 3 days of voluntary wheel running and measured its effects on brain-derived neurotrophic factor-mediated synaptic plasticity. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor is a central player for the effects of exercise on synaptic and cognitive plasticity. We found that 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 decreased exercise-induced brain-derived neurotrophic factor but had no significant effect on neurotrophin-3 levels, thereby suggesting a level of specificity for brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the hippocampus. 25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 injection also abolished the effects of exercise on the consummate end-products of brain-derived neurotrophic factor action, i.e. cyclic AMP response element-binding protein and synapsin I, and modulated phosphorylated calmodulin protein kinase II, a signal transduction cascade downstream to brain-derived neurotrophic factor action that is important for learning and memory. We also found that exercise significantly increased the expression of the mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2, an energy-balancing factor concerned with ATP production and free radical management. Our results reveal a fundamental mechanism by which key elements of energy metabolism may modulate the substrates of hippocampal synaptic plasticity.

  2. Endogenous ciliary neurotrophic factor modulates anxiety and depressive-like behavior.

    PubMed

    Peruga, Isabella; Hartwig, Silvia; Merkler, Doron; Thöne, Jan; Hovemann, Bernhard; Juckel, Georg; Gold, Ralf; Linker, Ralf A

    2012-04-15

    On a molecular level, depression is characterized by an altered monoaminergic neurotransmission as well as a modulation of cytokines and other mediators in the central nervous system. In particular, neurotrophic factors may influence affective behavior including depression and anxiety. Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) plays an important role in the regulation of neuronal development, neuroprotection and may also influence cognitive processes. Here we investigate the affective behavior in mice deficient for CNTF (CNTF -/- mice) at young age of 10-20 weeks. CNTF -/- mice displayed an increased anxiety-like behavior with a 30% reduction of the time spent in the bright compartment of the light/dark box as well as a significantly increased startle response. In the learned helplessness paradigm, CNTF -/- mice are more prone to depressive-like behavior. In the hippocampus of 20 weeks old, but not 10 weeks old, CNTF -/- mice, these changes correlated with a loss of parvalbumin immunoreactive GABAergic interneurons and a reduction of serotonin levels as well as 5-HT receptor 1A expression. Modulation of monoaminergic neurotransmitter levels via chronic application of the antidepressants amitriptyline and citalopram did not exert beneficial effects. These data imply that endogenous CNTF plays a pivotal role for the structural maintenance of hippocampal functions and thus has an important impact on the modulation of affective behavior in rodent models of anxiety and depression.

  3. Conditional ablation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor-TrkB signaling impairs striatal neuron development.

    PubMed

    Li, Yun; Yui, Daishi; Luikart, Bryan W; McKay, Renée M; Li, Yanjiao; Rubenstein, John L; Parada, Luis F

    2012-09-18

    Neurotrophic factors, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), are associated with the physiology of the striatum and the loss of its normal functioning under pathological conditions. The role of BDNF and its downstream signaling in regulating the development of the striatum has not been fully investigated, however. Here we report that ablation of Bdnf in both the cortex and substantia nigra depletes BDNF in the striatum, and leads to impaired striatal development, severe motor deficits, and postnatal lethality. Furthermore, striatal-specific ablation of TrkB, the gene encoding the high-affinity receptor for BDNF, is sufficient to elicit an array of striatal developmental abnormalities, including decreased anatomical volume, smaller neuronal nucleus size, loss of dendritic spines, reduced enkephalin expression, diminished nigral dopaminergic projections, and severe deficits in striatal dopamine signaling through DARPP32. In addition, TrkB ablation in striatal neurons elicits a non-cell-autonomous reduction of tyrosine hydroxylase protein level in the axonal projections of substantia nigral dopaminergic neurons. Thus, our results establish an essential function for TrkB in regulating the development of striatal neurons.

  4. APP-dependent glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor gene expression drives neuromuscular junction formation.

    PubMed

    Stanga, Serena; Zanou, Nadège; Audouard, Emilie; Tasiaux, Bernadette; Contino, Sabrina; Vandermeulen, Gaëlle; René, Frédérique; Loeffler, Jean-Philippe; Clotman, Frédéric; Gailly, Philippe; Dewachter, Ilse; Octave, Jean-Noël; Kienlen-Campard, Pascal

    2016-05-01

    Besides its crucial role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, the knowledge of amyloid precursor protein (APP) physiologic functions remains surprisingly scarce. Here, we show that APP regulates the transcription of the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). APP-dependent regulation of GDNF expression affects muscle strength, muscular trophy, and both neuronal and muscular differentiation fundamental for neuromuscular junction (NMJ) maturation in vivo In a nerve-muscle coculture model set up to modelize NMJ formation in vitro, silencing of muscular APP induces a 30% decrease in secreted GDNF levels and a 40% decrease in the total number of NMJs together with a significant reduction in the density of acetylcholine vesicles at the presynaptic site and in neuronal maturation. These defects are rescued by GDNF expression in muscle cells in the conditions where muscular APP has been previously silenced. Expression of GDNF in muscles of amyloid precursor protein null mice corrected the aberrant synaptic morphology of NMJs. Our findings highlight for the first time that APP-dependent GDNF expression drives the process of NMJ formation, providing new insights into the link between APP gene regulatory network and physiologic functions.-Stanga, S., Zanou, N., Audouard, E., Tasiaux, B., Contino, S., Vandermeulen, G., René, F., Loeffler, J.-P., Clotman, F., Gailly, P., Dewachter, I., Octave, J.-N., Kienlen-Campard, P. APP-dependent glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor gene expression drives neuromuscular junction formation. © FASEB.

  5. Inflammatory and neuropathic cold allodynia are selectively mediated by the neurotrophic factor receptor GFRα3

    PubMed Central

    Lippoldt, Erika K.; Ongun, Serra; Kusaka, Geoffrey K.; McKemy, David D.

    2016-01-01

    Tissue injury prompts the release of a number of proalgesic molecules that induce acute and chronic pain by sensitizing pain-sensing neurons (nociceptors) to heat and mechanical stimuli. In contrast, many proalgesics have no effect on cold sensitivity or can inhibit cold-sensitive neurons and diminish cooling-mediated pain relief (analgesia). Nonetheless, cold pain (allodynia) is prevalent in many inflammatory and neuropathic pain settings, with little known of the mechanisms promoting pain vs. those dampening analgesia. Here, we show that cold allodynia induced by inflammation, nerve injury, and chemotherapeutics is abolished in mice lacking the neurotrophic factor receptor glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor family of receptors-α3 (GFRα3). Furthermore, established cold allodynia is blocked in animals treated with neutralizing antibodies against the GFRα3 ligand, artemin. In contrast, heat and mechanical pain are unchanged, and results show that, in striking contrast to the redundant mechanisms sensitizing other modalities after an insult, cold allodynia is mediated exclusively by a single molecular pathway, suggesting that artemin–GFRα3 signaling can be targeted to selectively treat cold pain. PMID:27051069

  6. Focused ultrasound-enhanced intranasal brain delivery of brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Yang, Georgiana Zong Xin; Getachew, Hoheteberhan; Acosta, Camilo; Sierra Sánchez, Carlos; Konofagou, Elisa E

    2016-06-27

    The objective of this study was to unveil the potential mechanism of focused ultrasound (FUS)-enhanced intranasal (IN) brain drug delivery and assess its feasibility in the delivery of therapeutic molecules. Delivery outcomes of fluorescently-labeled dextrans to mouse brains by IN administration either before or after FUS sonication were compared to evaluate whether FUS enhances IN delivery by active pumping or passive diffusion. Fluorescence imaging of brain slices found that IN administration followed by FUS sonication achieved significantly higher delivery than IN administration only, while pre-treatment by FUS sonication followed by IN administration was not significantly different from IN administration only. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a promising neurotrophic factor for the treatment of many central nervous system diseases, was delivered by IN followed by FUS to demonstrate the feasibility of this technique and compared with the established FUS technique where drugs are injected intravenously. Immunohistochemistry staining of BDNF revealed that FUS-enhanced IN delivery achieved similar locally enhanced delivery as the established FUS technique. This study suggested that FUS enhances IN brain drug delivery by FUS-induced active pumping of the drug and demonstrated that FUS-enhanced IN delivery is a promising technique for noninvasive and localized delivery of therapeutic molecules to the brain.

  7. Focused ultrasound-enhanced intranasal brain delivery of brain-derived neurotrophic factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hong; Yang, Georgiana Zong Xin; Getachew, Hoheteberhan; Acosta, Camilo; Sierra Sánchez, Carlos; Konofagou, Elisa E.

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to unveil the potential mechanism of focused ultrasound (FUS)-enhanced intranasal (IN) brain drug delivery and assess its feasibility in the delivery of therapeutic molecules. Delivery outcomes of fluorescently-labeled dextrans to mouse brains by IN administration either before or after FUS sonication were compared to evaluate whether FUS enhances IN delivery by active pumping or passive diffusion. Fluorescence imaging of brain slices found that IN administration followed by FUS sonication achieved significantly higher delivery than IN administration only, while pre-treatment by FUS sonication followed by IN administration was not significantly different from IN administration only. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a promising neurotrophic factor for the treatment of many central nervous system diseases, was delivered by IN followed by FUS to demonstrate the feasibility of this technique and compared with the established FUS technique where drugs are injected intravenously. Immunohistochemistry staining of BDNF revealed that FUS-enhanced IN delivery achieved similar locally enhanced delivery as the established FUS technique. This study suggested that FUS enhances IN brain drug delivery by FUS-induced active pumping of the drug and demonstrated that FUS-enhanced IN delivery is a promising technique for noninvasive and localized delivery of therapeutic molecules to the brain.

  8. I.V. infusion of brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene-modified human mesenchymal stem cells protects against injury in a cerebral ischemia model in adult rat.

    PubMed

    Nomura, T; Honmou, O; Harada, K; Houkin, K; Hamada, H; Kocsis, J D

    2005-01-01

    I.V. delivery of mesenchymal stem cells prepared from adult bone marrow reduces infarction size and ameliorates functional deficits in rat cerebral ischemia models. Administration of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor to the infarction site has also been demonstrated to be neuroprotective. To test the hypothesis that brain-derived neurotrophic factor contributes to the therapeutic benefits of mesenchymal stem cell delivery, we compared the efficacy of systemic delivery of human mesenchymal stem cells and human mesenchymal stem cells transfected with a fiber-mutant F/RGD adenovirus vector with a brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene (brain-derived neurotrophic factor-human mesenchymal stem cells). A permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion was induced by intraluminal vascular occlusion with a microfilament. Human mesenchymal stem cells and brain-derived neurotrophic factor-human mesenchymal stem cells were i.v. injected into the rats 6 h after middle cerebral artery occlusion. Lesion size was assessed at 6 h, 1, 3 and 7 days using MR imaging, and histological methods. Functional outcome was assessed using the treadmill stress test. Both human mesenchymal stem cells and brain-derived neurotrophic factor-human mesenchymal stem cells reduced lesion volume and elicited functional improvement compared with the control sham group, but the effect was greater in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor-human mesenchymal stem cell group. ELISA analysis of the infarcted hemisphere revealed an increase in brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the human mesenchymal stem cell groups, but a greater increase in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor-human mesenchymal stem cell group. These data support the hypothesis that brain-derived neurotrophic factor contributes to neuroprotection in cerebral ischemia and cellular delivery of brain-derived neurotrophic factor can be achieved by i.v. delivery of human mesenchymal stem cells.

  9. Exploring Serum Levels of Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Nerve Growth Factor Across Glaucoma Stages

    PubMed Central

    Busanello, Anna; Bonini, Stefano; Quaranta, Luciano; Agnifili, Luca; Manni, Gianluca

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the serum levels of Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) and Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) in patients affected by primary open angle glaucoma with a wide spectrum of disease severity compared to healthy controls and to explore their relationship with morphological and functional glaucoma parameters. Materials and Methods 45 patients affected by glaucoma at different stages and 15 age-matched healthy control subjects underwent visual field testing, peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer thickness measurement using Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography and blood collection for both neurotrophins detection by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Statistical analysis and association between biostrumental and biochemical data were investigated. Results Serum levels of BDNF in glaucoma patients were significantly lower than those measured in healthy controls (261.2±75.0 pg/ml vs 313.6±79.6 pg/ml, p = 0.03). Subgroups analysis showed that serum levels of BDNF were significantly lower in early (253.8±40.7 pg/ml, p = 0.019) and moderate glaucoma (231.3±54.3 pg/ml, p = 0.04) but not in advanced glaucoma (296.2±103.1 pg/ml, p = 0.06) compared to healthy controls. Serum levels of NGF in glaucoma patients were significantly lower than those measured in the healthy controls (4.1±1 pg/mL vs 5.5±1.2 pg/mL, p = 0.01). Subgroups analysis showed that serum levels of NGF were significantly lower in early (3.5±0.9 pg/mL, p = 0.0008) and moderate glaucoma (3.8±0.7 pg/ml, p<0.0001) but not in advanced glaucoma (5.0±0.7 pg/ml, p = 0.32) compared to healthy controls. BDNF serum levels were not related to age, visual field mean deviation or retinal nerve fibre layer thickness either in glaucoma or in controls while NGF levels were significantly related to visual field mean deviation in the glaucoma group (r2 = 0.26, p = 0.004). Conclusions BDNF and NGF serum levels are reduced in the early and moderate glaucoma stages, suggesting the possibility that

  10. Activity-Dependent Increase in Neurotrophic Factors Is Associated with an Enhanced Modulation of Spinal Reflexes after Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Côté, Marie-Pascale; Azzam, Gregory A.; Lemay, Michel A.; Zhukareva, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Activity-based therapies such as passive bicycling and step-training on a treadmill contribute to motor recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI), leading to a greater number of steps performed, improved gait kinematics, recovery of phase-dependent modulation of spinal reflexes, and prevention of decrease in muscle mass. Both tasks consist of alternating movements that rhythmically stretch and shorten hindlimb muscles. However, the paralyzed hindlimbs are passively moved by a motorized apparatus during bike-training, whereas locomotor movements during step-training are generated by spinal networks triggered by afferent feedback. Our objective was to compare the task-dependent effect of bike- and step-training after SCI on physiological measures of spinal cord plasticity in relation to changes in levels of neurotrophic factors. Thirty adult female Sprague-Dawley rats underwent complete spinal transection at a low thoracic level (T12). The rats were assigned to one of three groups: bike-training, step-training, or no training. The exercise regimen consisted of 15 min/d, 5 days/week, for 4 weeks, beginning 5 days after SCI. During a terminal experiment, H-reflexes were recorded from interosseus foot muscles following stimulation of the tibial nerve at 0.3, 5, or 10 Hz. The animals were sacrificed and the spinal cords were harvested for Western blot analysis of the expression of neurotrophic factors in the lumbar spinal cord. We provide evidence that bike- and step-training significantly increase the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), and NT-4 in the lumbar enlargement of SCI rats, whereas only step-training increased glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) levels. An increase in neurotrophic factor protein levels that positively correlated with the recovery of H-reflex frequency-dependent depression suggests a role for neurotrophic factors in reflex normalization. PMID:21083432

  11. Correlates of early pregnancy serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor in a Peruvian population.

    PubMed

    Yang, Na; Levey, Elizabeth; Gelaye, Bizu; Zhong, Qiu-Yue; Rondon, Marta B; Sanchez, Sixto E; Williams, Michelle A

    2017-07-27

    Knowledge about factors that influence serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentrations during early pregnancy is lacking. The aim of the study is to examine the correlates of early pregnancy serum BDNF concentrations. A total of 982 women attending prenatal care clinics in Lima, Peru, were recruited in early pregnancy. Pearson's correlation coefficient was calculated to evaluate the relation between BDNF concentrations and continuous covariates. Analysis of variance and generalized linear models were used to compare the unadjusted and adjusted BDNF concentrations according to categorical variables. Multivariable linear regression models were applied to determine the factors that influence early pregnancy serum BDNF concentrations. In bivariate analysis, early pregnancy serum BDNF concentrations were positively associated with maternal age (r = 0.16, P < 0.001) and early pregnancy body mass index (BMI) (r = 0.17, P < 0.001), but inversely correlated with gestational age at sample collection (r = -0.21, P < 0.001) and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations (r = -0.07, P < 0.05). In the multivariable linear regression model, maternal age (β = 0.11, P = 0.001), early pregnancy BMI (β = 1.58, P < 0.001), gestational age at blood collection (β = -0.33, P < 0.001), and serum CRP concentrations (β = -0.57, P = 0.002) were significantly associated with early pregnancy serum BDNF concentrations. Participants with moderate antepartum depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) score ≥ 10) had lower serum BDNF concentrations compared with participants with no/mild antepartum depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 score < 10). Maternal age, early pregnancy BMI, gestational age, and the presence of moderate antepartum depressive symptoms were statistically significantly associated with early pregnancy serum BDNF concentrations in low-income Peruvian women. Biological changes of CRP during pregnancy may affect serum

  12. Consequences of brain-derived neurotrophic factor withdrawal in CNS neurons and implications in disease

    PubMed Central

    Mariga, Abigail; Mitre, Mariela; Chao, Moses V.

    2017-01-01

    Growth factor withdrawal has been studied across different species and has been shown to have dramatic consequences on cell survival. In the nervous system, withdrawal of nerve growth factor (NGF) from sympathetic and sensory neurons results in substantial neuronal cell death, signifying a requirement for NGF for the survival of neurons in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). In contrast to the PNS, withdrawal of central nervous system (CNS) enriched brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has little effect on cell survival but is indispensible for synaptic plasticity. Given that most early events in neuropsychiatric disorders are marked by a loss of synapses, lack of BDNF may thus be an important part of a cascade of events that leads to neuronal degeneration. Here we review reports on the effects of BDNF withdrawal on CNS neurons and discuss the relevance of the loss in disease. PMID:27015693

  13. Consequences of brain-derived neurotrophic factor withdrawal in CNS neurons and implications in disease.

    PubMed

    Mariga, Abigail; Mitre, Mariela; Chao, Moses V

    2017-01-01

    Growth factor withdrawal has been studied across different species and has been shown to have dramatic consequences on cell survival. In the nervous system, withdrawal of nerve growth factor (NGF) from sympathetic and sensory neurons results in substantial neuronal cell death, signifying a requirement for NGF for the survival of neurons in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). In contrast to the PNS, withdrawal of central nervous system (CNS) enriched brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has little effect on cell survival but is indispensible for synaptic plasticity. Given that most early events in neuropsychiatric disorders are marked by a loss of synapses, lack of BDNF may thus be an important part of a cascade of events that leads to neuronal degeneration. Here we review reports on the effects of BDNF withdrawal on CNS neurons and discuss the relevance of the loss in disease.

  14. The hippocampus, neurotrophic factors and depression: possible implications for the pharmacotherapy of depression.

    PubMed

    Masi, Gabriele; Brovedani, Paola

    2011-11-01

    Depression is a prevalent, highly debilitating mental disorder affecting up to 15% of the population at least once in their lifetime, with huge costs for society. Neurobiological mechanisms of depression are still not well known, although there is consensus about interplay between genetic and environmental factors. Antidepressant medications are frequently used in depression, but at least 50% of patients are poor responders, even to more recently discovered medications. Furthermore, clinical response only occurs following weeks to months of treatment and only chronic treatment is effective, suggesting that actions beyond the rapidly occurring effect of enhancing monoaminergic systems, such as adaptation of these systems, are responsible for the effects of antidepressants. Recent studies indicate that an impairment of synaptic plasticity (neurogenesis, axon branching, dendritogenesis and synaptogenesis) in specific areas of the CNS, particularly the hippocampus, may be a core factor in the pathophysiology of depression. The abnormal neural plasticity may be related to alterations in the levels of neurotrophic factors, namely brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which play a central role in plasticity. As BDNF is repressed by stress, epigenetic regulation of the BDNF gene may play an important role in depression. The hippocampus is smaller in depressed patients, although it is unclear whether smaller size is a consequence of depression or a pre-existing, vulnerability marker for depression. Environmental stressors triggering activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis cause the brain to be exposed to corticosteroids, affecting neurobehavioural functions with a strong downregulation of hippocampal neurogenesis, and are a major risk factor for depression. Antidepressant treatment increases BDNF levels, stimulates neurogenesis and reverses the inhibitory effects of stress, but this effect is evident only after 3-4 weeks of administration, the time course

  15. REGULATION OF BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR MESSENGER RNA LEVELS IN AVIAN HYPOTHALAMIC SLICE CULTURES. (R825294)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mechanisms regulating the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, a member of the neurotrophin family, have been extensively studied in the rat cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum. In contrast, little is known regarding the regulation of this growth factor in ...

  16. REGULATION OF BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR MESSENGER RNA LEVELS IN AVIAN HYPOTHALAMIC SLICE CULTURES. (R825294)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mechanisms regulating the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, a member of the neurotrophin family, have been extensively studied in the rat cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum. In contrast, little is known regarding the regulation of this growth factor in ...

  17. Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Serum Levels and Hippocampal Volume in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia due to Alzheimer Disease

    PubMed Central

    Borba, Ericksen Mielle; Duarte, Juliana Avila; Bristot, Giovana; Scotton, Ellen; Camozzato, Ana Luiza; Chaves, Márcia Lorena Fagundes

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Hippocampal atrophy is a recognized biomarker of Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology. Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) reduction has been associated with neurodegeneration. We aimed to evaluate BDNF serum levels and hippocampal volume in clinical AD (dementia and mild cognitive impairment [MCI]). Methods Participants were 10 patients with MCI and 13 with dementia due to AD as well as 10 healthy controls. BDNF serum levels were determined by ELISA and volumetric measures with NeuroQuant®. Results MCI and dementia patients presented lower BDNF serum levels than healthy participants; dementia patients presented a smaller hippocampal volume than MCI patients and healthy participants. Discussion The findings support that the decrease in BDNF might start before the establishment of neuronal injury expressed by the hippocampal reduction. PMID:28101102

  18. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor signaling rewrites the glucocorticoid transcriptome via glucocorticoid receptor phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Lambert, W Marcus; Xu, Chong-Feng; Neubert, Thomas A; Chao, Moses V; Garabedian, Michael J; Jeanneteau, Freddy D

    2013-09-01

    Abnormal glucocorticoid and neurotrophin signaling has been implicated in numerous psychiatric disorders. However, the impact of neurotrophic signaling on glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-dependent gene expression is not understood. We therefore examined the impact of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling on GR transcriptional regulatory function by gene expression profiling in primary rat cortical neurons stimulated with the selective GR agonist dexamethasone (Dex) and BDNF, alone or in combination. Simultaneous treatment with BDNF and Dex elicited a unique set of GR-responsive genes associated with neuronal growth and differentiation and also enhanced the induction of a large number of Dex-sensitive genes. BDNF via its receptor TrkB enhanced the transcriptional activity of a synthetic GR reporter, suggesting a direct effect of BDNF signaling on GR function. Indeed, BDNF treatment induces the phosphorylation of GR at serine 155 (S155) and serine 287 (S287). Expression of a nonphosphorylatable mutant (GR S155A/S287A) impaired the induction of a subset of BDNF- and Dex-regulated genes. Mechanistically, BDNF-induced GR phosphorylation increased GR occupancy and cofactor recruitment at the promoter of a BDNF-enhanced gene. GR phosphorylation in vivo is sensitive to changes in the levels of BDNF and TrkB as well as stress. Therefore, BDNF signaling specifies and amplifies the GR transcriptome through a coordinated GR phosphorylation-dependent detection mechanism.

  19. Effect of Oxcarbazepine on Serum Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor in Bipolar Mania: An Exploratory Study.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Rituparna; Mishra, Biswa Ranjan; Jowhar, Jaseem; Mohapatra, Debadatta; Parida, Sansita; Bisoi, Debasis

    2017-05-31

    In bipolar disorder, serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) level decreases leading to dysfunctions of critical neurotrophic, cellular plasticity and neuroprotective processes. The present study was conducted to evaluate the change in serum BDNF level with oxcarbazepine monotherapy in bipolar mania. The present study is a prospective, interventional, open label clinical study conducted on 25 patients of bipolar mania and 25 healthy controls. Detailed history, clinical evaluation including Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) scoring and serum BDNF were assessed at baseline for all 50 subjects. The bipolar patients were prescribed tablet oxcarbazepine and followed up after 4 weeks for clinical evaluation and re-estimation of serum BDNF and YMRS scoring. The serum BDNF level in bipolar manic patients were compared with healthy controls at baseline and results revealed that there is a significant reduction (p=0.002) in serum BDNF level in bipolar patients. At follow-up after 4 weeks, the mean change in serum BDNF in bipolar group who were on oxcarbazepine monotherapy was found statistically significant (p=0.02) in comparison to healthy controls. In bipolar group, the YMRS score and serum BDNF at baseline have an inverse relation(r=-0.59) whereas change of the YMRS score had a positive correlation (r=0.67) with the change of serum BDNF over 4 weeks. In bipolar mania serum BDNF level is low and it is found to be increased with short term monotherapy with oxcarbazepine.

  20. Decreased levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the remitted state of unipolar depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Hasselbalch, B J; Knorr, U; Bennike, B; Hasselbalch, S G; Søndergaard, M H Greisen; Vedel Kessing, L

    2012-09-01

    Decreased levels of peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) have been associated with depression. It is uncertain whether abnormally low levels of BDNF in blood are present beyond the depressive state and whether levels of BDNF are associated with the course of clinical illness. Whole-blood BDNF levels were measured in blood samples from patients with unipolar disorder in a sustained state of clinical remission and in a healthy control group. Participants were recruited via Danish registers, a method that benefits from the opportunity to obtain well-matched community-based samples as well as providing a high diagnostic validity of the patient sample. A total of 85 patients and 50 controls were included in the study. In multiple linear regression analyses, including the covariates age, gender, 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale scores, body-mass index, education, smoking and physical exercise, patients with unipolar depressive disorder had decreased levels of BDNF compared to healthy control individuals [B = -7.4, 95% CI (-11.2, -3.7), = 0.21 P < 0.001]. No association between course of clinical illness and BDNF levels was present. Whole-blood BDNF levels seem to be decreased in patients remitted from unipolar depressive disorder, suggesting that neurotrophic changes may exist beyond the depressive state. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  1. Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor in Alzheimer's Disease: Risk, Mechanisms, and Therapy.

    PubMed

    Song, Jing-Hui; Yu, Jin-Tai; Tan, Lan

    2015-12-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has a neurotrophic support on neuron of central nervous system (CNS) and is a key molecule in the maintenance of synaptic plasticity and memory storage in hippocampus. However, changes of BDNF level and expression have been reported in the CNS as well as blood of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients in the last decade, which indicates a potential role of BDNF in the pathogenesis of AD. Therefore, this review aims to summarize the latest progress in the field of BDNF and its biological roles in AD pathogenesis. We will discuss the interaction between BDNF and amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide, the effect of BDNF on synaptic repair in AD, and the association between BDNF polymorphism and AD risk. The most important is, enlightening the detailed biological ability and complicated mechanisms of action of BDNF in the context of AD would provide a future BDNF-related remedy for AD, such as increment in the production or release of endogenous BDNF by some drugs or BDNF mimics.

  2. Role of neurotrophic factor alterations in the neurodegenerative process in HIV associated neurocognitive disorders.

    PubMed

    Fields, Jerel; Dumaop, Wilmar; Langford, T D; Rockenstein, Edward; Masliah, E

    2014-03-01

    Migration of HIV infected cells into the CNS is associated with a spectrum of neurological disorders, ranging from milder forms of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) to HIV-associated dementia (HAD). These neuro-psychiatric syndromes are related to the neurodegenerative pathology triggered by the release of HIV proteins and cytokine/chemokines from monocytes/macrophages into the CNS -a condition known as HIV encephalitis (HIVE). As a result of more effective combined anti-retroviral therapy patients with HIV are living longer and thus the frequency of HAND has increased considerably, resulting in an overlap between the neurodegenerative pathology associated with HIV and that related to aging. In fact, HIV infection is believed to hasten the aging process. The mechanisms through which HIV and aging lead to neurodegeneration include: abnormal calcium flux, excitotoxicity, signaling abnormalities, oxidative stress and autophagy defects. Moreover, recent studies have shown that defects in the processing and transport of neurotrophic factors such as fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), neural growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived growth factor (BDNF) might also play a role. Recent evidence implicates alterations in neurotrophins in the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration associated with HAND in the context of aging. Here, we report FGF overexpression curtails gp120-induced neurotoxicity in a double transgenic mouse model. Furthermore, our data show disparities in brain neurotrophic factor levels may be exacerbated in HIV patients over 50 years of age. In this review, we discuss the most recent findings on neurotrophins and HAND in the context of developing new therapies to combat HIV infection in the aging population.

  3. Additive clinical value of serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor for prediction of chronic heart failure outcome.

    PubMed

    Kadowaki, Shinpei; Shishido, Tetsuro; Honda, Yuki; Narumi, Taro; Otaki, Yoichiro; Kinoshita, Daisuke; Nishiyama, Satoshi; Takahashi, Hiroki; Arimoto, Takanori; Miyamoto, Takuya; Watanabe, Tetsu; Kubota, Isao

    2016-04-01

    The importance of the central nervous system in cardiovascular events has been recognized. Recently, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a member of the neurotrophic factor family, is involved in depression mechanisms and also in stress and anxiety. Because BDNF is reported about cardioprotective role, we elucidated whether BDNF is associated with cardiovascular events in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). We examined serum BDNF levels in 134 patients with CHF and 23 control subjects. The patients were followed to register cardiac events for a median of 426 days. BDNF was significantly lower in CHF patients than in control subjects (25.8 ± 8.4 vs 14.7 ± 8.4, P < 0.0001). Serum BDNF was also lower in patients with cardiac events than in event-free patients (16.1 ± 8.0 vs 12.5 ± 8.5, P < 0.0001). The cutoff value of BDNF was determined by performing receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that patients with low levels of BDNF experienced higher rates of cardiac events than those with high levels of BDNF. Multivariate Cox hazard analysis demonstrated that low BDNF levels (≤12.4 ng/mL) were an independent prognostic factor for cardiac events (hazard ratio 2.932, 95 % confidence interval 1.622-5.301; P = 0.0004). Adding levels of BDNF to the model with BNP levels, age, and eGFR for the prediction of cardiac events yielded significant net reclassification improvement of 0.429 (P < 0.001) and an integrated discrimination improvement of 0.101 (P < 0.001). Low serum BDNF levels were found in patients with CHF, and these levels were found to be independently associated with an increased risk of cardiac events.

  4. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor transgenic mice exhibit passive avoidance deficits, increased seizure severity and in vitro hyperexcitability in the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex.

    PubMed

    Croll, S D; Suri, C; Compton, D L; Simmons, M V; Yancopoulos, G D; Lindsay, R M; Wiegand, S J; Rudge, J S; Scharfman, H E

    1999-01-01

    Transgenic mice overexpressing brain-derived neurotrophic factor from the beta-actin promoter were tested for behavioral, gross anatomical and physiological abnormalities. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor messenger RNA overexpression was widespread throughout brain. Overexpression declined with age, such that levels of overexpression decreased sharply by nine months. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor transgenic mice had no gross deformities or behavioral abnormalities. However, they showed a significant passive avoidance deficit. This deficit was dependent on continued overexpression, and resolved with age as brain-derived neurotrophic factor transcripts decreased. In addition, the brain-derived neurotrophic factor transgenic mice showed increased seizure severity in response to kainic acid. Hippocampal slices from brain-derived neurotrophic factor transgenic mice showed hyperexcitability in area CA3 and entorhinal cortex, but not in dentate gyrus. Finally, area CA1 long-term potentiation was disrupted, indicating abnormal plasticity. Our data suggest that overexpression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the brain can interfere with normal brain function by causing learning impairments and increased excitability. The results also support the hypothesis that excess brain-derived neurotrophic factor could be pro-convulsant in the limbic system.

  5. Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor Signaling Pathway: Modulation by Acupuncture in Telomerase Knockout Mice.

    PubMed

    Lin, Dong; Wu, Qiang; Lin, Xiaoyang; Borlongan, Cesar V; He, Zhi-Xu; Tan, Jun; Cao, Chuanhai; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Telomerase is a critical enzyme that is involved in aging and cancer and that is thought to be a part of multiple neurological diseases. To investigate the telomerase response in the brain to acupuncture, the study examined the levels of expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its downstream signaling molecules, including tyrosine kinase receptor Β (TrkB), p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR), protein kinase B (Akt), extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK1/2), and nuclear factor κΒ (NF-κΒ). Both telomerase-deficient (Terc⁻/⁻) mice (Terc⁻/⁻ group) and normal, wild-type (WT) mice (WT group) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 subgroups, 1 receiving acupuncture (acupuncture subgroup), 1 receiving sham acupuncture therapy (sham subgroup), and 1 receiving no treatment (control subgroup). The study occurred at the University of South Florida Health Byrd Alzheimer's Institute (Tampa, FL, USA). The 2 acupuncture subgroups received acupuncture at the stomach 36 (ST-36) position for 30 min/d for 4 d. For the 2 sham groups, the sham point was set at a location approximately 3 mm to the lateral side of the tail on the gluteus muscle following the same schedule. After 4 d, the mice were sacrificed, and the brain tissues were collected. The protein levels in the hippocampus and dentate gyrus (DG) of each mouse were determined by western blotting and immunostaining assays. The Terc⁻/⁻ group showed downregulated hippocampal BDNF expression compared with the WT mice. Acupuncture at ST-36 for 4 d upregulated BDNF, TrkB, p75NTR, Akt, and ERK1/2 in the DG and hippocampus of the telomerase-deficient mice, but that result was not seen in the WT mice with normally functioning telomerase. The use of acupuncture in pathologies associated with telomerase deficiencies, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD), may provide some benefit in terms of eliciting better clinical responses. The research team believes that result occurs

  6. Smoking Habits and Neuropeptides: Adiponectin, Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor, and Leptin Levels

    PubMed Central

    Won, Yong Lim; Ko, Kyung Sun; Roh, Ji won

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to identify changes in the level of neuropeptides among current smokers, former smokers, and individuals who had never smoked, and how smoking habits affect obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Neuropeptide levels, anthropometric parameters, and metabolic syndrome diagnostic indices were determined among male workers; 117 of these had never smoked, whereas 58 and 198 were former and current smokers, respectively. The total sample comprised 373 male workers. The results obtained from anthropometric measurements showed that current smokers attained significantly lower body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, and abdominal fat thickness values than former smokers and those who had never smoked. Current smokers’ eating habits proved worse than those of non-smokers and individuals who had never smoked. The level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the neuropeptides in the case of former smokers was 23.6 ± 9.2 pg/ml, higher than that of current smokers (20.4 ± 6.1) and individuals who had never smoked (22.4 ± 5.8) (F = 6.520, p = 0.002). The level of adiponectin among former smokers was somewhat lower than that of current smokers, whereas leptin levels were higher among former smokers than current smokers; these results were not statistically significant. A relationship was found between adiponectin and triglyceride among non-smokers (odds ratio = 0.660, β value = −0.416, p < 0.01) and smokers (odds ratio = 0.827, β value = −0.190, p < 0.05). Further, waist circumference among non-smokers (odds ratio = 1.622, β value = 0.483, p < 0.001) and smokers (odds ratio = 1.895, β value = 0.639, p < 0.001) was associated with leptin. It was concluded that cigarette smoking leads to an imbalance of energy expenditure and appetite by changing the concentration of neuropeptides such as adiponectin, BDNF, leptin, and hsCRP, and influences food intake, body weight, the body mass index, blood pressure, and abdominal fat, which are

  7. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor: a newly described mediator of angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kermani, Pouneh; Hempstead, Barbara

    2007-05-01

    Recent studies indicate that, in addition to its neuropoietic actions, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) promotes endothelial cell survival and induces neoangiogenesis in ischemic tissues. Unlike many vascular growth factors that act on many vascular beds, BDNF activity is relatively restricted to central arteries, vessels of cardiac and skeletal muscle, and skin. Studies of newly described biologic mediators that act on large-vessel and microvascular beds in these organs will help us to better understand organ-specific vascular development, as well as to develop novel therapeutic strategies to improve the condition of patients with cardiac and peripheral vascular disease. In this review, we summarize dual proangiogenic actions of BDNF, which, through local activation of TrkB receptor, expressed on a subpopulation of endothelial cells and, in addition, by recruitment of bone marrow-derived cells, contribute to neoangiogenesis.

  8. Downregulated Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor-Induced Oxidative Stress in the Pathophysiology of Diabetic Retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Behl, Tapan; Kotwani, Anita

    2017-04-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a member of neurotrophin growth factor family, physiologically mediates induction of neurogenesis and neuronal differentiation, promotes neuronal growth and survival and maintains synaptic plasticity and neuronal interconnections. Unlike the central nervous system, its secretion in the peripheral nervous system occurs in an activity-dependent manner. BDNF improves neuronal mortality, growth, differentiation and maintenance. It also provides neuroprotection against several noxious stimuli, thereby preventing neuronal damage during pathologic conditions. However, in diabetic retinopathy (a neuromicrovascular disorder involving immense neuronal degeneration), BDNF fails to provide enough neuroprotection against oxidative stress-induced retinal neuronal apoptosis. This review describes the prime reasons for the downregulation of BDNF-mediated neuroprotective actions during hyperglycemia, which renders retinal neurons vulnerable to damaging stimuli, leading to diabetic retinopathy.

  9. Pleiotrophin promotes microglia proliferation and secretion of neurotrophic factors by activating extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 pathway.

    PubMed

    Miao, Jiayin; Ding, Minghui; Zhang, Aiwu; Xiao, Zijian; Qi, Weiwei; Luo, Ning; Di, Wei; Tao, Yuqian; Fang, Yannan

    2012-12-01

    Pleiotrophin (PTN) is an effective neuroprotective factor and its expression is strikingly increased in microglia after ischemia/reperfusion injury. However, whether PTN could provide neurotrophic support to neurons by regulating microglia function is not clear. In this study, we demonstrated that the expression of PTN was induced in microglia after oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion. PTN promoted the proliferation of microglia by enhancing the G1 to S phase transition. PTN also stimulated the secretion of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) in microglia, but did not upregulate the expression of proinflammatory factors such as TNF-α, IL-1β and iNOS. Mechanistically, we found that PTN increased the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 in microglia in both concentration-dependent and time-dependent manners. In addition, ERK1/2 inhibitor U0126 abolished the proliferation and G1 to S phase transition of microglia stimulated by PTN, and inhibited the production of BDNF, CNTF and NGF induced by PTN. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that PTN-ERK1/2 pathway plays important role in regulating microglia growth and secretion of neurotrophic factors. These findings provide new insight into the neuroprotective role of PTN and suggest that PTN is a new target for therapeutic intervention of stroke.

  10. Antidepressants reverse corticosterone-mediated decrease in brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression: differential regulation of specific exons by antidepressants and corticosterone.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Y; Rizavi, H S; Pandey, G N

    2006-01-01

    Earlier studies have implicated brain-derived neurotrophic factor in stress and in the mechanism of action of antidepressants. It has been shown that antidepressants upregulate, whereas corticosterone downregulates, brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in rat brain. Whether various classes of antidepressants reverse corticosterone-mediated downregulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor is unclear. Also not known is how antidepressants or corticosterone regulates brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression. To clarify this, we examined the effects of various classes of antidepressants and corticosterone, alone and in combination, on the mRNA expression of total brain-derived neurotrophic factor and of individual brain-derived neurotrophic factor exons, in rat brain. Normal or corticosterone pellet-implanted (100 mg, 21 days) rats were injected with different classes of antidepressants, fluoxetine, desipramine, or phenelzine, intraperitoneally for 21 days and killed 2 h after the last injection. mRNA expression of total brain-derived neurotrophic factor and of exons I-IV was measured in frontal cortex and hippocampus. Given to normal rats, fluoxetine increased total brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA only in hippocampus, whereas desipramine or phenelzine increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA in both frontal cortex and hippocampus. When specific exons were examined, desipramine increased expression of exons I and III in both brain areas, whereas phenelzine increased exon I in both frontal cortex and hippocampus but exon IV only in hippocampus. On the other hand, fluoxetine increased only exon II in hippocampus. Corticosterone treatment of normal rats decreased expression of total brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA in both brain areas, specifically decreasing exons II and IV. Treatment with desipramine or phenelzine of corticosterone pellet-implanted rats reversed the corticosterone-induced decrease in total brain-derived neurotrophic

  11. Alterations in brain neurotrophic and glial factors following early age chronic methylphenidate and cocaine administration.

    PubMed

    Simchon-Tenenbaum, Yaarit; Weizman, Abraham; Rehavi, Moshe

    2015-04-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) overdiagnosis and a pharmacological attempt to increase cognitive performance, are the major causes for the frequent (ab)use of psychostimulants in non-ADHD individuals. Methylphenidate is a non-addictive psychostimulant, although its mode of action resembles that of cocaine, a well-known addictive and abused drug. Neuronal- and glial-derived growth factors play a major role in the development, maintenance and survival of neurons in the central nervous system. We hypothesized that methylphenidate and cocaine treatment affect the expression of such growth factors. Beginning on postnatal day (PND) 14, male Sprague Dawley rats were treated chronically with either cocaine or methylphenidate. The rats were examined behaviorally and biochemically at several time points (PND 35, 56, 70 and 90). On PND 56, rats treated with cocaine or methylphenidate from PND 14 through PND 35 exhibited increased hippocampal glial-cell derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) mRNA levels, after 21 withdrawal days, compared to the saline-treated rats. We found a significant association between cocaine and methylphenidate treatments and age progression in the prefrontal protein expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Neither treatments affected the behavioral parameters, although acute cocaine administration was associated with increased locomotor activity. It is possible that the increased hippocampal GDNF mRNA levels, may be relevant to the reduced rate of drug seeking behavior in ADHD adolescence that were maintained from childhood on methylphenidate. BDNF protein level increase with age, as well as following stimulant treatments at early age may be relevant to the neurobiology and pharmacotherapy of ADHD.

  12. A hydrogel coating for cochlear implant arrays with encapsulated adipose-derived stem cells allows brain-derived neurotrophic factor delivery.

    PubMed

    Schendzielorz, Philipp; Scherzed, Agmal; Rak, Kristen; Völker, Johannes; Hagen, Rudolf; Mlynski, Robert; Frölich, Katrin; Radeloff, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs), encapsulated in a fibrin-collagen hydrogel for the coating of an electrode array, produce sufficient amounts of neurotrophic factors and may be suitable for enhancing the bioelectric interface of cochlear implants (CIs). To evaluate different hydrogel compositions loaded with ASCs with regard to delivery of neuroactive substances and mechanical suitability for the coating of a CI electrode array. ASCs were cultivated in hydrogels consisting of collagen and fibrin in varying fractions (0:1, 1:1, 1:2, and 1:0). The cell proliferation and viability, as well as the production of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), and laminin were determined. Two hydrogel compositions were used as a coating for CI electrode arrays and tested in a scala tympani model. Cell proliferation was best in collagen/fibrin hydrogel compositions (1:1 and 1:2) and increasing amounts of BDNF (up to 2.59 ng/ml) and laminin (up to 320 ng/ml) were detected. GDNF production was inconsistent and markedly lower. A sufficient coating of a CI electrode carrier in terms of stability and flexibility was achieved only with mixed compositions, although hydrogels formed bulky and uneven layers on the silicone surfaces.

  13. Treadmill exercise induced functional recovery after peripheral nerve repair is associated with increased levels of neurotrophic factors.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae-Sung; Höke, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Benefits of exercise on nerve regeneration and functional recovery have been reported in both central and peripheral nervous system disease models. However, underlying molecular mechanisms of enhanced regeneration and improved functional outcomes are less understood. We used a peripheral nerve regeneration model that has a good correlation between functional outcomes and number of motor axons that regenerate to evaluate the impact of treadmill exercise. In this model, the median nerve was transected and repaired while the ulnar nerve was transected and prevented from regeneration. Daily treadmill exercise resulted in faster recovery of the forelimb grip function as evaluated by grip power and inverted holding test. Daily exercise also resulted in better regeneration as evaluated by recovery of compound motor action potentials, higher number of axons in the median nerve and larger myofiber size in target muscles. Furthermore, these observations correlated with higher levels of neurotrophic factors, glial derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), in serum, nerve and muscle suggesting that increase in muscle derived neurotrophic factors may be responsible for improved regeneration.

  14. Inhibitory Effect of Memantine on Streptozotocin-Induced Insulin Receptor Dysfunction, Neuroinflammation, Amyloidogenesis, and Neurotrophic Factor Decline in Astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Rajasekar, N; Nath, Chandishwar; Hanif, Kashif; Shukla, Rakesh

    2016-12-01

    Our earlier studies showed that insulin receptor (IR) dysfunction along with neuroinflammation and amyloidogenesis played a major role in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced toxicity in astrocytes. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist-memantine shows beneficial effects in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. However, the protective molecular and cellular mechanism of memantine in astrocytes is not properly understood. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of memantine on insulin receptors, neurotrophic factors, neuroinflammation, and amyloidogenesis in STZ-treated astrocytes. STZ (100 μM) treatment for 24 h in astrocytes resulted significant decrease in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), and insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) expression in astrocytes. Treatment with memantine (1-10 μM) improved STZ-induced neurotrophic factor decline (BDNF, GDNF) along with IR dysfunction as evidenced by a significant increase in IR protein expression, phosphorylation of IRS-1, Akt, and GSK-3 α/β in astrocytes. Further, memantine attenuated STZ-induced amyloid precursor protein (APP), β-site APP-cleaving enzyme-1 and amyloid-β1-42 expression and restored IDE expression in astrocytes. In addition, memantine also displays protective effects against STZ-induced astrocyte activation showed by reduction of inflammatory markers, nuclear factor kappa-B translocation, glial fibrillary acidic protein, cyclooxygenase-2, tumor necrosis factor-α level, and oxidative-nitrostative stress. The results suggest that besides the NMDA receptor antagonisic activity, effect on astroglial IR and neurotrophic factor may also be an important factor in the beneficial effect of memantine in AD pathology. Graphical Abstract Novel neuroprotective mechanisms of memenatine in streptozotocin-induced toxicity in astrocytes.

  15. Anterograde delivery of brain-derived neurotrophic factor to striatum via nigral transduction of recombinant adeno-associated virus increases neuronal death but promotes neurogenic response following stroke.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Elin; Andsberg, Gunnar; Darsalia, Vladimer; Mohapel, Paul; Mandel, Ronald J; Kirik, Deniz; Lindvall, Olle; Kokaia, Zaal

    2003-06-01

    To explore the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor for survival and generation of striatal neurons after stroke, recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors carrying brain-derived neurotrophic factor or green fluorescent protein genes were injected into right rat substantia nigra 4-5 weeks prior to 30 min ipsilateral of middle cerebral artery occlusion. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor-recombinant adeno-associated viral transduction markedly increased the production of brain-derived neurotrophic factor protein by nigral cells. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor was transported anterogradely to the striatum and released in biologically active form, as revealed by the hypertrophic response of striatal neuropeptide Y-positive interneurons. Animals transduced with brain-derived neurotrophic factor-recombinant adeno-associated virus also exhibited abnormalities in body posture and movements, including tilted body to the right, choreiform movements of left forelimb and head, and spontaneous, so-called 'barrel' rotation along their long axis. The continuous delivery of brain-derived neurotrophic factor had no effect on the survival of striatal projection neurons after stroke, but exaggerated the loss of cholinergic, and parvalbumin- and neuropeptide Y-positive, gamma-aminobutyric acid-ergic interneurons. The high brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in the animals subjected to stroke also gave rise to an increased number of striatal cells expressing doublecortin, a marker for migrating neuroblasts, and cells double-labelled with the mitotic marker, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine-5'monophosphate, and early neuronal (Hu) or striatal neuronal (Meis2) markers. Our findings indicate that long-term anterograde delivery of high levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor increases the vulnerability of striatal interneurons to stroke-induced damage. Concomitantly, brain-derived neurotrophic factor potentiates the stroke-induced neurogenic response, at least at early stages.

  16. Parvalbumin immunoreactivity is enhanced by brain-derived neurotrophic factor in organotypic cultures of rat retina.

    PubMed

    Rickman, D W

    1999-11-15

    The rodent retina undergoes considerable postnatal neurogenesis and phenotypic differentiation, and it is likely that diffusible neurotrophic factors contribute to this development and to the subsequent formation of functional retinal circuitry. Accordingly, perturbation of specific neurotrophin ligand-receptor interactions has provided valuable information as to the fundamental processes underlying this development. In the present studies we have built upon our previous observation that suppression of expression of trk(B), the high-affinity receptor for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), in the postnatal rat retina results in the alteration of a specific interneuron in the rod pathway-the parvalbumin (PV)-immunoreactive AII amacrine cell. Here, we isolated retinas from newborn rats and maintained them in organotypic culture for up to 14 days (approximating the time of eye opening, in vivo) in the presence of individual neurotrophins [BDNF or nerve growth factor (NGF)]. We then examined histological sections of cultures for PV immunoreactivity. In control cultures, only sparse PV-immunostained cells were observed. In cultures supplemented with NGF, numerous lightly immunostained somata were present in the inner nuclear layer (INL) at the border of the inner plexiform layer (IPL). Many of these cells had rudimentary dendritic arborizations in the IPL. Cultures supplemented with BDNF displayed numerous well-immunostained somata at the INL/IPL border that gave rise to elaborate dendritic arborizations that approximated the morphology of mature AII amacrine cells in vivo. These observations indicate that neurotrophins have specific effects upon the neurochemical and, perhaps, morphological differentiation of an important interneuron in a specific functional retinal circuit.

  17. Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (GDNF) as a Novel Candidate Gene of Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Kotyuk, Eszter; Keszler, Gergely; Nemeth, Nora; Ronai, Zsolt; Sasvari-Szekely, Maria; Szekely, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a neurotrophic factor for dopaminergic neurons with promising therapeutic potential in Parkinson's disease. A few association analyses between GDNF gene polymorphisms and psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and drug abuse have also been published but little is known about any effects of these polymorphisms on mood characteristics such as anxiety and depression. Here we present an association study between eight (rs1981844, rs3812047, rs3096140, rs2973041, rs2910702, rs1549250, rs2973050 and rs11111) GDNF single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and anxiety and depression scores measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) on 708 Caucasian young adults with no psychiatric history. Results of the allele-wise single marker association analyses provided significant effects of two single nucleotide polymorphisms on anxiety scores following the Bonferroni correction for multiple testing (p = 0.00070 and p = 0.00138 for rs3812047 and rs3096140, respectively), while no such result was obtained on depression scores. Haplotype analysis confirmed the role of these SNPs; mean anxiety scores raised according to the number of risk alleles present in the haplotypes (p = 0.00029). A significant sex-gene interaction was also observed since the effect of the rs3812047 A allele as a risk factor of anxiety was more pronounced in males. In conclusion, this is the first demonstration of a significant association between the GDNF gene and mood characteristics demonstrated by the association of two SNPs of the GDNF gene (rs3812047 and rs3096140) and individual variability of anxiety using self-report data from a non-clinical sample. PMID:24324616

  18. EARLY POSTNATAL OVERNUTRITION: POTENTIAL ROLES OF GASTROINTESTINAL VAGAL AFFERENTS AND BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Edward A.; Biddinger, Jessica E.

    2012-01-01

    Abnormal perinatal nutrition (APN) results in a predisposition to develop obesity and the metabolic syndrome and thus may contribute to the prevalence of these disorders. Obesity, including that which develops in organisms exposed to APN, has been associated with increased meal size. Vagal afferents of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract contribute to regulation of meal size by transmitting satiation signals from gut-to-brain. Consequently, APN could increase meal size by altering this signaling, possibly through changes in expression of factors that control vagal afferent development or function. Here two studies that addressed these possibilities are reviewed. First, meal patterns, meal microstructure, and the structure and density of vagal afferents that innervate the intestine were examined in mice that experienced early postnatal overnutrition (EPO). These studies provided little evidence for EPO effects on vagal afferents as it did not alter meal size or vagal afferent density or structure. However, these mice exhibited modest hyperphagia due to a satiety deficit. In parallel, the possibility that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) could mediate APN effects on vagal afferent development was investigated. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor was a strong candidate because APN alters BDNF levels in some tissues and BDNF knockout disrupts development of vagal sensory innervation of the GI tract. Surprisingly, smooth muscle-specific BDNF knockout resulted in early-onset obesity and hyperphagia due to increases in meal size and frequency. Microstructure analysis revealed decreased decay of intake rate during a meal in knockouts, suggesting loss of vagal negative feedback contributed to their increase in meal size. However, meal-induced c-Fos activation within the dorsal vagal complex suggested this effect could be due to augmentation of vago-vagal reflexes. A model is proposed to explain how high-fat diet consumption produces increased obesity in organisms exposed

  19. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor regulates cell motility in human colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ssu-Ming; Lin, Chingju; Lin, Hsiao-Yun; Chiu, Chien-Ming; Fang, Chia-Wei; Liao, Kuan-Fu; Chen, Dar-Ren; Yeh, Wei-Lan

    2015-06-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a potent neurotrophic factor that has been shown to affect cancer cell metastasis and migration. In the present study, we investigated the mechanisms of BDNF-induced cell migration in colon cancer cells. The migratory activities of two colon cancer cell lines, HCT116 and SW480, were found to be increased in the presence of human BDNF. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO)-1 is known to be involved in the development and progression of tumors. However, the molecular mechanisms that underlie HO-1 in the regulation of colon cancer cell migration remain unclear. Expression of HO-1 protein and mRNA increased in response to BDNF stimulation. The BDNF-induced increase in cell migration was antagonized by a HO-1 inhibitor and HO-1 siRNA. Furthermore, the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) also increased in response to BDNF stimulation, as did VEGF mRNA expression and transcriptional activity. The increase in BDNF-induced cancer cell migration was antagonized by a VEGF-neutralizing antibody. Moreover, transfection with HO-1 siRNA effectively reduced the increased VEGF expression induced by BDNF. The BDNF-induced cell migration was regulated by the ERK, p38, and Akt signaling pathways. Furthermore, BDNF-increased HO-1 and VEGF promoter transcriptional activity were inhibited by ERK, p38, and AKT pharmacological inhibitors and dominant-negative mutants in colon cancer cells. These results indicate that BDNF increases the migration of colon cancer cells by regulating VEGF/HO-1 activation through the ERK, p38, and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. The results of this study may provide a relevant contribution to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which BDNF promotes colon cancer cell motility.

  20. Voluntary exercise protects against stress-induced decreases in brain-derived neurotrophic factor protein expression.

    PubMed

    Adlard, P A; Cotman, C W

    2004-01-01

    Exercise is increasingly recognized as an intervention that can reduce CNS dysfunctions such as cognitive decline, depression and stress. Previously we have demonstrated that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is increased in the hippocampus following exercise. In this study we tested the hypothesis that exercise can counteract a reduction in hippocampal BDNF protein caused by acute immobilization stress. Since BDNF expression is suppressed by corticosterone (CORT), circulating CORT levels were also monitored. In animals subjected to 2 h immobilization stress, CORT was elevated immediately following, and at 1 h after the cessation of stress, but remained unchanged from baseline up to 24 h post-stress. The stress protocol resulted in a reduction in BDNF protein at 5 and 10 h post-stress that returned to baseline at 24 h. To determine if exercise could prevent this stress-induced reduction in BDNF protein, animals were given voluntary access to running wheels for 3 weeks prior to the stress. Stressed animals, in the absence of exercise, again demonstrated an initial elevation in CORT (at 0 h) and a subsequent decrease in hippocampal BDNF at the 10 h time point. Exercising animals, both non-stressed and stressed, demonstrated circulating CORT and hippocampal BDNF protein levels that were significantly elevated above control values at both time points examined (0 and 10 h post-stress). Thus, the persistently high CORT levels in exercised animals did not affect the induction of BDNF with exercise, and the effect of immobilization stress on BDNF protein was overcome. To examine the role of CORT in the stress-related regulation of BDNF protein, experiments were carried out in adrenalectomized (ADX) animals. BDNF protein was not downregulated as a result of immobilization stress in ADX animals, while there continued to be an exercise-induced upregulation of BDNF. This study demonstrates that CORT modulates stress-related alterations in BDNF protein. Further, exercise

  1. Human umbilical cord blood stem cells and brain-derived neurotrophic factor for optic nerve injury: a biomechanical evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhong-jun; Li, Ya-jun; Liu, Xiao-guang; Huang, Feng-xiao; Liu, Tie-jun; Jiang, Dong-mei; Lv, Xue-man; Luo, Min

    2015-01-01

    Treatment for optic nerve injury by brain-derived neurotrophic factor or the transplantation of human umbilical cord blood stem cells has gained progress, but analysis by biomechanical indicators is rare. Rabbit models of optic nerve injury were established by a clamp. At 7 days after injury, the vitreous body received a one-time injection of 50 μg brain-derived neurotrophic factor or 1 × 106 human umbilical cord blood stem cells. After 30 days, the maximum load, maximum stress, maximum strain, elastic limit load, elastic limit stress, and elastic limit strain had clearly improved in rabbit models of optical nerve injury after treatment with brain-derived neurotrophic factor or human umbilical cord blood stem cells. The damage to the ultrastructure of the optic nerve had also been reduced. These findings suggest that human umbilical cord blood stem cells and brain-derived neurotrophic factor effectively repair the injured optical nerve, improve biomechanical properties, and contribute to the recovery after injury. PMID:26330839

  2. Dental pulp cells produce neurotrophic factors, interact with trigeminal neurons in vitro, and rescue motoneurons after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Nosrat, I V; Widenfalk, J; Olson, L; Nosrat, C A

    2001-10-01

    Interactions between ingrowing nerve fibers and their target tissues form the basis for functional connectivity with the central nervous system. Studies of the developing dental pulp innervation by nerve fibers from the trigeminal ganglion is an excellent example of nerve-target tissue interactions and will allow specific questions regarding development of the dental pulp nerve system to be addressed. Dental pulp cells (DPC) produce an array of neurotrophic factors during development, suggesting that these proteins might be involved in supporting trigeminal nerve fibers that innervate the dental pulp. We have established an in vitro culture system to study the interactions between the dental pulp cells and trigeminal neurons. We show that dental pulp cells produce several neurotrophic factors in culture. When DPC are cocultured with trigeminal neurons, they promote survival and a specific and elaborate neurite outgrowth pattern from trigeminal neurons, whereas skin fibroblasts do not provide a similar support. In addition, we show that dental pulp tissue becomes innervated when transplanted ectopically into the anterior chamber of the eye in rats, and upregulates the catecholaminergic nerve fiber density of the irises. Interestingly, grafting the dental pulp tissue into hemisected spinal cord increases the number of surviving motoneurons, indicating a functional bioactivity of the dental pulp-derived neurotrophic factors in vivo by rescuing motoneurons. Based on these findings, we propose that dental pulp-derived neurotrophic factors play an important role in orchestrating the dental pulp innervation.

  3. Enhancement of Neurotrophic Factors in Astrocyte for Neuroprotective Effects in Brain Disorders Using Low-intensity Pulsed Ultrasound Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Feng-Yi; Lu, Wen-Wei; Lin, Wei-Ting; Chang, Chi-Wei; Huang, Sin-Luo

    2015-01-01

    Astrocytes play an important role in the growth and survival of developing neurons by secreting neurotrophic factors. The goal of this study was to investigate how low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) stimulation directly affects brain astrocyte function. Here, we report that LIPUS stimulation increased protein levels of BDNF, GDNF, VEGF, and GLUT1 in rat brain astrocytes as measured by western blot analysis. Histological outcomes including demyelination and apoptosis were examined in rats after administration of aluminum chloride (AlCl3). At the mechanistic level, integrin inhibitor (RGD peptide) attenuated the LIPUS-induced neurotrophic factor expression. The data suggest that neurotrophic factor protein levels may be promoted by LIPUS through activation of integrin receptor signaling. In addition, LIPUS stimulation protected cells against aluminum toxicity as demonstrated by an increase in the median lethal dose for AlCl3 from 3.77 to 6.25 mM. In in vivo histological evaluations, LIPUS significantly reduced cerebral damages in terms of myelin loss and apoptosis induced by AlCl3. The results of this study demonstrate that transcranial LIPUS is capable of enhancing the protein levels of neurotrophic factors, which could have neuroprotective effects against neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Developmental Thyroid Hormone Insufficiency Reduces Expression of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) in Adults But Not in Neonates

    EPA Science Inventory

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin critical for many developmental and physiological aspects of CNS function. Severe hypothyroidism in the early neonatal period results in developmental and cognitive impairments and reductions in mRNA and protein expressio...

  5. Developmental Thyroid Hormone Insufficiency Reduces Expression of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) in Adults But Not in Neonates

    EPA Science Inventory

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin critical for many developmental and physiological aspects of CNS function. Severe hypothyroidism in the early neonatal period results in developmental and cognitive impairments and reductions in mRNA and protein expressio...

  6. Serum concentrations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in patients with gender identity disorder.

    PubMed

    Fontanari, Anna-Martha V; Andreazza, Tahiana; Costa, Ângelo B; Salvador, Jaqueline; Koff, Walter J; Aguiar, Bianca; Ferrari, Pamela; Massuda, Raffael; Pedrini, Mariana; Silveira, Esalba; Belmonte-de-Abreu, Paulo S; Gama, Clarissa S; Kauer-Sant'Anna, Marcia; Kapczinski, Flavio; Lobato, Maria Ines R

    2013-10-01

    Gender Identity Disorder (GID) is characterized by a strong and persistent cross-gender identification that affects different aspects of behavior. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a critical role in neurodevelopment and neuroplasticity. Altered BDNF-signaling is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of psychiatric disordersand is related to traumatic life events. To examine serum BDNF levels, we compared one group of DSM-IV GID patients (n = 45) and one healthy control group (n = 66). Serum BDNF levels were significantly decreased in GID patients (p = 0.013). This data support the hypothesis that the reduction found in serum BDNF levels in GID patients may be related to the psychological abuse that transsexuals are exposed during their life. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor does not improve recovery after cardiac arrest in rats.

    PubMed

    Callaway, Clifton W; Ramos, Ramiro; Logue, Eric S; Betz, Amy E; Wheeler, Matthew; Repine, Melissa J

    2008-11-07

    Increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels and extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK) signaling are associated with reduced brain injury after cerebral ischemia. In particular, mild hypothermia after cardiac arrest increases BDNF and ERK signaling. This study tested whether intracerebroventricular infusions (0.025 microg/h x 3 days) of BDNF also improved recovery of rats resuscitated from cardiac arrest and maintained at 37 degrees C. BDNF infusions initiated at the time of cardiac arrest did not alter survival, neurological recovery, or histological injury. Separate experiments confirmed that BDNF infusions increased tissue levels of BDNF. However, these infusions did not increase ERK activation in hippocampus. These data suggest that increased BDNF levels are not sufficient to explain the beneficial effects of mild hypothermia after cardiac arrest, and that exogenous BDNF administration does not increase extracellular ERK signaling.

  8. Association between plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels and personality traits in healthy Japanese subjects.

    PubMed

    Yasui-Furukori, Norio; Tsuchimine, Shoko; Kaneda, Ayako; Sugawara, Norio; Ishioka, Masamichi; Kaneko, Sunao

    2013-11-30

    Although depression has been associated with decreased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels for specific personality traits, there is a little information regarding the association between peripheral BDNF levels and such traits. The sample consisted of 178 healthy Japanese subjects (age range, 37.4 ± 11.5 years). All subjects filled out the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Plasma BDNF levels were measured using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A simple regression analysis revealed that plasma BDNF levels were significantly correlated with harm avoidance (r=-0.177, p=0.018) and self-directedness scores (r=0.165, p=0.028). Our findings suggest that plasma BDNF levels are associated with depression-related personality traits. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Activity-dependent expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in dendrites: facts and open questions.

    PubMed

    Tongiorgi, Enrico

    2008-08-01

    Long-lasting synaptic changes in transmission and morphology at the basis of memory storage, require delivery of newly synthesized proteins to affected synapses. Although many of these proteins are generated in the cell body, several key molecules for plasticity can be delivered in the form of silent mRNAs at synapses in extra somatic compartments where they are locally translated. One of such mRNAs encodes brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a key molecule in neuronal development, learning and memory. A single BDNF protein is produced from several splice variants having a different 5' untranslated region. These mRNA variants have a different subcellular localization (soma, proximal or distal dendritic compartment) and may represent a spatial code for a local control of BDNF availability. This review will highlight current knowledge on the mechanisms of spatial and temporal regulation of activity-dependent BDNF mRNA localization in dendrites in relation with synaptic plasticity.

  10. Enriched environment influences brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in rat forebrain after focal stroke.

    PubMed

    Zhao, L R; Risedal, A; Wojcik, A; Hejzlar, J; Johansson, B B; Kokaia, Z

    2001-06-15

    Tissue levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein were studied using enzyme immunoassay in different forebrain regions in the ipsi- and contralateral hemispheres of rats housed under enriched or standard conditions after the middle cerebral artery ligation. BDNF levels in the ipsilateral to ligation side was significantly higher only in the frontal cortex of standard as compared to enriched rats. However, BDNF overall was more abundant in standard than in enriched group. In addition, BDNF levels detected in the hippocampus and frontal cortex on the ischemic side of standard rats was higher as compared to contralateral side. The present study shows that housing conditions after permanent middle cerebral artery ligation leads to differential regulation of BDNF protein levels in forebrain regions which might have important implication for post-ischemic recovery.

  11. Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor, Depression, and Physical Activity: Making the Neuroplastic Connection.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Cristy

    2017-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin that is vital to the survival, growth, and maintenance of neurons in key brain circuits involved in emotional and cognitive function. Convergent evidence indicates that neuroplastic mechanisms involving BDNF are deleteriously altered in major depressive disorder (MDD) and animal models of stress. Herein, clinical and preclinical evidence provided that stress-induced depressive pathology contributes to altered BDNF level and function in persons with MDD and, thereby, disruptions in neuroplasticity at the regional and circuit level. Conversely, effective therapeutics that mitigate depressive-related symptoms (e.g., antidepressants and physical activity) optimize BDNF in key brain regions, promote neuronal health and recovery of function in MDD-related circuits, and enhance pharmacotherapeutic response. A greater knowledge of the interrelationship between BDNF, depression, therapeutic mechanisms of action, and neuroplasticity is important as it necessarily precedes the derivation and deployment of more efficacious treatments.

  12. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) overexpression in the forebrain results in learning and memory impairments.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Carla; Angelucci, Andrea; D'Antoni, Angela; Dobrossy, Mate D; Dunnett, Stephen B; Berardi, Nicoletta; Brambilla, Riccardo

    2009-03-01

    In this study we analyzed the effect on behavior of a chronic exposure to brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), by analysing a mouse line overexpressing BDNF under the alphaCaMKII promoter, which drives the transgene expression exclusively to principal neurons of the forebrain. BDNF transgenic mice and their WT littermates were examined with a battery of behavioral tests, in order to evaluate motor coordination, learning, short and long-term memory formation. Our results demonstrate that chronic BDNF overexpression in the central nervous system (CNS) causes learning deficits and short-term memory impairments, both in spatial and instrumental learning tasks. This observation suggests that a widespread increase in BDNF in forebrain networks may result in adverse effects on learning and memory formation.

  13. The brain derived neurotrophic factor and influences of stress in depression.

    PubMed

    Kimpton, Jessica

    2012-09-01

    Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of the neurotrophin family and is widely expressed throughout the central nervous system (CNS). BDNF is involved in proliferation, differentiation, survival and death of neuronal and non-neuronal cells in the developing and adult CNS. The BDNF hypothesis of depression postulates that a reduction in BDNF is directly involved in the pathophysiology of depression, whilst anti-depressant mediated restoration of BDNF is responsible for the alleviation of the depressive state. This hypothesis is drawn from several studies implicating BDNF in depression and has received considerable support, which will be reviewed in this paper. This review will also discuss the implications of the functional Val66Met polymorphism of the gene encoding BDNF, which may reduce BDNF expression particularly when exposed to stress and thus may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of depression.

  14. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor in mood disorders and antidepressant treatments.

    PubMed

    Castrén, Eero; Kojima, Masami

    2017-01-01

    Levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are reduced in the brain and serum of depressed patients and at least the reduction in serum levels is reversible upon successful treatment. These data, together with a wealth of reports using different animal models with depression-like behavior or manipulation of expression of BDNF or its receptor TrkB have implicated BDNF in the pathophysiology of depression as well as in the mechanism of action of antidepressant treatments. Recent findings have shown that posttranslational processing of BDNF gene product can yield different molecular entities that differently influence signaling through BNDF receptor TrkB and the pan-neurotrophin receptor p75(NTR). We will here review these data and discuss new insights into the possible pathophysiological roles of those new BDNF subtypes as well as recent findings on the role of BDNF mediated neuronal plasticity in mood disorders and their treatments.

  15. Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor and the Development of Structural Neuronal Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Cohen-Cory, Susana; Kidane, Adhanet H.; Shirkey, Nicole J.; Marshak, Sonya

    2010-01-01

    During development, neural networks are established in a highly organized manner which persists throughout life. Neurotrophins play crucial roles in the developing nervous system. Among the neurotrophins, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is highly conserved in gene structure and function during vertebrate evolution, and serves an important role during brain development and in synaptic plasticity. BDNF participates in the formation of appropriate synaptic connections in the brain, and disruptions in this process contribute to disorders of cognitive function. In this review, we first briefly highlight current knowledge on the expression, regulation, and secretion of BDNF. Further, we provide an overview of the possible actions of BDNF in the development of neural circuits, with an emphasis on presynaptic actions of BDNF during the structural development of central neurons. PMID:20186709

  16. Rapid and Sensitive Detection of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor with a Plasmonic Chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tawa, Keiko; Satoh, Mari; Uegaki, Koichi; Hara, Tomoko; Kojima, Masami; Kumanogoh, Haruko; Aota, Hiroyuki; Yokota, Yoshiki; Nakaoki, Takahiko; Umetsu, Mitsuo; Nakazawa, Hikaru; Kumagai, Izumi

    2013-06-01

    Plasmonic chips, which are grating replicas coated with thin metal layers and overlayers such as ZnO, were applied in immunosensors to improve their detection sensitivity. Fluorescence from labeled antibodies bound to plasmonic chips can be enhanced on the basis of a grating-coupled surface plasmon resonance (GC-SPR) field. In this study, as one of the representative candidate protein markers for brain disorders, the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was quantitatively measured by sandwich assay on a plasmonic chip and detected on our plasmonic chip in the concentration of 5-7 ng/mL within 40 min. Furthermore, BDNF was detected in the blood sera from three types of mice: wild-type mice and two types of mutant mice. This technique is promising as a new clinical diagnosis tool for brain disorders based on scientific evidence such as blood test results.

  17. Brain derived neurotrophic factor release from layer-by-layer coated agarose nerve guidance scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Lynam, Daniel A; Shahriari, Dena; Wolf, Kayla J; Angart, Phillip A; Koffler, Jacob; Tuszynski, Mark H; Chan, Christina; Walton, Patrick; Sakamoto, Jeffrey

    2015-05-01

    Agarose nerve guidance scaffolds (NGS) seeded with cells expressing brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) have demonstrated robust nerve regeneration in the rat central nervous system. The purpose of this work was to explore whether agarose NGS coated with hydrogen-bonded layer-by-layer (HLbL) could provide an acellular method of delivering prolonged and consistent dosages of active BDNF. Our results show that HLbL-coated agarose NGS could release BDNF over 10days in consistent dosages averaging 80.5±12.5(SD)ng/mL. Moreover, the BDNF released from HLbL was confirmed active by in vitro cell proliferation assays. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating that HLbL assembled onto a hydrogel can provide consistent, prolonged release of active BDNF in clinically relevant dosages.

  18. [BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR (BDNF): NEUROBIOLOGY AND MARKER VALUE IN NEUROPSYCHIATRY].

    PubMed

    Levada, O A; Cherednichenko, N V

    2015-01-01

    In this review current publications about neurobiology and marker value of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in neuropsychiatry are analyzed. It is shown that BDNF is an important member of the family of neurotrophins which widely represented in various structures of the CNS. In prenatal period BDNF is involved in all stages of neuronal networks formation, and in the postnatal period its main role is maintaining the normal brain architectonics, involvement in the processes of neurogenesis and realization of neuroprotective functions. BDNF plays an important role in learning and memory organization, food and motor behavior. BDNF brain expression decreases with age, as well as in degenerative and vascular dementias, affective, anxiety, and behavioral disorders. The reducing of BDNF serum, level reflects the decreasing of its cerebral expression and could be used as a neurobiological marker of these pathological processes but the rising of its concentration could indicate the therapy effectiveness.

  19. Aerobic Exercise Does Not Predict Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor And Cortisol Alterations in Depressed Patients.

    PubMed

    Lamego, Murilo Khede; de Souza Moura, Antonio Marcos; Paes, Flávia; Ferreira Rocha, Nuno Barbosa; de Sá Filho, Alberto Souza; Lattari, Eduardo; Rimes, Ridson; Manochio, João; Budde, Henning; Wegner, Mirko; Mura, Gioia; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Yuan, Ti-Fei; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Machado, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    The pathophysiology of depression is related to neurobiological changes that occur in the monoamine system, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, neurogenesis system and the neuroimmune system. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the research of the effects of exercise on brain function, with a special focus on its effects on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), cortisol and other biomarkers. Thus, the aim of this study is to present a review investigating the acute and chronic effects of aerobic exercise on BDNF and cortisol levels in individuals with depression. It was not possible to establish an interaction between aerobic exercise and concentration of BDNF and cortisol, which may actually be the result of the divergence of methods, such as type of exercises, duration of the sessions, and prescribed intensity and frequency of sessions.

  20. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and exercise in fibromyalgia syndrome patients: a mini review.

    PubMed

    Nugraha, Boya; Karst, Matthias; Engeli, Stefan; Gutenbrunner, Christoph

    2012-09-01

    Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a common chronic pain condition characterized by chronic widespread pain and decreased pain threshold, with hyperalgesia and allodynia. Associated signs include fatigue, morning stiffness, non-restorative sleep, mood disturbance, depression, irritable bowel syndrome, and headache. In addition to the administration of drugs, psychological therapies treatment of FMS mainly consists of physical therapies. Although the precise pathogenesis of FMS remains elucidated, modern understanding conceptualizes FMS as central sensitization as a consequence of altered endogenous pain- and stress-response system and continuous nociceptive input. Altered brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in FMS suggest that BDNF--well known for its effects on neuronal plasticity--is involved in this sensitization process. Exercise leads to changes in serum BDNF levels, too. This association highlights the importance of exercise in FMS and other chronic pain conditions.

  1. Effect of selegiline on neural stem cells differentiation: a possible role for neurotrophic factors

    PubMed Central

    Hassanzadeh, Kambiz; Nikzaban, Mehrnoush; Moloudi, Mohammad Raman; Izadpanah, Esmael

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): The stimulation of neural stem cells (NSCs) differentiation into neurons has attracted great attention in management of neurodegenerative disease and traumatic brain injury. It has been reported that selegiline could enhance the morphologic differentiation of embryonic stem cells. Therefore this study aimed to investigate the effects of selegiline on NSCs differentiation with focus on the role of neurotrophic factor gene expression. Materials and Methods: The NSCs were isolated from lateral ventricle of C57 mice brain. The cells were exposed to selegiline in nano to micromolar concentrations for 24 hr or 72 hr. In order to assay the effect of selegiline on NSCs differentiation into neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, immunocytochemical techniques were utilized. Samples were exposed to specific antibodies against neurons (β tubulin), astrocytes (GFAP) and oligodendrocytes (OSP). The expression of BDNF, NGF and NT3 genes was investigated using Real-Time PCR. Results: Our findings revealed that selegiline increased NSCs differentiation into neurons at 10-7 and 10-8 M and decreased the differentiation into astrocytes at 10-9, while oligodendrocyte did not significantly change in any of the used concentrations. In addition data analyses showed that selegiline increased BDNF, NGF and NT3 gene expression at 24 hr, but did not change them in the other time of exposure (72 hr) except 10-7 M concentration of selegiline, which increased NT3 expression. Conclusion: Our results indicate selegiline induced the differentiation of NSCs into neurons and in this context the role of neurotrophic factors is important and should be considered. PMID:26221478

  2. The trophic effect of ciliary neurotrophic factor on injured masseter muscle in rat

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yujun; Wang, Xiaohui; Zhang, Mengmeng; Lin, Xuefen; Wu, Qingting; Yang, Yingying; Kong, Jingjing; Ji, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Occlusal trauma is one of the most common forms of oral biting dysfunction. Long-term occlusal trauma could weaken the stomatognathic system; especially damage one’s masticatory muscle. Through using the rat model, this study investigated the trophic effect of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) on injured masseter muscle. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats (n=36) were randomly divided into five experimental groups and one control group (6 rats per group). Animals in the experimental group were cemented modified crowns on their mandibular first molars to artificially induce occlusal trauma in 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28 days. Control group was sham-treated with forced mouth-opening for about 5 min, while no crowns were placed. After 28 days of treatment, all rats were euthanized and their masseter muscle was collected. Through immunofluorescence and real-time quantitative PCR, the expression of desmin, CNTF, and CNTFRα was investigated in rat masseter muscle. The microstructure of masseter muscle was observed by transmission electron microscope. Results: The expression of desmin showed a time-dependent decrease on traumatic and non-traumatic sides masseter, until reached the nadir at the 14th day, then restored to its normal level at the 28th day; however, the expression of CNTF and CNTFRα on the traumatic and non-traumatic sides increased from day 7, reached the peak at the 14th day, and returned to normal level on the 28th day. Conclusion: CNTF, as an important neurotrophic factor, was tightly associated to the restoring of rat injured masseter muscle, which provides new target and treatment method for clinical application. PMID:26526387

  3. Reduced serum concentrations of nerve growth factor, but not brain-derived neurotrophic factor, in chronic cannabis abusers.

    PubMed

    Angelucci, Francesco; Ricci, Valerio; Spalletta, Gianfranco; Pomponi, Massimiliano; Tonioni, Federico; Caltagirone, Carlo; Bria, Pietro

    2008-12-01

    Chronic cannabis use produces effects within the central nervous system (CNS) which include deficits in learning and attention tasks and decreased brain volume. Neurotrophins, in particular nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), are proteins that serve as survival factors for CNS neurons. Deficits in the production and utilization of these proteins can lead to CNS dysfunctions including those associated with cannabis abuse. In this study we measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) the NGF and BDNF serum levels in two groups of subjects: cannabis-dependent patients and healthy subjects. We found that NGF serum levels were significantly reduced in cannabis abusers as compared to healthy subjects. These findings indicate that NGF may have a role in the central action of cannabis and potentially in the neurotoxicity induced by this drug. These data also suggest that chronic cannabis consumption may be a risk factor for developing psychosis among drug users.

  4. Effect of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Haploinsufficiency on Stress-Induced Remodeling of Hippocampal Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Magariños, A.M.; Li, C.J.; Toth, J. Gal; Bath, K.G.; Jing, D.; Lee, F.S.; McEwen, B.S.

    2010-01-01

    Chronic restraint stress (CRS) induces the remodeling (i.e., retraction and simplification) of the apical dendrites of hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons in rats, suggesting that intrahippocampal connectivity can be affected by a prolonged stressful challenge. Since the structural maintenance of neuronal dendritic arborizations and synaptic connectivity requires neurotrophic support, we investigated the potential role of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a neurotrophin enriched in the hippocampus and released from neurons in an activity-dependent manner, as a mediator of the stress-induced dendritic remodeling. The analysis of Golgi-impregnated hippocampal sections revealed that wild type (WT) C57BL/6 male mice showed a similar CA3 apical dendritic remodeling in response to three weeks of CRS to that previously described for rats. Haploinsufficient BDNF mice (BDNF±) did not show such remodeling, but, even without CRS, they presented shorter and simplified CA3 apical dendritic arbors, like those observed in stressed WT mice. Furthermore, unstressed BDNF± mice showed a significant decrease in total hippocampal volume. The dendritic arborization of CA1 pyramidal neurons was not affected by CRS or genotype. However, only in WT mice, CRS induced changes in the density of dendritic spine shape subtypes in both CA1 and CA3 apical dendrites. These results suggest a complex role of BDNF in maintaining the dendritic and spine morphology of hippocampal neurons and the associated volume of the hippocampal formation. The inability of CRS to modify the dendritic structure of CA3 pyramidal neurons in BDNF± mice suggests an indirect, perhaps permissive, role of BDNF in mediating hippocampal dendritic remodeling. PMID:20095008

  5. Effect of brain-derived neurotrophic factor haploinsufficiency on stress-induced remodeling of hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Magariños, A M; Li, C J; Gal Toth, J; Bath, K G; Jing, D; Lee, F S; McEwen, B S

    2011-03-01

    Chronic restraint stress (CRS) induces the remodeling (i.e., retraction and simplification) of the apical dendrites of hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons in rats, suggesting that intrahippocampal connectivity can be affected by a prolonged stressful challenge. Since the structural maintenance of neuronal dendritic arborizations and synaptic connectivity requires neurotrophic support, we investigated the potential role of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a neurotrophin enriched in the hippocampus and released from neurons in an activity-dependent manner, as a mediator of the stress-induced dendritic remodeling. The analysis of Golgi-impregnated hippocampal sections revealed that wild type (WT) C57BL/6 male mice showed a similar CA3 apical dendritic remodeling in response to three weeks of CRS to that previously described for rats. Haploinsufficient BDNF mice (BDNF(±) ) did not show such remodeling, but, even without CRS, they presented shorter and simplified CA3 apical dendritic arbors, like those observed in stressed WT mice. Furthermore, unstressed BDNF(±) mice showed a significant decrease in total hippocampal volume. The dendritic arborization of CA1 pyramidal neurons was not affected by CRS or genotype. However, only in WT mice, CRS induced changes in the density of dendritic spine shape subtypes in both CA1 and CA3 apical dendrites. These results suggest a complex role of BDNF in maintaining the dendritic and spine morphology of hippocampal neurons and the associated volume of the hippocampal formation. The inability of CRS to modify the dendritic structure of CA3 pyramidal neurons in BDNF(±) mice suggests an indirect, perhaps permissive, role of BDNF in mediating hippocampal dendritic remodeling.

  6. Hippocampal epigenetic modification at the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene induced by an enriched environment.

    PubMed

    Kuzumaki, Naoko; Ikegami, Daigo; Tamura, Rie; Hareyama, Nana; Imai, Satoshi; Narita, Michiko; Torigoe, Kazuhiro; Niikura, Keiichi; Takeshima, Hideyuki; Ando, Takayuki; Igarashi, Katsuhide; Kanno, Jun; Ushijima, Toshikazu; Suzuki, Tsutomu; Narita, Minoru

    2011-02-01

    Environmental enrichment is an experimental paradigm that increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene expression accompanied by neurogenesis in the hippocampus of rodents. In the present study, we investigated whether an enriched environment could cause epigenetic modification at the BDNF gene in the hippocampus of mice. Exposure to an enriched environment for 3-4 weeks caused a dramatic increase in the mRNA expression of BDNF, but not platelet-derived growth factor A (PDGF-A), PDGF-B, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), nerve growth factor (NGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), or glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), in the hippocampus of mice. Under these conditions, exposure to an enriched environment induced a significant increase in histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) trimethylation at the BDNF P3 and P6 promoters, in contrast to significant decreases in histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) trimethylation at the BDNF P4 promoter and histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27) trimethylation at the BDNF P3 and P4 promoters without any changes in the expression of their associated histone methylases and demethylases in the hippocampus. The expression levels of several microRNAs in the hippocampus were not changed by an enriched environment. These results suggest that an enriched environment increases BDNF mRNA expression via sustained epigenetic modification in the mouse hippocampus. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Effects of brain-derived neurotrophic factor on local inflammation in experimental stroke of rat.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yongjun; Wei, Ning; Zhu, Juehua; Lu, Tingting; Chen, Zhaoyao; Xu, Gelin; Liu, Xinfeng

    2010-01-01

    This study was aimed to investigate whether brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) can modulate local cerebral inflammation in ischemic stroke. Rats were subjected to ischemia by occluding the right middle cerebral artery (MCAO) for 2 hours. Rats were randomized as control, BDNF, and antibody groups. The local inflammation was evaluated on cellular, cytokine, and transcription factor levels with immunofluorescence, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, real-time qPCR, and electrophoretic mobility shift assay, respectively. Exogenous BDNF significantly improved motor-sensory, sensorimotor function, and vestibulomotor function, while BDNF did not decrease the infarct volume. Exogenous BDNF increased the number of both activated and phagocytotic microglia in brain. BDNF upregulated interleukin10 and its mRNA expression, while downregulated tumor necrosis factor α and its mRNA expression. BDNF also increased DNA-binding activity of nuclear factor-kappa B. BDNF antibody, which blocked the activity of endogenous BDNF, showed the opposite effect of exogenous BDNF. Our data indicated that BDNF may modulate local inflammation in ischemic brain tissues on the cellular, cytokine, and transcription factor levels.

  8. Neurotrophic factors for spinal cord repair: Which, where, how and when to apply, and for what period of time?

    PubMed

    Harvey, Alan R; Lovett, Sarah J; Majda, Bernadette T; Yoon, Jun H; Wheeler, Lachlan P G; Hodgetts, Stuart I

    2015-09-04

    A variety of neurotrophic factors have been used in attempts to improve morphological and behavioural outcomes after experimental spinal cord injury (SCI). Here we review many of these factors, their cellular targets, and their therapeutic impact on spinal cord repair in different, primarily rodent, models of SCI. A majority of studies report favourable outcomes but results are by no means consistent, thus a major aim of this review is to consider how best to apply neurotrophic factors after SCI to optimize their therapeutic potential. In addition to which factors are chosen, many variables need be considered when delivering trophic support, including where and when to apply a given factor or factors, how such factors are administered, at what dose, and for how long. Overall, the majority of studies have applied neurotrophic support in or close to the spinal cord lesion site, in the acute or sub-acute phase (0-14 days post-injury). Far fewer chronic SCI studies have been undertaken. In addition, comparatively fewer studies have administered neurotrophic factors directly to the cell bodies of injured neurons; yet in other instructive rodent models of CNS injury, for example optic nerve crush or transection, therapies are targeted directly at the injured neurons themselves, the retinal ganglion cells. The mode of delivery of neurotrophic factors is also an important variable, whether delivered by acute injection of recombinant proteins, sub-acute or chronic delivery using osmotic minipumps, cell-mediated delivery, delivery using polymer release vehicles or supporting bridges of some sort, or the use of gene therapy to modify neurons, glial cells or precursor/stem cells. Neurotrophic factors are often used in combination with cell or tissue grafts and/or other pharmacotherapeutic agents. Finally, the dose and time-course of delivery of trophic support should ideally be tailored to suit specific biological requirements, whether they relate to neuronal survival, axonal

  9. Ovarian brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) promotes the development of oocytes into preimplantation embryos

    PubMed Central

    Kawamura, Kazuhiro; Kawamura, Nanami; Mulders, Sabine M.; Gelpke, Maarten D. Sollewijn; Hsueh, Aaron J. W.

    2005-01-01

    Optimal development of fertilized eggs into preimplantation embryos is essential for reproduction. Although mammalian oocytes ovulated after luteinizing hormone (LH) stimulation can be fertilized and promoted into early embryos in vitro, little is known about ovarian factors important for the conditioning of eggs for early embryo development. Because LH interacts only with ovarian somatic cells, its potential regulation of oocyte functions is presumably mediated by local paracrine factors. We performed DNA microarray analyses of ovarian transcripts and identified brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) secreted by granulosa and cumulus cells as an ovarian factor stimulated by the preovulatory LH surge. Ovarian BDNF acts on TrkB receptors expressed exclusively in oocytes to enhance first polar body extrusion of oocytes and to promote the in vitro development of zygotes into preimplantation embryos. Furthermore, in vivo treatment with a Trk receptor inhibitor suppressed first polar body extrusion and the progression of zygotes into blastocysts. Thus, ovarian BDNF is important to nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation of the oocyte, which is essential for successful oocyte development into preimplantation embryos. Treatment with BDNF could condition the cultured oocytes for optimal progression into the totipotent blastocysts. PMID:15967989

  10. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor, nerve growth factor, neurotrophin-3, and induced nitric oxide synthase expressions after low-level laser therapy in an axonotmesis experimental model.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Lessandra Esper Abdala; Dalmarco, Eduardo Monguilhott; André, Edison Sanfelice

    2012-11-01

    A robust body of evidence has shown that low-level laser therapy (LLLT) improves peripheral nerve regeneration. However, the biochemical background triggered in this process is not yet fully understood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mRNA expression of neurotrophic factors (brain-derived neurotrophic factor [BDNF], nerve growth factor [NGF], and neurotrophin-3, [NT-3]) and also an inflammatory marker (induced nitric oxide synthase [iNOS]) in an axonotmesis experimental model after low-level laser therapy. Thirty-six adult male Wistar rats (250-350 g) were subjected to right sciatic nerve crush injury, and 24 h later, the animals in the three different experimental groups (n=18) were irradiated on a daily basis with helium-neon laser (collimated HeNe laser, continuous emission, wavelength: 632.8 nm, power density: 0.5 mW/cm(2), irradiation time: 20 sec, energy density: 10 J/cm(2)) during 7, 14, and 21 consecutive days, respectively. The control group (n=18) underwent the same procedures, but with the equipment turned off. At the end of the experiments, animals were killed with an overdose of anesthesia to remove samples from the sciatic nerve lesion epicenter to determine the mRNA expression of BDNF, NGF, NT-3 and iNOS enzyme. Comparisons between groups showed that HeNe laser increased the mRNA expression of both BDNF and NGF factors after 14 days of LLLT, with peak expression at the 21st day. Increase in NT-3 mRNA expression was not observed. In addition, HeNe laser produced iNOS expression reduction, which played an important role in the inflammatory process. The reported data could have a relevant practical value because LLLT is a noninvasive procedure, and have revealed significant increase in neurotrophic factor expressions and inflammatory process reduction, opening the possibility of using LLLT as an important aid to nerve regeneration process.

  11. Growth and turning properties of adult glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor coreceptor α1 nonpeptidergic sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Guo, GuiFang; Singh, Vandana; Zochodne, Douglas W

    2014-09-01

    An overlapping population of adult primary sensory neurons that innervate the skin express the glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor coreceptor α1 (GFRα1), the lectin IB4, and the "regenerative brake" phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10. Using an adapted turning and growth assay, we analyzed the growth cone behavior of adult immunoselected GFRα1 sensory neurons. These neurons had less robust baseline growth and reluctant responsiveness to individual growth factors but responded to synergistic types of input from glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor, hepatocyte growth factor, a phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 inhibitor, or a downstream Rho kinase inhibitor. Hepatocyte growth factor and the phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 inhibitor were associated with growth cone turning. A gradient of protein extracted from skin samples, a primary target of GFRα1 axons, replicated the impact of synergistic support. Within the skin, glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor was expressed within epidermal axons, indicating an autocrine role accompanying local hepatocyte growth factor synthesis. Taken together, our findings identify unique growth properties and plasticity of a distinct population of epidermal axons that are relevant to neurologic repair and skin reinnervation.

  12. Ciliary neurotrophic factor-treated astrocyte-conditioned medium increases the intracellular free calcium concentration in rat cortical neurons

    PubMed Central

    SUN, MEIQUN; LIU, HONGLI; MIN, SHENGPING; WANG, HONGTAO; WANG, XIAOJING

    2016-01-01

    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is involved in the activation of astrocytes. A previous study showed that CNTF-treated astrocyte-conditioned medium (CNTF-ACM) contributed to the increase of the calcium current and the elevation of corresponding ion channels in cortical neurons. On this basis, it is reasonable to assume that CNTF-ACM may increase the intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) in neurons. In the present study, the effects of CNTF-ACM on [Ca2+]i in rat cortical neurons were determined, and on this basis, the aim was to investigate the potential active ingredients in ACM that are responsible for this biological process. As expected, the data indicated that CNTF-ACM resulted in a clear elevation of [Ca2+]i in neurons. Additionally, the fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) contained in the CNTF-ACM was found to participate in the upregulation of [Ca2+]i. Taken together, CNTF induces the production of active factors (at least including FGF-2) released from astrocytes, which finally potentiate the increase of [Ca2+]i in cortical neurons. PMID:27073624

  13. Edaravone enhances brain-derived neurotrophic factor production in the ischemic mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Okuyama, Satoshi; Morita, Mayu; Sawamoto, Atsushi; Terugo, Tsukasa; Nakajima, Mitsunari; Furukawa, Yoshiko

    2015-04-02

    Edaravone, a clinical drug used to treat strokes, protects against neuronal cell death and memory loss in the ischemic brains of animal models through its antioxidant activity. In the present study, we subcutaneously administrated edaravone to mice (3 mg/kg/day) for three days immediately after bilateral common carotid artery occlusion, and revealed through an immunohistochemical analysis that edaravone (1) accelerated increases in the production of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus; (2) increased the number of doublecortin-positive neuronal precursor cells in the dentate gyrus subgranular zone; and (3) suppressed the ischemia-induced inactivation of calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in the hippocampus. We also revealed through a Western blotting analysis that edaravone (4) induced the phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding (CREB), a transcription factor that regulates BDNF gene expression; and (5) induced the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2, an upstream signal factor of CREB. These results suggest that the neuroprotective effects of edaravone following brain ischemia were mediated not only by the elimination of oxidative stress, but also by the induction of BDNF production.

  14. Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Val66Met and Blood Glucose: A Synergistic Effect on Memory

    PubMed Central

    Raz, Naftali; Dahle, Cheryl L.; Rodrigue, Karen M.; Kennedy, Kristen M.; Land, Susan J.; Jacobs, Bradley S.

    2008-01-01

    Age-related declines in episodic memory performance are frequently reported, but their mechanisms remain poorly understood. Although several genetic variants and vascular risk factors have been linked to mnemonic performance in general and age differences therein, it is unknown whether and how they modify age-related memory declines. To address that question, we investigated the effect of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism that affects secretion of BDNF, and fasting blood glucose level (a vascular risk factor) on episodic memory in a sample of healthy volunteers (age 19–77). We found that advanced age and high-normal blood glucose levels were associated with reduced recognition memory for name-face associations and poorer prose recall. However, elevated blood glucose predicted lower memory scores only in carriers of the BDNF 66Met allele. The effect on associative memory was stronger than on free recall. These findings indicate that even low-level vascular risk can produce negative cognitive effects in genetically susceptible individuals. Alleviation of treatable vascular risks in such persons may have a positive effect on age-related cognitive declines. PMID:18958212

  15. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor as a drug target for CNS disorders.

    PubMed

    Pezet, Sophie; Malcangio, Marzia

    2004-10-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) belongs to the neurotrophin family of trophic factors. BDNF is widely and abundantly expressed in the CNS and is available to some peripheral nervous system neurons that uptake the neurotrophin produced by peripheral tissues. BDNF promotes survival and differentiation of certain neuronal populations during development. In adulthood, BDNF can modulate neuronal synaptic strength and has been implicated in hippocampal mechanisms of learning and memory and spinal mechanisms for pain. Several CNS disorders are associated with a decrease in trophic support. As BDNF and its high affinity receptor are abundant throughout the whole CNS, and BDNF is a potent neuroprotective agent, this trophic factor is a good candidate for therapeutic treatment of some of CNS disorders. This review aims to correlate the features of some CNS disorders (Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, depression, epilepsy and chronic pain) to changes in BDNF expression in the brain. The cellular and molecular mechanism by which BDNF might be a therapeutic strategy are critically examined.

  16. Quantitative analysis of cerebrospinal fluid brain derived neurotrophic factor in the patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Mashayekhi, Farhad; Salehi, Zivar; Jamalzadeh, Hamid Reza

    2012-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common cause ofnontraumatic neurological disability in Europe and North America. Growth factor expression could participate in the repair process of the demyelinating disease. Among growth factors, brain derived neurotrophic factors (BDNF) has been demonstrated to play an important role in neuronal and axonal survival. In the central nervous system (CNS), neurons are the main source of BDNF. Another potential source are activated astrocytes, which are present in inflamed areas in the CNS as shown in MS. In this study, total protein concentration (TPC) and BDNF levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from the patients with MS (n = 48) and control subjects (n = 53) were measured using a Bio-Rad protein assay and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). No significant change in the CSF TPC of patients with MS was seen as compared to normal CSF. The presence of BDNF in the CSF samples was shown by Western blot. Using ELISA, it was shown that the level of BDNF in the MS CSF is higher than in normal CSF. It is concluded that BDNF is a constant component of human CSF. Moreover, it could be implicated in the pathophysiology of MS.

  17. Adjuvant neurotrophic factors in peripheral nerve repair with chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan-reduced acellular nerve allografts

    PubMed Central

    Boyer, Richard B.; Sexton, Kevin W.; Rodriguez-Feo, Charles L.; Nookala, Ratnam; Pollins, Alonda C.; Cardwell, Nancy L.; Tisdale, Keonna Y.; Nanney, Lillian B.; Shack, R. Bruce; Thayer, Wesley P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Acellular nerve allografts are now standard tools in peripheral nerve repair due to decreased donor site morbidity and operative time savings. Preparation of nerve allografts involves several steps of decellularization and modification of extracellular matrix to remove chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), which have been shown to inhibit neurite outgrowth through a poorly understood mechanism involving RhoA and ECM-integrin interactions. Chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) is an enzyme that degrades CSPG molecules and has been shown to promote neurite outgrowth following injury of the central and peripheral nervous systems. Variable results following chondroitinase ABC treatment make it difficult to predict the effects of this drug in human nerve allografts, especially in the presence of native extracellular signaling molecules. Several studies have shown cross-talk between neurotrophic factor and CSPG signaling pathways, but their interaction remains poorly understood. In this study, we examined the adjuvant effects of nerve growth factor (NGF) and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) on neurite outgrowth post-injury in CSPG-reduced substrates and acellular nerve allografts. Materials and Methods E12 chicken DRG explants were cultured in medium containing ChABC, ChABC + NGF, ChABC + GDNF or control media. Explants were imaged at 3 d and neurite outgrowths measured. The rat sciatic nerve injury model involved a 1-cm sciatic nerve gap that was microsurgically repaired with ChABC pre-treated acellular nerve allografts. Prior to implantation, nerve allografts were incubated in NGF, GDNF or sterile water. Nerve histology was evaluated at 5d and 8wk post-injury. Results The addition of GDNF in vitro produced significant increase in sensory neurite length at 3 d compared to ChABC alone (P < 0.01), while NGF was not significantly different from control. In vivo adjuvant NGF produced increases in total myelinated axon count (P < 0.005) and motor axon

  18. A Single Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Infusion into the Dorsomedial Prefrontal Cortex Attenuates Cocaine Self-Administration-Induced Phosphorylation of Synapsin in the Nucleus Accumbens during Early Withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wei-Lun; Eisenstein, Sarah A.; Zelek-Molik, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dysregulation in the prefrontal cortex-nucleus accumbens pathway has been implicated in cocaine addiction. We have previously demonstrated that one intra-dorsomedial prefrontal cortex brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) infusion immediately following the last cocaine self-administration session caused a long-lasting inhibition of cocaine-seeking and normalized the cocaine-induced disturbance of glutamate transmission in the nucleus accumbens after extinction and a cocaine prime. However, the molecular mechanism mediating the brain-derived neurotrophic factor effect on cocaine-induced alterations in extracellular glutamate levels is unknown. Methods: In the present study, we determined the effects of brain-derived neurotrophic factor on cocaine-induced changes in the phosphorylation of synapsin (p-synapsin), a family of presynaptic proteins that mediate synaptic vesicle mobilization, in the nucleus accumbens during early withdrawal. Results: Two hours after cocaine self-administration, p-synapsin Ser9 and p-synapsin Ser62/67, but not p-synapsin Ser603, were increased in the nucleus accumbens. At 22 hours, only p-synapsin Ser9 was still elevated. Elevations at both time points were attenuated by an intra-dorsomedial prefrontal cortex brain-derived neurotrophic factor infusion immediately after the end of cocaine self-administration. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor also reduced cocaine self-administration withdrawal-induced phosphorylation of the protein phosphatase 2A C-subunit, suggesting that brain-derived neurotrophic factor disinhibits protein phosphatase 2A C-subunit, consistent with p-synapsin Ser9 dephosphorylation. Further, co-immunoprecipitation demonstrated that protein phosphatase 2A C-subunit and synapsin are associated in a protein-protein complex that was reduced after 2 hours of withdrawal from cocaine self-administration and reversed by brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Conclusions: Taken together, these findings demonstrate that

  19. A single brain-derived neurotrophic factor infusion into the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex attenuates cocaine self-administration-induced phosphorylation of synapsin in the nucleus accumbens during early withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei-Lun; Eisenstein, Sarah A; Zelek-Molik, Agnieszka; McGinty, Jacqueline F

    2014-12-05

    Dysregulation in the prefrontal cortex-nucleus accumbens pathway has been implicated in cocaine addiction. We have previously demonstrated that one intra-dorsomedial prefrontal cortex brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) infusion immediately following the last cocaine self-administration session caused a long-lasting inhibition of cocaine-seeking and normalized the cocaine-induced disturbance of glutamate transmission in the nucleus accumbens after extinction and a cocaine prime. However, the molecular mechanism mediating the brain-derived neurotrophic factor effect on cocaine-induced alterations in extracellular glutamate levels is unknown. In the present study, we determined the effects of brain-derived neurotrophic factor on cocaine-induced changes in the phosphorylation of synapsin (p-synapsin), a family of presynaptic proteins that mediate synaptic vesicle mobilization, in the nucleus accumbens during early withdrawal. Two hours after cocaine self-administration, p-synapsin Ser9 and p-synapsin Ser62/67, but not p-synapsin Ser603, were increased in the nucleus accumbens. At 22 hours, only p-synapsin Ser9 was still elevated. Elevations at both time points were attenuated by an intra-dorsomedial prefrontal cortex brain-derived neurotrophic factor infusion immediately after the end of cocaine self-administration. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor also reduced cocaine self-administration withdrawal-induced phosphorylation of the protein phosphatase 2A C-subunit, suggesting that brain-derived neurotrophic factor disinhibits protein phosphatase 2A C-subunit, consistent with p-synapsin Ser9 dephosphorylation. Further, co-immunoprecipitation demonstrated that protein phosphatase 2A C-subunit and synapsin are associated in a protein-protein complex that was reduced after 2 hours of withdrawal from cocaine self-administration and reversed by brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that brain-derived neurotrophic factor normalizes

  20. Correlation Between Hedgehog (Hh) Protein Family and Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD).

    PubMed

    Halepoto, Dost Muhammad; Bashir, Shahid; Zeina, Rana; Al-Ayadhi, Laila Y

    2015-12-01

    To determine the correlation of Sonic Hedgehog (SHH), Indian Hedgehog (IHH), and Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). An observational, comparative study. Autism Research and Treatment Center, Al-Amodi Autism Research Chair, Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from October 2011 to May 2012. Serum levels of SHH, IHH and BDNF were determined in recently diagnosed autistic patients and age-matched healthy children (n=25), using the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) was used for the assessment of autistic severity. Spearman correlation co-efficient 'r' was determined. The serum levels of IHH and SHH were significantly higher in autistic subjects than those of control subjects. There was significant correlation between age and IHH (r = 0.176, p = 0.03), BDNF and severe IHH (r = 0.1763, p = 0.003), and severe BDNF and severe SHH (r = 0.143, p < 0.001). However, there were no significant relationships among the serum levels of SHH, IHH and BDNF and the CARS score, age or gender. The findings support a correlation between SHH, IHH and BDNF in autistic children, suggesting their pathological role in autism.

  1. [Brain-derived neurotrophic factor: from nerve growth factor to modulator of brain plasticity in cognitive processes and psychiatric diseases].

    PubMed

    Laske, C; Eschweiler, G W

    2006-05-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of the neurotrophin family and plays an important role in neuronal survival and plasticity in the CNS. The proform of BDNF (pro-BDNF) is secreted and cleaved extracellularly by the serine protease plasmin to mature BDNF, which potentiates synaptic plasticity and long-term potentiation. Recent findings in animal models suggest an involvement of BDNF and its genetic functional single nucleotide polymorphism in the pathogenesis of different psychiatric diseases including depression, mania, schizophrenia, eating disorders, dementia, and Huntington's disease. In the brain and serum, BDNF is modulated by different factors. It is downregulated by stress and upregulated by learning processes, several antidepressive treatments, physical activity, and dietary restriction. Measurement of BDNF serum concentrations may be of diagnostic value. Additionally, the influence of different strategies for BDNF allocation seems to be relevant for the treatment and prevention of the above psychiatric disorders.

  2. Serum Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor and the Risk for Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, Galit; Beiser, Alexa S.; Choi, Seung Hoan; Preis, Sarah R.; Chen, Tai C.; Vorgas, Demetrios; Au, Rhoda; Pikula, Aleksandra; Wolf, Philip A.; DeStefano, Anita L.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Seshadri, Sudha

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE In animal studies, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been shown to impact neuronal survival and function and improve synaptic plasticity and long-term memory. Circulating BDNF levels increase with physical activity and caloric restriction, thus BDNF may mediate some of the observed associations between lifestyle and the risk for dementia. Some prior studies showed lower circulating BDNF in persons with Alzheimer disease (AD) compared with control participants; however, it remains uncertain whether reduced levels precede dementia onset. OBJECTIVE To examine whether higher serum BDNF levels in cognitively healthy adults protect against the future risk for dementia and AD and to identify potential modifiers of this association. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Framingham Study original and offspring participants were followed up from 1992 and 1998, respectively, for up to 10 years. We used Cox models to relate BDNF levels to the risk for dementia and AD and adjusted for potential confounders. We also ran sensitivity analyses stratified by sex, age, and education, as well as related BDNF genetic variants to AD risk. This community-based, prospective cohort study involved 2131 dementia-free participants aged 60 years and older (mean [SD] age, 72 [7] years; 56% women). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Ten-year incidence of dementia and AD. RESULTS During follow-up, 140 participants developed dementia, 117 of whom had AD. Controlling for age and sex, each standard-deviation increment in BDNF was associated with a 33% lower risk for dementia and AD (P = .006 and P = .01, respectively) and these associations persisted after additional adjustments. Compared with the bottom quintile, BDNF levels in the top quintile were associated with less than half the risk for dementia and AD (hazard ratio, 0.49; 95%CI, 0.28–0.85; P = .01; and hazard ratio, 0.46; 95%CI, 0.24–0.86; P = .02, respectively). These associations were apparent only among women, persons aged

  3. The Neurotrophic Factor Receptor p75 in the Rat Dorsolateral Striatum Drives Excessive Alcohol Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Darcq, Emmanuel; Morisot, Nadege; Phamluong, Khanhky; Warnault, Vincent; Jeanblanc, Jerome; Longo, Frank M.; Massa, Stephen M.

    2016-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling in the dorsolateral striatum (DLS) keeps alcohol intake in moderation. For example, activation of the BDNF receptor tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) in the DLS reduces intake in rats that consume moderate amounts of alcohol. Here, we tested whether long-term excessive consumption of alcohol produces neuroadaptations in BDNF signaling in the rat DLS. We found that BDNF was no longer able to gate alcohol self-administration after a history of repeated cycles of binge alcohol drinking and withdrawal. We then elucidated the possible neuroadaptations that could block the ability of BDNF to keep consumption of alcohol in moderation. We report that intermittent access to 20% alcohol in a two-bottle choice paradigm that models excessive alcohol drinking produces a mobilization of DLS p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR), whose activities oppose those of the Trk receptors, including TrkB. These neuroadaptations were not observed in the DLS of rats exposed to continuous access to 10% alcohol or in rats consuming sucrose. Furthermore, short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated knockdown of the p75NTR gene in the DLS, as well as intra-DLS infusion or systemic administration of the p75NTR modulator, LM11A-31, significantly reduced binge drinking of alcohol. Together, our results suggest that excessive alcohol consumption produces a change in BDNF signaling in the DLS, which is mediated by the recruitment of p75NTR. Our data also imply that modulators of p75NTR signaling could be developed as medications for alcohol abuse disorders. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Neuroadaptations gate or drive excessive, compulsive alcohol drinking. We previously showed that brain-derived neurotrophic factor and its receptor, TrkB, in the dorsolateral striatum (DLS), are part of an endogenous system that keeps alcohol drinking in moderation. Here, we show that a history of excessive alcohol intake produces neuroadaptations in the DLS that preclude BDNF

  4. Circadian Rhythms in Plasma Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor Differ in Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Cain, Sean W; Chang, Anne-Marie; Vlasac, Irma; Tare, Archana; Anderson, Clare; Czeisler, Charles A; Saxena, Richa

    2017-02-01

    The measurement of circulating levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been proposed to be a marker of disease and an indicator of recovery. Thus, knowing the temporal pattern and influence of potential circadian rhythms is important. Although several studies have measured BDNF at different times of day, no studies have done so while controlling for potential masking influences such as sleep and activity. Further, no previous study has examined circadian rhythms within individuals. We examined circadian rhythms in plasma BDNF while minimizing masking from behavioral and environmental factors using a 30-h constant routine (CR) protocol. In a sample of 39 healthy adults, we found significant circadian rhythms in 75% of women and 52% of men. The timing of the acrophase of the BDNF rhythm, however, was unrelated to clock time in women, while it was related to clock time in men. These results indicate that the use of single-sample measures of plasma BDNF as a marker of disease will be unreliable, especially in women. Repeated plasma BDNF samples over a 24-h period within individuals would be needed to reveal abnormalities related to disease states.

  5. Are the changes in the peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels due to platelet activation?

    PubMed Central

    Serra-Millàs, Montserrat

    2016-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in central nervous system development, neurogenesis and neuronal plasticity. BDNF is also expressed in several non-neuronal tissues, and it could play an important role in other processes, such as cancer, angiogenesis, etc. Platelets are the major source of peripheral BDNF. However, platelets also contain high amounts of serotonin; they express specific surface receptors during activation, and a multitude of pro-inflammatory and immunomodulatory bioactive compounds are secreted from the granules. Until recently, there was insufficient knowledge regarding the relationship between BDNF and platelets. Recent studies showed that BDNF is present in two distinct pools in platelets, in α-granules and in the cytoplasm, and only the BDNF in the granules is secreted following stimulation, representing 30% of the total BDNF in platelets. BDNF has an important role in the pathophysiology of depression. Low levels of serum BDNF have been described in patients with major depressive disorder, and BDNF levels increased with chronic antidepressant treatment. Interestingly, there is an association between depression and platelet function. This review analyzed studies that evaluated the relationship between BDNF and platelet activation and the effect of treatments on both parameters. Only a few studies consider this possible confounding factor, and it could be very important in diseases such as depression, which show changes in both parameters. PMID:27014600

  6. Dipeptide Mimetic of the Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor Prevents Impairments of Neurogenesis in Stressed Mice.

    PubMed

    Gudasheva, T A; Povarnina, P Yu; Seredenin, S B

    2017-02-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays the central role in the mechanisms of regulation of neurogenesis and neuroplasticity. Impairment of these mechanisms is considered as one of the main etiological factors of depression. Dimeric dipeptide mimetic of BDNF loop 4 bis-(N-monosuccinyl-l-seryl-l-lysine) hexamethylenediamide (GSB-106) was synthesized at the V. V. Zakusov Research Institute of Pharmacology. In vivo experiments revealed significant antidepressant properties of GSB-106 in doses of 0.1-10 mg/kg (intraperitoneally and orally). Effects of GSB-106 on hippocampal neurogenesis were studied in mice subjected to chronic predator stress. Proliferative activity in the subgranular zone of the dental gyrus was assessed immunohistochemically by Ki-67 expression (a marker of dividing cells). It was found that GSB-106 (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneally, 5 days) completely prevents neurogenesis disturbances in stressed mice. These findings suggest that GSB-106 is a promising candidate for the development of antidepressant agents with BDNF-like mechanism of action.

  7. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor increase during treatment in severe mental illness inpatients

    PubMed Central

    Nuernberg, G L; Aguiar, B; Bristot, G; Fleck, M P; Rocha, N S

    2016-01-01

    Meta-analytical evidence suggests that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is altered in various psychiatric disorders. However, meta-analyses may be hampered by the heterogeneity of BDNF assays, lack of BDNF standard values and heterogeneity among the populations included in the studies. To address these issues, our study aimed to test, in a ‘true-to-life' setting, the hypothesis that the serum BDNF level is nonspecifically reduced in acute severe mental illness (SMI) patients and increases during inpatient treatment. Consecutive samples of 236 inpatients with SMI and 100 healthy controls were recruited. SMI includes schizophrenia and severe mood disorders, and is characterized in the sample by the presence of at least 2 years of psychiatric treatment and disability. Generalized estimating equations were used to analyze BDNF serum levels at admission and upon discharge controlled by confounding factors. BDNF levels increased significantly between admission and discharge in SMI patients. BDNF levels showed significant reductions compared with controls both at admission and upon discharge. In addition, BDNF levels showed no difference among SMI patient diagnostic subgroups (unipolar depression, bipolar depression, schizophrenia and manic episode). The increase but non-restoration of BDNF levels, even with the general acute improvement of clinical scores, may reflect the progression of the disorder characteristically seen in these patients. BDNF levels could be considered as a marker for the presence of a nonspecific psychiatric disorder and possibly a transdiagnostic and nonspecific marker of disease activity. PMID:27959329

  8. Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels and personality traits in patients with major depression.

    PubMed

    Nomoto, Hiroshi; Baba, Hajime; Satomura, Emi; Maeshima, Hitoshi; Takebayashi, Naoko; Namekawa, Yuki; Suzuki, Toshihito; Arai, Heii

    2015-03-04

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of the neurotrophin family of growth factors. Previous studies have demonstrated lower serum BDNF levels in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and reported an association between BDNF levels and depression-related personality traits in healthy subjects. The aim of the present study was to explore for a possible association between peripheral BDNF levels and personality traits in patients with MDD. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 123 inpatients with MDD (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, 4th edition) at the Juntendo University Koshigaya Hospital were recruited. Serum levels of BDNF were measured. Personality traits were assessed using the 125-item short version of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Multiple regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, dose of antidepressant, and depression severity showed that TCI Self-Directedness (SD) scores were negatively associated with serum BDNF levels (β = -0.23, p = 0.026). MDD patients who have low SD did not show the reduction in serum BDNF levels that is normally associated with depressive state. Our findings suggest that depression-related biological changes may not occur in these individuals.

  9. Novel systems for tailored neurotrophic factor release based on hydrogel and resorbable glass hollow fibers.

    PubMed

    Novajra, G; Tonda-Turo, C; Vitale-Brovarone, C; Ciardelli, G; Geuna, S; Raimondo, S

    2014-03-01

    A novel system for the release of neurotrophic factor into a nerve guidance channel (NGC) based on resorbable phosphate glass hollow fibers (50P2O5-30CaO-9Na2O-3SiO2-3MgO-2.5K2O-2.5TiO2 mol%) in combination with a genipin-crosslinked agar/gelatin hydrogel (A/G_GP) is proposed. No negative effect on the growth of neonatal olfactory bulb ensheathing cell line (NOBEC) as well as on the expression of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins was measured in vitro in the presence of fiber dissolution products in the culture medium. For the release studies, fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran (FD-20), taken as growth factor model molecule, was solubilized in different media and introduced into the fiber lumen exploiting the capillary action. The fibers were filled with i) FD-20/phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution, ii) FD-20/hydrogel solution before gelation and iii) hydrogel before gelation, subsequently lyophilized and then filled with the FD-20/PBS solution. The different strategies used for the loading of the FD-20 into the fibers resulted in different release kinetics. A slower release was observed with the use of A/G_GP hydrogel. At last, poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) nerve guides containing the hollow fibers and the hydrogel have been fabricated.

  10. [Hematopoietic growth factor EPO has neuro-protective and neuro-trophic effects--review].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhuo-Yan; Yang, Mo; Fok, Tai-Fai

    2005-04-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) is an acidic glycoprotein that was first detected as a hematopoietic factor and its synthesis is triggered in response to cellular hypoxia-sensing. EPO binds to type I cytokine receptors, which associate with the non-receptor tyrosine kinase Jak2, and thereby activate Stat 5a/5b, Ras/MAPK, and PI3-K/Akt signaling pathways. The recent discovery shows that there is a specific EPO/EPO-receptor system in the central nervous system (CNS), independently of the haematopoietic system. Hypoxia and anemia can up-regulate EPO/EPOR expressions in the CNS. Further studies demonstrate that EPO has substantial neuro-protective effects and acts as a neurotrophic factor on central cholinergic neurons, influencing their differentiation and regeneration. EPO also exerts neuro-protective activities in different models of brain damage in vivo and in vitro, such as hypoxia, cerebral ischaemia and sub-arachnoid haemorrhage. EPO may also be involved in synaptic plasticity via the inhibition or stimulation of various neurotransmitters. Therefore, human recombinant EPO that activate its receptors in the central nervous system might be utilized in the future clinical practice involving neuroprotection and brain repair.

  11. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor promotes central nervous system myelination via a direct effect upon oligodendrocytes.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Junhua; Wong, Agnes W; Willingham, Melanie M; van den Buuse, Maarten; Kilpatrick, Trevor J; Murray, Simon S

    2010-01-01

    The extracellular factors that are responsible for inducing myelination in the central nervous system (CNS) remain elusive. We investigated whether brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is implicated, by first confirming that BDNF heterozygous mice exhibit delayed CNS myelination during early postnatal development. We next established that the influence of BDNF upon myelination was direct, by acting on oligodendrocytes, using co-cultures of dorsal root ganglia neurons and oligodendrocyte precursor cells. Importantly, we found that BDNF retains its capacity to enhance myelination of neurons or by oligodendrocytes derived from p75NTR knockout mice, indicating the expression of p75NTR is not necessary for BDNF-induced myelination. Conversely, we observed that phosphorylation of TrkB correlated with myelination, and that inhibiting TrkB signalling also inhibited the promyelinating effect of BDNF, suggesting that BDNF enhances CNS myelination via activating oligodendroglial TrkB-FL receptors. Together, our data reveal a previously unknown role for BDNF in potentiating the normal development of CNS myelination, via signalling within oligodendrocytes.

  12. Plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in patients suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Su, Shanshan; Xiao, Zeping; Lin, Zhiguang; Qiu, Yongming; Jin, Yichao; Wang, Zhen

    2015-09-30

    A number of studies have been done to investigate the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In this study we aimed to test the relationship between plasma BDNF levels and PTSD. We solicited 65 subjects having recently experienced road traffic accidents (RTA) conforming to screening criteria. They were given follow-up examinations after one month, three months, and six months. PTSD was diagnosed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-R-TR, American Psychiatric Association, 2000) using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). All participants were divided into two groups: a group with PTSD and a group without PTSD. There were no significant differences in plasma BDNF levels between the two groups at either the 48h or six-month examination. Within the PTSD group, no significant differences were found in plasma BDNF levels between the two examinations. BDNF levels in those without PTSD showed a higher trend over time after trauma. Higher BDNF levels may be an important protective factor for the prevention of traumatized subjects from developing PTSD.

  13. Imipramine induces brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA expression in cultured astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Takano, Katsura; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Kawabe, Kenji; Moriyama, Mitsuaki; Nakamura, Yoichi

    2012-01-01

    Depression is one of the most prevalent and livelihood-threatening forms of mental illnesses and the neural circuitry underlying depression remains incompletely understood. Recent studies suggest that the neuronal plasticity involved with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in the recovery from depression. Some antidepressants are reported to induce BDNF expression in vivo; however, the mechanisms have been considered solely in neurons and not fully elucidated. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of imipramine, a classic tricyclic antidepressant drug, on BDNF expression in cultured rat brain astrocytes. Imipramine dose-dependently increased BDNF mRNA expression in astrocytes. The imipramine-induced BDNF increase was suppressed with inhibitors for protein kinase A (PKA) or MEK/ERK. Moreover, imipramine exposure activated transcription factor cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggested that imipramine induced BDNF expression through CREB activation via PKA and/or ERK pathways. Imipramine treatment in depression might exert antidepressant action through BDNF production from astrocytes, and glial BDNF expression might be a target of developing novel antidepressants.

  14. Val66Met polymorphism of brain-derived neurotrophic factor is associated with idiopathic dystonia.

    PubMed

    Sako, Wataru; Murakami, Nagahisa; Izumi, Yuishin; Kaji, Ryuji

    2015-03-01

    The Val66Met (G196A; rs6265) single nucleotide polymorphism of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) affects morphology and neuronal activity, and is expected to be associated with central nervous system disorders. However, it remains controversial whether Val66Met polymorphism is a risk factor for idiopathic dystonia. We aimed to clarify the impact of BDNF polymorphism on idiopathic dystonia. A literature search of PubMed was carried out. A random-effects model was employed for the meta-analysis. A pooled odds ratio (OR) was calculated along with 95% confidence intervals (CI) to reflect the risk of idiopathic dystonia in each genotype (GG, AG, AA) or minor allele. The proportion of variation due to heterogeneity was computed and expressed as I(2). Five case-control studies, comprising a total sample size of 1804 subjects (784 idiopathic dystonia patients, 1020 normal controls), were included in this meta-analysis. AA genotype was significantly more frequent in patients with idiopathic dystonia (OR=1.47, 95% CI 1.09-1.99, p=0.01, four studies, n=1716). This finding was derived from homogeneous studies (p=0.97, I(2)=0%). Our meta-analysis has revealed a significant overall effect of the AA genotype on the development of idiopathic dystonia.

  15. The Non-Survival Effects of Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor on Neural Cells.

    PubMed

    Cortés, Daniel; Carballo-Molina, Oscar A; Castellanos-Montiel, María José; Velasco, Iván

    2017-01-01

    Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) was first characterized as a survival-promoting molecule for dopaminergic neurons (DANs). Afterwards, other cells were also discovered to respond to GDNF not only as a survival factor but also as a protein supporting other cellular functions, such as proliferation, differentiation, maturation, neurite outgrowth and other phenomena that have been less studied than survival and are now more extendedly described here in this review article. During development, GDNF favors the commitment of neural precursors towards dopaminergic, motor, enteric and adrenal neurons; in addition, it enhances the axonal growth of some of these neurons. GDNF also induces the acquisition of a dopaminergic phenotype by increasing the expression of Tyrosine Hydroxylase (TH), Nurr1 and other proteins that confer this identity and promote further dendritic and electrical maturation. In motor neurons (MNs), GDNF not only promotes proliferation and maturation but also participates in regenerating damaged axons and modulates the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) at both presynaptic and postsynaptic levels. Moreover, GDNF modulates the rate of neuroblastoma (NB) and glioblastoma cancer cell proliferation. Additionally, the presence or absence of GDNF has been correlated with conditions such as depression, pain, muscular soreness, etc. Although, the precise role of GDNF is unknown, it extends beyond a survival effect. The understanding of the complete range of properties of this trophic molecule will allow us to investigate its broad mechanisms of action to accelerate and/or improve therapies for the aforementioned pathological conditions.

  16. Repetitive acute intermittent hypoxia increases growth/neurotrophic factor expression in non-respiratory motor neurons.

    PubMed

    Satriotomo, I; Nichols, N L; Dale, E A; Emery, A T; Dahlberg, J M; Mitchell, G S

    2016-05-13

    Repetitive acute intermittent hypoxia (rAIH) increases growth/trophic factor expression in respiratory motor neurons, thereby eliciting spinal respiratory motor plasticity and/or neuroprotection. Here we demonstrate that rAIH effects are not unique to respiratory motor neurons, but are also expressed in non-respiratory, spinal alpha motor neurons and upper motor neurons of the motor cortex. In specific, we used immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence to assess growth/trophic factor protein expression in spinal sections from rats exposed to AIH three times per week for 10weeks (3×wAIH). 3×wAIH increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), its high-affinity receptor, tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB), and phosphorylated TrkB (pTrkB) immunoreactivity in putative alpha motor neurons of spinal cervical 7 (C7) and lumbar 3 (L3) segments, as well as in upper motor neurons of the primary motor cortex (M1). 3×wAIH also increased immunoreactivity of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), the high-affinity VEGFA receptor (VEGFR-2) and an important VEGF gene regulator, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α). Thus, rAIH effects on growth/trophic factors are characteristic of non-respiratory as well as respiratory motor neurons. rAIH may be a useful tool in the treatment of disorders causing paralysis, such as spinal injury and motor neuron disease, as a pretreatment to enhance motor neuron survival during disease, or as preconditioning for cell-transplant therapies.

  17. Peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor is related to cardiovascular risk factors in active and inactive elderly men

    PubMed Central

    Zembron-Lacny, A.; Dziubek, W.; Rynkiewicz, M.; Morawin, B.; Woźniewski, M.

    2016-01-01

    Regular exercise plays an important preventive and therapeutic role in heart and vascular diseases, and beneficially affects brain function. In blood, the effects of exercise appear to be very complex and could include protection of vascular endothelial cells via neurotrophic factors and decreased oxidative stress. The purpose of this study was to identify the age-related changes in peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its relationship to oxidative damage and conventional cardiovascular disease (CVD) biomarkers, such as atherogenic index, C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and oxidized LDL (oxLDL), in active and inactive men. Seventeen elderly males (61-80 years) and 17 young males (20-24 years) participated in this study. According to the 6-min Åstrand-Rhyming bike test, the subjects were classified into active and inactive groups. The young and elderly active men had a significantly better lipoprotein profile and antioxidant status, as well as reduced oxidative damage and inflammatory state. The active young and elderly men had significantly higher plasma BDNF levels compared to their inactive peers. BDNF was correlated with VO2max (r=0.765, P<0.001). In addition, we observed a significant inverse correlation of BDNF with atherogenic index (TC/HDL), hsCRP and oxLDL. The findings demonstrate that a high level of cardiorespiratory fitness reflected in VO2max was associated with a higher level of circulating BDNF, which in turn was related to common CVD risk factors and oxidative damage markers in young and elderly men. PMID:27332774

  18. Effect of Locally Administered Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor on the Survival of Transected and Repaired Adult Sheep Facial Nerve

    PubMed Central

    Al Abri, Rashid; Kolethekkat, Arif Ali; Kelleher, Michael O.; Myles, Lynn M.; Glasby, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective to determine whether the administration of Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor (CNTF) at the site of repaired facial nerve enhances regeneration in the adult sheep model. Methods Ten adult sheep were divided into 2 groups: control and study group (CNTF group). In the CNTF group, the buccal branch of the facial nerve was transected and then repaired by epineural sutures. CNTF was injected over the left depressor labii maxillaris muscle in the vicinity of the transected and repaired nerve for 28 days under local anesthesia. In the CNTF group, the sheep were again anesthetized after nine months and the site of facial nerve repair was exposed. Detailed electrophysiological, tension experiments and morphometric studies were carried out and then analyzed statistically. Results The skin CV min, refractory period, Jitter and tension parameters were marginally raised in the CNTF group than the control but the difference was statistically insignificant between the two groups. Morphometric indices also did not show any significant changes in the CNTF group. Conclusion CNTF has no profound effect on neuronal regeneration of adult sheep animal model. Keywords CNTF; Neurtrophic factors; Sheep; Facial nerve; Regeneration. PMID:24936272

  19. Effect of locally administered ciliary neurotrophic factor on the survival of transected and repaired adult sheep facial nerve.

    PubMed

    Al Abri, Rashid; Kolethekkat, Arif Ali; Kelleher, Michael O; Myles, Lynn M; Glasby, Michael A

    2014-05-01

    to determine whether the administration of Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor (CNTF) at the site of repaired facial nerve enhances regeneration in the adult sheep model. Ten adult sheep were divided into 2 groups: control and study group (CNTF group). In the CNTF group, the buccal branch of the facial nerve was transected and then repaired by epineural sutures. CNTF was injected over the left depressor labii maxillaris muscle in the vicinity of the transected and repaired nerve for 28 days under local anesthesia. In the CNTF group, the sheep were again anesthetized after nine months and the site of facial nerve repair was exposed. Detailed electrophysiological, tension experiments and morphometric studies were carried out and then analyzed statistically. The skin CV min, refractory period, Jitter and tension parameters were marginally raised in the CNTF group than the control but the difference was statistically insignificant between the two groups. Morphometric indices also did not show any significant changes in the CNTF group. CNTF has no profound effect on neuronal regeneration of adult sheep animal model. CNTF; Neurtrophic factors; Sheep; Facial nerve; Regeneration.

  20. Cervical dorsal rhizotomy increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin-3 expression in the ventral spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Johnson, R A; Okragly, A J; Haak-Frendscho, M; Mitchell, G S

    2000-05-15

    Although neurotrophic factors have been implicated in several forms of neuroplasticity, little is known concerning their potential role in spinal plasticity. Cervical dorsal rhizotomy (CDR) enhances serotonin terminal density near (spinal) phrenic motoneurons and serotonin-dependent long-term facilitation of phrenic motor output (Kinkead et al., 1998). We tested the hypothesis that selected neurotrophic factors change in a manner consistent with an involvement in this model of spinal plasticity. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), and transforming growth factor-beta(1) (TGF-beta(1)) concentrations were measured (ELISA) in three regions of interest to respiratory control: (1) ventral cervical spinal segments associated with the phrenic motor nucleus (C3-C6), (2) ventral thoracic spinal segments associated with inspiratory intercostal motor output (T3-T6) and (3) the diaphragm. Tissues were harvested from rats 7 d after bilateral CDR and compared with sham-operated and unoperated control rats. CDR increased BDNF (110%; p = 0.002) and NT-3 (100%; p = 0.002) in the cervical and NT-3 in the thoracic spinal cord (98%; p = 0.009). GDNF and TGF-beta(1) were not altered by CDR in any tissue. Immunohistochemistry localized BDNF and NT-3 to motoneurons and interneurons of the ventral spinal cord. These studies provide novel, suggestive evidence that BDNF and NT-3, possibly through their trophic effects on serotonergic neurons and/or motoneurons, may underlie serotonin-dependent plasticity in (spinal) respiratory motor control after CDR.

  1. Dendrobium alkaloids prevent Aβ25–35-induced neuronal and synaptic loss via promoting neurotrophic factors expression in mice

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Jing; Tian, Yong; Zhang, Yu; Lu, Yan-Liu; Li, Li-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Background Neuronal and synaptic loss is the most important risk factor for cognitive impairment. Inhibiting neuronal apoptosis and preventing synaptic loss are promising therapeutic approaches for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In this study, we investigate the protective effects of Dendrobium alkaloids (DNLA), a Chinese medicinal herb extract, on β-amyloid peptide segment 25–35 (Aβ25-35)-induced neuron and synaptic loss in mice. Method Aβ25–35(10 µg) was injected into the bilateral ventricles of male mice followed by an oral administration of DNLA (40 mg/kg) for 19 days. The Morris water maze was used for evaluating the ability of spatial learning and memory function of mice. The morphological changes were examined via H&E staining and Nissl staining. TUNEL staining was used to check the neuronal apoptosis. The ultrastructure changes of neurons were observed under electron microscope. Western blot was used to evaluate the protein expression levels of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus and cortex. Results DNLA significantly attenuated Aβ25–35-induced spatial learning and memory impairments in mice. DNLA prevented Aβ25–35-induced neuronal loss in the hippocampus and cortex, increased the number of Nissl bodies, improved the ultrastructural injury of neurons and increased the number of synapses in neurons. Furthermore, DNLA increased the protein expression of neurotrophic factors BDNF, CNTF and GDNF in the hippocampus and cortex. Conclusions DNLA can prevent neuronal apoptosis and synaptic loss. This effect is mediated at least in part via increasing the expression of BDNF, GDNF and CNTF in the hippocampus and cortex; improving Aβ-induced spatial learning and memory impairment in mice. PMID:27994964

  2. Altered Expression of NF- κ B and SP1 after Exposure to Advanced Glycation End-Products and Effects of Neurotrophic Factors in AGEs Exposed Rat Retinas.

    PubMed

    Bikbova, Guzel; Oshitari, Toshiyuki; Baba, Takayuki; Yamamoto, Shuichi

    2015-01-01

    To determine the effect of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) on neurite regeneration, and also to determine the regenerative effects of different neurotrophic factors (NTFs) on rat retinal explants, the retinas of SD rats were cultured in three-dimensional collagen gels and incubated in 6 types of media: (1) serum-free control culture media; (2) 100 μg/mL AGEs-BSA media; (3) AGEs-BSA + 100 ng/mL neurotrophin-4 (NT-4) media; (4) AGEs-BSA + 100 ng/mL hepatocyte growth factor media; (5) AGEs-BSA + 100 ng/mL glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor media; or (6) AGEs-BSA + 100 µM tauroursodeoxycholic acid media. After 7 days, the number of regenerating neurites was counted. The explants were immunostained for nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and specificity protein 1 (SP1). Statistical analyses were performed by one-way ANOVA. In retinas incubated with AGEs, the numbers of neurites were fewer than in control. All of the NTFs increased the number of neurites, and the increase was more significant in the NT-4 group. The number of NF-κB and SP1 immunopositive cells was higher in retinas exposed to AGEs than in control. All of the NTFs decreased the number of NF-κB immunopositive cells but did not significantly affect SP1 expression. These results demonstrate the potential of the NTFs as axoprotectants in AGEs exposed retinal neurons.

  3. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) expression and NMJ plasticity in skeletal muscle following endurance exercise.

    PubMed

    Gyorkos, A M; McCullough, M J; Spitsbergen, J M

    2014-01-17

    Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) supports and maintains the neuromuscular system during development and through adulthood by promoting neuroplasticity. The aim of this study was to determine if different modes of exercise can promote changes in GDNF expression and neuromuscular junction (NMJ) morphology in slow- and fast-twitch muscles. Rats were randomly assigned to a run training (run group), swim training (swim group), or sedentary control group. GDNF protein content was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay. GDNF protein content increased significantly in soleus (SOL) following both training protocols (P<0.05). Although not significant, an increase of 60% in the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) followed swim-training (NS; P<0.06). NMJ morphology was analyzed by measuring α-bungarotoxin labeled post-synaptic end plates. GDNF content and total end plate area were positively correlated. End plate area decreased in EDL of the run group and increased in SOL of the swim group. The results indicate that GDNF expression and NMJ morphological changes are activity dependent and that different changes may be observed by varying the exercise intensity in slow- and fast-twitch fibers. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Central expression and anorectic effect of brain-derived neurotrophic factor are regulated by circulating estradiol levels.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zheng; Liu, Xian; Senthil Kumar, Shiva Priya Dharshan; Zhang, Jing; Shi, Haifei

    2013-03-01

    Estrogens potently suppress food intake. Compelling evidence suggests that estradiol, the primary form of estrogens, reduces food intake by facilitating other anorectic signals. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), like estradiol, appears to suppress food intake by affecting meal size. We hypothesized that estradiol modulates Bdnf expression and the anorectic effect of BDNF. The first goal was to determine whether Bdnf expression was regulated by endogenous estradiol of cycling rats and by cyclic estradiol treatment using ovariectomized rats. Bdnf expression within the ventromedial nucleus of hypothalamus (VMH) was temporally elevated at estrus following the estradiol peak, which coincided with the decline in feeding at this phase of the ovarian cycle. Additionally, food intake and body weight were increased following ovariectomy with a parallel decrease in Bdnf expression in the VMH. All of these alterations were reversed by cyclic estradiol treatment, suggesting that Bdnf expression within the VMH was regulated in an estradiol-dependent manner. The second goal was to determine whether estradiol modulates the anorectic effect of BDNF. Sham-operated estrous rats and ovariectomized rats cyclically treated with estradiol responded to a lower dose of central administration of BDNF to decrease food intake than male rats and oil-treated ovariectomized rats, implying that endogenous estradiol or cyclic estradiol replacement increased the sensitivity to anorectic effect of BDNF. These data indicate that Bdnf expression within the VMH and the anorectic effect of BDNF varied depending on plasma estradiol levels, suggesting that estradiol may regulate BDNF signaling to regulate feeding.

  5. Intraocular elevation of cyclic AMP potentiates ciliary neurotrophic factor-induced regeneration of adult rat retinal ganglion cell axons.

    PubMed

    Cui, Qi; Yip, Henry K; Zhao, Robert C H; So, Kwok-Fai; Harvey, Alan R

    2003-01-01

    In vitro, cyclic AMP (cAMP) elevation alters neuronal responsiveness to diffusible growth factors and myelin-associated inhibitory molecules. Here we used an established in vivo model of adult central nervous system injury to investigate the effects of elevated cAMP on neuronal survival and axonal regeneration. We studied the effects of intraocular injections of neurotrophic factors and/or a cAMP analogue (CPT-cAMP) on the regeneration of axotomized rat retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons into peripheral nerve autografts. Elevation of cAMP alone did not significantly increase RGC survival or the number of regenerating RGCs. Ciliary neurotrophic factor increased RGC viability and axonal regrowth, the latter effect substantially enhanced by coapplication with CPT-cAMP. Under these conditions over 60% of surviving RGCs regenerated their axons. Neurotrophin-4/5 injections also increased RGC viability, but there was reduced long-distance axonal regrowth into grafts, an effect partially ameliorated by cAMP elevation. Thus, cAMP can act cooperatively with appropriate neurotrophic factors to promote axonal regeneration in the injured adult mammalian central nervous system.

  6. Transcranial ultrasound stimulation promotes brain-derived neurotrophic factor and reduces apoptosis in a mouse model of traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Su, Wei-Shen; Wu, Chun-Hu; Chen, Szu-Fu; Yang, Feng-Yi

    2017-09-07

    The protein expressions of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) can be elevated by transcranial ultrasound stimulation in the rat brain. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects and underlying mechanisms of BDNF enhancement by low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) on traumatic brain injury (TBI). Mice subjected to controlled cortical impact injury were treated with LIPUS in the injured region daily for a period of 4 days. Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry were performed to assess the effects of LIPUS. The results showed that the LIPUS treatment significantly promoted the neurotrophic factors BDNF and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) at day 4 after TBI. Meanwhile, LIPUS also enhanced the phosphorylation of Tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB), Akt, and cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB). Furthermore, treatment with LIPUS significantly decreased the level of cleaved caspase-3. The reduction of apoptotic process was inhibited by the anti-BDNF antibody. In short, post-injury LIPUS treatment increased BDNF protein levels and inhibited the progression of apoptosis following TBI. The neuroprotective effects of LIPUS may be associated with enhancements of the protein levels of neurotrophic factors, at least partially via the TrkB/Akt-CREB signaling pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. From Molecular to Nanotechnology Strategies for Delivery of Neurotrophins: Emphasis on Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF)

    PubMed Central

    Géral, Claire; Angelova, Angelina; Lesieur, Sylviane

    2013-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases represent a major public health problem, but beneficial clinical treatment with neurotrophic factors has not been established yet. The therapeutic use of neurotrophins has been restrained by their instability and rapid degradation in biological medium. A variety of strategies has been proposed for the administration of these leading therapeutic candidates, which are essential for the development, survival and function of human neurons. In this review, we describe the existing approaches for delivery of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which is the most abundant neurotrophin in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). Biomimetic peptides of BDNF have emerged as a promising therapy against neurodegenerative disorders. Polymer-based carriers have provided sustained neurotrophin delivery, whereas lipid-based particles have contributed also to potentiation of the BDNF action. Nanotechnology offers new possibilities for the design of vehicles for neuroprotection and neuroregeneration. Recent developments in nanoscale carriers for encapsulation and transport of BDNF are highlighted. PMID:24300402

  8. From molecular to nanotechnology strategies for delivery of neurotrophins: emphasis on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF).

    PubMed

    Géral, Claire; Angelova, Angelina; Lesieur, Sylviane

    2013-02-08

    Neurodegenerative diseases represent a major public health problem, but beneficial clinical treatment with neurotrophic factors has not been established yet. The therapeutic use of neurotrophins has been restrained by their instability and rapid degradation in biological medium. A variety of strategies has been proposed for the administration of these leading therapeutic candidates, which are essential for the development, survival and function of human neurons. In this review, we describe the existing approaches for delivery of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which is the most abundant neurotrophin in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). Biomimetic peptides of BDNF have emerged as a promising therapy against neurodegenerative disorders. Polymer-based carriers have provided sustained neurotrophin delivery, whereas lipid-based particles have contributed also to potentiation of the BDNF action. Nanotechnology offers new possibilities for the design of vehicles for neuroprotection and neuroregeneration. Recent developments in nanoscale carriers for encapsulation and transport of BDNF are highlighted.

  9. Neurotrophic Factor Receptor Expression and in vitro Nerve Growth of Geniculate Ganglion Neurons That Supply Divergent Nerves

    PubMed Central

    Yamout, Adam; Spec, Andrej; Cosmano, Jason; Kashyap, Manoj; Rochlin, M. William

    2016-01-01

    We investigated which neurotrophic factors may contribute to the divergence of two peripheral nerves emanating from the geniculate ganglion. We compared receptor mRNA profiles of the neurons that supply the nerves, and also the growth of their neurites in response to neurotrophic factors in culture. Three mRNAs, Gfra2, TrkA, and TrkC, were differentially expressed. Only one ligand, Neurturin, promoted substantially different nerve regrowth from the nerves, and therefore may contribute to nerve divergence. Three receptor mRNAs were expressed in 100% of the neurons: TrkB, TrkB.T2 (kinaselacking isoform), and NCAM-140. Ligands for these Trks and FRα-1 promoted more outgrowth than ligands for the other receptors. NT-3 and BDNF synergistically promoted outgrowth. Finally, receptors are coexpressed at random rates, arguing against the existence of neuronal subtypes defined by a combinatorial code of these receptors. PMID:16137986

  10. Role of exercise-induced brain-derived neurotrophic factor production in the regulation of energy homeostasis in mammals.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Bente K; Pedersen, Maria; Krabbe, Karen S; Bruunsgaard, Helle; Matthews, Vance B; Febbraio, Mark A

    2009-12-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been shown to regulate neuronal development and plasticity and plays a role in learning and memory. Moreover, it is well established that BDNF plays a role in the hypothalamic pathway that controls body weight and energy homeostasis. Recent evidence identifies BDNF as a player not only in central metabolism, but also in regulating energy metabolism in peripheral organs. Low levels of BDNF are found in patients with neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease and major depression. In addition, BDNF levels are low in obesity and independently so in patients with type 2 diabetes. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor is expressed in non-neurogenic tissues, including skeletal muscle, and exercise increases BDNF levels not only in the brain and in plasma, but in skeletal muscle as well. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA and protein expression was increased in muscle cells that were electrically stimulated, and BDNF increased phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase-beta (ACCbeta) and enhanced fatty oxidation both in vitro and ex vivo. These data identify BDNF as a contraction-inducible protein in skeletal muscle that is capable of enhancing lipid oxidation in skeletal muscle via activation of AMPK. Thus, BDNF appears to play a role both in neurobiology and in central as well as peripheral metabolism. The finding of low BDNF levels both in neurodegenerative diseases and in type 2 diabetes may explain the clustering of these diseases. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor is likely to mediate some of the beneficial effects of exercise with regard to protection against dementia and type 2 diabetes.

  11. Aerobic exercises enhance cognitive functions and brain derived neurotrophic factor in ischemic stroke patients.

    PubMed

    El-Tamawy, Mohamed S; Abd-Allah, Foad; Ahmed, Sandra M; Darwish, Moshera H; Khalifa, Heba A

    2014-01-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of functional impairments. High percentage of these patients will experience some degree of cognitive affection, ranging from mild cognitive impairment to dementia. Demonstrate the role of aerobic exercises enhancing cognitive functions and its effect on Brain Derived Neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in post-ischemic stroke patients in the territory of anterior circulation. We included thirty Egyptian ischemic stroke patients in the territory of anterior circulation. They were divided into 2 groups; group 1 (G1) were subjected to physiotherapy program without aerobic exercises and group 2 (G2) were subjected to the same previous program followed by aerobic exercises. Both groups were subjected to pre- and post-treatment Addenbrookes's Cognitive Examination- Revised (ACER) and serum level of BDNF. Our results showed a significant improvement in ACER score in G2 compared to G1 post-treatment (p = 0.017). BDNF serum level significantly increased in G2 post-treatment compared to pre-treatment (p = 0.001) and compared to G1 group (p = 0.0458). ACER improvement was positively correlated to increase in serum level of BDNF (r = 0.53, p = 0.044). Aerobic exercises improve cognitive functions of ischemic stroke patients. This improvement is related to the increase in serum level of BDNF.

  12. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and the course of experimental cerebral malaria.

    PubMed

    Linares, María; Marín-García, Patricia; Pérez-Benavente, Susana; Sánchez-Nogueiro, Jesús; Puyet, Antonio; Bautista, José M; Diez, Amalia

    2013-01-15

    The role of neurotrophic factors on the integrity of the central nervous system (CNS) during cerebral malaria (CM) infection remains obscure, but the long-standing neurocognitive sequelae often observed in rescued children can be attributed in part to the modulation of neuronal survival and synaptic plasticity. To discriminate the contribution of key responses in the time-sequence of the pathogenic events that trigger the development of neurocognitive malaria syndrome we defined four stages (I-IV) of the neurological progression of CM in C57BL/6 mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA. Upregulation of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, e-selectin and p-selectin expression was detected in all cerebral regions before parasitized red blood cells (pRBC) accumulation. As the severity of symptoms increased, BDNF mRNA progressively diminished in several brain regions, earliest in the thalamus-hypothalamus, cerebellum, brainstem and cortex, and correlated with a four-stage disease sequence. Immunohistochemical confocal microscopy revealed changes in the BDNF distribution pattern, suggesting altered axonal transport. During CM progression, molecular markers of neurological infection and inflammation in the parasite and the host, respectively, were accompanied by a switch in the brain constitutive proteasome to the immunoproteasome, which could impede normal protein turnover. In parallel with BDNF downregulation, NCAM expression also diminished with increased CM severity. Together, these data suggest that changes in BDNF availability could be involved in the pathogenesis of CM. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Plasma brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and response to ketamine in treatment-resistant depression.

    PubMed

    Haile, C N; Murrough, J W; Iosifescu, D V; Chang, L C; Al Jurdi, R K; Foulkes, A; Iqbal, S; Mahoney, J J; De La Garza, R; Charney, D S; Newton, T F; Mathew, S J

    2014-02-01

    Ketamine produces rapid antidepressant effects in treatment-resistant depression (TRD), but the magnitude of response varies considerably between individual patients. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been investigated as a biomarker of treatment response in depression and has been implicated in the mechanism of action of ketamine. We evaluated plasma BDNF and associations with symptoms in 22 patients with TRD enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of ketamine compared to an anaesthetic control (midazolam). Ketamine significantly increased plasma BDNF levels in responders compared to non-responders 240 min post-infusion, and Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) scores were negatively correlated with BDNF (r=-0.701, p = 0.008). Plasma BDNF levels at 240 min post-infusion were highly negatively associated with MADRS scores at 240 min (r = -0.897, p=.002), 24 h (r = -0.791, p = 0.038), 48 h (r = -0.944, p = 0.001) and 72 h (r = -0.977, p = 0.010). No associations with BDNF were found for patients receiving midazolam. These data support plasma BDNF as a peripheral biomarker relevant to ketamine antidepressant response.

  14. Directed evolution of brain-derived neurotrophic factor for improved folding and expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Burns, Michael L; Malott, Thomas M; Metcalf, Kevin J; Hackel, Benjamin J; Chan, Jonah R; Shusta, Eric V

    2014-09-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in nervous system function and has therapeutic potential. Microbial production of BDNF has resulted in a low-fidelity protein product, often in the form of large, insoluble aggregates incapable of binding to cognate TrkB or p75 receptors. In this study, employing Saccharomyces cerevisiae display and secretion systems, it was found that BDNF was poorly expressed and partially inactive on the yeast surface and that BDNF was secreted at low levels in the form of disulfide-bonded aggregates. Thus, for the purpose of increasing the compatibility of yeast as an expression host for BDNF, directed-evolution approaches were employed to improve BDNF folding and expression levels. Yeast surface display was combined with two rounds of directed evolution employing random mutagenesis and shuffling to identify BDNF mutants that had 5-fold improvements in expression, 4-fold increases in specific TrkB binding activity, and restored p75 binding activity, both as displayed proteins and as secreted proteins. Secreted BDNF mutants were found largely in the form of soluble homodimers that could stimulate TrkB phosphorylation in transfected PC12 cells. Site-directed mutagenesis studies indicated that a particularly important mutational class involved the introduction of cysteines proximal to the native cysteines that participate in the BDNF cysteine knot architecture. Taken together, these findings show that yeast is now a viable alternative for both the production and the engineering of BDNF.

  15. TrkB-Mediated Neuroprotective and Antihypoxic Properties of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor.

    PubMed

    Vedunova, Maria V; Mishchenko, Tatiana A; Mitroshina, Elena V; Mukhina, Irina V

    2015-01-01

    The neuroprotective and antihypoxic effects of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) on dissociated hippocampal cultures in a hypoxia model were investigated. These experiments demonstrate that 10 minutes of normobaric hypoxia increased the number of dead cells in primary culture, whereas a preventive application of BDNF increased the number of viable cells. Spontaneous bioelectrical and calcium activity in neural networks was analyzed using multielectrode arrays and functional intravital calcium imaging. The results indicate that BDNF affects the functional parameters of neuronal networks in dissociated hippocampal cultures over the 7-day posthypoxic period. In addition, the effects of k252a, an antagonist of tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB), on functional bioelectrical activity during and after acute hypoxia were investigated. It was shown that the protective effects of BDNF are associated with binding to the TrkB receptor. Finally, intravital fluorescent mRNA probes were used to study the role of NF-κB1 in the protective effects of BDNF. Our experiments revealed that BDNF application stimulates NF-κB1 mRNA synthesis in primary dissociated hippocampal cells under normal conditions but not in hypoxic state.

  16. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor mediates estradiol-induced dendritic spine formation in hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Murphy, D D; Cole, N B; Segal, M

    1998-09-15

    Dendritic spines are of major importance in information processing and memory formation in central neurons. Estradiol has been shown to induce an increase of dendritic spine density on hippocampal neurons in vivo and in vitro. The neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) recently has been implicated in neuronal maturation, plasticity, and regulation of GABAergic interneurons. We now demonstrate that estradiol down-regulates BDNF in cultured hippocampal neurons to 40% of control values within 24 hr of exposure. This, in turn, decreases inhibition and increases excitatory tone in pyramidal neurons, leading to a 2-fold increase in dendritic spine density. Exogenous BDNF blocks the effects of estradiol on spine formation, and BDNF depletion with a selective antisense oligonucleotide mimics the effects of estradiol. Addition of BDNF antibodies also increases spine density, and diazepam, which facilitates GABAergic neurotransmission, blocks estradiol-induced spine formation. These observations demonstrate a functional link between estradiol, BDNF as a potent regulator of GABAergic interneurons, and activity-dependent formation of dendritic spines in hippocampal neurons.

  17. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor promoter methylation and cortical thickness in recurrent major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Na, Kyoung-Sae; Won, Eunsoo; Kang, June; Chang, Hun Soo; Yoon, Ho-Kyoung; Tae, Woo Suk; Kim, Yong-Ku; Lee, Min-Soo; Joe, Sook-Haeng; Kim, Hyun; Ham, Byung-Joo

    2016-02-15

    Recent studies have reported that methylation of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene promoter is associated with major depressive disorder (MDD). This study aimed to investigate the association between cortical thickness and methylation of BDNF promoters as well as serum BDNF levels in MDD. The participants consisted of 65 patients with recurrent MDD and 65 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Methylation of BDNF promoters and cortical thickness were compared between the groups. The right medial orbitofrontal, right lingual, right lateral occipital, left lateral orbitofrontal, left pars triangularis, and left lingual cortices were thinner in patients with MDD than in healthy controls. Among the MDD group, right pericalcarine, right medical orbitofrontal, right rostral middle frontal, right postcentral, right inferior temporal, right cuneus, right precuneus, left frontal pole, left superior frontal, left superior temporal, left rostral middle frontal and left lingual cortices had inverse correlations with methylation of BDNF promoters. Higher levels of BDNF promoter methylation may be closely associated with the reduced cortical thickness among patients with MDD. Serum BDNF levels were significantly lower in MDD, and showed an inverse relationship with BDNF methylation only in healthy controls. Particularly the prefrontal and occipital cortices seem to indicate key regions in which BDNF methylation has a significant effect on structure.

  18. Involvement of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in MP4-induced autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Javeri, Sita; Rodi, Michael; Tary-Lehmann, Magdalena; Lehmann, Paul V; Addicks, Klaus; Kuerten, Stefanie

    2010-11-01

    The role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in multiple sclerosis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is still unclear. Here we investigate the clinical course, CNS histopathology and peripheral antigen-specific immunity in MP4-induced EAE of BDNF (-/+) mice. We demonstrate that these mice displayed less severe disease compared to BDNF (+/+) mice, reflected by decreased inflammation and demyelination. In correspondence to diminished frequencies of T and B cells in CNS infiltrates, the peripheral MP4-specific T(H)1/T(H)17 response was attenuated in BDNF (-/+), but not in wild-type animals. In contrast, immunization with ovalbumin triggered similar frequencies of IFN-γ- and IL-17-secreting T cells in both groups. The cytokine secretion and proliferative activity upon mitogen stimulation did not reveal any global defect of T cell function in BDNF (-/+) mice. By influencing the antigen-specific immune response in autoimmune encephalomyelitis, BDNF may support and maintain the disease in ways that go beyond its alleged neuroprotective role.

  19. Peri-Synaptic Glia Recycles Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor for LTP Stabilization and Memory Retention.

    PubMed

    Vignoli, Beatrice; Battistini, Giulia; Melani, Riccardo; Blum, Robert; Santi, Spartaco; Berardi, Nicoletta; Canossa, Marco

    2016-11-23

    Glial cells respond to neuronal activation and release neuroactive molecules (termed "gliotransmitters") that can affect synaptic activity and modulate plasticity. In this study, we used molecular genetic tools, ultra-structural microscopy, and electrophysiology to assess the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) on cortical gliotransmission in vivo. We find that glial cells recycle BDNF that was previously secreted by neurons as pro-neurotrophin following long-term potentiation (LTP)-inducing electrical stimulation. Upon BDNF glial recycling, we observed tight, temporal, highly localized TrkB phosphorylation on adjacent neurons, a process required to sustain LTP. Engagement of BDNF recycling by astrocytes represents a novel mechanism by which cortical synapses can expand BDNF action and provide synaptic changes that are relevant for the acquisition of new memories. Accordingly, mice deficient in BDNF glial recycling fail to recognize familiar from novel objects, indicating a physiological requirement for this process in memory consolidation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Targeted delivery of brain-derived neurotrophic factor for the treatment of blindness and deafness

    PubMed Central

    Khalin, Igor; Alyautdin, Renad; Kocherga, Ganna; Bakar, Muhamad Abu

    2015-01-01

    Neurodegenerative causes of blindness and deafness possess a major challenge in their clinical management as proper treatment guidelines have not yet been found. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been established as a promising therapy against neurodegenerative disorders including hearing and visual loss. Unfortunately, the blood–retinal barrier and blood–cochlear barrier, which have a comparable structure to the blood–brain barrier prevent molecules of larger sizes (such as BDNF) from exiting the circulation and reaching the targeted cells. Anatomical features of the eye and ear allow use of local administration, bypassing histo-hematic barriers. This paper focuses on highlighting a variety of strategies proposed for the local administration of the BDNF, like direct delivery, viral gene therapy, and cell-based therapy, which have been shown to successfully improve development, survival, and function of spiral and retinal ganglion cells. The similarities and controversies for BDNF treatment of posterior eye diseases and inner ear diseases have been analyzed and compared. In this review, we also focus on the possibility of translation of this knowledge into clinical practice. And finally, we suggest that using nanoparticulate drug-delivery systems may substantially contribute to the development of clinically viable techniques for BDNF delivery into the cochlea or posterior eye segment, which, ultimately, can lead to a long-term or permanent rescue of auditory and optic neurons from degeneration. PMID:25995632

  1. Viral vectors for neurotrophic factor delivery: A gene therapy approach for neurodegenerative diseases of the CNS

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Seung; Airavaara, Mikko; Harvey, Brandon K.

    2009-01-01

    The clinical manifestation of most diseases of the central nervous system results from neuronal dysfunction or loss. Diseases such a stroke, epilepsy and neurodegeneration (e.g. Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease) share common cellular and molecular mechanisms (e.g. oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, mitochondrial dysfunction) that contribute to the loss of neuronal function. Neurotrophic factors (NTFs) are secreted proteins that regulate multiple aspects of neuronal development including neuronal maintenance, survival, axonal growth and synaptic plasticity. These properties of NTFs make them likely candidates for preventing neurodegeneration and promoting neuroregeneration. One approach to delivering NTFs to diseased neurons is through viral vector-mediated gene delivery. Viral vectors are now routinely used as tools for studying gene function as well as developing gene-based therapies for a variety of diseases. Currently, many clinical trials using viral vectors in the nervous system are underway or completed, and seven of these trials involve NTFs for neurodegeneration. In this review, we discuss viral vector-mediated gene transfer of NTFs to treat neurodegenerative diseases of the central nervous system. PMID:19840853

  2. The Effect of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor on Periodontal Furcation Defects

    PubMed Central

    Jimbo, Ryo; Tovar, Nick; Janal, Malvin N.; Mousa, Ramy; Marin, Charles; Yoo, Daniel; Teixeira, Hellen S.; Anchieta, Rodolfo B.; Bonfante, Estevam A.; Konishi, Akihiro; Takeda, Katsuhiro; Kurihara, Hidemi; Coelho, Paulo G.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to observe the regenerative effect of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in a non-human primate furcation defect model. Class II furcation defects were created in the first and second molars of 8 non-human primates to simulate a clinical situation. The defect was filled with either, Group A: BDNF (500 µg/ml) in high-molecular weight-hyaluronic acid (HMW-HA), Group B: BDNF (50 µg/ml) in HMW-HA, Group C: HMW-HA acid only, Group D: empty defect, or Group E: BDNF (500 µg/ml) in saline. The healing status for all groups was observed at different time-points with micro computed tomography. The animals were euthanized after 11 weeks, and the tooth-bone specimens were subjected to histologic processing. The results showed that all groups seemed to successfully regenerate the alveolar buccal bone, however, only Group A regenerated the entire periodontal tissue, i.e., alveolar bone, cementum and periodontal ligament. It is suggested that the use of BDNF in combination with a scaffold such as the hyaluronic acid in periodontal furcation defects may be an effective treatment option. PMID:24454754

  3. Low-level laser therapy promotes dendrite growth via upregulating brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Chengbo; He, Zhiyong; Xing, Da

    2014-09-01

    Downregulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus occurs early in the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Since BDNF plays a critical role in neuronal survival and dendrite growth, BDNF upregulation may contribute to rescue dendrite atrophy and cell loss in AD. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been demonstrated to regulate neuronal function both in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, we found that LLLT rescued neurons loss and dendritic atrophy via the increase of both BDNF mRNA and protein expression. In addition, dendrite growth was improved after LLLT, characterized by upregulation of PSD95 expression, and the increase in length, branching, and spine density of dendrites in hippocampal neurons. Together, these studies suggest that upregulation of BDNF with LLLT can ameliorate Aβ-induced neurons loss and dendritic atrophy, thus identifying a novel pathway by which LLLT protects against Aβ-induced neurotoxicity. Our research may provide a feasible therapeutic approach to control the progression of Alzheimer's disease.

  4. Effect of antidepressants on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) release from platelets in the rats.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kimihiko; Hashimoto, Eri; Ukai, Wataru; Ishii, Takao; Yoshinaga, Toshihiro; Ono, Takafumi; Tateno, Masaru; Watanabe, Ippei; Shirasaka, Tomohiro; Saito, Satoshi; Saito, Toshikazu

    2010-12-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) belongs to the neurotrophin family, and enhances the growth and maintenance of several neuronal systems. In addition, BDNF may promote neurogenesis and protect against hippocampal volume loss in depressive disorders. Although first detected in brain, BDNF also exists in peripheral tissues and is mainly stored in platelets and circulates in blood. Recent reports indicate that serum BDNF levels in depressive patients are lower than in control subjects, and antidepressant treatment increases serum BDNF levels in responders. A single report suggests that decreased serum BDNF in major depression is related to mechanisms of platelet BDNF release; however, the mechanisms of changes in BDNF blood levels are still poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the direct influence of antidepressants on BDNF release from platelets and their effects on serum levels. We used samples of washed platelets prepared from rat blood, and investigated the platelet BDNF release and serum BDNF concentration changes in response to adding antidepressants. We found that BDNF was dose-dependently released from platelets by direct treatment with various kinds of antidepressants in vitro, and serum BDNF concentration was also increased by intravenous antidepressant treatment. These results confirm that BDNF release from platelets is affected by antidepressants, which may relate to the circulating BDNF level change in peripheral blood. The response of BDNF release differs depending on the type and amount of antidepressants, making BDNF a serious candidate as a predictor of antidepressant treatment response. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A meta-analytic review of the effects of exercise on brain-derived neurotrophic factor

    PubMed Central

    Szuhany, Kristin L.; Bugatti, Matteo; Otto, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Consistent evidence indicates that exercise improves cognition and mood, with preliminary evidence suggesting that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may mediate these effects. The aim of the current meta-analysis was to provide an estimate of the strength of the association between exercise and increased BDNF levels in humans across multiple exercise paradigms. We conducted a meta-analysis of 29 studies (N = 1,111 participants) examining the effect of exercise on BDNF levels in three exercise paradigms: (1) a single session of exercise, (2) a session of exercise following a program of regular exercise, and (3) resting BDNF levels following a program of regular exercise. Moderators of this effect were also examined. Results demonstrated a moderate effect size for increases in BDNF following a single session of exercise (Hedges’ g = 0.46, p < 0.001). Further, regular exercise intensified the effect of a session of exercise on BDNF levels (Hedges’ g = 0.58, p = 0.02). Finally, results indicated a small effect of regular exercise on resting BDNF levels (Hedges’ g = 0.28, p = 0.005). When analyzing results across paradigms, sex significantly moderated the effect of exercise on BDNF levels, such that studies with more women showed less BDNF change resulting from exercise. Effect size analysis supports the role of exercise as a strategy for enhancing BDNF activity in humans, but indicates that the magnitude of these effects may be lower in females relative to males. PMID:25455510

  6. A meta-analytic review of the effects of exercise on brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

    PubMed

    Szuhany, Kristin L; Bugatti, Matteo; Otto, Michael W

    2015-01-01

    Consistent evidence indicates that exercise improves cognition and mood, with preliminary evidence suggesting that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may mediate these effects. The aim of the current meta-analysis was to provide an estimate of the strength of the association between exercise and increased BDNF levels in humans across multiple exercise paradigms. We conducted a meta-analysis of 29 studies (N = 1111 participants) examining the effect of exercise on BDNF levels in three exercise paradigms: (1) a single session of exercise, (2) a session of exercise following a program of regular exercise, and (3) resting BDNF levels following a program of regular exercise. Moderators of this effect were also examined. Results demonstrated a moderate effect size for increases in BDNF following a single session of exercise (Hedges' g = 0.46, p < 0.001). Further, regular exercise intensified the effect of a session of exercise on BDNF levels (Hedges' g = 0.59, p = 0.02). Finally, results indicated a small effect of regular exercise on resting BDNF levels (Hedges' g = 0.27, p = 0.005). When analyzing results across paradigms, sex significantly moderated the effect of exercise on BDNF levels, such that studies with more women showed less BDNF change resulting from exercise. Effect size analysis supports the role of exercise as a strategy for enhancing BDNF activity in humans, but indicates that the magnitude of these effects may be lower in females relative to males.

  7. Methamphetamine self-administration attenuates hippocampal serotonergic deficits: role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

    PubMed

    McFadden, Lisa M; Vieira-Brock, Paula L; Hanson, Glen R; Fleckenstein, Annette E

    2014-08-01

    Preclinical studies suggest that prior treatment with escalating doses of methamphetamine (METH) attenuates the persistent deficits in hippocampal serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5HT) transporter (SERT) function resulting from a subsequent 'binge' METH exposure. Previous work also demonstrates that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) exposure increases SERT function. The current study investigated changes in hippocampal BDNF protein and SERT function in rats exposed to saline or METH self-administration prior to a binge exposure to METH or saline. Results revealed that METH self-administration increased hippocampal mature BDNF (mBDNF) immunoreactivity compared to saline-treated rats as assessed 24 h after the start of the last session. Further, mBDNF immunoreactivity was increased and SERT function was not altered in rats that self-administered METH prior to the binge METH exposure as assessed 24 h after the binge exposure. These results suggest that prior exposure to contingent METH increases hippocampal mBDNF, and this may contribute to attenuated deficits in SERT function.

  8. Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels were reduced during methamphetamine early withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pao-Huan; Huang, Ming-Chi; Lai, Ying-Ching; Chen, Po-Yu; Liu, Hsing-Cheng

    2014-05-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) abuse is an increasing public health problem worldwide. Many of the METH-induced physical and mental problems are associated with the neurotoxic effects of METH. Animal studies have shown that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) decreased after repeated amphetamine administration and increased at 30 and 90 days from psychostimulant withdrawal, suggesting that there might be a psychostimulant-induced neuroprotective dysfunction followed by a neuroadaptive process in the brain. However, current research on the role of BDNF in human METH addiction is limited, particularly during early withdrawal. The aim of this study was to assess the serum BDNF levels in METH abusers during the early withdrawal stage. Two groups of subjects were enrolled: (1) 59 DSM-IV METH abusers confirmed by board-certified psychiatrists during the first 3 weeks of withdrawal; (2) 59 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. We found that serum BDNF levels were significantly and constantly lower in the METH abusers during early withdrawal than those of the healthy controls. This indicates that METH abusers might have severe BDNF dysfunction and an impaired neuroprotective function after repetitive METH misuse. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction Biology © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  9. Targeted delivery of brain-derived neurotrophic factor for the treatment of blindness and deafness.

    PubMed

    Khalin, Igor; Alyautdin, Renad; Kocherga, Ganna; Bakar, Muhamad Abu

    2015-01-01

    Neurodegenerative causes of blindness and deafness possess a major challenge in their clinical management as proper treatment guidelines have not yet been found. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been established as a promising therapy against neurodegenerative disorders including hearing and visual loss. Unfortunately, the blood-retinal barrier and blood-cochlear barrier, which have a comparable structure to the blood-brain barrier prevent molecules of larger sizes (such as BDNF) from exiting the circulation and reaching the targeted cells. Anatomical features of the eye and ear allow use of local administration, bypassing histo-hematic barriers. This paper focuses on highlighting a variety of strategies proposed for the local administration of the BDNF, like direct delivery, viral gene therapy, and cell-based therapy, which have been shown to successfully improve development, survival, and function of spiral and retinal ganglion cells. The similarities and controversies for BDNF treatment of posterior eye diseases and inner ear diseases have been analyzed and compared. In this review, we also focus on the possibility of translation of this knowledge into clinical practice. And finally, we suggest that using nanoparticulate drug-delivery systems may substantially contribute to the development of clinically viable techniques for BDNF delivery into the cochlea or posterior eye segment, which, ultimately, can lead to a long-term or permanent rescue of auditory and optic neurons from degeneration.

  10. Serotonin regulates brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in select brain regions during acute psychological stress

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, De-guo; Jin, Shi-li; Li, Gong-ying; Li, Qing-qing; Li, Zhi-ruo; Ma, Hong-xia; Zhuo, Chuan-jun; Jiang, Rong-huan; Ye, Min-jie

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that serotonin (5-HT) might interact with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) during the stress response. However, the relationship between 5-HT and BDNF expression under purely psychological stress is unclear. In this study, one hour before psychological stress exposure, the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT or antagonist MDL73005, or the 5-HT2A receptor agonist DOI or antagonist ketanserin were administered to rats exposed to psychological stress. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization revealed that after psychological stress, with the exception of the ventral tegmental area, BDNF protein and mRNA expression levels were higher in the 5-HT1A and the 5-HT2A receptor agonist groups compared with the solvent control no-stress or psychological stress group in the CA1 and CA3 of the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, central amygdaloid nucleus, dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus, dentate gyrus, shell of the nucleus accumbens and the midbrain periaqueductal gray. There was no significant difference between the two agonist groups. In contrast, after stress exposure, BDNF protein and mRNA expression levels were lower in the 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptor antagonist groups than in the solvent control non-stress group, with the exception of the ventral tegmental area. Our findings suggest that 5-HT regulates BDNF expression in a rat model of acute psychological stress. PMID:27857753

  11. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor protects against tau-related neurodegeneration of Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, S-S; Shen, L-L; Zhu, C; Bu, X-L; Liu, Y-H; Liu, C-H; Yao, X-Q; Zhang, L-L; Zhou, H-D; Walker, D G; Tan, J; Götz, J; Zhou, X-F; Wang, Y-J

    2016-01-01

    Reduced expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has a crucial role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), which is characterized with the formation of neuritic plaques consisting of amyloid-beta (Aβ) and neurofibrillary tangles composed of hyperphosphorylated tau protein. A growing body of evidence indicates a potential protective effect of BDNF against Aβ-induced neurotoxicity in AD mouse models. However, the direct therapeutic effect of BDNF supplement on tauopathy in AD remains to be established. Here, we found that the BDNF level was reduced in the serum and brain of AD patients and P301L transgenic mice (a mouse model of tauopathy). Intralateral ventricle injection of adeno-associated virus carrying the gene encoding human BDNF (AAV-BDNF) achieved stable expression of BDNF gene and restored the BDNF level in the brains of P301L mice. Restoration of the BDNF level attenuated behavioral deficits, prevented neuron loss, alleviated synaptic degeneration and reduced neuronal abnormality, but did not affect tau hyperphosphorylation level in the brains of P301L mice. Long-term expression of AAV-BDNF in the brain was well tolerated by the mice. These findings suggest that the gene delivery of BDNF is a promising treatment for tau-related neurodegeneration for AD and other neurodegenerative disorders with tauopathy. PMID:27701410

  12. Resveratrol improves postnatal hippocampal neurogenesis and brain derived neurotrophic factor in prenatally stressed rats.

    PubMed

    Madhyastha, Sampath; Sekhar, Sudhanshu; Rao, Gayathri

    2013-11-01

    Prenatal stress induced neuronal dysfunction is multifactorial, including suppressed neurogenesis in developing brain. Resveratrol is known to exert its neuroprotective potential by enhancing neurogenesis. But the efficacy of resveratrol against prenatal stress was not addressed in detail. Hence in the present study we evaluated the neuroprotective action of resveratrol on prenatal stress-induced impaired neurogenesis. Pregnant rats were subjected to restraint stress during early or late gestational period. Another sets of rats received resveratrol during entire gestational period along with early or late gestational stress. The study parameters included neuronal assay of doublecortin positive neurons (DCX +ve) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) estimations in 40th postnatal day rat brain. Both early and late gestational stress resulted in significant decrease in generation of new born neurons and BDNF expression in hippocampus. The decrease in number of DCX +ve neurons and hippocampal BDNF expression was more profound in the offspring who received late gestational stress compared to early gestational stress. Resveratrol treatment has improved the expression of DCX +ve neurons and BDNF expression. These data suggest the neuroprotective efficacy of resveratrol against prenatal stress induced impaired neurogenesis.

  13. Transgenic Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Modulates a Developing Cerebellar Inhibitory Synapse

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Shaowen; Chen, Lu; Qiao, Xiaoxi; Thompson, Richard F.

    1999-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been shown to promote synapse formation and maturation in neurons of many brain regions, including inhibitory synapses. In the cerebellum, the Golgi cell-granule cell GABAergic synaptic responses undergo developmental transition from slow-decaying to fast-decaying kinetics, which parallels a developmental increase of GABAA receptor α6 subunit expression in the cerebellar granule cells. In culture, BDNF accelerates the expression of GABAA receptor α6 subunit expression in granule cells. Here we examined synaptic GABAA response kinetics in BDNF transgenic mice. The mutant mouse, which carries a BDNF transgene driven by a β-actin promoter, overexpresses BDNF (two- to fivefold increase compared with wild types) in all brain regions. Recordings of the spontaneous GABAA responses indicate that the decay time constant of the GABAergic responses decreases during early postnatal development; this transition is accelerated in the BDNF transgenic mouse. The amplitude of the spontaneous GABAA responses was also larger in the transgenic mouse than in the wild-type mouse. However, the frequency of the spontaneous GABAA responses were not different between the two groups. Our results suggest that BDNF may modulate GABAergic synapse maturation in the cerebellum. PMID:10492009

  14. Anatomical evidence for transsynaptic influences of estrogen on brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression.

    PubMed

    Blurton-Jones, M; Kuan, P N; Tuszynski, M H

    2004-01-12

    Several studies have demonstrated that estrogen modulates brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA and protein within the adult hippocampus and cortex. However, mechanisms underlying this regulation are unknown. Although an estrogen response element (ERE)-like sequence has been identified within the BDNF gene, such a classical mechanism of estrogen-induced transcriptional activation requires the colocalized expression of estrogen receptors within cells that produce BDNF. Developmental studies have demonstrated such a relationship, but to date no studies have examined colocalization of estrogen receptors and BDNF within the adult brain. By utilizing double-label immunohistochemistry for BDNF, estrogen receptor-alpha (ER-alpha), and estrogen receptor-beta (ER-beta), we found only sparse colocalization between ER-alpha and BDNF in the hypothalamus, amygdala, prelimbic cortex, and ventral hippocampus. Furthermore, ER-beta and BDNF do not colocalize in any brain region. Given the recent finding that cortical ER-beta is almost exclusively localized to parvalbumin-immunoreactive GABAergic neurons, we performed BDNF/parvalbumin double labeling and discovered that axons from cortical ER-beta-expressing inhibitory neurons terminate on BDNF-immunoreactive pyramidal cells. Collectively, these findings support a potential transsynaptic relationship between estrogen state and cortical BDNF: By directly modulating GABAergic interneurons, estrogen may indirectly influence the activity and expression of BDNF-producing cortical neurons.

  15. AMPA receptor-induced local brain-derived neurotrophic factor signaling mediates motor recovery after stroke.

    PubMed

    Clarkson, Andrew N; Overman, Justine J; Zhong, Sheng; Mueller, Rudolf; Lynch, Gary; Carmichael, S Thomas

    2011-03-09

    Stroke is the leading cause of adult disability. Recovery after stroke shares similar molecular and cellular properties with learning and memory. A main component of learning-induced plasticity involves signaling through AMPA receptors (AMPARs). We systematically tested the role of AMPAR function in motor recovery in a mouse model of focal stroke. AMPAR function controls functional recovery beginning 5 d after the stroke. Positive allosteric modulators of AMPARs enhance recovery of limb control when administered after a delay from the stroke. Conversely, AMPAR antagonists impair motor recovery. The contributions of AMPARs to recovery are mediated by release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in periinfarct cortex, as blocking local BDNF function in periinfarct cortex blocks AMPAR-mediated recovery and prevents the normal pattern of motor recovery. In contrast to a delayed AMPAR role in motor recovery, early administration of AMPAR agonists after stroke increases stroke damage. These findings indicate that the role of glutamate signaling through the AMPAR changes over time in stroke: early potentiation of AMPAR signaling worsens stroke damage, whereas later potentiation of the same signaling system improves functional recovery.

  16. Overexpression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the hippocampus protects against post-stroke depression.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao-Hao; Zhang, Ning; Li, Wei-Yun; Fang, Ma-Rong; Zhang, Hui; Fang, Yuan-Shu; Ding, Ming-Xing; Fu, Xiao-Yan

    2015-09-01

    Post-stroke depression is associated with reduced expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). In this study, we evaluated whether BDNF overexpression affects depression-like behavior in a rat model of post-stroke depression. The middle cerebral artery was occluded to produce a model of focal cerebral ischemia. These rats were then subjected to isolation-housing combined with chronic unpredictable mild stress to generate a model of post-stroke depression. A BDNF gene lentiviral vector was injected into the hippocampus. At 7 days after injection, western blot assay and real-time quantitative PCR revealed that BDNF expression in the hippocampus was increased in depressive rats injected with BDNF lentivirus compared with depressive rats injected with control vector. Furthermore, sucrose solution consumption was higher, and horizontal and vertical movement scores were increased in the open field test in these rats as well. These findings suggest that BDNF overexpression in the hippocampus of post-stroke depressive rats alleviates depression-like behaviors.

  17. Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor Promotes the Migration of Olfactory Ensheathing Cells Through TRPC Channels.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Teng, Hong-Lin; Gao, Yuan; Zhang, Fan; Ding, Yu-Qiang; Huang, Zhi-Hui

    2016-12-01

    Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) are a unique type of glial cells with axonal growth-promoting properties in the olfactory system. Organized migration of OECs is essential for neural regeneration and olfactory development. However, the molecular mechanism of OEC migration remains unclear. In the present study, we examined the effects of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) on OEC migration. Initially, the "scratch" migration assay, the inverted coverslip and Boyden chamber migration assays showed that BDNF could promote the migration of primary cultured OECs. Furthermore, BDNF gradient attracted the migration of OECs in single-cell migration assays. Mechanistically, TrkB receptor expressed in OECs mediated BDNF-induced OEC migration, and BDNF triggered calcium signals in OECs. Finally, transient receptor potential cation channels (TRPCs) highly expressed in OECs were responsible for BDNF-induced calcium signals, and required for BDNF-induced OEC migration. Taken together, these results demonstrate that BDNF promotes the migration of cultured OECs and an unexpected finding is that TRPCs are required for BDNF-induced OEC migration. GLIA 2016;64:2154-2165.

  18. Visualizing changes in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression using bioluminescence imaging in living mice.

    PubMed

    Fukuchi, Mamoru; Izumi, Hironori; Mori, Hisashi; Kiyama, Masahiro; Otsuka, Satoshi; Maki, Shojiro; Maehata, Yosuke; Tabuchi, Akiko; Tsuda, Masaaki

    2017-07-10

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a fundamental role in expressing various neural functions including memory consolidation. Alterations of BDNF levels in the brain are associated with neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders. Therefore, it is important to understand how levels of BDNF are controlled. Recently we generated a novel transgenic mouse strain, termed the Bdnf-Luciferase transgenic (Bdnf-Luc Tg) mouse, to monitor changes in Bdnf expression. In the present study, we detected the bioluminescence signal from living Bdnf-Luc Tg mice after intraperitoneal administration of d-luciferin. Despite high levels of Bdnf expression in the brain, it was difficult to detect a signal from the brain region, probably because of its poorly penetrable (short-wavelength) bioluminescence. However, we could detect the changes in the bioluminescence signal in the brain region using a luciferin analogue generating a near-infrared wavelength of bioluminescence. We also found a strong correlation between increases in body weight and bioluminescence signal in the abdominal region of Tg mice fed a high-fat diet. These results show that changes in Bdnf expression can be visualized using living mice, and that the Tg mouse could be a powerful tool for clarification of the role of Bdnf expression in pathophysiological and physiological conditions.

  19. Sex and stress hormone influences on the expression and activity of brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

    PubMed

    Carbone, D L; Handa, R J

    2013-06-03

    The neurotrophin, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), is recognized as a key component in the regulation of CNS ontogeny, homeostasis and adult neuroplasticity. The importance of BDNF in CNS development and function is well documented by numerous reports from animal studies linking abnormal BDNF signaling to metabolic disturbances and anxiety or depressive-like behavior. Despite the diverse roles for BDNF in nearly all aspects of CNS physiology, the regulation of BDNF expression, as well as our understanding of the signaling mechanisms associated with this neurotrophin, remains incomplete. However, links between sex hormones such as estradiol and testosterone, as well as endogenous and synthetic glucocorticoids (GCs), have emerged as important mediators of BDNF expression and function. Examples of such regulation include brain region-specific induction of Bdnf mRNA in response to estradiol. Additional studies have also documented regulation of the expression of the high-affinity BDNF receptor Tropomyosin-Related Kinase B by estradiol, thus implicating sex steroids not only in the regulation of BDNF expression, but also in mechanisms of signaling associated with it. In addition to gonadal steroids, further evidence also suggests functional interaction between BDNF and GCs, such as in the regulation of corticotrophin-releasing hormone and other important neuropeptides. In this review, we provide an overview of the roles played by selected sex or stress hormones in the regulation of BDNF expression and signaling in the CNS.

  20. Supraspinal brain-derived neurotrophic factor signaling: a novel mechanism for descending pain facilitation.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wei; Robbins, Meredith T; Wei, Feng; Zou, Shiping; Dubner, Ronald; Ren, Ke

    2006-01-04

    In the adult mammalian brain, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is critically involved in long-term synaptic plasticity. Here, we show that supraspinal BDNF-tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrkB) signaling contributes to pain facilitation. We show that BDNF-containing neurons in the periaqueductal gray (PAG), the central structure for pain modulation, project to and release BDNF in the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM), a relay between the PAG and spinal cord. BDNF in PAG and TrkB phosphorylation in RVM neurons are upregulated after inflammation. Intra-RVM sequestration of BDNF and knockdown of TrkB by RNA interference attenuate inflammatory pain. Microinjection of BDNF (10-100 fmol) into the RVM facilitates nociception, which is dependent on NMDA receptors (NMDARs). In vitro studies with RVM slices show that BDNF induces tyrosine phosphorylation of the NMDAR NR2A subunit in RVM via a signal transduction cascade involving IP(3), PKC, and Src. The supraspinal BDNF-TrkB signaling represents a previously unknown mechanism underlying the development of persistent pain. Our findings also caution that application of BDNF for recovery from CNS disorders could lead to undesirable central pain.

  1. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor regulates cholesterol metabolism for synapse development.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Shingo; Kiyosue, Kazuyuki; Hazama, Shunsuke; Ogura, Akihiko; Kashihara, Megumi; Hara, Tomoko; Koshimizu, Hisatsugu; Kojima, Masami

    2007-06-13

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) exerts multiple biological functions in the CNS. Although BDNF can control transcription and protein synthesis, it still remains open to question whether BDNF regulates lipid biosynthesis. Here we show that BDNF elicits cholesterol biosynthesis in cultured cortical and hippocampal neurons. Importantly, BDNF elicited cholesterol synthesis in neurons, but not in glial cells. Quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR revealed that BDNF stimulated the transcription of enzymes in the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway. BDNF-induced cholesterol increases were blocked by specific inhibitors of cholesterol synthesis, mevastatin and zaragozic acid, suggesting that BDNF stimulates de novo synthesis of cholesterol rather than the incorporation of extracellular cholesterol. Because cholesterol is a major component of lipid rafts, we investigated whether BDNF would increase the cholesterol content in lipid rafts or nonraft membrane domains. Interestingly, the BDNF-mediated increase in cholesterol occurred in rafts, but not in nonrafts, suggesting that BDNF promotes the development of neuronal lipid rafts. Consistent with this notion, BDNF raised the level of the lipid raft marker protein caveolin-2 in rafts. Remarkably, BDNF increased the levels of presynaptic proteins in lipid rafts, but not in nonrafts. An electrophysiological study revealed that BDNF-dependent cholesterol biosynthesis plays an important role for the development of a readily releasable pool of synaptic vesicles. Together, these results suggest a novel role for BDNF in cholesterol metabolism and synapse development.

  2. The role of dorsal root ganglia activation and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wenjun; Frost, Emma E; Begum, Farhana; Vora, Parvez; Au, Kelvin; Gong, Yuewen; MacNeil, Brian; Pillai, Prakash; Namaka, Mike

    2012-08-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by focal destruction of the white matter of the brain and spinal cord. The exact mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of the disease are unknown. Many studies have shown that MS is predominantly an autoimmune disease with an inflammatory phase followed by a demyelinating phase. Recent studies alongside current treatment strategies, including glatiramer acetate, have revealed a potential role for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in MS. However, the exact role of BDNF is not fully understood. We used the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model of MS in adolescent female Lewis rats to identify the role of BDNF in disease progression. Dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and spinal cords were harvested for protein and gene expression analysis every 3 days post-disease induction (pdi) up to 15 days. We show significant increases in BDNF protein and gene expression in the DRG of EAE animals at 12 dpi, which correlates with peak neurological disability. BDNF protein expression in the spinal cord was significantly increased at 12 dpi, and maintained at 15 dpi. However, there was no significant change in mRNA levels. We show evidence for the anterograde transport of BDNF protein from the DRG to the dorsal horn of the spinal cord via the dorsal roots. Increased levels of BDNF within the DRG and spinal cord in EAE may facilitate myelin repair and neuroprotection in the CNS. The anterograde transport of DRG-derived BDNF to the spinal cord may have potential implications in facilitating central myelin repair and neuroprotection.

  3. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and glucocorticoids: reciprocal influence on the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Numakawa, T; Adachi, N; Richards, M; Chiba, S; Kunugi, H

    2013-06-03

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has multiple roles in the central nervous system (CNS), including maintaining cell survival and regulation of synaptic function. In CNS neurons, BDNF triggers activation of phospholipase Cγ (PLCγ), mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MAPK/ERK), and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathways, influencing neuronal cells beneficially through these intracellular signaling cascades. There is evidence to suggest that decreased BDNF expression or function is related to the pathophysiology of brain diseases including psychiatric disorders. Additionally, glucocorticoids, which are critical stress hormones, also influence neuronal function in the CNS, and are putatively involved in the onset of depression when levels are abnormally high. In animal models of depression, changes in glucocorticoid levels, expression of glucocorticoid receptor (GR), and alterations in BDNF signaling are observed. Interestingly, several studies using in vivo and in vitro systems suggest that glucocorticoids interact with BDNF to ultimately affect CNS function. In the present review, we provide an overview of recent evidence concerning the interaction between BDNF and glucocorticoids.

  4. Microglia promote learning-dependent synapse formation through brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

    PubMed

    Parkhurst, Christopher N; Yang, Guang; Ninan, Ipe; Savas, Jeffrey N; Yates, John R; Lafaille, Juan J; Hempstead, Barbara L; Littman, Dan R; Gan, Wen-Biao

    2013-12-19

    Microglia are the resident macrophages of the CNS, and their functions have been extensively studied in various brain pathologies. The physiological roles of microglia in brain plasticity and function, however, remain unclear. To address this question, we generated CX3CR1(CreER) mice expressing tamoxifen-inducible Cre recombinase that allow for specific manipulation of gene function in microglia. Using CX3CR1(CreER) to drive diphtheria toxin receptor expression in microglia, we found that microglia could be specifically depleted from the brain upon diphtheria toxin administration. Mice depleted of microglia showed deficits in multiple learning tasks and a significant reduction in motor-learning-dependent synapse formation. Furthermore, Cre-dependent removal of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) from microglia largely recapitulated the effects of microglia depletion. Microglial BDNF increases neuronal tropomyosin-related kinase receptor B phosphorylation, a key mediator of synaptic plasticity. Together, our findings reveal that microglia serve important physiological functions in learning and memory by promoting learning-related synapse formation through BDNF signaling.

  5. Effect of different anesthesia techniques on the serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels.

    PubMed

    Ozer, A B; Demirel, I; Erhan, O L; Firdolas, F; Ustundag, B

    2015-10-01

    Serum Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) levels are associated with neurotransmission and cognitive functions. The goal of this study was to examine the effect of general anesthesia on BDNF levels. It was also to reveal whether this effect had a relationship with the surgical stress response or not. The study included 50 male patients, age 20-40, who were scheduled to have inguinoscrotal surgery, and who were in the ASA I-II risk group. The patients were divided into two groups according to the anesthesia techniques used: general (GA) and spinal (SA). In order to measure serum BDNF, cortisol, insulin and glucose levels, blood samples were taken at four different times: before and after anesthesia, end of the surgery, and before transferal from the recovery room. Serum BDNF levels were significantly low (p < 0.01), cortisol and glucose levels were higher (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01) in Group GA compared with Group SA. No significant difference was detected between the groups in terms of serum insulin levels. There was no correlation between serum BDNF and the stress hormones. Our findings suggested that general anesthetics had an effect on serum BDNF levels independent of the stress response. In future, BDNF could be used as biochemical parameters of anesthesia levels, but studies with a greater scope should be carried out to present the relationship between anesthesia and neurotrophins.

  6. Abundant Production of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor by Adult Visceral Epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Lommatzsch, Marek; Braun, Armin; Mannsfeldt, Anne; Botchkarev, Vladimir A.; Botchkareva, Natalia V.; Paus, Ralf; Fischer, Axel; Lewin, Gary R.; Renz, Harald

    1999-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a crucial role for the survival of visceral sensory neurons during development. However, the physiological sources and the function of BDNF in the adult viscera are poorly described. We have investigated the cellular sources and the potential role of BDNF in adult murine viscera. We found markedly different amounts of BDNF protein in different organs. Surprisingly, BDNF levels in the urinary bladder, lung, and colon were higher than those found in the brain or skin. In situ hybridization experiments revealed that BDNF mRNA was made by visceral epithelial cells, several types of smooth muscle, and neurons of the myenteric plexus. Epithelia that expressed BDNF lacked both the high- and low-affinity receptors for BDNF, trkB and p75NTR. In contrast, both receptors were present on neurons of the peripheral nervous system. Studies with BDNF−/−mice demonstrated that epithelial and smooth muscle cells developed normally in the absence of BDNF. These data provide evidence that visceral epithelia are a major source, but not a target, of BDNF in the adult viscera. The abundance of BDNF protein in certain internal organs suggests that this neurotrophin may regulate the function of adult visceral sensory and motor neurons. PMID:10514401

  7. Peripheral Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor Precursor Regulates Pain as an Inflammatory Mediator

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Cong; Zhong, Xiao-Lin; Zhou, Fiona H.; Li, Jia-yi; Zhou, Pei; Xu, Jun-Mei; Song, Bo; Li, Chang-Qi; Zhou, Xin-Fu; Dai, Ru-Ping

    2016-01-01

    The precursor of brain derived neurotrophic factor (proBDNF), the unprocessed BDNF gene product, binds to its receptors and exerts the opposing biologic functions of mature BDNF. proBDNF is expressed in the peripheral tissues but the functions of peripheral proBDNF remain elusive. Here we showed that proBDNF and its predominant receptor, p75 pan-neurotrophin receptor were upregulated in the nerve fibers and inflammatory cells in the local tissue in inflammatory pain. Neutralization of proBDNF by polyclonal antibody attenuated pain in different models of inflammatory pain. Unilateral intra-plantar supplementation of proBDNF by injecting exogenous proBDNF or ectopic overexpression resulted in pain hypersensitivity and induced spinal phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation. Exogenous proBDNF injection induced the infiltration of inflammatory cells and the activation of proinflammatory cytokines, suggesting that inflammatory reaction contributed to the pro-algesic effect of proBDNF. Finally, we generated monoclonal anti-proBDNF antibody that could biologically block proBDNF. Administration of monoclonal Ab-proBDNF attenuated various types of inflammatory pain and surgical pain. Thus, peripheral proBDNF is a potential pain mediator and anti-proBDNF pretreatment may alleviate the development of inflammatory pain. PMID:27251195

  8. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor protects against tau-related neurodegeneration of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Jiao, S-S; Shen, L-L; Zhu, C; Bu, X-L; Liu, Y-H; Liu, C-H; Yao, X-Q; Zhang, L-L; Zhou, H-D; Walker, D G; Tan, J; Götz, J; Zhou, X-F; Wang, Y-J

    2016-10-04

    Reduced expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has a crucial role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), which is characterized with the formation of neuritic plaques consisting of amyloid-beta (Aβ) and neurofibrillary tangles composed of hyperphosphorylated tau protein. A growing body of evidence indicates a potential protective effect of BDNF against Aβ-induced neurotoxicity in AD mouse models. However, the direct therapeutic effect of BDNF supplement on tauopathy in AD remains to be established. Here, we found that the BDNF level was reduced in the serum and brain of AD patients and P301L transgenic mice (a mouse model of tauopathy). Intralateral ventricle injection of adeno-associated virus carrying the gene encoding human BDNF (AAV-BDNF) achieved stable expression of BDNF gene and restored the BDNF level in the brains of P301L mice. Restoration of the BDNF level attenuated behavioral deficits, prevented neuron loss, alleviated synaptic degeneration and reduced neuronal abnormality, but did not affect tau hyperphosphorylation level in the brains of P301L mice. Long-term expression of AAV-BDNF in the brain was well tolerated by the mice. These findings suggest that the gene delivery of BDNF is a promising treatment for tau-related neurodegeneration for AD and other neurodegenerative disorders with tauopathy.

  9. Methamphetamine self-administration attenuates hippocampal serotonergic deficits: Role of brain derived neurotrophic factor

    PubMed Central

    McFadden, Lisa M.; Vieira-Brock, Paula L.; Hanson, Glen R.; Fleckenstein, Annette E.

    2014-01-01

    Preclinical studies suggest that prior treatment with escalating doses of methamphetamine (METH) attenuates the persistent deficits in hippocampal serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5HT) transporter (SERT) function resulting from a subsequent “binge” METH exposure. Previous work also demonstrates that brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) exposure increases SERT function. The current study investigated changes in hippocampal BDNF protein and SERT function in rats exposed to saline or METH self-administration prior to a binge exposure to METH or saline. Results revealed that METH self-administration increased hippocampal mature BDNF (mBDNF) immunoreactivity compared to saline-treated rats as assessed 24 h after the start of the last session. Further, mBDNF immunoreactivity was increased and SERT function was not altered at this timepoint in rats that self-administered METH prior to the binge METH exposure. These results suggest that prior exposure to contingent METH increases hippocampal mBDNF, and this may contribute to attenuated deficits in SERT function. PMID:24650575

  10. Synergetic effects of ciliary neurotrophic factor and olfactory ensheathing cells on optic nerve reparation (complete translation)

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Dan-ping; Chen, Qing-ying; Liu, Lin

    2016-01-01

    At present, there is no effective treatment for the repair of the optic nerve after injury, or improvement of its microenvironment for regeneration. Intravitreally injected ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) promote the long-distance regrowth of severed optic nerve fibers after intracranial injury. Here, we examined the efficacy of these techniques alone and in combination, in a rat model of optic nerve injury. We injected condensed OEC suspension at the site of injury, or CNTF into the vitreous body, or both simultaneously. Retrograde tracing techniques showed that 4 weeks postoperatively, the number of surviving retinal ganglion cells and their axonal density in the optic nerve were greater in rats subjected to OEC injection only than in those receiving CNTF injection only. Furthermore, combined OEC + CNTF injection achieved better results than either monotherapy. These findings confirm that OECs are better than CNTF at protecting injured neurons in the eye, but that combined OEC and CNTF therapy is notably more effective than either treatment alone. PMID:27482233

  11. Elevated expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor facilitates visual imprinting in chicks.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Keiko; Maekawa, Fumihiko; Suzuki, Shingo; Nakamori, Tomoharu; Sugiyama, Hayato; Kanamatsu, Tomoyuki; Tanaka, Kohichi; Ohki-Hamazaki, Hiroko

    2012-12-01

    With the aim of elucidating the neural mechanisms of early learning, we studied the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in visual imprinting in birds. The telencephalic neural circuit connecting the visual Wulst and intermediate medial mesopallium is critical for imprinting, and the core region of the hyperpallium densocellulare (HDCo), situated at the center of this circuit, has a key role in regulating the activity of the circuit. We found that the number of BDNF mRNA-positive cells in the HDCo was elevated during the critical period, particularly at its onset, on the day of hatching (P0). After imprinting training on P1, BDNF mRNA-positive cells in the HDCo increased in number, and tyrosine phosphorylation of TrkB was observed. BDNF infusion into the HDCo at P1 induced imprinting, even with a weak training protocol that does not normally induce imprinting. In contrast, K252a, an antagonist of Trk, inhibited imprinting. Injection of BDNF at P7, after the critical period, did not elicit imprinting. These results suggest that BDNF promotes the induction of imprinting through TrkB exclusively during the critical period. © 2012 The Authors Journal of Neurochemistry © 2012 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  12. Pro-region engineering for improved yeast display and secretion of brain derived neurotrophic factor.

    PubMed

    Burns, Michael L; Malott, Thomas M; Metcalf, Kevin J; Puguh, Arthya; Chan, Jonah R; Shusta, Eric V

    2016-03-01

    Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a promising therapeutic candidate for a variety of neurological diseases. However, it is difficult to produce as a recombinant protein. In its native mammalian context, BDNF is first produced as a pro-protein with subsequent proteolytic removal of the pro-region to yield mature BDNF protein. Therefore, in an attempt to improve yeast as a host for heterologous BDNF production, the BDNF pro-region was first evaluated for its effects on BDNF surface display and secretion. Addition of the wild-type pro-region to yeast BDNF production constructs improved BDNF folding both as a surface-displayed and secreted protein in terms of binding its natural receptors TrkB and p75, but titers remained low. Looking to further enhance the chaperone-like functions provided by the pro-region, two rounds of directed evolution were performed, yielding mutated pro-regions that further improved the display and secretion properties of BDNF. Subsequent optimization of the protease recognition site was used to control whether the produced protein was in pro- or mature BDNF forms. Taken together, we have demonstrated an effective strategy for improving BDNF compatibility with yeast protein engineering and secretion platforms. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor gene polymorpisms affect severity and functionality of bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Safari, Roghaiyeh; Tunca, Zeliha; Özerdem, Ayşegül; Ceylan, Deniz; Yalçın, Yaprak; Sakizli, Meral

    2017-01-01

    Glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor and other neurotrophins have important role in the development of mental disorders. Here, we aimed to assess the effects of Single nucleotide polymorphisms at potentially regulated regions of GDNF on severity and functionality of bipolar disorder and GDNF serum levels in bipolar disorder patients and healthy volunteers. Severity and functionality of bipolar disorder were evaluated using the Clinical Global Impression and Global Assessment of Functioning scales in sixty-six bipolar disorder patients. The GDNF serum levels obtained from bipolar disorder patients and healthy volunteers who had been already reported SNPs information by our group. GAF scales were lower and GDNF serum levels were higher in Bipolar disorder patients with T/A genotype at 5:37812784 and 5:37812782 compared to patients with T/T genotype. There were significant difference in severity and functionality scores, but not in GDNF serum levels, between patients with G/G and G/A genotype of rs62360370 G > A SNP.rs2075680 C > A and rs79669773 T > C SNPs had no effect on bipolar disorder severity and functionality scores and GDNF serum levels. The results suggest that some SNPs of GDNF have potential association with severity and functionality of bipolar disorder. In addition, except two SNPs, none of GDNF SNPs had association with GDNF serum levels.

  14. A critical threshold of rehabilitation involving brain-derived neurotrophic factor is required for poststroke recovery.

    PubMed

    MacLellan, Crystal L; Keough, Michael B; Granter-Button, Shirley; Chernenko, Garry A; Butt, Stephanie; Corbett, Dale

    2011-10-01

    Enriched rehabilitation (ER; environmental enrichment plus skilled reaching) improves recovery after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) in rats. Fundamental issues such as whether ER is effective in other models, optimal rehabilitation intensity, and underlying recovery mechanisms have not been fully assessed. The authors tested whether the efficacy of ER varies with ischemia model and assessed the importance of rehabilitation intensity and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in recovery. Rats in experiment 1 received 8 weeks of ER or remained in standard housing. Functional outcome was assessed with the staircase and cylinder tasks. Surprisingly, ER provided no functional benefit in any model. In this experiment, ER was delivered during the light phase, whereas other studies delivered ER in the dark phase of the light cycle. It was hypothesized that in the light, rats engaged in less rehabilitation or alternatively that BDNF was lower. Experiment 2 tested these hypotheses. Following MCAo, rats received ER in either the light or dark phase of the light cycle. Functional outcome was assessed and BDNF levels were measured in the motor cortex and hippocampus. Recovery was accompanied by increased BDNF. This occurred only in rats that received ER in the dark and these animals reached more than those in the light condition. Data suggest that there is a critical threshold of rehabilitation, below which recovery will not occur, and that BDNF mediates functional recovery. The use of intensive rehabilitation therapies for stroke patients is strongly supported.

  15. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor promoter methylation and cortical thickness in recurrent major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Na, Kyoung-Sae; Won, Eunsoo; Kang, June; Chang, Hun Soo; Yoon, Ho-Kyoung; Tae, Woo Suk; Kim, Yong-Ku; Lee, Min-Soo; Joe, Sook-Haeng; Kim, Hyun; Ham, Byung-Joo

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have reported that methylation of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene promoter is associated with major depressive disorder (MDD). This study aimed to investigate the association between cortical thickness and methylation of BDNF promoters as well as serum BDNF levels in MDD. The participants consisted of 65 patients with recurrent MDD and 65 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Methylation of BDNF promoters and cortical thickness were compared between the groups. The right medial orbitofrontal, right lingual, right lateral occipital, left lateral orbitofrontal, left pars triangularis, and left lingual cortices were thinner in patients with MDD than in healthy controls. Among the MDD group, right pericalcarine, right medical orbitofrontal, right rostral middle frontal, right postcentral, right inferior temporal, right cuneus, right precuneus, left frontal pole, left superior frontal, left superior temporal, left rostral middle frontal and left lingual cortices had inverse correlations with methylation of BDNF promoters. Higher levels of BDNF promoter methylation may be closely associated with the reduced cortical thickness among patients with MDD. Serum BDNF levels were significantly lower in MDD, and showed an inverse relationship with BDNF methylation only in healthy controls. Particularly the prefrontal and occipital cortices seem to indicate key regions in which BDNF methylation has a significant effect on structure. PMID:26876488

  16. Genetic variation in brain-derived neurotrophic factor and human fear conditioning.

    PubMed

    Hajcak, G; Castille, C; Olvet, D M; Dunning, J P; Roohi, J; Hatchwell, E

    2009-02-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been implicated in hippocampal-dependent learning processes, and carriers of the Met allele of the Val66Met BDNF genotype are characterized by reduced hippocampal structure and function. Recent nonhuman animal work suggests that BDNF is also crucial for amygdala-dependent associative learning. The present study sought to examine fear conditioning as a function of the BDNF polymorphism. Fifty-seven participants were genotyped for the BDNF polymorphism and took part in a differential-conditioning paradigm. Participants were shocked following a particular conditioned stimulus (CS+) and were also presented with stimuli that ranged in perceptual similarity to the CS+ (20, 40 or 60% smaller or larger than the CS+). The eye blink component of the startle response was measured to quantify fear conditioning; post-task shock likelihood ratings for each stimulus were also obtained. All participants reported that shock likelihood varied with perceptual similarity to the CS+ and showed potentiated startle in response to CS +/- 20% stimuli. However, only the Val/Val group had potentiated startle responses to the CS+. Met allele carrying individuals were characterized by deficient fear conditioning--evidenced by an attenuated startle response to CS+ stimuli. Variation in the BDNF genotype appears related to abnormal fear conditioning, consistent with nonhuman animal work on the importance of BDNF in amygdala-dependent associative learning. The relation between genetic variation in BDNF and amygdala-dependent associative learning deficits is discussed in terms of potential mechanisms of risk for psychopathology.

  17. Post-traumatic stress disorder risk and brain-derived neurotrophic factor Val66Met

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Li, Xiao-Xia; Hu, Xian-Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which regulates neuronal survival, growth differentiation, and synapse formation, is known to be associated with depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the molecular mechanism for those mental disorders remains unknown. Studies have shown that BDNF is associated with PTSD risk and exaggerated startle reaction (a major arousal manifestation of PTSD) in United States military service members who were deployed during the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. The frequency of the Met/Met in BDNF gene was greater among those with PTSD than those without PTSD. Among individuals who experienced fewer lifetime stressful events, the Met carriers have significantly higher total and startle scores on the PTSD Checklist than the Val/Val carriers. In addition, subjects with PTSD showed higher levels of BDNF in their peripheral blood plasma than the non-probable-PTSD controls. Increased BDNF levels and startle response were observed in both blood plasma and brain hippocampus by inescapable tail shock in rats. In this paper, we reviewed these data to discuss BDNF as a potential biomarker for PTSD risk and its possible roles in the onset of PTSD. PMID:27014593

  18. Zinc-triggered induction of tissue plasminogen activator by brain-derived neurotrophic factor and metalloproteinases.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Ih-Yeon; Sun, Eun-Sun; An, Ji Hak; Im, Hana; Lee, Sun-Ho; Lee, Joo-Yong; Han, Pyung-Lim; Koh, Jae-Young; Kim, Yang-Hee

    2011-09-01

    Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is necessary for hippocampal long-term potentiation. Synaptically released zinc also contributes to long-term potentiation, especially in the hippocampal CA3 region. Using cortical cultures, we examined whether zinc increased the concentration and/or activity of tPA. Two hours after a 10-min exposure to 300 μM zinc, expression of tPA and its substrate, plasminogen, were significantly increased, as was the proteolytic activity of tPA. In contrast, increasing extracellular or intracellular calcium levels did not affect the expression or secretion of tPA. Changing zinc influx or chelating intracellular zinc also failed to alter tPA/plasminogen induction by zinc, indicating that zinc acts extracellularly. Zinc-mediated extracellular activation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) underlies the up-regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tropomyosin receptor kinase (Trk) signaling. Consistent with these findings, co-treatment with a neutralizing antibody against BDNF or specific inhibitors of MMPs or Trk largely reversed tPA/plasminogen induction by zinc. Treatment of cortical cultures with p-aminophenylmercuric acetate, an MMP activator, MMP-2, or BDNF alone induced tPA/plasminogen expression. BDNF mRNA and protein expression was also increased by zinc and mediated by MMPs. Thus, an extracellular zinc-dependent, MMP- and BDNF-mediated synaptic mechanism may regulate the levels and activity of tPA.

  19. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor-deficient mice exhibit a hippocampal hyperserotonergic phenotype.

    PubMed

    Guiard, Bruno P; David, Denis J P; Deltheil, Thierry; Chenu, Franck; Le Maître, Erwan; Renoir, Thibault; Leroux-Nicollet, Isabelle; Sokoloff, Pierre; Lanfumey, Laurence; Hamon, Michel; Andrews, Anne M; Hen, René; Gardier, Alain M

    2008-02-01

    Growing evidence supports the involvement of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in mood disorders and the mechanism of action of antidepressant drugs. However, the relationship between BDNF and serotonergic signalling is poorly understood. Heterozygous mutants BDNF +/- mice were utilized to investigate the influence of BDNF on the serotonin (5-HT) system and the activity of the serotonin transporter (SERT) in the hippocampus. The zero net flux method of quantitative microdialysis revealed that BDNF +/- heterozygous mice have increased basal extracellular 5-HT levels in the hippocampus and decreased 5-HT reuptake capacity. In keeping with these results, the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor paroxetine failed to increase hippocampal extracellular 5-HT levels in BDNF +/- mice while it produced robust effects in wild-type littermates. Using in-vitro autoradiography and synaptosome techniques, we investigated the causes of attenuated 5-HT reuptake in BDNF +/- mice. A significant decrease in [3H]citalopram-binding-site density in the CA3 subregion of the ventral hippocampus and a significant reduction in [3H]5-HT uptake in hippocampal synaptosomes, revealed mainly a decrease in SERT function. However, 5-HT1A autoreceptors were not desensitized in BDNF +/- mice. These results provide evidence that constitutive reductions in BDNF modulate SERT function reuptake in the hippocampus.

  20. Serotonin regulates brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in select brain regions during acute psychological stress.

    PubMed

    Jiang, De-Guo; Jin, Shi-Li; Li, Gong-Ying; Li, Qing-Qing; Li, Zhi-Ruo; Ma, Hong-Xia; Zhuo, Chuan-Jun; Jiang, Rong-Huan; Ye, Min-Jie

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies suggest that serotonin (5-HT) might interact with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) during the stress response. However, the relationship between 5-HT and BDNF expression under purely psychological stress is unclear. In this study, one hour before psychological stress exposure, the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT or antagonist MDL73005, or the 5-HT2A receptor agonist DOI or antagonist ketanserin were administered to rats exposed to psychological stress. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization revealed that after psychological stress, with the exception of the ventral tegmental area, BDNF protein and mRNA expression levels were higher in the 5-HT1A and the 5-HT2A receptor agonist groups compared with the solvent control no-stress or psychological stress group in the CA1 and CA3 of the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, central amygdaloid nucleus, dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus, dentate gyrus, shell of the nucleus accumbens and the midbrain periaqueductal gray. There was no significant difference between the two agonist groups. In contrast, after stress exposure, BDNF protein and mRNA expression levels were lower in the 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptor antagonist groups than in the solvent control non-stress group, with the exception of the ventral tegmental area. Our findings suggest that 5-HT regulates BDNF expression in a rat model of acute psychological stress.

  1. Exercise influences hippocampal plasticity by modulating brain-derived neurotrophic factor processing.

    PubMed

    Ding, Q; Ying, Z; Gómez-Pinilla, F

    2011-09-29

    Exercise has been shown to impact brain plasticity and function by involving the action of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF); however, mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Two types of BDNF coexist in the brain, the precursor (proBDNF) and its mature product (mBDNF), which preferentially bind specific receptors and exert distinct functions. It is crucial to understand how exercise affects crucial steps in the BDNF processing and signaling to evaluate therapeutic applications. We found that 7 days of voluntary exercise increased both pro and mature BDNF in the rat hippocampus. Exercise also increased the activity of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA), a serine proteinase shown to facilitate proBDNF cleavage into mBDNF. The blockade of tPA activity reduced the exercise effects on proBDNF and mBDNF. The tPA blocking also inhibited the activation of TrkB receptor, and the TrkB signaling downstream effectors phospho-ERK, phospho-Akt, and phospho-CaMKII. The blocking of tPA also counteracted the effects of exercise on the plasticity markers phospho-synapsin I and growth-associated protein 43 (GAP-43). These results indicate that the effects of exercise on hippocampal plasticity are dependent on BDNF processing and subsequent TrkB signaling, with important implications for neuronal function.

  2. Evidence for a release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor from the brain during exercise.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Peter; Brassard, Patrice; Adser, Helle; Pedersen, Martin V; Leick, Lotte; Hart, Emma; Secher, Niels H; Pedersen, Bente K; Pilegaard, Henriette

    2009-10-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has an important role in regulating maintenance, growth and survival of neurons. However, the main source of circulating BDNF in response to exercise is unknown. To identify whether the brain is a source of BDNF during exercise, eight volunteers rowed for 4 h while simultaneous blood samples were obtained from the radial artery and the internal jugular vein. To further identify putative cerebral region(s) responsible for BDNF release, mouse brains were dissected and analysed for BDNF mRNA expression following treadmill exercise. In humans, a BDNF release from the brain was observed at rest (P < 0.05), and increased two- to threefold during exercise (P < 0.05). Both at rest and during exercise, the brain contributed 70-80% of circulating BDNF, while that contribution decreased following 1 h of recovery. In mice, exercise induced a three- to fivefold increase in BDNF mRNA expression in the hippocampus and cortex, peaking 2 h after the termination of exercise. These results suggest that the brain is a major but not the sole contributor to circulating BDNF. Moreover, the importance of the cortex and hippocampus as a source for plasma BDNF becomes even more prominent in response to exercise.

  3. Acute exercise ameliorates reduced brain-derived neurotrophic factor in patients with panic disorder.

    PubMed

    Ströhle, Andreas; Stoy, Meline; Graetz, Barbara; Scheel, Michael; Wittmann, André; Gallinat, Jürgen; Lang, Undine E; Dimeo, Fernando; Hellweg, Rainer

    2010-04-01

    The neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been implicated in depression and anxiety. Antidepressants and exercise increase BDNF expression, and both have an antidepressant and anxiolytic activity. To further characterize the association of anxiety, BDNF and exercise, we studied panic disorder patients (n=12) and individually matched healthy control subjects (n=12) in a standardized exercise paradigm. Serum samples for BDNF analyses were taken before and after 30min of exercise (70 VO(2max)) or quiet rest. The two conditions were separated by 1 week and the order was randomized. Non-parametric statistical analyses were performed. There was a negative correlation of BDNF concentrations and subjective arousal at baseline (r=-0.42, p=0.006). Compared to healthy control subjects, patients with panic disorder had significantly reduced BDNF concentrations at baseline and 30min of exercise significantly increased BDNF concentrations only in these patients. Our results suggest that acute exercise ameliorates reduced BDNF concentrations in panic disorder patients and raise the question whether this is also found after long-term exercise training and if it is related to the therapeutic outcome.

  4. The Effects of Acute Exercise on Memory and Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF).

    PubMed

    Etnier, Jennifer L; Wideman, Laurie; Labban, Jeffrey D; Piepmeier, Aaron T; Pendleton, Daniel M; Dvorak, Kelly K; Becofsky, Katie

    2016-08-01

    Acute exercise benefits cognition, and some evidence suggests that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a role in this effect. The purpose of this study was to explore the dose-response relationship between exercise intensity, memory, and BDNF. Young adults completed 3 exercise sessions at different intensities relative to ventilator threshold (Vt) (VO2max, Vt - 20%, Vt + 20%). For each session, participants exercised for approximately 30 min. Following exercise, they performed the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) to assess short-term memory, learning, and long-term memory recall. Twenty-four hours later, they completed the RAVLT recognition trial, which provided another measure of long-term memory. Blood was drawn before exercise, immediately postexercise, and after the 30-min recall test. Results indicated that long-term memory as assessed after the 24-hr delay differed as a function of exercise intensity with the largest benefits observed following maximal intensity exercise. BDNF data showed a significant increase in response to exercise; however, there were no differences relative to exercise intensity and there were no significant associations between BDNF and memory. Future research is warranted so that we can better understand how to use exercise to benefit cognitive performance.

  5. Human Obesity Associated with an Intronic SNP in the Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Locus.

    PubMed

    Mou, Zongyang; Hyde, Thomas M; Lipska, Barbara K; Martinowich, Keri; Wei, Peter; Ong, Chiew-Jen; Hunter, Lindsay A; Palaguachi, Gladys I; Morgun, Eva; Teng, Rujia; Lai, Chen; Condarco, Tania A; Demidowich, Andrew P; Krause, Amanda J; Marshall, Leslie J; Haack, Karin; Voruganti, V Saroja; Cole, Shelley A; Butte, Nancy F; Comuzzie, Anthony G; Nalls, Michael A; Zonderman, Alan B; Singleton, Andrew B; Evans, Michele K; Martin, Bronwen; Maudsley, Stuart; Tsao, Jack W; Kleinman, Joel E; Yanovski, Jack A; Han, Joan C

    2015-11-10

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a key role in energy balance. In population studies, SNPs of the BDNF locus have been linked to obesity, but the mechanism by which these variants cause weight gain is unknown. Here, we examined human hypothalamic BDNF expression in association with 44 BDNF SNPs. We observed that the minor C allele of rs12291063 is associated with lower human ventromedial hypothalamic BDNF expression (p < 0.001) and greater adiposity in both adult and pediatric cohorts (p values < 0.05). We further demonstrated that the major T allele for rs12291063 possesses a binding capacity for the transcriptional regulator, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein D0B, knockdown of which disrupts transactivation by the T allele. Binding and transactivation functions are both disrupted by substituting C for T. These findings provide a rationale for BDNF augmentation as a targeted treatment for obesity in individuals who have the rs12291063 CC genotype. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of brain-derived neurotrophic factor on dopaminergic function and motor behavior during aging

    PubMed Central

    Boger, Heather A.; Mannangatti, Padmanabhan; Samuvel, Devadoss J.; Saylor, Alicia J.; Bender, Tara S.; McGinty, Jacqueline F.; Fortress, Ashley M.; Zaman, Vandana; Huang, Peng; Middaugh, Lawrence D.; Randall, Patrick K.; Jayanthi, Lankupalle D.; Rohrer, Baerbel; Helke, Kristi L.; Granholm, Ann-Charlotte; Ramamoorthy, Sammanda

    2010-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is critical in synaptic plasticity and in the survival and function of midbrain dopamine neurons. In the present study, we assessed the effects of a partial genetic deletion of BDNF on motor function and dopamine (DA) neurotransmitter measures by comparing (Bdnf+/−) with wildtype mice (WT) at different ages. Bdnf+/ and WT mice had similar body weights until 12 months of age; however, at 21 months, Bdnf+/− mice were significantly heavier than WT mice. Horizontal and vertical motor activity was reduced for Bdnf+/− compared to WT mice; but was not influenced by Age. Performance on an accelerating rotarod declined with age for both genotypes and was exacerbated for Bdnf+/− mice. Body weight did not correlate with any of the three behavioral measures studied. DA neurotransmitter markers indicated no genotypic difference in striatal tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine transporter (DAT), or vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) immunoreactivity at any age. However, DA transport via DAT (starting at 12 months) and VMAT2 (starting at 3 months) as well as KCl-stimulated DA release were reduced in Bdnf+/− mice and declined with age suggesting an increasingly important role for BDNF in the release and uptake of DA with the aging process. These findings suggest that a BDNF expression deficit becomes more critical to dopaminergic dynamics and related behavioral activities with increasing age. PMID:20860702

  7. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor Val66Met polymorphism, human memory, and synaptic neuroplasticity.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Yvette N; McKay, Nicole S; Thompson, Christopher S; Hamm, Jeffrey P; Waldie, Karen E; Kirk, Ian J

    2015-01-01

    Some people have much better memory than others, and there is compelling evidence that a considerable proportion of this variation in memory ability is genetically inherited. A form of synaptic plasticity known as long-term potentiation (LTP) is the principal candidate mechanism underlying memory formation in neural circuits, and it might be expected, therefore, that a genetic influence on the degree of LTP might in turn influence memory abilities. Of the genetic variations thought to significantly influence mnemonic ability in humans, the most likely to have its effect via LTP is a single nucleotide polymorphism affecting brain-derived neurotrophic factor [BDNF (Val66Met)]. However, although it is likely that BDNF influences memory via a modulation of acute plasticity (i.e., LTP), BDNF also has considerable influence on structural development of neural systems. Thus, the influence of BDNF (Val66Met) on mnemonic performance via influences of brain structure as well as function must also be considered. In this brief review, we will describe the phenomenon of LTP and its study in non-human animals. We will discuss the relatively recent attempts to translate this work to studies in humans. We will describe how this has enabled investigation of the effect of the BDNF polymorphism on LTP, on brain structure, and on memory performance. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor into adult neocortex strengthens a taste aversion memory.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Moreno, Araceli; Rodríguez-Durán, Luis F; Escobar, Martha L

    2016-01-15

    Nowadays, it is known that brain derived neurotrophic-factor (BDNF) is a protein critically involved in regulating long-term memory related mechanisms. Previous studies from our group in the insular cortex (IC), a brain structure of the temporal lobe implicated in acquisition, consolidation and retention of conditioned taste aversion (CTA), demonstrated that BDNF is essential for CTA consolidation. Recent studies show that BDNF-TrkB signaling is able to mediate the enhancement of memory. However, whether BDNF into neocortex is able to enhance aversive memories remains unexplored. In the present work, we administrated BDNF in a concentration capable of inducing in vivo neocortical LTP, into the IC immediately after CTA acquisition in two different conditions: a "strong-CTA" induced by 0.2M lithium chloride i.p. as unconditioned stimulus, and a "weak-CTA" induced by 0.1M lithium chloride i.p. Our results show that infusion of BDNF into the IC converts a weak CTA into a strong one, in a TrkB receptor-dependent manner. The present data suggest that BDNF into the adult insular cortex is sufficient to increase an aversive memory-trace. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Sominone enhances neurite outgrowth and spatial memory mediated by the neurotrophic factor receptor, RET.

    PubMed

    Tohda, Chihiro; Joyashiki, Eri

    2009-08-01

    Orally administered withanoside IV (a compound isolated from the roots of Withania somnifera) improved memory deficits in mice with a model of Alzheimer's disease induced by the amyloid peptide Abeta(25-35). Sominone, an aglycone of withanoside IV, was identified as an active metabolite after oral administration of withanoside IV. We aimed to identify receptors or associated molecules of sominone, and to investigate the effects of sominone on memory in normal mice. Phosphorylation levels of 71 molecules were compared between control and sominone-stimulated cortical cultured cells to search for target molecules of sominone. Object location memory and neurite density in the brain were evaluated in sominone-injected mice. Phosphorylation of RET (a receptor for the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, GDNF) was increased in neurons by sominone, without affecting the synthesis and secretion of GDNF. Knockdown of RET prevented sominone-induced outgrowths of axons and dendrites. After a single i.p. injection of sominone into normal mice, they could better memorize scenery information than control mice. Sixty minutes after sominone injection, RET phosphorylation was increased, particularly in the hippocampus of mice. After the memory tests, the densities of axons and dendrites were increased in the hippocampus by sominone administration. Sominone could reinforce the morphological plasticity of neurons by activation of the RET pathway and thus enhance memory. Sominone, a compound with low molecular weight, may be a GDNF-independent stimulator of the RET pathway and/or a novel modulator of RET signalling.

  10. Opposite changes in the serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor in anorexia nervosa and obesity.

    PubMed

    Monteleone, Palmiero; Tortorella, Alfonso; Martiadis, Vassilis; Serritella, Cristina; Fuschino, Antonio; Maj, Mario

    2004-01-01

    A role for the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the regulation of eating behavior has been recently demonstrated. Therefore, the possibility exists that alterations in BDNF production and/or activity are involved in the pathophysiology of anorexia nervosa (AN) and obesity. We measured morning serum levels of BDNF in 22 women with AN, 24 women with obesity (body mass index [BMI] > 30 kg/m2), and 27 nonobese healthy women. All the subjects were drug-free and underwent a clinical assessment by means of rating scales measuring both eating-related psychopathology and depressive symptoms. As compared with the nonobese healthy controls, circulating BDNF was significantly reduced in AN patients and significantly increased in obese subjects. No significant difference was observed in serum BDNF concentrations between AN women with or without a comorbid depressive disorder. Moreover, serum BDNF levels were significantly and positively correlated with the subjects' body weight and BMI. The BDNF changes observed in AN and obesity are likely secondary adaptive mechanisms aimed at counteracting the change in energy balance that occurs in these syndromes.

  11. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor stimulates energy metabolism in developing cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Burkhalter, Julia; Fiumelli, Hubert; Allaman, Igor; Chatton, Jean-Yves; Martin, Jean-Luc

    2003-09-10

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) promotes the biochemical and morphological differentiation of selective populations of neurons during development. In this study we examined the energy requirements associated with the effects of BDNF on neuronal differentiation. Because glucose is the preferred energy substrate in the brain, the effect of BDNF on glucose utilization was investigated in developing cortical neurons via biochemical and imaging studies. Results revealed that BDNF increases glucose utilization and the expression of the neuronal glucose transporter GLUT3. Stimulation of glucose utilization by BDNF was shown to result from the activation of Na+/K+-ATPase via an increase in Na+ influx that is mediated, at least in part, by the stimulation of Na+-dependent amino acid transport. The increased Na+-dependent amino acid uptake by BDNF is followed by an enhancement of overall protein synthesis associated with the differentiation of cortical neurons. Together, these data demonstrate the ability of BDNF to stimulate glucose utilization in response to an enhanced energy demand resulting from increases in amino acid uptake and protein synthesis associated with the promotion of neuronal differentiation by BDNF.

  12. Effect of Training Exercise on Urinary Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor Levels and Cognitive Performances in Overweight and Obese Subjects: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Russo, Angelo; Buratta, Livia; Pippi, Roberto; Aiello, Cristina; Ranucci, Claudia; Reginato, Elisa; Santangelo, Valerio; DeFeo, Pierpaolo; Mazzeschi, Claudia

    2016-11-21

    Exercise-mediated, brain-derived neurotrophic factor induction benefits health and cognitive functions. The multifaceted interplay between physical activity, urinary brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels and cognitive functioning has been largely neglected in previous literature. In this pilot study, two bouts of training exercise (65% and 70% of heart rate reserve) influenced urinary brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels and cognitive performances in 12 overweight and obese participants. Percent heart rate reserve, expenditure energy, brain-derived neurotrophic factor urinary levels and cognitive performances were measured before and after the exercise. No significant variations in energy expenditure were observed, while differences of heart rate reserve between two groups were maintained. Both bouts of training exercise induced a similar reduction in urinary brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels. Only visuo-spatial working memory capacity at 65% of heart rate reserve showed a significant increase. These findings indicate a consistent effect of training exercise on urinary brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels and cognitive factors in overweight and obese participants.

  13. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor serum concentrations in acute depressive patients increase during lithium augmentation of antidepressants.

    PubMed

    Ricken, Roland; Adli, Mazda; Lange, Claudia; Krusche, Esther; Stamm, Thomas J; Gaus, Sebastian; Koehler, Stephan; Nase, Sarah; Bschor, Tom; Richter, Christoph; Steinacher, Bruno; Heinz, Andreas; Rapp, Michael A; Borgwardt, Stefan; Hellweg, Rainer; Lang, Undine E

    2013-12-01

    In recent years, lithium has proved an effective augmentation strategy of antidepressants in both acute and treatment-resistant depression. Neuroprotective and procognitive effects of lithium have been evidenced. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been shown to play a key role in the pathophysiology of several neurological and psychiatric disorders. The BDNF hypothesis of depression postulates that a loss of BDNF is directly involved in the pathophysiology of depression, and its restoration may underlie the therapeutic efficacy of antidepressant treatments. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor serum concentrations were measured in a total of 83 acutely depressed patients before and after 4 weeks of lithium augmentation. A significant BDNF increase has been found during treatment (F2,81 = 5.04, P < 0.05). Brain-derived neurotrophic factor concentrations at baseline correlated negatively with relative Hamilton Depression Scale change after treatment with lithium (n = 83; r = -0.23; P < 0.05). This is the first study showing that lithium augmentation of an antidepressant strategy can increase BDNF serum concentrations. Our study replicates previous findings showing that serum BDNF levels in patients with depressive episodes increase during effective antidepressant treatment. Further studies are needed to separate specific effects of different antidepressants on BDNF concentration and address potential BDNF downstream mechanisms.

  14. The impacts of swimming exercise on hippocampal expression of neurotrophic factors in rats exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Pei; Dang, Rui-Li; Li, Huan-De; Zhang, Li-Hong; Zhu, Wen-Ye; Xue, Ying; Tang, Mi-Mi

    2014-01-01

    Depression is associated with stress-induced neural atrophy in limbic brain regions, whereas exercise has antidepressant effects as well as increasing hippocampal synaptic plasticity by strengthening neurogenesis, metabolism, and vascular function. A key mechanism mediating these broad benefits of exercise on the brain is induction of neurotrophic factors, which instruct downstream structural and functional changes. To systematically evaluate the potential neurotrophic factors that were involved in the antidepressive effects of exercise, in this study, we assessed the effects of swimming exercise on hippocampal mRNA expression of several classes of the growth factors (BDNF, GDNF, NGF, NT-3, FGF2, VEGF, and IGF-1) and peptides (VGF and NPY) in rats exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). Our study demonstrated that the swimming training paradigm significantly induced the expression of BDNF and BDNF-regulated peptides (VGF and NPY) and restored their stress-induced downregulation. Additionally, the exercise protocol also increased the antiapoptotic Bcl-xl expression and normalized the CUMS mediated induction of proapoptotic Bax mRNA level. Overall, our data suggest that swimming exercise has antidepressant effects, increasing the resistance to the neural damage caused by CUMS, and both BDNF and its downstream neurotrophic peptides may exert a major function in the exercise related adaptive processes to CUMS.

  15. A novel cysteine-rich neurotrophic factor in Aplysia facilitates growth, MAPK activation, and long-term synaptic facilitation.

    PubMed

    Pu, Lu; Kopec, Ashley M; Boyle, Heather D; Carew, Thomas J

    2014-04-01

    Neurotrophins are critically involved in developmental processes such as neuronal cell survival, growth, and differentiation, as well as in adult synaptic plasticity contributing to learning and memory. Our previous studies examining neurotrophins and memory formation in Aplysia showed that a TrkB ligand is required for MAPK activation, long-term synaptic facilitation (LTF), and long-term memory (LTM) for sensitization. These studies indicate that neurotrophin-like molecules in Aplysia can act as key elements in a functionally conserved TrkB signaling pathway. Here we report that we have cloned and characterized a novel neurotrophic factor, Aplysia cysteine-rich neurotrophic factor (apCRNF), which shares classical structural and functional characteristics with mammalian neurotrophins. We show that apCRNF (1) is highly enriched in the CNS, (2) enhances neurite elongation and branching, (3) interacts with mammalian TrkB and p75(NTR), (4) is released from Aplysia CNS in an activity-dependent fashion, (5) facilitates MAPK activation in a tyrosine kinase dependent manner in response to sensitizing stimuli, and (6) facilitates the induction of LTF. These results show that apCRNF is a native neurotrophic factor in Aplysia that can engage the molecular and synaptic mechanisms underlying memory formation.

  16. Human umbilical cord blood-derived stem cells and brain-derived neurotrophic factor protect injured optic nerve: viscoelasticity characterization

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Xue-man; Liu, Yan; Wu, Fei; Yuan, Yi; Luo, Min

    2016-01-01

    The optic nerve is a viscoelastic solid-like biomaterial. Its normal stress relaxation and creep properties enable the nerve to resist constant strain and protect it from injury. We hypothesized that stress relaxation and creep properties of the optic nerve change after injury. More-over, human brain-derived neurotrophic factor or umbilical cord blood-derived stem cells may restore these changes to normal. To validate this hypothesis, a rabbit model of optic nerve injury was established using a clamp approach. At 7 days after injury, the vitreous body re-ceived a one-time injection of 50 μg human brain-derived neurotrophic factor or 1 × 106 human umbilical cord blood-derived stem cells. At 30 days after injury, stress relaxation and creep properties of the optic nerve that received treatment had recovered greatly, with patho-logical changes in the injured optic nerve also noticeably improved. These results suggest that human brain-derived neurotrophic factor or umbilical cord blood-derived stem cell intervention promotes viscoelasticity recovery of injured optic nerves, and thereby contributes to nerve recovery. PMID:27212930

  17. Human umbilical cord blood-derived stem cells and brain-derived neurotrophic factor protect injured optic nerve: viscoelasticity characterization.

    PubMed

    Lv, Xue-Man; Liu, Yan; Wu, Fei; Yuan, Yi; Luo, Min

    2016-04-01

    The optic nerve is a viscoelastic solid-like biomaterial. Its normal stress relaxation and creep properties enable the nerve to resist constant strain and protect it from injury. We hypothesized that stress relaxation and creep properties of the optic nerve change after injury. More-over, human brain-derived neurotrophic factor or umbilical cord blood-derived stem cells may restore these changes to normal. To validate this hypothesis, a rabbit model of optic nerve injury was established using a clamp approach. At 7 days after injury, the vitreous body re-ceived a one-time injection of 50 μg human brain-derived neurotrophic factor or 1 × 10(6) human umbilical cord blood-derived stem cells. At 30 days after injury, stress relaxation and creep properties of the optic nerve that received treatment had recovered greatly, with patho-logical changes in the injured optic nerve also noticeably improved. These results suggest that human brain-derived neurotrophic factor or umbilical cord blood-derived stem cell intervention promotes viscoelasticity recovery of injured optic nerves, and thereby contributes to nerve recovery.

  18. The effect of regular Taekwondo exercise on Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and Stroop test in undergraduate student.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngil

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Taekwondo exercise on Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and the Stroop test in undergraduate students. Fourteen male subjects participated in this study. They were separated into a Control group (N = 7) and an Exercise group (N = 7). Subjects participated in Taekwondo exercise training for 8 weeks. They underwent to Taekwondo exercise training for 85 minutes per day, 5 times a week at RPE of 11~15. The taekwondo exercise training comprised an aerobic exercise (20min) mode and a dynamic exercise (65min) mode. All data were analyzed by repeated measures two-way ANOVA. There were no significant differences in the physical characteristics of the subjects. Although weight and BMI showed a tendency to decreased in the exercise group (EG). Also, neurotrophic factors (BDNF, NGF, IGF-1) were not significantly different after 8 weeks in the two groups. However, BDNF and IGF-1 showed a tendency to increase in the exercise group (EG). Finally, the Stroop test (word, color) results were significantly different(p < .05) in the exercise group (EG). These finding suggest that 8 weeks of regular Taekwondo exercise training may increase cognitive functions (Stroop test). However the training did not statistically affect neurotrophic factors (BDNF, NGF, IGF-1) in undergraduate students.

  19. Effects of aerobic exercise training on peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor and eotaxin-1 levels in obese young men.

    PubMed

    Cho, Su Youn; Roh, Hee Tae

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of aerobic exercise training on the levels of peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor and eotaxin-1 in obese young men. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects included sixteen obese young men with a body mass index greater than 25 kg/m(2). They were randomly divided between control and exercise groups (n = 8 in each group). The exercise group performed treadmill exercise for 40 min, 3 times a week for 8 weeks at the intensity of 70% heart rate reserve. Blood collection was performed to examine the levels of serum glucose, plasma malonaldehyde, serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and plasma eotaxin-1 before and after the intervention (aerobic exercise training). [Results] Following the intervention, serum BDNF levels were significantly higher, while serum glucose, plasma MDA, and plasma eotaxin-1 levels were significantly lower than those prior to the intervention in the exercise group. [Conclusion] Aerobic exercise training can induce neurogenesis in obese individuals by increasing the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and reducing the levels of eotaxin-1. Alleviation of oxidative stress is possibly responsible for such changes.

  20. Antidepressant effect of electroacupuncture regulates signal targeting in the brain and increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Dong-mei; Tu, Ya; Liu, Ping; Jiao, Shuang

    2016-01-01

    Electroacupuncture improves depressive behavior faster and with fewer adverse effects than antidepressant medication. However, the antidepressant mechanism of electroacupuncture remains poorly understood. Here, we established a rat model of chronic unpredicted mild stress, and then treated these rats with electroacupuncture at Yintang (EX-HN3) and Baihui (DU20) with sparse waves at 2 Hz and 0.6 mA for 30 minutes, once a day. We found increased horizontal and vertical activity, and decreased immobility time, at 2 and 4 weeks after treatment. Moreover, levels of neurotransmitters (5-hydroxytryptamine, glutamate, and γ-aminobutyric acid) and protein levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor-related proteins (TrkB, protein kinase A, and phosphorylation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein) were increased in the hippocampus. Similarly, protein kinase A and TrkB mRNA levels were increased, and calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II levels decreased. These findings suggest that electroacupuncture increases phosphorylation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein and brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels by regulating multiple targets in the cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein signaling pathway, thereby promoting nerve regeneration, and exerting an antidepressive effect. PMID:27904490

  1. The effect of regular Taekwondo exercise on Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and Stroop test in undergraduate student

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Youngil

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Taekwondo exercise on Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and the Stroop test in undergraduate students. [Methods] Fourteen male subjects participated in this study. They were separated into a Control group (N = 7) and an Exercise group (N = 7). Subjects participated in Taekwondo exercise training for 8 weeks. They underwent to Taekwondo exercise training for 85 minutes per day, 5 times a week at RPE of 11~15. The taekwondo exercise training comprised an aerobic exercise (20min) mode and a dynamic exercise (65min) mode. All data were analyzed by repeated measures two-way ANOVA. [Results] There were no significant differences in the physical characteristics of the subjects. Although weight and BMI showed a tendency to decreased in the exercise group (EG). Also, neurotrophic factors (BDNF, NGF, IGF-1) were not significantly different after 8 weeks in the two groups. However, BDNF and IGF-1 showed a tendency to increase in the exercise group (EG). Finally, the Stroop test (word, color) results were significantly different(p < .05) in the exercise group (EG). [Conclusion] These finding suggest that 8 weeks of regular Taekwondo exercise training may increase cognitive functions (Stroop test). However the training did not statistically affect neurotrophic factors (BDNF, NGF, IGF-1) in undergraduate students. PMID:26244125

  2. TRPC3 regulates release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor from human airway smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Vohra, Pawan K; Thompson, Michael A; Sathish, Venkatachalem; Kiel, Alexander; Jerde, Calvin; Pabelick, Christina M; Singh, Brij B; Prakash, Y S

    2013-12-01

    Exogenous brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) enhances Ca(2+) signaling and cell proliferation in human airway smooth muscle (ASM), especially with inflammation. Human ASM also expresses BDNF, raising the potential for autocrine/paracrine effects. The mechanisms by which ASM BDNF secretion occurs are not known. Transient receptor potential channels (TRPCs) regulate a variety of intracellular processes including store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE; including in ASM) and secretion of factors such as cytokines. In human ASM, we tested the hypothesis that TRPC3 regulates BDNF secretion. At baseline, intracellular BDNF was present, and BDNF secretion was detectable by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) of cell supernatants or by real-time fluorescence imaging of cells transfected with GFP-BDNF vector. Exposure to the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) (20ng/ml, 48h) or a mixture of allergens (ovalbumin, house dust mite, Alternaria, and Aspergillus extracts) significantly enhanced BDNF secretion and increased TRPC3 expression. TRPC3 knockdown (siRNA or inhibitor Pyr3; 10μM) blunted BDNF secretion, and prevented inflammation effects. Chelation of extracellular Ca(2+) (EGTA; 1mM) or intracellular Ca(2+) (BAPTA; 5μM) significantly reduced secreted BDNF, as did the knockdown of SOCE proteins STIM1 and Orai1 or plasma membrane caveolin-1. Functionally, secreted BDNF had autocrine effects suggested by phosphorylation of high-affinity tropomyosin-related kinase TrkB receptor, prevented by chelating extracellular BDNF with chimeric TrkB-Fc. These data emphasize the role of TRPC3 and Ca(2+) influx in the regulation of BDNF secretion by human ASM and the enhancing effects of inflammation. Given the BDNF effects on Ca(2+) and cell proliferation, BDNF secretion may contribute to altered airway structure and function in diseases such as asthma.

  3. Lower brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels associated with worsening fatigue in prostate cancer patients during repeated stress from radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Saligan, L N; Lukkahatai, N; Holder, G; Walitt, B; Machado-Vieira, R

    2016-12-01

    Fatigue during cancer treatment is associated with depression. Neurotrophic factors play a major role in depression and stress and might provide insight into mechanisms of fatigue. This study investigated the association between plasma concentrations of three neurotrophic factors (BDNF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor; GDNF, glial-derived neurotrophic factor; and SNAPIN, soluble N-ethylmaleimide sensitive fusion attachment receptor-associated protein) and initial fatigue intensification during external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) in euthymic non-metastatic prostate cancer men. Fatigue, as measured by the 13-item Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Fatigue (FACT-F), and plasma neurotrophic factors were collected at baseline (prior to EBRT) and mid-EBRT. Subjects were categorized into fatigue and no fatigue groups using a > 3-point change in FACT-F scores between the two time points. Multiple linear regressions analysed the associations between fatigue and neurotrophic factors. FACT-F scores of 47 subjects decreased from baseline (43.95 ± 1.3) to mid-EBRT (38.36 ± 1.5, P < 0.001), indicating worsening fatigue. SNAPIN levels were associated with fatigue scores (rs = 0.43, P = 0.005) at baseline. A significant decrease of BDNF concentration (P = 0.008) was found in fatigued subjects during EBRT (n = 39). Baseline SNAPIN and decreasing BDNF levels may influence worsening fatigue during EBRT. Further investigations are warranted to confirm their role in the pathophysiology and therapeutics of fatigue.

  4. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor promotes neurite growth and survival of antennal lobe neurons in brain from the silk moth, Bombyx mori in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Hee; Sung, Dong Kyung; Park, Chan Woo; Park, Hun Hee; Park, Cheolin; Jeon, Soung-Hoo; Kang, Pil Don; Kwon, O-Yu; Lee, Bong Hee

    2005-03-01

    This study was conducted to investigate effects of brain-derived neurotrophic factor on the neurite growth and the survival rate of antennal lobe neurons in vitro, and secretion of brain-derived neurotrophic factor-like neuropeptide from brain into hemolymph in the silk moth, Bombyx mori. In primary culture of antennal lobe neurons with brain-derived neurotrophic factor, it promoted both a neurite extension of putative antennal lobe projection neurons and an outgrowth of branches from principal neurites of putative antennal interneurons with significance (p<0.05). Brain-derived neurotrophic factor also increased significantly a survival rate of antennal lobe neurons (p<0.05). Results from immunolabeling of brain and retrocerebral complex, and ELISA assay of hemolymph showed that brain-derived neurotrophic factor-like neuropeptide was synthesized by both median and lateral neurosecretory cells of brain, then transported to corpora allata for storage, and finally secreted into hemolymph for action. These results will provide valuable information for differentiation of invertebrate brain neurons with brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

  5. Cerebrolysin, a mixture of neurotrophic factors induces marked neuroprotection in spinal cord injury following intoxication of engineered nanoparticles from metals.

    PubMed

    Menon, Preeti Kumaran; Muresanu, Dafin Fior; Sharma, Aruna; Mössler, Herbert; Sharma, Hari Shanker

    2012-02-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is the world's most disastrous disease for which there is no effective treatment till today. Several studies suggest that nanoparticles could adversely influence the pathology of SCI and thereby alter the efficacy of many neuroprotective agents. Thus, there is an urgent need to find suitable therapeutic agents that could minimize cord pathology following trauma upon nanoparticle intoxication. Our laboratory has been engaged for the last 7 years in finding suitable therapeutic strategies that could equally reduce cord pathology in normal and in nanoparticle-treated animal models of SCI. We observed that engineered nanoparticles from metals e.g., aluminum (Al), silver (Ag) and copper (Cu) (50-60 nm) when administered in rats daily for 7 days (50 mg/kg, i.p.) resulted in exacerbation of cord pathology after trauma that correlated well with breakdown of the blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) to serum proteins. The entry of plasma proteins into the cord leads to edema formation and neuronal damage. Thus, future drugs should be designed in such a way to be effective even when the SCI is influenced by nanoparticles. Previous research suggests that a suitable combination of neurotrophic factors could induce marked neuroprotection in SCI in normal animals. Thus, we examined the effects of a new drug; cerebrolysin that is a mixture of different neurotrophic factors e.g., brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), glial cell line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF), ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and other peptide fragments to treat normal or nanoparticle-treated rats after SCI. Our observations showed that cerebrolysin (2.5 ml/kg, i.v.) before SCI resulted in good neuroprotection in normal animals, whereas nanoparticle-treated rats required a higher dose of the drug (5.0 ml/kg, i.v.) to induce comparable neuroprotection in the cord after SCI. Cerebrolysin also reduced spinal cord water content, leakage of plasma proteins

  6. The Effect of Exercise Training on Resting Concentrations of Peripheral Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF): A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dinoff, Adam; Herrmann, Nathan; Swardfager, Walter; Liu, Celina S.; Sherman, Chelsea; Chan, Sarah; Lanctôt, Krista L.

    2016-01-01

    Background The mechanisms through which physical activity supports healthy brain function remain to be elucidated. One hypothesis suggests that increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mediates some cognitive and mood benefits. This meta-analysis sought to determine the effect of exercise training on resting concentrations of BDNF in peripheral blood. Methods MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus, Rehabilitation & Sports Medicine Source, and CINAHL databases were searched for original, peer-reviewed reports of peripheral blood BDNF concentrations before and after exercise interventions ≥ 2 weeks. Risk of bias was assessed using standardized criteria. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) were generated from random effects models. Risk of publication bias was assessed using funnel plots and Egger’s test. Potential sources of heterogeneity were explored in subgroup analyses. Results In 29 studies that met inclusion criteria, resting concentrations of peripheral blood BDNF were higher after intervention (SMD = 0.39, 95% CI: 0.17–0.60, p < 0.001). Subgroup analyses suggested a significant effect in aerobic (SMD = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.33–0.99, p < 0.001) but not resistance training (SMD = 0.07, 95% CI: -0.15–0.30, p = 0.52) interventions. No significant difference in effect was observed between males and females, nor in serum vs plasma. Conclusion Aerobic but not resistance training interventions increased resting BDNF concentrations in peripheral blood. PMID:27658238

  7. Ameliorating effect of hypothalamic brain-derived neurotrophic factor against impaired glucose metabolism after cerebral ischemic stress in mice.

    PubMed

    Harada, Shinichi; Fujita-Hamabe, Wakako; Tokuyama, Shogo

    2012-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a member of the neurotrophin family, has potent neuroprotective effects against brain injury. We recently reported that glucose intolerance/hyperglycemia could be induced by ischemic stress (i.e., post-ischemic glucose intolerance) following ischemic neuronal damage. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of BDNF on the development of post-ischemic glucose intolerance and ischemic neuronal damage. Male ddY mice were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 2 h. On day 1, the expression levels of BDNF were significantly decreased in the cortex, hypothalamus, liver, skeletal muscle, and pancreas. The expression levels of tyrosine kinase B receptor, a BDNF receptor, decreased in the hypothalamus and liver and increased in the skeletal muscle and pancreas, but remained unchanged in the cortex. Intrahypothalamic administration of BDNF (50 ng/mouse) suppressed the development of post-ischemic glucose intolerance on day 1 and neuronal damage on day 3 after MCAO. In the liver and skeletal muscle, the expression levels of insulin receptors decreased, while gluconeogenic enzyme levels increased on day 1 after MCAO. These changes completely recovered to normal levels in the presence of BDNF. These results indicate that regulation of post-ischemic glucose intolerance by BDNF may suppress ischemic neuronal damage.

  8. Computerized cognitive training and brain derived neurotrophic factor during bed rest: mechanisms to protect individual during acute stress

    PubMed Central

    Passaro, Angelina; Soavi, Cecilia; Sanz, Juana M.; Morieri, Mario L.; Dalla Nora, Edoardo; Kavcic, Voyko; Narici, Marco V.; Reggiani, Carlo; Biolo, Gianni; Zuliani, Giovanni; Lazzer, Stefano; Pišot, Rado

    2017-01-01

    Acute stress, as bed rest, was shown to increase plasma level of the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in older, but not in young adults. This increase might represent a protective mechanism towards acute insults in aging subjects. Since computerized cognitive training (CCT) is known to protect brain, herein we evaluated the effect of CCT during bed rest on BDNF, muscle mass, neuromuscular function and metabolic parameters. The subjects that underwent CCT did not show an increase of BDNF after bed rest, and showed an anti-insular modification pattern in metabolism. Neuromuscular function parameters, already shown to beneficiate from CCT, negatively correlated with BDNF in research participants undergoing CCT, while positively correlated in the control group. In conclusion, BDNF increase can be interpreted as a standardized protective mechanism taking place whenever an insult occurs; it gives low, but consistent preservation of neuromuscular function. CCT, acting as an external protective mechanism, seems to modify this standardized response, avoiding BDNF increase or possibly modifying its time course. Our results suggest the possibility of differential neuroprotective mechanisms among ill and healthy individuals, and the importance of timing in determining the effects of protective mechanisms. PMID:28161695

  9. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor correlates with functional and cognitive impairment in non-disabled older individuals.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Martínez, Rut; Fernández-Garrido, Julio; Buigues, Cristina; Torralba-Martínez, Elena; Martinez-Martinez, Mary; Verdejo, Yolanda; Mascarós, Mari Carmen; Cauli, Omar

    2015-12-01

    We used a complete battery of geriatric and psychometric tests to evaluate whether plasma-borne brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a master molecule in neuroplasticity, is associated with the severity of functional and cognitive impairment in non-disabled older individuals. There was a significant positive correlation between BDNF plasma concentrations and the Barthel index, a measurement of the ability of individuals to perform the activities of daily living (p=0.03) and the concentration subcategory measured with the mini mental state examination (MMSE) test (p = 0.01). Furthermore, plasma BDNF inversely and significantly correlated with the blood eosinophil count (p = 0.01), the total cholesterol concentration (p = 0.04), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p=0.04). However, BDNF did not correlate with any other socio-demographic or clinical characteristics, other analytical parameters measured in the blood, or any other geriatric assessment scales. Our results suggest that BDNF may play a role in the pathophysiology of functional impairment in the elderly and in some aspects of cognitive function. However, more studies are needed to understand the relationship between circulating BDNF and functional impairment to determine if BDNF represents a candidate biomarker for this type of cognitive impairment.

  10. The Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Val66Met Polymorphism Moderates an Effect of Physical Activity on Working Memory Performance

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Kirk I.; Banducci, Sarah E.; Weinstein, Andrea M.; MacDonald, Angus W.; Ferrell, Robert E.; Halder, Indrani; Flory, Janine D.; Manuck, Stephen B.

    2014-01-01

    Physical activity enhances cognitive performance, yet individual variability in its effectiveness limits its widespread therapeutic application. Genetic differences might be one source of this variation. For example, carriers of the methionine-specifying (Met) allele of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism have reduced secretion of BDNF and poorer memory, yet physical activity increases BDNF levels. To determine whether the BDNF polymorphism moderated an association of physical activity with cognitive functioning among 1,032 midlife volunteers (mean age = 44.59 years), we evaluated participants’ performance on a battery of tests assessing memory, learning, and executive processes, and evaluated their physical activity with the Paffenbarger Physical Activity Questionnaire. BDNF genotype interacted robustly with physical activity to affect working memory, but not other areas of cognitive functioning. In particular, greater levels of physical activity offset a deleterious effect of the Met allele on working memory performance. These findings suggest that physical activity can modulate domain-specific genetic (BDNF) effects on cognition. PMID:23907543

  11. Plasma Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Levels Predict the Clinical Outcome of Depression Treatment in a Naturalistic Study

    PubMed Central

    Kurita, Masatake; Nishino, Satoshi; Kato, Maiko; Numata, Yukio; Sato, Tadahiro

    2012-01-01

    Remission is the primary goal of treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD). However, some patients do not respond to treatment. The main purpose of this study was to determine whether brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels are correlated with treatment outcomes. In a naturalistic study, we assessed whether plasma BDNF levels were correlated with clinical outcomes by measuring plasma BDNF in patients with depressive syndrome (MADRS score ≥18), and subsequently comparing levels between the subgroup of patients who underwent remission (MADRS score ≤8) and the subgroup who were refractory to treatment (non-responders). Patients with depressive syndrome who underwent remission had significantly higher plasma BDNF levels (p<0.001), regardless of age or sex. We also found a significant negative correlation between MADRS scores and plasma BDNF levels within this group (ρ = –0.287, p = 0.003). In contrast, non-responders had significantly lower plasma BDNF levels (p = 0.029). Interestingly, plasma BDNF levels in the non-responder group were significantly higher than those in the remission group in the initial stage of depressive syndrome (p = 0.002). Our results show that plasma BDNF levels are associated with clinical outcomes during the treatment of depression. We suggest that plasma BDNF could potentially serve as a prognostic biomarker for depression, predicting clinical outcome. Trial Registration UMIN Clinical Trials Registry UMIN000006264 PMID:22761741

  12. Differential Involvement of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor in Reconsolidation and Consolidation of Conditioned Taste Aversion Memory

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yue; Zhang, Tian-Yi; Xin, Jian; Li, Ting; Yu, Hui; Li, Na; Chen, Zhe-Yu

    2012-01-01

    Consolidated memory can re-enter states of transient instability following reactivation, which is referred to as reconsolidation, and the exact molecular mechanisms underlying this process remain unexplored. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a critical role in synaptic plasticity and memory processes. We have recently observed that BDNF signaling in the central nuclei of the amygdala (CeA) and insular cortex (IC) was involved in the consolidation of conditioned taste aversion (CTA) memory. However, whether BDNF in the CeA or IC is required for memory reconsolidation is still unclear. In the present study, using a CTA memory paradigm, we observed increased BDNF expression in the IC but not in the CeA during CTA reconsolidation. We further determined that BDNF synthesis and signaling in the IC but not in the CeA was required for memory reconsolidation. The differential, spatial-specific roles of BDNF in memory consolidation and reconsolidation suggest that dissociative molecular mechanisms underlie reconsolidation and consolidation, which might provide novel targets for manipulating newly encoded and reactivated memories without causing universal amnesia. PMID:23185492

  13. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and tyrosine kinase B receptor signalling in post-mortem brain of teenage suicide victims.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Ghanshyam N; Ren, Xinguo; Rizavi, Hooriyah S; Conley, Robert R; Roberts, Rosalinda C; Dwivedi, Yogesh

    2008-12-01

    Teenage suicide is a major public health concern, but its neurobiology is not very well understood. Stress and major mental disorders are major risk factors for suicidal behaviour, and it has been shown that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) are not only regulated by stress but are also altered in these illnesses. We therefore examined if BDNF/TrkB signalling is altered in the post-mortem brain of teenage suicide victims. Protein and mRNA expression of BDNF and of TrkB receptors were determined in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), Brodmann's Area 9 (BA 9), and hippocampus obtained from 29 teenage suicide victims and 25 matched normal control subjects. Protein expression was determined using the Western blot technique; mRNA levels by a quantitative RT-PCR technique. The protein expression of BDNF was significantly decreased in the PFC of teenage suicide victims compared with normal control subjects, whereas no change was observed in the hippocampus. Protein expression of TrkB full-length receptors was significantly decreased in both PFC and hippocampus of teenage suicide victims without any significant changes in the truncated form of TrkB receptors. mRNA expression of both BDNF and TrkB was significantly decreased in the PFC and hippocampus of teenage suicide victims compared with normal control subjects. These studies indicate a down-regulation of both BDNF and its receptor TrkB in the PFC and hippocampus of teenage suicide victims, which suggests that stress and altered BDNF may represent a major vulnerability factor in teenage suicidal behaviour.

  14. cAMP-mediated secretion of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in developing airway smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Michael A; Britt, Rodney D; Kuipers, Ine; Stewart, Alecia; Thu, James; Pandya, Hitesh C; MacFarlane, Peter; Pabelick, Christina M; Martin, Richard J; Prakash, Y S

    2015-10-01

    Moderate hyperoxic exposure in preterm infants contributes to subsequent airway dysfunction and to risk of developing recurrent wheeze and asthma. The regulatory mechanisms that can contribute to hyperoxia-induced airway dysfunction are still under investigation. Recent studies in mice show that hyperoxia increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a growth factor that increases airway smooth muscle (ASM) proliferation and contractility. We assessed the mechanisms underlying effects of moderate hyperoxia (50% O2) on BDNF expression and secretion in developing human ASM. Hyperoxia increased BDNF secretion, but did not alter endogenous BDNF mRNA or intracellular protein levels. Exposure to hyperoxia significantly increased [Ca2+]i responses to histamine, an effect blunted by the BDNF chelator TrkB-Fc. Hyperoxia also increased ASM cAMP levels, associated with reduced PDE4 activity, but did not alter protein kinase A (PKA) activity or adenylyl cyclase mRNA levels. However, 50% O2 increased expression of Epac2, which is activated by cAMP and can regulate protein secretion. Silencing RNA studies indicated that Epac2, but not Epac1, is important for hyperoxia-induced BDNF secretion, while PKA inhibition did not influence BDNF secretion. In turn, BDNF had autocrine effects of enhancing ASM cAMP levels, an effect inhibited by TrkB and BDNF siRNAs. Together, these novel studies suggest that hyperoxia can modulate BDNF secretion, via cAMP-mediated Epac2 activation in ASM, resulting in a positive feedback effect of BDNF-mediated elevation in cAMP levels. The potential functional role of this pathway is to sustain BDNF secretion following hyperoxic stimulus, leading to enhanced ASM contractility and proliferation.

  15. Safety of repeated transplantations of neurotrophic factors-secreting human mesenchymal stromal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Therapies based on mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been shown to have potential benefit in several clinical studies. We have shown that, using a medium-based approach, MSC can be induced to secrete elevated levels of neurotropic factors, which have been shown to have protective effects in animal models of neurodegenerative diseases. These cells, designated MSC-NTF cells (Neurotrophic factor-secreting MSC, also known as NurOwn™) derived from the patient's own bone marrow, have been recently used for Phase I/II and Phase IIa clinical studies in patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). In these studies, ALS patients were subjected to a single administration of autologous MSC-NTF cells. The data from these studies indicate that the single administration of MSC-NTF cells is safe and well tolerated. In a recently published case report, it was shown that repeated MSC-NTF injections in an ALS patient treated on a compassionate basis were safe and well tolerated [Muscle Nerve 49:455-457, 2014]. Methods In the current study we studied the toxicity and tolerability of three consecutive intramuscular injections (IM) of cryopreserved human MSC-NTF cells in C57BL/B6 mice to investigate the effect of repeated administration of these cells. Results Monitoring of clinical signs and immune reactions showed that repeated injections of the cells did not lead to any serious adverse events. Pathology, histology and blood biochemistry parameters tested were found to be within normal ranges with no sign of tumor formation. Conclusions Based on these results we conclude that repeated injections of human MSC-NTF are well tolerated in mice. The results of this study suggest that if the outcomes of additional clinical studies point to the need for repeated treatments, such option can be considered safe. PMID:25097724

  16. Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor from Microglia: A Molecular Substrate for Neuropathic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Trang, Tuan; Beggs, Simon; Salter, Michael W.

    2013-01-01

    One of the most significant advances in pain research is the realization that neurons are not the only cell type involved in the etiology of chronic pain. This realization has caused a radical shift from the previous dogma that neuronal dysfunction alone accounts for pain pathologies, to the current framework of thinking that takes into account all cell types within the central nervous system (CNS). This shift in thinking stems from growing evidence that glia can modulate the function and directly shape the cellular architecture of nociceptive networks in the CNS. Microglia, in particular, are increasingly recognized as active principal players that respond to changes in physiological homeostasis by extending their processes toward the site of neural damage, and by releasing specific factors that have profound consequences on neuronal function and that contribute to CNS pathologies caused by disease or injury. A key molecule that modulates microglia activity is ATP, an endogenous ligand of the P2 receptor family. Microglia express several P2 receptor subtypes, and of these the P2X4 receptor subtype has emerged as a core microglia-neuron signaling pathway: activation of this receptor drives the release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a cellular substrate that causes disinhibition of pain-transmitting spinal lamina I neurons. Converging evidence points to BDNF from spinal microglia as being a critical microglia-neuron signalling molecule that gates aberrant nociceptive processing in the spinal cord. The present review highlights recent advances in our understanding of P2X4 receptor-mediated signaling and regulation of BDNF in microglia, as well as the implications for microglia-neuron interactions in the pathobiology of neuropathic pain. PMID:22613083

  17. Developmental traumatic brain injury decreased brain derived neurotrophic factor expression late after injury.

    PubMed

    Schober, Michelle Elena; Block, Benjamin; Requena, Daniela F; Hale, Merica A; Lane, Robert H

    2012-06-01

    Pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of acquired cognitive dysfunction in children. Hippocampal Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is important for normal cognition. Little is known about the effects of TBI on BDNF levels in the developing hippocampus. We used controlled cortical impact (CCI) in the 17 day old rat pup to test the hypothesis that CCI would first increase rat hippocampal BDNF mRNA/protein levels relative to SHAM and Naïve rats by post injury day (PID) 2 and then decrease BDNF mRNA/protein by PID14. Relative to SHAM, CCI did not change BDNF mRNA/protein levels in the injured hippocampus in the first 2 days after injury but did decrease BDNF protein at PID14. Surprisingly, BDNF mRNA decreased at PID 1, 3, 7 and 14, and BDNF protein decreased at PID 2, in SHAM and CCI hippocampi relative to Naïve. In conclusion, TBI decreased BDNF protein in the injured rat pup hippocampus 14 days after injury. BDNF mRNA levels decreased in both CCI and SHAM hippocampi relative to Naïve, suggesting that certain aspects of the experimental paradigm (such as craniotomy, anesthesia, and/or maternal separation) may decrease the expression of BDNF in the developing hippocampus. While BDNF is important for normal cognition, no inferences can be made regarding the cognitive impact of any of these factors. Such findings, however, suggest that meticulous attention to the experimental paradigm, and possible inclusion of a Naïve group, is warranted in studies of BDNF expression in the developing brain after TBI.

  18. Neither cortisol nor brain-derived neurotrophic factor is associated with serotonin transporter in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Chou, Yuan-Hwa; Lirng, Jiing-Feng; Hsieh, Wen-Chi; Chiu, Yen-Chen; Tu, Yi-An; Wang, Shyh-Jen

    2016-02-01

    Converging evidence indicates the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis and serotonergic neurons exert reciprocal modulatory actions. Likewise, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been implicated as a growth and differentiation factor in the development of serotonergic neurons. The aim of this study was to examine the interaction of cortisol and BDNF on serotonin transporter (SERT) in bipolar disorder (BD). Twenty-eight BD and 28 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (HCs) were recruited. (123)I-ADAM with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was applied for measurement of SERT availability in the brain, which included the midbrain, thalamus, putamen and caudate. Ten milliliters of venous blood was withdrawn, when the subject underwent SPECT, for the measurement of the plasma concentration of cortisol and BDNF. SERT availability was significantly decreased in the midbrain and caudate of BD compared with HCs, whereas plasma concentration of cortisol and BDNF did not show a significant difference. The linear mixed-effect model revealed that there was a significant interaction of group and cortisol on SERT availability of the midbrain, but not BDNF. Linear regression analyses by groups revealed that cortisol was associated with SERT availability in the midbrain in the HCs, but not in BD. Considering previous studies, which showed a significant association of cortisol with SERT availability in the HCs and major depressive disorder (MDD), our result replicated a similar finding in HCs. However, the negative finding of the association of cortisol and SERT availability in BD, which was different from MDD, suggests a different role for cortisol in the pathophysiology of mood disorder. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of the neurotrophic factor artemin on sensory afferent development and sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuying; Elitt, Christopher M; Malin, Sacha A; Albers, Kathryn M

    2008-10-25

    Artemin is a neuronal survival and differentiation factor in the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor family. Its receptor GFRalpha3 is expressed by a subpopulation of nociceptor type sensory neurons in the dorsal root and trigeminal ganglia (DRG and TG). These neurons co-express the heat, capsaicin and proton-sensitive channel TRPV1 and the cold and chemical-sensitive channel TRPA1. To further investigate the effects of artemin on sensory neurons, we isolated transgenic mice (ARTN-OE mice) that overexpress artemin in keratinocytes of the skin and tongue. Enhanced levels of artemin led to a 20% increase in the total number of DRG neurons and increases in the level of mRNA encoding TRPV1 and TRPA1. Calcium imaging showed that isolated sensory neurons from ARTN-OE mice were hypersensitive to the TRPV1 agonist capsaicin and the TRPA1 agonist mustard oil. Behavioral testing of ARTN-OE mice also showed an increased sensitivity to heat, cold, capsaicin and mustard oil stimuli applied either to the skin or in the drinking water. Sensory neurons from wildtype mice also exhibited potentiated capsaicin responses following artemin addition to the media. In addition, injection of artemin into hindpaw skin produced transient thermal hyperalgesia. These findings indicate that artemin can modulate sensory function and that this regulation may occur through changes in channel gene expression. Because artemin mRNA expression is up-regulated in inflamed tissue and following nerve injury, it may have a significant role in cellular changes that underlie pain associated with pathological conditions. Manipulation of artemin expression may therefore offer a new pain treatment strategy.

  20. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor from microglia: a molecular substrate for neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Trang, Tuan; Beggs, Simon; Salter, Michael W

    2011-02-01

    One of the most significant advances in pain research is the realization that neurons are not the only cell type involved in the etiology of chronic pain. This realization has caused a radical shift from the previous dogma that neuronal dysfunction alone accounts for pain pathologies to the current framework of thinking that takes into account all cell types within the central nervous system (CNS). This shift in thinking stems from growing evidence that glia can modulate the function and directly shape the cellular architecture of nociceptive networks in the CNS. Microglia, in particular, are increasingly recognized as active principal players that respond to changes in physiological homeostasis by extending their processes toward the site of neural damage, and by releasing specific factors that have profound consequences on neuronal function and that contribute to CNS pathologies caused by disease or injury. A key molecule that modulates microglia activity is ATP, an endogenous ligand of the P2 receptor family. Microglia expresses several P2 receptor subtypes, and of these the P2X4 receptor subtype has emerged as a core microglia-neuron signaling pathway: activation of this receptor drives the release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a cellular substrate that causes disinhibition of pain-transmitting spinal lamina I neurons. Converging evidence points to BDNF from spinal microglia as being a critical microglia-neuron signaling molecule that gates aberrant nociceptive processing in the spinal cord. The present review highlights recent advances in our understanding of P2X4 receptor-mediated signaling and regulation of BDNF in microglia, as well as the implications for microglia-neuron interactions in the pathobiology of neuropathic pain.

  1. Effects of the neurotrophic factor artemin on sensory afferent development and sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Shu-Ying, Wang; Elitt, Christopher M.; Malin, Sacha A.; Albers, Kathryn M.

    2009-01-01

    Artemin is a neuronal survival and differentiation factor in the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor family. Its receptor GFRα3 is expressed by a subpopulation of nociceptor type sensory neurons in the dorsal root and trigeminal ganglia (DRG and TG). These neurons co-express the heat, capsaicin and proton-sensitive channel TRPV1 and the cold and chemical-sensitive channel TRPA1. To further investigate the effects of artemin on sensory neurons, we isolated transgenic mice (ART-OE mice) that overexpress artemin in keratinocytes of the skin and tongue. Enhanced levels of artemin led to a 20% increase in the total number of DRG neurons and increases in the level of mRNA encoding TRPV1 and TRPA1. Calcium imaging showed that isolated sensory neurons from ART-OE mice were hypersensitive to the TRPV1 agonist capsaicin and the TRPA1 agonist mustard oil. Behavioral testing of ART-OE mice also showed an increased sensitivity to heat, cold, capsaicin and mustard oil stimuli applied either to the skin or in the drinking water. Sensory neurons from wildtype mice also exhibited potentiated capsaicin responses following artemin addition to the media. In addition, injection of artemin into hindpaw skin produced transient thermal hyperalgesia. These findings indicate that artemin can modulate sensory function and that this regulation may occur through changes in channel gene expression. Because artemin mRNA expression is up-regulated in inflamed tissue and following nerve injury, it may have a significant role in cellular changes that underlie pain associated with pathological conditions. Manipulation of artemin expression may therefore offer a new pain treatment strategy. PMID:18958361

  2. Association of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and nerve growth factor gene polymorphisms with susceptibility to migraine

    PubMed Central

    Coskun, Salih; Varol, Sefer; Ozdemir, Hasan H; Agacayak, Elif; Aydın, Birsen; Kapan, Oktay; Camkurt, Mehmet Akif; Tunc, Saban; Cevik, Mehmet Ugur

    2016-01-01

    Migraine is one of the most common neurological diseases worldwide. Migraine pathophysiology is very complex. Genetic factors play a major role in migraine. Neurotrophic factors, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF), play an important role in central nervous system functioning, development, and modulation of pain. This study investigates whether polymorphisms in the BDNF and NGF genes are associated with migraine disease in a Turkish case–control population. Overall, 576 subjects were investigated (288 patients with migraine and 288 healthy controls) for the following polymorphisms: rs6265(G/A), rs8192466(C/T), rs925946(G/T), rs2049046(A/T), and rs12273363(T/C) in the BDNF gene, and rs6330(C/T), rs11466112(C/T), rs11102930(C/A), and rs4839435(G/A) in the NGF gene using 5′-exonuclease allelic discrimination assays. We found no differences in frequency of the analyzed eight polymorphisms between migraine and control groups. However, the frequency of minor A alleles of rs6265 in BDNF gene was borderline significant in the patients compared with the healthy controls (P=0.049; odds ratios [ORs] [95% confidence intervals {CIs}] =0.723 [0.523–0.999]). Moreover, when the migraine patients were divided into two subgroups, migraine with aura (MA) and migraine without aura (MO), the minor TT genotype of rs6330 in NGF was significantly higher in MA patients than in MO patients (P=0.036) or healthy controls (P=0.026), and this disappeared after correction for multiple testing. Also, the rs6330*T minor allele was more common in the MA group than in the MO group or controls (P=0.011, ORs [95% CIs] =1.626 [1.117–2.365] or P=0.007, ORs [95% CIs] =1.610 [1.140–2.274], respectively). In conclusion, this is the first clinical study to evaluate the association between BDNF and NGF polymorphisms in migraine patients compared with health controls. Our findings suggest that the NGF rs6330*T minor allele might be nominated as a risk

  3. Patterns of gene expression in pig adipose tissue: insulin-like growth factor system proteins, neuropeptide Y (NPY), NPY receptors, neurotrophic factors and other secreted factors.

    PubMed

    Hausman, G J; Barb, C R; Dean, R G

    2008-07-01

    Although cDNA microarray studies have examined gene expression in human and rodent adipose tissue, only one microarray study of adipose tissue from growing pigs has been reported. Total RNA was collected at slaughter from outer subcutaneous adipose tissue (OSQ) and middle subcutaneous adipose tissue (MSQ) from gilts at 90, 150, and 210 d (n=5 age(-1)). Dye labeled cDNA probes were hybridized to custom porcine microarrays (70-mer oligonucleotides). Gene expression of insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs), hormones, growth factors, neuropeptide Y (NPY) receptors (NPYRs) and other receptors in OSQ and MSQ changed little with age in growing pigs. Distinct patterns of relative gene expression were evident within NPYR and IGFBP family members in adipose tissue from growing pigs. Relative gene expression levels of NPY2R, NPY4R and angiopoietin 2 (ANG-2) distinguished OSQ and MSQ depots in growing pigs. We demonstrated, for the first time, the expression of IGFBP-7, IGFBP-5, NPY1R, NPY2R, NPY, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) genes in pig adipose tissue with microarray and RT-PCR assays. Furthermore, adipose tissue CTGF gene expression was upregulated while NPY and NPY2R gene expression were significantly down regulated by age. These studies demonstrate that expression of neuropeptides and neurotrophic factors in pig adipose tissue may be involved in regulation of leptin secretion. Many other regulatory factors were not influenced by age in growing pigs but may be influenced by location or depot.

  4. Association of Lipid Peroxidation and Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor with Executive Function in Adolescent Bipolar Disorder.

    PubMed

    Newton, Dwight F; Naiberg, Melanie R; Andreazza, Ana C; Scola, Gustavo; Dickstein, Daniel P; Goldstein, Benjamin I

    2017-02-01

    Executive dysfunction is common and impairing in youth bipolar disorder (BD), and oxidative stress (OS) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) have been implicated in executive deficits of adult BD. This study aimed to determine the association between OS and executive dysfunction in BD adolescents and the influence of BDNF on this association. Serum levels of lipid hydroperoxides (LPH) and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) and BDNF levels were measured in 29 BD and 25 control adolescents. The intra-extra-dimensional (IED) set-shifting task assessed executive function. Lower IED scores indicated better performance. High and low BDNF subgroups were defined by median split. IED Z-scores were impaired in the BD group compared to controls, whereas biomarker levels were not significantly different between groups. LPH-BDNF correlations were significantly different between BD and controls (Z = 2.046, p = 0.041). In high BDNF BD subjects, LPH was significantly positively correlated with IED completed stage trials (ρ = 0.755, p = 0.001) and pre-extra-dimensional shift errors (ρ = 0.588, p = 0.017). Correlations were opposite in controls. In a linear model, LPH, BDNF, and the LPH-BDNF interaction each significantly explained variance of IED total trials (adjusted) (model r (2) = 0.187, F = 2.811, p = 0.035). There is a negative association between LPH and executive function in BD adolescents, which may be modulated by BDNF. LPH and BDNF may be useful biomarkers of executive function in BD. These findings highlight the importance of examining multiple peripheral biomarkers in relation to cognitive functions in BD adolescents. Future studies should explore these factors in longitudinal designs to determine the directionality of observed associations.

  5. Serum Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factors in Taiwanese Patients with Drug-Naïve First-Episode Major Depressive Disorder: Effects of Antidepressants.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Yu-Jie; Huang, Tiao-Lai

    2016-11-17

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factors are known to be related to the psychopathology of major depressive disorder. However, studies focusing on drug-naïve first-episode patients are still rare. Over a 6-year period, we examined the serum brain-derived neurotrophic factors levels in patients with first-episode drug-naïve major depressive disorder and compared them with sex-matched healthy controls. We also investigated the relationships between serum brain-derived neurotrophic factors levels, suicidal behavior, and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale scores before and after a 4-week antidepressant treatment. The baseline serum brain-derived neurotrophic factors levels of 71 patients were significantly lower than those of the controls (P=.017), and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale scores in 71 patients did not correlate with brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels were significantly lower in 13 suicidal major depressive disorder patients than in 58 nonsuicidal major depressive disorder patients (P=.038). Among 41 followed-up patients, there was no alteration in serum brain-derived neurotrophic factors levels after treatment with antidepressants (P=.126). In receiver operating characteristic curve analysis of using pretreatment brain-derived neurotrophic factors to estimate the response to treatment, the area under the curve was 0.684. The most suitable cut-off point was 6.1 ng/mL (sensitivity=78.6%, specificity = 53.8%). Our data support the serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in patients with drug-naïve first-episode major depressive disorder were lower than those in the healthy controls, and patients with pretreatment brain-derived neurotrophic factors >6.1 ng/mL were more likely to be responders. Although the relationship of our results to the mechanism of drug action and pathophysiology of depression remains unclear, the measure may have potential use as a predictor of response to treatment. In the future

  6. Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Expression in Asthma. Association with Severity and Type 2 Inflammatory Processes.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Tetsuya; Fajt, Merritt L; Trudeau, John B; Voraphani, Nipasiri; Hu, Haizhen; Zhou, Xiuxia; Holguin, Fernando; Wenzel, Sally E

    2015-12-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a member of the neurotrophin family, exists in several isoforms, which differentially impacts neuronal and immune cell survival and differentiation. The role of BDNF and its isoforms in asthma remains unclear. The objectives of this study were to compare the BDNF protein isoforms and specific splice variant expression in sputum and bronchoscopic samples from healthy control subjects and participants with asthma, and to relate these changes to findings in IL-13-stimulated human airway epithelial cells. Sputum and bronchoscopic samples from healthy control subjects and participants with asthma were evaluated for BDNF protein (ELISA and Western blot) and BDNF mRNA (gel and quantitative real-time PCR) in relation to asthma severity and type 2 inflammatory processes. BDNF mRNA was measured in cultured primary human airway epithelial cells after IL-13 stimulation. Total BDNF protein differed among the groups, and its mature isoform was significantly higher in sputum from subjects with severe asthma compared with healthy control subjects (overall P = 0.008, P = 0.027, respectively). Total BDNF was higher in those with elevated fractional exhaled nitric oxide and sputum eosinophilia. In vitro, IL-13 increased BDNF exon VIb splice variant and the ratio to BDNF common exon IX mRNA (P < 0.001, P = 0.003, respectively). Epithelial brushing exon VIb mRNA and total BDNF protein differed among the groups and were higher in subjects with severe asthma than in healthy control subjects (overall P = 0.01, P = 0.02, respectively). The mature BDNF isoform and the exon VIb splice variant are increased in human asthmatic airways. The in vitro increase in response to IL-13 suggests that type 2 cytokines regulate BDNF levels and activity in asthma.

  7. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor mediates the suppression of alcohol self-administration by memantine.

    PubMed

    Jeanblanc, Jérôme; Coune, Fabien; Botia, Béatrice; Naassila, Mickaël

    2014-09-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) within the striatum is part of a homeostatic pathway regulating alcohol consumption. Memantine, a non-competitive antagonist of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, induces expression of BDNF in several brain regions including the striatum. We hypothesized that memantine could decrease ethanol (EtOH) consumption via activation of the BNDF signalling pathway. Effects of memantine were evaluated in Long-Evans rats self-administering moderate or high amounts of EtOH 6, 30 and 54 hours after an acute injection (12.5 and 25 mg/kg). Motivation to consume alcohol was investigated through a progressive ratio paradigm. The possible role for BDNF in the memantine effect was tested by blockade of the TrkB receptor using the pharmacological agent K252a and by the BDNF scavenger TrkB-Fc. Candidate genes expression was also assessed by polymerase chain reaction array 4 and 28 hours after memantine injection. We found that memantine decreased EtOH self-administration and motivation to consume EtOH 6 and 30 hours post-injection. In addition, we found that inhibition or blockade of the BDNF signalling pathway prevented the early, but not the delayed decrease in EtOH consumption induced by memantine. Finally, Bdnf expression was differentially regulated between the early and delayed timepoints. These results demonstrate that an acute injection of memantine specifically reduces EtOH self-administration and motivation to consume EtOH for at least 30 hours. Moreover, we showed that BDNF was responsible for the early effect, but that the delayed effect was BDNF-independent.

  8. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor regulates expression of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in retinal amacrine cells.

    PubMed

    Cellerino, Alessandro; Arango-González, Blanca; Pinzón-Duarte, Germán; Kohler, Konrad

    2003-12-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic-factor (BDNF) is expressed in the retina and controls the development of subtypes of amacrine cells. In the present study we investigated the effects of BDNF on amacrine cells expressing vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP). Rats received three intraocular injections of BDNF on postnatal days (P) 16, 18, and 20. The animals were sacrificed on P22, P40, P60, P80, and P120, and VIP expression in their retinas was detected by immunohistochemistry (P22, P40) and by radioimmunoassay (RIA; P22, P40, P60, P80, P120) to assess the time course of BDNF effects on VIP. A significant increase in the density of VIP-positive amacrine cells was detected in BDNF-treated retinas, and VIP concentration was up-regulated by 150% both at P22 and at P40 with respect to untreated controls. VIP concentration then slowly declined in the treated retinas over a period of 3 months; however, a statistically significant increase of 50% was still detectable on P120. The impact of endogenous BDNF on the regulation of VIP expression in the retina was analyzed in mice homozygous for a targeted deletion of the BDNF gene locus (bdnf-/-). VIP immunohistochemistry revealed a marked reduction of VIP-positive amacrine cells and of VIP-immunopositive processes in the inner plexiform layer of the BDNF knockout mice. Mice lacking BDNF expressed only 5% of the VIP protein in their retinas compared with the retinas of wild-type mice as measured by RIA. Our data show that BDNF is a major regulator of VIP expression in retinal amacrine cells and exerts long-lasting effects on VIP content.

  9. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and addiction: Pathological versus therapeutic effects on drug seeking

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Jacqueline M.; Taylor, Jane R.; De Vries, Taco J.; Peters, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    Many abused drugs lead to changes in endogenous brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in neural circuits responsible for addictive behaviors. BDNF is a known molecular mediator of memory consolidation processes, evident at both behavioral and neurophysiological levels. Specific neural circuits are responsible for storing and executing drug-procuring motor programs, whereas other neural circuits are responsible for the active suppression of these “seeking” systems. These seeking-circuits are established as associations are formed between drug-associated cues and the conditioned responses they elicit. Such conditioned responses (e.g. drug seeking) can be diminished either through a passive weakening of seeking-circuits or an active suppression of those circuits through extinction. Extinction learning occurs when the association between cues and drug are violated, for example, by cue exposure without the drug present. Cue exposure therapy has been proposed as a therapeutic avenue for the treatment of addictions. Here we explore the role of BDNF in extinction circuits, compared to seeking-circuits that “incubate” over prolonged withdrawal periods. We begin by discussing the role of BDNF in extinction memory for fear and cocaine-seeking behaviors, where extinction circuits overlap in infralimbic prefrontal cortex (PFC). We highlight the ability of estrogen to promote BDNF-like effects in hippocampal–prefrontal circuits and consider the role of sex differences in extinction and incubation of drug-seeking behaviors. Finally, we examine how opiates and alcohol “break the mold” in terms of BDNF function in extinction circuits. PMID:25451116

  10. Acute aerobic exercise increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in elderly with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Flávia Gomes de Melo; Vital, Thays Martins; Stein, Angelica Miki; Arantes, Franciel José; Rueda, André Veloso; Camarini, Rosana; Teodorov, Elizabeth; Santos-Galduróz, Ruth Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Studies indicate the involvement of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Decreased BDNF levels may constitute a lack of trophic support and contribute to cognitive impairment in AD. The benefits of acute and chronic physical exercise on BDNF levels are well-documented in humans, however, exercise effects on BDNF levels have not been analyzed in older adults with AD. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of acute aerobic exercise on BDNF levels in older adults with AD and to verify associations among BDNF levels, aerobic fitness, and level of physical activity. Using a controlled design, twenty-one patients with AD (76.3 ± 6.2 years) and eighteen healthy older adults (74.6 ± 4.7 years) completed an acute aerobic exercise. The outcomes included measures of BDNF plasma levels, aerobic fitness (treadmill grade, time to exhaustion, VO2, and maximal lactate) and level of physical activity (Baecke Questionnaire Modified for the Elderly). The independent t-test shows differences between groups with respect to the BDNF plasma levels at baseline (p = 0.04; t = 4.53; df = 37). In two-way ANOVA, a significant effect of time was found (p = 0.001; F = 13.63; df = 37), the aerobic exercise significantly increased BDNF plasma levels in AD patients and healthy controls. A significant correlation (p = 0.04; r = 0.33) was found between BDNF levels and the level of physical activity. The results of our study suggest that aerobic exercise increases BDNF plasma levels in patients with AD and healthy controls. In addition to that, BDNF levels had association with level of physical activity.

  11. Concentration of Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Positively Correlates with Symptoms in Functional Dyspepsia.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Fumio; Tominaga, Kazunari; Fujikawa, Yoshiko; Nagami, Yasuaki; Kamata, Noriko; Yamagami, Hirokazu; Tanigawa, Tetsuya; Shiba, Masatsugu; Watanabe, Toshio; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Arakawa, Tetsuo

    2016-12-01

    In patients with functional dyspepsia (FD), mild duodenal inflammation correlates with increased mucosal permeability. Enteric glial cells can produce glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) to repair disrupted epithelial barrier function. We examined the role of duodenal GDNF in FD pathophysiology and its association with dyspeptic symptoms. Duodenal biopsies taken from FD patients and control subjects were used for analysis. GDNF protein expression and localization were examined. Cellular infiltration of eosinophils and mast cells was measured. We also examined the intercellular space between the adjacent epithelial cells at the apical junction complex using transmission electron microscopy. In FD patients, expression of GDNF protein was significantly increased compared with controls, 107.3 (95.3-136.7) versus 49.3 (38.0-72.6) pg/mg protein (median (interquartile range), p = 0.006), respectively. GDNF was localized in enteric glial cells, eosinophils, and epithelial cells. The number of eosinophils was significantly greater in FD patients than in controls, 1039 (923-1181) versus 553 (479-598) cells/mm(2) (p = 0.021), respectively. The intercellular space was dilated at the adherent junction in FD patients compared to control patients, 32.4 (29.8-34.8) versus 22.0 (19.9-26.1) nm (p = 0.002), respectively. Intercellular distance positively correlated with the frequency of postprandial fullness and early satiation (p = 0.001, r = 0.837 and p = 0.009, r = 0.693, respectively). Expression of GDNF correlated with epigastric burning (p = 0.041, r = 0.552). Increased expression of duodenal GDNF might be involved in FD pathophysiology and symptom perception.

  12. Longitudinal Study of Cone Photoreceptors during Retinal Degeneration and in Response to Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Talcott, Katherine E.; Ratnam, Kavitha; Sundquist, Sanna M.; Lucero, Anna S.; Lujan, Brandon J.; Tao, Weng; Porco, Travis C.; Roorda, Austin

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To study cone photoreceptor structure and function in patients with inherited retinal degenerations treated with sustained-release ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF). Methods. Two patients with retinitis pigmentosa and one with Usher syndrome type 2 who participated in a phase 2 clinical trial received CNTF delivered by an encapsulated cell technology implant in one eye and sham surgery in the contralateral eye. Patients were followed longitudinally over 30 to 35 months. Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO) provided high-resolution images at baseline and at 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. AOSLO measures of cone spacing and density and optical coherence tomography measures of retinal thickness were correlated with visual function, including visual acuity (VA), visual field sensitivity, and full-field electroretinography (ERG). Results. No significant changes in VA, visual field sensitivity, or ERG responses were observed in either eye of the three patients over 24 months. Outer retinal layers were significantly thicker in CNTF-treated eyes than in sham-treated eyes (P < 0.005). Cone spacing increased by 2.9% more per year in sham-treated eyes than in CNTF-treated eyes (P < 0.001, linear mixed model), and cone density decreased by 9.1%, or 223 cones/degree2 more per year in sham-treated than in CNTF-treated eyes (P = 0.002, linear mixed model). Conclusions. AOSLO images provided a sensitive measure of disease progression and treatment response in patients with inherited retinal degenerations. Larger studies of cone structure using high-resolution imaging techniques are urgently needed to evaluate the effect of CNTF treatment in patients with inherited retinal degenerations. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00447980.) PMID:21087953

  13. Effects of multiparity on recognition memory, monoaminergic neurotransmitters, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF).

    PubMed

    Macbeth, Abbe H; Scharfman, Helen E; Maclusky, Neil J; Gautreaux, Claris; Luine, Victoria N

    2008-06-01

    Recognition memory and anxiety were examined in nulliparous (NP: 0 litters) and multiparous (MP: 5-6 litters) middle-aged female rats (12 months old) to assess possible enduring effects of multiparity at least 3 months after the last litter was weaned. MP females performed significantly better than NP females on the non-spatial memory task, object recognition, and the spatial memory task, object placement. Anxiety as measured on the elevated plus maze did not differ between groups. Monoaminergic activity and levels were measured in prefrontal cortex, CA1 hippocampus, CA3 hippocampus, and olfactory bulb (OB). NP and MP females differed in monoamine concentrations in the OB only, with MP females having significantly greater concentrations of dopamine and metabolite DOPAC, norepinephrine and metabolite MHPG, and the serotonin metabolite 5-HIAA, as compared to NP females. These results indicate a long-term change in OB neurochemistry as a result of multiparity. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was also measured in hippocampus (CA1, CA3, dentate gyrus) and septum. MP females had higher BDNF levels in both CA1 and septum; as these regions are implicated in memory performance, elevated BDNF may underlie the observed memory task differences. Thus, MP females (experiencing multiple bouts of pregnancy, birth, and pup rearing during the first year of life) displayed enhanced memory task performance but equal anxiety responses, as compared to NP females. These results are consistent with previous studies showing long-term changes in behavioral function in MP, as compared to NP, rats and suggest that alterations in monoamines and a neurotrophin, BDNF, may contribute to the observed behavioral changes.

  14. The role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and its single nucleotide polymorphisms in stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Kotlęga, Dariusz; Peda, Barbara; Zembroń-Łacny, Agnieszka; Gołąb-Janowska, Monika; Nowacki, Przemysław

    2017-03-06

    Stroke is the main cause of motoric and neuropsychological disability in adults. Recent advances in research into the role of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor in neuroplasticity, neuroprotection and neurogenesis might provide important information for the development of new poststroke-rehabilitation strategies. It plays a role as a mediator in motor learning and rehabilitation after stroke. Concentrations of BDNF are lower in acute ischemic-stroke patients compared to controls. Lower levels of BDNF are correlated with an increased risk of stroke, worse functional outcomes and higher mortality. BDNF signalling is dependent on the genetic variation which could affect an individual's response to recovery after stroke. Several single nucleotide polymorphisms of the BDNF gene have been studied with regard to stroke patients, but most papers analyse the rs6265 which results in a change from valine to methionine in the precursor protein. Subsequently a reduction in BDNF activity is observed. There are studies indicating the role of this polymorphism in brain plasticity, functional and morphological changes in the brain. It may affect the risk of ischemic stroke, post-stroke outcomes and the efficacy of the rehabilitation process within physical exercise and transcranial magnetic stimulation. There is a consistent trend of Met alleles' being connected with worse outcomes and prognoses after stroke. However, there is no satisfactory data confirming the importance of Met allele in stroke epidemiology and the post-stroke rehabilitation process. We present the current data on the role of BDNF and polymorphisms of the BDNF gene in stroke patients, concentrating on human studies.

  15. Mechanism of Hyperphagia Contributing to Obesity in Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Edward A.; Biddinger, Jessica E.; Jones, Kevin R.; McAdams, Jennifer; Worman, Amber

    2012-01-01

    Global-heterozygous and brain-specific homozygous knockouts (KO's) of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) cause late- and early-onset obesity, respectively, both involving hyperphagia. Little is known about the mechanism underlying this hyperphagia or whether BDNF loss from peripheral tissues could contribute to overeating. Since global-homozygous BDNF-KO is perinatal lethal, a BDNF-KO that spared sufficient brainstem BDNF to support normal health was utilized to begin to address these issues. Meal pattern and microstructure analyses suggested overeating of BDNF-KO mice was mediated by deficits in both satiation and satiety that resulted in increased meal size and frequency and implicated a reduction of vagal signaling from gut-to-brain. Meal-induced c-Fos activation in the nucleus of the solitary tract, a more direct measure of vagal afferent signaling, however, was not decreased in BDNF-KO mice, and thus was not consistent with a vagal afferent role. Interestingly though, meal-induced c-Fos activation was increased in the dorsal vagal motor nucleus (DMV) of BDNF-KO mice. This could imply that augmentation of vago-vagal digestive reflexes occurred (e.g., accommodation), which would support increased meal size and possibly increased meal number by reducing the increase in intragastric pressure produced by a given amount of ingesta. Additionally, vagal sensory neuron number in BDNF-KO mice was altered in a manner consistent with the increased meal-induced activation of the DMV. These results suggest reduced BDNF causes satiety and satiation deficits that support hyperphagia, possibly involving augmentation of vago-vagal reflexes mediated by central pathways or vagal afferents regulated by BDNF levels. PMID:23069761

  16. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor controls cannabinoid CB1 receptor function in the striatum.

    PubMed

    De Chiara, Valentina; Angelucci, Francesco; Rossi, Silvia; Musella, Alessandra; Cavasinni, Francesca; Cantarella, Cristina; Mataluni, Giorgia; Sacchetti, Lucia; Napolitano, Francesco; Castelli, Maura; Caltagirone, Carlo; Bernardi, Giorgio; Maccarrone, Mauro; Usiello, Alessandro; Centonze, Diego

    2010-06-16

    The role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in emotional processes suggests an interaction with the endocannabinoid system. Here, we addressed the functional interplay between BDNF and cannabinoid CB(1) receptors (CB(1)Rs) in the striatum, a brain area in which both BDNF and CB(1)s play a role in the emotional consequences of stress and of rewarding experiences. BDNF potently inhibited CB(1)R function in the striatum, through a mechanism mediated by altered cholesterol metabolism and membrane lipid raft function. The effect of BDNF was restricted to CB(1)Rs controlling GABA-mediated IPSCs (CB(1)R(GABA)), whereas CB(1)Rs modulating glutamate transmission and GABA(B) receptors were not affected. The action of BDNF on CB(1)R(GABA) function was tyrosine kinase dependent and was complete even after receptor sensitization with cocaine or environmental manipulations activating the dopamine (DA)-dependent reward system. In mice lacking one copy of the BDNF gene (BDNF(+/-)), CB(1)R(GABA) responses were potentiated and were preserved from the action of haloperidol, a DA D(2) receptor (D(2)R) antagonist able to fully abolish CB(1)R(GABA) function in rewarded animals. Haloperidol also enhanced BDNF levels in the striatum, suggesting that this neurotrophin may act as a downstream effector of D(2)Rs in the modulation of cannabinoid signaling. Accordingly, 5 d cocaine exposure both reduced striatal BDNF levels and increased CB(1)R(GABA) activity, through a mechanism dependent on D(2)Rs. The present study identifies a novel mechanism of CB(1)R regulation mediated by BDNF and cholesterol metabolism and provides some evidence that DA D(2)R-dependent modulation of striatal CB(1)R activity is mediated by this neurotrophin.

  17. Expression and Distribution of Mesencephalic Astrocyte-Derived Neurotrophic Factor in the Retina and Optic Nerve

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Feng-Juan; Zhang, Sheng-Hai; Li, Ting-Ting; Wu, Ji-Hong; Wu, Qiang

    2017-01-01

    Mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF), otherwise named Arginine-Rich, Mutated in Early-stage Tumors (ARMET), is a secretory endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) protein that is widely expressed in mammalian tissues. To date, little is known about the distribution and expression of MANF in the retina and optic nerve (ON). Therefore, we studied the expression and distribution of MANF in the ON and retina by real-time PCR, immunofluorescence staining and western blotting. Results from rat and mouse were highly consistent in the retina. MANF was detected in both tissues in rat, wherein it was principally localized to the ganglion cell layer (GCL), followed by the inner nuclear layer (INL). The MANF protein levels in the rat retina were 3.33-fold higher than in the rat ON. Additionally, MANF was robustly expressed by retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in the human retina. In human ON, MANF was partially co-localized with glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), suggesting that it was not restricted to astrocytes. In vitro studies confirmed that MANF could be robustly expressed in RGCs and was found principally within the cytoplasm. Hypoxia can stimulate up-regulation by of MANF expression over time, suggesting that MANF may play a vital role in the functional regulation of RGCs both in health and disease. We believe that the present study improves our understanding of the distribution and expression of MANF in the retina and ON and could help in further analysis of its interact and correlate with the relevant ophthalmic diseases. PMID:28154531

  18. Reduced serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor in patients with first onset vitiligo.

    PubMed

    Yanik, M Emin; Erfan, Gamze; Albayrak, Yakup; Aydin, Murat; Kulac, Mustafa; Kuloglu, Murat

    2014-01-01

    Vitiligo is an acquired pigmentary skin disease that can cause serious cosmetic problems. There have been numerous and well established studies that have demonstrated the comorbidity of various psychiatric disorders in patients with vitiligo. However, to our knowledge, there have been no studies investigating whether a psychiatric biomarker, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), is associated with vitiligo. This study was conducted in Namık Kemal University Medical Faculty, Departments of Dermatology and Psychiatry between January 2013 and September 2014. After meeting inclusion and exclusion criteria, serum BDNF levels were assayed in 57 patients with first onset vitiligo and no known current or past psychiatric disorder and compared with BDNF levels in 58 age and sex matched healthy subjects. The age and female/male ratios were similar between groups. The mean values of serum BDNF were 1.57±0.97 ng/dL and 2.37±1.73 ng/dL in the vitiligo group and in the healthy control group, respectively. The mean BDNF level was significantly higher in the healthy control group compared with the vitiligo group (t=2.76, P=0.007). This is the first study to compare serum BDNF levels between patients with vitiligo and healthy subjects. The reduced level of serum BDNF in patients with vitiligo may be directly related to the etiology of vitiligo or associated with the high percentage of psychiatric disorders in that patient population. Further studies are needed to support our preliminary results.

  19. Association between smoking behaviour and genetic variants of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor.

    PubMed

    Kotyuk, Eszter; Nemeth, Nora; Ronai, Zsolt; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Sasvari-Szekely, Maria; Szekely, Anna

    2016-12-01

    Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) promotes development and differentiation of dopaminergic neurons, thus it has an important role in dopamine-related neuropsychiatric disorders. Since the role of dopamine system in smoking is well established, we hypothesized that GDNF gene variants may affect smoking behaviour. Self-reported data on smoking behaviour (never smoked, quit, occasional, or regular smokers) and level of nicotine addiction (Hooked on Nicotine Checklist and Fagerstrom Nicotine Addiction Scale), anxiety, as well as buccal samples were obtained from 930 Hungarian young adults (18-35 years). Genetic analysis involved eight GDNF single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) (rs1981844, rs3812047, rs3096140, rs2973041, rs2910702, rs1549250, rs2973050 and rs11111). Allele-wise association analyses of the eight GDNF SNPs provided a significant association between smoking behaviour and rs3096140 (P=0.0039). The minor allele (C) was more frequent in those groups who smoked in some form (quit, occasional or regular smokers) as compared to those who never smoked (P = 0.0046). This result remained significant after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. In the ever smoking group, no significant differences were found in the level of nicotine addiction by the alleles of these polymorphisms. Also, no significant interaction of rs3096140 and smoking categories were observed on anxiety mean scores. Although previous data demonstrated an association between GDNF rs2910704 and severity of methamphetamine use to the best of our knowledge, this is the first study on the role of GDNF genetic variations in smoking behaviour. Our results suggest that GDNF rs3096140 might be involved in the genetic background of smoking, independent of anxiety characteristics.

  20. Learned helplessness is independent of levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, Benjamin N.; Strong, Paul V.; Foley, Teresa E.; Thompson, Robert; Fleshner, Monika

    2007-01-01

    Reduced levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus have been implicated in human affective disorders and behavioral stress responses. The current studies examined the role of BDNF in the behavioral consequences of inescapable stress, or learned helplessness. Inescapable stress decreased BDNF mRNA and protein in the hippocampus of sedentary rats. Rats allowed voluntary access to running wheels for either 3 or 6 weeks prior to exposure to stress were protected against stress-induced reductions of hippocampal BDNF protein. The observed prevention of stress-induced deceases in BDNF, however, occurred in a time course inconsistent with the prevention of learned helplessness by wheel running, which is evident following 6 weeks, but not 3 weeks, of wheel running. BDNF suppression in physically active rats was produced by administering a single injection of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) just prior to stress. Despite reduced levels of hippocampal BDNF mRNA following stress, physically active rats given the combination of fluoxetine and stress remained resistant against learned helplessness. Sedentary rats given both fluoxetine and stress still demonstrated typical learned helplessness behaviors. Fluoxetine by itself reduced BDNF mRNA in sedentary rats only, but did not affect freezing or escape learning 24 hours later. Finally, bilateral injections of BDNF (1 μg) into the dentate gyrus prior to stress prevented stress-induced reductions of hippocampal BDNF but did not prevent learned helplessness in sedentary rats. These data indicate that learned helplessness behaviors are independent of the presence or absence of hippocampal BDNF because blocking inescapable stress-induced BDNF suppression does not always prevent learned helplessness, and learned helplessness does not always occur in the presence of reduced BDNF. Results also suggest that the prevention of stress-induced hippocampal BDNF suppression is not

  1. Genetic increase in brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels enhances learning and memory.

    PubMed

    Nakajo, Yukako; Miyamoto, Susumu; Nakano, Yoshikazu; Xue, Jing-Hui; Hori, Takuya; Yanamoto, Hiroji

    2008-11-19

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a neurotrophin, is known to promote neuronal differentiation stimulating neurite outgrowth in the developing CNS, and is also known to modulate synaptic plasticity, thereby contributing to learning and memory in the mature brain. Here, we investigated the role of increased levels of intracerebral BDNF in learning and memory function. Using genetically engineered transgenic BDNF overexpressing mice (RTG-BDNF), young adult, homozygous (+/+), heterozygous (+/-), or wild-type (-/-) littermates, we analyzed escape latency to a hidden-platform and swimming velocity in the Morris Water Maze test (MWM) with modifications for the mice. The MWM comprised 4 trials per day over 5 consecutive days (sessions) without prior or subsequent training. In a separate set of animals, BDNF protein levels in the cortex, thalamostriatum and the hippocampus were measured quantitatively using ELISA. In the BDNF (+/-) mice, the BDNF levels in the cortex, the thalamostriatum and the hippocampus were significantly high, compared to the wild-type littermates; 238%, 158%, and 171%, respectively (P<0.01, one-way ANOVA and a post-hoc test in each region). The BDNF levels in the BDNF (+/+) mice were not elevated. The BDNF (+/-), but not the (+/+) mice, demonstrated significantly shorter escape latency, shorter total path length in the MWM, and more frequent arrivals at the location where the platform had been placed previously in the probe trial, compared with the wild-type littermates (P<0.05, at each time pint). Because the maximum swimming velocity was not affected in the BDNF-transgenic mice, increased BDNF levels in the brain were found to enhance spatial learning and memory function. Although it has been postulated that excessive BDNF is deteriorating for neuronal survival or neurite outgrowth, further investigations are needed to clarify the mechanism of paradoxical lack of increase in BDNF levels in the (+/+) mouse brain.

  2. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor gene delivery via a polyethylene imine grafted chitosan carrier.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yu-Shiang; Lai, Po-Liang; Peng, Sydney; Wu, His-Chin; Yu, Siang; Tseng, Tsan-Yun; Wang, Li-Fang; Chu, I-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is known to result from the loss of dopaminergic neurons. Direct intracerebral injections of high doses of recombinant glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) have been shown to protect adult nigral dopaminergic neurons. Because GDNF does not cross the blood-brain barrier, intracerebral gene transfer is an ideal option. Chitosan (CHI) is a naturally derived material that has been used for gene transfer. However, the low water solubility often leads to decreased transfection efficiency. Grafting of highly water-soluble polyethylene imines (PEI) and polyethylene glycol onto polymers can increase their solubility. The purpose of this study was to design a non-viral gene carrier with improved water solubility as well as enhanced transfection efficiency for treating Parkinsonism. Two molecular weights (Mw =600 and 1,800 g/mol) of PEI were grafted onto CHI (PEI600-g-CHI and PEI1800-g-CHI, respectively) by opening the epoxide ring of ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether (EX-810). This modification resulted in a non-viral gene carrier with less cytotoxicity. The transfection efficiency of PEI600-g-CHI/deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) polyplexes was significantly higher than either PEI1800-g-CHI/DNA or CHI/DNA polyplexes. The maximal GDNF expression of PEI600-g-CHI/DNA was at the polymer:DNA weight ratio of 10:1, which was 1.7-fold higher than the maximal GDNF expression of PEI1800-g-CHI/DNA. The low toxicity and high transfection efficiency of PEI600-g-CHI make it ideal for application to GDNF gene therapy, which has potential for the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

  3. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor gene delivery via a polyethylene imine grafted chitosan carrier

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Yu-Shiang; Lai, Po-Liang; Peng, Sydney; Wu, His-Chin; Yu, Siang; Tseng, Tsan-Yun; Wang, Li-Fang; Chu, I-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease is known to result from the loss of dopaminergic neurons. Direct intracerebral injections of high doses of recombinant glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) have been shown to protect adult nigral dopaminergic neurons. Because GDNF does not cross the blood–brain barrier, intracerebral gene transfer is an ideal option. Chitosan (CHI) is a naturally derived material that has been used for gene transfer. However, the low water solubility often leads to decreased transfection efficiency. Grafting of highly water-soluble polyethylene imines (PEI) and polyethylene glycol onto polymers can increase their solubility. The purpose of this study was to design a non-viral gene carrier with improved water solubility as well as enhanced transfection efficiency for treating Parkinsonism. Two molecular weights (Mw =600 and 1,800 g/mol) of PEI were grafted onto CHI (PEI600-g-CHI and PEI1800-g-CHI, respectively) by opening the epoxide ring of ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether (EX-810). This modification resulted in a non-viral gene carrier with less cytotoxicity. The transfection efficiency of PEI600-g-CHI/deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) polyplexes was significantly higher than either PEI1800-g-CHI/DNA or CHI/DNA polyplexes. The maximal GDNF expression of PEI600-g-CHI/DNA was at the polymer:DNA weight ratio of 10:1, which was 1.7-fold higher than the maximal GDNF expression of PEI1800-g-CHI/DNA. The low toxicity and high transfection efficiency of PEI600-g-CHI make it ideal for application to GDNF gene therapy, which has potential for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. PMID:25061293

  4. Serum Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor Levels among Euthymic Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder Type I

    PubMed Central

    CEVHER BİNİCİ, Nagihan; İNAL EMİROĞLU, Fatma Neslihan; RESMİ, Halil; ELLİDOKUZ, Hülya

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Bipolar disorder (BD) has been increasingly associated with abnormalities in neuroplasticity and cellular resilience in brain regions that are involved in mood and that affect regulation. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of the neurotrophin family that regulates neuroplasticity. The aims of the current study were to compare serum BDNF levels in euthymic adolescents with BD type I with those in controls and to investigate the relationship between clinical variables and serum BDNF levels in adolescents with BD type I. Methods Twenty-five adolescents diagnosed with BD type I and 17 healthy control subjects within the age range of 15–19 years were recruited. Diagnoses were made by two experienced research clinicians using the Kiddie and Young Adult Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia Present and Lifetime Version and the affective module of Washington University in St. Louis Kiddie and Young Adult Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Present State and Lifetime. Blood samples were taken during euthymia, which was defined as Young Mania Rating Scale and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale scores below 7. Results The comparison of BDNF serum levels between the case and healthy control groups revealed no significant differences. In the case group, BDNF levels were significantly lower in patients being currently treated with lithium. Conclusion Similar to normal BDNF levels in adult patients with BD, the normal BDNF serum levels that we found in the euthymic state in adolescents and early adulthood may be related to the developmental brain stage in our study group. It may also show a common neurobiological basis of pediatric and adult BD. Further investigations evaluating BDNF levels in different mood states could help identify the role of BDNF in the underlying pathophysiology of BD. PMID:28373806

  5. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, impaired glucose metabolism, and bipolar disorder course.

    PubMed

    Mansur, Rodrigo B; Santos, Camila M; Rizzo, Lucas B; Asevedo, Elson; Cunha, Graccielle R; Noto, Mariane N; Pedrini, Mariana; Zeni-Graiff, Maiara; Cordeiro, Quirino; Vinberg, Maj; Kapczinski, Flavio; McIntyre, Roger S; Brietzke, Elisa

    2016-06-01

    The neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been proposed as a potential biomarker in bipolar disorder (BD). However, current evidence is limited and results have been highly heterogeneous. This study aimed to assess the moderating effect of impaired glucose metabolism (IGM) on plasma levels of BDNF in individuals with BD, and on the relationship between BDNF and variables of illness course. We measured and compared the plasma levels of BDNF in individuals with BD (n=57) and healthy controls (n=26). IGM was operationalized as pre-diabetes or type 2 diabetes mellitus. Information related to current and past psychiatric/medical history, as well as prescription of pharmacological treatments was also captured. Individuals with BD had lower levels of BDNF, relative to healthy controls, after adjustment for age, gender, current medications, smoking, alcohol use, and IGM (P=.046). There was no effect of IGM (P=.860) and no interaction between BD diagnosis and IGM (P=.893). Peripheral BDNF levels were positively correlated with lifetime depressive episodes (P<.001), psychiatric hospitalizations (P=.001) and suicide attempts (P=.021). IGM moderated the association between BDNF and the number of previous mood episodes (P<.001), wherein there was a positive correlation in euglycemic participants and a negative correlation in individuals with IGM. BD is independently associated with lower levels of BDNF; IGM may modify the relationship between BDNF and BD course, suggesting an interactive effect of BDNF with metabolic status on illness progression. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Decreased plasma levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) during mixed episodes of bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Piccinni, Armando; Veltri, Antonello; Costanzo, Davide; Vanelli, Federica; Franceschini, Caterina; Moroni, Ilenia; Domenici, Luciano; Origlia, Nicola; Marazziti, Donatella; Akiskal, Hagop Souren; Dell'Osso, Liliana

    2015-01-15

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin involved in neurogenesis and neuroplasticity. Decreased blood levels of BDNF have been found during acute manic and depressive states. BDNF has been proposed as a biomarker in illness phases of mood disorders. No information is available regarding BDNF levels during the mixed states of bipolar disorder (BD). The aim of this study was to evaluate BDNF levels during mixed episodes of BD patients and compare them with those of healthy subjects and depressed patients. Plasma BDNF levels were measured by an ELISA assay in 18 patients with major depressive episode (MDE), 19 patients with mixed episode (ME) and 15 healthy subjects (HS). BDNF levels were significantly higher in HS, as compared with patients׳ samples (HS vs. MDE patients: p<001; HS vs. ME patients: p=.022). No significant differences were found between BDNF levels of ME and MDE patients. The severity of illness as assessed by CGI-S was significantly higher in ME than in MDE patients (p=.01). The small sample size may have weakened the power of statistical analyses. All patients received mood-stabilizing and antidepressant treatments which have been reported to influence peripheral BDNF levels. Our results are consistent with previous studies showing reduced BDNF during both manic and depressive episodes. This finding supports the role of BDNF as a state-marker of mood episodes, and may represent a contribution to a unitary approach model between unipolar and BDs, as well as to the manic-depressive spectrum model. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Emotional Fronto-Cingulate Cortex Activation and Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor Polymorphism in Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Erika, Comasco; Andreas, Hahn; Sebastian, Ganger; Malin, Gingnell; Elin, Bannbers; Lars, Oreland; Johan, Wikström; Neill, Epperson C.; Rupert, Lanzenberger; Inger, Sundström-Poromaa

    2014-01-01

    Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is the prototypical sex-specific disorder in which symptom onset and offset require a particular hormonal milieu and for which there is moderate heritability. The present study investigated brain emotion processing in PMDD and healthy controls, as well as functional polymorphisms in two candidate genes for PMDD, the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). The 5-HTT linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) and BDNF Val66Met polymorphisms were genotyped in 31 patients with PMDD and 31 healthy controls. A subset of 16 patients and 15 controls participated in two functional magnetic resonance imaging-sessions performing an emotion processing task; once in the mid-follicular, and once in the late luteal phase which corresponds with maximum severity of mood symptoms. Genotypes were not directly associated with PMDD. A main effect of group was found in the whole brain analysis, with patients having lower activation of the pre-genual anterior cingulate and ventro-medial prefrontal cortex, independent of menstrual cycle phase. Post-hoc functional ROI analyses in the fronto-cingulate cluster showed no effect of 5-HTTLPR genotype but a genotype-by-group-by-phase interaction effect of BDNF Val66Met. Women with PMDD who were carriers of the Met-allele had lower fronto-cingulate cortex activation in the luteal phase compared to Met-allele carrying controls. The results provide suggestive evidence of impaired emotion-induced fronto-cingulate cortex activation in PMDD patients. Although limited by a small sample, the potential influence of BDNF Val66Met in PMDD is in line with preclinical research. PMID:24615932

  8. Genetic variation in brain-derived neurotrophic factor and human fear conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Hajcak, G.; Castille, C.; Olvet, D. M.; Dunning, J. P.; Roohi, J.; Hatchwell, E.

    2015-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been implicated in hippocampal-dependent learning processes, and carriers of the Met allele of the Val66Met BDNF genotype are characterized by reduced hippocampal structure and function. Recent nonhuman animal work suggests that BDNF is also crucial for amygdala-dependent associative learning. The present study sought to examine fear conditioning as a function of the BDNF polymorphism. Fifty-seven participants were genotyped for the BDNF polymorphism and took part in a differential-conditioning paradigm. Participants were shocked following a particular conditioned stimulus (CS+) and were also presented with stimuli that ranged in perceptual similarity to the CS+ (20, 40 or 60% smaller or larger than the CS+). The eye blink component of the startle response was measured to quantify fear conditioning; post-task shock likelihood ratings for each stimulus were also obtained. All participants reported that shock likelihood varied with perceptual similarity to the CS+ and showed potentiated startle in response to CS ± 20% stimuli. However, only the Val/Val group had potentiated startle responses to the CS+. Met allele carrying individuals were characterized by deficient fear conditioning – evidenced by an attenuated startle response to CS+ stimuli. Variation in the BDNF genotype appears related to abnormal fear conditioning, consistent with nonhuman animal work on the importance of BDNF in amygdala-dependent associative learning. The relation between genetic variation in BDNF and amygdala-dependent associative learning deficits is discussed in terms of potential mechanisms of risk for psychopathology. PMID:19220486

  9. The relationship between serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and cardiometabolic indices in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Nurjono, Milawaty; Tay, Yi Hang; Lee, Jimmy

    2014-08-01

    Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which has been implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, has been recently shown to be involved in the regulation of metabolism and energy homeostasis. This study seeks to examine the relationship between BDNF, metabolic indices and cardiovascular (CVD) risk in patients with schizophrenia. Medical histories, demographic information and anthropometric measurements were collected and analyzed from 61 participants with schizophrenia. Fasting glucose and lipids were measured in a central laboratory, and serum BDNF was analyzed using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The 10-year CVD risk for each participant was computed using the Framingham risk score (FRS). Linear regressions were performed to examine the relationships between serum BDNF with body mass index (BMI), blood pressure (BP), triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and glucose. To examine the relationship between serum BDNF and FRS, serum BDNF was categorized into quartiles, and a multiple regression was performed. After adjusting for age, gender and current smoking status, diastolic BP (dBP) (p=0.045) and TG (p=0.015) were found to be significantly associated with serum BDNF. Participants in the highest quartile of serum BDNF had a 3.3 times increase in FRS over those in the lowest quartile. Our findings support the possible regulatory role of BDNF in metabolism and cardiovascular homeostasis among patients with schizophrenia similar to that observed among the non-mentally ill. Serum BDNF not only present itself as a candidate biomarker of schizophrenia but also might be a viable marker of metabolic co-morbidities associated with schizophrenia.

  10. Exercise increases serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor in patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Kerling, A; Kück, M; Tegtbur, U; Grams, L; Weber-Spickschen, S; Hanke, A; Stubbs, B; Kahl, K G

    2017-06-01

    Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD). Existing data on exercise treatment in people with MDD are inconsistent concerning the effect of exercise on BDNF pointing either to increased or unaltered BDNF concentrations. However, studies in non-depressed persons demonstrated a significant effect on resting peripheral BDNF concentrations in aerobic training interventions. Given the lack of clarity mentioned above, the current study aimed at examining the effect of adjunctive exercise on serum BDNF levels in guideline based treated patients with MDD. 42 depressed inpatients were included, and randomized either to a 6 week structured and supervised exercise intervention plus treatment as usual (EXERCISE, n=22), or to treatment as usual (TAU, n=20). BDNF serum concentrations were assessed before and after the intervention in both study groups with established immunoassays. Serum BDNF slightly decreased in the TAU group, whilst there was an increase in BDNF levels in the exercise group. There was a significant time x group effect concerning sBDNF (p=0.030) with repeated ANOVA measures with age and BMI as covariates, suggesting an increase in BDNF concentrations in the EXERCISE group compared to TAU. Though there was no statistic difference in the antidepressant medication between EXERCISE and TAU potential interactions between exercise and medication on the effects of exercise in BDNF cannot be excluded. Gender was not considered as a covariate in ANOVA due to the small number of objects. Exercise training given as adjunct to standard guideline based treatment appears to have additional effects on BDNF serum concentrations in people with MDD. Our results add further evidence to the beneficial effects of exercise in the treatment of MDD. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Imipramine ameliorates pain-related negative emotion via induction of brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Seiko; Yoshida, Mitsuhiro; Yamagata, Hirotaka; Iwanaga, Yasutake; Suenaga, Hiromi; Ishikawa, Kozo; Nakano, Masako; Okuyama, Satoshi; Furukawa, Yoshiko; Furukawa, Shoei; Ishikawa, Toshizo

    2014-11-01

    Depression-like behavior is often complicated by chronic pain. Antidepressants including imipramine (IMI) are widely used to treat chronic pain, but the mechanisms are not fully understood. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neuromodulator that reduces depression by regulating synaptic transmission. We aimed to characterize the antidepressant effects of IMI without analgesia based on BDNF (trkB)-mediated signaling and gene expression in chronic pain. A chronic constriction injury (CCI) model was constructed in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. IMI (5 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered from day 10 after CCI. The pain response was assessed using the paw withdrawal latency (PWL) and depression was judged from the immobility time in a forced swim test. Anti-BDNF antibody, K252a, or 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT) were used to examine the antidepressant effects of imipramine. Changes in pERK1/2 (immunohistochemistry), 5-HT and BDNF (ELISA), and BDNF mRNA (RT-PCR) were measured in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM), and spinal cord. After CCI, rats showed decreased PWL and increased immobility time. A low dose of IMI reduced the immobility time without having analgesic effects. This antidepressant effect was reversed by anti-BDNF antibody, K252a, and 5,7-DHT. IMI reduced excessive activation of pERK1/2 associated with decreased pCREB and BDNF mRNA, and these changes were reversed by 5,7-DHT. These results show that IMI reduces pain-related negative emotion without influencing pain and that this effect is diminished by denervation of 5-HT neurons and by anti-BDNF treatment. IMI also normalizes derangement of ERK/CREB coupling, which leads to induction of BDNF. This suggests a possible interaction between 5-HT and BDNF.

  12. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor val66met polymorphism and volume of the hippocampal formation.

    PubMed

    Szeszko, P R; Lipsky, R; Mentschel, C; Robinson, D; Gunduz-Bruce, H; Sevy, S; Ashtari, M; Napolitano, B; Bilder, R M; Kane, J M; Goldman, D; Malhotra, A K

    2005-07-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging studies have identified hippocampal structural alterations in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is one of the neurotrophins that is widely expressed in the hippocampal formation and has been implicated in the neurobiology of schizophrenia. Polymorphisms in the BDNF gene may therefore confer risk for schizophrenia through hippocampal pathogenesis and/or making the hippocampus more susceptible to environmental insults. In this study, we investigated whether val66met, a functional and abundant missense polymorphism in the coding region of the BDNF gene, was associated with the volume of the hippocampal formation in 19 patients with first-episode schizophrenia and 25 healthy volunteers. A total of 124 contiguous T1-weighted coronal MR images (slice thickness=1.5 mm) were acquired through the whole head using a 3D Fast SPGR IR Prep sequence on a 1.5 T GE imaging system. Volumes of the right and left hippocampal formation were measured manually by an operator blind to group status and genotype. All participants were genotyped for the BDNF val66met locus. Mixed model analyses revealed a main effect of BDNF val66met genotype such that in the combined sample of patients and healthy volunteers, val/val homozygotes (N=27) had larger volumes of the hippocampal formation compared to val/met heterozygotes (N=17). In separate analyses by group, however, val66met genotype accounted for a greater proportion of the variance in the volume of the hippocampal formation in patients compared to healthy volunteers. These findings implicate genetic involvement of BDNF in variation of human hippocampal volume and suggest that this effect may be greater among patients compared to healthy volunteers.

  13. Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Gene Val66Met Polymorphism Modulates Reversible Cerebral Vasoconstriction Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shih-Pin; Fuh, Jong-Ling; Wang, Shuu-Jiun; Tsai, Shih-Jen; Hong, Chen-Jee; Yang, Albert C.

    2011-01-01

    Background Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) could be complicated by cerebral ischemic events. Hypothetical mechanisms of RCVS involve endothelial dysfunction and sympathetic overactivity, both of which were reported to be related to brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). The study investigated the association between functional BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and RCVS. Methods Patients with RCVS and controls were prospectively recruited and genotyped for the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism. Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and transcranial color-coded Doppler sonography were employed to evaluate cerebral vasoconstriction. Genotyping results, clinical parameters, vasoconstriction scores, mean flow velocities of the middle cerebral artery (VMCA), and Lindegaard indices were analyzed. Split-sample approach was employed to internally validate the data. Principal Findings Ninety Taiwanese patients with RCVS and 180 age- and gender-matched normal controls of the same ethnicity completed the study. The genotype frequencies did not differ between patients and controls. Compared to patients with Met/Met homozygosity, patients with Val allele had higher mean vasoconstriction scores of all arterial segments (1.60±0.72 vs. 0.87±0.39, p<0.001), VMCA values (116.7±36.2 vs. 82.7±17.9 cm/s, p<0.001), and LI (2.41±0.91 vs. 1.89±0.41, p = 0.001). None of the Met/Met homozygotes, but 38.9% of the Val carriers, had VMCA values of >120 cm/s (p<0.001). Split-sample validation by randomization, age, entry time or residence of patients demonstrated concordant findings. Conclusions Our findings link BDNF Val66Met polymorphism with the severity of RCVS for the first time and implicate possible pathogenic mechanisms for vasoconstriction in RCVS. PMID:21437208

  14. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene Val66Met polymorphism modulates reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndromes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shih-Pin; Fuh, Jong-Ling; Wang, Shuu-Jiun; Tsai, Shih-Jen; Hong, Chen-Jee; Yang, Albert C

    2011-03-18

    Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) could be complicated by cerebral ischemic events. Hypothetical mechanisms of RCVS involve endothelial dysfunction and sympathetic overactivity, both of which were reported to be related to brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). The study investigated the association between functional BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and RCVS. Patients with RCVS and controls were prospectively recruited and genotyped for the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism. Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and transcranial color-coded Doppler sonography were employed to evaluate cerebral vasoconstriction. Genotyping results, clinical parameters, vasoconstriction scores, mean flow velocities of the middle cerebral artery (V(MCA)), and Lindegaard indices were analyzed. Split-sample approach was employed to internally validate the data. Ninety Taiwanese patients with RCVS and 180 age- and gender-matched normal controls of the same ethnicity completed the study. The genotype frequencies did not differ between patients and controls. Compared to patients with Met/Met homozygosity, patients with Val allele had higher mean vasoconstriction scores of all arterial segments (1.60±0.72 vs. 0.87±0.39, p<0.001), V(MCA) values (116.7±36.2 vs. 82.7±17.9 cm/s, p<0.001), and LI (2.41±0.91 vs. 1.89±0.41, p = 0.001). None of the Met/Met homozygotes, but 38.9% of the Val carriers, had V(MCA) values of >120 cm/s (p<0.001). Split-sample validation by randomization, age, entry time or residence of patients demonstrated concordant findings. Our findings link BDNF Val66Met polymorphism with the severity of RCVS for the first time and implicate possible pathogenic mechanisms for vasoconstriction in RCVS.

  15. Altered regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor protein in hippocampus following slice preparation.

    PubMed

    Danzer, S C; Pan, E; Nef, S; Parada, L F; McNamara, J O

    2004-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its cognate receptor tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) play important roles in regulating survival, structure, and function of CNS neurons. One method of studying the functions of these molecules has utilized in vitro hippocampal slice preparations. An important caveat to using slices, however, is that slice preparation itself might alter the expression of BDNF, thereby confounding experimental results. To address this concern, BDNF immunoreactivity was examined in rodent slices using two different methods of slice preparation. Rapid and anatomically selective regulation of BDNF content followed slice preparation using both methodologies; however, different patterns of altered BDNF immunoreactivity were observed. First, in cultured slices, BDNF content decreased in the dentate molecular layer and increased in the CA3 pyramidal cell layer and the mossy fiber pathway of the hippocampus after 30 min. Furthermore, an initially "punctate" pattern of BDNF labeling observed in the mossy fiber pathway of control sections changed to homogenous labeling of the pathway in vitro. In contrast to these findings, slices prepared as for acute slice physiology exhibited no change in BDNF content in the molecular layer and mossy fiber pathway 30 min after slicing, but exhibited significant increases in the dentate granule and CA3 pyramidal cell layers. These findings demonstrate that BDNF protein content is altered following slice preparation, that different methods of slice preparation produce different patterns of BDNF regulation, and raise the possibility that BDNF release and TrkB activation may also be regulated. These consequences of hippocampal slice preparation may confound analyses of exogenous or endogenous BDNF on hippocampal neuronal structure or function.

  16. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and substrate utilization following acute aerobic exercise in obese individuals.

    PubMed

    Slusher, A L; Whitehurst, M; Zoeller, R F; Mock, J T; Maharaj, A; Huang, C-J

    2015-05-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) serves as a vital regulator of neuronal proliferation and survival, and has been shown to regulate energy homeostasis, glucose metabolism and body weight maintenance. Elevated concentrations of plasma BDNF have been associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Acute aerobic exercise transiently increases circulating BDNF, potentially correcting obesity-related metabolic impairment. The present study aimed to compare acute aerobic exercise elicited BDNF responses in obese and normal-weight subjects. Furthermore, we aimed to investigate whether acute exercise-induced plasma BDNF elevations would be associated with improved indices of insulin resistance, as well as substrate utilization [carbohydrate oxidation (CHOoxi) and fat oxidation (FAToxi)]. Twenty-two healthy, untrained subjects [11 obese (four men and seven women; age = 22.91 ± 4.44 years; body mass index = 35.72 ± 4.17 kg/m(2)) and 11 normal-weight (five men and six women; age = 23.27 ± 2.24 years; body mass index = 21.89 ± 1.63 kg/m(2))] performed 30 min of continuous submaximal aerobic exercise at 75% maximal oxygen consumption. Our analyses showed that the BDNF response to acute aerobic exercise was similar in obese and normal-weight subjects across time (time: P = 0.015; group: P = not significant) and was not associated with indices of IR. Although no differences in the rates of CHOoxi and FAToxi were found between both groups, total relative energy expenditure was significantly lower in obese subjects compared to normal-weight subjects (3.53 ± 0.25 versus 5.59 ± 0.85; P < 0.001). These findings suggest that acute exercise-elicited BDNF elevation may not be sufficient to modulate indices of IR or the utilization of either carbohydrates or fats in obese individuals.

  17. Exercise impacts brain-derived neurotrophic factor plasticity by engaging mechanisms of epigenetic regulation.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Pinilla, F; Zhuang, Y; Feng, J; Ying, Z; Fan, G

    2011-02-01

    We have evaluated the possibility that the action of voluntary exercise on the regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a molecule important for rat hippocampal learning, could involve mechanisms of epigenetic regulation. We focused the studies on the Bdnf promoter IV, as this region is highly responsive to neuronal activity. We have found that exercise stimulates DNA demethylation in Bdnf promoter IV, and elevates levels of activated methyl-CpG-binding protein 2, as well as BDNF mRNA and protein in the rat hippocampus. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that exercise increases acetylation of histone H3, and protein assessment showed that exercise elevates the ratio of acetylated :total for histone H3 but had no effects on histone H4 levels. Exercise also reduces levels of the histone deacetylase 5 mRNA and protein implicated in the regulation of the Bdnf gene [N.M. Tsankova et al. (2006)Nat. Neurosci., 9, 519-525], but did not affect histone deacetylase 9. Exercise elevated the phosphorylated forms of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and cAMP response element binding protein, implicated in the pathways by which neural activity influences the epigenetic regulation of gene transcription, i.e. Bdnf. These results showing the influence of exercise on the remodeling of chromatin containing the Bdnf gene emphasize the importance of exercise on the control of gene transcription in the context of brain function and plasticity. Reported information about the impact of a behavior, inherently involved in the daily human routine, on the epigenome opens exciting new directions and therapeutic opportunities in the war against neurological and psychiatric disorders.

  18. Training augments resistance exercise induced elevation of circulating brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF).

    PubMed

    Yarrow, Joshua F; White, Lesley J; McCoy, Sean C; Borst, Stephen E

    2010-07-26

    Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is postulated to be an important mediator of exercise-induced neuroprotection. We tested the hypothesis that resistance exercise elevates circulating BDNF. Twenty healthy untrained college-aged males underwent a 5-week traditional or eccentric-enhanced progressive resistance training intervention. Blood was acquired at rest and 1, 30, and 60min following a standardized resistance exercise testing bout performed at baseline and at the completion of the intervention. Serum BDNF responses did not differ between the two groups at any time point during baseline or post-intervention testing; thus, all values were combined into a single cohort for further analysis. Resting BDNF was not altered by the exercise training intervention [23,304+/-1835pg/ml (baseline) vs. 19,433+/-1992pg/ml (post-intervention)]. Following the baseline resistance exercise bout, serum BDNF increased 32% (p<0.05) and was gradually reduced to 41% below resting levels at 60min into recovery (p<0.01). During post-intervention testing, serum BDNF increased 77% in response to the standardized resistance exercise bout (p<0.01) and returned to resting values within 30min. Ultimately, the change in serum BDNF from rest to immediately post-exercise was 98% greater at post-intervention than at baseline (p<0.05). Our study is the first to demonstrate that resistance exercise induces a robust, yet transient, elevation of circulating BDNF and that progressive resistance training augments this response; perhaps demonstrating one mechanism through which exercise influences brain health.

  19. Decreased plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in institutionalized elderly with depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Chu, Chin-Liang; Liang, Chih-Kuang; Chou, Ming-Yueh; Lin, Yu-Te; Pan, Chih-Chuan; Lu, Ti; Chen, Liang-Kung; Chow, Philip C

    2012-06-01

    To compare the differences in plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels among institutionalized ethnic Chinese elderly participants with major depression, those with subclinical depression, and a nondepressed control group. A cross-sectional study. The veterans' home in southern Taiwan. One hundred sixty-seven residents. Questionnaires including the Minimum Data Set Nursing Home 2.1, Chinese-language version, and the short-form Geriatric Depression Scale, Chinese-language version. Depressive disorder was diagnosed by a well-trained psychiatrist using DSM-IV-TR (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, text revision) criteria. We measured plasma BDNF levels in the following 3 groups: nondepressive subjects (n = 122), subclinically depressive subjects (n = 33), and subjects with major depression (n = 12). Plasma BDNF was assayed using the sandwich ELISA method. We noted a significantly negative association between age and plasma BDNF in the regression model. There was no significant correlation between BDNF plasma levels and body weight or platelet counts. We found that plasma BDNF was significantly lower in the major depressive group (mean, 115.1 pg/mL; SD, 57.2) than in the nondepressive group (mean, 548.8 pg/mL; SD, 370.6; P < .001). The BDNF plasma concentrations in the subclinically depressive group (mean, 231.8 pg/mL; SD, 92.4; P < .001) and control group were also significantly different. Our findings revealed that plasma BDNF levels were reduced not only in ethnic Chinese elderly patients with major depressive disorder but also in those with subclinical depression. This makes the plasma BDNF level a potential biological marker for clinical or subclinical depression. Copyright © 2012 American Medical Directors Association, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. An Intrastriatal Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Infusion Restores Striatal Gene Expression in Bdnf Heterozygous Mice

    PubMed Central

    Saylor, Alicia J.; McGinty, Jacqueline F.

    2011-01-01

    Reduction in the amount of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in corticostriatal afferents is thought to contribute to the vulnerability of medium spiny striatal neurons in Huntington’s disease. In young Bdnf heterozygous (+/−) mice, striatal medium spiny neurons express less preprodynorphin, preproenkephalin, and D3 receptor mRNA than wildtype mice. Further, in aged Bdnf+/− mice, opioid, trkB receptor, and glutamic acid decarboxylase gene expression, and the number of dendritic spines on medium spiny neurons are more affected than in wildtype or younger Bdnf+/− mice. In this study, the possibility that intrastriatal infusions of BDNF would elevate gene expression in the striatum of Bdnf+/− mice was investigated. Wildtype and Bdnf+/− mice received a single, bilateral microinjection of BDNF or PBS into the dorsal striatum. Mice were sacrificed 24 hours later and semi-quantitative in situ hybridization histochemical analysis confirmed that preprodynorphin, preproenkephalin and D3 receptor mRNA was less in the caudate-putamen and nucleus accumbens core of Bdnf+/− mice than in wildtype mice. A BDNF infusion increased preprodynorphin mRNA in the caudate-putamen and NAc core of wildtype mice and restored preprodynorphin mRNA levels in the nucleus accumbens core of Bdnf+/− mice. BDNF also restored the gene expression of preproenkephalin in the caudate-putamen of Bdnf+/− mice to wildtype levels; however, preproenkephalin mRNA in the nucleus accumbens did not differ among groups. Furthermore, BDNF increased D3 receptor mRNA in the nucleus accumbens core of wildtype and Bdnf+/− mice. These results demonstrate that exogenous BDNF restores striatal opioid and D3R gene expression in mice with genetically reduced levels of endogenous BDNF. PMID:20938680

  1. Presynaptic modulation of spinal nociceptive transmission by glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF).

    PubMed

    Salio, Chiara; Ferrini, Francesco; Muthuraju, Sangu; Merighi, Adalberto

    2014-10-08

    The role of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in nociceptive pathways is still controversial, as both pronociceptive and antinociceptive actions have been reported. To elucidate this role in the mouse, we performed combined structural and functional studies in vivo and in acute spinal cord slices where C-fiber activation was mimicked by capsaicin challenge. Nociceptors and their terminals in superficial dorsal horn (SDH; laminae I-II) constitute two separate subpopulations: the peptidergic CGRP/somatostatin+ cells expressing GDNF and the nonpeptidergic IB4+ neurons expressing the GFRα1-RET GDNF receptor complex. Ultrastructurally the dorsal part of inner lamina II (LIIid) harbors a mix of glomeruli that either display GDNF/somatostatin (GIb)-IR or GFRα1/IB4 labeling (GIa). LIIid thus represents the preferential site for ligand-receptor interactions. Functionally, endogenous GDNF released from peptidergic CGRP/somatostatin+ nociceptors upon capsaicin stimulation exert a tonic inhibitory control on the glutamate excitatory drive of SDH neurons as measured after ERK1/2 phosphorylation assay. Real-time Ca(2+) imaging and patch-clamp experiments with bath-applied GDNF (100 nM) confirm the presynaptic inhibition of SDH neurons after stimulation of capsaicin-sensitive, nociceptive primary afferent fibers. Accordingly, the reduction of the capsaicin-evoked [Ca(2+)]i rise and of the frequency of mEPSCs in SDH neurons is specifically abolished after enzymatic ablation of GFRα1. Therefore, GDNF released from peptidergic CGRP/somatostatin+ nociceptors acutely depresses neuronal transmission in SDH signaling to nonpeptidergic IB4+ nociceptors at glomeruli in LIIid. These observations are of potential pharmacological interest as they highlight a novel modality of cross talk between nociceptors that may be relevant for discrimination of pain modalities.

  2. Neuroprotection elicited by nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor released from astrocytes in response to methylmercury.

    PubMed

    Takemoto, Takuya; Ishihara, Yasuhiro; Ishida, Atsuhiko; Yamazaki, Takeshi

    2015-07-01

    The protective roles of astrocytes in neurotoxicity induced by environmental chemicals, such as methylmercury (MeHg), are largely unknown. We found that conditioned medium of MeHg-treated astrocytes (MCM) attenuated neuronal cell death induced by MeHg, suggesting that astrocytes-released factors can protect neuronal cells. The increased expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was observed in MeHg-treated astrocytes. NGF and BDNF were detected in culture media as homodimers, which are able to bind specific tyrosine kinase receptors, tropomyosin related kinase (Trk) A and TrkB, respectively. The TrkA antagonist and TrkB antagonist abolished the protective effects of MCM in neuronal cell death induced by MeHg. Taken together, astrocytes synthesize and release NGF and BDNF in response to MeHg to protect neurons from MeHg toxicity. This study is considered to show a novel defense mechanism against MeHg-induced neurotoxicity.

  3. Neurobiological actions by three distinct subtypes of brain-derived neurotrophic factor: Multi-ligand model of growth factor signaling.

    PubMed

    Mizui, Toshiyuki; Ishikawa, Yasuyuki; Kumanogoh, Haruko; Kojima, Masami

    2016-03-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is one of the most active members of the neurotrophin family. BDNF not only regulates neuronal survival and differentiation, but also functions in activity-dependent plasticity processes such as long-term potentiation (LTP), long-term depression (LTD), learning, and memory. Like other growth factors, BDNF is produced by molecular and cellular mechanisms including transcription and translation, and functions as a bioactive molecule in the nervous system. Among these mechanisms, a particular post-translational mechanism, namely the conversion of precursor BDNF into mature BDNF by proteolytic cleavage, was not fully understood. In this review, we discuss the manner through which this post-translational mechanism alters the biological actions of BDNF protein. In addition to the initially elucidated findings on BDNF, the biological roles of precursor BDNF and the BDNF pro-peptide, especially synaptic plasticity, will be extensively discussed. Recent findings on the BDNF pro-peptide will provide new insights for understanding the mechanisms of action of the pro-peptides of growth factors.

  4. Relationship between Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Schneiderian First Rank Symptoms in Antipsychotic-Naïve Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Kalmady, Sunil Vasu; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Shivakumar, Venkataram; Jose, Dania; Ravi, Vasanthapuram; Gangadhar, Bangalore N.

    2013-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental aberrations influenced by neurotrophic factors are among the important paradigms to understand schizophrenia pathogenesis. Among various neurotrophic factors, Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is strongly implicated by previous research studies. Evaluating co-morbidity free, antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia patients for BDNF levels and examining the correlates of this factor with symptoms might facilitate elucidation of its pathogenetic role without confounds of potential influencing factors. In this study, 59 co-morbidity free, antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia patients were compared with 60 healthy controls for serum BDNF levels. In addition, the relationship between Schneiderian First Rank Symptoms (FRS) and BDNF level in patients was examined. As a group, schizophrenia patients (28.8 ± 11.7 ng/mL) had significantly lower serum BDNF than healthy controls (34.9 ± 8.2 ng/mL) after controlling for the potential confounding effects of age and sex (F = 7.8; p = 0.006). Further analyses revealed FRS status to have significant effect on plasma BDNF after controlling for the potential confounding effects of age and sex (F = 4.5; p = 0.01). Follow-up post hoc analyses revealed FRS(+) patients to have significant deficit in plasma BDNF level in comparison with healthy controls (p = 0.002); however, FRS(−) patients did not differ from healthy controls (p = 0.38). Our study observations add further support to the role for BDNF in schizophrenia pathogenesis and suggest a potential novel link between deficient BDNF and FRS. PMID:23847552

  5. The regulation and activation of ciliary neurotrophic factor signaling proteins in adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Zvonic, Sanjin; Cornelius, Peter; Stewart, William C; Mynatt, Randall L; Stephens, Jacqueline M

    2003-01-24

    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is primarily known for its roles as a lesion factor released by the ruptured glial cells that prevent neuronal degeneration. However, CNTF has also been shown to cause weight loss in a variety of rodent models of obesity/type II diabetes, whereas a modified form also causes weight loss in humans. CNTF administration can correct or improve hyperinsulinemia, hyperphagia, and hyperlipidemia associated with these models of obesity. In order to investigate the effects of CNTF on fat cells, we examined the expression of CNTF receptor complex proteins (LIFR, gp130, and CNTFRalpha) during adipocyte differentiation and the effects of CNTF on STAT, Akt, and MAPK activation. We also examined the ability of CNTF to regulate the expression of adipocyte transcription factors and other adipogenic proteins. Our studies clearly demonstrate that the expression of two of the three CNTF receptor complex components, CNTFRalpha and LIFR, decreases during adipocyte differentiation. In contrast, gp130 expression is relatively unaffected by differentiation. In addition, preadipocytes are more sensitive to CNTF treatment than adipocytes, as judged by both STAT 3 and Akt activation. Despite decreased levels of CNTFRalpha expression in fully differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, CNTF treatment of these cells resulted in a time-dependent activation of STAT 3. Chronic treatment of adipocytes resulted in a substantial decrease in fatty-acid synthase and a notable decline in SREBP-1 levels but had no effect on the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, acrp30, adipocyte-expressed STAT proteins, or C/EBPalpha. However, CNTF resulted in a significant increase in IRS-1 expression. CNTFRalpha receptor expression was substantially induced in the fat pads of four rodent models of obesity/type II diabetes as compared with lean littermates. Moreover, we demonstrated that CNTF can activate STAT 3 in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle in vivo. In

  6. Long-Term Protection of Retinal Ganglion Cells and Visual Function by Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor in Mice With Ocular Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Liang; Chen, Hui; Yi, Ji; Troy, John B.; Zhang, Hao F.; Liu, Xiaorong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Glaucoma, frequently associated with elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), is characterized by progressive retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death and vision loss. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been studied as a candidate for neuroprotection in rodent models of experimental glaucoma, yet it remains to be determined whether BDNF exerts long-term protection for subtype RGCs and vision against chronic IOP elevation. Methods We induced modest and sustained IOP elevation by laser illumination and microbead injection in mice. Using a tamoxifen-induced Cre recombinase system, BDNF was upregulated in the mouse retina when sustained IOP elevation was induced. We then examined whether overexpression of BDNF protected RGCs and vision during the period of ocular hypertension. Given that BDNF modulates axon growth and dendritic formation in a subtype-dependent manner, we tested whether BDNF protects RGC dendritic structure against the hypertensive insult also in a subtype-dependent manner. Results Sustained IOP elevation was induced and lasted up to 6 months. Overexpression of BDNF delayed progressive RGC and axon loss in hypertensive eyes. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor overexpression also helped to preserve acuity against the chronic hypertensive insult. We classified RGCs into ON and ON–OFF subtypes based on their dendritic lamination pattern in the inner plexiform layer and found that BDNF prevented ON–RGC dendritic degeneration in mice with sustained ocular hypertension. Conclusions Our data demonstrated that BDNF can protect the dendritic fields of ON RGCs and reduce RGC and vision loss in mice with sustained ocular hypertension. PMID:27421068

  7. Ciliary neurotrophic factor induces down-regulation of its receptor and desensitization of signal transduction pathways in vivo: non-equivalence with pharmacological activity.

    PubMed

    DiStefano, P S; Boulton, T G; Stark, J L; Zhu, Y; Adryan, K M; Ryan, T E; Lindsay, R M

    1996-09-13

    Despite the widespread use of polypeptide growth factors as pharmacological agents, little is known about the extent to which these molecules regulate their cognate cell surface receptors and signal transduction pathways in vivo. We have addressed this issue with respect to the neurotrophic molecule ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF). Administration of CNTF in vivo resulted in modest decreases in levels of CNTFRalpha mRNA and protein in skeletal muscle. CNTF causes the rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of LIFRbeta and gp130 and the induction of the immediate-early gene, tis11; injection of CNTF 3-7 h after an initial exposure failed to re-stimulate these immediate-early responses, suggesting a biochemical desensitization to CNTF not accounted for by decreased receptor protein. To determine whether the desensitization of immediate-early responses caused by CNTF resulted in a functional desensitization, we compared the efficacy of multiple daily injections versus a single daily dose of CNTF in preventing the denervation-induced atrophy of skeletal muscle. Surprisingly, injections of CNTF every 6 h, which falls within the putative refractory period for biochemical responses, resulted in efficacy equal to or greater than injections once daily. These results suggest that although much of the CNTF signal transduction machinery is down-regulated with frequent CNTF dosing, biological signals continue to be recognized and interpreted by the cell.

  8. Angelica injection reduces cognitive impairment during chronic cerebral hypoperfusion through brain-derived neurotrophic factor and nerve growth factor.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ping; Zhang, Junjian; Liu, Hanxing; Xu, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Xiaolian

    2008-02-01

    The current study investigated whether chronic cerebral hypoperfusion produced by permanent bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (2-vessel occlusion (2-VO)) induced cognitive impairment and whether angelica injections alleviated the impairment. Furthermore, the study examined whether 2-VO altered the expression patterns of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) in the hippocampus of rats and whether angelica injections attenuated the alteration. Rats were divided into four groups to receive either 2-VO surgery or sham surgery followed by either angelica injections or saline injections for eight weeks. Spatial learning in Morris water maze and the expression patterns of BDNF and NGF in the hippocampus of all rats were examined. The results showed that 2-VO significantly impaired spatial learning and memory, and angelica injections significantly reversed the learning and memory impairment. Furthermore, 2-VO resulted in significantly decreased BDNF protein, NGF protein, and NGF mRNA expression in the hippocampus. Angelica injections significantly attenuated the decreased expression. Moreover, spatial learning in Morris water maze was positively correlated to the expression of BDNF and NGF in the hippocampus. Thus, angelica injections might alleviate cognitive impairment during chronic cerebral hypoperfusion through BDNF and NGF.

  9. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor increases vascular endothelial growth factor expression and enhances angiogenesis in human chondrosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chih-Yang; Hung, Shih-Ya; Chen, Hsien-Te; Tsou, Hsi-Kai; Fong, Yi-Chin; Wang, Shih-Wei; Tang, Chih-Hsin

    2014-10-15

    Chondrosarcomas are a type of primary malignant bone cancer, with a potent capacity for local invasion and distant metastasis. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is commonly upregulated during neurogenesis. The aim of the present study was to examine the mechanism involved in BDNF-mediated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and angiogenesis in human chondrosarcoma cells. Here, we knocked down BDNF expression in chondrosarcoma cells and assessed their capacity to control VEGF expression and angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. We found knockdown of BDNF decreased VEGF expression and abolished chondrosarcoma conditional medium-mediated angiogenesis in vitro as well as angiogenesis effects in vivo in the chick chorioallantoic membrane and Matrigel plug nude mouse models. In addition, in the xenograft tumor angiogenesis model, the knockdown of BDNF significantly reduced tumor growth and tumor-associated angiogenesis. BDNF increased VEGF expression and angiogenesis through the TrkB receptor, PLCγ, PKCα, and the HIF-1α signaling pathway. Finally, we analyzed samples from chondrosarcoma patients by immunohistochemical staining. The expression of BDNF and VEGF protein in 56 chondrosarcoma patients was significantly higher than in normal cartilage. In addition, the high level of BDNF expression correlated strongly with VEGF expression and tumor stage. Taken together, our results indicate that BDNF increases VEGF expression and enhances angiogenesis through a signal transduction pathway that involves the TrkB receptor, PLCγ, PKCα, and the HIF-1α. Therefore, BDNF may represent a novel target for anti-angiogenic therapy for human chondrosarcoma.

  10. Music exposure differentially alters the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and nerve growth factor in the mouse hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Angelucci, Francesco; Ricci, Enzo; Padua, Luca; Sabino, Andrea; Tonali, Pietro Attilio

    2007-12-18

    It has been reported that music may have physiological effects on blood pressure, cardiac heartbeat, respiration, and improve mood state in people affected by anxiety, depression and other psychiatric disorders. However, the physiological bases of these phenomena are not clear. Hypothalamus is a brain region involved in the regulation of body homeostasis and in the pathophysiology of anxiety and depression through the modulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Hypothalamic functions are also influenced by the presence of the neurotrophins brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF), which are proteins involved in the growth, survival and function of ne