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Sample records for neutral cue facilitates

  1. Adults' Social Cues Facilitate Young Children's Use of Signs and Symbols

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leekam, Susan R.; Solomon, Tracy L.; Teoh, Yee-San

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments investigated the effect of an adult's social cues on 2- and 3-year-old children's ability to use a sign or symbol to locate a hidden object. Results showed that an adult's positive, engaging facial expression facilitated children's ability to identify the correct referent, particularly for 3-year-olds. A neutral facial expression…

  2. Colour cues facilitate learning flower refill schedules in wild hummingbirds.

    PubMed

    Samuels, Michael; Hurly, T Andrew; Healy, Susan D

    2014-11-01

    Free-living hummingbirds can learn the refill schedules of individual experimental flowers but little is known about what information they use to do this. Colour cues, in particular, may be important to hummingbirds when learning about rewarded flower properties. We investigated, therefore, whether colour cues facilitated the learning of flower refill schedules in wild, free-living rufous hummingbirds (Selasphorus rufus). In the Cued condition, we presented birds with an array of six flowers, three of one colour, each of which were refilled 10min after being emptied by the bird and three of a different colour, which were refilled 20min after being emptied. In the Uncued condition we presented birds with six flowers of the same colour, three of which were refilled after 10min and three of which were refilled after 20min as for the birds in the Cued condition. In the second part of the experiment, we moved the array 2m and changed the shape of the array. Across both phases, birds in the Cued condition learned to discriminate between 10 and 20-min flowers more quickly than did the birds in the Uncued condition. The Cued birds were also better at discriminating between the two distinct refill intervals. Colour cues can, therefore, facilitate learning the refill schedules of experimental flowers in these birds. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cognition in the wild.

  3. Impact of DCS-facilitated cue exposure therapy on brain activation to cocaine cues in cocaine dependence

    PubMed Central

    Prisciandaro, James J.; Myrick, Hugh; Henderson, Scott; McRae-Clark, Aimee L.; Ana, Elizabeth J. Santa; Saladin, Michael E.; Brady, Kathleen T.

    2013-01-01

    Background The development of addiction is marked by a pathological associative learning process that imbues incentive salience to stimuli associated with drug use. Recent efforts to treat addiction have targeted this learning process using cue exposure therapy augmented with D-cycloserine (DCS), a glutamatergic agent hypothesized to enhance extinction learning. To better understand the impact of DCS-facilitated extinction on neural reactivity to drug cues, the present study reports fMRI findings from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of DCS-facilitated cue exposure for cocaine dependence. Methods Twenty-five participants completed two MRI sessions (before and after intervention), with a cocaine-cue reactivity fMRI task. The intervention consisted of 50mg of DCS or placebo, combined with two sessions of cocaine cue exposure and skills training. Results Participants demonstrated cocaine cue activation in a variety of brain regions at baseline. From the pre- to post-study scan, participants experienced decreased activation to cues in a number of regions (e.g., accumbens, caudate, frontal poles). Unexpectedly, placebo participants experienced decreases in activation to cues in the left angular and middle temporal gyri and the lateral occipital cortex, while DCS participants did not. Conclusions Three trials of DCS-facilitated cue exposure therapy for cocaine dependence have found that DCS either increases or does not significantly impact response to cocaine cues. The present study adds to this literature by demonstrating that DCS may prevent extinction to cocaine cues in temporal and occipital brain regions. Although consistent with past research, results from the present study should be considered preliminary until replicated in larger samples. PMID:23497788

  4. Informative Cues Facilitate Saccadic Localization in Blindsight Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Masatoshi; Hafed, Ziad M.; Isa, Tadashi

    2017-01-01

    Patients with damage to the primary visual cortex (V1) demonstrate residual visual performance during laboratory tasks despite denying having a conscious percept. The mechanisms behind such performance, often called blindsight, are not fully understood, but the use of surgically-induced unilateral V1 lesions in macaque monkeys provides a useful animal model for exploring such mechanisms. For example, V1-lesioned monkeys localize stimuli in a forced-choice condition while at the same time failing to report awareness of identical stimuli in a yes-no detection condition, similar to human patients. Moreover, residual cognitive processes, including saliency-guided eye movements, bottom-up attention with peripheral non-informative cues, and spatial short-term memory, have all been demonstrated in these animals. Here we examined whether post-lesion residual visuomotor processing can be modulated by top-down task knowledge. We tested two V1-lesioned monkeys with a visually guided saccade task in which we provided an informative foveal pre-cue about upcoming target location. Our monkeys fixated while we presented a leftward or rightward arrow (serving as a pre-cue) superimposed on the fixation point (FP). After various cue-target onset asynchronies (CTOAs), a saccadic target (of variable contrast across trials) was presented either in the affected (contra-lesional) or seeing (ipsi-lesional) hemifield. Critically, target location was in the same hemifield that the arrow pre-cue pointed towards in 80% of the trials (valid-cue trials), making the cue highly useful for task performance. In both monkeys, correct saccade reaction times were shorter during valid than invalid trials. Moreover, in one monkey, the ratio of correct saccades towards the affected hemifield was higher during valid than invalid trials. We replicated both reaction time and correct ratio effects in the same monkey using a symbolic color cue. These results suggest that V1-lesion monkeys can use informative

  5. Auditory, tactile, and multisensory cues facilitate search for dynamic visual stimuli.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Mary Kim; Spence, Charles

    2010-08-01

    Presenting an auditory or tactile cue in temporal synchrony with a change in the color of a visual target can facilitate participants' visual search performance. In the present study, we compared the magnitude of unimodal auditory, vibrotactile, and bimodal (i.e., multisensory) cuing benefits when the nonvisual cues were presented in temporal synchrony with the changing of the target's color (Experiments 1 and 2). The target (a horizontal or vertical line segment) was presented among a number of distractors (tilted line segments) that also changed color at various times. In Experiments 3 and 4, the cues were also made spatially informative with regard to the location of the visual target. The unimodal and bimodal cues gave rise to an equivalent (significant) facilitation of participants' visual search performance relative to a no-cue baseline condition. Making the unimodal auditory and vibrotactile cues spatially informative produced further performance improvements (on validly cued trials), as compared with cues that were spatially uninformative or otherwise spatially invalid. A final experiment was conducted in order to determine whether cue location (close to versus far from the visual display) would influence participants' visual search performance. Auditory cues presented close to the visual search display were found to produce significantly better performance than cues presented over headphones. Taken together, these results have implications for the design of nonvisual and multisensory warning signals used in complex visual displays.

  6. Social and Linguistic Cues Facilitate Children's Register Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Laura; Vega-Mendoza, Mariana; Van Horn, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    Speakers must command different linguistic registers to index various social-discourse elements, including the identity of the addressee. Previous work found that English-learning children could link registers to appropriate addressees by 5 years. Two experiments found that better cues to the linguistic form or to the social meaning of register…

  7. Facilitated detection of social cues conveyed by familiar faces

    PubMed Central

    Visconti di Oleggio Castello, Matteo; Guntupalli, J. Swaroop; Yang, Hua; Gobbini, M. Ida

    2014-01-01

    Recognition of the identity of familiar faces in conditions with poor visibility or over large changes in head angle, lighting and partial occlusion is far more accurate than recognition of unfamiliar faces in similar conditions. Here we used a visual search paradigm to test if one class of social cues transmitted by faces—direction of another's attention as conveyed by gaze direction and head orientation—is perceived more rapidly in personally familiar faces than in unfamiliar faces. We found a strong effect of familiarity on the detection of these social cues, suggesting that the times to process these signals in familiar faces are markedly faster than the corresponding processing times for unfamiliar faces. In the light of these new data, hypotheses on the organization of the visual system for processing faces are formulated and discussed. PMID:25228873

  8. Interactive Rhythmic Cue Facilitates Gait Relearning in Patients with Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Uchitomi, Hirotaka; Ota, Leo; Ogawa, Ken-ichiro; Orimo, Satoshi; Miyake, Yoshihiro

    2013-01-01

    To develop a method for cooperative human gait training, we investigated whether interactive rhythmic cues could improve the gait performance of Parkinson's disease patients. The interactive rhythmic cues ware generated based on the mutual entrainment between the patient's gait rhythms and the cue rhythms input to the patient while the patient walked. Previously, we found that the dynamic characteristics of stride interval fluctuation in Parkinson's disease patients were improved to a healthy 1/f fluctuation level using interactive rhythmic cues and that this effect was maintained in the short term. However, two problems remained in our previous study. First, it was not clear whether the key factor underpinning the effect was the mutual entrainment between the gait rhythms and the cue rhythms or the rhythmic cue fluctuation itself. Second, it was not clear whether or not the gait restoration was maintained longitudinally and was relearned after repeating the cue-based gait training. Thus, the present study clarified these issues using 32 patients who participated in a four-day experimental program. The patients were assigned randomly to one of four experimental groups with the following rhythmic cues: (a) interactive rhythmic cue, (b) fixed tempo cue, (c) 1/f fluctuating tempo cue, and (d) no cue. It has been reported that the 1/f fluctuation of stride interval in healthy gait is absent in Parkinson's disease patients. Therefore, we used this dynamic characteristic as an evaluation index to analyze gait relearning in the four different conditions. We observed a significant effect in condition (a) that the gait fluctuation of the patients gradually returned to a healthy 1/f fluctuation level, whereas this did not occur in the other conditions. This result suggests that the mutual entrainment can facilitate gait relearning effectively. It is expected that interactive rhythmic cues will be widely applicable in the fields of rehabilitation and assistive technology

  9. Faecal chemical cues in water buffalo that facilitate estrus detection.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, Kandasamy; Muniasamy, Samuthirapandi; SankarGanesh, Devaraj; Achiraman, Shanmugam; Ramesh Saravanakumar, Veluchamy; Archunan, Govindaraju

    2013-05-01

    Chemo-signals are among the reliable non-invasive methods for estrus detection in mammals. Water buffalo is a silent heat animal and, hence, there is search for chemo-signals which would be effective non-invasive indicators of estrus state. We analyzed the faecal chemical cues during the estrous cycle in buffalo and to find the estrus-specific faecal volatile compounds adopting bull behavior assay. The faecal samples were collected at three phases of the estrous cycle (i.e., proestrus, estrus and postestrus) and subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses. We found 27 volatile compounds in the faeces of buffaloes, of which 4-methyl phenol (4mp) and trans-verbenol (tv) were found only in estrus faeces. The faecal samples of estrus buffaloes and the estrus-specific compound(s) (4mp+tv) at three different concentrations were tested for behavioral responses (flehmen and mounting behavior) in the bull. The bulls exhibited repeated flehmen when exposed to a combination of the two compounds (i.e., 4mp+tv) as compared to the individual compounds or raw faecal sample collected from buffalo when in estrus (P<0.05). However, higher number of mounting behavior was recorded when bulls were exposed to 4mp followed by a combination of the two compounds (4mp+tv) and trans-verbenol (P<0.05), in that order. By contrast, less number of mounting behavior was exhibited by bulls when exposed to the control sample (i.e., Hexadecanoic acid) (P<0.05). As inferred from the bull behavior assay, the present study suggests that the two compounds, 4 methyl phenol and trans-verbenol would be reliable indicators of estrus in buffaloes.

  10. Probability cueing of distractor locations: both intertrial facilitation and statistical learning mediate interference reduction.

    PubMed

    Goschy, Harriet; Bakos, Sarolta; Müller, Hermann J; Zehetleitner, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Targets in a visual search task are detected faster if they appear in a probable target region as compared to a less probable target region, an effect which has been termed "probability cueing." The present study investigated whether probability cueing cannot only speed up target detection, but also minimize distraction by distractors in probable distractor regions as compared to distractors in less probable distractor regions. To this end, three visual search experiments with a salient, but task-irrelevant, distractor ("additional singleton") were conducted. Experiment 1 demonstrated that observers can utilize uneven spatial distractor distributions to selectively reduce interference by distractors in frequent distractor regions as compared to distractors in rare distractor regions. Experiments 2 and 3 showed that intertrial facilitation, i.e., distractor position repetitions, and statistical learning (independent of distractor position repetitions) both contribute to the probability cueing effect for distractor locations. Taken together, the present results demonstrate that probability cueing of distractor locations has the potential to serve as a strong attentional cue for the shielding of likely distractor locations.

  11. Cognitive Enhancers for Facilitating Drug Cue Extinction: Insights from Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Nic Dhonnchadha, Bríd Áine; Kantak, Kathleen M.

    2011-01-01

    Given the success of cue exposure (extinction) therapy combined with a cognitive enhancer for reducing anxiety, it is anticipated that this approach will prove more efficacious than exposure therapy alone in preventing relapse in individuals with substance use disorders. Several factors may undermine the efficacy of exposure therapy for substance use disorders, but we suspect that neurocognitive impairments associated with chronic drug use are an important contributing factor. Numerous insights on these issues are gained from research using animal models of addiction. In this review, the relationship between brain sites whose learning, memory and executive functions are impaired by chronic drug use and brain sites that are important for effective drug cue extinction learning is explored first. This is followed by an overview of animal research showing improved treatment outcome for drug addiction (e.g. alcohol, amphetamine, cocaine, heroin) when explicit extinction training is conducted in combination with acute dosing of a cognitive-enhancing drug. The mechanism by which cognitive enhancers are thought to exert their benefits is by facilitating consolidation of drug cue extinction memory after activation of glutamatergic receptors. Based on the encouraging work in animals, factors that may be important for the treatment of drug addiction are considered. PMID:21295059

  12. Cognitive enhancers for facilitating drug cue extinction: insights from animal models.

    PubMed

    Nic Dhonnchadha, Bríd Áine; Kantak, Kathleen M

    2011-08-01

    Given the success of cue exposure (extinction) therapy combined with a cognitive enhancer for reducing anxiety, it is anticipated that this approach will prove more efficacious than exposure therapy alone in preventing relapse in individuals with substance use disorders. Several factors may undermine the efficacy of exposure therapy for substance use disorders, but we suspect that neurocognitive impairments associated with chronic drug use are an important contributing factor. Numerous insights on these issues are gained from research using animal models of addiction. In this review, the relationship between brain sites whose learning, memory and executive functions are impaired by chronic drug use and brain sites that are important for effective drug cue extinction learning is explored first. This is followed by an overview of animal research showing improved treatment outcome for drug addiction (e.g. alcohol, amphetamine, cocaine, heroin) when explicit extinction training is conducted in combination with acute dosing of a cognitive-enhancing drug. The mechanism by which cognitive enhancers are thought to exert their benefits is by facilitating consolidation of drug cue extinction memory after activation of glutamatergic receptors. Based on the encouraging work in animals, factors that may be important for the treatment of drug addiction are considered.

  13. Sensory cues involved in social facilitation of reproduction in Blattella germanica females.

    PubMed

    Uzsák, Adrienn; Schal, Coby

    2013-01-01

    Cockroaches, like many other animal species, form aggregations in which social stimuli from conspecifics can alter the physiology, morphology, or behavior of individuals. In adult females of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica, social isolation slows oocyte development, sexual maturation, and sexual receptivity, whereas social interactions as minimal as between just two females accelerate reproduction; however, the sensory modalities and pathways that mediate these physiological and behavioral changes are poorly understood. We explored the roles of visual, olfactory, and tactile cues in the reproductive physiology of German cockroach females, and whether their effects are species-specific and related to circadian time. Our results show that tactile cues are the primary sensory input associated with social conditions--with no evidence for involvement of the visual and olfactory systems--and that the antennae play an important role in the reception of these tactile cues. This conclusion is supported by the observation that interactions with other insect species of similar or larger size and with similar antennal morphology also stimulate oocyte development in B. germanica. Social facilitation of reproduction is expected to be influenced by the circadian timing system, as females engage in more social contact during the day when they shelter in aggregations with conspecifics. Surprisingly, however, the female's reproductive rate was unresponsive to social interactions during the photophase, whereas social interactions as short as two hours during the scotophase were sufficient to induce faster reproduction.We discuss the adaptive significance of these sensory-neuroendocrine responses in the German cockroach.

  14. Sensory Cues Involved in Social Facilitation of Reproduction in Blattella germanica Females

    PubMed Central

    Uzsák, Adrienn; Schal, Coby

    2013-01-01

    Cockroaches, like many other animal species, form aggregations in which social stimuli from conspecifics can alter the physiology, morphology, or behavior of individuals. In adult females of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica, social isolation slows oocyte development, sexual maturation, and sexual receptivity, whereas social interactions as minimal as between just two females accelerate reproduction; however, the sensory modalities and pathways that mediate these physiological and behavioral changes are poorly understood. We explored the roles of visual, olfactory, and tactile cues in the reproductive physiology of German cockroach females, and whether their effects are species-specific and related to circadian time. Our results show that tactile cues are the primary sensory input associated with social conditions—with no evidence for involvement of the visual and olfactory systems—and that the antennae play an important role in the reception of these tactile cues. This conclusion is supported by the observation that interactions with other insect species of similar or larger size and with similar antennal morphology also stimulate oocyte development in B. germanica. Social facilitation of reproduction is expected to be influenced by the circadian timing system, as females engage in more social contact during the day when they shelter in aggregations with conspecifics. Surprisingly, however, the female's reproductive rate was unresponsive to social interactions during the photophase, whereas social interactions as short as two hours during the scotophase were sufficient to induce faster reproduction. We discuss the adaptive significance of these sensory-neuroendocrine responses in the German cockroach. PMID:23405195

  15. Venlafaxine facilitates between-session extinction and prevents reinstatement of auditory-cue conditioned fear.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cheng-Hao; Shi, Hai-Shui; Zhu, Wei-Li; Wu, Ping; Sun, Li-Li; Si, Ji-Jian; Liu, Meng-Meng; Zhang, Yan; Suo, Lin; Yang, Jian-Li

    2012-04-21

    Anxiety disorders, characterized by anxiety and fearfulness, are found to be able to cause abnormal emotional responses' associated with memories of negative events, which implicate pressure on society with an increasingly large burden. Better treatment has been of concern to the community. Venlafaxine (VEN), a nonclassical antidepressant agent, is applied in the treatment of social phobia, major depression (MD) and general anxiety disorder (GAD) and, to a certain extent, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which improves working memory and spatial memory as well as ameliorates emotion by affecting specified brain regions. In this study, we committed to seek a new way for using VEN on treatment of anxiety disorders. To investigate the effect of VEN on extinction of auditory-cue conditioned fear, conditioned rats received a treatment with VEN before extinction training and tests for freezing level of within-session and between-session extinction. To investigate the effect of VEN on reinstatement, all conditioned rats received a treatment with VEN over a period for 21 days. After a rest for 7 days, two tests for freezing level were conducted. We found that: (1) VEN (40mg/kg) treatment at 30min prior to extinction training significantly facilitated the between-session extinction, but not the within-session extinction; (2) chronic administration with VEN (40mg/kg) prevented the return of extinguished auditory-cue fear. These data elucidate the critical role of VEN in auditory-cue fear memory, suggesting that VEN may be an ideal choice for the exposure-based drug treatment and maintenance treatment in patients with GAD, SAD and PTSD.

  16. Aptamer-facilitated Protection of Oncolytic Virus from Neutralizing Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Muharemagic, Darija; Zamay, Anna; Ghobadloo, Shahrokh M; Evgin, Laura; Savitskaya, Anna; Bell, John C; Berezovski, Maxim V

    2014-01-01

    Oncolytic viruses promise to significantly improve current cancer treatments through their tumor-selective replication and multimodal attack against cancer cells. However, one of the biggest setbacks for oncolytic virus therapy is the intravenous delivery of the virus, as it can be cleared from the bloodstream by neutralizing antibodies before it reaches the tumor cells. We have selected DNA aptamers against an oncolytic virus, vesicular stomatitis virus, using a competitive binding approach, as well as against the antigen binding fragment (Fab) of antivesicular stomatitis virus polyclonal antibodies, in order to shield the virus from nAbs and enhance its in vivo survival. We used flow cytometry to identify these aptamers and evaluated their efficiency to shield vesicular stomatitis virus in a cell-based plaque forming assay. These oligonucleotides were then modified to obtain multivalent binders, which led to a decrease of viral aggregation, an increase in its infectivity and an increase in its stability in serum. The aptamers were also incubated in nondiluted serum, showing their effectiveness under conditions mimicking those in vivo. With this approach, we were able to increase viral infectivity by more than 70% in the presence of neutralizing antibodies. Thus, this method has the potential to enhance the delivery of vesicular stomatitis virus through the bloodstream without compromising the patient's immune system. PMID:24892725

  17. Similarity in Spatial Origin of Information Facilitates Cue Competition and Interference

    PubMed Central

    Amundson, Jeffrey C.; Miller, Ralph R.

    2007-01-01

    Two lick suppression studies were conducted with water-deprived rats to investigate the influence of spatial similarity in cue interaction. Experiment 1 assessed the influence of similarity of the spatial origin of competing cues in a blocking procedure. Greater blocking was observed in the condition in which the auditory blocking cue and the auditory blocked cue originated at the same spatial location. Recent investigations have demonstrated that manipulations that impact competition between cues trained together have similar effects on interference between cues trained apart. Therefore, Experiment 2 investigated the influence of similarity of the spatial origin in proactive interference of Pavlovian conditioning by separately pairing two auditory cues with a common outcome, originating at the same spatial location or different spatial locations. Greater proactive interference was observed in the condition in which the interfering cue and target cue originated at the same spatial location. The results are considered in light of the possibility that a similar mechanism may underlie interference between cues trained apart and cue competition between cues trained together. PMID:17471316

  18. Similarity in Spatial Origin of Information Facilitates Cue Competition and Interference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amundson, Jeffrey C.; Miller, Ralph R.

    2007-01-01

    Two lick suppression studies were conducted with water-deprived rats to investigate the influence of spatial similarity in cue interaction. Experiment 1 assessed the influence of similarity of the spatial origin of competing cues in a blocking procedure. Greater blocking was observed in the condition in which the auditory blocking cue and the…

  19. Linking attentional processes and conceptual problem solving: visual cues facilitate the automaticity of extracting relevant information from diagrams.

    PubMed

    Rouinfar, Amy; Agra, Elise; Larson, Adam M; Rebello, N Sanjay; Loschky, Lester C

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated links between visual attention processes and conceptual problem solving. This was done by overlaying visual cues on conceptual physics problem diagrams to direct participants' attention to relevant areas to facilitate problem solving. Participants (N = 80) individually worked through four problem sets, each containing a diagram, while their eye movements were recorded. Each diagram contained regions that were relevant to solving the problem correctly and separate regions related to common incorrect responses. Problem sets contained an initial problem, six isomorphic training problems, and a transfer problem. The cued condition saw visual cues overlaid on the training problems. Participants' verbal responses were used to determine their accuracy. This study produced two major findings. First, short duration visual cues which draw attention to solution-relevant information and aid in the organizing and integrating of it, facilitate both immediate problem solving and generalization of that ability to new problems. Thus, visual cues can facilitate re-representing a problem and overcoming impasse, enabling a correct solution. Importantly, these cueing effects on problem solving did not involve the solvers' attention necessarily embodying the solution to the problem, but were instead caused by solvers attending to and integrating relevant information in the problems into a solution path. Second, this study demonstrates that when such cues are used across multiple problems, solvers can automatize the extraction of problem-relevant information extraction. These results suggest that low-level attentional selection processes provide a necessary gateway for relevant information to be used in problem solving, but are generally not sufficient for correct problem solving. Instead, factors that lead a solver to an impasse and to organize and integrate problem information also greatly facilitate arriving at correct solutions.

  20. Age-Appropriate Cues Facilitate Source-Monitoring and Reduce Suggestibility in 3- To 7-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bright-Paul, A.; Jarrold, C.; Wright, D.B.

    2005-01-01

    Providing cues to facilitate the recovery of source information can reduce postevent misinformation effects in adults, implying that errors in source-monitoring contribute to suggestibility (e.g., [Lindsay, D. S., & Johnson, M. K. (1989). The eyewitness suggestibility effect and memory for source. Memory & Cognition, 17, 349-358]). The present…

  1. Habitat selection, facilitation, and biotic settlement cues affect distribution and performance of coral recruits in French Polynesia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Habitat selection can determine the distribution and performance of individuals if the precision with which sites are chosen corresponds with exposure to risks or resources. Contrastingly, facilitation can allow persistence of individuals arriving by chance and potentially maladapted to local abiotic conditions. For marine organisms, selection of a permanent attachment site at the end of their larval stage or the presence of a facilitator can be a critical determinant of recruitment success. In coral reef ecosystems, it is well known that settling planula larvae of reef-building corals use coarse environmental cues (i.e., light) for habitat selection. Although laboratory studies suggest that larvae can also use precise biotic cues produced by crustose coralline algae (CCA) to select attachment sites, the ecological consequences of biotic cues for corals are poorly understood in situ. In a field experiment exploring the relative importance of biotic cues and variability in habitat quality to recruitment of hard corals, pocilloporid and acroporid corals recruited more frequently to one species of CCA, Titanoderma prototypum, and significantly less so to other species of CCA; these results are consistent with laboratory assays from other studies. The provision of the biotic cue accurately predicted coral recruitment rates across habitats of varying quality. At the scale of CCA, corals attached to the “preferred” CCA experienced increased survivorship while recruits attached elsewhere had lower colony growth and survivorship. For reef-building corals, the behavioral selection of habitat using chemical cues both reduces the risk of incidental mortality and indicates the presence of a facilitator. PMID:20169452

  2. Inhibiting Glycine Transporter-1 Facilitates Cocaine-Cue Extinction and Attenuates Reacquisition of Cocaine-Seeking Behavior*

    PubMed Central

    Nic Dhonnchadha, Bríd Á; Pinard, Emmanuel; Alberati, Daniela; Wettstein, Joseph G.; Spealman, Roger D.; Kantak, Kathleen M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Combining extinction training with cognitive-enhancing pharmacotherapy represents a novel strategy for improving the efficacy of exposure therapy for drug relapse prevention. We investigated if the selective glycine transporter-1 (GlyT-1) inhibitor RO4543338 could facilitate extinction of cocaine-conditioned responses and attenuate reacquisition of cocaine-seeking behavior. Methods Rats were trained to self-administer cocaine (0.3 mg/kg), which was associated with a 2-sec light cue under a second-order schedule of i.v. drug injection. Rats received vehicle, 30 or 45 mg/kg of RO4543338 prior to three 1-hr extinction-training sessions spaced at weekly intervals. Responses were extinguished by substituting saline for cocaine while maintaining response-contingent cue presentations. Reacquisition of cocaine-seeking behavior during self-administration sessions began one week after the last extinction session. Control experiments were conducted under conditions that precluded explicit extinction of cocaine-conditioned responses. Results Compared to vehicle, 30 and 45 mg/kg RO4543338 significantly decreased responding early in extinction training and during subsequent reacquisition sessions. The latter effect persisted for at least five sessions. In control studies, reacquisition of cocaine-seeking behavior was not altered when RO4543338 was administered either prior to weekly self-administration control sessions or prior to weekly control sessions in which cocaine and cues were omitted and the levers retracted. Conclusions As the GlyT-1 inhibitor facilitated cocaine-cue extinction learning and attenuated subsequent reacquisition of cocaine-seeking behavior, this class of compounds may have utility as a pharmacological adjunct to cocaine-cue exposure therapy in addicts. PMID:21992874

  3. Right temporoparietal junction activation by a salient contextual cue facilitates target discrimination.

    PubMed

    Geng, Joy J; Mangun, George R

    2011-01-01

    The right temporoparietal junction (R TPJ) is involved in stimulus-driven attentional control in response to the appearance of an unexpected target or a distractor that shares features with a task-relevant target. An unresolved question is whether these responses in R TPJ are due simply to the presence of a stimulus that is a potential target, or instead responds to any task-relevant information. Here, we addressed this issue by testing the sensitivity of R TPJ to a perceptually salient, non-target stimulus - a contextual cue. Although known to be a non-target, the contextual cue carried probabilistic information regarding the presence of a target in the opposite visual field. The contextual cue was therefore always of potential behavioral relevance, but only sometimes paired with a target. The appearance of the contextual cue alone increased activation in R TPJ, but more so when it appeared with a target. There was also greater connectivity between R TPJ and a network of attentional control and decision areas when the contextual cue was present. These results demonstrate that R TPJ is involved in the stimulus-driven representation of task-relevant information that can be used to engage an appropriate behavioral response.

  4. Brief report: pointing cues facilitate word learning in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Akechi, Hironori; Kikuchi, Yukiko; Tojo, Yoshikuni; Osanai, Hiroo; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2013-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) reportedly have difficulty associating novel words to an object via the speaker's gaze. It has also been suggested that their performance is related to their gaze duration on the object and improves when the object moves and becomes more salient. However, there is a possibility that they have only relied on the object's movement and have not referenced the speaker's cue (i.e. gaze direction). The current study with children with ASD and typically developing children aged 6-11 years demonstrated that adding another speaker's cue (i.e. pointing) improves the performance of children with ASD. This suggests that additional speaker's cues may help referential word learning in children with ASD.

  5. Visual Cues Generated during Action Facilitate 14-Month-Old Infants' Mental Rotation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antrilli, Nick K.; Wang, Su-hua

    2016-01-01

    Although action experience has been shown to enhance the development of spatial cognition, the mechanism underlying the effects of action is still unclear. The present research examined the role of visual cues generated during action in promoting infants' mental rotation. We sought to clarify the underlying mechanism by decoupling different…

  6. Slit-roundabout signaling neutralizes netrin-Frazzled-mediated attractant cue to specify the lateral positioning of longitudinal axon pathways.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Krishna Moorthi

    2005-05-01

    An extending axon growth cone is subjected to attractant and repellent cues. It is not clear how these growth cones discriminate the two opposing forces and select their projection paths. Here, we report that in the Drosophila nerve cord the growth cones of longitudinal tracts are subjected to attraction by the Netrin-Frazzled pathway. However, the midline Slit neutralizes this pathway in a Robo-dependent manner and prevents Netrin-Frazzled-mediated attraction of longitudinal tracts. Our results suggest that the loss of a neutralizing effect on the Netrin-mediated attraction is responsible for the longitudinal tracts entering the midline in slit mutants as opposed to a loss of repulsion as is currently believed. This effect is not via a direct inhibition of Frazzled by Robo; instead, it is at a level downstream of Frazzled. Thus, the growth cones of longitudinal tracts subjected to two opposing forces are able to block one with the other and specify their correct lateral positioning along the midline.

  7. Antecedent Stimulus Control: Using Orienting Cues to Facilitate First-Word Acquisition for Nonresponders with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koegel, Robert L.; Shirotova, Larisa; Koegel, Lynn Kern

    2009-01-01

    Although considerable progress has been made in improving the acquisition of expressive verbal communication in children with autism, research has documented that a subpopulation of children still fail to acquire speech even with intensive intervention. One variable that might be important in facilitating responding for this nonverbal subgroup of…

  8. Hemodynamic responses in amygdala and hippocampus distinguish between aversive and neutral cues during Pavlovian fear conditioning in behaving rats

    PubMed Central

    McHugh, Stephen B; Marques-Smith, Andre; Li, Jennifer; Rawlins, J N P; Lowry, John; Conway, Michael; Gilmour, Gary; Tricklebank, Mark; Bannerman, David M

    2013-01-01

    Lesion and electrophysiological studies in rodents have identified the amygdala and hippocampus (HPC) as key structures for Pavlovian fear conditioning, but human functional neuroimaging studies have not consistently found activation of these structures. This could be because hemodynamic responses cannot detect the sparse neuronal activity proposed to underlie conditioned fear. Alternatively, differences in experimental design or fear levels could account for the discrepant findings between rodents and humans. To help distinguish between these alternatives, we used tissue oxygen amperometry to record hemodynamic responses from the basolateral amygdala (BLA), dorsal HPC (dHPC) and ventral HPC (vHPC) in freely-moving rats during the acquisition and extinction of conditioned fear. To enable specific comparison with human studies we used a discriminative paradigm, with one auditory cue [conditioned stimulus (CS)+] that was always followed by footshock, and another auditory cue (CS−) that was never followed by footshock. BLA tissue oxygen signals were significantly higher during CS+ than CS− trials during training and early extinction. In contrast, they were lower during CS+ than CS− trials by the end of extinction. dHPC and vHPC tissue oxygen signals were significantly lower during CS+ than CS− trials throughout extinction. Thus, hemodynamic signals in the amygdala and HPC can detect the different patterns of neuronal activity evoked by threatening vs. neutral stimuli during fear conditioning. Discrepant neuroimaging findings may be due to differences in experimental design and/or fear levels evoked in participants. Our methodology offers a way to improve translation between rodent models and human neuroimaging. PMID:23173719

  9. D-cycloserine does not facilitate fear extinction by reducing conditioned stimulus processing or promoting conditioned inhibition to contextual cues.

    PubMed

    Baker, Kathryn D; McNally, Gavan P; Richardson, Rick

    2012-09-14

    The NMDA receptor partial agonist d-cycloserine (DCS) enhances the extinction of learned fear in rats and exposure therapy in humans with anxiety disorders. Despite these benefits, little is known about the mechanisms by which DCS promotes the loss of fear. The present study examined whether DCS augments extinction retention (1) through reductions in conditioned stimulus (CS) processing or (2) by promoting the development of conditioned inhibition to contextual cues. Rats administered DCS prior to extinction showed enhanced long-term extinction retention (Experiments 3 and 4). The same nonreinforced CS procedure used in extinction also reduced freezing at test when presented as pre-exposure before conditioning, demonstrating latent inhibition (Experiment 1). DCS administered shortly prior to pre-exposure had no effect on latent inhibition using parameters which produced weak (Experiment 2) or strong (Experiment 3) expression of latent inhibition. Therefore, DCS facilitated learning involving CS-alone exposures, but only when these exposures occurred after (extinction) and not before (latent inhibition) conditioning. We also used a retardation test procedure to examine whether the extinction context gained inhibitory properties for rats given DCS prior to extinction. With three different footshock intensities, there was no evidence that DCS promoted accrual of associative inhibition to the extinction context (Experiment 4). The present findings demonstrate that DCS does not facilitate extinction by reducing CS processing or causing the extinction context to become a conditioned inhibitor. Investigations into the mechanisms underlying the augmentation of extinction by DCS are valuable for understanding how fear can be inhibited.

  10. The Effect of Varied Cueing Strategies in Complementing Animated Visual Imagery in Facilitating Achievement of Different Educational Objectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Russ; Dwyer, Francis

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of varied visual cueing strategies, used to complement animation, on cognitive processing and achievement of specific educational objectives. An instructional heart material was utilized in this study. Four criterion tests were used in this study, namely: (1) Drawing Test; (2)…

  11. Anticipatory coarticulation facilitates word recognition in toddlers.

    PubMed

    Mahr, Tristan; McMillan, Brianna T M; Saffran, Jenny R; Ellis Weismer, Susan; Edwards, Jan

    2015-09-01

    Children learn from their environments and their caregivers. To capitalize on learning opportunities, young children have to recognize familiar words efficiently by integrating contextual cues across word boundaries. Previous research has shown that adults can use phonetic cues from anticipatory coarticulation during word recognition. We asked whether 18-24 month-olds (n=29) used coarticulatory cues on the word "the" when recognizing the following noun. We performed a looking-while-listening eyetracking experiment to examine word recognition in neutral vs. facilitating coarticulatory conditions. Participants looked to the target image significantly sooner when the determiner contained facilitating coarticulatory cues. These results provide the first evidence that novice word-learners can take advantage of anticipatory sub-phonemic cues during word recognition.

  12. Reactivity to nicotine cues over repeated cue reactivity sessions.

    PubMed

    LaRowe, Steven D; Saladin, Michael E; Carpenter, Matthew J; Upadhyaya, Himanshu P

    2007-12-01

    The present study investigated whether reactivity to nicotine-related cues would attenuate across four experimental sessions held 1 week apart. Participants were nineteen non-treatment seeking, nicotine-dependent males. Cue reactivity sessions were performed in an outpatient research center using in vivo cues consisting of standardized smoking-related paraphernalia (e.g., cigarettes) and neutral comparison paraphernalia (e.g., pencils). Craving ratings were collected before and after both cue presentations while physiological measures (heart rate, skin conductance) were collected before and during the cue presentations. Although craving levels decreased across sessions, smoking-related cues consistently evoked significantly greater increases in craving relative to neutral cues over all four experimental sessions. Skin conductance was higher in response to smoking cues, though this effect was not as robust as that observed for craving. Results suggest that, under the described experimental parameters, craving can be reliably elicited over repeated cue reactivity sessions.

  13. Brief Report: Using Individualized Orienting Cues to Facilitate First-Word Acquisition in Non-Responders with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koegel, Robert L.; Shirotova, Larisa; Koegel, Lynn K.

    2009-01-01

    Though considerable progress has been made in developing techniques for improving the acquisition of expressive verbal communication in children with autism, research has documented that 10-25% still fail to develop speech. One possible technique that could be significant in facilitating responding for this nonverbal subgroup of children is the…

  14. Attentional cueing by cross-modal congruency produces both facilitation and inhibition on short-term visual recognition.

    PubMed

    Makovac, Elena; Kwok, Sze Chai; Gerbino, Walter

    2014-10-01

    The attentional modulation of performance in a memory task, comparable to the one obtained in a perceptual task, is at the focus of contemporary research. We hypothesized that a biphasic effect (namely, facilitation followed by inhibition) can be obtained in visual working memory when attention is cued towards one item of the memorandum and participants must recognize a delayed probe as being identical to any item of the memorandum. In every trial, a delayed spiky/curvy probe appeared centrally, to be matched with the same-category shape maintained in visual working memory which could be either physically identical (positive trials) or only categorically similar (negative trials). To orient the participant's attention towards a selected portion of a two-item memorandum, a (tzk/wow) sound was played simultaneously with two lateral visual shapes (one spiky and one curved). Our results indicate that an exogenous attentional shift during perception of the memorandum, induced by a congruent audio-visual pairing, first facilitates and then inhibits the recognition of a cued item (but not of a non-cued item) stored in visual working memory. A coherent pattern of individual differences emerged, indicating that the amount of early facilitation in congruent-sound trials was negatively correlated with recognition sensitivity in no-sound trials (suggesting that the inverse effectiveness rule may also apply to memory) and positively correlated with later inhibition, as well as with the self-reported susceptibility to memory failures.

  15. An object-identity probability cueing paradigm during grasping observation: the facilitating effect is present only when the observed kinematics is suitable for the cued object

    PubMed Central

    Craighero, Laila; Mele, Sonia; Zorzi, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Electrophysiological and psychophysical data indicate that grasping observation automatically orients attention toward the incoming interactions between the actor’s hand and the object. The aim of the present study was to clarify if this effect facilitates the detection of a graspable object with the observed action as compared to an ungraspable one. We submitted participants to an object-identity probability cueing experiment in which the two possible targets were of the same dimensions but one of them presented sharp tips at one extreme while the other presented flat faces. At the beginning of each trial the most probable target was briefly shown. After a variable interval, at the same position, the same (75%) or a different target (25%) was presented. Participants had to press a key in response to target appearance. Superimposed to the video showing cue and target, an agent performing the reaching and grasping of the target was presented. The kinematics of the action was or was not suitable for grasping the cued target, according to the absence or presence of the sharp tips. Results showed that response was modulated by the probability of target identity but only when the observed kinematics was suitable to grasp the attended target. A further experiment clarified that response modulation was never present when the superimposed video always showed the agent at a rest position. These findings are discussed at the light of neurophysiological and psychophysical literature, considering the relationship between the motor system and the perception of objects and of others’ actions. We conclude that the prediction of the mechanical events that arise from the interactions between the hand and the attended object is at the basis of the capability to select a graspable object in space. PMID:26483732

  16. The unity assumption facilitates cross-modal binding of musical, non-speech stimuli: The role of spectral and amplitude envelope cues.

    PubMed

    Chuen, Lorraine; Schutz, Michael

    2016-07-01

    An observer's inference that multimodal signals originate from a common underlying source facilitates cross-modal binding. This 'unity assumption' causes asynchronous auditory and visual speech streams to seem simultaneous (Vatakis & Spence, Perception & Psychophysics, 69(5), 744-756, 2007). Subsequent tests of non-speech stimuli such as musical and impact events found no evidence for the unity assumption, suggesting the effect is speech-specific (Vatakis & Spence, Acta Psychologica, 127(1), 12-23, 2008). However, the role of amplitude envelope (the changes in energy of a sound over time) was not previously appreciated within this paradigm. Here, we explore whether previous findings suggesting speech-specificity of the unity assumption were confounded by similarities in the amplitude envelopes of the contrasted auditory stimuli. Experiment 1 used natural events with clearly differentiated envelopes: single notes played on either a cello (bowing motion) or marimba (striking motion). Participants performed an un-speeded temporal order judgments task; viewing audio-visually matched (e.g., marimba auditory with marimba video) and mismatched (e.g., cello auditory with marimba video) versions of stimuli at various stimulus onset asynchronies, and were required to indicate which modality was presented first. As predicted, participants were less sensitive to temporal order in matched conditions, demonstrating that the unity assumption can facilitate the perception of synchrony outside of speech stimuli. Results from Experiments 2 and 3 revealed that when spectral information was removed from the original auditory stimuli, amplitude envelope alone could not facilitate the influence of audiovisual unity. We propose that both amplitude envelope and spectral acoustic cues affect the percept of audiovisual unity, working in concert to help an observer determine when to integrate across modalities.

  17. All Cues Are Not Created Equal: The Case for Facilitating the Acquisition of Typical Weighting Strategies in Children with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowenstein, Joanna H.; Nittrouer, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: One task of childhood involves learning to optimally weight acoustic cues in the speech signal in order to recover phonemic categories. This study examined the extent to which spectral degradation, as associated with cochlear implants, might interfere. The 3 goals were to measure, for adults and children, (a) cue weighting with spectrally…

  18. A configural dominant account of contextual cueing: Configural cues are stronger than colour cues.

    PubMed

    Kunar, Melina A; John, Rebecca; Sweetman, Hollie

    2014-01-01

    Previous work has shown that reaction times to find a target in displays that have been repeated are faster than those for displays that have never been seen before. This learning effect, termed "contextual cueing" (CC), has been shown using contexts such as the configuration of the distractors in the display and the background colour. However, it is not clear how these two contexts interact to facilitate search. We investigated this here by comparing the strengths of these two cues when they appeared together. In Experiment 1, participants searched for a target that was cued by both colour and distractor configural cues, compared with when the target was only predicted by configural information. The results showed that the addition of a colour cue did not increase contextual cueing. In Experiment 2, participants searched for a target that was cued by both colour and distractor configuration compared with when the target was only cued by colour. The results showed that adding a predictive configural cue led to a stronger CC benefit. Experiments 3 and 4 tested the disruptive effects of removing either a learned colour cue or a learned configural cue and whether there was cue competition when colour and configural cues were presented together. Removing the configural cue was more disruptive to CC than removing colour, and configural learning was shown to overshadow the learning of colour cues. The data support a configural dominant account of CC, where configural cues act as the stronger cue in comparison to colour when they are presented together.

  19. Chemosensory anxiety cues enhance the perception of fearful faces - An fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Wudarczyk, Olga A; Kohn, Nils; Bergs, Rene; Goerlich, Katharina S; Gur, Raquel E; Turetsky, Bruce; Schneider, Frank; Habel, Ute

    2016-12-01

    Recent evidence suggests that humans can communicate emotion via chemosensory signals. Olfactory cues signaling anxiety can bias the perception of ambiguous stimuli, but the underlying neurobiological mechanisms of this effect are currently unknown. Here, we investigated the brain responses to subtle changes in facial expressions in response to anxiety chemosensory cues. Ten healthy individuals donated their sweat in two situations: while anticipating an important oral examination (anxiety condition) and during physical exercise (control condition). Subsequently, 24 participants completed a parametrically morphed (neutral to fearful) emotion recognition task under exposure to the olfactory cues of anxiety and sports, in the fMRI scanner. Behaviorally, the participants rated more discernible fearful faces as more fearful and neutral faces as more neutral under exposure to the anxiety cues. For brain response, under exposure to the anxiety cues, increased fearfulness of the face corresponded to increased activity in the left insula and the left middle occipital gyrus extending into fusiform gyrus. Moreover, with higher subjective ratings of facial fearfulness, participants additionally showed increased activity in the left hippocampus. These results suggest that chemosensory anxiety cues facilitate processing of socially relevant fearful stimuli and boost memory retrieval due to enhanced emotional context.

  20. Nile red fluorescence screening facilitating neutral lipid phenotype determination in budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Rostron, Kerry A; Rolph, Carole E; Lawrence, Clare L

    2015-07-01

    Investigation of yeast neutral lipid accumulation is important for biotechnology and also for modelling aberrant lipid metabolism in human disease. The Nile red (NR) method has been extensively utilised to determine lipid phenotypes of yeast cells via microscopic means. NR assays have been used to differentiate lipid accumulation and relative amounts of lipid in oleaginous species but have not been thoroughly validated for phenotype determination arising from genetic modification. A modified NR assay, first described by Sitepu et al. (J Microbiol Methods 91:321-328, 2012), was able to detect neutral lipid changes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae deletion mutants with sensitivity similar to more advanced methodology. We have also be able to, for the first time, successfully apply the NR assay to the well characterised fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, an increasingly important organism in biotechnology. The described NR fluorescence assay is suitable for increased throughput and rapid screening of genetically modified strains in both the biotechnology industry and for modelling ectopic lipid production for a variety of human diseases. This ultimately negates the need for labour intensive and time consuming lipid analyses of samples that may not yield a desirable lipid phenotype, whilst genetic modifications impacting significantly on the cellular lipid phenotype can be further promoted for more in depth analyses.

  1. Polarizing cues.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Stephen P

    2012-01-01

    People categorize themselves and others, creating ingroup and outgroup distinctions. In American politics, parties constitute the in- and outgroups, and party leaders hold sway in articulating party positions. A party leader's endorsement of a policy can be persuasive, inducing co-partisans to take the same position. In contrast, a party leader's endorsement may polarize opinion, inducing out-party identifiers to take a contrary position. Using survey experiments from the 2008 presidential election, I examine whether in- and out-party candidate cues—John McCain and Barack Obama—affected partisan opinion. The results indicate that in-party leader cues do not persuade but that out-party leader cues polarize. This finding holds in an experiment featuring President Bush in which his endorsement did not persuade Republicans but it polarized Democrats. Lastly, I compare the effect of party leader cues to party label cues. The results suggest that politicians, not parties, function as polarizing cues.

  2. The Role of Cue-Response Mapping in Motorvisual Impairment and Facilitation: Evidence for Different Roles of Action Planning and Action Control in Motorvisual Dual-Task Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomaschke, Roland; Hopkins, Brian; Miall, R. Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has shown that actions impair the visual perception of categorically action-consistent stimuli. On the other hand, actions can also facilitate the perception of spatially action-consistent stimuli. We suggest that motorvisual impairment is due to action planning processes, while motorvisual facilitation is due to action control…

  3. Orienting and Emotional Perception: Facilitation, Attenuation, and Interference

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Margaret M.; Keil, Andreas; Lang, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Human emotions are considered here to be founded on motivational circuits in the brain that evolved to protect (defensive) and sustain (appetitive) the life of individuals and species. These circuits are phylogenetically old, shared among mammals, and involve the activation of both subcortical and cortical structures that mediate attention, perception, and action. Circuit activation begins with a feature-match between a cue and an existing representation in memory that has motivational significance. Subsequent processes include rapid cue-directed orienting, information gathering, and action selection – What is it? Where is it? What to do? In our studies of emotional perception, we have found that measures that index orienting to emotional cues generally show enhanced circuit activation and response facilitation, relative to orienting indicators occasioned by affectively neutral cues, whether presented concurrently or independently. Here, we discuss these findings, considering both physiological reflex and brain measures as they are modulated during orienting and emotional perception. PMID:23181039

  4. Gender differences in craving and cue reactivity to smoking and negative affect/stress cues.

    PubMed

    Saladin, Michael E; Gray, Kevin M; Carpenter, Matthew J; LaRowe, Steven D; DeSantis, Stacia M; Upadhyaya, Himanshu P

    2012-01-01

    There is evidence that women may be less successful when attempting to quit smoking than men. One potential contributory cause of this gender difference is differential craving and stress reactivity to smoking- and negative affect/stress-related cues. The present human laboratory study investigated the effects of gender on reactivity to smoking and negative affect/stress cues by exposing nicotine dependent women (n = 37) and men (n = 53) smokers to two active cue types, each with an associated control cue: (1) in vivo smoking cues and in vivo neutral control cues, and (2) imagery-based negative affect/stress script and a neutral/relaxing control script. Both before and after each cue/script, participants provided subjective reports of smoking-related craving and affective reactions. Heart rate (HR) and skin conductance (SC) responses were also measured. Results indicated that participants reported greater craving and SC in response to smoking versus neutral cues and greater subjective stress in response to the negative affect/stress versus neutral/relaxing script. With respect to gender differences, women evidenced greater craving, stress and arousal ratings and lower valence ratings (greater negative emotion) in response to the negative affect/stressful script. While there were no gender differences in responses to smoking cues, women trended towards higher arousal ratings. Implications of the findings for treatment and tobacco-related morbidity and mortality are discussed.

  5. Gender Differences in Craving and Cue Reactivity to Smoking and Negative Affect/Stress Cues

    PubMed Central

    Saladin, Michael E.; Gray, Kevin M.; Carpenter, Matthew J.; LaRowe, Steven D.; DeSantis, Stacia M.; Upadhyaya, Himanshu P.

    2011-01-01

    There is evidence that women may be less successful when attempting to quit smoking than men. One potential contributory cause of this gender difference is differential craving and stress reactivity to smoking-and negative affect/stress-related cues. The present human laboratory study investigated the effects of gender on reactivity to smoking and negative affect/stress cues by exposing nicotine dependent women (n=37) and men (n=53) smokers to two active cue types, each with an associated control cue: 1) in vivo smoking cues and in vivo neutral control cues, and 2) imagery-based negative affect/stress script and a neutral/relaxing control script. Both before and after each cue/script, participants provided subjective reports of smoking-related craving and affective reactions. Heart rate (HR) and skin conductance (SC) responses were also measured. Results indicated that participants reported greater craving and SC in response to smoking vs. neutral cues and greater subjective stress in response to the negative affect/stress vs. neutral/relaxing script. With respect to gender differences, women evidenced greater craving, stress and arousal ratings and lower valence ratings (greater negative emotion) in response to the negative affect/stressful script. While there were no gender differences in responses to smoking cues, women trended towards higher arousal ratings. Implications of the findings for treatment and tobacco-related morbidity and mortality are discussed. PMID:22494223

  6. Negative emotion provides cues for orienting auditory spatial attention

    PubMed Central

    Asutay, Erkin; Västfjäll, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The auditory stimuli provide information about the objects and events around us. They can also carry biologically significant emotional information (such as unseen dangers and conspecific vocalizations), which provides cues for allocation of attention and mental resources. Here, we investigated whether task-irrelevant auditory emotional information can provide cues for orientation of auditory spatial attention. We employed a covert spatial orienting task: the dot-probe task. In each trial, two task-irrelevant auditory cues were simultaneously presented at two separate locations (left–right or front–back). Environmental sounds were selected to form emotional vs. neutral, emotional vs. emotional, and neutral vs. neutral cue pairs. The participants’ task was to detect the location of an acoustic target that was presented immediately after the task-irrelevant auditory cues. The target was presented at the same location as one of the auditory cues. The results indicated that participants were significantly faster to locate the target when it replaced the negative cue compared to when it replaced the neutral cue. The positive cues did not produce a clear attentional bias. Further, same valence pairs (emotional–emotional or neutral–neutral) did not modulate reaction times due to a lack of spatial attention capture by one cue in the pair. Taken together, the results indicate that negative affect can provide cues for the orientation of spatial attention in the auditory domain. PMID:26029149

  7. Contextual Cueing Effects across the Lifespan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Edward C.; Conners, Frances A.; Roskos, Beverly; Klinger, Mark R.; Klinger, Laura Grofer

    2013-01-01

    The authors evaluated age-related variations in contextual cueing, which reflects the extent to which visuospatial regularities can facilitate search for a target. Previous research produced inconsistent results regarding contextual cueing effects in young children and in older adults, and no study has investigated the phenomenon across the life…

  8. Enhancing Interactive Tutorial Effectiveness through Visual Cueing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamet, Eric; Fernandez, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated whether learning how to use a web service with an interactive tutorial can be enhanced by cueing. We expected the attentional guidance provided by visual cues to facilitate the selection of information in static screen displays that corresponded to spoken explanations. Unlike most previous studies in this area, we…

  9. Combat cueing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachejian, Kerry C.; Vujcic, Doug

    1998-08-01

    The combat cueing (CBT-Q) research effort will develop and demonstrate a portable tactical information system that will enhance the effectiveness of small unit military operations by providing real-time target cueing information to individual warfighters and teams. CBT-Q consists of a network of portable radio frequency (RF) 'modules' and is controlled by a body-worn 'user station' utilizing a head mounted display . On the battlefield, CBT-Q modules will detect an enemy transmitter and instantly provide the warfighter with an emitter's location. During the 'fog of battle', CBT-Q would tell the warfighter, 'Look here, right now individuals into the RF spectrum, resulting in faster target engagement times, increased survivability, and reduce the potential for fratricide. CBT-Q technology can support both mounted and dismounted tactical forces involved in land, sea and air warfighting operations. The CBT-Q system combines robust geolocation and signal sorting algorithms with hardware and software modularity to offer maximum utility to the warfighter. A single CBT-Q module can provide threat RF detection. Three networked CBT-Q modules can provide emitter positions using a time difference of arrival (TDOA) technique. The TDOA approach relies on timing and positioning data derived from a global positioning systems. The information will be displayed on a variety of displays, including a flat-panel head mounted display. The end results of the program will be the demonstration of the system with US Army Scouts in an operational environment.

  10. Emotion Unchained: Facial Expression Modulates Gaze Cueing under Cognitive Load

    PubMed Central

    Petrucci, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Direction of eye gaze cues spatial attention, and typically this cueing effect is not modulated by the expression of a face unless top-down processes are explicitly or implicitly involved. To investigate the role of cognitive control on gaze cueing by emotional faces, participants performed a gaze cueing task with happy, angry, or neutral faces under high (i.e., counting backward by 7) or low cognitive load (i.e., counting forward by 2). Results show that high cognitive load enhances gaze cueing effects for angry facial expressions. In addition, cognitive load reduces gaze cueing for neutral faces, whereas happy facial expressions and gaze affected object preferences regardless of load. This evidence clearly indicates a differential role of cognitive control in processing gaze direction and facial expression, suggesting that under typical conditions, when we shift attention based on social cues from another person, cognitive control processes are used to reduce interference from emotional information. PMID:27959925

  11. Brain dynamics of visual attention during anticipation and encoding of threat- and safe-cues in spider-phobic individuals.

    PubMed

    Michalowski, Jaroslaw M; Pané-Farré, Christiane A; Löw, Andreas; Hamm, Alfons O

    2015-09-01

    This study systematically investigated the sensitivity of the phobic attention system by measuring event-related potentials (ERPs) in spider-phobic and non-phobic volunteers in a context where spider and neutral pictures were presented (phobic threat condition) and in contexts where no phobic but unpleasant and neutral or only neutral pictures were displayed (phobia-irrelevant conditions). In a between-group study, participants were assigned to phobia-irrelevant conditions either before or after the exposure to spider pictures (pre-exposure vs post-exposure participants). Additionally, each picture was preceded by a fixation cross presented in one of three different colors that were informative about the category of an upcoming picture. In the phobic threat condition, spider-phobic participants showed a larger P1 than controls for all pictures and signal cues. Moreover, individuals with spider phobia who were sensitized by the exposure to phobic stimuli (i.e. post-exposure participants) responded with an increased P1 also in phobia-irrelevant conditions. In contrast, no group differences between spider-phobic and non-phobic individuals were observed in the P1-amplitudes during viewing of phobia-irrelevant stimuli in the pre-exposure group. In addition, cues signaling neutral pictures elicited decreased stimulus-preceding negativity (SPN) compared with cues signaling emotional pictures. Moreover, emotional pictures and cues signaling emotional pictures evoked larger early posterior negativity (EPN) and late positive potential (LPP) than neutral stimuli. Spider phobics showed greater selective attention effects than controls for phobia-relevant pictures (increased EPN and LPP) and cues (increased LPP and SPN). Increased sensitization of the attention system observed in spider-phobic individuals might facilitate fear conditioning and promote generalization of fear playing an important role in the maintenance of anxiety disorders.

  12. Cue-Reactive Altered State of Consciousness Mediates the Relationship Between Problem-Gambling Severity and Cue-Reactive Urge in Poker-Machine Gamblers.

    PubMed

    Tricker, Christopher; Rock, Adam J; Clark, Gavin I

    2016-06-01

    In order to enhance our understanding of the nature of poker-machine problem-gambling, a community sample of 37 poker-machine gamblers (M age = 32 years, M PGSI = 5; PGSI = Problem Gambling Severity Index) were assessed for urge to gamble (responses on a visual analogue scale) and altered state of consciousness (assessed by the Altered State of Awareness dimension of the Phenomenology of Consciousness Inventory) at baseline, after a neutral cue, and after a gambling cue. It was found that (a) problem-gambling severity (PGSI score) predicted increase in urge (from neutral cue to gambling cue, controlling for baseline; sr (2) = .19, p = .006) and increase in altered state of consciousness (from neutral cue to gambling cue, controlling for baseline; sr (2) = .57, p < .001), and (b) increase in altered state of consciousness (from neutral cue to gambling cue) mediated the relationship between problem-gambling severity and increase in urge (from neutral cue to gambling cue; κ(2) = .40, 99 % CI [.08, .71]). These findings suggest that cue-reactive altered state of consciousness is an important component of cue-reactive urge in poker-machine problem-gamblers.

  13. A Single Residue within the V5 Region of HIV-1 Envelope Facilitates Viral Escape from the Broadly Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibody VRC01*

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Dongxing; Shi, Xuanling; Arledge, Kelly C.; Song, Dingka; Jiang, Liwei; Fu, Lili; Gong, Xinqi; Zhang, Senyan; Wang, Xinquan; Zhang, Linqi

    2012-01-01

    VRC01, a broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibody, is capable of neutralizing a diverse array of HIV-1 isolates by mimicking CD4 binding with the envelope glycoprotein gp120. Nonetheless, resistant strains have been identified. Here, we examined two genetically related and two unrelated envelope clones, derived from CRF08_BC-infected patients, with distinct VRC01 neutralization profiles. A total of 22 chimeric envelope clones was generated by interchanging the loop D and/or V5 regions between the original envelopes or by single alanine substitutions within each region. Analysis of pseudoviruses built from these mutant envelopes showed that interchanging the V5 region between the genetically related or unrelated clones completely swapped their VRC01 sensitivity profiles. Mutagenesis analysis revealed that the asparagine residue at position 460 (Asn-460), a potential N-linked glycosylation site in the V5 region, is a key factor for observed resistance in these strains, which is further supported by our structural modeling. Moreover, changes in resistance were found to positively correlate with deviations in VRC01 binding affinity. Overall, our study indicates that Asn-460 in the V5 region is a critical determinant of sensitivity to VRC01 specifically in these viral strains. The long side chain of Asn-460, and potential glycosylation, may create steric hindrance that lowers binding affinity, thereby increasing resistance to VRC01 neutralization. PMID:23100255

  14. A single residue within the V5 region of HIV-1 envelope facilitates viral escape from the broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibody VRC01.

    PubMed

    Guo, Dongxing; Shi, Xuanling; Arledge, Kelly C; Song, Dingka; Jiang, Liwei; Fu, Lili; Gong, Xinqi; Zhang, Senyan; Wang, Xinquan; Zhang, Linqi

    2012-12-14

    VRC01, a broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibody, is capable of neutralizing a diverse array of HIV-1 isolates by mimicking CD4 binding with the envelope glycoprotein gp120. Nonetheless, resistant strains have been identified. Here, we examined two genetically related and two unrelated envelope clones, derived from CRF08_BC-infected patients, with distinct VRC01 neutralization profiles. A total of 22 chimeric envelope clones was generated by interchanging the loop D and/or V5 regions between the original envelopes or by single alanine substitutions within each region. Analysis of pseudoviruses built from these mutant envelopes showed that interchanging the V5 region between the genetically related or unrelated clones completely swapped their VRC01 sensitivity profiles. Mutagenesis analysis revealed that the asparagine residue at position 460 (Asn-460), a potential N-linked glycosylation site in the V5 region, is a key factor for observed resistance in these strains, which is further supported by our structural modeling. Moreover, changes in resistance were found to positively correlate with deviations in VRC01 binding affinity. Overall, our study indicates that Asn-460 in the V5 region is a critical determinant of sensitivity to VRC01 specifically in these viral strains. The long side chain of Asn-460, and potential glycosylation, may create steric hindrance that lowers binding affinity, thereby increasing resistance to VRC01 neutralization.

  15. Cueing others' memories.

    PubMed

    Tullis, Jonathan G; Benjamin, Aaron S

    2015-05-01

    Many situations require us to generate external cues to support later retrieval from memory. For instance, we create file names in order to cue our memory to a file's contents, and instructors create lecture slides to remember what points to make during classes. We even generate cues for others when we remind friends of shared experiences or send colleagues a computer file that is named in such a way so as to remind them of its contents. Here we explore how and how well learners tailor retrieval cues for different intended recipients. Across three experiments, subjects generated verbal cues for a list of target words for themselves or for others. Learners generated cues for others by increasing the normative cue-to-target associative strength but also by increasing the number of other words their cues point to, relative to cues that they generated for themselves. This strategy was effective: such cues supported higher levels of recall for others than cues generated for oneself. Generating cues for others also required more time than generating cues for oneself. Learners responded to the differential demands of cue generation for others by effortfully excluding personal, episodic knowledge and including knowledge that they estimate to be broadly shared.

  16. Nipping cue reactivity in the bud: baclofen prevents limbic activation elicited by subliminal drug cues.

    PubMed

    Young, Kimberly A; Franklin, Teresa R; Roberts, David C S; Jagannathan, Kanchana; Suh, Jesse J; Wetherill, Reagan R; Wang, Ze; Kampman, Kyle M; O'Brien, Charles P; Childress, Anna Rose

    2014-04-02

    Relapse is a widely recognized and difficult to treat feature of the addictions. Substantial evidence implicates cue-triggered activation of the mesolimbic dopamine system as an important contributing factor. Even drug cues presented outside of conscious awareness (i.e., subliminally) produce robust activation within this circuitry, indicating the sensitivity and vulnerability of the brain to potentially problematic reward signals. Because pharmacological agents that prevent these early cue-induced responses could play an important role in relapse prevention, we examined whether baclofen-a GABAB receptor agonist that reduces mesolimbic dopamine release and conditioned drug responses in laboratory animals-could inhibit mesolimbic activation elicited by subliminal cocaine cues in cocaine-dependent individuals. Twenty cocaine-dependent participants were randomized to receive baclofen (60 mg/d; 20 mg t.i.d.) or placebo. Event-related BOLD fMRI and a backward-masking paradigm were used to examine the effects of baclofen on subliminal cocaine (vs neutral) cues. Sexual and aversive cues were included to examine specificity. We observed that baclofen-treated participants displayed significantly less activation in response to subliminal cocaine (vs neutral) cues, but not sexual or aversive (vs neutral) cues, than placebo-treated participants in a large interconnected bilateral cluster spanning the ventral striatum, ventral pallidum, amygdala, midbrain, and orbitofrontal cortex (voxel threshold p < 0.005; cluster corrected at p < 0.05). These results suggest that baclofen may inhibit the earliest type of drug cue-induced motivational processing-that which occurs outside of awareness-before it evolves into a less manageable state.

  17. Smoker Reactivity to Cues: Effects on Craving and on Smoking behavior

    PubMed Central

    Shiffman, Saul; Dunbar, Michael; Kirchner, Thomas; Li, Xiaoxue; Tindle, Hilary; Anderson, Stewart; Scholl, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    We assessed craving and smoking in response to smoking-relevant cues. 207 daily smokers viewed images related to one of six cue sets (cigarettes, positive and negative affect, alcohol, smoking prohibitions, and neutral cues) in separate sessions. Compared to neutral cues, cigarette cues significantly increased craving, and positive affect cues significantly decreased craving. When subjects were then allowed to smoke during continuing cue exposure, cues did not affect the likelihood of smoking or the amount smoked (number of cigarettes, number of puffs, puff time, or increased carbon monoxide). However, craving intensity predicted likelihood of smoking, latency to smoke, and amount smoked, with craving increases after cue exposure making significant independent contributions. Some craving effects were curvilinear, suggesting that they are subject to thresholds and might not be observed under some circumstances. PMID:22708884

  18. Mid and Near-IR Absorption Spectra of PAH Neutrals and Ions in H20 Ice to Facilitate their Astronomical Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, Max P.; Sandford, Scott A.; Allamandola, Louis J.

    2004-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are believed to be the most abundant and widespread class of organic compounds in the universe, having been observed in emission towards energetic regions and absorption towards colder ones.We will present IR spectra of PAHs and their cations in H20 ice measured in the laboratory in the hopes that this will facilitate the detection of these features in the interstellar medium.

  19. Mindful attention reduces neural and self-reported cue-induced craving in smokers

    PubMed Central

    Creswell, John David; Tabibnia, Golnaz; Julson, Erica; Kober, Hedy; Tindle, Hilary A.

    2013-01-01

    An emerging body of research suggests that mindfulness-based interventions may be beneficial for smoking cessation and the treatment of other addictive disorders. One way that mindfulness may facilitate smoking cessation is through the reduction of craving to smoking cues. The present work considers whether mindful attention can reduce self-reported and neural markers of cue-induced craving in treatment seeking smokers. Forty-seven (n = 47) meditation-naïve treatment-seeking smokers (12-h abstinent from smoking) viewed and made ratings of smoking and neutral images while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants were trained and instructed to view these images passively or with mindful attention. Results indicated that mindful attention reduced self-reported craving to smoking images, and reduced neural activity in a craving-related region of subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC). Moreover, a psychophysiological interaction analysis revealed that mindful attention reduced functional connectivity between sgACC and other craving-related regions compared to passively viewing smoking images, suggesting that mindfulness may decouple craving neurocircuitry when viewing smoking cues. These results provide an initial indication that mindful attention may describe a ‘bottom-up’ attention to one’s present moment experience in ways that can help reduce subjective and neural reactivity to smoking cues in smokers. PMID:22114078

  20. Food and drug cues activate similar brain regions: a meta-analysis of functional MRI studies.

    PubMed

    Tang, D W; Fellows, L K; Small, D M; Dagher, A

    2012-06-06

    In healthy individuals, food cues can trigger hunger and feeding behavior. Likewise, smoking cues can trigger craving and relapse in smokers. Brain imaging studies report that structures involved in appetitive behaviors and reward, notably the insula, striatum, amygdala and orbital frontal cortex, tend to be activated by both visual food and smoking cues. Here, by carrying out a meta-analysis of human neuro-imaging studies, we investigate the neural network activated by: 1) food versus neutral cues (14 studies, 142 foci) 2) smoking versus neutral cues (15 studies, 176 foci) 3) smoking versus neutral cues when correlated with craving scores (7 studies, 108 foci). PubMed was used to identify cue-reactivity imaging studies that compared brain response to visual food or smoking cues to neutral cues. Fourteen articles were identified for the food meta-analysis and fifteen articles were identified for the smoking meta-analysis. Six articles were identified for the smoking cue correlated with craving analysis. Meta-analyses were carried out using activation likelihood estimation. Food cues were associated with increased blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response in the left amygdala, bilateral insula, bilateral orbital frontal cortex, and striatum. Smoking cues were associated with increased BOLD signal in the same areas, with the exception of the insula. However, the smoking meta-analysis of brain maps correlating cue-reactivity with subjective craving did identify the insula, suggesting that insula activation is only found when craving levels are high. The brain areas identified here are involved in learning, memory and motivation, and their cue-induced activity is an index of the incentive salience of the cues. Using meta-analytic techniques to combine a series of studies, we found that food and smoking cues activate comparable brain networks. There is significant overlap in brain regions responding to conditioned cues associated with natural and drug rewards.

  1. Audiovisual Cues and Perceptual Learning of Spectrally Distorted Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilling, Michael; Thomas, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments investigate the effectiveness of audiovisual (AV) speech cues (cues derived from both seeing and hearing a talker speak) in facilitating perceptual learning of spectrally distorted speech. Speech was distorted through an eight channel noise-vocoder which shifted the spectral envelope of the speech signal to simulate the properties…

  2. Laboratory-based, Cue-Elicited Craving and Cue Reactivity as Predictors of Naturally Occurring Smoking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Matthew J.; Saladin, Michael E.; DeSantis, Stacia; Gray, Kevin M.; LaRowe, Steven D.; Upadhyaya, Himanshu P.

    2009-01-01

    Cigarette craving, one hallmark sign of nicotine dependence, is often measured in laboratory settings using cue reactivity methods. How lab measures of cue reactivity relate to real world smoking behavior is unclear, particularly among non-treatment seeking smokers. Within a larger study of hormonal effects on cue reactivity (N=78), we examined the predictive relationship of cue reactivity to smoking, each measured in several ways. Results indicated that cue-evoked craving in response to stressful imagery, and to a lesser extent, in vivo smoking cues, significantly predicted smoking behavior during the week following testing. However, this predictive relationship was absent upon controlling for reactivity to neutral cues. Nicotine dependence may moderate the relationship between cue reactivity and actual smoking, such that this predictive relationship is less robust among highly dependent smokers than among smokers low in nicotine dependence. The question of whether cue-elicited craving predicts smoking among smokers not in treatment is best answered with a qualified yes, depending on how craving is manipulated and measured. Our findings highlight important methodological and theoretical considerations for cue reactivity research. PMID:19395178

  3. Laboratory-based, cue-elicited craving and cue reactivity as predictors of naturally occurring smoking behavior.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Matthew J; Saladin, Michael E; DeSantis, Stacia; Gray, Kevin M; LaRowe, Steven D; Upadhyaya, Himanshu P

    2009-01-01

    Cigarette craving, one hallmark sign of nicotine dependence, is often measured in laboratory settings using cue reactivity methods. How lab measures of cue reactivity relate to real world smoking behavior is unclear, particularly among non-treatment seeking smokers. Within a larger study of hormonal effects on cue reactivity (N=78), we examined the predictive relationship of cue reactivity to smoking, each measured in several ways. Results indicated that cue-evoked craving in response to stressful imagery, and to a lesser extent, in vivo smoking cues, significantly predicted smoking behavior during the week following testing. However, this predictive relationship was absent upon controlling for reactivity to neutral cues. Nicotine dependence may moderate the relationship between cue reactivity and actual smoking, such that this predictive relationship is less robust among highly dependent smokers than among smokers low in nicotine dependence. The question of whether cue-elicited craving predicts smoking among smokers not in treatment is best answered with a qualified yes, depending on how craving is manipulated and measured. Our findings highlight important methodological and theoretical considerations for cue reactivity research.

  4. Task-relevant information is prioritized in spatiotemporal contextual cueing.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Yoko; Ueda, Yoshiyuki; Ogawa, Hirokazu; Saiki, Jun

    2016-11-01

    Implicit learning of visual contexts facilitates search performance-a phenomenon known as contextual cueing; however, little is known about contextual cueing under situations in which multidimensional regularities exist simultaneously. In everyday vision, different information, such as object identity and location, appears simultaneously and interacts with each other. We tested the hypothesis that, in contextual cueing, when multiple regularities are present, the regularities that are most relevant to our behavioral goals would be prioritized. Previous studies of contextual cueing have commonly used the visual search paradigm. However, this paradigm is not suitable for directing participants' attention to a particular regularity. Therefore, we developed a new paradigm, the "spatiotemporal contextual cueing paradigm," and manipulated task-relevant and task-irrelevant regularities. In four experiments, we demonstrated that task-relevant regularities were more responsible for search facilitation than task-irrelevant regularities. This finding suggests our visual behavior is focused on regularities that are relevant to our current goal.

  5. Retro-dimension-cue benefit in visual working memory

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Chaoxiong; Hu, Zhonghua; Ristaniemi, Tapani; Gendron, Maria; Liu, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    In visual working memory (VWM) tasks, participants’ performance can be improved by a retro-object-cue. However, previous studies have not investigated whether participants’ performance can also be improved by a retro-dimension-cue. Three experiments investigated this issue. We used a recall task with a retro-dimension-cue in all experiments. In Experiment 1, we found benefits from retro-dimension-cues compared to neutral cues. This retro-dimension-cue benefit is reflected in an increased probability of reporting the target, but not in the probability of reporting the non-target, as well as increased precision with which this item is remembered. Experiment 2 replicated the retro-dimension-cue benefit and showed that the length of the blank interval after the cue disappeared did not influence recall performance. Experiment 3 replicated the results of Experiment 2 with a lower memory load. Our studies provide evidence that there is a robust retro-dimension-cue benefit in VWM. Participants can use internal attention to flexibly allocate cognitive resources to a particular dimension of memory representations. The results also support the feature-based storing hypothesis. PMID:27774983

  6. Assessing reactivity to virtual reality alcohol based cues.

    PubMed

    Bordnick, Patrick S; Traylor, Amy; Copp, Hilary L; Graap, Ken M; Carter, Brian; Ferrer, Mirtha; Walton, Alicia P

    2008-06-01

    The use of virtual reality (VR) programs in behavioral science research has been gaining prominence over the past several years. In the field of substance abuse, VR cue reactivity programs have been successfully tested for feasibility in nicotine and cocaine dependent samples. Seeking to expand VR applications in alcohol cue research, a novel VR alcohol cue reactivity assessment system incorporating visual, auditory, and olfactory stimuli was developed and tested. In a controlled trial, 40 non-treatment-seeking drinkers with alcohol use disorders were exposed to VR alcohol cue environments. Subjective craving, attention to alcohol cues, and level of presence (realism of experience) in VR were assessed across the environments. Overall, subjective craving for alcohol increased across the VR alcohol-related cue environments versus VR neutral cue environments. Participants reported high levels of presence in VR, indicating that the environments were perceived as realistic and compelling. These initial findings support the use of VR based cue reactivity environments for use in alcohol cue-based treatment and research.

  7. Altered Brain Reactivity to Game Cues After Gaming Experience.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Hyeon Min; Chung, Hwan Jun; Kim, Sang Hee

    2015-08-01

    Individuals who play Internet games excessively show elevated brain reactivity to game-related cues. This study attempted to test whether this elevated cue reactivity observed in game players is a result of repeated exposure to Internet games. Healthy young adults without a history of excessively playing Internet games were recruited, and they were instructed to play an online Internet game for 2 hours/day for five consecutive weekdays. Two control groups were used: the drama group, which viewed a fantasy TV drama, and the no-exposure group, which received no systematic exposure. All participants performed a cue reactivity task with game, drama, and neutral cues in the brain scanner, both before and after the exposure sessions. The game group showed an increased reactivity to game cues in the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC). The degree of VLPFC activation increase was positively correlated with the self-reported increase in desire for the game. The drama group showed an increased cue reactivity in response to the presentation of drama cues in the caudate, posterior cingulate, and precuneus. The results indicate that exposure to either Internet games or TV dramas elevates the reactivity to visual cues associated with the particular exposure. The exact elevation patterns, however, appear to differ depending on the type of media experienced. How changes in each of the regions contribute to the progression to pathological craving warrants a future longitudinal study.

  8. Visuospatial information processing load and the ratio between parietal cue and target P3 amplitudes in the Attentional Network Test.

    PubMed

    Abramov, Dimitri M; Pontes, Monique; Pontes, Adailton T; Mourao-Junior, Carlos A; Vieira, Juliana; Quero Cunha, Carla; Tamborino, Tiago; Galhanone, Paulo R; deAzevedo, Leonardo C; Lazarev, Vladimir V

    2017-04-24

    In ERP studies of cognitive processes during attentional tasks, the cue signals containing information about the target can increase the amplitude of the parietal cue P3 in relation to the 'neutral' temporal cue, and reduce the subsequent target P3 when this information is valid, i.e. corresponds to the target's attributes. The present study compared the cue-to-target P3 ratios in neutral and visuospatial cueing, in order to estimate the contribution of valid visuospatial information from the cue to target stages of the task performance, in terms of cognitive load. The P3 characteristics were also correlated with the results of individuals' performance of the visuospatial tasks, in order to estimate the relationship of the observed ERP with spatial reasoning. In 20 typically developing boys, aged 10-13 years (11.3±0.86), the intelligence quotient (I.Q.) was estimated by the Block Design and Vocabulary subtests from the WISC-III. The subjects performed the Attentional Network Test (ANT) accompanied by EEG recording. The cued two-choice task had three equiprobable cue conditions: No cue, with no information about the target; Neutral (temporal) cue, with an asterisk in the center of the visual field, predicting the target onset; and Spatial cues, with an asterisk in the upper or lower hemifield, predicting the onset and corresponding location of the target. The ERPs were estimated for the mid-frontal (Fz) and mid-parietal (Pz) scalp derivations. In the Pz, the Neutral cue P3 had a lower amplitude than the Spatial cue P3; whereas for the target ERPs, the P3 of the Neutral cue condition was larger than that of the Spatial cue condition. However, the sums of the magnitudes of the cue and target P3 were equal in the spatial and neutral cueing, probably indicating that in both cases the equivalent information processing load is included in either the cue or the target reaction, respectively. Meantime, in the Fz, the analog ERP components for both the cue and target

  9. The effect of multisensory cues on attention in aging.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Jeannette R; Verghese, Joe; Dumas, Kristina; Wang, Cuiling; Holtzer, Roee

    2012-09-07

    The attention network test (ANT) assesses the effect of alerting and orienting cues on a visual flanker task measuring executive attention. Previous findings revealed that older adults demonstrate greater reaction times (RT) benefits when provided with visual orienting cues that offer both spatial and temporal information of an ensuing target. Given the overlap of neural substrates and networks involved in multisensory processing and cueing (i.e., alerting and orienting), an investigation of multisensory cueing effects on RT was warranted. The current study was designed to determine whether participants, both old and young, benefited from receiving multisensory alerting and orienting cues. Eighteen young (M=19.17 years; 45% female) and eighteen old (M=76.44 years; 61% female) individuals that were determined to be non-demented and without any medical or psychiatric conditions that would affect their performance were included. Results revealed main effects for the executive attention and orienting networks, but not for the alerting network. In terms of orienting, both old and young adults demonstrated significant orienting effects for auditory-somatosensory (AS), auditory-visual (AV), and visual-somatosensory (VS) cues. RT benefits of multisensory compared to unisensory orienting effects differed by cue type and age group; younger adults demonstrated greater RT benefits for AS orienting cues whereas older adults demonstrated greater RT benefits for AV orienting cues. Both groups, however, demonstrated significant RT benefits for multisensory VS orienting cues. These findings provide evidence for the facilitative effect of multisensory orienting cues, and not multisensory alerting cues, in old and young adults.

  10. Identity cues and dementia in nursing home intervention

    PubMed Central

    Vézina, Aline; Robichaud, Line; Voyer, Philippe; Pelletier, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the identity cues that family caregivers and healthcare personnel use with seniors living with dementia and living in nursing homes. The identity cues represent biographical knowledge used to stimulate the dementia sufferer, trigger signals and incite interaction. Our grounded approach hinges on three objectives: to identify and categorize identity cues; to document their uses; and to gain a better understanding of their effectiveness. We interviewed nine family caregivers and 12 healthcare workers. Qualitative data indicates that the participants use identity cues that evoke seniors’ sociological, relational and individual characteristics. These identity cues play a central role in communication and constitute important information that the family caregivers can share with healthcare personnel. They sustain memory, facilitate care and reinforce seniors’ self-value. These results help to define identity, foster a greater role for family caregivers, and constitute a sound basis for the implementation of personalized interventions. PMID:21849743

  11. Alcohol cues impair learning inhibitory signals in beer drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Laude, Jennifer R.; Fillmore, Mark T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Models of drug addiction emphasize the reciprocal influence of incentive-motivational properties of drug-related cues and poor impulse control resulting in drug use. Recent studies have shown that alcohol-related cues can impair response inhibition. What is unknown is whether these cues also disrupt learning of inhibitory associations. Methods Participants performed a Conditioned Inhibition (CI) task and were required to learn that a neutral image was a conditioned inhibitor when presented in the context of either an alcohol image intended to draw their attention away from the to-be-trained inhibitor, or a control condition in which the alcohol image was absent. After training, subjects in each condition rated the likelihood that the neutral image would signal the outcome. Eye tracking was used to verify that attention to the neutral image was in fact reduced when the alcohol image was present. Results Compared with controls those trained in the alcohol image condition reported a greater likelihood that the presence of the inhibitor would be followed by the outcome and thus were less able to acquire CI. Measures of eye-tracking verified that attention to the alcohol cue was associated with this maladaptive behavior. Conclusions When alcohol cues are present, there is a reduced ability to learn that such information is irrelevant to an outcome, and this impairs ones’ ability to inhibit perseveration of a response. This has implications for persistence of a drinking episode. PMID:25872597

  12. Social traits modulate attention to affiliative cues

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Sarah R.; Fu, Yu; Depue, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Neurobehavioral models of personality suggest that the salience assigned to particular classes of stimuli vary as a function of traits that reflect both the activity of neurobiological encoding and relevant social experience. In turn, this joint influence modulates the extent that salience influences attentional processes, and hence learning about and responding to those stimuli. Applying this model to the domain of social valuation, we assessed the differential effects on attentional guidance by affiliative cues of (i) a higher-order temperament trait (Social Closeness), and (ii) attachment style in a sample of 57 women. Attention to affiliative pictures paired with either incentive or neutral pictures was assessed using camera eye-tracking. Trait social closeness and attachment avoidance interacted to modulate fixation frequency on affiliative but not on incentive pictures, suggesting that both traits influence the salience assigned to affiliative cues specifically. PMID:25009524

  13. WHAT IS PROJECT CUE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BROWN, ROBERT M.; LACY, GRACE N.

    AN EXPERIMENTAL NINTH-GRADE PROGRAM IN THE AREA OF SOCIAL STUDIES, ENGLISH, SCIENCE, HOME ECONOMICS, AND INDUSTRIAL ARTS WAS DESCRIBED. APPROXIMATELY 200 TEACHERS AND 3,000 STUDENTS LOCATED IN NEW YORK STATE SCHOOLS PARTICIPATED IN THE EXPERIMENT. INCLUDED IN THE CUE SYSTEM WERE (1) PACKAGES OF NEWER MEDIA MATERIALS, (2) CURRICULUM GUIDES, (3)…

  14. Priming Effects for Affective vs. Neutral Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Leslie A.; Rabin, Laura; Wyatt, Gwinne; Frohlich, Jonathan; Vardy, Susan B.; Dimitri, Diana

    2005-01-01

    Affective and Neutral Tasks (faces with negative or neutral content, with different lighting and orientation) requiring reaction time judgments of poser identity were administered to 32 participants. Speed and accuracy were better for the Affective than Neutral Task, consistent with literature suggesting facilitation of performance by affective…

  15. Conditioned craving cues elicit an automatic approach tendency.

    PubMed

    Van Gucht, Dinska; Vansteenwegen, Debora; Van den Bergh, Omer; Beckers, Tom

    2008-10-01

    In two experiments, we used a Pavlovian differential conditioning procedure to induce craving for chocolate. As a result of repeated pairing with chocolate intake, initially neutral cues came to elicit an automatic approach tendency in a speeded stimulus-response compatibility reaction time task. This automatic approach tendency, moreover, seemed to be sensitive to manipulations of extinction and renewal in the Pavlovian conditioning procedure. These findings corroborate and extend previous reports of automatic approach tendencies elicited by substance-relevant cues in addiction, while controlling for alternative accounts for such observations. Moreover, our data lend support to and extend learning models of cue-induced craving and addiction. Finally, we argue that the procedure we present here provides an ecologically valid behavioural tool that allows studying processes involved in cue-induced craving, addiction and relapse without relying on verbal report.

  16. Boosting Vocabulary Learning by Verbal Cueing During Sleep.

    PubMed

    Schreiner, Thomas; Rasch, Björn

    2015-11-01

    Reactivating memories during sleep by re-exposure to associated memory cues (e.g., odors or sounds) improves memory consolidation. Here, we tested for the first time whether verbal cueing during sleep can improve vocabulary learning. We cued prior learned Dutch words either during non-rapid eye movement sleep (NonREM) or during active or passive waking. Re-exposure to Dutch words during sleep improved later memory for the German translation of the cued words when compared with uncued words. Recall of uncued words was similar to an additional group receiving no verbal cues during sleep. Furthermore, verbal cueing failed to improve memory during active and passive waking. High-density electroencephalographic recordings revealed that successful verbal cueing during NonREM sleep is associated with a pronounced frontal negativity in event-related potentials, a higher frequency of frontal slow waves as well as a cueing-related increase in right frontal and left parietal oscillatory theta power. Our results indicate that verbal cues presented during NonREM sleep reactivate associated memories, and facilitate later recall of foreign vocabulary without impairing ongoing consolidation processes. Likewise, our oscillatory analysis suggests that both sleep-specific slow waves as well as theta oscillations (typically associated with successful memory encoding during wakefulness) might be involved in strengthening memories by cueing during sleep.

  17. Gender Differences in Responses to Cues Presented in the Natural Environment of Cigarette Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Kevin M.; McClure, Erin A.; Carpenter, Matthew J.; Tiffany, Stephen T.; Saladin, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Although the evidence is mixed, female smokers appear to have more difficulty quitting smoking than male smokers. Craving, stress, and negative affect have been hypothesized as potential factors underlying gender differences in quit rates. Methods: In the current study, the cue-reactivity paradigm was used to assess craving, stress, and negative affect in response to cues presented in the natural environment of cigarette smokers using ecological momentary assessment. Seventy-six daily smokers (42% female) responded to photographs (smoking, stress, and neutral) presented 4 times per day on an iPhone over the course of 2 weeks. Results: Both smoking and stress cues elicited stronger cigarette craving and stress responses compared to neutral cues. Compared with males, females reported higher levels of post-stress cue craving, stress, and negative affect, but response to smoking cues did not differ by gender. Discussion: Findings from this project were largely consistent with results from laboratory-based research and extend previous work by measuring response to cues in the natural environment of cigarette smokers. This study extends previous cue reactivity ecological momentary assessment research by using a new platform and by measuring response to stress cues outside of the laboratory. Findings from this project highlight the importance of addressing coping in response to stress cues in clinical settings, especially when working with female smokers. PMID:25762753

  18. Sex differences in associations between cannabis craving and neural responses to cannabis cues: Implications for treatment.

    PubMed

    Wetherill, Reagan R; Jagannathan, Kanchana; Hager, Nathan; Childress, Anna Rose; Franklin, Teresa R

    2015-08-01

    Preclinical and clinical research indicates that there are sex differences in how men and women initiate, progress, respond to, and withdraw from cannabis use; however, neurophysiological differences, such as neural responses to cannabis cues, are not well understood. Using functional MRI and an event-related blood oxygen level-dependent backward-masking task, we compared neural responses to backward-masked cannabis cues to neutral cues in treatment-seeking, cannabis-dependent adults (N = 44; 27 males) and examined whether sex differences exist. In addition, functional MRI findings were correlated with cannabis craving. Backward-masked cannabis cues elicited greater neural responses than neutral cues in reward-related brain regions, including the striatum, hippocampus/amygdala, insula, anterior cingulate cortex, and lateral orbitofrontal cortex, p < .01, k > 121 voxels. Although no significant sex differences in neural responses to cannabis cues emerged, women showed a positive correlation between neural responses to cannabis cues in the bilateral insula and cannabis craving and an inverse correlation between neural responses to cannabis cues in the left lateral orbitofrontal cortex and cannabis craving. Men, however, showed a positive correlation between neural responses to cannabis cues in the striatum and cannabis craving. Given that cues and craving are important triggers and the focus on many behavioral treatment approaches, these findings suggest that treatment-seeking, cannabis-dependent men and women may benefit from sex-specific and tailored cannabis use disorder treatments.

  19. Looking for cues - infant communication of hunger and satiation during milk feeding.

    PubMed

    Shloim, N; Vereijken, C M J L; Blundell, P; Hetherington, M M

    2017-01-01

    It is known that duration of breastfeeding and responsive feeding are associated with decreased risk of obesity. It is however, not clear whether breastfed infants signal more to mothers to facilitate responsive feeding, compared to formula fed, nor what communication cues are important during the feeding interaction. The present study aimed to explore feeding cues in milk-fed infants and to examine if such cues vary by mode of feeding. Twenty-seven mothers and infants were filmed while breastfeeding or formula feeding. Infants' age ranged from 3 to 22 weeks. Feeding cues were identified using a validated list of communication cues (NCAST). The frequency of each cue during the beginning, middle, and end of the meal was recorded. There were 22 feeding cues identified during the feeds, with significantly more frequent disengagement cues expressed than engagement cues. Significantly more frequent feeding cues were observed at the beginning than at the end of the meal showing that cue frequency changes with satiation. Breastfeeding infants exhibited more engagement and disengagement cues than formula fed infants. Supporting mothers to identify engagement and disengagement cues during a milk feed may promote more responsive feeding-strategies that can be acquired by mothers using different modes of feeding.

  20. Materialistic Cues Boosts Personal Relative Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Three studies investigated whether exposure to materialistic cues would increase perceptions of personal relative deprivation and related emotional reactions. In Study 1, individuals who were surveyed in front of a luxury store reported higher levels of personal relative deprivation than those surveyed in front of an ordinary building. In Study 2, participants who viewed pictures of luxurious goods experienced greater personal relative deprivation than those viewed pictures of neutral scenes. Study 3 replicated the results from Study 2, with a larger sample size and a more refined assessment of relative deprivation. Implications of these findings for future studies on relative deprivation and materialism are discussed. PMID:27574515

  1. Effects of similarity on environmental context cueing.

    PubMed

    Smith, Steven M; Handy, Justin D; Angello, Genna; Manzano, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Three experiments examined the prediction that context cues which are similar to study contexts can facilitate episodic recall, even if those cues are never seen before the recall test. Environmental context cueing effects have typically produced such small effect sizes that influences of moderating factors, such as the similarity between encoding and retrieval contexts, would be difficult to observe experimentally. Videos of environmental contexts, however, can be used to produce powerful context-dependent memory effects, particularly when only one memory target is associated with each video context, intentional item-context encoding is encouraged, and free recall tests are used. Experiment 1 showed that a not previously viewed video of the study context provided an effective recall cue, although it was not as effective as the originally viewed video context. Experiments 2 and 3 showed that videos of environments that were conceptually similar to encoding contexts (e.g., both were videos of ball field games) also cued recall, but not as well if the encoding contexts were given specific labels (e.g., "home run") incompatible with test contexts (e.g., a soccer scene). A fourth experiment that used incidental item-context encoding showed that video context reinstatement has a robust effect on paired associate memory, indicating that the video context reinstatement effect does not depend on interactive item-context encoding or free recall testing.

  2. Enhancing visual cues to orientation: suggestions for space travelers and the elderly.

    PubMed

    Harris, Laurence R; Jenkin, Michael; Dyde, Richard T; Jenkin, Heather

    2011-01-01

    Establishing our orientation in the world is necessary for almost all aspects of perception and behavior. Gravity usually defines the critical reference direction. The direction of gravity is sensed by somatosensory detectors indicating pressure points and specialized organs in the vestibular system and viscera that indicate gravity's physical pull. However, gravity's direction can also be sensed visually since we see the effects of gravity on static and moving objects and also deduce its direction from the global structure of a scene indicated by features such as the sky and ground. When cues from either visual or physical sources are compromised or ambiguous, perceptual disorientation may result, often with a tendency to replace gravity with the body's long axis as a reference. Orientation cues are compromised while floating in the weightlessness of space (which neutralizes vestibular and somatosensory cues) or while suspended at neutral buoyancy in the ocean (which neutralizes somatosensory cues) and the ability to sense orientation cues may also be compromised in the elderly or in clinical populations. In these situations, enhancing the visual cues to orientation may be beneficial. In this chapter, we review research using specially constructed virtual and real environments to quantify the contribution of various visual orientation cues. We demonstrate how visual cues can counteract disorientation by providing effective orientation information.

  3. Cannabis Cue Reactivity and Craving Among Never, Infrequent and Heavy Cannabis Users

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Erika A; Kaye, Jesse T; Bryan, Angela D; Hutchison, Kent E; Ito, Tiffany A

    2014-01-01

    Substance cue reactivity is theorized as having a significant role in addiction processes, promoting compulsive patterns of drug-seeking and drug-taking behavior. However, research extending this phenomenon to cannabis has been limited. To that end, the goal of the current work was to examine the relationship between cannabis cue reactivity and craving in a sample of 353 participants varying in self-reported cannabis use. Participants completed a visual oddball task whereby neutral, exercise, and cannabis cue images were presented, and a neutral auditory oddball task while event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded. Consistent with past research, greater cannabis use was associated with greater reactivity to cannabis images, as reflected in the P300 component of the ERP, but not to neutral auditory oddball cues. The latter indicates the specificity of cue reactivity differences as a function of substance-related cues and not generalized cue reactivity. Additionally, cannabis cue reactivity was significantly related to self-reported cannabis craving as well as problems associated with cannabis use. Implications for cannabis use and addiction more generally are discussed. PMID:24264815

  4. Cues Resulting in Desire for Sexual Activity in Women

    PubMed Central

    McCall, Katie; Meston, Cindy

    2010-01-01

    Introduction A number of questionnaires have been created to assess levels of sexual desire in women, but to our knowledge, there are currently no validated measures for assessing cues that result in sexual desire. A questionnaire of this nature could be useful for both clinicians and researchers, because it considers the contextual nature of sexual desire and it draws attention to individual differences in factors that can contribute to sexual desire. Aim The aim of the present study was to create a multidimensional assessment tool of cues for sexual desire in women that is validated in women with and without hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD). Methods Factor analyses conducted on both an initial sample (N = 874) and a community sample (N = 138) resulted in the Cues for Sexual Desire Scale (CSDS) which included four factors: (i) Emotional Bonding Cues; (ii) Erotic/ Explicit Cues; (iii) Visual/Proximity Cues; and (iv) Implicit/Romantic Cues. Main Outcome Measures Scale construction of cues associated with sexual desire and differences between women with and without sexual dysfunction. Results The CSDS demonstrated good reliability and validity and was able to detect significant differences between women with and without HSDD. Results from regression analyses indicated that both marital status and level of sexual functioning predicted scores on the CSDS. The CSDS provided predictive validity for the Female Sexual Function Index desire and arousal domain scores, and increased cues were related to a higher reported frequency of sexual activity in women. Conclusions The findings from the present study provide valuable information regarding both internal and external triggers that can result in sexual desire for women. We believe that the CSDS could be beneficial in therapeutic settings to help identify cues that do and do not facilitate sexual desire in women with clinically diagnosed desire difficulties. PMID:16942529

  5. Children's recognition of emotions from vocal cues.

    PubMed

    Sauter, Disa A; Panattoni, Charlotte; Happé, Francesca

    2013-03-01

    Emotional cues contain important information about the intentions and feelings of others. Despite a wealth of research into children's understanding of facial signals of emotions, little research has investigated the developmental trajectory of interpreting affective cues in the voice. In this study, 48 children ranging between 5 and 10 years were tested using forced-choice tasks with non-verbal vocalizations and emotionally inflected speech expressing different positive, neutral and negative states. Children as young as 5 years were proficient in interpreting a range of emotional cues from vocal signals. Consistent with previous work, performance was found to improve with age. Furthermore, the two tasks, examining recognition of non-verbal vocalizations and emotionally inflected speech, respectively, were sensitive to individual differences, with high correspondence of performance across the tasks. From this demonstration of children's ability to recognize emotions from vocal stimuli, we also conclude that this auditory emotion recognition task is suitable for a wide age range of children, providing a novel, empirical way to investigate children's affect recognition skills.

  6. Cue-Reactive Rationality, Visual Imagery and Volitional Control Predict Cue-Reactive Urge to Gamble in Poker-Machine Gamblers.

    PubMed

    Clark, Gavin I; Rock, Adam J; McKeith, Charles F A; Coventry, William L

    2016-11-01

    Poker-machine gamblers have been demonstrated to report increases in the urge to gamble following exposure to salient gambling cues. However, the processes which contribute to this urge to gamble remain to be understood. The present study aimed to investigate whether changes in the conscious experience of visual imagery, rationality and volitional control (over one's thoughts, images and attention) predicted changes in the urge to gamble following exposure to a gambling cue. Thirty-one regular poker-machine gamblers who reported at least low levels of problem gambling on the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI), were recruited to complete an online cue-reactivity experiment. Participants completed the PGSI, the visual imagery, rationality and volitional control subscales of the Phenomenology of Consciousness Inventory (PCI), and a visual analogue scale (VAS) assessing urge to gamble. Participants completed the PCI subscales and VAS at baseline, following a neutral video cue and following a gambling video cue. Urge to gamble was found to significantly increase from neutral cue to gambling cue (while controlling for baseline urge) and this increase was predicted by PGSI score. After accounting for the effects of problem-gambling severity, cue-reactive visual imagery, rationality and volitional control significantly improved the prediction of cue-reactive urge to gamble. The small sample size and limited participant characteristic data restricts the generalizability of the findings. Nevertheless, this is the first study to demonstrate that changes in the subjective experience of visual imagery, volitional control and rationality predict changes in the urge to gamble from neutral to gambling cue. The results suggest that visual imagery, rationality and volitional control may play an important role in the experience of the urge to gamble in poker-machine gamblers.

  7. Pavlovian conditioning to hedonic food cues in overweight and lean individuals.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Monica D; Risbrough, Victoria B; Liang, June; Boutelle, Kerri N

    2015-04-01

    Obese individuals develop heightened reactivity to environmental cues associated with hedonic foods through Pavlovian conditioning. This study examined differences between overweight (n = 16) and lean (n = 17) 18-26 year-olds in their acquisition of a swallowing response to visual cues paired with chocolate milk, tasteless water and no taste stimulus. We hypothesized that, compared to lean participants, overweight participants would demonstrate a heightened conditioned swallowing response to the visual cue paired with chocolate milk as well as a resistance to extinction of this response. Results showed that overweight participants swallowed more in response to the visual cue previously paired with chocolate than the cue previously paired with tasteless water (t(15) = -3.057, p = .008) while lean participants showed no cue discrimination (t(16) = -1.027, p = .320). The results evaluating the extinction hypothesis could not be evaluated, as the lean participants did not acquire a conditioned response. In evaluating the conditioned swallow response of overweight participants only, results indicated that there was not a significant decrease in swallowing to cues paired with chocolate milk or water, but overall, overweight participants swallowed more to cues paired with chocolate than cues paired with water. These are the first results to show differential acquisition of Pavlovian conditioned responding in overweight individuals compared to lean individuals, as well as differential conditioning to cues paired with hedonic food stimuli compared to cues paired with neutral stimuli.

  8. A comparison of daily and occasional smokers' implicit affective responses to smoking cues.

    PubMed

    Haight, John; Dickter, Cheryl L; Forestell, Catherine A

    2012-03-01

    Previous research has not compared implicit affective responses to smoking-related stimuli in occasional (i.e., those who smoke less than one cigarette per day) and daily smokers (i.e., those who smoke at least once per day). In addition to assessing their motivations for smoking, implicit affective responses were measured using the Affect Misattribution Procedure (AMP) in occasional (n=19) and daily smokers (n=34) to smoking-related and neutral cues. Half of the cues depicted a human interacting with an object (i.e., active), whereas the remaining cues depicted objects alone (i.e., inactive). Results indicated that for the active cues, daily smokers responded more positively to smoking-related than to neutral cues, whereas occasional smokers showed no difference in their implicit responses. In addition to smoking frequency, relative differences in implicit responses to active cues were related to cognitive enhancement motivation. For inactive cues, implicit responses were related to cognitive enhancement as well as reinforcement. Because daily smokers have more positive implicit responses to active smoking-related cues than occasional smokers, these cues may play an important role in maintaining smoking behavior in daily smokers.

  9. Stress, cues, and eating behavior. Using drug addiction paradigms to understand motivation for food.

    PubMed

    Stojek, Monika Kardacz; Fischer, Sarah; MacKillop, James

    2015-09-01

    Eating patterns that lead to overconsumption of high fat, high sugar (HFHS) foods share similar features with addictive behaviors. Application of addiction paradigms, such as stress inductions, cue reactivity and behavioral economic assessments, to the study of motivation for HFHS food consumption may be a promising means of understanding food consumption. To date, few studies have investigated the interaction of stress and environmental cues on craving, and no study leveraged the state relative reinforcing value of foods (RRVfood) under varying conditions of affective states, the foci of the current study. This study used a mixed factorial design (Mood Induction: Neutral, Stress; Cues: Neutral, Food) with repeated measures on time (Baseline, Post-Mood Induction, Post-Cue Exposure). Participants (N = 133) were community adults who endorsed liking of HFHS snacks but denied eating pathology. The primary DVs were subjective craving and RRVfood. Negative and positive affect (NA, PA), the amount of food consumed, and latency to first bite were also examined. Participants in the Stress condition reported no change in craving or RRVfood. Exposure to food cues significantly increased participants' craving and RRVfood, but an interaction of stress and cues was not present. Participants did not differ on how many calories they consumed based on exposure to stress or food cues, but participants in the food cues condition had a shorter latency to the first bite of food. This study highlights the importance of environmental cues in food motivation. It also demonstrates the utility of using RRVfood to further characterize food motivation.

  10. The neural correlates of social attention: automatic orienting to social and nonsocial cues.

    PubMed

    Greene, Deanna J; Mooshagian, Eric; Kaplan, Jonas T; Zaidel, Eran; Iacoboni, Marco

    2009-07-01

    Previous evidence suggests that directional social cues (e.g., eye gaze) cause automatic shifts in attention toward gaze direction. It has been proposed that automatic attentional orienting driven by social cues (social orienting) involves a different neural network from automatic orienting driven by nonsocial cues. However, previous neuroimaging studies on social orienting have only compared gaze cues to symbolic cues, which typically engage top-down mechanisms. Therefore, we directly compared the neural activity involved in social orienting to that involved in purely automatic nonsocial orienting. Twenty participants performed a spatial cueing task consisting of social (gaze) cues and automatic nonsocial (peripheral squares) cues presented at short and long stimulus (cue-to-target) onset asynchronies (SOA), while undergoing fMRI. Behaviorally, a facilitation effect was found for both cue types at the short SOA, while an inhibitory effect (inhibition of return: IOR) was found only for nonsocial cues at the long SOA. Imaging results demonstrated that social and nonsocial cues recruited a largely overlapping fronto-parietal network. In addition, social cueing evoked greater activity in occipito-temporal regions at both SOAs, while nonsocial cueing recruited greater subcortical activity, but only for the long SOA (when IOR was found). A control experiment, including central arrow cues, confirmed that the occipito-temporal activity was at least in part due to the social nature of the cue and not simply to the location of presentation (central vs. peripheral). These results suggest an evolutionary trajectory for automatic orienting, from predominantly subcortical mechanisms for nonsocial orienting to predominantly cortical mechanisms for social orienting.

  11. Acquisition of chemical recognition cues facilitates integration into ant societies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Social insects maintain the integrity of their societies by discriminating between colony members and foreigners through cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) signatures. Nevertheless, parasites frequently get access to social resources, for example through mimicry of host CHCs among other mechanisms. The origin of mimetic compounds, however, remains unknown in the majority of studies (biosynthesis vs. acquisition). Additionally, direct evidence is scarce that chemical mimicry is indeed beneficial to the parasites (e.g., by improving social acceptance). Results In the present study we demonstrated that the kleptoparasitic silverfish Malayatelura ponerophila most likely acquires CHCs directly from its host ant Leptogenys distinguenda by evaluating the transfer of a stable-isotope label from the cuticle of workers to the silverfish. In a second experiment, we prevented CHC pilfering by separating silverfish from their host for six or nine days. Chemical host resemblance as well as aggressive rejection behaviour by host ants was then quantified for unmanipulated and previously separated individuals. Separated individuals showed reduced chemical host resemblance and they received significantly more aggressive rejection behaviour than unmanipulated individuals. Conclusion Our study clarifies the mechanism of chemical mimicry in a social insect parasite in great detail. It shows empirically for the first time that social insect parasites are able to acquire CHCs from their host. Furthermore, it demonstrates that the accuracy of chemical mimicry can be crucial for social insect parasites by enhancing social acceptance and, thus, allowing successful exploitation. We discuss the results in the light of coevolutionary arms races between parasites and hosts. PMID:22133503

  12. Consumption Simulations Induce Salivation to Food Cues

    PubMed Central

    Aarts, Henk; Vermeent, Stefan; Häfner, Michael; Papies, Esther K.

    2016-01-01

    Salivation to food cues is typically explained in terms of mere stimulus-response links. However, food cues seem to especially increase salivation when food is attractive, suggesting a more complex psychological process. Adopting a grounded cognition perspective, we suggest that perceiving a food triggers simulations of consuming it, especially when attractive. These simulations then induce salivation, which effectively prepares the body for eating the food. In two experiments, we systematically examined the role of simulations on salivation to food cues. As stimuli, both experiments used an attractive, a neutral, and a sour food, as well as a non-food control object. In Experiment 1, participants were instructed to simulate eating every object they would be exposed to. We then exposed them to each object separately. Salivation was assessed by having participants spit their saliva into a cup after one minute of exposure. In Experiment 2, we instructed half of participants to simulate eating each object, and half to merely look at them, while measuring salivation as in Experiment 1. Afterwards, participants rated their simulations and desire to eat for each object separately. As predicted, foods increased salivation compared to the non-food control object, especially when they were attractive or sour (Exp. 1 and 2). Importantly, attractive and sour foods especially increased salivation when instructed to simulate (Exp. 2). These findings suggest that consumption simulations play an important role in inducing salivary responses to food cues. We discuss directions for future research as well as the role of simulations for other appetitive processes. PMID:27820842

  13. Object-based attentional facilitation and inhibition are neuropsychologically dissociated.

    PubMed

    Smith, Daniel T; Ball, Keira; Swalwell, Robert; Schenk, Thomas

    2016-01-08

    Salient peripheral cues produce a transient shift of attention which is superseded by a sustained inhibitory effect. Cueing part of an object produces an inhibitory cueing effect (ICE) that spreads throughout the object. In dynamic scenes the ICE stays with objects as they move. We examined object-centred attentional facilitation and inhibition in a patient with visual form agnosia. There was no evidence of object-centred attentional facilitation. In contrast, object-centred ICE was observed in 3 out of 4 tasks. These inhibitory effects were strongest where cues to objecthood were highly salient. These data are evidence of a neuropsychological dissociation between the facilitatory and inhibitory effects of attentional cueing. From a theoretical perspective the findings suggest that 'grouped arrays' are sufficient for object-based inhibition, but insufficient to generate object-centred attentional facilitation.

  14. Affective facilitation of early visual cortex during rapid picture presentation at 6 and 15 Hz.

    PubMed

    Bekhtereva, Valeria; Müller, Matthias M

    2015-12-01

    The steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP), a neurophysiological marker of attentional resource allocation with its generators in early visual cortex, exhibits enhanced amplitude for emotional compared to neutral complex pictures. Emotional cue extraction for complex images is linked to the N1-EPN complex with a peak latency of ∼140-160 ms. We tested whether neural facilitation in early visual cortex with affective pictures requires emotional cue extraction of individual images, even when a stream of images of the same valence category is presented. Images were shown at either 6 Hz (167 ms, allowing for extraction) or 15 Hz (67 ms per image, causing disruption of processing by the following image). Results showed SSVEP amplitude enhancement for emotional compared to neutral images at a presentation rate of 6 Hz but no differences at 15 Hz. This was not due to featural differences between the two valence categories. Results strongly suggest that individual images need to be displayed for sufficient time allowing for emotional cue extraction to drive affective neural modulation in early visual cortex.

  15. Effects of a context shift and multiple context extinction on reactivity to alcohol cues.

    PubMed

    MacKillop, James; Lisman, Stephen A

    2008-08-01

    Cue exposure treatment (CET) attempts to reduce the influence of conditioned substance cues on addictive behavior via extinction, but has received only modest empirical support in clinical trials. This may be because extinction learning appears to be context dependent and a change in context may result in a return of conditioned responding (i.e., renewal), although this has received only limited empirical examination. The current study used a 4-session laboratory analogue of CET to examine whether a change in context following 3 sessions of alcohol cue exposure with response prevention would result in renewal of conditioned responding. In addition, this study examined whether conducting extinction in multiple contexts would attenuate renewal of conditioned responding. In one-way between-subjects design, 73 heavy drinkers (71% men) were randomized to 3 conditions: (a) single context extinction (extinction to alcohol cues in the same context for 3 sessions followed by a context shift at the fourth session), (b) multiple context extinction (extinction to alcohol cues in different contexts each day for all 4 sessions), and (c) pseudoextinction control condition (exposure to neutral cues in the same context for 3 sessions followed by exposure to alcohol cues at the fourth session). The results revealed the predicted cue reactivity and extinction effects, but the hypotheses that a context shift would generate renewed cue reactivity and that multiple contexts would enhance extinction were not supported. Methodological aspects of the study and the need for parametric data on the context dependency of extinction to alcohol cues are discussed.

  16. Temporal and peripheral extraction of contextual cues from scenes during visual search.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Kathryn; Eckstein, Miguel P

    2017-02-01

    Scene context is known to facilitate object recognition and guide visual search, but little work has focused on isolating image-based cues and evaluating their contributions to eye movement guidance and search performance. Here, we explore three types of contextual cues (a co-occurring object, the configuration of other objects, and the superordinate category of background elements) and assess their joint contributions to search performance in the framework of cue-combination and the temporal unfolding of their extraction. We also assess whether observers' ability to extract each contextual cue in the visual periphery is a bottleneck that determines the utilization and contribution of each cue to search guidance and decision accuracy. We find that during the first four fixations of a visual search task observers first utilize the configuration of objects for coarse eye movement guidance and later use co-occurring object information for finer guidance. In the absence of contextual cues, observers were suboptimally biased to report the target object as being absent. The presence of the co-occurring object was the only contextual cue that had a significant effect in reducing decision bias. The early influence of object-based cues on eye movements is corroborated by a clear demonstration of observers' ability to extract object cues up to 16° into the visual periphery. The joint contributions of the cues to decision search accuracy approximates that expected from the combination of statistically independent cues and optimal cue combination. Finally, the lack of utilization and contribution of the background-based contextual cue to search guidance cannot be explained by the availability of the contextual cue in the visual periphery; instead it is related to background cues providing the least inherent information about the precise location of the target in the scene.

  17. Cues and Cue Interactions in Segmenting Words in Fluent Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Rochelle S.; Sawusch, James R.; Wunnenberg, Tyler

    2011-01-01

    Fluent speech does not contain obvious breaks to word boundaries, yet there are a number of cues that listeners can use to help them segment the speech stream. Most of these cues have been investigated in isolation from one another. In previous work, Norris, McQueen, Cutler, and Butterfield (1997) suggested that listeners use a Possible Word…

  18. Cue reactivity towards shopping cues in female participants.

    PubMed

    Starcke, Katrin; Schlereth, Berenike; Domass, Debora; Schöler, Tobias; Brand, Matthias

    2013-03-01

    Background and aims It is currently under debate whether pathological buying can be considered as a behavioural addiction. Addictions have often been investigated with cue-reactivity paradigms to assess subjective, physiological and neural craving reactions. The current study aims at testing whether cue reactivity towards shopping cues is related to pathological buying tendencies. Methods A sample of 66 non-clinical female participants rated shopping related pictures concerning valence, arousal, and subjective craving. In a subgroup of 26 participants, electrodermal reactions towards those pictures were additionally assessed. Furthermore, all participants were screened concerning pathological buying tendencies and baseline craving for shopping. Results Results indicate a relationship between the subjective ratings of the shopping cues and pathological buying tendencies, even if baseline craving for shopping was controlled for. Electrodermal reactions were partly related to the subjective ratings of the cues. Conclusions Cue reactivity may be a potential correlate of pathological buying tendencies. Thus, pathological buying may be accompanied by craving reactions towards shopping cues. Results support the assumption that pathological buying can be considered as a behavioural addiction. From a methodological point of view, results support the view that the cue-reactivity paradigm is suited for the investigation of craving reactions in pathological buying and future studies should implement this paradigm in clinical samples.

  19. Caudal Nucleus Accumbens Core Is Critical in the Regulation of Cue-Elicited Approach-Avoidance Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Hamel, Laurie; Thangarasa, Tharshika; Samadi, Osai

    2017-01-01

    The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is thought to be a site of integration of positively and negatively valenced information and action selection. Functional differentiation in valence processing has previously been found along the rostrocaudal axis of the shell region of the NAc in assessments of unconditioned motivation. Given that the core region of the NAc has been implicated in the elicitation of motivated behavior in response to conditioned cues, we sought to assess the role of caudal, intermediate, and rostral sites within this subregion in cue-elicited approach-avoidance decisions. Rats were trained to associate visuo-tactile cues with appetitive, aversive, and neutral outcomes. Following the successful acquisition of the cue-outcome associations, rats received microinfusions of GABAA and GABAB receptor agonists (muscimol/baclofen) or saline into the caudal, intermediate, or rostral NAc core and were then exposed to a superimposition of appetitively and aversively valenced cues versus neutral cues in a “conflict test,” as well as to the appetitive versus neutral cues, and aversive cues versus neutral cues, in separate conditioned preference/avoidance tests. Disruption of activity in the intermediate to caudal parts of the NAc core resulted in a robust avoidance bias in response to motivationally conflicting cues, as well as a potentiated avoidance of aversive cues as compared with control animals, coupled with an attenuated conditioned preference for the appetitive cue. These results suggest that the caudal NAc core may have the capacity to exert bidirectional control over appetitively and aversively motivated responses to valence signals. PMID:28275709

  20. Speech Cues and Sign Stimuli.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattingly, Ignatius G.

    Parallels between sign stimuli and speech cues suggest some interesting speculations about the origins of language. Speech cues may belong to the class of human sign stimuli which, as in animal behavior, may be the product of an innate releasing mechanism. Prelinguistic speech for man may have functioned as a social-releaser system. Human language…

  1. Compound cueing in free recall

    PubMed Central

    Lohnas, Lynn J.; Kahana, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    According to the retrieved context theory of episodic memory, the cue for recall of an item is a weighted sum of recently activated cognitive states, including previously recalled and studied items as well as their associations. We show that this theory predicts there should be compound cueing in free recall. Specifically, the temporal contiguity effect should be greater when the two most recently recalled items were studied in contiguous list positions. A meta-analysis of published free recall experiments demonstrates evidence for compound cueing in both conditional response probabilities and inter-response times. To help rule out a rehearsal-based account of these compound cueing effects, we conducted an experiment with immediate, delayed and continual-distractor free recall conditions. Consistent with retrieved context theory but not with a rehearsal-based account, compound cueing was present in all conditions, and was not significantly influenced by the presence of interitem distractors. PMID:23957364

  2. Reward Dependence Moderates Smoking-Cue- and Stress-Induced Cigarette Cravings

    PubMed Central

    Michalowski, Alexandra; Erblich, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette cravings following exposure to smoking cues in a smoker's environment are thought to play an important role in cessation failure. The possibility that dispositional factors may impact cue-induced cravings, though intriguing, has received little attention. According to Cloninger's tridimensional personality theory, factors such as reward dependence (RD), harm avoidance (HA), and novelty seeking (NS) may figure prominently in risk for addiction, as well as relapse, in individuals attempting to abstain from drug and alcohol use. Particularly interesting in this regard is the possibility that smokers with higher levels of RD, who are especially sensitive to reward signals, will have heightened craving reactions to smoking cues. To that end, non-treatment-seeking nicotine dependent smokers (n=96, Mean age=41.1, 47% African American, 17% Caucasian, 22% Hispanic, 19.3 cigs/day, FTND=7.5) underwent a classic experimental cue-induction, during which they were exposed to imagery of: (1) smoking, (2) neutral, and (3) stress cues, and reported their cigarette cravings (0-100) before and after each exposure. Participants also completed the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire. Not surprisingly, smoking and stress cues (but not neutral cues) elicited significant elevations in craving (p's < 0.0001). Consistent with study hypothesis, smokers who scored higher on RD had stronger craving reactions to both smoking cues (p < .02) and stress cues (p < .03). Findings raise the possibility that dispositional characteristics, in particular, reward dependence, influence smoking by potentiating reactions to environmental smoking cues. Furthermore, the similar effects of RD on stress-induced craving suggest that both cue-and stress-induced cravings may be influenced by a common underlying disposition. PMID:25133977

  3. Pictures cueing threat: brain dynamics in viewing explicitly instructed danger cues

    PubMed Central

    Schupp, Harald T.

    2012-01-01

    Recent event-related brain potential studies revealed the selective processing of emotional and threatening pictures. Integrating the picture viewing and threat-of-shock paradigm, the present study examined the processing of emotional pictures while they were explicitly instructed to cue threat of real world danger (i.e. electric shocks). Toward this end, 60 pleasant, neutral and unpleasant IAPS-pictures were presented (1 s) as a continuous random stream while high-density EEG and self-reported threat were assessed. In three experimental runs, each picture category was used once as a threat-cue, whereas in the other conditions the same category served as safety-cue. An additional passive viewing run served as a no-threat condition, thus, establishing a threat–safety continuum (threat-cue–safety-cue–no-threat) for each picture category. Threat-of-shock modulated P1, P2 and parieto-occipital LPP amplitudes. While the P1 component differentiated among threat- and no-threat conditions, the P2 and LPP effects were specific to pictures signaling threat-of-shock. Thus, stimulus processing progressively gained more accurate information about environmental threat conditions. Interestingly, the finding of increased EPN and centro-parietal LPP amplitudes to emotional pictures was independent from threat-of-shock manipulation. Accordingly, the results indicate distinct effects associated with the intrinsic significance of emotional pictures and explicitly instructed threat contingencies. PMID:21719425

  4. Roles of olfactory cues, visual cues, and mating status in orientation of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) to four different host plants.

    PubMed

    Wenninger, Erik J; Stelinski, Lukasz L; Hall, David G

    2009-02-01

    Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is an important worldwide pest of citrus that vectors bacteria (Candidatus Liberibacter spp.) responsible for huanglongbing (citrus greening disease). We examined the behavioral responses of mated and unmated D. citri of both sexes to odors from host plants in a Y-tube olfactometer, with and without visual cues. The host plants tested were 'Duncan' grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macfayden), sour orange (Citrus aurantium L.), navel orange (C. sinensis L.), and Murraya paniculata L. Jack. Responses varied by plant species, psyllid sex and mating status, and the presence of a visual cue. Evidence of attraction generally was stronger in females and in mated individuals of both sexes relative to virgins. The presence of a visual cue typically enhanced attractiveness of olfactory cues; in no case did unmated individuals show evidence of attraction to host plant odors in the absence of avisual cue. In the absence of visual cues, mated females and males showed evidence of attraction only to odors from sour orange and navel orange, respectively. Psyllids exhibited anemotactic responses when assayed with plant odors alone but showed strong evidence of attraction only when olfactory and visual cues were combined, suggesting that olfactory cues facilitate orientation to host plants but may be insufficient alone. Antennal responses to citrus volatiles were confirmed by electroantennogram. The results reported here provide evidence that D. citri uses olfactory and visual cues in orientation to host plants and suggest the possibility of using plant volatiles in monitoring and management of this pest.

  5. Dieting and Food Cue-Related Working Memory Performance

    PubMed Central

    Meule, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Executive functioning (e.g., working memory) is tightly intertwined with self-regulation. For example, food cue-elicited craving has been found to impair working memory performance. Furthermore, current dieters have been found to show lower working memory performance than non-dieters. Recent research, however, suggests that it is crucial to consider dieting success in addition to current dieting status or restrained eating in order to reveal cognitive mechanisms that are associated with successful eating-related self-regulation. The current study investigated food cue-related working memory performance as a function of dieting status and dieting success in female students. Participants performed an n-back task with pictures of food and neutral objects. Reaction time in response to food pictures was slower than in response to neutral pictures, whereas omission errors did not differ between picture types. Current food craving was increased after performing the food block, but not after the neutral block. There was an indirect effect of current dieting status on higher food craving after the food block, which was mediated by slower reaction time to food vs. neutral pictures. Furthermore, higher dieting success was associated with fewer omission errors in the food vs. neutral block in current dieters. There were no relationships of restrained eating with current food craving and task performance. Results further highlight the need to differentiate between successful and unsuccessful dieting in addition to current dieting status or restrained eating when examining possible mechanisms of overeating or successful restraint. Although palatable food cues induce food craving regardless of dieting success, they may boost executive functioning in successful dieters, which helps them to overcome these temptations. PMID:28018277

  6. Dieting and Food Cue-Related Working Memory Performance.

    PubMed

    Meule, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Executive functioning (e.g., working memory) is tightly intertwined with self-regulation. For example, food cue-elicited craving has been found to impair working memory performance. Furthermore, current dieters have been found to show lower working memory performance than non-dieters. Recent research, however, suggests that it is crucial to consider dieting success in addition to current dieting status or restrained eating in order to reveal cognitive mechanisms that are associated with successful eating-related self-regulation. The current study investigated food cue-related working memory performance as a function of dieting status and dieting success in female students. Participants performed an n-back task with pictures of food and neutral objects. Reaction time in response to food pictures was slower than in response to neutral pictures, whereas omission errors did not differ between picture types. Current food craving was increased after performing the food block, but not after the neutral block. There was an indirect effect of current dieting status on higher food craving after the food block, which was mediated by slower reaction time to food vs. neutral pictures. Furthermore, higher dieting success was associated with fewer omission errors in the food vs. neutral block in current dieters. There were no relationships of restrained eating with current food craving and task performance. Results further highlight the need to differentiate between successful and unsuccessful dieting in addition to current dieting status or restrained eating when examining possible mechanisms of overeating or successful restraint. Although palatable food cues induce food craving regardless of dieting success, they may boost executive functioning in successful dieters, which helps them to overcome these temptations.

  7. Booze cues and attentional narrowing: Neural correlates of virtual alcohol myopia.

    PubMed

    Gable, Philip A; Mechin, Nicole C; Neal, Lauren B

    2016-05-01

    Exposure to alcohol cues reduces the breadth of attentional scope, called "virtual myopia." Past researchers have suggested approach motivation as a possible mechanism that underlies this myopia in response to alcohol cues. We expanded on these findings in the current study by identifying the neural underpinnings of the relationship between attentional narrowing, approach motivation, and exposure to alcohol cues. Participants completed 64 trials that consisted of neutral or alcohol-related stimuli followed by a measure of attentional narrowing (i.e., Navons letter task). Electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded during the experiment to assess greater left frontal hemispheric asymmetry, a measure of approach motivation. Results revealed that alcohol cues led to greater "virtual myopia" as measured by narrowed attentional scope. Greater left frontal activation to alcohol cues related to greater myopia, suggesting that approach motivation is associated with virtual myopia. Left frontal activation appears to be a neural correlate of cognitive narrowing related to approach motivation. (PsycINFO Database Record

  8. Gaze cueing by pareidolia faces

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Kohske; Watanabe, Katsumi

    2013-01-01

    Visual images that are not faces are sometimes perceived as faces (the pareidolia phenomenon). While the pareidolia phenomenon provides people with a strong impression that a face is present, it is unclear how deeply pareidolia faces are processed as faces. In the present study, we examined whether a shift in spatial attention would be produced by gaze cueing of face-like objects. A robust cueing effect was observed when the face-like objects were perceived as faces. The magnitude of the cueing effect was comparable between the face-like objects and a cartoon face. However, the cueing effect was eliminated when the observer did not perceive the objects as faces. These results demonstrated that pareidolia faces do more than give the impression of the presence of faces; indeed, they trigger an additional face-specific attentional process. PMID:25165505

  9. Cue-induced craving for marijuana in cannabis-dependent adults.

    PubMed

    Lundahl, Leslie H; Johanson, Chris-Ellyn

    2011-06-01

    Recent interest in the development of medications for treatment of cannabis-use disorders indicates the need for laboratory models to evaluate potential compounds prior to undertaking clinical trials. To investigate whether a cue-reactivity paradigm could induce marijuana craving in cannabis-dependent adults, 16 (eight female) cannabis-dependent and 16 (eight female) cannabis-naïve participants were exposed to neutral and marijuana-related cues, and subsequent changes in mood, self-reported craving, and physiologic function were assessed. Significant Group X cue interactions were found on all three VAS craving indices as well as on the Compulsivity scale of the Marijuana Craving Questionnaire-Brief Form (MCQ-BF). Cannabis-dependent individuals responded to marijuana-related cues with significantly increased reports of marijuana craving compared to neutral cue exposure, although there were no cue-induced changes in any of the physiological measures. There were no significant gender differences on any of the measures. These results indicate that marijuana craving can be induced and assessed in cannabis-dependent, healthy adults within a laboratory setting, and support the need for further research of the cue reactivity paradigm in the development of medications to treat cannabis-use disorders.

  10. Focus cues affect perceived depth

    PubMed Central

    Watt, Simon J.; Akeley, Kurt; Ernst, Marc O.; Banks, Martin S.

    2007-01-01

    Depth information from focus cues—accommodation and the gradient of retinal blur—is typically incorrect in three-dimensional (3-D) displays because the light comes from a planar display surface. If the visual system incorporates information from focus cues into its calculation of 3-D scene parameters, this could cause distortions in perceived depth even when the 2-D retinal images are geometrically correct. In Experiment 1 we measured the direct contribution of focus cues to perceived slant by varying independently the physical slant of the display surface and the slant of a simulated surface specified by binocular disparity (binocular viewing) or perspective/texture (monocular viewing). In the binocular condition, slant estimates were unaffected by display slant. In the monocular condition, display slant had a systematic effect on slant estimates. Estimates were consistent with a weighted average of slant from focus cues and slant from disparity/texture, where the cue weights are determined by the reliability of each cue. In Experiment 2, we examined whether focus cues also have an indirect effect on perceived slant via the distance estimate used in disparity scaling. We varied independently the simulated distance and the focal distance to a disparity-defined 3-D stimulus. Perceived slant was systematically affected by changes in focal distance. Accordingly, depth constancy (with respect to simulated distance) was significantly reduced when focal distance was held constant compared to when it varied appropriately with the simulated distance to the stimulus. The results of both experiments show that focus cues can contribute to estimates of 3-D scene parameters. Inappropriate focus cues in typical 3-D displays may therefore contribute to distortions in perceived space. PMID:16441189

  11. On how the brain decodes vocal cues about speaker confidence.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiaoming; Pell, Marc D

    2015-05-01

    In speech communication, listeners must accurately decode vocal cues that refer to the speaker's mental state, such as their confidence or 'feeling of knowing'. However, the time course and neural mechanisms associated with online inferences about speaker confidence are unclear. Here, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine the temporal neural dynamics underlying a listener's ability to infer speaker confidence from vocal cues during speech processing. We recorded listeners' real-time brain responses while they evaluated statements wherein the speaker's tone of voice conveyed one of three levels of confidence (confident, close-to-confident, unconfident) or were spoken in a neutral manner. Neural responses time-locked to event onset show that the perceived level of speaker confidence could be differentiated at distinct time points during speech processing: unconfident expressions elicited a weaker P2 than all other expressions of confidence (or neutral-intending utterances), whereas close-to-confident expressions elicited a reduced negative response in the 330-500 msec and 550-740 msec time window. Neutral-intending expressions, which were also perceived as relatively confident, elicited a more delayed, larger sustained positivity than all other expressions in the 980-1270 msec window for this task. These findings provide the first piece of evidence of how quickly the brain responds to vocal cues signifying the extent of a speaker's confidence during online speech comprehension; first, a rough dissociation between unconfident and confident voices occurs as early as 200 msec after speech onset. At a later stage, further differentiation of the exact level of speaker confidence (i.e., close-to-confident, very confident) is evaluated via an inferential system to determine the speaker's meaning under current task settings. These findings extend three-stage models of how vocal emotion cues are processed in speech comprehension (e.g., Schirmer & Kotz, 2006) by

  12. Vendor neutral archive in PACS.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Tapesh Kumar; Sanjeev

    2012-10-01

    An archive is a location containing a collection of records, documents, or other materials of historical importance. An integral part of Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) is archiving. When a hospital needs to migrate a PACS vendor, the complete earlier data need to be migrated in the format of the newly procured PACS. It is both time and money consuming. To address this issue, the new concept of vendor neutral archive (VNA) has emerged. A VNA simply decouples the PACS and workstations at the archival layer. This is achieved by developing an application engine that receives, integrates, and transmits the data using the different syntax of a Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) format. Transferring the data belonging to the old PACS to a new one is performed by a process called migration of data. In VNA, a number of different data migration techniques are available to facilitate transfer from the old PACS to the new one, the choice depending on the speed of migration and the importance of data. The techniques include simple DICOM migration, prefetch-based DICOM migration, medium migration, and the expensive non-DICOM migration. "Vendor neutral" may not be a suitable term, and "architecture neutral," "PACS neutral," "content neutral," or "third-party neutral" are probably better and preferred terms. Notwithstanding this, the VNA acronym has come to stay in both the medical IT user terminology and in vendor nomenclature, and radiologists need to be aware of its impact in PACS across the globe.

  13. Retrospective Revaluation of Associative Retroactive Cue Interference

    PubMed Central

    Miguez, Gonzalo; Laborda, Mario A.; Miller, Ralph R.

    2013-01-01

    Two fear-conditioning experiments with rats assessed whether retrospective revaluation, which has been observed in cue competition (i.e., when compounded cues are followed with an outcome), can also be observed in retroactive cue interference (i.e., when different cues are reinforced in separate phases with the same outcome). Experiment 1 found that after inducing retroactive cue interference (i.e., X-outcome followed by A-outcome), nonreinforced presentations of the interfering cue (A) decreases interference with responding to the target cue (X), just as has been observed in retrospective revaluation experiments in cue competition. Using the opposite manipulation (i.e., adding reinforced presentations of A), Experiment 2 demonstrated that after inducing retroactive cue interference, additional reinforced presentations of the interfering cue (A) increases interference with responding to the target cue (X); alternatively stated, the amount of interference increases with the amount of training with the interfering cue. Thus, both types of retrospective revaluation occur in retroactive cue competition. The results are discussed in terms of the possibility that similar associative mechanisms underlie cue competition and cue interference. PMID:24142799

  14. Extinction Can Reduce the Impact of Reward Cues on Reward-Seeking Behavior.

    PubMed

    Lovibond, Peter F; Satkunarajah, Michelle; Colagiuri, Ben

    2015-07-01

    Reward-associated cues are thought to promote relapse after treatment of appetitive disorders such as drug-taking, binge eating, and gambling. This process has been modelled in the laboratory using a Pavlovian-instrumental transfer (PIT) design in which Pavlovian cues facilitate instrumental reward-directed action. Attempts to reduce facilitation by cue exposure (extinction) have produced mixed results. We tested the effect of extinction in a recently developed PIT procedure using a natural reward, chocolate, in human participants. Facilitation of instrumental responding was only observed in participants who were aware of the Pavlovian contingencies. Pavlovian extinction successfully reduced, but did not completely eliminate, expectancy of reward and facilitation of instrumental responding. The results indicate that exposure can reduce the ability of cues to promote reward-directed behavior in the laboratory. However, the residual potency of extinguished cues means that additional active strategies may be needed in clinical practice to train patients to resist the impact of these cues in their environment.

  15. Global Cue Inconsistency Diminishes Learning of Cue Validity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tony S. L.; Christie, Nicole; Howe, Piers D. L.; Little, Daniel R.

    2016-01-01

    In daily life, we make decisions that are associated with probabilistic outcomes (e.g., the chance of rain today). People search for and utilize information that validly predicts an outcome (i.e., we look for dark clouds to indicate the possibility of rain). In the current study (N = 107), we present a two-stage learning task that examines how participants learn and utilize predictive information within a probabilistic learning environment. In the first stage, participants select one of three cues that gives predictive information about the outcome of the second stage. Participants then use this information to predict the outcome in stage two, for which they receive feedback. Critically, only one of the three cues in stage one gives valid predictive information about the outcome in stage two. Participants must differentiate the valid from non-valid cues and select this cue on subsequent trials in order to inform their prediction of the outcome in stage two. The validity of this predictive information, however, is reinforced with varying levels of probabilistic feedback (i.e., 75, 85, 95, 100%). A second manipulation involved changing the consistency of the predictive information in stage one and the outcome in stage two. The results show that participants, with higher levels of probabilistic feedback, learned to utilize the valid cue. In inconsistent task conditions, however, participants were significantly less successful in utilizing higher validity cues. We interpret this result as implying that learning in probabilistic categorization is based on developing a representation of the task that allows for goal-directed action. PMID:27891105

  16. Impulsive reactions to food-cues predict subsequent food craving.

    PubMed

    Meule, Adrian; Lutz, Annika P C; Vögele, Claus; Kübler, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Low inhibitory control has been associated with overeating and addictive behaviors. Inhibitory control can modulate cue-elicited craving in social or alcohol-dependent drinkers, and trait impulsivity may also play a role in food-cue reactivity. The current study investigated food-cue affected response inhibition and its relationship to food craving using a stop-signal task with pictures of food and neutral stimuli. Participants responded slower to food pictures as compared to neutral pictures. Reaction times in response to food pictures positively predicted scores on the Food Cravings Questionnaire - State (FCQ-S) after the task and particularly scores on its hunger subscale. Lower inhibitory performance in response to food pictures predicted higher FCQ-S scores and particularly those related to a desire for food and lack of control over consumption. Task performance was unrelated to current dieting or other measures of habitual eating behaviors. Results support models on interactive effects of top-down inhibitory control processes and bottom-up hedonic signals in the self-regulation of eating behavior, such that low inhibitory control specifically in response to appetitive stimuli is associated with increased craving, which may ultimately result in overeating.

  17. Specific genomic cues regulate Cajal body assembly.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, Iain A; Hager, Gordon L; Dundr, Miroslav

    2016-10-07

    The assembly of specialized sub-nuclear microenvironments known as nuclear bodies (NBs) is important for promoting efficient nuclear function. In particular, the Cajal body (CB), a prominent NB that facilitates spliceosomal snRNP biogenesis, assembles in response to genomic cues. Here, we detail the factors that regulate CB assembly and structural maintenance. These include the importance of transcription at nucleating gene loci, the grouping of these genes on human chromosomes 1, 6 and 17, as well as cell cycle and biochemical regulation of CB protein function. We also speculate on the correlation between CB formation and RNA splicing levels in neurons and cancer. The timing and location of these specific molecular events is critical to CB assembly and its contribution to genome function. However, further work is required to explore the emerging biophysical characteristics of CB assembly and the impact upon subsequent genome reorganization.

  18. Prequit fMRI Responses to Pleasant Cues and Cigarette-Related Cues Predict Smoking Cessation Outcome

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The reasons that some smokers find it harder to quit than others are unclear. Understanding how individual differences predict smoking cessation outcomes may allow the development of more successful personalized treatments for nicotine dependence. Theoretical models suggest that drug users might be characterized by increased sensitivity to drug cues and by reduced sensitivity to nondrug-related natural rewards. We hypothesized that baseline differences in brain sensitivity to natural rewards and cigarette-related cues would predict the outcome of a smoking cessation attempt. Methods: Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we recorded prequit brain responses to neutral, emotional (pleasant and unpleasant), and cigarette-related cues from 55 smokers interested in quitting. We then assessed smoking abstinence, mood, and nicotine withdrawal symptoms during the course of a smoking cessation attempt. Results: Using cluster analysis, we identified 2 groups of smokers who differed in their baseline responses to pleasant cues and cigarette-related cues in the posterior visual association areas, the dorsal striatum, and the medial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Smokers who showed lower prequit levels of brain reactivity to pleasant stimuli than to cigarette-related cues were less likely to be abstinent 6 months after their quit attempt, and they had higher levels of negative affect during the course of the quit attempt. Conclusions: Smokers with blunted brain responses to pleasant stimuli, relative to cigarette-related stimuli, had more difficulty quitting smoking. For these individuals, the lack of alternative forms of reinforcement when nicotine deprived might be an important factor underlying relapse. Normalizing these pathological neuroadaptations may help them achieve abstinence. PMID:24376278

  19. Acoustic cues to Nehiyawewin constituency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Clare; Muehlbauer, Jeff

    2005-04-01

    This study examines how speakers use acoustic cues, e.g., pitch and pausing, to establish syntactic and semantic constituents in Nehiyawewin, an Algonquian language. Two Nehiyawewin speakers autobiographies, which have been recorded, transcribed, and translated by H. C. Wolfart in collaboration with a native speaker of Nehiyawewin, provide natural-speech data for the study. Since it is difficult for a non-native-speaker to reliably distinguish Nehiyawewin constituents, an intermediary is needed. The transcription provides this intermediary through punctuation marks (commas, semi-colons, em-dashes, periods), which have been shown to consistently mark constituency structure [Nunberg, CSLI 1990]. The acoustic cues are thus mapped onto the punctuated constituents, and then similar constituents are compared to see what acoustic cues they share. Preliminarily, the clearest acoustic signal to a constituent boundary is a pitch drop preceding the boundary and/or a pitch reset on the syllable following the boundary. Further, constituent boundaries marked by a period consistently end on a low pitch, are followed by a pitch reset of 30-90 Hz and have an average pause of 1.9 seconds. I also discuss cross-speaker cues, and prosodic cues that do not correlate to punctuation, with implications for the transcriptional view of orthography [Marckwardt, Oxford 1942].

  20. Cue-elicited affect and craving: advancement of the conceptualization of craving in co-occurring posttraumatic stress disorder and alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Nosen, Elizabeth; Nillni, Yael I; Berenz, Erin C; Schumacher, Julie A; Stasiewicz, Paul R; Coffey, Scott F

    2012-11-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) commonly co-occurs with alcohol dependence (AD) and negatively affects treatment outcomes. Trauma-related negative affect enhances substance craving in laboratory cue-reactivity studies of AD individuals, but the role of positive affect has not been established. In this study, 108 AD treatment-seeking adults with current PTSD and AD were presented with four counterbalanced trials consisting of an audio cue (personalized trauma or neutral script) followed by a beverage cue (alcohol or water). Results revealed alcohol cues increased positive and negative affect, and positive affective responses explained significant incremental variance in self-reported craving and salivation, but only when cues were accompanied by neutral not trauma imagery. Ambivalent (high negative and positive) responses were associated with strongest craving. Findings advance the conceptualization of craving in individuals with PTSD-AD and highlight the importance of independently assessing positive and negative affective responses to cues in individuals with co-occurring PTSD-AD.

  1. Neural basis of uncertain cue processing in trait anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Meng; Ma, Chao; Luo, Yanyan; Li, Ji; Li, Qingwei; Liu, Yijun; Ding, Cody; Qiu, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with high trait anxiety form a non-clinical group with a predisposition for an anxiety-related bias in emotional and cognitive processing that is considered by some to be a prerequisite for psychiatric disorders. Anxious individuals tend to experience more worry under uncertainty, and processing uncertain information is an important, but often overlooked factor in anxiety. So, we decided to explore the brain correlates of processing uncertain information in individuals with high trait anxiety using the learn-test paradigm. Behaviorally, the percentages on memory test and the likelihood ratios of identifying novel stimuli under uncertainty were similar to the certain fear condition, but different from the certain neutral condition. The brain results showed that the visual cortex, bilateral fusiform gyrus, and right parahippocampal gyrus were active during the processing of uncertain cues. Moreover, we found that trait anxiety was positively correlated with the BOLD signal of the right parahippocampal gyrus during the processing of uncertain cues. No significant results were found in the amygdala during uncertain cue processing. These results suggest that memory retrieval is associated with uncertain cue processing, which is underpinned by over-activation of the right parahippocampal gyrus, in individuals with high trait anxiety. PMID:26892030

  2. Reduced Metabolsim in Brain 'Control Networks' Following Cocaine-Cues Exposure in Female Cocaine Abusers

    SciTech Connect

    Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.; Volkow, N.D.; Tomasi, D.; Wang, G.-J.; Fowler, J.S.; Telang, F.; Goldstein, R.Z.; Alia-Klein, N.; Wong, C.T.

    2011-03-01

    Gender differences in vulnerability for cocaine addiction have been reported. Though the mechanisms are not understood, here we hypothesize that gender differences in reactivity to conditioned-cues, which contributes to relapse, are involved. To test this we compared brain metabolism (using PET and {sup 18}FDG) between female (n = 10) and male (n = 16) active cocaine abusers when they watched a neutral video (nature scenes) versus a cocaine-cues video. Self-reports of craving increased with the cocaine-cue video but responses did not differ between genders. In contrast, changes in whole brain metabolism with cocaine-cues differed by gender (p<0.05); females significantly decreased metabolism (-8.6% {+-} 10) whereas males tended to increase it (+5.5% {+-} 18). SPM analysis (Cocaine-cues vs Neutral) in females revealed decreases in frontal, cingulate and parietal cortices, thalamus and midbrain (p<0.001) whereas males showed increases in right inferior frontal gyrus (BA 44/45) (only at p<0.005). The gender-cue interaction showed greater decrements with Cocaine-cues in females than males (p<0.001) in frontal (BA 8, 9, 10), anterior cingulate (BA 24, 32), posterior cingulate (BA 23, 31), inferior parietal (BA 40) and thalamus (dorsomedial nucleus). Females showed greater brain reactivity to cocaine-cues than males but no differences in craving, suggesting that there may be gender differences in response to cues that are not linked with craving but could affect subsequent drug use. Specifically deactivation of brain regions from 'control networks' (prefrontal, cingulate, inferior parietal, thalamus) in females could increase their vulnerability to relapse since it would interfere with executive function (cognitive inhibition). This highlights the importance of gender tailored interventions for cocaine addiction.

  3. Craving, Cue Reactivity, and Stimulus Control Among Early-Stage Young Smokers: Effects of Smoking Intensity and Gender

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Smoking initiation usually begins in adolescence, but how and for whom nicotine dependence emerges during this period is unclear. The cue-reactivity paradigm is well suited to examine one marker of dependence: craving-related stimulus control, i.e., the ability of environmental cues to elicit craving to smoke. This study examined the effects of both level of smoking involvement (daily vs. occasional smoking) and gender on reactivity to both smoking and alcohol cues. Methods: Young (age range 16–20; 42% female) daily (n = 55) and occasional (n = 52) smokers were exposed to each of three counterbalanced cues: (a) in vivo smoking (e.g., sight, smell, lighting of cigarette), (b) alcohol (e.g., opening, pouring, and smell of preferred beverage), and (c) neutral cue. Results: Daily smokers exhibited higher levels of tonic (i.e., noncue-elicited) craving than did occasional smokers. Both groups showed significant increases in craving in response to cues (i.e., cue-elicited craving), with little evidence that cue-elicited craving differed between groups. Females were more cue reactive to both the alcohol and smoking cues than males, particularly for the positively reinforced aspects of smoking (i.e., hedonic craving). There were no gender × group interaction effects in response to either the alcohol or the smoking cue. Conclusions: Findings show the presence of cue-elicited craving even among occasional smokers and are consistent with literature demonstrating heightened sensitivity to environmental cues among females. Cue-elicited craving may be one mechanism that contributes to the maintenance of smoking behavior and perhaps to the development of nicotine dependence within early stage smokers. PMID:24042699

  4. Anticipating conflict facilitates controlled stimulus-response selection

    PubMed Central

    Correa, Ángel; Rao, Anling; Nobre, Anna C.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive control can be triggered in reaction to previous conflict, as suggested by the finding of sequential effects in conflict tasks. Can control also be triggered proactively by presenting cues predicting conflict (‘proactive control’)? We exploited the high temporal resolution of event-related potentials (ERPs) and controlled for sequential effects to ask whether proactive control based on anticipating conflict modulates neural activity related to cognitive control, as may be predicted from the conflict-monitoring model. ERPs associated with conflict detection (N2) were measured during a cued flanker task. Symbolic cues were either informative or neutral with respect to whether the target involved conflicting or congruent responses. Sequential effects were controlled by analysing the congruency of the previous trial. The results showed that cuing conflict facilitated conflict resolution and reduced the N2 latency. Other potentials (frontal N1 and P3) were also modulated by cuing conflict. Cuing effects were most evident after congruent than after incongruent trials. This interaction between cuing and sequential effects suggests neural overlap between the control networks triggered by proactive and reactive signals. This finding clarifies why previous neuroimaging studies, in which reactive sequential effects were not controlled, have rarely found anticipatory effects upon conflict-related activity. Finally, the high temporal resolution of ERPs was critical to reveal a temporal modulation of conflict detection by proactive control. This novel finding suggests that anticipating conflict speeds up conflict detection and resolution. Recent research suggests that this anticipatory mechanism may be mediated by pre-activation of the ACC during the preparatory interval. PMID:18823248

  5. Temporal regulation of kin recognition maintains recognition-cue diversity and suppresses cheating.

    PubMed

    Ho, Hsing-I; Shaulsky, Gad

    2015-05-28

    Kin recognition, the ability to distinguish kin from non-kin, can facilitate cooperation between relatives. Evolutionary theory predicts that polymorphism in recognition cues, which is essential for effective recognition, would be unstable. Individuals carrying rare recognition cues would benefit less from social interactions than individuals with common cues, leading to loss of the genetic-cue diversity. We test this evolutionary hypothesis in Dictyostelium discoideum, which forms multicellular fruiting bodies by aggregation and utilizes two polymorphic membrane proteins to facilitate preferential cooperation. Surprisingly, we find that rare recognition variants are tolerated and maintain their frequencies among incompatible majority during development. Although the rare variants are initially excluded from the aggregates, they subsequently rejoin the aggregate and produce spores. Social cheating is also refrained in late development, thus limiting the cost of chimerism. Our results suggest a potential mechanism to sustain the evolutionary stability of kin-recognition genes and to suppress cheating.

  6. Adolescent Heavy Drinkers’ Amplified Brain Responses to Alcohol Cues Decrease Over One Month of Abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Brumback, Ty; Squeglia, Lindsay M.; Jacobus, Joanna; Pulido, Carmen; Tapert, Susan F.; Brown, Sandra A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Heavy drinking during adolescence is associated with increased reactivity to alcohol related stimuli and to differential neural development. Alcohol cue reactivity has been widely studied among adults with alcohol use disorders, but little is known about the neural substrates of cue reactivity in adolescent drinkers. The current study aimed to identify changes in blood-oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal during a cue reactivity task pre- and post-monitored abstinence from alcohol. Method Demographically matched adolescents (16.0–18.9 years, 54% female) with histories of heavy episodic drinking (HD; n=22) and light or non-drinking control teens (CON; n=16) were recruited to participate in a month-long study. All participants completed a functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) scan with an alcohol cue reactivity task and substance use assessments at baseline and after 28 days of monitored abstinence from alcohol and drugs (i.e., urine toxicology testing every 48-72 hours). Repeated-measure analysis of variance (ANOVA) examined main effects of group, time, and group × time interactions on BOLD signal response in regions of interest defined by functional differences at baseline. Results The HD group exhibited greater (p<.01) BOLD activation than CON to alcohol cues relative to neutral cues in all regions of interest (ROIs; bilateral striatum/globus pallidus, left anterior cingulate, bilateral cerebellum, and parahippocampal gyrus extending to the thalamus/substantia nigra) across time points. Group × time effects showed that HD exhibited greater BOLD activation to alcohol cues than CON at baseline in left anterior cingulate cortex and in the right cerebellar region, but these decreased to non-significance after one month of monitored abstinence. Conclusions In all ROIs examined, HD exhibited greater BOLD response than CON to alcohol relative to neutral beverage picture cues at baseline, indicating heightened cue reactivity to alcohol cues in

  7. Spatial cues more salient than color cues in cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) reversal learning.

    PubMed

    Gaudio, Jennifer L; Snowdon, Charles T

    2008-11-01

    Animals living in stable home ranges have many potential cues to locate food. Spatial and color cues are important for wild Callitrichids (marmosets and tamarins). Field studies have assigned the highest priority to distal spatial cues for determining the location of food resources with color cues serving as a secondary cue to assess relative ripeness, once a food source is located. We tested two hypotheses with captive cotton-top tamarins: (a) Tamarins will demonstrate higher rates of initial learning when rewarded for attending to spatial cues versus color cues. (b) Tamarins will show higher rates of correct responses when transferred from color cues to spatial cues than from spatial cues to color cues. The results supported both hypotheses. Tamarins rewarded based on spatial location made significantly more correct choices and fewer errors than tamarins rewarded based on color cues during initial learning. Furthermore, tamarins trained on color cues showed significantly increased correct responses and decreased errors when cues were reversed to reward spatial cues. Subsequent reversal to color cues induced a regression in performance. For tamarins spatial cues appear more salient than color cues in a foraging task.

  8. P3 event-related potential reactivity to smoking cues: Relations with craving, tobacco dependence, and alcohol sensitivity in young adult smokers.

    PubMed

    Piasecki, Thomas M; Fleming, Kimberly A; Trela, Constantine J; Bartholow, Bruce D

    2017-02-01

    The current study tested whether the amplitude of the P3 event-related potential (ERP) elicited by smoking cues is (a) associated with the degree of self-reported craving reactivity, and (b) moderated by degree of tobacco dependence. Because alcohol and cigarettes are frequently used together, and given recent evidence indicating that individual differences in alcohol sensitivity influence reactivity to alcohol cues, we also investigated whether alcohol sensitivity moderated neural responses to smoking cues. ERPs were recorded from young adult smokers (N = 90) while they participated in an evaluative categorization oddball task involving 3 types of targets: neutral images, smoking-related images, and images of drinking straws. Participants showing larger P3 amplitudes to smoking cues and to straw cues (relative to neutral targets) reported greater increases in craving after cue exposure. Neither smoking status (daily vs. occasional use) nor psychometric measures of tobacco dependence consistently or specifically moderated P3 reactivity to smoking cues. Lower alcohol sensitivity was associated with larger P3 to smoking cues but not comparison straw cues (relative to neutral targets). This effect was further moderated by tobacco dependence, with the combination of lower sensitivity and higher dependence associated with especially pronounced P3 reactivity to smoking cues. The findings suggest the smoking-cue elicited P3 ERP component indexes an approach-oriented incentive motivational state accompanied by a subjective sense of cigarette craving. Self-reported low sensitivity to the pharmacologic effects of alcohol may represent a marker of drug cue reactivity and therefore deserves attention as a potential moderator in smoking cue exposure studies. (PsycINFO Database Record

  9. Fear Relevancy, Strategy Use, and Probabilistic Learning of Cue-Outcome Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Laura A.; LaBar, Kevin S.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine how the fear relevancy of outcomes during probabilistic classification learning affects behavior and strategy use. Novel variants of the "weather prediction" task were created, in which cue cards predicted either looming fearful or neutral outcomes in a between-groups design. Strategy use was…

  10. CUE, ENGLISH HUMANITIES MEDIA GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BROWN, ROBERT M.; AND OTHERS

    THIS DOCUMENT IS ONE OF A SERIES OF MEDIA GUIDES SPONSORED BY THE NEW YORK STATE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT UNDER THE CUE SYSTEM. THE ENGLISH HUMANITIES ARE DIVIDED INTO 11 DIFFERENT TOPICS, COVERING AREAS OF COMMUNICATION, VOCABULARY, AND WORLD CULTURE. WITHIN EACH TOPIC IS A SERIES OF SUGGESTED FILM AND TELEVISION SUBJECTS. A DISCUSSION IS GIVEN ON…

  11. Optimal cue integration in ants

    PubMed Central

    Wystrach, Antoine; Mangan, Michael; Webb, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    In situations with redundant or competing sensory information, humans have been shown to perform cue integration, weighting different cues according to their certainty in a quantifiably optimal manner. Ants have been shown to merge the directional information available from their path integration (PI) and visual memory, but as yet it is not clear that they do so in a way that reflects the relative certainty of the cues. In this study, we manipulate the variance of the PI home vector by allowing ants (Cataglyphis velox) to run different distances and testing their directional choice when the PI vector direction is put in competition with visual memory. Ants show progressively stronger weighting of their PI direction as PI length increases. The weighting is quantitatively predicted by modelling the expected directional variance of home vectors of different lengths and assuming optimal cue integration. However, a subsequent experiment suggests ants may not actually compute an internal estimate of the PI certainty, but are using the PI home vector length as a proxy. PMID:26400741

  12. Behavioral Cues of Interpersonal Warmth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayes, Marjorie A.

    1972-01-01

    The results of this study suggest, first, that interpersonal warmth does seem to be a personality dimension which can be reliably judged and, second, that it was possible to define and demonstrate the relevance of a number of behavioral cues for warmth. (Author)

  13. Optimal cue integration in ants.

    PubMed

    Wystrach, Antoine; Mangan, Michael; Webb, Barbara

    2015-10-07

    In situations with redundant or competing sensory information, humans have been shown to perform cue integration, weighting different cues according to their certainty in a quantifiably optimal manner. Ants have been shown to merge the directional information available from their path integration (PI) and visual memory, but as yet it is not clear that they do so in a way that reflects the relative certainty of the cues. In this study, we manipulate the variance of the PI home vector by allowing ants (Cataglyphis velox) to run different distances and testing their directional choice when the PI vector direction is put in competition with visual memory. Ants show progressively stronger weighting of their PI direction as PI length increases. The weighting is quantitatively predicted by modelling the expected directional variance of home vectors of different lengths and assuming optimal cue integration. However, a subsequent experiment suggests ants may not actually compute an internal estimate of the PI certainty, but are using the PI home vector length as a proxy.

  14. Oxytocin Mediates Entrainment of Sensory Stimuli to Social Cues of Opposing Valence

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Han Kyoung; Reed, Michael Douglas; Benavidez, Nora; Montgomery, Daniel; Soares, Natalie; Yim, Yeong Shin; Choi, Gloria B.

    2015-01-01

    Meaningful social interactions modify behavioral responses to sensory stimuli. The neural mechanisms underlying the entrainment of neutral sensory stimuli to salient social cues to produce social learning remains unknown. We used odor-driven behavioral paradigms to ask if oxytocin, a neuropeptide implicated in various social behaviors, plays a crucial role in the formation of learned associations between odor and socially significant cues. Through genetic, optogenetic and pharmacological manipulations, we show that oxytocin receptor signaling is crucial for entrainment of odor to social cues, but is dispensable for entrainment to non-social cues. Furthermore, we demonstrate that oxytocin directly impacts the piriform, the olfactory sensory cortex, to mediate social learning. Lastly, we provide evidence that oxytocin plays a role in both appetitive and aversive social learning. These results suggest that oxytocin conveys saliency of social stimuli to sensory representations in the piriform cortex during odor-driven social learning. PMID:26139372

  15. EMOTIONAL MODULATION OF ATTENTION ORIENTING BY GAZE VARIES WITH DYNAMIC CUE SEQUENCE

    PubMed Central

    Lassalle, Amandine; Itier, Roxane J.

    2017-01-01

    Recent gaze cueing studies using dynamic cue sequences have reported increased attention orienting by gaze with faces expressing fear, surprise or anger. Here, we investigated whether the type of dynamic cue sequence used impacted the magnitude of this effect. When the emotion was expressed before or concurrently with gaze shift, no modulation of gaze-oriented attention by emotion was seen. In contrast, when the face cue averted gaze before expressing an emotion (as if reacting to the object after first localizing it), the gaze orienting effect was clearly increased for fearful, surprised and angry faces compared to neutral faces. Thus, the type of dynamic sequence used, and in particular the order in which the gaze shift and the facial expression are presented, modulate gaze-oriented attention, with maximal modulation seen when the expression of emotion follows gaze shift.

  16. VIRTUAL REALITY CUE EXPOSURE THERAPY FOR THE TREATMENT OF TOBACCO DEPENDENCE.

    PubMed

    Culbertson, Christopher S; Shulenberger, Stephanie; De La Garza, Richard; Newton, Thomas F; Brody, Arthur L

    2012-01-01

    Researchers and clinicians have recently begun using Virtual Reality (VR) to create immersive and interactive cue exposure paradigms. The current study aimed to assess the effectiveness of individual cue exposure therapy (CET), using smoking-related VR cues (smoking-VR) as a smoking cessation treatment compared to a placebo-VR (neutral cue) treatment. The sample consisted of healthy treatment-seeking cigarette smokers, who underwent bi-weekly cognitive behavioral group therapy (CBT) plus either smoking-VR CET or placebo-VR CET (random assignment). Smoking-VR CET participants had a higher quit rate than placebo-VR CET participants (P = 0.015). Smoking-VR CET treated participants also reported smoking significantly fewer cigarettes per day at the end of treatment than placebo-VR CET treated participants (P = 0.034). These data indicate that smoking-related VR CET may prove useful in enhancing the efficacy of CBT treatment for tobacco dependence.

  17. Estimating location without external cues.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Allen

    2014-10-01

    The ability to determine one's location is fundamental to spatial navigation. Here, it is shown that localization is theoretically possible without the use of external cues, and without knowledge of initial position or orientation. With only error-prone self-motion estimates as input, a fully disoriented agent can, in principle, determine its location in familiar spaces with 1-fold rotational symmetry. Surprisingly, localization does not require the sensing of any external cue, including the boundary. The combination of self-motion estimates and an internal map of the arena provide enough information for localization. This stands in conflict with the supposition that 2D arenas are analogous to open fields. Using a rodent error model, it is shown that the localization performance which can be achieved is enough to initiate and maintain stable firing patterns like those of grid cells, starting from full disorientation. Successful localization was achieved when the rotational asymmetry was due to the external boundary, an interior barrier or a void space within an arena. Optimal localization performance was found to depend on arena shape, arena size, local and global rotational asymmetry, and the structure of the path taken during localization. Since allothetic cues including visual and boundary contact cues were not present, localization necessarily relied on the fusion of idiothetic self-motion cues and memory of the boundary. Implications for spatial navigation mechanisms are discussed, including possible relationships with place field overdispersion and hippocampal reverse replay. Based on these results, experiments are suggested to identify if and where information fusion occurs in the mammalian spatial memory system.

  18. Learned Use of Picture Cues by Bumblebees (Bombus impatiens) in a Delayed Matching Task

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Emma; Plowright, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Picture-object correspondence provides an alternate method of investigating delayed matching by providing a cue (picture) which may be spontaneously perceived as similar but different from a corresponding target. Memory for, and corresponding choice of, a target corresponding to a cue could be facilitated by the use of a picture. Bumblebees have been found to both easily differentiate images from corresponding objects but also spontaneously perceive a similarity between the two. Herein, an approach was designed to test the possible use of picture cues to signal reward in a delayed matching task. Target choice preference corresponding to picture cues was tested among three bumblebee (Bombus impatiens) colonies using photograph cues (presented prior to target stimuli) corresponding to one of four target stimuli. Photograph cues were the only predictor of corresponding target reward, presented in stable locations. Rewarded and unrewarded tests show a choice preference significantly higher than chance for targets matching the cue. Results suggest that bumblebees can learn to use picture cues in a delayed matching task. Furthermore, experience, conditions of reward inconsistency and location, are discussed as possible contributing factors to learning in a delayed matching task. PMID:27754410

  19. Nonverbal Cues and Television News: TV News.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tankard, James W., Jr.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Presents evidence that nonverbal cues by newscasters are interpreted by the viewer as a sign of bias. Using two cues, raised eyebrows and a smile, the study produced data that suggest that the audience is aware of this influence. (JMF)

  20. 15-month-olds' transfer of learning between touch screen and real-world displays: language cues and cognitive loads.

    PubMed

    Zack, Elizabeth; Gerhardstein, Peter; Meltzoff, Andrew N; Barr, Rachel

    2013-02-01

    Infants have difficulty transferring information between 2D and 3D sources. The current study extends Zack, Barr, Gerhardstein, Dickerson & Meltzoff's (2009) touch screen imitation task to examine whether the addition of specific language cues significantly facilitates 15-month-olds' transfer of learning between touch screens and real-world 3D objects. The addition of two kinds of linguistic cues (object label plus verb or nonsense name) did not elevate action imitation significantly above levels observed when such language cues were not used. Language cues hindered infants' performance in the 3D→2D direction of transfer, but only for the object label plus verb condition. The lack of a facilitative effect of language is discussed in terms of competing cognitive loads imposed by conjointly transferring information across dimensions and processing linguistic cues in an action imitation task at this age.

  1. Enhanced Attentional Bias towards Sexually Explicit Cues in Individuals with and without Compulsive Sexual Behaviours

    PubMed Central

    Mechelmans, Daisy J.; Irvine, Michael; Banca, Paula; Porter, Laura; Mitchell, Simon; Mole, Tom B.; Lapa, Tatyana R.; Harrison, Neil A.; Potenza, Marc N.; Voon, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    Compulsive sexual behaviour (CSB) is relatively common and has been associated with significant distress and psychosocial impairments. CSB has been conceptualized as either an impulse control disorder or a non-substance ‘behavioural’ addiction. Substance use disorders are commonly associated with attentional biases to drug cues which are believed to reflect processes of incentive salience. Here we assess male CSB subjects compared to age-matched male healthy controls using a dot probe task to assess attentional bias to sexually explicit cues. We show that compared to healthy volunteers, CSB subjects have enhanced attentional bias to explicit cues but not neutral cues particularly for early stimuli latency. Our findings suggest enhanced attentional bias to explicit cues possibly related to an early orienting attentional response. This finding dovetails with our recent observation that sexually explicit videos were associated with greater activity in a neural network similar to that observed in drug-cue-reactivity studies. Greater desire or wanting rather than liking was further associated with activity in this neural network. These studies together provide support for an incentive motivation theory of addiction underlying the aberrant response towards sexual cues in CSB. PMID:25153083

  2. Sense of control and adolescents' aggression: The role of aggressive cues.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xucheng; Egan, Vincent; Zhang, Jianxin

    2016-12-01

    The misperception of aggressive cues is considered a risk factor for inducing adolescent aggression. Poor coping with life stress is also considered a major influence on aggression. The current study examined the relationship between subjective sense of control and adolescent aggression, considering influences upon the perception of these aggressive cues. In Study 1, 60 participants took part in a 2 (sense of control: high sense of control vs. low sense of control) × 2 (aggressive cue: aggressive vs. neutral) between-subjects contextual experiment. The result found that a lower sense of control led to an increase in adolescents' aggression; only in the low-sense-of-control condition did exposure to aggressive cues boost aggression. In Study 2, the catalytic effect of aggressive cues was further explored by an experiment in which 40 adolescents were randomly assigned to a low- or high-sense-of-control condition to test the importance of aggressive cues. The results suggest that adolescents in the low-sense-of-control condition show a higher salience for aggressive cues.

  3. Transdermal nicotine during cue reactivity in adult smokers with and without anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Morissette, Sandra B; Gulliver, Suzy Bird; Kamholz, Barbara W; Spiegel, David A; Tiffany, Stephen T; Barlow, David H

    2012-09-01

    Transdermal nicotine almost doubles tobacco cessation rates; however, little is known about what happens to smokers during the quit process when they are wearing the nicotine patch and are confronted with high-risk smoking triggers. This is particularly important for smokers with psychological disorders who disproportionately represent today's smokers and have more trouble quitting. Using a mixed between- and within-subjects design, smokers with anxiety disorders (n=61) and smokers without any current Axis I disorders (n=38) received transdermal nicotine (21 mg) or a placebo patch over two assessment days separated by 48 hr. Urge to smoke was evaluated during a 5-hr patch absorption period (reflecting general smoking deprivation) and during imaginal exposure to theoretically high-risk triggers containing smoking cues, anxiety cues, both, or neutral cues. No differences were observed between smokers with and without anxiety disorders. Significant Patch×Time and Patch×Cue Content interactions were found. Both patch conditions experienced an increase in urge during the deprivation period, but postabsorption urge was significantly higher in the placebo condition, suggesting that transdermal nicotine attenuated the degree to which urge to smoke increased over time. During the cue reactivity trials, when participants received the nicotine patch, they experienced significantly lower urge in response to both smoking-only and neutral cues, but not when anxiety cues were present (alone or in combination with smoking cues). These data suggest that transdermal nicotine alleviates urge only under certain circumstances and that adjunctive interventions are likely necessary to address smoking urges in response to spikes in distress among smokers trying to quit.

  4. Methylphenidate attenuates limbic brain inhibition after cocaine-cues exposure in cocaine abusers.

    SciTech Connect

    Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.; Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.-J.; Tomasi, D.; Telang, F.; Fowler, J.S.; Pradhan, K.; Jayne, M.; Logan, J.; Goldstein, R.Z.; Alia-Klein, N.; Wong, C.T.

    2010-07-01

    Dopamine (phasic release) is implicated in conditioned responses. Imaging studies in cocaine abusers show decreases in striatal dopamine levels, which we hypothesize may enhance conditioned responses since tonic dopamine levels modulate phasic dopamine release. To test this we assessed the effects of increasing tonic dopamine levels (using oral methylphenidate) on brain activation induced by cocaine-cues in cocaine abusers. Brain metabolism (marker of brain function) was measured with PET and {sup 18}FDG in 24 active cocaine abusers tested four times; twice watching a Neutral video (nature scenes) and twice watching a Cocaine-cues video; each video was preceded once by placebo and once by methylphenidate (20 mg). The Cocaine-cues video increased craving to the same extent with placebo (68%) and with methylphenidate (64%). In contrast, SPM analysis of metabolic images revealed that differences between Neutral versus Cocaine-cues conditions were greater with placebo than methylphenidate; whereas with placebo the Cocaine-cues decreased metabolism (p<0.005) in left limbic regions (insula, orbitofrontal, accumbens) and right parahippocampus, with methylphenidate it only decreased in auditory and visual regions, which also occurred with placebo. Decreases in metabolism in these regions were not associated with craving; in contrast the voxel-wise SPM analysis identified significant correlations with craving in anterior orbitofrontal cortex (p<0.005), amygdala, striatum and middle insula (p<0.05). This suggests that methylphenidate's attenuation of brain reactivity to Cocaine-cues is distinct from that involved in craving. Cocaine-cues decreased metabolism in limbic regions (reflects activity over 30 minutes), which contrasts with activations reported by fMRI studies (reflects activity over 2-5 minutes) that may reflect long-lasting limbic inhibition following activation. Studies to evaluate the clinical significance of methylphenidate's blunting of cue-induced limbic

  5. ALCOHOL-RELATED CUES POTENTIATE ALCOHOL IMPAIRMENT OF BEHAVIORAL CONTROL IN DRINKERS

    PubMed Central

    Weafer, Jessica; Fillmore, Mark T.

    2014-01-01

    The acute impairing effects of alcohol on inhibitory control are well-established, and these disinhibiting effects are thought to play a role in its abuse potential. Alcohol impairment of inhibitory control is typically assessed in the context of arbitrary cues, yet drinking environments are comprised of an array of alcohol-related cues that are thought to influence drinking behavior. Recent evidence suggests that alcohol-related stimuli reduce behavioral control in sober drinkers, suggesting that alcohol impairment of inhibitory control might be potentiated in the context of alcohol cues. The current study tested this hypothesis by examining performance on the attentional-bias behavioral activation (ABBA) task that measures the degree to which alcohol-related stimuli can reduce inhibition of inappropriate responses in a between-subjects design. Social drinkers (N=40) performed the task in a sober condition, and then again following placebo (0.0 g/kg) and a moderate dose of alcohol (0.65 g/kg) in counter-balanced order. Inhibitory failures were greater following alcohol images compared to neutral images in sober drinkers, replicating previous findings with the ABBA task. Moreover, alcohol-related cues exacerbated alcohol impairment of inhibitory control as evidenced by more pronounced alcohol-induced disinhibition following alcohol cues compared to neutral cues. Finally, regression analyses showed that greater alcohol-induced disinhibition following alcohol cues predicted greater self-reported alcohol consumption. These findings have important implications regarding factors contributing to binge or ‘loss of control’ drinking. That is, the additive effect of disrupted control mechanisms via both alcohol-cues and the pharmacological effects of the drug could compromise an individual’s control over ongoing alcohol consumption. PMID:25134023

  6. Methylphenidate attenuates limbic brain inhibition after cocaine-cues exposure in cocaine abusers.

    PubMed

    Volkow, Nora D; Wang, Gene-Jack; Tomasi, Dardo; Telang, Frank; Fowler, Joanna S; Pradhan, Kith; Jayne, Millard; Logan, Jean; Goldstein, Rita Z; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Wong, Christopher

    2010-07-09

    Dopamine (phasic release) is implicated in conditioned responses. Imaging studies in cocaine abusers show decreases in striatal dopamine levels, which we hypothesize may enhance conditioned responses since tonic dopamine levels modulate phasic dopamine release. To test this we assessed the effects of increasing tonic dopamine levels (using oral methylphenidate) on brain activation induced by cocaine-cues in cocaine abusers. Brain metabolism (marker of brain function) was measured with PET and (18)FDG in 24 active cocaine abusers tested four times; twice watching a Neutral video (nature scenes) and twice watching a Cocaine-cues video; each video was preceded once by placebo and once by methylphenidate (20 mg). The Cocaine-cues video increased craving to the same extent with placebo (68%) and with methylphenidate (64%). In contrast, SPM analysis of metabolic images revealed that differences between Neutral versus Cocaine-cues conditions were greater with placebo than methylphenidate; whereas with placebo the Cocaine-cues decreased metabolism (p<0.005) in left limbic regions (insula, orbitofrontal, accumbens) and right parahippocampus, with methylphenidate it only decreased in auditory and visual regions, which also occurred with placebo. Decreases in metabolism in these regions were not associated with craving; in contrast the voxel-wise SPM analysis identified significant correlations with craving in anterior orbitofrontal cortex (p<0.005), amygdala, striatum and middle insula (p<0.05). This suggests that methylphenidate's attenuation of brain reactivity to Cocaine-cues is distinct from that involved in craving. Cocaine-cues decreased metabolism in limbic regions (reflects activity over 30 minutes), which contrasts with activations reported by fMRI studies (reflects activity over 2-5 minutes) that may reflect long-lasting limbic inhibition following activation. Studies to evaluate the clinical significance of methylphenidate's blunting of cue-induced limbic

  7. Role of cues and contexts on drug-seeking behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Christina J; Zbukvic, Isabel; Kim, Jee Hyun; Lawrence, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Environmental stimuli are powerful mediators of craving and relapse in substance-abuse disorders. This review examined how animal models have been used to investigate the cognitive mechanisms through which cues are able to affect drug-seeking behaviour. We address how animal models can describe the way drug-associated cues come to facilitate the development and persistence of drug taking, as well as how these cues are critical to the tendency to relapse that characterizes substance-abuse disorders. Drug-associated cues acquire properties of conditioned reinforcement, incentive motivation and discriminative control, which allow them to influence drug-seeking behaviour. Using these models, researchers have been able to investigate the pharmacology subserving the behavioural impact of environmental stimuli, some of which we highlight. Subsequently, we examine whether the impact of drug-associated stimuli can be attenuated via a process of extinction, and how this question is addressed in the laboratory. We discuss how preclinical research has been translated into behavioural therapies targeting substance abuse, as well as highlight potential developments to therapies that might produce more enduring changes in behaviour. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Animal Models in Psychiatry Research. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-20 PMID:24749941

  8. Bayesian saliency via low and mid level cues.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yulin; Lu, Huchuan; Yang, Ming-Hsuan

    2013-05-01

    Visual saliency detection is a challenging problem in computer vision, but one of great importance and numerous applications. In this paper, we propose a novel model for bottom-up saliency within the Bayesian framework by exploiting low and mid level cues. In contrast to most existing methods that operate directly on low level cues, we propose an algorithm in which a coarse saliency region is first obtained via a convex hull of interest points. We also analyze the saliency information with mid level visual cues via superpixels. We present a Laplacian sparse subspace clustering method to group superpixels with local features, and analyze the results with respect to the coarse saliency region to compute the prior saliency map. We use the low level visual cues based on the convex hull to compute the observation likelihood, thereby facilitating inference of Bayesian saliency at each pixel. Extensive experiments on a large data set show that our Bayesian saliency model performs favorably against the state-of-the-art algorithms.

  9. Role of cues and contexts on drug-seeking behaviour.

    PubMed

    Perry, Christina J; Zbukvic, Isabel; Kim, Jee Hyun; Lawrence, Andrew J

    2014-10-01

    Environmental stimuli are powerful mediators of craving and relapse in substance-abuse disorders. This review examined how animal models have been used to investigate the cognitive mechanisms through which cues are able to affect drug-seeking behaviour. We address how animal models can describe the way drug-associated cues come to facilitate the development and persistence of drug taking, as well as how these cues are critical to the tendency to relapse that characterizes substance-abuse disorders. Drug-associated cues acquire properties of conditioned reinforcement, incentive motivation and discriminative control, which allow them to influence drug-seeking behaviour. Using these models, researchers have been able to investigate the pharmacology subserving the behavioural impact of environmental stimuli, some of which we highlight. Subsequently, we examine whether the impact of drug-associated stimuli can be attenuated via a process of extinction, and how this question is addressed in the laboratory. We discuss how preclinical research has been translated into behavioural therapies targeting substance abuse, as well as highlight potential developments to therapies that might produce more enduring changes in behaviour.

  10. Cross-Cultural Nonverbal Cue Immersive Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    1 CROSS-CULTURAL NONVERBAL CUE IMMERSIVE TRAINING Shatha N. Samman*, Michael Moshell + , Bryan Clark, Chantel Brathwaite + , and Allison Abbe...their meaning. 1.2 Nonverbal Cues Categorized by Function In one commonly accepted taxonomic approach, Ekman and Friesen (1969) classified...nonverbal cues (Ekman & Friesen , 1969). Emblems occur mainly when verbal communication is inhibited by external factors (e.g., noise, distance

  11. When Symbolic Spatial Cues Go before Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrera, Amparo; Macizo, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    This work explores the effect of spatial cueing on number processing. Participants performed a parity judgment task. However, shortly before the target number, a cue (arrow pointing to left, arrow pointing to right or a cross) was centrally presented. In Experiment 1, in which responses were lateralized, the cue direction modulated the interaction…

  12. Noise and Inattentiveness to Social Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Sheldon; Lezak, Anne

    1977-01-01

    The effects of environmental stress on the processing of task-irrelevant cues of a social nature were examined. While noise did not affect memory for the task-relevant cues, task-irrelevant cues, regardless of whether they depicted calm or distressed persons, were remembered less well under noise than under quiet. (Author/MA)

  13. Reprint of: Object-based attentional facilitation and inhibition are neuropsychologically dissociated.

    PubMed

    Smith, Daniel T; Ball, Keira; Swalwell, Robert; Schenk, Thomas

    2016-11-01

    Salient peripheral cues produce a transient shift of attention which is superseded by a sustained inhibitory effect. Cueing part of an object produces an inhibitory cueing effect (ICE) that spreads throughout the object. In dynamic scenes the ICE stays with objects as they move. We examined object-centred attentional facilitation and inhibition in a patient with visual form agnosia. There was no evidence of object-centred attentional facilitation. In contrast, object-centred ICE was observed in 3 out of 4 tasks. These inhibitory effects were strongest where cues to objecthood were highly salient. These data are evidence of a neuropsychological dissociation between the facilitatory and inhibitory effects of attentional cueing. From a theoretical perspective the findings suggest that 'grouped arrays' are sufficient for object-based inhibition, but insufficient to generate object-centred attentional facilitation.

  14. Identifying the 'if' for 'if-then' plans: combining implementation intentions with cue-monitoring targeting unhealthy snacking behaviour.

    PubMed

    Verhoeven, Aukje A C; Adriaanse, Marieke A; de Vet, Emely; Fennis, Bob M; de Ridder, Denise T D

    2014-01-01

    Implementation intentions aimed at changing unwanted habits require the identification of personally relevant cues triggering the habitual response in order to be effective. To facilitate successful implementation intention formation, in the present study, planning was combined with cue-monitoring, a novel way to gain insight into triggers for unhealthy snacking. It was tested whether keeping a cue-monitoring diary and tailoring implementation intentions accordingly improves plan effectiveness. A 2 Monitoring (cue-monitoring, control) × 2 Planning (implementation intention, goal intention) between subjects design was adopted. Participants (N = 161) monitored their unhealthy snacking behaviour for a week using either a cue-monitoring or a control diary. Participants then formulated a goal intention or an implementation intention tailored to their personal cue. Snacking frequency and caloric intake from unhealthy snacks were examined using a seven-day snack diary. The results did not indicate an interaction but yielded a main effect of Monitoring. Cue-monitoring either or not combined with implementation intentions reduced unhealthy snacking behaviour compared with control. Findings emphasise the effectiveness of cue-monitoring, suggesting that on the short term, cue-monitoring suffices to decrease unhealthy snacking, without additional benefit from planning. Future research should examine whether supplementing cue-monitoring with implementation intentions is required to establish long-term behaviour change maintenance.

  15. The fMRI BOLD response to unisensory and multisensory smoking cues in nicotine-dependent adults

    PubMed Central

    Cortese, Bernadette M.; Uhde, Thomas W.; Brady, Kathleen T.; McClernon, F. Joseph; Yang, Qing X.; Collins, Heather R.; LeMatty, Todd; Hartwell, Karen J.

    2015-01-01

    Given that the vast majority of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of drug cue reactivity use unisensory visual cues, but that multisensory cues may elicit greater craving-related brain responses, the current study sought to compare the fMRI BOLD response to unisensory visual and multisensory, visual plus odor, smoking cues in 17 nicotine-dependent adult cigarette smokers. Brain activation to smoking-related, compared to neutral, pictures was assessed under cigarette smoke and odorless odor conditions. While smoking pictures elicited a pattern of activation consistent with the addiction literature, the multisensory (odor + picture) smoking cues elicited significantly greater and more widespread activation in mainly frontal and temporal regions. BOLD signal elicited by the multi-sensory, but not unisensory cues, was significantly related to participants’ level of control over craving as well. Results demonstrated that the co-presentation of cigarette smoke odor with smoking-related visual cues, compared to the visual cues alone, elicited greater levels of craving-related brain activation in key regions implicated in reward. These preliminary findings support future research aimed at a better understanding of multisensory integration of drug cues and craving. PMID:26475784

  16. Speaker's voice as a memory cue.

    PubMed

    Campeanu, Sandra; Craik, Fergus I M; Alain, Claude

    2015-02-01

    Speaker's voice occupies a central role as the cornerstone of auditory social interaction. Here, we review the evidence suggesting that speaker's voice constitutes an integral context cue in auditory memory. Investigation into the nature of voice representation as a memory cue is essential to understanding auditory memory and the neural correlates which underlie it. Evidence from behavioral and electrophysiological studies suggest that while specific voice reinstatement (i.e., same speaker) often appears to facilitate word memory even without attention to voice at study, the presence of a partial benefit of similar voices between study and test is less clear. In terms of explicit memory experiments utilizing unfamiliar voices, encoding methods appear to play a pivotal role. Voice congruency effects have been found when voice is specifically attended at study (i.e., when relatively shallow, perceptual encoding takes place). These behavioral findings coincide with neural indices of memory performance such as the parietal old/new recollection effect and the late right frontal effect. The former distinguishes between correctly identified old words and correctly identified new words, and reflects voice congruency only when voice is attended at study. Characterization of the latter likely depends upon voice memory, rather than word memory. There is also evidence to suggest that voice effects can be found in implicit memory paradigms. However, the presence of voice effects appears to depend greatly on the task employed. Using a word identification task, perceptual similarity between study and test conditions is, like for explicit memory tests, crucial. In addition, the type of noise employed appears to have a differential effect. While voice effects have been observed when white noise is used at both study and test, using multi-talker babble does not confer the same results. In terms of neuroimaging research modulations, characterization of an implicit memory effect

  17. Stop identity cue as a cue to language identity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castonguay, Paula Lisa

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether language membership could potentially be cued by the acoustic-phonetic detail of word-initial stops and retained all the way through the process of lexical access to aid in language identification. Of particular interest were language-specific differences in CE and CF word-initial stops. Experiment 1 consisted of an interlingual homophone production task. The purpose of this study was to examine how word-initial stop consonants differ in terms of acoustic properties in Canadian English (CE) and Canadian French (CF) interlingual homophones. The analyses from the bilingual speakers in Experiment 1 indicate that bilinguals do produce language-specific differences in CE and CF word-initial stops, and that closure duration, voice onset time, and burst spectral SD may provide cues to language identity in CE and CF stops. Experiment 2 consisted of a Phoneme and Language Categorization task. The purpose of this study was to examine how stop identity cues, such as VOT and closure duration, influence a listener to identify word-initial stop consonants as belonging to Canadian English (CE) or Canadian French (CF). The RTs from the bilingual listeners in this study indicate that bilinguals do perceive language-specific differences in CE and CF word-initial stops, and that voice onset time may provide cues to phoneme and language membership in CE and CF stops. Experiment 3 consisted of a Phonological-Semantic priming task. The purpose of this study was to examine how subphonetic variations, such as changes in the VOT, affect lexical access. The results of Experiment 3 suggest that language-specific cues, such as VOT, affects the composition of the bilingual cohort and that the extent to which English and/or French words are activated is dependent on the language-specific cues present in a word. The findings of this study enhanced our theoretical understanding of lexical structure and lexical access in bilingual speakers

  18. Visual cues for data mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogowitz, Bernice E.; Rabenhorst, David A.; Gerth, John A.; Kalin, Edward B.

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes a set of visual techniques, based on principles of human perception and cognition, which can help users analyze and develop intuitions about tabular data. Collections of tabular data are widely available, including, for example, multivariate time series data, customer satisfaction data, stock market performance data, multivariate profiles of companies and individuals, and scientific measurements. In our approach, we show how visual cues can help users perform a number of data mining tasks, including identifying correlations and interaction effects, finding clusters and understanding the semantics of cluster membership, identifying anomalies and outliers, and discovering multivariate relationships among variables. These cues are derived from psychological studies on perceptual organization, visual search, perceptual scaling, and color perception. These visual techniques are presented as a complement to the statistical and algorithmic methods more commonly associated with these tasks, and provide an interactive interface for the human analyst.

  19. Morphological Cues for Lexical Semantics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-06-01

    father, and turned thirty-graduate school has been a long varied haul and I could never have made it alone. Thus it is a good time to thank all the...distinction between world and linguistic knowledge has a long history in philosophy. Whether the distinction exists and if so how it should be drawn are...explaining human language acquisition. Language semantics cueing is more promising from a computational perspective and consequently has a long (for

  20. Testosterone suppresses circadian responsiveness to social cues in the diurnal rodent Octodon degus.

    PubMed

    Jechura, Tammy J; Walsh, Jacquelynn M; Lee, Theresa M

    2003-02-01

    The diurnal, social rodent Octodon degus displays a robust sex difference in the ability to use social cues to facilitate reentrainment following a phase advance of the light cycle. Adult females housed with a female social cue donor reentrained 25% to 40% faster than did females reentraining alone. However, reentrainment rates of males were unaffected by exposure to female social cues during reentrainment. The authors hypothesized that males were less sensitive to the reentrainment-enhancing effects of social cues and that their higher threshold to the stimuli could be overcome if the social cues were either increased in strength or salience. Housing a male with two females significantly shortened the time to reentrain following a 9-h phase advance (p = 0.002). Housing with a sister had no effect on reentrainment. Therefore, male degus are able to respond to social cues but require the stimulus to be stronger than that for females. The effect of testosterone was tested by comparing reentrainment rates of castrated males before and after testosterone replacement both with and without a female social cue donor. Castrated males responded to a single female social cue donor, reentraining 35% faster than when housed alone (p = 0.006), whereas the time to reentrainment of intact males and males with testosterone capsule implants did not differ. Intact females were also implanted with testosterone and phase shifted with and without donors. Testosterone treatment eliminated the increase in reentrainment rates in the presence of social cues. The authors conclude that the rate of recovery from odor-enhanced phase shifts is modulated by activational effects of testosterone in male degus. Testosterone is also effective in suppressing social cue responsiveness in females, suggesting that testosterone's effects on responsiveness are not sexually dimorphic. This hormonal effect likely occurs by altering sensory system functions or CNS response to sensory information.

  1. PTSD symptom severity as a predictor of cue-elicited drug craving in victims of violent crime.

    PubMed

    Saladin, Michael E; Drobes, David J; Coffey, Scott F; Dansky, Bonnie S; Brady, Kathleen T; Kilpatrick, Dean G

    2003-12-01

    This study examined posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity as a predictor of cue-elicited craving among alcohol- and cocaine-dependent individuals with a history of at least one physical and/or sexual assault. Approximately half of the sample had current PTSD. Severity of PTSD symptoms was measured via the Impact of Events Scale-Revised (IES-R) total severity score. Subjects listened to four trials of a brief narrative imagery script followed by the presentation of an in vivo cue. The script presentation consisted of a description of either the subject's worst traumatic event or a neutral scene. The in vivo cues consisted of the presentation of either the subject's preferred drug or neutral cues. Craving was measured in response to both the script and in vivo cues. Results indicated a high degree of correlation between self-report craving and (a) PTSD symptom severity, (b) type of substance use disorder (SUD) [alcohol dependence (AD) vs. cocaine dependence (CD)], and (c) sex and race of participant. A series of stepwise multiple regressions indicated that PTSD severity was significantly predictive of trauma cue-elicited craving and drug cue-elicited craving. The results are discussed in the context of current research, theory, and clinical practice.

  2. Age Similarities in Recognizing Threat From Faces and Diagnostic Cues

    PubMed Central

    Zebrowitz, Leslie A.; Franklin, Robert G.; McCormick, Cheryl M.; Carré, Justin M.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Previous research indicates that younger adults (YA) can identify men’s tendency to be aggressive based merely on their neutral expression faces. We compared older adults (OA) and YA accuracy and investigated contributing facial cues. Method. In Study 1, YA and OA rated the aggressiveness of young men depicted in facial photographs in a control, distraction, or accuracy motivation condition. In Study 2, YA and OA rated how angry, attractive, masculine, and babyfaced the men looked in addition to rating their aggressiveness. These measures plus measured facial width-to-height ratio (FWHR) were used to examine cues to aggressiveness. Results. Accuracy coefficients, calculated by correlating rated aggressiveness with the men’s previously measured actual aggressiveness, were significant and equal for OA and YA. Accuracy was not moderated by distraction or accuracy motivation, suggesting automatic processing. A greater FWHR, lower attractiveness, and higher masculinity independently influenced rated aggressiveness by both age groups and also were valid cues to actual aggressiveness. Discussion. Despite previous evidence for positivity biases in OA, they can be just as accurate as YA when it comes to discerning actual differences in the aggressiveness of young men. PMID:23743626

  3. Conditioned cues for smoking elicit preparatory responses in healthy smokers

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, Markus H.; Weyers, Peter; Mucha, Ronald F.; Stippekohl, Bastian; Stark, Rudolf

    2010-01-01

    Rationale Smoking cues are theorized to be conditioned stimuli (CSs) formed by repeated pairing with drug. Smoking paraphernalia can elicit subjective and physiological responses in smokers, indicative of positive affect and motivation to consume. Although these responses are probably the result of conditioning, direct evidence from human conditioning studies with physiological measures of motivational valence is rare. Objective The present study investigated the motivational properties of experimentally conditioned cues for smoking. Methods Thirty-nine smokers completed a differential conditioning protocol. Abstract pictures were used as CSs and single puffs on a cigarette as unconditioned stimulus (US). Skin conductance responses and facial electromyography of the zygomatic, corrugator, and orbicularis oris muscles were measured during conditioning. Results The conditioned cue for smoking (CS+) elicited stronger skin conductance responses and more activity of the zygomatic and orbicularis oris muscles than the CS−. Conclusions These results support the notion that through pairing with smoking, neutral stimuli acquire the ability to elicit preparatory physiological responses, which are assumed to play an important role in the maintenance of addiction and relapse in the natural environment. PMID:20953588

  4. Frontostriatal maturation predicts cognitive control failure to appetitive cues in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Somerville, Leah H; Hare, Todd; Casey, B J

    2011-09-01

    Adolescent risk-taking is a public health issue that increases the odds of poor lifetime outcomes. One factor thought to influence adolescents' propensity for risk-taking is an enhanced sensitivity to appetitive cues, relative to an immature capacity to exert sufficient cognitive control. We tested this hypothesis by characterizing interactions among ventral striatal, dorsal striatal, and prefrontal cortical regions with varying appetitive load using fMRI scanning. Child, teen, and adult participants performed a go/no-go task with appetitive (happy faces) and neutral cues (calm faces). Impulse control to neutral cues showed linear improvement with age, whereas teens showed a nonlinear reduction in impulse control to appetitive cues. This performance decrement in teens was paralleled by enhanced activity in the ventral striatum. Prefrontal cortical recruitment correlated with overall accuracy and showed a linear response with age for no-go versus go trials. Connectivity analyses identified a ventral frontostriatal circuit including the inferior frontal gyrus and dorsal striatum during no-go versus go trials. Examining recruitment developmentally showed that teens had greater between-subject ventral-dorsal striatal coactivation relative to children and adults for happy no-go versus go trials. These findings implicate exaggerated ventral striatal representation of appetitive cues in adolescents relative to an intermediary cognitive control response. Connectivity and coactivity data suggest these systems communicate at the level of the dorsal striatum differentially across development. Biased responding in this system is one possible mechanism underlying heightened risk-taking during adolescence.

  5. Attentional bias for food cues in binge eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Florian; Naumann, Eva; Trentowska, Monika; Svaldi, Jennifer

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate an attentional bias toward food stimuli in binge eating disorder (BED). To this end, a BED and a weight-matched control group (CG) completed a clarification task and a spatial cueing paradigm. The clarification task revealed that food stimuli were faster detected than neutral stimuli, and that this difference was more pronounced in BED than in the CG. The spatial cueing paradigm indicated a stimulus engagement effect in the BED group but not in the CG, suggesting that an early locus in stimulus processing contributes to differences between BED patients and obese controls. Both groups experienced difficulty disengaging attention from food stimuli, and this effect was only descriptively larger in the BED group. The effects obtained in both paradigms were found to be correlated with reported severity of BED symptoms. Of note, this relationship was partially mediated by the arousal associated with food stimuli relative to neutral stimuli, as predicted by an account on incentive sensitization.

  6. Increasing Explicit Sequence Knowledge by Odor Cueing during Sleep in Men but not Women.

    PubMed

    Diekelmann, Susanne; Born, Jan; Rasch, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Sleep consolidates newly acquired memories. Beyond stabilizing memories, sleep is thought to reorganize memory representations such that invariant structures, statistical regularities and even new explicit knowledge are extracted. Whereas increasing evidence suggests that the stabilization of memories during sleep can be facilitated by cueing with learning-associated stimuli, the effect of cueing on memory reorganization is less well understood. Here we asked whether olfactory cueing during sleep enhances the generation of explicit knowledge about an implicitly learned procedural memory task. Subjects were trained on a serial reaction time task (SRTT) containing a hidden 12-element sequence in the presence of an odor. During subsequent sleep, half of the subjects were re-exposed to the odor during periods of slow wave sleep (SWS), while the other half received odorless vehicle. In the next morning, subjects were tested on their explicit knowledge about the underlying sequence in a free recall test and a generation task. Although odor cueing did not significantly affect overall explicit knowledge, differential effects were evident when analyzing male and female subjects separately. Explicit sequence knowledge, both in free recall and the generation task, was enhanced by odor cueing in men, whereas women showed no cueing effect. Procedural skill in the SRTT was not affected by cueing, neither in men nor in women. These findings suggest that olfactory memory reactivation can increase explicit knowledge about implicitly learned information, but only in men. Hormonal differences due to menstrual cycle phase and/or hormonal contraceptives might explain the lacking effect in women.

  7. Contextual Cueing Improves Attentional Guidance, Even When Guidance Is Supposedly Optimal.

    PubMed

    Harris, Anthony M; Remington, Roger W

    2017-02-23

    Visual search through previously encountered contexts typically produces reduced reaction times compared with search through novel contexts. This contextual cueing benefit is well established, but there is debate regarding its underlying mechanisms. Eye-tracking studies have consistently shown reduced number of fixations with repetition, supporting improvements in attentional guidance as the source of contextual cueing. However, contextual cueing benefits have been shown in conditions in which attentional guidance should already be optimal-namely, when attention is captured to the target location by an abrupt onset, or under pop-out conditions. These results have been used to argue for a response-related account of contextual cueing. Here, we combine eye tracking with response time to examine the mechanisms behind contextual cueing in spatially cued and pop-out conditions. Three experiments find consistent response time benefits with repetition, which appear to be driven almost entirely by a reduction in number of fixations, supporting improved attentional guidance as the mechanism behind contextual cueing. No differences were observed in the time between fixating the target and responding-our proxy for response related processes. Furthermore, the correlation between contextual cueing magnitude and the reduction in number of fixations on repeated contexts approaches 1. These results argue strongly that attentional guidance is facilitated by familiar search contexts, even when guidance is near-optimal. (PsycINFO Database Record

  8. Increasing Explicit Sequence Knowledge by Odor Cueing during Sleep in Men but not Women

    PubMed Central

    Diekelmann, Susanne; Born, Jan; Rasch, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Sleep consolidates newly acquired memories. Beyond stabilizing memories, sleep is thought to reorganize memory representations such that invariant structures, statistical regularities and even new explicit knowledge are extracted. Whereas increasing evidence suggests that the stabilization of memories during sleep can be facilitated by cueing with learning-associated stimuli, the effect of cueing on memory reorganization is less well understood. Here we asked whether olfactory cueing during sleep enhances the generation of explicit knowledge about an implicitly learned procedural memory task. Subjects were trained on a serial reaction time task (SRTT) containing a hidden 12-element sequence in the presence of an odor. During subsequent sleep, half of the subjects were re-exposed to the odor during periods of slow wave sleep (SWS), while the other half received odorless vehicle. In the next morning, subjects were tested on their explicit knowledge about the underlying sequence in a free recall test and a generation task. Although odor cueing did not significantly affect overall explicit knowledge, differential effects were evident when analyzing male and female subjects separately. Explicit sequence knowledge, both in free recall and the generation task, was enhanced by odor cueing in men, whereas women showed no cueing effect. Procedural skill in the SRTT was not affected by cueing, neither in men nor in women. These findings suggest that olfactory memory reactivation can increase explicit knowledge about implicitly learned information, but only in men. Hormonal differences due to menstrual cycle phase and/or hormonal contraceptives might explain the lacking effect in women. PMID:27147995

  9. The role of continuous low-frequency harmonicity cues for interrupted speech perception in bimodal hearing.

    PubMed

    Oh, Soo Hee; Donaldson, Gail S; Kong, Ying-Yee

    2016-04-01

    Low-frequency acoustic cues have been shown to enhance speech perception by cochlear-implant users, particularly when target speech occurs in a competing background. The present study examined the extent to which a continuous representation of low-frequency harmonicity cues contributes to bimodal benefit in simulated bimodal listeners. Experiment 1 examined the benefit of restoring a continuous temporal envelope to the low-frequency ear while the vocoder ear received a temporally interrupted stimulus. Experiment 2 examined the effect of providing continuous harmonicity cues in the low-frequency ear as compared to restoring a continuous temporal envelope in the vocoder ear. Findings indicate that bimodal benefit for temporally interrupted speech increases when continuity is restored to either or both ears. The primary benefit appears to stem from the continuous temporal envelope in the low-frequency region providing additional phonetic cues related to manner and F1 frequency; a secondary contribution is provided by low-frequency harmonicity cues when a continuous representation of the temporal envelope is present in the low-frequency, or both ears. The continuous temporal envelope and harmonicity cues of low-frequency speech are thought to support bimodal benefit by facilitating identification of word and syllable boundaries, and by restoring partial phonetic cues that occur during gaps in the temporally interrupted stimulus.

  10. Integrating shape cues of adiposity and color information when judging facial health and attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Claire I; Hahn, Amanda C; DeBruine, Lisa M; Jones, Benedict C

    2014-01-01

    Facial cues of adiposity play an important role in social perceptions, such as health and attractiveness judgments. Although relatively low levels of adiposity are generally associated with good health, low levels of adiposity are also a symptom of many communicable diseases. Consequently, it may be important to distinguish between individuals displaying low levels of facial adiposity because they are in good physical condition and those displaying low levels of facial adiposity because they are ill. Integrating information from facial cues of adiposity with information from other health cues, such as facial coloration, may facilitate such distinctions. Here, participants rated the health and attractiveness of face images experimentally manipulated to vary in shape cues of adiposity and color cues associated with perceived health. As we had predicted, the extent to which faces with low levels of adiposity were rated more positively than faces with relatively high levels of adiposity was greater for faces with healthy color cues than it was for faces with unhealthy color cues. Such interactions highlight the integrative processes that allow us to distinguish between healthy and unhealthy individuals during social interactions, potentially reducing the likelihood of contracting infectious diseases.

  11. Attentional bias for prescription opioid cues among opioid dependent chronic pain patients.

    PubMed

    Garland, Eric L; Froeliger, Brett E; Passik, Steven D; Howard, Matthew O

    2013-12-01

    Recurrent use of prescription opioid analgesics by chronic pain patients may result in opioid dependence, which involves implicit neurocognitive operations that organize and impel craving states and compulsive drug taking behavior. Prior studies have identified an attentional bias (AB) towards heroin among heroin dependent individuals. The aim of this study was to determine whether opioid-dependent chronic pain patients exhibit an AB towards prescription opioid-related cues. Opioid-dependent chronic pain patients (n = 32) and a comparison group of non-dependent opioid users with chronic pain (n = 33) completed a dot probe task designed to measure opioid AB. Participants also rated their opioid craving and self-reported arousal associated with opioid-related and neutral images, pain severity, and relief from pain treatments. Repeated-measures ANOVA revealed a significant group (opioid-dependent vs. non-dependent opioid user) × presentation duration (200. vs. 2,000 ms.) interaction, such that opioid-dependent individuals evidenced a significant AB towards opioid cues presented for 200 ms but not for cues presented for 2,000 ms, whereas non-dependent opioid users did not exhibit a significant mean AB at either stimulus duration. Among opioid-dependent individuals, 200 ms opioid AB was significantly associated with opioid craving, while among non-dependent opioid users, 200 ms opioid AB was significantly associated with relief from pain treatments. Furthermore, dependent and non-dependent opioid users experienced opioid cues as significantly more arousing than neutral cues. Opioid dependence among chronic pain patients appears to involve an automatic AB towards opioid-related cues. When coupled with chronic pain, attentional fixation on opioid cues may promote compulsive drug use and addictive behavior.

  12. Dynamic Neural Processing of Linguistic Cues Related to Death

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yina; Qin, Jungang; Han, Shihui

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral studies suggest that humans evolve the capacity to cope with anxiety induced by the awareness of death’s inevitability. However, the neurocognitive processes that underlie online death-related thoughts remain unclear. Our recent functional MRI study found that the processing of linguistic cues related to death was characterized by decreased neural activity in human insular cortex. The current study further investigated the time course of neural processing of death-related linguistic cues. We recorded event-related potentials (ERP) to death-related, life-related, negative-valence, and neutral-valence words in a modified Stroop task that required color naming of words. We found that the amplitude of an early frontal/central negativity at 84–120 ms (N1) decreased to death-related words but increased to life-related words relative to neutral-valence words. The N1 effect associated with death-related and life-related words was correlated respectively with individuals’ pessimistic and optimistic attitudes toward life. Death-related words also increased the amplitude of a frontal/central positivity at 124–300 ms (P2) and of a frontal/central positivity at 300–500 ms (P3). However, the P2 and P3 modulations were observed for both death-related and negative-valence words but not for life-related words. The ERP results suggest an early inverse coding of linguistic cues related to life and death, which is followed by negative emotional responses to death-related information. PMID:23840787

  13. Preferential Amygdala Reactivity to the Negative Assessment of Neutral Faces

    PubMed Central

    Blasi, Giuseppe; Hariri, Ahmad R.; Alce, Guilna; Taurisano, Paolo; Sambataro, Fabio; Das, Saumitra; Bertolino, Alessandro; Weinberger, Daniel R.; Mattay, Venkata S.

    2010-01-01

    Background Prior studies suggest that the amygdala shapes complex behavioral responses to socially ambiguous cues. We explored human amygdala function during explicit behavioral decision making about discrete emotional facial expressions that can represent socially unambiguous and ambiguous cues. Methods During functional magnetic resonance imaging, 43 healthy adults were required to make complex social decisions (i.e., approach or avoid) about either relatively unambiguous (i.e., angry, fearful, happy) or ambiguous (i.e., neutral) facial expressions. Amygdala activation during this task was compared with that elicited by simple, perceptual decisions (sex discrimination) about the identical facial stimuli. Results Angry and fearful expressions were more frequently judged as avoidable and happy expressions most often as approachable. Neutral expressions were equally judged as avoidable and approachable. Reaction times to neutral expressions were longer than those to angry, fearful, and happy expressions during social judgment only. Imaging data on stimuli judged to be avoided revealed a significant task by emotion interaction in the amygdala. Here, only neutral facial expressions elicited greater activity during social judgment than during sex discrimination. Furthermore, during social judgment only, neutral faces judged to be avoided were associated with greater amygdala activity relative to neutral faces that were judged as approachable. Moreover, functional coupling between the amygdala and both dorsolateral prefrontal (social judgment > sex discrimination) and cingulate (sex discrimination > social judgment) cortices was differentially modulated by task during processing of neutral faces. Conclusions Our results suggest that increased amygdala reactivity and differential functional coupling with prefrontal circuitries may shape complex decisions and behavioral responses to socially ambiguous cues. PMID:19709644

  14. Poor vigilance affects attentional orienting triggered by central uninformative gaze and arrow cues.

    PubMed

    Marotta, Andrea; Martella, Diana; Maccari, Lisa; Sebastiani, Mara; Casagrande, Maria

    2014-11-01

    Behaviour and neuroimaging studies have shown that poor vigilance (PV) due to sleep deprivation (SD) negatively affects exogenously cued selective attention. In the current study, we assessed the impact of PV due to both partial SD and night-time hours on reflexive attentional orienting triggered by central un-informative eye-gaze and arrow cues. Subjective mood and interference performance in emotional Stroop task were also investigated. Twenty healthy participants performed spatial cueing tasks using central directional arrow and eye-gaze as a cue to orient attention. The target was a word written in different coloured inks. The participant's task was to identify the colour of the ink while ignoring the semantic content of the word (with negative or neutral emotional valence). The experiment took place on 2 days. On the first day, each participant performed a 10-min training session of the spatial cueing task. On the second day, half of participants performed the task once at 4:30 p.m. (BSL) and once at 6:30 a.m. (PV), whereas the other half performed the task in the reversed order. Results showed that mean reaction times on the spatial cueing tasks were worsened by PV, although gaze paradigm was more resistant to this effect as compared to the arrow paradigm. Moreover, PV negatively affects attentional orienting triggered by both central un-informative gaze and arrow cues. Finally, prolonged wakefulness affects self-reported mood but does not influence interference control in emotional Stroop task.

  15. Early Versus Late Onset of Cannabis Use: Differences in Striatal Response to Cannabis Cues

    PubMed Central

    Wetherill, Reagan R.; Hager, Nathan; Jagannathan, Kanchana; Mashhoon, Yasmin; Pater, Heather; Childress, Anna Rose; Franklin, Teresa R.

    2017-01-01

    Addiction theories posit that addiction is the result of a progressive transition from voluntary to habitual, compulsive drug use—changes that have been linked, in animals, to a shift from ventral to dorsal striatal control over drug-seeking behavior. Thus, we hypothesized that early-onset (EOs) cannabis users versus late-onset (LOs) cannabis users might exhibit, respectively, greater dorsal versus ventral striatal response to drug cues. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging and an event-related blood oxygen level-dependent backward-masking task to evaluate striatal responses to backward-masked cannabis cues (vs. neutral cues) in EOs (<16 years old, n = 15) and LOs (≥16 years old, n = 26) with similar recent cannabis use patterns. Direct comparisons revealed that EOs showed greater response to cannabis cues in the dorsal striatum than LOs (p < 0.01, k > 50 voxels). Within-group analyses revealed that EOs showed greater neural response to cannabis cues in the dorsal striatum, whereas LOs exhibited greater neural response to cannabis cues in the ventral striatum. Although cross-sectional, these findings are consistent with recent addiction theories suggesting a progressive shift from ventral to dorsal striatal control over drug-seeking behavior and highlight the importance of age of onset of cannabis use on the brain and cognition. PMID:28331903

  16. Frontostriatal Circuit Dynamics Correlate with Cocaine Cue-Evoked Behavioral Arousal during Early Abstinence123

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Sagar N.; Evans, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    It is thought that frontostriatal circuits play an important role in mediating conditioned behavioral responses to environmental stimuli that were previously encountered during drug administration. However, the neural correlates of conditioned responses to drug-associated cues are not well understood at the level of large populations of simultaneously recorded neurons, or at the level of local field potential (LFP) synchrony in the frontostriatal network. Here we introduce a behavioral assay of conditioned arousal to cocaine cues involving pupillometry in awake head-restrained mice. After just 24 h of drug abstinence, brief exposures to olfactory stimuli previously paired with cocaine injections led to a transient dilation of the pupil, which was greater than the dilation effect to neutral cues. In contrast, there was no cue-selective change in locomotion, as measured by the rotation of a circular treadmill. The behavioral assay was combined with simultaneous recordings from dozens of electrophysiologically identified units in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and ventral striatum (VS). We found significant relationships between cocaine cue-evoked pupil dilation and the proportion of inhibited principal cells in the mPFC and VS. Additionally, LFP coherence analysis revealed a significant correlation between pupillary response and synchrony in the 25–45 Hz frequency band. Together, these results show that pupil dilation is sensitive to drug-associated cues during acute stages of abstinence, and that individual animal differences in this behavioral arousal response can be explained by two complementary measures of frontostriatal network activity. PMID:27390774

  17. Effects of gambling-related cues on the activation of implicit and explicit gambling outcome expectancies in regular gamblers.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Melissa J; Yi, Sunghwan; Stewart, Sherry H

    2014-09-01

    The current research examined whether the presentation of gambling-related cues facilitates the activation of gambling outcome expectancies using both reaction time (RT) and self-report modes of assessment. Gambling outcome expectancies were assessed by having regular casino or online gamblers (N = 58) complete an outcome expectancy RT task, as well as a self-report measure of gambling outcome expectancies, both before and after exposure to one of two randomly assigned cue conditions (i.e., casino or control video). Consistent with hypotheses, participants exposed to gambling-related cues (i.e., casino cue video condition) responded faster to positive outcome expectancy words preceded by gambling prime relative to non-gambling prime pictures on the post-cue RT task. Similarly, participants in the casino cue video condition self-reported significantly stronger positive gambling outcome expectancies than those in the control cue video condition following cue exposure. Activation of negative gambling outcome expectancies was not observed on either the RT task or self-report measure. The results indicate that exposure to gambling cues activates both implicit and explicit positive gambling outcome expectancies among regular gamblers.

  18. Disruptive ecological selection on a mating cue

    PubMed Central

    Merrill, Richard M.; Wallbank, Richard W. R.; Bull, Vanessa; Salazar, Patricio C. A.; Mallet, James; Stevens, Martin; Jiggins, Chris D.

    2012-01-01

    Adaptation to divergent ecological niches can result in speciation. Traits subject to disruptive selection that also contribute to non-random mating will facilitate speciation with gene flow. Such ‘magic’ or ‘multiple-effect’ traits may be widespread and important for generating biodiversity, but strong empirical evidence is still lacking. Although there is evidence that putative ecological traits are indeed involved in assortative mating, evidence that these same traits are under divergent selection is considerably weaker. Heliconius butterfly wing patterns are subject to positive frequency-dependent selection by predators, owing to aposematism and Müllerian mimicry, and divergent colour patterns are used by closely related species to recognize potential mates. The amenability of colour patterns to experimental manipulation, independent of other traits, presents an excellent opportunity to test their role during speciation. We conducted field experiments with artificial butterflies, designed to match natural butterflies with respect to avian vision. These were complemented with enclosure trials with live birds and real butterflies. Our experiments showed that hybrid colour-pattern phenotypes are attacked more frequently than parental forms. For the first time, we demonstrate disruptive ecological selection on a trait that also acts as a mating cue. PMID:23075843

  19. Premovement facilitation of corticospinal excitability in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Hiraoka, Koichi; Notani, Masaru; Iwata, Akira; Minamida, Fumiko; Abe, Kazuo

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the abnormality of premovement facilitation in patients with Parkinson's disease. Seven patients with Parkinson's disease and seven healthy subjects participated in this study. The subjects attempted abduction of the index finger in response to a visual start cue, and motor-evoked potentials were recorded from the first dorsal interosseous muscle before movement onset. The rate of premovement facilitation in patients with Parkinson's disease was slower than that in healthy subjects. Additionally, the rate of premovement facilitation as a function of delay from the start cue was positively correlated with the reaction time. These findings indicate that premovement facilitation is abnormal in patients with Parkinson's disease. This abnormality may be partially related to akinesia.

  20. Effects of cognitive load on neural and behavioral responses to smoking-cue distractors.

    PubMed

    MacLean, R Ross; Nichols, Travis T; LeBreton, James M; Wilson, Stephen J

    2016-08-01

    Smoking cessation failures are frequently thought to reflect poor top-down regulatory control over behavior. Previous studies have suggested that smoking cues occupy limited working memory resources, an effect that may contribute to difficulty achieving abstinence. Few studies have evaluated the effects of cognitive load on the ability to actively maintain information in the face of distracting smoking cues. For the present study, we adapted an fMRI probed recall task under low and high cognitive load with three distractor conditions: control, neutral images, or smoking-related images. Consistent with a limited-resource model of cue reactivity, we predicted that the performance of daily smokers (n = 17) would be most impaired when high load was paired with smoking distractors. The results demonstrated a main effect of load, with decreased accuracy under high, as compared to low, cognitive load. Surprisingly, an interaction revealed that the effect of load was weakest in the smoking cue distractor condition. Along with this behavioral effect, we observed significantly greater activation of the right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG) in the low-load condition than in the high-load condition for trials containing smoking cue distractors. Furthermore, load-related changes in rIFG activation partially mediated the effects of load on task accuracy in the smoking-cue distractor condition. These findings are discussed in the context of prevailing cognitive and cue reactivity theories. These results suggest that high cognitive load does not necessarily make smokers more susceptible to interference from smoking-related stimuli, and that elevated load may even have a buffering effect in the presence of smoking cues under certain conditions.

  1. Syntactic Cues for Inferences about Causality in Language Acquisition: Evidence from an Argument-Drop Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suzuki, Takaaki; Kobayashi, Tessei

    2017-01-01

    Syntactic bootstrapping facilitates children's initial learning of verb meanings based on syntactic information. A challenging case is the argument-drop languages, where the number of argument NPs is not a reliable cue for distinguishing between transitive and intransitive verbs. Despite this fact, the availability of syntactic bootstrapping in…

  2. Misleading Cues Improve Developmental Assessment of Working Memory Capacity: The Color Matching Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arsalidou, Marie; Pascual-Leone, Juan; Johnson, Janice

    2010-01-01

    The theory of constructive operators was used as a framework to design two versions of a paradigm (color matching task, CMT) in which items are parametrically ordered in difficulty, and differ only contextually. Items in CMT-Balloon are facilitating, whereas items in CMT-Clown contain misleading cues. Participants of ages 7-14 years and adults (N…

  3. Embedding Metacognitive Cues into Hypermedia Systems To Promote Far Transfer Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Xiaodong; And Others

    A pretest-posttest control group design with random assignment, together with qualitative data collection and analysis, was used to investigate whether metacognitive, cognitive, and affective-awareness cues embedded in a hypermedia program could facilitate college students' near and far transfer problem solving in biology learning. It was assumed…

  4. Beyond magic traits: Multimodal mating cues in Heliconius butterflies.

    PubMed

    Mérot, Claire; Frérot, Brigitte; Leppik, Ene; Joron, Mathieu

    2015-11-01

    Species coexistence involves the evolution of reproductive barriers opposing gene flow. Heliconius butterflies display colorful patterns affecting mate choice and survival through warning signaling and mimicry. These patterns are called "magic traits" for speciation because divergent natural selection may promote mimicry shifts in pattern whose role as mating cue facilitates reproductive isolation. By contrast, between comimetic species, natural selection promotes pattern convergence. We addressed whether visual convergence interferes with reproductive isolation by testing for sexual isolation between two closely related species with similar patterns, H. timareta thelxinoe and H. melpomene amaryllis. Experiments with models confirmed visual attraction based on wing phenotype, leading to indiscriminate approach. Nevertheless, mate choice experiments showed assortative mating. Monitoring male behavior toward live females revealed asymmetry in male preference, H. melpomene males courting both species equally while H. timareta males strongly preferred conspecifics. Experiments with hybrid males suggested an important genetic component for such asymmetry. Behavioral observations support a key role for short-distance cues in determining male choice in H. timareta. Scents extracts from wings and genitalia revealed interspecific divergence in chemical signatures, and hybrid female scent composition was significantly associated with courtship intensity by H. timareta males, providing candidate chemical mating cues involved in sexual isolation.

  5. Facilitating Facilitators: Enhancing PBL through a Structured Facilitator Development Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salinitri, Francine D.; Wilhelm, Sheila M.; Crabtree, Brian L.

    2015-01-01

    With increasing adoption of the problem-based learning (PBL) model, creative approaches to enhancing facilitator training and optimizing resources to maintain effective learning in small groups is essential. We describe a theoretical framework for the development of a PBL facilitator training program that uses the constructivist approach as the…

  6. Overshadowed Cues Have Reduced Ability to Retroactively Interfere with Other Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vadillo, Miguel A.; Orgaz, Cristina; Matute, Helena

    2008-01-01

    The present series of experiments explores the interaction between retroactive interference and cue competition in human contingency learning. The results of two experiments show that a cue that has been exposed to a cue competition treatment (overshadowing) loses part of its ability to retroactively interfere with responding to a different cue…

  7. [Influence of affect on everyday memory: self-reference of retrieval cue].

    PubMed

    Kawase, T

    1992-06-01

    There have been two views as to mood congruent recall: The one interprets it as an automatic process, while the other explains that it appears only when self-referent information processing is running. In this study, one experiment was conducted in order to examine these two opposing views. By false feedback of task performance, positive or negative mood had been induced in each subject, who was given two "cue" words, and asked to retrieve everyday events. The result was that mood congruent recall occurred when the word "self" was presented as a cue; but no effect of mood with neutral cues. This result supports the hypothesis that mood congruent recall is found only when self-referent information is processed. However, such effect was not evident in positive mood condition. In positive mood condition, there remains a possibility that mood congruent recall may be an automatic process. The effects of mood on memory were discussed from various viewpoints.

  8. Cueing Animations: Dynamic Signaling Aids Information Extraction and Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boucheix, Jean-Michel; Lowe, Richard K.; Putri, Dian K.; Groff, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of animations containing two novel forms of animation cueing that target relations between event units rather than individual entities was compared with that of animations containing conventional entity-based cueing or no cues. These relational event unit cues ("progressive path" and "local coordinated" cues) were specifically…

  9. Vendor neutral archive in PACS

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Tapesh Kumar; Sanjeev

    2012-01-01

    An archive is a location containing a collection of records, documents, or other materials of historical importance. An integral part of Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) is archiving. When a hospital needs to migrate a PACS vendor, the complete earlier data need to be migrated in the format of the newly procured PACS. It is both time and money consuming. To address this issue, the new concept of vendor neutral archive (VNA) has emerged. A VNA simply decouples the PACS and workstations at the archival layer. This is achieved by developing an application engine that receives, integrates, and transmits the data using the different syntax of a Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) format. Transferring the data belonging to the old PACS to a new one is performed by a process called migration of data. In VNA, a number of different data migration techniques are available to facilitate transfer from the old PACS to the new one, the choice depending on the speed of migration and the importance of data. The techniques include simple DICOM migration, prefetch-based DICOM migration, medium migration, and the expensive non-DICOM migration. “Vendor neutral” may not be a suitable term, and “architecture neutral,” “PACS neutral,” “content neutral,” or “third-party neutral” are probably better and preferred terms. Notwithstanding this, the VNA acronym has come to stay in both the medical IT user terminology and in vendor nomenclature, and radiologists need to be aware of its impact in PACS across the globe. PMID:23833411

  10. Behavioral sensitivity to broadband binaural localization cues in the ferret.

    PubMed

    Keating, Peter; Nodal, Fernando R; Gananandan, Kohilan; Schulz, Andreas L; King, Andrew J

    2013-08-01

    Although the ferret has become an important model species for studying both fundamental and clinical aspects of spatial hearing, previous behavioral work has focused on studies of sound localization and spatial release from masking in the free field. This makes it difficult to tease apart the role played by different spatial cues. In humans and other species, interaural time differences (ITDs) and interaural level differences (ILDs) play a critical role in sound localization in the azimuthal plane and also facilitate sound source separation in noisy environments. In this study, we used a range of broadband noise stimuli presented via customized earphones to measure ITD and ILD sensitivity in the ferret. Our behavioral data show that ferrets are extremely sensitive to changes in either binaural cue, with levels of performance approximating that found in humans. The measured thresholds were relatively stable despite extensive and prolonged (>16 weeks) testing on ITD and ILD tasks with broadband stimuli. For both cues, sensitivity was reduced at shorter durations. In addition, subtle effects of changing the stimulus envelope were observed on ITD, but not ILD, thresholds. Sensitivity to these cues also differed in other ways. Whereas ILD sensitivity was unaffected by changes in average binaural level or interaural correlation, the same manipulations produced much larger effects on ITD sensitivity, with thresholds declining when either of these parameters was reduced. The binaural sensitivity measured in this study can largely account for the ability of ferrets to localize broadband stimuli in the azimuthal plane. Our results are also broadly consistent with data from humans and confirm the ferret as an excellent experimental model for studying spatial hearing.

  11. How rats combine temporal cues.

    PubMed

    Guilhardi, Paulo; Keen, Richard; MacInnis, Mika L M; Church, Russell M

    2005-05-31

    The procedures for classical and operant conditioning, and for many timing procedures, involve the delivery of reinforcers that may be related to the time of previous reinforcers and responses, and to the time of onsets and terminations of stimuli. The behavior resulting from such procedures can be described as bouts of responding that occur in some pattern at some rate. A packet theory of timing and conditioning is described that accounts for such behavior under a wide range of procedures. Applications include the food searching by rats in Skinner boxes under conditions of fixed and random reinforcement, brief and sustained stimuli, and several response-food contingencies. The approach is used to describe how multiple cues from reinforcers and stimuli combine to determine the rate and pattern of response bouts.

  12. Effects of cues on target search behavior.

    PubMed

    Botzer, Assaf; Meyer, Joachim; Borowsky, Avinoam; Gdalyahu, Ido; Shalom, Yoav Ben

    2015-03-01

    Cues in visual scanning task can improve decision accuracy, and they may also affect task performance strategies. We tested the effects of cues on the performance of binary classifications, on the screen scanning procedure participants employed, and on the reported effort in a simulated quality control task. Participants had to decide whether each item in a 5 × 5 matrix of items was intact or faulty. In half the experimental blocks decisions could only be based on the visual properties of the items. In the other half, participants also saw imperfect binary cues and could use them to classify the items as faulty or intact. We used eye tracking to study scan patterns and fixation durations on items. Decision performance improved with cues, and cues affected the scanning of items, with participants mainly scanning cued items and tending to scan them longer. Participants stated that cues reduced their effort when cues were highly valid. We conclude that strategic choices to focus on suspected areas determined the screen scanning procedure, the amount of effort invested in single decisions, and the accuracy of the decisions. We therefore suggest using likelihood ratio cues to help optimize the scanning procedure.

  13. Nonvisual Cues for Aligning to Cross Streets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Alan C.; Barlow, Janet M.; Guth, David A.; Bentzen, Billie Louise; Cunningham, Christopher M.; Long, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Accurately aligning to a crosswalk is an important component of safe street crossing for pedestrians who are blind. Six alignment cues were evaluated in a simulated crosswalk environment in which the angle of the crosswalk was not always in line with the slope of the ramp. The effectiveness of each cue is reported and implications are discussed.…

  14. Cue Reliance in L2 Written Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiechmann, Daniel; Kerz, Elma

    2014-01-01

    Second language learners reach expert levels in relative cue weighting only gradually. On the basis of ensemble machine learning models fit to naturalistic written productions of German advanced learners of English and expert writers, we set out to reverse engineer differences in the weighting of multiple cues in a clause linearization problem. We…

  15. Dylan Pritchett, Storyteller. Cue Sheet for Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Karen L. B.

    Designed to be used before and after attending a storytelling performance by Dylan Pritchett, this cue sheet presents information about the performance and suggests activities that can be done with classmates, friends, or family members. The cue sheet discusses where and why people tell stories, what makes a story good for telling, what makes a…

  16. Children's Use of Color Cues in Words.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knafle, June D.

    The results of two matching-to-sample experiments using color cues in Consonant Vowel Consonant (CVC) stimulus words with kindergarten through third grade subjects are included in this document. Color cues influenced subjects to match according to first letters. When the first letter of each stimulus word was underlined in red, kindergarten and…

  17. Figure-ground separation by cue integration.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiangyu; von der Malsburg, Christoph

    2008-06-01

    This letter presents an improved cue integration approach to reliably separate coherent moving objects from their background scene in video sequences. The proposed method uses a probabilistic framework to unify bottom-up and top-down cues in a parallel, "democratic" fashion. The algorithm makes use of a modified Bayes rule where each pixel's posterior probabilities of figure or ground layer assignment are derived from likelihood models of three bottom-up cues and a prior model provided by a top-down cue. Each cue is treated as independent evidence for figure-ground separation. They compete with and complement each other dynamically by adjusting relative weights from frame to frame according to cue quality measured against the overall integration. At the same time, the likelihood or prior models of individual cues adapt toward the integrated result. These mechanisms enable the system to organize under the influence of visual scene structure without manual intervention. A novel contribution here is the incorporation of a top-down cue. It improves the system's robustness and accuracy and helps handle difficult and ambiguous situations, such as abrupt lighting changes or occlusion among multiple objects. Results on various video sequences are demonstrated and discussed. (Video demos are available at http://organic.usc.edu:8376/ approximately tangx/neco/index.html .).

  18. Consolidation power of extrinsic rewards: reward cues enhance long-term memory for irrelevant past events.

    PubMed

    Murayama, Kou; Kitagami, Shinji

    2014-02-01

    Recent research suggests that extrinsic rewards promote memory consolidation through dopaminergic modulation processes. However, no conclusive behavioral evidence exists given that the influence of extrinsic reward on attention and motivation during encoding and consolidation processes are inherently confounded. The present study provides behavioral evidence that extrinsic rewards (i.e., monetary incentives) enhance human memory consolidation independently of attention and motivation. Participants saw neutral pictures, followed by a reward or control cue in an unrelated context. Our results (and a direct replication study) demonstrated that the reward cue predicted a retrograde enhancement of memory for the preceding neutral pictures. This retrograde effect was observed only after a delay, not immediately upon testing. An additional experiment showed that emotional arousal or unconscious resource mobilization cannot explain the retrograde enhancement effect. These results provide support for the notion that the dopaminergic memory consolidation effect can result from extrinsic reward.

  19. Multiscale Cues Drive Collective Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Ki-Hwan; Kim, Peter; Wood, David K.; Kwon, Sunghoon; Provenzano, Paolo P.; Kim, Deok-Ho

    2016-01-01

    To investigate complex biophysical relationships driving directed cell migration, we developed a biomimetic platform that allows perturbation of microscale geometric constraints with concomitant nanoscale contact guidance architectures. This permits us to elucidate the influence, and parse out the relative contribution, of multiscale features, and define how these physical inputs are jointly processed with oncogenic signaling. We demonstrate that collective cell migration is profoundly enhanced by the addition of contract guidance cues when not otherwise constrained. However, while nanoscale cues promoted migration in all cases, microscale directed migration cues are dominant as the geometric constraint narrows, a behavior that is well explained by stochastic diffusion anisotropy modeling. Further, oncogene activation (i.e. mutant PIK3CA) resulted in profoundly increased migration where extracellular multiscale directed migration cues and intrinsic signaling synergistically conspire to greatly outperform normal cells or any extracellular guidance cues in isolation. PMID:27460294

  20. Multiscale Cues Drive Collective Cell Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Ki-Hwan; Kim, Peter; Wood, David K.; Kwon, Sunghoon; Provenzano, Paolo P.; Kim, Deok-Ho

    2016-07-01

    To investigate complex biophysical relationships driving directed cell migration, we developed a biomimetic platform that allows perturbation of microscale geometric constraints with concomitant nanoscale contact guidance architectures. This permits us to elucidate the influence, and parse out the relative contribution, of multiscale features, and define how these physical inputs are jointly processed with oncogenic signaling. We demonstrate that collective cell migration is profoundly enhanced by the addition of contract guidance cues when not otherwise constrained. However, while nanoscale cues promoted migration in all cases, microscale directed migration cues are dominant as the geometric constraint narrows, a behavior that is well explained by stochastic diffusion anisotropy modeling. Further, oncogene activation (i.e. mutant PIK3CA) resulted in profoundly increased migration where extracellular multiscale directed migration cues and intrinsic signaling synergistically conspire to greatly outperform normal cells or any extracellular guidance cues in isolation.

  1. Expectation mismatch: differences between self-generated and cue-induced expectations.

    PubMed

    Gaschler, R; Schwager, S; Umbach, V J; Frensch, P A; Schubert, T

    2014-10-01

    Expectation of upcoming stimuli and tasks can lead to improved performance, if the anticipated situation occurs, while expectation mismatch can lead to less efficient processing. Researchers have used methodological approaches that rely on either self-generated expectations (predictions) or cue-induced expectations to investigate expectation mismatch effects. Differentiating these two types of expectations for different contents of expectation such as stimuli, responses, task sets and conflict level, we review evidence suggesting that self-generated expectations lead to larger facilitating effects and conflict effects on the behavioral and neural level - as compared to cue-based expectations. On a methodological level, we suggest that self-generated as compared to cue-induced expectations allow for a higher amount of experimental control in many experimental designs on expectation effects. On a theoretical level, we argue for qualitative differences in how cues vs. self-generated expectations influence performance. While self-generated expectations might generally involve representing the expected event in the focus of attention in working memory, cues might only lead to such representations under supportive circumstances (i.e., cue of high validity and attended).

  2. The Effects of Age and Preoral Sensorimotor Cues on Anticipatory Mouth Movement During Swallowing

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Jerald B.; Goodman, Shawn S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of preoral sensorimotor cues on anticipatory swallowing/eating-related mouth movements in older and younger adults. It was hypothesized that these cues are essential to timing anticipatory oral motor patterns, and these movements are delayed in older as compared with younger adults. Method Using a 2 × 2 repeated-measures design, eating-related lip, jaw, and hand movements were recorded from 24 healthy older (ages 70–85 years) and 24 healthy younger (ages 18–30 years) adults under 4 conditions: typical self-feeding, typical assisted feeding (proprioceptive loss), sensory-loss self-feeding (auditory and visual loss/degradation), and sensory-loss assisted feeding (loss/degradation of all cues). Results All participants demonstrated anticipatory mouth opening. The absence of proprioception delayed lip-lowering onset, and sensory loss more negatively affected offset. Given at least 1 preoral sensorimotor cue, older adults initiated movement earlier than younger adults. Conclusions Preoral sensorimotor information influences anticipatory swallowing/eating-related mouth movements, highlighting the importance of these cues. Earlier movement in older adults may be a compensation, facilitating safe swallowing given other age-related declines. Further research is needed to determine if the negative impact of cue removal may be further exacerbated in a nonhealthy system (e.g., presence of dysphagia or disease), potentially increasing swallowing- and eating-related risks. PMID:26540553

  3. Endothelial Expression of Guidance Cues in Vessel Wall Homeostasis: Dysregulation under pro-atherosclerotic conditions

    PubMed Central

    van Gils, Janine M.; Ramkhelawon, Bhama; Fernandes, Luciana; Stewart, Merran C.; Guo, Liang; Seibert, Tara; Menezes, Gustavo B.; Cara, Denise C.; Chow, Camille; Kinane, T. Bernard; Fisher, Edward A.; Balcells, Mercedes; Alvarez-Leite, Jacqueline; Moore, Kathryn J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Emerging evidence suggests that neuronal guidance cues, typically expressed during development, are involved in both physiological and pathological immune responses. We hypothesized that endothelial expression of such guidance cues may regulate leukocyte trafficking into the vascular wall during atherogenesis. Approach/Results We demonstrate that members of the Netrin, Semaphorin and Ephrin family of guidance molecules are differentially regulated under conditions that promote or protect from atherosclerosis. Netrin-1 and Semaphorin3A are expressed by coronary artery endothelial cells and potently inhibit chemokine-directed migration of human monocytes. Endothelial expression of these negative guidance cues is down-regulated by pro-atherogenic factors, including oscillatory shear stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines associated with monocyte entry into the vessel wall. Furthermore, we show using intravital microscopy that inhibition of Netrin-1 or Semaphorin3A using blocking peptides increases leukocyte adhesion to the endothelium. Unlike Netrin-1 and Semaphorin3A, the guidance cue EphrinB2 is up-regulated under pro-atherosclerotic flow conditions and functions as a chemoattractant, increasing leukocyte migration in the absence of additional chemokines. Conclusions The concurrent regulation of negative and positive guidance cues may facilitate leukocyte infiltration of the endothelium through a balance between chemoattraction and chemorepulsion. These data indicate a previously unappreciated role for axonal guidance cues in maintaining the endothelial barrier and regulating leukocyte trafficking during atherogenesis. PMID:23430612

  4. The impact of napping on memory for future-relevant stimuli: Prioritization among multiple salience cues.

    PubMed

    Bennion, Kelly A; Payne, Jessica D; Kensinger, Elizabeth A

    2016-06-01

    Prior research has demonstrated that sleep enhances memory for future-relevant information, including memory for information that is salient due to emotion, reward, or knowledge of a later memory test. Although sleep has been shown to prioritize information with any of these characteristics, the present study investigates the novel question of how sleep prioritizes information when multiple salience cues exist. Participants encoded scenes that were future-relevant based on emotion (emotional vs. neutral), reward (rewarded vs. unrewarded), and instructed learning (intentionally vs. incidentally encoded), preceding a delay consisting of a nap, an equivalent time period spent awake, or a nap followed by wakefulness (to control for effects of interference). Recognition testing revealed that when multiple dimensions of future relevance co-occur, sleep prioritizes top-down, goal-directed cues (instructed learning, and to a lesser degree, reward) over bottom-up, stimulus-driven characteristics (emotion). Further, results showed that these factors interact; the effect of a nap on intentionally encoded information was especially strong for neutral (relative to emotional) information, suggesting that once one cue for future relevance is present, there are diminishing returns with additional cues. Sleep may binarize information based on whether it is future-relevant or not, preferentially consolidating memory for the former category. Potential neural mechanisms underlying these selective effects and the implications of this research for educational and vocational domains are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  5. Is phonological-lexical representation preserved in moderate stage Alzheimer disease? Evidence from the efficacy of Korean syllabic cues.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Ji Hye; Na, Duk L; Chin, Juhee; Ahn, Hyun-Jung; Lee, Byung Hwa; Suh, Mee Kyung; Kim, Geon Ha; Kim, Hyanghee

    2010-01-01

    Patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) usually experience naming difficulty due to storage and access problems in phonological-lexical representation. Investigating naming response patterns followed by cueing may help us to understand the underlying mechanism of naming deficits in AD. A total of 221 patients with mild cognitive impairment and AD [Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) 0.5, 1, 2] were included as subjects. Sixty items of the Korean version of the Boston Naming Test were given, and upon failure, semantic/syllabic cues were verbally presented. From the results, even in the CDR 2 group, which is considered to be a moderate stage of AD, syllabic cues significantly facilitated correct responses. Our findings are in contrast with previous studies conducted with English-speaking patients, which reported that phonological-lexical representation may have been disrupted in the moderate stage of AD, and that none of the cues facilitated correct word retrieval. The difference may be ascribed to the fact that direct access to the phonological-lexical representation via syllabic cues was possible in the confrontation naming task performed by the Korean patients. It can be concluded that phonological-lexical representation in moderate stage Korean AD might be partially preserved because syllabic cues in AD patients were effective in facilitating target words.

  6. The influence of object similarity and orientation on object-based cueing.

    PubMed

    Hein, Elisabeth; Blaschke, Stefan; Rolke, Bettina

    2017-01-01

    Responses to targets that appear at a noncued position within the same object (invalid-same) compared to a noncued position at an equidistant different object (invalid-different) tend to be faster and more accurate. These cueing effects have been taken as evidence that visual attention can be object based (Egly, Driver, & Rafal, Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 123, 161-177, 1994). Recent findings, however, have shown that the object-based cueing effect is influenced by object orientation, suggesting that the cueing effect might be due to a more general facilitation of attentional shifts across the horizontal meridian (Al-Janabi & Greenberg, Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 1-17, 2016; Pilz, Roggeveen, Creighton, Bennet, & Sekuler, PLOS ONE, 7, e30693, 2012). The aim of this study was to investigate whether the object-based cueing effect is influenced by object similarity and orientation. According to the object-based attention account, objects that are less similar to each other should elicit stronger object-based cueing effects independent of object orientation, whereas the horizontal meridian theory would not predict any effect of object similarity. We manipulated object similarity by using a color (Exp. 1, Exp. 2A) or shape change (Exp. 2B) to distinguish two rectangles in a variation of the classic two-rectangle paradigm (Egly et al., 1994). We found that the object-based cueing effects were influenced by the orientation of the rectangles and strengthened by object dissimilarity. We suggest that object-based cueing effects are strongly affected by the facilitation of attention along the horizontal meridian, but that they also have an object-based attentional component, which is revealed when the dissimilarity between the presented objects is accentuated.

  7. Modeling Causal Relationship Between Brain Regions Within the Drug-Cue Processing Network in Chronic Cocaine Smokers.

    PubMed

    Ray, Suchismita; Haney, Margaret; Hanson, Catherine; Biswal, Bharat; Hanson, Stephen José

    2015-12-01

    The cues associated with drugs of abuse have an essential role in perpetuating problematic use, yet effective connectivity or the causal interaction between brain regions mediating the processing of drug cues has not been defined. The aim of this fMRI study was to model the causal interaction between brain regions within the drug-cue processing network in chronic cocaine smokers and matched control participants during a cocaine-cue exposure task. Specifically, cocaine-smoking (15M; 5F) and healthy control (13M; 4F) participants viewed cocaine and neutral cues while in the scanner (a Siemens 3 T magnet). We examined whole brain activation, including activation related to drug-cue processing. Time series data extracted from ROIs determined through our General Linear Model (GLM) analysis and prior publications were used as input to IMaGES, a computationally powerful Bayesian search algorithm. During cocaine-cue exposure, cocaine users showed a particular feed-forward effective connectivity pattern between the ROIs of the drug-cue processing network (amygdala → hippocampus → dorsal striatum → insula → medial frontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex) that was not present when the controls viewed the cocaine cues. Cocaine craving ratings positively correlated with the strength of the causal influence of the insula on the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in cocaine users. This study is the first demonstration of a causal interaction between ROIs within the drug-cue processing network in cocaine users. This study provides insight into the mechanism underlying continued substance use and has implications for monitoring treatment response.

  8. Affect regulation and food intake in bulimia nervosa: emotional responding to food cues after deprivation and subsequent eating.

    PubMed

    Mauler, Birgit I; Hamm, Alfons O; Weike, Almut I; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna

    2006-08-01

    Emotional responding to salient food cues and effects of food deprivation and consumption were investigated in 32 women with bulimia and 32 control women. One half of each group was food deprived before viewing unpleasant, neutral, pleasant, and food-related pictures. Then participants could eat from a buffet before viewing a parallel picture set. Women with bulimia showed a substantial potentiation of startle responses during viewing of food cues relative to control women. This startle potentiation was attenuated by food deprivation and augmented by increased food consumption. These data support the affective regulation model suggesting that food cues prompt negative affective states in women with bulimia, who are overwhelmed by fasting. The resulting deprivation increases the incentive value of food cues and may thus trigger binge eating.

  9. The role of spatial attention and other processes on the magnitude and time course of cueing effects.

    PubMed

    Funes, María Jesús; Lupiáñez, Juan; Milliken, Bruce

    2005-06-01

    We are quite often exposed to multiple objects present in the visual scene, thus attentional selection is necessary in order to selectively respond to the relevant information. Objects can be selected on the basis of the location they occupy by orienting attention in space. In this paper, we review the evidence showing that attention can be oriented in space either endogenously, on the basis of central cues, predictive of the relevant location, or exogenously, automatically triggered by the salient properties of visual stimuli (peripheral cues). Several dissociations observed between orienting on the basis of the two types of cues have led to the conclusion that they do not represent just two modes of triggering the orienting of the very same attentional mechanism, but rather they modulate processing differently. We present a theoretical framework according to which endogenous predictive cues facilitate target processing by orienting attention, thus amplifying processing at the attended location. In contrast, apart from attentional orienting, peripherally presented discrepant cues might trigger additional cue-target event-integration and event-segregation processes, which modulate processing in a different way, thus leading to cueing effects that are exclusively triggered by peripheral cues.

  10. Natural Populations of Shipworm Larvae Are Attracted to Wood by Waterborne Chemical Cues

    PubMed Central

    Toth, Gunilla B.; Larsson, Ann I.; Jonsson, Per R.; Appelqvist, Christin

    2015-01-01

    The life cycle of many sessile marine invertebrates includes a dispersive planktonic larval stage whose ability to find a suitable habitat in which to settle and transform into benthic adults is crucial to maximize fitness. To facilitate this process, invertebrate larvae commonly respond to habitat-related chemical cues to guide the search for an appropriate environment. Furthermore, small-scale hydrodynamic conditions affect dispersal of chemical cues, as well as swimming behavior of invertebrate larvae and encounter with potential habitats. Shipworms within the family Teredinidae are dependent on terrestrially derived wood in order to complete their life cycle, but very little is known about the cues and processes that promote settlement. We investigated the potential for remote detection of settling substrate via waterborne chemical cues in teredinid larvae through a combination of empirical field and laboratory flume experiments. Natural populations of teredinid larvae were significantly more abundant close to wooden structures enclosed in plankton net compared to empty control nets, clearly showing that shipworm larvae can sense and respond to chemical cues associated with suitable settling substrate in the field. However, the flume experiments, using ecologically relevant flow velocities, showed that the boundary layer around experimental wooden panels was thin and that the mean flow velocity exceeded larval swimming velocity approximately 5 mm (≈ 25 larval body lengths) from the panel surface. Therefore, we conclude that the scope for remote detection of waterborne cues is limited and that the likely explanation for the higher abundance of shipworm larvae associated with the wooden panels in the field is a response to a cue during or after attachment on, or very near, the substrate. Waterborne cues probably guide the larva in its decision to remain attached and settle, or to detach and continue swimming and drifting until the next encounter with a solid

  11. Natural populations of shipworm larvae are attracted to wood by waterborne chemical cues.

    PubMed

    Toth, Gunilla B; Larsson, Ann I; Jonsson, Per R; Appelqvist, Christin

    2015-01-01

    The life cycle of many sessile marine invertebrates includes a dispersive planktonic larval stage whose ability to find a suitable habitat in which to settle and transform into benthic adults is crucial to maximize fitness. To facilitate this process, invertebrate larvae commonly respond to habitat-related chemical cues to guide the search for an appropriate environment. Furthermore, small-scale hydrodynamic conditions affect dispersal of chemical cues, as well as swimming behavior of invertebrate larvae and encounter with potential habitats. Shipworms within the family Teredinidae are dependent on terrestrially derived wood in order to complete their life cycle, but very little is known about the cues and processes that promote settlement. We investigated the potential for remote detection of settling substrate via waterborne chemical cues in teredinid larvae through a combination of empirical field and laboratory flume experiments. Natural populations of teredinid larvae were significantly more abundant close to wooden structures enclosed in plankton net compared to empty control nets, clearly showing that shipworm larvae can sense and respond to chemical cues associated with suitable settling substrate in the field. However, the flume experiments, using ecologically relevant flow velocities, showed that the boundary layer around experimental wooden panels was thin and that the mean flow velocity exceeded larval swimming velocity approximately 5 mm (≈ 25 larval body lengths) from the panel surface. Therefore, we conclude that the scope for remote detection of waterborne cues is limited and that the likely explanation for the higher abundance of shipworm larvae associated with the wooden panels in the field is a response to a cue during or after attachment on, or very near, the substrate. Waterborne cues probably guide the larva in its decision to remain attached and settle, or to detach and continue swimming and drifting until the next encounter with a solid

  12. "Avoiding or approaching eyes"? Introversion/extraversion affects the gaze-cueing effect.

    PubMed

    Ponari, Marta; Trojano, Luigi; Grossi, Dario; Conson, Massimiliano

    2013-08-01

    We investigated whether the extra-/introversion personality dimension can influence processing of others' eye gaze direction and emotional facial expression during a target detection task. On the basis of previous evidence showing that self-reported trait anxiety can affect gaze-cueing with emotional faces, we also verified whether trait anxiety can modulate the influence of intro-/extraversion on behavioral performance. Fearful, happy, angry or neutral faces, with either direct or averted gaze, were presented before the target appeared in spatial locations congruent or incongruent with stimuli's eye gaze direction. Results showed a significant influence of intra-/extraversion dimension on gaze-cueing effect for angry, happy, and neutral faces with averted gaze. Introverts did not show the gaze congruency effect when viewing angry expressions, but did so with happy and neutral faces; extraverts showed the opposite pattern. Importantly, the influence of intro-/extraversion on gaze-cueing was not mediated by trait anxiety. These findings demonstrated that personality differences can shape processing of interactions between relevant social signals.

  13. Acquisition of Conditioned Responses to a Novel Alcohol-Paired Cue in Social Drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Mayo, Leah M.; de Wit, Harriet

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the acquisition of conditioning between novel stimuli and single doses of alcohol in social drinkers. Environmental stimuli present during the consumption of alcohol or other drugs come to elicit conditioned responses that subsequently increase drug seeking. However, relatively few studies have examined the process of acquisition of these conditioned drug responses in human subjects. Method: We used a procedure previously developed to study acquisition of conditioned responses to a methamphetamine-associated cue. In the present study we applied the paradigm to alcohol, pairing de novo neutral cues with alcohol in social drinkers (N = 36). We obtained measures of self-report, behavioral preference, emotional reactivity (assessed using facial electromyography), and attention to specific cues paired with administration of 0.6 g/kg 95% absolute alcohol or placebo. Results: After conditioning, participants showed an increase in attention toward the alcohol-paired cue, and this increase was associated with ratings of liking the alcohol-containing beverage during the conditioning sessions. In contrast to our previous findings with methamphetamine, the alcohol-paired cue did not elicit changes in emotional reactivity (measured by facial electromyography) or behavioral preference. Conclusions: This study extends our previous findings with a stimulant drug to alcohol and highlights possible similarities and differences in conditioning with different classes of drugs. Conditioning with alcohol was less robust than with methamphetamine, but in both cases the conditioning that did occur was related to positive subjective drug response. PMID:26997190

  14. Opposite initialization to novel cues in dopamine signaling in ventral and posterior striatum in mice

    PubMed Central

    Menegas, William; Babayan, Benedicte M; Uchida, Naoshige; Watabe-Uchida, Mitsuko

    2017-01-01

    Dopamine neurons are thought to encode novelty in addition to reward prediction error (the discrepancy between actual and predicted values). In this study, we compared dopamine activity across the striatum using fiber fluorometry in mice. During classical conditioning, we observed opposite dynamics in dopamine axon signals in the ventral striatum (‘VS dopamine’) and the posterior tail of the striatum (‘TS dopamine’). TS dopamine showed strong excitation to novel cues, whereas VS dopamine showed no responses to novel cues until they had been paired with a reward. TS dopamine cue responses decreased over time, depending on what the cue predicted. Additionally, TS dopamine showed excitation to several types of stimuli including rewarding, aversive, and neutral stimuli whereas VS dopamine showed excitation only to reward or reward-predicting cues. Together, these results demonstrate that dopamine novelty signals are localized in TS along with general salience signals, while VS dopamine reliably encodes reward prediction error. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.21886.001 PMID:28054919

  15. Differential effects of emotional cues on components of prospective memory: an ERP study

    PubMed Central

    Cona, Giorgia; Kliegel, Matthias; Bisiacchi, Patrizia S.

    2015-01-01

    So far, little is known about the neurocognitive mechanisms associated with emotion effects on prospective memory (PM) performance. Thus, this study aimed at disentangling possible mechanisms for the effects of emotional valence of PM cues on the distinct phases composing PM by investigating event-related potentials (ERPs). Participants were engaged in an ongoing N-back task while being required to perform a PM task. The emotional valence of both the ongoing pictures and the PM cues was manipulated (pleasant, neutral, unpleasant). ERPs were recorded during the PM phases, such as encoding, maintenance, and retrieval of the intention. A recognition task including PM cues and ongoing stimuli was also performed at the end of the sessions. ERP results suggest that emotional PM cues not only trigger an automatic, bottom-up, capture of attention, but also boost a greater allocation of top-down processes. These processes seem to be recruited to hold attention toward the emotional stimuli and to retrieve the intention from memory, likely because of the motivational significance of the emotional stimuli. Moreover, pleasant PM cues seemed to modulate especially the prospective component, as revealed by changes in the amplitude of the ERP correlates of strategic monitoring as a function of the relevance of the valence for the PM task. Unpleasant pictures seemed to modulate especially the retrospective component, as revealed by the largest old/new effect being elicited by unpleasant PM pictures in the recognition task. PMID:25674061

  16. Heterogeneity in brain reactivity to pleasant and food cues: evidence of sign-tracking in humans

    PubMed Central

    Versace, Francesco; Kypriotakis, George; Basen-Engquist, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant brain reward responses to food-related cues are an implied characteristic of human obesity; yet, findings are inconsistent. To explain these inconsistencies, we aimed to uncover endophenotypes associated with heterogeneity in attributing incentive salience to food cues in the context of other emotionally salient cues; a phenomenon described as sign- vs goal tracking in preclinical models. Data from 64 lean and 88 obese adults who were 35.5 ± 9.4 years old and predominantly women (79%) were analyzed. Participants viewed food-related, pleasant, neutral and unpleasant images while recording electroencephalograph. Late positive potentials were used to assess incentive salience attributed to the visual stimuli. Eating and affective traits were also assessed. Findings demonstrated that obese individuals, in general, do not demonstrate aberrant brain reward responses to food-related cues. As hypothesized, latent profile analysis of the late positive potential uncovered two distinct groups. ‘Sign-trackers’ showed greater responses to food-related cues (P < 0.001) but lower responses to pleasant stimuli (P < 0.001) compared with ‘goal-trackers’. There were proportionally more obese than lean ‘sign-trackers’ (P = 0.03). Obese ‘sign-trackers’ reported significantly higher levels of emotional eating and food craving (P < 0.001). By examining the heterogeneity in brain reactivity to various emotional stimuli, this translational study highlights the need to consider important neurobehavioral endophenotypes of obesity. PMID:26609106

  17. Heterogeneity in brain reactivity to pleasant and food cues: evidence of sign-tracking in humans.

    PubMed

    Versace, Francesco; Kypriotakis, George; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Schembre, Susan M

    2016-04-01

    Aberrant brain reward responses to food-related cues are an implied characteristic of human obesity; yet, findings are inconsistent. To explain these inconsistencies, we aimed to uncover endophenotypes associated with heterogeneity in attributing incentive salience to food cues in the context of other emotionally salient cues; a phenomenon described as sign- vs goal tracking in preclinical models. Data from 64 lean and 88 obese adults who were 35.5 ± 9.4 years old and predominantly women (79%) were analyzed. Participants viewed food-related, pleasant, neutral and unpleasant images while recording electroencephalograph. Late positive potentials were used to assess incentive salience attributed to the visual stimuli. Eating and affective traits were also assessed. Findings demonstrated that obese individuals, in general, do not demonstrate aberrant brain reward responses to food-related cues. As hypothesized, latent profile analysis of the late positive potential uncovered two distinct groups. 'Sign-trackers' showed greater responses to food-related cues (P < 0.001) but lower responses to pleasant stimuli (P < 0.001) compared with 'goal-trackers'. There were proportionally more obese than lean 'sign-trackers' (P = 0.03). Obese 'sign-trackers' reported significantly higher levels of emotional eating and food craving (P < 0.001). By examining the heterogeneity in brain reactivity to various emotional stimuli, this translational study highlights the need to consider important neurobehavioral endophenotypes of obesity.

  18. Variables involved in the cue modulation of the startle reflex in alcohol-dependent patients.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Gabriel; Borrell, José; Jiménez, Mónica; Jurado, Rosa; Grüsser, Sabine M; Heinz, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Cue modulation of the startle reflex is a paradigm that has been used to understand the emotional mechanisms involved in alcohol dependence. Attenuation of the startle reflex has been demonstrated when alcohol-dependent subjects are exposed to alcohol-related stimuli. However, the role of clinical variables on the magnitude of this response is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between a number of clinical variables-severity of alcoholism, family history of alcoholism (FHA+), personality traits related to the sensitivity to reward-and the startle reflex response when subjects with alcohol dependence were viewing alcohol-related cues. After detoxification, 98 participants completed self-report instruments and had eye blink electromyograms measured to acoustic startle probes [100-millisecond burst of white noise at 95 dB(A)] while viewing alcohol-related pictures, and standardised appetitive, aversive and neutral control scenes. Ninety-eight healthy controls were also assessed with the same instruments. There were significant differences on alcohol-startle magnitude between patients and controls. Comparisons by gender showed that women perceived alcohol cues and appetitive cues more appetitive than men. Male and female patients showed more appetitive responses to alcohol cues when compared with their respective controls. Our patients showed an appetitive effect of alcohol cues that was positively related to severity of alcohol dependence, sensitivity to reward and a FHA+. The data confirmed that the pattern of the modulation of the acoustic startle reflex reveals appetitive effects of the alcohol cues and extended it to a variety of clinical variables.

  19. Extended-release naltrexone modulates brain response to drug cues in abstinent heroin-dependent patients.

    PubMed

    Langleben, Daniel D; Ruparel, Kosha; Elman, Igor; Loughead, James W; Busch, Elliot L; Cornish, James; Lynch, Kevin G; Nuwayser, Elie S; Childress, Anna R; O'Brien, Charles P

    2014-03-01

    Drug cues play an important role in relapse to drug use. Naltrexone is an opioid antagonist that is used to prevent relapse in opioid dependence. Central opioidergic pathways may be implicated in the heightened drug cue-reactivity, but the effects of the opioid receptors' blockade on the brain responses to drug cues in opioid dependence are unknown. To pursue this question, we studied 17 abstinent i.v. heroin users with brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during exposure to visual heroin-related cues and matched neutral images before and 10-14 days after an injection of extended-release naltrexone (XRNTX). Whole brain analysis of variance of fMRI data showed main effect of XRNTX in the medial frontal gyrus, precentral gyrus, cuneus, precuneus, caudate and the amygdala. fMRI response was decreased in the amygdala, cuneus, caudate and the precentral gyrus and increased in the medial frontal gyrus and the precuneus. Higher plasma levels of naltrexone's major metabolite, 6-beta-naltrexol, were associated with larger reduction in the fMRI response to drug cues after XRNTX in the precentral, caudate and amygdala clusters. The present data suggest that XRNTX pharmacotherapy of opioid-dependent patients may, respectively, decrease and potentiate prefrontal and limbic cortical responses to drug cues and that this effect might be related to the XRNTX metabolism. Our findings call for further evaluation of the brain fMRI response to drug-related cues and of the 6-beta-naltrexol levels as potential biomarkers of XRNTX therapeutic effects in patients with opioid dependence.

  20. Sex Differences in Neural Responses to Stress and Alcohol Context Cues

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Dongju; Jia, Zhiru; Lacadie, Cheryl M.; Tsou, Kristen A.; Bergquist, Keri; Sinha, Rajita

    2011-01-01

    Stress and alcohol context cues are each associated with alcohol-related behaviors, yet neural responses underlying these processes remain unclear. The present study investigated the neural correlates of stress and alcohol context cue experiences and examined sex differences in these responses. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, brain responses were examined while 43 right-handed, socially drinking, healthy individuals (23 females) engaged in brief guided imagery of personalized stress, alcohol-cue and neutral-relaxing scenarios. Stress and alcohol-cue exposure increased activity in the cortico-limbic-striatal circuit (p<.01, corrected), encompassing the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), left anterior insula, striatum and visuomotor regions (parietal and occipital lobe, and cerebellum). Activity in the right dorsal striatum increased during stress, while bilateral ventral striatum activity was evident during alcohol-cue exposure. Men displayed greater stress-related activations in the mPFC, rostral ACC, posterior insula, amygdala and hippocampus than women, whereas women showed greater alcohol-cue related activity in the superior and middle frontal gyrus (SFG/MFG) than men. Stress-induced anxiety was positively associated with activity in emotion modulation regions, including the medial OFC, ventromedial PFC, left superior-medial PFC and rostral ACC in men, but in women with activation in the SFG/MFG, regions involved in cognitive processing. Alcohol craving was significantly associated with the striatum (encompassing dorsal and ventral) in men, supporting its involvement in alcohol ‘urge’ in healthy men. These results indicate sex differences in neural processing of stress and alcohol-cue experiences, and have implications for sex-specific vulnerabilities to stress- and alcohol-related psychiatric disorders. PMID:21162046

  1. Facilitation of shape-from-shading perception by random textures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Ko; Narushima, Kazuki; Aoki, Natsuko

    2006-08-01

    Most natural objects have a texture on their surface, so the segregation between shading and texture is crucial for the robust perception of three-dimensional structure: The visual system has to decide whether shading or texture evoked the luminance change. We found that the contextual pop-out that results from shading was not suppressed, but was even facilitated, when random texture was added to the luminance of the entire stimulus, indicating the functional segregation and facilitative interaction between shading and texture cues. The local contrast evoked by random texture within a figure or at a boundary was a major factor in the facilitation, suggesting the crucial role of early vision in the interaction between the cues.

  2. Glottalization cues of Nuu-chah-nulth glottalized resonants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldecott, Marion G.

    2005-04-01

    Theories of positional neutralization (Steriade, 1997)] predict that pre-glottalized resonants should not occur word-initially because the cues to glottalization are not salient. Contrary to this, Nuu-chah-nulth, a Wakashan language, has pre-glottalized that do occur in word-initial position. This paper will show that a severely truncated resonant portion is the cue to glottalization in resonants in Nuu-chah-nulth. Previous research [Carlson et al., J. Jpn. Int. Prop. Assoc. 31, 275-279 (2001)] shows that Nuu-chah-nulth glottalized resonants consist of a stop closure that is phonetically identical to phonemic glottal stop followed by a (mostly) plain resonant. That study also found that glottalized resonants are twice as long in initial position as plain resonants. Following up on this, a pilot study [Caldecott and Kim, presented at the 1st annual Wakashan Linguistics Conference, 2004] indicated that the length of the resonant portion in glottalized resonants was in fact half that of a normal resonant. This paper expands on the previous study, incorporating new acoustic data on resonants in all word positions. Data are elicited from a fluent native speaker and measured using Praat. [Work supported by SSHRC.

  3. Nudity as a Disinhibiting Cue in a Date Rape Analogue.

    PubMed

    Fairweather, Annabree; Kingston, Drew A; Lalumière, Martin L

    2016-05-01

    Situational factors likely play a role in date rape. The sexual inhibition hypothesis suggests that men are typically sexually inhibited by violence and non-consent, but that inhibition can also be disrupted. We attempted to determine if female nudity reduces inhibition of sexual arousal to non-consensual cues in sexually non-aggressive men. In two studies, heterosexual men (aged 18-25) were presented with six 2-min audiotaped narratives depicting consensual sexual interactions, non-consensual sexual interactions (rape), and non-sexual interactions (neutral) involving a man and a woman. In the first study, 20 participants saw pictures depicting nude or clothed women while listening to the stories. In the second study, 20 other participants saw videos depicting nude or clothed women exercising, also while listening to the stories. Genital responses and subjective sexual arousal were measured. Results suggested that nudity may have a disinhibitory effect on sexual arousal to non-consensual cues, but only when presented in the form of moving images.

  4. Topographical cues regulate the crosstalk between MSCs and macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Vallés, Gema; Bensiamar, Fátima; Crespo, Lara; Arruebo, Manuel; Vilaboa, Nuria; Saldaña, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Implantation of scaffolds may elicit a host foreign body response triggered by monocyte/macrophage lineage cells. Growing evidence suggests that topographical cues of scaffolds play an important role in MSC functionality. In this work, we examined whether surface topographical features can regulate paracrine interactions that MSCs establish with macrophages. Three-dimensional (3D) topography sensing drives MSCs into a spatial arrangement that stimulates the production of the anti-inflammatory proteins PGE2 and TSG-6. Compared to two-dimensional (2D) settings, 3D arrangement of MSCs co-cultured with macrophages leads to an important decrease in the secretion of soluble factors related with inflammation and chemotaxis including IL-6 and MCP-1. Attenuation of MCP-1 secretion in 3D co-cultures correlates with a decrease in the accumulation of its mRNA levels in MSCs and macrophages. Using neutralizing antibodies, we identified that the interplay between PGE2, IL-6, TSG-6 and MCP-1 in the co-cultures is strongly influenced by the micro-architecture that supports MSCs. Local inflammatory milieu provided by 3D-arranged MSCs in co-cultures induces a decrease in monocyte migration as compared to monolayer cells. This effect is partially mediated by reduced levels of IL-6 and MCP-1, proteins that up-regulate each other's secretion. Our findings highlight the importance of topographical cues in the soluble factor-guided communication between MSCs and macrophages. PMID:25453943

  5. Topographical cues regulate the crosstalk between MSCs and macrophages.

    PubMed

    Vallés, Gema; Bensiamar, Fátima; Crespo, Lara; Arruebo, Manuel; Vilaboa, Nuria; Saldaña, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Implantation of scaffolds may elicit a host foreign body response triggered by monocyte/macrophage lineage cells. Growing evidence suggests that topographical cues of scaffolds play an important role in MSC functionality. In this work, we examined whether surface topographical features can regulate paracrine interactions that MSCs establish with macrophages. Three-dimensional (3D) topography sensing drives MSCs into a spatial arrangement that stimulates the production of the anti-inflammatory proteins PGE2 and TSG-6. Compared to two-dimensional (2D) settings, 3D arrangement of MSCs co-cultured with macrophages leads to an important decrease in the secretion of soluble factors related with inflammation and chemotaxis including IL-6 and MCP-1. Attenuation of MCP-1 secretion in 3D co-cultures correlates with a decrease in the accumulation of its mRNA levels in MSCs and macrophages. Using neutralizing antibodies, we identified that the interplay between PGE2, IL-6, TSG-6 and MCP-1 in the co-cultures is strongly influenced by the micro-architecture that supports MSCs. Local inflammatory milieu provided by 3D-arranged MSCs in co-cultures induces a decrease in monocyte migration as compared to monolayer cells. This effect is partially mediated by reduced levels of IL-6 and MCP-1, proteins that up-regulate each other's secretion. Our findings highlight the importance of topographical cues in the soluble factor-guided communication between MSCs and macrophages.

  6. Cues of Maternal Condition Influence Offspring Selfishness

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Janine W. Y.; Lucas, Christophe; Kölliker, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of parent-offspring communication was mostly studied from the perspective of parents responding to begging signals conveying information about offspring condition. Parents should respond to begging because of the differential fitness returns obtained from their investment in offspring that differ in condition. For analogous reasons, offspring should adjust their behavior to cues/signals of parental condition: parents that differ in condition pay differential costs of care and, hence, should provide different amounts of food. In this study, we experimentally tested in the European earwig (Forficula auricularia) if cues of maternal condition affect offspring behavior in terms of sibling cannibalism. We experimentally manipulated female condition by providing them with different amounts of food, kept nymph condition constant, allowed for nymph exposure to chemical maternal cues over extended time, quantified nymph survival (deaths being due to cannibalism) and extracted and analyzed the females’ cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC). Nymph survival was significantly affected by chemical cues of maternal condition, and this effect depended on the timing of breeding. Cues of poor maternal condition enhanced nymph survival in early broods, but reduced nymph survival in late broods, and vice versa for cues of good condition. Furthermore, female condition affected the quantitative composition of their CHC profile which in turn predicted nymph survival patterns. Thus, earwig offspring are sensitive to chemical cues of maternal condition and nymphs from early and late broods show opposite reactions to the same chemical cues. Together with former evidence on maternal sensitivities to condition-dependent nymph chemical cues, our study shows context-dependent reciprocal information exchange about condition between earwig mothers and their offspring, potentially mediated by cuticular hydrocarbons. PMID:24498046

  7. Binding neutral information to emotional contexts: Brain dynamics of long-term recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Ventura-Bort, Carlos; Löw, Andreas; Wendt, Julia; Moltó, Javier; Poy, Rosario; Dolcos, Florin; Hamm, Alfons O; Weymar, Mathias

    2016-04-01

    There is abundant evidence in memory research that emotional stimuli are better remembered than neutral stimuli. However, effects of an emotionally charged context on memory for associated neutral elements is also important, particularly in trauma and stress-related disorders, where strong memories are often activated by neutral cues due to their emotional associations. In the present study, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate long-term recognition memory (1-week delay) for neutral objects that had been paired with emotionally arousing or neutral scenes during encoding. Context effects were clearly evident in the ERPs: An early frontal ERP old/new difference (300-500 ms) was enhanced for objects encoded in unpleasant compared to pleasant and neutral contexts; and a late central-parietal old/new difference (400-700 ms) was observed for objects paired with both pleasant and unpleasant contexts but not for items paired with neutral backgrounds. Interestingly, objects encoded in emotional contexts (and novel objects) also prompted an enhanced frontal early (180-220 ms) positivity compared to objects paired with neutral scenes indicating early perceptual significance. The present data suggest that emotional--particularly unpleasant--backgrounds strengthen memory for items encountered within these contexts and engage automatic and explicit recognition processes. These results could help in understanding binding mechanisms involved in the activation of trauma-related memories by neutral cues.

  8. Effects of Prereactivation Propranolol on Cocaine Craving Elicited by Imagery Script/Cue Sets in Opioid-dependent Polydrug Users: A Randomized Study

    PubMed Central

    Jobes, Michelle L.; Aharonovich, Efrat; Epstein, David H.; Phillips, Karran A.; Reamer, David; Anderson, Micheline; Preston, Kenzie L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Relapse to drug misuse may follow exposure to drug cues that elicit craving. The learned associations, or “emotional memories,” that underlie responses to cues may be attenuated or erased by the beta-adrenergic antagonist propranolol during a “reconsolidation window” shortly after the memories are reactivated by cues. Methods We evaluated the effects of propranolol on cue-induced drug cravings in healthy opioid-dependent individuals who used cocaine while receiving methadone maintenance (n = 33). Participants were asked to recall specific cocaine-use and neutral events in an interview; these events were used to develop personalized auditory script/cue sets. Approximately one week later, propranolol (40 mg) or placebo (random assignment, double-blind) was administered orally before presentation of the script/cue sets; the presentation of the script/cue sets were tested 1 and 5 weeks after the propranolol/placebo session. Ongoing drug use was monitored via urine screens and self-report in twice-weekly visits. Results Cue reactivity, as assessed by craving scales and physiological responses, was unexpectedly greater in the propranolol group than in the placebo group. This counter-hypothesized group difference was present acutely during propranolol administration and appeared to persist (without reaching statistical significance) during the subsequent test sessions. Conclusions Our results do not support the use of propranolol for cue-induced cocaine craving in opioid-maintained patients. PMID:26501788

  9. 50 CFR 600.752 - Use of conveners and facilitators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... issues of concern, and to ascertain whether the establishment of an FNP regarding such matter is feasible... an impartial, neutral facilitator for the negotiations of the FNP, subject to the approval of the FNP... section. If the FNP does not approve the nominee of the Council or NMFS for facilitator, the FNP...

  10. Gaze in Visual Search Is Guided More Efficiently by Positive Cues than by Negative Cues

    PubMed Central

    Kohlbecher, Stefan; Einhäuser, Wolfgang; Schneider, Erich

    2015-01-01

    Visual search can be accelerated when properties of the target are known. Such knowledge allows the searcher to direct attention to items sharing these properties. Recent work indicates that information about properties of non-targets (i.e., negative cues) can also guide search. In the present study, we examine whether negative cues lead to different search behavior compared to positive cues. We asked observers to search for a target defined by a certain shape singleton (broken line among solid lines). Each line was embedded in a colored disk. In “positive cue” blocks, participants were informed about possible colors of the target item. In “negative cue” blocks, the participants were informed about colors that could not contain the target. Search displays were designed such that with both the positive and negative cues, the same number of items could potentially contain the broken line (“relevant items”). Thus, both cues were equally informative. We measured response times and eye movements. Participants exhibited longer response times when provided with negative cues compared to positive cues. Although negative cues did guide the eyes to relevant items, there were marked differences in eye movements. Negative cues resulted in smaller proportions of fixations on relevant items, longer duration of fixations and in higher rates of fixations per item as compared to positive cues. The effectiveness of both cue types, as measured by fixations on relevant items, increased over the course of each search. In sum, a negative color cue can guide attention to relevant items, but it is less efficient than a positive cue of the same informational value. PMID:26717307

  11. The shading cue in context

    PubMed Central

    Wagemans, Johan; van Doorn, Andrea J; Koenderink, Jan J

    2010-01-01

    The shading cue is supposed to be a major factor in monocular stereopsis. However, the hypothesis is hardly corroborated by available data. For instance, the conventional stimulus used in perception research, which involves a circular disk with monotonic luminance gradient on a uniform surround, is theoretically ‘explained’ by any quadric surface, including spherical caps or cups (the conventional response categories), cylindrical ruts or ridges, and saddle surfaces. Whereas cylindrical ruts or ridges are reported when the outline is changed from circular to square, saddle surfaces are never reported. We introduce a method that allows us to differentiate between such possible responses. We report observations on a number of variations of the conventional stimulus, including variations of shape and quality of the boundary, and contexts that allow the observer to infer illumination direction. We find strong and expected influences of outline shape, but, perhaps surprisingly, we fail to find any influence of context, and only partial influence of outline quality. Moreover, we report appreciable differences within the generic population. We trace some of the idiosyncrasies (as compared to shape from shading algorithms) of the human observer to generic properties of the environment, in particular the fact that many objects are limited in size and elliptically convex over most of their boundaries. PMID:23145221

  12. Equivalent Neutral Wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, W. Timothy; Tang, Wenqing

    1996-01-01

    The definition of equivalent neutral wind and the rationale for using it as the geophysical product of a spaceborne scatterometer are reviewed. The differences between equivalent neutral wind and actual wind, which are caused by atmospheric density stratification, are demonstrated with measurements at selected locations. A method of computing this parameter from ship and buoy measurements is described and some common fallacies in accounting for the effects of atmospheric stratification on wind shear are discussed. The computer code for the model to derive equivalent neutral wind is provided.

  13. Edge rotation from momentum transport by neutrals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omotani, JT; Newton, SL; Pusztai, I.; Fülöp, T.

    2016-11-01

    Due to their high cross field mobility, neutral atoms can have a strong effect on transport even at the low relative densities found inside the separatrix. We use a charge-exchange dominated model for the neutrals, coupled to neoclassical ions, to calculate momentum transport when it is dominated by the neutrals. We can then calculate self-consistently the radial electric field and predict the intrinsic rotation in an otherwise torque-free plasma. Using a numerical solver for the ion distribution to allow arbitrary collisionality, we investigate the effects of inverse aspect ratio and elongation on plasma rotation. We also calculate the rotation of a trace carbon impurity, to facilitate future comparison to experiments using charge exchange recombination spectroscopy diagnostics.

  14. Neutralization Assay for Chikungunya Virus Infection: Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test.

    PubMed

    Azami, Nor Azila Muhammad; Moi, Meng Ling; Takasaki, Tomohiko

    2016-01-01

    Neutralization assay is a technique that detects and quantifies neutralizing antibody in serum samples by calculating the percentage of reduction of virus activity, as the concentration of virus used is usually constant. Neutralizing antibody titer is conventionally determined by calculating the percentage reduction in total virus infectivity by counting and comparing number of plaques (localized area of infection due to cytopathic effect) with a standard amount of virus. Conventional neutralizing test uses plaque-reduction neutralization test (PRNT) to determine neutralizing antibody titers against Chikungunya virus (CHIKV). Here we describe the plaque reduction neutralization assay (PRNT) using Vero cell lines to obtain neutralizing antibody titers.

  15. Solar Neutral Particles

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation shows a neutral solar particle's path leaving the sun, following the magnetic field lines out to the heliosheath. The solar particle hits a hydrogen atom, stealing its electron, and ...

  16. Effects of self-relevant cues and cue valence on autobiographical memory specificity in dysphoria.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Noboru; Mochizuki, Satoshi

    2017-04-01

    Reduced autobiographical memory specificity (rAMS) is a characteristic memory bias observed in depression. To corroborate the capture hypothesis in the CaRFAX (capture and rumination, functional avoidance, executive capacity and control) model, we investigated the effects of self-relevant cues and cue valence on rAMS using an adapted Autobiographical Memory Test conducted with a nonclinical population. Hierarchical linear modelling indicated that the main effects of depression and self-relevant cues elicited rAMS. Moreover, the three-way interaction among valence, self-relevance, and depression scores was significant. A simple slope test revealed that dysphoric participants experienced rAMS in response to highly self-relevant positive cues and low self-relevant negative cues. These results partially supported the capture hypothesis in nonclinical dysphoria. It is important to consider cue valence in future studies examining the capture hypothesis.

  17. Bias for the left visual field in rapid serial visual presentation: effects of additional salient cues suggest a critical role of attention.

    PubMed

    Śmigasiewicz, Kamila; Asanowicz, Dariusz; Westphal, Nicole; Verleger, Rolf

    2015-02-01

    Everyday experience suggests that people are equally aware of stimuli in both hemifields. However, when two streams of stimuli are rapidly presented left and right, the second target (T2) is better identified in the left hemifield than in the right hemifield. This left visual field (LVF) advantage may result from differences between hemifields in attracting attention. Therefore, we introduced a visual cue shortly before T2 onset to draw attention to one stream. Thus, to identify T2, attention was correctly positioned with valid cues but had to be redirected to the other stream with invalid ones. If the LVF advantage is caused by differences between hemifields in attracting attention, invalid cues should increase, and valid cues should reduce the LVF advantage as compared with neutral cues. This prediction was confirmed. ERP analysis revealed that cues evoked an early posterior negativity, confirming that attention was attracted by the cue. This negativity was earlier with cues in the LVF, which suggests that responses to salient events are faster in the right hemisphere than in the left hemisphere. Valid cues speeded up, and invalid cues delayed T2-evoked N2pc; in addition, valid cues enlarged T2-evoked P3. After N2pc, right-side T2 evoked more sustained contralateral negativity than left T2, least long-lasting after valid cues. Difficulties in identifying invalidly cued right T2 were reflected in prematurely ending P3 waveforms. Overall, these data provide evidence that the LVF advantage is because of different abilities of the hemispheres in shifting attention to relevant events in their contralateral hemifield.

  18. Overlapping patterns of brain activation to food and cocaine cues in cocaine abusers: Association to striatal D2/D3 receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Tomasi, Dardo; Wang, Gene -Jack; Wang, Ruiliang; Caparelli, Elisabeth C.; Logan, Jean; Volkow, Nora D.

    2014-08-20

    Cocaine, through its activation of dopamine (DA) signaling, usurps pathways that process natural rewards. However, the extent to which there is overlap between the networks that process natural and drug rewards and whether DA signaling associated with cocaine abuse influences these networks have not been investigated in humans. We measured brain activation responses to food and cocaine cues with fMRI, and D2/D3 receptors in the striatum with [11C]raclopride and PET in 20 active cocaine abusers. Compared to neutral cues, food and cocaine cues increasingly engaged cerebellum, orbitofrontal, inferior frontal and premotor cortices and insula and disengaged cuneus and default mode network (DMN). These fMRI signals were proportional to striatal D2/D3 receptors. Surprisingly cocaine and food cues also deactivated ventral striatum and hypothalamus. Compared to food cues, cocaine cues produced lower activation in insula and postcentral gyrus, and less deactivation in hypothalamus and DMN regions. Activation in cortical regions and cerebellum increased in proportion to the valence of the cues, and activation to food cues in somatosensory and orbitofrontal cortices also increased in proportion to body mass. Longer exposure to cocaine was associated with lower activation to both cues in occipital cortex and cerebellum, which could reflect the decreases in D2/D3 receptors associated with chronicity. In conclusion, these findings show that cocaine cues activate similar, though not identical, pathways to those activated by food cues and that striatal D2/D3 receptors modulate these responses, suggesting that chronic cocaine exposure might influence brain sensitivity not just to drugs but also to food cues.

  19. Overlapping patterns of brain activation to food and cocaine cues in cocaine abusers: Association to striatal D2/D3 receptors

    DOE PAGES

    Tomasi, Dardo; Wang, Gene -Jack; Wang, Ruiliang; ...

    2014-08-20

    Cocaine, through its activation of dopamine (DA) signaling, usurps pathways that process natural rewards. However, the extent to which there is overlap between the networks that process natural and drug rewards and whether DA signaling associated with cocaine abuse influences these networks have not been investigated in humans. We measured brain activation responses to food and cocaine cues with fMRI, and D2/D3 receptors in the striatum with [11C]raclopride and PET in 20 active cocaine abusers. Compared to neutral cues, food and cocaine cues increasingly engaged cerebellum, orbitofrontal, inferior frontal and premotor cortices and insula and disengaged cuneus and default modemore » network (DMN). These fMRI signals were proportional to striatal D2/D3 receptors. Surprisingly cocaine and food cues also deactivated ventral striatum and hypothalamus. Compared to food cues, cocaine cues produced lower activation in insula and postcentral gyrus, and less deactivation in hypothalamus and DMN regions. Activation in cortical regions and cerebellum increased in proportion to the valence of the cues, and activation to food cues in somatosensory and orbitofrontal cortices also increased in proportion to body mass. Longer exposure to cocaine was associated with lower activation to both cues in occipital cortex and cerebellum, which could reflect the decreases in D2/D3 receptors associated with chronicity. In conclusion, these findings show that cocaine cues activate similar, though not identical, pathways to those activated by food cues and that striatal D2/D3 receptors modulate these responses, suggesting that chronic cocaine exposure might influence brain sensitivity not just to drugs but also to food cues.« less

  20. Overlapping patterns of brain activation to food and cocaine cues in cocaine abusers: association to striatal D2/D3 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Tomasi, Dardo; Wang, Gene-Jack; Wang, Ruiliang; Caparelli, Elisabeth C.; Logan, Jean; Volkow, Nora D.

    2014-01-01

    Cocaine, through its activation of dopamine (DA) signaling, usurps pathways that process natural rewards. However, the extent to which there is overlap between the networks that process natural and drug rewards and whether DA signaling associated with cocaine abuse influences these networks have not been investigated in humans. We measured brain activation responses to food and cocaine cues with fMRI, and D2/D3 receptors in the striatum with [11C]raclopride and PET in 20 active cocaine abusers. Compared to neutral cues, food and cocaine cues increasingly engaged cerebellum, orbitofrontal, inferior frontal and premotor cortices and insula and disengaged cuneus and default mode network (DMN). These fMRI signals were proportional to striatal D2/D3 receptors. Surprisingly cocaine and food cues also deactivated ventral striatum and hypothalamus. Compared to food cues, cocaine cues produced lower activation in insula and postcentral gyrus, and less deactivation in hypothalamus and DMN regions. Activation in cortical regions and cerebellum increased in proportion to the valence of the cues, and activation to food cues in somatosensory and orbitofrontal cortices also increased in proportion to body mass. Longer exposure to cocaine was associated with lower activation to both cues in occipital cortex and cerebellum, which could reflect the decreases in D2/D3 receptors associated with chronicity. These findings show that cocaine cues activate similar, though not identical, pathways to those activated by food cues and that striatal D2/D3 receptors modulate these responses, suggesting that chronic cocaine exposure might influence brain sensitivity not just to drugs but also to food cues. PMID:25142207

  1. The Perceptual Cues that Reshape Expert Reasoning

    PubMed Central

    Harré, Michael; Bossomaier, Terry; Snyder, Allan

    2012-01-01

    The earliest stages in our perception of the world have a subtle but powerful influence on later thought processes; they provide the contextual cues within which our thoughts are framed and they adapt to many different environments throughout our lives. Understanding the changes in these cues is crucial to understanding how our perceptual ability develops, but these changes are often difficult to quantify in sufficiently complex tasks where objective measures of development are available. Here we simulate perceptual learning using neural networks and demonstrate fundamental changes in these cues as a function of skill. These cues are cognitively grouped together to form perceptual templates that enable rapid ‘whole scene' categorisation of complex stimuli. Such categories reduce the computational load on our capacity limited thought processes, they inform our higher cognitive processes and they suggest a framework of perceptual pre-processing that captures the central role of perception in expertise. PMID:22792435

  2. Visual Cues for Enhancing Depth Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, L. M.; Smith, A. J.

    1994-01-01

    This article describes the physiological mechanisms involved in three-dimensional depth perception and presents a variety of distance and depth cues and strategies for detecting and estimating curbs and steps for individuals with impaired vision. (Author/DB)

  3. Ions and neutralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poncet, A.

    After a short presentation of intensity limitations examples due to trapped ions, the processes of ionization and neutralization build up in particle accelerators and storage rings are briefly reviewed. The tolerable limits in neutralization are then assessed at the light of current theories of incoherent and coherent effects driven by ions. Finally the usual antidotes such as clearing electrodes, missing bunch schemes and beam shaking are presented.

  4. Evidence that Illness-Compatible Cues Are Rewarding in Women Recovered from Anorexia Nervosa: A Study of the Effects of Dopamine Depletion on Eye-Blink Startle Responses

    PubMed Central

    O’Hara, Caitlin B.; Keyes, Alexandra; Renwick, Bethany; Giel, Katrin E.; Campbell, Iain C.; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    In anorexia nervosa (AN), motivational salience is attributed to illness-compatible cues (e.g., underweight and active female bodies) and this is hypothesised to involve dopaminergic reward circuitry. We investigated the effects of reducing dopamine (DA) transmission on the motivational processing of AN-compatible cues in women recovered from AN (AN REC, n = 17) and healthy controls (HC, n = 15). This involved the acute phenylalanine and tyrosine depletion (APTD) procedure and a startle eye-blink modulation (SEM) task. In a balanced amino acid state, AN REC showed an increased appetitive response (decreased startle potentiation) to illness-compatible cues (underweight and active female body pictures (relative to neutral and non-active cues, respectively)). The HC had an aversive response (increased startle potentiation) to the same illness-compatible stimuli (relative to neutral cues). Importantly, these effects, which may be taken to resemble symptoms observed in the acute stage of illness and healthy behaviour respectively, were not present when DA was depleted. Thus, AN REC implicitly appraised underweight and exercise cues as more rewarding than did HC and the process may, in part, be DA-dependent. It is proposed that the positive motivational salience attributed to cues of emaciation and physical activity is, in part, mediated by dopaminergic reward processes and this contributes to illness pathology. These observations are consistent with the proposal that, in AN, aberrant reward-based learning contributes to the development of habituation of AN-compatible behaviours. PMID:27764214

  5. Aging effects in cueing tasks as assessed by the ideal observer: peripheral cues.

    PubMed

    Swan, Eleanor F; Hutchinson, Claire V; Everard, Mark; Shimozaki, Steven S

    2015-02-04

    Previous aging and cueing studies suggest that automatic orienting driven by peripheral cues is preserved with aging; however, inconsistencies can be found. One issue might be the use of response times (RT) to assess cueing effects (invalid RT--valid RT), which, in many cases, may not have clear quantitative predictions. We propose an ideal observer (IO) analysis of accuracy estimating participants' internal value of cue validity, or weight, which should equal the actual cue validity. The weight measures the use of information provided by the cue and is insensitive to variations in set size and difficulty, thus potentially providing advantages to RT. Older (n = 54) and younger (n = 58) participants performed a yes/no detection task of a two-dimensional (2-D) Gaussian (60 ms). Square peripheral precues (150 ms) indicated likely target locations (70% valid) across two or six locations (set sizes). For cueing effects, (valid--invalid hit rates), younger participants had set-size effects (larger cueing effects for set size 6), while older participants did not. The opposite pattern was found for weights (younger: no set-size effects, older: set-size effects) due to the IO predicting larger cueing effects for larger set sizes. Comparisons to the ideal weight (cue validity) suggested that older participants used the cue information effectively with set size 2 (as or more so than younger participants), but not with set size 6. These results suggest that attentional deficits from aging in peripheral cueing tasks may only arise as difficulty increases, such as larger set sizes.

  6. Capturing spatial attention with multisensory cues.

    PubMed

    Santangelo, Valerio; Ho, Cristy; Spence, Charles

    2008-04-01

    We assessed the influence ofmultisensory interactions on the exogenous orienting of spatial attention by comparing the ability of auditory, tactile, and audiotactile exogenous cues to capture visuospatial attention under conditions of no perceptual load versus high perceptual load. In Experiment 1, participants discriminated the elevation of visual targets preceded by either unimodal or bimodal cues under conditions of either a high perceptual load (involving the monitoring of a rapidly presented central stream of visual letters for occasionally presented target digits) or no perceptual load (when the central stream was replaced by a fixation point). All of the cues captured spatial attention in the no-load condition, whereas only the bimodal cues captured visuospatial attention in the high-load condition. In Experiment 2, we ruled out the possibility that the presentation of any changing stimulus at fixation (i.e., a passively monitored stream of letters) would eliminate exogenous orienting, which instead appears to be a consequence of high perceptual load conditions (Experiment 1). These results demonstrate that multisensory cues capture spatial attention more effectively than unimodal cues under conditions of concurrent perceptual load.

  7. Do anuran larvae respond behaviourally to chemical cues from an invasive crayfish predator? A community-wide study.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Ana L; Richter-Boix, Alex; Laurila, Anssi; Rebelo, Rui

    2013-01-01

    Antipredator behaviour is an important fitness component in most animals. A co-evolutionary history between predator and prey is important for prey to respond adaptively to predation threats. When non-native predator species invade new areas, native prey may not recognise them or may lack effective antipredator defences. However, responses to novel predators can be facilitated by chemical cues from the predators' diet. The red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii is a widespread invasive predator in the Southwest of the Iberian Peninsula, where it preys upon native anuran tadpoles. In a laboratory experiment we studied behavioural antipredator defences (alterations in activity level and spatial avoidance of predator) of nine anurans in response to P. clarkii chemical cues, and compared them with the defences towards a native predator, the larval dragonfly Aeshna sp. To investigate how chemical cues from consumed conspecifics shape the responses, we raised tadpoles with either a tadpole-fed or starved crayfish, or dragonfly larva, or in the absence of a predator. Five species significantly altered their behaviour in the presence of crayfish, and this was largely mediated by chemical cues from consumed conspecifics. In the presence of dragonflies, most species exhibited behavioural defences and often these did not require the presence of cues from predation events. Responding to cues from consumed conspecifics seems to be a critical factor in facilitating certain behavioural responses to novel exotic predators. This finding can be useful for predicting antipredator responses to invasive predators and help directing conservation efforts to the species at highest risk.

  8. Direct and Indirect Cues to Knowledge States during Word Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saylor, Megan M.; Carroll, C. Brooke

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated three-year-olds' sensitivity to direct and indirect cues to others' knowledge states for word learning purposes. Children were given either direct, physical cues to knowledge or indirect, verbal cues to knowledge. Preschoolers revealed a better ability to learn words from a speaker following direct, physical cues to…

  9. Perception of Mandarin Lexical Tones when F0 Information Is Neutralized

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Siyun; Samuel, Arthur G.

    2004-01-01

    In tone languages, the identity of a word depends on its tone pattern as well as its phonetic structure. The primary cue to tone identity is the fundamental frequency (F0) contour. Two experiments explore how listeners perceive Mandarin monosyllables in which all or part of the F0 information has been neutralized. In Experiment 1, supposedly…

  10. Imaging when acting: picture but not word cues induce action-related biases of visual attention.

    PubMed

    Wykowska, Agnieszka; Hommel, Bernhard; Schubö, Anna

    2012-01-01

    In line with the Theory of Event Coding (Hommel et al., 2001a), action planning has been shown to affect perceptual processing - an effect that has been attributed to a so-called intentional weighting mechanism (Wykowska et al., 2009; Memelink and Hommel, 2012), whose functional role is to provide information for open parameters of online action adjustment (Hommel, 2010). The aim of this study was to test whether different types of action representations induce intentional weighting to various degrees. To meet this aim, we introduced a paradigm in which participants performed a visual search task while preparing to grasp or to point. The to-be performed movement was signaled either by a picture of a required action or a word cue. We reasoned that picture cues might trigger a more concrete action representation that would be more likely to activate the intentional weighting of perceptual dimensions that provide information for online action control. In contrast, word cues were expected to trigger a more abstract action representation that would be less likely to induce intentional weighting. In two experiments, preparing for an action facilitated the processing of targets in an unrelated search task if they differed from distractors on a dimension that provided information for online action control. As predicted, however, this effect was observed only if action preparation was signaled by picture cues but not if it was signaled by word cues. We conclude that picture cues are more efficient than word cues in activating the intentional weighting of perceptual dimensions, presumably by specifying not only invariant characteristics of the planned action but also the dimensions of action-specific parameters.

  11. D-cycloserine to enhance extinction of cue-elicited craving for alcohol: a translational approach.

    PubMed

    MacKillop, J; Few, L R; Stojek, M K; Murphy, C M; Malutinok, S F; Johnson, F T; Hofmann, S G; McGeary, J E; Swift, R M; Monti, P M

    2015-04-07

    Cue-elicited craving for alcohol is well established but extinction-based treatment to extinguish this response has generated only modest positive outcomes in clinical trials. Basic and clinical research suggests that D-cycloserine (DCS) enhances extinction to fear cues under certain conditions. However, it remains unclear whether DCS would also accelerate extinction of cue-elicited craving for alcohol. The goal of the current study was to examine whether, compared with placebo (PBO), DCS enhanced extinction of cue-elicited craving among treatment-seeking individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Participants were administered DCS (50 mg) or PBO 1 h before an alcohol extinction paradigm in a simulated bar environment on two occasions. The extinction procedures occurred 1 week apart and were fully integrated into outpatient treatment. Subjective craving for alcohol was the primary variable of interest. Follow-up cue reactivity sessions were conducted 1 week and 3 weeks later to ascertain persisting DCS effects. Drinking outcomes and tolerability were also examined. DCS was associated with augmented reductions in alcohol craving to alcohol cues during the first extinction session and these effects persisted through all subsequent sessions, suggesting facilitation of extinction. Participants in the DCS condition reported significant short-term reductions in drinking, although these did not persist to follow-up, and found the medication highly tolerable. These findings provide evidence that DCS enhances extinction of cue-elicited craving for alcohol in individuals with AUDs in the context of outpatient treatment. The potential clinical utility of DCS is discussed, including methodological considerations and context-dependent learning.

  12. Loss of Feedback Inhibition via D2 Autoreceptors Enhances Acquisition of Cocaine Taking and Reactivity to Drug-Paired Cues

    PubMed Central

    Holroyd, Kathryn B; Adrover, Martin F; Fuino, Robert L; Bock, Roland; Kaplan, Alanna R; Gremel, Christina M; Rubinstein, Marcelo; Alvarez, Veronica A

    2015-01-01

    A prominent aspect of drug addiction is the ability of drug-associated cues to elicit craving and facilitate relapse. Understanding the factors that regulate cue reactivity will be vital for improving treatment of addictive disorders. Low availability of dopamine (DA) D2 receptors (D2Rs) in the striatum is associated with high cocaine intake and compulsive use. However, the role of D2Rs of nonstriatal origin in cocaine seeking and taking behavior and cue reactivity is less understood and possibly underestimated. D2Rs expressed by midbrain DA neurons function as autoreceptors, exerting inhibitory feedback on DA synthesis and release. Here, we show that selective loss of D2 autoreceptors impairs the feedback inhibition of DA release and amplifies the effect of cocaine on DA transmission in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in vitro. Mice lacking D2 autoreceptors acquire a cued-operant self-administration task for cocaine faster than littermate control mice but acquire similarly for a natural reward. Furthermore, although mice lacking D2 autoreceptors were able to extinguish self-administration behavior in the absence of cocaine and paired cues, they exhibited perseverative responding when cocaine-paired cues were present. This enhanced cue reactivity was selective for cocaine and was not seen during extinction of sucrose self-administration. We conclude that low levels of D2 autoreceptors enhance the salience of cocaine-paired cues and can contribute to the vulnerability for cocaine use and relapse. PMID:25547712

  13. Social information and community dynamics: nontarget effects from simulating social cues for management.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Robert J

    2008-10-01

    Artificially creating social stimuli may be an effective tool for facilitating settlement by rare and/or declining species into suitable habitat. However, the potential consequences for other community members have not been explored and should be considered when evaluating the overall utility of using such management strategies. I report on nontarget, community-wide effects that occurred when manipulating social cues of two competitors that are species of concern in the western United States, the dominant Least Flycatcher (Empidonax minimus) and the subordinate American Redstart (Setophaga ruticilla). The experiment consisted of surveying birds during a pretreatment year, which allows for the control of baseline communities, and a treatment year, in which treatments were applied just prior to settlement by migratory birds. Treatments included broadcasting songs of flycatchers and redstarts and were compared to controls. While the addition of redstart cues did not significantly influence community structure, the addition of flycatcher cues reduced species richness of migratory birds by approximately 30%. This pattern was driven by an absence of local colonizations of small-bodied migrants to sites with added flycatcher cues, rather than by local extinctions occurring from manipulations. The artificial flycatcher stimuli were more responsible for declines in species richness than were changes in actual flycatcher densities. I conclude by identifying some fundamental issues that managers and conservation practitioners should weigh when considering simulating social cues for species conservation prior to implementation.

  14. An interdisciplinary taxonomy of social cues and signals in the service of engineering robotic social intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiltshire, Travis J.; Lobato, Emilio J.; Velez, Jonathan; Jentsch, Florian; Fiore, Stephen M.

    2014-06-01

    Understanding intentions is a complex social-cognitive task for humans, let alone machines. In this paper we discuss how the developing field of Social Signal Processing, and assessing social cues to interpret social signals, may help to develop a foundation for robotic social intelligence. We describe a taxonomy to further R&D in HRI and facilitate natural interactions between humans and robots. This is based upon an interdisciplinary framework developed to integrate: (1) the sensors used for detecting social cues, (2) the parameters for differentiating and classifying differing levels of those cues, and (3) how sets of social cues indicate specific social signals. This is necessarily an iterative process, as technologies improve and social science researchers better understand the complex interactions of vast quantities of social cue combinations. As such, the goal of this paper is to advance a taxonomy of this nature to further stimulate interdisciplinary collaboration in the development of advanced social intelligence that mutually informs areas of robotic perception and intelligence.

  15. An investigation of the role of some person and situation variables in multiple cue probability learning.

    PubMed

    Bayindir, Mustafa; Bolger, Fergus; Say, Bilge

    2016-07-19

    Making decisions using judgements of multiple non-deterministic indicators is an important task, both in everyday and professional life. Learning of such decision making has often been studied as the mapping of stimuli (cues) to an environmental variable (criterion); however, little attention has been paid to the effects of situation-by-person interactions on this learning. Accordingly, we manipulated cue and feedback presentation mode (graphic or numeric) and task difficulty, and measured individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC). We predicted that graphic presentation, fewer cues, and elevated WMC would facilitate learning, and that person and task characteristics would interact such that presentation mode compatible with the decision maker's cognitive capability (enhanced visual or verbal WMC) would assist learning, particularly for more difficult tasks. We found our predicted main effects, but no significant interactions, except that those with greater WMC benefited to a larger extent with graphic than with numeric presentation, regardless of which type of working memory was enhanced or number of cues. Our findings suggest that the conclusions of past research based predominantly on tasks using numeric presentation need to be reevaluated and cast light on how working memory helps us learn multiple cue-criterion relationships, with implications for dual-process theories of cognition.

  16. Adult Prey Neutralizes Predator Nonconsumptive Limitation of Prey Recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Scrosati, Ricardo A.; Romoth, Katharina; Molis, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that predator chemical cues can limit prey demographic rates such as recruitment. For instance, barnacle pelagic larvae reduce settlement where predatory dogwhelk cues are detected, thereby limiting benthic recruitment. However, adult barnacles attract conspecific larvae through chemical and visual cues, aiding larvae to find suitable habitat for development. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that the presence of adult barnacles (Semibalanus balanoides) can neutralize dogwhelk (Nucella lapillus) nonconsumptive effects on barnacle recruitment. We did a field experiment in Atlantic Canada during the 2012 and 2013 barnacle recruitment seasons (May–June). We manipulated the presence of dogwhelks (without allowing them to physically contact barnacles) and adult barnacles in cages established in rocky intertidal habitats. At the end of both recruitment seasons, we measured barnacle recruit density on tiles kept inside the cages. Without adult barnacles, the nearby presence of dogwhelks limited barnacle recruitment by 51%. However, the presence of adult barnacles increased barnacle recruitment by 44% and neutralized dogwhelk nonconsumptive effects on barnacle recruitment, as recruit density was unaffected by dogwhelk presence. For species from several invertebrate phyla, benthic adult organisms attract conspecific pelagic larvae. Thus, adult prey might commonly constitute a key factor preventing negative predator nonconsumptive effects on prey recruitment. PMID:27123994

  17. Adult Prey Neutralizes Predator Nonconsumptive Limitation of Prey Recruitment.

    PubMed

    Ellrich, Julius A; Scrosati, Ricardo A; Romoth, Katharina; Molis, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that predator chemical cues can limit prey demographic rates such as recruitment. For instance, barnacle pelagic larvae reduce settlement where predatory dogwhelk cues are detected, thereby limiting benthic recruitment. However, adult barnacles attract conspecific larvae through chemical and visual cues, aiding larvae to find suitable habitat for development. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that the presence of adult barnacles (Semibalanus balanoides) can neutralize dogwhelk (Nucella lapillus) nonconsumptive effects on barnacle recruitment. We did a field experiment in Atlantic Canada during the 2012 and 2013 barnacle recruitment seasons (May-June). We manipulated the presence of dogwhelks (without allowing them to physically contact barnacles) and adult barnacles in cages established in rocky intertidal habitats. At the end of both recruitment seasons, we measured barnacle recruit density on tiles kept inside the cages. Without adult barnacles, the nearby presence of dogwhelks limited barnacle recruitment by 51%. However, the presence of adult barnacles increased barnacle recruitment by 44% and neutralized dogwhelk nonconsumptive effects on barnacle recruitment, as recruit density was unaffected by dogwhelk presence. For species from several invertebrate phyla, benthic adult organisms attract conspecific pelagic larvae. Thus, adult prey might commonly constitute a key factor preventing negative predator nonconsumptive effects on prey recruitment.

  18. An Eye Tracking Comparison of External Pointing Cues and Internal Continuous Cues in Learning with Complex Animations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boucheix, Jean-Michel; Lowe, Richard K.

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments used eye tracking to investigate a novel cueing approach for directing learner attention to low salience, high relevance aspects of a complex animation. In the first experiment, comprehension of a piano mechanism animation containing spreading-colour cues was compared with comprehension obtained with arrow cues or no cues. Eye…

  19. Neural processing of a cocaine-associated odor cue revealed by functional MRI in awake rats.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Tehya R; Smerkers, Brian; Moulder, Janelle K; Stellar, James R; Febo, Marcelo

    2013-02-08

    Using an olfactory conditioning procedure, brain stimulation reward threshold measurements, and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated brain stimulation reward threshold change and fMRI neural activation in response to a cocaine-associated odor cue. In the first brain stimulation experiment, over 10 days of rate-frequency curve-shift testing, rats were administered intravenous cocaine (1.0mg/kg) paired with a contextual cue of peppermint odor previously placed in the operant chamber or they were given vehicle treatment (no cocaine) in the presence of no olfactory cue. Following a 14-day drug-free rest period, rats were again given the rate-frequency curve-shift threshold test with or without the odor cue. In a second experiment, rats were similarly conditioned with a peppermint odor but with intraperitoneally delivered cocaine (10mg/kg). After a 14 day rest period, rats were imaged on a 7-T MRI for their blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) in response to the cocaine-paired peppermint odor versus an unpaired neutral lemon odor. In the brain stimulation experiment, expected significant reward threshold shifts were produced by cocaine and, importantly, about half that level of shift was produced by the paired contextual olfactory cue. In the fMRI experiment, the insular cortex showed a significantly greater BOLD activation in cocaine-treated versus saline-treated animals to the olfactory cue, but not with the unpaired lemon scent. These data are in agreement with previous studies suggesting a role of the insular cortex in attributing reward value (positive or negative) to conditioned odor stimuli.

  20. Memory, metamemory, and social cues: Between conformity and resistance.

    PubMed

    Zawadzka, Katarzyna; Krogulska, Aleksandra; Button, Roberta; Higham, Philip A; Hanczakowski, Maciej

    2016-02-01

    When presented with responses of another person, people incorporate these responses into memory reports: a finding termed memory conformity. Research on memory conformity in recognition reveals that people rely on external social cues to guide their memory responses when their own ability to respond is at chance. In this way, conforming to a reliable source boosts recognition performance but conforming to a random source does not impair it. In the present study we assessed whether people would conform indiscriminately to reliable and unreliable (random) sources when they are given the opportunity to exercise metamemory control over their responding by withholding answers in a recognition test. In Experiments 1 and 2, we found the pattern of memory conformity to reliable and unreliable sources in 2 variants of a free-report recognition test, yet at the same time the provision of external cues did not affect the rate of response withholding. In Experiment 3, we provided participants with initial feedback on their recognition decisions, facilitating the discrimination between the reliable and unreliable source. This led to the reduction of memory conformity to the unreliable source, and at the same time modulated metamemory decisions concerning response withholding: participants displayed metamemory conformity to the reliable source, volunteering more responses in their memory report, and metamemory resistance to the random source, withholding more responses from the memory report. Together, the results show how metamemory decisions dissociate various types of memory conformity and that memory and metamemory decisions can be independent of each other.

  1. Effects of cues to event segmentation on subsequent memory.

    PubMed

    Gold, David A; Zacks, Jeffrey M; Flores, Shaney

    2017-01-01

    To remember everyday activity it is important to encode it effectively, and one important component of everyday activity is that it consists of events. People who segment activity into events more adaptively have better subsequent memory for that activity, and event boundaries are remembered better than event middles. The current study asked whether intervening to improve segmentation by cuing effective event boundaries would enhance subsequent memory for events. We selected a set of movies that had previously been segmented by a large sample of observers and edited them to provide visual and auditory cues to encourage segmentation. For each movie, cues were placed either at event boundaries or event middles, or the movie was left unedited. To further support the encoding of our everyday event movies, we also included post-viewing summaries of the movies. We hypothesized that cuing at event boundaries would improve memory, and that this might reduce age differences in memory. For both younger and older adults, we found that cuing event boundaries improved memory-particularly for the boundaries that were cued. Cuing event middles also improved memory, though to a lesser degree; this suggests that imposing a segmental structure on activity may facilitate memory encoding, even when segmentation is not optimal. These results provide evidence that structural cuing can improve memory for everyday events in younger and older adults.

  2. Colliding Cues in Word Segmentation: The Role of Cue Strength and General Cognitive Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Daniel J.; Gerfen, Chip; Mitchel, Aaron D.

    2010-01-01

    The process of word segmentation is flexible, with many strategies potentially available to learners. This experiment explores how segmentation cues interact, and whether successful resolution of cue competition is related to general executive functioning. Participants listened to artificial speech streams that contained both statistical and…

  3. Extended Exposure to Environmental Cues, but not to Sucrose, Reduces Sucrose Cue-reactivity in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Harkness, John H.; Wells, Jason; Webb, Sierra; Grimm, Jeffrey W.

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the effect of extinction of sucrose-predictive contextual cues and/or sucrose satiation on the expression of sucrose cue-reactivity in a rat model of relapse. Context extinction was imposed by housing rats in their home cage or in the operant conditioning chamber for 17 hours prior to testing. For sucrose satiation, rats were allowed unlimited access to water or sucrose for 17 hours prior to testing. Cue-reactivity was assessed after either 1 (Day 1) or 30 (Day 30) days of forced abstinence from sucrose self-administration. An abstinence-dependent increase in sucrose cue-reactivity was observed in all conditions (“incubation of craving”). Context extinction dramatically reduced lever responding on both Day 1 and Day 30. Sucrose satiation had no significant effect on cue-reactivity in any condition. These results demonstrate that the context in which self-administration occurred maintains a powerful influence over cue-reactivity even after extended forced abstinence. In contrast, the primary reinforcer has little control over cue-reactivity. These findings highlight the important role of conditioned contextual cues in driving relapse behavior. PMID:26169836

  4. Cues for Better Writing: Empirical Assessment of a Word Counter and Cueing Application's Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vijayasarathy, Leo R.; Gould, Susan Martin; Gould, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Written clarity and conciseness are desired by employers and emphasized in business communication courses. We developed and tested the efficacy of a cueing tool--Scribe Bene--to help students reduce their use of imprecise and ambiguous words and wordy phrases. Effectiveness was measured by comparing cue word usage between a treatment group given…

  5. Age differences in the use of beneficial and misleading cues in recall: with a comment on the measurement of between-group differences in accuracy.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, Aaron S

    2011-01-01

    Young and old subjects were tested on their memory for paired-associate terms when cued with either facilitative or misleading word stems. After studying a long list of pairs of unrelated words (e.g., hair-turtle), recall of a particular target term was cued in a facilitative manner (hair-tu____) or a misleading manner (hair-ta____). The effects of these cues were assessed relative to a baseline condition in which levels of performance lay between the other two (hair-t____). To interpret the age-related effects of the facilitative and misleading cues relative to baseline, the variance in differences between the baseline and the experimental conditions related to the overall baseline level was factored out, and age-related differences as a function of cue were assessed on the remaining variability. This analysis revealed that the two age groups differed both in their ability to overcome the adverse effects of the misleading cue and also to take advantage of the benefits afforded by the facilitative cue. This combination of results is consistent with the view that aging results in a loss of general strategic control, and not specifically inhibitory control, over the effects of retrieval cues.

  6. Weakening self-control biases the emotional evaluation of appetitive cues

    PubMed Central

    Lindner, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    Exerting self-control in a first task weakens self-control in a second completely unrelated task (ego-depletion). It has been proposed that ego-depletion increases approach motivation which would amplify positive emotions to appetitive cues. Here we investigated the effect of the depletion of cognitive self-control on the subsequent emotional evaluation of appetitive cues. Participants of the depletion group copied a text omitting frequent letters and thereby exerting self-control to inhibit automated writing habits. Participants of the control group just copied the text. In a subsequent task participants had to rate valence and arousal of their responses to neutral vs. positive pictures of humans, animals, food, or sceneries. Ego-depletion caused more positive valence ratings of neutral pictures and lower arousal ratings of positive pictures. The findings do not support the notion that ego-depletion increases approach motivation in general. Rather they suggest that—without a specific motivational context—depletion of cognitive self-control differentially alters the immediate emotional evaluation of appetitive cues. PMID:28141811

  7. Tautomerism in neutral histidine.

    PubMed

    Bermúdez, Celina; Mata, Santiago; Cabezas, Carlos; Alonso, José L

    2014-10-06

    Histidine is an important natural amino acid, involved in many relevant biological processes, which, because of its physical properties, proved difficult to characterize experimentally in its neutral form. In this work, neutral histidine has been generated in the gas phase by laser ablation of solid samples and its N(ε)H tautomeric form unraveled through its rotational spectrum. The quadrupole hyperfine structure, arising from the existing three (14)N nuclei, constituted a site-specifically probe for revealing the tautomeric form as well as the side chain configuration of this proteogenic amino acid.

  8. Visual and linguistic cues to graspable objects.

    PubMed

    Myachykov, Andriy; Ellis, Rob; Cangelosi, Angelo; Fischer, Martin H

    2013-09-01

    Two experiments investigated (1) how activation of manual affordances is triggered by visual and linguistic cues to manipulable objects and (2) whether graspable object parts play a special role in this process. Participants pressed a key to categorize manipulable target objects copresented with manipulable distractor objects on a computer screen. Three factors were varied in Experiment 1: (1) the target's and (2) the distractor's handles' orientation congruency with the lateral manual response and (3) the Visual Focus on one of the objects. In Experiment 2, a linguistic cue factor was added to these three factors-participants heard the name of one of the two objects prior to the target display onset. Analysis of participants' motor and oculomotor behaviour confirmed that perceptual and linguistic cues potentiated activation of grasp affordances. Both target- and distractor-related affordance effects were modulated by the presence of visual and linguistic cues. However, a differential visual attention mechanism subserved activation of compatibility effects associated with target and distractor objects. We also registered an independent implicit attention attraction effect from objects' handles, suggesting that graspable parts automatically attract attention during object viewing. This effect was further amplified by visual but not linguistic cues, thus providing initial evidence for a recent hypothesis about differential roles of visual and linguistic information in potentiating stable and variable affordances (Borghi in Language and action in cognitive neuroscience. Psychology Press, London, 2012).

  9. Transient and sustained neural responses to death-related linguistic cues.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zhenhao; Han, Shihui

    2013-06-01

    Recent research showed that perception of death-related vs death-unrelated linguistic cues produced increased frontoparietal activity but decreased insular activity. This study investigated (i) whether the increased frontoparietal and decreased insular activities are, respectively, associated with transient trial-specific processes of death-related linguistic cues and sustained death-related thought during death-relevance judgments on linguistic cues and (ii) whether the neural activity underlying death-related thought can predict individuals' dispositional death anxiety. Participants were presented with death-related/unrelated words, life-related/unrelated words, and negative-valence/neutral words in separate sessions. Participants were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing death-relevance, life-relevance, and valence judgments on the words, respectively. The contrast of death-related vs death-unrelated words during death-relevance judgments revealed transient increased activity in the left inferior parietal lobule, the right frontal eye field, and the right superior parietal lobule. The contrast of death-relevance judgments vs life-relevance/valence judgments showed decreased activity in the bilateral insula. The sustained insular activity was correlated with dispositional death anxiety, but only in those with weak transient frontoparietal responses to death-related words. Our results dissociate the transient and sustained neural responses to death-related linguistic cues and suggest that the combination of the transient and sustained neural activities can predict dispositional death anxiety.

  10. Negative mood increases selective attention to food cues and subjective appetite.

    PubMed

    Hepworth, Rebecca; Mogg, Karin; Brignell, Catherine; Bradley, Brendan P

    2010-02-01

    Following negative reinforcement and affect-regulation models of dysfunctional appetitive motivation, this study examined the effect of negative mood on objective and subjective cognitive indices of motivation for food; i.e., attentional bias for food cues and self-reported hunger/urge to eat, respectively. The study extended previous research on the effect of mood on food motivation by using (i) an experimental mood manipulation, (ii) an established index of attentional bias from the visual-probe task and (iii) pictorial food cues, which have greater ecological validity than word stimuli. Young female adults (n=80) were randomly allocated to a neutral or negative mood induction procedure. Attentional biases were assessed at two cue exposure durations (500 and 2000ms). Results showed that negative mood increased both attentional bias for food cues and subjective appetite. Attentional bias and subjective appetite were positively inter-correlated, suggesting a common mechanism, i.e. activation of the food-reward system. Attentional bias was also associated with trait eating style, such as external and restrained eating. Thus, current mood and trait eating style each influenced motivation for food (as reflected by subjective appetite and attentional bias). Findings relate to models of cognitive mechanisms underlying normal and dysfunctional appetitive motivation and eating behaviour.

  11. Menstrual Cycle Phase Effects in the Gender Dimorphic Stress Cue Reactivity of Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Wray, Jennifer M.; Carpenter, Matthew J.; McClure, Erin A.; LaRowe, Steven D.; Upadhyaya, Himanshu P.; Gray, Kevin M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: We previously reported that female smokers evidence greater subjective craving and stress/emotional reactivity to personalized stress cues than males. The present study employed the same dataset to assess whether females in the follicular versus luteal phase of the menstrual cycle accounted for the gender differences. Methods: Two objective criteria, onset of menses and luteinizing hormone surge (evaluated via home testing kits), were used to determine whether female smokers were in either the follicular (n = 22) or the luteal (n = 15) phase of their menstrual cycle, respectively. The females and a sample of male smokers (n = 53) were then administered a laboratory-based cue reactivity paradigm that involved assessment of craving, stress, and emotional reactivity in response to counterbalanced presentations of both a personalized stress script and neutral/relaxed script. Results: While there were no significant differences between females in the follicular versus luteal phase on any outcome measure, females in the luteal menstrual phase reported greater craving than males whereas females in the follicular phase reported greater stress and arousal than males and perceived the stress cues as more emotionally aversive than males. Conclusions: This preliminary investigation suggests that gender differences in craving versus affective responding to stress cues may, in part, be explained variation by menstrual cycle phase. Study limitations and implications of the findings for future research and treatment are briefly discussed. PMID:25324432

  12. Effect of the retinal size of a peripheral cue on attentional orienting in two- and three-dimensional worlds.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yizhou; Li, Sijie; Li, You; Zeng, Hang; Chen, Qi

    2016-07-01

    It has been documented that due to limited attentional resources, the size of the attentional focus is inversely correlated with processing efficiency. Moreover, by adopting a variety of two-dimensional size illusions induced by pictorial depth cues (e.g., the Ponzo illusion), previous studies have revealed that the perceived, rather than the retinal, size of an object determines its detection. It remains unclear, however, whether and how the retinal versus perceived size of a cue influences the process of attentional orienting to subsequent targets, and whether the corresponding influencing processes differ between two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) space. In the present study, we incorporated the dot probe paradigm with either a 2-D Ponzo illusion, induced by pictorial depth cues, or a virtual 3-D world in which the Ponzo illusion turned into visual reality. By varying the retinal size of the cue while keeping its perceived size constant (Exp. 1), we found that a cue with smaller retinal size significantly facilitated attentional orienting as compared to a cue with larger retinal size, and that the effects were comparable between 2-D and 3-D displays. Furthermore, when the pictorial background was removed and the cue display was positioned in either the farther or the closer depth plane (Exp. 2), or when both the depth and the background were removed (Exp. 3), the retinal size, rather than the depth, of the cue still affected attentional orienting. Taken together, our results suggest that the retinal size of a cue plays the crucial role in the visuospatial orienting of attention in both 2-D and 3-D.

  13. Procedural Learning and Associative Memory Mechanisms Contribute to Contextual Cueing: Evidence from fMRI and Eye-Tracking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manelis, Anna; Reder, Lynne M.

    2012-01-01

    Using a combination of eye tracking and fMRI in a contextual cueing task, we explored the mechanisms underlying the facilitation of visual search for repeated spatial configurations. When configurations of distractors were repeated, greater activation in the right hippocampus corresponded to greater reductions in the number of saccades to locate…

  14. CO2-Neutral Fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goede, Adelbert; van de Sanden, Richard

    2016-06-01

    Mimicking the biogeochemical cycle of System Earth, synthetic hydrocarbon fuels are produced from recycled CO2 and H2O powered by renewable energy. Recapturing CO2 after use closes the carbon cycle, rendering the fuel cycle CO2 neutral. Non-equilibrium molecular CO2 vibrations are key to high energy efficiency.

  15. Bleach Neutralizes Mold Allergens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Researchers at National Jewish Medical and Research Center have demonstrated that dilute bleach not only kills common household mold, but may also neutralize the mold allergens that cause most mold-related health complaints. The study, published in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, is the first to test the effect on allergic…

  16. Beyond Viral Neutralization.

    PubMed

    Lewis, George K; Pazgier, Marzena; Evans, David; Ferrari, Guido; Bournazos, Stylianos; Parsons, Matthew S; Bernard, Nicole F; Finzi, Andrés

    2017-01-13

    It has been known for more than 30 years that Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 (HIV-1) infection drives a very potent B cell response resulting in the production of anti-HIV-1 antibodies targeting several viral proteins, particularly its envelope glycoproteins (Env). Env epitopes are exposed on the surfaces of viral particles and infected cells where they are targets of potentially protective antibodies. These antibodies can interdict infection by neutralization and there is strong evidence suggesting that Fc-mediated effector function can also contribute to protection. Current evidence suggests that Fc-mediated effector function plays a role in protection against infection by broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) and it might be important for protection by non-neutralizing antibodies. Fc-mediated effector function includes diverse mechanisms that include antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), antibody-mediated complement activation (ADC), antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP), antibody-dependent cell-mediated virus inhibition (ADCVI), antibody-mediated trancytosis inhibition, and antibody-mediated virus opsonization. All these functions could be beneficial in fighting viral infections including HIV-1. In this perspective, we discuss the latest developments for ADCC responses discussed at the HIVR4P satellite session on non-neutralizing antibodies, with emphasis on the mechanisms of ADCC resistance employed by HIV-1, the structural basis of epitopes recognized by antibodies that mediate ADCC, NK-cell education and ADCC, and murine models to study ADCC against HIV-1.

  17. Perceptions of Sexual Orientation From Minimal Cues.

    PubMed

    Rule, Nicholas O

    2017-01-01

    People derive considerable amounts of information about each other from minimal nonverbal cues. Apart from characteristics typically regarded as obvious when encountering another person (e.g., age, race, and sex), perceivers can identify many other qualities about a person that are typically rather subtle. One such feature is sexual orientation. Here, I review the literature documenting the accurate perception of sexual orientation from nonverbal cues related to one's adornment, acoustics, actions, and appearance. In addition to chronicling studies that have demonstrated how people express and extract sexual orientation in each of these domains, I discuss some of the basic cognitive and perceptual processes that support these judgments, including how cues to sexual orientation manifest in behavioral (e.g., clothing choices) and structural (e.g., facial morphology) signals. Finally, I attend to boundary conditions in the accurate perception of sexual orientation, such as the states, traits, and group memberships that moderate individuals' ability to reliably decipher others' sexual orientation.

  18. Defocus cue and saliency preserving video compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanna, Meera Thapar; Chaudhury, Santanu; Lall, Brejesh

    2016-11-01

    There are monocular depth cues present in images or videos that aid in depth perception in two-dimensional images or videos. Our objective is to preserve the defocus depth cue present in the videos along with the salient regions during compression application. A method is provided for opportunistic bit allocation during the video compression using visual saliency information comprising both the image features, such as color and contrast, and the defocus-based depth cue. The method is divided into two steps: saliency computation followed by compression. A nonlinear method is used to combine pure and defocus saliency maps to form the final saliency map. Then quantization values are assigned on the basis of these saliency values over a frame. The experimental results show that the proposed scheme yields good results over standard H.264 compression as well as pure and defocus saliency methods.

  19. Probabilistic Cue Combination: Less is More

    PubMed Central

    Yurovsky, Daniel; Boyer, Ty W.; Smith, Linda B.; Yu, Chen

    2012-01-01

    Learning about the structure of the world requires learning probabilistic relationships: rules in which cues do not predict outcomes with certainty. However, in some cases, the ability to track probabilistic relationships is a handicap, leading adults to perform non-normatively in prediction tasks. For example, in the dilution effect, predictions made from the combination of two cues of different strengths are less accurate than those made from the stronger cue alone. Here we show that dilution is an adult problem; 11-month-old infants combine strong and weak predictors normatively. These results extend and add support for the less is more hypothesis: limited cognitive resources can lead children to represent probabilistic information differently from adults, and this difference in representation can have important downstream consequences for prediction. PMID:23432826

  20. Elaboration over a Discourse Facilitates Retrieval in Sentence Processing.

    PubMed

    Troyer, Melissa; Hofmeister, Philip; Kutas, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Language comprehension requires access to stored knowledge and the ability to combine knowledge in new, meaningful ways. Previous work has shown that processing linguistically more complex expressions ('Texas cattle rancher' vs. 'rancher') leads to slow-downs in reading during initial processing, possibly reflecting effort in combining information. Conversely, when this information must subsequently be retrieved (as in filler-gap constructions), processing is facilitated for more complex expressions, possibly because more semantic cues are available during retrieval. To follow up on this hypothesis, we tested whether information distributed across a short discourse can similarly provide effective cues for retrieval. Participants read texts introducing two referents (e.g., two senators), one of whom was described in greater detail than the other (e.g., 'The Democrat had voted for one of the senators, and the Republican had voted for the other, a man from Ohio who was running for president'). The final sentence (e.g., 'The senator who the {Republican/Democrat}had voted for…') contained a relative clause picking out either the Many-Cue referent (with 'Republican') or the One-Cue referent (with 'Democrat'). We predicted facilitated retrieval (faster reading times) for the Many-Cue condition at the verb region ('had voted for'), where readers could understand that 'The senator' is the object of the verb. As predicted, this pattern was observed at the retrieval region and continued throughout the rest of the sentence. Participants also completed the Author/Magazine Recognition Tests (ART/MRT; Stanovich and West, 1989), providing a proxy for world knowledge. Since higher ART/MRT scores may index (a) greater experience accessing relevant knowledge and/or (b) richer/more highly structured representations in semantic memory, we predicted it would be positively associated with effects of elaboration on retrieval. We did not observe the predicted interaction between ART

  1. Elaboration over a Discourse Facilitates Retrieval in Sentence Processing

    PubMed Central

    Troyer, Melissa; Hofmeister, Philip; Kutas, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Language comprehension requires access to stored knowledge and the ability to combine knowledge in new, meaningful ways. Previous work has shown that processing linguistically more complex expressions (‘Texas cattle rancher’ vs. ‘rancher’) leads to slow-downs in reading during initial processing, possibly reflecting effort in combining information. Conversely, when this information must subsequently be retrieved (as in filler-gap constructions), processing is facilitated for more complex expressions, possibly because more semantic cues are available during retrieval. To follow up on this hypothesis, we tested whether information distributed across a short discourse can similarly provide effective cues for retrieval. Participants read texts introducing two referents (e.g., two senators), one of whom was described in greater detail than the other (e.g., ‘The Democrat had voted for one of the senators, and the Republican had voted for the other, a man from Ohio who was running for president’). The final sentence (e.g., ‘The senator who the {Republican/Democrat}had voted for…’) contained a relative clause picking out either the Many-Cue referent (with ‘Republican’) or the One-Cue referent (with ‘Democrat’). We predicted facilitated retrieval (faster reading times) for the Many-Cue condition at the verb region (‘had voted for’), where readers could understand that ‘The senator’ is the object of the verb. As predicted, this pattern was observed at the retrieval region and continued throughout the rest of the sentence. Participants also completed the Author/Magazine Recognition Tests (ART/MRT; Stanovich and West, 1989), providing a proxy for world knowledge. Since higher ART/MRT scores may index (a) greater experience accessing relevant knowledge and/or (b) richer/more highly structured representations in semantic memory, we predicted it would be positively associated with effects of elaboration on retrieval. We did not observe the

  2. Coordinated sensor cueing for chemical plume detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, Nathan J.; Jensenius, Andrea M.; Watkins, Adam S.; Hawthorne, R. Chad; Stepnitz, Brian J.

    2011-05-01

    This paper describes an organic data fusion and sensor cueing approach for Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear (CBRN) sensors. The Joint Warning and Reporting Network (JWARN) uses a hardware component referred to as the JWARN Component Interface Device (JCID). The Edgewood Chemical and Biological Center has developed a small footprint and open architecture solution for the JCID capability called JCID-on-a-Chip (JoaC). The JoaC program aims to reduce the cost and complexity of the JCID by shrinking the necessary functionality down to a small single board computer. This effort focused on development of a fusion and cueing algorithm organic to the JoaC hardware. By embedding this capability in the JoaC, sensors have the ability to receive and process cues from other sensors without the use of a complex and costly centralized infrastructure. Additionally, the JoaC software is hardware agnostic, as evidenced by its drop-in inclusion in two different system-on-a-chip platforms including Windows CE and LINUX environments. In this effort, a partnership between JPM-CA, JHU/APL, and the Edgewood Chemical and Biological Center (ECBC), the authors implemented and demonstrated a new algorithm for cooperative detection and localization of a chemical agent plume. This experiment used a pair of mobile Joint Services Lightweight Standoff Chemical Agent Detector (JSLSCAD) units which were controlled by fusion and cueing algorithms hosted on a JoaC. The algorithms embedded in the JoaC enabled the two sensor systems to perform cross cueing and cooperatively form a higher fidelity estimate of chemical releases by combining sensor readings. Additionally, each JSLSCAD had the ability to focus its search on smaller regions than those required by a single sensor system by using the cross cue information from the other sensor.

  3. Regulation of dendrite morphogenesis by extrinsic cues.

    PubMed

    Valnegri, Pamela; Puram, Sidharth V; Bonni, Azad

    2015-07-01

    Dendrites play a central role in the integration and flow of information in the nervous system. The morphogenesis and maturation of dendrites is hence an essential step in the establishment of neuronal connectivity. Recent studies have uncovered crucial functions for extrinsic cues in the development of dendrites. We review the contribution of secreted polypeptide growth factors, contact-mediated proteins, and neuronal activity in distinct phases of dendrite development. We also highlight how extrinsic cues influence local and global intracellular mechanisms of dendrite morphogenesis. Finally, we discuss how these studies have advanced our understanding of neuronal connectivity and have shed light on the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental disorders.

  4. Facilitating Organizational Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    The first of the three papers in this symposium, "Conflicts that Arise in Small Group Facilitation: A Descriptive Study of Accounts, Actions, Outcomes, and Assessments" (Judith A. Kolb, William J. Rothwell), contains self-report verbatim accounts contributed by facilitators and the results of a literature review on small group conflict.…

  5. Evaluator or Facilitator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolding, James T.

    1978-01-01

    In American schools, the classroom teacher must act in two conflicting capacities: as a facilitator of learning and as an evaluator of his own facilitating activities. To avoid problems inherent in this, the evaluator role could be assigned elsewhere, as in the Boy Scouts' merit badge system. (SJL)

  6. Proximal versus distal cue utilization in preweanling spatial localization: the influence of cue number and location.

    PubMed

    Carman, Heidi M; Booze, Rosemarie M; Snow, Diane M; Mactutus, Charles F

    2003-07-01

    The present study was designed to examine the role of cue location and number in spatial navigation of the preweanling Fischer-344N rat in the Morris water maze using a protocol consistent with the pups' response repertoire. The proximal (visible platform) versus distal (hidden platform) cue strategy was used, and spatial cues within the extramaze environment were configured such that the arrangement presented either a double cue or null cull condition relative to the platform location. All pups' performance improved with training; however, probe trial performance, defined by quadrant time and platform crossings, revealed distal-double cue pups demonstrated spatial navigational ability superior to the remaining groups. This experimental dissociation suggests that a pup's ability to spatially navigate a hidden platform is dependent on not only its response repertoire and task parameters but also its visual acuity, as determined by the number of extramaze cues and the location of these cues within the testing environment. The hidden versus visible platform dissociation may not be a satisfactory strategy for the control of potential sensorimotor deficits.

  7. Associative learning of shape as a cue to appearance: a new demonstration of cue recruitment.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Sarah J; Backus, Benjamin T

    2012-03-16

    The perceived rotation direction of a wire-frame Necker cube at stimulus onset can be conditioned to be dependent on retinal location (B. T. Backus & Q. Haijiang, 2007; S. J. Harrison & B. T. Backus, 2010a). This phenomenon was proposed to be an example of the visual system learning new cues to visual appearance, by adaptation in response to new experiences. Here, we demonstrate recruitment of a new cue, object shape, for the appearance of rotating 3D objects. The cue was established by interleaving ambiguous and disambiguated instances of two shapes, cubes and spheres, at the same retinal location. Disambiguated cubes and spheres rotated in opposite directions. A significant bias was consequently introduced in the resolution of ambiguity, whereby the proportions of ambiguous shapes perceived as rotating clockwise differed, in the direction predicted by their disambiguated counterparts. This finding suggests that training led the visual system to distinguish between the two shapes. The association of rotation direction and shape was only achieved when monocular depth cues were used to depict rotation in depth; shapes disambiguated by binocular disparity did not lead to recruitment of the shape cue. We speculate that this difference may be the consequence of a difference in the neural pathways by which the disambiguating cues act. This new instance of the cue recruitment effect opens possibilities for further generalization of the phenomenon.

  8. Women with elevated food addiction symptoms show accelerated reactions, but no impaired inhibitory control, in response to pictures of high-calorie food-cues.

    PubMed

    Meule, Adrian; Lutz, Annika; Vögele, Claus; Kübler, Andrea

    2012-12-01

    Addictive behaviors are accompanied by a lack of inhibitory control, specifically when individuals are confronted with substance-related cues. Thus, we expected women with symptoms of food addiction to be impaired in inhibitory control, when confronted with palatable, high-calorie food-cues. Female college students (N=50) were divided in low and high food addiction groups based on the symptom count of the Yale Food Addiction Scale. Participants performed a Go/No-go-task with high-calorie food-cues or neutral pictures presented behind the targets. Self-reported impulsivity was also assessed. The high food addiction group had faster reaction times in response to food-cues as compared to neutral cues and reported higher attentional impulsivity than the low food addiction group. Commission and omission errors did not differ between groups or picture types. Hence, women with food addiction symptoms reported higher attentional impulsivity and reacted faster in response to food-cues, although neither increased self-reported motor impulsivity nor impaired behavioral inhibition was found. Food addiction symptoms seem to be related to attentional aspects of impulsivity but not other facets of impulsivity.

  9. Reduced food intake after exposure to subtle weight-related cues.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Thomas A; Siegrist, Michael

    2012-06-01

    This research investigated the influence of weight-related cues on food intake. The first study used a screensaver showing three of the famous skinny human-like sculptures by Alberto Giacometti and found that participants in this condition consumed less chocolate than when they were exposed to a more neutral work of art. In the second study, participants had to indicate their body weight either before or after the tasting. Reporting their weight before the tasting resulted in reduced food intake. A gender effect was found for the second but not the first study. We suggest that the cues in the two studies might have been processed with different levels of awareness, which might explain the gender effect found in the second study.

  10. How food cues can enhance and inhibit motivation to obtain and consume food.

    PubMed

    Colagiuri, Ben; Lovibond, Peter F

    2015-01-01

    Learning may play an important role in over-eating. One example is Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer (PIT), whereby reward cues facilitate responding to obtain that reward. Whilst there is increasing research indicating PIT for food in humans, these studies have exclusively tested PIT under instrumental extinction (i.e. when the food is no longer available), which may reduce their ecological validity. To address this, we conducted two experiments exploring PIT for food in humans when tested under instrumental reinforcement. Participants first underwent Pavlovian discrimination training with an auditory cue paired with a chocolate reward (CS+) and another auditory cue unpaired (CS-). In instrumental training participants learnt to press a button to receive the chocolate reward on a VR10 schedule. In the test phase, each CS was presented whilst participants maintained the opportunity to press the button to receive chocolate. In Experiment 1, the PIT test was implemented after up to 20 min of instrumental training (satiation) whereas in Experiment 2 it was implemented after only 4 min of instrumental training. In both experiments there was evidence for differential PIT, but the pattern differed according to the rate of responding at the time of the PIT test. In low baseline responders the CS+ facilitated both button press responding and consumption, whereas in high baseline responders the CS- suppressed responding. These findings suggest that both excitatory and inhibitory associations may be learnt during PIT training and that the expression of these associations depends on motivation levels at the time the cues are encountered. Particularly concerning is that a food-paired cue can elicit increased motivation to obtain and consume food even when the participant is highly satiated and no longer actively seeking food, as this may be one mechanism by which over-consumption is maintained.

  11. Neural correlates of stress and favorite-food cue exposure in adolescents: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Hommer, Rebecca E; Seo, Dongju; Lacadie, Cheryl M; Chaplin, Tara M; Mayes, Linda C; Sinha, Rajita; Potenza, Marc N

    2013-10-01

    Adolescence is a critical period of neurodevelopment for stress and appetitive processing, as well as a time of increased vulnerability to stress and engagement in risky behaviors. This study was conducted to examine brain activation patterns during stress and favorite-food-cue experiences relative to a neutral-relaxing condition in adolescents. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was employed using individualized script-driven guided imagery to compare brain responses with such experiences in 43 adolescents. Main effects of condition and gender were found, without a significant gender-by-condition interaction. Stress imagery, relative to neutral, was associated with activation in the caudate, thalamus, left hippocampus/parahippocampal gyrus, midbrain, left superior/middle temporal gyrus, and right posterior cerebellum. Appetitive imagery of favorite food was associated with caudate, thalamus, and midbrain activation compared with the neutral-relaxing condition. To understand neural correlates of anxiety and craving, subjective (self-reported) measures of stress-induced anxiety and favorite-food-cue-induced craving were correlated with brain activity during stress and appetitive food-cue conditions, respectively. High self-reported stress-induced anxiety was associated with hypoactivity in the striatum, thalamus, hippocampus, and midbrain. Self-reported favorite-food-cue-induced craving was associated with blunted activity in cortical-striatal regions, including the right dorsal and ventral striatum, medial prefrontal cortex, motor cortex, and left anterior cingulate cortex. These findings in adolescents indicate the activation of predominantly subcortical-striatal regions in the processing of stressful and appetitive experiences and link hypoactive striatal circuits to self-reported stress-induced anxiety and cue-induced favorite-food craving.

  12. Chemical Cues Released by an Alien Invasive Aquatic Gastropod Drive Its Invasion Success

    PubMed Central

    Raw, Jacqueline L.; Miranda, Nelson A. F.; Perissinotto, Renzo

    2013-01-01

    Background Chemical cues provide aquatic organisms with sensory information that guides behavioural responses and thus interactions among themselves, each other and the environment. Chemical cues are considered important for predator avoidance, foraging, larval settlement and broadcast spawning in aquatic environments. However, the significance of their role as drivers of direct interactions between heterospecifics has been largely overlooked. Methodology/Principal Findings A video camera and a demarcated arena were used in situ to record behavioural responses of three native gastropod species, Assiminea cf. capensis, Melanoides tuberculata and Coriandria durbanensis, exposed to treatments representing chemical cues released by a non-native invasive gastropod, Tarebia granifera. The responses were measured quantitatively as displacement and orientation of movement at locations in St Lucia Estuary, within the iSimangaliso Wetland Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site on the east coast of South Africa. All native gastropods exhibited a negative taxis response to chemical cues released by T. granifera, while T. granifera individuals responded randomly to conspecifics. Displacement was measured relative to the source of the extract, the number of steps taken were determined with path analysis and orientation was determined from the mean (±95% CIs) turning angles, with significant negative turning angles representing negative taxis. Responses to treatments corresponding to the environment and conspecifics were random and undirected, indicating kinesis. Conclusion/Significance This study presents evidence for interactions driven by chemical cues between a non-native invasive gastropod and several gastropods native to South Africa. The results indicate that chemical cues can facilitate invasion success as the behavioural response of native gastropods is to move away allowing additional food and space resources to become available to T. granifera. PMID:23691151

  13. Moving to music: effects of heard and imagined musical cues on movement-related brain activity.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Rebecca S; Morcom, Alexa M; Roberts, Neil; Overy, Katie

    2014-01-01

    Music is commonly used to facilitate or support movement, and increasingly used in movement rehabilitation. Additionally, there is some evidence to suggest that music imagery, which is reported to lead to brain signatures similar to music perception, may also assist movement. However, it is not yet known whether either imagined or musical cueing changes the way in which the motor system of the human brain is activated during simple movements. Here, functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to compare neural activity during wrist flexions performed to either heard or imagined music with self-pacing of the same movement without any cueing. Focusing specifically on the motor network of the brain, analyses were performed within a mask of BA4, BA6, the basal ganglia (putamen, caudate, and pallidum), the motor nuclei of the thalamus, and the whole cerebellum. Results revealed that moving to music compared with self-paced movement resulted in significantly increased activation in left cerebellum VI. Moving to imagined music led to significantly more activation in pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) and right globus pallidus, relative to self-paced movement. When the music and imagery cueing conditions were contrasted directly, movements in the music condition showed significantly more activity in left hemisphere cerebellum VII and right hemisphere and vermis of cerebellum IX, while the imagery condition revealed more significant activity in pre-SMA. These results suggest that cueing movement with actual or imagined music impacts upon engagement of motor network regions during the movement, and suggest that heard and imagined cues can modulate movement in subtly different ways. These results may have implications for the applicability of auditory cueing in movement rehabilitation for different patient populations.

  14. The influence of partner cues on the extinction of causal judgments in people.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Nathan M; Griffiths, Oren; Westbrook, R Frederick

    2014-09-01

    Studies in laboratory animals have shown that the extinction of a conditioned stimulus, A, is regulated by the associative history of a second stimulus, X, when the two are extinguished in simultaneous compound: An inhibitory X protects A from extinction (Rescorla Learning & Behavior, 31, 124-132, 2003), whereas an excitatory X facilitates, and under some circumstances deepens, the extinction of A (Rescorla Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 26, 251-260, 2000, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 32, 135-144, 2006). In the present study, we used the allergist task to examine whether the extinction of causal judgments in people is similarly regulated by the causal status of co-present stimuli. Experiment 1 showed that a cue trained as a conditioned inhibitor protected a target cue from extinction: The target extinguished in compound with the inhibitor was rated as being more causal of the outcome than was a target extinguished in compound with a control cue lacking inhibitory properties. In contrast, the remaining experiments showed that the extinction of a target cue was regulated by the presence, but not the causal status, of a partner cue: Target cues extinguished in compound were protected from extinction, and no evidence showed that an already extinguished partner conferred more protection (Exp. 2), or that an excitatory partner conferred any less protection (Exps. 2 and 3), or that an excitatory partner deepened the extinction of its already extinguished target. These findings are inconsistent with elemental models that rely on a common error term to explain associative changes in extinction. They are largely, but not completely, consistent with the configural model proposed by Pearce (Psychological Review, 94, 61-73, 1987), which predicts an ordering of levels of protection that was not observed.

  15. Moving to Music: Effects of Heard and Imagined Musical Cues on Movement-Related Brain Activity

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Rebecca S.; Morcom, Alexa M.; Roberts, Neil; Overy, Katie

    2014-01-01

    Music is commonly used to facilitate or support movement, and increasingly used in movement rehabilitation. Additionally, there is some evidence to suggest that music imagery, which is reported to lead to brain signatures similar to music perception, may also assist movement. However, it is not yet known whether either imagined or musical cueing changes the way in which the motor system of the human brain is activated during simple movements. Here, functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to compare neural activity during wrist flexions performed to either heard or imagined music with self-pacing of the same movement without any cueing. Focusing specifically on the motor network of the brain, analyses were performed within a mask of BA4, BA6, the basal ganglia (putamen, caudate, and pallidum), the motor nuclei of the thalamus, and the whole cerebellum. Results revealed that moving to music compared with self-paced movement resulted in significantly increased activation in left cerebellum VI. Moving to imagined music led to significantly more activation in pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) and right globus pallidus, relative to self-paced movement. When the music and imagery cueing conditions were contrasted directly, movements in the music condition showed significantly more activity in left hemisphere cerebellum VII and right hemisphere and vermis of cerebellum IX, while the imagery condition revealed more significant activity in pre-SMA. These results suggest that cueing movement with actual or imagined music impacts upon engagement of motor network regions during the movement, and suggest that heard and imagined cues can modulate movement in subtly different ways. These results may have implications for the applicability of auditory cueing in movement rehabilitation for different patient populations. PMID:25309407

  16. The role of context in the processing of alcohol-relevant cues.

    PubMed

    Nees, Frauke; Diener, Carsten; Smolka, Michael N; Flor, Herta

    2012-03-01

    In line with learning theories of drug addiction, drug-related cues may be viewed as important motivators of continued drug use. They may be differentially effective depending on the context and motivational significance. The present study aimed to test the significance of different contexts in modulating alcohol-related cue reactivity. Pictures depicting alcohol intake or its paraphernalia and pictures without any relation to alcohol intake were varied to depict physical and social contexts or different consumptive contexts associated with full/half-full/empty alcohol beverage containers. We obtained ratings of craving, valence and arousal of the cues as well as skin conductance responses (SCRs) and startle reflex modulation measures from 21 abstinent alcohol-dependent patients, recruited from an addiction treatment center, and 21 matched healthy controls. Social scenes and full glasses or bottles were rated as more pleasant and arousing compared with neutral drinking situations and empty glasses or bottles in patients. Furthermore, we found a decreased startle reflex magnitude to social compared with neutral drinking situations, and both higher SCRs and decreased startle reflex magnitude to full compared with empty glasses or bottles in patients versus controls. These results show that both physical and social and consumptive contexts differentially influence cue reactivity in abstinent alcohol-dependent patients with both social and pub-related physical contexts, and the initial consumptive context eliciting the most appetitive and arousing responses. These data have not only important implications for our understanding of the role of learning in drug dependence but also for treatment, which needs to take these factors into account.

  17. Dominance dynamics of competition between intrinsic and extrinsic grouping cues.

    PubMed

    Luna, Dolores; Villalba-García, Cristina; Montoro, Pedro R; Hinojosa, José A

    2016-10-01

    In the present study we examined the dominance dynamics of perceptual grouping cues. We used a paradigm in which participants selectively attended to perceptual groups based on several grouping cues in different blocks of trials. In each block, single and competing grouping cues were presented under different exposure durations (50, 150 or 350ms). Using this procedure, intrinsic vs. intrinsic cues (i.e. proximity and shape similarity) were compared in Experiment 1; extrinsic vs. extrinsic cues (i.e. common region and connectedness) in Experiment 2; and intrinsic vs. extrinsic cues (i.e. common region and shape similarity) in Experiment 3. The results showed that in Experiment 1, no dominance of any grouping cue was found: shape similarity and proximity grouping cues showed similar reaction times (RTs) and interference effects. In contrast, in Experiments 2 and 3, common region dominated processing: (i) RTs to common region were shorter than those to connectedness (Exp. 2) or shape similarity (Exp. 3); and (ii) when the grouping cues competed, common region interfered with connectedness (Exp. 2) and shape similarity (Exp. 3) more than vice versa. The results showed that the exposure duration of stimuli only affected the connectedness grouping cue. An important result of our experiments indicates that when two grouping cues compete, both the non-attended intrinsic cue in Experiment 1, and the non-dominant extrinsic cue in Experiments 2 and 3, are still perceived and they are not completely lost.

  18. Cue-induced cigarette and food craving: a common effect?

    PubMed

    Styn, Mindi A; Bovbjerg, Dana H; Lipsky, Samara; Erblich, Joel

    2013-03-01

    Cue-induced cravings may hinder behavior change efforts such as smoking cessation. Correlation of cue-induced cravings across multiple stimuli would provide evidence for a cue-reactive phenotype that may have implications for behavior change therapies. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between cue-induced cravings for cigarettes and cue-induced cravings for a highly preferred food (chocolate) in a sample of smokers not subjected to lengthy deprivation for either of these two appetitive outcomes. Adult smokers (N=164) were assessed for chocolate cravings before and after exposure to chocolate cues and cigarette cravings before and after exposure to smoking cues. Consistent with previous reports, cigarette cravings increased significantly post-cue exposure and chocolate cravings increased significantly post-cue exposure (p's<.0001). Consistent with study hypotheses, the magnitude of the increase in chocolate cravings after cue-exposure was significantly related to the increase in post-cue cigarette cravings (r=0.38; p<.0001), and was significantly related to scores on a retrospective, self-report, measure of cue-induced food cravings in daily life. These findings are consistent with the idea of a general "cue-reactive" phenotype that varies across individuals, a conceptualization of risk that may point the way toward improved interventions for a variety of hedonically mediated behaviors with negative health outcomes.

  19. Carbon neutral hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Zeman, Frank S; Keith, David W

    2008-11-13

    Reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector may be the most difficult aspect of climate change mitigation. We suggest that carbon neutral hydrocarbons (CNHCs) offer an alternative pathway for deep emission cuts that complement the use of decarbonized energy carriers. Such fuels are synthesized from atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and carbon neutral hydrogen. The result is a liquid fuel compatible with the existing transportation infrastructure and therefore capable of a gradual deployment with minimum supply disruption. Capturing the atmospheric CO2 can be accomplished using biomass or industrial methods referred to as air capture. The viability of biomass fuels is strongly dependent on the environmental impacts of biomass production. Strong constraints on land use may favour the use of air capture. We conclude that CNHCs may be a viable alternative to hydrogen or conventional biofuels and warrant a comparable level of research effort and support.

  20. Visual Cues and Listening Effort: Individual Variability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picou, Erin M.; Ricketts, Todd A; Hornsby, Benjamin W. Y.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of visual cues on listening effort as well as whether predictive variables such as working memory capacity (WMC) and lipreading ability affect the magnitude of listening effort. Method: Twenty participants with normal hearing were tested using a paired-associates recall task in 2 conditions (quiet and noise) and…

  1. Preschoolers Benefit from Visually Salient Speech Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lalonde, Kaylah; Holt, Rachael Frush

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study explored visual speech influence in preschoolers using 3 developmentally appropriate tasks that vary in perceptual difficulty and task demands. They also examined developmental differences in the ability to use visually salient speech cues and visual phonological knowledge. Method: Twelve adults and 27 typically developing 3-…

  2. CUE (CULTURE, UNDERSTANDING, ENRICHMENT)--SCIENCE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BROWN, ROBERT M.; AND OTHERS

    THIS PUBLICATION IS A TEACHING GUIDE TO PROVIDE GUIDANCE FOR INTEGRATING CAREFULLY SELECTED AUDIOVISUAL ITEMS INTO EXISTING NINTH-GRADE CURRICULUMS IN SCIENCE. IT IS ONE OF FIVE GUIDES PREPARED FOR USE IN PROJECT CUE, AN EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM DESIGNED TO INCREASE CULTURAL UNDERSTANDING AND ENRICHMENT IN THE EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS OF HIGH SCHOOLS. THE…

  3. Pilot Cueing Synergies for Degraded Visual Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-19

    display limitations Most information is presented visually in modern cockpits; thus, the visual channel can become overloaded while operating in...Due to limited capabilities in regard to human information processing, multisensory cueing could overload the pilots’ cognitive abilities... Information Center (DTIC), Cameron Station, Alexandria, Virginia 22314. Orders will be expedited if placed through the librarian or other person

  4. CUE (CULTURE, UNDERSTANDING, ENRICHMENT)--INDUSTRIAL ARTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BROWN, ROBERT M.; AND OTHERS

    THIS PUBLICATION IS A TEACHING GUIDE TO PROVIDE GUIDANCE FOR INTEGRATING CAREFULLY SELECTED AUDIOVISUAL ITEMS INTO EXISTING NINTH-GRADE CURRICULUMS IN INDUSTRIAL ARTS. IT IS ONE OF FIVE GUIDES PREPARED FOR USE IN PROJECT CUE, AN EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM DESIGNED TO INCREASE CULTURAL UNDERSTANDING AND ENRICHMENT IN THE EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS OF HIGH…

  5. CUE: the continuous unified electronic diary method.

    PubMed

    Ellis-Davies, Kate; Sakkalou, Elena; Fowler, Nia C; Hilbrink, Elma E; Gattis, Merideth

    2012-12-01

    In the present article, we introduce the continuous unified electronic (CUE) diary method, a longitudinal, event-based, electronic parent report method that allows real-time recording of infant and child behavior in natural contexts. Thirty-nine expectant mothers were trained to identify and record target behaviors into programmed handheld computers. From birth to 18 months, maternal reporters recorded the initial, second, and third occurrences of seven target motor behaviors: palmar grasp, rolls from side to back, reaching when sitting, pincer grip, crawling, walking, and climbing stairs. Compliance was assessed as two valid entries per behavior: 97 % of maternal reporters met compliance criteria. Reliability was assessed by comparing diary entries with researcher assessments for three of the motor behaviors: palmar grasp, pincer grip and walking. A total of 81 % of maternal reporters met reliability criteria. For those three target behaviors, age of emergence was compared across data from the CUE diary method and researcher assessments. The CUE diary method was found to detect behaviors earlier and with greater sensitivity to individual differences. The CUE diary method is shown to be a reliable methodological tool for studying processes of change in human development.

  6. Directing driver attention with augmented reality cues

    PubMed Central

    Rusch, Michelle L.; Schall, Mark C.; Gavin, Patrick; Lee, John D.; Dawson, Jeffrey D.; Vecera, Shaun; Rizzo, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    This simulator study evaluated the effects of augmented reality (AR) cues designed to direct the attention of experienced drivers to roadside hazards. Twenty-seven healthy middle-aged licensed drivers with a range of attention capacity participated in a 54 mile (1.5 hour) drive in an interactive fixed-base driving simulator. Each participant received AR cues to potential roadside hazards in six simulated straight (9 mile long) rural roadway segments. Drivers were evaluated on response time for detecting a potentially hazardous event, detection accuracy for target (hazard) and non-target objects, and headway with respect to the hazards. Results showed no negative outcomes associated with interference. AR cues did not impair perception of non-target objects, including for drivers with lower attentional capacity. Results showed near significant response time benefits for AR cued hazards. AR cueing increased response rate for detecting pedestrians and warning signs but not vehicles. AR system false alarms and misses did not impair driver responses to potential hazards. PMID:24436635

  7. CUE (CULTURE, UNDERSTANDING, ENRICHMENT)--SOCIAL STUDIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BROWN, ROBERT M.; AND OTHERS

    THIS PUBLICATION IS A TEACHING GUIDE TO PROVIDE GUIDANCE FOR INTEGRATING CAREFULLY SELECTED AUDIOVISUAL ITEMS INTO EXISTING NINTH-GRADE CURRICULUMS IN SOCIAL STUDIES. IT IS ONE OF FIVE GUIDES PREPARED FOR USE IN PROJECT CUE. AN EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM DESIGNED TO INCREASE CULTURAL UNDERSTANDING AND ENRICHMENT IN THE EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS OF HIGH…

  8. Probabilistic Cue Combination: Less Is More

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yurovsky, Daniel; Boyer, Ty W.; Smith, Linda B.; Yu, Chen

    2013-01-01

    Learning about the structure of the world requires learning probabilistic relationships: rules in which cues do not predict outcomes with certainty. However, in some cases, the ability to track probabilistic relationships is a handicap, leading adults to perform non-normatively in prediction tasks. For example, in the "dilution effect,"…

  9. Verbal Cueing as a Behavior Change Instrument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prieto, Alfonso G.; Rutherford, Robert B., Jr.

    A study involving four boys (9 to 14 years old) labeled as emotionally handicapped was conducted to examine the effect of a verbal cueing technique (involving an illogical statement which evokes psychological reactance) on behaviorally disordered children. Illogical statements made by the teacher produced positive change in target behaviors (such…

  10. Nonverbal Cues to Deception in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimmin, Harold; Noel, Richard C.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate nonverbal facial, body, and paralanguage cues to deception in children. A sample of 31 Hispanic and Black second and third grade students were videotaped while playing a color identification that required six honest and six deceptive verbal responses to a randomized stimulus presentation. Frame-by-frame…

  11. Spatial limitations in averaging social cues

    PubMed Central

    Florey, Joseph; Clifford, Colin W. G.; Dakin, Steven; Mareschal, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    The direction of social attention from groups provides stronger cueing than from an individual. It has previously been shown that both basic visual features such as size or orientation and more complex features such as face emotion and identity can be averaged across multiple elements. Here we used an equivalent noise procedure to compare observers’ ability to average social cues with their averaging of a non-social cue. Estimates of observers’ internal noise (uncertainty associated with processing any individual) and sample-size (the effective number of gaze-directions pooled) were derived by fitting equivalent noise functions to discrimination thresholds. We also used reverse correlation analysis to estimate the spatial distribution of samples used by participants. Averaging of head-rotation and cone-rotation was less noisy and more efficient than averaging of gaze direction, though presenting only the eye region of faces at a larger size improved gaze averaging performance. The reverse correlation analysis revealed greater sampling areas for head rotation compared to gaze. We attribute these differences in averaging between gaze and head cues to poorer visual processing of faces in the periphery. The similarity between head and cone averaging are examined within the framework of a general mechanism for averaging of object rotation. PMID:27573589

  12. Nonverbal Cues as Indicators of Verbal Dissembling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Robert S.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Sixty-three third and sixth graders in an experimental teaching session provided either genuine or dissembled (disguised) verbal praise to a student (confederate). Trained coders and naive observers analyzed nonverbal behavior. As hypothesized, nonverbal cues such as facial expressions, body movement, and pausing indicated verbal deception.…

  13. Differential Cognitive Cues in Pictorial Depth Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omari, Issa M.; Cook, Harold

    The experiment described in this report investigates the effects of various cognitive cues in questions asked regarding the relationship of elements in pictorial depth perception. The subjects of this study are 40 third grade Black and Puerto Rican children. They are confronted with four pictures from the Hudson Depth Perception Tests and asked to…

  14. Industrial Arts Humanities Media Guide: CUE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    This curriculum guide is for teacher use in course and lesson planning for ninth grade industrial arts. It was developed by Project CUE (Culture, Understanding, Enrichment), a project funded by the U.S. Office of Education, as part of a group of materials designed to integrate and encourage humanities instruction in various subject areas. The…

  15. Development of cue integration in human navigation.

    PubMed

    Nardini, Marko; Jones, Peter; Bedford, Rachael; Braddick, Oliver

    2008-05-06

    Mammalian navigation depends both on visual landmarks and on self-generated (e.g., vestibular and proprioceptive) cues that signal the organism's own movement [1-5]. When these conflict, landmarks can either reset estimates of self-motion or be integrated with them [6-9]. We asked how humans combine these information sources and whether children, who use both from a young age [10-12], combine them as adults do. Participants attempted to return an object to its original place in an arena when given either visual landmarks only, nonvisual self-motion information only, or both. Adults, but not 4- to 5-year-olds or 7- to 8-year-olds, reduced their response variance when both information sources were available. In an additional "conflict" condition that measured relative reliance on landmarks and self-motion, we predicted behavior under two models: integration (weighted averaging) of the cues and alternation between them. Adults' behavior was predicted by integration, in which the cues were weighted nearly optimally to reduce variance, whereas children's behavior was predicted by alternation. These results suggest that development of individual spatial-representational systems precedes development of the capacity to combine these within a common reference frame. Humans can integrate spatial cues nearly optimally to navigate, but this ability depends on an extended developmental process.

  16. Neutral particle beam intensity controller

    DOEpatents

    Dagenhart, William K.

    1986-01-01

    A neutral beam intensity controller is provided for a neutral beam generator in which a neutral beam is established by accelerating ions from an ion source into a gas neutralizer. An amplitude modulated, rotating magnetic field is applied to the accelerated ion beam in the gas neutralizer to defocus the resultant neutral beam in a controlled manner to achieve intensity control of the neutral beam along the beam axis at constant beam energy. The rotating magnetic field alters the orbits of ions in the gas neutralizer before they are neutralized, thereby controlling the fraction of neutral particles transmitted out of the neutralizer along the central beam axis to a fusion device or the like. The altered path or defocused neutral particles are sprayed onto an actively cooled beam dump disposed perpendicular to the neutral beam axis and having a central open for passage of the focused beam at the central axis of the beamline. Virtually zero therough 100% intensity control is achieved by varying the magnetic field strength without altering the ion source beam intensity or its species yield.

  17. Neutral atom traps.

    SciTech Connect

    Pack, Michael Vern

    2008-12-01

    This report describes progress in designing a neutral atom trap capable of trapping sub millikelvin atom in a magnetic trap and shuttling the atoms across the atom chip from a collection area to an optical cavity. The numerical simulation and atom chip design are discussed. Also, discussed are preliminary calculations of quantum noise sources in Kerr nonlinear optics measurements based on electromagnetically induced transparency. These types of measurements may be important for quantum nondemolition measurements at the few photon limit.

  18. Antihypertensive neutral lipid

    DOEpatents

    Snyder, Fred L.; Blank, Merle L.

    1986-01-01

    The invention relates to the discovery of a class of neutral acetylated ether-linked glycerolipids having the capacity to lower blood pressure in warm-blooded animals. This physiological effect is structure sensitive requiring a long chain alkyl group at the sn-1 position and a short carbon chain acyl group (acetyl or propionyl) at the sn-2 position, and a hydroxyl group at the sn-3 position.

  19. Exercise Equipment: Neutral Buoyancy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shackelford, Linda; Valle, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Load Bearing Equipment for Neutral Buoyancy (LBE-NB) is an exercise frame that holds two exercising subjects in position as they apply counter forces to each other for lower extremity and spine loading resistance exercises. Resistance exercise prevents bone loss on ISS, but the ISS equipment is too massive for use in exploration craft. Integrating the human into the load directing, load generating, and motion control functions of the exercise equipment generates safe exercise loads with less equipment mass and volume.

  20. Antihypertensive neutral lipid

    DOEpatents

    Snyder, F.L.; Blank, M.L.

    1984-10-26

    The invention relates to the discovery of a class of neutral acetylated either-linked glycerolipids having the capacity to lower blood presure in warm-blooded animals. This physiological effect is structure sensitive requiring a long chain alkyl group at the sn-1 position and a short carbon chain acyl group (acetyl or propionyl) at the sn-2 position, and a hydroxyl group at the sn-3 position.

  1. Signals, cues and the nature of mimicry.

    PubMed

    Jamie, Gabriel A

    2017-02-22

    'Mimicry' is used in the evolutionary and ecological literature to describe diverse phenomena. Many are textbook examples of natural selection's power to produce stunning adaptations. However, there remains a lack of clarity over how mimetic resemblances are conceptually related to each other. The result is that categories denoting the traditional subdivisions of mimicry are applied inconsistently across studies, hindering attempts at conceptual unification. This review critically examines the logic by which mimicry can be conceptually organized and analysed. It highlights the following three evolutionarily relevant distinctions. (i) Are the model's traits being mimicked signals or cues? (ii) Does the mimic signal a fitness benefit or fitness cost in order to manipulate the receiver's behaviour? (iii) Is the mimic's signal deceptive? The first distinction divides mimicry into two broad categories: 'signal mimicry' and 'cue mimicry'. 'Signal mimicry' occurs when mimic and model share the same receiver, and 'cue mimicry' when mimic and model have different receivers or when there is no receiver for the model's trait. 'Masquerade' fits conceptually within cue mimicry. The second and third distinctions divide both signal and cue mimicry into four types each. These are the three traditional mimicry categories (aggressive, Batesian and Müllerian) and a fourth, often overlooked category for which the term 'rewarding mimicry' is suggested. Rewarding mimicry occurs when the mimic's signal is non-deceptive (as in Müllerian mimicry) but where the mimic signals a fitness benefit to the receiver (as in aggressive mimicry). The existence of rewarding mimicry is a logical extension of the criteria used to differentiate the three well-recognized forms of mimicry. These four forms of mimicry are not discrete, immutable types, but rather help to define important axes along which mimicry can vary.

  2. Signals, cues and the nature of mimicry

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    ‘Mimicry’ is used in the evolutionary and ecological literature to describe diverse phenomena. Many are textbook examples of natural selection's power to produce stunning adaptations. However, there remains a lack of clarity over how mimetic resemblances are conceptually related to each other. The result is that categories denoting the traditional subdivisions of mimicry are applied inconsistently across studies, hindering attempts at conceptual unification. This review critically examines the logic by which mimicry can be conceptually organized and analysed. It highlights the following three evolutionarily relevant distinctions. (i) Are the model's traits being mimicked signals or cues? (ii) Does the mimic signal a fitness benefit or fitness cost in order to manipulate the receiver's behaviour? (iii) Is the mimic's signal deceptive? The first distinction divides mimicry into two broad categories: ‘signal mimicry’ and ‘cue mimicry’. ‘Signal mimicry’ occurs when mimic and model share the same receiver, and ‘cue mimicry’ when mimic and model have different receivers or when there is no receiver for the model's trait. ‘Masquerade’ fits conceptually within cue mimicry. The second and third distinctions divide both signal and cue mimicry into four types each. These are the three traditional mimicry categories (aggressive, Batesian and Müllerian) and a fourth, often overlooked category for which the term ‘rewarding mimicry’ is suggested. Rewarding mimicry occurs when the mimic's signal is non-deceptive (as in Müllerian mimicry) but where the mimic signals a fitness benefit to the receiver (as in aggressive mimicry). The existence of rewarding mimicry is a logical extension of the criteria used to differentiate the three well-recognized forms of mimicry. These four forms of mimicry are not discrete, immutable types, but rather help to define important axes along which mimicry can vary. PMID:28202806

  3. Emotional graphic cigarette warning labels reduce the electrophysiological brain response to smoking cues.

    PubMed

    Wang, An-Li; Romer, Dan; Elman, Igor; Turetsky, Bruce I; Gur, Ruben C; Langleben, Daniel D

    2015-03-01

    There is an ongoing public debate about the new graphic warning labels (GWLs) that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) proposes to place on cigarette packs. Tobacco companies argued that the strongly emotional images FDA proposed to include in the GWLs encroached on their constitutional rights. The court ruled that FDA did not provide sufficient scientific evidence of compelling public interest in such encroachment. This study's objectives were to examine the effects of the GWLs on the electrophysiological and behavioral correlates of smoking addiction and to determine whether labels rated higher on the emotional reaction (ER) scale are associated with greater effects. We studied 25 non-treatment-seeking smokers. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants viewed a random sequence of paired images, in which visual smoking (Cues) or non-smoking (non-Cues) images were preceded by GWLs or neutral images. Participants reported their cigarette craving after viewing each pair. Dependent variables were magnitude of P300 ERPs and self-reported cigarette craving in response to Cues. We found that subjective craving response to Cues was significantly reduced by preceding GWLs, whereas the P300 amplitude response to Cues was reduced only by preceding GWLs rated high on the ER scale. In conclusion, our study provides experimental neuroscience evidence that weighs in on the ongoing public and legal debate about how to balance the constitutional and public health aspects of the FDA-proposed GWLs. The high toll of smoking-related illness and death adds urgency to the debate and prompts consideration of our findings while longitudinal studies of GWLs are underway.

  4. Neutral particle beam intensity controller

    DOEpatents

    Dagenhart, W.K.

    1984-05-29

    The neutral beam intensity controller is based on selected magnetic defocusing of the ion beam prior to neutralization. The defocused portion of the beam is dumped onto a beam dump disposed perpendicular to the beam axis. Selective defocusing is accomplished by means of a magnetic field generator disposed about the neutralizer so that the field is transverse to the beam axis. The magnetic field intensity is varied to provide the selected partial beam defocusing of the ions prior to neutralization. The desired focused neutral beam portion passes along the beam path through a defining aperture in the beam dump, thereby controlling the desired fraction of neutral particles transmitted to a utilization device without altering the kinetic energy level of the desired neutral particle fraction. By proper selection of the magnetic field intensity, virtually zero through 100% intensity control of the neutral beam is achieved.

  5. A pilot evaluation of two G-seat cueing schemes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Showalter, T. W.

    1978-01-01

    A comparison was made of two contrasting G-seat cueing schemes. The G-seat, an aircraft simulation subsystem, creates aircraft acceleration cues via seat contour changes. Of the two cueing schemes tested, one was designed to create skin pressure cues and the other was designed to create body position cues. Each cueing scheme was tested and evaluated subjectively by five pilots regarding its ability to cue the appropriate accelerations in each of four simple maneuvers: a pullout, a pushover, an S-turn maneuver, and a thrusting maneuver. A divergence of pilot opinion occurred, revealing that the perception and acceptance of G-seat stimuli is a highly individualistic phenomena. The creation of one acceptable G-seat cueing scheme was, therefore, deemed to be quite difficult.

  6. Facilitating Understandings of Geometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pappas, Christine C.; Bush, Sara

    1989-01-01

    Illustrates some learning encounters for facilitating first graders' understanding of geometry. Describes some of children's approaches using Cuisenaire rods and teacher's intervening. Presents six problems involving various combinations of Cuisenaire rods and cubes. (YP)

  7. Innate and Conditioned Responses to Chemosensory and Visual Cues in Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae), Vector of Huanglongbing Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Patt, Joseph M.; Stockton, Dara; Meikle, William G.; Sétamou, Mamoudou; Mafra-Neto, Agenor; Adamczyk, John J.

    2014-01-01

    Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri) transmits Huanglongbing, a devastating disease that threatens citrus trees worldwide. A better understanding of the psyllid’s host-plant selection process may lead to the development of more efficient means of monitoring it and predicting its movements. Since behavioral adaptations, such as associative learning, may facilitate recognition of suitable host-plants, we examined whether adult D. citri could be conditioned to visual and chemosensory stimuli from host and non-host-plant sources. Response was measured as the frequency of salivary sheaths, the residue of psyllid probing activity, in a line of emulsified wax on the surface of a test arena. The psyllids displayed both appetitive and aversive conditioning to two different chemosensory stimuli. They could also be conditioned to recognize a blue-colored probing substrate and their response to neutral visual cues was enhanced by chemosensory stimuli. Conditioned psyllids were sensitive to the proportion of chemosensory components present in binary mixtures. Naïve psyllids displayed strong to moderate innate biases to several of the test compounds. While innate responses are probably the psyllid’s primary behavioral mechanism for selecting host-plants, conditioning may enhance its ability to select host-plants during seasonal transitions and dispersal. PMID:26462949

  8. Inhibition or facilitation of return: Does chromatic component count?

    PubMed

    do Canto-Pereira, Luiz Henrique M; Paramei, Galina V; Morya, Edgard; Ranvaud, Ronald D

    2006-01-01

    Inhibitory effects have been reported when a target is preceded by a cue of the same color and location. Color-based inhibition was found using red and blue nonisoluminant stimuli (Law et al., 1995). Here we investigate whether this phenomenon depends on the chromatic subsystem involved by employing isoluminant colors varying along either the violet-yellow or purple-turquoise cardinal axis. Experiment 1 replicated Law et al.'s study: After fixating magenta, either a red or blue cue was presented, followed by a magenta "neutral attractor," and, finally, by a red or blue target. In Experiment 2, violet and yellow, cue or target, varied along a tritan confusion line in the CIE 1976 chromaticity diagram. In Experiment 3, purple and turquoise, cue or target, varied along a deutan confusion line in the CIE 1976 chromaticity diagram. Normal trichromats (n = 19) participated in all three experiments. In Experiment 1, color repetition indeed resulted in longer reaction times (RTs) (4.7 ms, P = 0.038). In Experiment 2, however, no significant color repetition effect was found; RTs to violet and yellow were not significantly different, though tending toward slower responses (2 ms) for violet repetition but faster (5 ms) for yellow. Experiment 3 also showed no color repetition effect (P = 0.58); notably, RTs were overall faster for purple than for turquoise (22 ms, P 0.05), but faster for turquoise (7 ms, P > 0.05). These findings demonstrate that color repetition is not always inhibitory but may turn facilitatory depending on the colors employed. The results indicate that disengagement of attention is an unlikely mechanism to be the sole explanation of previously reported color-based inhibition of return. We suggest a complementary, perceptual explanation: response (dis)advantage depends on whether the stimuli are isoluminant and on the opponent chromatic subsystem involved. The choice of the colors employed and the cue-attractor-target constellation also may be of

  9. Spatial part-set cuing facilitation.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Matthew R; Parasiuk, Yuri; Salgado-Benz, Jennifer; Crocco, Megan

    2016-07-01

    Cole, Reysen, and Kelley [2013. Part-set cuing facilitation for spatial information. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 39, 1615-1620] reported robust part-set cuing facilitation for spatial information using snap circuits (a colour-coded electronics kit designed for children to create rudimentary circuit boards). In contrast, Drinkwater, Dagnall, and Parker [2006. Effects of part-set cuing on experienced and novice chess players' reconstruction of a typical chess midgame position. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 102(3), 645-653] and Watkins, Schwartz, and Lane [1984. Does part-set cuing test for memory organization? Evidence from reconstructions of chess positions. Canadian Journal of Psychology/Revue Canadienne de Psychologie, 38(3), 498-503] showed no influence of part-set cuing for spatial information when using chess boards. One key difference between the two procedures was that the snap circuit stimuli were explicitly connected to one another, whereas chess pieces were not. Two experiments examined the effects of connection type (connected vs. unconnected) and cue type (cued vs. uncued) on memory for spatial information. Using chess boards (Experiment 1) and snap circuits (Experiment 2), part-set cuing facilitation only occurred when the stimuli were explicitly connected; there was no influence of cuing with unconnected stimuli. These results are potentially consistent with the retrieval strategy disruption hypothesis, as well as the two- and three-mechanism accounts of part-set cuing.

  10. Facial age cues and emotional expression interact asymmetrically: age cues moderate emotion categorisation.

    PubMed

    Craig, Belinda M; Lipp, Ottmar V

    2017-04-03

    Facial attributes such as race, sex, and age can interact with emotional expressions; however, only a couple of studies have investigated the nature of the interaction between facial age cues and emotional expressions and these have produced inconsistent results. Additionally, these studies have not addressed the mechanism/s driving the influence of facial age cues on emotional expression or vice versa. In the current study, participants categorised young and older adult faces expressing happiness and anger (Experiment 1) or sadness (Experiment 2) by their age and their emotional expression. Age cues moderated categorisation of happiness vs. anger and sadness in the absence of an influence of emotional expression on age categorisation times. This asymmetrical interaction suggests that facial age cues are obligatorily processed prior to emotional expressions. Finding a categorisation advantage for happiness expressed on young faces relative to both anger and sadness which are negative in valence but different in their congruence with old age stereotypes or structural overlap with age cues suggests that the observed influence of facial age cues on emotion perception is due to the congruence between relatively positive evaluations of young faces and happy expressions.

  11. Beyond naïve cue combination: salience and social cues in early word learning.

    PubMed

    Yurovsky, Daniel; Frank, Michael C

    2017-03-01

    Children learn their earliest words through social interaction, but it is unknown how much they rely on social information. Some theories argue that word learning is fundamentally social from its outset, with even the youngest infants understanding intentions and using them to infer a social partner's target of reference. In contrast, other theories argue that early word learning is largely a perceptual process in which young children map words onto salient objects. One way of unifying these accounts is to model word learning as weighted cue combination, in which children attend to many potential cues to reference, but only gradually learn the correct weight to assign each cue. We tested four predictions of this kind of naïve cue combination account, using an eye-tracking paradigm that combines social word teaching and two-alternative forced-choice testing. None of the predictions were supported. We thus propose an alternative unifying account: children are sensitive to social information early, but their ability to gather and deploy this information is constrained by domain-general cognitive processes. Developmental changes in children's use of social cues emerge not from learning the predictive power of social cues, but from the gradual development of attention, memory, and speed of information processing.

  12. Neutrality between Government and Religion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mawdsley, Ralph D.

    1996-01-01

    The overall guiding principle of neutrality between government and religion masks a tension that exists between free exercise of religion and establishment of religion. Reviews the development and current status of "Lemon" as a test for neutrality; proposes a new test for neutrality, evenhandedness, that is common to both the Free…

  13. Semantic facilitation in bilingual first language acquisition.

    PubMed

    Bilson, Samuel; Yoshida, Hanako; Tran, Crystal D; Woods, Elizabeth A; Hills, Thomas T

    2015-07-01

    Bilingual first language learners face unique challenges that may influence the rate and order of early word learning relative to monolinguals. A comparison of the productive vocabularies of 435 children between the ages of 6 months and 7 years-181 of which were bilingual English learners-found that monolinguals learned both English words and all-language concepts faster than bilinguals. However, bilinguals showed an enhancement of an effect previously found in monolinguals-the preference for learning words with more associative cues. Though both monolinguals and bilinguals were best fit by a similar model of word learning, semantic network structure and growth indicated that the two groups were learning English words in a different order. Further, in comparison with a model of two-monolinguals-in-one-mind, bilinguals overproduced translational equivalents. Our results support an emergent account of bilingual first language acquisition, where learning a word in one language facilitates its acquisition in a second language.

  14. Effects of contextual cues on speech recognition in simulated electric-acoustic stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Ying-Yee; Donaldson, Gail; Somarowthu, Ala

    2015-01-01

    Low-frequency acoustic cues have shown to improve speech perception in cochlear-implant listeners. However, the mechanisms underlying this benefit are still not well understood. This study investigated the extent to which low-frequency cues can facilitate listeners' use of linguistic knowledge in simulated electric-acoustic stimulation (EAS). Experiment 1 examined differences in the magnitude of EAS benefit at the phoneme, word, and sentence levels. Speech materials were processed via noise-channel vocoding and lowpass (LP) filtering. The amount of spectral degradation in the vocoder speech was varied by applying different numbers of vocoder channels. Normal-hearing listeners were tested on vocoder-alone, LP-alone, and vocoder + LP conditions. Experiment 2 further examined factors that underlie the context effect on EAS benefit at the sentence level by limiting the low-frequency cues to temporal envelope and periodicity (AM + FM). Results showed that EAS benefit was greater for higher-context than for lower-context speech materials even when the LP ear received only low-frequency AM + FM cues. Possible explanations for the greater EAS benefit observed with higher-context materials may lie in the interplay between perceptual and expectation-driven processes for EAS speech recognition, and/or the band-importance functions for different types of speech materials. PMID:25994712

  15. Effects of contextual cues on speech recognition in simulated electric-acoustic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Kong, Ying-Yee; Donaldson, Gail; Somarowthu, Ala

    2015-05-01

    Low-frequency acoustic cues have shown to improve speech perception in cochlear-implant listeners. However, the mechanisms underlying this benefit are still not well understood. This study investigated the extent to which low-frequency cues can facilitate listeners' use of linguistic knowledge in simulated electric-acoustic stimulation (EAS). Experiment 1 examined differences in the magnitude of EAS benefit at the phoneme, word, and sentence levels. Speech materials were processed via noise-channel vocoding and lowpass (LP) filtering. The amount of spectral degradation in the vocoder speech was varied by applying different numbers of vocoder channels. Normal-hearing listeners were tested on vocoder-alone, LP-alone, and vocoder + LP conditions. Experiment 2 further examined factors that underlie the context effect on EAS benefit at the sentence level by limiting the low-frequency cues to temporal envelope and periodicity (AM + FM). Results showed that EAS benefit was greater for higher-context than for lower-context speech materials even when the LP ear received only low-frequency AM + FM cues. Possible explanations for the greater EAS benefit observed with higher-context materials may lie in the interplay between perceptual and expectation-driven processes for EAS speech recognition, and/or the band-importance functions for different types of speech materials.

  16. Do semantic contextual cues facilitate transfer learning from video in toddlers?

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, Laura; Moser, Alecia; Grenell, Amanda; Dickerson, Kelly; Yao, Qianwen; Gerhardstein, Peter; Barr, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Young children typically demonstrate a transfer deficit, learning less from video than live presentations. Semantically meaningful context has been demonstrated to enhance learning in young children. We examined the effect of a semantically meaningful context on toddlers’ imitation performance. Two- and 2.5-year-olds participated in a puzzle imitation task to examine learning from either a live or televised model. The model demonstrated how to assemble a three-piece puzzle to make a fish or a boat, with the puzzle demonstration occurring against a semantically meaningful background context (ocean) or a yellow background (no context). Participants in the video condition performed significantly worse than participants in the live condition, demonstrating the typical transfer deficit effect. While the context helped improve overall levels of imitation, especially for the boat puzzle, only individual differences in the ability to self-generate a stimulus label were associated with a reduction in the transfer deficit. PMID:26029131

  17. How Listeners Weight Acoustic Cues to Intonational Phrase Boundaries

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaohong; Shen, Xiangrong; Li, Weijun; Yang, Yufang

    2014-01-01

    The presence of an intonational phrase boundary is often marked by three major acoustic cues: pause, final lengthening, and pitch reset. The present study investigates how these three acoustic cues are weighted in the perception of intonational phrase boundaries in two experiments. Sentences that contained two intonational phrases with a critical boundary between them were used as the experimental stimuli. The roles of the three acoustic cues at the critical boundary were manipulated in five conditions. The first condition featured none of the acoustic cues. The following three conditions featured only one cue each: pause, final lengthening, and pitch reset, respectively. The fifth condition featured both pause duration and pre-final lengthening. A baseline condition was also included in which all three acoustic cues were preserved intact. Listeners were asked to detect the presence of the critical boundaries in Experiment 1 and judge the strength of the critical boundaries in Experiment 2. The results of both experiments showed that listeners used all three acoustic cues in the perception of prosodic boundaries. More importantly, these acoustic cues were weighted differently across the two experiments: Pause was a more powerful perceptual cue than both final lengthening and pitch reset, with the latter two cues perceptually equivalent; the effect of pause and the effects of the other two acoustic cues were not additive. These results suggest that the weighting of acoustic cues contributes significantly to the perceptual differences of intonational phrase boundary. PMID:25019156

  18. Cueing Complex Animations: Does Direction of Attention Foster Learning Processes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Richard; Boucheix, Jean-Michel

    2011-01-01

    The time course of learners' processing of a complex animation was studied using a dynamic diagram of a piano mechanism. Over successive repetitions of the material, two forms of cueing (standard colour cueing and anti-cueing) were administered either before or during the animated segment of the presentation. An uncued group and two other control…

  19. Look Here! The Development of Attentional Orienting to Symbolic Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakobsen, Krisztina Varga; Frick, Janet E.; Simpson, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Although much research has examined the development of orienting to social directional cues (e.g., eye gaze), little is known about the development of orienting to nonsocial directional cues, such as arrows. Arrow cues have been used in numerous studies as a means to study attentional orienting, but the development of children's understanding of…

  20. Configural Effect in Multiple-Cue Probability Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgell, Stephen E.; Castellan, N. John, Jr.

    1973-01-01

    In a nonmetric multiple-cue probability learning task involving 2 binary cue dimensions, it was found that Ss can learn to use configural or pattern information (a) when only the configural information is relevant, and in addition to the configural information, one or both of the cue dimensions are relevant. (Author/RK)

  1. Beyond Nonutilization: Irrelevant Cues Can Gate Learning in Probabilistic Categorization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Daniel R.; Lewandowsky, Stephan

    2009-01-01

    In probabilistic categorization, also known as multiple cue probability learning (MCPL), people learn to predict a discrete outcome on the basis of imperfectly valid cues. In MCPL, normatively irrelevant cues are usually ignored, which stands in apparent conflict with recent research in deterministic categorization that has shown that people…

  2. Responsiveness of Nigerian Students to Pictorial Depth Cues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, G. S.; Seddon, G. M.

    1978-01-01

    Three groups of Nigerian high school and college students were tested for response to four pictorial depth cues. Students had more difficulty with cues concerning the relative size of objects and the foreshortening of straight lines than with cues involving overlap of lines and distortion of the angles between lines. (Author/JEG)

  3. Perceptual and Conceptual Priming of Cue Encoding in Task Switching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Darryl W.

    2016-01-01

    Transition effects in task-cuing experiments can be partitioned into task switching and cue repetition effects by using multiple cues per task. In the present study, the author shows that cue repetition effects can be partitioned into perceptual and conceptual priming effects. In 2 experiments, letters or numbers in their uppercase/lowercase or…

  4. Mental Effort in Binary Categorization Aided by Binary Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botzer, Assaf; Meyer, Joachim; Parmet, Yisrael

    2013-01-01

    Binary cueing systems assist in many tasks, often alerting people about potential hazards (such as alarms and alerts). We investigate whether cues, besides possibly improving decision accuracy, also affect the effort users invest in tasks and whether the required effort in tasks affects the responses to cues. We developed a novel experimental tool…

  5. Effects of Typographical Cues on Reading and Recall of Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorch, Robert F., Jr.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Effects of typographical cues on text memory were investigated in 2 experiments involving 204 college students. Findings demonstrated that effects of typographical cues on memory were mediated by effects on attention during reading. Typographical cues appeared to increase attention only to the signaled content, resulting in better memory. (SLD)

  6. Perceived Causalities of Physical Events Are Influenced by Social Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Jifan; Huang, Xiang; Jin, Xinyi; Liang, Junying; Shui, Rende; Shen, Mowei

    2012-01-01

    In simple mechanical events, we can directly perceive causal interactions of the physical objects. Physical cues (especially spatiotemporal features of the display) are found to associate with causal perception. Here, we demonstrate that cues of a completely different domain--"social cues"--also impact the causal perception of…

  7. Directionality derived from differential sensitivity to monaural and binaural cues in the cat's medial geniculate body.

    PubMed

    Samson, F K; Barone, P; Irons, W A; Clarey, J C; Poirier, P; Imig, T J

    2000-09-01

    Azimuth tuning of high-frequency neurons in the primary auditory cortex (AI) is known to depend on binaural disparity and monaural spectral (pinna) cues present in broadband noise bursts. Single-unit response patterns differ according to binaural interactions, strength of monaural excitatory input from each ear, and azimuth sensitivity to monaural stimulation. The latter characteristic has been used as a gauge of neural sensitivity to monaural spectral directional cues. Azimuth sensitivity may depend predominantly on binaural disparity cues, exclusively on monaural spectral cues, or on both. The primary goal of this study was to determine whether each cortical response pattern corresponds to a similar pattern in the medial geniculate body (MGB) or whether some patterns are unique to the cortex. Single-unit responses were recorded from the ventral nucleus (Vn) and lateral part of the posterior group of thalamic nuclei (Po), tonotopic subdivisions of the MGB. Responses to free-field presentation of noise bursts that varied in azimuth and sound pressure level were obtained using methods identical to those used previously in field AI. Many units were azimuth sensitive, i.e., they responded well at some azimuths, and poorly, if at all, at others. These were studied further by obtaining responses to monaural noise stimulation, approximated by reversible plugging of one ear. Monaural directional (MD) cells were sensitive to the azimuth of monaural noise stimulation, whereas binaural directional (BD) cells were either insensitive to its azimuth or monaurally unresponsive. Thus BD and MD cells show differential sensitivity to monaural spectral cues. Monaural azimuth sensitivity could not be used to interpret the spectral sensitivity of predominantly binaural cells that exhibited strong binaural facilitation because they were either unresponsive or poorly responsive to monaural stimulation. The available evidence suggests that some such cells are sensitive to spectral cues

  8. Ultracold neutral plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyon, M.; Rolston, S. L.

    2017-01-01

    By photoionizing samples of laser-cooled atoms with laser light tuned just above the ionization limit, plasmas can be created with electron and ion temperatures below 10 K. These ultracold neutral plasmas have extended the temperature bounds of plasma physics by two orders of magnitude. Table-top experiments, using many of the tools from atomic physics, allow for the study of plasma phenomena in this new regime with independent control over the density and temperature of the plasma through the excitation process. Characteristic of these systems is an inhomogeneous density profile, inherited from the density distribution of the laser-cooled neutral atom sample. Most work has dealt with unconfined plasmas in vacuum, which expand outward at velocities of order 100 m/s, governed by electron pressure, and with lifetimes of order 100 μs, limited by stray electric fields. Using detection of charged particles and optical detection techniques, a wide variety of properties and phenomena have been observed, including expansion dynamics, collective excitations in both the electrons and ions, and collisional properties. Through three-body recombination collisions, the plasmas rapidly form Rydberg atoms, and clouds of cold Rydberg atoms have been observed to spontaneously avalanche ionize to form plasmas. Of particular interest is the possibility of the formation of strongly coupled plasmas, where Coulomb forces dominate thermal motion and correlations become important. The strongest impediment to strong coupling is disorder-induced heating, a process in which Coulomb energy from an initially disordered sample is converted into thermal energy. This restricts electrons to a weakly coupled regime and leaves the ions barely within the strongly coupled regime. This review will give an overview of the field of ultracold neutral plasmas, from its inception in 1999 to current work, including efforts to increase strong coupling and effects on plasma properties due to strong coupling.

  9. Novel cues reinstate cocaine-seeking behavior and induce Fos protein expression as effectively as conditioned cues.

    PubMed

    Bastle, Ryan M; Kufahl, Peter R; Turk, Mari N; Weber, Suzanne M; Pentkowski, Nathan S; Thiel, Kenneth J; Neisewander, Janet L

    2012-08-01

    Cue reinstatement of extinguished cocaine-seeking behavior is a widely used model of cue-elicited craving in abstinent human addicts. This study examined Fos protein expression in response to cocaine cues or to novel cues as a control for activation produced by test novelty. Rats were trained to self-administer cocaine paired with either a light or a tone cue, or received yoked saline and cue presentations, and then underwent daily extinction training. They were then tested for reinstatement of extinguished cocaine-seeking behavior elicited by response-contingent presentations of either the cocaine-paired cue or a novel cue (that is, tone for those trained with a light or vice versa). Surprisingly, conditioned and novel cues both reinstated responding and increased Fos similarly in most brain regions. Exceptions included the anterior cingulate, which was sensitive to test cue modality in saline controls and the dorsomedial caudate-putamen, where Fos was correlated with responding in the novel, but not conditioned, cue groups. In subsequent experiments, we observed a similar pattern of reinstatement in rats trained and tested for sucrose-seeking behavior, whereas rats trained and tested with the cues only reinstated to a novel, and not a familiar, light or tone. The results suggest that novel cues reinstate responding to a similar extent as conditioned cues regardless of whether animals have a reinforcement history with cocaine or sucrose, and that both types of cues activate similar brain circuits. Several explanations as to why converging processes may drive drug and novel cue reinforcement and seeking behavior are discussed.

  10. Nanotopographical Cues for Modulating Fibrosis and Drug Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Laura Aiko Michelle

    Nanotopography in the cellular microenvironment provides biological cues and therefore has potential to be a useful tool for directing cellular behavior. Fibrotic encapsulation of implanted devices and materials can wall off and eventually cause functional failure of the implant. Drug delivery requires penetrating the epithelium, which encapsulates the body and provides a barrier to separate the body from its external environment. Both of these challenges could be elegantly surmounted using nanotopography, which would harness innate cellular responses to topographic cues to elicit desired cellular behavior. To this end, we fabricated high and low aspect ratio nanotopographically patterned thin films. Using scanning electron microscopy, real time polymerase chain reaction, immunofluorescence microscopy, in vitro drug delivery assays, transmission electron microscopy, inhibitor studies, and rabbit and rat in vivo drug delivery studies, we investigated cellular response to our nanotopographic thin films. We determined that high aspect ratio topography altered fibroblast morphology and decreased proliferation, possibly due to decreased protein adsorption. The fibroblasts also down regulated expression of mRNA of key factors associated with fibrosis, such as collagens 1 and 3. Low aspect ratio nanotopography increased drug delivery in vitro across an intestinal epithelial model monolayer by increasing paracellular permeability and remodeling the tight junction. This increase in drug delivery required integrin engagement and MLCK activity, and is consistent with the increased focal adhesion formation. Tight junction remodeling was also observed in a multilayered keratinocyte model, showing this mechanism can be generalized to multiple epithelium types. By facilitating direct contact of nanotopography with the viable epidermis using microneedles to pierce the stratum corneum, we are able to transdermally deliver a 150 kiloDalton, IgG-based therapeutic in vivo..

  11. Pulsed field sample neutralization

    DOEpatents

    Appelhans, Anthony D.; Dahl, David A.; Delmore, James E.

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus and method for alternating voltage and for varying the rate of extraction during the extraction of secondary particles, resulting in periods when either positive ions, or negative ions and electrons are extracted at varying rates. Using voltage with alternating charge during successive periods to extract particles from materials which accumulate charge opposite that being extracted causes accumulation of surface charge of opposite sign. Charge accumulation can then be adjusted to a ratio which maintains a balance of positive and negative charge emission, thus maintaining the charge neutrality of the sample.

  12. Neutral beam injection system

    SciTech Connect

    Duesing, G.; Altmann, H.; Falter, H.; Goede, A.; Haange, R.; Hemsworth, R.S.; Kupschus, P.; Stork, D.; Thompson, E.

    1987-01-01

    The development of the neutral injection (NI) system for the Joint European Torus and its status in 1985 are reported. First the system parameters are discussed and the layout is described, followed by a summary of the physics design calculations, the development, production, and testing of the components and the subsystem assembly. The system commissioning is presented, including a description of the function and the realization of the NI test bed. A summary of performance predictions for 80-keV beam heating experiments, and of the experimental evidence on balanced versus coinjection, is presented. The operational experience with the first injector and the plasma physics results obtained so far are summarized.

  13. Effect of Exogenous Cues on Covert Spatial Orienting in Deaf and Normal Hearing Individuals.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Seema Gorur; Patil, Gouri Shanker; Mishra, Ramesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Deaf individuals have been known to process visual stimuli better at the periphery compared to the normal hearing population. However, very few studies have examined attention orienting in the oculomotor domain in the deaf, particularly when targets appear at variable eccentricity. In this study, we examined if the visual perceptual processing advantage reported in the deaf people also modulates spatial attentional orienting with eye movement responses. We used a spatial cueing task with cued and uncued targets that appeared at two different eccentricities and explored attentional facilitation and inhibition. We elicited both a saccadic and a manual response. The deaf showed a higher cueing effect for the ocular responses than the normal hearing participants. However, there was no group difference for the manual responses. There was also higher facilitation at the periphery for both saccadic and manual responses, irrespective of groups. These results suggest that, owing to their superior visual processing ability, the deaf may orient attention faster to targets. We discuss the results in terms of previous studies on cueing and attentional orienting in deaf.

  14. Spatial and Identity Cues Differentially Affect Implicit Contextual Cueing in Adolescents and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travers, Brittany G.; Powell, Patrick S.; Mussey, Joanna L.; Klinger, Laura G.; Crisler, Megan E.; Klinger, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    The present studies examined implicit contextual cueing in adolescents and adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). In Study 1, 16 individuals with ASD and 20 matched individuals with typical development completed a contextual cueing task using stimulus-identity cues. In Study 2, 12 individuals with ASD and 16 individuals with typical…

  15. Cue-Based Feeding in the NICU.

    PubMed

    Whetten, Cynthia H

    In NICU settings, caring for neonates born as early as 23 weeks gestation presents unique challenges for caregivers. Traditionally, preterm infants who are learning to orally feed take a predetermined volume of breast milk or formula at scheduled intervals, regardless of their individual ability to coordinate each feeding. Evidence suggests that this volume-driven feeding model should be replaced with a more individualized, developmentally appropriate practice. Evidence from the literature suggests that preterm infants fed via cue-based feeding reach full oral feeding status faster than their volume-feeding counterparts and have shorter lengths of stay in the hospital. Changing practice to infant-driven or cue-based feedings in the hospital setting requires staff education, documentation, and team-based communication.

  16. Social gaze cueing to auditory locations.

    PubMed

    Newport, R; Howarth, S

    2009-04-01

    Spatial attention is oriented by social visual cues: targets appearing at cued (gazed-at) locations are detected more rapidly than those appearing at uncued locations. The current studies provide evidence that social gaze directs attention to auditory as well as visual targets at cued locations. For auditory target detection the effect lasted from 300 to 1,005 ms while for discrimination the effect was restricted to 600 ms. Improved performance at 600-ms stimulus onset asynchrony was observed across all experiments and may reflect an optimal processing window for social stimuli. In addition, the orienting of attention by gaze was impaired by the presentation of negative faces. These experiments further demonstrate the unique and cross-modal nature of social gaze cueing.

  17. Implicit sequence learning with competing explicit cues.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, L; Méndez, C

    2001-05-01

    Previous research has shown that the expression of implicit sequence learning is eliminated in a choice reaction time task when an explicit cue allows participants to accurately predict the next stimulus (Cleeremans, 1997), but that two contingencies predicting the same outcome can be learned and expressed simultaneously when both of them remain implicit (Jiménez & Méndez, 1999). Two experiments tested the hypothesis that it is the deliberate use of explicit knowledge that produces the inhibitory effects over the expression of implicit sequence learning. However, the results of these experiments do not support this hypothesis, rather showing that implicit learning is acquired and expressed regardless of the influence of explicit knowledge. These results are interpreted as reinforcing the thesis about the automatic nature of both the acquisition and the expression of implicit sequence learning. The contradictory results reported by Cleeremans are attributed to a floor effect derived from the use of a special type of explicit cue.

  18. [Drug facilitated sexual assault].

    PubMed

    Alempijević, Djordje; Savić, Slobodan; Stojanović, Jovan; Spasić, Andjelka

    2007-01-01

    In line with the fact that there is little information regarding drug facilitated sexual assault in national medical literature, the authors aimed to prepare a review of the phenomenon based on available international references. Therefore we offered a definition of the concept of sexual assault, and rape in particular. Consent and ability for valid consent for sexual intercourse were defined as well. A review contains discussion about the basic elements of a concept of drug-facilitated sexual assault. There is also available information in regard to pharmacology of common data rape drugs, i.e. flunitrazepam, gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), and ketamine. We indicate the utmost importance of prompt collecting of biological samples for toxicological screening in patients who are suspected victims of drug facilitated sexual assault.

  19. Patient cueing, a type of diagnostic error

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Diagnostic failure can be due to a variety of psychological errors on the part of the diagnostician. An erroneous diagnosis rendered by previous clinicians can lead a diagnostician to the wrong diagnosis. This report is the case of a patient who misdiagnosed herself and then led an emergency room physician and subsequent treating physicians to the wrong diagnosis. This mechanism of diagnostic error can be called patient cueing. PMID:27284538

  20. Aggressive situational cues among Israeli security personnel.

    PubMed

    Bensimon, Moshe

    2015-05-01

    The present study enriches our knowledge on the relationship between security personnel and situational cues that may provoke aggression, such as arms and uniforms. The study examined 259 security personnel who completed an aggression questionnaire (AGQ). The study aimed (a) to compare the tendency toward aggression of security personnel who carry or do not carry arms and/or wear a uniform and (b) to compare the tendency toward aggression of men and women security personnel who carry or do not carry arms and/or wear a uniform. The findings indicated no main effect for aggression cueing classification. However, uniformed men had higher scores of physical aggression than women, and women scored significantly higher on anger than men when not carrying any aggressive cues. The findings also revealed that in general, men security personnel reported much higher physical aggression than women, while women showed slightly higher means of verbal aggression than men. The findings are discussed in light of the gender theory and research.

  1. Cues, quantification, and agreement in language comprehension.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Darren; Bulkes, Nyssa Z

    2015-12-01

    We investigated factors that affect the comprehension of subject-verb agreement in English, using quantification as a window into the relationship between morphosyntactic processes in language production and comprehension. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants read sentences with grammatical and ungrammatical verbs, in which the plurality of the subject noun phrase was either doubly marked (via overt plural quantification and morphological marking on the noun) or singly marked (via only plural morphology on the noun). Both acceptability judgments and the ERP data showed heightened sensitivity to agreement violations when quantification provided an additional cue to the grammatical number of the subject noun phrase, over and above plural morphology. This is consistent with models of grammatical comprehension that emphasize feature prediction in tandem with cue-based memory retrieval. Our results additionally contrast with those of prior studies that showed no effects of plural quantification on agreement in language production. These findings therefore highlight some nontrivial divergences in the cues and mechanisms supporting morphosyntactic processing in language production and comprehension.

  2. Children Use Wealth Cues to Evaluate Others

    PubMed Central

    Shutts, Kristin; Brey, Elizabeth L.; Dornbusch, Leah A.; Slywotzky, Nina; Olson, Kristina R.

    2016-01-01

    Wealth differences between individuals are ubiquitous in modern society, and often serve as the basis for biased social evaluations among adults. The present research probed whether children use cues that are commonly associated with wealth differences in society to guide their consideration of others. In Study 1, 4–5-year-old participants from diverse racial backgrounds expressed preferences for children who were paired with high-wealth cues; White children in Study 1 also matched high-wealth stimuli with White faces. Study 2 conceptually replicated the preference effect from Study 1, and showed that young children (4–6 years) also use material wealth indicators to guide their inferences about people’s relative standing in other domains (i.e., competence and popularity). Study 3 revealed that children (5–9 years) use a broad range of wealth cues to guide their evaluations of, and actions toward, unfamiliar people. Further, biased responses were not attenuated among children whose families were lower in socioeconomic status. Often overlooked by those who study children’s attitudes and stereotypes, social class markers appear to influence evaluations, inferences, and behavior early in development. PMID:26933887

  3. Cues indicating location in pigeon navigation.

    PubMed

    Beason, Robert C; Wiltschko, Wolfgang

    2015-10-01

    Domesticated Rock Pigeons (Columba livia f. domestica) have been selected for returning home after being displaced. They appear to use many of the physical cue sources available in the natural environment for Map-and-Compass navigation. Two compass mechanisms that have been well documented in pigeons are a time-compensated sun compass and a magnetic inclination compass. Location-finding, or map, mechanisms have been more elusive. Visual landmarks, magnetic fields, odors, gravity and now also infrasound have been proposed as sources of information on location. Even in highly familiar locations, pigeons appear to neither use nor need landmarks and can even return to the loft while wearing frosted lenses. Direct and indirect evidence indicates magnetic field information influences pigeon navigation in ways that are consistent with magnetic map components. The role of odors is unclear; it might be motivational in nature rather than navigational. The influence of gravity must be further analyzed. Experiments with infrasound have been interpreted in the sense that they provide information on the home direction, but this hypothesis is inconsistent with the Map-and-Compass Model. All these factors appear to be components of a multifactorial system, with the pigeons being opportunistic, preferring those cues that prove most suitable in their home region. This has made understanding the roles of individual cues challenging.

  4. Yaw Motion Cues in Helicopter Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroeder, Jeffrey A.; Johnson, Walter W.

    1996-01-01

    A piloted simulation that examined the effects of yaw motion cues on pilot-vehicle performance, pilot workload, and pilot motion perception was conducted on the NASA Ames Vertical Motion Simulator. The vehicle model that was used represented an AH-64 helicopter. Three tasks were performed in which only combinations of vehicle yaw and vertical displacement were allowed. The commands issued to the motion platform were modified to present the following four motion configurations for a pilot located forward of the center of rotation: (1) only the linear translations, (2) only the angular rotation, (3) both the linear translations and the angular rotation, and (4) no motion. The objective data indicated that pilot-vehicle performance was reduced and the necessary control activity increased when linear motion was removed; however, the lack of angular rotation did not result in a measured degradation for almost all cases. Also, pilots provided subjective assessments of their compensation required, the motion fidelity, and their judgment of whether or not linear or rotational cockpit motion was present. Ratings of compensation and fidelity were affected only by linear acceleration, and the rotational motion had no significant impact. Also, when only linear motion was present, pilots typically reported the presence of rotation. Thus, linear acceleration cues, not yaw rotational cues, appear necessary to simulate hovering flight.

  5. Conditioned cortical reactivity to cues predicting cigarette-related or pleasant images

    PubMed Central

    Deweese, Menton M.; Robinson, Jason D.; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Versace, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Through Pavlovian conditioning, reward-associated neutral stimuli can acquire incentive salience and motivate complex behaviors. In smokers, cigarette-associated cues may induce cravings and trigger smoking. Understanding the brain mechanisms underlying conditioned responses to cigarette-associated relative to other inherently pleasant stimuli might contribute to the development of more effective smoking cessation treatments that emphasize the rehabilitation of reward circuitry. Here we measured brain responses to geometric patterns (the conditioned stimuli, CSs) predicting cigarette-related, intrinsically pleasant and neutral images (the unconditioned stimuli, USs) using event-related potentials (ERPs) in 29 never-smokers, 20 nicotine-deprived smokers, and 19 non-deprived smokers. Results showed that during US presentation, cigarette-related and pleasant images prompted higher cortical positivity than neutral images over centro-parietal sensors between 400 and 800 ms post-US onset (late positive potential, LPP). The LPP evoked by pleasant images was significantly larger than the LPP evoked by cigarette images. During CS presentation, ERPs evoked by geometric patterns predicting pleasant and cigarette-related images had significantly larger amplitude than ERPs evoked by CSs predicting neutral images. These effects were maximal over right parietal sites between 220 and 240 ms post-CS onset and over occipital and frontal sites between 308 and 344 ms post-CS onset. Smoking status did not modulate these effects. Our results show that stimuli with no intrinsic reward value (e.g., geometric patterns) may acquire rewarding properties through repeated pairings with established reward cues (i.e., cigarette-related, intrinsically pleasant). PMID:26826400

  6. Facilitator, Teacher, or Leader? Managing Conflicting Roles in Outdoor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Glyn

    2010-01-01

    A facilitator is commonly defined as a substantively neutral person who manages the group process in order to help groups achieve identified goals or purposes. However, outdoor educators rarely experience the luxury of only managing the group process, because they are typically responsible for the provision of leadership, skill instruction, and…

  7. Understanding Facilitation: Theory and Principles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Christine

    This book introduces newcomers to the concept of facilitation, and it presents a critical analysis of established and current theory on facilitation for existing practitioners. The following are among the topics discussed: (1) emergence of the field of facilitation; (2) development of facilitation in management; (3) development of facilitation in…

  8. The Role of Search Speed in the Contextual Cueing of Children’s Attention

    PubMed Central

    Darby, Kevin; Burling, Joseph; Yoshida, Hanako

    2013-01-01

    The contextual cueing effect is a robust phenomenon in which repeated exposure to the same arrangement of random elements guides attention to relevant information by constraining search. The effect is measured using an object search task in which a target (e.g., the letter T) is located within repeated or nonrepeated visual contexts (e.g., configurations of the letter L). Decreasing response times for the repeated configurations indicates that contextual information has facilitated search. Although the effect is robust among adult participants, recent attempts to document the effect in children have yielded mixed results. We examined the effect of search speed on contextual cueing with school-aged children, comparing three types of stimuli that promote different search times in order to observe how speed modulates this effect. Reliable effects of search time were found, suggesting that visual search speed uniquely constrains the role of attention toward contextually cued information. PMID:24505167

  9. Overgeneral memory extends to pictorial retrieval cues and correlates with cognitive features in posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Schönfeld, Sabine; Ehlers, Anke

    2006-11-01

    Individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) show overgeneral memory (OGM) when retrieving autobiographical memories to word cues. We investigated whether OGM extends to picture cues and whether it is related to PTSD symptoms and cognitions. Trauma survivors with (n = 29) and without (n = 26) PTSD completed the standard Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT) and a novel picture version. Compared to the no-PTSD group, the PTSD group showed OGM in both test versions. Pictures facilitated specific memory retrieval, but this effect was no longer significant when verbal intelligence or depressive symptoms were controlled. OGM correlated with PTSD symptoms and perceived self-change; with intrusive memories, their perceived "nowness," responses to intrusions (thought suppression, rumination, dissociation), and negative interpretations of symptoms.

  10. Improved memory for reward cues following acute buprenorphine administration in humans.

    PubMed

    Syal, Supriya; Ipser, Jonathan; Terburg, David; Solms, Mark; Panksepp, Jaak; Malcolm-Smith, Susan; Bos, Peter A; Montoya, Estrella R; Stein, Dan J; van Honk, Jack

    2015-03-01

    In rodents, there is abundant evidence for the involvement of the opioid system in the processing of reward cues, but this system has remained understudied in humans. In humans, the happy facial expression is a pivotal reward cue. Happy facial expressions activate the brain's reward system and are disregarded by subjects scoring high on depressive mood who are low in reward drive. We investigated whether a single 0.2mg administration of the mixed mu-opioid agonist/kappa-antagonist, buprenorphine, would influence short-term memory for happy, angry or fearful expressions relative to neutral faces. Healthy human subjects (n38) participated in a randomized placebo-controlled within-subject design, and performed an emotional face relocation task after administration of buprenorphine and placebo. We show that, compared to placebo, buprenorphine administration results in a significant improvement of memory for happy faces. Our data demonstrate that acute manipulation of the opioid system by buprenorphine increases short-term memory for social reward cues.

  11. High-calorie food-cues impair working memory performance in high and low food cravers.

    PubMed

    Meule, Adrian; Skirde, Ann Kathrin; Freund, Rebecca; Vögele, Claus; Kübler, Andrea

    2012-10-01

    The experience of food craving can lead to cognitive impairments. Experimentally induced chocolate craving exhausts cognitive resources and, therefore, impacts working memory, particularly in trait chocolate cravers. In the current study, we investigated the effects of exposure to food-cues on working memory task performance in a group with frequent and intense (high cravers, n=28) and less pronounced food cravings (low cravers, n=28). Participants performed an n-back task that contained either pictures of high-calorie sweets, high-calorie savory foods, or neutral objects. Current subjective food craving was assessed before and after the task. All participants showed slower reaction times and made more omission errors in response to food-cues, particularly savory foods. There were no differences in task performance between groups. State cravings did not differ between groups before the task, but increased more in high cravers compared to low cravers during the task. Results support findings about food cravings impairing visuo-spatial working memory performance independent of trait cravings. They further show that this influence is not restricted to chocolate, but also applies to high-calorie savory foods. Limiting working memory capacity may be especially crucial in persons who are more prone to high-calorie food-cues and experience such cravings habitually.

  12. Mood, cue and gender influences on motivation, craving and liking for alcohol in recreational drinkers.

    PubMed

    Willner, P; Field, M; Pitts, K; Reeve, G

    1998-11-01

    The effects of exposure to an alcohol-related cue (drinking low-alcohol beer) and a musical depression/elation mood induction procedure, on craving, motivation and liking for alcohol, were studied in male and female recreational drinkers. Alcohol craving was assessed using the multidimensional desires for alcohol questionnaire (DAQ), motivation for alcohol was assessed by performance on a progressive ratio (PR) task reinforced with small volumes (25 ml) of low-alcohol beer, and liking for the reinforcers earned in the PR task was assessed using a visual analogue scale. Consumption of a half-pint of low-alcohol beer increased alcohol craving in male subjects but had no effect or decreased craving in female subjects. Subsequent induction of a depressed mood increased craving scores, relative to elated or neutral mood groups, but these effects were confined to abstinent (non-cued) subjects, both male and female. Performance on the PR task correlated significantly with one of the four factors of the DAQ, negative reinforcement, and was increased by induction of a depressed mood in abstinent female and cued male subjects. Reinforcer liking was unchanged following mood induction in male subjects, but decreased in both groups of female subjects. To summarize, the cue of drinking low-alcohol beer increased alcohol craving in men but not in women, and induction of a depressed mood increased alcohol craving and motivation, but also decreased alcohol liking. These effects were present to different extents in different cue/gender subgroups, and were partially independent.

  13. Floral humidity as a reliable sensory cue for profitability assessment by nectar-foraging hawkmoths.

    PubMed

    von Arx, Martin; Goyret, Joaquín; Davidowitz, Goggy; Raguso, Robert A

    2012-06-12

    Most research on plant-pollinator communication has focused on sensory and behavioral responses to relatively static cues. Floral rewards such as nectar, however, are dynamic, and foraging animals will increase their energetic profit if they can make use of floral cues that more accurately indicate nectar availability. Here we document such a cue--transient humidity gradients--using the night blooming flowers of Oenothera cespitosa (Onagraceae). The headspace of newly opened flowers reaches levels of about 4% above ambient relative humidity due to additive evapotranspirational water loss through petals and water-saturated air from the nectar tube. Floral humidity plumes differ from ambient levels only during the first 30 min after anthesis (before nectar is depleted in wild populations), whereas other floral traits (scent, shape, and color) persist for 12-24 h. Manipulative experiments indicated that floral humidity gradients are mechanistically linked to nectar volume and therefore contain information about energy rewards to floral visitors. Behavioral assays with Hyles lineata (Sphingidae) and artificial flowers with appropriate humidity gradients suggest that these hawkmoth pollinators distinguish between subtle differences in relative humidity when other floral cues are held constant. Moths consistently approached and probed flowers with elevated humidity over those with ambient humidity levels. Because floral humidity gradients are largely produced by the evaporation of nectar itself, they represent condition-informative cues that facilitate remote sensing of floral profitability by discriminating foragers. In a xeric environment, this level of honest communication should be adaptive when plant reproductive success is pollinator limited, due to intense competition for the attention of a specialized pollinator.

  14. Facilitation of Adult Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boydell, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Taking an autobiographical approach, I tell the story of my experiences facilitating adult development, in a polytechnic and as a management consultant. I relate these to a developmental framework of Modes of Being and Learning that I created and elaborated with colleagues. I connect this picture with a number of related models, theories,…

  15. Facilitator's Guide: Censorship Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layden, Kent

    To help leaders or "facilitators" of a series of simulation exercises on controversial issues for school board members, this guide describes how the simulations work and provides some of the materials required for the simulation exercise on censorship and book banning. After defining simulation or gaming exercises, the author notes the…

  16. Facilitating Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossman, Mark H., Ed.; Rossman, Maxine E., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This collection of articles on distance learning reflects the perspectives and concerns of the learner and the facilitator of learning in distance education setting. Eight chapters are included: (1) "The Evolution and Advantages of Distance Education" (John E. Cantelon) traces the history of distance education and demonstrates how it transcends…

  17. Facilitative Strategies in Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Thara M. A.; Haugabrook, Adrian K.

    2001-01-01

    Describes campus-based strategies to facilitate collaboration by examining the process of restructuring a division of student affairs as an educational partner with academic affairs. Describes three collaborative efforts at the University of Massachusetts Boston: the Beacon Leadership Project, the Diversity Research Initiative, and the Beacon…

  18. The Inclusion Facilitator's Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Cheryl M.; Schuh, Mary C.; Nisbet, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Inclusion facilitators are educators who do more than teach children with disabilities--they advocate for change in schools and communities, sparking a passion for inclusion in teachers, administrators, and families and giving them the practical guidance they need to make it work. This is an essential new role in today's schools, and this guide…

  19. Olfactory-visual integration facilitates perception of subthreshold negative emotion.

    PubMed

    Novak, Lucas R; Gitelman, Darren R; Schuyler, Brianna; Li, Wen

    2015-10-01

    A fast growing literature of multisensory emotion integration notwithstanding, the chemical senses, intimately associated with emotion, have been largely overlooked. Moreover, an ecologically highly relevant principle of "inverse effectiveness", rendering maximal integration efficacy with impoverished sensory input, remains to be assessed in emotion integration. Presenting minute, subthreshold negative (vs. neutral) cues in faces and odors, we demonstrated olfactory-visual emotion integration in improved emotion detection (especially among individuals with weaker perception of unimodal negative cues) and response enhancement in the amygdala. Moreover, while perceptual gain for visual negative emotion involved the posterior superior temporal sulcus/pSTS, perceptual gain for olfactory negative emotion engaged both the associative olfactory (orbitofrontal) cortex and amygdala. Dynamic causal modeling (DCM) analysis of fMRI timeseries further revealed connectivity strengthening among these areas during crossmodal emotion integration. That multisensory (but not low-level unisensory) areas exhibited both enhanced response and region-to-region coupling favors a top-down (vs. bottom-up) account for olfactory-visual emotion integration. Current findings thus confirm the involvement of multisensory convergence areas, while highlighting unique characteristics of olfaction-related integration. Furthermore, successful crossmodal binding of subthreshold aversive cues not only supports the principle of "inverse effectiveness" in emotion integration but also accentuates the automatic, unconscious quality of crossmodal emotion synthesis.

  20. Reduced size and starvation resistance in adult mosquitoes, Aedes notoscriptus, exposed to predation cues as larvae.

    PubMed

    van Uitregt, Vincent O; Hurst, Timothy P; Wilson, Robbie S

    2012-01-01

    1. Many prey organisms exhibit adaptive phenotypic plasticity in life-history traits that facilitate a better chance of survival in the presence of predators. The evolution of such plastic traits requires that the defensive phenotype incurs a cost in the absence of predation. 2. Model systems that are used to examine predator-induced defences are often organisms with complex life histories that only induce defences during the larval stage. While many studies have detected costs of inducible defences during the larval stage, detecting the costs of larval defences after metamorphosis is also important. 3. We examine the benefits and costs of inducible larval defences in the urban mosquito, Aedes notoscriptus, by rearing them in the presence and absence of predation cues. We compared survival of larvae inducing behavioural defences, when exposed to predation cues, in predation trials with predatory fish Hypseleotris galii to that of larvae reared in the absence predation cues. We also compared life-history traits of predator-exposed larvae to larvae reared in control conditions. 4. Larvae exposed to chemical predation cues limited activity and were able to avoid predation for longer in trials with H. galii. However, predator-exposed larvae suffered retarded larval growth and development, were smaller at metamorphosis and less resistant to starvation as adults. 5. While it is difficult to understand the 'fitness costs' that poorer starvation resistance might confer to adult mosquitoes, it is likely that smaller adult size of predator-exposed individuals would reduce fitness, particularly for females where body size limits the size of blood meal they could take to facilitate egg production. We suggest that the demonstrable costs of inducible defences in mosquito larvae make this a good system for testing theoretical models for the evolutionary maintenance of adaptive phenotypic plasticity.

  1. Neutral polypropylene laser welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandolfino, Chiara; Lertora, Enrico; Gambaro, Carla

    2016-10-01

    The joining of polymeric materials is a technology used in many industrial applications, from transport to telecommunications and the medical sector. A new technology for the joining of polymers is the laser welding process. In particular, fibre laser welding is a flexible technology which allows high process speed and the realization of good quality joints. Despite its application becoming more widespread in the production of assemblies of high precision, the application of laser technology for the welding of polymers has not been the subject of many studies up to now. This study focused on the welding of neutral polypropylene. The window process parameter was identified, without the use of additives to increase radiation absorption, and a mechanical characterization was conducted in order to evaluate the quality of the joints realized.

  2. Does cue context matter? Examining the specificity of cue-related activation of positive and negative alcohol expectancies.

    PubMed

    Wardell, Jeffrey D; Read, Jennifer P

    2013-12-01

    Consistent with the Encoding Specificity principle, positive alcohol expectancies may be activated by cues in drinking contexts because they are more closely associated with these cues in memory than are negative expectancies. However, there is little research examining the specificity of cue-induced alcohol expectancy activation. This study investigated the relative activation of positive and negative expectancies in response to positive and negative cue contexts. We also examined whether these effects were stronger for heavier and more problematic drinkers. College student drinkers were randomly assigned to listen to vignettes describing either positive or negative drinking scenarios (cue exposure). Participants also completed an implicit measure of alcohol expectancy activation (modified Stroop task) both before and after the cue exposure, as well as self-report measures of alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. We found that alcohol-related problems moderated the effects of cue condition on expectancy activation, such that specific activation of positive relative to negative expectancies in response to positive cues was observed only for drinkers with higher levels of alcohol problems. No differences in activation of positive versus negative expectancies were observed for more problematic drinkers in the negative cue condition or for less problematic drinkers in either cue condition. The results are partially consistent with the Encoding Specificity principle, showing that positive contextual cues can selectively activate positive alcohol expectancies for more problematic drinkers. Findings may have implications for interventions that target automatic expectancy processes, suggesting potential utility in targeting specific expectancies in specific contexts.

  3. Food-cue affected motor response inhibition and self-reported dieting success: a pictorial affective shifting task.

    PubMed

    Meule, Adrian; Lutz, Annika P C; Krawietz, Vera; Stützer, Judith; Vögele, Claus; Kübler, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral inhibition is one of the basic facets of executive functioning and is closely related to self-regulation. Impulsive reactions, that is, low inhibitory control, have been associated with higher body mass index (BMI), binge eating, and other problem behaviors (e.g., substance abuse, pathological gambling, etc.). Nevertheless, studies which investigated the direct influence of food-cues on behavioral inhibition have been fairly inconsistent. In the current studies, we investigated food-cue affected behavioral inhibition in young women. For this purpose, we used a go/no-go task with pictorial food and neutral stimuli in which stimulus-response mapping is reversed after every other block (affective shifting task). In study 1, hungry participants showed faster reaction times to and omitted fewer food than neutral targets. Low dieting success and higher BMI were associated with behavioral disinhibition in food relative to neutral blocks. In study 2, both hungry and satiated individuals were investigated. Satiation did not influence overall task performance, but modulated associations of task performance with dieting success and self-reported impulsivity. When satiated, increased food craving during the task was associated with low dieting success, possibly indicating a preload-disinhibition effect following food intake. Food-cues elicited automatic action and approach tendencies regardless of dieting success, self-reported impulsivity, or current hunger levels. Yet, associations between dieting success, impulsivity, and behavioral food-cue responses were modulated by hunger and satiation. Future research investigating clinical samples and including other salient non-food stimuli as control category is warranted.

  4. Food-cue affected motor response inhibition and self-reported dieting success: a pictorial affective shifting task

    PubMed Central

    Meule, Adrian; Lutz, Annika P. C.; Krawietz, Vera; Stützer, Judith; Vögele, Claus; Kübler, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral inhibition is one of the basic facets of executive functioning and is closely related to self-regulation. Impulsive reactions, that is, low inhibitory control, have been associated with higher body mass index (BMI), binge eating, and other problem behaviors (e.g., substance abuse, pathological gambling, etc.). Nevertheless, studies which investigated the direct influence of food-cues on behavioral inhibition have been fairly inconsistent. In the current studies, we investigated food-cue affected behavioral inhibition in young women. For this purpose, we used a go/no-go task with pictorial food and neutral stimuli in which stimulus-response mapping is reversed after every other block (affective shifting task). In study 1, hungry participants showed faster reaction times to and omitted fewer food than neutral targets. Low dieting success and higher BMI were associated with behavioral disinhibition in food relative to neutral blocks. In study 2, both hungry and satiated individuals were investigated. Satiation did not influence overall task performance, but modulated associations of task performance with dieting success and self-reported impulsivity. When satiated, increased food craving during the task was associated with low dieting success, possibly indicating a preload-disinhibition effect following food intake. Food-cues elicited automatic action and approach tendencies regardless of dieting success, self-reported impulsivity, or current hunger levels. Yet, associations between dieting success, impulsivity, and behavioral food-cue responses were modulated by hunger and satiation. Future research investigating clinical samples and including other salient non-food stimuli as control category is warranted. PMID:24659978

  5. Attentional bias to food cues in youth with loss of control eating.

    PubMed

    Shank, Lisa M; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Nelson, Eric E; Shomaker, Lauren B; Ranzenhofer, Lisa M; Hannallah, Louise M; Field, Sara E; Vannucci, Anna; Bongiorno, Diana M; Brady, Sheila M; Condarco, Tania; Demidowich, Andrew; Kelly, Nichole R; Cassidy, Omni; Simmons, W Kyle; Engel, Scott G; Pine, Daniel S; Yanovski, Jack A

    2015-04-01

    Emerging data indicate that adults with binge eating may exhibit an attentional bias toward highly palatable foods, which may promote obesogenic eating patterns and excess weight gain. However, it is unknown to what extent youth with loss of control (LOC) eating display a similar bias. We therefore studied 76 youth (14.5 ± 2.3 years; 86.8% female; BMI-z 1.7 ± .73) with (n = 47) and without (n = 29) reported LOC eating. Following a breakfast to reduce hunger, youth participated in a computerized visual probe task of sustained attention that assessed reaction time to pairs of pictures consisting of high palatable foods, low palatable foods, and neutral household objects. Although sustained attentional bias did not differ by LOC eating presence and was unrelated to body weight, a two-way interaction between BMI-z and LOC eating was observed (p = .01), such that only among youth with LOC eating, attentional bias toward high palatable foods versus neutral objects was positively associated with BMI-z. These findings suggest that LOC eating and body weight interact in their association with attentional bias to highly palatable foods cues, and may partially explain the mixed literature linking attentional bias to food cues with excess body weight.

  6. Attentional Bias to Food Cues in Youth with Loss of Control Eating

    PubMed Central

    Shank, Lisa M.; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Nelson, Eric E.; Shomaker, Lauren B.; Ranzenhofer, Lisa M.; Hannallah, Louise M.; Field, Sara E.; Vannucci, Anna; Bongiorno, Diana M.; Brady, Sheila M.; Condarco, Tania; Demidowich, Andrew; Kelly, Nichole R.; Cassidy, Omni; Simmons, W. Kyle; Engel, Scott G.; Pine, Daniel S.; Yanovski, Jack A.

    2014-01-01

    Emerging data indicate that adults with binge eating may exhibit an attentional bias toward highly palatable foods, which may promote obesogenic eating patterns and excess weight gain. However, it is unknown to what extent youth with loss of control (LOC) eating display a similar bias. We therefore studied 76 youth (14.5±2.3y; 86.8% female; BMI-z 1.7± .73) with (n=47) and without (n=29) reported LOC eating. Following a breakfast to reduce hunger, youth participated in a computerized visual probe task of sustained attention that assessed reaction time to pairs of pictures consisting of high palatable foods, low palatable foods, and neutral household objects. Although sustained attentional bias did not differ by LOC eating presence and was unrelated to body weight, a two-way interaction between BMI-z and LOC eating was observed (p = .01), such that only among youth with LOC eating, attentional bias toward high palatable foods versus neutral objects was positively associated with BMI-z. These findings suggest that LOC eating and body weight interact in their association with attentional bias to highly palatable foods cues, and may partially explain the mixed literature linking attentional bias to food cues with excess body weight. PMID:25435490

  7. Transient Photochemistry of Neutral Red.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-01

    ascorbic acid system to 50 successive flashes, indicating that no ground state neutral red is permanently converted to leuco dye . Since leuco neutral...complete regeneration of ground state neutral red in this pH range in the present study suggests that formation of leuco dye is not significant. The second...radical disproportionation step is followed by a slower step which converts leuco dye to semireduced radical. Because coupling the two steps

  8. Transient ion neutralization by electrons.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilhelm, H. E.

    1973-01-01

    The nonlinear initial-boundary-value problems describing the lateral neutralization of ion beams for the cases that (1) an auxiliary electric field accelerates the electrons into the ion space, and (2) the electrons are injected into the ion space at a prescribed current density are treated. Analytical solutions are derived which give the position and speed of the neutralization front as a function of time, and the temporal development of the electron density, velocity, and electric fields during the neutralization process.

  9. Muscarinic, but not nicotinic, acetylcholine receptor blockade in the ventral tegmental area attenuates cue-induced sucrose-seeking

    PubMed Central

    Addy, Nii A.; Nunes, Eric J.; Wickham, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    The mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system is known to play a role in cue-mediated reward-seeking for natural rewards and drugs of abuse. Specifically, cholinergic and glutamatergic receptors in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) have been shown to regulate cue-induced drug-seeking. However, the potential role of these VTA receptors in regulating cue-induced reward seeking for natural rewards is unknown. Here, we examined whether blockade of VTA acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) would alter cue-induced sucrose seeking in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Subjects underwent 10 days of sucrose self-administration training (fixed ratio 1 schedule) followed by 7 days of forced abstinence. On withdrawal day 7, rats received bilateral VTA infusion of vehicle, the muscarinic AChR antagonist scopolamine (2.4 or 24 μg/side), the nicotinic AChR antagonist mecamylamine (3 or 30 μg/side), or the NMDAR antagonist AP-5 (0.1 or 1 μg/side) immediately prior to examination of cue-induced sucrose-seeking. Scopolamine infusion led to robust attenuation, but did not completely block, sucrose-seeking behavior. In contrast, VTA administration of mecamylamine or AP-5 did not alter cue-induced sucrose-seeking. Together, the data suggest that VTA muscarinic AChRs, but not nicotinic AChRs nor NMDARs, facilitate the ability of food-associated cues to drive seeking behavior for a food reward. PMID:26026787

  10. Constraining the Europa Neutral Torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Howard T.; Mitchell, Donald; mauk, Barry; Johnson, Robert E.; clark, george

    2016-10-01

    "Neutral tori" consist of neutral particles that usually co-orbit along with their source forming a toroidal (or partial toroidal) feature around the planet. The distribution and composition of these features can often provide important, if not unique, insight into magnetospheric particles sources, mechanisms and dynamics. However, these features can often be difficult to directly detect. One innovative method for detecting neutral tori is by observing Energetic Neutral Atoms (ENAs) that are generally considered produced as a result of charge exchange interactions between charged and neutral particles.Mauk et al. (2003) reported the detection of a Europa neutral particle torus using ENA observations. The presence of a Europa torus has extremely large implications for upcoming missions to Jupiter as well as understanding possible activity at this moon and providing critical insight into what lies beneath the surface of this icy ocean world. However, ENAs can also be produced as a result of charge exchange interactions between two ionized particles and in that case cannot be used to infer the presence of neutral particle population. Thus, a detailed examination of all possible source interactions must be considered before one can confirm that likely original source population of these ENA images is actually a Europa neutral particle torus. For this talk, we examine the viability that the Mauk et al. (2003) observations were actually generated from a neutral torus emanating from Europa as opposed to charge particle interactions with plasma originating from Io. These results help constrain such a torus as well as Europa source processes.

  11. Effects of context and individual predispositions on hypervigilance to pain-cues: an ERP study

    PubMed Central

    Dittmar, Oliver; Baum, Corinna; Schneider, Raphaela; Lautenbacher, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypervigilance to pain is the automatic prioritization of pain-related compared with other stimuli. The processing of threat information is influenced by negative contexts. Therefore, we intended to explore such context effects on hypervigilance to pain-cues, taking individual differences in self-reported vigilance to pain into consideration. Methods In all, 110 healthy subjects viewed task-irrelevant emotional facial expressions (anger, happy, neutral, and pain) overlaid in half of the trials with a fine grid. The instructed task was to indicate the presence/absence of this grid. A threatening context was established by applying electrical stimuli slightly below pain-threshold. Using scores of Pain Vigilance and Awareness Questionnaire, the sample was divided into high vs low pain vigilant subjects. Reaction times and event-related brain potentials were recorded. Results No distinct attentional processing of pain faces (based on the event-related brain potentials) was observed as a function of high levels of self-reported vigilance to pain and contextual threat induction. High pain vigilant subjects showed generally enhanced processing of emotional and neutral faces as indicated by parameters of early (early posterior negativity) and late (late positive complex) processing stages. This enhancement was abolished when electro-stimuli were presented. Conclusion Contextual threat does not enhance the attentional capture of pain-cues when they are presented concurrently with competing task demands. The study could, however, replicate a generally enhanced attentional processing of emotional cues in high pain vigilant subjects. This underpins that hypervigilance to pain is related to changes in emotional processing. PMID:26316802

  12. On the Motivational Properties of Reward Cues: Individual Differences

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Terry E.; Yager, Lindsay M.; Cogan, Elizabeth S.; Saunders, Benjamin T.

    2013-01-01

    Cues associated with rewards, such as food or drugs of abuse, can themselves acquire motivational properties. Acting as incentive stimuli, such cues can exert powerful control over motivated behavior, and in the case of cues associated with drugs, they can goad continued drug-seeking behavior and relapse. However, recent studies reviewed here suggest that there are large individual differences in the extent to which food and drug cues are attributed with incentive salience. Rats prone to approach reward cues (sign-trackers) attribute greater motivational value to discrete localizable cues and interoceptive cues than do rats less prone to approach reward cues (goal-trackers). In contrast, contextual cues appear to exert greater control over motivated behavior in goal-trackers than sign-trackers. It is possible to predict, therefore, before any experience with drugs, in which animals specific classes of drug cues will most likely reinstate drug-seeking behavior. The finding that different individuals may be sensitive to different triggers capable of motivating behavior and producing relapse suggests there may be different pathways to addiction, and has implications for thinking about individualized treatment. PMID:23748094

  13. Clustering social cues to determine social signals: developing learning algorithms using the "n-most likely states" approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Best, Andrew; Kapalo, Katelynn A.; Warta, Samantha F.; Fiore, Stephen M.

    2016-05-01

    Human-robot teaming largely relies on the ability of machines to respond and relate to human social signals. Prior work in Social Signal Processing has drawn a distinction between social cues (discrete, observable features) and social signals (underlying meaning). For machines to attribute meaning to behavior, they must first understand some probabilistic relationship between the cues presented and the signal conveyed. Using data derived from a study in which participants identified a set of salient social signals in a simulated scenario and indicated the cues related to the perceived signals, we detail a learning algorithm, which clusters social cue observations and defines an "N-Most Likely States" set for each cluster. Since multiple signals may be co-present in a given simulation and a set of social cues often maps to multiple social signals, the "N-Most Likely States" approach provides a dramatic improvement over typical linear classifiers. We find that the target social signal appears in a "3 most-likely signals" set with up to 85% probability. This results in increased speed and accuracy on large amounts of data, which is critical for modeling social cognition mechanisms in robots to facilitate more natural human-robot interaction. These results also demonstrate the utility of such an approach in deployed scenarios where robots need to communicate with human teammates quickly and efficiently. In this paper, we detail our algorithm, comparative results, and offer potential applications for robot social signal detection and machine-aided human social signal detection.

  14. d-Cycloserine combined with cue exposure therapy fails to attenuate subjective and physiological craving in cocaine dependence

    PubMed Central

    Santa Ana, Elizabeth J.; Prisciandaro, James J.; Saladin, Michael E.; McRae-Clark, Aimee L.; Shaftman, Stephanie R.; Nietert, Paul J.; Brady, Kathleen T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Based on preclinical studies showing that the partial N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) agonist d-cycloserine (DCS) facilitates extinction of cocaine self-administration and cocaine-induced conditioned place preference, we evaluated whether 50 mg of DCS would reduce craving to cocaine cues when combined with cue exposure (CE) in cocaine dependent humans. Methods In this double-blind placebo-controlled pilot study, 47 cocaine dependent participants were randomized to DCS or placebo (PBO), plus CE. Participants received DCS or PBO 30 minutes prior to two CE sessions, conducted one day apart. Craving and heart rate was assessed prior to CE sessions, during CE trials, and after CE trials. These measures were assessed again at a 1-week follow-up (session 3) after the second CE session. Results DCS failed to significantly attenuate cocaine cue reactivity based on subjective craving and physiological reactivity (heart rate) compared to PBO. The CE protocol, consisting of repeated exposure to drug cues combined with skills training, resulted in extinction to cocaine cues as suggested by decreased craving within and between sessions in both treatment conditions. All participants exhibited elevated heart rate with repeated exposures, demonstrating a potentiation in heart rate between sessions. PMID:25808169

  15. Food-associated cues alter forebrain functional connectivity as assessed with immediate early gene and proenkephalin expression

    PubMed Central

    Schiltz, Craig A; Bremer, Quentin Z; Landry, Charles F; Kelley, Ann E

    2007-01-01

    Background Cues predictive of food availability are powerful modulators of appetite as well as food-seeking and ingestive behaviors. The neurobiological underpinnings of these conditioned responses are not well understood. Monitoring regional immediate early gene expression is a method used to assess alterations in neuronal metabolism resulting from upstream intracellular and extracellular signaling. Furthermore, assessing the expression of multiple immediate early genes offers a window onto the possible sequelae of exposure to food cues, since the function of each gene differs. We used immediate early gene and proenkephalin expression as a means of assessing food cue-elicited regional activation and alterations in functional connectivity within the forebrain. Results Contextual cues associated with palatable food elicited conditioned motor activation and corticosterone release in rats. This motivational state was associated with increased transcription of the activity-regulated genes homer1a, arc, zif268, ngfi-b and c-fos in corticolimbic, thalamic and hypothalamic areas and of proenkephalin within striatal regions. Furthermore, the functional connectivity elicited by food cues, as assessed by an inter-regional multigene-expression correlation method, differed substantially from that elicited by neutral cues. Specifically, food cues increased cortical engagement of the striatum, and within the nucleus accumbens, shifted correlations away from the shell towards the core. Exposure to the food-associated context also induced correlated gene expression between corticostriatal networks and the basolateral amygdala, an area critical for learning and responding to the incentive value of sensory stimuli. This increased corticostriatal-amygdalar functional connectivity was absent in the control group exposed to innocuous cues. Conclusion The results implicate correlated activity between the cortex and the striatum, especially the nucleus accumbens core and the basolateral

  16. Electrophysiological indices of visual food cue-reactivity. Differences in obese, overweight and normal weight women.

    PubMed

    Hume, David John; Howells, Fleur Margaret; Rauch, H G Laurie; Kroff, Jacolene; Lambert, Estelle Victoria

    2015-02-01

    Heightened food cue-reactivity in overweight and obese individuals has been related to aberrant functioning of neural circuitry implicated in motivational behaviours and reward-seeking. Here we explore the neurophysiology of visual food cue-reactivity in overweight and obese women, as compared with normal weight women, by assessing differences in cortical arousal and attentional processing elicited by food and neutral image inserts in a Stroop task with record of EEG spectral band power and ERP responses. Results show excess right frontal (F8) and left central (C3) relative beta band activity in overweight women during food task performance (indicative of pronounced early visual cue-reactivity) and blunted prefrontal (Fp1 and Fp2) theta band activity in obese women during office task performance (suggestive of executive dysfunction). Moreover, as compared to normal weight women, food images elicited greater right parietal (P4) ERP P200 amplitude in overweight women (denoting pronounced early attentional processing) and shorter right parietal (P4) ERP P300 latency in obese women (signifying enhanced and efficient maintained attentional processing). Differential measures of cortical arousal and attentional processing showed significant correlations with self-reported eating behaviour and body shape dissatisfaction, as well as with objectively assessed percent fat mass. The findings of the present study suggest that heightened food cue-reactivity can be neurophysiologically measured, that different neural circuits are implicated in the pathogenesis of overweight and obesity, and that EEG techniques may serve useful in the identification of endophenotypic markers associated with an increased risk of externally mediated food consumption.

  17. Program Facilitates Distributed Computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hui, Joseph

    1993-01-01

    KNET computer program facilitates distribution of computing between UNIX-compatible local host computer and remote host computer, which may or may not be UNIX-compatible. Capable of automatic remote log-in. User communicates interactively with remote host computer. Data output from remote host computer directed to local screen, to local file, and/or to local process. Conversely, data input from keyboard, local file, or local process directed to remote host computer. Written in ANSI standard C language.

  18. NEUTRAL-BEAM INJECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Kunkel, W.B.

    1980-06-01

    The emphasis in the preceding chapters has been on magnetic confinement of high temperature plasmas. The question of production and heating of such plasmas has been dealt with relatively more briefly. It should not be inferred, however, that these matters must therefore be either trivial or unimportant. A review of the history reveals that in the early days all these aspects of the controlled fusion problem were considered to be on a par, and were tackled simultaneously and with equal vigor. Only the confinement problem turned out to be much more complex than initially anticipated, and richer in challenge to the plasma physicist than the questions of plasma production and heating. On the other hand, the properties of high-temperature plasmas and plasma confinement can only be studied experimentally after the problems of production and of heating to adequate temperatures are solved. It is the purpose of this and the next chapter to supplement the preceding discussions with more detail on two important subjects: neutral-beam injection and radio-frequency heating. These are the major contenders for heating in present and future tokamak and mirror fusion experiments, and even in several proposed reactors. For neutral beams we emphasize here the technology involved, which has undergone a rather remarkable development. The physics of particle and energy deposition in the plasma, and the discussion of the resulting effects on the confined plasma, have been included in previous chapters, and some experimental results are quoted there. Other heating processes of relevance to fusion are mentioned elsewhere in this book, in connection with the experiments where they are used: i.e. ohmic heating, adiabatic compression heating, and alpha-particle heating in Chapter 3 by H.P. Furth; more ohmic heating in Chapter 7, and shock-implosion heating, laser heating, and relativistic-electron beam heating in Chapter 8, both by W. E. Quinn. These methods are relatively straightforward in

  19. CO2-neutral fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goede, A. P. H.

    2015-08-01

    The need for storage of renewable energy (RE) generated by photovoltaic, concentrated solar and wind arises from the fact that supply and demand are ill-matched both geographically and temporarily. This already causes problems of overcapacity and grid congestion in countries where the fraction of RE exceeds the 20% level. A system approach is needed, which focusses not only on the energy source, but includes conversion, storage, transport, distribution, use and, last but not least, the recycling of waste. Furthermore, there is a need for more flexibility in the energy system, rather than relying on electrification, integration with other energy systems, for example the gas network, would yield a system less vulnerable to failure and better adapted to requirements. For example, long-term large-scale storage of electrical energy is limited by capacity, yet needed to cover weekly to seasonal demand. This limitation can be overcome by coupling the electricity net to the gas system, considering the fact that the Dutch gas network alone has a storage capacity of 552 TWh, sufficient to cover the entire EU energy demand for over a month. This lecture explores energy storage in chemicals bonds. The focus is on chemicals other than hydrogen, taking advantage of the higher volumetric energy density of hydrocarbons, in this case methane, which has an approximate 3.5 times higher volumetric energy density. More importantly, it allows the ready use of existing gas infrastructure for energy storage, transport and distribution. Intermittent wind electricity generated is converted into synthetic methane, the Power to Gas (P2G) scheme, by splitting feedstock CO2 and H2O into synthesis gas, a mixture of CO and H2. Syngas plays a central role in the synthesis of a range of hydrocarbon products, including methane, diesel and dimethyl ether. The splitting is accomplished by innovative means; plasmolysis and high-temperature solid oxygen electrolysis. A CO2-neutral fuel cycle is

  20. Low-Level Flight Simulation: Vertical Cues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    The ASPT visual s’ester Soiftware autoematic’ally droips the’m freim the scene- at altitudes above 2000 fe’et AGI.) In an attempt to make the cue’s...8217 vertical (V) field of view. The ASPT has a - 15’ view o er the nose. - 370 over the left side, and - 15’ over the right side. (The aircraft field of...simulation, the ASPT /F-16 provided several instructional features that were used in this study. A video display of the HUD (Figures 1 and 21 and forward

  1. Human Perception of Ambiguous Inertial Motion Cues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Guan-Lu

    2010-01-01

    Human daily activities on Earth involve motions that elicit both tilt and translation components of the head (i.e. gazing and locomotion). With otolith cues alone, tilt and translation can be ambiguous since both motions can potentially displace the otolithic membrane by the same magnitude and direction. Transitions between gravity environments (i.e. Earth, microgravity and lunar) have demonstrated to alter the functions of the vestibular system and exacerbate the ambiguity between tilt and translational motion cues. Symptoms of motion sickness and spatial disorientation can impair human performances during critical mission phases. Specifically, Space Shuttle landing records show that particular cases of tilt-translation illusions have impaired the performance of seasoned commanders. This sensorimotor condition is one of many operational risks that may have dire implications on future human space exploration missions. The neural strategy with which the human central nervous system distinguishes ambiguous inertial motion cues remains the subject of intense research. A prevailing theory in the neuroscience field proposes that the human brain is able to formulate a neural internal model of ambiguous motion cues such that tilt and translation components can be perceptually decomposed in order to elicit the appropriate bodily response. The present work uses this theory, known as the GIF resolution hypothesis, as the framework for experimental hypothesis. Specifically, two novel motion paradigms are employed to validate the neural capacity of ambiguous inertial motion decomposition in ground-based human subjects. The experimental setup involves the Tilt-Translation Sled at Neuroscience Laboratory of NASA JSC. This two degree-of-freedom motion system is able to tilt subjects in the pitch plane and translate the subject along the fore-aft axis. Perception data will be gathered through subject verbal reports. Preliminary analysis of perceptual data does not indicate that

  2. An auditory cue-depreciation effect.

    PubMed

    Gibson, J M; Watkins, M J

    1991-01-01

    An experiment is reported in which subjects first heard a list of words and then tried to identify these same words from degraded utterances. Paralleling previous findings in the visual modality, the probability of identifying a given utterance was reduced when the utterance was immediately preceded by other, more degraded, utterances of the same word. A second experiment replicated this "cue-depreciation effect" and in addition found the effect to be weakened, if not eliminated, when the target word was not included in the initial list or when the test was delayed by two days.

  3. Stress and Alcohol Cues Exert Conjoint Effects on Go and Stop Signal Responding in Male Problem Drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Zack, Martin; Woodford, Tracy M; Tremblay, Anne M; Steinberg, Lindsay; Zawertailo, Laurie A; Busto, Usoa E

    2011-01-01

    Stress, cues, and pharmacological priming are linked with relapse to addictive behavior. Increased salience and decreased inhibitory control are thought to mediate the effects of relapse-related stimuli. However, the functional relationship between these two processes is unclear. To address this issue, a modified Stop Signal Task was employed, which used Alcohol, Neutral, and Non-Words as Go stimuli, and lexical decision as the Go response. Subjects were 38 male problem drinkers (mean Alcohol Dependence Scale (ADS) score: 18.0). Uncontrollable noise (∼10 min at 110 dB) was the stressor; nonalcoholic placebo beer (P-Beer) was the cue manipulation, and alcohol (0.7 g/kg), the pharmacological prime. Half the sample received alcohol, and half P-Beer. Stress and beverage (test drink vs soft drink) were manipulated within subjects on two sessions, with half the sample receiving active manipulations together and half receiving them separately. Go response time (RT) and Stop Signal RT (SSRT) were slower to Alcohol than Neutral words. Stress augmented this bias. Alcohol and P-Beer impaired overall SSRT. Stress impaired neither overall SSRT nor Go RT. SSRT to Neutral words and Non-Words correlated inversely with Go RT to Alcohol and Neutral words, and Non-Words. ADS correlated directly with SSRT to Alcohol words. A resource allocation account was proposed, whereby diversion of limited resources to salient cues effectively yoked otherwise independent Go and Stop processes. Disturbances of prefrontal norepinephrine and dopamine were cited as possibly accounting for these effects. Treatments that optimize prefrontal catecholamine transmission may deter relapse by reducing disinhibitory effects of salient eliciting stimuli. PMID:20927046

  4. Do poison frogs recognize chemical cues of the other sex or do they react to cues of stressed conspecifics?

    PubMed

    Schulte, Lisa M; Rössler, Daniela C

    2013-11-01

    Although anuran communication primarily takes place acoustically, chemical cues are also often used for intra- and intersexual communication in frogs. In the present study we analyzed the behavior of the poison frog Ranitomeya variabilis when presented chemical cues of same-sex or opposite-sex conspecifics. Chemical cues were obtained by keeping a single frog on a moist paper towel for about 47h. Afterwards two paper towels were offered to a test animal, one containing the chemical cues, the other containing rainwater only. We ran trials presenting female cues to males, males cues to males as well as male cues to females. The results of the trials were not significant in terms of intersexual communication. The overall response revealed a clear avoidance strategy which leads us to the assumption that disturbance cues unintentionally occurred during the experiment. The rather small size of the containers used to obtain chemical cues prior to the trials probably lead to confinement stress which consequently caused increased urination containing stress hormones that were detected by the test animals. This is the first proof of disturbance cues and their effects in adult anurans. The results of this study do not allow conclusions about inter- or intrasexual chemical communication of R. variabilis, but they allow implications and revisions for future experiments on this topic.

  5. Is science metaphysically neutral?

    PubMed

    Fry, Iris

    2012-09-01

    This paper challenges the claim that science is metaphysically neutral upheld by contenders of the separation of peacefully co-existent science and religion and by evolutionary theists. True, naturalistic metaphysical claims can neither be refuted nor proved and are thus distinct from empirical hypotheses. However, metaphysical assumptions not only regulate the theoretical and empirical study of nature, but are increasingly supported by the growing empirical body of science. This historically evolving interaction has contributed to the development of a naturalistic worldview that renounces the necessity of a transcendent god and of purposeful design. The thesis presented here differs not only from the claims of the "separatists" and of evolutionary theists. In pointing to the metaphysical aspects of science, I also criticize the failure of some evolutionary naturalists to distinguish between empirical and metaphysical contentions. Most important, based on the examination of science suggested here, creationists' false accusation that science is only a naturalistic dogma is refuted. Finally, the difficulties involved in the position endorsed here for the public support of evolution are acknowledged, taking into account the high religious profile of the American society and the social and political context in the US and in other countries.

  6. Weak neutral current chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Mohan, R.

    1996-07-01

    Metal cluster organic complexes, neither atomic nor solid but in analogy to atomic nuclei and to mesoscopic systems, have unusual dynamics and catalytic properties. Organo-metal clusters as quintessence prebiotic enzymes could have originated the homochirality of the molecules from achiral precursors, controlled from the atomic-nucleus, with the initial product itself serving subsequently as chiral auxiliary transferring and amplifying the chirality in the autocatalytic process now. High resolution spectroscopic studies of diatomic molecules beginning now may lead to upper estimates of the interaction strength of weak neutral currents (WNG) with valence electrons of metal clusters and suggest kinetic pathways to dynamic symmetry breaking in the asymmetric synthesis of chiral molecules. An estimate of 10{sup {minus}5} kT (thousand times larger than for radiolysis) for the parity violating energy (PVE) could be sufficient to run an entropy driven spin-catalyzed asymmetric synthesis. Expect then, wherever there are metal clusters in interstellar dust or under the sea chiral molecular production. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  7. Weak neutral current chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohan, R.

    1996-07-01

    Metal cluster organic complexes, neither atomic nor solid but in analogy to atomic nuclei and to mesoscopic systems, have unusual dynamics and catalytic properties. Organo-metal clusters as quintessence prebiotic enzymes could have originated the homochirality of the molecules from achiral precursors, controlled from the atomic-nucleus, with the initial product itself serving subsequently as chiral auxiliary transferring and amplifying the chirality in the autocatalytic process now. High resolution spectroscopic studies of diatomic molecules beginning now may lead to upper estimates of the interaction strength of weak neutral currents (WNG) with valence electrons of metal clusters and suggest kinetic pathways to dynamic symmetry breaking in the asymmetric synthesis of chiral molecules. An estimate of 10-5 kT (thousand times larger than for radiolysis) for the parity violating energy (PVE) could be sufficient to run an entropy driven spin-catalyzed asymmetric synthesis. Expect then, wherever there are metal clusters in interstellar dust or under the sea chiral molecular production.

  8. The neutral upper atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, S. N.

    2002-07-01

    After World War II, Professor S.K. Mitra wrote a comprehensive book called The Upper Atmosphere, which dealt with information available from ground-based and balloon-borne experiments. As a result, topics such as day airglow were investigated and further ground-based experiments using incoherent back-scattering were carried out. These activities resulted in important new information on the ozonosphere. The dramatic discovery of ozone holes forms a new and exciting chapter in the discovery of atmospheric processes. While dealing with the limits of the atmosphere, reference may be made to interstellar molecules whose discovery has raised considerable scientific curiosity. Knowledge on the solar-terrestrial relationship advanced a great deal when more information on solar radiation became available by measuring higher energy photons in the UV, EUV, and even X-ray regime. All this information is incorporated in this volume and presented under the title The Neutral Upper Atmosphere. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/0-7923-6434-1

  9. Specific cue reactivity on computer game-related cues in excessive gamers.

    PubMed

    Thalemann, R; Wölfling, K; Grüsser, S M

    2007-06-01

    It has been posited that excessive computer game playing behavior, referred to as computer game addiction, meets criteria that have been internationally established to define drug addiction. Nevertheless, there have been no psychophysiological investigations of the underlying mechanisms available to support the characterization of excessive computer gaming as behavioral addiction. To investigate whether excessive computer gaming parallels learning processes in development and maintenance (which are assumed to underlie drug addiction), the authors obtained a psychophysiological assessment of the (learned) emotional processing of computer game-relevant and -irrelevant cues. For this purpose, electroencephalographic recordings in excessive and casual computer game players were conducted. Significant between-group differences in event-related potentials evoked by computer game related-cues were found at parietal regions and point to an increased emotional processing of these cues in excessive pathological players compared with casual players. These results are in concordance with the suggestion that addiction is characterized and maintained through sensitization of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system along with incentive salience of specific addiction-associated cues.

  10. Motion Cueing Algorithm Development: New Motion Cueing Program Implementation and Tuning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houck, Jacob A. (Technical Monitor); Telban, Robert J.; Cardullo, Frank M.; Kelly, Lon C.

    2005-01-01

    A computer program has been developed for the purpose of driving the NASA Langley Research Center Visual Motion Simulator (VMS). This program includes two new motion cueing algorithms, the optimal algorithm and the nonlinear algorithm. A general description of the program is given along with a description and flowcharts for each cueing algorithm, and also descriptions and flowcharts for subroutines used with the algorithms. Common block variable listings and a program listing are also provided. The new cueing algorithms have a nonlinear gain algorithm implemented that scales each aircraft degree-of-freedom input with a third-order polynomial. A description of the nonlinear gain algorithm is given along with past tuning experience and procedures for tuning the gain coefficient sets for each degree-of-freedom to produce the desired piloted performance. This algorithm tuning will be needed when the nonlinear motion cueing algorithm is implemented on a new motion system in the Cockpit Motion Facility (CMF) at the NASA Langley Research Center.

  11. Neutralization tests on the SERT 2 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerslake, W. R.; Domitz, S.

    1979-01-01

    Neutralization test data obtained on the SERT 2 spacecraft are presented. Tests included ion beam neutralization of a thruster by a close (normal design) neutralizer as well as by a distant (1 meter) neutralizer. Parameters affecting neutralization, such as neutralizer bias voltage, neutralizer anode voltage, local spacecraft plasma density, and solar array voltage configuration were varied and changes in plasma potentials were measured. A plasma model is presented as an approximation of observed results.

  12. The Effects of Plasma-Neutral Interactions on Neutral Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, V.; Thayer, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    Plasma-neutral interactions are fundamental to the structure and behavior of the neutral thermosphere. This interaction, primarily through ion-neutral collisions, ties electrodynamics with hydrodynamics requiring a fully coupled ionosphere - thermosphere model to simulate and dissect the sequence of responses that occur in the neutral gas when a change occurs in the ionosphere. In particular, changes in the ion drag force prompt a hydrodynamic response that will alter several properties of the thermosphere, including neutral winds. Here, the fully coupled National Center for Atmospheric Research Thermosphere-Ionosphere Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (NCAR TIEGCM) is used to evaluate how changes in mechanical coupling, through the ion drag force, alter thermosphere properties, with a focus on thermospheric neutral winds. The equatorial thermosphere anomaly (ETA) produces a transient wind system, and a dissection of the hydrodynamic processes responsible for its formation will be used to demonstrate the causal structure in neutral gas response to a change in field-aligned ion drag force. This well-behaved response elucidates processes that must be occurring in other regions of the thermosphere where more significant changes in the ion drag force occur.

  13. How partial reinforcement of food cues affects the extinction and reacquisition of appetitive responses. A new model for dieting success?

    PubMed

    van den Akker, Karolien; Havermans, Remco C; Bouton, Mark E; Jansen, Anita

    2014-10-01

    Animals and humans can easily learn to associate an initially neutral cue with food intake through classical conditioning, but extinction of learned appetitive responses can be more difficult. Intermittent or partial reinforcement of food cues causes especially persistent behaviour in animals: after exposure to such learning schedules, the decline in responding that occurs during extinction is slow. After extinction, increases in responding with renewed reinforcement of food cues (reacquisition) might be less rapid after acquisition with partial reinforcement. In humans, it may be that the eating behaviour of some individuals resembles partial reinforcement schedules to a greater extent, possibly affecting dieting success by interacting with extinction and reacquisition. Furthermore, impulsivity has been associated with less successful dieting, and this association might be explained by impulsivity affecting the learning and extinction of appetitive responses. In the present two studies, the effects of different reinforcement schedules and impulsivity on the acquisition, extinction, and reacquisition of appetitive responses were investigated in a conditioning paradigm involving food rewards in healthy humans. Overall, the results indicate both partial reinforcement schedules and, possibly, impulsivity to be associated with worse extinction performance. A new model of dieting success is proposed: learning histories and, perhaps, certain personality traits (impulsivity) can interfere with the extinction and reacquisition of appetitive responses to food cues and they may be causally related to unsuccessful dieting.

  14. Electrophysiological Responses to Alcohol Cues Are Not Associated with Pavlovian-to-Instrumental Transfer in Social Drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Martinovic, Jasna; Jones, Andrew; Christiansen, Paul; Rose, Abigail K.; Hogarth, Lee; Field, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Pavlovian to Instrumental Transfer (PIT) refers to the behavioral phenomenon of increased instrumental responding for a reinforcer when in the presence of Pavlovian conditioned stimuli that were separately paired with that reinforcer. PIT effects may play an important role in substance use disorders, but little is known about the brain mechanisms that underlie these effects in alcohol consumers. We report behavioral and electroencephalographic (EEG) data from a group of social drinkers (n = 31) who performed a PIT task in which they chose between two instrumental responses in pursuit of beer and chocolate reinforcers while their EEG reactivity to beer, chocolate and neutral pictorial cues was recorded. We examined two markers of the motivational salience of the pictures: the P300 and slow wave event-related potentials (ERPs). Results demonstrated a behavioral PIT effect: responding for beer was increased when a beer picture was presented. Analyses of ERP amplitudes demonstrated significantly larger slow potentials evoked by beer cues at various electrode clusters. Contrary to hypotheses, there were no significant correlations between behavioral PIT effects, electrophysiological reactivity to the cues, and individual differences in drinking behaviour. Our findings are the first to demonstrate a PIT effect for beer, accompanied by increased slow potentials in response to beer cues, in social drinkers. The lack of relationship between behavioral and EEG measures, and between these measures and individual differences in drinking behaviour may be attributed to methodological features of the PIT task and to characteristics of our sample. PMID:24732090

  15. Visual cues to female physical attractiveness.

    PubMed Central

    Tovée, M J; Maisey, D S; Emery, J L; Cornelissen, P L

    1999-01-01

    Evolutionary psychology suggests that a woman's sexual attractiveness is based on cues of health and reproductive potential. In recent years, research has focused on the ratio of the width of the waist to the width of the hips (the waist-to-hip ratio (WHR). A low WHR (i.e. a curvaceous body) is believed to correspond to the optimal fat distribution for high fertility, and so this shape should be highly attractive. In this paper we present evidence that weight scaled for height (the body mass index (BMI)) is the primary determinant of sexual attractiveness rather than WHR. BMI is also strongly linked to health and reproductive potential. Furthermore, we show how covariation of apparent BMI and WHR in previous studies led to the overestimation of the importance of WHR in the perception of female attractiveness. Finally, we show how visual cues, such as the perimeter-area ratio (PAR), can provide an accurate and reliable index of an individual's BMI and could be used by an observer to differentiate between potential partners. PMID:10097394

  16. Magnetic information calibrates celestial cues during migration.

    PubMed

    Sandberg; Bäckman; Moore; Lõhmus

    2000-10-01

    Migratory birds use celestial and geomagnetic directional information to orient on their way between breeding and wintering areas. Cue-conflict experiments involving these two orientation cue systems have shown that directional information can be transferred from one system to the other by calibration. We designed experiments with four species of North American songbirds to: (1) examine whether these species calibrate orientation information from one system to the other; and (2) determine whether there are species-specific differences in calibration. Migratory orientation was recorded with two different techniques, cage tests and free-flight release tests, during autumn migration. Cage tests at dusk in the local geomagnetic field revealed species-specific differences: red-eyed vireo, Vireo olivaceus, and northern waterthrush, Seiurus noveboracensis, selected seasonally appropriate southerly directions whereas indigo bunting, Passerina cyanea, and grey catbird, Dumetella carolinensis, oriented towards the sunset direction. When tested in deflected magnetic fields, vireos and waterthrushes responded by shifting their orientation according to the deflection of the magnetic field, but buntings and catbirds failed to show any response to the treatment. In release tests, all four species showed that they had recalibrated their star compass on the basis of the magnetic field they had just experienced in the cage tests. Since release tests were done in the local geomagnetic field it seems clear that once the migratory direction is determined, most likely during the twilight period, the birds use their recalibrated star compass for orientation at departure. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  17. Sound Localization Cues in the Marmoset Monkey

    PubMed Central

    Slee, Sean J.; Young, Eric D.

    2010-01-01

    The most important acoustic cues available to the brain for sound localization are produced by the interaction of sound with the animal's head and external ears. As a first step in understanding the relation between these cues and their neural representation in a vocal new-world primate, we measured head related transfer functions (HRTFs) across frequency for a wide range of sound locations in three anesthetized marmoset monkeys. The HRTF magnitude spectrum has a broad resonance peak at 6-12 kHz that coincides with the frequency range of the major call types of this species. A prominent first spectral notch (FN) in the HRTF magnitude above this resonance was observed at most source locations. The center frequency of the FN increased monotonically from ∼12-26 kHz with increases in elevation in the lateral field. In the frontal field FN frequency changed in a less orderly fashion with source position. From the HRTFs we derived interaural time (ITDs) and level differences (ILDs). ITDs and ILDs (below 12 kHz) varied as a function of azimuth between +/- 250 μs and +/-20 dB, respectively. A reflexive orienting behavioral paradigm was used to confirm that marmosets can orient to sound sources. PMID:19963054

  18. Haven't a Cue? Mapping the CUE Space as an Aid to HRA Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    David I Gertman; Ronald L Boring; Jacques Hugo; William Phoenix

    2012-06-01

    Advances in automation present a new modeling environment for the human reliability analysis (HRA) practitioner. Many, if not most, current day HRA methods have their origin in characterizing and quantifying human performance in analog environments where mode awareness and system status indications are potentially less comprehensive, but simpler to comprehend at a glance when compared to advanced presentation systems. The introduction of highly complex automation has the potential to lead to: decreased levels of situation awareness caused by the need for increased monitoring; confusion regarding the often non-obvious causes of automation failures, and emergent system dependencies that formerly may have been uncharacterized. Understanding the relation of incoming cues available to operators during plant upset conditions, in conjunction with operating procedures, yields insight into understanding the nature of the expected operator response in this control room environment. Static systems methods such as fault trees do not contain the appropriate temporal information or necessarily specify the relationship among cues leading to operator response. In this paper, we do not attempt to replace standard performance shaping factors commonly used in HRA nor offer a new HRA method, existing methods may suffice. In this paper we strive to enhance current understanding of the basis for operator response through a technique that can be used during the qualitative portion of the HRA analysis process. The CUE map is a means to visualize the relationship among salient cues in the control room that help influence operator response, show how the cognitive map of the operator changes as information is gained or lost, and is applicable to existing as well as advanced hybrid plants and small modular reactor designs. A brief application involving loss of condensate is presented and advantages and limitations of the modeling approach and use of the CUE map are discussed.

  19. Motion Cueing Algorithm Development: Piloted Performance Testing of the Cueing Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houck, Jacob A. (Technical Monitor); Telban, Robert J.; Cardullo, Frank M.; Kelly, Lon C.

    2005-01-01

    The relative effectiveness in simulating aircraft maneuvers with both current and newly developed motion cueing algorithms was assessed with an eleven-subject piloted performance evaluation conducted on the NASA Langley Visual Motion Simulator (VMS). In addition to the current NASA adaptive algorithm, two new cueing algorithms were evaluated: the optimal algorithm and the nonlinear algorithm. The test maneuvers included a straight-in approach with a rotating wind vector, an offset approach with severe turbulence and an on/off lateral gust that occurs as the aircraft approaches the runway threshold, and a takeoff both with and without engine failure after liftoff. The maneuvers were executed with each cueing algorithm with added visual display delay conditions ranging from zero to 200 msec. Two methods, the quasi-objective NASA Task Load Index (TLX), and power spectral density analysis of pilot control, were used to assess pilot workload. Piloted performance parameters for the approach maneuvers, the vertical velocity upon touchdown and the runway touchdown position, were also analyzed but did not show any noticeable difference among the cueing algorithms. TLX analysis reveals, in most cases, less workload and variation among pilots with the nonlinear algorithm. Control input analysis shows pilot-induced oscillations on a straight-in approach were less prevalent compared to the optimal algorithm. The augmented turbulence cues increased workload on an offset approach that the pilots deemed more realistic compared to the NASA adaptive algorithm. The takeoff with engine failure showed the least roll activity for the nonlinear algorithm, with the least rudder pedal activity for the optimal algorithm.

  20. Attentional cueing: fearful body postures capture attention with saccades.

    PubMed

    Bannerman, Rachel L; Milders, Maarten; Sahraie, Arash

    2010-05-01

    According to theories of attention and emotion, threat-related stimuli (e.g., negative facial expressions) capture and hold attention. Despite these theories, previous examination of attentional cueing by threat showed no enhanced capture at brief durations. One explanation for the absence of attentional capture effects may be related to the sensitivity of the manual response measure employed. Here we extended beyond facial expressions and investigated the time course of orienting attention towards fearful body postures in the exogenous cueing task. Cue duration (20, 40, 60, or 100 ms), orientation (upright or inverted), and response mode (saccadic eye movement or manual keypress) were manipulated across three experiments. In the saccade mode, both enhanced attentional capture and impaired disengagement from fearful bodies were evident and limited to rapid cue durations (20 and 40 ms), suggesting that saccadic cueing effects emerge rapidly and are short lived. In the manual mode, fearful bodies impacted only upon the disengagement component of attention at 100 ms, suggesting that manual cueing effects emerge over longer periods of time. No cueing modulation was found for inverted presentation, suggesting that valence, not low-level image confounds, was responsible for the cueing effects. Importantly, saccades could reveal threat biases at brief cue durations consistent with current theories of emotion and attention.

  1. Cross-language differences in cue use for speech segmentation.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Michael D; Cutler, Anne

    2009-07-01

    Two artificial-language learning experiments directly compared English, French, and Dutch listeners' use of suprasegmental cues for continuous-speech segmentation. In both experiments, listeners heard unbroken sequences of consonant-vowel syllables, composed of recurring three- and four-syllable "words." These words were demarcated by (a) no cue other than transitional probabilities induced by their recurrence, (b) a consistent left-edge cue, or (c) a consistent right-edge cue. Experiment 1 examined a vowel lengthening cue. All three listener groups benefited from this cue in right-edge position; none benefited from it in left-edge position. Experiment 2 examined a pitch-movement cue. English listeners used this cue in left-edge position, French listeners used it in right-edge position, and Dutch listeners used it in both positions. These findings are interpreted as evidence of both language-universal and language-specific effects. Final lengthening is a language-universal effect expressing a more general (non-linguistic) mechanism. Pitch movement expresses prominence which has characteristically different placements across languages: typically at right edges in French, but at left edges in English and Dutch. Finally, stress realization in English versus Dutch encourages greater attention to suprasegmental variation by Dutch than by English listeners, allowing Dutch listeners to benefit from an informative pitch-movement cue even in an uncharacteristic position.

  2. The effect of cue content on retrieval from autobiographical memory.

    PubMed

    Uzer, Tugba; Brown, Norman R

    2017-01-01

    It has long been argued that personal memories are usually generated in an effortful search process in word-cueing studies. However, recent research (Uzer, Lee, & Brown, 2012) shows that direct retrieval of autobiographical memories, in response to word cues, is common. This invites the question of whether direct retrieval phenomenon is generalizable beyond the standard laboratory paradigm. Here we investigated prevalence of direct retrieval of autobiographical memories cued by specific and individuated cues versus generic cues. In Experiment 1, participants retrieved memories in response to cues from their own life (e.g., the names of friends) and generic words (e.g., chair). In Experiment 2, participants provided their personal cues two or three months prior to coming to the lab (min: 75days; max: 100days). In each experiment, RT was measured and participants reported whether memories were directly retrieved or generated on each trial. Results showed that personal cues elicited a high rate of direct retrieval. Personal cues were more likely to elicit direct retrieval than generic word cues, and as a consequence, participants responded faster, on average, to the former than to the latter. These results challenge the constructive view of autobiographical memory and suggest that autobiographical memories consist of pre-stored event representations, which are largely governed by associative mechanisms. These demonstrations offer theoretically interesting questions such as why are we not overwhelmed with directly retrieved memories cued by everyday familiar surroundings?

  3. Human Factors Assessment of Respiratory Support Pack (RSP) Cue Card

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; Hudy, Cynthia; Smith, Danielle; Byrne, Vicky

    2005-01-01

    The Respiratory Support Pack (RSP) is a medical pack onboard the International Space Station (ISS) that contains much of the necessary equipment for providing aid to a conscious or unconscious crewmember in respiratory distress. Inside the RSP lid pocket is a 5.5 by 11 inch paper cue card, which is used by a Crew Medical Officer as the procedure to set up the equipment and deliver oxygen to a crewmember. In training, crewmembers expressed concerns about the readability and usability of the cue card; consequently, updating the cue card was prioritized as an activity to be completed prior to Space Shuttle return-to-flight. The Usability Testing and Analysis Facility at the Johnson Space Center evaluated the current layout of the cue card, and proposed several new cue card designs based on human factors principals. A series of three studies were performed in order to experimentally compare performance with each of the cue card designs. Nonmedically trained personnel used either a redesigned RSP cue card, or the original card to simulate resuscitation (using a mannequin along with the hardware). Time to completion, errors and subjective ratings were recorded. The addition of pictures, colors, borders, and simplification of the flow of information (making minimal changes to the actual procedure content) elicited great benefits during testing. Time to complete RSP procedures was reduced by as much as three minutes with the final cue card design. Detailed results from these studies, as well as general guidelines for cue card design will be discussed.

  4. Reminder Cues Modulate the Renewal Effect in Human Predictive Learning

    PubMed Central

    Bustamante, Javier; Uengoer, Metin; Lachnit, Harald

    2016-01-01

    Associative learning refers to our ability to learn about regularities in our environment. When a stimulus is repeatedly followed by a specific outcome, we learn to expect the outcome in the presence of the stimulus. We are also able to modify established expectations in the face of disconfirming information (the stimulus is no longer followed by the outcome). Both the change of environmental regularities and the related processes of adaptation are referred to as extinction. However, extinction does not erase the initially acquired expectations. For instance, following successful extinction, the initially learned expectations can recover when there is a context change – a phenomenon called the renewal effect, which is considered as a model for relapse after exposure therapy. Renewal was found to be modulated by reminder cues of acquisition and extinction. However, the mechanisms underlying the effectiveness of reminder cues are not well understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of reminder cues on renewal in the field of human predictive learning. Experiment I demonstrated that renewal in human predictive learning is modulated by cues related to acquisition or extinction. Initially, participants received pairings of a stimulus and an outcome in one context. These stimulus-outcome pairings were preceded by presentations of a reminder cue (acquisition cue). Then, participants received extinction in a different context in which presentations of the stimulus were no longer followed by the outcome. These extinction trials were preceded by a second reminder cue (extinction cue). During a final phase conducted in a third context, participants showed stronger expectations of the outcome in the presence of the stimulus when testing was accompanied by the acquisition cue compared to the extinction cue. Experiment II tested an explanation of the reminder cue effect in terms of simple cue-outcome associations. Therefore, acquisition and

  5. Weighted cue integration in the rodent head direction system.

    PubMed

    Knight, Rebecca; Piette, Caitlin E; Page, Hector; Walters, Daniel; Marozzi, Elizabeth; Nardini, Marko; Stringer, Simon; Jeffery, Kathryn J

    2014-02-05

    How the brain combines information from different sensory modalities and of differing reliability is an important and still-unanswered question. Using the head direction (HD) system as a model, we explored the resolution of conflicts between landmarks and background cues. Sensory cue integration models predict averaging of the two cues, whereas attractor models predict capture of the signal by the dominant cue. We found that a visual landmark mostly captured the HD signal at low conflicts: however, there was an increasing propensity for the cells to integrate the cues thereafter. A large conflict presented to naive rats resulted in greater visual cue capture (less integration) than in experienced rats, revealing an effect of experience. We propose that weighted cue integration in HD cells arises from dynamic plasticity of the feed-forward inputs to the network, causing within-trial spatial redistribution of the visual inputs onto the ring. This suggests that an attractor network can implement decision processes about cue reliability using simple architecture and learning rules, thus providing a potential neural substrate for weighted cue integration.

  6. Misleading and conflicting cues in human sound localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macaulay, Eric John

    Human sound localization in the azimuthal plane is primarily cued by the interaural time difference (ITD) and the interaural level difference (ILD). For sine tones with frequencies greater than about 1500 Hz, the ILD is the only steady-state cue available to listeners. In free field, plane waves incident on a listener diffract around the head which results in an acoustical bright spot on the opposite side of the head as the source. This results in the ILD cue being non-monotonic with azimuth. Listeners' localization responses to stimuli in free field are highly correlated with this misleading ILD cue, as listeners err dramatically in localization of sources with large azimuths. Discrimination experiment results also confirm the misleading nature of the ILD cue. Training and feedback provide very minimal performance improvements for listeners. However, the introduction of either amplitude modulation, or narrow-band noise of the same bandwidth helped some listeners greatly, and others to a lesser extent. The non-monotonic cue remains prominent for noise with bandwidths as wide as 4 octaves when centered around 1500 kHz. Amplitude modulation introduces an envelope interaural time difference (EITD) as a localization cue for listeners. Sinusoidally-modulated amplitude modulation signals become altered by a listener's anatomy. The EITD cue is often misleading and in conflict with the ILD cue. Nevertheless, the two cues together usually result in accurate localization. The quality of the amplitude modulation in these experiments was not degraded significantly and does not impact the weight of the EITD.

  7. Depth cue interaction in telepresence and simulated telemanipulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Andrew; Tharp, Gregory; Stark, Lawrence

    1992-01-01

    We examined the contribution of two important depth cues, occlusion and disparity, on the performance of a simulated telerobotic task. We have simulated a three-axis tracking task that is viewed under four different levels of realism. We hoped to determine if the combined presentation of the depth cues has a more beneficial effect on performance than either depth cue presented singularly. Results showed similar performance improvements with the presentation of occlusion or disparity individually. When both cues were present together, a somewhat larger performance improvement was measured.

  8. An Evidence-Based Cue-Selection Guide and Logic Model to Improve Pressure Ulcer Prevention in Long Term Care

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Tracey L.; Kennerly, Susan M.; Bergstrom, Nancy; Hudak, Sandra L.; Horn, Susan D.

    2015-01-01

    Pressure ulcers (PrUs) have consistently resisted prevention efforts in long term care (LTC) facilities nationwide. Recent research has described cueing innovations that – when selected according to the assumptions and resources of particular facilities – support best practices of PrU prevention. This paper synthesizes that research into a unified, dynamic logic model to facilitate effective staff implementation of a PrU prevention program. PMID:26066791

  9. Edge rotation as governed by momentum transport due to neutrals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pusztai, Istvan; Omotani, John; Fülöp, Tünde

    2016-10-01

    Neutrals can strongly affect momentum transport even in relatively small concentrations due to their high cross-field mobility. We present a framework to calculate numerically the momentum transport due to charge-exchanging neutrals, in the closed field-line region. We couple a short mean-free-path solution of the neutral kinetic equation to neoclassical ions. We can then determine self-consistently the radial electric field and plasma rotation velocity, assuming that the neutrals dominate the momentum transport. We use the neoclassical solver PERFECT [Landreman et al. 2014 PPCF 56 045005] to compute the ion distributions. Numerical solutions allow us to consider the full range of collisionalities; typical experimental parameters fall in the intermediate region that is not well described by analytical limits. We also compute the rotation velocities of minority impurity species, to facilitate experimental comparison of the results. We find that at a fixed collisionality, the important parameter determining the radial electric field and rotation is the major radius where the neutrals are localized. Therefore changes to the location of the peak neutral density, caused by altering the fuelling location or moving the X-point for example, should allow the rotation to be manipulated. Supported by the Framework Grant for Strategic Energy Research (Dnr. 2014-5392) and the International Career Grant (Dnr. 330-2014-6313) from Vetenskapsrådet.

  10. Cues to Starting CPAP in Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Development and Validation of the Cues to CPAP Use Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Sara; Smith, Simon; Oei, Tian P.S.; Douglas, James

    2010-01-01

    Background: The reasons that a patient has to start treatment, their “Cues to Action,” are important for determining subsequent health behaviors. Cues to action are an explicit component of the Health Belief Model of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) acceptance. At present, there is no scale available to measure this construct for individuals with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). This paper aims to develop, validate, and describe responding patterns within a sample of patients with OSA to the Cues to CPAP Use Questionnaire (CCUQ). Method: Participants were 63 adult patients diagnosed with OSA who had never tried CPAP when initially recruited. The CCUQ was completed at 1 month after being prescribed CPAP. Results: Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) showed a 3-factor structure of the 9-item CCUQ, with “Health Cues,” “Partner Cues,” and “Health Professional Cues” subscales accounting for 59.91% of the total variance. The CCUQ demonstrated modest internal consistency and split-half reliability. The questionnaire is brief and user friendly, with readability at a seventh-grade level. The most frequently endorsed cues for starting CPAP were Health Professional Cues (prompting by the sleep physician) and Health Cues such as tiredness and concern about health outcomes. Conclusions: This study validates a measure of an important motivational component of the Health Belief Model. Health Professional Cues and internal Health Cues were reported to be the most important prompts to commence CPAP by this patient sample. Citation: Olsen S; Smith S; Oei TPS; Douglas J. Cues to starting CPAP in obstructive sleep apnea: development and validation of the cues to CPAP use questionnaire. J Clin Sleep Med 2010;6(3):229-237. PMID:20572415

  11. Inspection design using 2D phased array, TFM and cueMAP software

    SciTech Connect

    McGilp, Ailidh; Dziewierz, Jerzy; Lardner, Tim; Mackersie, John; Gachagan, Anthony

    2014-02-18

    A simulation suite, cueMAP, has been developed to facilitate the design of inspection processes and sparse 2D array configurations. At the core of cueMAP is a Total Focusing Method (TFM) imaging algorithm that enables computer assisted design of ultrasonic inspection scenarios, including the design of bespoke array configurations to match the inspection criteria. This in-house developed TFM code allows for interactive evaluation of image quality indicators of ultrasonic imaging performance when utilizing a 2D phased array working in FMC/TFM mode. The cueMAP software uses a series of TFM images to build a map of resolution, contrast and sensitivity of imaging performance of a simulated reflector, swept across the inspection volume. The software takes into account probe properties, wedge or water standoff, and effects of specimen curvature. In the validation process of this new software package, two 2D arrays have been evaluated on 304n stainless steel samples, typical of the primary circuit in nuclear plants. Thick section samples have been inspected using a 1MHz 2D matrix array. Due to the processing efficiency of the software, the data collected from these array configurations has been used to investigate the influence sub-aperture operation on inspection performance.

  12. Finding paradise: cues directing the migration of the waterfall climbing Hawaiian gobioid Sicyopterus stimpsoni.

    PubMed

    Leonard, G; Maie, T; Moody, K N; Schrank, G D; Blob, R W; Schoenfuss, H L

    2012-07-01

    A series of waterfall-climbing trials were conducted to identify cues that direct the climbing of juvenile Sicyopterus stimpsoni. In the first experiment, whether climbing juveniles preferentially ascend water sources with conspecifics or whether the presence of just stream water is sufficient to attract fish to ascend a climbing path were assessed. In the second experiment, whether climbing juveniles create a trail of mucus that facilitates the ability of conspecifics to follow their lead was determined. The results indicate that juvenile S. stimpsoni are less likely to climb in waters devoid of organic cues but are strongly attracted to stream water with or without the odour of conspecifics. Once climbing, performance did not differ for juveniles climbing in differing water choices, suggesting an all-or-nothing commitment once climbing commences. Climbing S. stimpsoni did produce a mucous trail while climbing that was associated with a mucous gland that dramatically increases in size just prior to juveniles gaining the ability to climb. The trail was not followed closely by subsequent juveniles traversing the same channel, however, suggesting only weak trail-following in waterfall climbing S. stimpsoni. Previous genetic studies suggest that juvenile S. stimpsoni do not home to natal streams in the face of strong near-shore oceanic currents. Instead, these fish appear primarily to rely on cues that suggest the presence of organic growth in streams, a factor that may indicate suitable habitat in an ever-changing stream environment but which may also be vulnerable to interference through human activity.

  13. "I can see clearly now": the effect of cue imageability on mental time travel.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Katrine W; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2014-10-01

    Mental time travel (MTT) is the ability to mentally project oneself backward or forward in time, in order to remember an event from one's personal past or to imagine a possible event in one's personal future. Recent work has suggested that, although past and future MTT may rely on shared neurocognitive substrates, the two temporal directions may interact differently with components of this underlying system. Here, we asked 151 participants to recall or imagine past and future autobiographical events in response to high- and low-imageable cue words. The results showed that high- and low-imageable cued events differed markedly on almost all measures, suggesting that imagery acts as a facilitator when constructing both past and possible future events. In line with previous work, future events less often referred to specific events, contained fewer details, and were more positive and idyllic than past events. However, these main effects were qualified by a number of interactions. In particular, we found an increased effect of cue imageability for past as compared to future events, suggesting that the generation of past events is more sensitive to the ability of the cues to invoke the sensory components of the encoding context, whereas the construction of future events is more driven by context-independent schemata.

  14. Inspection design using 2D phased array, TFM and cueMAP software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGilp, Ailidh; Dziewierz, Jerzy; Lardner, Tim; Mackersie, John; Gachagan, Anthony

    2014-02-01

    A simulation suite, cueMAP, has been developed to facilitate the design of inspection processes and sparse 2D array configurations. At the core of cueMAP is a Total Focusing Method (TFM) imaging algorithm that enables computer assisted design of ultrasonic inspection scenarios, including the design of bespoke array configurations to match the inspection criteria. This in-house developed TFM code allows for interactive evaluation of image quality indicators of ultrasonic imaging performance when utilizing a 2D phased array working in FMC/TFM mode. The cueMAP software uses a series of TFM images to build a map of resolution, contrast and sensitivity of imaging performance of a simulated reflector, swept across the inspection volume. The software takes into account probe properties, wedge or water standoff, and effects of specimen curvature. In the validation process of this new software package, two 2D arrays have been evaluated on 304n stainless steel samples, typical of the primary circuit in nuclear plants. Thick section samples have been inspected using a 1MHz 2D matrix array. Due to the processing efficiency of the software, the data collected from these array configurations has been used to investigate the influence sub-aperture operation on inspection performance.

  15. Categorical implicit learning in real-world scenes: evidence from contextual cueing.

    PubMed

    Goujon, Annabelle

    2011-05-01

    The present study examined the extent to which learning mechanisms are deployed on semantic-categorical regularities during a visual searching within real-world scenes. The contextual cueing paradigm was used with photographs of indoor scenes in which the semantic category did or did not predict the target position on the screen. No evidence of a facilitation effect was observed in the predictive condition compared to the nonpredictive condition when participants were merely instructed to search for a target T or L (Experiment 1). However, a rapid contextual cueing effect occurred when each display containing the search target was preceded by a preview of the scene on which participants had to make a decision regarding the scene's category (Experiment 2). A follow-up explicit memory task indicated that this benefit resulted from implicit learning. Similar implicit contextual cueing effects were also obtained when the scene to categorize was different from the subsequent search scene (Experiment 3) and when a mere preview of the search scene preceded the visual searching (Experiment 4). These results suggested that if enhancing the processing of the scene was required with the present material, such implicit semantic learning can nevertheless take place when the category is task irrelevant.

  16. Preconditioning of Spatial and Auditory Cues: Roles of the Hippocampus, Frontal Cortex, and Cue-Directed Attention

    PubMed Central

    Talk, Andrew C.; Grasby, Katrina L.; Rawson, Tim; Ebejer, Jane L.

    2016-01-01

    Loss of function of the hippocampus or frontal cortex is associated with reduced performance on memory tasks, in which subjects are incidentally exposed to cues at specific places in the environment and are subsequently asked to recollect the location at which the cue was experienced. Here, we examined the roles of the rodent hippocampus and frontal cortex in cue-directed attention during encoding of memory for the location of a single incidentally experienced cue. During a spatial sensory preconditioning task, rats explored an elevated platform while an auditory cue was incidentally presented at one corner. The opposite corner acted as an unpaired control location. The rats demonstrated recollection of location by avoiding the paired corner after the auditory cue was in turn paired with shock. Damage to either the dorsal hippocampus or the frontal cortex impaired this memory ability. However, we also found that hippocampal lesions enhanced attention directed towards the cue during the encoding phase, while frontal cortical lesions reduced cue-directed attention. These results suggest that the deficit in spatial sensory preconditioning caused by frontal cortical damage may be mediated by inattention to the location of cues during the latent encoding phase, while deficits following hippocampal damage must be related to other mechanisms such as generation of neural plasticity. PMID:27999366

  17. Environmental neutralization of polonium-218

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, S.D.; Hopke, P.K.

    1985-01-01

    Previous work has indicated that two mechanisms of neutralization of the singly charged polonium ion exist. Charged Polonium-218 can be neutralized by reacting with oxygen to form a polonium oxide ion with a higher ionization potential than that of the polonium metal and then accepting an electron transferred from a lower ionization potential gas. In this present work, this mechanism has been verified by determining that the polonium oxide has an ionization potential in the range 10.35-10.53 eV. It was also previously reported that /sup 218/Po can be neutralized, in the absence of oxygen, by the scavenging of electrons by a trace gas such as water or nitrogen dioxide and their diffusion to the polonium ion. To verify this second neutralization mechanism, concentrations of nitrogen dioxide in nitrogen in the range of 50 ppb-1 ppm were examined for their ability to neutralize the polonium ion. Complete neutralization of /sup 218/Po was observed at nitrogen dioxide concentrations greater than 700 ppb. For concentrations below 700 ppb, the degree of neutralization was found to increase smoothly with the nitrogen dioxide concentration.

  18. Smell facilitates auditory contagious yawning in stranger rats.

    PubMed

    Moyaho, Alejandro; Rivas-Zamudio, Xaman; Ugarte, Araceli; Eguibar, José R; Valencia, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Most vertebrates yawn in situations ranging from relaxation to tension, but only humans and other primate species that show mental state attribution skills have been convincingly shown to display yawn contagion. Whether complex forms of empathy are necessary for yawn contagion to occur is still unclear. As empathy is a phylogenetically continuous trait, simple forms of empathy, such as emotional contagion, might be sufficient for non-primate species to show contagious yawning. In this study, we exposed pairs of male rats, which were selected for high yawning, with each other through a perforated wall and found that olfactory cues stimulated yawning, whereas visual cues inhibited it. Unexpectedly, cage-mate rats failed to show yawn contagion, although they did show correlated emotional reactivity. In contrast, stranger rats showed auditory contagious yawning and greater rates of smell-facilitated auditory contagious yawning, although they did not show correlated emotional reactivity. Strikingly, they did not show contagious yawning to rats from a low-yawning strain. These findings indicate that contagious yawning may be a widespread trait amongst vertebrates and that mechanisms other than empathy may be involved. We suggest that a communicatory function of yawning may be the mechanism responsible for yawn contagion in rats, as contagiousness was strain-specific and increased with olfactory cues, which are involved in mutual recognition.

  19. Neutralization of reovirus: the gene responsible for the neutralization antigen

    PubMed Central

    1977-01-01

    The S1 genome segment of reovirus is linked to type specificity as determined by neutralization antibody. This gene segment codes for a minor outer capsid polypeptide (sigma1). Therefore, sigma1 is the peptide responsible for induction of neutralization antibody and confers type specificity. This biologic property of reovirus was defined using hybrid recombinants clones between reovirus types 1 and 3 and 2 and 3. PMID:925604

  20. Cue-Provoked Craving and Nicotine Replacement Therapy in Smoking Cessation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Andrew J.; Shiffman, Saul; Sayette, Michael A.; Paty, Jean A.; Gwaltney, Chad J.; Balabanis, Mark H.

    2004-01-01

    Cue exposure paradigms have been used to examine reactivity to smoking cues. However, it is not known whether cue-provoked craving is associated with smoking cessation outcomes or whether cue reactivity can be attenuated by nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) in clinical samples. Cue-provoked craving ratings and reaction time responses were…

  1. Feasibility of Using Virtual Reality to Assess Nicotine Cue Reactivity during Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaganoff, Eili; Bordnick, Patrick S.; Carter, Brian Lee

    2012-01-01

    Cue reactivity assessments have been widely used to assess craving and attention to cues among cigarette smokers. Cue reactivity has the potential to offer insights into treatment decisions; however, the use of cue reactivity in treatment studies has been limited. This study assessed the feasibility of using a virtual reality-based cue reactivity…

  2. Floral humidity as a reliable sensory cue for profitability assessment by nectar-foraging hawkmoths

    PubMed Central

    von Arx, Martin; Goyret, Joaquín; Davidowitz, Goggy; Raguso, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    Most research on plant–pollinator communication has focused on sensory and behavioral responses to relatively static cues. Floral rewards such as nectar, however, are dynamic, and foraging animals will increase their energetic profit if they can make use of floral cues that more accurately indicate nectar availability. Here we document such a cue—transient humidity gradients—using the night blooming flowers of Oenothera cespitosa (Onagraceae). The headspace of newly opened flowers reaches levels of about 4% above ambient relative humidity due to additive evapotranspirational water loss through petals and water-saturated air from the nectar tube. Floral humidity plumes differ from ambient levels only during the first 30 min after anthesis (before nectar is depleted in wild populations), whereas other floral traits (scent, shape, and color) persist for 12–24 h. Manipulative experiments indicated that floral humidity gradients are mechanistically linked to nectar volume and therefore contain information about energy rewards to floral visitors. Behavioral assays with Hyles lineata (Sphingidae) and artificial flowers with appropriate humidity gradients suggest that these hawkmoth pollinators distinguish between subtle differences in relative humidity when other floral cues are held constant. Moths consistently approached and probed flowers with elevated humidity over those with ambient humidity levels. Because floral humidity gradients are largely produced by the evaporation of nectar itself, they represent condition-informative cues that facilitate remote sensing of floral profitability by discriminating foragers. In a xeric environment, this level of honest communication should be adaptive when plant reproductive success is pollinator limited, due to intense competition for the attention of a specialized pollinator. PMID:22645365

  3. Evolution of environmental cues for phenotypic plasticity.

    PubMed

    Chevin, Luis-Miguel; Lande, Russell

    2015-10-01

    Phenotypically plastic characters may respond to multiple variables in their environment, but the evolutionary consequences of this phenomenon have rarely been addressed theoretically. We model the evolution of linear reaction norms in response to several correlated environmental variables, in a population undergoing stationary environmental fluctuations. At evolutionary equilibrium, the linear combination of environmental variables that acts as a developmental cue for the plastic trait is the multivariate best linear predictor of changes in the optimum. However, the reaction norm with respect to any single environmental variable may exhibit nonintuitive patterns. Apparently maladaptive, or hyperadaptive plasticity can evolve with respect to single environmental variables, and costs of plasticity may increase, rather than reduce, plasticity in response to some variables. We also find conditions for the evolution of an indirect environmental indicator that affects expression of a plastic phenotype, despite not influencing natural selection on it.

  4. UV induced visual cues in grasses

    PubMed Central

    Baby, Sabulal; Johnson, Anil John; Govindan, Balaji; Lukose, Sujith; Gopakumar, Bhaskaran; Koshy, Konnath Chacko

    2013-01-01

    Grasses are traditionally considered as wind pollinated, however, field observations confirmed frequent insect visits to grass flowers, suggesting insect pollination. Fruit and seed predators inflict heavy losses to cereals and millets during their growth, maturation and storage. The actual factors guiding insects and predators to grass flowers, fruits and seeds are not clear. Here, we report attractive blue fluorescence emissions on grass floral parts such as glumes, lemma, palea, lodicules, staminal filaments, pollens and fruits in ultraviolet (UV) 366 nm, whereas the stigmatic portions were not blue, but red fluorescent. We characterized the blue fluorescent constituent in grass reproductive structures as ferulic acid (FA). Fluorescence spectra of blue-emitting grass floral, seed extracts and isolated FA on excitation at 366 nm showed their emissions at 420–460 nm. We propose these FA-based blue fluorescence emissions in grass reproductive structures as visual cues that attract pollinators, predators and even pests towards them. PMID:24061408

  5. Non-conscious visual cues related to affect and action alter perception of effort and endurance performance

    PubMed Central

    Blanchfield, Anthony; Hardy, James; Marcora, Samuele

    2014-01-01

    The psychobiological model of endurance performance proposes that endurance performance is determined by a decision-making process based on perception of effort and potential motivation. Recent research has reported that effort-based decision-making during cognitive tasks can be altered by non-conscious visual cues relating to affect and action. The effects of these non-conscious visual cues on effort and performance during physical tasks are however unknown. We report two experiments investigating the effects of subliminal priming with visual cues related to affect and action on perception of effort and endurance performance. In Experiment 1 thirteen individuals were subliminally primed with happy or sad faces as they cycled to exhaustion in a counterbalanced and randomized crossover design. A paired t-test (happy vs. sad faces) revealed that individuals cycled significantly longer (178 s, p = 0.04) when subliminally primed with happy faces. A 2 × 5 (condition × iso-time) ANOVA also revealed a significant main effect of condition on rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during the time to exhaustion (TTE) test with lower RPE when subjects were subliminally primed with happy faces (p = 0.04). In Experiment 2, a single-subject randomization tests design found that subliminal priming with action words facilitated a significantly longer TTE (399 s, p = 0.04) in comparison to inaction words. Like Experiment 1, this greater TTE was accompanied by a significantly lower RPE (p = 0.03). These experiments are the first to show that subliminal visual cues relating to affect and action can alter perception of effort and endurance performance. Non-conscious visual cues may therefore influence the effort-based decision-making process that is proposed to determine endurance performance. Accordingly, the findings raise notable implications for individuals who may encounter such visual cues during endurance competitions, training, or health related exercise. PMID:25566014

  6. Development in Children's Interpretation of Pitch Cues to Emotions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quam, Carolyn; Swingley, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Young infants respond to positive and negative speech prosody (A. Fernald, 1993), yet 4-year-olds rely on lexical information when it conflicts with paralinguistic cues to approval or disapproval (M. Friend, 2003). This article explores this surprising phenomenon, testing one hundred eighteen 2- to 5-year-olds' use of isolated pitch cues to…

  7. Identifying specific erotic cues in sexual deviations by audiotaped descriptions.

    PubMed Central

    Abel, G G; Blanchard, E B; Barlow, D H; Mavissakalian, M

    1975-01-01

    Using audiotaped descriptions of sexual experiences and a direct measure of penile erection, it is possible to specify more precisely erotic cues in sexual deviates. Results indicated that such cues are highly idiosyncratic. Some tentative conclusions and suggested application for the method are discussed. PMID:1184490

  8. Aggressive Cue Prominence and Gender Participation in MTV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalis, Pamela; Neuendorf, Kimberly A.

    1989-01-01

    Explores the content and structure of music videos, focusing on the pervasiveness of aggressive cues (objects or events representing physical harm or the threat of harm), gender portrayals within a context of aggression, and the pacing of music videos. Finds that aggressive cues in music videos are less prominent than critics indicate. (MM)

  9. Who Is Billy Still? Cue Sheet for Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts, Washington, DC.

    Designed to be used before and after attending a centennial performance of the music of African American composer William Grant Still, this cue sheet presents information about the performance. The cue sheet presents biographical information about Still and background information on the Lincoln Theatre in Washington, D.C., which had been closed…

  10. Decreased interpretation of nonverbal cues in rape victims.

    PubMed

    Giannini, A J; Price, W A; Kniepple, J L

    The ability to receive nonverbal facial cues was tested in twelve female victims of multiple nonserial rapes and matched controls. Subjects attempted to interpret nonverbal messages transmitted by male and female senders who were covertly taped while involved in a gambling task. Rape victims had significantly decreased ability to interpret the nonverbal facial cues of both male and female senders.

  11. Generalization and transfer of contextual cues in motor learning.

    PubMed

    Sarwary, A M E; Stegeman, D F; Selen, L P J; Medendorp, W P

    2015-09-01

    We continuously adapt our movements in daily life, forming new internal models whenever necessary and updating existing ones. Recent work has suggested that this flexibility is enabled via sensorimotor cues, serving to access the correct internal model whenever necessary and keeping new models apart from previous ones. While research to date has mainly focused on identifying the nature of such cue representations, here we investigated whether and how these cue representations generalize, interfere, and transfer within and across effector systems. Subjects were trained to make two-stage reaching movements: a premovement that served as a cue, followed by a targeted movement that was perturbed by one of two opposite curl force fields. The direction of the premovement was uniquely coupled to the direction of the ensuing force field, enabling simultaneous learning of the two respective internal models. After training, generalization of the two premovement cues' representations was tested at untrained premovement directions, within both the trained and untrained hand. We show that the individual premovement representations generalize in a Gaussian-like pattern around the trained premovement direction. When the force fields are of unequal strengths, the cue-dependent generalization skews toward the strongest field. Furthermore, generalization patterns transfer to the nontrained hand, in an extrinsic reference frame. We conclude that contextual cues do not serve as discrete switches between multiple internal models. Instead, their generalization suggests a weighted contribution of the associated internal models based on the angular separation from the trained cues to the net motor output.

  12. Generalization and transfer of contextual cues in motor learning

    PubMed Central

    Stegeman, D. F.; Selen, L. P. J.; Medendorp, W. P.

    2015-01-01

    We continuously adapt our movements in daily life, forming new internal models whenever necessary and updating existing ones. Recent work has suggested that this flexibility is enabled via sensorimotor cues, serving to access the correct internal model whenever necessary and keeping new models apart from previous ones. While research to date has mainly focused on identifying the nature of such cue representations, here we investigated whether and how these cue representations generalize, interfere, and transfer within and across effector systems. Subjects were trained to make two-stage reaching movements: a premovement that served as a cue, followed by a targeted movement that was perturbed by one of two opposite curl force fields. The direction of the premovement was uniquely coupled to the direction of the ensuing force field, enabling simultaneous learning of the two respective internal models. After training, generalization of the two premovement cues' representations was tested at untrained premovement directions, within both the trained and untrained hand. We show that the individual premovement representations generalize in a Gaussian-like pattern around the trained premovement direction. When the force fields are of unequal strengths, the cue-dependent generalization skews toward the strongest field. Furthermore, generalization patterns transfer to the nontrained hand, in an extrinsic reference frame. We conclude that contextual cues do not serve as discrete switches between multiple internal models. Instead, their generalization suggests a weighted contribution of the associated internal models based on the angular separation from the trained cues to the net motor output. PMID:26156381

  13. Perception of Speech Reflects Optimal Use of Probabilistic Speech Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayards, Meghan; Tanenhaus, Michael K.; Aslin, Richard N.; Jacobs, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    Listeners are exquisitely sensitive to fine-grained acoustic detail within phonetic categories for sounds and words. Here we show that this sensitivity is optimal given the probabilistic nature of speech cues. We manipulated the probability distribution of one probabilistic cue, voice onset time (VOT), which differentiates word initial labial…

  14. Cue Reactivity as a Predictor of Drinking among Male Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohsenow, Damaris J.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Alcoholic men (n=45) admitted for detoxification to treatment program underwent cue reactivity assessment protocol, and 91% received three-month follow-up interviews. Greater salivary reactivity predicted greater frequency of drinking during follow-up. Greater attention to stimulus or to response predicting less drinking. Cue reactivity did not…

  15. A Latent Cue Preference Based on Sodium Depletion in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stouffer, Eric M.; White, Norman M.

    2005-01-01

    Three experiments show latent (or incidental) learning of salt-cue relationships using a conditioned cue-preference paradigm. Rats drank a salt solution while confined in one compartment and water in an adjacent, distinct compartment on alternate days. When given access to the two compartments with no solutions present, sodium-deprived rats…

  16. Insight and Strategy in Multiple-Cue Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagnado, David A.; Newell, Ben R.; Kahan, Steven; Shanks, David R.

    2006-01-01

    In multiple-cue learning (also known as probabilistic category learning) people acquire information about cue-outcome relations and combine these into predictions or judgments. Previous researchers claimed that people can achieve high levels of performance without explicit knowledge of the task structure or insight into their own judgment…

  17. Emoticons: Visual Cues for Computer-Mediated Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rezabeck, Landra L.; Cochenour, John J.

    Emoticons are visual cues formed from ordinary typographical symbols that when read sideways represent feelings or emotions. Because the use of electronic mail eliminates the visual cues such as head nodding, facial expressions, posture, and eye contact found in face-to-face conversation, electronic mail users often incorporate emoticons as visual…

  18. Towards a neural implementation of causal inference in cue combination.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wei Ji; Rahmati, Masih

    2013-01-01

    Causal inference in sensory cue combination is the process of determining whether multiple sensory cues have the same cause or different causes. Psychophysical evidence indicates that humans closely follow the predictions of a Bayesian causal inference model. Here, we explore how Bayesian causal inference could be implemented using probabilistic population coding and plausible neural operations, but conclude that the resulting architecture is unrealistic.

  19. Using Cue Cards throughout the K-12 Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conderman, Greg; Hedin, Laura R.

    2015-01-01

    As a flexible instructional tool, cue cards offer support for students with and without disabilities. By providing different amounts of support, they also can be used to differentiate instruction in a variety of subject areas and grade levels. This article describes various strategies for using cue cards and includes examples from K-12 classrooms.

  20. Multisensory Cues Capture Spatial Attention Regardless of Perceptual Load

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santangelo, Valerio; Spence, Charles

    2007-01-01

    We compared the ability of auditory, visual, and audiovisual (bimodal) exogenous cues to capture visuo-spatial attention under conditions of no load versus high perceptual load. Participants had to discriminate the elevation (up vs. down) of visual targets preceded by either unimodal or bimodal cues under conditions of high perceptual load (in…

  1. Comprehending Conflicting Science-Related Texts: Graphs as Plausibility Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isberner, Maj-Britt; Richter, Tobias; Maier, Johanna; Knuth-Herzig, Katja; Horz, Holger; Schnotz, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    When reading conflicting science-related texts, readers may attend to cues which allow them to assess plausibility. One such plausibility cue is the use of graphs in the texts, which are regarded as typical of "hard science." The goal of our study was to investigate the effects of the presence of graphs on the perceived plausibility and…

  2. Lexical Cues of Interaction Involvement in Dyadic Instant Messaging Conversations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Duyen T.; Fussell, Susan R.

    2014-01-01

    We explore how people express and interpret lexical cues of interaction involvement in dyadic conversations via instant messaging (IM) in two studies. In Study 1, an experiment with 60 participants, we manipulated level of involvement in a conversation with a distraction task. We examined how participants' uses of verbal cues such as pronouns…

  3. The Personalized Cueing Method: From the Laboratory to the Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Robert C.; Freed, Donald B.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The personalized cueing method is a novel procedure for treating naming deficits of persons with aphasia that is relatively unfamiliar to most speech-language pathologists. The goal of this article is to introduce the personalized cueing method to clinicians so that it might be expanded and improved upon. It is also hoped that this…

  4. Cue Representation and Situational Awareness in Task Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carl, Diana R.

    2009-01-01

    Task analysis in human performance technology is used to determine how human performance can be well supported with training, job aids, environmental changes, and other interventions. Early work by Miller (1953) and Gilbert (1969, 1974) addressed cue processing in task execution and recommended cue descriptions in task analysis. Modern task…

  5. Choice Strategies in Multiple-Cue Probability Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Chris M.; Koehler, Derek J.

    2007-01-01

    Choice strategies for selecting among outcomes in multiple-cue probability learning were investigated using a simulated medical diagnosis task. Expected choice probabilities (the proportion of times each outcome was selected given each cue pattern) under alternative choice strategies were constructed from corresponding observed judged…

  6. A Review of Swimming Cues and Tips for Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higginson, Kelsey; Barney, David

    2016-01-01

    Swimming is a low-impact activity that causes little stress on joints so it can be done for a lifetime. Many teachers may wish to teach swimming but do not have cues or ideas for doing so. This article reviews swimming cues, relays and equipment that can help a physical education teacher include a swimming unit in their curriculum. Certification…

  7. Integration of Multiple Speech Segmentation Cues: A Hierarchical Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattys, Sven L.; White, Laurence; Melhorn, James F.

    2005-01-01

    A central question in psycholinguistic research is how listeners isolate words from connected speech despite the paucity of clear word-boundary cues in the signal. A large body of empirical evidence indicates that word segmentation is promoted by both lexical (knowledge-derived) and sublexical (signal-derived) cues. However, an account of how…

  8. Transfer of Old "Reactivated" Memory Retrieval Cues in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, James F.; Riccio, David C.

    2008-01-01

    The present studies examined whether the retrieval of an old "reactivated" memory could be brought under the control of new contextual cues. In Experiment 1 rats trained in one context were exposed to different contextual cues either immediately, 60 or 120 min after a cued reactivation of the training memory. When tested in the shifted context,…

  9. Sensitivity to Visual Prosodic Cues in Signers and Nonsigners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brentari, Diane; Gonzalez, Carolina; Seidl, Amanda; Wilbur, Ronnie

    2011-01-01

    Three studies are presented in this paper that address how nonsigners perceive the visual prosodic cues in a sign language. In Study 1, adult American nonsigners and users of American Sign Language (ASL) were compared on their sensitivity to the visual cues in ASL Intonational Phrases. In Study 2, hearing, nonsigning American infants were tested…

  10. Brain reactivity to emotional, neutral and cigarette-related stimuli in smokers.

    PubMed

    Versace, Francesco; Minnix, Jennifer A; Robinson, Jason D; Lam, Cho Y; Brown, Victoria L; Cinciripini, Paul M

    2011-04-01

    Addiction has been described as the pathological usurpation of the neural mechanisms normally involved in emotional processing. Event-related potentials (ERPs) can provide a non-invasive index of neural responses associated with the processing of emotionally relevant stimuli and serve as a tool for examining temporal and spatial commonalities between the processing of intrinsically motivating stimuli and drug cues. Before beginning a smoking cessation program, 116 smokers participated in a laboratory session in which dense-array ERPs (129 sensors) were recorded during the presentation of pictures with emotional (pleasant and unpleasant), neutral and cigarette-related content. ERP differences among categories were analyzed with use of randomization tests on time regions of interest identified by temporal principal component analysis. Both emotional and cigarette-related pictures prompted significantly more positivity than did neutral pictures over central, parietal, and frontal sites in the 452-508 ms time window. During the 212-316 ms time window, both pleasant and cigarette-related pictures prompted less positivity than neutral images did. Cigarette-related pictures enhanced the amplitude of the P1 component (136-144 ms) above the levels measured in the emotional and neutral conditions. These results support the hypothesis that for smokers, cigarette-related cues are motivationally relevant stimuli that capture attentional resources early during visual processing and engage brain circuits normally involved in the processing of intrinsically emotional stimuli.

  11. Overgeneral past and future thinking in dysphoria: the role of emotional cues and cueing methodology.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Rachel J; Boland, Jennifer; Garner, Sarah R

    2016-01-01

    Overgeneral memory, where individuals exhibit difficulties in retrieving specific episodes from autobiographical memory, has been consistently linked with emotional disorders. However, the majority of this literature has relied upon a single methodology, in which participants respond to emotional cue words with explicit instructions to retrieve/simulate specific events. Through the use of sentence completion tasks the current studies explored whether overgenerality represents a habitual pattern of thinking that extends to how individuals naturally consider their personal past and future life story. In both studies, when compared with controls, dysphoric individuals evidenced overgeneral thinking style with respect to their personal past. However, overgeneral future thinking was only evident when the sentence stems included emotional words. These findings highlight the importance of investigating the overgenerality phenomenon using a variety of cueing techniques and results are discussed with reference to the previous literature exploring overgenerality and cognitive models of depression.

  12. Incomplete Neutralization and Deviation from Sigmoidal Neutralization Curves for HIV Broadly Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibodies.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Laura E; Falkowska, Emilia; Doores, Katie J; Le, Khoa; Sok, Devin; van Gils, Marit J; Euler, Zelda; Burger, Judith A; Seaman, Michael S; Sanders, Rogier W; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Poignard, Pascal; Wrin, Terri; Burton, Dennis R

    2015-08-01

    The broadly neutralizing HIV monoclonal antibodies (bnMAbs) PG9, PG16, PGT151, and PGT152 have been shown earlier to occasionally display an unusual virus neutralization profile with a non-sigmoidal slope and a plateau at <100% neutralization. In the current study, we were interested in determining the extent of non-sigmoidal slopes and plateaus at <100% for HIV bnMAbs more generally. Using both a 278 panel of pseudoviruses in a CD4 T-cell (U87.CCR5.CXCR4) assay and a panel of 117 viruses in the TZM-bl assay, we found that bnMAbs targeting many neutralizing epitopes of the spike had neutralization profiles for at least one virus that plateaued at <90%. Across both panels the bnMAbs targeting the V2 apex of Env and gp41 were most likely to show neutralization curves that plateaued <100%. Conversely, bnMAbs targeting the high-mannose patch epitopes were less likely to show such behavior. Two CD4 binding site (CD4bs) Abs also showed this behavior relatively infrequently. The phenomenon of incomplete neutralization was also observed in a large peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC)-grown molecular virus clone panel derived from patient viral swarms. In addition, five bnMAbs were compared against an 18-virus panel of molecular clones produced in 293T cells and PBMCs and assayed in TZM-bl cells. Examples of plateaus <90% were seen with both types of virus production with no consistent patterns observed. In conclusion, incomplete neutralization and non-sigmoidal neutralization curves are possible for all HIV bnMAbs against a wide range of viruses produced and assayed in both cell lines and primary cells with implications for the use of antibodies in therapy and as tools for vaccine design.

  13. "Instant success": turning temptations into cues for goal-directed behavior.

    PubMed

    Kroese, Floor M; Adriaanse, Marieke A; Evers, Catharine; De Ridder, Denise T D

    2011-10-01

    Contrary to lay intuition, counteractive control theory posits that tempting food cues can help individuals to act in accordance with their long-term dieting goal. However, studies have shown that temptations trigger goal-directed behavior only in successful but not in unsuccessful self-regulators. The aim of the present study was to test whether it is possible to create facilitated temptation-goal associations in unsuccessful dieters using implementation intentions (e.g., "If I see or smell chocolate then I will follow my goal to diet") and whether this indeed stimulates more successful self-regulation. It was found that implementation intentions linking a temptation to a dieting goal lead to self-perceived improved resistance to (Study 1) as well as reduced consumption (Study 2) of tempting snacks compared to a control condition. Moreover, Study 2 revealed that the reduced snack consumption was indeed related to facilitated temptation-goal associations in participants who had formed implementation intentions.

  14. Olfactory Cues, Visual Cues, and Semiochemical Diversity Interact During Host Location by Invasive Forest Beetles.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Jessica L; Kelly, Dave; Bader, Martin K-F; Brockerhoff, Eckehard G

    2017-01-01

    Plant-feeding insects use visual and olfactory cues (shape, color, plant volatiles) for host location, but the relative importance of different cues and interactions with non-host-plant volatiles in ecosystems of varying plant biodiversity is unclear for most species. We studied invasive bark beetles and wood borers associated with pine trees to characterize interactions among color, host and non-host volatiles, by employing traps that mimic tree trunks. Cross-vane flight intercept traps (black, green, red, white, yellow, clear) and black funnel traps were used with and without attractants (α-pinene + ethanol), repellents (non-host green leaf volatiles, 'GLV'), and attractant/repellent combinations in four pine forests in New Zealand. We trapped 274,594 Hylurgus ligniperda, 7842 Hylastes ater, and 16,301 Arhopalus ferus. Trap color, attractant, and color × attractant effects were highly significant. Overall, black and red traps had the highest catches, irrespective of the presence of attractants. Alpha-pinene plus ethanol increased trap catch of H. ligniperda 200-fold but only 6-fold for H. ater and 2-fold for A. ferus. Green leaf volatiles had a substantial repellent effect on trap catch of H. ligniperda but less on H. ater and A. ferus. Attack by H. ligniperda was halved when logs were treated with GLV, and a similar effect was observed when logs were placed among broadleaved understory shrubs emitting GLV. Overall, H. ligniperda was most strongly affected by the olfactory cues used, whereas H. ater and A. ferus were more strongly affected by visual cues. Collectively, the results support the semiochemical diversity hypothesis, indicating that non-host plant volatiles from diverse plant communities or artificial dispensers can contribute to resistance against herbivores by partly disrupting host location.

  15. Visual-vestibular cue integration for heading perception: applications of optimal cue integration theory.

    PubMed

    Fetsch, Christopher R; Deangelis, Gregory C; Angelaki, Dora E

    2010-05-01

    The perception of self-motion is crucial for navigation, spatial orientation and motor control. In particular, estimation of one's direction of translation, or heading, relies heavily on multisensory integration in most natural situations. Visual and nonvisual (e.g., vestibular) information can be used to judge heading, but each modality alone is often insufficient for accurate performance. It is not surprising, then, that visual and vestibular signals converge frequently in the nervous system, and that these signals interact in powerful ways at the level of behavior and perception. Early behavioral studies of visual-vestibular interactions consisted mainly of descriptive accounts of perceptual illusions and qualitative estimation tasks, often with conflicting results. In contrast, cue integration research in other modalities has benefited from the application of rigorous psychophysical techniques, guided by normative models that rest on the foundation of ideal-observer analysis and Bayesian decision theory. Here we review recent experiments that have attempted to harness these so-called optimal cue integration models for the study of self-motion perception. Some of these studies used nonhuman primate subjects, enabling direct comparisons between behavioral performance and simultaneously recorded neuronal activity. The results indicate that humans and monkeys can integrate visual and vestibular heading cues in a manner consistent with optimal integration theory, and that single neurons in the dorsal medial superior temporal area show striking correlates of the behavioral effects. This line of research and other applications of normative cue combination models should continue to shed light on mechanisms of self-motion perception and the neuronal basis of multisensory integration.

  16. Motion cue effects on human pilot dynamics in manual control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washizu, K.; Tanaka, K.; Endo, S.; Itoko, T.

    1977-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study the motion cue effects on human pilots during tracking tasks. The moving-base simulator of National Aerospace Laboratory was employed as the motion cue device, and the attitude director indicator or the projected visual field was employed as the visual cue device. The chosen controlled elements were second-order unstable systems. It was confirmed that with the aid of motion cues the pilot workload was lessened and consequently the human controllability limits were enlarged. In order to clarify the mechanism of these effects, the describing functions of the human pilots were identified by making use of the spectral and the time domain analyses. The results of these analyses suggest that the sensory system of the motion cues can yield the differential informations of the signal effectively, which coincides with the existing knowledges in the physiological area.

  17. Form-Cue Invariant Motion Processing in Primate Visual Cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albright, Thomas D.

    1992-02-01

    The direction and rate at which an object moves are normally not correlated with the manifold physical cues (for example, brightness and texture) that enable it to be seen. As befits its goals, human perception of visual motion largely evades this diversity of cues for image form; direction and rate of motion are perceived (with few exceptions) in a fashion that does not depend on the physical characteristics of the object. The middle temporal visual area of the primate cerebral cortex contains many neurons that respond selectively to motion in a particular direction and is an integral part of the neural substrate for perception of motion. When stimulated with moving patterns characterized by one of three very diverse cues for form, many middle temporal neurons exhibited similar directional tuning. This lack of sensitivity for figural cue characteristics may allow the uniform perception of motion of objects having a broad spectrum of physical cues.

  18. Disparity and shading cues cooperate for surface interpolation.

    PubMed

    Vuong, Quoc C; Domini, Fulvio; Caudek, Corrado

    2006-01-01

    In two experiments, we tested whether disparity and shading cues cooperated for surface interpolation. Observers adjusted a probe dot to/lie on a surface specified either by a sparse disparity field, a continuous stereo shading or monocular shading gradient, or both cues. Observers' adjustments were very consistent with disparity information but their adjustments were much more variable with shading information. However, observers significantly improved their precision when both cues were present, relative to when only disparity information was present. These results cannot be explained by assuming that separate modules analyze disparity and shading information, even if observers optimally combined these cues. Rather, we attribute this improvement to a process through which the shading gradient constrains the disparity field in regions where disparities cannot be directly measured. This cooperative process may be based on the natural covariation existing between these cues produced by the retinal projection of smooth surfaces.

  19. Reading emotion cues: social communication difficulties in pediatric populations.

    PubMed

    Timler, Geralyn R

    2003-05-01

    Speech-language pathologists frequently address social communication difficulties in children with diverse linguistic profiles. Of consequence to effective management of social communication skills is that some children with language disorders may also have difficulty understanding emotional cues. The ability to recognize and comprehend the emotional meaning of messages is accomplished through integration of linguistic cues (e.g., what the speaker says), nonlinguistic cues (e.g., the speaker's facial expressions), and situational cues (e.g., predicting how the speaker is likely to feel about the particular topic). This article explores children's comprehension of emotion as expressed through facial expressions and situational cues. First, development of emotion comprehension in children with normal development is summarized. This is followed by a brief review of studies investigating emotion comprehension in clinical populations. Suggestions for assessment and intervention of children's emotion comprehension skills are presented.

  20. Auditory feedback blocks memory benefits of cueing during sleep.

    PubMed

    Schreiner, Thomas; Lehmann, Mick; Rasch, Björn

    2015-10-28

    It is now widely accepted that re-exposure to memory cues during sleep reactivates memories and can improve later recall. However, the underlying mechanisms are still unknown. As reactivation during wakefulness renders memories sensitive to updating, it remains an intriguing question whether reactivated memories during sleep also become susceptible to incorporating further information after the cue. Here we show that the memory benefits of cueing Dutch vocabulary during sleep are in fact completely blocked when memory cues are directly followed by either correct or conflicting auditory feedback, or a pure tone. In addition, immediate (but not delayed) auditory stimulation abolishes the characteristic increases in oscillatory theta and spindle activity typically associated with successful reactivation during sleep as revealed by high-density electroencephalography. We conclude that plastic processes associated with theta and spindle oscillations occurring during a sensitive period immediately after the cue are necessary for stabilizing reactivated memory traces during sleep.

  1. Relationship of cues to assessed infant pain level.

    PubMed

    Fuller, B; Thomson, M; Conner, D A; Scanlan, J

    1996-02-01

    Cues that 46 pediatric nurses with a BS in Nursing reported as key to their pain assessments of 88 videotaped infants, ages 0 to 12 months, are identified. Frequencies with which these cues were used for infants of different ages and the relationships between key cues and assessed levels of pain are described. Greater pain was strongly associated with tears, stiff posture, guarding, and fisting. Greater pain was moderately associated with inadequate type or dosage of analgesia, more recent surgery, inconsolability, difficult to distract, does not focus on surroundings, frown, grimace, wrinkled face, flushed face, pain cry, and increased arousal in response to touch of sore area. Internurse variability in cue use was sizable. Most of the often-used cues had weak or no association with assessed pain level. Only consolability, pain cry, grimace, and stiff posture were frequently used and correlated > .51 with assessed level of pain.

  2. Mobile Navigation Using Haptic, Audio, and Visual Direction Cues with a Handheld Test Platform.

    PubMed

    Koslover, R L; Gleeson, B T; de Bever, J T; Provancher, W R

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on a series of user experiments evaluating the design of a multimodal test platform capable of rendering visual, audio, vibrotactile, and directional skin-stretch stimuli. The test platform is a handheld, wirelessly controlled device that will facilitate experiments with mobile users in realistic environments. Stimuli rendered by the device are fully characterized, and have little variance in stimulus onset timing. A series of user experiments utilizing navigational cues validates the function of the device and investigates the user response to all stimulus modes. Results show users are capable of interpreting all stimuli with high accuracy and can use the direction cues for mobile navigation. Tests included both stationary (seated) and mobile (walking a simple obstacle course) tasks. Accuracy and response time patterns are similar in both seated and mobile conditions. This device provides a means of designing and evaluating multimodal communication methods for handheld devices and will facilitate experiments investigating the effects of stimulus mode on device usability and situation awareness.

  3. The Modulation of Exogenous Spatial Cueing on Spatial Stroop Interference: Evidence of a Set for "Cue-Target Event Segregation"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funes, Maria Jesus; Lupianez, Juan; Milliken, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments are reported that test whether the modulation of exogenous cuing effects by the presence of a distractor at the location opposite the target (altering the time course of cueing effects, Lupianez et al., 1999, 2001) is due to the fast reorienting of attention or to a set for preventing the integration of the cue and the target…

  4. Stream grazers determine their crawling direction on the basis of chemical and particulate microalgal cues.

    PubMed

    Katano, Izumi; Doi, Hideyuki

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the association between herbivore behavior and cues from producers. We used stream grazer Glossosoma larvae and determined their crawling direction in relation to chemical and visual cues from microalgae. The experimental treatments included control (no cue), particulate (chemical and particulate cues), and dissolved (chemical cue) cues from microalgae. The experimental water samples were randomly placed into either arm of a Y-shaped channel, and the crawling direction of the grazers was determined. Although the grazers crawled toward the arm containing either particulate or dissolved cues, they preferred the arm with particulate cues. This suggested that grazers responded well to both particulate (i.e., drifting algal cells) and chemical (algal smell) cues, and that particulate cues were more important for foraging. In natural habitats, grazers detect cues from producers and change their behaviors to maintain a balance between top-down and bottom-up cues.

  5. Enhancing Extraction of Drug-Drug Interaction from Literature Using Neutral Candidates, Negation, and Clause Dependency

    PubMed Central

    Bokharaeian, Behrouz; Diaz, Alberto; Chitsaz, Hamidreza

    2016-01-01

    Motivation Supervised biomedical relation extraction plays an important role in biomedical natural language processing, endeavoring to obtain the relations between biomedical entities. Drug-drug interactions, which are investigated in the present paper, are notably among the critical biomedical relations. Thus far many methods have been developed with the aim of extracting DDI relations. However, unfortunately there has been a scarcity of comprehensive studies on the effects of negation, complex sentences, clause dependency, and neutral candidates in the course of DDI extraction from biomedical articles. Results Our study proposes clause dependency features and a number of features for identifying neutral candidates as well as negation cues and scopes. Furthermore, our experiments indicate that the proposed features significantly improve the performance of the relation extraction task combined with other kernel methods. We characterize the contribution of each category of features and finally conclude that neutral candidate features have the most prominent role among all of the three categories. PMID:27695078

  6. Task Integration Facilitates Multitasking

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Rita F.; Raab, Markus; Hegele, Mathias; Schorer, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate multi-task integration in a continuous tracking task. We were particularly interested in how manipulating task structure in a dual-task situation affects learning of a constant segment embedded in a pursuit-tracking task. Importantly, we examined if dual-task effects could be attributed to task integration by varying the structural similarity and difficulty of the primary and secondary tasks. In Experiment 1 participants performed a pursuit tracking task while counting high-pitched tones and ignoring low-pitched tones. The tones were either presented randomly or structurally 250 ms before each tracking turn. Experiment 2 increased the motor load of the secondary tasks by asking participants to tap their feet to the tones. Experiment 3 further increased motor load of the primary task by increasing its speed and having participants tracking with their non-dominant hand. The results show that dual-task interference can be moderated by secondary task conditions that match the structure of the primary task. Therefore our results support proposals of task integration in continuous tracking paradigms. We conclude that multi-tasking is not always detrimental for motor learning but can be facilitated through task-integration. PMID:28360878

  7. Task Integration Facilitates Multitasking.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Rita F; Raab, Markus; Hegele, Mathias; Schorer, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate multi-task integration in a continuous tracking task. We were particularly interested in how manipulating task structure in a dual-task situation affects learning of a constant segment embedded in a pursuit-tracking task. Importantly, we examined if dual-task effects could be attributed to task integration by varying the structural similarity and difficulty of the primary and secondary tasks. In Experiment 1 participants performed a pursuit tracking task while counting high-pitched tones and ignoring low-pitched tones. The tones were either presented randomly or structurally 250 ms before each tracking turn. Experiment 2 increased the motor load of the secondary tasks by asking participants to tap their feet to the tones. Experiment 3 further increased motor load of the primary task by increasing its speed and having participants tracking with their non-dominant hand. The results show that dual-task interference can be moderated by secondary task conditions that match the structure of the primary task. Therefore our results support proposals of task integration in continuous tracking paradigms. We conclude that multi-tasking is not always detrimental for motor learning but can be facilitated through task-integration.

  8. Program Facilitates CMMI Appraisals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sweetser, Wesley

    2005-01-01

    A computer program has been written to facilitate appraisals according to the methodology of Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI). [CMMI is a government/industry standard, maintained by the Software Engineering Institute at Carnegie Mellon University, for objectively assessing the engineering capability and maturity of an organization (especially, an organization that produces software)]. The program assists in preparation for a CMMI appraisal by providing drop-down lists suggesting required artifacts or evidence. It identifies process areas for which similar evidence is required and includes a copy feature that reduces or eliminates repetitive data entry. It generates reports to show the entire framework for reference, the appraisal artifacts to determine readiness for an appraisal, and lists of interviewees and questions to ask them during the appraisal. During an appraisal, the program provides screens for entering observations and ratings, and reviewing evidence provided thus far. Findings concerning strengths and weaknesses can be exported for use in a report or a graphical presentation. The program generates a chart showing capability level ratings of the organization. A context-sensitive Windows help system enables a novice to use the program and learn about the CMMI appraisal process.

  9. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus isolates differ in their susceptibility to neutralization.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Lobo, F Javier; Díez-Fuertes, Francisco; Simarro, Isabel; Castro, José M; Prieto, Cinta

    2011-09-16

    provides a useful tool to facilitate the systematic characterization of neutralizing antibody production elicited by new vaccine candidates.

  10. Naturally selected hepatitis C virus polymorphisms confer broad neutralizing antibody resistance

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Justin R.; Wasilewski, Lisa N.; Snider, Anna E.; El-Diwany, Ramy; Osburn, William O.; Keck, Zhenyong; Foung, Steven K.H.; Ray, Stuart C.

    2014-01-01

    For hepatitis C virus (HCV) and other highly variable viruses, broadly neutralizing mAbs are an important guide for vaccine development. The development of resistance to anti-HCV mAbs is poorly understood, in part due to a lack of neutralization testing against diverse, representative panels of HCV variants. Here, we developed a neutralization panel expressing diverse, naturally occurring HCV envelopes (E1E2s) and used this panel to characterize neutralizing breadth and resistance mechanisms of 18 previously described broadly neutralizing anti-HCV human mAbs. The observed mAb resistance could not be attributed to polymorphisms in E1E2 at known mAb-binding residues. Additionally, hierarchical clustering analysis of neutralization resistance patterns revealed relationships between mAbs that were not predicted by prior epitope mapping, identifying 3 distinct neutralization clusters. Using this clustering analysis and envelope sequence data, we identified polymorphisms in E2 that confer resistance to multiple broadly neutralizing mAbs. These polymorphisms, which are not at mAb contact residues, also conferred resistance to neutralization by plasma from HCV-infected subjects. Together, our method of neutralization clustering with sequence analysis reveals that polymorphisms at noncontact residues may be a major immune evasion mechanism for HCV, facilitating viral persistence and presenting a challenge for HCV vaccine development. PMID:25500884

  11. Blending of heritable recognition cues among ant nestmates creates distinct colony gestalt odours but prevents within-colony nepotism.

    PubMed

    van Zweden, J S; Brask, J B; Christensen, J H; Boomsma, J J; Linksvayer, T A; d'Ettorre, P

    2010-07-01

    The evolution of sociality is facilitated by the recognition of close kin, but if kin recognition is too accurate, nepotistic behaviour within societies can dissolve social cohesion. In social insects, cuticular hydrocarbons act as nestmate recognition cues and are usually mixed among colony members to create a Gestalt odour. Although earlier studies have established that hydrocarbon profiles are influenced by heritable factors, transfer among nestmates and additional environmental factors, no studies have quantified these relative contributions for separate compounds. Here, we use the ant Formica rufibarbis in a cross-fostering design to test the degree to which hydrocarbons are heritably synthesized by young workers and transferred by their foster workers. Bioassays show that nestmate recognition has a significant heritable component. Multivariate quantitative analyses based on 38 hydrocarbons reveal that a subset of branched alkanes are heritably synthesized, but that these are also extensively transferred among nestmates. In contrast, especially linear alkanes are less heritable and little transferred; these are therefore unlikely to act as cues that allow within-colony nepotistic discrimination or as nestmate recognition cues. These results indicate that heritable compounds are suitable for establishing a genetic Gestalt for efficient nestmate recognition, but that recognition cues within colonies are insufficiently distinct to allow nepotistic kin discrimination.

  12. Ubiquitin Interacts with the Tollip C2 and CUE Domains and Inhibits Binding of Tollip to Phosphoinositides*

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Sharmistha; Traughber, C. Alicia; Brannon, Mary K.; Gomez, Stephanie; Capelluto, Daniel G. S.

    2013-01-01

    A large number of cellular signaling processes are directed through internalization, via endocytosis, of polyubiquitinated cargo proteins. Tollip is an adaptor protein that facilitates endosomal cargo sorting for lysosomal degradation. Tollip preferentially binds phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PtdIns(3)P) via its C2 domain, an association that may be required for endosomal membrane targeting. Here, we show that Tollip binds ubiquitin through its C2 and CUE domains and that its association with the C2 domain inhibits PtdIns(3)P binding. NMR analysis demonstrates that the C2 and CUE domains bind to overlapping sites on ubiquitin, suggesting that two ubiquitin molecules associate with Tollip simultaneously. Hydrodynamic studies reveal that ubiquitin forms heterodimers with the CUE domain, indicating that the association disrupts the dimeric state of the CUE domain. We propose that, in the absence of polyubiquitinated cargo, the dual binding of ubiquitin partitions Tollip into membrane-bound and membrane-free states, a function that contributes to the engagement of Tollip in both membrane trafficking and cytosolic pathways. PMID:23880770

  13. Biological neutralization of chlor-alkali industry wastewater.

    PubMed

    Jain, Rakeshkumar M; Mody, Kalpana H; Keshri, Jitendra; Jha, Bhavanath

    2011-11-01

    The present work reports biological neutralization of chlor-alkali industrial effluent by an alkaliphilic bacterium, isolated from the Gujarat coast, which was identified as Enterococcus faecium strain R-5 on the basis of morphological, biochemical and partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The isolate was capable of bringing down the pH of waste water from 12.0 to 7.0 within 3 h in the presence of carbon and nitrogen sources, with simultaneous reduction in total dissolved solutes (TDS) up to 19-22%. This bacterium produced carboxylic acid, as revealed by FT-IR analysis, which facilitated neutralization of alkaline effluent. The presence of unconventional raw materials viz. Madhuca indica flowers or sugar cane bagasse as carbon and nitrogen sources could effectively neutralize alkaline effluent and thus making the bioremediation process economically viable. The time required for neutralization varied with size of inoculum. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on biological neutralization of a chlor-alkali industrial effluent.

  14. Menthol facilitates the intravenous self-administration of nicotine in rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tengfei; Wang, Bin; Chen, Hao

    2014-01-01

    Menthol is preferred by ~25% of smokers and is the most common flavoring additive in tobacco and electronic cigarettes. Although some clinical studies have suggested that menthol facilitates the initiation of smoking and enhances the dependence on nicotine, many controversies remain. Using licking as the operant behavior, we found that adolescent rats self-administering nicotine (30μg/kg/infusion, free base, i.v.) with contingent oral menthol (60μl, 0.01% w/v) obtained significantly more infusions than rats receiving a vehicle cue or rats self-administering i.v. saline with a menthol cue. Rats yoked to their menthol-nicotine masters emitted significantly fewer licks on the active spouts, indicating that contingent pairing between nicotine and menthol is required for sustained nicotine intake. Rats that self-administered nicotine with a menthol cue also exhibited a long-lasting extinction burst and robust reinstatement behavior, neither of which were observed in rats that self-administered saline with a menthol cue. The cooling sensation of menthol is induced by activating the transient receptor potential M8 (TRPM8) channel. When WS-23, an odorless agonist of the TRPM8 channel, was used as a contingent cue for nicotine, the rats obtained a similar number of nicotine infusions as the rats that were provided a menthol cue and exhibited a strong preference for the active spout. In contrast, highly appetitive taste and odor cues failed to support nicotine self-administration. These data indicated that menthol, likely by inducing a cooling sensation, becomes a potent conditioned reinforcer when it is contingently delivered with nicotine. Together, these results provide a key behavioral mechanism by which menthol promotes the use of tobacco products or electronic cigarettes. PMID:25566005

  15. Threat facilitates subsequent executive control during anxious mood.

    PubMed

    Birk, Jeffrey L; Dennis, Tracy A; Shin, Lisa M; Urry, Heather L

    2011-12-01

    Dual competition framework (DCF) posits that low-level threat may facilitate behavioral performance by influencing executive control functions. Anxiety is thought to strengthen this effect by enhancing threat's affective significance. To test these ideas directly, we examined the effects of low-level threat and experimentally induced anxiety on one executive control function, the efficiency of response inhibition. In Study 1, briefly presented stimuli that were mildly threatening (i.e., fearful faces) relative to nonthreatening (i.e., neutral faces) led to facilitated executive control efficiency during experimentally induced anxiety. No such effect was observed during an equally arousing, experimentally induced happy mood state. In Study 2, we assessed the effects of low-level threat, experimentally induced anxiety, and individual differences in trait anxiety on executive control efficiency. Consistent with Study 1, fearful relative to neutral faces led to facilitated executive control efficiency during experimentally induced anxiety. No such effect was observed during an experimentally induced neutral mood state. Moreover, individual differences in trait anxiety did not moderate the effects of threat and anxiety on executive control efficiency. The findings are partially consistent with the predictions of DCF in that low-level threat improved executive control, at least during a state of anxiety.

  16. Directed forgetting of trauma cues in adults reporting repressed or recovered memories of childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    McNally, R J; Clancy, S A; Schacter, D L

    2001-02-01

    An item-cuing directed forgetting task was used to investigate whether women reporting repressed (n = 13) or recovered (n = 13) memories of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) exhibit an avoidant encoding style (and resultant impaired memory) for trauma cues relative to women reporting no CSA experience (n = 15). All participants viewed intermixed trauma (e.g., molested), positive (e.g., confident), and categorized neutral (e.g., mailbox) words on a computer screen and were instructed either to remember or to forget each word. The results provided no support for the hypothesis that people reporting either repressed or recovered memories of CSA are especially adept at forgetting words related to trauma. These groups recalled words they were instructed to remember more often than words they were instructed to forget regardless of whether they were trauma related.

  17. Cortisol, but not intranasal insulin, affects the central processing of visual food cues.

    PubMed

    Ferreira de Sá, Diana S; Schulz, André; Streit, Fabian E; Turner, Jonathan D; Oitzl, Melly S; Blumenthal, Terry D; Schächinger, Hartmut

    2014-12-01

    Stress glucocorticoids and insulin are important endocrine regulators of energy homeostasis, but little is known about their central interaction on the reward-related processing of food cues. According to a balanced group design, healthy food deprived men received either 40IU intranasal insulin (n=13), 30mg oral cortisol (n=12), both (n=15), or placebo (n=14). Acoustic startle responsiveness was assessed during presentation of food and non-food pictures. Cortisol enhanced startle responsiveness during visual presentation of "high glycemic" food pictures, but not during presentation of neutral and pleasant non-food pictures. Insulin had no effect. Based on the "frustrative nonreward" model these results suggest that the reward value of high glycemic food items is specifically increased by cortisol.

  18. Neural coding underlying the cue preference for celestial orientation

    PubMed Central

    el Jundi, Basil; Warrant, Eric J.; Byrne, Marcus J.; Khaldy, Lana; Baird, Emily; Smolka, Jochen; Dacke, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Diurnal and nocturnal African dung beetles use celestial cues, such as the sun, the moon, and the polarization pattern, to roll dung balls along straight paths across the savanna. Although nocturnal beetles move in the same manner through the same environment as their diurnal relatives, they do so when light conditions are at least 1 million-fold dimmer. Here, we show, for the first time to our knowledge, that the celestial cue preference differs between nocturnal and diurnal beetles in a manner that reflects their contrasting visual ecologies. We also demonstrate how these cue preferences are reflected in the activity of compass neurons in the brain. At night, polarized skylight is the dominant orientation cue for nocturnal beetles. However, if we coerce them to roll during the day, they instead use a celestial body (the sun) as their primary orientation cue. Diurnal beetles, however, persist in using a celestial body for their compass, day or night. Compass neurons in the central complex of diurnal beetles are tuned only to the sun, whereas the same neurons in the nocturnal species switch exclusively to polarized light at lunar light intensities. Thus, these neurons encode the preferences for particular celestial cues and alter their weighting according to ambient light conditions. This flexible encoding of celestial cue preferences relative to the prevailing visual scenery provides a simple, yet effective, mechanism for enabling visual orientation at any light intensity. PMID:26305929

  19. Processing of Lexical-Stress Cues by Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Quam, Carolyn; Swingley, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Though infants learn an impressive amount about their native-language phonological system by the end of the first year of life, after the first year children still have much to learn about how acoustic dimensions cue linguistic categories in fluent speech. The present study investigates what children have learned about how the acoustic dimension of pitch indicates the location of the stressed syllable in familiar words. Preschoolers (2.5–5 years) and adults were tested on their ability to use lexical-stress cues to identify familiar words. Both age groups saw pictures of a bunny and a banana, and heard versions of “bunny” and “banana” in which stress was either indicated normally with convergent cues (pitch, duration, amplitude, and vowel quality), or was manipulated such that only pitch differentiated the words’ initial syllables. Adults (n=48) used both the convergent cues, and the isolated pitch cue, to identify the target words as they unfolded. Children (n=206) used the convergent stress cues, but not pitch alone, in identifying words. We discuss potential reasons for children’s difficulty exploiting isolated pitch cues to stress, despite children’s early sensitivity to pitch in language (e.g., Fernald, 1992). These findings contribute to a view in which phonological development progresses toward the adult state well past infancy. PMID:24705094

  20. Cortical cholinergic signaling controls the detection of cues

    PubMed Central

    Gritton, Howard J.; Howe, William M.; Mallory, Caitlin S.; Hetrick, Vaughn L.; Berke, Joshua D.; Sarter, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The cortical cholinergic input system has been described as a neuromodulator system that influences broadly defined behavioral and brain states. The discovery of phasic, trial-based increases in extracellular choline (transients), resulting from the hydrolysis of newly released acetylcholine (ACh), in the cortex of animals reporting the presence of cues suggests that ACh may have a more specialized role in cognitive processes. Here we expressed channelrhodopsin or halorhodopsin in basal forebrain cholinergic neurons of mice with optic fibers directed into this region and prefrontal cortex. Cholinergic transients, evoked in accordance with photostimulation parameters determined in vivo, were generated in mice performing a task necessitating the reporting of cue and noncue events. Generating cholinergic transients in conjunction with cues enhanced cue detection rates. Moreover, generating transients in noncued trials, where cholinergic transients normally are not observed, increased the number of invalid claims for cues. Enhancing hits and generating false alarms both scaled with stimulation intensity. Suppression of endogenous cholinergic activity during cued trials reduced hit rates. Cholinergic transients may be essential for synchronizing cortical neuronal output driven by salient cues and executing cue-guided responses. PMID:26787867