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Sample records for neutral cue facilitates

  1. Adults' Social Cues Facilitate Young Children's Use of Signs and Symbols

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leekam, Susan R.; Solomon, Tracy L.; Teoh, Yee-San

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments investigated the effect of an adult's social cues on 2- and 3-year-old children's ability to use a sign or symbol to locate a hidden object. Results showed that an adult's positive, engaging facial expression facilitated children's ability to identify the correct referent, particularly for 3-year-olds. A neutral facial expression…

  2. Adults' Social Cues Facilitate Young Children's Use of Signs and Symbols

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leekam, Susan R.; Solomon, Tracy L.; Teoh, Yee-San

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments investigated the effect of an adult's social cues on 2- and 3-year-old children's ability to use a sign or symbol to locate a hidden object. Results showed that an adult's positive, engaging facial expression facilitated children's ability to identify the correct referent, particularly for 3-year-olds. A neutral facial expression…

  3. Facilitation of voluntary goal-directed action by reward cues.

    PubMed

    Lovibond, Peter F; Colagiuri, Ben

    2013-10-01

    Reward-associated cues are known to influence motivation to approach both natural and man-made rewards, such as food and drugs. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects are not well understood. To model these processes in the laboratory with humans, we developed an appetitive Pavlovian-instrumental transfer procedure with a chocolate reward. We used a single unconstrained response that led to an actual rather than symbolic reward to assess the strength of reward motivation. Presentation of a chocolate-paired cue, but not an unpaired cue, markedly enhanced instrumental responding over a 30-s period. The same pattern was observed with 10-s and 30-s cues, showing that close cue-reward contiguity is not necessary for facilitation of reward-directed action. The results confirm that reward-related cues can instigate voluntary action to obtain that reward. The effectiveness of long-duration cues suggests that in clinical settings, attention should be directed to both proximal and distal cues for reward.

  4. Using multisensory cues to facilitate air traffic management.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Mary K; Pierce, Russell S; Spence, Charles

    2012-12-01

    In the present study, we sought to investigate whether auditory and tactile cuing could be used to facilitate a complex, real-world air traffic management scenario. Auditory and tactile cuing provides an effective means of improving both the speed and accuracy of participants' performance in a variety of laboratory-based visual target detection and identification tasks. A low-fidelity air traffic simulation task was used in which participants monitored and controlled aircraft.The participants had to ensure that the aircraft landed or exited at the correct altitude, speed, and direction and that they maintained a safe separation from all other aircraft and boundaries. The performance measures recorded included en route time, handoff delay, and conflict resolution delay (the performance measure of interest). In a baseline condition, the aircraft in conflict was highlighted in red (visual cue), and in the experimental conditions, this standard visual cue was accompanied by a simultaneously presented auditory, vibrotactile, or audiotactile cue. Participants responded significantly more rapidly, but no less accurately, to conflicts when presented with an additional auditory or audiotactile cue than with either a vibrotactile or visual cue alone. Auditory and audiotactile cues have the potential for improving operator performance by reducing the time it takes to detect and respond to potential visual target events. These results have important implications for the design and use of multisensory cues in air traffic management.

  5. Colour cues facilitate learning flower refill schedules in wild hummingbirds.

    PubMed

    Samuels, Michael; Hurly, T Andrew; Healy, Susan D

    2014-11-01

    Free-living hummingbirds can learn the refill schedules of individual experimental flowers but little is known about what information they use to do this. Colour cues, in particular, may be important to hummingbirds when learning about rewarded flower properties. We investigated, therefore, whether colour cues facilitated the learning of flower refill schedules in wild, free-living rufous hummingbirds (Selasphorus rufus). In the Cued condition, we presented birds with an array of six flowers, three of one colour, each of which were refilled 10min after being emptied by the bird and three of a different colour, which were refilled 20min after being emptied. In the Uncued condition we presented birds with six flowers of the same colour, three of which were refilled after 10min and three of which were refilled after 20min as for the birds in the Cued condition. In the second part of the experiment, we moved the array 2m and changed the shape of the array. Across both phases, birds in the Cued condition learned to discriminate between 10 and 20-min flowers more quickly than did the birds in the Uncued condition. The Cued birds were also better at discriminating between the two distinct refill intervals. Colour cues can, therefore, facilitate learning the refill schedules of experimental flowers in these birds. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cognition in the wild.

  6. Impact of DCS-facilitated cue exposure therapy on brain activation to cocaine cues in cocaine dependence.

    PubMed

    Prisciandaro, James J; Myrick, Hugh; Henderson, Scott; McRae-Clark, Aimee L; Santa Ana, Elizabeth J; Saladin, Michael E; Brady, Kathleen T

    2013-09-01

    The development of addiction is marked by a pathological associative learning process that imbues incentive salience to stimuli associated with drug use. Recent efforts to treat addiction have targeted this learning process using cue exposure therapy augmented with d-cycloserine (DCS), a glutamatergic agent hypothesized to enhance extinction learning. To better understand the impact of DCS-facilitated extinction on neural reactivity to drug cues, the present study reports fMRI findings from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of DCS-facilitated cue exposure for cocaine dependence. Twenty-five participants completed two MRI sessions (before and after intervention), with a cocaine-cue reactivity fMRI task. The intervention consisted of 50mg of DCS or placebo, combined with two sessions of cocaine cue exposure and skills training. Participants demonstrated cocaine cue activation in a variety of brain regions at baseline. From the pre- to post-study scan, participants experienced decreased activation to cues in a number of regions (e.g., accumbens, caudate, frontal poles). Unexpectedly, placebo participants experienced decreases in activation to cues in the left angular and middle temporal gyri and the lateral occipital cortex, while DCS participants did not. Three trials of DCS-facilitated cue exposure therapy for cocaine dependence have found that DCS either increases or does not significantly impact response to cocaine cues. The present study adds to this literature by demonstrating that DCS may prevent extinction to cocaine cues in temporal and occipital brain regions. Although consistent with past research, results from the present study should be considered preliminary until replicated in larger samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Impact of DCS-facilitated cue exposure therapy on brain activation to cocaine cues in cocaine dependence

    PubMed Central

    Prisciandaro, James J.; Myrick, Hugh; Henderson, Scott; McRae-Clark, Aimee L.; Ana, Elizabeth J. Santa; Saladin, Michael E.; Brady, Kathleen T.

    2013-01-01

    Background The development of addiction is marked by a pathological associative learning process that imbues incentive salience to stimuli associated with drug use. Recent efforts to treat addiction have targeted this learning process using cue exposure therapy augmented with D-cycloserine (DCS), a glutamatergic agent hypothesized to enhance extinction learning. To better understand the impact of DCS-facilitated extinction on neural reactivity to drug cues, the present study reports fMRI findings from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of DCS-facilitated cue exposure for cocaine dependence. Methods Twenty-five participants completed two MRI sessions (before and after intervention), with a cocaine-cue reactivity fMRI task. The intervention consisted of 50mg of DCS or placebo, combined with two sessions of cocaine cue exposure and skills training. Results Participants demonstrated cocaine cue activation in a variety of brain regions at baseline. From the pre- to post-study scan, participants experienced decreased activation to cues in a number of regions (e.g., accumbens, caudate, frontal poles). Unexpectedly, placebo participants experienced decreases in activation to cues in the left angular and middle temporal gyri and the lateral occipital cortex, while DCS participants did not. Conclusions Three trials of DCS-facilitated cue exposure therapy for cocaine dependence have found that DCS either increases or does not significantly impact response to cocaine cues. The present study adds to this literature by demonstrating that DCS may prevent extinction to cocaine cues in temporal and occipital brain regions. Although consistent with past research, results from the present study should be considered preliminary until replicated in larger samples. PMID:23497788

  8. Informative Cues Facilitate Saccadic Localization in Blindsight Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Masatoshi; Hafed, Ziad M.; Isa, Tadashi

    2017-01-01

    Patients with damage to the primary visual cortex (V1) demonstrate residual visual performance during laboratory tasks despite denying having a conscious percept. The mechanisms behind such performance, often called blindsight, are not fully understood, but the use of surgically-induced unilateral V1 lesions in macaque monkeys provides a useful animal model for exploring such mechanisms. For example, V1-lesioned monkeys localize stimuli in a forced-choice condition while at the same time failing to report awareness of identical stimuli in a yes-no detection condition, similar to human patients. Moreover, residual cognitive processes, including saliency-guided eye movements, bottom-up attention with peripheral non-informative cues, and spatial short-term memory, have all been demonstrated in these animals. Here we examined whether post-lesion residual visuomotor processing can be modulated by top-down task knowledge. We tested two V1-lesioned monkeys with a visually guided saccade task in which we provided an informative foveal pre-cue about upcoming target location. Our monkeys fixated while we presented a leftward or rightward arrow (serving as a pre-cue) superimposed on the fixation point (FP). After various cue-target onset asynchronies (CTOAs), a saccadic target (of variable contrast across trials) was presented either in the affected (contra-lesional) or seeing (ipsi-lesional) hemifield. Critically, target location was in the same hemifield that the arrow pre-cue pointed towards in 80% of the trials (valid-cue trials), making the cue highly useful for task performance. In both monkeys, correct saccade reaction times were shorter during valid than invalid trials. Moreover, in one monkey, the ratio of correct saccades towards the affected hemifield was higher during valid than invalid trials. We replicated both reaction time and correct ratio effects in the same monkey using a symbolic color cue. These results suggest that V1-lesion monkeys can use informative

  9. Auditory, tactile, and multisensory cues facilitate search for dynamic visual stimuli.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Mary Kim; Spence, Charles

    2010-08-01

    Presenting an auditory or tactile cue in temporal synchrony with a change in the color of a visual target can facilitate participants' visual search performance. In the present study, we compared the magnitude of unimodal auditory, vibrotactile, and bimodal (i.e., multisensory) cuing benefits when the nonvisual cues were presented in temporal synchrony with the changing of the target's color (Experiments 1 and 2). The target (a horizontal or vertical line segment) was presented among a number of distractors (tilted line segments) that also changed color at various times. In Experiments 3 and 4, the cues were also made spatially informative with regard to the location of the visual target. The unimodal and bimodal cues gave rise to an equivalent (significant) facilitation of participants' visual search performance relative to a no-cue baseline condition. Making the unimodal auditory and vibrotactile cues spatially informative produced further performance improvements (on validly cued trials), as compared with cues that were spatially uninformative or otherwise spatially invalid. A final experiment was conducted in order to determine whether cue location (close to versus far from the visual display) would influence participants' visual search performance. Auditory cues presented close to the visual search display were found to produce significantly better performance than cues presented over headphones. Taken together, these results have implications for the design of nonvisual and multisensory warning signals used in complex visual displays.

  10. Social and Linguistic Cues Facilitate Children's Register Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Laura; Vega-Mendoza, Mariana; Van Horn, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    Speakers must command different linguistic registers to index various social-discourse elements, including the identity of the addressee. Previous work found that English-learning children could link registers to appropriate addressees by 5 years. Two experiments found that better cues to the linguistic form or to the social meaning of register…

  11. Social and Linguistic Cues Facilitate Children's Register Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Laura; Vega-Mendoza, Mariana; Van Horn, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    Speakers must command different linguistic registers to index various social-discourse elements, including the identity of the addressee. Previous work found that English-learning children could link registers to appropriate addressees by 5 years. Two experiments found that better cues to the linguistic form or to the social meaning of register…

  12. Facilitated detection of social cues conveyed by familiar faces

    PubMed Central

    Visconti di Oleggio Castello, Matteo; Guntupalli, J. Swaroop; Yang, Hua; Gobbini, M. Ida

    2014-01-01

    Recognition of the identity of familiar faces in conditions with poor visibility or over large changes in head angle, lighting and partial occlusion is far more accurate than recognition of unfamiliar faces in similar conditions. Here we used a visual search paradigm to test if one class of social cues transmitted by faces—direction of another's attention as conveyed by gaze direction and head orientation—is perceived more rapidly in personally familiar faces than in unfamiliar faces. We found a strong effect of familiarity on the detection of these social cues, suggesting that the times to process these signals in familiar faces are markedly faster than the corresponding processing times for unfamiliar faces. In the light of these new data, hypotheses on the organization of the visual system for processing faces are formulated and discussed. PMID:25228873

  13. Facilitated detection of social cues conveyed by familiar faces.

    PubMed

    Visconti di Oleggio Castello, Matteo; Guntupalli, J Swaroop; Yang, Hua; Gobbini, M Ida

    2014-01-01

    Recognition of the identity of familiar faces in conditions with poor visibility or over large changes in head angle, lighting and partial occlusion is far more accurate than recognition of unfamiliar faces in similar conditions. Here we used a visual search paradigm to test if one class of social cues transmitted by faces-direction of another's attention as conveyed by gaze direction and head orientation-is perceived more rapidly in personally familiar faces than in unfamiliar faces. We found a strong effect of familiarity on the detection of these social cues, suggesting that the times to process these signals in familiar faces are markedly faster than the corresponding processing times for unfamiliar faces. In the light of these new data, hypotheses on the organization of the visual system for processing faces are formulated and discussed.

  14. Rhythmicity and cross-modal temporal cues facilitate detection

    PubMed Central

    ten Oever, Sanne; Schroeder, Charles E.; Poeppel, David; van Atteveldt, Nienke; Zion-Golumbic, Elana

    2014-01-01

    Temporal structure in the environment often has predictive value for anticipating the occurrence of forthcoming events. In this study we investigated the influence of two types of predictive temporal information on the perception of near-threshold auditory stimuli: 1) intrinsic temporal rhythmicity within an auditory stimulus stream and 2) temporally-predictive visual cues. We hypothesized that combining predictive temporal information within- and across-modality should decrease the threshold at which sounds are detected, beyond the advantage provided by each information source alone. Two experiments were conducted in which participants had to detect tones in noise. Tones were presented in either rhythmic or random sequences and were preceded by a temporally predictive visual signal in half of the trials. We show that detection intensities are lower for rhythmic (vs. random) and audiovisual (vs. auditory-only) presentation, independent from response bias, and that this effect is even greater for rhythmic audiovisual presentation. These results suggest that both types of temporal information are used to optimally process sounds that occur at expected points in time (resulting in enhanced detection), and that multiple temporal cues are combined to improve temporal estimates. Our findings underscore the flexibility and proactivity of the perceptual system which uses within- and across-modality temporal cues to anticipate upcoming events and process them optimally. PMID:25128589

  15. Rhythmicity and cross-modal temporal cues facilitate detection.

    PubMed

    ten Oever, Sanne; Schroeder, Charles E; Poeppel, David; van Atteveldt, Nienke; Zion-Golumbic, Elana

    2014-10-01

    Temporal structure in the environment often has predictive value for anticipating the occurrence of forthcoming events. In this study we investigated the influence of two types of predictive temporal information on the perception of near-threshold auditory stimuli: 1) intrinsic temporal rhythmicity within an auditory stimulus stream and 2) temporally-predictive visual cues. We hypothesized that combining predictive temporal information within- and across-modality should decrease the threshold at which sounds are detected, beyond the advantage provided by each information source alone. Two experiments were conducted in which participants had to detect tones in noise. Tones were presented in either rhythmic or random sequences and were preceded by a temporally predictive visual signal in half of the trials. We show that detection intensities are lower for rhythmic (vs. random) and audiovisual (vs. auditory-only) presentation, independent from response bias, and that this effect is even greater for rhythmic audiovisual presentation. These results suggest that both types of temporal information are used to optimally process sounds that occur at expected points in time (resulting in enhanced detection), and that multiple temporal cues are combined to improve temporal estimates. Our findings underscore the flexibility and proactivity of the perceptual system which uses within- and across-modality temporal cues to anticipate upcoming events and process them optimally. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Interactive Rhythmic Cue Facilitates Gait Relearning in Patients with Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Uchitomi, Hirotaka; Ota, Leo; Ogawa, Ken-ichiro; Orimo, Satoshi; Miyake, Yoshihiro

    2013-01-01

    To develop a method for cooperative human gait training, we investigated whether interactive rhythmic cues could improve the gait performance of Parkinson's disease patients. The interactive rhythmic cues ware generated based on the mutual entrainment between the patient's gait rhythms and the cue rhythms input to the patient while the patient walked. Previously, we found that the dynamic characteristics of stride interval fluctuation in Parkinson's disease patients were improved to a healthy 1/f fluctuation level using interactive rhythmic cues and that this effect was maintained in the short term. However, two problems remained in our previous study. First, it was not clear whether the key factor underpinning the effect was the mutual entrainment between the gait rhythms and the cue rhythms or the rhythmic cue fluctuation itself. Second, it was not clear whether or not the gait restoration was maintained longitudinally and was relearned after repeating the cue-based gait training. Thus, the present study clarified these issues using 32 patients who participated in a four-day experimental program. The patients were assigned randomly to one of four experimental groups with the following rhythmic cues: (a) interactive rhythmic cue, (b) fixed tempo cue, (c) 1/f fluctuating tempo cue, and (d) no cue. It has been reported that the 1/f fluctuation of stride interval in healthy gait is absent in Parkinson's disease patients. Therefore, we used this dynamic characteristic as an evaluation index to analyze gait relearning in the four different conditions. We observed a significant effect in condition (a) that the gait fluctuation of the patients gradually returned to a healthy 1/f fluctuation level, whereas this did not occur in the other conditions. This result suggests that the mutual entrainment can facilitate gait relearning effectively. It is expected that interactive rhythmic cues will be widely applicable in the fields of rehabilitation and assistive technology

  17. Faecal chemical cues in water buffalo that facilitate estrus detection.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, Kandasamy; Muniasamy, Samuthirapandi; SankarGanesh, Devaraj; Achiraman, Shanmugam; Ramesh Saravanakumar, Veluchamy; Archunan, Govindaraju

    2013-05-01

    Chemo-signals are among the reliable non-invasive methods for estrus detection in mammals. Water buffalo is a silent heat animal and, hence, there is search for chemo-signals which would be effective non-invasive indicators of estrus state. We analyzed the faecal chemical cues during the estrous cycle in buffalo and to find the estrus-specific faecal volatile compounds adopting bull behavior assay. The faecal samples were collected at three phases of the estrous cycle (i.e., proestrus, estrus and postestrus) and subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses. We found 27 volatile compounds in the faeces of buffaloes, of which 4-methyl phenol (4mp) and trans-verbenol (tv) were found only in estrus faeces. The faecal samples of estrus buffaloes and the estrus-specific compound(s) (4mp+tv) at three different concentrations were tested for behavioral responses (flehmen and mounting behavior) in the bull. The bulls exhibited repeated flehmen when exposed to a combination of the two compounds (i.e., 4mp+tv) as compared to the individual compounds or raw faecal sample collected from buffalo when in estrus (P<0.05). However, higher number of mounting behavior was recorded when bulls were exposed to 4mp followed by a combination of the two compounds (4mp+tv) and trans-verbenol (P<0.05), in that order. By contrast, less number of mounting behavior was exhibited by bulls when exposed to the control sample (i.e., Hexadecanoic acid) (P<0.05). As inferred from the bull behavior assay, the present study suggests that the two compounds, 4 methyl phenol and trans-verbenol would be reliable indicators of estrus in buffaloes.

  18. Association learning for emotional harbinger cues: when do previous emotional associations impair and when do they facilitate subsequent learning of new associations?

    PubMed

    Sakaki, Michiko; Ycaza-Herrera, Alexandra E; Mather, Mara

    2014-02-01

    Neutral cues that predict emotional events (emotional harbingers) acquire emotional properties and attract attention. Given the importance of emotional harbingers for future survival, it is desirable to flexibly learn new facts about emotional harbingers when needed. However, recent research revealed that it is harder to learn new associations for emotional harbingers than cues that predict non-emotional events (neutral harbingers). In the current study, we addressed whether this impaired association learning for emotional harbingers is altered by one's awareness of the contingencies between cues and emotional outcomes. Across 3 studies, we found that one's awareness of the contingencies determines subsequent association learning of emotional harbingers. Emotional harbingers produced worse association learning than neutral harbingers when people were not aware of the contingencies between cues and emotional outcomes, but produced better association learning when people were aware of the contingencies. These results suggest that emotional harbingers do not always suffer from impaired association learning and can show facilitated learning depending on one's contingency awareness. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Association learning for emotional harbinger cues: When do previous emotional associations impair and when do they facilitate subsequent learning of new associations?

    PubMed Central

    Sakaki, Michiko; Ycaza-Herrera, Alexandra E.; Mather, Mara

    2014-01-01

    Neutral cues that predict emotional events (emotional harbingers) acquire emotional properties and attract attention. Given the importance of emotional harbingers for future survival, it is desirable to flexibly learn new facts about emotional harbingers when needed. However, recent research revealed that it is harder to learn new associations for emotional harbingers than cues that predict non-emotional events (neutral harbingers). In the current study, we addressed whether this impaired association learning for emotional harbingers is altered by one’s awareness of the contingencies between cues and emotional outcomes. Across three studies, we found that one’s awareness of the contingencies determines subsequent association learning of emotional harbingers. Emotional harbingers produced worse association learning than neutral harbingers when people were not aware of the contingencies between cues and emotional outcomes, but produced better association learning when people were aware of the contingencies. These results suggest that emotional harbingers do not always suffer from impaired association learning and can show facilitated learning depending on one’s contingency awareness. PMID:24098924

  20. Probability cueing of distractor locations: both intertrial facilitation and statistical learning mediate interference reduction.

    PubMed

    Goschy, Harriet; Bakos, Sarolta; Müller, Hermann J; Zehetleitner, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Targets in a visual search task are detected faster if they appear in a probable target region as compared to a less probable target region, an effect which has been termed "probability cueing." The present study investigated whether probability cueing cannot only speed up target detection, but also minimize distraction by distractors in probable distractor regions as compared to distractors in less probable distractor regions. To this end, three visual search experiments with a salient, but task-irrelevant, distractor ("additional singleton") were conducted. Experiment 1 demonstrated that observers can utilize uneven spatial distractor distributions to selectively reduce interference by distractors in frequent distractor regions as compared to distractors in rare distractor regions. Experiments 2 and 3 showed that intertrial facilitation, i.e., distractor position repetitions, and statistical learning (independent of distractor position repetitions) both contribute to the probability cueing effect for distractor locations. Taken together, the present results demonstrate that probability cueing of distractor locations has the potential to serve as a strong attentional cue for the shielding of likely distractor locations.

  1. From Foreground to Background: How Task-Neutral Context Influences Contextual Cueing of Visual Search

    PubMed Central

    Zang, Xuelian; Geyer, Thomas; Assumpção, Leonardo; Müller, Hermann J.; Shi, Zhuanghua

    2016-01-01

    Selective attention determines the effectiveness of implicit contextual learning (e.g., Jiang and Leung, 2005). Visual foreground-background segmentation, on the other hand, is a key process in the guidance of attention (Wolfe, 2003). In the present study, we examined the impact of foreground-background segmentation on contextual cueing of visual search in three experiments. A visual search display, consisting of distractor ‘L’s and a target ‘T’, was overlaid on a task-neutral cuboid on the same depth plane (Experiment 1), on stereoscopically separated depth planes (Experiment 2), or spread over the entire display on the same depth plane (Experiment 3). Half of the search displays contained repeated target-distractor arrangements, whereas the other half was always newly generated. The task-neutral cuboid was constant during an initial training session, but was either rotated by 90° or entirely removed in the subsequent test sessions. We found that the gains resulting from repeated presentation of display arrangements during training (i.e., contextual-cueing effects) were diminished when the cuboid was changed or removed in Experiment 1, but remained intact in Experiments 2 and 3 when the cuboid was placed in a different depth plane, or when the items were randomly spread over the whole display but not on the edges of the cuboid. These findings suggest that foreground-background segmentation occurs prior to contextual learning, and only objects/arrangements that are grouped as foreground are learned over the course of repeated visual search. PMID:27375530

  2. Impaired cognitive performance in subjects with methamphetamine dependence during exposure to neutral versus methamphetamine-related cues.

    PubMed

    Tolliver, Bryan K; Price, Kimber L; Baker, Nathaniel L; LaRowe, Steven D; Simpson, Annie N; McRae-Clark, Aimee L; Saladin, Michael E; DeSantis, Stacia M; Chapman, Elizabeth; Garrett, Margaret; Brady, Kathleen T

    2012-05-01

    Chronic methamphetamine abuse is associated with cognitive deficits that may impede treatment in methamphetamine-dependent patients. Exposure to methamphetamine-related cues can elicit intense craving in chronic users of the drug, but the effects of exposure to drug cues on cognitive performance in these individuals are unknown. This study assessed whether exposure to methamphetamine-related visual cues can elicit craving and/or alter dual task cognitive performance in 30 methamphetamine-dependent subjects and 30 control subjects in the laboratory. Reaction time, response errors, and inhibition errors were assessed on an auditory Go-No Go task performed by adult participants (total N = 60) while watching neutral versus methamphetamine-related video cues. Craving was assessed with the Within-Session Rating Scale modified for methamphetamine-dependent subjects. Exposure to methamphetamine-related cues elicited craving only in methamphetamine-dependent subjects. Even in the absence of methamphetamine cues, methamphetamine-dependent subjects exhibited slower reaction times and higher rates of both inhibition and response errors than control subjects did. Upon exposure to methamphetamine cues, rates of both response errors and inhibition errors increased significantly in methamphetamine-dependent subjects. Control subjects exhibited no increase in inhibition errors and only slightly increased rates of response errors upon exposure to methamphetamine cues. Response error rates, but not inhibition error rates or reaction times, during methamphetamine cue exposure were significantly associated with craving scores in methamphetamine-dependent subjects. Methamphetamine-dependent individuals exhibit cognitive performance deficits that are more pronounced during exposure to methamphetamine-related cues. Interventions that reduce cue reactivity may have utility in the treatment of methamphetamine dependence.

  3. The role of temporal speech cues in facilitating the fluency of adults who stutter.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin; Logan, Kenneth J

    2015-12-01

    Adults who stutter speak more fluently during choral speech contexts than they do during solo speech contexts. The underlying mechanisms for this effect remain unclear, however. In this study, we examined the extent to which the choral speech effect depended on presentation of intact temporal speech cues. We also examined whether speakers who stutter followed choral signals more closely than typical speakers did. 8 adults who stuttered and 8 adults who did not stutter read 60 sentences aloud during a solo speaking condition and three choral speaking conditions (240 total sentences), two of which featured either temporally altered or indeterminate word duration patterns. Effects of these manipulations on speech fluency, rate, and temporal entrainment with the choral speech signal were assessed. Adults who stutter spoke more fluently in all choral speaking conditions than they did when speaking solo. They also spoke slower and exhibited closer temporal entrainment with the choral signal during the mid- to late-stages of sentence production than the adults who did not stutter. Both groups entrained more closely with unaltered choral signals than they did with altered choral signals. Findings suggest that adults who stutter make greater use of speech-related information in choral signals when talking than adults with typical fluency do. The presence of fluency facilitation during temporally altered choral speech and conversation babble, however, suggests that temporal/gestural cueing alone cannot account for fluency facilitation in speakers who stutter. Other potential fluency enhancing mechanisms are discussed. The reader will be able to (a) summarize competing views on stuttering as a speech timing disorder, (b) describe the extent to which adults who stutter depend on an accurate rendering of temporal information in order to benefit from choral speech, and (c) discuss possible explanations for fluency facilitation in the presence of inaccurate or indeterminate

  4. Sensory cues involved in social facilitation of reproduction in Blattella germanica females.

    PubMed

    Uzsák, Adrienn; Schal, Coby

    2013-01-01

    Cockroaches, like many other animal species, form aggregations in which social stimuli from conspecifics can alter the physiology, morphology, or behavior of individuals. In adult females of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica, social isolation slows oocyte development, sexual maturation, and sexual receptivity, whereas social interactions as minimal as between just two females accelerate reproduction; however, the sensory modalities and pathways that mediate these physiological and behavioral changes are poorly understood. We explored the roles of visual, olfactory, and tactile cues in the reproductive physiology of German cockroach females, and whether their effects are species-specific and related to circadian time. Our results show that tactile cues are the primary sensory input associated with social conditions--with no evidence for involvement of the visual and olfactory systems--and that the antennae play an important role in the reception of these tactile cues. This conclusion is supported by the observation that interactions with other insect species of similar or larger size and with similar antennal morphology also stimulate oocyte development in B. germanica. Social facilitation of reproduction is expected to be influenced by the circadian timing system, as females engage in more social contact during the day when they shelter in aggregations with conspecifics. Surprisingly, however, the female's reproductive rate was unresponsive to social interactions during the photophase, whereas social interactions as short as two hours during the scotophase were sufficient to induce faster reproduction.We discuss the adaptive significance of these sensory-neuroendocrine responses in the German cockroach.

  5. Sensory Cues Involved in Social Facilitation of Reproduction in Blattella germanica Females

    PubMed Central

    Uzsák, Adrienn; Schal, Coby

    2013-01-01

    Cockroaches, like many other animal species, form aggregations in which social stimuli from conspecifics can alter the physiology, morphology, or behavior of individuals. In adult females of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica, social isolation slows oocyte development, sexual maturation, and sexual receptivity, whereas social interactions as minimal as between just two females accelerate reproduction; however, the sensory modalities and pathways that mediate these physiological and behavioral changes are poorly understood. We explored the roles of visual, olfactory, and tactile cues in the reproductive physiology of German cockroach females, and whether their effects are species-specific and related to circadian time. Our results show that tactile cues are the primary sensory input associated with social conditions—with no evidence for involvement of the visual and olfactory systems—and that the antennae play an important role in the reception of these tactile cues. This conclusion is supported by the observation that interactions with other insect species of similar or larger size and with similar antennal morphology also stimulate oocyte development in B. germanica. Social facilitation of reproduction is expected to be influenced by the circadian timing system, as females engage in more social contact during the day when they shelter in aggregations with conspecifics. Surprisingly, however, the female's reproductive rate was unresponsive to social interactions during the photophase, whereas social interactions as short as two hours during the scotophase were sufficient to induce faster reproduction. We discuss the adaptive significance of these sensory-neuroendocrine responses in the German cockroach. PMID:23405195

  6. Cognitive enhancers for facilitating drug cue extinction: insights from animal models.

    PubMed

    Nic Dhonnchadha, Bríd Áine; Kantak, Kathleen M

    2011-08-01

    Given the success of cue exposure (extinction) therapy combined with a cognitive enhancer for reducing anxiety, it is anticipated that this approach will prove more efficacious than exposure therapy alone in preventing relapse in individuals with substance use disorders. Several factors may undermine the efficacy of exposure therapy for substance use disorders, but we suspect that neurocognitive impairments associated with chronic drug use are an important contributing factor. Numerous insights on these issues are gained from research using animal models of addiction. In this review, the relationship between brain sites whose learning, memory and executive functions are impaired by chronic drug use and brain sites that are important for effective drug cue extinction learning is explored first. This is followed by an overview of animal research showing improved treatment outcome for drug addiction (e.g. alcohol, amphetamine, cocaine, heroin) when explicit extinction training is conducted in combination with acute dosing of a cognitive-enhancing drug. The mechanism by which cognitive enhancers are thought to exert their benefits is by facilitating consolidation of drug cue extinction memory after activation of glutamatergic receptors. Based on the encouraging work in animals, factors that may be important for the treatment of drug addiction are considered.

  7. Cognitive Enhancers for Facilitating Drug Cue Extinction: Insights from Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Nic Dhonnchadha, Bríd Áine; Kantak, Kathleen M.

    2011-01-01

    Given the success of cue exposure (extinction) therapy combined with a cognitive enhancer for reducing anxiety, it is anticipated that this approach will prove more efficacious than exposure therapy alone in preventing relapse in individuals with substance use disorders. Several factors may undermine the efficacy of exposure therapy for substance use disorders, but we suspect that neurocognitive impairments associated with chronic drug use are an important contributing factor. Numerous insights on these issues are gained from research using animal models of addiction. In this review, the relationship between brain sites whose learning, memory and executive functions are impaired by chronic drug use and brain sites that are important for effective drug cue extinction learning is explored first. This is followed by an overview of animal research showing improved treatment outcome for drug addiction (e.g. alcohol, amphetamine, cocaine, heroin) when explicit extinction training is conducted in combination with acute dosing of a cognitive-enhancing drug. The mechanism by which cognitive enhancers are thought to exert their benefits is by facilitating consolidation of drug cue extinction memory after activation of glutamatergic receptors. Based on the encouraging work in animals, factors that may be important for the treatment of drug addiction are considered. PMID:21295059

  8. Aptamer-facilitated Protection of Oncolytic Virus from Neutralizing Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Muharemagic, Darija; Zamay, Anna; Ghobadloo, Shahrokh M; Evgin, Laura; Savitskaya, Anna; Bell, John C; Berezovski, Maxim V

    2014-01-01

    Oncolytic viruses promise to significantly improve current cancer treatments through their tumor-selective replication and multimodal attack against cancer cells. However, one of the biggest setbacks for oncolytic virus therapy is the intravenous delivery of the virus, as it can be cleared from the bloodstream by neutralizing antibodies before it reaches the tumor cells. We have selected DNA aptamers against an oncolytic virus, vesicular stomatitis virus, using a competitive binding approach, as well as against the antigen binding fragment (Fab) of antivesicular stomatitis virus polyclonal antibodies, in order to shield the virus from nAbs and enhance its in vivo survival. We used flow cytometry to identify these aptamers and evaluated their efficiency to shield vesicular stomatitis virus in a cell-based plaque forming assay. These oligonucleotides were then modified to obtain multivalent binders, which led to a decrease of viral aggregation, an increase in its infectivity and an increase in its stability in serum. The aptamers were also incubated in nondiluted serum, showing their effectiveness under conditions mimicking those in vivo. With this approach, we were able to increase viral infectivity by more than 70% in the presence of neutralizing antibodies. Thus, this method has the potential to enhance the delivery of vesicular stomatitis virus through the bloodstream without compromising the patient's immune system. PMID:24892725

  9. Venlafaxine facilitates between-session extinction and prevents reinstatement of auditory-cue conditioned fear.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cheng-Hao; Shi, Hai-Shui; Zhu, Wei-Li; Wu, Ping; Sun, Li-Li; Si, Ji-Jian; Liu, Meng-Meng; Zhang, Yan; Suo, Lin; Yang, Jian-Li

    2012-04-21

    Anxiety disorders, characterized by anxiety and fearfulness, are found to be able to cause abnormal emotional responses' associated with memories of negative events, which implicate pressure on society with an increasingly large burden. Better treatment has been of concern to the community. Venlafaxine (VEN), a nonclassical antidepressant agent, is applied in the treatment of social phobia, major depression (MD) and general anxiety disorder (GAD) and, to a certain extent, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which improves working memory and spatial memory as well as ameliorates emotion by affecting specified brain regions. In this study, we committed to seek a new way for using VEN on treatment of anxiety disorders. To investigate the effect of VEN on extinction of auditory-cue conditioned fear, conditioned rats received a treatment with VEN before extinction training and tests for freezing level of within-session and between-session extinction. To investigate the effect of VEN on reinstatement, all conditioned rats received a treatment with VEN over a period for 21 days. After a rest for 7 days, two tests for freezing level were conducted. We found that: (1) VEN (40mg/kg) treatment at 30min prior to extinction training significantly facilitated the between-session extinction, but not the within-session extinction; (2) chronic administration with VEN (40mg/kg) prevented the return of extinguished auditory-cue fear. These data elucidate the critical role of VEN in auditory-cue fear memory, suggesting that VEN may be an ideal choice for the exposure-based drug treatment and maintenance treatment in patients with GAD, SAD and PTSD.

  10. Virtual Lesions of the IFG Abolish Response Facilitation for Biological and Non-Biological Cues.

    PubMed

    Newman-Norlund, Roger D; Ondobaka, Sasha; van Schie, Hein T; van Elswijk, Gijs; Bekkering, Harold

    2010-01-01

    Humans are faster to perform a given action following observation of that same action. Converging evidence suggests that the human mirror neuron system (MNS) plays an important role in this phenomenon. However, the specificity of the neural mechanisms governing this effect remain controversial. Specialist theories of imitation suggest that biological cues are maximally capable of eliciting imitative facilitation. Generalist models, on the other hand, posit a broader role for the MNS in linking visual stimuli with appropriate responses. In the present study, we investigated the validity of these two theoretical approaches by disrupting the left and right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) during the preparation of congruent (imitative) and incongruent (complementary) actions cued by either biological (hand) or non-biological (static dot) stimuli. Delivery of TMS over IFG abolished imitative response facilitation. Critically, this effect was identical whether actions were cued by biological or non-biological stimuli. This finding argues against theories of imitation in which biological stimuli are treated preferentially and stresses the notion of the IFG as a vital center of general perception-action coupling in the human brain.

  11. Similarity in Spatial Origin of Information Facilitates Cue Competition and Interference

    PubMed Central

    Amundson, Jeffrey C.; Miller, Ralph R.

    2007-01-01

    Two lick suppression studies were conducted with water-deprived rats to investigate the influence of spatial similarity in cue interaction. Experiment 1 assessed the influence of similarity of the spatial origin of competing cues in a blocking procedure. Greater blocking was observed in the condition in which the auditory blocking cue and the auditory blocked cue originated at the same spatial location. Recent investigations have demonstrated that manipulations that impact competition between cues trained together have similar effects on interference between cues trained apart. Therefore, Experiment 2 investigated the influence of similarity of the spatial origin in proactive interference of Pavlovian conditioning by separately pairing two auditory cues with a common outcome, originating at the same spatial location or different spatial locations. Greater proactive interference was observed in the condition in which the interfering cue and target cue originated at the same spatial location. The results are considered in light of the possibility that a similar mechanism may underlie interference between cues trained apart and cue competition between cues trained together. PMID:17471316

  12. Similarity in Spatial Origin of Information Facilitates Cue Competition and Interference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amundson, Jeffrey C.; Miller, Ralph R.

    2007-01-01

    Two lick suppression studies were conducted with water-deprived rats to investigate the influence of spatial similarity in cue interaction. Experiment 1 assessed the influence of similarity of the spatial origin of competing cues in a blocking procedure. Greater blocking was observed in the condition in which the auditory blocking cue and the…

  13. Linking attentional processes and conceptual problem solving: visual cues facilitate the automaticity of extracting relevant information from diagrams

    PubMed Central

    Rouinfar, Amy; Agra, Elise; Larson, Adam M.; Rebello, N. Sanjay; Loschky, Lester C.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated links between visual attention processes and conceptual problem solving. This was done by overlaying visual cues on conceptual physics problem diagrams to direct participants’ attention to relevant areas to facilitate problem solving. Participants (N = 80) individually worked through four problem sets, each containing a diagram, while their eye movements were recorded. Each diagram contained regions that were relevant to solving the problem correctly and separate regions related to common incorrect responses. Problem sets contained an initial problem, six isomorphic training problems, and a transfer problem. The cued condition saw visual cues overlaid on the training problems. Participants’ verbal responses were used to determine their accuracy. This study produced two major findings. First, short duration visual cues which draw attention to solution-relevant information and aid in the organizing and integrating of it, facilitate both immediate problem solving and generalization of that ability to new problems. Thus, visual cues can facilitate re-representing a problem and overcoming impasse, enabling a correct solution. Importantly, these cueing effects on problem solving did not involve the solvers’ attention necessarily embodying the solution to the problem, but were instead caused by solvers attending to and integrating relevant information in the problems into a solution path. Second, this study demonstrates that when such cues are used across multiple problems, solvers can automatize the extraction of problem-relevant information extraction. These results suggest that low-level attentional selection processes provide a necessary gateway for relevant information to be used in problem solving, but are generally not sufficient for correct problem solving. Instead, factors that lead a solver to an impasse and to organize and integrate problem information also greatly facilitate arriving at correct solutions. PMID:25324804

  14. Linking attentional processes and conceptual problem solving: visual cues facilitate the automaticity of extracting relevant information from diagrams.

    PubMed

    Rouinfar, Amy; Agra, Elise; Larson, Adam M; Rebello, N Sanjay; Loschky, Lester C

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated links between visual attention processes and conceptual problem solving. This was done by overlaying visual cues on conceptual physics problem diagrams to direct participants' attention to relevant areas to facilitate problem solving. Participants (N = 80) individually worked through four problem sets, each containing a diagram, while their eye movements were recorded. Each diagram contained regions that were relevant to solving the problem correctly and separate regions related to common incorrect responses. Problem sets contained an initial problem, six isomorphic training problems, and a transfer problem. The cued condition saw visual cues overlaid on the training problems. Participants' verbal responses were used to determine their accuracy. This study produced two major findings. First, short duration visual cues which draw attention to solution-relevant information and aid in the organizing and integrating of it, facilitate both immediate problem solving and generalization of that ability to new problems. Thus, visual cues can facilitate re-representing a problem and overcoming impasse, enabling a correct solution. Importantly, these cueing effects on problem solving did not involve the solvers' attention necessarily embodying the solution to the problem, but were instead caused by solvers attending to and integrating relevant information in the problems into a solution path. Second, this study demonstrates that when such cues are used across multiple problems, solvers can automatize the extraction of problem-relevant information extraction. These results suggest that low-level attentional selection processes provide a necessary gateway for relevant information to be used in problem solving, but are generally not sufficient for correct problem solving. Instead, factors that lead a solver to an impasse and to organize and integrate problem information also greatly facilitate arriving at correct solutions.

  15. Age-Appropriate Cues Facilitate Source-Monitoring and Reduce Suggestibility in 3- To 7-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bright-Paul, A.; Jarrold, C.; Wright, D.B.

    2005-01-01

    Providing cues to facilitate the recovery of source information can reduce postevent misinformation effects in adults, implying that errors in source-monitoring contribute to suggestibility (e.g., [Lindsay, D. S., & Johnson, M. K. (1989). The eyewitness suggestibility effect and memory for source. Memory & Cognition, 17, 349-358]). The present…

  16. Habitat selection, facilitation, and biotic settlement cues affect distribution and performance of coral recruits in French Polynesia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Habitat selection can determine the distribution and performance of individuals if the precision with which sites are chosen corresponds with exposure to risks or resources. Contrastingly, facilitation can allow persistence of individuals arriving by chance and potentially maladapted to local abiotic conditions. For marine organisms, selection of a permanent attachment site at the end of their larval stage or the presence of a facilitator can be a critical determinant of recruitment success. In coral reef ecosystems, it is well known that settling planula larvae of reef-building corals use coarse environmental cues (i.e., light) for habitat selection. Although laboratory studies suggest that larvae can also use precise biotic cues produced by crustose coralline algae (CCA) to select attachment sites, the ecological consequences of biotic cues for corals are poorly understood in situ. In a field experiment exploring the relative importance of biotic cues and variability in habitat quality to recruitment of hard corals, pocilloporid and acroporid corals recruited more frequently to one species of CCA, Titanoderma prototypum, and significantly less so to other species of CCA; these results are consistent with laboratory assays from other studies. The provision of the biotic cue accurately predicted coral recruitment rates across habitats of varying quality. At the scale of CCA, corals attached to the “preferred” CCA experienced increased survivorship while recruits attached elsewhere had lower colony growth and survivorship. For reef-building corals, the behavioral selection of habitat using chemical cues both reduces the risk of incidental mortality and indicates the presence of a facilitator. PMID:20169452

  17. Mechanisms of attentional cueing during observational learning to facilitate motor skill acquisition.

    PubMed

    Janelle, Christopher M; Champenoy, Jamy D; Coombes, Stephen A; Mousseau, Melanie B

    2003-10-01

    We examined the effectiveness of different cueing conditions during observational learning of a soccer accuracy pass. Sixty participants (30 males, 30 females) were randomly assigned and stratified by sex into one of six groups: discovery learning, verbal instruction, video model with visual cues, video model with verbal cues, video model with visual and verbal cues, and video model only. Each participant completed eight blocks of 10 trials each, with trial blocks 1 and 2 representing the practice phase (no manipulation), trial blocks 3, 4, 5 and 6 the acquisition phase (manipulation administered) and trial blocks 7 and 8 the retention phase (24 h after acquisition, with no manipulation). Absolute error, variable error and kicking form were recorded. The results indicated that those who used video modelling with visual and verbal cues collectively displayed less error and more appropriate form across acquisition and retention trial blocks compared with other groups. Our findings suggest that verbal information in addition to visual cues enhances perceptual representation and retention of modelled activities to improve task reproduction capabilities. Future research directions are proposed with implications for both direct and indirect perception accounts of skill acquisition through observed behaviours.

  18. Inhibiting Glycine Transporter-1 Facilitates Cocaine-Cue Extinction and Attenuates Reacquisition of Cocaine-Seeking Behavior*

    PubMed Central

    Nic Dhonnchadha, Bríd Á; Pinard, Emmanuel; Alberati, Daniela; Wettstein, Joseph G.; Spealman, Roger D.; Kantak, Kathleen M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Combining extinction training with cognitive-enhancing pharmacotherapy represents a novel strategy for improving the efficacy of exposure therapy for drug relapse prevention. We investigated if the selective glycine transporter-1 (GlyT-1) inhibitor RO4543338 could facilitate extinction of cocaine-conditioned responses and attenuate reacquisition of cocaine-seeking behavior. Methods Rats were trained to self-administer cocaine (0.3 mg/kg), which was associated with a 2-sec light cue under a second-order schedule of i.v. drug injection. Rats received vehicle, 30 or 45 mg/kg of RO4543338 prior to three 1-hr extinction-training sessions spaced at weekly intervals. Responses were extinguished by substituting saline for cocaine while maintaining response-contingent cue presentations. Reacquisition of cocaine-seeking behavior during self-administration sessions began one week after the last extinction session. Control experiments were conducted under conditions that precluded explicit extinction of cocaine-conditioned responses. Results Compared to vehicle, 30 and 45 mg/kg RO4543338 significantly decreased responding early in extinction training and during subsequent reacquisition sessions. The latter effect persisted for at least five sessions. In control studies, reacquisition of cocaine-seeking behavior was not altered when RO4543338 was administered either prior to weekly self-administration control sessions or prior to weekly control sessions in which cocaine and cues were omitted and the levers retracted. Conclusions As the GlyT-1 inhibitor facilitated cocaine-cue extinction learning and attenuated subsequent reacquisition of cocaine-seeking behavior, this class of compounds may have utility as a pharmacological adjunct to cocaine-cue exposure therapy in addicts. PMID:21992874

  19. Right temporoparietal junction activation by a salient contextual cue facilitates target discrimination.

    PubMed

    Geng, Joy J; Mangun, George R

    2011-01-01

    The right temporoparietal junction (R TPJ) is involved in stimulus-driven attentional control in response to the appearance of an unexpected target or a distractor that shares features with a task-relevant target. An unresolved question is whether these responses in R TPJ are due simply to the presence of a stimulus that is a potential target, or instead responds to any task-relevant information. Here, we addressed this issue by testing the sensitivity of R TPJ to a perceptually salient, non-target stimulus - a contextual cue. Although known to be a non-target, the contextual cue carried probabilistic information regarding the presence of a target in the opposite visual field. The contextual cue was therefore always of potential behavioral relevance, but only sometimes paired with a target. The appearance of the contextual cue alone increased activation in R TPJ, but more so when it appeared with a target. There was also greater connectivity between R TPJ and a network of attentional control and decision areas when the contextual cue was present. These results demonstrate that R TPJ is involved in the stimulus-driven representation of task-relevant information that can be used to engage an appropriate behavioral response.

  20. Wax On, Wax Off: Nest Soil Facilitates Indirect Transfer of Recognition Cues between Ant Nestmates

    PubMed Central

    Bos, Nick; Grinsted, Lena; Holman, Luke

    2011-01-01

    Social animals use recognition cues to discriminate between group members and non-members. These recognition cues may be conceptualized as a label, which is compared to a neural representation of acceptable cue combinations termed the template. In ants and other social insects, the label consists of a waxy layer of colony-specific hydrocarbons on the body surface. Genetic and environmental differences between colony members may confound recognition and social cohesion, so many species perform behaviors that homogenize the odor label, such as mouth-to-mouth feeding and allogrooming. Here, we test for another mechanism of cue exchange: indirect transfer of cuticular hydrocarbons via the nest material. Using a combination of chemical analysis and behavioral experiments with Camponotus aethiops ants, we show that nest soil indirectly transfers hydrocarbons between ants and affects recognition behavior. We also found evidence that olfactory cues on the nest soil influence nestmate recognition, but this effect was not observed in all colonies. These results demonstrate that cuticular hydrocarbons deposited on the nest soil are important in creating uniformity in the odor label and may also contribute to the template. PMID:21559364

  1. Brief report: pointing cues facilitate word learning in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Akechi, Hironori; Kikuchi, Yukiko; Tojo, Yoshikuni; Osanai, Hiroo; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2013-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) reportedly have difficulty associating novel words to an object via the speaker's gaze. It has also been suggested that their performance is related to their gaze duration on the object and improves when the object moves and becomes more salient. However, there is a possibility that they have only relied on the object's movement and have not referenced the speaker's cue (i.e. gaze direction). The current study with children with ASD and typically developing children aged 6-11 years demonstrated that adding another speaker's cue (i.e. pointing) improves the performance of children with ASD. This suggests that additional speaker's cues may help referential word learning in children with ASD.

  2. Visual Cues Generated during Action Facilitate 14-Month-Old Infants' Mental Rotation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antrilli, Nick K.; Wang, Su-hua

    2016-01-01

    Although action experience has been shown to enhance the development of spatial cognition, the mechanism underlying the effects of action is still unclear. The present research examined the role of visual cues generated during action in promoting infants' mental rotation. We sought to clarify the underlying mechanism by decoupling different…

  3. Visual Cues Generated during Action Facilitate 14-Month-Old Infants' Mental Rotation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antrilli, Nick K.; Wang, Su-hua

    2016-01-01

    Although action experience has been shown to enhance the development of spatial cognition, the mechanism underlying the effects of action is still unclear. The present research examined the role of visual cues generated during action in promoting infants' mental rotation. We sought to clarify the underlying mechanism by decoupling different…

  4. Slit-roundabout signaling neutralizes netrin-Frazzled-mediated attractant cue to specify the lateral positioning of longitudinal axon pathways.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Krishna Moorthi

    2005-05-01

    An extending axon growth cone is subjected to attractant and repellent cues. It is not clear how these growth cones discriminate the two opposing forces and select their projection paths. Here, we report that in the Drosophila nerve cord the growth cones of longitudinal tracts are subjected to attraction by the Netrin-Frazzled pathway. However, the midline Slit neutralizes this pathway in a Robo-dependent manner and prevents Netrin-Frazzled-mediated attraction of longitudinal tracts. Our results suggest that the loss of a neutralizing effect on the Netrin-mediated attraction is responsible for the longitudinal tracts entering the midline in slit mutants as opposed to a loss of repulsion as is currently believed. This effect is not via a direct inhibition of Frazzled by Robo; instead, it is at a level downstream of Frazzled. Thus, the growth cones of longitudinal tracts subjected to two opposing forces are able to block one with the other and specify their correct lateral positioning along the midline.

  5. Hemodynamic responses in amygdala and hippocampus distinguish between aversive and neutral cues during Pavlovian fear conditioning in behaving rats.

    PubMed

    McHugh, Stephen B; Marques-Smith, Andre; Li, Jennifer; Rawlins, J N P; Lowry, John; Conway, Michael; Gilmour, Gary; Tricklebank, Mark; Bannerman, David M

    2013-02-01

    Lesion and electrophysiological studies in rodents have identified the amygdala and hippocampus (HPC) as key structures for Pavlovian fear conditioning, but human functional neuroimaging studies have not consistently found activation of these structures. This could be because hemodynamic responses cannot detect the sparse neuronal activity proposed to underlie conditioned fear. Alternatively, differences in experimental design or fear levels could account for the discrepant findings between rodents and humans. To help distinguish between these alternatives, we used tissue oxygen amperometry to record hemodynamic responses from the basolateral amygdala (BLA), dorsal HPC (dHPC) and ventral HPC (vHPC) in freely-moving rats during the acquisition and extinction of conditioned fear. To enable specific comparison with human studies we used a discriminative paradigm, with one auditory cue [conditioned stimulus (CS)+] that was always followed by footshock, and another auditory cue (CS-) that was never followed by footshock. BLA tissue oxygen signals were significantly higher during CS+ than CS- trials during training and early extinction. In contrast, they were lower during CS+ than CS- trials by the end of extinction. dHPC and vHPC tissue oxygen signals were significantly lower during CS+ than CS- trials throughout extinction. Thus, hemodynamic signals in the amygdala and HPC can detect the different patterns of neuronal activity evoked by threatening vs. neutral stimuli during fear conditioning. Discrepant neuroimaging findings may be due to differences in experimental design and/or fear levels evoked in participants. Our methodology offers a way to improve translation between rodent models and human neuroimaging. © 2012 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Antecedent Stimulus Control: Using Orienting Cues to Facilitate First-Word Acquisition for Nonresponders with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koegel, Robert L.; Shirotova, Larisa; Koegel, Lynn Kern

    2009-01-01

    Although considerable progress has been made in improving the acquisition of expressive verbal communication in children with autism, research has documented that a subpopulation of children still fail to acquire speech even with intensive intervention. One variable that might be important in facilitating responding for this nonverbal subgroup of…

  7. D-cycloserine does not facilitate fear extinction by reducing conditioned stimulus processing or promoting conditioned inhibition to contextual cues.

    PubMed

    Baker, Kathryn D; McNally, Gavan P; Richardson, Rick

    2012-09-14

    The NMDA receptor partial agonist d-cycloserine (DCS) enhances the extinction of learned fear in rats and exposure therapy in humans with anxiety disorders. Despite these benefits, little is known about the mechanisms by which DCS promotes the loss of fear. The present study examined whether DCS augments extinction retention (1) through reductions in conditioned stimulus (CS) processing or (2) by promoting the development of conditioned inhibition to contextual cues. Rats administered DCS prior to extinction showed enhanced long-term extinction retention (Experiments 3 and 4). The same nonreinforced CS procedure used in extinction also reduced freezing at test when presented as pre-exposure before conditioning, demonstrating latent inhibition (Experiment 1). DCS administered shortly prior to pre-exposure had no effect on latent inhibition using parameters which produced weak (Experiment 2) or strong (Experiment 3) expression of latent inhibition. Therefore, DCS facilitated learning involving CS-alone exposures, but only when these exposures occurred after (extinction) and not before (latent inhibition) conditioning. We also used a retardation test procedure to examine whether the extinction context gained inhibitory properties for rats given DCS prior to extinction. With three different footshock intensities, there was no evidence that DCS promoted accrual of associative inhibition to the extinction context (Experiment 4). The present findings demonstrate that DCS does not facilitate extinction by reducing CS processing or causing the extinction context to become a conditioned inhibitor. Investigations into the mechanisms underlying the augmentation of extinction by DCS are valuable for understanding how fear can be inhibited.

  8. Facilitating children's ability to distinguish symbols for emotions: the effects of background color cues and spatial arrangement of symbols on accuracy and speed of search.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Krista M; Snell, Julie

    2011-11-01

    Communication about feelings is a core element of human interaction. Aided augmentative and alternative communication systems must therefore include symbols representing these concepts. The symbols must be readily distinguishable in order for users to communicate effectively. However, emotions are represented within most systems by schematic faces in which subtle distinctions are difficult to represent. We examined whether background color cuing and spatial arrangement might help children identify symbols for different emotions. Thirty nondisabled children searched for symbols representing emotions within an 8-choice array. On some trials, a color cue signaled the valence of the emotion (positive vs. negative). Additionally, the symbols were either (a) organized with the negatively valenced symbols at the top and the positive symbols on the bottom of the display or (b) distributed randomly throughout. Dependent variables were accuracy and speed of responses. The speed with which children could locate a target was significantly faster for displays in which symbols were clustered by valence, but only when the symbols had white backgrounds. Addition of a background color cue did not facilitate responses. Rapid search was facilitated by a spatial organization cue, but not by the addition of background color. Further examination of the situations in which color cues may be useful is warranted.

  9. Facilitating Children’s Ability to Distinguish Symbols for Emotions: The Effects of Background Color Cues and Spatial Arrangement of Symbols on Accuracy and Speed of Search

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Krista M.; Snell, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Communication about feelings is a core element of human interaction. Aided augmentative and alternative communication systems must therefore include symbols representing these concepts. The symbols must be readily distinguishable in order for users to communicate effectively. However, emotions are represented within most systems by schematic faces in which subtle distinctions are difficult to represent. We examined whether background color cuing and spatial arrangement might help children identify symbols for different emotions. Methods Thirty nondisabled children searched for symbols representing emotions within an 8-choice array. On some trials, a color cue signaled the valence of the emotion (positive vs. negative). Additionally, symbols were either organized with the negatively-valenced symbols at the top and the positive symbols on the bottom of the display, or the symbols were distributed randomly throughout. Dependent variables were accuracy and speed of responses. Results The speed with which children could locate a target was significantly faster for displays in which symbols were clustered by valence, but only when the symbols had white backgrounds. Addition of a background color cue did not facilitate responses. Conclusions Rapid search was facilitated by a spatial organization cue, but not by the addition of background color. Further examination of the situations in which color cues may be useful is warranted. PMID:21813821

  10. Nogo Stimuli Do Not Receive More Attentional Suppression or Response Inhibition than Neutral Stimuli: Evidence from the N2pc, PD, and N2 Components in a Spatial Cueing Paradigm.

    PubMed

    Barras, Caroline; Kerzel, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    It has been claimed that stimuli sharing the color of the nogo-target are suppressed because of the strong incentive to not process the nogo-target, but we failed to replicate this finding. Participants searched for a color singleton in the target display and indicated its shape when it was in the go color. If the color singleton in the target display was in the nogo color, they had to withhold the response. The target display was preceded by a cue display that also contained a color singleton (the cue). The cue was either in the color of the go or nogo target, or it was in an unrelated, neutral color. With cues in the go color, reaction times were shorter when the cue appeared at the same location as the target compared to when it appeared at a different location. Also, electrophysiological recordings showed that an index of attentional selection, the N2pc, was elicited by go cues. Surprisingly, we failed to replicate cueing costs for cues in the nogo color that were originally reported by Anderson and Folk (2012). Consistently, we also failed to find an electrophysiological index of attentional suppression (the PD) for cues in the nogo color. Further, fronto-central event-related potentials to the cue display showed the same negativity for nogo and neutral stimuli relative to go stimuli, which is at odds with response inhibition and conflict monitoring accounts of the Nogo-N2. Thus, the modified cueing paradigm employed here provides little evidence that features associated with nogo-targets are suppressed at the level of attention or response selection. Rather, nogo-stimuli are efficiently ignored and attention is focused on features that require a response.

  11. The Effect of Varied Cueing Strategies in Complementing Animated Visual Imagery in Facilitating Achievement of Different Educational Objectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Russ; Dwyer, Francis

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of varied visual cueing strategies, used to complement animation, on cognitive processing and achievement of specific educational objectives. An instructional heart material was utilized in this study. Four criterion tests were used in this study, namely: (1) Drawing Test; (2)…

  12. Anticipatory coarticulation facilitates word recognition in toddlers.

    PubMed

    Mahr, Tristan; McMillan, Brianna T M; Saffran, Jenny R; Ellis Weismer, Susan; Edwards, Jan

    2015-09-01

    Children learn from their environments and their caregivers. To capitalize on learning opportunities, young children have to recognize familiar words efficiently by integrating contextual cues across word boundaries. Previous research has shown that adults can use phonetic cues from anticipatory coarticulation during word recognition. We asked whether 18-24 month-olds (n=29) used coarticulatory cues on the word "the" when recognizing the following noun. We performed a looking-while-listening eyetracking experiment to examine word recognition in neutral vs. facilitating coarticulatory conditions. Participants looked to the target image significantly sooner when the determiner contained facilitating coarticulatory cues. These results provide the first evidence that novice word-learners can take advantage of anticipatory sub-phonemic cues during word recognition.

  13. Reactivity to nicotine cues over repeated cue reactivity sessions

    PubMed Central

    LaRowe, Steven D.; Saladin, Michael E.; Carpenter, Matthew J.; Upadhyaya, Himanshu P.

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated whether reactivity to nicotine-related cues would attenuate across four experimental sessions held one week apart. Participants were nineteen non-treatment seeking, nicotine-dependent males. Cue reactivity sessions were performed in an outpatient research center using in vivo cues consisting of standardized smoking-related paraphernalia (e.g., cigarettes) and neutral comparison paraphernalia (e.g., pencils). Craving ratings were collected before and after both cue presentations while physiological measures (heart rate, skin conductance) were collected before and during the cue presentations. Although craving levels decreased across sessions, smoking-related cues consistently evoked significantly greater increases in craving relative to neutral cues over all four experimental sessions. Skin conductance was higher in response to smoking cues, though this effect was not as robust as that observed for craving. Results suggest that, under the described experimental parameters, craving can be reliably elicited over repeated cue reactivity sessions. PMID:17537583

  14. Reactivity to nicotine cues over repeated cue reactivity sessions.

    PubMed

    LaRowe, Steven D; Saladin, Michael E; Carpenter, Matthew J; Upadhyaya, Himanshu P

    2007-12-01

    The present study investigated whether reactivity to nicotine-related cues would attenuate across four experimental sessions held 1 week apart. Participants were nineteen non-treatment seeking, nicotine-dependent males. Cue reactivity sessions were performed in an outpatient research center using in vivo cues consisting of standardized smoking-related paraphernalia (e.g., cigarettes) and neutral comparison paraphernalia (e.g., pencils). Craving ratings were collected before and after both cue presentations while physiological measures (heart rate, skin conductance) were collected before and during the cue presentations. Although craving levels decreased across sessions, smoking-related cues consistently evoked significantly greater increases in craving relative to neutral cues over all four experimental sessions. Skin conductance was higher in response to smoking cues, though this effect was not as robust as that observed for craving. Results suggest that, under the described experimental parameters, craving can be reliably elicited over repeated cue reactivity sessions.

  15. Brief Report: Using Individualized Orienting Cues to Facilitate First-Word Acquisition in Non-Responders with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koegel, Robert L.; Shirotova, Larisa; Koegel, Lynn K.

    2009-01-01

    Though considerable progress has been made in developing techniques for improving the acquisition of expressive verbal communication in children with autism, research has documented that 10-25% still fail to develop speech. One possible technique that could be significant in facilitating responding for this nonverbal subgroup of children is the…

  16. Attentional cueing by cross-modal congruency produces both facilitation and inhibition on short-term visual recognition.

    PubMed

    Makovac, Elena; Kwok, Sze Chai; Gerbino, Walter

    2014-10-01

    The attentional modulation of performance in a memory task, comparable to the one obtained in a perceptual task, is at the focus of contemporary research. We hypothesized that a biphasic effect (namely, facilitation followed by inhibition) can be obtained in visual working memory when attention is cued towards one item of the memorandum and participants must recognize a delayed probe as being identical to any item of the memorandum. In every trial, a delayed spiky/curvy probe appeared centrally, to be matched with the same-category shape maintained in visual working memory which could be either physically identical (positive trials) or only categorically similar (negative trials). To orient the participant's attention towards a selected portion of a two-item memorandum, a (tzk/wow) sound was played simultaneously with two lateral visual shapes (one spiky and one curved). Our results indicate that an exogenous attentional shift during perception of the memorandum, induced by a congruent audio-visual pairing, first facilitates and then inhibits the recognition of a cued item (but not of a non-cued item) stored in visual working memory. A coherent pattern of individual differences emerged, indicating that the amount of early facilitation in congruent-sound trials was negatively correlated with recognition sensitivity in no-sound trials (suggesting that the inverse effectiveness rule may also apply to memory) and positively correlated with later inhibition, as well as with the self-reported susceptibility to memory failures.

  17. A time-course analysis of attentional cueing by threatening scenes.

    PubMed

    Koster, Ernst H W; Crombez, Geert; Verschuere, Bruno; Vanvolsem, Pieter; De Houwer, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Models of attention and emotion have assigned a special status to the processing of threatening information: Facilitated attentional capture by threat and its prioritized processing would allow for swift and adequate action to potentially dangerous stimuli. In four experiments, we examined the time-course of facilitated orienting of attention to threatening scenes in the exogenous cueing paradigm. Threat value and presentation duration of the cues were systematically varied. Facilitated attentional capture by threat was limited to highly threatening pictures presented for 100 ms. No attentional effects were observed with a 28 ms cue presentation duration. At slightly longer cue presentations, 200 ms and 500 ms, results indicated no and even reduced attentional capture by threat compared with neutral information. The present results provide support for the idea that threat facilitates fast attentional orienting to its location, followed by the inhibition of attention to threat.

  18. An object-identity probability cueing paradigm during grasping observation: the facilitating effect is present only when the observed kinematics is suitable for the cued object

    PubMed Central

    Craighero, Laila; Mele, Sonia; Zorzi, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Electrophysiological and psychophysical data indicate that grasping observation automatically orients attention toward the incoming interactions between the actor’s hand and the object. The aim of the present study was to clarify if this effect facilitates the detection of a graspable object with the observed action as compared to an ungraspable one. We submitted participants to an object-identity probability cueing experiment in which the two possible targets were of the same dimensions but one of them presented sharp tips at one extreme while the other presented flat faces. At the beginning of each trial the most probable target was briefly shown. After a variable interval, at the same position, the same (75%) or a different target (25%) was presented. Participants had to press a key in response to target appearance. Superimposed to the video showing cue and target, an agent performing the reaching and grasping of the target was presented. The kinematics of the action was or was not suitable for grasping the cued target, according to the absence or presence of the sharp tips. Results showed that response was modulated by the probability of target identity but only when the observed kinematics was suitable to grasp the attended target. A further experiment clarified that response modulation was never present when the superimposed video always showed the agent at a rest position. These findings are discussed at the light of neurophysiological and psychophysical literature, considering the relationship between the motor system and the perception of objects and of others’ actions. We conclude that the prediction of the mechanical events that arise from the interactions between the hand and the attended object is at the basis of the capability to select a graspable object in space. PMID:26483732

  19. The unity assumption facilitates cross-modal binding of musical, non-speech stimuli: The role of spectral and amplitude envelope cues.

    PubMed

    Chuen, Lorraine; Schutz, Michael

    2016-07-01

    An observer's inference that multimodal signals originate from a common underlying source facilitates cross-modal binding. This 'unity assumption' causes asynchronous auditory and visual speech streams to seem simultaneous (Vatakis & Spence, Perception & Psychophysics, 69(5), 744-756, 2007). Subsequent tests of non-speech stimuli such as musical and impact events found no evidence for the unity assumption, suggesting the effect is speech-specific (Vatakis & Spence, Acta Psychologica, 127(1), 12-23, 2008). However, the role of amplitude envelope (the changes in energy of a sound over time) was not previously appreciated within this paradigm. Here, we explore whether previous findings suggesting speech-specificity of the unity assumption were confounded by similarities in the amplitude envelopes of the contrasted auditory stimuli. Experiment 1 used natural events with clearly differentiated envelopes: single notes played on either a cello (bowing motion) or marimba (striking motion). Participants performed an un-speeded temporal order judgments task; viewing audio-visually matched (e.g., marimba auditory with marimba video) and mismatched (e.g., cello auditory with marimba video) versions of stimuli at various stimulus onset asynchronies, and were required to indicate which modality was presented first. As predicted, participants were less sensitive to temporal order in matched conditions, demonstrating that the unity assumption can facilitate the perception of synchrony outside of speech stimuli. Results from Experiments 2 and 3 revealed that when spectral information was removed from the original auditory stimuli, amplitude envelope alone could not facilitate the influence of audiovisual unity. We propose that both amplitude envelope and spectral acoustic cues affect the percept of audiovisual unity, working in concert to help an observer determine when to integrate across modalities.

  20. All Cues Are Not Created Equal: The Case for Facilitating the Acquisition of Typical Weighting Strategies in Children With Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Nittrouer, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose One task of childhood involves learning to optimally weight acoustic cues in the speech signal in order to recover phonemic categories. This study examined the extent to which spectral degradation, as associated with cochlear implants, might interfere. The 3 goals were to measure, for adults and children, (a) cue weighting with spectrally degraded signals, (b) sensitivity to degraded cues, and (c) word recognition for degraded signals. Method Twenty-three adults and 36 children (10 and 8 years old) labeled spectrally degraded stimuli from /bɑ/-to-/wɑ/ continua varying in formant and amplitude rise time (FRT and ART). They also discriminated degraded stimuli from FRT and ART continua, and recognized words. Results A developmental increase in the weight assigned to FRT in labeling was clearly observed, with a slight decrease in weight assigned to ART. Sensitivity to these degraded cues measured by the discrimination task could not explain variability in cue weighting. FRT cue weighting explained significant variability in word recognition; ART cue weighting did not. Conclusion Spectral degradation affects children more than adults, but that degradation cannot explain the greater diminishment in children's weighting of FRT. It is suggested that auditory training could strengthen the weighting of spectral cues for implant recipients. PMID:25611214

  1. All Cues Are Not Created Equal: The Case for Facilitating the Acquisition of Typical Weighting Strategies in Children with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowenstein, Joanna H.; Nittrouer, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: One task of childhood involves learning to optimally weight acoustic cues in the speech signal in order to recover phonemic categories. This study examined the extent to which spectral degradation, as associated with cochlear implants, might interfere. The 3 goals were to measure, for adults and children, (a) cue weighting with spectrally…

  2. All Cues Are Not Created Equal: The Case for Facilitating the Acquisition of Typical Weighting Strategies in Children with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowenstein, Joanna H.; Nittrouer, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: One task of childhood involves learning to optimally weight acoustic cues in the speech signal in order to recover phonemic categories. This study examined the extent to which spectral degradation, as associated with cochlear implants, might interfere. The 3 goals were to measure, for adults and children, (a) cue weighting with spectrally…

  3. Attentional bias toward cigarette cues in active smokers

    PubMed Central

    Sours, Chandler R.; Boettiger, Charlotte A.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale While it is well documented that substance users exhibit attentional bias toward addiction-related stimuli, the exact mechanism remains unclear. Objectives To differentiate between distinct aspects of attentional allocation in the smoking-cue attentional bias observed in smokers. Methods Active smokers (AS) and non-smoking controls completed spatial cueing tasks with pairs of smoking and neutral pictorial cues to measure attentional capture, and an attentional blink task with either a smoking or neutral image appearing behind the first target (T1) to measure aspects of attention separate from capture. In addition, we tested groups of sports enthusiasts, and non-enthusiasts in corresponding tasks replacing smoking images with sports-related images to address the possibility that effects found in the smoking study were due simply to greater stimulus familiarity. Results Smoking cues reflexively capture smokers' attention, as AS showed a greater bias toward smoking cues in short stimulus-onset asynchrony (SOA; the time between the onset of two stimuli) trials, but not in trials with a longer SOA. These effects represent a facilitation of responding to smoking- versus neutral-cued targets, and were absent in the sports control task. The attentional blink effects were similar in the smoking- and sports-cue experiments: the special T1 resulted in better detection of the second target for the smokers and sports enthusiasts. Conclusions Stimulus familiarity may contribute to some aspects of attentional bias in regular nicotine users, but selective quick capture of attention by smoking cues may be nicotine-habit specific. PMID:20668841

  4. A configural dominant account of contextual cueing: Configural cues are stronger than colour cues.

    PubMed

    Kunar, Melina A; John, Rebecca; Sweetman, Hollie

    2014-01-01

    Previous work has shown that reaction times to find a target in displays that have been repeated are faster than those for displays that have never been seen before. This learning effect, termed "contextual cueing" (CC), has been shown using contexts such as the configuration of the distractors in the display and the background colour. However, it is not clear how these two contexts interact to facilitate search. We investigated this here by comparing the strengths of these two cues when they appeared together. In Experiment 1, participants searched for a target that was cued by both colour and distractor configural cues, compared with when the target was only predicted by configural information. The results showed that the addition of a colour cue did not increase contextual cueing. In Experiment 2, participants searched for a target that was cued by both colour and distractor configuration compared with when the target was only cued by colour. The results showed that adding a predictive configural cue led to a stronger CC benefit. Experiments 3 and 4 tested the disruptive effects of removing either a learned colour cue or a learned configural cue and whether there was cue competition when colour and configural cues were presented together. Removing the configural cue was more disruptive to CC than removing colour, and configural learning was shown to overshadow the learning of colour cues. The data support a configural dominant account of CC, where configural cues act as the stronger cue in comparison to colour when they are presented together.

  5. Nile red fluorescence screening facilitating neutral lipid phenotype determination in budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Rostron, Kerry A; Rolph, Carole E; Lawrence, Clare L

    2015-07-01

    Investigation of yeast neutral lipid accumulation is important for biotechnology and also for modelling aberrant lipid metabolism in human disease. The Nile red (NR) method has been extensively utilised to determine lipid phenotypes of yeast cells via microscopic means. NR assays have been used to differentiate lipid accumulation and relative amounts of lipid in oleaginous species but have not been thoroughly validated for phenotype determination arising from genetic modification. A modified NR assay, first described by Sitepu et al. (J Microbiol Methods 91:321-328, 2012), was able to detect neutral lipid changes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae deletion mutants with sensitivity similar to more advanced methodology. We have also be able to, for the first time, successfully apply the NR assay to the well characterised fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, an increasingly important organism in biotechnology. The described NR fluorescence assay is suitable for increased throughput and rapid screening of genetically modified strains in both the biotechnology industry and for modelling ectopic lipid production for a variety of human diseases. This ultimately negates the need for labour intensive and time consuming lipid analyses of samples that may not yield a desirable lipid phenotype, whilst genetic modifications impacting significantly on the cellular lipid phenotype can be further promoted for more in depth analyses.

  6. Chemosensory anxiety cues enhance the perception of fearful faces - An fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Wudarczyk, Olga A; Kohn, Nils; Bergs, Rene; Goerlich, Katharina S; Gur, Raquel E; Turetsky, Bruce; Schneider, Frank; Habel, Ute

    2016-12-01

    Recent evidence suggests that humans can communicate emotion via chemosensory signals. Olfactory cues signaling anxiety can bias the perception of ambiguous stimuli, but the underlying neurobiological mechanisms of this effect are currently unknown. Here, we investigated the brain responses to subtle changes in facial expressions in response to anxiety chemosensory cues. Ten healthy individuals donated their sweat in two situations: while anticipating an important oral examination (anxiety condition) and during physical exercise (control condition). Subsequently, 24 participants completed a parametrically morphed (neutral to fearful) emotion recognition task under exposure to the olfactory cues of anxiety and sports, in the fMRI scanner. Behaviorally, the participants rated more discernible fearful faces as more fearful and neutral faces as more neutral under exposure to the anxiety cues. For brain response, under exposure to the anxiety cues, increased fearfulness of the face corresponded to increased activity in the left insula and the left middle occipital gyrus extending into fusiform gyrus. Moreover, with higher subjective ratings of facial fearfulness, participants additionally showed increased activity in the left hippocampus. These results suggest that chemosensory anxiety cues facilitate processing of socially relevant fearful stimuli and boost memory retrieval due to enhanced emotional context.

  7. Polarizing cues.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Stephen P

    2012-01-01

    People categorize themselves and others, creating ingroup and outgroup distinctions. In American politics, parties constitute the in- and outgroups, and party leaders hold sway in articulating party positions. A party leader's endorsement of a policy can be persuasive, inducing co-partisans to take the same position. In contrast, a party leader's endorsement may polarize opinion, inducing out-party identifiers to take a contrary position. Using survey experiments from the 2008 presidential election, I examine whether in- and out-party candidate cues—John McCain and Barack Obama—affected partisan opinion. The results indicate that in-party leader cues do not persuade but that out-party leader cues polarize. This finding holds in an experiment featuring President Bush in which his endorsement did not persuade Republicans but it polarized Democrats. Lastly, I compare the effect of party leader cues to party label cues. The results suggest that politicians, not parties, function as polarizing cues.

  8. The Role of Cue-Response Mapping in Motorvisual Impairment and Facilitation: Evidence for Different Roles of Action Planning and Action Control in Motorvisual Dual-Task Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomaschke, Roland; Hopkins, Brian; Miall, R. Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has shown that actions impair the visual perception of categorically action-consistent stimuli. On the other hand, actions can also facilitate the perception of spatially action-consistent stimuli. We suggest that motorvisual impairment is due to action planning processes, while motorvisual facilitation is due to action control…

  9. Orienting and Emotional Perception: Facilitation, Attenuation, and Interference

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Margaret M.; Keil, Andreas; Lang, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Human emotions are considered here to be founded on motivational circuits in the brain that evolved to protect (defensive) and sustain (appetitive) the life of individuals and species. These circuits are phylogenetically old, shared among mammals, and involve the activation of both subcortical and cortical structures that mediate attention, perception, and action. Circuit activation begins with a feature-match between a cue and an existing representation in memory that has motivational significance. Subsequent processes include rapid cue-directed orienting, information gathering, and action selection – What is it? Where is it? What to do? In our studies of emotional perception, we have found that measures that index orienting to emotional cues generally show enhanced circuit activation and response facilitation, relative to orienting indicators occasioned by affectively neutral cues, whether presented concurrently or independently. Here, we discuss these findings, considering both physiological reflex and brain measures as they are modulated during orienting and emotional perception. PMID:23181039

  10. Simple purification (desalting) procedure to facilitate structural analysis of an alkali-solubilized/neutralized starch solution by intermediate-pressure size-exclusion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Seok; Huber, Kerry C

    2007-06-27

    A technique was established to remove impurities (e.g., salts) from starch dissolved in strong alkali and neutralized with acid to accommodate starch structural analysis via intermediate-pressure size-exclusion chromatography (IPSEC). Starch (corn and wheat) subjected to an alkaline-microwave dissolution scheme (35 s microwave heating in a mixture of 6 M urea and 1 M KOH) was either treated with ion-exchange resin or passed through a desalting column to remove salt/urea contaminants. Control (untreated) starch solution analyzed by IPSEC displayed a significant interfering peak (attributable to salt/urea), which coeluted with the starch amylose peak. The interfering peak was most efficiently eliminated by first passing the starch solution through a desalting column, which process effectively removed impurities (e.g., salts/urea) without appearing to adversely impact the starch structural analysis. This simple technique coupled with the rapid alkaline-microwave starch dissolution procedure greatly expedites structural investigation of starch by facilitating analysis by IPSEC.

  11. Multimodal cues provide redundant information for bumblebees when the stimulus is visually salient, but facilitate red target detection in a naturalistic background.

    PubMed

    Telles, Francismeire Jane; Corcobado, Guadalupe; Trillo, Alejandro; Rodríguez-Gironés, Miguel A

    2017-01-01

    Our understanding of how floral visitors integrate visual and olfactory cues when seeking food, and how background complexity affects flower detection is limited. Here, we aimed to understand the use of visual and olfactory information for bumblebees (Bombus terrestris terrestris L.) when seeking flowers in a visually complex background. To explore this issue, we first evaluated the effect of flower colour (red and blue), size (8, 16 and 32 mm), scent (presence or absence) and the amount of training on the foraging strategy of bumblebees (accuracy, search time and flight behaviour), considering the visual complexity of our background, to later explore whether experienced bumblebees, previously trained in the presence of scent, can recall and make use of odour information when foraging in the presence of novel visual stimuli carrying a familiar scent. Of all the variables analysed, flower colour had the strongest effect on the foraging strategy. Bumblebees searching for blue flowers were more accurate, flew faster, followed more direct paths between flowers and needed less time to find them, than bumblebees searching for red flowers. In turn, training and the presence of odour helped bees to find inconspicuous (red) flowers. When bees foraged on red flowers, search time increased with flower size; but search time was independent of flower size when bees foraged on blue flowers. Previous experience with floral scent enhances the capacity of detection of a novel colour carrying a familiar scent, probably by elemental association influencing attention.

  12. Multimodal cues provide redundant information for bumblebees when the stimulus is visually salient, but facilitate red target detection in a naturalistic background

    PubMed Central

    Corcobado, Guadalupe; Trillo, Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    Our understanding of how floral visitors integrate visual and olfactory cues when seeking food, and how background complexity affects flower detection is limited. Here, we aimed to understand the use of visual and olfactory information for bumblebees (Bombus terrestris terrestris L.) when seeking flowers in a visually complex background. To explore this issue, we first evaluated the effect of flower colour (red and blue), size (8, 16 and 32 mm), scent (presence or absence) and the amount of training on the foraging strategy of bumblebees (accuracy, search time and flight behaviour), considering the visual complexity of our background, to later explore whether experienced bumblebees, previously trained in the presence of scent, can recall and make use of odour information when foraging in the presence of novel visual stimuli carrying a familiar scent. Of all the variables analysed, flower colour had the strongest effect on the foraging strategy. Bumblebees searching for blue flowers were more accurate, flew faster, followed more direct paths between flowers and needed less time to find them, than bumblebees searching for red flowers. In turn, training and the presence of odour helped bees to find inconspicuous (red) flowers. When bees foraged on red flowers, search time increased with flower size; but search time was independent of flower size when bees foraged on blue flowers. Previous experience with floral scent enhances the capacity of detection of a novel colour carrying a familiar scent, probably by elemental association influencing attention. PMID:28898287

  13. Regulatory T Cell Numbers in Inflamed Skin Are Controlled by Local Inflammatory Cues That Upregulate CD25 and Facilitate Antigen-Driven Local Proliferation.

    PubMed

    Billroth-MacLurg, Alison C; Ford, Jill; Rosenberg, Alexander; Miller, Jim; Fowell, Deborah J

    2016-09-15

    CD4(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) are key immune suppressors that regulate immunity in diverse tissues. The tissue and/or inflammatory signals that influence the magnitude of the Treg response remain unclear. To define signals that promote Treg accumulation, we developed a simple system of skin inflammation using defined Ags and adjuvants that induce distinct cytokine milieus: OVA protein in CFA, aluminum salts (Alum), and Schistosoma mansoni eggs (Sm Egg). Polyclonal and Ag-specific Treg accumulation in the skin differed significantly between adjuvants. CFA and Alum led to robust Treg accumulation, with >50% of all skin CD4(+) T cells being Foxp3(+) In contrast, Tregs accumulated poorly in the Sm Egg-inflamed skin. Surprisingly, we found no evidence of inflammation-specific changes to the Treg gene program between adjuvant-inflamed skin types, suggesting a lack of selective recruitment or adaptation to the inflammatory milieu. Instead, Treg accumulation patterns were linked to differences in CD80/CD86 expression by APC and the regulation of CD25 expression, specifically in the inflamed skin. Inflammatory cues alone, without cognate Ag, differentially supported CD25 upregulation (CFA and Alum > Sm Egg). Only in inflammatory milieus that upregulated CD25 did the provision of Ag enhance local Treg proliferation. Reduced IL-33 in the Sm Egg-inflamed environment was shown to contribute to the failure to upregulate CD25. Thus, the magnitude of the Treg response in inflamed tissues is controlled at two interdependent levels: inflammatory signals that support the upregulation of the important Treg survival factor CD25 and Ag signals that drive local expansion. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  14. Magnitude and duration of cue-induced craving for marijuana in volunteers with cannabis use disorder.

    PubMed

    Lundahl, Leslie H; Greenwald, Mark K

    2016-09-01

    Evaluate magnitude and duration of subjective and physiologic responses to neutral and marijuana (MJ)-related cues in cannabis dependent volunteers. 33 volunteers (17 male) who met DSM-IV criteria for Cannabis Abuse or Dependence were exposed to neutral (first) then MJ-related visual, auditory, olfactory and tactile cues. Mood, drug craving and physiology were assessed at baseline, post-neutral, post-MJ and 15-min post MJ cue exposure to determine magnitude of cue- responses. For a subset of participants (n=15; 9 male), measures of craving and physiology were collected also at 30-, 90-, and 150-min post-MJ cue to examine duration of cue-effects. In cue-response magnitude analyses, visual analog scale (VAS) items craving for, urge to use, and desire to smoke MJ, Total and Compulsivity subscale scores of the Marijuana Craving Questionnaire, anxiety ratings, and diastolic blood pressure (BP) were significantly elevated following MJ vs. neutral cue exposure. In cue-response duration analyses, desire and urge to use MJ remained significantly elevated at 30-, 90- and 150-min post MJ-cue exposure, relative to baseline and neutral cues. Presentation of polysensory MJ cues increased MJ craving, anxiety and diastolic BP relative to baseline and neutral cues. MJ craving remained elevated up to 150-min after MJ cue presentation. This finding confirms that carry-over effects from drug cue presentation must be considered in cue reactivity studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Gender differences in craving and cue reactivity to smoking and negative affect/stress cues.

    PubMed

    Saladin, Michael E; Gray, Kevin M; Carpenter, Matthew J; LaRowe, Steven D; DeSantis, Stacia M; Upadhyaya, Himanshu P

    2012-01-01

    There is evidence that women may be less successful when attempting to quit smoking than men. One potential contributory cause of this gender difference is differential craving and stress reactivity to smoking- and negative affect/stress-related cues. The present human laboratory study investigated the effects of gender on reactivity to smoking and negative affect/stress cues by exposing nicotine dependent women (n = 37) and men (n = 53) smokers to two active cue types, each with an associated control cue: (1) in vivo smoking cues and in vivo neutral control cues, and (2) imagery-based negative affect/stress script and a neutral/relaxing control script. Both before and after each cue/script, participants provided subjective reports of smoking-related craving and affective reactions. Heart rate (HR) and skin conductance (SC) responses were also measured. Results indicated that participants reported greater craving and SC in response to smoking versus neutral cues and greater subjective stress in response to the negative affect/stress versus neutral/relaxing script. With respect to gender differences, women evidenced greater craving, stress and arousal ratings and lower valence ratings (greater negative emotion) in response to the negative affect/stressful script. While there were no gender differences in responses to smoking cues, women trended towards higher arousal ratings. Implications of the findings for treatment and tobacco-related morbidity and mortality are discussed.

  16. Gender Differences in Craving and Cue Reactivity to Smoking and Negative Affect/Stress Cues

    PubMed Central

    Saladin, Michael E.; Gray, Kevin M.; Carpenter, Matthew J.; LaRowe, Steven D.; DeSantis, Stacia M.; Upadhyaya, Himanshu P.

    2011-01-01

    There is evidence that women may be less successful when attempting to quit smoking than men. One potential contributory cause of this gender difference is differential craving and stress reactivity to smoking-and negative affect/stress-related cues. The present human laboratory study investigated the effects of gender on reactivity to smoking and negative affect/stress cues by exposing nicotine dependent women (n=37) and men (n=53) smokers to two active cue types, each with an associated control cue: 1) in vivo smoking cues and in vivo neutral control cues, and 2) imagery-based negative affect/stress script and a neutral/relaxing control script. Both before and after each cue/script, participants provided subjective reports of smoking-related craving and affective reactions. Heart rate (HR) and skin conductance (SC) responses were also measured. Results indicated that participants reported greater craving and SC in response to smoking vs. neutral cues and greater subjective stress in response to the negative affect/stress vs. neutral/relaxing script. With respect to gender differences, women evidenced greater craving, stress and arousal ratings and lower valence ratings (greater negative emotion) in response to the negative affect/stressful script. While there were no gender differences in responses to smoking cues, women trended towards higher arousal ratings. Implications of the findings for treatment and tobacco-related morbidity and mortality are discussed. PMID:22494223

  17. Negative emotion provides cues for orienting auditory spatial attention

    PubMed Central

    Asutay, Erkin; Västfjäll, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The auditory stimuli provide information about the objects and events around us. They can also carry biologically significant emotional information (such as unseen dangers and conspecific vocalizations), which provides cues for allocation of attention and mental resources. Here, we investigated whether task-irrelevant auditory emotional information can provide cues for orientation of auditory spatial attention. We employed a covert spatial orienting task: the dot-probe task. In each trial, two task-irrelevant auditory cues were simultaneously presented at two separate locations (left–right or front–back). Environmental sounds were selected to form emotional vs. neutral, emotional vs. emotional, and neutral vs. neutral cue pairs. The participants’ task was to detect the location of an acoustic target that was presented immediately after the task-irrelevant auditory cues. The target was presented at the same location as one of the auditory cues. The results indicated that participants were significantly faster to locate the target when it replaced the negative cue compared to when it replaced the neutral cue. The positive cues did not produce a clear attentional bias. Further, same valence pairs (emotional–emotional or neutral–neutral) did not modulate reaction times due to a lack of spatial attention capture by one cue in the pair. Taken together, the results indicate that negative affect can provide cues for the orientation of spatial attention in the auditory domain. PMID:26029149

  18. Drinkers' memory bias for alcohol picture cues in explicit and implicit memory tasks.

    PubMed

    Nguyen-Louie, Tam T; Buckman, Jennifer F; Ray, Suchismita; Bates, Marsha E

    2016-03-01

    Alcohol cues can bias attention and elicit emotional reactions, especially in drinkers. Yet, little is known about how alcohol cues affect explicit and implicit memory processes, and how memory for alcohol cues is affected by acute alcohol intoxication. Young adult participants (N=161) were randomly assigned to alcohol, placebo, or control beverage conditions. Following beverage consumption, they were shown neutral, emotional and alcohol-related pictures cues. Participants then completed free recall and repetition priming tasks to test explicit and implicit memory, respectively, for picture cues. Average blood alcohol concentration for the alcohol group was 74±13mg/dl when memory testing began. Two mixed linear model analyses were conducted to examine the effects of beverage condition, picture cue type, and their interaction on explicit and implicit memory. Picture cue type and beverage condition each significantly affected explicit recall of picture cues, whereas only picture cue type significantly influenced repetition priming. Individuals in the alcohol condition recalled significantly fewer pictures than those in other conditions, regardless of cue type. Both free recall and repetition priming were greater for emotional and alcohol-related cues compared to neutral picture cues. No interaction effects were detected. Young adult drinkers showed enhanced explicit and implicit memory processing of alcohol cues compared to emotionally neutral cues. This enhanced processing for alcohol cues was on par with that seen for positive emotional cues. Acute alcohol intoxication did not alter this preferential memory processing for alcohol cues over neutral cues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Drinkers’ memory bias for alcohol picture cues in explicit and implicit memory tasks

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen-Louie, Tam T.; Buckman, Jennifer F.; Ray, Suchismita

    2016-01-01

    Background Alcohol cues can bias attention and elicit emotional reactions, especially in drinkers. Yet, little is known about how alcohol cues affect explicit and implicit memory processes, and how memory for alcohol cues is affected by acute alcohol intoxication. Methods Young adult participants (N=161) were randomly assigned to alcohol, placebo, or control beverage conditions. Following beverage consumption, they were shown neutral, emotional and alcohol-related pictures cues. Participants then completed free recall and repetition priming tasks to test explicit and implicit memory, respectively, for picture cues. Average blood alcohol concentration for the alcohol group was 74 ± 13 mg/dl when memory testing began. Two mixed linear model analyses were conducted to examine the effects of beverage condition, picture cue type, and their interaction on explicit and implicit memory. Results Picture cue type and beverage condition each significantly affected explicit recall of picture cues, whereas only picture cue type significantly influenced repetition priming. Individuals in the alcohol condition recalled significantly fewer pictures than those in other conditions, regardless of cue type. Both free recall and repetition priming were greater for emotional and alcohol-related cues compared to neutral picture cues. No interaction effects were detected. Conclusions Young adult drinkers showed enhanced explicit and implicit memory processing of alcohol cues compared to emotionally neutral cues. This enhanced processing for alcohol cues was on par with that seen for positive emotional cues. Acute alcohol intoxication did not alter this preferential memory processing for alcohol cues over neutral cues. PMID:26811126

  20. Counterbalancing in Smoking Cue Research: A Critical Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Kasey M.; Sayers, W. Michael

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Cue exposure research has been used to examine key issues in smoking research, such as predicting relapse, testing new medications, investigating the neurobiology of nicotine dependence, and examining reactivity among smokers with comorbid psychopathologies. Determining the order that cues are presented is one of the most critical steps in the design of these investigations. It is widely assumed that cue exposure studies should counterbalance the order in which smoking and control (neutral) cues are presented. This article examines the premises underlying the use of counterbalancing in experimental research, and it evaluates the degree to which counterbalancing is appropriate in smoking cue exposure studies. Methods: We reviewed the available literature on the use of counterbalancing techniques in human smoking cue exposure research. Results: Many studies counterbalancing order of cues have not provided critical analyses to determine whether this approach was appropriate. Studies that have reported relevant data, however, suggest that order of cue presentation interacts with type of cue (smoking vs. control), which raises concerns about the utility of counterbalancing. Primarily, this concern arises from potential carryover effects, in which exposure to smoking cues affects subsequent responding to neutral cues. Conclusions: Cue type by order of cue interactions may compromise the utility of counterbalancing. Unfortunately, there is no obvious alternative that is optimal across studies. Strengths and limitations of several alternative designs are considered, and key questions are identified to advance understanding of the optimal conditions for conducting smoking cue exposure studies. PMID:20884695

  1. Neutral details associated with emotional events are encoded: evidence from a cued recall paradigm.

    PubMed

    Mickley Steinmetz, Katherine R; Knight, Aubrey G; Kensinger, Elizabeth A

    2016-11-01

    Enhanced emotional memory often comes at the cost of memory for surrounding background information. Narrowed-encoding theories suggest that this is due to narrowed attention for emotional information at encoding, leading to impaired encoding of background information. Recent work has suggested that an encoding-based theory may be insufficient. Here, we examined whether cued recall-instead of previously used recognition memory tasks-would reveal evidence that non-emotional information associated with emotional information was effectively encoded. Participants encoded positive, negative, or neutral objects on neutral backgrounds. At retrieval, they were given either the item or the background as a memory cue and were asked to recall the associated scene element. Counter to narrowed-encoding theories, emotional items were more likely than neutral items to trigger recall of the associated background. This finding suggests that there is a memory trace of this contextual information and that emotional cues may facilitate retrieval of this information.

  2. Enhancing Interactive Tutorial Effectiveness through Visual Cueing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamet, Eric; Fernandez, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated whether learning how to use a web service with an interactive tutorial can be enhanced by cueing. We expected the attentional guidance provided by visual cues to facilitate the selection of information in static screen displays that corresponded to spoken explanations. Unlike most previous studies in this area, we…

  3. Contextual Cueing Effects across the Lifespan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Edward C.; Conners, Frances A.; Roskos, Beverly; Klinger, Mark R.; Klinger, Laura Grofer

    2013-01-01

    The authors evaluated age-related variations in contextual cueing, which reflects the extent to which visuospatial regularities can facilitate search for a target. Previous research produced inconsistent results regarding contextual cueing effects in young children and in older adults, and no study has investigated the phenomenon across the life…

  4. Enhancing Interactive Tutorial Effectiveness through Visual Cueing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamet, Eric; Fernandez, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated whether learning how to use a web service with an interactive tutorial can be enhanced by cueing. We expected the attentional guidance provided by visual cues to facilitate the selection of information in static screen displays that corresponded to spoken explanations. Unlike most previous studies in this area, we…

  5. Contextual Cueing Effects across the Lifespan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Edward C.; Conners, Frances A.; Roskos, Beverly; Klinger, Mark R.; Klinger, Laura Grofer

    2013-01-01

    The authors evaluated age-related variations in contextual cueing, which reflects the extent to which visuospatial regularities can facilitate search for a target. Previous research produced inconsistent results regarding contextual cueing effects in young children and in older adults, and no study has investigated the phenomenon across the life…

  6. Combat cueing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachejian, Kerry C.; Vujcic, Doug

    1998-08-01

    The combat cueing (CBT-Q) research effort will develop and demonstrate a portable tactical information system that will enhance the effectiveness of small unit military operations by providing real-time target cueing information to individual warfighters and teams. CBT-Q consists of a network of portable radio frequency (RF) 'modules' and is controlled by a body-worn 'user station' utilizing a head mounted display . On the battlefield, CBT-Q modules will detect an enemy transmitter and instantly provide the warfighter with an emitter's location. During the 'fog of battle', CBT-Q would tell the warfighter, 'Look here, right now individuals into the RF spectrum, resulting in faster target engagement times, increased survivability, and reduce the potential for fratricide. CBT-Q technology can support both mounted and dismounted tactical forces involved in land, sea and air warfighting operations. The CBT-Q system combines robust geolocation and signal sorting algorithms with hardware and software modularity to offer maximum utility to the warfighter. A single CBT-Q module can provide threat RF detection. Three networked CBT-Q modules can provide emitter positions using a time difference of arrival (TDOA) technique. The TDOA approach relies on timing and positioning data derived from a global positioning systems. The information will be displayed on a variety of displays, including a flat-panel head mounted display. The end results of the program will be the demonstration of the system with US Army Scouts in an operational environment.

  7. Emotion Unchained: Facial Expression Modulates Gaze Cueing under Cognitive Load

    PubMed Central

    Petrucci, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Direction of eye gaze cues spatial attention, and typically this cueing effect is not modulated by the expression of a face unless top-down processes are explicitly or implicitly involved. To investigate the role of cognitive control on gaze cueing by emotional faces, participants performed a gaze cueing task with happy, angry, or neutral faces under high (i.e., counting backward by 7) or low cognitive load (i.e., counting forward by 2). Results show that high cognitive load enhances gaze cueing effects for angry facial expressions. In addition, cognitive load reduces gaze cueing for neutral faces, whereas happy facial expressions and gaze affected object preferences regardless of load. This evidence clearly indicates a differential role of cognitive control in processing gaze direction and facial expression, suggesting that under typical conditions, when we shift attention based on social cues from another person, cognitive control processes are used to reduce interference from emotional information. PMID:27959925

  8. Emotion Unchained: Facial Expression Modulates Gaze Cueing under Cognitive Load.

    PubMed

    Pecchinenda, Anna; Petrucci, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Direction of eye gaze cues spatial attention, and typically this cueing effect is not modulated by the expression of a face unless top-down processes are explicitly or implicitly involved. To investigate the role of cognitive control on gaze cueing by emotional faces, participants performed a gaze cueing task with happy, angry, or neutral faces under high (i.e., counting backward by 7) or low cognitive load (i.e., counting forward by 2). Results show that high cognitive load enhances gaze cueing effects for angry facial expressions. In addition, cognitive load reduces gaze cueing for neutral faces, whereas happy facial expressions and gaze affected object preferences regardless of load. This evidence clearly indicates a differential role of cognitive control in processing gaze direction and facial expression, suggesting that under typical conditions, when we shift attention based on social cues from another person, cognitive control processes are used to reduce interference from emotional information.

  9. Brain dynamics of visual attention during anticipation and encoding of threat- and safe-cues in spider-phobic individuals.

    PubMed

    Michalowski, Jaroslaw M; Pané-Farré, Christiane A; Löw, Andreas; Hamm, Alfons O

    2015-09-01

    This study systematically investigated the sensitivity of the phobic attention system by measuring event-related potentials (ERPs) in spider-phobic and non-phobic volunteers in a context where spider and neutral pictures were presented (phobic threat condition) and in contexts where no phobic but unpleasant and neutral or only neutral pictures were displayed (phobia-irrelevant conditions). In a between-group study, participants were assigned to phobia-irrelevant conditions either before or after the exposure to spider pictures (pre-exposure vs post-exposure participants). Additionally, each picture was preceded by a fixation cross presented in one of three different colors that were informative about the category of an upcoming picture. In the phobic threat condition, spider-phobic participants showed a larger P1 than controls for all pictures and signal cues. Moreover, individuals with spider phobia who were sensitized by the exposure to phobic stimuli (i.e. post-exposure participants) responded with an increased P1 also in phobia-irrelevant conditions. In contrast, no group differences between spider-phobic and non-phobic individuals were observed in the P1-amplitudes during viewing of phobia-irrelevant stimuli in the pre-exposure group. In addition, cues signaling neutral pictures elicited decreased stimulus-preceding negativity (SPN) compared with cues signaling emotional pictures. Moreover, emotional pictures and cues signaling emotional pictures evoked larger early posterior negativity (EPN) and late positive potential (LPP) than neutral stimuli. Spider phobics showed greater selective attention effects than controls for phobia-relevant pictures (increased EPN and LPP) and cues (increased LPP and SPN). Increased sensitization of the attention system observed in spider-phobic individuals might facilitate fear conditioning and promote generalization of fear playing an important role in the maintenance of anxiety disorders.

  10. Brain dynamics of visual attention during anticipation and encoding of threat- and safe-cues in spider-phobic individuals

    PubMed Central

    Pané-Farré, Christiane A.; Löw, Andreas; Hamm, Alfons O.

    2015-01-01

    This study systematically investigated the sensitivity of the phobic attention system by measuring event-related potentials (ERPs) in spider-phobic and non-phobic volunteers in a context where spider and neutral pictures were presented (phobic threat condition) and in contexts where no phobic but unpleasant and neutral or only neutral pictures were displayed (phobia-irrelevant conditions). In a between-group study, participants were assigned to phobia-irrelevant conditions either before or after the exposure to spider pictures (pre-exposure vs post-exposure participants). Additionally, each picture was preceded by a fixation cross presented in one of three different colors that were informative about the category of an upcoming picture. In the phobic threat condition, spider-phobic participants showed a larger P1 than controls for all pictures and signal cues. Moreover, individuals with spider phobia who were sensitized by the exposure to phobic stimuli (i.e. post-exposure participants) responded with an increased P1 also in phobia-irrelevant conditions. In contrast, no group differences between spider-phobic and non-phobic individuals were observed in the P1-amplitudes during viewing of phobia-irrelevant stimuli in the pre-exposure group. In addition, cues signaling neutral pictures elicited decreased stimulus-preceding negativity (SPN) compared with cues signaling emotional pictures. Moreover, emotional pictures and cues signaling emotional pictures evoked larger early posterior negativity (EPN) and late positive potential (LPP) than neutral stimuli. Spider phobics showed greater selective attention effects than controls for phobia-relevant pictures (increased EPN and LPP) and cues (increased LPP and SPN). Increased sensitization of the attention system observed in spider-phobic individuals might facilitate fear conditioning and promote generalization of fear playing an important role in the maintenance of anxiety disorders. PMID:25608985

  11. Mutations in the H, F, or M Proteins Can Facilitate Resistance of Measles Virus to Neutralizing Human Anti-MV Sera.

    PubMed

    Kweder, Hasan; Ainouze, Michelle; Cosby, Sara Louise; Muller, Claude P; Lévy, Camille; Verhoeyen, Els; Cosset, François-Loïc; Manet, Evelyne; Buckland, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Although there is currently no evidence of emerging strains of measles virus (MV) that can resist neutralization by the anti-MV antibodies present in vaccinees, certain mutations in circulating wt MV strains appear to reduce the efficacy of these antibodies. Moreover, it has been hypothesized that resistance to neutralization by such antibodies could allow MV to persist. In this study, we use a novel in vitro system to determine the molecular basis of MV's resistance to neutralization. We find that both wild-type and laboratory strain MV variants that escape neutralization by anti-MV polyclonal sera possess multiple mutations in their H, F, and M proteins. Cytometric analysis of cells expressing viral escape mutants possessing minimal mutations and their plasmid-expressed H, F, and M proteins indicates that immune resistance is due to particular mutations that can occur in any of these three proteins that affect at distance, rather than directly, the native conformation of the MV-H globular head and hence its epitopes. A high percentage of the escape mutants contain mutations found in cases of Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis (SSPE) and our results could potentially shed light on the pathogenesis of this rare fatal disease.

  12. Mutations in the H, F, or M Proteins Can Facilitate Resistance of Measles Virus to Neutralizing Human Anti-MV Sera

    PubMed Central

    Kweder, Hasan; Ainouze, Michelle; Cosby, Sara Louise; Muller, Claude P.; Lévy, Camille; Verhoeyen, Els; Cosset, François-Loïc; Buckland, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Although there is currently no evidence of emerging strains of measles virus (MV) that can resist neutralization by the anti-MV antibodies present in vaccinees, certain mutations in circulating wt MV strains appear to reduce the efficacy of these antibodies. Moreover, it has been hypothesized that resistance to neutralization by such antibodies could allow MV to persist. In this study, we use a novel in vitro system to determine the molecular basis of MV's resistance to neutralization. We find that both wild-type and laboratory strain MV variants that escape neutralization by anti-MV polyclonal sera possess multiple mutations in their H, F, and M proteins. Cytometric analysis of cells expressing viral escape mutants possessing minimal mutations and their plasmid-expressed H, F, and M proteins indicates that immune resistance is due to particular mutations that can occur in any of these three proteins that affect at distance, rather than directly, the native conformation of the MV-H globular head and hence its epitopes. A high percentage of the escape mutants contain mutations found in cases of Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis (SSPE) and our results could potentially shed light on the pathogenesis of this rare fatal disease. PMID:24648840

  13. A Single Residue within the V5 Region of HIV-1 Envelope Facilitates Viral Escape from the Broadly Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibody VRC01*

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Dongxing; Shi, Xuanling; Arledge, Kelly C.; Song, Dingka; Jiang, Liwei; Fu, Lili; Gong, Xinqi; Zhang, Senyan; Wang, Xinquan; Zhang, Linqi

    2012-01-01

    VRC01, a broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibody, is capable of neutralizing a diverse array of HIV-1 isolates by mimicking CD4 binding with the envelope glycoprotein gp120. Nonetheless, resistant strains have been identified. Here, we examined two genetically related and two unrelated envelope clones, derived from CRF08_BC-infected patients, with distinct VRC01 neutralization profiles. A total of 22 chimeric envelope clones was generated by interchanging the loop D and/or V5 regions between the original envelopes or by single alanine substitutions within each region. Analysis of pseudoviruses built from these mutant envelopes showed that interchanging the V5 region between the genetically related or unrelated clones completely swapped their VRC01 sensitivity profiles. Mutagenesis analysis revealed that the asparagine residue at position 460 (Asn-460), a potential N-linked glycosylation site in the V5 region, is a key factor for observed resistance in these strains, which is further supported by our structural modeling. Moreover, changes in resistance were found to positively correlate with deviations in VRC01 binding affinity. Overall, our study indicates that Asn-460 in the V5 region is a critical determinant of sensitivity to VRC01 specifically in these viral strains. The long side chain of Asn-460, and potential glycosylation, may create steric hindrance that lowers binding affinity, thereby increasing resistance to VRC01 neutralization. PMID:23100255

  14. A single residue within the V5 region of HIV-1 envelope facilitates viral escape from the broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibody VRC01.

    PubMed

    Guo, Dongxing; Shi, Xuanling; Arledge, Kelly C; Song, Dingka; Jiang, Liwei; Fu, Lili; Gong, Xinqi; Zhang, Senyan; Wang, Xinquan; Zhang, Linqi

    2012-12-14

    VRC01, a broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibody, is capable of neutralizing a diverse array of HIV-1 isolates by mimicking CD4 binding with the envelope glycoprotein gp120. Nonetheless, resistant strains have been identified. Here, we examined two genetically related and two unrelated envelope clones, derived from CRF08_BC-infected patients, with distinct VRC01 neutralization profiles. A total of 22 chimeric envelope clones was generated by interchanging the loop D and/or V5 regions between the original envelopes or by single alanine substitutions within each region. Analysis of pseudoviruses built from these mutant envelopes showed that interchanging the V5 region between the genetically related or unrelated clones completely swapped their VRC01 sensitivity profiles. Mutagenesis analysis revealed that the asparagine residue at position 460 (Asn-460), a potential N-linked glycosylation site in the V5 region, is a key factor for observed resistance in these strains, which is further supported by our structural modeling. Moreover, changes in resistance were found to positively correlate with deviations in VRC01 binding affinity. Overall, our study indicates that Asn-460 in the V5 region is a critical determinant of sensitivity to VRC01 specifically in these viral strains. The long side chain of Asn-460, and potential glycosylation, may create steric hindrance that lowers binding affinity, thereby increasing resistance to VRC01 neutralization.

  15. Combination of texture and color cues in visual segmentation

    PubMed Central

    Saarela, Toni P.; Landy, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    The visual system can use various cues to segment the visual scene into figure and background. We studied how human observers combine two of these cues, texture and color, in visual segmentation. In our task, the observers identified the orientation of an edge that was defined by a texture difference, a color difference, or both (cue combination). In a fourth condition, both texture and color information were available, but the texture and color edges were not spatially aligned (cue conflict). Performance markedly improved when the edges were defined by two cues, compared to the single-cue conditions. Observers only benefited from the two cues, however, when they were spatially aligned. A simple signal-detection model that incorporates interactions between texture and color processing accounts for the performance in all conditions. In a second experiment, we studied whether the observers are able to ignore a task-irrelevant cue in the segmentation task or whether it interferes with performance. Observers identified the orientation of an edge defined by one cue and were instructed to ignore the other cue. Three types of trial were intermixed: neutral trials, in which the second cue was absent; congruent trials, in which the second cue signaled the same edge as the target cue; and conflict trials, in which the second cue signaled an edge orthogonal to the target cue. Performance improved when the second cue was congruent with the target cue. Performance was impaired when the second cue was in conflict with the target cue, indicating that observers could not discount the second cue. We conclude that texture and color are not processed independently in visual segmentation. PMID:22387319

  16. Negative emotional stimuli reduce contextual cueing but not response times in inefficient search.

    PubMed

    Kunar, Melina A; Watson, Derrick G; Cole, Louise; Cox, Angeline

    2014-02-01

    In visual search, previous work has shown that negative stimuli narrow the focus of attention and speed reaction times (RTs). This paper investigates these two effects by first asking whether negative emotional stimuli narrow the focus of attention to reduce the learning of a display context in a contextual cueing task and, second, whether exposure to negative stimuli also reduces RTs in inefficient search tasks. In Experiment 1, participants viewed either negative or neutral images (faces or scenes) prior to a contextual cueing task. In a typical contextual cueing experiment, RTs are reduced if displays are repeated across the experiment compared with novel displays that are not repeated. The results showed that a smaller contextual cueing effect was obtained after participants viewed negative stimuli than when they viewed neutral stimuli. However, in contrast to previous work, overall search RTs were not faster after viewing negative stimuli (Experiments 2 to 4). The findings are discussed in terms of the impact of emotional content on visual processing and the ability to use scene context to help facilitate search.

  17. Cue-Reactive Altered State of Consciousness Mediates the Relationship Between Problem-Gambling Severity and Cue-Reactive Urge in Poker-Machine Gamblers.

    PubMed

    Tricker, Christopher; Rock, Adam J; Clark, Gavin I

    2016-06-01

    In order to enhance our understanding of the nature of poker-machine problem-gambling, a community sample of 37 poker-machine gamblers (M age = 32 years, M PGSI = 5; PGSI = Problem Gambling Severity Index) were assessed for urge to gamble (responses on a visual analogue scale) and altered state of consciousness (assessed by the Altered State of Awareness dimension of the Phenomenology of Consciousness Inventory) at baseline, after a neutral cue, and after a gambling cue. It was found that (a) problem-gambling severity (PGSI score) predicted increase in urge (from neutral cue to gambling cue, controlling for baseline; sr (2) = .19, p = .006) and increase in altered state of consciousness (from neutral cue to gambling cue, controlling for baseline; sr (2) = .57, p < .001), and (b) increase in altered state of consciousness (from neutral cue to gambling cue) mediated the relationship between problem-gambling severity and increase in urge (from neutral cue to gambling cue; κ(2) = .40, 99 % CI [.08, .71]). These findings suggest that cue-reactive altered state of consciousness is an important component of cue-reactive urge in poker-machine problem-gamblers.

  18. Cue-induced craving in patients with cocaine use disorder predicts cognitive control deficits toward cocaine cues.

    PubMed

    DiGirolamo, Gregory J; Smelson, David; Guevremont, Nathan

    2015-08-01

    Cue-induced craving is a clinically important aspect of cocaine addiction influencing ongoing use and sobriety. However, little is known about the relationship between cue-induced craving and cognitive control toward cocaine cues. While studies suggest that cocaine users have an attentional bias toward cocaine cues, the present study extends this research by testing if cocaine use disorder patients (CDPs) can control their eye movements toward cocaine cues and whether their response varied by cue-induced craving intensity. Thirty CDPs underwent a cue exposure procedure to dichotomize them into high and low craving groups followed by a modified antisaccade task in which subjects were asked to control their eye movements toward either a cocaine or neutral drug cue by looking away from the suddenly presented cue. The relationship between breakdowns in cognitive control (as measured by eye errors) and cue-induced craving (changes in self-reported craving following cocaine cue exposure) was investigated. CDPs overall made significantly more errors toward cocaine cues compared to neutral cues, with higher cravers making significantly more errors than lower cravers even though they did not differ significantly in addiction severity, impulsivity, anxiety, or depression levels. Cue-induced craving was the only specific and significant predictor of subsequent errors toward cocaine cues. Cue-induced craving directly and specifically relates to breakdowns of cognitive control toward cocaine cues in CDPs, with higher cravers being more susceptible. Hence, it may be useful identifying high cravers and target treatment toward curbing craving to decrease the likelihood of a subsequent breakdown in control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Reactivity to Cannabis Cues in Virtual Reality Environments†

    PubMed Central

    Bordnick, Patrick S.; Copp, Hilary L.; Traylor, Amy; Graap, Ken M.; Carter, Brian L.; Walton, Alicia; Ferrer, Mirtha

    2014-01-01

    Virtual reality (VR) cue environments have been developed and successfully tested in nicotine, cocaine, and alcohol abusers. Aims in the current article include the development and testing of a novel VR cannabis cue reactivity assessment system. It was hypothesized that subjective craving levels and attention to cannabis cues would be higher in VR environments merits with cannabis cues compared to VR neutral environments. Twenty nontreatment-seeking current cannabis smokers participated in the VR cue trial. During the VR cue trial, participants were exposed to four virtual environments that contained audio, visual, olfactory, and vibrotactile sensory stimuli. Two VR environments contained cannabis cues that consisted of a party room in which people were smoking cannabis and a room containing cannabis paraphernalia without people. Two VR neutral rooms without cannabis cues consisted of a digital art gallery with nature videos. Subjective craving and attention to cues were significantly higher in the VR cannabis environments compared to the VR neutral environments. These findings indicate that VR cannabis cue reactivity may offer a new technology-based method to advance addiction research and treatment. PMID:19705672

  20. Functionalized Collagen Scaffold Neutralizing the Myelin-Inhibitory Molecules Promoted Neurites Outgrowth in Vitro and Facilitated Spinal Cord Regeneration in Vivo.

    PubMed

    Li, Xing; Han, Jin; Zhao, Yannan; Ding, Wenyong; Wei, Jianshu; Han, Sufang; Shang, Xianping; Wang, Bin; Chen, Bing; Xiao, Zhifeng; Dai, Jianwu

    2015-07-01

    Research has demonstrated that many myelin-associated inhibitory molecules jointly contribute to the failure of adult spinal cord regeneration. Therapies comprehensively targeting the multiple inhibitory nature of the injured spinal cord are being concerned. Here, two collagen-binding proteins, CBD-EphA4LBD and CBD-PlexinB1LBD, were constructed, respectively, to neutralize the axon guidance molecules ephrinB3 and sema4D that inhibit the regeneration of nerve fibers. The two neutralizing proteins have proven their ability to specifically bind collagen and to continuously release from collagen scaffolds. They could also promote neurites outgrowth of cerebellar granular neurons and dorsal root ganglion neurons in vitro. Subsequently, the functionalized collagen scaffolds by physically absorbing NEP1-40 and immobilizing CBD-EphA4LBD and CBD-PlexinB1LBD were transplanted into a rat T10 complete spinal cord transection model. Our results showed that rats that received the treatment of transplanting the functionalized collagen scaffold exhibited great advantage on axonal regeneration and locomotion recovery after spinal cord injury.

  1. Mid and Near-IR Absorption Spectra of PAH Neutrals and Ions in H20 Ice to Facilitate their Astronomical Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, Max P.; Sandford, Scott A.; Allamandola, Louis J.

    2004-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are believed to be the most abundant and widespread class of organic compounds in the universe, having been observed in emission towards energetic regions and absorption towards colder ones.We will present IR spectra of PAHs and their cations in H20 ice measured in the laboratory in the hopes that this will facilitate the detection of these features in the interstellar medium.

  2. Mid and Near-IR Absorption Spectra of PAH Neutrals and Ions in H20 Ice to Facilitate their Astronomical Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, Max P.; Sandford, Scott A.; Allamandola, Louis J.

    2004-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are believed to be the most abundant and widespread class of organic compounds in the universe, having been observed in emission towards energetic regions and absorption towards colder ones.We will present IR spectra of PAHs and their cations in H20 ice measured in the laboratory in the hopes that this will facilitate the detection of these features in the interstellar medium.

  3. Cueing others' memories.

    PubMed

    Tullis, Jonathan G; Benjamin, Aaron S

    2015-05-01

    Many situations require us to generate external cues to support later retrieval from memory. For instance, we create file names in order to cue our memory to a file's contents, and instructors create lecture slides to remember what points to make during classes. We even generate cues for others when we remind friends of shared experiences or send colleagues a computer file that is named in such a way so as to remind them of its contents. Here we explore how and how well learners tailor retrieval cues for different intended recipients. Across three experiments, subjects generated verbal cues for a list of target words for themselves or for others. Learners generated cues for others by increasing the normative cue-to-target associative strength but also by increasing the number of other words their cues point to, relative to cues that they generated for themselves. This strategy was effective: such cues supported higher levels of recall for others than cues generated for oneself. Generating cues for others also required more time than generating cues for oneself. Learners responded to the differential demands of cue generation for others by effortfully excluding personal, episodic knowledge and including knowledge that they estimate to be broadly shared.

  4. Nipping Cue Reactivity in the Bud: Baclofen Prevents Limbic Activation Elicited by Subliminal Drug Cues

    PubMed Central

    Young, Kimberly A.; Franklin, Teresa R.; Roberts, David C.S.; Jagannathan, Kanchana; Suh, Jesse J.; Wetherill, Reagan R.; Wang, Ze; Kampman, Kyle M.; O'Brien, Charles P.

    2014-01-01

    Relapse is a widely recognized and difficult to treat feature of the addictions. Substantial evidence implicates cue-triggered activation of the mesolimbic dopamine system as an important contributing factor. Even drug cues presented outside of conscious awareness (i.e., subliminally) produce robust activation within this circuitry, indicating the sensitivity and vulnerability of the brain to potentially problematic reward signals. Because pharmacological agents that prevent these early cue-induced responses could play an important role in relapse prevention, we examined whether baclofen—a GABAB receptor agonist that reduces mesolimbic dopamine release and conditioned drug responses in laboratory animals—could inhibit mesolimbic activation elicited by subliminal cocaine cues in cocaine-dependent individuals. Twenty cocaine-dependent participants were randomized to receive baclofen (60 mg/d; 20 mg t.i.d.) or placebo. Event-related BOLD fMRI and a backward-masking paradigm were used to examine the effects of baclofen on subliminal cocaine (vs neutral) cues. Sexual and aversive cues were included to examine specificity. We observed that baclofen-treated participants displayed significantly less activation in response to subliminal cocaine (vs neutral) cues, but not sexual or aversive (vs neutral) cues, than placebo-treated participants in a large interconnected bilateral cluster spanning the ventral striatum, ventral pallidum, amygdala, midbrain, and orbitofrontal cortex (voxel threshold p < 0.005; cluster corrected at p < 0.05). These results suggest that baclofen may inhibit the earliest type of drug cue-induced motivational processing—that which occurs outside of awareness—before it evolves into a less manageable state. PMID:24695721

  5. Nipping cue reactivity in the bud: baclofen prevents limbic activation elicited by subliminal drug cues.

    PubMed

    Young, Kimberly A; Franklin, Teresa R; Roberts, David C S; Jagannathan, Kanchana; Suh, Jesse J; Wetherill, Reagan R; Wang, Ze; Kampman, Kyle M; O'Brien, Charles P; Childress, Anna Rose

    2014-04-02

    Relapse is a widely recognized and difficult to treat feature of the addictions. Substantial evidence implicates cue-triggered activation of the mesolimbic dopamine system as an important contributing factor. Even drug cues presented outside of conscious awareness (i.e., subliminally) produce robust activation within this circuitry, indicating the sensitivity and vulnerability of the brain to potentially problematic reward signals. Because pharmacological agents that prevent these early cue-induced responses could play an important role in relapse prevention, we examined whether baclofen-a GABAB receptor agonist that reduces mesolimbic dopamine release and conditioned drug responses in laboratory animals-could inhibit mesolimbic activation elicited by subliminal cocaine cues in cocaine-dependent individuals. Twenty cocaine-dependent participants were randomized to receive baclofen (60 mg/d; 20 mg t.i.d.) or placebo. Event-related BOLD fMRI and a backward-masking paradigm were used to examine the effects of baclofen on subliminal cocaine (vs neutral) cues. Sexual and aversive cues were included to examine specificity. We observed that baclofen-treated participants displayed significantly less activation in response to subliminal cocaine (vs neutral) cues, but not sexual or aversive (vs neutral) cues, than placebo-treated participants in a large interconnected bilateral cluster spanning the ventral striatum, ventral pallidum, amygdala, midbrain, and orbitofrontal cortex (voxel threshold p < 0.005; cluster corrected at p < 0.05). These results suggest that baclofen may inhibit the earliest type of drug cue-induced motivational processing-that which occurs outside of awareness-before it evolves into a less manageable state.

  6. Smoker Reactivity to Cues: Effects on Craving and on Smoking behavior

    PubMed Central

    Shiffman, Saul; Dunbar, Michael; Kirchner, Thomas; Li, Xiaoxue; Tindle, Hilary; Anderson, Stewart; Scholl, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    We assessed craving and smoking in response to smoking-relevant cues. 207 daily smokers viewed images related to one of six cue sets (cigarettes, positive and negative affect, alcohol, smoking prohibitions, and neutral cues) in separate sessions. Compared to neutral cues, cigarette cues significantly increased craving, and positive affect cues significantly decreased craving. When subjects were then allowed to smoke during continuing cue exposure, cues did not affect the likelihood of smoking or the amount smoked (number of cigarettes, number of puffs, puff time, or increased carbon monoxide). However, craving intensity predicted likelihood of smoking, latency to smoke, and amount smoked, with craving increases after cue exposure making significant independent contributions. Some craving effects were curvilinear, suggesting that they are subject to thresholds and might not be observed under some circumstances. PMID:22708884

  7. Smoking-Cue Induced Brain Activation In Adolescent Light Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Rubinstein, Mark L.; Luks, Tracy L.; Moscicki, Anna-Barbara; Dryden, Wendy; Rait, Michelle A.; Simpson, Gregory V.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Using fMRI, we examined whether or not adolescents with low levels of nicotine exposure (light smokers) display neural activation in areas shown to be involved with addiction in response to smoking-related stimuli. Design/Setting/Participants Twelve adolescent light smokers (aged 13 to17, smoked 1 to 5 cigarettes per day) and 12 non-smokers (ages 13 to 17, never smoked a cigarette) from the San Francisco Bay Area underwent fMRI scanning. During scanning they viewed blocks of photographic smoking and control cues. Smoking cues consisted of pictures of people smoking cigarettes and smoking-related objects such as lighters and ashtrays. Neutral cues consisted of everyday objects and people engaged in everyday activities. Findings For smokers, smoking cues elicited greater activation than neutral cues in the mesolimbic reward circuit (left anterior cingulate (T=7.88, p<.001), right hippocampus (T=6.62, p<.001) and right parahippocampal gyrus (T=4.70, p<.001)). We found activation from smoking cues versus neutral cues within both the left and right frontal medial orbital regions (T=5.09, p<.001 and T=3.94, p=.001 respectively), which may be unique to adolescents. Non-smokers showed no significant difference in activation between smoking-related cues and neutral cues. Conclusions Our finding that smoking cues produced activation in adolescent light smokers in brain regions seen in adult and heavy teen smokers suggests that even at low levels of smoking, adolescents exhibit heightened reactivity to smoking cues. This paper adds to the existing literature suggesting that nicotine dependence may begin with exposure to low levels of nicotine, underscoring the need for early intervention among adolescent smokers. PMID:21185518

  8. Mindful attention reduces neural and self-reported cue-induced craving in smokers

    PubMed Central

    Creswell, John David; Tabibnia, Golnaz; Julson, Erica; Kober, Hedy; Tindle, Hilary A.

    2013-01-01

    An emerging body of research suggests that mindfulness-based interventions may be beneficial for smoking cessation and the treatment of other addictive disorders. One way that mindfulness may facilitate smoking cessation is through the reduction of craving to smoking cues. The present work considers whether mindful attention can reduce self-reported and neural markers of cue-induced craving in treatment seeking smokers. Forty-seven (n = 47) meditation-naïve treatment-seeking smokers (12-h abstinent from smoking) viewed and made ratings of smoking and neutral images while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants were trained and instructed to view these images passively or with mindful attention. Results indicated that mindful attention reduced self-reported craving to smoking images, and reduced neural activity in a craving-related region of subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC). Moreover, a psychophysiological interaction analysis revealed that mindful attention reduced functional connectivity between sgACC and other craving-related regions compared to passively viewing smoking images, suggesting that mindfulness may decouple craving neurocircuitry when viewing smoking cues. These results provide an initial indication that mindful attention may describe a ‘bottom-up’ attention to one’s present moment experience in ways that can help reduce subjective and neural reactivity to smoking cues in smokers. PMID:22114078

  9. Cueing effects on semantic and perceptual categorization: ERPs reveal differential effects of validity as a function of processing stage

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Grace; Mangels, Jennifer A.

    2007-01-01

    Valid cueing has been shown to accelerate target identification and improve decision accuracy, however the precise nature and extent to which biasing influences the successive stages of target processing remain unclear. The present event-related potential (ERP) study used a “hybrid” task that combined features of standard cued-attention and task-switching paradigms in order to explore the effects of expectation on both identification and categorization of centrally-presented stimuli. Subjects made semantic judgments (living/nonliving) on word targets (“bunny”), and perceptual judgments (right/left) on arrow targets (“≪≪<”). Target expectancy was manipulated using cues that were valid (60% of trials), invalid (10%), or neutral (30%). Invalidly-cued targets required task-set switching before categorization could commence, and resulted in RT costs relative to validly- or neutrally-cued targets. Additionally, benefits from valid-cueing were observed for word targets. Invalid cueing of both arrow and word targets modulated early posterior visual potentials (P1/N1) and elicited a subsequent anterior P3a (270 ms). The temporal relationship of these effects suggests that the P3a indexed domain-general task-set switching processes recruited in response to the detection of unexpected perceptual information. Subsequent to the P3a and immediately preceding the behavioral response, validly-cued targets elicited enhanced stimulus-specific waveforms (arrows: parietal positivity [P290], words: inferior temporal negativity [late ITN: 400–600 ms]). The degree of neural enhancement relative to the invalid and neutral conditions mirrored the magnitude of corresponding RT benefits, suggesting that these waveforms indexed categorization and/or decision processes. Together, these results suggest that valid cueing increases the neural efficiency of initial stimulus identification, facilitating transmission of information to subsequent categorization stages, where

  10. Food and drug cues activate similar brain regions: a meta-analysis of functional MRI studies.

    PubMed

    Tang, D W; Fellows, L K; Small, D M; Dagher, A

    2012-06-06

    In healthy individuals, food cues can trigger hunger and feeding behavior. Likewise, smoking cues can trigger craving and relapse in smokers. Brain imaging studies report that structures involved in appetitive behaviors and reward, notably the insula, striatum, amygdala and orbital frontal cortex, tend to be activated by both visual food and smoking cues. Here, by carrying out a meta-analysis of human neuro-imaging studies, we investigate the neural network activated by: 1) food versus neutral cues (14 studies, 142 foci) 2) smoking versus neutral cues (15 studies, 176 foci) 3) smoking versus neutral cues when correlated with craving scores (7 studies, 108 foci). PubMed was used to identify cue-reactivity imaging studies that compared brain response to visual food or smoking cues to neutral cues. Fourteen articles were identified for the food meta-analysis and fifteen articles were identified for the smoking meta-analysis. Six articles were identified for the smoking cue correlated with craving analysis. Meta-analyses were carried out using activation likelihood estimation. Food cues were associated with increased blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response in the left amygdala, bilateral insula, bilateral orbital frontal cortex, and striatum. Smoking cues were associated with increased BOLD signal in the same areas, with the exception of the insula. However, the smoking meta-analysis of brain maps correlating cue-reactivity with subjective craving did identify the insula, suggesting that insula activation is only found when craving levels are high. The brain areas identified here are involved in learning, memory and motivation, and their cue-induced activity is an index of the incentive salience of the cues. Using meta-analytic techniques to combine a series of studies, we found that food and smoking cues activate comparable brain networks. There is significant overlap in brain regions responding to conditioned cues associated with natural and drug rewards.

  11. Neural substrates of implicit cueing effect on prospective memory.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Teruo; Umeda, Satoshi; Kojima, Shozo

    2011-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to examine the maintenance of intentions during an ongoing task involving implicit cues. Participants were required to detect target words while engaging in the ongoing task. Cues matched to the target category and cues matched to the action for targets were presented implicitly during the ongoing task. Implicit categorical target cues were found to enhance prospective memory performance, and implicit action cues accelerated responses more than irrelevant implicit cues in the prospective memory task. We found increased caudal anterior cingulate cortex (cACC) activity during the ongoing task with both implicit target and action cues, suggesting that alertness or preparatory attentional processes were strengthened by implicit cues. Implicit target cues elicited enhanced activity in the lateral anterior prefrontal cortex (Brodmann's area 10), which may be involved in dual processing of the ongoing task and the maintained intention. These results suggest that implicit cues may boost primitive attention toward an intended action and may be accessible to off-line maintenance. The facilitation of prospective target detection and the action execution by target cues were associated with increased supplementary motor area (SMA) activity. In contrast, we found enhanced premotor cortex (PMC) activation with action cue during the prospective memory task, suggesting that the PMC may be involved in stimulus-induced and rather automatic action. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of implicit cues for examining the maintenance of intention. Overall, we found that implicit target cues can facilitate prospective memory performance, and implicit action cues can accelerate responses. The above-mentioned neural underpinnings suggest that attentional and motor control processes are involved in the enhancement of prospective memory. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. D-cycloserine and cocaine cue reactivity: preliminary findings.

    PubMed

    Price, Kimber L; McRae-Clark, Aimee L; Saladin, Michael E; Maria, Megan M Moran-Santa; DeSantis, Stacia M; Back, Sudie E; Brady, Kathleen T

    2009-01-01

    D-cycloserine (DCS), a partial glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor agonist, enhances extinction of conditioned fear responding in rodents and facilitates exposure-based learning in humans with anxiety disorders. This preliminary study investigates DCS pretreatment on response to cocaine cues in cocaine-dependent subjects. Ten cocaine-dependent subjects were randomly assigned to receive either 50 mg DCS or matching placebo two hours before each of two 1-hour cocaine cue exposure sessions one day apart. HR and craving ratings were obtained before and during cue exposure sessions. There was a trend towards increased craving to cocaine cues in cocaine-dependent individuals after administration of DCS. The administration of DCS prior to cue exposure sessions may facilitate response activation. While facilitation of extinction-based learning by DCS may have therapeutic potential for cocaine dependence, this drug may exhibit a different profile in cocaine-dependent individuals as compared to those with anxiety disorders.

  13. Perception of health from facial cues

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Audrey J.; Holzleitner, Iris J.; Talamas, Sean N.

    2016-01-01

    Impressions of health are integral to social interactions, yet poorly understood. A review of the literature reveals multiple facial characteristics that potentially act as cues to health judgements. The cues vary in their stability across time: structural shape cues including symmetry and sexual dimorphism alter slowly across the lifespan and have been found to have weak links to actual health, but show inconsistent effects on perceived health. Facial adiposity changes over a medium time course and is associated with both perceived and actual health. Skin colour alters over a short time and has strong effects on perceived health, yet links to health outcomes have barely been evaluated. Reviewing suggested an additional influence of demeanour as a perceptual cue to health. We, therefore, investigated the association of health judgements with multiple facial cues measured objectively from two-dimensional and three-dimensional facial images. We found evidence for independent contributions of face shape and skin colour cues to perceived health. Our empirical findings: (i) reinforce the role of skin yellowness; (ii) demonstrate the utility of global face shape measures of adiposity; and (iii) emphasize the role of affect in facial images with nominally neutral expression in impressions of health. PMID:27069057

  14. Audiovisual Cues and Perceptual Learning of Spectrally Distorted Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilling, Michael; Thomas, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments investigate the effectiveness of audiovisual (AV) speech cues (cues derived from both seeing and hearing a talker speak) in facilitating perceptual learning of spectrally distorted speech. Speech was distorted through an eight channel noise-vocoder which shifted the spectral envelope of the speech signal to simulate the properties…

  15. Audiovisual Cues and Perceptual Learning of Spectrally Distorted Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilling, Michael; Thomas, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments investigate the effectiveness of audiovisual (AV) speech cues (cues derived from both seeing and hearing a talker speak) in facilitating perceptual learning of spectrally distorted speech. Speech was distorted through an eight channel noise-vocoder which shifted the spectral envelope of the speech signal to simulate the properties…

  16. The Effects of Explicit Visual Cues in Reading Biological Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ge, Yun-Ping; Unsworth, Len; Wang, Kuo-Hua

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on cognitive theories, this study intends to investigate the effects of explicit visual cues which have been proposed as a critical factor in facilitating understanding of biological images. Three diagrams from Taiwanese textbooks with implicit visual cues, involving the concepts of biological classification systems, fish taxonomy, and…

  17. Vowel identification by cochlear implant users: Contributions of duration cues and dynamic spectral cues

    PubMed Central

    Donaldson, Gail S.; Rogers, Catherine L.; Johnson, Lindsay B.; Oh, Soo Hee

    2015-01-01

    A recent study from our laboratory assessed vowel identification in cochlear implant (CI) users, using full /dVd/ syllables and partial (center- and edges-only) syllables with duration cues neutralized [Donaldson, Rogers, Cardenas, Russell, and Hanna (2013). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 134, 3021–3028]. CI users' poorer performance for partial syllables as compared to full syllables, and for edges-only syllables as compared to center-only syllables, led to the hypotheses (1) that CI users may rely strongly on vowel duration cues; and (2) that CI users have more limited access to dynamic spectral cues than steady-state spectral cues. The present study tested those hypotheses. Ten CI users and ten young normal hearing (YNH) listeners heard full /dVd/ syllables and modified (center- and edges-only) syllables in which vowel duration cues were either preserved or eliminated. The presence of duration cues significantly improved vowel identification scores in four CI users, suggesting a strong reliance on duration cues. Duration effects were absent for the other CI users and the YNH listeners. On average, CI users and YNH listeners demonstrated similar performance for center-only stimuli and edges-only stimuli having the same total duration of vowel information. However, three CI users demonstrated significantly poorer performance for the edges-only stimuli, indicating apparent deficits of dynamic spectral processing. PMID:26233007

  18. Vowel identification by cochlear implant users: Contributions of duration cues and dynamic spectral cues.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, Gail S; Rogers, Catherine L; Johnson, Lindsay B; Oh, Soo Hee

    2015-07-01

    A recent study from our laboratory assessed vowel identification in cochlear implant (CI) users, using full /dVd/ syllables and partial (center- and edges-only) syllables with duration cues neutralized [Donaldson, Rogers, Cardenas, Russell, and Hanna (2013). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 134, 3021-3028]. CI users' poorer performance for partial syllables as compared to full syllables, and for edges-only syllables as compared to center-only syllables, led to the hypotheses (1) that CI users may rely strongly on vowel duration cues; and (2) that CI users have more limited access to dynamic spectral cues than steady-state spectral cues. The present study tested those hypotheses. Ten CI users and ten young normal hearing (YNH) listeners heard full /dVd/ syllables and modified (center- and edges-only) syllables in which vowel duration cues were either preserved or eliminated. The presence of duration cues significantly improved vowel identification scores in four CI users, suggesting a strong reliance on duration cues. Duration effects were absent for the other CI users and the YNH listeners. On average, CI users and YNH listeners demonstrated similar performance for center-only stimuli and edges-only stimuli having the same total duration of vowel information. However, three CI users demonstrated significantly poorer performance for the edges-only stimuli, indicating apparent deficits of dynamic spectral processing.

  19. Menstrual cycle and cue reactivity in women smokers.

    PubMed

    Gray, Kevin M; DeSantis, Stacia M; Carpenter, Matthew J; Saladin, Michael E; LaRowe, Steven D; Upadhyaya, Himanshu P

    2010-02-01

    Emerging research suggests potential effects of the menstrual cycle on various aspects of smoking behavior in women, but results to date have been mixed. The present study sought to explore the influence of menstrual cycle phase on reactivity to smoking in vivo and stressful imagery cues in a sample of non-treatment-seeking women smokers. Via a within-subjects design, nicotine-dependent women (N = 37) participated in a series of four cue reactivity sessions, each during a distinct biologically verified phase of the menstrual cycle (early follicular [EF], mid-follicular [MF], mid-luteal [ML], and late luteal [LL]). Subjective (Questionnaire of Smoking Urges-Brief; QSU-B) and physiological (skin conductance and heart rate) measures of craving and reactivity were collected and compared across phases. Subjective reactive craving (QSU-B) to smoking in vivo cues varied significantly across the menstrual cycle (p = .02) and was higher in both EF and MF phases versus ML and LL phases, but this finding was not sustained when controlling for reactivity to neutral cues. Heart rate reactivity to stressful imagery cues (p = .01) and skin conductance reactivity to smoking in vivo cues (p = .05) varied significantly across the menstrual cycle upon controlling for reactivity to neutral cues, with highest reactivity during the MF phase. Menstrual cycle phase may have an effect on reactivity to smoking-related and stressful cues among women smokers. These findings contribute to an expanding literature, suggesting menstrual cycle effects on smoking behaviors in women.

  20. Laboratory-based, Cue-Elicited Craving and Cue Reactivity as Predictors of Naturally Occurring Smoking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Matthew J.; Saladin, Michael E.; DeSantis, Stacia; Gray, Kevin M.; LaRowe, Steven D.; Upadhyaya, Himanshu P.

    2009-01-01

    Cigarette craving, one hallmark sign of nicotine dependence, is often measured in laboratory settings using cue reactivity methods. How lab measures of cue reactivity relate to real world smoking behavior is unclear, particularly among non-treatment seeking smokers. Within a larger study of hormonal effects on cue reactivity (N=78), we examined the predictive relationship of cue reactivity to smoking, each measured in several ways. Results indicated that cue-evoked craving in response to stressful imagery, and to a lesser extent, in vivo smoking cues, significantly predicted smoking behavior during the week following testing. However, this predictive relationship was absent upon controlling for reactivity to neutral cues. Nicotine dependence may moderate the relationship between cue reactivity and actual smoking, such that this predictive relationship is less robust among highly dependent smokers than among smokers low in nicotine dependence. The question of whether cue-elicited craving predicts smoking among smokers not in treatment is best answered with a qualified yes, depending on how craving is manipulated and measured. Our findings highlight important methodological and theoretical considerations for cue reactivity research. PMID:19395178

  1. Laboratory-based, cue-elicited craving and cue reactivity as predictors of naturally occurring smoking behavior.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Matthew J; Saladin, Michael E; DeSantis, Stacia; Gray, Kevin M; LaRowe, Steven D; Upadhyaya, Himanshu P

    2009-01-01

    Cigarette craving, one hallmark sign of nicotine dependence, is often measured in laboratory settings using cue reactivity methods. How lab measures of cue reactivity relate to real world smoking behavior is unclear, particularly among non-treatment seeking smokers. Within a larger study of hormonal effects on cue reactivity (N=78), we examined the predictive relationship of cue reactivity to smoking, each measured in several ways. Results indicated that cue-evoked craving in response to stressful imagery, and to a lesser extent, in vivo smoking cues, significantly predicted smoking behavior during the week following testing. However, this predictive relationship was absent upon controlling for reactivity to neutral cues. Nicotine dependence may moderate the relationship between cue reactivity and actual smoking, such that this predictive relationship is less robust among highly dependent smokers than among smokers low in nicotine dependence. The question of whether cue-elicited craving predicts smoking among smokers not in treatment is best answered with a qualified yes, depending on how craving is manipulated and measured. Our findings highlight important methodological and theoretical considerations for cue reactivity research.

  2. Intralist Cueing of Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slamecka, Norman J.

    1975-01-01

    Two experiments tested for effects of intralist cues upon recognition probability. Categorized and random lists were each tested, with targets appearing with zero, one or three intralist cues. Experiments showed substantial effects of trials and list type, but not of intralist context. (CHK)

  3. Craving and physiological reactivity to trauma and alcohol cues in posttraumatic stress disorder and alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Coffey, Scott F; Schumacher, Julie A; Stasiewicz, Paul R; Henslee, Amber M; Baillie, Lauren E; Landy, Noah

    2010-08-01

    The high comorbidity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol dependence (AD) has been firmly established. Although laboratory studies have examined self-reported craving in response to trauma and alcohol cues, no studies have reported on alcohol-related physiological responding in response to trauma cues in PTSD-AD individuals. Using a cue reactivity paradigm, this study examined the impact of personalized trauma-image cues and in vivo alcohol cues on alcohol-related responding (e.g., salivation, craving) in individuals with PTSD and AD (n = 40). Participants displayed reactivity to both trauma and alcohol cues when compared to neutral cues, including increased self-reported craving and distress, as well as greater salivation. These findings suggest that through repeated pairings of trauma memories and alcohol consumption, salivation may become classically conditioned to trauma cues. Moreover, the fact that the trauma-alcohol cue combination elicited greater alcohol craving, salivary responding, distress, and arousal than either the trauma-neutral or neutral-alcohol cue combinations suggests that effects of the trauma and alcohol cues were additive in nature. Evidence that AD individuals with PTSD report increased alcohol craving and display greater salivation in response to trauma memories, supplements prior research indicating that PTSD-related negative emotion and trauma-related alcohol craving may play an important role in the maintenance of AD. PsycINFO Database Record 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Two-Year-Olds Are Vigilant of Others' Non-Verbal Cues to Credibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birch, Susan A. J.; Akmal, Nazanin; Frampton, Kristen L.

    2010-01-01

    Data from three experiments provide the first evidence that children, at least as young as age two, are vigilant of others' non-verbal cues to credibility, and flexibly use these cues to facilitate learning. Experiment 1 revealed that 2- and 3-year-olds prefer to learn about objects from someone who appears, through non-verbal cues, to be…

  5. Task-relevant information is prioritized in spatiotemporal contextual cueing.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Yoko; Ueda, Yoshiyuki; Ogawa, Hirokazu; Saiki, Jun

    2016-11-01

    Implicit learning of visual contexts facilitates search performance-a phenomenon known as contextual cueing; however, little is known about contextual cueing under situations in which multidimensional regularities exist simultaneously. In everyday vision, different information, such as object identity and location, appears simultaneously and interacts with each other. We tested the hypothesis that, in contextual cueing, when multiple regularities are present, the regularities that are most relevant to our behavioral goals would be prioritized. Previous studies of contextual cueing have commonly used the visual search paradigm. However, this paradigm is not suitable for directing participants' attention to a particular regularity. Therefore, we developed a new paradigm, the "spatiotemporal contextual cueing paradigm," and manipulated task-relevant and task-irrelevant regularities. In four experiments, we demonstrated that task-relevant regularities were more responsible for search facilitation than task-irrelevant regularities. This finding suggests our visual behavior is focused on regularities that are relevant to our current goal.

  6. Attentional shifts to smoking cues in smokers.

    PubMed

    Waters, Andrew J; Shiffman, Saul; Bradley, Brendan P; Mogg, Karin

    2003-10-01

    Many theories of addiction assume that responses to drug cues maintain drug use and precipitate relapse. There is evidence that measures derived from experimental cognitive psychology yield important information about cue reactivity. We used a pictorial version of the visual probe task to evaluate: (i) whether minimally deprived smokers attend differentially to smoking cues (attentional bias); (ii) whether this bias is related to self-reported craving and dependence; and (iii) whether it predicted outcome in a subsequent cessation attempt. Participants took part in a structured smoking cessation program. Each participant completed the visual probe task roughly 2 weeks before quitting while non-deprived. A research smoking cessation clinic. 141 heavy smokers seeking treatment for smoking cessation. The computerized attentional bias measure and self-reported urge were taken in a laboratory session. Participants also monitored their smoking and craving on electronic diaries both when smoking ad libitum and for up to 6 weeks post-cessation. Participants were faster and more accurate in responding to a visual probe that replaced a smoking picture than to a neutral picture, indicating that they showed attentional bias towards the smoking cues. Attentional bias on the first half of the task correlated with pre-task craving, indicating that the bias may tap motivational processes, but it did not predict outcome in smoking cessation. The visual probe task can add useful information about attentional responses to drug cues. Further work is required to uncover the theoretical significance and utility of this measure.

  7. Assessing reactivity to virtual reality alcohol based cues.

    PubMed

    Bordnick, Patrick S; Traylor, Amy; Copp, Hilary L; Graap, Ken M; Carter, Brian; Ferrer, Mirtha; Walton, Alicia P

    2008-06-01

    The use of virtual reality (VR) programs in behavioral science research has been gaining prominence over the past several years. In the field of substance abuse, VR cue reactivity programs have been successfully tested for feasibility in nicotine and cocaine dependent samples. Seeking to expand VR applications in alcohol cue research, a novel VR alcohol cue reactivity assessment system incorporating visual, auditory, and olfactory stimuli was developed and tested. In a controlled trial, 40 non-treatment-seeking drinkers with alcohol use disorders were exposed to VR alcohol cue environments. Subjective craving, attention to alcohol cues, and level of presence (realism of experience) in VR were assessed across the environments. Overall, subjective craving for alcohol increased across the VR alcohol-related cue environments versus VR neutral cue environments. Participants reported high levels of presence in VR, indicating that the environments were perceived as realistic and compelling. These initial findings support the use of VR based cue reactivity environments for use in alcohol cue-based treatment and research.

  8. Retro-dimension-cue benefit in visual working memory

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Chaoxiong; Hu, Zhonghua; Ristaniemi, Tapani; Gendron, Maria; Liu, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    In visual working memory (VWM) tasks, participants’ performance can be improved by a retro-object-cue. However, previous studies have not investigated whether participants’ performance can also be improved by a retro-dimension-cue. Three experiments investigated this issue. We used a recall task with a retro-dimension-cue in all experiments. In Experiment 1, we found benefits from retro-dimension-cues compared to neutral cues. This retro-dimension-cue benefit is reflected in an increased probability of reporting the target, but not in the probability of reporting the non-target, as well as increased precision with which this item is remembered. Experiment 2 replicated the retro-dimension-cue benefit and showed that the length of the blank interval after the cue disappeared did not influence recall performance. Experiment 3 replicated the results of Experiment 2 with a lower memory load. Our studies provide evidence that there is a robust retro-dimension-cue benefit in VWM. Participants can use internal attention to flexibly allocate cognitive resources to a particular dimension of memory representations. The results also support the feature-based storing hypothesis. PMID:27774983

  9. Evidence for greater cue reactivity among low dependent vs. high dependent smokers

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Noreen L.; Carpenter, Matthew J.; Saladin, Michael E.; Gray, Kevin M.; Upadhyaya, Himanshu P.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Cue reactivity paradigms are well-established laboratory procedures used to examine subjective craving in response to substance-related cues. For smokers, the relationship between nicotine dependence and cue reactivity has not been clearly established. The main aim of the present study was to further examine this relationship. Methods Participants (N=90) were between the ages 18–40 and smoked ≥10 cigarettes per day. Average nicotine dependence (Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence; FTND) at baseline was 4.9 (SD=2.1). Participants completed four cue reactivity sessions consisting of two in vivo cues (smoking, neutral) and two affective imagery cues (stressful, relaxed), all counterbalanced. Craving in response to cues was assessed following each cue exposure using the Questionnaire of Smoking Urges—Brief (QSU-B). Differential cue reactivity was operationally defined as the difference in QSU scores between the smoking and neutral cues, and between the stressful and relaxed cues. Results Nicotine dependence was significantly and negatively associated with differential cue reactivity scores in regards to hedonic craving (QSU factor 1) for both in vivo and imagery cues, such that those who had low FTND scores demonstrated greater differential cue reactivity than those with higher FTND scores (β = −.082; p = .037; β = −.101; p = .023, respectively). Similar trends were found for the total QSU and for negative reinforcement craving (QSU factor 2), but did not reach statistical significance. Discussion Under partially sated conditions, less dependent smokers may be more differentially cue reactive to smoking cues as compared to heavily dependent smokers. These findings offer methodological and interpretative implications for cue reactivity studies. PMID:20206451

  10. Evidence for greater cue reactivity among low-dependent vs. high-dependent smokers.

    PubMed

    Watson, Noreen L; Carpenter, Matthew J; Saladin, Michael E; Gray, Kevin M; Upadhyaya, Himanshu P

    2010-07-01

    Cue reactivity paradigms are well-established laboratory procedures used to examine subjective craving in response to substance-related cues. For smokers, the relationship between nicotine dependence and cue reactivity has not been clearly established. The main aim of the present study was to further examine this relationship. Participants (N=90) were between the ages 18-40 and smoked > or =10 cigarettes per day. Average nicotine dependence (Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence; FTND) at baseline was 4.9 (SD=2.1). Participants completed four cue reactivity sessions consisting of two in vivo cues (smoking and neutral) and two affective imagery cues (stressful and relaxed), all counterbalanced. Craving in response to cues was assessed following each cue exposure using the Questionnaire of Smoking Urges-Brief (QSU-B). Differential cue reactivity was operationally defined as the difference in QSU scores between the smoking and neutral cues, and between the stressful and relaxed cues. Nicotine dependence was significantly and negatively associated with differential cue reactivity scores in regard to hedonic craving (QSU factor 1) for both in vivo and imagery cues, such that those who had low FTND scores demonstrated greater differential cue reactivity than those with higher FTND scores (beta=-.082; p=.037; beta=-.101; p=.023, respectively). Similar trends were found for the Total QSU and for negative reinforcement craving (QSU factor 2), but did not reach statistical significance. Under partially sated conditions, less dependent smokers may be more differentially cue reactive to smoking cues as compared to heavily dependent smokers. These findings offer methodological and interpretative implications for cue reactivity studies. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Priming Effects for Affective vs. Neutral Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Leslie A.; Rabin, Laura; Wyatt, Gwinne; Frohlich, Jonathan; Vardy, Susan B.; Dimitri, Diana

    2005-01-01

    Affective and Neutral Tasks (faces with negative or neutral content, with different lighting and orientation) requiring reaction time judgments of poser identity were administered to 32 participants. Speed and accuracy were better for the Affective than Neutral Task, consistent with literature suggesting facilitation of performance by affective…

  12. Priming Effects for Affective vs. Neutral Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Leslie A.; Rabin, Laura; Wyatt, Gwinne; Frohlich, Jonathan; Vardy, Susan B.; Dimitri, Diana

    2005-01-01

    Affective and Neutral Tasks (faces with negative or neutral content, with different lighting and orientation) requiring reaction time judgments of poser identity were administered to 32 participants. Speed and accuracy were better for the Affective than Neutral Task, consistent with literature suggesting facilitation of performance by affective…

  13. Nicotine Dependence, “Background” and Cue-Induced Craving and Smoking in the Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Dunbar, Michael S.; Shiffman, Saul; Kirchner, Thomas; Tindle, Hilary; Scholl, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Background Nicotine dependence has been associated with higher “background” craving and smoking, independent of situational cues. Due in part to conceptual and methodological differences across past studies, the relationship between dependence and cue-reactivity (CR; e.g., cue-induced craving and smoking) remains unclear. Methods 207 daily smokers completed six pictorial CR sessions (smoking, negative affect, positive affect, alcohol, smoking prohibitions, and neutral). Individuals rated craving before (background craving) and after cues, and could smoke following cue exposure. Session videos were coded to assess smoking. Participants completed four nicotine dependence measures. Regression models assessed the relationship of dependence to cue-independent (i.e., pre-cue) and cue-specific (i.e., pre-post cue change for each cue, relative to neutral) craving and smoking (likelihood of smoking, latency to smoke, puff count). Results Dependence was associated with background craving and smoking, but did not predict change in craving across the entire sample for any cue. Among alcohol drinkers, dependence was associated with greater increases in craving following the alcohol cue. Only one dependence measure (Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives) was consistently associated with smoking reactivity (higher likelihood of smoking, shorter latency to smoke, greater puff count) in response to cues. Conclusion While related to cue-independent background craving and smoking, dependence is not strongly associated with laboratory cue-induced craving under conditions of minimal deprivation. Dependence measures that incorporate situational influences on smoking correlate with greater cue-provoked smoking. This may suggest independent roles for CR and traditional dependence as determinants of smoking, and highlights the importance of assessing behavioral CR outcomes. PMID:25028339

  14. Nicotine dependence, "background" and cue-induced craving and smoking in the laboratory.

    PubMed

    Dunbar, Michael S; Shiffman, Saul; Kirchner, Thomas R; Tindle, Hilary A; Scholl, Sarah M

    2014-09-01

    Nicotine dependence has been associated with higher "background" craving and smoking, independent of situational cues. Due in part to conceptual and methodological differences across past studies, the relationship between dependence and cue-reactivity (CR; e.g., cue-induced craving and smoking) remains unclear. 207 daily smokers completed six pictorial CR sessions (smoking, negative affect, positive affect, alcohol, smoking prohibitions, and neutral). Individuals rated craving before (background craving) and after cues, and could smoke following cue exposure. Session videos were coded to assess smoking. Participants completed four nicotine dependence measures. Regression models assessed the relationship of dependence to cue-independent (i.e., pre-cue) and cue-specific (i.e., pre-post cue change for each cue, relative to neutral) craving and smoking (likelihood of smoking, latency to smoke, puff count). Dependence was associated with background craving and smoking, but did not predict change in craving across the entire sample for any cue. Among alcohol drinkers, dependence was associated with greater increases in craving following the alcohol cue. Only one dependence measure (Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives) was consistently associated with smoking reactivity (higher likelihood of smoking, shorter latency to smoke, greater puff count) in response to cues. While related to cue-independent background craving and smoking, dependence is not strongly associated with laboratory cue-induced craving under conditions of minimal deprivation. Dependence measures that incorporate situational influences on smoking correlate with greater cue-provoked smoking. This may suggest independent roles for CR and traditional dependence as determinants of smoking, and highlights the importance of assessing behavioral CR outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Visuospatial information processing load and the ratio between parietal cue and target P3 amplitudes in the Attentional Network Test.

    PubMed

    Abramov, Dimitri M; Pontes, Monique; Pontes, Adailton T; Mourao-Junior, Carlos A; Vieira, Juliana; Quero Cunha, Carla; Tamborino, Tiago; Galhanone, Paulo R; deAzevedo, Leonardo C; Lazarev, Vladimir V

    2017-04-24

    In ERP studies of cognitive processes during attentional tasks, the cue signals containing information about the target can increase the amplitude of the parietal cue P3 in relation to the 'neutral' temporal cue, and reduce the subsequent target P3 when this information is valid, i.e. corresponds to the target's attributes. The present study compared the cue-to-target P3 ratios in neutral and visuospatial cueing, in order to estimate the contribution of valid visuospatial information from the cue to target stages of the task performance, in terms of cognitive load. The P3 characteristics were also correlated with the results of individuals' performance of the visuospatial tasks, in order to estimate the relationship of the observed ERP with spatial reasoning. In 20 typically developing boys, aged 10-13 years (11.3±0.86), the intelligence quotient (I.Q.) was estimated by the Block Design and Vocabulary subtests from the WISC-III. The subjects performed the Attentional Network Test (ANT) accompanied by EEG recording. The cued two-choice task had three equiprobable cue conditions: No cue, with no information about the target; Neutral (temporal) cue, with an asterisk in the center of the visual field, predicting the target onset; and Spatial cues, with an asterisk in the upper or lower hemifield, predicting the onset and corresponding location of the target. The ERPs were estimated for the mid-frontal (Fz) and mid-parietal (Pz) scalp derivations. In the Pz, the Neutral cue P3 had a lower amplitude than the Spatial cue P3; whereas for the target ERPs, the P3 of the Neutral cue condition was larger than that of the Spatial cue condition. However, the sums of the magnitudes of the cue and target P3 were equal in the spatial and neutral cueing, probably indicating that in both cases the equivalent information processing load is included in either the cue or the target reaction, respectively. Meantime, in the Fz, the analog ERP components for both the cue and target

  16. Altered Brain Reactivity to Game Cues After Gaming Experience.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Hyeon Min; Chung, Hwan Jun; Kim, Sang Hee

    2015-08-01

    Individuals who play Internet games excessively show elevated brain reactivity to game-related cues. This study attempted to test whether this elevated cue reactivity observed in game players is a result of repeated exposure to Internet games. Healthy young adults without a history of excessively playing Internet games were recruited, and they were instructed to play an online Internet game for 2 hours/day for five consecutive weekdays. Two control groups were used: the drama group, which viewed a fantasy TV drama, and the no-exposure group, which received no systematic exposure. All participants performed a cue reactivity task with game, drama, and neutral cues in the brain scanner, both before and after the exposure sessions. The game group showed an increased reactivity to game cues in the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC). The degree of VLPFC activation increase was positively correlated with the self-reported increase in desire for the game. The drama group showed an increased cue reactivity in response to the presentation of drama cues in the caudate, posterior cingulate, and precuneus. The results indicate that exposure to either Internet games or TV dramas elevates the reactivity to visual cues associated with the particular exposure. The exact elevation patterns, however, appear to differ depending on the type of media experienced. How changes in each of the regions contribute to the progression to pathological craving warrants a future longitudinal study.

  17. The magnitude and reliability of cue-specific craving in nondependent smokers.

    PubMed

    Wray, Jennifer M; Gass, Julie C; Tiffany, Stephen T

    2014-01-01

    Cue-reactivity is a robust phenomenon in regular cigarette smokers (Carter and Tiffany, 1999), but it has not been widely investigated in nondependent smokers. Further, most research on cue-specific craving assesses response to cues in a single experimental session. As such, investigations of cue-specific craving have primarily measured state-like but not trait-like responses to smoking stimuli. This study measured general and cue-specific craving in nondependent smokers and assessed the within-session and cross-session reliability of these two facets of craving. Participants (n=154) attended five laboratory sessions over the course of three months and completed multiple cue-reactivity trials (using smoking and neutral in vivo and photographic stimuli) during each study visit. Results indicated that smoking cues elicited significantly stronger craving than neutral cues across study sessions, and that craving ratings following smoking cues decreased across subsequent sessions. Within-session and cross-session reliability was extremely high. Overall, findings indicate that nondependent smokers experience reactivity to smoking cues, and that this response is quite reliable within and across sessions. Further, the magnitude of cue-specific craving was comparable to what has been observed in heavy, dependent smokers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Overestimation of threat from neutral faces and voices in social anxiety.

    PubMed

    Peschard, Virginie; Philippot, Pierre

    2017-12-01

    Social anxiety (SA) is associated with a tendency to interpret social information in a more threatening manner. Most of the research in SA has focused on unimodal exploration (mostly based on facial expressions), thus neglecting the ubiquity of cross-modality. To fill this gap, the present study sought to explore whether SA influences the interpretation of facial and vocal expressions presented separately or jointly. Twenty-five high socially anxious (HSA) and 29 low socially anxious (LSA) participants completed a forced two-choice emotion identification task consisting of angry and neutral expressions conveyed by faces, voices or combined faces and voices. Participants had to identify the emotion (angry or neutral) of the presented cues as quickly and precisely as possible. Our results showed that, compared to LSA, HSA individuals show a higher propensity to misattribute anger to neutral expressions independent of cue modality and despite preserved decoding accuracy. We also found a cross-modal facilitation effect at the level of accuracy (i.e., higher accuracy in the bimodal condition compared to unimodal ones). However, such effect was not moderated by SA. Although the HSA group showed clinical cut-off scores at the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, one limitation is that we did not administer diagnostic interviews. Upcoming studies may want to test whether these results can be generalized to a clinical population. These findings highlight the usefulness of a cross-modal perspective to probe the specificity of biases in SA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The effect of multisensory cues on attention in aging.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Jeannette R; Verghese, Joe; Dumas, Kristina; Wang, Cuiling; Holtzer, Roee

    2012-09-07

    The attention network test (ANT) assesses the effect of alerting and orienting cues on a visual flanker task measuring executive attention. Previous findings revealed that older adults demonstrate greater reaction times (RT) benefits when provided with visual orienting cues that offer both spatial and temporal information of an ensuing target. Given the overlap of neural substrates and networks involved in multisensory processing and cueing (i.e., alerting and orienting), an investigation of multisensory cueing effects on RT was warranted. The current study was designed to determine whether participants, both old and young, benefited from receiving multisensory alerting and orienting cues. Eighteen young (M=19.17 years; 45% female) and eighteen old (M=76.44 years; 61% female) individuals that were determined to be non-demented and without any medical or psychiatric conditions that would affect their performance were included. Results revealed main effects for the executive attention and orienting networks, but not for the alerting network. In terms of orienting, both old and young adults demonstrated significant orienting effects for auditory-somatosensory (AS), auditory-visual (AV), and visual-somatosensory (VS) cues. RT benefits of multisensory compared to unisensory orienting effects differed by cue type and age group; younger adults demonstrated greater RT benefits for AS orienting cues whereas older adults demonstrated greater RT benefits for AV orienting cues. Both groups, however, demonstrated significant RT benefits for multisensory VS orienting cues. These findings provide evidence for the facilitative effect of multisensory orienting cues, and not multisensory alerting cues, in old and young adults.

  20. Stress- and cue-elicited craving and reactivity in marijuana-dependent individuals.

    PubMed

    McRae-Clark, Aimee L; Carter, Rickey E; Price, Kimber L; Baker, Nathaniel L; Thomas, Suzanne; Saladin, Michael E; Giarla, Kathleen; Nicholas, Katherine; Brady, Kathleen T

    2011-11-01

    Cue-elicited craving and stress responses have been identified as predictors of relapse in drug dependence, but little research exists on the contribution of these factors to marijuana use specifically. The aims of the present study were to evaluate (1) responses to a psychological stressor, (2) responses to marijuana-related cues, and (3) if an exposure to a psychological stressor augmented craving subsequently elicited by marijuana-related cue exposure in marijuana-dependent individuals. Subjective (craving, stress), neuroendocrine (adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol), and physiologic responses to the presentation of neutral and marijuana cues were assessed after randomization to a stress (Trier Social Stress Task (TSST)) or non-stress control condition in marijuana-dependent individuals. Outcome measures were assessed at baseline, post-stressor/pre-neutral cue, post-neutral cue, and post-marijuana cue. Eighty-seven participants completed procedures (stress group, n = 45; non-stress group, n = 42). The stress group had a significant increase over the non-stress group in stress rating (p < 0.001), craving (p = 0.028), cortisol (p < 0.001), and ACTH (p < 0.001) after the completion of the TSST. An increased craving response for all participants was seen following the presentation of the marijuana cues (p = 0.005). Following the TSST or non-stress condition, the non-stress group had an increase in craving to marijuana cues as compared to neutral cues (p = 0.002); an increase in craving was not observed in the stress group (p = 0.404). Marijuana cue exposure and a social stressor increased craving in marijuana-dependent individuals. Completion of the TSST did not increase craving response to subsequent marijuana cue exposure.

  1. STRESS AND CUE-ELICITED CRAVING AND REACTIVITY IN MARIJUANA-DEPENDENT INDIVIDUALS

    PubMed Central

    McRae-Clark, Aimee L.; Carter, Rickey E.; Price, Kimber L.; Baker, Nathaniel L.; Thomas, Suzanne; Saladin, Michael E.; Giarla, Kathleen; Nicholas, Katherine; Brady, Kathleen T.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale Cue-elicited craving and stress responses have been identified as predictors of relapse in drug dependence, but little research exists on the contribution of these factors to marijuana use specifically. Objectives The aims of the present study were to evaluate (1) responses to a psychological stressor, (2) responses to marijuana-related cues, and (3) if an exposure to a psychological stressor augmented craving subsequently elicited by marijuana-related cue exposure in marijuana-dependent individuals. Methods Subjective (craving, stress), neuroendocrine (ACTH, cortisol), and physiologic responses to the presentation of neutral and marijuana cues were assessed after randomization to a stress (Trier Social Stress Task; TSST) or no-stress control condition in marijuana-dependent individuals. Outcome measures were assessed at baseline, post-stressor/pre-neutral cue, post-neutral cue, and post marijuana cue. Results 87 participants completed procedures (stress group, n=45; non-stress group, n=42). The stress group had a significant increase over the non-stressed group in stress rating (p<0.001), craving (p=0.028), cortisol (p<0.001), and ACTH (p<0.001) after completion of the TSST. An increased craving response for all participants was seen following presentation of the marijuana cues (p=0.005). Following the TSST or no-stress condition, the non-stressed group had an increase in craving to marijuana cues as compared to neutral cues (p=0.002); an increase in craving was not observed in the stress group (p=0.404). Conclusions Marijuana cue exposure and a social stressor increased craving in marijuana-dependent individuals. Completion of the TSST did not increase craving response to subsequent marijuana-cue exposure. PMID:21710170

  2. Alcohol cues impair learning inhibitory signals in beer drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Laude, Jennifer R.; Fillmore, Mark T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Models of drug addiction emphasize the reciprocal influence of incentive-motivational properties of drug-related cues and poor impulse control resulting in drug use. Recent studies have shown that alcohol-related cues can impair response inhibition. What is unknown is whether these cues also disrupt learning of inhibitory associations. Methods Participants performed a Conditioned Inhibition (CI) task and were required to learn that a neutral image was a conditioned inhibitor when presented in the context of either an alcohol image intended to draw their attention away from the to-be-trained inhibitor, or a control condition in which the alcohol image was absent. After training, subjects in each condition rated the likelihood that the neutral image would signal the outcome. Eye tracking was used to verify that attention to the neutral image was in fact reduced when the alcohol image was present. Results Compared with controls those trained in the alcohol image condition reported a greater likelihood that the presence of the inhibitor would be followed by the outcome and thus were less able to acquire CI. Measures of eye-tracking verified that attention to the alcohol cue was associated with this maladaptive behavior. Conclusions When alcohol cues are present, there is a reduced ability to learn that such information is irrelevant to an outcome, and this impairs ones’ ability to inhibit perseveration of a response. This has implications for persistence of a drinking episode. PMID:25872597

  3. Alcohol cues impair learning inhibitory signals in beer drinkers.

    PubMed

    Laude, Jennifer R; Fillmore, Mark T

    2015-05-01

    Models of drug addiction emphasize the reciprocal influence of incentive-motivational properties of drug-related cues and poor impulse control resulting in drug use. Recent studies have shown that alcohol-related cues can impair response inhibition. What is unknown is whether these cues also disrupt learning of inhibitory associations. Participants performed a conditioned inhibition (CI) task and were required to learn that a neutral image was a conditioned inhibitor when presented in the context of either an alcohol image intended to draw their attention away from the to-be-trained inhibitor, or a control condition in which the alcohol image was absent. After training, subjects in each condition rated the likelihood that the neutral image would signal the outcome. Eye tracking was used to verify that attention to the neutral image was in fact reduced when the alcohol image was present. Compared with controls those trained in the alcohol image condition reported a greater likelihood that the presence of the inhibitor would be followed by the outcome and thus were less able to acquire CI. Measures of eye tracking verified that attention to the alcohol cue was associated with this maladaptive behavior. When alcohol cues are present, there is a reduced ability to learn that such information is irrelevant to an outcome, and this impairs ones' ability to inhibit perseveration of a response. This has implications for persistence of a drinking episode. Copyright © 2015 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  4. Pictures cueing threat: brain dynamics in viewing explicitly instructed danger cues.

    PubMed

    Bublatzky, Florian; Schupp, Harald T

    2012-08-01

    Recent event-related brain potential studies revealed the selective processing of emotional and threatening pictures. Integrating the picture viewing and threat-of-shock paradigm, the present study examined the processing of emotional pictures while they were explicitly instructed to cue threat of real world danger (i.e. electric shocks). Toward this end, 60 pleasant, neutral and unpleasant IAPS-pictures were presented (1 s) as a continuous random stream while high-density EEG and self-reported threat were assessed. In three experimental runs, each picture category was used once as a threat-cue, whereas in the other conditions the same category served as safety-cue. An additional passive viewing run served as a no-threat condition, thus, establishing a threat-safety continuum (threat-cue-safety-cue-no-threat) for each picture category. Threat-of-shock modulated P1, P2 and parieto-occipital LPP amplitudes. While the P1 component differentiated among threat- and no-threat conditions, the P2 and LPP effects were specific to pictures signaling threat-of-shock. Thus, stimulus processing progressively gained more accurate information about environmental threat conditions. Interestingly, the finding of increased EPN and centro-parietal LPP amplitudes to emotional pictures was independent from threat-of-shock manipulation. Accordingly, the results indicate distinct effects associated with the intrinsic significance of emotional pictures and explicitly instructed threat contingencies.

  5. Contextual Cueing Effect in Spatial Layout Defined by Binocular Disparity

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Guang; Zhuang, Qian; Ma, Jie; Tu, Shen; Liu, Qiang; Sun, Hong-jin

    2017-01-01

    Repeated visual context induces higher search efficiency, revealing a contextual cueing effect, which depends on the association between the target and its visual context. In this study, participants performed a visual search task where search items were presented with depth information defined by binocular disparity. When the 3-dimensional (3D) configurations were repeated over blocks, the contextual cueing effect was obtained (Experiment 1). When depth information was in chaos over repeated configurations, visual search was not facilitated and the contextual cueing effect largely crippled (Experiment 2). However, when we made the search items within a tiny random displacement in the 2-dimentional (2D) plane but maintained the depth information constant, the contextual cueing was preserved (Experiment 3). We concluded that the contextual cueing effect was robust in the context provided by 3D space with stereoscopic information, and more importantly, the visual system prioritized stereoscopic information in learning of spatial information when depth information was available. PMID:28912739

  6. Contextual Cueing Effect in Spatial Layout Defined by Binocular Disparity.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guang; Zhuang, Qian; Ma, Jie; Tu, Shen; Liu, Qiang; Sun, Hong-Jin

    2017-01-01

    Repeated visual context induces higher search efficiency, revealing a contextual cueing effect, which depends on the association between the target and its visual context. In this study, participants performed a visual search task where search items were presented with depth information defined by binocular disparity. When the 3-dimensional (3D) configurations were repeated over blocks, the contextual cueing effect was obtained (Experiment 1). When depth information was in chaos over repeated configurations, visual search was not facilitated and the contextual cueing effect largely crippled (Experiment 2). However, when we made the search items within a tiny random displacement in the 2-dimentional (2D) plane but maintained the depth information constant, the contextual cueing was preserved (Experiment 3). We concluded that the contextual cueing effect was robust in the context provided by 3D space with stereoscopic information, and more importantly, the visual system prioritized stereoscopic information in learning of spatial information when depth information was available.

  7. Identity cues and dementia in nursing home intervention

    PubMed Central

    Vézina, Aline; Robichaud, Line; Voyer, Philippe; Pelletier, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the identity cues that family caregivers and healthcare personnel use with seniors living with dementia and living in nursing homes. The identity cues represent biographical knowledge used to stimulate the dementia sufferer, trigger signals and incite interaction. Our grounded approach hinges on three objectives: to identify and categorize identity cues; to document their uses; and to gain a better understanding of their effectiveness. We interviewed nine family caregivers and 12 healthcare workers. Qualitative data indicates that the participants use identity cues that evoke seniors’ sociological, relational and individual characteristics. These identity cues play a central role in communication and constitute important information that the family caregivers can share with healthcare personnel. They sustain memory, facilitate care and reinforce seniors’ self-value. These results help to define identity, foster a greater role for family caregivers, and constitute a sound basis for the implementation of personalized interventions. PMID:21849743

  8. Subjective and autonomic responses to smoking-related visual cues.

    PubMed

    Chae, Younbyoung; Lee, Jeung-Chan; Park, Kyung-Mo; Kang, O-Seok; Park, Hi-Joon; Lee, Hyejung

    2008-04-01

    Nicotine, like several other abused drugs, is known to act on the reward system in the brain. Smoking-associated cues produce smoking urges and cravings accompanied by autonomic dysfunction to these cues in smokers. The present study was aimed at investigating whether cues related to smoking elicit the autonomic response in smokers. The subjective and physiological reactivity of 7 smokers and 12 nonsmokers in a supine position to smoking-related visual cues was assessed under indirect dim light using a self-assessment manikin and a specially designed pupillometer. The experimental procedure consisted of the elicitation and measurement of pupil size (PS) while the subjects viewed a smoking image and images from three valence-defined categories (i.e., pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral), based on normative affective ratings selected from the International Affective Picture System. Both groups produced significantly larger PS increases in response to pleasant or unpleasant images compared to neutral images. Smokers, viewing smoking-related visual cues but no other affective images, produced significantly larger PS's compared to nonsmokers. Moreover, smokers rated the smoking image with more pleasure and arousal than nonsmokers. These findings suggest that cues related to smoking induce not only a subjective emotional alteration, but also sympathetic activation, measured by the time-series PS data in smokers.

  9. Social traits modulate attention to affiliative cues.

    PubMed

    Moore, Sarah R; Fu, Yu; Depue, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    Neurobehavioral models of personality suggest that the salience assigned to particular classes of stimuli vary as a function of traits that reflect both the activity of neurobiological encoding and relevant social experience. In turn, this joint influence modulates the extent that salience influences attentional processes, and hence learning about and responding to those stimuli. Applying this model to the domain of social valuation, we assessed the differential effects on attentional guidance by affiliative cues of (i) a higher-order temperament trait (Social Closeness), and (ii) attachment style in a sample of 57 women. Attention to affiliative pictures paired with either incentive or neutral pictures was assessed using camera eye-tracking. Trait social closeness and attachment avoidance interacted to modulate fixation frequency on affiliative but not on incentive pictures, suggesting that both traits influence the salience assigned to affiliative cues specifically.

  10. Social traits modulate attention to affiliative cues

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Sarah R.; Fu, Yu; Depue, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Neurobehavioral models of personality suggest that the salience assigned to particular classes of stimuli vary as a function of traits that reflect both the activity of neurobiological encoding and relevant social experience. In turn, this joint influence modulates the extent that salience influences attentional processes, and hence learning about and responding to those stimuli. Applying this model to the domain of social valuation, we assessed the differential effects on attentional guidance by affiliative cues of (i) a higher-order temperament trait (Social Closeness), and (ii) attachment style in a sample of 57 women. Attention to affiliative pictures paired with either incentive or neutral pictures was assessed using camera eye-tracking. Trait social closeness and attachment avoidance interacted to modulate fixation frequency on affiliative but not on incentive pictures, suggesting that both traits influence the salience assigned to affiliative cues specifically. PMID:25009524

  11. Most people do not ignore salient invalid cues in memory-based decisions.

    PubMed

    Platzer, Christine; Bröder, Arndt

    2012-08-01

    Former experimental studies have shown that decisions from memory tend to rely only on a few cues, following simple noncompensatory heuristics like "take the best." However, it has also repeatedly been demonstrated that a pictorial, as opposed to a verbal, representation of cue information fosters the inclusion of more cues in compensatory strategies, suggesting a facilitated retrieval of cue patterns. These studies did not properly control for visual salience of cues, however. In the experiment reported here, the cue salience hierarchy established in a pilot study was either congruent or incongruent with the validity order of the cues. Only the latter condition increased compensatory decision making, suggesting that the apparent representational format effect is, rather, a salience effect: Participants automatically retrieve and incorporate salient cues irrespective of their validity. Results are discussed with respect to reaction time data.

  12. Connecting Cues: Overlapping Regularities Support Cue Discovery in Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Sahni, Sarah D.; Seidenberg, Mark S.; Saffran, Jenny R.

    2010-01-01

    The present work examined the discovery of linguistic cues during a word segmentation task. Whereas previous studies have focused on sensitivity to individual cues, this study addresses how individual cues may be used to discover additional, correlated cues. Twenty-four 9-month-old infants were familiarized with a speech stream, in which syllable-level transitional probabilities and an overlapping novel cue served as cues to word boundaries. Infants’ behavior at test indicated they were able to discover the novel cue. Additional experiments showed that infants did not have a preexisting preference for specific test items, and that transitional probability information was necessary to acquire the novel cue. Results suggest one way learners can discover relevant linguistic structure amidst the multiple overlapping properties of natural language. PMID:20573101

  13. Conditioned craving cues elicit an automatic approach tendency.

    PubMed

    Van Gucht, Dinska; Vansteenwegen, Debora; Van den Bergh, Omer; Beckers, Tom

    2008-10-01

    In two experiments, we used a Pavlovian differential conditioning procedure to induce craving for chocolate. As a result of repeated pairing with chocolate intake, initially neutral cues came to elicit an automatic approach tendency in a speeded stimulus-response compatibility reaction time task. This automatic approach tendency, moreover, seemed to be sensitive to manipulations of extinction and renewal in the Pavlovian conditioning procedure. These findings corroborate and extend previous reports of automatic approach tendencies elicited by substance-relevant cues in addiction, while controlling for alternative accounts for such observations. Moreover, our data lend support to and extend learning models of cue-induced craving and addiction. Finally, we argue that the procedure we present here provides an ecologically valid behavioural tool that allows studying processes involved in cue-induced craving, addiction and relapse without relying on verbal report.

  14. Cue-induced craving in dependence upon prescription opioids and heroin.

    PubMed

    McHugh, R Kathryn; Park, Sara; Weiss, Roger D

    2014-01-01

    Cues associated with heroin use (eg, needles, powder) elicit robust craving responses in individuals dependent upon heroin. Elevated cue-induced craving may be a risk factor for relapse and can persist after periods of drug abstinence. Despite the growing prevalence of opioid dependence involving prescription opioids, published studies have yet to examine whether cue-induced craving is also present in prescription opioid dependence. A sample of 50 adults diagnosed with opioid dependence (20 prescription opioid users, 25 heroin users, and 5 mixed opioid users) completed a cue reactivity assessment. Participants were administered a series of 90 pictures, including heroin-specific, prescription opioid-specific, and neutral images, and were asked to rate craving and cue salience after each image. Both the prescription opioid and heroin groups experienced significantly more craving to drug than to neutral stimuli. The prescription opioid group reported significantly less craving to prescription opioid stimuli than the heroin group to heroin stimuli; however, this effect was smaller and non-significant when controlling for group differences in cue salience. This study found evidence for cue-induced craving in individuals dependent upon prescription opioids. Further research is needed to better understand the role of cue reactivity in the course and treatment of opioid dependence involving prescription opioid use. As elevated craving reactivity to drug cues may reflect a risk factor for relapse, understanding the nature of cue-induced craving in individuals with opioid dependence is important to improving treatments for this population. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  15. Gender differences in responses to cues presented in the natural environment of cigarette smokers.

    PubMed

    Wray, Jennifer M; Gray, Kevin M; McClure, Erin A; Carpenter, Matthew J; Tiffany, Stephen T; Saladin, Michael E

    2015-04-01

    Although the evidence is mixed, female smokers appear to have more difficulty quitting smoking than male smokers. Craving, stress, and negative affect have been hypothesized as potential factors underlying gender differences in quit rates. In the current study, the cue-reactivity paradigm was used to assess craving, stress, and negative affect in response to cues presented in the natural environment of cigarette smokers using ecological momentary assessment. Seventy-six daily smokers (42% female) responded to photographs (smoking, stress, and neutral) presented 4 times per day on an iPhone over the course of 2 weeks. Both smoking and stress cues elicited stronger cigarette craving and stress responses compared to neutral cues. Compared with males, females reported higher levels of post-stress cue craving, stress, and negative affect, but response to smoking cues did not differ by gender. Findings from this project were largely consistent with results from laboratory-based research and extend previous work by measuring response to cues in the natural environment of cigarette smokers. This study extends previous cue reactivity ecological momentary assessment research by using a new platform and by measuring response to stress cues outside of the laboratory. Findings from this project highlight the importance of addressing coping in response to stress cues in clinical settings, especially when working with female smokers. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Gender Differences in Responses to Cues Presented in the Natural Environment of Cigarette Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Kevin M.; McClure, Erin A.; Carpenter, Matthew J.; Tiffany, Stephen T.; Saladin, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Although the evidence is mixed, female smokers appear to have more difficulty quitting smoking than male smokers. Craving, stress, and negative affect have been hypothesized as potential factors underlying gender differences in quit rates. Methods: In the current study, the cue-reactivity paradigm was used to assess craving, stress, and negative affect in response to cues presented in the natural environment of cigarette smokers using ecological momentary assessment. Seventy-six daily smokers (42% female) responded to photographs (smoking, stress, and neutral) presented 4 times per day on an iPhone over the course of 2 weeks. Results: Both smoking and stress cues elicited stronger cigarette craving and stress responses compared to neutral cues. Compared with males, females reported higher levels of post-stress cue craving, stress, and negative affect, but response to smoking cues did not differ by gender. Discussion: Findings from this project were largely consistent with results from laboratory-based research and extend previous work by measuring response to cues in the natural environment of cigarette smokers. This study extends previous cue reactivity ecological momentary assessment research by using a new platform and by measuring response to stress cues outside of the laboratory. Findings from this project highlight the importance of addressing coping in response to stress cues in clinical settings, especially when working with female smokers. PMID:25762753

  17. Sex differences in associations between cannabis craving and neural responses to cannabis cues: Implications for treatment.

    PubMed

    Wetherill, Reagan R; Jagannathan, Kanchana; Hager, Nathan; Childress, Anna Rose; Franklin, Teresa R

    2015-08-01

    Preclinical and clinical research indicates that there are sex differences in how men and women initiate, progress, respond to, and withdraw from cannabis use; however, neurophysiological differences, such as neural responses to cannabis cues, are not well understood. Using functional MRI and an event-related blood oxygen level-dependent backward-masking task, we compared neural responses to backward-masked cannabis cues to neutral cues in treatment-seeking, cannabis-dependent adults (N = 44; 27 males) and examined whether sex differences exist. In addition, functional MRI findings were correlated with cannabis craving. Backward-masked cannabis cues elicited greater neural responses than neutral cues in reward-related brain regions, including the striatum, hippocampus/amygdala, insula, anterior cingulate cortex, and lateral orbitofrontal cortex, p < .01, k > 121 voxels. Although no significant sex differences in neural responses to cannabis cues emerged, women showed a positive correlation between neural responses to cannabis cues in the bilateral insula and cannabis craving and an inverse correlation between neural responses to cannabis cues in the left lateral orbitofrontal cortex and cannabis craving. Men, however, showed a positive correlation between neural responses to cannabis cues in the striatum and cannabis craving. Given that cues and craving are important triggers and the focus on many behavioral treatment approaches, these findings suggest that treatment-seeking, cannabis-dependent men and women may benefit from sex-specific and tailored cannabis use disorder treatments.

  18. Reweighting visual cues by touch.

    PubMed

    van Beers, Robert J; van Mierlo, Christa M; Smeets, Jeroen B J; Brenner, Eli

    2011-09-27

    It is well established that if multiple cues provide information about the same quantity, the information from these cues is combined by weighting each cue by the inverse of its variance. This implies that cue weights are determined by the cue variances only. However, this view is challenged by studies that showed that feedback about the actual value can induce changes in the cue weights when the feedback is consistent with one cue but not the other. We developed a paradigm that allowed us to measure the time course of this reweighting. Subjects placed an object flush onto a slanted surface. Monocular and binocular cues provided information about the slant and could be inconsistent with one another. Subjects received haptic feedback about whether they had oriented the object correctly when the object contacted the surface. This feedback was consistent with either the monocular or the binocular information. We found that the weight given to the visual cue that was consistent with the feedback increased relatively fast, leading to a mean weight change of 0.18 after 52 conflict trials. Thus, unless the haptic feedback somehow influences the reliability of the individual visual cues, the cue weights are not fully determined by the cue variances but also depend on the accuracy of each cue.

  19. PROJECT CUE, INSIGHTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BROWN, ROBERT M.

    A SET OF FILM UTILIZATION SHEETS WAS PREPARED FOR PROJECT CUE. TOPICS INCLUDED ART AND THE COMMUNITY, ABSTRACT PAINTING, THE DINOSAUR AGE, THE LIVING ARTS OF JAPAN, SCIENCE, AND A PERSIAN STORY BOOK. EACH SHEET INCLUDED PURPOSES, AREAS OF USE, PROCEDURE FOR VIEWING, FOLLOWUP ACTIVITIES, AND RELATED MATERIALS. (REFER TO ED 003 785 THROUGH ED 003…

  20. WHAT IS PROJECT CUE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BROWN, ROBERT M.; LACY, GRACE N.

    AN EXPERIMENTAL NINTH-GRADE PROGRAM IN THE AREA OF SOCIAL STUDIES, ENGLISH, SCIENCE, HOME ECONOMICS, AND INDUSTRIAL ARTS WAS DESCRIBED. APPROXIMATELY 200 TEACHERS AND 3,000 STUDENTS LOCATED IN NEW YORK STATE SCHOOLS PARTICIPATED IN THE EXPERIMENT. INCLUDED IN THE CUE SYSTEM WERE (1) PACKAGES OF NEWER MEDIA MATERIALS, (2) CURRICULUM GUIDES, (3)…

  1. Boosting Vocabulary Learning by Verbal Cueing During Sleep.

    PubMed

    Schreiner, Thomas; Rasch, Björn

    2015-11-01

    Reactivating memories during sleep by re-exposure to associated memory cues (e.g., odors or sounds) improves memory consolidation. Here, we tested for the first time whether verbal cueing during sleep can improve vocabulary learning. We cued prior learned Dutch words either during non-rapid eye movement sleep (NonREM) or during active or passive waking. Re-exposure to Dutch words during sleep improved later memory for the German translation of the cued words when compared with uncued words. Recall of uncued words was similar to an additional group receiving no verbal cues during sleep. Furthermore, verbal cueing failed to improve memory during active and passive waking. High-density electroencephalographic recordings revealed that successful verbal cueing during NonREM sleep is associated with a pronounced frontal negativity in event-related potentials, a higher frequency of frontal slow waves as well as a cueing-related increase in right frontal and left parietal oscillatory theta power. Our results indicate that verbal cues presented during NonREM sleep reactivate associated memories, and facilitate later recall of foreign vocabulary without impairing ongoing consolidation processes. Likewise, our oscillatory analysis suggests that both sleep-specific slow waves as well as theta oscillations (typically associated with successful memory encoding during wakefulness) might be involved in strengthening memories by cueing during sleep.

  2. Materialistic Cues Boosts Personal Relative Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Three studies investigated whether exposure to materialistic cues would increase perceptions of personal relative deprivation and related emotional reactions. In Study 1, individuals who were surveyed in front of a luxury store reported higher levels of personal relative deprivation than those surveyed in front of an ordinary building. In Study 2, participants who viewed pictures of luxurious goods experienced greater personal relative deprivation than those viewed pictures of neutral scenes. Study 3 replicated the results from Study 2, with a larger sample size and a more refined assessment of relative deprivation. Implications of these findings for future studies on relative deprivation and materialism are discussed. PMID:27574515

  3. Materialistic Cues Boosts Personal Relative Deprivation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Three studies investigated whether exposure to materialistic cues would increase perceptions of personal relative deprivation and related emotional reactions. In Study 1, individuals who were surveyed in front of a luxury store reported higher levels of personal relative deprivation than those surveyed in front of an ordinary building. In Study 2, participants who viewed pictures of luxurious goods experienced greater personal relative deprivation than those viewed pictures of neutral scenes. Study 3 replicated the results from Study 2, with a larger sample size and a more refined assessment of relative deprivation. Implications of these findings for future studies on relative deprivation and materialism are discussed.

  4. Acupuncture attenuates autonomic responses to smoking-related visual cues.

    PubMed

    Chae, Younbyoung; Park, Hi-Joon; Kang, O-Seok; Lee, Hwa-Jin; Kim, Song-Yi; Yin, Chang-Shik; Lee, Hyejung

    2011-01-01

    In smokers, smoking-associated cues produce smoking urges and cravings, which are accompanied by autonomic dysfunction in response to these cues. We investigated whether or not acupuncture ameliorated cigarette withdrawal symptoms, as well as attenuated the autonomic responses to smoking-related visual cues in smokers using a power spectrum analysis of heart rate variability (HRV). Fifteen subjects were treated with real acupuncture (RA) at HT7 and 14 subjects received sham acupuncture (SA) at LI10 using the Park Sham Device. The cigarette withdrawal scale (CWS) was measured on the third day after the subjects had quit smoking. We compared the low-frequency/high-frequency (HF/LF) ratio in the HRV of the RA and SA groups during a distraction task using neutral and smoking visual cues. The CWS of the RA group was significantly lower than that of the SA group. The increase in the LF/HF ratio of HRV induced by the smoking-related visual cues was also significantly lower in the RA group when compared with the SA group. Acupuncture not only ameliorated cigarette withdrawal, but also weakened the autonomic responses to smoking cues during withdrawal. These findings suggest that acupuncture might help in smoking cessation by attenuating withdrawal symptoms and smoking cues-induced autonomic responses. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Responsivity to food cues in bulimic women and controls.

    PubMed

    Staiger, P; Dawe, S; McCarthy, R

    2000-08-01

    The current study investigated responsivity to individualized food cues consisting of binge/favourite foods in 17 women with bulimic nervosa (BN) and 17 women with no history or current symptoms of eating disorders (C). The hypothesis that increasing cue salience would be associated with an increase in responsivity was tested by comparison of self reported urges, affective responses and salivation to the sight and smell (SS) and the sight, smell and taste (SST) of a binge/favourite food compared to a neutral stimulus (lettuce leaf). As predicted, the BN group reported a greater urge to binge and higher levels of stress/arousal to selected binge/favourite food cues compared to the C group. The BN group also reported lower confidence to resist the urge to binge and control over food intake compared to the C group. Further, a series of planned comparisons in the BN group found that the urge to binge, stress, and loss of control were greater when participants were exposed to the SST cue than to the SS cue. There was no difference between the groups in salivary responsivity to food cues. These results are discussed in terms of a conditioning model of cue reactivity. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  6. Menstrual cycle and cue reactivity in women smokers

    PubMed Central

    DeSantis, Stacia M.; Carpenter, Matthew J.; Saladin, Michael E.; LaRowe, Steven D.; Upadhyaya, Himanshu P.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Emerging research suggests potential effects of the menstrual cycle on various aspects of smoking behavior in women, but results to date have been mixed. The present study sought to explore the influence of menstrual cycle phase on reactivity to smoking in vivo and stressful imagery cues in a sample of non–treatment-seeking women smokers. Methods: Via a within-subjects design, nicotine-dependent women (N = 37) participated in a series of four cue reactivity sessions, each during a distinct biologically verified phase of the menstrual cycle (early follicular [EF], mid-follicular [MF], mid-luteal [ML], and late luteal [LL]). Subjective (Questionnaire of Smoking Urges–Brief; QSU-B) and physiological (skin conductance and heart rate) measures of craving and reactivity were collected and compared across phases. Results: Subjective reactive craving (QSU-B) to smoking in vivo cues varied significantly across the menstrual cycle (p = .02) and was higher in both EF and MF phases versus ML and LL phases, but this finding was not sustained when controlling for reactivity to neutral cues. Heart rate reactivity to stressful imagery cues (p = .01) and skin conductance reactivity to smoking in vivo cues (p = .05) varied significantly across the menstrual cycle upon controlling for reactivity to neutral cues, with highest reactivity during the MF phase. Discussion: Menstrual cycle phase may have an effect on reactivity to smoking-related and stressful cues among women smokers. These findings contribute to an expanding literature, suggesting menstrual cycle effects on smoking behaviors in women. PMID:19996146

  7. Looking for cues - infant communication of hunger and satiation during milk feeding.

    PubMed

    Shloim, N; Vereijken, C M J L; Blundell, P; Hetherington, M M

    2017-01-01

    It is known that duration of breastfeeding and responsive feeding are associated with decreased risk of obesity. It is however, not clear whether breastfed infants signal more to mothers to facilitate responsive feeding, compared to formula fed, nor what communication cues are important during the feeding interaction. The present study aimed to explore feeding cues in milk-fed infants and to examine if such cues vary by mode of feeding. Twenty-seven mothers and infants were filmed while breastfeeding or formula feeding. Infants' age ranged from 3 to 22 weeks. Feeding cues were identified using a validated list of communication cues (NCAST). The frequency of each cue during the beginning, middle, and end of the meal was recorded. There were 22 feeding cues identified during the feeds, with significantly more frequent disengagement cues expressed than engagement cues. Significantly more frequent feeding cues were observed at the beginning than at the end of the meal showing that cue frequency changes with satiation. Breastfeeding infants exhibited more engagement and disengagement cues than formula fed infants. Supporting mothers to identify engagement and disengagement cues during a milk feed may promote more responsive feeding-strategies that can be acquired by mothers using different modes of feeding.

  8. Effects of similarity on environmental context cueing.

    PubMed

    Smith, Steven M; Handy, Justin D; Angello, Genna; Manzano, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Three experiments examined the prediction that context cues which are similar to study contexts can facilitate episodic recall, even if those cues are never seen before the recall test. Environmental context cueing effects have typically produced such small effect sizes that influences of moderating factors, such as the similarity between encoding and retrieval contexts, would be difficult to observe experimentally. Videos of environmental contexts, however, can be used to produce powerful context-dependent memory effects, particularly when only one memory target is associated with each video context, intentional item-context encoding is encouraged, and free recall tests are used. Experiment 1 showed that a not previously viewed video of the study context provided an effective recall cue, although it was not as effective as the originally viewed video context. Experiments 2 and 3 showed that videos of environments that were conceptually similar to encoding contexts (e.g., both were videos of ball field games) also cued recall, but not as well if the encoding contexts were given specific labels (e.g., "home run") incompatible with test contexts (e.g., a soccer scene). A fourth experiment that used incidental item-context encoding showed that video context reinstatement has a robust effect on paired associate memory, indicating that the video context reinstatement effect does not depend on interactive item-context encoding or free recall testing.

  9. Cue-Elicited Increases in Incentive Salience for Marijuana: Craving, Demand, and Attentional Bias

    PubMed Central

    Metrik, Jane; Aston, Elizabeth R.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.; McGeary, John E.; Knopik, Valerie S.; MacKillop, James

    2016-01-01

    Background Incentive salience is a multidimensional construct that includes craving, drug value relative to other reinforcers, and implicit motivation such as attentional bias to drug cues. Laboratory cue reactivity (CR) paradigms have been used to evaluate marijuana incentive salience with measures of craving, but not with behavioral economic measures of marijuana demand or implicit attentional processing tasks. Methods This within-subjects study used a new CR paradigm to examine multiple dimensions of marijuana’s incentive salience and to compare CR-induced increases in craving and demand. Frequent marijuana users (N=93, 34% female) underwent exposure to neutral cues then to lit marijuana cigarettes. Craving, marijuana demand via a marijuana purchase task, and heart rate were assessed after each cue set. A modified Stroop task with cannabis and control words was completed after the marijuana cues as a measure of attentional bias. Results Relative to neutral cues, marijuana cues significantly increased subjective craving and demand indices of intensity (i.e., drug consumed at $0) and Omax (i.e., peak drug expenditure). Elasticity significantly decreased following marijuana cues, reflecting sustained purchase despite price increases. Craving was correlated with demand indices (r’s: 0.23–0.30). Marijuana users displayed significant attentional bias for cannabis-related words after marijuana cues. Cue-elicited increases in intensity were associated with greater attentional bias for marijuana words. Conclusions Greater incentive salience indexed by subjective, behavioral economic, and implicit measures was observed after marijuana versus neutral cues, supporting multidimensional assessment. The study highlights the utility of a behavioral economic approach in detecting cue-elicited changes in marijuana incentive salience. PMID:27515723

  10. Acquisition of Responses to a Methamphetamine-Associated Cue in Healthy Humans: Self-Report, Behavioral, and Psychophysiological Measures

    PubMed Central

    Mayo, Leah M; de Wit, Harriet

    2015-01-01

    Drug-associated cues elicit conditioned responses in human drug users, and are thought to facilitate a drug-seeking behavior. Yet, little is known about how these associations are acquired, or about the specificity of the conditioned response modalities. In this study, healthy, nondependent volunteers (N=90) completed a conditioning paradigm in which they received a moderate dose of methamphetamine paired with one stimulus and placebo with another stimulus, each on two separate occasions. Their responses to these cues were measured with a behavioral preference, self-reported ‘liking', emotional reactivity, and attentional bias measures, both before and after the conditioning. Following the conditioning procedure, subjects exhibited a behavioral preference, positive emotional reactivity, and attentional bias toward the methamphetamine-associated cue, compared with the placebo stimulus. In addition, subjects who reported greater positive subjective drug effects during the conditioning displayed a more robust conditioning. This work demonstrates that healthy nondependent volunteers readily acquire conditioned responses to neutral stimuli paired with a drug. The procedure has significant value to study individual variation in acquisition of conditioned responses as a possible risk factor for drug taking, and to study the neural basis of conditioned drug responses. PMID:25601231

  11. Speech identification in noise: Contribution of temporal, spectral, and visual speech cues.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeesun; Davis, Chris; Groot, Christopher

    2009-12-01

    This study investigated the degree to which two types of reduced auditory signals (cochlear implant simulations) and visual speech cues combined for speech identification. The auditory speech stimuli were filtered to have only amplitude envelope cues or both amplitude envelope and spectral cues and were presented with/without visual speech. In Experiment 1, IEEE sentences were presented in quiet and noise. For in-quiet presentation, speech identification was enhanced by the addition of both spectral and visual speech cues. Due to a ceiling effect, the degree to which these effects combined could not be determined. In noise, these facilitation effects were more marked and were additive. Experiment 2 examined consonant and vowel identification in the context of CVC or VCV syllables presented in noise. For consonants, both spectral and visual speech cues facilitated identification and these effects were additive. For vowels, the effect of combined cues was underadditive, with the effect of spectral cues reduced when presented with visual speech cues. Analysis indicated that without visual speech, spectral cues facilitated the transmission of place information and vowel height, whereas with visual speech, they facilitated lip rounding, with little impact on the transmission of place information.

  12. Enhancing visual cues to orientation: suggestions for space travelers and the elderly.

    PubMed

    Harris, Laurence R; Jenkin, Michael; Dyde, Richard T; Jenkin, Heather

    2011-01-01

    Establishing our orientation in the world is necessary for almost all aspects of perception and behavior. Gravity usually defines the critical reference direction. The direction of gravity is sensed by somatosensory detectors indicating pressure points and specialized organs in the vestibular system and viscera that indicate gravity's physical pull. However, gravity's direction can also be sensed visually since we see the effects of gravity on static and moving objects and also deduce its direction from the global structure of a scene indicated by features such as the sky and ground. When cues from either visual or physical sources are compromised or ambiguous, perceptual disorientation may result, often with a tendency to replace gravity with the body's long axis as a reference. Orientation cues are compromised while floating in the weightlessness of space (which neutralizes vestibular and somatosensory cues) or while suspended at neutral buoyancy in the ocean (which neutralizes somatosensory cues) and the ability to sense orientation cues may also be compromised in the elderly or in clinical populations. In these situations, enhancing the visual cues to orientation may be beneficial. In this chapter, we review research using specially constructed virtual and real environments to quantify the contribution of various visual orientation cues. We demonstrate how visual cues can counteract disorientation by providing effective orientation information.

  13. Cannabis Cue Reactivity and Craving Among Never, Infrequent and Heavy Cannabis Users

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Erika A; Kaye, Jesse T; Bryan, Angela D; Hutchison, Kent E; Ito, Tiffany A

    2014-01-01

    Substance cue reactivity is theorized as having a significant role in addiction processes, promoting compulsive patterns of drug-seeking and drug-taking behavior. However, research extending this phenomenon to cannabis has been limited. To that end, the goal of the current work was to examine the relationship between cannabis cue reactivity and craving in a sample of 353 participants varying in self-reported cannabis use. Participants completed a visual oddball task whereby neutral, exercise, and cannabis cue images were presented, and a neutral auditory oddball task while event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded. Consistent with past research, greater cannabis use was associated with greater reactivity to cannabis images, as reflected in the P300 component of the ERP, but not to neutral auditory oddball cues. The latter indicates the specificity of cue reactivity differences as a function of substance-related cues and not generalized cue reactivity. Additionally, cannabis cue reactivity was significantly related to self-reported cannabis craving as well as problems associated with cannabis use. Implications for cannabis use and addiction more generally are discussed. PMID:24264815

  14. Cue-Reactive Rationality, Visual Imagery and Volitional Control Predict Cue-Reactive Urge to Gamble in Poker-Machine Gamblers.

    PubMed

    Clark, Gavin I; Rock, Adam J; McKeith, Charles F A; Coventry, William L

    2016-11-01

    Poker-machine gamblers have been demonstrated to report increases in the urge to gamble following exposure to salient gambling cues. However, the processes which contribute to this urge to gamble remain to be understood. The present study aimed to investigate whether changes in the conscious experience of visual imagery, rationality and volitional control (over one's thoughts, images and attention) predicted changes in the urge to gamble following exposure to a gambling cue. Thirty-one regular poker-machine gamblers who reported at least low levels of problem gambling on the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI), were recruited to complete an online cue-reactivity experiment. Participants completed the PGSI, the visual imagery, rationality and volitional control subscales of the Phenomenology of Consciousness Inventory (PCI), and a visual analogue scale (VAS) assessing urge to gamble. Participants completed the PCI subscales and VAS at baseline, following a neutral video cue and following a gambling video cue. Urge to gamble was found to significantly increase from neutral cue to gambling cue (while controlling for baseline urge) and this increase was predicted by PGSI score. After accounting for the effects of problem-gambling severity, cue-reactive visual imagery, rationality and volitional control significantly improved the prediction of cue-reactive urge to gamble. The small sample size and limited participant characteristic data restricts the generalizability of the findings. Nevertheless, this is the first study to demonstrate that changes in the subjective experience of visual imagery, volitional control and rationality predict changes in the urge to gamble from neutral to gambling cue. The results suggest that visual imagery, rationality and volitional control may play an important role in the experience of the urge to gamble in poker-machine gamblers.

  15. Pavlovian conditioning to hedonic food cues in overweight and lean individuals.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Monica D; Risbrough, Victoria B; Liang, June; Boutelle, Kerri N

    2015-04-01

    Obese individuals develop heightened reactivity to environmental cues associated with hedonic foods through Pavlovian conditioning. This study examined differences between overweight (n = 16) and lean (n = 17) 18-26 year-olds in their acquisition of a swallowing response to visual cues paired with chocolate milk, tasteless water and no taste stimulus. We hypothesized that, compared to lean participants, overweight participants would demonstrate a heightened conditioned swallowing response to the visual cue paired with chocolate milk as well as a resistance to extinction of this response. Results showed that overweight participants swallowed more in response to the visual cue previously paired with chocolate than the cue previously paired with tasteless water (t(15) = -3.057, p = .008) while lean participants showed no cue discrimination (t(16) = -1.027, p = .320). The results evaluating the extinction hypothesis could not be evaluated, as the lean participants did not acquire a conditioned response. In evaluating the conditioned swallow response of overweight participants only, results indicated that there was not a significant decrease in swallowing to cues paired with chocolate milk or water, but overall, overweight participants swallowed more to cues paired with chocolate than cues paired with water. These are the first results to show differential acquisition of Pavlovian conditioned responding in overweight individuals compared to lean individuals, as well as differential conditioning to cues paired with hedonic food stimuli compared to cues paired with neutral stimuli.

  16. Timing the events of directional cueing.

    PubMed

    Girardi, Giovanna; Antonucci, Gabriella; Nico, Daniele

    2015-11-01

    To explore the role of temporal context on voluntary orienting of attention, we submitted healthy participants to a spatial cueing task in which cue-target stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) were organized according to two-dimensional parameters: range and central value. Three ranges of SOAs organized around two central SOA values were presented to six groups of participants. Results showed a complex pattern of responses in terms of spatial validity (faster responses to correctly cued target) and preparatory effect (faster responses to longer SOAs). Responses to validly and neutrally cued targets were affected by the increase in SOA duration if the difference between longer and shorter SOA was large. On the contrary, responses to invalidly cued targets did not vary according to SOA manipulations. The observed pattern of cueing effects does not fit in the typical description of spatial attention working as a mandatory disengaging-shifting-engaging routine. In contrast, results rather suggest a mechanism based on the interaction between context sensitive top-down processes and bottom-up attentional processes.

  17. Children's recognition of emotions from vocal cues.

    PubMed

    Sauter, Disa A; Panattoni, Charlotte; Happé, Francesca

    2013-03-01

    Emotional cues contain important information about the intentions and feelings of others. Despite a wealth of research into children's understanding of facial signals of emotions, little research has investigated the developmental trajectory of interpreting affective cues in the voice. In this study, 48 children ranging between 5 and 10 years were tested using forced-choice tasks with non-verbal vocalizations and emotionally inflected speech expressing different positive, neutral and negative states. Children as young as 5 years were proficient in interpreting a range of emotional cues from vocal signals. Consistent with previous work, performance was found to improve with age. Furthermore, the two tasks, examining recognition of non-verbal vocalizations and emotionally inflected speech, respectively, were sensitive to individual differences, with high correspondence of performance across the tasks. From this demonstration of children's ability to recognize emotions from vocal stimuli, we also conclude that this auditory emotion recognition task is suitable for a wide age range of children, providing a novel, empirical way to investigate children's affect recognition skills.

  18. Cues Resulting in Desire for Sexual Activity in Women

    PubMed Central

    McCall, Katie; Meston, Cindy

    2010-01-01

    Introduction A number of questionnaires have been created to assess levels of sexual desire in women, but to our knowledge, there are currently no validated measures for assessing cues that result in sexual desire. A questionnaire of this nature could be useful for both clinicians and researchers, because it considers the contextual nature of sexual desire and it draws attention to individual differences in factors that can contribute to sexual desire. Aim The aim of the present study was to create a multidimensional assessment tool of cues for sexual desire in women that is validated in women with and without hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD). Methods Factor analyses conducted on both an initial sample (N = 874) and a community sample (N = 138) resulted in the Cues for Sexual Desire Scale (CSDS) which included four factors: (i) Emotional Bonding Cues; (ii) Erotic/ Explicit Cues; (iii) Visual/Proximity Cues; and (iv) Implicit/Romantic Cues. Main Outcome Measures Scale construction of cues associated with sexual desire and differences between women with and without sexual dysfunction. Results The CSDS demonstrated good reliability and validity and was able to detect significant differences between women with and without HSDD. Results from regression analyses indicated that both marital status and level of sexual functioning predicted scores on the CSDS. The CSDS provided predictive validity for the Female Sexual Function Index desire and arousal domain scores, and increased cues were related to a higher reported frequency of sexual activity in women. Conclusions The findings from the present study provide valuable information regarding both internal and external triggers that can result in sexual desire for women. We believe that the CSDS could be beneficial in therapeutic settings to help identify cues that do and do not facilitate sexual desire in women with clinically diagnosed desire difficulties. PMID:16942529

  19. Preconditioned cues have no value.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Melissa J; Batchelor, Hannah M; Schoenbaum, Geoffrey

    2017-09-19

    Sensory preconditioning has been used to implicate midbrain dopamine in model-based learning, contradicting the view that dopamine transients reflect model-free value. However, it has been suggested that model-free value might accrue directly to the preconditioned cue through mediated learning. Here, building on previous work (Sadacca et al., 2016), we address this question by testing whether a preconditioned cue will support conditioned reinforcement in rats. We found that while both directly conditioned and second-order conditioned cues supported robust conditioned reinforcement, a preconditioned cue did not. These data show that the preconditioned cue in our procedure does not directly accrue model-free value and further suggest that the cue may not necessarily access value even indirectly in a model-based manner. If so, then phasic response of dopamine neurons to cues in this setting cannot be described as signaling errors in predicting value.

  20. "Facilitated consensus," "ethics facilitation," and unsettled cases.

    PubMed

    Aulisio, Mark R

    2011-01-01

    In "Consensus, Clinical Decision Making, and Unsettled Cases:' David M. Adams and William J.Winslade' make multiple references to both editions of the American Society of Bioethics and Humanities (ASBH) Core Competencies for Healthcare Ethics Consultation in their discussion of two assumptions that are supposed to be at the heart of the facilitated consensus model's inability to handle unsettled cases; that is, that: 1. Consultants "should maintain a kind of moral impartiality or neutrality throughout the process," "explicitly condemn[ing] anything resembling a substantive 'ethics' recommendation, and 2. "What counts as the proper set of allowable options among which the parties are to deliberate will itself always be clearly discernible' Herein, I argue that neither of these assumptions is required by ASBH's ethics facilitation approach. I then conclude by suggesting that, despite their fundamentally mistaken interpretation of the ASBH approach-perhaps even because of it-Adams and Winslade have made two important contributions to the ethics consultation literature.

  1. Reactivity to in vivo marijuana cues among cannabis-dependent adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gray, Kevin M; LaRowe, Steven D; Watson, Noreen L; Carpenter, Matthew J

    2011-01-01

    Cannabis dependence is a common but poorly understood condition in adolescents. Marijuana craving has been posited as a potential contributing factor to continued use and relapse, but relatively few studies have focused on the measurement of craving and reactivity to marijuana cues. The present work sought to explore reactivity to marijuana cues within this age group. Thirty treatment-seeking cannabis-dependent adolescents (age 13-20) completed a cue reactivity session, consisting of exposure to and manipulation of in vivo marijuana cues ("joint" and lighter) and matching neutral cues (pencil and eraser), in counterbalanced order. Subjective craving and physiological reactivity were assessed. Participants demonstrated increased craving and skin conductance reactivity in response to marijuana cues, relative to neutral cues. In vivo marijuana cues appear to elicit significant subjective and physiological reactivity among treatment-seeking cannabis-dependent adolescents. Further work is needed with a larger sample and with a wider variety of cues. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A comparison of daily and occasional smokers' implicit affective responses to smoking cues.

    PubMed

    Haight, John; Dickter, Cheryl L; Forestell, Catherine A

    2012-03-01

    Previous research has not compared implicit affective responses to smoking-related stimuli in occasional (i.e., those who smoke less than one cigarette per day) and daily smokers (i.e., those who smoke at least once per day). In addition to assessing their motivations for smoking, implicit affective responses were measured using the Affect Misattribution Procedure (AMP) in occasional (n=19) and daily smokers (n=34) to smoking-related and neutral cues. Half of the cues depicted a human interacting with an object (i.e., active), whereas the remaining cues depicted objects alone (i.e., inactive). Results indicated that for the active cues, daily smokers responded more positively to smoking-related than to neutral cues, whereas occasional smokers showed no difference in their implicit responses. In addition to smoking frequency, relative differences in implicit responses to active cues were related to cognitive enhancement motivation. For inactive cues, implicit responses were related to cognitive enhancement as well as reinforcement. Because daily smokers have more positive implicit responses to active smoking-related cues than occasional smokers, these cues may play an important role in maintaining smoking behavior in daily smokers.

  3. Stress, cues, and eating behavior. Using drug addiction paradigms to understand motivation for food.

    PubMed

    Stojek, Monika Kardacz; Fischer, Sarah; MacKillop, James

    2015-09-01

    Eating patterns that lead to overconsumption of high fat, high sugar (HFHS) foods share similar features with addictive behaviors. Application of addiction paradigms, such as stress inductions, cue reactivity and behavioral economic assessments, to the study of motivation for HFHS food consumption may be a promising means of understanding food consumption. To date, few studies have investigated the interaction of stress and environmental cues on craving, and no study leveraged the state relative reinforcing value of foods (RRVfood) under varying conditions of affective states, the foci of the current study. This study used a mixed factorial design (Mood Induction: Neutral, Stress; Cues: Neutral, Food) with repeated measures on time (Baseline, Post-Mood Induction, Post-Cue Exposure). Participants (N = 133) were community adults who endorsed liking of HFHS snacks but denied eating pathology. The primary DVs were subjective craving and RRVfood. Negative and positive affect (NA, PA), the amount of food consumed, and latency to first bite were also examined. Participants in the Stress condition reported no change in craving or RRVfood. Exposure to food cues significantly increased participants' craving and RRVfood, but an interaction of stress and cues was not present. Participants did not differ on how many calories they consumed based on exposure to stress or food cues, but participants in the food cues condition had a shorter latency to the first bite of food. This study highlights the importance of environmental cues in food motivation. It also demonstrates the utility of using RRVfood to further characterize food motivation.

  4. Individual differences in the use of depth cues: implications for computer- and video-based tasks.

    PubMed

    Westerman, S J; Cribbin, T

    1998-09-01

    This paper reports an experimental study of individual differences in the performance of computer-stimulated and 'real world' versions of an interactive depth perception task. The availability of depth cues (disparity, accommodation, luminance, and texture) was manipulated. Results indicate that ability to perceive depth using binocular cues is not associated with ability to perceive depth using monocular cues. Further, ability to integrate cues was a strong correlate of depth perception when multiple cues were available, and appeared more important in this respect than ability to use individual depth cues. Correlations between psychometric measures of fluid intelligence/spatial ability and depth perception were generally weak, but consistent with the broader pattern of results, suggesting that individual differences in depth perception should currently be regarded as 'cue specific'. Hypothesized facilitative effects of paradoxical monocular stereopsis were not found.

  5. Stimulus homogeneity enhances implicit learning: evidence from contextual cueing.

    PubMed

    Feldmann-Wüstefeld, Tobias; Schubö, Anna

    2014-04-01

    Visual search for a target object is faster if the target is embedded in a repeatedly presented invariant configuration of distractors ('contextual cueing'). It has also been shown that the homogeneity of a context affects the efficiency of visual search: targets receive prioritized processing when presented in a homogeneous context compared to a heterogeneous context, presumably due to grouping processes at early stages of visual processing. The present study investigated in three Experiments whether context homogeneity also affects contextual cueing. In Experiment 1, context homogeneity varied on three levels of the task-relevant dimension (orientation) and contextual cueing was most pronounced for context configurations with high orientation homogeneity. When context homogeneity varied on three levels of the task-irrelevant dimension (color) and orientation homogeneity was fixed, no modulation of contextual cueing was observed: high orientation homogeneity led to large contextual cueing effects (Experiment 2) and low orientation homogeneity led to low contextual cueing effects (Experiment 3), irrespective of color homogeneity. Enhanced contextual cueing for homogeneous context configurations suggest that grouping processes do not only affect visual search but also implicit learning. We conclude that memory representation of context configurations are more easily acquired when context configurations can be processed as larger, grouped perceptual units. However, this form of implicit perceptual learning is only improved by stimulus homogeneity when stimulus homogeneity facilitates grouping processes on a dimension that is currently relevant in the task. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The neural correlates of social attention: automatic orienting to social and nonsocial cues.

    PubMed

    Greene, Deanna J; Mooshagian, Eric; Kaplan, Jonas T; Zaidel, Eran; Iacoboni, Marco

    2009-07-01

    Previous evidence suggests that directional social cues (e.g., eye gaze) cause automatic shifts in attention toward gaze direction. It has been proposed that automatic attentional orienting driven by social cues (social orienting) involves a different neural network from automatic orienting driven by nonsocial cues. However, previous neuroimaging studies on social orienting have only compared gaze cues to symbolic cues, which typically engage top-down mechanisms. Therefore, we directly compared the neural activity involved in social orienting to that involved in purely automatic nonsocial orienting. Twenty participants performed a spatial cueing task consisting of social (gaze) cues and automatic nonsocial (peripheral squares) cues presented at short and long stimulus (cue-to-target) onset asynchronies (SOA), while undergoing fMRI. Behaviorally, a facilitation effect was found for both cue types at the short SOA, while an inhibitory effect (inhibition of return: IOR) was found only for nonsocial cues at the long SOA. Imaging results demonstrated that social and nonsocial cues recruited a largely overlapping fronto-parietal network. In addition, social cueing evoked greater activity in occipito-temporal regions at both SOAs, while nonsocial cueing recruited greater subcortical activity, but only for the long SOA (when IOR was found). A control experiment, including central arrow cues, confirmed that the occipito-temporal activity was at least in part due to the social nature of the cue and not simply to the location of presentation (central vs. peripheral). These results suggest an evolutionary trajectory for automatic orienting, from predominantly subcortical mechanisms for nonsocial orienting to predominantly cortical mechanisms for social orienting.

  7. Affective facilitation of early visual cortex during rapid picture presentation at 6 and 15 Hz.

    PubMed

    Bekhtereva, Valeria; Müller, Matthias M

    2015-12-01

    The steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP), a neurophysiological marker of attentional resource allocation with its generators in early visual cortex, exhibits enhanced amplitude for emotional compared to neutral complex pictures. Emotional cue extraction for complex images is linked to the N1-EPN complex with a peak latency of ∼140-160 ms. We tested whether neural facilitation in early visual cortex with affective pictures requires emotional cue extraction of individual images, even when a stream of images of the same valence category is presented. Images were shown at either 6 Hz (167 ms, allowing for extraction) or 15 Hz (67 ms per image, causing disruption of processing by the following image). Results showed SSVEP amplitude enhancement for emotional compared to neutral images at a presentation rate of 6 Hz but no differences at 15 Hz. This was not due to featural differences between the two valence categories. Results strongly suggest that individual images need to be displayed for sufficient time allowing for emotional cue extraction to drive affective neural modulation in early visual cortex.

  8. Consumption Simulations Induce Salivation to Food Cues

    PubMed Central

    Aarts, Henk; Vermeent, Stefan; Häfner, Michael; Papies, Esther K.

    2016-01-01

    Salivation to food cues is typically explained in terms of mere stimulus-response links. However, food cues seem to especially increase salivation when food is attractive, suggesting a more complex psychological process. Adopting a grounded cognition perspective, we suggest that perceiving a food triggers simulations of consuming it, especially when attractive. These simulations then induce salivation, which effectively prepares the body for eating the food. In two experiments, we systematically examined the role of simulations on salivation to food cues. As stimuli, both experiments used an attractive, a neutral, and a sour food, as well as a non-food control object. In Experiment 1, participants were instructed to simulate eating every object they would be exposed to. We then exposed them to each object separately. Salivation was assessed by having participants spit their saliva into a cup after one minute of exposure. In Experiment 2, we instructed half of participants to simulate eating each object, and half to merely look at them, while measuring salivation as in Experiment 1. Afterwards, participants rated their simulations and desire to eat for each object separately. As predicted, foods increased salivation compared to the non-food control object, especially when they were attractive or sour (Exp. 1 and 2). Importantly, attractive and sour foods especially increased salivation when instructed to simulate (Exp. 2). These findings suggest that consumption simulations play an important role in inducing salivary responses to food cues. We discuss directions for future research as well as the role of simulations for other appetitive processes. PMID:27820842

  9. Sex differences in smoking cue reactivity: craving, negative affect, and preference for immediate smoking.

    PubMed

    Doran, Neal

    2014-01-01

    Female smokers have greater difficulty quitting, possibly due to increased reactivity to smoking-related cues. This study assessed sex differences in craving, affect, and preference for immediate smoking after cue exposure. Regular smokers (n = 60; 50% female) were exposed to smoking and neutral cues in separate, counterbalanced sessions. Outcomes included changes in craving and affect and preference for immediate smoking following cue exposure. Findings indicated that women exhibited greater preference for immediate smoking (p = .004), and reported greater cue-induced increases in cigarette craving (p = .046) and negative affect (p = .025). These data suggest that women may have greater difficulty inhibiting smoking after cue exposure, possibly as a consequence of greater increases in craving and negative affect. Findings suggest a mechanism that may contribute to greater cessation failure among female smokers. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  10. D-cycloserine and Cocaine Cue Reactivity: Preliminary Findings

    PubMed Central

    Price, Kimber L.; McRae-Clark, Aimee L.; Saladin, Michael E.; Moran-Santa Maria, Megan M.; DeSantis, Stacia M.; Back, Sudie E.; Brady, Kathleen T.

    2009-01-01

    Background D-cycloserine (DCS), a partial glutamate NMDA receptor agonist, enhances extinction of conditioned fear responding in rodents and facilitates exposure-based learning in humans with anxiety disorders. Objectives This preliminary study investigates DCS pretreatment on response to cocaine cues in cocaine-dependent subjects. Methods Ten cocaine-dependent subjects were randomly assigned to receive either 50 mg DCS or matching placebo two hours before each of two 1-hour cocaine cue exposure sessions one day apart. Heart rate and craving ratings were obtained before and during cue exposure sessions. Results There was a trend towards increased craving to cocaine cues in cocaine-dependent individuals after administration of DCS. Conclusions The administration of DCS prior to cue exposure sessions may facilitate response activation. Scientific Significance While facilitation of extinction-based learning by DCS may have therapeutic potential for cocaine dependence, this drug may exhibit a different profile in cocaine-dependent individuals as compared to those with anxiety disorders. PMID:20014913

  11. Susceptibility to distraction by social cues in borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Krause-Utz, Annegret; Elzinga, Bernet M; Oei, Nicole Y L; Spinhoven, Philip; Bohus, Martin; Schmahl, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) are highly sensitive to social rejection and show alterations in social perception. Increased susceptibility to social cues in patients with BPD might interfere with executive functions that play an important role in goal-directed behavior. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of task-irrelevant (neutral vs. negatively arousing) social cues on working memory performance in BPD patients compared to healthy controls (HC). 28 unmedicated female BPD patients and 28 female HC (matched for age and education) performed a Sternberg item recognition task, while being distracted by neutral versus negatively arousing pictures from the International Affective Picture System (interpersonal scenes) and the Karolinska Directed Emotional Faces Set (faces). Additionally, self-ratings of aversive inner tension were assessed and correlated with task performance. Compared to HC, BPD patients showed significantly impaired accuracy after distraction by negatively arousing stimuli (both scenes and faces) and neutral faces (but not neutral scenes). Significant negative correlations between overall accuracy and self-reported aversive inner tension were observed in BPD patients. Findings of the present study suggest increased susceptibility to distracting (negatively arousing) social cues in individuals with BPD, which might interfere with cognitive functioning. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Object-based attentional facilitation and inhibition are neuropsychologically dissociated.

    PubMed

    Smith, Daniel T; Ball, Keira; Swalwell, Robert; Schenk, Thomas

    2016-01-08

    Salient peripheral cues produce a transient shift of attention which is superseded by a sustained inhibitory effect. Cueing part of an object produces an inhibitory cueing effect (ICE) that spreads throughout the object. In dynamic scenes the ICE stays with objects as they move. We examined object-centred attentional facilitation and inhibition in a patient with visual form agnosia. There was no evidence of object-centred attentional facilitation. In contrast, object-centred ICE was observed in 3 out of 4 tasks. These inhibitory effects were strongest where cues to objecthood were highly salient. These data are evidence of a neuropsychological dissociation between the facilitatory and inhibitory effects of attentional cueing. From a theoretical perspective the findings suggest that 'grouped arrays' are sufficient for object-based inhibition, but insufficient to generate object-centred attentional facilitation.

  13. Acquisition of chemical recognition cues facilitates integration into ant societies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Social insects maintain the integrity of their societies by discriminating between colony members and foreigners through cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) signatures. Nevertheless, parasites frequently get access to social resources, for example through mimicry of host CHCs among other mechanisms. The origin of mimetic compounds, however, remains unknown in the majority of studies (biosynthesis vs. acquisition). Additionally, direct evidence is scarce that chemical mimicry is indeed beneficial to the parasites (e.g., by improving social acceptance). Results In the present study we demonstrated that the kleptoparasitic silverfish Malayatelura ponerophila most likely acquires CHCs directly from its host ant Leptogenys distinguenda by evaluating the transfer of a stable-isotope label from the cuticle of workers to the silverfish. In a second experiment, we prevented CHC pilfering by separating silverfish from their host for six or nine days. Chemical host resemblance as well as aggressive rejection behaviour by host ants was then quantified for unmanipulated and previously separated individuals. Separated individuals showed reduced chemical host resemblance and they received significantly more aggressive rejection behaviour than unmanipulated individuals. Conclusion Our study clarifies the mechanism of chemical mimicry in a social insect parasite in great detail. It shows empirically for the first time that social insect parasites are able to acquire CHCs from their host. Furthermore, it demonstrates that the accuracy of chemical mimicry can be crucial for social insect parasites by enhancing social acceptance and, thus, allowing successful exploitation. We discuss the results in the light of coevolutionary arms races between parasites and hosts. PMID:22133503

  14. Caudal Nucleus Accumbens Core Is Critical in the Regulation of Cue-Elicited Approach-Avoidance Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Hamel, Laurie; Thangarasa, Tharshika; Samadi, Osai

    2017-01-01

    The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is thought to be a site of integration of positively and negatively valenced information and action selection. Functional differentiation in valence processing has previously been found along the rostrocaudal axis of the shell region of the NAc in assessments of unconditioned motivation. Given that the core region of the NAc has been implicated in the elicitation of motivated behavior in response to conditioned cues, we sought to assess the role of caudal, intermediate, and rostral sites within this subregion in cue-elicited approach-avoidance decisions. Rats were trained to associate visuo-tactile cues with appetitive, aversive, and neutral outcomes. Following the successful acquisition of the cue-outcome associations, rats received microinfusions of GABAA and GABAB receptor agonists (muscimol/baclofen) or saline into the caudal, intermediate, or rostral NAc core and were then exposed to a superimposition of appetitively and aversively valenced cues versus neutral cues in a “conflict test,” as well as to the appetitive versus neutral cues, and aversive cues versus neutral cues, in separate conditioned preference/avoidance tests. Disruption of activity in the intermediate to caudal parts of the NAc core resulted in a robust avoidance bias in response to motivationally conflicting cues, as well as a potentiated avoidance of aversive cues as compared with control animals, coupled with an attenuated conditioned preference for the appetitive cue. These results suggest that the caudal NAc core may have the capacity to exert bidirectional control over appetitively and aversively motivated responses to valence signals. PMID:28275709

  15. Effects of a context shift and multiple context extinction on reactivity to alcohol cues.

    PubMed

    MacKillop, James; Lisman, Stephen A

    2008-08-01

    Cue exposure treatment (CET) attempts to reduce the influence of conditioned substance cues on addictive behavior via extinction, but has received only modest empirical support in clinical trials. This may be because extinction learning appears to be context dependent and a change in context may result in a return of conditioned responding (i.e., renewal), although this has received only limited empirical examination. The current study used a 4-session laboratory analogue of CET to examine whether a change in context following 3 sessions of alcohol cue exposure with response prevention would result in renewal of conditioned responding. In addition, this study examined whether conducting extinction in multiple contexts would attenuate renewal of conditioned responding. In one-way between-subjects design, 73 heavy drinkers (71% men) were randomized to 3 conditions: (a) single context extinction (extinction to alcohol cues in the same context for 3 sessions followed by a context shift at the fourth session), (b) multiple context extinction (extinction to alcohol cues in different contexts each day for all 4 sessions), and (c) pseudoextinction control condition (exposure to neutral cues in the same context for 3 sessions followed by exposure to alcohol cues at the fourth session). The results revealed the predicted cue reactivity and extinction effects, but the hypotheses that a context shift would generate renewed cue reactivity and that multiple contexts would enhance extinction were not supported. Methodological aspects of the study and the need for parametric data on the context dependency of extinction to alcohol cues are discussed.

  16. Helmets: conventional to cueing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedillo, Michael R.; Dixon, Sharon A.

    2003-09-01

    Aviation helmets have always served as an interface between technology and flyers. The functional evolution of helmets continued with the advent of radio when helmets were modified to accept communication components and later, oxygen masks. As development matured, interest in safety increased as evident in more robust designs. Designing helmets became a balance between adding new capabilities and reducing the helmet's weight. As the research community better defined acceptable limits of weight-tolerances with tools such as the "Knox Box" criteria, system developers added and subtracted technologies while remaining within these limits. With most helmet-mounted technologies being independent of each other, the level of precision in mounting these technologies was not as significant a concern as it is today. The attachment of new components was acceptable as long as the components served their purpose. However this independent concept has become obsolete with the dawn of modern helmet mounted displays. These complex systems are interrelated and demand precision in their attachment to the helmet. The helmets' role now extends beyond serving as a means to mount the technologies to the head, but is now instrumental in critical visual alignment of complex night vision and missile cueing technologies. These new technologies demand a level of helmet fit and component alignment previously not seen in past helmet designs. This paper presents some of the design, integration and logistical issues gleaned during the development of the Joint Helmet Mounted Cueing System (JHMCS) to include the application of head-track technologies in forensic investigations.

  17. Temporal and peripheral extraction of contextual cues from scenes during visual search.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Kathryn; Eckstein, Miguel P

    2017-02-01

    Scene context is known to facilitate object recognition and guide visual search, but little work has focused on isolating image-based cues and evaluating their contributions to eye movement guidance and search performance. Here, we explore three types of contextual cues (a co-occurring object, the configuration of other objects, and the superordinate category of background elements) and assess their joint contributions to search performance in the framework of cue-combination and the temporal unfolding of their extraction. We also assess whether observers' ability to extract each contextual cue in the visual periphery is a bottleneck that determines the utilization and contribution of each cue to search guidance and decision accuracy. We find that during the first four fixations of a visual search task observers first utilize the configuration of objects for coarse eye movement guidance and later use co-occurring object information for finer guidance. In the absence of contextual cues, observers were suboptimally biased to report the target object as being absent. The presence of the co-occurring object was the only contextual cue that had a significant effect in reducing decision bias. The early influence of object-based cues on eye movements is corroborated by a clear demonstration of observers' ability to extract object cues up to 16° into the visual periphery. The joint contributions of the cues to decision search accuracy approximates that expected from the combination of statistically independent cues and optimal cue combination. Finally, the lack of utilization and contribution of the background-based contextual cue to search guidance cannot be explained by the availability of the contextual cue in the visual periphery; instead it is related to background cues providing the least inherent information about the precise location of the target in the scene.

  18. Right anterior insula connectivity is important for cue-induced craving in nicotine-dependent smokers

    PubMed Central

    Maria, Megan M. Moran-Santa; Hartwell, Karen J.; Hanlon, Colleen A.; Canterberry, Melanie; Lematty, Todd; Owens, Max; Brady, Kathleen T.; George, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    The insula has been implicated in cue-induced craving and relapse in nicotine-dependent tobacco cigarette smokers. The aims of the present study were to identify brain regions that exhibit greater functional connectivity with the right anterior insula in response to smoking cues than to neutral cues and the role of functional connectivity between these regions in mediating cue-induced craving in healthy (free of Axis I psychiatric disorders) nicotine-dependent tobacco cigarette smokers. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were collected from 63 healthy nicotine-dependent smokers viewing blocks of smoking and neutral cues. Craving ratings were obtained after each block. A psychophysiologic interaction (PPI) approach was used to identify regions that exhibited significantly greater functional connectivity with the right anterior insula (seed) during the smoking cues than during the neutral (corrected cluster thresholding, Z>2.3, p=0.05). Parameter estimates of the interaction effects from each region were regressed against the mean cue-induced craving scores. Significant task by seed interactions were observed in two clusters centered in the bilateral precuneus and left angular gyrus. The strength of connectivity between the right anterior insula and the precuneus, which is involved interoceptive processing and self-awareness, was positively correlated with the magnitude of the craving response to the smoking cues (r2=0.15; p<0.01). These data suggest that among smokers, cue-induced craving may be a function of connectivity between two regions involved in interoception and self-awareness. Moreover, treatment strategies that incorporate mindful attention may be effective in attenuating cue-induced craving and relapse in nicotine-dependent smokers. PMID:24529072

  19. Visual cues in ice hockey goaltending.

    PubMed

    Salmela, J H; Fiorito, P

    1979-03-01

    The effect of both the availability and the quality of visual cues preceding stick-puck contact was investigated for an ice hockey goaltending task. Thirty-four young (15.8 years) goaltenders observed filmed sequences of a hockey player approaching the net and directing a shot to one of the four corners. The film sequences were edited so that 2, 4 or 8 images were occluded prior to the impact of the stick with the puck, reflecting durations of 1/12, 1/6, 1/3 of a second, respectively. The subjects' performances for both the wrist and the slap shot were measured as well as the level of response confidence in both the horizontal and vertical planes. The results indicated that performance precision was aided by the increased availability of pre-shot visual cues. It was also evident that the wrist shot provided more cues for the goaltender than did the slap shot. Performances were found to be superior in the horizontal as compared to the vertical plane. In all dimensions, the subjects' perceptions of their success closely followed the actual performance patterns. It appeared that information that could facilitate anticipation in this goaltending task was both available and useable during the period that precedes the shot.

  20. Cues and Cue Interactions in Segmenting Words in Fluent Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Rochelle S.; Sawusch, James R.; Wunnenberg, Tyler

    2011-01-01

    Fluent speech does not contain obvious breaks to word boundaries, yet there are a number of cues that listeners can use to help them segment the speech stream. Most of these cues have been investigated in isolation from one another. In previous work, Norris, McQueen, Cutler, and Butterfield (1997) suggested that listeners use a Possible Word…

  1. Cue reactivity towards shopping cues in female participants.

    PubMed

    Starcke, Katrin; Schlereth, Berenike; Domass, Debora; Schöler, Tobias; Brand, Matthias

    2013-03-01

    Background and aims It is currently under debate whether pathological buying can be considered as a behavioural addiction. Addictions have often been investigated with cue-reactivity paradigms to assess subjective, physiological and neural craving reactions. The current study aims at testing whether cue reactivity towards shopping cues is related to pathological buying tendencies. Methods A sample of 66 non-clinical female participants rated shopping related pictures concerning valence, arousal, and subjective craving. In a subgroup of 26 participants, electrodermal reactions towards those pictures were additionally assessed. Furthermore, all participants were screened concerning pathological buying tendencies and baseline craving for shopping. Results Results indicate a relationship between the subjective ratings of the shopping cues and pathological buying tendencies, even if baseline craving for shopping was controlled for. Electrodermal reactions were partly related to the subjective ratings of the cues. Conclusions Cue reactivity may be a potential correlate of pathological buying tendencies. Thus, pathological buying may be accompanied by craving reactions towards shopping cues. Results support the assumption that pathological buying can be considered as a behavioural addiction. From a methodological point of view, results support the view that the cue-reactivity paradigm is suited for the investigation of craving reactions in pathological buying and future studies should implement this paradigm in clinical samples.

  2. Cue reactivity and its inhibition in pathological computer game players.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Robert C; Krüger, Jenny-Kathinka; Neumann, Britta; Schott, Björn H; Kaufmann, Christian; Heinz, Andreas; Wüstenberg, Torsten

    2013-01-01

    Despite a rising social relevance of pathological computer game playing, it remains unclear whether the neurobiological basis of this addiction-like behavioral disorder and substance-related addiction are comparable. In substance-related addiction, attentional bias and cue reactivity are often observed. We conducted a functional magnetic resonance study using a dot probe paradigm with short-presentation (attentional bias) and long-presentation (cue reactivity) trials in eight male pathological computer game players (PCGPs) and nine healthy controls (HCs). Computer game-related and neutral computer-generated pictures, as well as pictures from the International Affective Picture System with positive and neutral valence, served as stimuli. PCGPs showed an attentional bias toward both game-related and affective stimuli with positive valence. In contrast, HCs showed no attentional bias effect at all. PCGPs showed stronger brain responses in short-presentation trials compared with HCs in medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and anterior cingulate gyrus and in long-presentation trials in lingual gyrus. In an exploratory post hoc functional connectivity analyses, for long-presentation trials, connectivity strength was higher between right inferior frontal gyrus, which was associated with inhibition processing in previous studies, and cue reactivity-related regions (left orbitofrontal cortex and ventral striatum) in PCGPs. We observed behavioral and neural effects in PCGPs, which are comparable with those found in substance-related addiction. However, cue-related brain responses were depending on duration of cue presentation. Together with the connectivity result, these findings suggest that top-down inhibitory processes might suppress the cue reactivity-related neural activity in long-presentation trials. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction Biology © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  3. Emotion in the Neutral Face: A Mechanism for Impression Formation?

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Reginald B.; Nelson, Anthony J.; Soto, José A.; Hess, Ursula; Kleck, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    The current work examined contributions of emotion-resembling facial cues to impression formation. There exist common facial cues that make people look male or female, emotional, and from which we derive personality inferences. We first conducted a Pilot study to assess these effects. We found that neutral female versus neutral male faces were rated as more submissive, affiliative, naïve, honest, cooperative, babyish, fearful, happy, and less angry than neutral male faces. In our Primary Study, we then “warped” these same neutral faces over their corresponding anger and fear displays so the resultant facial appearance cues now structurally resembled emotion while retaining a neutral visage (e.g., no wrinkles, furrows, creases etc.). The gender effects found in the Pilot Study were replicated in the Primary Study, suggesting clear stereotype driven impressions. Critically, ratings of the neutral-over-fear warps versus neutral-over-anger warps also revealed a profile similar to the gender-based ratings, revealing perceptually driven impressions directly attributable to emotion overgeneralization. PMID:22471850

  4. Emotion in the neutral face: a mechanism for impression formation?

    PubMed

    Adams, Reginald B; Nelson, Anthony J; Soto, José A; Hess, Ursula; Kleck, Robert E

    2012-01-01

    The current work examined contributions of emotion-resembling facial cues to impression formation. There exist common facial cues that make people look emotional, male or female, and from which we derive personality inferences. We first conducted a Pilot Study to assess these effects. We found that neutral female versus neutral male faces were rated as more submissive, affiliative, naïve, honest, cooperative, babyish, fearful, happy, and less angry than neutral male faces. In our Primary Study, we then "warped" these same neutral faces over their corresponding anger and fear displays so the resultant facial appearance cues now structurally resembled emotion while retaining a neutral visage (e.g., no wrinkles, furrows, creases, etc.). The gender effects found in the Pilot Study were replicated in the Primary Study, suggesting clear stereotype-driven impressions. Critically, ratings of the neutral-over-fear warps versus neutral-over-anger warps also revealed a profile similar to the gender-based ratings, revealing perceptually driven impressions directly attributable to emotion overgeneralisation.

  5. Vendor neutral archive in PACS.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Tapesh Kumar; Sanjeev

    2012-10-01

    An archive is a location containing a collection of records, documents, or other materials of historical importance. An integral part of Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) is archiving. When a hospital needs to migrate a PACS vendor, the complete earlier data need to be migrated in the format of the newly procured PACS. It is both time and money consuming. To address this issue, the new concept of vendor neutral archive (VNA) has emerged. A VNA simply decouples the PACS and workstations at the archival layer. This is achieved by developing an application engine that receives, integrates, and transmits the data using the different syntax of a Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) format. Transferring the data belonging to the old PACS to a new one is performed by a process called migration of data. In VNA, a number of different data migration techniques are available to facilitate transfer from the old PACS to the new one, the choice depending on the speed of migration and the importance of data. The techniques include simple DICOM migration, prefetch-based DICOM migration, medium migration, and the expensive non-DICOM migration. "Vendor neutral" may not be a suitable term, and "architecture neutral," "PACS neutral," "content neutral," or "third-party neutral" are probably better and preferred terms. Notwithstanding this, the VNA acronym has come to stay in both the medical IT user terminology and in vendor nomenclature, and radiologists need to be aware of its impact in PACS across the globe.

  6. Behavioral Economic Analysis of Cue-elicited Craving for Alcohol

    PubMed Central

    MacKillop, James; O’Hagen, Sean; Lisman, Stephen A.; Murphy, James G.; Ray, Lara A.; Tidey, Jennifer W.; McGeary, John E.; Monti, Peter M.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Craving as a motivational determinant of drug use remains controversial because of ambiguous empirical findings. A behavioral economic approach may clarify the nature of craving, theorizing that subjective craving functionally reflects an acute increase in a drug’s value. The current study tested this hypothesis via a multidimensional assessment of alcohol demand over the course of an alcohol cue reactivity procedure. Method Heavy drinkers (n = 92) underwent exposures to neutral (water) cues followed by personalized alcohol cues. Participants were assessed for craving, alcohol demand, affect, and salivation following each exposure. Findings Alcohol versus neutral cues significantly increased craving and multiple behavioral economic measures of the relative value of alcohol, including alcohol consumption under conditions of zero cost (intensity), maximum expenditure on alcohol (Omax), persistence in drinking to higher prices (breakpoint) and proportionate price insensitivity (normalized Pmax). Craving was significantly correlated with demand measures at levels ranging from .21 – .43. Conclusions These findings support the potential utility of a behavioral economic approach to understanding the role of environmental stimuli in alcohol-related decision making. Specifically, they suggest that the behavioral economic indices of demand may provide complementary motivational information that is related to though not entirely redundant with measures of subjective craving. PMID:20626376

  7. Reward Dependence Moderates Smoking-Cue- and Stress-Induced Cigarette Cravings

    PubMed Central

    Michalowski, Alexandra; Erblich, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette cravings following exposure to smoking cues in a smoker's environment are thought to play an important role in cessation failure. The possibility that dispositional factors may impact cue-induced cravings, though intriguing, has received little attention. According to Cloninger's tridimensional personality theory, factors such as reward dependence (RD), harm avoidance (HA), and novelty seeking (NS) may figure prominently in risk for addiction, as well as relapse, in individuals attempting to abstain from drug and alcohol use. Particularly interesting in this regard is the possibility that smokers with higher levels of RD, who are especially sensitive to reward signals, will have heightened craving reactions to smoking cues. To that end, non-treatment-seeking nicotine dependent smokers (n=96, Mean age=41.1, 47% African American, 17% Caucasian, 22% Hispanic, 19.3 cigs/day, FTND=7.5) underwent a classic experimental cue-induction, during which they were exposed to imagery of: (1) smoking, (2) neutral, and (3) stress cues, and reported their cigarette cravings (0-100) before and after each exposure. Participants also completed the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire. Not surprisingly, smoking and stress cues (but not neutral cues) elicited significant elevations in craving (p's < 0.0001). Consistent with study hypothesis, smokers who scored higher on RD had stronger craving reactions to both smoking cues (p < .02) and stress cues (p < .03). Findings raise the possibility that dispositional characteristics, in particular, reward dependence, influence smoking by potentiating reactions to environmental smoking cues. Furthermore, the similar effects of RD on stress-induced craving suggest that both cue-and stress-induced cravings may be influenced by a common underlying disposition. PMID:25133977

  8. Effect of oral THC pretreatment on marijuana cue-induced responses in cannabis dependent volunteers.

    PubMed

    Lundahl, Leslie H; Greenwald, Mark K

    2015-04-01

    The current study tested whether oral Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC: 0-, 10-, and 20-mg) pretreatment would attenuate polysensory cue-induced craving for marijuana. Cannabis dependent participants (7 males and 7 females, who smoked on average 5.4 ± 1.1 blunts daily) completed 3 experimental sessions (oral THC pretreatment dose; counterbalanced order) using a placebo-controlled within-subject crossover design. During each session, participants completed a baseline evaluation and were first exposed to neutral cues then marijuana cues while physiological measures and subjective ratings of mood, craving, and drug effect were recorded. Following placebo oral THC pretreatment, marijuana (vs. neutral) cues significantly increased ratings of marijuana craving (desire and urge to use, Marijuana Craving Questionnaire (MCQ)-Compulsivity scale), anxious mood and feeling hungry. Males also reported feeling more "Down" during marijuana cues relative to females. Pretreatment with oral THC (10-mg and/or 20-mg vs. placebo) significantly attenuated marijuana cue-induced increases in craving and anxiety but not hunger. Oral THC attenuation of the cue-induced increase in MCQ-Compulsivity ratings was observed in females only. Oral THC produced statistically (but not clinically) significant increases in heart rate and decreases in diastolic blood pressure, independent of cues. These marijuana-cue findings replicate earlier results and further demonstrate that oral THC can attenuate selected effects during marijuana multi-cue exposure, and that some of these effects may be sex-related. Results of this study suggest oral THC may be effective for reducing marijuana cue-elicited (conditioned) effects. Further study is needed to determine whether females may selectively benefit from oral THC for this purpose. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  9. Low frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex transiently increases cue-induced craving for methamphetamine: A preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xingbao; Malcolm, Robert J.; Huebner, Kristina; Hanlon, Colleen A.; Taylor, Joseph J.; Brady, Kathleen T.; George, Mark S.; See, Ronald E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can temporarily interrupt or facilitate activity in a focal brain region. Several lines of evidence suggest that rTMS of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) can affect processes involved in drug addiction. We hypothesized that a single session of low-frequency rTMS of the left DLPFC would modulate cue-induced craving for methamphetamine (MA) when compared to a sham rTMS session. Methods In this single-blind, sham-controlled crossover study, 10 non-treatment seeking MA-dependent users and 8 healthy controls were randomized to receive 15 min of sham and real (1 Hz) DLPFC rTMS in two experimental sessions separated by 1 h. During each rTMS session, participants were exposed to blocks of neutral cues and MA-associated cues. Participants rated their craving after each cue block. Results In MA users, real rTMS over the left DLPFC increased self-reported craving as compared to sham stimulation (17.86 ± 1.46 vs. 24.85 ± 1.57, p = 0.001). rTMS had no effect on craving in healthy controls. One Hertz rTMS of the left DLPFC was safe and tolerable for all participants. Conclusions Low frequency rTMS of the left DLPFC transiently increased cue-induced craving in MA participants. These preliminary results suggest that 1 Hz rTMS of the left DLPFC may increase craving by inhibiting the prefrontal cortex or indirectly activating subcortical regions involved in craving. PMID:24028801

  10. Speech Cues and Sign Stimuli.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattingly, Ignatius G.

    Parallels between sign stimuli and speech cues suggest some interesting speculations about the origins of language. Speech cues may belong to the class of human sign stimuli which, as in animal behavior, may be the product of an innate releasing mechanism. Prelinguistic speech for man may have functioned as a social-releaser system. Human language…

  11. Pigeons exhibit contextual cueing to both simple and complex backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Wasserman, Edward A; Teng, Yuejia; Castro, Leyre

    2014-05-01

    Repeated pairings of a particular visual context with a specific location of a target stimulus facilitate target search in humans. We explored an animal model of this contextual cueing effect using a novel Cueing-Miscueing design. Pigeons had to peck a target which could appear in one of four possible locations on four possible color backgrounds or four possible color photographs of real-world scenes. On 80% of the trials, each of the contexts was uniquely paired with one of the target locations; on the other 20% of the trials, each of the contexts was randomly paired with the remaining target locations. Pigeons came to exhibit robust contextual cueing when the context preceded the target by 2s, with reaction times to the target being shorter on correctly-cued trials than on incorrectly-cued trials. Contextual cueing proved to be more robust with photographic backgrounds than with uniformly colored backgrounds. In addition, during the context-target delay, pigeons predominately pecked toward the location of the upcoming target, suggesting that attentional guidance contributes to contextual cueing. These findings confirm the effectiveness of animal models of contextual cueing and underscore the important part played by associative learning in producing the effect. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: SQAB 2013: Contextual Con. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Examining the durability of incidentally learned trust from gaze cues.

    PubMed

    Strachan, James W A; Tipper, Steven P

    2017-10-01

    In everyday interactions we find our attention follows the eye gaze of faces around us. As this cueing is so powerful and difficult to inhibit, gaze can therefore be used to facilitate or disrupt visual processing of the environment, and when we experience this we infer information about the trustworthiness of the cueing face. However, to date no studies have investigated how long these impressions last. To explore this we used a gaze-cueing paradigm where faces consistently demonstrated either valid or invalid cueing behaviours. Previous experiments show that valid faces are subsequently rated as more trustworthy than invalid faces. We replicate this effect (Experiment 1) and then include a brief interference task in Experiment 2 between gaze cueing and trustworthiness rating, which weakens but does not completely eliminate the effect. In Experiment 3, we explore whether greater familiarity with the faces improves the durability of trust learning and find that the effect is more resilient with familiar faces. Finally, in Experiment 4, we push this further and show that evidence of trust learning can be seen up to an hour after cueing has ended. Taken together, our results suggest that incidentally learned trust can be durable, especially for faces that deceive.

  13. Compound cueing in free recall

    PubMed Central

    Lohnas, Lynn J.; Kahana, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    According to the retrieved context theory of episodic memory, the cue for recall of an item is a weighted sum of recently activated cognitive states, including previously recalled and studied items as well as their associations. We show that this theory predicts there should be compound cueing in free recall. Specifically, the temporal contiguity effect should be greater when the two most recently recalled items were studied in contiguous list positions. A meta-analysis of published free recall experiments demonstrates evidence for compound cueing in both conditional response probabilities and inter-response times. To help rule out a rehearsal-based account of these compound cueing effects, we conducted an experiment with immediate, delayed and continual-distractor free recall conditions. Consistent with retrieved context theory but not with a rehearsal-based account, compound cueing was present in all conditions, and was not significantly influenced by the presence of interitem distractors. PMID:23957364

  14. Perception of aircraft Deviation Cues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Lynne; Azuma, Ronald; Fox, Jason; Verma, Savita; Lozito, Sandra

    2005-01-01

    To begin to address the need for new displays, required by a future airspace concept to support new roles that will be assigned to flight crews, a study of potentially informative display cues was undertaken. Two cues were tested on a simple plan display - aircraft trajectory and flight corridor. Of particular interest was the speed and accuracy with which participants could detect an aircraft deviating outside its flight corridor. Presence of the trajectory cue significantly reduced participant reaction time to a deviation while the flight corridor cue did not. Although non-significant, the flight corridor cue seemed to have a relationship with the accuracy of participants judgments rather than their speed. As this is the second of a series of studies, these issues will be addressed further in future studies.

  15. Facial trustworthiness judgments in children with ASD are modulated by happy and angry emotional cues.

    PubMed

    Caulfield, Frances; Ewing, Louise; Burton, Nichola; Avard, Eleni; Rhodes, Gillian

    2014-01-01

    Appearance-based trustworthiness inferences may reflect the misinterpretation of emotional expression cues. Children and adults typically perceive faces that look happy to be relatively trustworthy and those that look angry to be relatively untrustworthy. Given reports of atypical expression perception in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), the current study aimed to determine whether the modulation of trustworthiness judgments by emotional expression cues in children with ASD is also atypical. Cognitively-able children with and without ASD, aged 6-12 years, rated the trustworthiness of faces showing happy, angry and neutral expressions. Trust judgments in children with ASD were significantly modulated by overt happy and angry expressions, like those of typically-developing children. Furthermore, subtle emotion cues in neutral faces also influenced trust ratings of the children in both groups. These findings support a powerful influence of emotion cues on perceived trustworthiness, which even extends to children with social cognitive impairments.

  16. Facial Trustworthiness Judgments in Children with ASD Are Modulated by Happy and Angry Emotional Cues

    PubMed Central

    Caulfield, Frances; Ewing, Louise; Burton, Nichola; Avard, Eleni; Rhodes, Gillian

    2014-01-01

    Appearance-based trustworthiness inferences may reflect the misinterpretation of emotional expression cues. Children and adults typically perceive faces that look happy to be relatively trustworthy and those that look angry to be relatively untrustworthy. Given reports of atypical expression perception in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), the current study aimed to determine whether the modulation of trustworthiness judgments by emotional expression cues in children with ASD is also atypical. Cognitively-able children with and without ASD, aged 6–12 years, rated the trustworthiness of faces showing happy, angry and neutral expressions. Trust judgments in children with ASD were significantly modulated by overt happy and angry expressions, like those of typically-developing children. Furthermore, subtle emotion cues in neutral faces also influenced trust ratings of the children in both groups. These findings support a powerful influence of emotion cues on perceived trustworthiness, which even extends to children with social cognitive impairments. PMID:24878763

  17. Individual differences in smoking-related cue reactivity in smokers: an eye-tracking and fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Kang, O-Seok; Chang, Dong-Seon; Jahng, Geon-Ho; Kim, Song-Yi; Kim, Hackjin; Kim, Jong-Woo; Chung, Sun-Yong; Yang, Seung-In; Park, Hi-Joon; Lee, Hyejung; Chae, Younbyoung

    2012-08-07

    Measures of cue reactivity provide a means of studying and understanding addictive behavior. We wanted to examine the relationship between different cue reactivity measures, such as attentional bias and subjective craving, and functional brain responses toward smoking-related cues in smokers. We used eye-tracking measurements, a questionnaire for smoking urges-brief and functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess the responses to smoking-related and neutral visual cues from 25 male smokers after 36 h of smoking abstinence. Regression analyses were conducted to determine the correlation between cue-evoked brain responses and the attentional bias to smoking-related cues. The eye gaze dwell time percentage was longer in response to smoking-related cues than neutral cues, indicating significant differences in attentional bias towards smoking-related cues. The attentional bias to smoking-related cues correlated with subjective craving ratings (r=0.660, p<0.001). The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the putamen, the posterior cingulate cortex and the primary motor cortex were associated with the attentional bias to smoking-related cues, whereas the orbitofrontal cortex, the insula and the superior temporal gyrus were associated with smoking-related cue-induced craving and smoking urges. These results suggest that attentional mechanisms in combination with motivational and reward-related mechanisms play a role in smoking-related cue reactivity. We confirmed a positive correlation between different smoking-related cue reactivities, such as attentional bias and subjective craving, and functional brain responses in various individuals. Further studies in this field might contribute to a better individualized understanding of addictive behavior. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Pictures cueing threat: brain dynamics in viewing explicitly instructed danger cues

    PubMed Central

    Schupp, Harald T.

    2012-01-01

    Recent event-related brain potential studies revealed the selective processing of emotional and threatening pictures. Integrating the picture viewing and threat-of-shock paradigm, the present study examined the processing of emotional pictures while they were explicitly instructed to cue threat of real world danger (i.e. electric shocks). Toward this end, 60 pleasant, neutral and unpleasant IAPS-pictures were presented (1 s) as a continuous random stream while high-density EEG and self-reported threat were assessed. In three experimental runs, each picture category was used once as a threat-cue, whereas in the other conditions the same category served as safety-cue. An additional passive viewing run served as a no-threat condition, thus, establishing a threat–safety continuum (threat-cue–safety-cue–no-threat) for each picture category. Threat-of-shock modulated P1, P2 and parieto-occipital LPP amplitudes. While the P1 component differentiated among threat- and no-threat conditions, the P2 and LPP effects were specific to pictures signaling threat-of-shock. Thus, stimulus processing progressively gained more accurate information about environmental threat conditions. Interestingly, the finding of increased EPN and centro-parietal LPP amplitudes to emotional pictures was independent from threat-of-shock manipulation. Accordingly, the results indicate distinct effects associated with the intrinsic significance of emotional pictures and explicitly instructed threat contingencies. PMID:21719425

  19. Roles of olfactory cues, visual cues, and mating status in orientation of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) to four different host plants.

    PubMed

    Wenninger, Erik J; Stelinski, Lukasz L; Hall, David G

    2009-02-01

    Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is an important worldwide pest of citrus that vectors bacteria (Candidatus Liberibacter spp.) responsible for huanglongbing (citrus greening disease). We examined the behavioral responses of mated and unmated D. citri of both sexes to odors from host plants in a Y-tube olfactometer, with and without visual cues. The host plants tested were 'Duncan' grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macfayden), sour orange (Citrus aurantium L.), navel orange (C. sinensis L.), and Murraya paniculata L. Jack. Responses varied by plant species, psyllid sex and mating status, and the presence of a visual cue. Evidence of attraction generally was stronger in females and in mated individuals of both sexes relative to virgins. The presence of a visual cue typically enhanced attractiveness of olfactory cues; in no case did unmated individuals show evidence of attraction to host plant odors in the absence of avisual cue. In the absence of visual cues, mated females and males showed evidence of attraction only to odors from sour orange and navel orange, respectively. Psyllids exhibited anemotactic responses when assayed with plant odors alone but showed strong evidence of attraction only when olfactory and visual cues were combined, suggesting that olfactory cues facilitate orientation to host plants but may be insufficient alone. Antennal responses to citrus volatiles were confirmed by electroantennogram. The results reported here provide evidence that D. citri uses olfactory and visual cues in orientation to host plants and suggest the possibility of using plant volatiles in monitoring and management of this pest.

  20. Pharmacological enhancement of drug cue extinction learning: translational challenges

    PubMed Central

    Kantak, K.M.; Nic Dhonnchadha, B.Á.

    2010-01-01

    Augmentation of cue exposure (extinction) therapy with cognitive-enhancing pharmacotherapy may constitute a rational strategy for the clinical management of drug relapse. While certain success has been reported for this form of therapy in anxiety disorders, in this article we highlight several obstacles that may undermine the efficacy of exposure therapy for substance use disorders. We also review translational studies that have evaluated the facilitative effects of the cognitive enhancer D-cycloserine on extinction targeting drug-related cues. Finally, important considerations for the design and implementation of future studies evaluating exposure therapy combined with pharmacotherapy for substance use disorders are discussed. PMID:21272016

  1. Attentional Bias to Drug- and Stress-Related Pictorial Cues in Cocaine Addiction Comorbid with PTSD

    PubMed Central

    Sokhadze, Estate; Singh, Shraddha; Stewart, Christopher; Hollifield, Michael; El-Baz, Ayman; Tasman, Allan

    2009-01-01

    Cocaine addiction places a specific burden on mental health services through its comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders. Treatment of patients with cocaine abuse is more complicated when addiction is co-occurring with PTSD. This study used dense-array event-related potential (ERP) technique to investigate whether the patients with this form of dual diagnosis display excessive reactivity to both trauma and drug cues as compared to neutral cues. Cue reactivity refers to a phenomenon in which individuals with a history of drug dependence exhibit verbal, physiological, and behavioral responses to cues associated with their preferred substance of abuse. This study explores ERP differences associated with cue-related responses to both drug and trauma cues in a three-category oddball task using neutral, drug-, and trauma-related pictorial stimuli. The study was conducted on 14 cocaine dependent subjects, 11 subjects with cocaine dependence comorbid with PTSD, and 9 age- and gender-matched control subjects. A 128 channel Electrical Geodesics EEG system was used to record ERP during the visual three-category oddball task with three categories (neutral, drug, stress) of affective pictures. Patients with cocaine dependence and PTSD, as compared to patients with only cocaine addiction and control subjects, showed excessive cue reactivity to both drug- and trauma-related visual stimuli. Most profound differences were found in the amplitude and latency of frontal P3a, and centro-parietal P3b ERP components. Group differences were found as well between patients with cocaine abuse (both addiction-only and dual diagnosis groups) vs. controls on most ERP measures for drug-related cues. We propose that the employed ERP cue reactivity variables could be used as valuable functional outcome measures in dually diagnosed drug addicts undergoing behavioral treatment. PMID:19890456

  2. Dieting and Food Cue-Related Working Memory Performance

    PubMed Central

    Meule, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Executive functioning (e.g., working memory) is tightly intertwined with self-regulation. For example, food cue-elicited craving has been found to impair working memory performance. Furthermore, current dieters have been found to show lower working memory performance than non-dieters. Recent research, however, suggests that it is crucial to consider dieting success in addition to current dieting status or restrained eating in order to reveal cognitive mechanisms that are associated with successful eating-related self-regulation. The current study investigated food cue-related working memory performance as a function of dieting status and dieting success in female students. Participants performed an n-back task with pictures of food and neutral objects. Reaction time in response to food pictures was slower than in response to neutral pictures, whereas omission errors did not differ between picture types. Current food craving was increased after performing the food block, but not after the neutral block. There was an indirect effect of current dieting status on higher food craving after the food block, which was mediated by slower reaction time to food vs. neutral pictures. Furthermore, higher dieting success was associated with fewer omission errors in the food vs. neutral block in current dieters. There were no relationships of restrained eating with current food craving and task performance. Results further highlight the need to differentiate between successful and unsuccessful dieting in addition to current dieting status or restrained eating when examining possible mechanisms of overeating or successful restraint. Although palatable food cues induce food craving regardless of dieting success, they may boost executive functioning in successful dieters, which helps them to overcome these temptations. PMID:28018277

  3. Dieting and Food Cue-Related Working Memory Performance.

    PubMed

    Meule, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Executive functioning (e.g., working memory) is tightly intertwined with self-regulation. For example, food cue-elicited craving has been found to impair working memory performance. Furthermore, current dieters have been found to show lower working memory performance than non-dieters. Recent research, however, suggests that it is crucial to consider dieting success in addition to current dieting status or restrained eating in order to reveal cognitive mechanisms that are associated with successful eating-related self-regulation. The current study investigated food cue-related working memory performance as a function of dieting status and dieting success in female students. Participants performed an n-back task with pictures of food and neutral objects. Reaction time in response to food pictures was slower than in response to neutral pictures, whereas omission errors did not differ between picture types. Current food craving was increased after performing the food block, but not after the neutral block. There was an indirect effect of current dieting status on higher food craving after the food block, which was mediated by slower reaction time to food vs. neutral pictures. Furthermore, higher dieting success was associated with fewer omission errors in the food vs. neutral block in current dieters. There were no relationships of restrained eating with current food craving and task performance. Results further highlight the need to differentiate between successful and unsuccessful dieting in addition to current dieting status or restrained eating when examining possible mechanisms of overeating or successful restraint. Although palatable food cues induce food craving regardless of dieting success, they may boost executive functioning in successful dieters, which helps them to overcome these temptations.

  4. Visuospatial attention shifts by gaze and arrow cues: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Hietanen, Jari K; Leppänen, Jukka M; Nummenmaa, Lauri; Astikainen, Piia

    2008-06-18

    Orienting of visual attention can be automatically triggered not only by illumination changes occurring in the visual periphery but also by centrally presented gaze and arrow cues. We investigated whether the automatic shifts of visuospatial attention triggered by centrally displayed gaze and arrow cues rely on the same neural systems. To this end we measured event-related potentials (ERPs) time-locked to the cue and target onsets while the participants (n=17) performed a spatial cuing task. In the task, the participants detected and responded to laterally presented targets preceded by centrally presented, non-predictive, gaze or arrow cues. Manual reaction times and target-triggered ERP data showed that both gaze and arrow cues automatically oriented attention and facilitated subsequent processing of target stimuli. However, the cue-triggered electrophysiological data indicated that the ERPs elicited by the gaze and arrow cues were different at lateral parietal and fronto-central electrode sites. Most notably, for the arrows, we found a typical early attention direction negativity (EDAN) effect occurring 220-260 ms after the cue onset. The ERPs were shifted in the negative direction when the arrows pointed to a direction which was contralateral to the recorded hemisphere as compared to arrows with ipsilateral direction. This effect was not observed for the gaze stimuli. These results provide further support for earlier behavioral and neuroimaging studies indicating that automatic orienting of attention by arrow cues and gaze cues are based on different neural mechanisms.

  5. Booze cues and attentional narrowing: Neural correlates of virtual alcohol myopia.

    PubMed

    Gable, Philip A; Mechin, Nicole C; Neal, Lauren B

    2016-05-01

    Exposure to alcohol cues reduces the breadth of attentional scope, called "virtual myopia." Past researchers have suggested approach motivation as a possible mechanism that underlies this myopia in response to alcohol cues. We expanded on these findings in the current study by identifying the neural underpinnings of the relationship between attentional narrowing, approach motivation, and exposure to alcohol cues. Participants completed 64 trials that consisted of neutral or alcohol-related stimuli followed by a measure of attentional narrowing (i.e., Navons letter task). Electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded during the experiment to assess greater left frontal hemispheric asymmetry, a measure of approach motivation. Results revealed that alcohol cues led to greater "virtual myopia" as measured by narrowed attentional scope. Greater left frontal activation to alcohol cues related to greater myopia, suggesting that approach motivation is associated with virtual myopia. Left frontal activation appears to be a neural correlate of cognitive narrowing related to approach motivation. (PsycINFO Database Record

  6. Relapse induced by cues predicting cocaine depends on rapid, transient synaptic potentiation.

    PubMed

    Gipson, Cassandra D; Kupchik, Yonatan M; Shen, Haowei; Reissner, Kathryn J; Thomas, Charles A; Kalivas, Peter W

    2013-03-06

    Cocaine addiction is characterized by long-lasting vulnerability to relapse arising because neutral environmental stimuli become associated with drug use and then act as cues that induce relapse. It is not known how cues elicit cocaine seeking, and why cocaine seeking is more difficult to regulate than seeking a natural reward. We found that cocaine-associated cues initiate cocaine seeking by inducing a rapid, transient increase in dendritic spine size and synaptic strength in the nucleus accumbens. These changes required neural activity in the prefrontal cortex. This is not the case when identical cues were associated with obtaining sucrose, which did not elicit changes in spine size or synaptic strength. The marked cue-induced synaptic changes in the accumbens were correlated with the intensity of cocaine, but not sucrose seeking, and may explain the difficulty addicts experience in managing relapse to cocaine use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Focus cues affect perceived depth.

    PubMed

    Watt, Simon J; Akeley, Kurt; Ernst, Marc O; Banks, Martin S

    2005-12-15

    Depth information from focus cues--accommodation and the gradient of retinal blur--is typically incorrect in three-dimensional (3-D) displays because the light comes from a planar display surface. If the visual system incorporates information from focus cues into its calculation of 3-D scene parameters, this could cause distortions in perceived depth even when the 2-D retinal images are geometrically correct. In Experiment 1 we measured the direct contribution of focus cues to perceived slant by varying independently the physical slant of the display surface and the slant of a simulated surface specified by binocular disparity (binocular viewing) or perspective/texture (monocular viewing). In the binocular condition, slant estimates were unaffected by display slant. In the monocular condition, display slant had a systematic effect on slant estimates. Estimates were consistent with a weighted average of slant from focus cues and slant from disparity/texture, where the cue weights are determined by the reliability of each cue. In Experiment 2, we examined whether focus cues also have an indirect effect on perceived slant via the distance estimate used in disparity scaling. We varied independently the simulated distance and the focal distance to a disparity-defined 3-D stimulus. Perceived slant was systematically affected by changes in focal distance. Accordingly, depth constancy (with respect to simulated distance) was significantly reduced when focal distance was held constant compared to when it varied appropriately with the simulated distance to the stimulus. The results of both experiments show that focus cues can contribute to estimates of 3-D scene parameters. Inappropriate focus cues in typical 3-D displays may therefore contribute to distortions in perceived space.

  8. Sensory modality of smoking cues modulates neural cue reactivity.

    PubMed

    Yalachkov, Yavor; Kaiser, Jochen; Görres, Andreas; Seehaus, Arne; Naumer, Marcus J

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral experiments have demonstrated that the sensory modality of presentation modulates drug cue reactivity. The present study on nicotine addiction tested whether neural responses to smoking cues are modulated by the sensory modality of stimulus presentation. We measured brain activation using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 15 smokers and 15 nonsmokers while they viewed images of smoking paraphernalia and control objects and while they touched the same objects without seeing them. Haptically presented, smoking-related stimuli induced more pronounced neural cue reactivity than visual cues in the left dorsal striatum in smokers compared to nonsmokers. The severity of nicotine dependence correlated positively with the preference for haptically explored smoking cues in the left inferior parietal lobule/somatosensory cortex, right fusiform gyrus/inferior temporal cortex/cerebellum, hippocampus/parahippocampal gyrus, posterior cingulate cortex, and supplementary motor area. These observations are in line with the hypothesized role of the dorsal striatum for the expression of drug habits and the well-established concept of drug-related automatized schemata, since haptic perception is more closely linked to the corresponding object-specific action pattern than visual perception. Moreover, our findings demonstrate that with the growing severity of nicotine dependence, brain regions involved in object perception, memory, self-processing, and motor control exhibit an increasing preference for haptic over visual smoking cues. This difference was not found for control stimuli. Considering the sensory modality of the presented cues could serve to develop more reliable fMRI-specific biomarkers, more ecologically valid experimental designs, and more effective cue-exposure therapies of addiction.

  9. Do Current and Former Cigarette Smokers have an Attentional Bias for E-cigarette Cues?

    PubMed

    Lochbuehler, Kirsten; Wileyto, E Paul; Tang, Kathy Z; Mercincavage, Melissa; Cappella, Joseph N; Strasser, Andrew A

    2017-09-01

    The similarity of e-cigarettes to tobacco cigarettes with regard to shape and usage raises the question of whether e-cigarette cues have the same incentive motivational properties as tobacco cigarette cues. The objective of the present study was to examine whether e-cigarette cues capture and hold smokers' and former smokers' attention and whether the attentional focus is associated with subsequent craving for tobacco cigarettes. It was also examined whether device type (cigalike or mod) moderated this relationship. Participants (46 current daily smokers, 38 former smokers, 48 non-smokers) were randomly assigned to a device type condition in which their eye-movements were assessed while completing a visual probe task. Craving was assessed before and after the task. Smokers, but not former or non-smokers, maintained their gaze longer on e-cigarette than on neutral pictures ( p = 0.004). No difference in dwell time was found between device type. None of the smoking status groups showed faster initial fixations or faster reaction times to e-cigarette compared with neutral cues. Baseline craving was associated with dwell time on e-cigarette cues ( p = 0.004). Longer dwell time on e-cigarette cues was associated with more favorable attitudes towards e-cigarettes. These findings indicate that e-cigarette cues may contribute to craving for tobacco cigarettes and suggest the potential regulation of e-cigarette marketing.

  10. Judging trustworthiness from faces: Emotion cues modulate trustworthiness judgments in young children.

    PubMed

    Caulfield, Frances; Ewing, Louise; Bank, Samantha; Rhodes, Gillian

    2016-08-01

    By adulthood, people judge trustworthiness from appearances rapidly and reliably. However, we know little about these judgments in children. This novel study investigates the developmental trajectory of explicit trust judgments from faces, and the contribution made by emotion cues across age groups. Five-, 7-, 10-year-olds, and adults rated the trustworthiness of trustworthy and untrustworthy faces with neutral expressions. The same participants also rated faces displaying overt happy and angry expressions, allowing us to investigate whether emotion cues modulate trustworthiness judgments similarly in children and adults. Results revealed that the ability to evaluate the trustworthiness of faces emerges in childhood, but may not be adult like until 10 years of age. Moreover, we show that emotion cues modulate trust judgments in young children, as well as adults. Anger cues diminished the appearance of trustworthiness for participants from 5 years of age and happy cues increased it, although this effect did not consistently emerge until later in childhood, that is, 10 years of age. These associations also extended to more subtle emotion cues present in neutral faces. Our results indicate that young children are sensitive to facial trustworthiness, and suggest that similar expression cues modulate these judgments in children and adults. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  11. Cue-induced craving for marijuana in cannabis-dependent adults.

    PubMed

    Lundahl, Leslie H; Johanson, Chris-Ellyn

    2011-06-01

    Recent interest in the development of medications for treatment of cannabis-use disorders indicates the need for laboratory models to evaluate potential compounds prior to undertaking clinical trials. To investigate whether a cue-reactivity paradigm could induce marijuana craving in cannabis-dependent adults, 16 (eight female) cannabis-dependent and 16 (eight female) cannabis-naïve participants were exposed to neutral and marijuana-related cues, and subsequent changes in mood, self-reported craving, and physiologic function were assessed. Significant Group X cue interactions were found on all three VAS craving indices as well as on the Compulsivity scale of the Marijuana Craving Questionnaire-Brief Form (MCQ-BF). Cannabis-dependent individuals responded to marijuana-related cues with significantly increased reports of marijuana craving compared to neutral cue exposure, although there were no cue-induced changes in any of the physiological measures. There were no significant gender differences on any of the measures. These results indicate that marijuana craving can be induced and assessed in cannabis-dependent, healthy adults within a laboratory setting, and support the need for further research of the cue reactivity paradigm in the development of medications to treat cannabis-use disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. On how the brain decodes vocal cues about speaker confidence.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiaoming; Pell, Marc D

    2015-05-01

    In speech communication, listeners must accurately decode vocal cues that refer to the speaker's mental state, such as their confidence or 'feeling of knowing'. However, the time course and neural mechanisms associated with online inferences about speaker confidence are unclear. Here, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine the temporal neural dynamics underlying a listener's ability to infer speaker confidence from vocal cues during speech processing. We recorded listeners' real-time brain responses while they evaluated statements wherein the speaker's tone of voice conveyed one of three levels of confidence (confident, close-to-confident, unconfident) or were spoken in a neutral manner. Neural responses time-locked to event onset show that the perceived level of speaker confidence could be differentiated at distinct time points during speech processing: unconfident expressions elicited a weaker P2 than all other expressions of confidence (or neutral-intending utterances), whereas close-to-confident expressions elicited a reduced negative response in the 330-500 msec and 550-740 msec time window. Neutral-intending expressions, which were also perceived as relatively confident, elicited a more delayed, larger sustained positivity than all other expressions in the 980-1270 msec window for this task. These findings provide the first piece of evidence of how quickly the brain responds to vocal cues signifying the extent of a speaker's confidence during online speech comprehension; first, a rough dissociation between unconfident and confident voices occurs as early as 200 msec after speech onset. At a later stage, further differentiation of the exact level of speaker confidence (i.e., close-to-confident, very confident) is evaluated via an inferential system to determine the speaker's meaning under current task settings. These findings extend three-stage models of how vocal emotion cues are processed in speech comprehension (e.g., Schirmer & Kotz, 2006) by

  13. Gaze cueing by pareidolia faces

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Kohske; Watanabe, Katsumi

    2013-01-01

    Visual images that are not faces are sometimes perceived as faces (the pareidolia phenomenon). While the pareidolia phenomenon provides people with a strong impression that a face is present, it is unclear how deeply pareidolia faces are processed as faces. In the present study, we examined whether a shift in spatial attention would be produced by gaze cueing of face-like objects. A robust cueing effect was observed when the face-like objects were perceived as faces. The magnitude of the cueing effect was comparable between the face-like objects and a cartoon face. However, the cueing effect was eliminated when the observer did not perceive the objects as faces. These results demonstrated that pareidolia faces do more than give the impression of the presence of faces; indeed, they trigger an additional face-specific attentional process. PMID:25165505

  14. Processing Facilitation in a Lexical Decision Task. Technical Report No. 113.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antos, Stephen J.

    College undergraduates participated in a cost/benefit analysis and a speed/accuracy analysis of semantic priming in a lexical decision task. In both studies, half the cues were neutral and half were words from 30 semantic categories. Word targets were the category names, and nonword targets were derived from those names. The cue-word was valid 80%…

  15. Focus cues affect perceived depth

    PubMed Central

    Watt, Simon J.; Akeley, Kurt; Ernst, Marc O.; Banks, Martin S.

    2007-01-01

    Depth information from focus cues—accommodation and the gradient of retinal blur—is typically incorrect in three-dimensional (3-D) displays because the light comes from a planar display surface. If the visual system incorporates information from focus cues into its calculation of 3-D scene parameters, this could cause distortions in perceived depth even when the 2-D retinal images are geometrically correct. In Experiment 1 we measured the direct contribution of focus cues to perceived slant by varying independently the physical slant of the display surface and the slant of a simulated surface specified by binocular disparity (binocular viewing) or perspective/texture (monocular viewing). In the binocular condition, slant estimates were unaffected by display slant. In the monocular condition, display slant had a systematic effect on slant estimates. Estimates were consistent with a weighted average of slant from focus cues and slant from disparity/texture, where the cue weights are determined by the reliability of each cue. In Experiment 2, we examined whether focus cues also have an indirect effect on perceived slant via the distance estimate used in disparity scaling. We varied independently the simulated distance and the focal distance to a disparity-defined 3-D stimulus. Perceived slant was systematically affected by changes in focal distance. Accordingly, depth constancy (with respect to simulated distance) was significantly reduced when focal distance was held constant compared to when it varied appropriately with the simulated distance to the stimulus. The results of both experiments show that focus cues can contribute to estimates of 3-D scene parameters. Inappropriate focus cues in typical 3-D displays may therefore contribute to distortions in perceived space. PMID:16441189

  16. Chemical cues for surface colonization.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Peter D; De Nys, Rocky; Kjelleberg, Staffan

    2002-10-01

    Colonization of surfaces in marine benthic environments is often one of the most significant moments in the life history of benthic organisms, representing, for example, a change from a planktonic to a benthic existence, a shift from a mobile to a sessile life form, or the initiation of pathogenesis. Many of the surfaces that are colonized are, in fact, other marine organisms, and in a general sense there is widespread evidence that specific chemical cues derived from marine organisms affect colonization by both marine prokaryotes and eukaryotes. However, detailed information for any one system on the nature of such cues, their distribution in situ, and their effects on the demography of colonizers is rare. Here, we selectively review the literature on chemical cues for colonization in the sea, focussing on contrasts between positive (inducers) and negative (inhibitors, deterrents) cues and on prokaryote/eukaryote interactions. We also consider whether generalized life history or natural history characteristics of colonizers (i.e., the mobility of a propagule, the extent to which a species is a habitat generalist or specialist, etc.) affect their response to chemical cues, and we touch briefly on some recent highlights relevant to the critical interplay between hydrodynamics and chemistry. A number of important methodological concerns are now being addressed through the introduction of field assays and analyses for chemical cues, and through molecular techniques for the characterization of microbial biofilms. These developments are encouraging, as is the increasingly multidisciplinary and cross-taxonomic approach to research in this area.

  17. ERP dynamics underlying successful directed forgetting of neutral but not negative pictures.

    PubMed

    Hauswald, Anne; Schulz, Hannah; Iordanov, Todor; Kissler, Johanna

    2011-09-01

    Subjective experience suggests that negatively arousing memories are harder to control than neutral ones. Here, we investigate this issue in an item-cued directed forgetting experiment. Electroencephalogram event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded as participants viewed un-arousing neutral and highly arousing negative photographs, each followed by a cue to remember or forget it. Directed forgetting, that is reduced recognition of 'to-be-forgotten' items, occurred for neutral but not negative pictures. ERPs revealed three underlying effects: first, during picture viewing a late parietal positive potential (LPP) was more pronounced for negative than for neutral pictures. Second, 'remember' cues were associated with larger LPPs than 'forget' cues. Third, an enhanced frontal positivity appeared for 'forget' cues. This frontal positivity was generated in right dorso-lateral prefrontal regions following neutral pictures and in medial frontal cortex following negative pictures. LPP magnitude when viewing negative pictures was correlated with reduced directed forgetting, whereas both the enhanced frontal positivity for forget cues and the larger parietal positivity for remember cues predicted more directed forgetting. This study indicates that both processes of selective rehearsal (parietal positivities) and frontally controlled inhibition contribute to successful directed forgetting. However, due to their deeper incidental processing, highly arousing negative pictures are exempt from directed forgetting.

  18. ERP dynamics underlying successful directed forgetting of neutral but not negative pictures

    PubMed Central

    Hauswald, Anne; Schulz, Hannah; Iordanov, Todor

    2011-01-01

    Subjective experience suggests that negatively arousing memories are harder to control than neutral ones. Here, we investigate this issue in an item-cued directed forgetting experiment. Electroencephalogram event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded as participants viewed un-arousing neutral and highly arousing negative photographs, each followed by a cue to remember or forget it. Directed forgetting, that is reduced recognition of ‘to-be-forgotten’ items, occurred for neutral but not negative pictures. ERPs revealed three underlying effects: first, during picture viewing a late parietal positive potential (LPP) was more pronounced for negative than for neutral pictures. Second, ‘remember’ cues were associated with larger LPPs than ‘forget’ cues. Third, an enhanced frontal positivity appeared for ‘forget’ cues. This frontal positivity was generated in right dorso-lateral prefrontal regions following neutral pictures and in medial frontal cortex following negative pictures. LPP magnitude when viewing negative pictures was correlated with reduced directed forgetting, whereas both the enhanced frontal positivity for forget cues and the larger parietal positivity for remember cues predicted more directed forgetting. This study indicates that both processes of selective rehearsal (parietal positivities) and frontally controlled inhibition contribute to successful directed forgetting. However, due to their deeper incidental processing, highly arousing negative pictures are exempt from directed forgetting. PMID:20601423

  19. Genetic predictors of cue- and stress-induced cigarette craving: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Erblich, Joel; Bovbjerg, Dana H; Diaz, George A

    2012-02-01

    Cigarette cravings in response to environmental cues and stressors are widely recognized as important predictors of smoking cessation outcomes. Accumulating evidence suggests that genetics plays a role in these craving responses, as well as in smoking cessation more generally. Previous studies of genetic polymorphisms have been limited by examination of single candidate genes and the use of broadly defined phenotypes (e.g., smoking history). In addition, research examining the similarities and differences between cue- and stress-induced cravings has been limited, although some evidence has suggested that they may have common genetic underpinnings. In the current study, we examined associations between a panel of 1,350 candidate genetic polymorphisms and craving responses to laboratory smoking cues and stressors. We hypothesized that common genetic polymorphisms would be predictive of both cue- and stress-induced craving. Nicotine-dependent smokers (n = 210) donated a blood sample, were exposed to neutral, smoking-related, and stress-related stimuli, and completed craving questionnaires immediately prior to and following each stimulus. Findings indicated that craving responses to smoking cues and stressors were moderately correlated (r = .44). However, genetic analysis revealed that cue and stress-induced cigarette craving were predicted by different polymorphisms, such that variants in the glycine and dopamine pathways were predictive of cue-induced craving, whereas variants in the stress-corticotropin pathway predicted stress-induced craving. Study results provide no support for the hypothesis that cue- and stress-induced craving have the same genetic predictors.

  20. Virtual reality cue reactivity assessment: a case study in a teen smoker.

    PubMed

    Bordnick, Patrick S; Traylor, Amy C; Graap, Ken M; Copp, Hilary L; Brooks, Jeremy

    2005-09-01

    Cigarette smoking in adolescents is a major public health problem. To address the increasing need for efficacious assessment and treatment methods, we developed and tested a novel virtual reality cue reactivity assessment system. A case study of a controlled virtual reality cue reactivity trial with a 17-year-old adolescent cigarette smoker is presented. During the trial, the participant was exposed to virtual reality (VR) smoking cues and VR neutral cues and assessments of subjective craving and skin conductance response (SCR) were recorded. Upon exposure to VR smoking cues, craving increased. A novel methodology for collecting and analyzing SCR in VR was developed and explored to expand the role of physiological variables in VR research. SCR data indicated specific reactions to smoking cue stimuli, with the subject experiencing increased reactivity to smoking cues (i.e., cigarettes) compared to food or drinks. Based on this case study, further research using VR cue reactivity assessment in adolescent smokers is warranted. The impact of VR in drug research and future applications in research are also discussed.

  1. Cue-elicited affect and craving: advancement of the conceptualization of craving in co-occurring posttraumatic stress disorder and alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Nosen, Elizabeth; Nillni, Yael I; Berenz, Erin C; Schumacher, Julie A; Stasiewicz, Paul R; Coffey, Scott F

    2012-11-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) commonly co-occurs with alcohol dependence (AD) and negatively affects treatment outcomes. Trauma-related negative affect enhances substance craving in laboratory cue-reactivity studies of AD individuals, but the role of positive affect has not been established. In this study, 108 AD treatment-seeking adults with current PTSD and AD were presented with four counterbalanced trials consisting of an audio cue (personalized trauma or neutral script) followed by a beverage cue (alcohol or water). Results revealed alcohol cues increased positive and negative affect, and positive affective responses explained significant incremental variance in self-reported craving and salivation, but only when cues were accompanied by neutral not trauma imagery. Ambivalent (high negative and positive) responses were associated with strongest craving. Findings advance the conceptualization of craving in individuals with PTSD-AD and highlight the importance of independently assessing positive and negative affective responses to cues in individuals with co-occurring PTSD-AD.

  2. Impulsive reactions to food-cues predict subsequent food craving.

    PubMed

    Meule, Adrian; Lutz, Annika P C; Vögele, Claus; Kübler, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Low inhibitory control has been associated with overeating and addictive behaviors. Inhibitory control can modulate cue-elicited craving in social or alcohol-dependent drinkers, and trait impulsivity may also play a role in food-cue reactivity. The current study investigated food-cue affected response inhibition and its relationship to food craving using a stop-signal task with pictures of food and neutral stimuli. Participants responded slower to food pictures as compared to neutral pictures. Reaction times in response to food pictures positively predicted scores on the Food Cravings Questionnaire - State (FCQ-S) after the task and particularly scores on its hunger subscale. Lower inhibitory performance in response to food pictures predicted higher FCQ-S scores and particularly those related to a desire for food and lack of control over consumption. Task performance was unrelated to current dieting or other measures of habitual eating behaviors. Results support models on interactive effects of top-down inhibitory control processes and bottom-up hedonic signals in the self-regulation of eating behavior, such that low inhibitory control specifically in response to appetitive stimuli is associated with increased craving, which may ultimately result in overeating. © 2013.

  3. The visibility of social class from facial cues.

    PubMed

    Bjornsdottir, R Thora; Rule, Nicholas O

    2017-10-01

    Social class meaningfully impacts individuals' life outcomes and daily interactions, and the mere perception of one's socioeconomic standing can have significant ramifications. To better understand how people infer others' social class, we therefore tested the legibility of class (operationalized as monetary income) from facial images, finding across 4 participant samples and 2 stimulus sets that perceivers categorized the faces of rich and poor targets significantly better than chance. Further investigation showed that perceivers categorize social class using minimal facial cues and employ a variety of stereotype-related impressions to make their judgments. Of these, attractiveness accurately cued higher social class in self-selected dating profile photos. However, only the stereotype that well-being positively relates to wealth served as a valid cue in neutral faces. Indeed, neutrally posed rich targets displayed more positive affect relative to poor targets and perceivers used this affective information to categorize their social class. Impressions of social class from these facial cues also influenced participants' evaluations of the targets' employability, demonstrating that face-based perceptions of social class may have important downstream consequences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Effects of a Context Shift and Multiple Context Extinction on Reactivity to Alcohol Cues

    PubMed Central

    MacKillop, James; Lisman, Stephen A.

    2008-01-01

    Cue exposure treatment (CET) attempts to reduce the influence of conditioned substance cues on addictive behavior via prolonged cue exposure with response prevention (i.e., extinction), but has received only modest empirical support in clinical trials. This may be because extinction learning appears to be context dependent and a change in context may result in a return of conditioned responding (i.e., renewal), although this has received only limited empirical examination. The current study used a four-session laboratory analogue of CET to examine whether a change in context following three sessions of alcohol cue exposure with response prevention would result in renewal of conditioned responding. In addition, this study examined whether conducting extinction in multiple contexts would attenuate renewal of conditioned responding. In a one-way between-subjects design, 73 heavy drinkers (71% male) were randomized to three conditions: 1) single context extinction (extinction to alcohol cues in the same context for three sessions followed by a context shift at the fourth session); 2) multiple context extinction (extinction to alcohol cues in different contexts each day for all four sessions); and 3) pseudo-extinction control condition (exposure to neutral cues in the same context for three sessions followed by exposure to alcohol cues at the fourth session). The results revealed the predicted cue reactivity and extinction effects, but the hypotheses that a context shift would generate renewed cue reactivity and that multiple contexts would enhance extinction were not supported. Methodological aspects of the study and the need for parametric data on the context dependency of extinction to alcohol cues are discussed. PMID:18729687

  5. Extinction Can Reduce the Impact of Reward Cues on Reward-Seeking Behavior.

    PubMed

    Lovibond, Peter F; Satkunarajah, Michelle; Colagiuri, Ben

    2015-07-01

    Reward-associated cues are thought to promote relapse after treatment of appetitive disorders such as drug-taking, binge eating, and gambling. This process has been modelled in the laboratory using a Pavlovian-instrumental transfer (PIT) design in which Pavlovian cues facilitate instrumental reward-directed action. Attempts to reduce facilitation by cue exposure (extinction) have produced mixed results. We tested the effect of extinction in a recently developed PIT procedure using a natural reward, chocolate, in human participants. Facilitation of instrumental responding was only observed in participants who were aware of the Pavlovian contingencies. Pavlovian extinction successfully reduced, but did not completely eliminate, expectancy of reward and facilitation of instrumental responding. The results indicate that exposure can reduce the ability of cues to promote reward-directed behavior in the laboratory. However, the residual potency of extinguished cues means that additional active strategies may be needed in clinical practice to train patients to resist the impact of these cues in their environment.

  6. Prequit fMRI Responses to Pleasant Cues and Cigarette-Related Cues Predict Smoking Cessation Outcome

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The reasons that some smokers find it harder to quit than others are unclear. Understanding how individual differences predict smoking cessation outcomes may allow the development of more successful personalized treatments for nicotine dependence. Theoretical models suggest that drug users might be characterized by increased sensitivity to drug cues and by reduced sensitivity to nondrug-related natural rewards. We hypothesized that baseline differences in brain sensitivity to natural rewards and cigarette-related cues would predict the outcome of a smoking cessation attempt. Methods: Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we recorded prequit brain responses to neutral, emotional (pleasant and unpleasant), and cigarette-related cues from 55 smokers interested in quitting. We then assessed smoking abstinence, mood, and nicotine withdrawal symptoms during the course of a smoking cessation attempt. Results: Using cluster analysis, we identified 2 groups of smokers who differed in their baseline responses to pleasant cues and cigarette-related cues in the posterior visual association areas, the dorsal striatum, and the medial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Smokers who showed lower prequit levels of brain reactivity to pleasant stimuli than to cigarette-related cues were less likely to be abstinent 6 months after their quit attempt, and they had higher levels of negative affect during the course of the quit attempt. Conclusions: Smokers with blunted brain responses to pleasant stimuli, relative to cigarette-related stimuli, had more difficulty quitting smoking. For these individuals, the lack of alternative forms of reinforcement when nicotine deprived might be an important factor underlying relapse. Normalizing these pathological neuroadaptations may help them achieve abstinence. PMID:24376278

  7. Retrospective Revaluation of Associative Retroactive Cue Interference

    PubMed Central

    Miguez, Gonzalo; Laborda, Mario A.; Miller, Ralph R.

    2013-01-01

    Two fear-conditioning experiments with rats assessed whether retrospective revaluation, which has been observed in cue competition (i.e., when compounded cues are followed with an outcome), can also be observed in retroactive cue interference (i.e., when different cues are reinforced in separate phases with the same outcome). Experiment 1 found that after inducing retroactive cue interference (i.e., X-outcome followed by A-outcome), nonreinforced presentations of the interfering cue (A) decreases interference with responding to the target cue (X), just as has been observed in retrospective revaluation experiments in cue competition. Using the opposite manipulation (i.e., adding reinforced presentations of A), Experiment 2 demonstrated that after inducing retroactive cue interference, additional reinforced presentations of the interfering cue (A) increases interference with responding to the target cue (X); alternatively stated, the amount of interference increases with the amount of training with the interfering cue. Thus, both types of retrospective revaluation occur in retroactive cue competition. The results are discussed in terms of the possibility that similar associative mechanisms underlie cue competition and cue interference. PMID:24142799

  8. Reduced Metabolsim in Brain 'Control Networks' Following Cocaine-Cues Exposure in Female Cocaine Abusers

    SciTech Connect

    Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.; Volkow, N.D.; Tomasi, D.; Wang, G.-J.; Fowler, J.S.; Telang, F.; Goldstein, R.Z.; Alia-Klein, N.; Wong, C.T.

    2011-03-01

    Gender differences in vulnerability for cocaine addiction have been reported. Though the mechanisms are not understood, here we hypothesize that gender differences in reactivity to conditioned-cues, which contributes to relapse, are involved. To test this we compared brain metabolism (using PET and {sup 18}FDG) between female (n = 10) and male (n = 16) active cocaine abusers when they watched a neutral video (nature scenes) versus a cocaine-cues video. Self-reports of craving increased with the cocaine-cue video but responses did not differ between genders. In contrast, changes in whole brain metabolism with cocaine-cues differed by gender (p<0.05); females significantly decreased metabolism (-8.6% {+-} 10) whereas males tended to increase it (+5.5% {+-} 18). SPM analysis (Cocaine-cues vs Neutral) in females revealed decreases in frontal, cingulate and parietal cortices, thalamus and midbrain (p<0.001) whereas males showed increases in right inferior frontal gyrus (BA 44/45) (only at p<0.005). The gender-cue interaction showed greater decrements with Cocaine-cues in females than males (p<0.001) in frontal (BA 8, 9, 10), anterior cingulate (BA 24, 32), posterior cingulate (BA 23, 31), inferior parietal (BA 40) and thalamus (dorsomedial nucleus). Females showed greater brain reactivity to cocaine-cues than males but no differences in craving, suggesting that there may be gender differences in response to cues that are not linked with craving but could affect subsequent drug use. Specifically deactivation of brain regions from 'control networks' (prefrontal, cingulate, inferior parietal, thalamus) in females could increase their vulnerability to relapse since it would interfere with executive function (cognitive inhibition). This highlights the importance of gender tailored interventions for cocaine addiction.

  9. Neural basis of uncertain cue processing in trait anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Meng; Ma, Chao; Luo, Yanyan; Li, Ji; Li, Qingwei; Liu, Yijun; Ding, Cody; Qiu, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with high trait anxiety form a non-clinical group with a predisposition for an anxiety-related bias in emotional and cognitive processing that is considered by some to be a prerequisite for psychiatric disorders. Anxious individuals tend to experience more worry under uncertainty, and processing uncertain information is an important, but often overlooked factor in anxiety. So, we decided to explore the brain correlates of processing uncertain information in individuals with high trait anxiety using the learn-test paradigm. Behaviorally, the percentages on memory test and the likelihood ratios of identifying novel stimuli under uncertainty were similar to the certain fear condition, but different from the certain neutral condition. The brain results showed that the visual cortex, bilateral fusiform gyrus, and right parahippocampal gyrus were active during the processing of uncertain cues. Moreover, we found that trait anxiety was positively correlated with the BOLD signal of the right parahippocampal gyrus during the processing of uncertain cues. No significant results were found in the amygdala during uncertain cue processing. These results suggest that memory retrieval is associated with uncertain cue processing, which is underpinned by over-activation of the right parahippocampal gyrus, in individuals with high trait anxiety. PMID:26892030

  10. Craving, cue reactivity, and stimulus control among early-stage young smokers: effects of smoking intensity and gender.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Matthew J; Saladin, Michael E; Larowe, Steven D; McClure, Erin A; Simonian, Susan; Upadhyaya, Himanshu P; Gray, Kevin M

    2014-02-01

    Smoking initiation usually begins in adolescence, but how and for whom nicotine dependence emerges during this period is unclear. The cue-reactivity paradigm is well suited to examine one marker of dependence: craving-related stimulus control, i.e., the ability of environmental cues to elicit craving to smoke. This study examined the effects of both level of smoking involvement (daily vs. occasional smoking) and gender on reactivity to both smoking and alcohol cues. Young (age range 16-20; 42% female) daily (n = 55) and occasional (n = 52) smokers were exposed to each of three counterbalanced cues: (a) in vivo smoking (e.g., sight, smell, lighting of cigarette), (b) alcohol (e.g., opening, pouring, and smell of preferred beverage), and (c) neutral cue. Daily smokers exhibited higher levels of tonic (i.e., noncue-elicited) craving than did occasional smokers. Both groups showed significant increases in craving in response to cues (i.e., cue-elicited craving), with little evidence that cue-elicited craving differed between groups. Females were more cue reactive to both the alcohol and smoking cues than males, particularly for the positively reinforced aspects of smoking (i.e., hedonic craving). There were no gender × group interaction effects in response to either the alcohol or the smoking cue. Findings show the presence of cue-elicited craving even among occasional smokers and are consistent with literature demonstrating heightened sensitivity to environmental cues among females. Cue-elicited craving may be one mechanism that contributes to the maintenance of smoking behavior and perhaps to the development of nicotine dependence within early stage smokers.

  11. Craving, Cue Reactivity, and Stimulus Control Among Early-Stage Young Smokers: Effects of Smoking Intensity and Gender

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Smoking initiation usually begins in adolescence, but how and for whom nicotine dependence emerges during this period is unclear. The cue-reactivity paradigm is well suited to examine one marker of dependence: craving-related stimulus control, i.e., the ability of environmental cues to elicit craving to smoke. This study examined the effects of both level of smoking involvement (daily vs. occasional smoking) and gender on reactivity to both smoking and alcohol cues. Methods: Young (age range 16–20; 42% female) daily (n = 55) and occasional (n = 52) smokers were exposed to each of three counterbalanced cues: (a) in vivo smoking (e.g., sight, smell, lighting of cigarette), (b) alcohol (e.g., opening, pouring, and smell of preferred beverage), and (c) neutral cue. Results: Daily smokers exhibited higher levels of tonic (i.e., noncue-elicited) craving than did occasional smokers. Both groups showed significant increases in craving in response to cues (i.e., cue-elicited craving), with little evidence that cue-elicited craving differed between groups. Females were more cue reactive to both the alcohol and smoking cues than males, particularly for the positively reinforced aspects of smoking (i.e., hedonic craving). There were no gender × group interaction effects in response to either the alcohol or the smoking cue. Conclusions: Findings show the presence of cue-elicited craving even among occasional smokers and are consistent with literature demonstrating heightened sensitivity to environmental cues among females. Cue-elicited craving may be one mechanism that contributes to the maintenance of smoking behavior and perhaps to the development of nicotine dependence within early stage smokers. PMID:24042699

  12. Specific genomic cues regulate Cajal body assembly.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, Iain A; Hager, Gordon L; Dundr, Miroslav

    2016-10-07

    The assembly of specialized sub-nuclear microenvironments known as nuclear bodies (NBs) is important for promoting efficient nuclear function. In particular, the Cajal body (CB), a prominent NB that facilitates spliceosomal snRNP biogenesis, assembles in response to genomic cues. Here, we detail the factors that regulate CB assembly and structural maintenance. These include the importance of transcription at nucleating gene loci, the grouping of these genes on human chromosomes 1, 6 and 17, as well as cell cycle and biochemical regulation of CB protein function. We also speculate on the correlation between CB formation and RNA splicing levels in neurons and cancer. The timing and location of these specific molecular events is critical to CB assembly and its contribution to genome function. However, further work is required to explore the emerging biophysical characteristics of CB assembly and the impact upon subsequent genome reorganization.

  13. Global Cue Inconsistency Diminishes Learning of Cue Validity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tony S. L.; Christie, Nicole; Howe, Piers D. L.; Little, Daniel R.

    2016-01-01

    In daily life, we make decisions that are associated with probabilistic outcomes (e.g., the chance of rain today). People search for and utilize information that validly predicts an outcome (i.e., we look for dark clouds to indicate the possibility of rain). In the current study (N = 107), we present a two-stage learning task that examines how participants learn and utilize predictive information within a probabilistic learning environment. In the first stage, participants select one of three cues that gives predictive information about the outcome of the second stage. Participants then use this information to predict the outcome in stage two, for which they receive feedback. Critically, only one of the three cues in stage one gives valid predictive information about the outcome in stage two. Participants must differentiate the valid from non-valid cues and select this cue on subsequent trials in order to inform their prediction of the outcome in stage two. The validity of this predictive information, however, is reinforced with varying levels of probabilistic feedback (i.e., 75, 85, 95, 100%). A second manipulation involved changing the consistency of the predictive information in stage one and the outcome in stage two. The results show that participants, with higher levels of probabilistic feedback, learned to utilize the valid cue. In inconsistent task conditions, however, participants were significantly less successful in utilizing higher validity cues. We interpret this result as implying that learning in probabilistic categorization is based on developing a representation of the task that allows for goal-directed action. PMID:27891105

  14. Acoustic cues to Nehiyawewin constituency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Clare; Muehlbauer, Jeff

    2005-04-01

    This study examines how speakers use acoustic cues, e.g., pitch and pausing, to establish syntactic and semantic constituents in Nehiyawewin, an Algonquian language. Two Nehiyawewin speakers autobiographies, which have been recorded, transcribed, and translated by H. C. Wolfart in collaboration with a native speaker of Nehiyawewin, provide natural-speech data for the study. Since it is difficult for a non-native-speaker to reliably distinguish Nehiyawewin constituents, an intermediary is needed. The transcription provides this intermediary through punctuation marks (commas, semi-colons, em-dashes, periods), which have been shown to consistently mark constituency structure [Nunberg, CSLI 1990]. The acoustic cues are thus mapped onto the punctuated constituents, and then similar constituents are compared to see what acoustic cues they share. Preliminarily, the clearest acoustic signal to a constituent boundary is a pitch drop preceding the boundary and/or a pitch reset on the syllable following the boundary. Further, constituent boundaries marked by a period consistently end on a low pitch, are followed by a pitch reset of 30-90 Hz and have an average pause of 1.9 seconds. I also discuss cross-speaker cues, and prosodic cues that do not correlate to punctuation, with implications for the transcriptional view of orthography [Marckwardt, Oxford 1942].

  15. Anticipating conflict facilitates controlled stimulus-response selection

    PubMed Central

    Correa, Ángel; Rao, Anling; Nobre, Anna C.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive control can be triggered in reaction to previous conflict, as suggested by the finding of sequential effects in conflict tasks. Can control also be triggered proactively by presenting cues predicting conflict (‘proactive control’)? We exploited the high temporal resolution of event-related potentials (ERPs) and controlled for sequential effects to ask whether proactive control based on anticipating conflict modulates neural activity related to cognitive control, as may be predicted from the conflict-monitoring model. ERPs associated with conflict detection (N2) were measured during a cued flanker task. Symbolic cues were either informative or neutral with respect to whether the target involved conflicting or congruent responses. Sequential effects were controlled by analysing the congruency of the previous trial. The results showed that cuing conflict facilitated conflict resolution and reduced the N2 latency. Other potentials (frontal N1 and P3) were also modulated by cuing conflict. Cuing effects were most evident after congruent than after incongruent trials. This interaction between cuing and sequential effects suggests neural overlap between the control networks triggered by proactive and reactive signals. This finding clarifies why previous neuroimaging studies, in which reactive sequential effects were not controlled, have rarely found anticipatory effects upon conflict-related activity. Finally, the high temporal resolution of ERPs was critical to reveal a temporal modulation of conflict detection by proactive control. This novel finding suggests that anticipating conflict speeds up conflict detection and resolution. Recent research suggests that this anticipatory mechanism may be mediated by pre-activation of the ACC during the preparatory interval. PMID:18823248

  16. Adolescent heavy drinkers' amplified brain responses to alcohol cues decrease over one month of abstinence.

    PubMed

    Brumback, Ty; Squeglia, Lindsay M; Jacobus, Joanna; Pulido, Carmen; Tapert, Susan F; Brown, Sandra A

    2015-07-01

    Heavy drinking during adolescence is associated with increased reactivity to alcohol related stimuli and to differential neural development. Alcohol cue reactivity has been widely studied among adults with alcohol use disorders, but little is known about the neural substrates of cue reactivity in adolescent drinkers. The current study aimed to identify changes in blood-oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal during a cue reactivity task pre- and post-monitored abstinence from alcohol. Demographically matched adolescents (16.0-18.9 years, 54% female) with histories of heavy episodic drinking (HD; n=22) and light or non-drinking control teens (CON; n=16) were recruited to participate in a month-long study. All participants completed a functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) scan with an alcohol cue reactivity task and substance use assessments at baseline and after 28 days of monitored abstinence from alcohol and drugs (i.e., urine toxicology testing every 48-72 h). Repeated-measure analysis of variance (ANOVA) examined main effects of group, time, and group×time interactions on BOLD signal response in regions of interest defined by functional differences at baseline. The HD group exhibited greater (p<.01) BOLD activation than CON to alcohol cues relative to neutral cues in all regions of interest (ROIs; bilateral striatum/globus pallidus, left anterior cingulate, bilateral cerebellum, and parahippocampal gyrus extending to the thalamus/substantia nigra) across time points. Group×time effects showed that HD exhibited greater BOLD activation to alcohol cues than CON at baseline in left anterior cingulate cortex and in the right cerebellar region, but these decreased to non-significance after one month of monitored abstinence. In all ROIs examined, HD exhibited greater BOLD response than CON to alcohol relative to neutral beverage picture cues at baseline, indicating heightened cue reactivity to alcohol cues in heavy drinking adolescents prior to the onset of any

  17. Adolescent Heavy Drinkers’ Amplified Brain Responses to Alcohol Cues Decrease Over One Month of Abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Brumback, Ty; Squeglia, Lindsay M.; Jacobus, Joanna; Pulido, Carmen; Tapert, Susan F.; Brown, Sandra A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Heavy drinking during adolescence is associated with increased reactivity to alcohol related stimuli and to differential neural development. Alcohol cue reactivity has been widely studied among adults with alcohol use disorders, but little is known about the neural substrates of cue reactivity in adolescent drinkers. The current study aimed to identify changes in blood-oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal during a cue reactivity task pre- and post-monitored abstinence from alcohol. Method Demographically matched adolescents (16.0–18.9 years, 54% female) with histories of heavy episodic drinking (HD; n=22) and light or non-drinking control teens (CON; n=16) were recruited to participate in a month-long study. All participants completed a functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) scan with an alcohol cue reactivity task and substance use assessments at baseline and after 28 days of monitored abstinence from alcohol and drugs (i.e., urine toxicology testing every 48-72 hours). Repeated-measure analysis of variance (ANOVA) examined main effects of group, time, and group × time interactions on BOLD signal response in regions of interest defined by functional differences at baseline. Results The HD group exhibited greater (p<.01) BOLD activation than CON to alcohol cues relative to neutral cues in all regions of interest (ROIs; bilateral striatum/globus pallidus, left anterior cingulate, bilateral cerebellum, and parahippocampal gyrus extending to the thalamus/substantia nigra) across time points. Group × time effects showed that HD exhibited greater BOLD activation to alcohol cues than CON at baseline in left anterior cingulate cortex and in the right cerebellar region, but these decreased to non-significance after one month of monitored abstinence. Conclusions In all ROIs examined, HD exhibited greater BOLD response than CON to alcohol relative to neutral beverage picture cues at baseline, indicating heightened cue reactivity to alcohol cues in

  18. Smoking-related videos for use in cue-induced craving paradigms.

    PubMed

    Tong, Charles; Bovbjerg, Dana H; Erblich, Joel

    2007-12-01

    Environmental cues (e.g., the sight of a cigarette) have long been recognized as important triggers for craving in smokers. Available imaging technologies (e.g., fMRI) allow investigation of the neural mechanisms for cue-induced craving, but there stands a need for a cue-delivery system compatible with an MRI environment. We developed a standardized set of 24 high-resolution videos, 12 containing cigarette smoking scenes (e.g., lighting up), and 12 containing neutral scenes (e.g., reading a book), each 30 s long, with comparable lighting, visual complexity, and background filmed by a professional cinematographer. Study participants were 20 smokers (mean age=37.7 years, 50% female). Each was exposed to the 24 videos in a random order under laboratory conditions. Dependent measures included heart rate, blood pressure, skin conductance, skin temperature, and self-reported craving (0-100) following each video. Overall findings indicated that smokers had greater reactivity to the smoking videos than to neutral videos (p<.01). Follow-up univariate analyses revealed significant cue effects on self-reported craving, galvanic skin response, and skin temperature. Interestingly, exploratory examination of gender revealed that men had higher blood pressure and skin temperature responses than women, and that women had higher responses when viewing videos of women smoking than when viewing men smoking. Results support this set of videos as an effective tool for investigation of cue-elicited craving, and raise the possibility of unique gender effects in cue reactivity.

  19. P3 event-related potential reactivity to smoking cues: Relations with craving, tobacco dependence, and alcohol sensitivity in young adult smokers.

    PubMed

    Piasecki, Thomas M; Fleming, Kimberly A; Trela, Constantine J; Bartholow, Bruce D

    2017-02-01

    The current study tested whether the amplitude of the P3 event-related potential (ERP) elicited by smoking cues is (a) associated with the degree of self-reported craving reactivity, and (b) moderated by degree of tobacco dependence. Because alcohol and cigarettes are frequently used together, and given recent evidence indicating that individual differences in alcohol sensitivity influence reactivity to alcohol cues, we also investigated whether alcohol sensitivity moderated neural responses to smoking cues. ERPs were recorded from young adult smokers (N = 90) while they participated in an evaluative categorization oddball task involving 3 types of targets: neutral images, smoking-related images, and images of drinking straws. Participants showing larger P3 amplitudes to smoking cues and to straw cues (relative to neutral targets) reported greater increases in craving after cue exposure. Neither smoking status (daily vs. occasional use) nor psychometric measures of tobacco dependence consistently or specifically moderated P3 reactivity to smoking cues. Lower alcohol sensitivity was associated with larger P3 to smoking cues but not comparison straw cues (relative to neutral targets). This effect was further moderated by tobacco dependence, with the combination of lower sensitivity and higher dependence associated with especially pronounced P3 reactivity to smoking cues. The findings suggest the smoking-cue elicited P3 ERP component indexes an approach-oriented incentive motivational state accompanied by a subjective sense of cigarette craving. Self-reported low sensitivity to the pharmacologic effects of alcohol may represent a marker of drug cue reactivity and therefore deserves attention as a potential moderator in smoking cue exposure studies. (PsycINFO Database Record

  20. Temporal regulation of kin recognition maintains recognition-cue diversity and suppresses cheating.

    PubMed

    Ho, Hsing-I; Shaulsky, Gad

    2015-05-28

    Kin recognition, the ability to distinguish kin from non-kin, can facilitate cooperation between relatives. Evolutionary theory predicts that polymorphism in recognition cues, which is essential for effective recognition, would be unstable. Individuals carrying rare recognition cues would benefit less from social interactions than individuals with common cues, leading to loss of the genetic-cue diversity. We test this evolutionary hypothesis in Dictyostelium discoideum, which forms multicellular fruiting bodies by aggregation and utilizes two polymorphic membrane proteins to facilitate preferential cooperation. Surprisingly, we find that rare recognition variants are tolerated and maintain their frequencies among incompatible majority during development. Although the rare variants are initially excluded from the aggregates, they subsequently rejoin the aggregate and produce spores. Social cheating is also refrained in late development, thus limiting the cost of chimerism. Our results suggest a potential mechanism to sustain the evolutionary stability of kin-recognition genes and to suppress cheating.

  1. Fear Relevancy, Strategy Use, and Probabilistic Learning of Cue-Outcome Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Laura A.; LaBar, Kevin S.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine how the fear relevancy of outcomes during probabilistic classification learning affects behavior and strategy use. Novel variants of the "weather prediction" task were created, in which cue cards predicted either looming fearful or neutral outcomes in a between-groups design. Strategy use was…

  2. Fear Relevancy, Strategy Use, and Probabilistic Learning of Cue-Outcome Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Laura A.; LaBar, Kevin S.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine how the fear relevancy of outcomes during probabilistic classification learning affects behavior and strategy use. Novel variants of the "weather prediction" task were created, in which cue cards predicted either looming fearful or neutral outcomes in a between-groups design. Strategy use was…

  3. Cue Reactivity in Smokers: An Event-Related Potential Study

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, Erika Litvin; Potts, Geoffrey F.; Evans, David E.; Drobes, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Drugs-of-abuse may increase the salience of drug cues by sensitizing the dopaminergic (DA) system (Robinson & Berridge, 1993), leading to differential attention to smoking stimuli. Event-related potentials (ERPs) have been used to assess attention to smoking cues but not using an ERP component associated with DA-mediated salience evaluation. In this study the DA-related P2a and the P3, were compared in smokers (N=21) and non-smokers (N=21) during an attention selection cue exposure task including both cigarette and neutral images. We predicted that both the P2a and P3 would be larger to targets than non-targets, but larger to non-target cigarette images than non-target neutral images only in the smokers, reflecting smokers’ evaluation of smoking stimuli as relevant even when they were not targets. Results indicated that smokers showed behavioral cue reactivity, with more false alarms to cigarette images (responding to cigarette images when they were not targets) than non-smokers; however, both smokers and non-smokers had a larger P2a and P3 to cigarette images. Thus, while smokers showed behavioral evidence of differential salience evaluation of the cigarette images, this group difference was not reflected in differential brain activity. These findings may reflect characteristics of the ERPs (both ERP components were smaller in the smokers), the smoking sample (they were not more impulsive, i.e. reward sensitive, than the non-smokers, in contrast to prior studies) and the design (all participants were aware that the aim of the study was related to smoking). PMID:23958866

  4. EMOTIONAL MODULATION OF ATTENTION ORIENTING BY GAZE VARIES WITH DYNAMIC CUE SEQUENCE

    PubMed Central

    Lassalle, Amandine; Itier, Roxane J.

    2017-01-01

    Recent gaze cueing studies using dynamic cue sequences have reported increased attention orienting by gaze with faces expressing fear, surprise or anger. Here, we investigated whether the type of dynamic cue sequence used impacted the magnitude of this effect. When the emotion was expressed before or concurrently with gaze shift, no modulation of gaze-oriented attention by emotion was seen. In contrast, when the face cue averted gaze before expressing an emotion (as if reacting to the object after first localizing it), the gaze orienting effect was clearly increased for fearful, surprised and angry faces compared to neutral faces. Thus, the type of dynamic sequence used, and in particular the order in which the gaze shift and the facial expression are presented, modulate gaze-oriented attention, with maximal modulation seen when the expression of emotion follows gaze shift.

  5. Effects of transdermal nicotine during imaginal exposure to anxiety and smoking cues in college smokers.

    PubMed

    Morissette, Sandra Baker; Palfai, Tibor P; Gulliver, Suzy Bird; Spiegel, David A; Barlow, David H

    2005-06-01

    In a 2 (patch) x 2 (smoking) x 2 (anxiety) mixed design, 52 undergraduate smokers randomly received a nicotine (21 mg) or placebo patch. After a 4-hr nicotine absorption/deprivation period, participants imagined several scenarios varying in cue content: (a) anxiety plus smoking, (b) anxiety, (c) smoking, and (d) neutral. Although smoking urge increased in both the nicotine and placebo conditions after the absorption/deprivation period, those who received the placebo reported significantly greater urge. During the cue reactivity trials, a significant Patch x Smoking x Anxiety interaction effect was observed for urge. However, participants who received nicotine still experienced moderate urges, indicating that nicotine did not attenuate cue-elicited urge. Transdermal nicotine did not diminish anxiety during the absorption/deprivation period or in response to the cues. Copyright 2005 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Oxytocin Mediates Entrainment of Sensory Stimuli to Social Cues of Opposing Valence

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Han Kyoung; Reed, Michael Douglas; Benavidez, Nora; Montgomery, Daniel; Soares, Natalie; Yim, Yeong Shin; Choi, Gloria B.

    2015-01-01

    Meaningful social interactions modify behavioral responses to sensory stimuli. The neural mechanisms underlying the entrainment of neutral sensory stimuli to salient social cues to produce social learning remains unknown. We used odor-driven behavioral paradigms to ask if oxytocin, a neuropeptide implicated in various social behaviors, plays a crucial role in the formation of learned associations between odor and socially significant cues. Through genetic, optogenetic and pharmacological manipulations, we show that oxytocin receptor signaling is crucial for entrainment of odor to social cues, but is dispensable for entrainment to non-social cues. Furthermore, we demonstrate that oxytocin directly impacts the piriform, the olfactory sensory cortex, to mediate social learning. Lastly, we provide evidence that oxytocin plays a role in both appetitive and aversive social learning. These results suggest that oxytocin conveys saliency of social stimuli to sensory representations in the piriform cortex during odor-driven social learning. PMID:26139372

  7. Behavioral Cues of Interpersonal Warmth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayes, Marjorie A.

    1972-01-01

    The results of this study suggest, first, that interpersonal warmth does seem to be a personality dimension which can be reliably judged and, second, that it was possible to define and demonstrate the relevance of a number of behavioral cues for warmth. (Author)

  8. Optimal cue integration in ants

    PubMed Central

    Wystrach, Antoine; Mangan, Michael; Webb, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    In situations with redundant or competing sensory information, humans have been shown to perform cue integration, weighting different cues according to their certainty in a quantifiably optimal manner. Ants have been shown to merge the directional information available from their path integration (PI) and visual memory, but as yet it is not clear that they do so in a way that reflects the relative certainty of the cues. In this study, we manipulate the variance of the PI home vector by allowing ants (Cataglyphis velox) to run different distances and testing their directional choice when the PI vector direction is put in competition with visual memory. Ants show progressively stronger weighting of their PI direction as PI length increases. The weighting is quantitatively predicted by modelling the expected directional variance of home vectors of different lengths and assuming optimal cue integration. However, a subsequent experiment suggests ants may not actually compute an internal estimate of the PI certainty, but are using the PI home vector length as a proxy. PMID:26400741

  9. CUE, ENGLISH HUMANITIES MEDIA GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BROWN, ROBERT M.; AND OTHERS

    THIS DOCUMENT IS ONE OF A SERIES OF MEDIA GUIDES SPONSORED BY THE NEW YORK STATE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT UNDER THE CUE SYSTEM. THE ENGLISH HUMANITIES ARE DIVIDED INTO 11 DIFFERENT TOPICS, COVERING AREAS OF COMMUNICATION, VOCABULARY, AND WORLD CULTURE. WITHIN EACH TOPIC IS A SERIES OF SUGGESTED FILM AND TELEVISION SUBJECTS. A DISCUSSION IS GIVEN ON…

  10. Optimal cue integration in ants.

    PubMed

    Wystrach, Antoine; Mangan, Michael; Webb, Barbara

    2015-10-07

    In situations with redundant or competing sensory information, humans have been shown to perform cue integration, weighting different cues according to their certainty in a quantifiably optimal manner. Ants have been shown to merge the directional information available from their path integration (PI) and visual memory, but as yet it is not clear that they do so in a way that reflects the relative certainty of the cues. In this study, we manipulate the variance of the PI home vector by allowing ants (Cataglyphis velox) to run different distances and testing their directional choice when the PI vector direction is put in competition with visual memory. Ants show progressively stronger weighting of their PI direction as PI length increases. The weighting is quantitatively predicted by modelling the expected directional variance of home vectors of different lengths and assuming optimal cue integration. However, a subsequent experiment suggests ants may not actually compute an internal estimate of the PI certainty, but are using the PI home vector length as a proxy.

  11. Activation of frontoparietal attention networks by non-predictive gaze and arrow cues.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Robert M; Fricker, Zachary; Keehn, Brandon

    2015-02-01

    Gaze and arrow cues automatically orient visual attention, even when they have no predictive value, but the neural circuitry by which they direct attention is not clear. Recent evidence has indicated that the ventral frontoparietal attention network is primarily engaged by breaches of a viewer's cue-related expectations. Accordingly, we hypothesized that to the extent that non-predictive gaze and arrow cues automatically engender expectations with regard to cue location, they should activate the ventral attention network when they cue attention invalidly. Using event-related fMRI, we found that invalid gaze but not arrow cues activated the ventral attention network, specifically in the area of the right temporal parietal junction (TPJ), as well as nodes along the dorsal attention network associated with a redirection of attention to the correct target location. In additional whole-brain analyses, facilitation of behavioral response time by valid gaze cues was linearly associated with the degree of activation in the right TPJ. We conclude from our findings that gaze direction elicits potent expectations in humans with regard to an actor's intention that engage attention networks if not differently from, at least more robustly than, arrow cues. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Activation of frontoparietal attention networks by non-predictive gaze and arrow cues

    PubMed Central

    Fricker, Zachary; Keehn, Brandon

    2015-01-01

    Gaze and arrow cues automatically orient visual attention, even when they have no predictive value, but the neural circuitry by which they direct attention is not clear. Recent evidence has indicated that the ventral frontoparietal attention network is primarily engaged by breaches of a viewer’s cue-related expectations. Accordingly, we hypothesized that to the extent that non-predictive gaze and arrow cues automatically engender expectations with regard to cue location, they should activate the ventral attention network when they cue attention invalidly. Using event-related fMRI, we found that invalid gaze but not arrow cues activated the ventral attention network, specifically in the area of the right temporal parietal junction (TPJ), as well as nodes along the dorsal attention network associated with a redirection of attention to the correct target location. In additional whole-brain analyses, facilitation of behavioral response time by valid gaze cues was linearly associated with the degree of activation in the right TPJ. We conclude from our findings that gaze direction elicits potent expectations in humans with regard to an actor’s intention that engage attention networks if not differently from, at least more robustly than, arrow cues. PMID:24748545

  13. Learned Use of Picture Cues by Bumblebees (Bombus impatiens) in a Delayed Matching Task

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Emma; Plowright, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Picture-object correspondence provides an alternate method of investigating delayed matching by providing a cue (picture) which may be spontaneously perceived as similar but different from a corresponding target. Memory for, and corresponding choice of, a target corresponding to a cue could be facilitated by the use of a picture. Bumblebees have been found to both easily differentiate images from corresponding objects but also spontaneously perceive a similarity between the two. Herein, an approach was designed to test the possible use of picture cues to signal reward in a delayed matching task. Target choice preference corresponding to picture cues was tested among three bumblebee (Bombus impatiens) colonies using photograph cues (presented prior to target stimuli) corresponding to one of four target stimuli. Photograph cues were the only predictor of corresponding target reward, presented in stable locations. Rewarded and unrewarded tests show a choice preference significantly higher than chance for targets matching the cue. Results suggest that bumblebees can learn to use picture cues in a delayed matching task. Furthermore, experience, conditions of reward inconsistency and location, are discussed as possible contributing factors to learning in a delayed matching task. PMID:27754410

  14. Reward favours the prepared: incentive and task-informative cues interact to enhance attentional control

    PubMed Central

    Chiew, Kimberly S.; Braver, Todd S.

    2015-01-01

    The dual mechanisms of control account suggests that cognitive control may be implemented through relatively proactive mechanisms in anticipation of stimulus onset, or through reactive mechanisms, triggered in response to changing stimulus demands. Reward incentives and task-informative cues (signaling the presence/absence of upcoming cognitive demand) have both been found to influence cognitive control in a proactive or preparatory fashion; yet, it is currently unclear whether and how such cue effects interact. We investigated this in two experiments using an adapted flanker paradigm, where task-informative and reward incentive cues were orthogonally manipulated on a trial-by-trial basis. In Experiment 1, results indicated that incentives not only speed RTs, but specifically reduce both interference and facilitation effects when combined with task-informative cues, suggesting enhanced proactive attentional control. Experiment 2 manipulated the timing of incentive cue information, demonstrating that such proactive control effects were only replicated with sufficient time to process the incentive cue (Early Incentive); when incentive signals were presented close to target onset (Late Incentive) the primary effect was a speed-accuracy tradeoff. Together, results suggest that advance cueing may trigger differing control strategies, and that these strategies may critically depend on both the timing – and the motivational incentive – to use such cues. PMID:26322689

  15. Beacons and surface features differentially influence human reliance on global and local geometric cues when reorienting in a virtual environment.

    PubMed

    Bodily, Kent D; Kilday, Zachary A; Eastman, Caroline K; Gaskin, Katherine A; Graves, April A; Roberts, Jonathan E; Sturz, Bradley R

    2013-02-01

    In the reorientation literature, non-geometric cues include discrete objects (e.g., beacons) and surface-based features (e.g., colors, textures, and odors). To date, these types of non-geometric cues have been considered functionally similar, and it remains unknown whether beacons and surface features differentially influence the extent to which organisms reorient via global and local geometric cues. In the present experiment, we trained human participants to approach a location in a trapezoid-shaped enclosure uniquely specified by global and local geometric cues. We explored the role of beacons on the use of geometric cues by training participants in the presence or absence of uniquely-colored beacons. We explored the role of surface features on the use of geometric cues by recoloring two adjacent walls at the correct location and/or adding a line on the floor which corresponded to the major principal axis of the enclosure. All groups were then tested in novel-shaped enclosures in the absence of unique beacons and surface features to assess the relative use of global and local geometric cues. Results suggested that beacons facilitated the use of global geometric cues, whereas surface features either facilitated or hindered the use of geometric cues, depending on the feature. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Sense of control and adolescents' aggression: The role of aggressive cues.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xucheng; Egan, Vincent; Zhang, Jianxin

    2016-12-01

    The misperception of aggressive cues is considered a risk factor for inducing adolescent aggression. Poor coping with life stress is also considered a major influence on aggression. The current study examined the relationship between subjective sense of control and adolescent aggression, considering influences upon the perception of these aggressive cues. In Study 1, 60 participants took part in a 2 (sense of control: high sense of control vs. low sense of control) × 2 (aggressive cue: aggressive vs. neutral) between-subjects contextual experiment. The result found that a lower sense of control led to an increase in adolescents' aggression; only in the low-sense-of-control condition did exposure to aggressive cues boost aggression. In Study 2, the catalytic effect of aggressive cues was further explored by an experiment in which 40 adolescents were randomly assigned to a low- or high-sense-of-control condition to test the importance of aggressive cues. The results suggest that adolescents in the low-sense-of-control condition show a higher salience for aggressive cues.

  17. Enhanced attentional bias towards sexually explicit cues in individuals with and without compulsive sexual behaviours.

    PubMed

    Mechelmans, Daisy J; Irvine, Michael; Banca, Paula; Porter, Laura; Mitchell, Simon; Mole, Tom B; Lapa, Tatyana R; Harrison, Neil A; Potenza, Marc N; Voon, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    Compulsive sexual behaviour (CSB) is relatively common and has been associated with significant distress and psychosocial impairments. CSB has been conceptualized as either an impulse control disorder or a non-substance 'behavioural' addiction. Substance use disorders are commonly associated with attentional biases to drug cues which are believed to reflect processes of incentive salience. Here we assess male CSB subjects compared to age-matched male healthy controls using a dot probe task to assess attentional bias to sexually explicit cues. We show that compared to healthy volunteers, CSB subjects have enhanced attentional bias to explicit cues but not neutral cues particularly for early stimuli latency. Our findings suggest enhanced attentional bias to explicit cues possibly related to an early orienting attentional response. This finding dovetails with our recent observation that sexually explicit videos were associated with greater activity in a neural network similar to that observed in drug-cue-reactivity studies. Greater desire or wanting rather than liking was further associated with activity in this neural network. These studies together provide support for an incentive motivation theory of addiction underlying the aberrant response towards sexual cues in CSB.

  18. Enhanced Attentional Bias towards Sexually Explicit Cues in Individuals with and without Compulsive Sexual Behaviours

    PubMed Central

    Mechelmans, Daisy J.; Irvine, Michael; Banca, Paula; Porter, Laura; Mitchell, Simon; Mole, Tom B.; Lapa, Tatyana R.; Harrison, Neil A.; Potenza, Marc N.; Voon, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    Compulsive sexual behaviour (CSB) is relatively common and has been associated with significant distress and psychosocial impairments. CSB has been conceptualized as either an impulse control disorder or a non-substance ‘behavioural’ addiction. Substance use disorders are commonly associated with attentional biases to drug cues which are believed to reflect processes of incentive salience. Here we assess male CSB subjects compared to age-matched male healthy controls using a dot probe task to assess attentional bias to sexually explicit cues. We show that compared to healthy volunteers, CSB subjects have enhanced attentional bias to explicit cues but not neutral cues particularly for early stimuli latency. Our findings suggest enhanced attentional bias to explicit cues possibly related to an early orienting attentional response. This finding dovetails with our recent observation that sexually explicit videos were associated with greater activity in a neural network similar to that observed in drug-cue-reactivity studies. Greater desire or wanting rather than liking was further associated with activity in this neural network. These studies together provide support for an incentive motivation theory of addiction underlying the aberrant response towards sexual cues in CSB. PMID:25153083

  19. Methylphenidate attenuates limbic brain inhibition after cocaine-cues exposure in cocaine abusers.

    SciTech Connect

    Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.; Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.-J.; Tomasi, D.; Telang, F.; Fowler, J.S.; Pradhan, K.; Jayne, M.; Logan, J.; Goldstein, R.Z.; Alia-Klein, N.; Wong, C.T.

    2010-07-01

    Dopamine (phasic release) is implicated in conditioned responses. Imaging studies in cocaine abusers show decreases in striatal dopamine levels, which we hypothesize may enhance conditioned responses since tonic dopamine levels modulate phasic dopamine release. To test this we assessed the effects of increasing tonic dopamine levels (using oral methylphenidate) on brain activation induced by cocaine-cues in cocaine abusers. Brain metabolism (marker of brain function) was measured with PET and {sup 18}FDG in 24 active cocaine abusers tested four times; twice watching a Neutral video (nature scenes) and twice watching a Cocaine-cues video; each video was preceded once by placebo and once by methylphenidate (20 mg). The Cocaine-cues video increased craving to the same extent with placebo (68%) and with methylphenidate (64%). In contrast, SPM analysis of metabolic images revealed that differences between Neutral versus Cocaine-cues conditions were greater with placebo than methylphenidate; whereas with placebo the Cocaine-cues decreased metabolism (p<0.005) in left limbic regions (insula, orbitofrontal, accumbens) and right parahippocampus, with methylphenidate it only decreased in auditory and visual regions, which also occurred with placebo. Decreases in metabolism in these regions were not associated with craving; in contrast the voxel-wise SPM analysis identified significant correlations with craving in anterior orbitofrontal cortex (p<0.005), amygdala, striatum and middle insula (p<0.05). This suggests that methylphenidate's attenuation of brain reactivity to Cocaine-cues is distinct from that involved in craving. Cocaine-cues decreased metabolism in limbic regions (reflects activity over 30 minutes), which contrasts with activations reported by fMRI studies (reflects activity over 2-5 minutes) that may reflect long-lasting limbic inhibition following activation. Studies to evaluate the clinical significance of methylphenidate's blunting of cue-induced limbic

  20. Transdermal Nicotine During Cue Reactivity in Adult Smokers With and Without Anxiety Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Morissette, Sandra B.; Gulliver, Suzy Bird; Kamholz, Barbara W.; Spiegel, David A.; Tiffany, Stephen T.; Barlow, David H.

    2012-01-01

    Transdermal nicotine almost doubles tobacco cessation rates; however little is known about what happens to smokers during the quit process when they are wearing the nicotine patch and confronted with high-risk smoking triggers. This is particularly important for smokers with psychological disorders who disproportionately represent today’s smokers and have more trouble quitting. Using a mixed between- and within-subjects design, smokers with anxiety disorders (n = 61) and smokers without any current Axis I disorders (n = 38) received transdermal nicotine (21 mg) or a placebo patch over two assessment days separated by 48 hours. Urge to smoke was evaluated during a 5-hour patch absorption period (reflecting general smoking deprivation) and during imaginal exposure to theoretically high-risk triggers containing smoking cues, anxiety cues, both, or neutral cues. No differences were observed between smokers with and without anxiety disorders. Significant Patch X Time and Patch X Cue Content interactions were found. Both patch conditions experienced an increase in urge during the deprivation period, but post-absorption urge was significantly higher in the placebo condition, suggesting that transdermal nicotine attenuated the degree to which urge to smoke increased over time. During the cue reactivity trials, when participants received the nicotine patch, they experienced significantly lower urge in response to both smoking-only and neutral cues, but not when anxiety cues were present (alone or in combination with smoking cues). These data suggest that transdermal nicotine alleviates urge only under certain circumstances, and that adjunctive interventions are likely necessary to address smoking urges in response to spikes in distress among smokers trying to quit. PMID:22686966

  1. Transdermal nicotine during cue reactivity in adult smokers with and without anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Morissette, Sandra B; Gulliver, Suzy Bird; Kamholz, Barbara W; Spiegel, David A; Tiffany, Stephen T; Barlow, David H

    2012-09-01

    Transdermal nicotine almost doubles tobacco cessation rates; however, little is known about what happens to smokers during the quit process when they are wearing the nicotine patch and are confronted with high-risk smoking triggers. This is particularly important for smokers with psychological disorders who disproportionately represent today's smokers and have more trouble quitting. Using a mixed between- and within-subjects design, smokers with anxiety disorders (n=61) and smokers without any current Axis I disorders (n=38) received transdermal nicotine (21 mg) or a placebo patch over two assessment days separated by 48 hr. Urge to smoke was evaluated during a 5-hr patch absorption period (reflecting general smoking deprivation) and during imaginal exposure to theoretically high-risk triggers containing smoking cues, anxiety cues, both, or neutral cues. No differences were observed between smokers with and without anxiety disorders. Significant Patch×Time and Patch×Cue Content interactions were found. Both patch conditions experienced an increase in urge during the deprivation period, but postabsorption urge was significantly higher in the placebo condition, suggesting that transdermal nicotine attenuated the degree to which urge to smoke increased over time. During the cue reactivity trials, when participants received the nicotine patch, they experienced significantly lower urge in response to both smoking-only and neutral cues, but not when anxiety cues were present (alone or in combination with smoking cues). These data suggest that transdermal nicotine alleviates urge only under certain circumstances and that adjunctive interventions are likely necessary to address smoking urges in response to spikes in distress among smokers trying to quit.

  2. ALCOHOL-RELATED CUES POTENTIATE ALCOHOL IMPAIRMENT OF BEHAVIORAL CONTROL IN DRINKERS

    PubMed Central

    Weafer, Jessica; Fillmore, Mark T.

    2014-01-01

    The acute impairing effects of alcohol on inhibitory control are well-established, and these disinhibiting effects are thought to play a role in its abuse potential. Alcohol impairment of inhibitory control is typically assessed in the context of arbitrary cues, yet drinking environments are comprised of an array of alcohol-related cues that are thought to influence drinking behavior. Recent evidence suggests that alcohol-related stimuli reduce behavioral control in sober drinkers, suggesting that alcohol impairment of inhibitory control might be potentiated in the context of alcohol cues. The current study tested this hypothesis by examining performance on the attentional-bias behavioral activation (ABBA) task that measures the degree to which alcohol-related stimuli can reduce inhibition of inappropriate responses in a between-subjects design. Social drinkers (N=40) performed the task in a sober condition, and then again following placebo (0.0 g/kg) and a moderate dose of alcohol (0.65 g/kg) in counter-balanced order. Inhibitory failures were greater following alcohol images compared to neutral images in sober drinkers, replicating previous findings with the ABBA task. Moreover, alcohol-related cues exacerbated alcohol impairment of inhibitory control as evidenced by more pronounced alcohol-induced disinhibition following alcohol cues compared to neutral cues. Finally, regression analyses showed that greater alcohol-induced disinhibition following alcohol cues predicted greater self-reported alcohol consumption. These findings have important implications regarding factors contributing to binge or ‘loss of control’ drinking. That is, the additive effect of disrupted control mechanisms via both alcohol-cues and the pharmacological effects of the drug could compromise an individual’s control over ongoing alcohol consumption. PMID:25134023

  3. Methylphenidate attenuates limbic brain inhibition after cocaine-cues exposure in cocaine abusers.

    PubMed

    Volkow, Nora D; Wang, Gene-Jack; Tomasi, Dardo; Telang, Frank; Fowler, Joanna S; Pradhan, Kith; Jayne, Millard; Logan, Jean; Goldstein, Rita Z; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Wong, Christopher

    2010-07-09

    Dopamine (phasic release) is implicated in conditioned responses. Imaging studies in cocaine abusers show decreases in striatal dopamine levels, which we hypothesize may enhance conditioned responses since tonic dopamine levels modulate phasic dopamine release. To test this we assessed the effects of increasing tonic dopamine levels (using oral methylphenidate) on brain activation induced by cocaine-cues in cocaine abusers. Brain metabolism (marker of brain function) was measured with PET and (18)FDG in 24 active cocaine abusers tested four times; twice watching a Neutral video (nature scenes) and twice watching a Cocaine-cues video; each video was preceded once by placebo and once by methylphenidate (20 mg). The Cocaine-cues video increased craving to the same extent with placebo (68%) and with methylphenidate (64%). In contrast, SPM analysis of metabolic images revealed that differences between Neutral versus Cocaine-cues conditions were greater with placebo than methylphenidate; whereas with placebo the Cocaine-cues decreased metabolism (p<0.005) in left limbic regions (insula, orbitofrontal, accumbens) and right parahippocampus, with methylphenidate it only decreased in auditory and visual regions, which also occurred with placebo. Decreases in metabolism in these regions were not associated with craving; in contrast the voxel-wise SPM analysis identified significant correlations with craving in anterior orbitofrontal cortex (p<0.005), amygdala, striatum and middle insula (p<0.05). This suggests that methylphenidate's attenuation of brain reactivity to Cocaine-cues is distinct from that involved in craving. Cocaine-cues decreased metabolism in limbic regions (reflects activity over 30 minutes), which contrasts with activations reported by fMRI studies (reflects activity over 2-5 minutes) that may reflect long-lasting limbic inhibition following activation. Studies to evaluate the clinical significance of methylphenidate's blunting of cue-induced limbic

  4. Preferential Amygdala Reactivity to the Negative Assessment of Neutral Faces

    PubMed Central

    Blasi, Giuseppe; Hariri, Ahmad R.; Alce, Guilna; Taurisano, Paolo; Sambataro, Fabio; Das, Saumitra; Bertolino, Alessandro; Weinberger, Daniel R.; Mattay, Venkata S.

    2010-01-01

    Background Prior studies suggest that the amygdala shapes complex behavioral responses to socially ambiguous cues. We explored human amygdala function during explicit behavioral decision making about discrete emotional facial expressions that can represent socially unambiguous and ambiguous cues. Methods During functional magnetic resonance imaging, 43 healthy adults were required to make complex social decisions (i.e., approach or avoid) about either relatively unambiguous (i.e., angry, fearful, happy) or ambiguous (i.e., neutral) facial expressions. Amygdala activation during this task was compared with that elicited by simple, perceptual decisions (sex discrimination) about the identical facial stimuli. Results Angry and fearful expressions were more frequently judged as avoidable and happy expressions most often as approachable. Neutral expressions were equally judged as avoidable and approachable. Reaction times to neutral expressions were longer than those to angry, fearful, and happy expressions during social judgment only. Imaging data on stimuli judged to be avoided revealed a significant task by emotion interaction in the amygdala. Here, only neutral facial expressions elicited greater activity during social judgment than during sex discrimination. Furthermore, during social judgment only, neutral faces judged to be avoided were associated with greater amygdala activity relative to neutral faces that were judged as approachable. Moreover, functional coupling between the amygdala and both dorsolateral prefrontal (social judgment > sex discrimination) and cingulate (sex discrimination > social judgment) cortices was differentially modulated by task during processing of neutral faces. Conclusions Our results suggest that increased amygdala reactivity and differential functional coupling with prefrontal circuitries may shape complex decisions and behavioral responses to socially ambiguous cues. PMID:19709644

  5. Estimating location without external cues.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Allen

    2014-10-01

    The ability to determine one's location is fundamental to spatial navigation. Here, it is shown that localization is theoretically possible without the use of external cues, and without knowledge of initial position or orientation. With only error-prone self-motion estimates as input, a fully disoriented agent can, in principle, determine its location in familiar spaces with 1-fold rotational symmetry. Surprisingly, localization does not require the sensing of any external cue, including the boundary. The combination of self-motion estimates and an internal map of the arena provide enough information for localization. This stands in conflict with the supposition that 2D arenas are analogous to open fields. Using a rodent error model, it is shown that the localization performance which can be achieved is enough to initiate and maintain stable firing patterns like those of grid cells, starting from full disorientation. Successful localization was achieved when the rotational asymmetry was due to the external boundary, an interior barrier or a void space within an arena. Optimal localization performance was found to depend on arena shape, arena size, local and global rotational asymmetry, and the structure of the path taken during localization. Since allothetic cues including visual and boundary contact cues were not present, localization necessarily relied on the fusion of idiothetic self-motion cues and memory of the boundary. Implications for spatial navigation mechanisms are discussed, including possible relationships with place field overdispersion and hippocampal reverse replay. Based on these results, experiments are suggested to identify if and where information fusion occurs in the mammalian spatial memory system.

  6. Nonverbal Cues and Television News: TV News.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tankard, James W., Jr.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Presents evidence that nonverbal cues by newscasters are interpreted by the viewer as a sign of bias. Using two cues, raised eyebrows and a smile, the study produced data that suggest that the audience is aware of this influence. (JMF)

  7. 15-month-olds' transfer of learning between touch screen and real-world displays: language cues and cognitive loads.

    PubMed

    Zack, Elizabeth; Gerhardstein, Peter; Meltzoff, Andrew N; Barr, Rachel

    2013-02-01

    Infants have difficulty transferring information between 2D and 3D sources. The current study extends Zack, Barr, Gerhardstein, Dickerson & Meltzoff's (2009) touch screen imitation task to examine whether the addition of specific language cues significantly facilitates 15-month-olds' transfer of learning between touch screens and real-world 3D objects. The addition of two kinds of linguistic cues (object label plus verb or nonsense name) did not elevate action imitation significantly above levels observed when such language cues were not used. Language cues hindered infants' performance in the 3D→2D direction of transfer, but only for the object label plus verb condition. The lack of a facilitative effect of language is discussed in terms of competing cognitive loads imposed by conjointly transferring information across dimensions and processing linguistic cues in an action imitation task at this age.

  8. 15-Month-Olds’ Transfer of Learning between Touch Screen and Real-World Displays: Language Cues and Cognitive Loads

    PubMed Central

    Zack, Elizabeth; Gerhardstein, Peter; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Barr, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Infants have difficulty transferring information between 2D and 3D sources. The current study extends Zack et al.’s (2009) touch screen imitation task to examine whether the addition of specific language cues significantly facilitates 15-month-olds’ transfer of learning between touch screens and real-world 3D objects. The addition of two kinds of linguistic cues (object label plus verb or nonsense name) did not elevate action imitation significantly above levels observed when such language cues were not used. Language cues hindered infants’ performance in the 3D→2D direction of transfer, but only for the object label plus verb condition. The lack of a facilitative effect of language is discussed in terms of competing cognitive loads imposed by conjointly transferring information across dimensions and processing linguistic cues in an action imitation task at this age. PMID:23121508

  9. Bayesian saliency via low and mid level cues.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yulin; Lu, Huchuan; Yang, Ming-Hsuan

    2013-05-01

    Visual saliency detection is a challenging problem in computer vision, but one of great importance and numerous applications. In this paper, we propose a novel model for bottom-up saliency within the Bayesian framework by exploiting low and mid level cues. In contrast to most existing methods that operate directly on low level cues, we propose an algorithm in which a coarse saliency region is first obtained via a convex hull of interest points. We also analyze the saliency information with mid level visual cues via superpixels. We present a Laplacian sparse subspace clustering method to group superpixels with local features, and analyze the results with respect to the coarse saliency region to compute the prior saliency map. We use the low level visual cues based on the convex hull to compute the observation likelihood, thereby facilitating inference of Bayesian saliency at each pixel. Extensive experiments on a large data set show that our Bayesian saliency model performs favorably against the state-of-the-art algorithms.

  10. Modeling the utility of binaural cues for underwater sound localization.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Jennifer N; Lloyd, David R; Banks, Patchouly N; Mercado, Eduardo

    2014-06-01

    The binaural cues used by terrestrial animals for sound localization in azimuth may not always suffice for accurate sound localization underwater. The purpose of this research was to examine the theoretical limits of interaural timing and level differences available underwater using computational and physical models. A paired-hydrophone system was used to record sounds transmitted underwater and recordings were analyzed using neural networks calibrated to reflect the auditory capabilities of terrestrial mammals. Estimates of source direction based on temporal differences were most accurate for frequencies between 0.5 and 1.75 kHz, with greater resolution toward the midline (2°), and lower resolution toward the periphery (9°). Level cues also changed systematically with source azimuth, even at lower frequencies than expected from theoretical calculations, suggesting that binaural mechanical coupling (e.g., through bone conduction) might, in principle, facilitate underwater sound localization. Overall, the relatively limited ability of the model to estimate source position using temporal and level difference cues underwater suggests that animals such as whales may use additional cues to accurately localize conspecifics and predators at long distances. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Role of cues and contexts on drug-seeking behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Christina J; Zbukvic, Isabel; Kim, Jee Hyun; Lawrence, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Environmental stimuli are powerful mediators of craving and relapse in substance-abuse disorders. This review examined how animal models have been used to investigate the cognitive mechanisms through which cues are able to affect drug-seeking behaviour. We address how animal models can describe the way drug-associated cues come to facilitate the development and persistence of drug taking, as well as how these cues are critical to the tendency to relapse that characterizes substance-abuse disorders. Drug-associated cues acquire properties of conditioned reinforcement, incentive motivation and discriminative control, which allow them to influence drug-seeking behaviour. Using these models, researchers have been able to investigate the pharmacology subserving the behavioural impact of environmental stimuli, some of which we highlight. Subsequently, we examine whether the impact of drug-associated stimuli can be attenuated via a process of extinction, and how this question is addressed in the laboratory. We discuss how preclinical research has been translated into behavioural therapies targeting substance abuse, as well as highlight potential developments to therapies that might produce more enduring changes in behaviour. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Animal Models in Psychiatry Research. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-20 PMID:24749941

  12. Role of cues and contexts on drug-seeking behaviour.

    PubMed

    Perry, Christina J; Zbukvic, Isabel; Kim, Jee Hyun; Lawrence, Andrew J

    2014-10-01

    Environmental stimuli are powerful mediators of craving and relapse in substance-abuse disorders. This review examined how animal models have been used to investigate the cognitive mechanisms through which cues are able to affect drug-seeking behaviour. We address how animal models can describe the way drug-associated cues come to facilitate the development and persistence of drug taking, as well as how these cues are critical to the tendency to relapse that characterizes substance-abuse disorders. Drug-associated cues acquire properties of conditioned reinforcement, incentive motivation and discriminative control, which allow them to influence drug-seeking behaviour. Using these models, researchers have been able to investigate the pharmacology subserving the behavioural impact of environmental stimuli, some of which we highlight. Subsequently, we examine whether the impact of drug-associated stimuli can be attenuated via a process of extinction, and how this question is addressed in the laboratory. We discuss how preclinical research has been translated into behavioural therapies targeting substance abuse, as well as highlight potential developments to therapies that might produce more enduring changes in behaviour.

  13. The fMRI BOLD response to unisensory and multisensory smoking cues in nicotine-dependent adults

    PubMed Central

    Cortese, Bernadette M.; Uhde, Thomas W.; Brady, Kathleen T.; McClernon, F. Joseph; Yang, Qing X.; Collins, Heather R.; LeMatty, Todd; Hartwell, Karen J.

    2015-01-01

    Given that the vast majority of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of drug cue reactivity use unisensory visual cues, but that multisensory cues may elicit greater craving-related brain responses, the current study sought to compare the fMRI BOLD response to unisensory visual and multisensory, visual plus odor, smoking cues in 17 nicotine-dependent adult cigarette smokers. Brain activation to smoking-related, compared to neutral, pictures was assessed under cigarette smoke and odorless odor conditions. While smoking pictures elicited a pattern of activation consistent with the addiction literature, the multisensory (odor + picture) smoking cues elicited significantly greater and more widespread activation in mainly frontal and temporal regions. BOLD signal elicited by the multi-sensory, but not unisensory cues, was significantly related to participants’ level of control over craving as well. Results demonstrated that the co-presentation of cigarette smoke odor with smoking-related visual cues, compared to the visual cues alone, elicited greater levels of craving-related brain activation in key regions implicated in reward. These preliminary findings support future research aimed at a better understanding of multisensory integration of drug cues and craving. PMID:26475784

  14. Cross-Cultural Nonverbal Cue Immersive Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    1 CROSS-CULTURAL NONVERBAL CUE IMMERSIVE TRAINING Shatha N. Samman*, Michael Moshell + , Bryan Clark, Chantel Brathwaite + , and Allison Abbe...their meaning. 1.2 Nonverbal Cues Categorized by Function In one commonly accepted taxonomic approach, Ekman and Friesen (1969) classified...nonverbal cues (Ekman & Friesen , 1969). Emblems occur mainly when verbal communication is inhibited by external factors (e.g., noise, distance

  15. When Symbolic Spatial Cues Go before Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrera, Amparo; Macizo, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    This work explores the effect of spatial cueing on number processing. Participants performed a parity judgment task. However, shortly before the target number, a cue (arrow pointing to left, arrow pointing to right or a cross) was centrally presented. In Experiment 1, in which responses were lateralized, the cue direction modulated the interaction…

  16. Fragrances as Cues for Remembering Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eich, James Eric

    1978-01-01

    Results of this experiment suggest that specific encoding of a word is not a necessary condition for cue effectiveness. Results imply that the effect of a nominal fragrance cue arises through the mediation of a functional, implicitly generated semantic cue. (Author/SW)

  17. Noise and Inattentiveness to Social Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Sheldon; Lezak, Anne

    1977-01-01

    The effects of environmental stress on the processing of task-irrelevant cues of a social nature were examined. While noise did not affect memory for the task-relevant cues, task-irrelevant cues, regardless of whether they depicted calm or distressed persons, were remembered less well under noise than under quiet. (Author/MA)

  18. Reprint of: Object-based attentional facilitation and inhibition are neuropsychologically dissociated.

    PubMed

    Smith, Daniel T; Ball, Keira; Swalwell, Robert; Schenk, Thomas

    2016-11-01

    Salient peripheral cues produce a transient shift of attention which is superseded by a sustained inhibitory effect. Cueing part of an object produces an inhibitory cueing effect (ICE) that spreads throughout the object. In dynamic scenes the ICE stays with objects as they move. We examined object-centred attentional facilitation and inhibition in a patient with visual form agnosia. There was no evidence of object-centred attentional facilitation. In contrast, object-centred ICE was observed in 3 out of 4 tasks. These inhibitory effects were strongest where cues to objecthood were highly salient. These data are evidence of a neuropsychological dissociation between the facilitatory and inhibitory effects of attentional cueing. From a theoretical perspective the findings suggest that 'grouped arrays' are sufficient for object-based inhibition, but insufficient to generate object-centred attentional facilitation.

  19. Identifying the 'if' for 'if-then' plans: combining implementation intentions with cue-monitoring targeting unhealthy snacking behaviour.

    PubMed

    Verhoeven, Aukje A C; Adriaanse, Marieke A; de Vet, Emely; Fennis, Bob M; de Ridder, Denise T D

    2014-01-01

    Implementation intentions aimed at changing unwanted habits require the identification of personally relevant cues triggering the habitual response in order to be effective. To facilitate successful implementation intention formation, in the present study, planning was combined with cue-monitoring, a novel way to gain insight into triggers for unhealthy snacking. It was tested whether keeping a cue-monitoring diary and tailoring implementation intentions accordingly improves plan effectiveness. A 2 Monitoring (cue-monitoring, control) × 2 Planning (implementation intention, goal intention) between subjects design was adopted. Participants (N = 161) monitored their unhealthy snacking behaviour for a week using either a cue-monitoring or a control diary. Participants then formulated a goal intention or an implementation intention tailored to their personal cue. Snacking frequency and caloric intake from unhealthy snacks were examined using a seven-day snack diary. The results did not indicate an interaction but yielded a main effect of Monitoring. Cue-monitoring either or not combined with implementation intentions reduced unhealthy snacking behaviour compared with control. Findings emphasise the effectiveness of cue-monitoring, suggesting that on the short term, cue-monitoring suffices to decrease unhealthy snacking, without additional benefit from planning. Future research should examine whether supplementing cue-monitoring with implementation intentions is required to establish long-term behaviour change maintenance.

  20. Cue reactivity in cannabis-dependent adolescents.

    PubMed

    Nickerson, Lisa D; Ravichandran, Caitlin; Lundahl, Leslie H; Rodolico, John; Dunlap, Steven; Trksak, George H; Lukas, Scott E

    2011-03-01

    The authors measured event-related potentials with a craving manipulation to investigate the neural correlates of drug cue reactivity in 13 adolescents who are cannabis dependent (CD; ages 14-17). The P300 responses to marijuana (MJ) pictures (MJ-P300) and control pictures (C-P300) were assessed after handling neutral objects and again after handling MJ paraphernalia (MJP). Self-reported drug craving and heart rates also were measured. MJ-P300 were larger than C-P300 (p < .001), and both the MJ-P300 and craving increased significantly after handling MJP (p = .002 and p = .003, respectively), with no association between the magnitude of craving and MJ-P300. Heart rates were not affected by handling MJP. The results showed that adolescents who are CD have an attentional bias to MJ stimuli that increases after handling marijuana paraphernalia. Generally, the results are consistent with what has been reported for adult heavy chronic cannabis smokers, although there were some differences that require further investigation.

  1. Speaker's voice as a memory cue.

    PubMed

    Campeanu, Sandra; Craik, Fergus I M; Alain, Claude

    2015-02-01

    Speaker's voice occupies a central role as the cornerstone of auditory social interaction. Here, we review the evidence suggesting that speaker's voice constitutes an integral context cue in auditory memory. Investigation into the nature of voice representation as a memory cue is essential to understanding auditory memory and the neural correlates which underlie it. Evidence from behavioral and electrophysiological studies suggest that while specific voice reinstatement (i.e., same speaker) often appears to facilitate word memory even without attention to voice at study, the presence of a partial benefit of similar voices between study and test is less clear. In terms of explicit memory experiments utilizing unfamiliar voices, encoding methods appear to play a pivotal role. Voice congruency effects have been found when voice is specifically attended at study (i.e., when relatively shallow, perceptual encoding takes place). These behavioral findings coincide with neural indices of memory performance such as the parietal old/new recollection effect and the late right frontal effect. The former distinguishes between correctly identified old words and correctly identified new words, and reflects voice congruency only when voice is attended at study. Characterization of the latter likely depends upon voice memory, rather than word memory. There is also evidence to suggest that voice effects can be found in implicit memory paradigms. However, the presence of voice effects appears to depend greatly on the task employed. Using a word identification task, perceptual similarity between study and test conditions is, like for explicit memory tests, crucial. In addition, the type of noise employed appears to have a differential effect. While voice effects have been observed when white noise is used at both study and test, using multi-talker babble does not confer the same results. In terms of neuroimaging research modulations, characterization of an implicit memory effect

  2. Ion-Ion Neutralization.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-31

    Accession No. 3. Recipient’s Catalog Number FGL -TR-82 -0202 b- /- 4. Title (and Subtitle) 5. Type of Report & Period Covered ION-ION NEUTRALIZATION Final...few years under the terms of the grant has been the detailed study of binary ion-ion neutralization reactions involving ions of atmospheric...2TT, England. 1. INTRODUCTION Binary positive-ion negative-ion mutual neutralization viz: A+ + B->C + D (1) can be an important loss process for

  3. Stop identity cue as a cue to language identity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castonguay, Paula Lisa

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether language membership could potentially be cued by the acoustic-phonetic detail of word-initial stops and retained all the way through the process of lexical access to aid in language identification. Of particular interest were language-specific differences in CE and CF word-initial stops. Experiment 1 consisted of an interlingual homophone production task. The purpose of this study was to examine how word-initial stop consonants differ in terms of acoustic properties in Canadian English (CE) and Canadian French (CF) interlingual homophones. The analyses from the bilingual speakers in Experiment 1 indicate that bilinguals do produce language-specific differences in CE and CF word-initial stops, and that closure duration, voice onset time, and burst spectral SD may provide cues to language identity in CE and CF stops. Experiment 2 consisted of a Phoneme and Language Categorization task. The purpose of this study was to examine how stop identity cues, such as VOT and closure duration, influence a listener to identify word-initial stop consonants as belonging to Canadian English (CE) or Canadian French (CF). The RTs from the bilingual listeners in this study indicate that bilinguals do perceive language-specific differences in CE and CF word-initial stops, and that voice onset time may provide cues to phoneme and language membership in CE and CF stops. Experiment 3 consisted of a Phonological-Semantic priming task. The purpose of this study was to examine how subphonetic variations, such as changes in the VOT, affect lexical access. The results of Experiment 3 suggest that language-specific cues, such as VOT, affects the composition of the bilingual cohort and that the extent to which English and/or French words are activated is dependent on the language-specific cues present in a word. The findings of this study enhanced our theoretical understanding of lexical structure and lexical access in bilingual speakers

  4. Dissociable effect of acute varenicline on tonic versus cue-provoked craving in non-treatment motivated heavy smokers

    PubMed Central

    Hitsman, Brian; Hogarth, Lee; Tseng, Li-Jung; Teige, Jordan C.; Shadel, William G.; DiBenedetti, Dana Britt; Danto, Spencer; Lee, Theodore C.; Price, Lawrence H.; Niaura, Raymond

    2017-01-01

    Rationale The effectiveness of varenicline for smoking cessation has been established, but little is known about the psychological processes that mediate this clinical outcome. Objectives This study evaluated the effect of a single dose of varenicline on tonic and cue-provoked changes in craving, withdrawal, and affect using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design. Methods Following overnight abstinence, 38 non-treatment-motivated smokers received either varenicline 2 mg or matched placebo, then tonic measures of craving, withdrawal, and positive and negative affect were obtained at 30-minute intervals. At 4-hours post-administration, a cue exposure session obtained the same subjective measures at three time-points following the physical handling of a lit cigarette versus the sharpening and handling of a pencil. Results At 4-hours post-administration, varenicline reduced tonic craving as well as craving across the smoking and neutral cue conditions, relative to placebo. By contrast, the capacity of the smoking cue to enhance craving relative to the neutral cue was unaffected by varenicline. Measures of withdrawal and positive and negative affect produced mixed results. Conclusions Acute varenicline selectively attenuates tonic but not cue-provoked craving. This dissociation provides insight into the specific psychological processes that might mediate the effectiveness of varenicline, and highlights cue-provoked craving as a discrete target for advancing smoking cessation pharmacotherapy. PMID:23201174

  5. Dissociable effect of acute varenicline on tonic versus cue-provoked craving in non-treatment-motivated heavy smokers.

    PubMed

    Hitsman, Brian; Hogarth, Lee; Tseng, Li-Jung; Teige, Jordan C; Shadel, William G; DiBenedetti, Dana Britt; Danto, Spencer; Lee, Theodore C; Price, Lawrence H; Niaura, Raymond

    2013-06-01

    The effectiveness of varenicline for smoking cessation has been established, but little is known about the psychological processes that mediate this clinical outcome. This study evaluated the effect of a single dose of varenicline on tonic and cue-provoked changes in craving, withdrawal, and affect using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design. Following overnight abstinence, 38 non-treatment-motivated smokers received either varenicline 2mg or matched placebo, then tonic measures of craving, withdrawal, and positive and negative affect were obtained at 30-min intervals. At 4-h post-administration, a cue exposure session obtained the same subjective measures at three time-points following the physical handling of a lit cigarette versus the sharpening and handling of a pencil. At 4-h post-administration, varenicline reduced tonic craving as well as craving across the smoking and neutral cue conditions, relative to placebo. By contrast, the capacity of the smoking cue to enhance craving relative to the neutral cue was unaffected by varenicline. Measures of withdrawal and positive and negative affect produced mixed results. Acute varenicline selectively attenuates tonic but not cue-provoked craving. This dissociation provides insight into the specific psychological processes that might mediate the effectiveness of varenicline, and highlights cue-provoked craving as a discrete target for advancing smoking cessation pharmacotherapy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. PTSD symptom severity as a predictor of cue-elicited drug craving in victims of violent crime.

    PubMed

    Saladin, Michael E; Drobes, David J; Coffey, Scott F; Dansky, Bonnie S; Brady, Kathleen T; Kilpatrick, Dean G

    2003-12-01

    This study examined posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity as a predictor of cue-elicited craving among alcohol- and cocaine-dependent individuals with a history of at least one physical and/or sexual assault. Approximately half of the sample had current PTSD. Severity of PTSD symptoms was measured via the Impact of Events Scale-Revised (IES-R) total severity score. Subjects listened to four trials of a brief narrative imagery script followed by the presentation of an in vivo cue. The script presentation consisted of a description of either the subject's worst traumatic event or a neutral scene. The in vivo cues consisted of the presentation of either the subject's preferred drug or neutral cues. Craving was measured in response to both the script and in vivo cues. Results indicated a high degree of correlation between self-report craving and (a) PTSD symptom severity, (b) type of substance use disorder (SUD) [alcohol dependence (AD) vs. cocaine dependence (CD)], and (c) sex and race of participant. A series of stepwise multiple regressions indicated that PTSD severity was significantly predictive of trauma cue-elicited craving and drug cue-elicited craving. The results are discussed in the context of current research, theory, and clinical practice.

  7. ALEX neutral beam probe

    SciTech Connect

    Pourrezaei, K.

    1982-01-01

    A neutral beam probe capable of measuring plasma space potential in a fully 3-dimensional magnetic field geometry has been developed. This neutral beam was successfully used to measure an arc target plasma contained within the ALEX baseball magnetic coil. A computer simulation of the experiment was performed to refine the experimental design and to develop a numerical model for scaling the ALEX neutral beam probe to other cases of fully 3-dimensional magnetic field. Based on this scaling a 30 to 50 keV neutral cesium beam probe capable of measuring space potential in the thermal barrier region of TMX Upgrade was designed.

  8. Visual cues for data mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogowitz, Bernice E.; Rabenhorst, David A.; Gerth, John A.; Kalin, Edward B.

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes a set of visual techniques, based on principles of human perception and cognition, which can help users analyze and develop intuitions about tabular data. Collections of tabular data are widely available, including, for example, multivariate time series data, customer satisfaction data, stock market performance data, multivariate profiles of companies and individuals, and scientific measurements. In our approach, we show how visual cues can help users perform a number of data mining tasks, including identifying correlations and interaction effects, finding clusters and understanding the semantics of cluster membership, identifying anomalies and outliers, and discovering multivariate relationships among variables. These cues are derived from psychological studies on perceptual organization, visual search, perceptual scaling, and color perception. These visual techniques are presented as a complement to the statistical and algorithmic methods more commonly associated with these tasks, and provide an interactive interface for the human analyst.

  9. Frontostriatal maturation predicts cognitive control failure to appetitive cues in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Somerville, Leah H.; Hare, Todd; Casey, BJ

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent risk-taking is a public health issue that increases the odds of poor lifetime outcomes. One factor thought to influence adolescents' propensity for risk-taking is an enhanced sensitivity to appetitive cues, relative to an immature capacity to exert sufficient cognitive control. We tested this hypothesis by characterizing interactions among ventral striatal, dorsal striatal and prefrontal cortical regions with varying appetitive load using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning. Child, teen, and adult participants performed a go nogo task with appetitive (happy faces) and neutral cues (calm faces). Impulse control to neutral cues showed linear improvement with age, whereas teens showed a nonlinear reduction in impulse control to appetitive cues. This performance decrement in teens was paralleled by enhanced activity in the ventral striatum. Prefrontal cortical recruitment correlated with overall accuracy and showed a linear response with age for nogo versus go trials. Connectivity analyses identified a ventral frontostriatal circuit including the inferior frontal gyrus and dorsal striatum during nogo versus go trials. Examining recruitment developmentally showed that teens had greater between-subjects ventral-dorsal striatal coactivation relative to children and adults for happy nogo versus go trials. These findings implicate exaggerated ventral striatal representation of appetitive cues in adolescents relative to an intermediary cognitive control response. Connectivity and coactivity data suggest these systems communicate at the level of the dorsal striatum differentially across development. Biased responding in this system is one possible mechanism underlying heightened risk-taking during adolescence. PMID:20809855

  10. Frontostriatal maturation predicts cognitive control failure to appetitive cues in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Somerville, Leah H; Hare, Todd; Casey, B J

    2011-09-01

    Adolescent risk-taking is a public health issue that increases the odds of poor lifetime outcomes. One factor thought to influence adolescents' propensity for risk-taking is an enhanced sensitivity to appetitive cues, relative to an immature capacity to exert sufficient cognitive control. We tested this hypothesis by characterizing interactions among ventral striatal, dorsal striatal, and prefrontal cortical regions with varying appetitive load using fMRI scanning. Child, teen, and adult participants performed a go/no-go task with appetitive (happy faces) and neutral cues (calm faces). Impulse control to neutral cues showed linear improvement with age, whereas teens showed a nonlinear reduction in impulse control to appetitive cues. This performance decrement in teens was paralleled by enhanced activity in the ventral striatum. Prefrontal cortical recruitment correlated with overall accuracy and showed a linear response with age for no-go versus go trials. Connectivity analyses identified a ventral frontostriatal circuit including the inferior frontal gyrus and dorsal striatum during no-go versus go trials. Examining recruitment developmentally showed that teens had greater between-subject ventral-dorsal striatal coactivation relative to children and adults for happy no-go versus go trials. These findings implicate exaggerated ventral striatal representation of appetitive cues in adolescents relative to an intermediary cognitive control response. Connectivity and coactivity data suggest these systems communicate at the level of the dorsal striatum differentially across development. Biased responding in this system is one possible mechanism underlying heightened risk-taking during adolescence.

  11. Children's perception of static noise and static formant cues to stop-consonant place of articulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohde, Ralph N.

    2003-04-01

    Children's processing strategies appear to favor dynamic cues such as formant transitions as compared to static cues such as F2 onsets and noise bursts. The purpose of this research was to examine children's perception of place of articulation based only on static cues. Ten children at each of five age levels (3, 4, 5, 6, and 7) and a control group of 10 adults identified synthesized stop consonants [d g] in two vowel contexts [i opena]. The synthesis parameters included variations in F2 onsets and stop-consonant noise bursts. The F2 onsets were either ``appropriate'' or ``neutral'' for place of articulation. The noise bursts were either short (10 ms) or long (25 ms). Preliminary data show that the F2 onset is not as salient in children's perception as in adults' perception. In addition, children more often than adults categorized neutral F2 onset stimuli as ambiguous indicating stronger category formation in the latter than former groups. The role of noise bursts was more salient in adult perception than child perception. The findings will provide information on the role of ``static'' cues, on the perceptual integration of ``static'' noise and formant cues, and on the influence of sound category formation in perceptual development. [Work supported by NIH and a Vanderbilt University Research Council Grant.

  12. Nicotine craving: ERPs correlates after VR exposure to smoking cues.

    PubMed

    Gamito, Pedro; Oliveira, Jorge; Baptista, André; Morais, Diogo; Lopes, Paulo; Saraiva, Tomaz; Rosa, Pedro; Santos, Nuno; Soares, Fábio; Sottomayor, Catarina; Barata, Filipa

    2012-01-01

    Even though it is diminishing in Europe, smoking is still a serious health problem. The craving of Nicotine is one of the hardest behaviours to tackle when a smoking cessation programme is implemented. Following on previous work [1], which aimed at evaluating the possibility of inducing smoking craving in smokers using a VR platform, the present study was devised to assess the role of craving in cognitive processing through event related potentials (ERP). From an initial sample of 89 university students (smokers and non-smokers), which was randomly exposed to VR smoking cues and VR non-smoking cue scenarios, a subsample of 13 smokers and non-smokers was drawn. This subsample (M = 23.08; SD = 4.39), which had previously been immersed in the VR smoking cues environment, was presented to a rapid (1 sec) serial of smoking and neutral images. Data on brain activity was recorded through an EEG during this task to further estimate ERPs. When compared to non-smokers, smokers showed higher frontal activation when watching smoking related images.

  13. Conditioned cues for smoking elicit preparatory responses in healthy smokers

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, Markus H.; Weyers, Peter; Mucha, Ronald F.; Stippekohl, Bastian; Stark, Rudolf

    2010-01-01

    Rationale Smoking cues are theorized to be conditioned stimuli (CSs) formed by repeated pairing with drug. Smoking paraphernalia can elicit subjective and physiological responses in smokers, indicative of positive affect and motivation to consume. Although these responses are probably the result of conditioning, direct evidence from human conditioning studies with physiological measures of motivational valence is rare. Objective The present study investigated the motivational properties of experimentally conditioned cues for smoking. Methods Thirty-nine smokers completed a differential conditioning protocol. Abstract pictures were used as CSs and single puffs on a cigarette as unconditioned stimulus (US). Skin conductance responses and facial electromyography of the zygomatic, corrugator, and orbicularis oris muscles were measured during conditioning. Results The conditioned cue for smoking (CS+) elicited stronger skin conductance responses and more activity of the zygomatic and orbicularis oris muscles than the CS−. Conclusions These results support the notion that through pairing with smoking, neutral stimuli acquire the ability to elicit preparatory physiological responses, which are assumed to play an important role in the maintenance of addiction and relapse in the natural environment. PMID:20953588

  14. Age Similarities in Recognizing Threat From Faces and Diagnostic Cues

    PubMed Central

    Zebrowitz, Leslie A.; Franklin, Robert G.; McCormick, Cheryl M.; Carré, Justin M.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Previous research indicates that younger adults (YA) can identify men’s tendency to be aggressive based merely on their neutral expression faces. We compared older adults (OA) and YA accuracy and investigated contributing facial cues. Method. In Study 1, YA and OA rated the aggressiveness of young men depicted in facial photographs in a control, distraction, or accuracy motivation condition. In Study 2, YA and OA rated how angry, attractive, masculine, and babyfaced the men looked in addition to rating their aggressiveness. These measures plus measured facial width-to-height ratio (FWHR) were used to examine cues to aggressiveness. Results. Accuracy coefficients, calculated by correlating rated aggressiveness with the men’s previously measured actual aggressiveness, were significant and equal for OA and YA. Accuracy was not moderated by distraction or accuracy motivation, suggesting automatic processing. A greater FWHR, lower attractiveness, and higher masculinity independently influenced rated aggressiveness by both age groups and also were valid cues to actual aggressiveness. Discussion. Despite previous evidence for positivity biases in OA, they can be just as accurate as YA when it comes to discerning actual differences in the aggressiveness of young men. PMID:23743626

  15. Vendor neutral archive in PACS

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Tapesh Kumar; Sanjeev

    2012-01-01

    An archive is a location containing a collection of records, documents, or other materials of historical importance. An integral part of Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) is archiving. When a hospital needs to migrate a PACS vendor, the complete earlier data need to be migrated in the format of the newly procured PACS. It is both time and money consuming. To address this issue, the new concept of vendor neutral archive (VNA) has emerged. A VNA simply decouples the PACS and workstations at the archival layer. This is achieved by developing an application engine that receives, integrates, and transmits the data using the different syntax of a Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) format. Transferring the data belonging to the old PACS to a new one is performed by a process called migration of data. In VNA, a number of different data migration techniques are available to facilitate transfer from the old PACS to the new one, the choice depending on the speed of migration and the importance of data. The techniques include simple DICOM migration, prefetch-based DICOM migration, medium migration, and the expensive non-DICOM migration. “Vendor neutral” may not be a suitable term, and “architecture neutral,” “PACS neutral,” “content neutral,” or “third-party neutral” are probably better and preferred terms. Notwithstanding this, the VNA acronym has come to stay in both the medical IT user terminology and in vendor nomenclature, and radiologists need to be aware of its impact in PACS across the globe. PMID:23833411

  16. Testosterone suppresses circadian responsiveness to social cues in the diurnal rodent Octodon degus.

    PubMed

    Jechura, Tammy J; Walsh, Jacquelynn M; Lee, Theresa M

    2003-02-01

    The diurnal, social rodent Octodon degus displays a robust sex difference in the ability to use social cues to facilitate reentrainment following a phase advance of the light cycle. Adult females housed with a female social cue donor reentrained 25% to 40% faster than did females reentraining alone. However, reentrainment rates of males were unaffected by exposure to female social cues during reentrainment. The authors hypothesized that males were less sensitive to the reentrainment-enhancing effects of social cues and that their higher threshold to the stimuli could be overcome if the social cues were either increased in strength or salience. Housing a male with two females significantly shortened the time to reentrain following a 9-h phase advance (p = 0.002). Housing with a sister had no effect on reentrainment. Therefore, male degus are able to respond to social cues but require the stimulus to be stronger than that for females. The effect of testosterone was tested by comparing reentrainment rates of castrated males before and after testosterone replacement both with and without a female social cue donor. Castrated males responded to a single female social cue donor, reentraining 35% faster than when housed alone (p = 0.006), whereas the time to reentrainment of intact males and males with testosterone capsule implants did not differ. Intact females were also implanted with testosterone and phase shifted with and without donors. Testosterone treatment eliminated the increase in reentrainment rates in the presence of social cues. The authors conclude that the rate of recovery from odor-enhanced phase shifts is modulated by activational effects of testosterone in male degus. Testosterone is also effective in suppressing social cue responsiveness in females, suggesting that testosterone's effects on responsiveness are not sexually dimorphic. This hormonal effect likely occurs by altering sensory system functions or CNS response to sensory information.

  17. Eliciting nicotine craving with virtual smoking cues.

    PubMed

    Gamito, Pedro; Oliveira, Jorge; Baptista, André; Morais, Diogo; Lopes, Paulo; Rosa, Pedro; Santos, Nuno; Brito, Rodrigo

    2014-08-01

    Craving is a strong desire to consume that emerges in every case of substance addiction. Previous studies have shown that eliciting craving with an exposure cues protocol can be a useful option for the treatment of nicotine dependence. Thus, the main goal of this study was to develop a virtual platform in order to induce craving in smokers. Fifty-five undergraduate students were randomly assigned to two different virtual environments: high arousal contextual cues and low arousal contextual cues scenarios (17 smokers with low nicotine dependency were excluded). An eye-tracker system was used to evaluate attention toward these cues. Eye fixation on smoking-related cues differed between smokers and nonsmokers, indicating that smokers focused more often on smoking-related cues than nonsmokers. Self-reports of craving are in agreement with these results and suggest a significant increase in craving after exposure to smoking cues. In sum, these data support the use of virtual environments for eliciting craving.

  18. Attentional bias to alcohol stimuli predicts elevated cue-induced craving in young adult social drinkers.

    PubMed

    Manchery, Linda; Yarmush, Devorah E; Luehring-Jones, Peter; Erblich, Joel

    2017-07-01

    Considerable evidence has identified biased cognitive processing of alcohol-related stimuli as an important factor in the maintenance of alcohol-seeking and relapse among individuals suffering from alcohol use-disorders (AUDs). In addition, a large body of research has demonstrated that exposure to alcohol cues can elicit powerful alcohol cravings. Little is known, however, about the possible relationship between attentional bias and cue-induced cravings, and even less is known about these processes in social drinkers without a personal history of AUDs. The goal of this study was to examine the possibility that attentional biases toward alcohol-related stimuli would predict elevated cue-induced alcohol craving in this population. Young adult social drinkers (N=30, Mean age=22.8±1.9, 61% female) recruited from an urban university population completed a visual dot probe task in which they were presented with alcohol and neutral stimulus pictures that were immediately followed by a visual probe replacing one of the pictures. Attentional bias was measured by calculating reaction times to probes that replaced alcohol stimuli vs. neutral stimuli. Participants then completed a classic alcohol cue-exposure task and reported cravings immediately before and after alcohol and neutral cue-exposures. Not surprisingly, exposure to alcohol cues elicited significant cravings. Consistent with the study hypothesis, larger attentional biases toward alcohol stimuli predicted higher levels of alcohol craving. Findings demonstrate that heightened attention to alcohol stimuli can significantly impact motivation to consume in healthy young adults, and suggest a possible pathway linking cognitive processes early in the drinking trajectory to the later development of AUDs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Intact implicit processing of facial threat cues in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Shasteen, Jonathon R; Pinkham, Amy E; Kelsven, Skylar; Ludwig, Kelsey; Payne, B Keith; Penn, David L

    2016-01-01

    An emerging body of research suggests that people with schizophrenia retain the ability to implicitly perceive facial affect, despite well-documented difficulty explicitly identifying emotional expressions. It remains unclear, however, whether such functional implicit processing extends beyond emotion to other socially relevant facial cues. Here, we constructed two novel versions of the Affect Misattribution Procedure, a paradigm in which affective responses to primes are projected onto neutral targets. The first version included three face primes previously validated to elicit varying inferences of threat from healthy individuals via emotion-independent structural modification (e.g., nose and eye size). The second version included the threat-relevant emotional primes of angry, neutral, and happy faces. Data from 126 participants with schizophrenia and 84 healthy controls revealed that although performing more poorly on an assessment of explicit emotion recognition, patients showed normative implicit threat processing for both non-emotional and emotional facial cues. Collectively, these results support recent hypotheses postulating that the initial perception of salient facial information remains intact in schizophrenia, but that deficits arise at subsequent stages of contextual integration and appraisal. Such a breakdown in the stream of face processing has important implications for mechanistic models of social cognitive impairment in schizophrenia and treatment strategies aiming to improve functional outcome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Attentional bias for food cues in binge eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Florian; Naumann, Eva; Trentowska, Monika; Svaldi, Jennifer

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate an attentional bias toward food stimuli in binge eating disorder (BED). To this end, a BED and a weight-matched control group (CG) completed a clarification task and a spatial cueing paradigm. The clarification task revealed that food stimuli were faster detected than neutral stimuli, and that this difference was more pronounced in BED than in the CG. The spatial cueing paradigm indicated a stimulus engagement effect in the BED group but not in the CG, suggesting that an early locus in stimulus processing contributes to differences between BED patients and obese controls. Both groups experienced difficulty disengaging attention from food stimuli, and this effect was only descriptively larger in the BED group. The effects obtained in both paradigms were found to be correlated with reported severity of BED symptoms. Of note, this relationship was partially mediated by the arousal associated with food stimuli relative to neutral stimuli, as predicted by an account on incentive sensitization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Attentional Bias For Prescription Opioid Cues Among Opioid Dependent Chronic Pain Patients

    PubMed Central

    Garland, Eric L.; Froeliger, Brett; Passik, Steven D.; Howard, Matthew O.

    2012-01-01

    Recurrent use of prescription opioid analgesics by chronic pain patients may result in opioid dependence, which involves implicit neurocognitive operations that organize and impel craving states and compulsive drug taking behavior. Prior studies have identified an attentional bias (AB) towards heroin among heroin dependent individuals. The aim of this study was to determine whether opioid-dependent chronic pain patients exhibit an AB towards prescription opioidrelated cues. Opioid-dependent chronic pain patients (n = 32) and a comparison group of non-dependent opioid users with chronic pain (n = 33) completed a dot probe task designed to measure opioid AB. Participants also rated their opioid craving and self-reported arousal associated with opioid-related and neutral images, pain severity, and relief from pain treatments. Repeated-measures ANOVA revealed a significant group (opioid-dependent vs. non-dependent opioid user) × presentation duration (200 ms. vs. 2000 ms.) interaction, such that opioid-dependent individuals evidenced a significant AB towards opioid cues presented for 200 ms but not for cues presented for 2000 ms, whereas non-dependent opioid users did not exhibit a significant mean AB at either stimulus duration. Among opioid-dependent individuals, 200 ms opioid AB was significantly associated with opioid craving, while among non-dependent opioid users, 200 ms opioid AB was significantly associated with relief from pain treatments. Furthermore, dependent and non-dependent opioid users experienced opioid cues as significantly more arousing than neutral cues. Opioid dependence among chronic pain patients appears to involve an automatic AB towards opioid-related cues. When coupled with chronic pain, attentional fixation on opioid cues may promote compulsive drug use and addictive behavior. PMID:22968666

  2. Attentional bias for prescription opioid cues among opioid dependent chronic pain patients.

    PubMed

    Garland, Eric L; Froeliger, Brett E; Passik, Steven D; Howard, Matthew O

    2013-12-01

    Recurrent use of prescription opioid analgesics by chronic pain patients may result in opioid dependence, which involves implicit neurocognitive operations that organize and impel craving states and compulsive drug taking behavior. Prior studies have identified an attentional bias (AB) towards heroin among heroin dependent individuals. The aim of this study was to determine whether opioid-dependent chronic pain patients exhibit an AB towards prescription opioid-related cues. Opioid-dependent chronic pain patients (n = 32) and a comparison group of non-dependent opioid users with chronic pain (n = 33) completed a dot probe task designed to measure opioid AB. Participants also rated their opioid craving and self-reported arousal associated with opioid-related and neutral images, pain severity, and relief from pain treatments. Repeated-measures ANOVA revealed a significant group (opioid-dependent vs. non-dependent opioid user) × presentation duration (200. vs. 2,000 ms.) interaction, such that opioid-dependent individuals evidenced a significant AB towards opioid cues presented for 200 ms but not for cues presented for 2,000 ms, whereas non-dependent opioid users did not exhibit a significant mean AB at either stimulus duration. Among opioid-dependent individuals, 200 ms opioid AB was significantly associated with opioid craving, while among non-dependent opioid users, 200 ms opioid AB was significantly associated with relief from pain treatments. Furthermore, dependent and non-dependent opioid users experienced opioid cues as significantly more arousing than neutral cues. Opioid dependence among chronic pain patients appears to involve an automatic AB towards opioid-related cues. When coupled with chronic pain, attentional fixation on opioid cues may promote compulsive drug use and addictive behavior.

  3. Dynamic Neural Processing of Linguistic Cues Related to Death

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yina; Qin, Jungang; Han, Shihui

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral studies suggest that humans evolve the capacity to cope with anxiety induced by the awareness of death’s inevitability. However, the neurocognitive processes that underlie online death-related thoughts remain unclear. Our recent functional MRI study found that the processing of linguistic cues related to death was characterized by decreased neural activity in human insular cortex. The current study further investigated the time course of neural processing of death-related linguistic cues. We recorded event-related potentials (ERP) to death-related, life-related, negative-valence, and neutral-valence words in a modified Stroop task that required color naming of words. We found that the amplitude of an early frontal/central negativity at 84–120 ms (N1) decreased to death-related words but increased to life-related words relative to neutral-valence words. The N1 effect associated with death-related and life-related words was correlated respectively with individuals’ pessimistic and optimistic attitudes toward life. Death-related words also increased the amplitude of a frontal/central positivity at 124–300 ms (P2) and of a frontal/central positivity at 300–500 ms (P3). However, the P2 and P3 modulations were observed for both death-related and negative-valence words but not for life-related words. The ERP results suggest an early inverse coding of linguistic cues related to life and death, which is followed by negative emotional responses to death-related information. PMID:23840787

  4. Increasing Explicit Sequence Knowledge by Odor Cueing during Sleep in Men but not Women.

    PubMed

    Diekelmann, Susanne; Born, Jan; Rasch, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Sleep consolidates newly acquired memories. Beyond stabilizing memories, sleep is thought to reorganize memory representations such that invariant structures, statistical regularities and even new explicit knowledge are extracted. Whereas increasing evidence suggests that the stabilization of memories during sleep can be facilitated by cueing with learning-associated stimuli, the effect of cueing on memory reorganization is less well understood. Here we asked whether olfactory cueing during sleep enhances the generation of explicit knowledge about an implicitly learned procedural memory task. Subjects were trained on a serial reaction time task (SRTT) containing a hidden 12-element sequence in the presence of an odor. During subsequent sleep, half of the subjects were re-exposed to the odor during periods of slow wave sleep (SWS), while the other half received odorless vehicle. In the next morning, subjects were tested on their explicit knowledge about the underlying sequence in a free recall test and a generation task. Although odor cueing did not significantly affect overall explicit knowledge, differential effects were evident when analyzing male and female subjects separately. Explicit sequence knowledge, both in free recall and the generation task, was enhanced by odor cueing in men, whereas women showed no cueing effect. Procedural skill in the SRTT was not affected by cueing, neither in men nor in women. These findings suggest that olfactory memory reactivation can increase explicit knowledge about implicitly learned information, but only in men. Hormonal differences due to menstrual cycle phase and/or hormonal contraceptives might explain the lacking effect in women.

  5. Contextual Cueing Improves Attentional Guidance, Even When Guidance Is Supposedly Optimal.

    PubMed

    Harris, Anthony M; Remington, Roger W

    2017-02-23

    Visual search through previously encountered contexts typically produces reduced reaction times compared with search through novel contexts. This contextual cueing benefit is well established, but there is debate regarding its underlying mechanisms. Eye-tracking studies have consistently shown reduced number of fixations with repetition, supporting improvements in attentional guidance as the source of contextual cueing. However, contextual cueing benefits have been shown in conditions in which attentional guidance should already be optimal-namely, when attention is captured to the target location by an abrupt onset, or under pop-out conditions. These results have been used to argue for a response-related account of contextual cueing. Here, we combine eye tracking with response time to examine the mechanisms behind contextual cueing in spatially cued and pop-out conditions. Three experiments find consistent response time benefits with repetition, which appear to be driven almost entirely by a reduction in number of fixations, supporting improved attentional guidance as the mechanism behind contextual cueing. No differences were observed in the time between fixating the target and responding-our proxy for response related processes. Furthermore, the correlation between contextual cueing magnitude and the reduction in number of fixations on repeated contexts approaches 1. These results argue strongly that attentional guidance is facilitated by familiar search contexts, even when guidance is near-optimal. (PsycINFO Database Record

  6. Increasing Explicit Sequence Knowledge by Odor Cueing during Sleep in Men but not Women

    PubMed Central

    Diekelmann, Susanne; Born, Jan; Rasch, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Sleep consolidates newly acquired memories. Beyond stabilizing memories, sleep is thought to reorganize memory representations such that invariant structures, statistical regularities and even new explicit knowledge are extracted. Whereas increasing evidence suggests that the stabilization of memories during sleep can be facilitated by cueing with learning-associated stimuli, the effect of cueing on memory reorganization is less well understood. Here we asked whether olfactory cueing during sleep enhances the generation of explicit knowledge about an implicitly learned procedural memory task. Subjects were trained on a serial reaction time task (SRTT) containing a hidden 12-element sequence in the presence of an odor. During subsequent sleep, half of the subjects were re-exposed to the odor during periods of slow wave sleep (SWS), while the other half received odorless vehicle. In the next morning, subjects were tested on their explicit knowledge about the underlying sequence in a free recall test and a generation task. Although odor cueing did not significantly affect overall explicit knowledge, differential effects were evident when analyzing male and female subjects separately. Explicit sequence knowledge, both in free recall and the generation task, was enhanced by odor cueing in men, whereas women showed no cueing effect. Procedural skill in the SRTT was not affected by cueing, neither in men nor in women. These findings suggest that olfactory memory reactivation can increase explicit knowledge about implicitly learned information, but only in men. Hormonal differences due to menstrual cycle phase and/or hormonal contraceptives might explain the lacking effect in women. PMID:27147995

  7. The role of continuous low-frequency harmonicity cues for interrupted speech perception in bimodal hearing.

    PubMed

    Oh, Soo Hee; Donaldson, Gail S; Kong, Ying-Yee

    2016-04-01

    Low-frequency acoustic cues have been shown to enhance speech perception by cochlear-implant users, particularly when target speech occurs in a competing background. The present study examined the extent to which a continuous representation of low-frequency harmonicity cues contributes to bimodal benefit in simulated bimodal listeners. Experiment 1 examined the benefit of restoring a continuous temporal envelope to the low-frequency ear while the vocoder ear received a temporally interrupted stimulus. Experiment 2 examined the effect of providing continuous harmonicity cues in the low-frequency ear as compared to restoring a continuous temporal envelope in the vocoder ear. Findings indicate that bimodal benefit for temporally interrupted speech increases when continuity is restored to either or both ears. The primary benefit appears to stem from the continuous temporal envelope in the low-frequency region providing additional phonetic cues related to manner and F1 frequency; a secondary contribution is provided by low-frequency harmonicity cues when a continuous representation of the temporal envelope is present in the low-frequency, or both ears. The continuous temporal envelope and harmonicity cues of low-frequency speech are thought to support bimodal benefit by facilitating identification of word and syllable boundaries, and by restoring partial phonetic cues that occur during gaps in the temporally interrupted stimulus.

  8. Integrating shape cues of adiposity and color information when judging facial health and attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Claire I; Hahn, Amanda C; DeBruine, Lisa M; Jones, Benedict C

    2014-01-01

    Facial cues of adiposity play an important role in social perceptions, such as health and attractiveness judgments. Although relatively low levels of adiposity are generally associated with good health, low levels of adiposity are also a symptom of many communicable diseases. Consequently, it may be important to distinguish between individuals displaying low levels of facial adiposity because they are in good physical condition and those displaying low levels of facial adiposity because they are ill. Integrating information from facial cues of adiposity with information from other health cues, such as facial coloration, may facilitate such distinctions. Here, participants rated the health and attractiveness of face images experimentally manipulated to vary in shape cues of adiposity and color cues associated with perceived health. As we had predicted, the extent to which faces with low levels of adiposity were rated more positively than faces with relatively high levels of adiposity was greater for faces with healthy color cues than it was for faces with unhealthy color cues. Such interactions highlight the integrative processes that allow us to distinguish between healthy and unhealthy individuals during social interactions, potentially reducing the likelihood of contracting infectious diseases.

  9. Responding to social and symbolic extrafoveal cues: cue shape trumps biological relevance.

    PubMed

    Hermens, Frouke; Bindemann, Markus; Mike Burton, A

    2017-01-01

    Social cues presented at visual fixation have been shown to strongly influence an observer's attention and response selection. Here we ask whether the same holds for cues (initially) presented away from fixation, as cues are commonly perceived in natural vision. In six experiments, we show that extrafoveally presented cues with a distinct outline, such as pointing hands, rotated heads, and arrow cues result in strong cueing of responses (either to the cue itself, or a cued object). In contrast, cues without a clear outline, such as gazing eyes and direction words exert much weaker effects on participants' responses to a target cue. We also show that distraction effects on response times are relatively weak, but that strong interference effects can be obtained by measuring mouse trajectories. Eye tracking suggests that gaze cues are slower to respond to because their direction cannot easily be perceived in extrafoveal vision. Together, these data suggest that the strength of an extrafoveal cue is determined by the shape of the cue outline, rather than its biological relevance (i.e., whether the cue is provided by another human being), and that this shape effect is due to how easily the direction of a cue can be perceived in extrafoveal vision.

  10. Colour cues or spatial cues? Context-dependent preferences in the European greenfinch (Carduelis chloris).

    PubMed

    Herborn, Katherine; Alexander, Lucille; Arnold, Kathryn E

    2011-03-01

    Using featural cues such as colour to identify ephemeral food can increase foraging efficiency. Featural cues may change over time however; therefore, animals should use spatial cues to relocate food that occurs in a temporally stable position. We tested this hypothesis by measuring the cue preferences of captive greenfinches Carduelis chloris when relocating food hidden in a foraging tray. In these standardised associative learning trials, greenfinches favoured colour cues when returning to a foraging context that they had encountered before only once ("one-trial test") but switched to spatial cues when they had encountered that scenario on ten previous occasions ("repeated-trial test"). We suggest that repeated encounters generated a context in which individuals had a prior expectation of temporal stability, and hence context-dependent cue selection. Next, we trained birds to find food in the absence of colour cues but tested them in the presence of visual distracters. Birds were able to learn spatial cues after one encounter, but only when visual distracters were identical in colouration. When a colourful distracter was present in the test phase, cue selection was random. Unlike the first one-trial test, birds were not biased towards this colourful visual distracter. Together, these results suggest that greenfinches are able to learn both cue types, colour cue biases represent learning, not simply distraction, and spatial cues are favoured over colour cues only in temporally stable contexts. © Springer-Verlag 2010

  11. Comb wax mediates the acquisition of nest-mate recognition cues in honey bees

    PubMed Central

    Breed, Michael D.; Williams, Kristina R.; Fewell, Jennifer H.

    1988-01-01

    Honey bees, Apis mellifera, acquire nest-mate recognition cues from wax, the predominant material used in nest construction. Exposure of a newly emerged worker bee to wax-comb substrate significantly reduced the acceptability of that worker to sister bees. Cues acquired from the comb provided colony-specific information about the identity of worker bees; moreover, the effect of comb exposure has been previously shown to override individually produced cues. Food odors (anise oil), when dissolved in paraffin wax, affected worker-recognition characteristics but food odors did not affect these characteristics when fed to bees in sugar candy. Paraffin wax alone did not affect the recognition cues of bees, showing that the wax can be a neutral medium for the transmission of cues. The wax comb in the colony and the hydrocarbon outer layer of the bee cuticle may be a continuous medium for any hydrocarbon-soluble substances used by honey bees in nest-mate recognition; if so, a mechanism by which environmental cues are acquired by honey bees is provided. PMID:16593995

  12. Frontostriatal Circuit Dynamics Correlate with Cocaine Cue-Evoked Behavioral Arousal during Early Abstinence.

    PubMed

    Smith, Wesley C; Rosenberg, Matthew H; Claar, Leslie D; Chang, Victoria; Shah, Sagar N; Walwyn, Wendy M; Evans, Christopher J; Masmanidis, Sotiris C

    2016-01-01

    It is thought that frontostriatal circuits play an important role in mediating conditioned behavioral responses to environmental stimuli that were previously encountered during drug administration. However, the neural correlates of conditioned responses to drug-associated cues are not well understood at the level of large populations of simultaneously recorded neurons, or at the level of local field potential (LFP) synchrony in the frontostriatal network. Here we introduce a behavioral assay of conditioned arousal to cocaine cues involving pupillometry in awake head-restrained mice. After just 24 h of drug abstinence, brief exposures to olfactory stimuli previously paired with cocaine injections led to a transient dilation of the pupil, which was greater than the dilation effect to neutral cues. In contrast, there was no cue-selective change in locomotion, as measured by the rotation of a circular treadmill. The behavioral assay was combined with simultaneous recordings from dozens of electrophysiologically identified units in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and ventral striatum (VS). We found significant relationships between cocaine cue-evoked pupil dilation and the proportion of inhibited principal cells in the mPFC and VS. Additionally, LFP coherence analysis revealed a significant correlation between pupillary response and synchrony in the 25-45 Hz frequency band. Together, these results show that pupil dilation is sensitive to drug-associated cues during acute stages of abstinence, and that individual animal differences in this behavioral arousal response can be explained by two complementary measures of frontostriatal network activity.

  13. Early Versus Late Onset of Cannabis Use: Differences in Striatal Response to Cannabis Cues

    PubMed Central

    Wetherill, Reagan R.; Hager, Nathan; Jagannathan, Kanchana; Mashhoon, Yasmin; Pater, Heather; Childress, Anna Rose; Franklin, Teresa R.

    2017-01-01

    Addiction theories posit that addiction is the result of a progressive transition from voluntary to habitual, compulsive drug use—changes that have been linked, in animals, to a shift from ventral to dorsal striatal control over drug-seeking behavior. Thus, we hypothesized that early-onset (EOs) cannabis users versus late-onset (LOs) cannabis users might exhibit, respectively, greater dorsal versus ventral striatal response to drug cues. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging and an event-related blood oxygen level-dependent backward-masking task to evaluate striatal responses to backward-masked cannabis cues (vs. neutral cues) in EOs (<16 years old, n = 15) and LOs (≥16 years old, n = 26) with similar recent cannabis use patterns. Direct comparisons revealed that EOs showed greater response to cannabis cues in the dorsal striatum than LOs (p < 0.01, k > 50 voxels). Within-group analyses revealed that EOs showed greater neural response to cannabis cues in the dorsal striatum, whereas LOs exhibited greater neural response to cannabis cues in the ventral striatum. Although cross-sectional, these findings are consistent with recent addiction theories suggesting a progressive shift from ventral to dorsal striatal control over drug-seeking behavior and highlight the importance of age of onset of cannabis use on the brain and cognition. PMID:28331903

  14. Poor vigilance affects attentional orienting triggered by central uninformative gaze and arrow cues.

    PubMed

    Marotta, Andrea; Martella, Diana; Maccari, Lisa; Sebastiani, Mara; Casagrande, Maria

    2014-11-01

    Behaviour and neuroimaging studies have shown that poor vigilance (PV) due to sleep deprivation (SD) negatively affects exogenously cued selective attention. In the current study, we assessed the impact of PV due to both partial SD and night-time hours on reflexive attentional orienting triggered by central un-informative eye-gaze and arrow cues. Subjective mood and interference performance in emotional Stroop task were also investigated. Twenty healthy participants performed spatial cueing tasks using central directional arrow and eye-gaze as a cue to orient attention. The target was a word written in different coloured inks. The participant's task was to identify the colour of the ink while ignoring the semantic content of the word (with negative or neutral emotional valence). The experiment took place on 2 days. On the first day, each participant performed a 10-min training session of the spatial cueing task. On the second day, half of participants performed the task once at 4:30 p.m. (BSL) and once at 6:30 a.m. (PV), whereas the other half performed the task in the reversed order. Results showed that mean reaction times on the spatial cueing tasks were worsened by PV, although gaze paradigm was more resistant to this effect as compared to the arrow paradigm. Moreover, PV negatively affects attentional orienting triggered by both central un-informative gaze and arrow cues. Finally, prolonged wakefulness affects self-reported mood but does not influence interference control in emotional Stroop task.

  15. Frontostriatal Circuit Dynamics Correlate with Cocaine Cue-Evoked Behavioral Arousal during Early Abstinence123

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Sagar N.; Evans, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    It is thought that frontostriatal circuits play an important role in mediating conditioned behavioral responses to environmental stimuli that were previously encountered during drug administration. However, the neural correlates of conditioned responses to drug-associated cues are not well understood at the level of large populations of simultaneously recorded neurons, or at the level of local field potential (LFP) synchrony in the frontostriatal network. Here we introduce a behavioral assay of conditioned arousal to cocaine cues involving pupillometry in awake head-restrained mice. After just 24 h of drug abstinence, brief exposures to olfactory stimuli previously paired with cocaine injections led to a transient dilation of the pupil, which was greater than the dilation effect to neutral cues. In contrast, there was no cue-selective change in locomotion, as measured by the rotation of a circular treadmill. The behavioral assay was combined with simultaneous recordings from dozens of electrophysiologically identified units in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and ventral striatum (VS). We found significant relationships between cocaine cue-evoked pupil dilation and the proportion of inhibited principal cells in the mPFC and VS. Additionally, LFP coherence analysis revealed a significant correlation between pupillary response and synchrony in the 25–45 Hz frequency band. Together, these results show that pupil dilation is sensitive to drug-associated cues during acute stages of abstinence, and that individual animal differences in this behavioral arousal response can be explained by two complementary measures of frontostriatal network activity. PMID:27390774

  16. Are face representations depth cue invariant?

    PubMed

    Dehmoobadsharifabadi, Armita; Farivar, Reza

    2016-06-01

    The visual system can process three-dimensional depth cues defining surfaces of objects, but it is unclear whether such information contributes to complex object recognition, including face recognition. The processing of different depth cues involves both dorsal and ventral visual pathways. We investigated whether facial surfaces defined by individual depth cues resulted in meaningful face representations-representations that maintain the relationship between the population of faces as defined in a multidimensional face space. We measured face identity aftereffects for facial surfaces defined by individual depth cues (Experiments 1 and 2) and tested whether the aftereffect transfers across depth cues (Experiments 3 and 4). Facial surfaces and their morphs to the average face were defined purely by one of shading, texture, motion, or binocular disparity. We obtained identification thresholds for matched (matched identity between adapting and test stimuli), non-matched (non-matched identity between adapting and test stimuli), and no-adaptation (showing only the test stimuli) conditions for each cue and across different depth cues. We found robust face identity aftereffect in both experiments. Our results suggest that depth cues do contribute to forming meaningful face representations that are depth cue invariant. Depth cue invariance would require integration of information across different areas and different pathways for object recognition, and this in turn has important implications for cortical models of visual object recognition.

  17. Effects of gambling-related cues on the activation of implicit and explicit gambling outcome expectancies in regular gamblers.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Melissa J; Yi, Sunghwan; Stewart, Sherry H

    2014-09-01

    The current research examined whether the presentation of gambling-related cues facilitates the activation of gambling outcome expectancies using both reaction time (RT) and self-report modes of assessment. Gambling outcome expectancies were assessed by having regular casino or online gamblers (N = 58) complete an outcome expectancy RT task, as well as a self-report measure of gambling outcome expectancies, both before and after exposure to one of two randomly assigned cue conditions (i.e., casino or control video). Consistent with hypotheses, participants exposed to gambling-related cues (i.e., casino cue video condition) responded faster to positive outcome expectancy words preceded by gambling prime relative to non-gambling prime pictures on the post-cue RT task. Similarly, participants in the casino cue video condition self-reported significantly stronger positive gambling outcome expectancies than those in the control cue video condition following cue exposure. Activation of negative gambling outcome expectancies was not observed on either the RT task or self-report measure. The results indicate that exposure to gambling cues activates both implicit and explicit positive gambling outcome expectancies among regular gamblers.

  18. The Use of Virtual Reality in the Production of Cue-Specific Craving for Cigarettes: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Pericot-Valverde, Irene; Germeroth, Lisa J; Tiffany, Stephen T

    2016-05-01

    The cue-reactivity procedure has demonstrated that smokers respond with increases in subjective craving in the presence of smoking-related cues. Virtual reality is an emerging mode of cue presentation for cue-reactivity research. Despite the successful implementation of virtual reality during the last decade, no systematic review has investigated the magnitude of effects across studies. This research systematically reviewed findings from studies using virtual reality in cigarette craving assessment. Eligible studies assessed subjective craving for cigarettes in smokers exposed to smoking-related and neutral environments. Cohen's d was used to assess differences in craving between smoking-related and nonsmoking-related virtual environments. A random effects approach was used to combine effect sizes. A total of 18 studies involving 541 smokers was included in the final analyses. Environments with smoking-related cues produced significant increases in craving relative to environments without smoking-related cues. The mean overall effect size (Cohen's d) was 1.041 (SE = 0.12, 95% CI = 0.81 to 1.28, Z = 8.68, P < .001). The meta-analysis suggested that presentations of smoking cues through virtual reality can produce strong increases in craving among cigarette smokers. This strong cue-reactivity effect, which was comparable in magnitude to the craving effect sizes found with more conventional modes of cue presentation, supports the use of virtual reality for the generation of robust cue-specific craving in cue-reactivity research. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Alcohol consumption as a predictor of reactivity to smoking and stress cues presented in the natural environment of smokers.

    PubMed

    Tomko, Rachel L; Saladin, Michael E; McClure, Erin A; Squeglia, Lindsay M; Carpenter, Matthew J; Tiffany, Stephen T; Baker, Nathaniel L; Gray, Kevin M

    2017-02-01

    The high prevalence of co-occurring alcohol and tobacco use underscores the importance of understanding the influence of alcohol consumption on risk factors for smoking and relapse. Alcohol has been shown to impact reactivity to smoking and stress-related cues, both of which are common antecedents to smoking and smoking relapse. The objective of the current study is to examine associations between alcohol use, cigarette craving, and stress reactivity following exposure to smoking and stress cues delivered in participants' daily lives. Using cue-reactivity ecological momentary assessment (CREMA), adult smokers (n = 138) reported cigarette craving, stress, and past hour alcohol use on a mobile device four times per day for 2 weeks, resulting in a range of 4493-5983 data points per analysis. Questions were followed by exposure to pictorial neutral, stressful, or smoking cues delivered via the mobile device. Craving and affect were re-assessed following cue exposure. Results showed that recent (past hour) alcohol use was significantly associated with increases in the following: (a) tonic (non-cue-elicited) cigarette craving, (b) stress cue-elicited cigarette craving, and (c) stress cue-elicited stress reactivity, in the context of high-baseline stress. There was no significant association between alcohol use and smoking cue-elicited craving. Alcohol use may increase risk for smoking and relapse to smoking by increasing cigarette craving and, in certain contexts, stress following stress cue exposure. Though alcohol is known for its anxiolytic properties, under some conditions, it may increase reactivity to stress cues.

  20. Disruptive ecological selection on a mating cue.

    PubMed

    Merrill, Richard M; Wallbank, Richard W R; Bull, Vanessa; Salazar, Patricio C A; Mallet, James; Stevens, Martin; Jiggins, Chris D

    2012-12-22

    Adaptation to divergent ecological niches can result in speciation. Traits subject to disruptive selection that also contribute to non-random mating will facilitate speciation with gene flow. Such 'magic' or 'multiple-effect' traits may be widespread and important for generating biodiversity, but strong empirical evidence is still lacking. Although there is evidence that putative ecological traits are indeed involved in assortative mating, evidence that these same traits are under divergent selection is considerably weaker. Heliconius butterfly wing patterns are subject to positive frequency-dependent selection by predators, owing to aposematism and Müllerian mimicry, and divergent colour patterns are used by closely related species to recognize potential mates. The amenability of colour patterns to experimental manipulation, independent of other traits, presents an excellent opportunity to test their role during speciation. We conducted field experiments with artificial butterflies, designed to match natural butterflies with respect to avian vision. These were complemented with enclosure trials with live birds and real butterflies. Our experiments showed that hybrid colour-pattern phenotypes are attacked more frequently than parental forms. For the first time, we demonstrate disruptive ecological selection on a trait that also acts as a mating cue.

  1. Disruptive ecological selection on a mating cue

    PubMed Central

    Merrill, Richard M.; Wallbank, Richard W. R.; Bull, Vanessa; Salazar, Patricio C. A.; Mallet, James; Stevens, Martin; Jiggins, Chris D.

    2012-01-01

    Adaptation to divergent ecological niches can result in speciation. Traits subject to disruptive selection that also contribute to non-random mating will facilitate speciation with gene flow. Such ‘magic’ or ‘multiple-effect’ traits may be widespread and important for generating biodiversity, but strong empirical evidence is still lacking. Although there is evidence that putative ecological traits are indeed involved in assortative mating, evidence that these same traits are under divergent selection is considerably weaker. Heliconius butterfly wing patterns are subject to positive frequency-dependent selection by predators, owing to aposematism and Müllerian mimicry, and divergent colour patterns are used by closely related species to recognize potential mates. The amenability of colour patterns to experimental manipulation, independent of other traits, presents an excellent opportunity to test their role during speciation. We conducted field experiments with artificial butterflies, designed to match natural butterflies with respect to avian vision. These were complemented with enclosure trials with live birds and real butterflies. Our experiments showed that hybrid colour-pattern phenotypes are attacked more frequently than parental forms. For the first time, we demonstrate disruptive ecological selection on a trait that also acts as a mating cue. PMID:23075843

  2. Fear responses to safety cues in anxious adolescents: Preliminary evidence for atypical age-associated trajectories of functional neural circuits.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Anneke D M; Bilderbeck, Amy; James, Anthony C; Lau, Jennifer Y F

    2015-09-01

    Adolescent anxiety is common and impairing and often persists into adulthood. There is growing evidence that adult anxiety is characterized by abnormal fear responses to threat and safety cues, along with perturbations in fear-related neural circuits. Although some of this work has been extended to adolescents, with promising results, it is not yet clear whether changes in these circuits across developmental age varies between anxious and non-anxious adolescents. Here we used fMRI to examine how age modulates neural responses as adolescents are exposed to threat and safety cues. Participants were 15 anxious and 11 non-anxious adolescents (age 12-17) who completed a fear conditioning paradigm. The paradigm incorporated a threat cue comprising a neutral face which was paired with a fearful, screaming face, a safety cue comprising a different neutral face, and a control stimulus. Across the whole sample, neural activation to the threat cue (relative to the control cue) correlated positively with age in a number of regions, including the dorsal anterior cingulate and bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC). However, neural activation to the safety cue (relative to the control cue) was modulated differently by age in the two groups: a more positive association between activation and age was observed in the control group compared to the anxious group in various regions including medial and dorsolateral PFC, anterior insula, and amygdala. These findings suggest that maturation of the neural substrates of fear responses to safety cues may be perturbed in anxious adolescents, potentially contributing to the emergence and maintenance of anxiety disorders in adulthood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Equivalent Neutral Wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, W. Timothy; Tang, Wenqing

    1996-01-01

    The definition of equivalent neutral wind and the rationale for using it as the geophysical product of a spaceborne scatterometer are reviewed. The differences between equivalent neutral wind and actual wind, which are caused by atmospheric density stratification, are demonstrated with measurements at selected locations. A method of computing this parameter from ship and buoy measurements is described and some common fallacies in accounting for the effects of atmospheric stratification on wind shear are discussed. The computer code for the model to derive equivalent neutral wind is provided.

  4. Effects of cognitive load on neural and behavioral responses to smoking-cue distractors.

    PubMed

    MacLean, R Ross; Nichols, Travis T; LeBreton, James M; Wilson, Stephen J

    2016-08-01

    Smoking cessation failures are frequently thought to reflect poor top-down regulatory control over behavior. Previous studies have suggested that smoking cues occupy limited working memory resources, an effect that may contribute to difficulty achieving abstinence. Few studies have evaluated the effects of cognitive load on the ability to actively maintain information in the face of distracting smoking cues. For the present study, we adapted an fMRI probed recall task under low and high cognitive load with three distractor conditions: control, neutral images, or smoking-related images. Consistent with a limited-resource model of cue reactivity, we predicted that the performance of daily smokers (n = 17) would be most impaired when high load was paired with smoking distractors. The results demonstrated a main effect of load, with decreased accuracy under high, as compared to low, cognitive load. Surprisingly, an interaction revealed that the effect of load was weakest in the smoking cue distractor condition. Along with this behavioral effect, we observed significantly greater activation of the right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG) in the low-load condition than in the high-load condition for trials containing smoking cue distractors. Furthermore, load-related changes in rIFG activation partially mediated the effects of load on task accuracy in the smoking-cue distractor condition. These findings are discussed in the context of prevailing cognitive and cue reactivity theories. These results suggest that high cognitive load does not necessarily make smokers more susceptible to interference from smoking-related stimuli, and that elevated load may even have a buffering effect in the presence of smoking cues under certain conditions.

  5. Food and beverage cues in UK and Irish children-television programming.

    PubMed

    Scully, Paul; Reid, Orlaith; Macken, Alan; Healy, Mark; Saunders, Jean; Leddin, Des; Cullen, Walter; Dunne, Colum; O'Gorman, Clodagh S

    2014-11-01

    Increased time in which children spend watching television is a well-described contributor to paediatric obesity. This study investigated the frequency and type of food and beverage placement in children-specific television broadcasts and compared data from UK (UK) and Irish television stations. Content analysis, totalling 82.5 h, reflecting 5 weekdays of children-specific television broadcasting on UK and Irish television channels was performed. To allow comparison between UK and Irish food and beverage cues, only broadcasts between 06.00 and 11.30 were analysed. Data were coded separately by two analysts and transferred to SPSS for analyses. Food and beverage cues were coded based on type of product, product placement, product use, motivation, outcome and characters involved. A total of 1155 food and beverage cues were recorded. Sweet snacks were the most frequent food cue (13.3%), followed by sweets/candy (11.4%). Tea/coffee was the most frequent beverage cue (13.5%), followed by sugar-sweetened beverages (13.0%). The outcome of the cue was positive in 32.6%, negative in 19.8%, and neutral in 47.5% of cases. The most common motivating factor associated with each cue was celebratory/social (25.2%), followed by hunger/thirst (25.0%). Comparison of UK and Irish placements showed both to portray high levels of unhealthy food cues. However, placements for sugar-sweetened beverages were relatively low on both channels. This study provides further evidence of the prominence of unhealthy foods in children's programming. These data may provide guidance for healthcare professionals, regulators and programme makers in planning for a healthier portrayal of food and beverage in children's television. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Premovement facilitation of corticospinal excitability in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Hiraoka, Koichi; Notani, Masaru; Iwata, Akira; Minamida, Fumiko; Abe, Kazuo

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the abnormality of premovement facilitation in patients with Parkinson's disease. Seven patients with Parkinson's disease and seven healthy subjects participated in this study. The subjects attempted abduction of the index finger in response to a visual start cue, and motor-evoked potentials were recorded from the first dorsal interosseous muscle before movement onset. The rate of premovement facilitation in patients with Parkinson's disease was slower than that in healthy subjects. Additionally, the rate of premovement facilitation as a function of delay from the start cue was positively correlated with the reaction time. These findings indicate that premovement facilitation is abnormal in patients with Parkinson's disease. This abnormality may be partially related to akinesia.

  7. Effective integration of serially presented stochastic cues

    PubMed Central

    Juni, Mordechai Z.; Gureckis, Todd M.; Maloney, Laurence T.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines how people deal with inherently stochastic cues when estimating a latent environmental property. Seven cues to a hidden location were presented one at a time in rapid succession. The seven cues were sampled from seven different Gaussian distributions that shared a common mean but differed in precision (the reciprocal of variance). The experimental task was to estimate the common mean of the Gaussians from which the cues were drawn. Observers ran in two conditions on separate days. In the “decreasing precision” condition the seven cues were ordered from most precise to least precise. In the “increasing precision” condition this ordering was reversed. For each condition, we estimated the weight that each cue in the sequence had on observers' estimates and compared human performance to that of an ideal observer who maximizes expected gain. We found that observers integrated information from more than one cue, and that they adaptively gave more weight to more precise cues and less weight to less precise cues. However, they did not assign weights that would maximize their expected gain, even over the course of several hundred trials with corrective feedback. The cost to observers of their suboptimal performance was on average 16% of their maximum possible winnings. PMID:22911906

  8. Effective integration of serially presented stochastic cues.

    PubMed

    Juni, Mordechai Z; Gureckis, Todd M; Maloney, Laurence T

    2012-08-21

    This study examines how people deal with inherently stochastic cues when estimating a latent environmental property. Seven cues to a hidden location were presented one at a time in rapid succession. The seven cues were sampled from seven different Gaussian distributions that shared a common mean but differed in precision (the reciprocal of variance). The experimental task was to estimate the common mean of the Gaussians from which the cues were drawn. Observers ran in two conditions on separate days. In the "decreasing precision" condition the seven cues were ordered from most precise to least precise. In the "increasing precision" condition this ordering was reversed. For each condition, we estimated the weight that each cue in the sequence had on observers' estimates and compared human performance to that of an ideal observer who maximizes expected gain. We found that observers integrated information from more than one cue, and that they adaptively gave more weight to more precise cues and less weight to less precise cues. However, they did not assign weights that would maximize their expected gain, even over the course of several hundred trials with corrective feedback. The cost to observers of their suboptimal performance was on average 16% of their maximum possible winnings.

  9. Implicit processing of heroin and emotional cues in abstinent heroin users: early and late event-related potential effects.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ling; Zhang, Jianxun; Zhao, Xin

    2015-05-01

    The abnormal cognitive processing of drug cues is a core characteristic of drug dependence. Previous research has suggested that the late positive potential (LPP) of heroin users is increased by heroin-related stimuli because of the attention-grabbing nature of such stimuli. The present research used a modified emotional Stroop (eStroop) task to examine whether there was an early posterior negativity (EPN) modulation to heroin cues compared with emotional or neutral stimuli in heroin dependent subjects. Fifteen former heroin users and 15 matched controls performed the eStroop task, which was composed of positive, negative, heroin-related, and neutral pictures with superimposed color squares. Participants responded to the color of the square and not to the picture while behavioral data and event-related potentials were recorded. There were no significant differences of EPN amplitudes to emotional and neutral stimuli between heroin users and controls. However, heroin users displayed increased EPN modulation for heroin cues, whereas this modulation was absent in controls. Drug-related cues acquire motivational salience and automatically capture the attention of heroin users at early processing stages, even when engaged in a non-drug-related task. The EPN to heroin cues could represent a novel electrophysiological index with clinical implications for selecting abstinent drug users who are at increased risk of relapse or to evaluate treatment interventions.

  10. Neutralization Assay for Chikungunya Virus Infection: Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test.

    PubMed

    Azami, Nor Azila Muhammad; Moi, Meng Ling; Takasaki, Tomohiko

    2016-01-01

    Neutralization assay is a technique that detects and quantifies neutralizing antibody in serum samples by calculating the percentage of reduction of virus activity, as the concentration of virus used is usually constant. Neutralizing antibody titer is conventionally determined by calculating the percentage reduction in total virus infectivity by counting and comparing number of plaques (localized area of infection due to cytopathic effect) with a standard amount of virus. Conventional neutralizing test uses plaque-reduction neutralization test (PRNT) to determine neutralizing antibody titers against Chikungunya virus (CHIKV). Here we describe the plaque reduction neutralization assay (PRNT) using Vero cell lines to obtain neutralizing antibody titers.

  11. Spatial orienting of attention to social cues is modulated by cue type and gender of viewer.

    PubMed

    Cooney, Sarah Maeve; Brady, Nuala; Ryan, Katie

    2017-05-01

    Across three experiments, we examined the efficacy of three cues from the human body-body orientation, head turning, and eye-gaze direction-to shift an observer's attention in space. Using a modified Posner cueing paradigm, we replicate the previous findings of gender differences in the gaze-cueing effect whereby female but not male participants responded significantly faster to validly cued than to invalidly cued targets. In contrast to the previous studies, we report a robust cueing effect for both male and female participants when head turning direction was used as the central cue, whereas oriented bodies proved ineffectual as cues to attention for both males and females. These results are discussed with reference to the time course of central cueing effects, gender differences in spatial attention, and current models of how cues from the human body are combined to judge another person's direction of attention.

  12. Solar Neutral Particles

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This animation shows a neutral solar particle's path leaving the sun, following the magnetic field lines out to the heliosheath. The solar particle hits a hydrogen atom, stealing its electron, and ...

  13. Eating responses to external food cues and internal satiety signals in weight discordant siblings

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Compared to normal-weight children, over-weight children are more responsive to external food cues and less sensitive to internal satiety signals, either of which may facilitate greater energy intake. The ability to compensate for prior kcal intake may decrease with age, with children sh...

  14. Syntactic Cues for Inferences about Causality in Language Acquisition: Evidence from an Argument-Drop Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suzuki, Takaaki; Kobayashi, Tessei

    2017-01-01

    Syntactic bootstrapping facilitates children's initial learning of verb meanings based on syntactic information. A challenging case is the argument-drop languages, where the number of argument NPs is not a reliable cue for distinguishing between transitive and intransitive verbs. Despite this fact, the availability of syntactic bootstrapping in…

  15. Misleading Cues Improve Developmental Assessment of Working Memory Capacity: The Color Matching Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arsalidou, Marie; Pascual-Leone, Juan; Johnson, Janice

    2010-01-01

    The theory of constructive operators was used as a framework to design two versions of a paradigm (color matching task, CMT) in which items are parametrically ordered in difficulty, and differ only contextually. Items in CMT-Balloon are facilitating, whereas items in CMT-Clown contain misleading cues. Participants of ages 7-14 years and adults (N…

  16. Syntactic Cues for Inferences about Causality in Language Acquisition: Evidence from an Argument-Drop Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suzuki, Takaaki; Kobayashi, Tessei

    2017-01-01

    Syntactic bootstrapping facilitates children's initial learning of verb meanings based on syntactic information. A challenging case is the argument-drop languages, where the number of argument NPs is not a reliable cue for distinguishing between transitive and intransitive verbs. Despite this fact, the availability of syntactic bootstrapping in…

  17. Misleading Cues Improve Developmental Assessment of Working Memory Capacity: The Color Matching Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arsalidou, Marie; Pascual-Leone, Juan; Johnson, Janice

    2010-01-01

    The theory of constructive operators was used as a framework to design two versions of a paradigm (color matching task, CMT) in which items are parametrically ordered in difficulty, and differ only contextually. Items in CMT-Balloon are facilitating, whereas items in CMT-Clown contain misleading cues. Participants of ages 7-14 years and adults (N…

  18. Embedding Metacognitive Cues into Hypermedia Systems To Promote Far Transfer Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Xiaodong; And Others

    A pretest-posttest control group design with random assignment, together with qualitative data collection and analysis, was used to investigate whether metacognitive, cognitive, and affective-awareness cues embedded in a hypermedia program could facilitate college students' near and far transfer problem solving in biology learning. It was assumed…

  19. Binding neutral information to emotional contexts: Brain dynamics of long-term recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Ventura-Bort, Carlos; Löw, Andreas; Wendt, Julia; Moltó, Javier; Poy, Rosario; Dolcos, Florin; Hamm, Alfons O; Weymar, Mathias

    2016-04-01

    There is abundant evidence in memory research that emotional stimuli are better remembered than neutral stimuli. However, effects of an emotionally charged context on memory for associated neutral elements is also important, particularly in trauma and stress-related disorders, where strong memories are often activated by neutral cues due to their emotional associations. In the present study, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate long-term recognition memory (1-week delay) for neutral objects that had been paired with emotionally arousing or neutral scenes during encoding. Context effects were clearly evident in the ERPs: An early frontal ERP old/new difference (300-500 ms) was enhanced for objects encoded in unpleasant compared to pleasant and neutral contexts; and a late central-parietal old/new difference (400-700 ms) was observed for objects paired with both pleasant and unpleasant contexts but not for items paired with neutral backgrounds. Interestingly, objects encoded in emotional contexts (and novel objects) also prompted an enhanced frontal early (180-220 ms) positivity compared to objects paired with neutral scenes indicating early perceptual significance. The present data suggest that emotional--particularly unpleasant--backgrounds strengthen memory for items encountered within these contexts and engage automatic and explicit recognition processes. These results could help in understanding binding mechanisms involved in the activation of trauma-related memories by neutral cues.

  20. Ions and neutralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poncet, A.

    After a short presentation of intensity limitations examples due to trapped ions, the processes of ionization and neutralization build up in particle accelerators and storage rings are briefly reviewed. The tolerable limits in neutralization are then assessed at the light of current theories of incoherent and coherent effects driven by ions. Finally the usual antidotes such as clearing electrodes, missing bunch schemes and beam shaking are presented.

  1. Cue-reactivity in experienced electronic cigarette users: Novel stimulus videos and a pilot fMRI study

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Travis T.; Foulds, Jonathan; Yingst, Jessica; Veldheer, Susan; Hrabovsky, Shari; Richie, John; Eissenberg, Thomas; Wilson, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Some individuals who try electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) continue to use long-term. Previous research has investigated the safety of e-cigarettes and their potential for use in smoking cessation, but comparatively little research has explored chronic or habitual e-cigarette use. In particular, the relationship between e-cigarette cues and craving is unknown. We sought to bridge this gap by developing a novel set of e-cigarette (salient) and electronic toothbrush (neutral) videos for use in cue-reactivity paradigms. Additionally, we demonstrate the utility of this approach in a pilot fMRI study of 7 experienced e-cigarette users. Participants were scanned while viewing the cue videos before and after 10 minute use of their own e-cigarettes (producing an 11.7 ng/ml increase in plasma nicotine concentration). A significant session (pre- and post-use) by video type (salient and neutral) interaction was exhibited in many sensorimotor areas commonly activated in other cue-reactivity paradigms. We did not detect significant cue-related activity in other brain regions notable in the craving literature. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed, including the importance of matching cue stimuli to participants’ experiences. PMID:26478134

  2. Edge rotation from momentum transport by neutrals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omotani, JT; Newton, SL; Pusztai, I.; Fülöp, T.

    2016-11-01

    Due to their high cross field mobility, neutral atoms can have a strong effect on transport even at the low relative densities found inside the separatrix. We use a charge-exchange dominated model for the neutrals, coupled to neoclassical ions, to calculate momentum transport when it is dominated by the neutrals. We can then calculate self-consistently the radial electric field and predict the intrinsic rotation in an otherwise torque-free plasma. Using a numerical solver for the ion distribution to allow arbitrary collisionality, we investigate the effects of inverse aspect ratio and elongation on plasma rotation. We also calculate the rotation of a trace carbon impurity, to facilitate future comparison to experiments using charge exchange recombination spectroscopy diagnostics.

  3. Simple exposure to alcohol cues causally increases negative implicit attitudes toward lesbians and gay men.

    PubMed

    Greitemeyer, Tobias; Nierula, Carina

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has shown that acute alcohol consumption is associated with negative responses toward outgroup members such as sexual minorities. However, simple alcohol cue exposure without actually consuming alcohol also influences social behavior. Hence, it was reasoned that priming participants with words related to alcohol (relative to neutral words) would promote prejudiced attitudes toward sexual minorities. In fact, an experiment showed that alcohol cue exposure causally led to more negative implicit attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. In contrast, participants' explicit attitudes were relatively unaffected by the priming manipulation. Moreover, participants' typical alcohol use was not related to their attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. In sum, it appears that not only acute alcohol consumption but also the simple exposure of alcohol cues may promote negative views toward lesbians and gay men.

  4. [Influence of affect on everyday memory: self-reference of retrieval cue].

    PubMed

    Kawase, T

    1992-06-01

    There have been two views as to mood congruent recall: The one interprets it as an automatic process, while the other explains that it appears only when self-referent information processing is running. In this study, one experiment was conducted in order to examine these two opposing views. By false feedback of task performance, positive or negative mood had been induced in each subject, who was given two "cue" words, and asked to retrieve everyday events. The result was that mood congruent recall occurred when the word "self" was presented as a cue; but no effect of mood with neutral cues. This result supports the hypothesis that mood congruent recall is found only when self-referent information is processed. However, such effect was not evident in positive mood condition. In positive mood condition, there remains a possibility that mood congruent recall may be an automatic process. The effects of mood on memory were discussed from various viewpoints.

  5. Beyond magic traits: Multimodal mating cues in Heliconius butterflies.

    PubMed

    Mérot, Claire; Frérot, Brigitte; Leppik, Ene; Joron, Mathieu

    2015-11-01

    Species coexistence involves the evolution of reproductive barriers opposing gene flow. Heliconius butterflies display colorful patterns affecting mate choice and survival through warning signaling and mimicry. These patterns are called "magic traits" for speciation because divergent natural selection may promote mimicry shifts in pattern whose role as mating cue facilitates reproductive isolation. By contrast, between comimetic species, natural selection promotes pattern convergence. We addressed whether visual convergence interferes with reproductive isolation by testing for sexual isolation between two closely related species with similar patterns, H. timareta thelxinoe and H. melpomene amaryllis. Experiments with models confirmed visual attraction based on wing phenotype, leading to indiscriminate approach. Nevertheless, mate choice experiments showed assortative mating. Monitoring male behavior toward live females revealed asymmetry in male preference, H. melpomene males courting both species equally while H. timareta males strongly preferred conspecifics. Experiments with hybrid males suggested an important genetic component for such asymmetry. Behavioral observations support a key role for short-distance cues in determining male choice in H. timareta. Scents extracts from wings and genitalia revealed interspecific divergence in chemical signatures, and hybrid female scent composition was significantly associated with courtship intensity by H. timareta males, providing candidate chemical mating cues involved in sexual isolation. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  6. Facilitating Facilitators: Enhancing PBL through a Structured Facilitator Development Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salinitri, Francine D.; Wilhelm, Sheila M.; Crabtree, Brian L.

    2015-01-01

    With increasing adoption of the problem-based learning (PBL) model, creative approaches to enhancing facilitator training and optimizing resources to maintain effective learning in small groups is essential. We describe a theoretical framework for the development of a PBL facilitator training program that uses the constructivist approach as the…

  7. Facilitating Facilitators: Enhancing PBL through a Structured Facilitator Development Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salinitri, Francine D.; Wilhelm, Sheila M.; Crabtree, Brian L.

    2015-01-01

    With increasing adoption of the problem-based learning (PBL) model, creative approaches to enhancing facilitator training and optimizing resources to maintain effective learning in small groups is essential. We describe a theoretical framework for the development of a PBL facilitator training program that uses the constructivist approach as the…

  8. Overshadowed Cues Have Reduced Ability to Retroactively Interfere with Other Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vadillo, Miguel A.; Orgaz, Cristina; Matute, Helena

    2008-01-01

    The present series of experiments explores the interaction between retroactive interference and cue competition in human contingency learning. The results of two experiments show that a cue that has been exposed to a cue competition treatment (overshadowing) loses part of its ability to retroactively interfere with responding to a different cue…

  9. Overshadowed Cues Have Reduced Ability to Retroactively Interfere with Other Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vadillo, Miguel A.; Orgaz, Cristina; Matute, Helena

    2008-01-01

    The present series of experiments explores the interaction between retroactive interference and cue competition in human contingency learning. The results of two experiments show that a cue that has been exposed to a cue competition treatment (overshadowing) loses part of its ability to retroactively interfere with responding to a different cue…

  10. Contour identification with pitch and loudness cues using cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xin; Masterson, Megan E; Wu, Ching-Chih

    2014-01-01

    Different from speech, pitch and loudness cues may or may not co-vary in music. Cochlear implant (CI) users with poor pitch perception may use loudness contour cues more than normal-hearing (NH) listeners. Contour identification was tested in CI users and NH listeners; the five-note contours contained either pitch cues alone, loudness cues alone, or both. Results showed that NH listeners' contour identification was better with pitch cues than with loudness cues; CI users performed similarly with either cues. When pitch and loudness cues were co-varied, CI performance significantly improved, suggesting that CI users were able to integrate the two cues.

  11. D-cycloserine combined with cue exposure therapy fails to attenuate subjective and physiological craving in cocaine dependence.

    PubMed

    Santa Ana, Elizabeth J; Prisciandaro, James J; Saladin, Michael E; McRae-Clark, Aimee L; Shaftman, Stephanie R; Nietert, Paul J; Brady, Kathleen T

    2015-04-01

    Based on preclinical studies showing that the partial N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) agonist D-cycloserine (DCS) facilitates extinction of cocaine self-administration and cocaine-induced conditioned place preference, we evaluated whether 50 mg of DCS would reduce craving to cocaine cues when combined with cue exposure (CE) in cocaine dependent humans. In this double-blind placebo-controlled pilot study, 47 cocaine dependent participants were randomized to DCS or placebo (PBO), plus CE. Participants received DCS or PBO 30 minutes prior to two CE sessions, conducted one day apart. Craving and heart rate was assessed prior to CE sessions, during CE trials, and after CE trials. These measures were assessed again at a 1-week follow-up (session 3) after the second CE session. DCS failed to significantly attenuate cocaine cue reactivity based on subjective craving and physiological reactivity (heart rate) compared to PBO. The CE protocol, consisting of repeated exposure to drug cues combined with skills training, resulted in extinction to cocaine cues as suggested by decreased craving within and between sessions in both treatment conditions. All participants exhibited elevated heart rate with repeated exposures, demonstrating a potentiation in heart rate between sessions. 50 mg of DCS may not be effective for extinguishing reactivity to drug cues for individuals with cocaine dependence. Future studies examining the effect of DCS on facilitating extinction to drug cues should examine variations in cue exposure length, number of CE presentations, and timing of DCS dose administration prior to cue exposures, which may differentially impact drug cue reactivity. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  12. Consolidation power of extrinsic rewards: reward cues enhance long-term memory for irrelevant past events.

    PubMed

    Murayama, Kou; Kitagami, Shinji

    2014-02-01

    Recent research suggests that extrinsic rewards promote memory consolidation through dopaminergic modulation processes. However, no conclusive behavioral evidence exists given that the influence of extrinsic reward on attention and motivation during encoding and consolidation processes are inherently confounded. The present study provides behavioral evidence that extrinsic rewards (i.e., monetary incentives) enhance human memory consolidation independently of attention and motivation. Participants saw neutral pictures, followed by a reward or control cue in an unrelated context. Our results (and a direct replication study) demonstrated that the reward cue predicted a retrograde enhancement of memory for the preceding neutral pictures. This retrograde effect was observed only after a delay, not immediately upon testing. An additional experiment showed that emotional arousal or unconscious resource mobilization cannot explain the retrograde enhancement effect. These results provide support for the notion that the dopaminergic memory consolidation effect can result from extrinsic reward.

  13. Reaction time facilitation for horizontally moving auditory-visual stimuli.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Neil R; Wuerger, Sophie M; Meyer, Georg F

    2010-12-16

    For moving targets, bimodal facilitation of reaction time has been observed for motion in the depth plane (C. Cappe, G. Thut, B. Romei, & M. M. Murray, 2009), but it is unclear whether analogous RT facilitation is observed for auditory-visual motion stimuli in the horizontal plane, as perception of horizontal motion relies on very different cues. Here we found that bimodal motion cues resulted in significant RT facilitation at threshold level, which could not be explained using an independent decisions model (race model). Bimodal facilitation was observed at suprathreshold levels when the RTs for suprathreshold unimodal stimuli were roughly equated, and significant RT gains were observed for direction-discrimination tasks with abrupt-onset motion stimuli and with motion preceded by a stationary phase. We found no speeded responses for bimodal signals when a motion signal in one modality was paired with a spatially co-localized stationary signal in the other modality, but faster response times could be explained by statistical facilitation when the motion signals traveled in opposite directions. These results strongly suggest that integration of motion cues led to the speeded bimodal responses. Finally, our results highlight the importance of matching the unimodal reaction times to obtain response facilitation for bimodal motion signals in the linear plane.

  14. Cueing Animations: Dynamic Signaling Aids Information Extraction and Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boucheix, Jean-Michel; Lowe, Richard K.; Putri, Dian K.; Groff, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of animations containing two novel forms of animation cueing that target relations between event units rather than individual entities was compared with that of animations containing conventional entity-based cueing or no cues. These relational event unit cues ("progressive path" and "local coordinated" cues) were specifically…

  15. Cueing Animations: Dynamic Signaling Aids Information Extraction and Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boucheix, Jean-Michel; Lowe, Richard K.; Putri, Dian K.; Groff, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of animations containing two novel forms of animation cueing that target relations between event units rather than individual entities was compared with that of animations containing conventional entity-based cueing or no cues. These relational event unit cues ("progressive path" and "local coordinated" cues) were specifically…

  16. Regional Brain Activity in Abstinent Methamphetamine Dependent Males Following Cue Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Malcolm, Robert; Myrick, Hugh; Li, Xingbao; Henderson, Scott; Brady, Kathleen T; George, Mark S; See, Ronald E

    2016-01-01

    Background Neuroimaging of drug-associated cue presentations has aided in understanding the neurobiological substrates of craving and relapse for cocaine, alcohol, and nicotine. However, imaging of cue-reactivity in methamphetamine addiction has been much less studied. Method Nine caucasian male methamphetamine-dependent subjects and nine healthy controls were scanned in a Phillips 3.0T MRI scan when they viewed a randomized presentation of visual cues of methamphetamine, neutral objects, and rest conditions. Functional Imaging data were analyzed with Statistical Parametric Mapping software 5 (SPM 5) Results Methamphetamine subjects had significant brain activation in the ventral striatum and medial frontal cortex in comparison to meth pictures and neutral pictures in healthy controls (p<0.005, threshold 15 voxels). Interestingly the ventral striatum activation significantly correlated with the days since the last use of meth (r=−0.76, p=0.017). No significant activity was found in healthy control group. Conclusion The preliminary data suggest that methamphetamine dependent subjects, when exposed to methamphetamine-associated visual cues, have increased brain activity in ventral striatum, caudate nucleus and medial frontal cortex which subserve craving, drug-seeking, and drug use. PMID:27314105

  17. Which way is which? Examining symbolic control of attention with compound arrow cues.

    PubMed

    Mills, Mark; Dodd, Michael D

    2016-10-01

    Spatial symbols can generate attentional biases toward peripheral locations compatible with the symbol's meaning. An important question concerns how one symbol is selected when competing symbols are present. Studies examining this issue for spatially distinct symbols have suggested that selection depends on the task goals. In the present study, we examined whether the influence of competing symbolic stimuli (arrows) at different levels of structure on attentional control also depends on the task goals. Participants made simple detection responses to a peripheral target preceded by a spatially uninformative compound arrow (global arrow composed of local arrows). In addition, participants were required to perform a secondary task in which they matched the orientation of the global arrow (global task) or the location of a uniquely colored local arrow (local task) to a test display presented immediately following a detection response. When the global and local arrows pointed at opposite locations, a local cueing effect emerged in the local task, and a global cueing effect in the global task, indicating that the task goals influenced the selection of the level of structure. However, when the local level was spatially neutral (global arrow, local rectangles), a cueing effect was observed independent of task, and when the global level was spatially neutral (global rectangle, local arrows), a cueing effect was observed in the local task only, suggesting that global processing was obligatory and local processing optional. These findings suggest that attentional effects triggered by the global level are more strongly reflexive than those triggered by the local level.

  18. The impact of napping on memory for future-relevant stimuli: Prioritization among multiple salience cues.

    PubMed

    Bennion, Kelly A; Payne, Jessica D; Kensinger, Elizabeth A

    2016-06-01

    Prior research has demonstrated that sleep enhances memory for future-relevant information, including memory for information that is salient due to emotion, reward, or knowledge of a later memory test. Although sleep has been shown to prioritize information with any of these characteristics, the present study investigates the novel question of how sleep prioritizes information when multiple salience cues exist. Participants encoded scenes that were future-relevant based on emotion (emotional vs. neutral), reward (rewarded vs. unrewarded), and instructed learning (intentionally vs. incidentally encoded), preceding a delay consisting of a nap, an equivalent time period spent awake, or a nap followed by wakefulness (to control for effects of interference). Recognition testing revealed that when multiple dimensions of future relevance co-occur, sleep prioritizes top-down, goal-directed cues (instructed learning, and to a lesser degree, reward) over bottom-up, stimulus-driven characteristics (emotion). Further, results showed that these factors interact; the effect of a nap on intentionally encoded information was especially strong for neutral (relative to emotional) information, suggesting that once one cue for future relevance is present, there are diminishing returns with additional cues. Sleep may binarize information based on whether it is future-relevant or not, preferentially consolidating memory for the former category. Potential neural mechanisms underlying these selective effects and the implications of this research for educational and vocational domains are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  19. Behavioral sensitivity to broadband binaural localization cues in the ferret.

    PubMed

    Keating, Peter; Nodal, Fernando R; Gananandan, Kohilan; Schulz, Andreas L; King, Andrew J

    2013-08-01

    Although the ferret has become an important model species for studying both fundamental and clinical aspects of spatial hearing, previous behavioral work has focused on studies of sound localization and spatial release from masking in the free field. This makes it difficult to tease apart the role played by different spatial cues. In humans and other species, interaural time differences (ITDs) and interaural level differences (ILDs) play a critical role in sound localization in the azimuthal plane and also facilitate sound source separation in noisy environments. In this study, we used a range of broadband noise stimuli presented via customized earphones to measure ITD and ILD sensitivity in the ferret. Our behavioral data show that ferrets are extremely sensitive to changes in either binaural cue, with levels of performance approximating that found in humans. The measured thresholds were relatively stable despite extensive and prolonged (>16 weeks) testing on ITD and ILD tasks with broadband stimuli. For both cues, sensitivity was reduced at shorter durations. In addition, subtle effects of changing the stimulus envelope were observed on ITD, but not ILD, thresholds. Sensitivity to these cues also differed in other ways. Whereas ILD sensitivity was unaffected by changes in average binaural level or interaural correlation, the same manipulations produced much larger effects on ITD sensitivity, with thresholds declining when either of these parameters was reduced. The binaural sensitivity measured in this study can largely account for the ability of ferrets to localize broadband stimuli in the azimuthal plane. Our results are also broadly consistent with data from humans and confirm the ferret as an excellent experimental model for studying spatial hearing.

  20. Affect regulation and food intake in bulimia nervosa: emotional responding to food cues after deprivation and subsequent eating.

    PubMed

    Mauler, Birgit I; Hamm, Alfons O; Weike, Almut I; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna

    2006-08-01

    Emotional responding to salient food cues and effects of food deprivation and consumption were investigated in 32 women with bulimia and 32 control women. One half of each group was food deprived before viewing unpleasant, neutral, pleasant, and food-related pictures. Then participants could eat from a buffet before viewing a parallel picture set. Women with bulimia showed a substantial potentiation of startle responses during viewing of food cues relative to control women. This startle potentiation was attenuated by food deprivation and augmented by increased food consumption. These data support the affective regulation model suggesting that food cues prompt negative affective states in women with bulimia, who are overwhelmed by fasting. The resulting deprivation increases the incentive value of food cues and may thus trigger binge eating.

  1. Modeling Causal Relationship Between Brain Regions Within the Drug-Cue Processing Network in Chronic Cocaine Smokers.

    PubMed

    Ray, Suchismita; Haney, Margaret; Hanson, Catherine; Biswal, Bharat; Hanson, Stephen José

    2015-12-01

    The cues associated with drugs of abuse have an essential role in perpetuating problematic use, yet effective connectivity or the causal interaction between brain regions mediating the processing of drug cues has not been defined. The aim of this fMRI study was to model the causal interaction between brain regions within the drug-cue processing network in chronic cocaine smokers and matched control participants during a cocaine-cue exposure task. Specifically, cocaine-smoking (15M; 5F) and healthy control (13M; 4F) participants viewed cocaine and neutral cues while in the scanner (a Siemens 3 T magnet). We examined whole brain activation, including activation related to drug-cue processing. Time series data extracted from ROIs determined through our General Linear Model (GLM) analysis and prior publications were used as input to IMaGES, a computationally powerful Bayesian search algorithm. During cocaine-cue exposure, cocaine users showed a particular feed-forward effective connectivity pattern between the ROIs of the drug-cue processing network (amygdala → hippocampus → dorsal striatum → insula → medial frontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex) that was not present when the controls viewed the cocaine cues. Cocaine craving ratings positively correlated with the strength of the causal influence of the insula on the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in cocaine users. This study is the first demonstration of a causal interaction between ROIs within the drug-cue processing network in cocaine users. This study provides insight into the mechanism underlying continued substance use and has implications for monitoring treatment response.

  2. Modeling Causal Relationship Between Brain Regions Within the Drug-Cue Processing Network in Chronic Cocaine Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Suchismita; Haney, Margaret; Hanson, Catherine; Biswal, Bharat; Hanson, Stephen José

    2015-01-01

    The cues associated with drugs of abuse have an essential role in perpetuating problematic use, yet effective connectivity or the causal interaction between brain regions mediating the processing of drug cues has not been defined. The aim of this fMRI study was to model the causal interaction between brain regions within the drug-cue processing network in chronic cocaine smokers and matched control participants during a cocaine-cue exposure task. Specifically, cocaine-smoking (15M; 5F) and healthy control (13M; 4F) participants viewed cocaine and neutral cues while in the scanner (a Siemens 3 T magnet). We examined whole brain activation, including activation related to drug-cue processing. Time series data extracted from ROIs determined through our General Linear Model (GLM) analysis and prior publications were used as input to IMaGES, a computationally powerful Bayesian search algorithm. During cocaine-cue exposure, cocaine users showed a particular feed-forward effective connectivity pattern between the ROIs of the drug-cue processing network (amygdala→hippocampus→dorsal striatum→insula→medial frontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex) that was not present when the controls viewed the cocaine cues. Cocaine craving ratings positively correlated with the strength of the causal influence of the insula on the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in cocaine users. This study is the first demonstration of a causal interaction between ROIs within the drug-cue processing network in cocaine users. This study provides insight into the mechanism underlying continued substance use and has implications for monitoring treatment response. PMID:26038158

  3. Depth Cues From Optical Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Frank Y.; Prathuri, Chandra

    1990-03-01

    In order to have a perfect computer vision system, it is important that it should emulate something which is already prefect - the human visual system. In this paper we discuss the relevancy of the study of the psychological and physiological aspects of human vision to computer vision research. Motion perception is an important aspect of vision. We make an approach here, to configure a system that can perceive world knowledge from moving scenes. This is based on the principle that moving scenes generate optical flow and getting the depth cues from optical flow gives three dimensional information of the scene. We derive depth information from passive ranging techniques. Potential applications are in autonomous vehicle navigation, coordinated motions between vehicles for passive ranging to moving targets and in industrial robotics.

  4. How rats combine temporal cues.

    PubMed

    Guilhardi, Paulo; Keen, Richard; MacInnis, Mika L M; Church, Russell M

    2005-05-31

    The procedures for classical and operant conditioning, and for many timing procedures, involve the delivery of reinforcers that may be related to the time of previous reinforcers and responses, and to the time of onsets and terminations of stimuli. The behavior resulting from such procedures can be described as bouts of responding that occur in some pattern at some rate. A packet theory of timing and conditioning is described that accounts for such behavior under a wide range of procedures. Applications include the food searching by rats in Skinner boxes under conditions of fixed and random reinforcement, brief and sustained stimuli, and several response-food contingencies. The approach is used to describe how multiple cues from reinforcers and stimuli combine to determine the rate and pattern of response bouts.

  5. Children's Use of Color Cues in Words.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knafle, June D.

    The results of two matching-to-sample experiments using color cues in Consonant Vowel Consonant (CVC) stimulus words with kindergarten through third grade subjects are included in this document. Color cues influenced subjects to match according to first letters. When the first letter of each stimulus word was underlined in red, kindergarten and…

  6. Stereotyping in Fear of Success Cues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juran, Shelley

    Prior studies suggest that sex-role stereotypes influence responses to Horner's fear of success cue. This study investigates stereotypes about both sex roles and achievement settings. One hundred sixty college males and females wrote stories to different cues, then rated the masculinity-femininity of their story characters. Both "John and…

  7. Cue Reliance in L2 Written Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiechmann, Daniel; Kerz, Elma

    2014-01-01

    Second language learners reach expert levels in relative cue weighting only gradually. On the basis of ensemble machine learning models fit to naturalistic written productions of German advanced learners of English and expert writers, we set out to reverse engineer differences in the weighting of multiple cues in a clause linearization problem. We…

  8. Children's Recognition of Emotions from Vocal Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauter, Disa A.; Panattoni, Charlotte; Happe, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    Emotional cues contain important information about the intentions and feelings of others. Despite a wealth of research into children's understanding of facial signals of emotions, little research has investigated the developmental trajectory of interpreting affective cues in the voice. In this study, 48 children ranging between 5 and 10 years were…

  9. Nonvisual Cues for Aligning to Cross Streets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Alan C.; Barlow, Janet M.; Guth, David A.; Bentzen, Billie Louise; Cunningham, Christopher M.; Long, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Accurately aligning to a crosswalk is an important component of safe street crossing for pedestrians who are blind. Six alignment cues were evaluated in a simulated crosswalk environment in which the angle of the crosswalk was not always in line with the slope of the ramp. The effectiveness of each cue is reported and implications are discussed.…

  10. Nonvisual Cues for Aligning to Cross Streets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Alan C.; Barlow, Janet M.; Guth, David A.; Bentzen, Billie Louise; Cunningham, Christopher M.; Long, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Accurately aligning to a crosswalk is an important component of safe street crossing for pedestrians who are blind. Six alignment cues were evaluated in a simulated crosswalk environment in which the angle of the crosswalk was not always in line with the slope of the ramp. The effectiveness of each cue is reported and implications are discussed.…

  11. Effects of cues on target search behavior.

    PubMed

    Botzer, Assaf; Meyer, Joachim; Borowsky, Avinoam; Gdalyahu, Ido; Shalom, Yoav Ben

    2015-03-01

    Cues in visual scanning task can improve decision accuracy, and they may also affect task performance strategies. We tested the effects of cues on the performance of binary classifications, on the screen scanning procedure participants employed, and on the reported effort in a simulated quality control task. Participants had to decide whether each item in a 5 × 5 matrix of items was intact or faulty. In half the experimental blocks decisions could only be based on the visual properties of the items. In the other half, participants also saw imperfect binary cues and could use them to classify the items as faulty or intact. We used eye tracking to study scan patterns and fixation durations on items. Decision performance improved with cues, and cues affected the scanning of items, with participants mainly scanning cued items and tending to scan them longer. Participants stated that cues reduced their effort when cues were highly valid. We conclude that strategic choices to focus on suspected areas determined the screen scanning procedure, the amount of effort invested in single decisions, and the accuracy of the decisions. We therefore suggest using likelihood ratio cues to help optimize the scanning procedure.

  12. Cue Reliance in L2 Written Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiechmann, Daniel; Kerz, Elma

    2014-01-01

    Second language learners reach expert levels in relative cue weighting only gradually. On the basis of ensemble machine learning models fit to naturalistic written productions of German advanced learners of English and expert writers, we set out to reverse engineer differences in the weighting of multiple cues in a clause linearization problem. We…

  13. Depth cue integration: stereopsis and image blur.

    PubMed

    Mather, G; Smith, D R

    2000-01-01

    Depth-of-focus limitations introduce spatial blur in images of three-dimensional scenes. It is not clear how the visual system combines depth information derived from image blur with information from other depth cues. Stereoscopic disparity is the pre-eminent depth cue, so experiments were conducted to investigate interactions between image blur and stereoscopic disparity. Observers viewed two random dot stereograms (RDSs) in a 2AFC task, and were required to identify the RDS depicting the greatest depth. In control observations, all dots in both RDSs were sharply defined. In experimental observations, one RDS contained only sharply defined dots, but the other contained differential spatial blur to introduce an additional depth cue. Results showed that the addition of differential blur made only a marginal difference to apparent depth separation, and only when the blur difference was consistent with the sign of disparity. Cue combination between blur and disparity cues is thus weighted very heavily in favour of the latter. It is shown that blur and disparity cues co-vary according to geometric optics. Since the two cues are effective over different distances, the visual system is not normally called upon to integrate them, and is most likely to make use of blur cues over distances beyond the range of disparity mechanisms.

  14. Figure-ground separation by cue integration.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiangyu; von der Malsburg, Christoph

    2008-06-01

    This letter presents an improved cue integration approach to reliably separate coherent moving objects from their background scene in video sequences. The proposed method uses a probabilistic framework to unify bottom-up and top-down cues in a parallel, "democratic" fashion. The algorithm makes use of a modified Bayes rule where each pixel's posterior probabilities of figure or ground layer assignment are derived from likelihood models of three bottom-up cues and a prior model provided by a top-down cue. Each cue is treated as independent evidence for figure-ground separation. They compete with and complement each other dynamically by adjusting relative weights from frame to frame according to cue quality measured against the overall integration. At the same time, the likelihood or prior models of individual cues adapt toward the integrated result. These mechanisms enable the system to organize under the influence of visual scene structure without manual intervention. A novel contribution here is the incorporation of a top-down cue. It improves the system's robustness and accuracy and helps handle difficult and ambiguous situations, such as abrupt lighting changes or occlusion among multiple objects. Results on various video sequences are demonstrated and discussed. (Video demos are available at http://organic.usc.edu:8376/ approximately tangx/neco/index.html .).

  15. Expectation mismatch: differences between self-generated and cue-induced expectations.

    PubMed

    Gaschler, R; Schwager, S; Umbach, V J; Frensch, P A; Schubert, T

    2014-10-01

    Expectation of upcoming stimuli and tasks can lead to improved performance, if the anticipated situation occurs, while expectation mismatch can lead to less efficient processing. Researchers have used methodological approaches that rely on either self-generated expectations (predictions) or cue-induced expectations to investigate expectation mismatch effects. Differentiating these two types of expectations for different contents of expectation such as stimuli, responses, task sets and conflict level, we review evidence suggesting that self-generated expectations lead to larger facilitating effects and conflict effects on the behavioral and neural level - as compared to cue-based expectations. On a methodological level, we suggest that self-generated as compared to cue-induced expectations allow for a higher amount of experimental control in many experimental designs on expectation effects. On a theoretical level, we argue for qualitative differences in how cues vs. self-generated expectations influence performance. While self-generated expectations might generally involve representing the expected event in the focus of attention in working memory, cues might only lead to such representations under supportive circumstances (i.e., cue of high validity and attended). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Acoustic and Perceptual Consequences of Speech Cues for Children With Dysarthria.

    PubMed

    Levy, Erika S; Chang, Younghwa M; Ancelle, Joséphine A; McAuliffe, Megan J

    2017-06-22

    Reductions in articulatory working space and vocal intensity have been linked to intelligibility deficits in children with dysarthria due to cerebral palsy. However, few studies have examined the outcomes of behavioral treatments aimed at these underlying impairments or investigated which treatment cues might best facilitate improved intelligibility. This study assessed the effects of cues targeting clear speech (i.e., "Speak with your big mouth") and greater vocal intensity (i.e., "Speak with your strong voice") on acoustic measures of speech production and intelligibility. Eight children with spastic dysarthria due to cerebral palsy repeated sentence- and word-level stimuli across habitual, big mouth, and strong voice conditions. Acoustic analyses were conducted, and 48 listeners completed orthographic transcription and scaled intelligibility ratings. Both cues resulted in significant changes to vocal intensity and speech rate although the degree of change varied by condition. In a similar manner, perceptual analysis revealed significant improvements to intelligibility with both cues; however, at the single-word level, big mouth outperformed strong voice. Children with dysarthria are capable of changing their speech styles differentially in response to cueing. Both the big mouth and strong voice cues hold promise as intervention strategies to improve intelligibility in this population. https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.5116843.

  17. The Effects of Age and Preoral Sensorimotor Cues on Anticipatory Mouth Movement During Swallowing

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Jerald B.; Goodman, Shawn S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of preoral sensorimotor cues on anticipatory swallowing/eating-related mouth movements in older and younger adults. It was hypothesized that these cues are essential to timing anticipatory oral motor patterns, and these movements are delayed in older as compared with younger adults. Method Using a 2 × 2 repeated-measures design, eating-related lip, jaw, and hand movements were recorded from 24 healthy older (ages 70–85 years) and 24 healthy younger (ages 18–30 years) adults under 4 conditions: typical self-feeding, typical assisted feeding (proprioceptive loss), sensory-loss self-feeding (auditory and visual loss/degradation), and sensory-loss assisted feeding (loss/degradation of all cues). Results All participants demonstrated anticipatory mouth opening. The absence of proprioception delayed lip-lowering onset, and sensory loss more negatively affected offset. Given at least 1 preoral sensorimotor cue, older adults initiated movement earlier than younger adults. Conclusions Preoral sensorimotor information influences anticipatory swallowing/eating-related mouth movements, highlighting the importance of these cues. Earlier movement in older adults may be a compensation, facilitating safe swallowing given other age-related declines. Further research is needed to determine if the negative impact of cue removal may be further exacerbated in a nonhealthy system (e.g., presence of dysphagia or disease), potentially increasing swallowing- and eating-related risks. PMID:26540553

  18. Measuring effectiveness of semantic cues in degraded English sentences in non-native listeners.

    PubMed

    Shi, Lu-Feng

    2014-01-01

    This study employed Boothroyd and Nittrouer's k (1988) to directly quantify effectiveness in native versus non-native listeners' use of semantic cues. Listeners were presented speech-perception-in-noise sentences processed at three levels of concurrent multi-talker babble and reverberation. For each condition, 50 sentences with multiple semantic cues and 50 with minimum semantic cues were randomly presented. Listeners verbally reported and wrote down the target words. The metric, k, was derived from percent-correct scores for sentences with and without semantics. Ten native and 33 non-native listeners participated. The presence of semantics increased recognition benefit by over 250% for natives, but access to semantics remained limited for non-native listeners (90-135%). The k was comparable across conditions for native listeners, but level-dependent for non-natives. The k for non-natives was significantly different from 1 in all conditions, suggesting semantic cues, though reduced in importance in difficult conditions, were helpful for non-natives. Non-natives as a group were not as effective in using semantics to facilitate English sentence recognition as natives. Poor listening conditions were particularly adverse to the use of semantics in non-natives, who may rely on clear acoustic-phonetic cues before benefitting from semantic cues when recognizing connected speech.

  19. Endothelial Expression of Guidance Cues in Vessel Wall Homeostasis: Dysregulation under pro-atherosclerotic conditions

    PubMed Central

    van Gils, Janine M.; Ramkhelawon, Bhama; Fernandes, Luciana; Stewart, Merran C.; Guo, Liang; Seibert, Tara; Menezes, Gustavo B.; Cara, Denise C.; Chow, Camille; Kinane, T. Bernard; Fisher, Edward A.; Balcells, Mercedes; Alvarez-Leite, Jacqueline; Moore, Kathryn J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Emerging evidence suggests that neuronal guidance cues, typically expressed during development, are involved in both physiological and pathological immune responses. We hypothesized that endothelial expression of such guidance cues may regulate leukocyte trafficking into the vascular wall during atherogenesis. Approach/Results We demonstrate that members of the Netrin, Semaphorin and Ephrin family of guidance molecules are differentially regulated under conditions that promote or protect from atherosclerosis. Netrin-1 and Semaphorin3A are expressed by coronary artery endothelial cells and potently inhibit chemokine-directed migration of human monocytes. Endothelial expression of these negative guidance cues is down-regulated by pro-atherogenic factors, including oscillatory shear stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines associated with monocyte entry into the vessel wall. Furthermore, we show using intravital microscopy that inhibition of Netrin-1 or Semaphorin3A using blocking peptides increases leukocyte adhesion to the endothelium. Unlike Netrin-1 and Semaphorin3A, the guidance cue EphrinB2 is up-regulated under pro-atherosclerotic flow conditions and functions as a chemoattractant, increasing leukocyte migration in the absence of additional chemokines. Conclusions The concurrent regulation of negative and positive guidance cues may facilitate leukocyte infiltration of the endothelium through a balance between chemoattraction and chemorepulsion. These data indicate a previously unappreciated role for axonal guidance cues in maintaining the endothelial barrier and regulating leukocyte trafficking during atherogenesis. PMID:23430612

  20. Prospective associations between brain activation to cocaine and no-go cues and cocaine relapse.

    PubMed

    Prisciandaro, James J; Myrick, Hugh; Henderson, Scott; McRae-Clark, Aimee L; Brady, Kathleen T

    2013-07-01

    The ability to predict potential for relapse to substance use following treatment could be very useful in targeting aftercare strategies. Recently, a number of investigators have focused on using neural activity measured by fMRI to predict relapse propensity. The purpose of the present study was to use fMRI to investigate prospective associations between brain reactivity to cocaine and response inhibition cues and relapse to cocaine use. Thirty cocaine-dependent participants with clean cocaine urine drug screens (UDS) completed a baseline fMRI scan, including a cocaine-cue reactivity task and a go no-go response inhibition task. After participating in a brief clinical trial of d-cycloserine for the facilitation of cocaine-cue extinction, they returned for a one-week follow-up UDS. Associations between baseline activation to cocaine and inhibition cues and relapse to cocaine use were explored. Positive cocaine UDS was significantly associated with cocaine-cue activation in the right putamen and insula, as well as bilateral occipital regions. Associations between positive cocaine UDS and activation to no-go cues were concentrated in the postcentral gyri, a region involved in response execution. Although preliminary, these results suggest that brain imaging may be a useful tool for predicting risk for relapse in cocaine-dependent individuals. Further, larger-scale naturalistic studies are needed to corroborate and extend these findings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Prospective associations between brain activation to cocaine and no-go cues and cocaine relapse*

    PubMed Central

    Prisciandaro, James J.; Myrick, Hugh; Henderson, Scott; McRae-Clark, Aimee L.; Brady, Kathleen T.

    2013-01-01

    Background The ability to predict potential for relapse to substance use following treatment could be very useful in targeting aftercare strategies. Recently, a number of investigators have focused on using neural activity measured by fMRI to predict relapse propensity. The purpose of the present study was to use fMRI to investigate prospective associations between brain reactivity to cocaine and response inhibition cues and relapse to cocaine use. Methods Thirty cocaine-dependent participants with clean cocaine urine drug screens (UDS) completed a baseline fMRI scan, including a cocaine-cue reactivity task and a go/no-go response inhibition task. After participating in a brief clinical trial of D-cycloserine for the facilitation of cocaine cue extinction, they returned for a one-week follow-up UDS. Associations between baseline activation to cocaine and inhibition cues and relapse to cocaine use were explored. Results Positive cocaine UDS was significantly associated with cocaine cue activation in the right putamen and insula, as well as bilateral occipital regions. Associations between positive cocaine UDS and activation to no-go cues were concentrated in the postcentral gyri, a region involved in response execution. Conclusions Although preliminary, these results suggest that brain imaging may be a useful tool for predicting risk for relapse in cocaine-dependent individuals. Further, larger-scale naturalistic studies are needed to corroborate and extend these findings. PMID:23683790

  2. Is phonological-lexical representation preserved in moderate stage Alzheimer disease? Evidence from the efficacy of Korean syllabic cues.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Ji Hye; Na, Duk L; Chin, Juhee; Ahn, Hyun-Jung; Lee, Byung Hwa; Suh, Mee Kyung; Kim, Geon Ha; Kim, Hyanghee

    2010-01-01

    Patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) usually experience naming difficulty due to storage and access problems in phonological-lexical representation. Investigating naming response patterns followed by cueing may help us to understand the underlying mechanism of naming deficits in AD. A total of 221 patients with mild cognitive impairment and AD [Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) 0.5, 1, 2] were included as subjects. Sixty items of the Korean version of the Boston Naming Test were given, and upon failure, semantic/syllabic cues were verbally presented. From the results, even in the CDR 2 group, which is considered to be a moderate stage of AD, syllabic cues significantly facilitated correct responses. Our findings are in contrast with previous studies conducted with English-speaking patients, which reported that phonological-lexical representation may have been disrupted in the moderate stage of AD, and that none of the cues facilitated correct word retrieval. The difference may be ascribed to the fact that direct access to the phonological-lexical representation via syllabic cues was possible in the confrontation naming task performed by the Korean patients. It can be concluded that phonological-lexical representation in moderate stage Korean AD might be partially preserved because syllabic cues in AD patients were effective in facilitating target words.

  3. Multiscale Cues Drive Collective Cell Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Ki-Hwan; Kim, Peter; Wood, David K.; Kwon, Sunghoon; Provenzano, Paolo P.; Kim, Deok-Ho

    2016-07-01

    To investigate complex biophysical relationships driving directed cell migration, we developed a biomimetic platform that allows perturbation of microscale geometric constraints with concomitant nanoscale contact guidance architectures. This permits us to elucidate the influence, and parse out the relative contribution, of multiscale features, and define how these physical inputs are jointly processed with oncogenic signaling. We demonstrate that collective cell migration is profoundly enhanced by the addition of contract guidance cues when not otherwise constrained. However, while nanoscale cues promoted migration in all cases, microscale directed migration cues are dominant as the geometric constraint narrows, a behavior that is well explained by stochastic diffusion anisotropy modeling. Further, oncogene activation (i.e. mutant PIK3CA) resulted in profoundly increased migration where extracellular multiscale directed migration cues and intrinsic signaling synergistically conspire to greatly outperform normal cells or any extracellular guidance cues in isolation.

  4. Multiscale Cues Drive Collective Cell Migration.

    PubMed

    Nam, Ki-Hwan; Kim, Peter; Wood, David K; Kwon, Sunghoon; Provenzano, Paolo P; Kim, Deok-Ho

    2016-07-27

    To investigate complex biophysical relationships driving directed cell migration, we developed a biomimetic platform that allows perturbation of microscale geometric constraints with concomitant nanoscale contact guidance architectures. This permits us to elucidate the influence, and parse out the relative contribution, of multiscale features, and define how these physical inputs are jointly processed with oncogenic signaling. We demonstrate that collective cell migration is profoundly enhanced by the addition of contract guidance cues when not otherwise constrained. However, while nanoscale cues promoted migration in all cases, microscale directed migration cues are dominant as the geometric constraint narrows, a behavior that is well explained by stochastic diffusion anisotropy modeling. Further, oncogene activation (i.e. mutant PIK3CA) resulted in profoundly increased migration where extracellular multiscale directed migration cues and intrinsic signaling synergistically conspire to greatly outperform normal cells or any extracellular guidance cues in isolation.

  5. Multiscale Cues Drive Collective Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Ki-Hwan; Kim, Peter; Wood, David K.; Kwon, Sunghoon; Provenzano, Paolo P.; Kim, Deok-Ho

    2016-01-01

    To investigate complex biophysical relationships driving directed cell migration, we developed a biomimetic platform that allows perturbation of microscale geometric constraints with concomitant nanoscale contact guidance architectures. This permits us to elucidate the influence, and parse out the relative contribution, of multiscale features, and define how these physical inputs are jointly processed with oncogenic signaling. We demonstrate that collective cell migration is profoundly enhanced by the addition of contract guidance cues when not otherwise constrained. However, while nanoscale cues promoted migration in all cases, microscale directed migration cues are dominant as the geometric constraint narrows, a behavior that is well explained by stochastic diffusion anisotropy modeling. Further, oncogene activation (i.e. mutant PIK3CA) resulted in profoundly increased migration where extracellular multiscale directed migration cues and intrinsic signaling synergistically conspire to greatly outperform normal cells or any extracellular guidance cues in isolation. PMID:27460294

  6. The influence of object similarity and orientation on object-based cueing.

    PubMed

    Hein, Elisabeth; Blaschke, Stefan; Rolke, Bettina

    2017-01-01

    Responses to targets that appear at a noncued position within the same object (invalid-same) compared to a noncued position at an equidistant different object (invalid-different) tend to be faster and more accurate. These cueing effects have been taken as evidence that visual attention can be object based (Egly, Driver, & Rafal, Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 123, 161-177, 1994). Recent findings, however, have shown that the object-based cueing effect is influenced by object orientation, suggesting that the cueing effect might be due to a more general facilitation of attentional shifts across the horizontal meridian (Al-Janabi & Greenberg, Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 1-17, 2016; Pilz, Roggeveen, Creighton, Bennet, & Sekuler, PLOS ONE, 7, e30693, 2012). The aim of this study was to investigate whether the object-based cueing effect is influenced by object similarity and orientation. According to the object-based attention account, objects that are less similar to each other should elicit stronger object-based cueing effects independent of object orientation, whereas the horizontal meridian theory would not predict any effect of object similarity. We manipulated object similarity by using a color (Exp. 1, Exp. 2A) or shape change (Exp. 2B) to distinguish two rectangles in a variation of the classic two-rectangle paradigm (Egly et al., 1994). We found that the object-based cueing effects were influenced by the orientation of the rectangles and strengthened by object dissimilarity. We suggest that object-based cueing effects are strongly affected by the facilitation of attention along the horizontal meridian, but that they also have an object-based attentional component, which is revealed when the dissimilarity between the presented objects is accentuated.

  7. Preattentive processing of heart cues and the perception of heart symptoms in congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Karsdorp, Petra A; Kindt, Merel; Everaerd, Walter; Mulder, Barbara J M

    2007-08-01

    The present study was aimed at clarifying whether preattentive processing of heart cues results in biased perception of heart sensations in patients with congenital heart disease (ConHD) who are also highly trait anxious. Twenty-six patients with ConHD and 22 healthy participants categorized heart-related (heart rate) or neutral sensations (constant vibration) as either heart or neutral. Both sensations were evoked using a bass speaker that was attached on the chest of the participant. Before each physical sensation, a subliminal heart-related or neutral prime was presented. Biased perception of heart-sensations would become evident by a delayed categorization of the heart-related sensations. In line with the prediction, a combination of high trait anxiety and ConHD resulted in slower responses after a heart-related sensation that was preceded by a subliminal heart cue. Preattentive processing of harmless heart cues may easily elicit overperception of heart symptoms in highly trait anxious patients with ConHD.

  8. "Avoiding or approaching eyes"? Introversion/extraversion affects the gaze-cueing effect.

    PubMed

    Ponari, Marta; Trojano, Luigi; Grossi, Dario; Conson, Massimiliano

    2013-08-01

    We investigated whether the extra-/introversion personality dimension can influence processing of others' eye gaze direction and emotional facial expression during a target detection task. On the basis of previous evidence showing that self-reported trait anxiety can affect gaze-cueing with emotional faces, we also verified whether trait anxiety can modulate the influence of intro-/extraversion on behavioral performance. Fearful, happy, angry or neutral faces, with either direct or averted gaze, were presented before the target appeared in spatial locations congruent or incongruent with stimuli's eye gaze direction. Results showed a significant influence of intra-/extraversion dimension on gaze-cueing effect for angry, happy, and neutral faces with averted gaze. Introverts did not show the gaze congruency effect when viewing angry expressions, but did so with happy and neutral faces; extraverts showed the opposite pattern. Importantly, the influence of intro-/extraversion on gaze-cueing was not mediated by trait anxiety. These findings demonstrated that personality differences can shape processing of interactions between relevant social signals.

  9. Extinction of drug- and withdrawal-paired cues in animal models: Relevance to the treatment of addiction

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Karyn M.; Carlezon, William A.

    2010-01-01

    Conditioned drug craving and withdrawal elicited by cues paired with drug use or acute withdrawal are among the many factors contributing to compulsive drug taking. Understanding how to stop these cues from having these effects is a major goal of addiction research. Extinction is a form of learning in which associations between cues and the events they predict are weakened by exposure to the cues in the absence of those events. Evidence from animal models suggests that conditioned responses to drug cues can be extinguished, although the degree to which this occurs in humans is controversial. Investigations into the neurobiological substrates of extinction of conditioned drug craving and withdrawal may facilitate the successful use of drug cue extinction within clinical contexts. While this work is still in the early stages, there are indications that extinction of drug- and withdrawal-paired cues shares neural mechanisms with extinction of conditioned fear. Using the fear extinction literature as a template, it is possible to organize the observations on drug cue extinction into a cohesive framework. PMID:20109490

  10. Extinction of drug- and withdrawal-paired cues in animal models: relevance to the treatment of addiction.

    PubMed

    Myers, Karyn M; Carlezon, William A

    2010-11-01

    Conditioned drug craving and withdrawal elicited by cues paired with drug use or acute withdrawal are among the many factors contributing to compulsive drug taking. Understanding how to stop these cues from having these effects is a major goal of addiction research. Extinction is a form of learning in which associations between cues and the events they predict are weakened by exposure to the cues in the absence of those events. Evidence from animal models suggests that conditioned responses to drug cues can be extinguished, although the degree to which this occurs in humans is controversial. Investigations into the neurobiological substrates of extinction of conditioned drug craving and withdrawal may facilitate the successful use of drug cue extinction within clinical contexts. While this work is still in the early stages, there are indications that extinction of drug- and withdrawal-paired cues shares neural mechanisms with extinction of conditioned fear. Using the fear extinction literature as a template, it is possible to organize the observations on drug cue extinction into a cohesive framework. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The role of spatial attention and other processes on the magnitude and time course of cueing effects.

    PubMed

    Funes, María Jesús; Lupiáñez, Juan; Milliken, Bruce

    2005-06-01

    We are quite often exposed to multiple objects present in the visual scene, thus attentional selection is necessary in order to selectively respond to the relevant information. Objects can be selected on the basis of the location they occupy by orienting attention in space. In this paper, we review the evidence showing that attention can be oriented in space either endogenously, on the basis of central cues, predictive of the relevant location, or exogenously, automatically triggered by the salient properties of visual stimuli (peripheral cues). Several dissociations observed between orienting on the basis of the two types of cues have led to the conclusion that they do not represent just two modes of triggering the orienting of the very same attentional mechanism, but rather they modulate processing differently. We present a theoretical framework according to which endogenous predictive cues facilitate target processing by orienting attention, thus amplifying processing at the attended location. In contrast, apart from attentional orienting, peripherally presented discrepant cues might trigger additional cue-target event-integration and event-segregation processes, which modulate processing in a different way, thus leading to cueing effects that are exclusively triggered by peripheral cues.

  12. Sucrose-predictive cues evoke greater phasic dopamine release than saccharin-predictive cues.

    PubMed

    McCutcheon, James E; Beeler, Jeff A; Roitman, Mitchell F

    2012-04-01

    Cues that have been paired with food evoke dopamine in nucleus accumbens (NAc) and drive approach behavior. This cue-evoked dopamine signaling could contribute to overconsumption of food. One manner in which individuals try to restrict caloric intake is through the consumption of foods containing artificial (non-nutritive) sweeteners. We were interested in whether cues paired with a non-nutritive sweetener (saccharin) would evoke similar dopamine release as cues paired with a nutritive sweetener (sucrose). We trained food-restricted rats to associate distinct cues with sucrose or saccharin pellets. In the first group of rats, training sessions with each pellet took place on different days, maximizing the opportunity for rats to detect nutritional differences. After training, voltammetry recordings in NAc core revealed that sucrose cues evoked greater phasic dopamine release than saccharin cues. In a second group of rats, on each training day, sucrose and saccharin pellets were presented in pseudorandom order within the same session, to mask nutritional differences. In this condition, the difference in dopamine between sucrose and saccharin cues was attenuated, but not abolished. These results suggest that sucrose-paired cues will more powerfully motivate behavior than saccharin-paired cues. The differing responses to each cue seem to be driven by overall preference with both the nutritional value that the pellets predict as well as other factors, such as taste, contributing. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Effects of adrenal sensitivity, stress- and cue-induced craving, and anxiety on subsequent alcohol relapse and treatment outcomes.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Rajita; Fox, Helen C; Hong, Kwang-Ik Adam; Hansen, Julie; Tuit, Keri; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2011-09-01

    Alcoholism is a chronic, relapsing illness in which stress and alcohol cues contribute significantly to relapse risk. Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, increased anxiety, and high alcohol craving have been documented during early alcohol recovery, but their influence on relapse risk has not been well studied. To investigate these responses in treatment-engaged, 1-month-abstinent, recovering alcohol-dependent patients relative to matched controls (study 1) and to assess whether HPA axis function, anxiety, and craving responses are predictive of subsequent alcohol relapse and treatment outcome (study 2). Experimental exposure to stress, alcohol cues, and neutral, relaxing context to provoke alcohol craving, anxiety, and HPA axis responses (corticotropin and cortisol levels and cortisol to corticotropin ratio) and a prospective 90-day follow-up outcome design to assess alcohol relapse and aftercare treatment outcomes. Inpatient treatment in a community mental health center and hospital-based research unit. Treatment-engaged alcohol-dependent individuals and healthy controls. Time to alcohol relapse and to heavy drinking relapse. Significant HPA axis dysregulation, marked by higher basal corticotropin level and lack of stress- and cue-induced corticotropin and cortisol responses, higher anxiety, and greater stress- and cue-induced alcohol craving, was seen in the alcohol-dependent patients vs the control group. Stress- and cue-induced anxiety and stress-induced alcohol craving were associated with fewer days in aftercare alcohol treatment. High provoked alcohol craving to both stress and to cues and greater neutral, relaxed-state cortisol to corticotropin ratio (adrenal sensitivity) were each predictive of shorter time to alcohol relapse. These results identify a significant effect of high adrenal sensitivity, anxiety, and increased stress- and cue-induced alcohol craving on subsequent alcohol relapse and treatment outcomes. Findings

  14. Opposite initialization to novel cues in dopamine signaling in ventral and posterior striatum in mice

    PubMed Central

    Menegas, William; Babayan, Benedicte M; Uchida, Naoshige; Watabe-Uchida, Mitsuko

    2017-01-01

    Dopamine neurons are thought to encode novelty in addition to reward prediction error (the discrepancy between actual and predicted values). In this study, we compared dopamine activity across the striatum using fiber fluorometry in mice. During classical conditioning, we observed opposite dynamics in dopamine axon signals in the ventral striatum (‘VS dopamine’) and the posterior tail of the striatum (‘TS dopamine’). TS dopamine showed strong excitation to novel cues, whereas VS dopamine showed no responses to novel cues until they had been paired with a reward. TS dopamine cue responses decreased over time, depending on what the cue predicted. Additionally, TS dopamine showed excitation to several types of stimuli including rewarding, aversive, and neutral stimuli whereas VS dopamine showed excitation only to reward or reward-predicting cues. Together, these results demonstrate that dopamine novelty signals are localized in TS along with general salience signals, while VS dopamine reliably encodes reward prediction error. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.21886.001 PMID:28054919

  15. Heterogeneity in brain reactivity to pleasant and food cues: evidence of sign-tracking in humans.

    PubMed

    Versace, Francesco; Kypriotakis, George; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Schembre, Susan M

    2016-04-01

    Aberrant brain reward responses to food-related cues are an implied characteristic of human obesity; yet, findings are inconsistent. To explain these inconsistencies, we aimed to uncover endophenotypes associated with heterogeneity in attributing incentive salience to food cues in the context of other emotionally salient cues; a phenomenon described as sign- vs goal tracking in preclinical models. Data from 64 lean and 88 obese adults who were 35.5 ± 9.4 years old and predominantly women (79%) were analyzed. Participants viewed food-related, pleasant, neutral and unpleasant images while recording electroencephalograph. Late positive potentials were used to assess incentive salience attributed to the visual stimuli. Eating and affective traits were also assessed. Findings demonstrated that obese individuals, in general, do not demonstrate aberrant brain reward responses to food-related cues. As hypothesized, latent profile analysis of the late positive potential uncovered two distinct groups. 'Sign-trackers' showed greater responses to food-related cues (P < 0.001) but lower responses to pleasant stimuli (P < 0.001) compared with 'goal-trackers'. There were proportionally more obese than lean 'sign-trackers' (P = 0.03). Obese 'sign-trackers' reported significantly higher levels of emotional eating and food craving (P < 0.001). By examining the heterogeneity in brain reactivity to various emotional stimuli, this translational study highlights the need to consider important neurobehavioral endophenotypes of obesity.

  16. Heterogeneity in brain reactivity to pleasant and food cues: evidence of sign-tracking in humans

    PubMed Central

    Versace, Francesco; Kypriotakis, George; Basen-Engquist, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant brain reward responses to food-related cues are an implied characteristic of human obesity; yet, findings are inconsistent. To explain these inconsistencies, we aimed to uncover endophenotypes associated with heterogeneity in attributing incentive salience to food cues in the context of other emotionally salient cues; a phenomenon described as sign- vs goal tracking in preclinical models. Data from 64 lean and 88 obese adults who were 35.5 ± 9.4 years old and predominantly women (79%) were analyzed. Participants viewed food-related, pleasant, neutral and unpleasant images while recording electroencephalograph. Late positive potentials were used to assess incentive salience attributed to the visual stimuli. Eating and affective traits were also assessed. Findings demonstrated that obese individuals, in general, do not demonstrate aberrant brain reward responses to food-related cues. As hypothesized, latent profile analysis of the late positive potential uncovered two distinct groups. ‘Sign-trackers’ showed greater responses to food-related cues (P < 0.001) but lower responses to pleasant stimuli (P < 0.001) compared with ‘goal-trackers’. There were proportionally more obese than lean ‘sign-trackers’ (P = 0.03). Obese ‘sign-trackers’ reported significantly higher levels of emotional eating and food craving (P < 0.001). By examining the heterogeneity in brain reactivity to various emotional stimuli, this translational study highlights the need to consider important neurobehavioral endophenotypes of obesity. PMID:26609106

  17. Acquisition of Conditioned Responses to a Novel Alcohol-Paired Cue in Social Drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Mayo, Leah M.; de Wit, Harriet

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the acquisition of conditioning between novel stimuli and single doses of alcohol in social drinkers. Environmental stimuli present during the consumption of alcohol or other drugs come to elicit conditioned responses that subsequently increase drug seeking. However, relatively few studies have examined the process of acquisition of these conditioned drug responses in human subjects. Method: We used a procedure previously developed to study acquisition of conditioned responses to a methamphetamine-associated cue. In the present study we applied the paradigm to alcohol, pairing de novo neutral cues with alcohol in social drinkers (N = 36). We obtained measures of self-report, behavioral preference, emotional reactivity (assessed using facial electromyography), and attention to specific cues paired with administration of 0.6 g/kg 95% absolute alcohol or placebo. Results: After conditioning, participants showed an increase in attention toward the alcohol-paired cue, and this increase was associated with ratings of liking the alcohol-containing beverage during the conditioning sessions. In contrast to our previous findings with methamphetamine, the alcohol-paired cue did not elicit changes in emotional reactivity (measured by facial electromyography) or behavioral preference. Conclusions: This study extends our previous findings with a stimulant drug to alcohol and highlights possible similarities and differences in conditioning with different classes of drugs. Conditioning with alcohol was less robust than with methamphetamine, but in both cases the conditioning that did occur was related to positive subjective drug response. PMID:26997190

  18. Age effects in emotional prospective memory: cue valence differentially affects the prospective and retrospective component.

    PubMed

    Schnitzspahn, Katharina M; Horn, Sebastian S; Bayen, Ute J; Kliegel, Matthias

    2012-06-01

    While first studies suggested that emotional task material may enhance prospective memory performance in young and older adults, the extent and mechanisms of this effect are under debate. The authors explored possible differential effects of cue valence on the prospective and retrospective component of prospective memory in young and older adults. Forty-five young and 41 older adults performed a prospective memory task in which emotional valence of the prospective memory cue was manipulated (positive, negative, neutral). The multinomial model of event-based prospective memory was used to analyze effects of valence and age on the two prospective memory components separately. Results revealed an interaction indicating that age differences were smaller in both emotional valence conditions. For older adults positive cues improved the prospective component, while negative cues improved the retrospective component. No main effect of valence was found for younger adults on an overt accuracy measure, but model-based analyses showed that the retrospective component was enhanced in the positive compared with the negative cue condition. The study extends the literature in demonstrating that processes underlying emotional effects on prospective memory may differ depending on valence and age. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved

  19. The influence of stress on the affective modulation of the startle response to nicotine cues.

    PubMed

    Lechner, William V; Grant, DeMond M; Meier, Ellen; Mills, Adam C; Judah, Matt R; Dempsey, Jared P

    2014-12-01

    Recent research suggesting that nicotine cues are appetitive in nature promotes the affective modulation of the startle reflex (AMSR) paradigm as a potentially valuable psychophysiological tool for elucidating mechanisms involved in nicotine addiction. Despite numerous studies indicating stress as a key factor in nicotine dependence, specific behavioral mechanisms linking stress and smoking have yet to be explicated. The current study aimed to determine the effects of stress, a negative affective state intimately linked with nicotine use, on the psychophysiological responding of nicotine dependent individuals during smoking cues. Twenty-nine nicotine dependent individuals were randomly assigned to the trier social stress test or control condition directly prior to administration of the AMSR paradigm, which examined their physiological responses to appetitive, neutral, aversive, and nicotine cue images. Both groups evinced significantly decreased startle magnitudes in response to nicotine cues as compared to aversive images. However, exposure to stress did not significantly modulate the startle reflex while viewing nicotine cues. Stress induction does not appear to modulate the AMSR paradigm when evaluating responses to nicotine images. These findings suggest that AMSR is robust to effects of acute stress induction in nicotine dependent individuals which may increase its viability as a clinical tool for assessing success in smoking cessation interventions.

  20. Differential effects of emotional cues on components of prospective memory: an ERP study

    PubMed Central

    Cona, Giorgia; Kliegel, Matthias; Bisiacchi, Patrizia S.

    2015-01-01

    So far, little is known about the neurocognitive mechanisms associated with emotion effects on prospective memory (PM) performance. Thus, this study aimed at disentangling possible mechanisms for the effects of emotional valence of PM cues on the distinct phases composing PM by investigating event-related potentials (ERPs). Participants were engaged in an ongoing N-back task while being required to perform a PM task. The emotional valence of both the ongoing pictures and the PM cues was manipulated (pleasant, neutral, unpleasant). ERPs were recorded during the PM phases, such as encoding, maintenance, and retrieval of the intention. A recognition task including PM cues and ongoing stimuli was also performed at the end of the sessions. ERP results suggest that emotional PM cues not only trigger an automatic, bottom-up, capture of attention, but also boost a greater allocation of top-down processes. These processes seem to be recruited to hold attention toward the emotional stimuli and to retrieve the intention from memory, likely because of the motivational significance of the emotional stimuli. Moreover, pleasant PM cues seemed to modulate especially the prospective component, as revealed by changes in the amplitude of the ERP correlates of strategic monitoring as a function of the relevance of the valence for the PM task. Unpleasant pictures seemed to modulate especially the retrospective component, as revealed by the largest old/new effect being elicited by unpleasant PM pictures in the recognition task. PMID:25674061

  1. Neutral particle lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craver, Barry Paul

    Neutral particle lithography (NPL) is a high resolution, proximity exposure technique where a broad beam of energetic neutral particles floods a stencil mask and transmitted beamlets transfer the mask pattern to resist on a substrate, such that each feature is printed in parallel, rather than in the serial manner of electron beam lithography. It preserves the advantages of ion beam lithography (IBL), including extremely large depth-of-field, sub-5 nm resist scattering, and the near absence of diffraction, yet is intrinsically immune to charge-related artifacts including line-edge roughness and pattern placement errors due to charge accumulation on the mask and substrate. In our experiments, a neutral particle beam is formed by passing an ion beam (e.g., 30 keV He+) through a high pressure helium gas cell (e.g., 100 mTorr) to convert the ions to energetic neutrals through charge transfer scattering. The resolution of NPL is generally superior to that of IBL for applications involving insulating substrates, large proximity gaps, and ultra-small features. High accuracy stepped exposures with energetic neutral particles, where magnetic or electrostatic deflection is impossible, have been obtained by clamping the mask to the wafer, setting the proximity gap with a suitable spacer, and mechanically inclining the mask/wafer stack relative to the beam. This approach is remarkably insensitive to vibration and thermal drift; nanometer scale image offsets have been obtained with +/-2 nm placement accuracy for experiments lasting over one hour. Using this nanostepping technique, linewidth versus dose curves were obtained, from which the NPL lithographic blur was determined as 4.4+/-1.4 nm (1sigma), which is 2-3 times smaller than the blur of electron beam lithography. Neutral particle lithography has the potential to form high density, periodic patterns with sub-10 nm resolution.

  2. Natural populations of shipworm larvae are attracted to wood by waterborne chemical cues.

    PubMed

    Toth, Gunilla B; Larsson, Ann I; Jonsson, Per R; Appelqvist, Christin

    2015-01-01

    The life cycle of many sessile marine invertebrates includes a dispersive planktonic larval stage whose ability to find a suitable habitat in which to settle and transform into benthic adults is crucial to maximize fitness. To facilitate this process, invertebrate larvae commonly respond to habitat-related chemical cues to guide the search for an appropriate environment. Furthermore, small-scale hydrodynamic conditions affect dispersal of chemical cues, as well as swimming behavior of invertebrate larvae and encounter with potential habitats. Shipworms within the family Teredinidae are dependent on terrestrially derived wood in order to complete their life cycle, but very little is known about the cues and processes that promote settlement. We investigated the potential for remote detection of settling substrate via waterborne chemical cues in teredinid larvae through a combination of empirical field and laboratory flume experiments. Natural populations of teredinid larvae were significantly more abundant close to wooden structures enclosed in plankton net compared to empty control nets, clearly showing that shipworm larvae can sense and respond to chemical cues associated with suitable settling substrate in the field. However, the flume experiments, using ecologically relevant flow velocities, showed that the boundary layer around experimental wooden panels was thin and that the mean flow velocity exceeded larval swimming velocity approximately 5 mm (≈ 25 larval body lengths) from the panel surface. Therefore, we conclude that the scope for remote detection of waterborne cues is limited and that the likely explanation for the higher abundance of shipworm larvae associated with the wooden panels in the field is a response to a cue during or after attachment on, or very near, the substrate. Waterborne cues probably guide the larva in its decision to remain attached and settle, or to detach and continue swimming and drifting until the next encounter with a solid

  3. Natural Populations of Shipworm Larvae Are Attracted to Wood by Waterborne Chemical Cues

    PubMed Central

    Toth, Gunilla B.; Larsson, Ann I.; Jonsson, Per R.; Appelqvist, Christin

    2015-01-01

    The life cycle of many sessile marine invertebrates includes a dispersive planktonic larval stage whose ability to find a suitable habitat in which to settle and transform into benthic adults is crucial to maximize fitness. To facilitate this process, invertebrate larvae commonly respond to habitat-related chemical cues to guide the search for an appropriate environment. Furthermore, small-scale hydrodynamic conditions affect dispersal of chemical cues, as well as swimming behavior of invertebrate larvae and encounter with potential habitats. Shipworms within the family Teredinidae are dependent on terrestrially derived wood in order to complete their life cycle, but very little is known about the cues and processes that promote settlement. We investigated the potential for remote detection of settling substrate via waterborne chemical cues in teredinid larvae through a combination of empirical field and laboratory flume experiments. Natural populations of teredinid larvae were significantly more abundant close to wooden structures enclosed in plankton net compared to empty control nets, clearly showing that shipworm larvae can sense and respond to chemical cues associated with suitable settling substrate in the field. However, the flume experiments, using ecologically relevant flow velocities, showed that the boundary layer around experimental wooden panels was thin and that the mean flow velocity exceeded larval swimming velocity approximately 5 mm (≈ 25 larval body lengths) from the panel surface. Therefore, we conclude that the scope for remote detection of waterborne cues is limited and that the likely explanation for the higher abundance of shipworm larvae associated with the wooden panels in the field is a response to a cue during or after attachment on, or very near, the substrate. Waterborne cues probably guide the larva in its decision to remain attached and settle, or to detach and continue swimming and drifting until the next encounter with a solid

  4. Perception of Mandarin Lexical Tones when F0 Information Is Neutralized

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Siyun; Samuel, Arthur G.

    2004-01-01

    In tone languages, the identity of a word depends on its tone pattern as well as its phonetic structure. The primary cue to tone identity is the fundamental frequency (F0) contour. Two experiments explore how listeners perceive Mandarin monosyllables in which all or part of the F0 information has been neutralized. In Experiment 1, supposedly…

  5. Sex Differences in Neural Responses to Stress and Alcohol Context Cues

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Dongju; Jia, Zhiru; Lacadie, Cheryl M.; Tsou, Kristen A.; Bergquist, Keri; Sinha, Rajita

    2011-01-01

    Stress and alcohol context cues are each associated with alcohol-related behaviors, yet neural responses underlying these processes remain unclear. The present study investigated the neural correlates of stress and alcohol context cue experiences and examined sex differences in these responses. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, brain responses were examined while 43 right-handed, socially drinking, healthy individuals (23 females) engaged in brief guided imagery of personalized stress, alcohol-cue and neutral-relaxing scenarios. Stress and alcohol-cue exposure increased activity in the cortico-limbic-striatal circuit (p<.01, corrected), encompassing the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), left anterior insula, striatum and visuomotor regions (parietal and occipital lobe, and cerebellum). Activity in the right dorsal striatum increased during stress, while bilateral ventral striatum activity was evident during alcohol-cue exposure. Men displayed greater stress-related activations in the mPFC, rostral ACC, posterior insula, amygdala and hippocampus than women, whereas women showed greater alcohol-cue related activity in the superior and middle frontal gyrus (SFG/MFG) than men. Stress-induced anxiety was positively associated with activity in emotion modulation regions, including the medial OFC, ventromedial PFC, left superior-medial PFC and rostral ACC in men, but in women with activation in the SFG/MFG, regions involved in cognitive processing. Alcohol craving was significantly associated with the striatum (encompassing dorsal and ventral) in men, supporting its involvement in alcohol ‘urge’ in healthy men. These results indicate sex differences in neural processing of stress and alcohol-cue experiences, and have implications for sex-specific vulnerabilities to stress- and alcohol-related psychiatric disorders. PMID:21162046

  6. Extended-release naltrexone modulates brain response to drug cues in abstinent heroin-dependent patients.

    PubMed

    Langleben, Daniel D; Ruparel, Kosha; Elman, Igor; Loughead, James W; Busch, Elliot L; Cornish, James; Lynch, Kevin G; Nuwayser, Elie S; Childress, Anna R; O'Brien, Charles P

    2014-03-01

    Drug cues play an important role in relapse to drug use. Naltrexone is an opioid antagonist that is used to prevent relapse in opioid dependence. Central opioidergic pathways may be implicated in the heightened drug cue-reactivity, but the effects of the opioid receptors' blockade on the brain responses to drug cues in opioid dependence are unknown. To pursue this question, we studied 17 abstinent i.v. heroin users with brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during exposure to visual heroin-related cues and matched neutral images before and 10-14 days after an injection of extended-release naltrexone (XRNTX). Whole brain analysis of variance of fMRI data showed main effect of XRNTX in the medial frontal gyrus, precentral gyrus, cuneus, precuneus, caudate and the amygdala. fMRI response was decreased in the amygdala, cuneus, caudate and the precentral gyrus and increased in the medial frontal gyrus and the precuneus. Higher plasma levels of naltrexone's major metabolite, 6-beta-naltrexol, were associated with larger reduction in the fMRI response to drug cues after XRNTX in the precentral, caudate and amygdala clusters. The present data suggest that XRNTX pharmacotherapy of opioid-dependent patients may, respectively, decrease and potentiate prefrontal and limbic cortical responses to drug cues and that this effect might be related to the XRNTX metabolism. Our findings call for further evaluation of the brain fMRI response to drug-related cues and of the 6-beta-naltrexol levels as potential biomarkers of XRNTX therapeutic effects in patients with opioid dependence.

  7. Variables involved in the cue modulation of the startle reflex in alcohol-dependent patients.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Gabriel; Borrell, José; Jiménez, Mónica; Jurado, Rosa; Grüsser, Sabine M; Heinz, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Cue modulation of the startle reflex is a paradigm that has been used to understand the emotional mechanisms involved in alcohol dependence. Attenuation of the startle reflex has been demonstrated when alcohol-dependent subjects are exposed to alcohol-related stimuli. However, the role of clinical variables on the magnitude of this response is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between a number of clinical variables-severity of alcoholism, family history of alcoholism (FHA+), personality traits related to the sensitivity to reward-and the startle reflex response when subjects with alcohol dependence were viewing alcohol-related cues. After detoxification, 98 participants completed self-report instruments and had eye blink electromyograms measured to acoustic startle probes [100-millisecond burst of white noise at 95 dB(A)] while viewing alcohol-related pictures, and standardised appetitive, aversive and neutral control scenes. Ninety-eight healthy controls were also assessed with the same instruments. There were significant differences on alcohol-startle magnitude between patients and controls. Comparisons by gender showed that women perceived alcohol cues and appetitive cues more appetitive than men. Male and female patients showed more appetitive responses to alcohol cues when compared with their respective controls. Our patients showed an appetitive effect of alcohol cues that was positively related to severity of alcohol dependence, sensitivity to reward and a FHA+. The data confirmed that the pattern of the modulation of the acoustic startle reflex reveals appetitive effects of the alcohol cues and extended it to a variety of clinical variables.

  8. Tautomerism in neutral histidine.

    PubMed

    Bermúdez, Celina; Mata, Santiago; Cabezas, Carlos; Alonso, José L

    2014-10-06

    Histidine is an important natural amino acid, involved in many relevant biological processes, which, because of its physical properties, proved difficult to characterize experimentally in its neutral form. In this work, neutral histidine has been generated in the gas phase by laser ablation of solid samples and its N(ε)H tautomeric form unraveled through its rotational spectrum. The quadrupole hyperfine structure, arising from the existing three (14)N nuclei, constituted a site-specifically probe for revealing the tautomeric form as well as the side chain configuration of this proteogenic amino acid.

  9. Influence of visual cueing and outcome feedback on physics problem solving and visual attention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouinfar, Amy

    Research has demonstrated that attentional cues overlaid on diagrams and animations can help students attend to the relevant areas and facilitate problem solving. In this study we investigate the influence of visual cues and outcome feedback on students' problem solving, performance, reasoning, and visual attention as they solve conceptual physics problems containing a diagram. The participants (N=90) were enrolled in an algebra-based physics course and were individually interviewed. During each interview students solved four problem sets while their eye movements were recorded. The problem diagrams contained regions that were relevant to solving the problem correctly and separate regions related to common incorrect responses. Each problem set contained an initial problem, six isomorphic training problems, and a transfer problem. Those in the cued condition saw visual cues overlaid on the training problems. Those in the feedback conditions were told if their responses (answer and explanation) were correct or incorrect. Students' verbal responses were used to determine their accuracy. The study produced two major findings. First, short duration visual cues coupled with correctness feedback can improve problem solving performance on a variety of insight physics problems, including transfer problems not sharing the surface features of the training problems, but instead sharing the underlying solution path. Thus, visual cues can facilitate re-representing a problem and overcoming impasse, enabling a correct solution. Importantly, these cueing effects on problem solving did not involve the solvers' attention necessarily embodying the solution to the problem. Instead, the cueing effects were caused by solvers attending to and integrating relevant information in the problems into a solution path. Second, these short duration visual cues when administered repeatedly over multiple training problems resulted in participants becoming more efficient at extracting the relevant

  10. Effects of Prereactivation Propranolol on Cocaine Craving Elicited by Imagery Script/Cue Sets in Opioid-dependent Polydrug Users: A Randomized Study

    PubMed Central

    Jobes, Michelle L.; Aharonovich, Efrat; Epstein, David H.; Phillips, Karran A.; Reamer, David; Anderson, Micheline; Preston, Kenzie L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Relapse to drug misuse may follow exposure to drug cues that elicit craving. The learned associations, or “emotional memories,” that underlie responses to cues may be attenuated or erased by the beta-adrenergic antagonist propranolol during a “reconsolidation window” shortly after the memories are reactivated by cues. Methods We evaluated the effects of propranolol on cue-induced drug cravings in healthy opioid-dependent individuals who used cocaine while receiving methadone maintenance (n = 33). Participants were asked to recall specific cocaine-use and neutral events in an interview; these events were used to develop personalized auditory script/cue sets. Approximately one week later, propranolol (40 mg) or placebo (random assignment, double-blind) was administered orally before presentation of the script/cue sets; the presentation of the script/cue sets were tested 1 and 5 weeks after the propranolol/placebo session. Ongoing drug use was monitored via urine screens and self-report in twice-weekly visits. Results Cue reactivity, as assessed by craving scales and physiological responses, was unexpectedly greater in the propranolol group than in the placebo group. This counter-hypothesized group difference was present acutely during propranolol administration and appeared to persist (without reaching statistical significance) during the subsequent test sessions. Conclusions Our results do not support the use of propranolol for cue-induced cocaine craving in opioid-maintained patients. PMID:26501788

  11. Adult Prey Neutralizes Predator Nonconsumptive Limitation of Prey Recruitment.

    PubMed

    Ellrich, Julius A; Scrosati, Ricardo A; Romoth, Katharina; Molis, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that predator chemical cues can limit prey demographic rates such as recruitment. For instance, barnacle pelagic larvae reduce settlement where predatory dogwhelk cues are detected, thereby limiting benthic recruitment. However, adult barnacles attract conspecific larvae through chemical and visual cues, aiding larvae to find suitable habitat for development. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that the presence of adult barnacles (Semibalanus balanoides) can neutralize dogwhelk (Nucella lapillus) nonconsumptive effects on barnacle recruitment. We did a field experiment in Atlantic Canada during the 2012 and 2013 barnacle recruitment seasons (May-June). We manipulated the presence of dogwhelks (without allowing them to physically contact barnacles) and adult barnacles in cages established in rocky intertidal habitats. At the end of both recruitment seasons, we measured barnacle recruit density on tiles kept inside the cages. Without adult barnacles, the nearby presence of dogwhelks limited barnacle recruitment by 51%. However, the presence of adult barnacles increased barnacle recruitment by 44% and neutralized dogwhelk nonconsumptive effects on barnacle recruitment, as recruit density was unaffected by dogwhelk presence. For species from several invertebrate phyla, benthic adult organisms attract conspecific pelagic larvae. Thus, adult prey might commonly constitute a key factor preventing negative predator nonconsumptive effects on prey recruitment.

  12. Adult Prey Neutralizes Predator Nonconsumptive Limitation of Prey Recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Scrosati, Ricardo A.; Romoth, Katharina; Molis, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that predator chemical cues can limit prey demographic rates such as recruitment. For instance, barnacle pelagic larvae reduce settlement where predatory dogwhelk cues are detected, thereby limiting benthic recruitment. However, adult barnacles attract conspecific larvae through chemical and visual cues, aiding larvae to find suitable habitat for development. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that the presence of adult barnacles (Semibalanus balanoides) can neutralize dogwhelk (Nucella lapillus) nonconsumptive effects on barnacle recruitment. We did a field experiment in Atlantic Canada during the 2012 and 2013 barnacle recruitment seasons (May–June). We manipulated the presence of dogwhelks (without allowing them to physically contact barnacles) and adult barnacles in cages established in rocky intertidal habitats. At the end of both recruitment seasons, we measured barnacle recruit density on tiles kept inside the cages. Without adult barnacles, the nearby presence of dogwhelks limited barnacle recruitment by 51%. However, the presence of adult barnacles increased barnacle recruitment by 44% and neutralized dogwhelk nonconsumptive effects on barnacle recruitment, as recruit density was unaffected by dogwhelk presence. For species from several invertebrate phyla, benthic adult organisms attract conspecific pelagic larvae. Thus, adult prey might commonly constitute a key factor preventing negative predator nonconsumptive effects on prey recruitment. PMID:27123994

  13. Nudity as a Disinhibiting Cue in a Date Rape Analogue.

    PubMed

    Fairweather, Annabree; Kingston, Drew A; Lalumière, Martin L

    2016-05-01

    Situational factors likely play a role in date rape. The sexual inhibition hypothesis suggests that men are typically sexually inhibited by violence and non-consent, but that inhibition can also be disrupted. We attempted to determine if female nudity reduces inhibition of sexual arousal to non-consensual cues in sexually non-aggressive men. In two studies, heterosexual men (aged 18-25) were presented with six 2-min audiotaped narratives depicting consensual sexual interactions, non-consensual sexual interactions (rape), and non-sexual interactions (neutral) involving a man and a woman. In the first study, 20 participants saw pictures depicting nude or clothed women while listening to the stories. In the second study, 20 other participants saw videos depicting nude or clothed women exercising, also while listening to the stories. Genital responses and subjective sexual arousal were measured. Results suggested that nudity may have a disinhibitory effect on sexual arousal to non-consensual cues, but only when presented in the form of moving images.

  14. Topographical cues regulate the crosstalk between MSCs and macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Vallés, Gema; Bensiamar, Fátima; Crespo, Lara; Arruebo, Manuel; Vilaboa, Nuria; Saldaña, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Implantation of scaffolds may elicit a host foreign body response triggered by monocyte/macrophage lineage cells. Growing evidence suggests that topographical cues of scaffolds play an important role in MSC functionality. In this work, we examined whether surface topographical features can regulate paracrine interactions that MSCs establish with macrophages. Three-dimensional (3D) topography sensing drives MSCs into a spatial arrangement that stimulates the production of the anti-inflammatory proteins PGE2 and TSG-6. Compared to two-dimensional (2D) settings, 3D arrangement of MSCs co-cultured with macrophages leads to an important decrease in the secretion of soluble factors related with inflammation and chemotaxis including IL-6 and MCP-1. Attenuation of MCP-1 secretion in 3D co-cultures correlates with a decrease in the accumulation of its mRNA levels in MSCs and macrophages. Using neutralizing antibodies, we identified that the interplay between PGE2, IL-6, TSG-6 and MCP-1 in the co-cultures is strongly influenced by the micro-architecture that supports MSCs. Local inflammatory milieu provided by 3D-arranged MSCs in co-cultures induces a decrease in monocyte migration as compared to monolayer cells. This effect is partially mediated by reduced levels of IL-6 and MCP-1, proteins that up-regulate each other's secretion. Our findings highlight the importance of topographical cues in the soluble factor-guided communication between MSCs and macrophages. PMID:25453943

  15. Topographical cues regulate the crosstalk between MSCs and macrophages.

    PubMed

    Vallés, Gema; Bensiamar, Fátima; Crespo, Lara; Arruebo, Manuel; Vilaboa, Nuria; Saldaña, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Implantation of scaffolds may elicit a host foreign body response triggered by monocyte/macrophage lineage cells. Growing evidence suggests that topographical cues of scaffolds play an important role in MSC functionality. In this work, we examined whether surface topographical features can regulate paracrine interactions that MSCs establish with macrophages. Three-dimensional (3D) topography sensing drives MSCs into a spatial arrangement that stimulates the production of the anti-inflammatory proteins PGE2 and TSG-6. Compared to two-dimensional (2D) settings, 3D arrangement of MSCs co-cultured with macrophages leads to an important decrease in the secretion of soluble factors related with inflammation and chemotaxis including IL-6 and MCP-1. Attenuation of MCP-1 secretion in 3D co-cultures correlates with a decrease in the accumulation of its mRNA levels in MSCs and macrophages. Using neutralizing antibodies, we identified that the interplay between PGE2, IL-6, TSG-6 and MCP-1 in the co-cultures is strongly influenced by the micro-architecture that supports MSCs. Local inflammatory milieu provided by 3D-arranged MSCs in co-cultures induces a decrease in monocyte migration as compared to monolayer cells. This effect is partially mediated by reduced levels of IL-6 and MCP-1, proteins that up-regulate each other's secretion. Our findings highlight the importance of topographical cues in the soluble factor-guided communication between MSCs and macrophages.

  16. Glottalization cues of Nuu-chah-nulth glottalized resonants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldecott, Marion G.

    2005-04-01

    Theories of positional neutralization (Steriade, 1997)] predict that pre-glottalized resonants should not occur word-initially because the cues to glottalization are not salient. Contrary to this, Nuu-chah-nulth, a Wakashan language, has pre-glottalized that do occur in word-initial position. This paper will show that a severely truncated resonant portion is the cue to glottalization in resonants in Nuu-chah-nulth. Previous research [Carlson et al., J. Jpn. Int. Prop. Assoc. 31, 275-279 (2001)] shows that Nuu-chah-nulth glottalized resonants consist of a stop closure that is phonetically identical to phonemic glottal stop followed by a (mostly) plain resonant. That study also found that glottalized resonants are twice as long in initial position as plain resonants. Following up on this, a pilot study [Caldecott and Kim, presented at the 1st annual Wakashan Linguistics Conference, 2004] indicated that the length of the resonant portion in glottalized resonants was in fact half that of a normal resonant. This paper expands on the previous study, incorporating new acoustic data on resonants in all word positions. Data are elicited from a fluent native speaker and measured using Praat. [Work supported by SSHRC.

  17. Facilitation of shape-from-shading perception by random textures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Ko; Narushima, Kazuki; Aoki, Natsuko

    2006-08-01

    Most natural objects have a texture on their surface, so the segregation between shading and texture is crucial for the robust perception of three-dimensional structure: The visual system has to decide whether shading or texture evoked the luminance change. We found that the contextual pop-out that results from shading was not suppressed, but was even facilitated, when random texture was added to the luminance of the entire stimulus, indicating the functional segregation and facilitative interaction between shading and texture cues. The local contrast evoked by random texture within a figure or at a boundary was a major factor in the facilitation, suggesting the crucial role of early vision in the interaction between the cues.

  18. Bleach Neutralizes Mold Allergens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Researchers at National Jewish Medical and Research Center have demonstrated that dilute bleach not only kills common household mold, but may also neutralize the mold allergens that cause most mold-related health complaints. The study, published in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, is the first to test the effect on allergic…

  19. CO2-Neutral Fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goede, Adelbert; van de Sanden, Richard

    2016-06-01

    Mimicking the biogeochemical cycle of System Earth, synthetic hydrocarbon fuels are produced from recycled CO2 and H2O powered by renewable energy. Recapturing CO2 after use closes the carbon cycle, rendering the fuel cycle CO2 neutral. Non-equilibrium molecular CO2 vibrations are key to high energy efficiency.

  20. Beyond Viral Neutralization.

    PubMed

    Lewis, George K; Pazgier, Marzena; Evans, David; Ferrari, Guido; Bournazos, Stylianos; Parsons, Matthew S; Bernard, Nicole F; Finzi, Andrés

    2017-01-13

    It has been known for more than 30 years that Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 (HIV-1) infection drives a very potent B cell response resulting in the production of anti-HIV-1 antibodies targeting several viral proteins, particularly its envelope glycoproteins (Env). Env epitopes are exposed on the surfaces of viral particles and infected cells where they are targets of potentially protective antibodies. These antibodies can interdict infection by neutralization and there is strong evidence suggesting that Fc-mediated effector function can also contribute to protection. Current evidence suggests that Fc-mediated effector function plays a role in protection against infection by broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) and it might be important for protection by non-neutralizing antibodies. Fc-mediated effector function includes diverse mechanisms that include antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), antibody-mediated complement activation (ADC), antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP), antibody-dependent cell-mediated virus inhibition (ADCVI), antibody-mediated trancytosis inhibition, and antibody-mediated virus opsonization. All these functions could be beneficial in fighting viral infections including HIV-1. In this perspective, we discuss the latest developments for ADCC responses discussed at the HIVR4P satellite session on non-neutralizing antibodies, with emphasis on the mechanisms of ADCC resistance employed by HIV-1, the structural basis of epitopes recognized by antibodies that mediate ADCC, NK-cell education and ADCC, and murine models to study ADCC against HIV-1.

  1. Bleach Neutralizes Mold Allergens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Researchers at National Jewish Medical and Research Center have demonstrated that dilute bleach not only kills common household mold, but may also neutralize the mold allergens that cause most mold-related health complaints. The study, published in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, is the first to test the effect on allergic…

  2. Cues of Maternal Condition Influence Offspring Selfishness

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Janine W. Y.; Lucas, Christophe; Kölliker, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of parent-offspring communication was mostly studied from the perspective of parents responding to begging signals conveying information about offspring condition. Parents should respond to begging because of the differential fitness returns obtained from their investment in offspring that differ in condition. For analogous reasons, offspring should adjust their behavior to cues/signals of parental condition: parents that differ in condition pay differential costs of care and, hence, should provide different amounts of food. In this study, we experimentally tested in the European earwig (Forficula auricularia) if cues of maternal condition affect offspring behavior in terms of sibling cannibalism. We experimentally manipulated female condition by providing them with different amounts of food, kept nymph condition constant, allowed for nymph exposure to chemical maternal cues over extended time, quantified nymph survival (deaths being due to cannibalism) and extracted and analyzed the females’ cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC). Nymph survival was significantly affected by chemical cues of maternal condition, and this effect depended on the timing of breeding. Cues of poor maternal condition enhanced nymph survival in early broods, but reduced nymph survival in late broods, and vice versa for cues of good condition. Furthermore, female condition affected the quantitative composition of their CHC profile which in turn predicted nymph survival patterns. Thus, earwig offspring are sensitive to chemical cues of maternal condition and nymphs from early and late broods show opposite reactions to the same chemical cues. Together with former evidence on maternal sensitivities to condition-dependent nymph chemical cues, our study shows context-dependent reciprocal information exchange about condition between earwig mothers and their offspring, potentially mediated by cuticular hydrocarbons. PMID:24498046

  3. Inhibitory cueing effects following manual and saccadic responses to arrow cues.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yun; He, Tao; Satel, Jason; Wang, Zhiguo

    2016-05-01

    With two cueing tasks, in the present study we examined output-based inhibitory cueing effects (ICEs) with manual responses to arrow targets following manual or saccadic responses to arrow cues. In all experiments, ICEs were observed when manual localization responses were required to both the cues and targets, but only when the cue-target onset asynchrony (CTOA) was 2,000 ms or longer. In contrast, when saccadic responses were made in response to the cues, ICEs were only observed with CTOAs of 2,000 ms or less-and only when an auditory cue-back signal was used. The present study also showed that the magnitude of ICEs following saccadic responses to arrow cues decreased with time, much like traditional inhibition-of-return effects. The magnitude of ICEs following manual responses to arrow cues, however, appeared later in time and had no sign of decreasing even 3 s after cue onset. These findings suggest that ICEs linked to skeletomotor activation do exist and that the ICEs evoked by oculomotor activation can carry over to the skeletomotor system.

  4. Gaze in Visual Search Is Guided More Efficiently by Positive Cues than by Negative Cues

    PubMed Central

    Kohlbecher, Stefan; Einhäuser, Wolfgang; Schneider, Erich

    2015-01-01

    Visual search can be accelerated when properties of the target are known. Such knowledge allows the searcher to direct attention to items sharing these properties. Recent work indicates that information about properties of non-targets (i.e., negative cues) can also guide search. In the present study, we examine whether negative cues lead to different search behavior compared to positive cues. We asked observers to search for a target defined by a certain shape singleton (broken line among solid lines). Each line was embedded in a colored disk. In “positive cue” blocks, participants were informed about possible colors of the target item. In “negative cue” blocks, the participants were informed about colors that could not contain the target. Search displays were designed such that with both the positive and negative cues, the same number of items could potentially contain the broken line (“relevant items”). Thus, both cues were equally informative. We measured response times and eye movements. Participants exhibited longer response times when provided with negative cues compared to positive cues. Although negative cues did guide the eyes to relevant items, there were marked differences in eye movements. Negative cues resulted in smaller proportions of fixations on relevant items, longer duration of fixations and in higher rates of fixations per item as compared to positive cues. The effectiveness of both cue types, as measured by fixations on relevant items, increased over the course of each search. In sum, a negative color cue can guide attention to relevant items, but it is less efficient than a positive cue of the same informational value. PMID:26717307

  5. Do Verbal and Tactile Cueing Selectively Alter Gluteus Maximus and Hamstring Recruitment During a Supine Bridging Exercise in Active Females? A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Hollman, John H; Berling, Tyler A; Crum, Ellen O; Miller, Kelsie M; Simmons, Brent T; Youdas, James W

    2017-01-25

    Hip extension with hamstring- rather than gluteus maximus-dominant recruitment may increase anterior femoracetabular forces and contribute to conditions that cause hip pain. Cueing methods during hip extension exercises may facilitate greater gluteus maximus recruitment. We examined whether specific verbal and tactile cues facilitate gluteus maximus recruitment while inhibiting hamstring recruitment during a bridging exercise. Randomized controlled trial. Biomechanics laboratory. 30 young adult women [age 24 (3) years, BMI 22.2 (2.4) kg/m2]. Participants were tested over 2 sessions, 1 week apart, while performing 5 repetitions of a bridging exercise. At their second visit, participants in the experimental group received verbal and tactile cues intended to facilitate gluteus maximus recruitment and inhibit hamstring recruitment. Control group participants received no additional cues beyond original instructions. Gluteus maximus and hamstring recruitment were measured with surface electromyography, normalized to maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVICs). Gluteus maximus recruitment was unchanged in the control group and increased from 16.8 to 33.0% MVIC in the cueing group (F = 33.369, P < .001). Hamstring recruitment was unchanged in the control group but also increased from 16.5 to 29.8% MVIC in the cueing group (F = 6.400, P = .018). The effect size of the change in gluteus maximus recruitment in the cueing group (Cohen's d = 1.5, 95% CI = 0.9 to 2.2) was not significantly greater than the effect size in hamstring recruitment (Cohen's d = 0.8, 95% CI = 0.1 to 1.5). Verbal and tactile cues hypothesized to facilitate gluteus maximus recruitment yielded comparable increases in both gluteus maximus and hamstring recruitment. If one intends to promote hip extension by facilitating gluteus maximus recruitment while inhibiting hamstring recruitment during bridging exercises, the cueing methods employed in this study may not produce desired effects.

  6. Modeling thermospheric neutral density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Liying

    Satellite drag prediction requires determination of thermospheric neutral density. The NCAR Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (TIEGCM) and the global-mean Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere-Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (TIMEGCM) were used to quantify thermospheric neutral density and its variations, focusing on annual/semiannual variation, the effect of using measured solar irradiance on model calculations of solar-cycle variation, and global change in the thermosphere. Satellite drag data and the MSIS00 empirical model were utilized to compare to the TIEGCM simulations. The TIEGCM simulations indicated that eddy diffusion and its annual/semiannual variation is a mechanism for annual/semiannual density variation in the thermosphere. It was found that eddy diffusion near the turbopause can effectively influence thermospheric neutral density. Eddy diffusion, together with annual insolation variation and large-scale circulation, generated global annual/semiannual density variation observed by satellite drag. Using measured solar irradiance as solar input for the TIEGCM improved the solar-cycle dependency of the density calculation shown in F10.7 -based thermospheric empirical models. It has been found that the empirical models overestimate density at low solar activity. The TIEGCM simulations did not show such solar-cycle dependency. Using historic measurements of CO2 and F 10.7, simulations of the global-mean TIMEGCM showed that thermospheric neutral density at 400 km had an average long-term decrease of 1.7% per decade from 1970 to 2000. A forecast of density decrease for solar cycle 24 suggested that thermospheric density will decrease at 400 km from present to the end of solar cycle 24 at a rate of 2.7% per decade. Reduction in thermospheric density causes less atmospheric drag on earth-orbiting space objects. The implication of this long-term decrease of thermospheric neutral density is that it will increase the

  7. Craving cannabis: a meta-analysis of self-report and psychophysiological cue-reactivity studies.

    PubMed

    Norberg, Melissa M; Kavanagh, David J; Olivier, Jake; Lyras, Stephanie

    2016-11-01

    To estimate the magnitude of cannabis cue-reactivity responses in people who regularly use cannabis. EMBASE, PUBMED, PsycINFO, PsycEXTRA and Project CORK were searched for within-subject comparison studies published between January 2000 and December 2014. Eligible studies compared regular cannabis users' subjective craving or psychophysiological responding when exposed to cannabis cues to their responses to neutral cues and/or to their responses during a baseline assessment. Eligible studies presented original data and were written in English. Fourteen studies met inclusion criteria, but data were not available for two. The 12 included studies contained 393 participants (12-97 participants per study; mean age range: 16.4-32.6 years). Standardized effects sizes were computed for heart rate, skin conductance, skin temperature, blood pressure, event-related potentials (Pz P300) and self-reported craving (Visual Analogue Scales and Marijuana Craving Questionnaire) and synthesized using a multivariate meta-regression model. On average, cannabis users experienced moderate cue-reactivity, as determined by comparisons with baseline conditions [d = 0.59, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.43, 0.74, P < 0.001] and with neutral cue comparisons (d = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.32, 0.62, P < 0.001). This model, which excluded studies at a greater than low risk of bias and included PzP300 studies as a moderator (due to having larger effect sizes), had a moderately low level of heterogeneity of effect size (I(2)  = 45.6%, Q = 56.97, P = 0.003) and showed no evidence of publication bias. Cue-reactivity was most noticeable (large effect size) when assessed by Pz P300 waves (d = 1.71, 95% CI = 0.77, 2.64, P = 0.0003; I(2)  = 86%, Q = 36.30, P < 0.001) and least noticeable (trivial effect size) when examining heart rate (d = 0.14, 95% CI = -0.34, 0.62, P = 0.58; I(2)  = 80%, Q = 20.0, P < 0.001). These subgroup models demonstrated high heterogeneity of

  8. The shading cue in context

    PubMed Central

    Wagemans, Johan; van Doorn, Andrea J; Koenderink, Jan J

    2010-01-01

    The shading cue is supposed to be a major factor in monocular stereopsis. However, the hypothesis is hardly corroborated by available data. For instance, the conventional stimulus used in perception research, which involves a circular disk with monotonic luminance gradient on a uniform surround, is theoretically ‘explained’ by any quadric surface, including spherical caps or cups (the conventional response categories), cylindrical ruts or ridges, and saddle surfaces. Whereas cylindrical ruts or ridges are reported when the outline is changed from circular to square, saddle surfaces are never reported. We introduce a method that allows us to differentiate between such possible responses. We report observations on a number of variations of the conventional stimulus, including variations of shape and quality of the boundary, and contexts that allow the observer to infer illumination direction. We find strong and expected influences of outline shape, but, perhaps surprisingly, we fail to find any influence of context, and only partial influence of outline quality. Moreover, we report appreciable differences within the generic population. We trace some of the idiosyncrasies (as compared to shape from shading algorithms) of the human observer to generic properties of the environment, in particular the fact that many objects are limited in size and elliptically convex over most of their boundaries. PMID:23145221

  9. Olfactory cues modulate facial attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Demattè, M Luisa; Osterbauer, Robert; Spence, Charles

    2007-07-01

    We report an experiment designed to investigate whether olfactory cues can influence people's judgments of facial attractiveness. Sixteen female participants judged the attractiveness of a series of male faces presented briefly on a computer monitor using a 9-point visual rating scale. While viewing each face, the participants were simultaneously presented with either clean air or else with 1 of 4 odorants (the odor was varied on a trial-by-trial basis) from a custom-built olfactometer. We included 2 pleasant odors (geranium and a male fragrance) and 2 unpleasant odors (rubber and body odor) as confirmed by pilot testing. The results showed that the participants rated the male faces as being significantly less attractive in the presence of an unpleasant odor than when the faces were presented together with a pleasant odor or with clean air (these conditions did not differ significantly). These results demonstrate the cross-modal influence that unpleasant odors can have on people's judgments of facial attractiveness. Interestingly, this pattern of results was unaffected by whether the odors were body relevant (the body odor and the male fragrance) or not (the rubber and geranium odors).

  10. Ventral Striatum/Nucleus Accumbens Activation to Smoking-Related Pictorial Cues in Smokers and Nonsmokers: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    PubMed Central

    David, Sean P.; Munafò, Marcus R.; Johansen-Berg, Heidi; Smith, Stephen M.; Rogers, Robert D.; Matthews, Paul M.; Walton, Robert T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Converging evidence from several theories of the development of incentive-sensitization to smoking-related environmental stimuli suggests that the ventral striatum plays an important role in the processing of smoking-related cue reactivity. Methods Twenty-six healthy right-handed volunteers (14 smokers and 12 nonsmoking controls) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during which neutral and smoking-related images were presented. Region of interest analyses were performed within the ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens (VS/NAc) for the contrast between smoking-related (SR) and nonsmoking related neutral (N) cues. Results Group activation for SR versus N cues was observed in smokers but not in nonsmokers in medial orbitofrontal cortex, superior frontal gyrus, anterior cingulate cortex, and posterior fusiform gyrus using whole-brain corrected Z thresholds and in the ventral VS/NAc using uncorrected Z-statistics (smokers Z = 3.2). Region of interest analysis of signal change within ventral VS/NAc demonstrated significantly greater activation to SR versus N cues in smokers than controls. Conclusions This is the first demonstration of greater VS/NAc activation in addicted smokers than nonsmokers presented with smoking-related cues using fMRI. Smokers, but not controls, demonstrated activation to SR versus N cues in a distributed reward signaling network consistent with cue reactivity studies of other drugs of abuse. PMID:16023086

  11. Why won't they sit with me? An exploratory investigation of stereotyped cues, social exclusion, and the P3b.

    PubMed

    Kiat, John E; Straley, Elizabeth; Cheadle, Jacob E

    2017-10-01

    The importance of understanding how we anticipate and prepare for being socially excluded is underscored by the numerous adverse mental and physical consequences of social rejection. In this study, we adapted a social exclusion paradigm, the Lunchroom task, to investigate the use of social context cues in the formation of social outcome expectations as indexed by the P3b, an ERP component associated with attention orientation and context updating. In this task, Black and White participants were presented with either neutral or stereotyped cues prior to being exposed to simulated inclusion versus exclusion outcome scenarios. Black participants showed evidence of (1) a significantly reduced P3b response to exclusions preceded by stereotyped cues relative to neutral cue-related exclusions and (2) a marginally significant increase in the P3b response to inclusions relative to exclusions when both were preceded by stereotyped cues. Both of these findings suggest a key role for the use of social cues in the formation of outcome expectations. In line with our hypothesis that the random intermixing of inclusion and exclusion outcomes would prevent formation of outcome expectations when coupled with the absence of self-relevant cues, no overall P3b modulations were observed among a comparison group of White participants.

  12. Evidence that Illness-Compatible Cues Are Rewarding in Women Recovered from Anorexia Nervosa: A Study of the Effects of Dopamine Depletion on Eye-Blink Startle Responses

    PubMed Central

    O’Hara, Caitlin B.; Keyes, Alexandra; Renwick, Bethany; Giel, Katrin E.; Campbell, Iain C.; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    In anorexia nervosa (AN), motivational salience is attributed to illness-compatible cues (e.g., underweight and active female bodies) and this is hypothesised to involve dopaminergic reward circuitry. We investigated the effects of reducing dopamine (DA) transmission on the motivational processing of AN-compatible cues in women recovered from AN (AN REC, n = 17) and healthy controls (HC, n = 15). This involved the acute phenylalanine and tyrosine depletion (APTD) procedure and a startle eye-blink modulation (SEM) task. In a balanced amino acid state, AN REC showed an increased appetitive response (decreased startle potentiation) to illness-compatible cues (underweight and active female body pictures (relative to neutral and non-active cues, respectively)). The HC had an aversive response (increased startle potentiation) to the same illness-compatible stimuli (relative to neutral cues). Importantly, these effects, which may be taken to resemble symptoms observed in the acute stage of illness and healthy behaviour respectively, were not present when DA was depleted. Thus, AN REC implicitly appraised underweight and exercise cues as more rewarding than did HC and the process may, in part, be DA-dependent. It is proposed that the positive motivational salience attributed to cues of emaciation and physical activity is, in part, mediated by dopaminergic reward processes and this contributes to illness pathology. These observations are consistent with the proposal that, in AN, aberrant reward-based learning contributes to the development of habituation of AN-compatible behaviours. PMID:27764214

  13. Overlapping patterns of brain activation to food and cocaine cues in cocaine abusers: Association to striatal D2/D3 receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Tomasi, Dardo; Wang, Gene -Jack; Wang, Ruiliang; Caparelli, Elisabeth C.; Logan, Jean; Volkow, Nora D.

    2014-08-20

    Cocaine, through its activation of dopamine (DA) signaling, usurps pathways that process natural rewards. However, the extent to which there is overlap between the networks that process natural and drug rewards and whether DA signaling associated with cocaine abuse influences these networks have not been investigated in humans. We measured brain activation responses to food and cocaine cues with fMRI, and D2/D3 receptors in the striatum with [11C]raclopride and PET in 20 active cocaine abusers. Compared to neutral cues, food and cocaine cues increasingly engaged cerebellum, orbitofrontal, inferior frontal and premotor cortices and insula and disengaged cuneus and default mode network (DMN). These fMRI signals were proportional to striatal D2/D3 receptors. Surprisingly cocaine and food cues also deactivated ventral striatum and hypothalamus. Compared to food cues, cocaine cues produced lower activation in insula and postcentral gyrus, and less deactivation in hypothalamus and DMN regions. Activation in cortical regions and cerebellum increased in proportion to the valence of the cues, and activation to food cues in somatosensory and orbitofrontal cortices also increased in proportion to body mass. Longer exposure to cocaine was associated with lower activation to both cues in occipital cortex and cerebellum, which could reflect the decreases in D2/D3 receptors associated with chronicity. In conclusion, these findings show that cocaine cues activate similar, though not identical, pathways to those activated by food cues and that striatal D2/D3 receptors modulate these responses, suggesting that chronic cocaine exposure might influence brain sensitivity not just to drugs but also to food cues.

  14. Overlapping patterns of brain activation to food and cocaine cues in cocaine abusers: Association to striatal D2/D3 receptors

    DOE PAGES

    Tomasi, Dardo; Wang, Gene -Jack; Wang, Ruiliang; ...

    2014-08-20

    Cocaine, through its activation of dopamine (DA) signaling, usurps pathways that process natural rewards. However, the extent to which there is overlap between the networks that process natural and drug rewards and whether DA signaling associated with cocaine abuse influences these networks have not been investigated in humans. We measured brain activation responses to food and cocaine cues with fMRI, and D2/D3 receptors in the striatum with [11C]raclopride and PET in 20 active cocaine abusers. Compared to neutral cues, food and cocaine cues increasingly engaged cerebellum, orbitofrontal, inferior frontal and premotor cortices and insula and disengaged cuneus and default modemore » network (DMN). These fMRI signals were proportional to striatal D2/D3 receptors. Surprisingly cocaine and food cues also deactivated ventral striatum and hypothalamus. Compared to food cues, cocaine cues produced lower activation in insula and postcentral gyrus, and less deactivation in hypothalamus and DMN regions. Activation in cortical regions and cerebellum increased in proportion to the valence of the cues, and activation to food cues in somatosensory and orbitofrontal cortices also increased in proportion to body mass. Longer exposure to cocaine was associated with lower activation to both cues in occipital cortex and cerebellum, which could reflect the decreases in D2/D3 receptors associated with chronicity. In conclusion, these findings show that cocaine cues activate similar, though not identical, pathways to those activated by food cues and that striatal D2/D3 receptors modulate these responses, suggesting that chronic cocaine exposure might influence brain sensitivity not just to drugs but also to food cues.« less

  15. Overlapping patterns of brain activation to food and cocaine cues in cocaine abusers: association to striatal D2/D3 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Tomasi, Dardo; Wang, Gene-Jack; Wang, Ruiliang; Caparelli, Elisabeth C.; Logan, Jean; Volkow, Nora D.

    2014-01-01

    Cocaine, through its activation of dopamine (DA) signaling, usurps pathways that process natural rewards. However, the extent to which there is overlap between the networks that process natural and drug rewards and whether DA signaling associated with cocaine abuse influences these networks have not been investigated in humans. We measured brain activation responses to food and cocaine cues with fMRI, and D2/D3 receptors in the striatum with [11C]raclopride and PET in 20 active cocaine abusers. Compared to neutral cues, food and cocaine cues increasingly engaged cerebellum, orbitofrontal, inferior frontal and premotor cortices and insula and disengaged cuneus and default mode network (DMN). These fMRI signals were proportional to striatal D2/D3 receptors. Surprisingly cocaine and food cues also deactivated ventral striatum and hypothalamus. Compared to food cues, cocaine cues produced lower activation in insula and postcentral gyrus, and less deactivation in hypothalamus and DMN regions. Activation in cortical regions and cerebellum increased in proportion to the valence of the cues, and activation to food cues in somatosensory and orbitofrontal cortices also increased in proportion to body mass. Longer exposure to cocaine was associated with lower activation to both cues in occipital cortex and cerebellum, which could reflect the decreases in D2/D3 receptors associated with chronicity. These findings show that cocaine cues activate similar, though not identical, pathways to those activated by food cues and that striatal D2/D3 receptors modulate these responses, suggesting that chronic cocaine exposure might influence brain sensitivity not just to drugs but also to food cues. PMID:25142207

  16. Bias for the left visual field in rapid serial visual presentation: effects of additional salient cues suggest a critical role of attention.

    PubMed

    Śmigasiewicz, Kamila; Asanowicz, Dariusz; Westphal, Nicole; Verleger, Rolf

    2015-02-01

    Everyday experience suggests that people are equally aware of stimuli in both hemifields. However, when two streams of stimuli are rapidly presented left and right, the second target (T2) is better identified in the left hemifield than in the right hemifield. This left visual field (LVF) advantage may result from differences between hemifields in attracting attention. Therefore, we introduced a visual cue shortly before T2 onset to draw attention to one stream. Thus, to identify T2, attention was correctly positioned with valid cues but had to be redirected to the other stream with invalid ones. If the LVF advantage is caused by differences between hemifields in attracting attention, invalid cues should increase, and valid cues should reduce the LVF advantage as compared with neutral cues. This prediction was confirmed. ERP analysis revealed that cues evoked an early posterior negativity, confirming that attention was attracted by the cue. This negativity was earlier with cues in the LVF, which suggests that responses to salient events are faster in the right hemisphere than in the left hemisphere. Valid cues speeded up, and invalid cues delayed T2-evoked N2pc; in addition, valid cues enlarged T2-evoked P3. After N2pc, right-side T2 evoked more sustained contralateral negativity than left T2, least long-lasting after valid cues. Difficulties in identifying invalidly cued right T2 were reflected in prematurely ending P3 waveforms. Overall, these data provide evidence that the LVF advantage is because of different abilities of the hemispheres in shifting attention to relevant events in their contralateral hemifield.

  17. Different spatio-temporal electroencephalography features drive the successful decoding of binaural and monaural cues for sound localization.

    PubMed

    Bednar, Adam; Boland, Francis M; Lalor, Edmund C

    2017-03-01

    The human ability to localize sound is essential for monitoring our environment and helps us to analyse complex auditory scenes. Although the acoustic cues mediating sound localization have been established, it remains unknown how these cues are represented in human cortex. In particular, it is still a point of contention whether binaural and monaural cues are processed by the same or distinct cortical networks. In this study, participants listened to a sequence of auditory stimuli from different spatial locations while we recorded their neural activity using electroencephalography (EEG). The stimuli were presented over a loudspeaker array, which allowed us to deliver realistic, free-field stimuli in both the horizontal and vertical planes. Using a multivariate classification approach, we showed that it is possible to decode sound source location from scalp-recorded EEG. Robust and consistent decoding was shown for stimuli that provide binaural cues (i.e. Left vs. Right stimuli). Decoding location when only monaural cues were available (i.e. Front vs. Rear and elevational stimuli) was successful for a subset of subjects and showed less consistency. Notably, the spatio-temporal pattern of EEG features that facilitated decoding differed based on the availability of binaural and monaural cues. In particular, we identified neural processing of binaural cues at around 120 ms post-stimulus and found that monaural cues are processed later between 150 and 200 ms. Furthermore, different spatial activation patterns emerged for binaural and monaural cue processing. These spatio-temporal dissimilarities suggest the involvement of separate cortical mechanisms in monaural and binaural acoustic cue processing. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Effects of self-relevant cues and cue valence on autobiographical memory specificity in dysphoria.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Noboru; Mochizuki, Satoshi

    2017-04-01

    Reduced autobiographical memory specificity (rAMS) is a characteristic memory bias observed in depression. To corroborate the capture hypothesis in the CaRFAX (capture and rumination, functional avoidance, executive capacity and control) model, we investigated the effects of self-relevant cues and cue valence on rAMS using an adapted Autobiographical Memory Test conducted with a nonclinical population. Hierarchical linear modelling indicated that the main effects of depression and self-relevant cues elicited rAMS. Moreover, the three-way interaction among valence, self-relevance, and depression scores was significant. A simple slope test revealed that dysphoric participants experienced rAMS in response to highly self-relevant positive cues and low self-relevant negative cues. These results partially supported the capture hypothesis in nonclinical dysphoria. It is important to consider cue valence in future studies examining the capture hypothesis.

  19. Neural correlates of restrained eaters' high susceptibility to food cues: An fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Dong, Debo; Todd, Jackson; Du, Jie; Yang, Zhou; Lu, Hui; Chen, Hong

    2016-09-19

    Many studies have reported that specific susceptibility to food cues plays an important role in disordered eating behavior. However, whether restraint status modulates the neural bases of attentional bias to different types of food cues remains unknown. Thus, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was conducted in individuals (12 restraint eaters, 12 unrestraint eaters) exposed to high/low-energy food and neutral images while performing a two-choice oddball task. The results indicated that restrained eaters responded more quickly to high-energy food images than to neutral and low-energy food images. More notably, compared with unrestrained eaters, restrained eaters showed faster reaction times, hyper-activation in a much wider array of reward (e.g., insula/orbitofrontal cortex), attention (superior frontal gyrus) and visual processing (e.g., superior temporal gyrus) regions, and hypo-activation in cognitive control areas (e.g., anterior cingulate) in response to high-energy food cues. Furthermore, among restrained eaters, the longest reaction times were found for low-energy food images, and activation of the attention and visual-related cortex (e.g., superior parietal gyrus) in the low-neutral contrast condition was significantly stronger than in unrestrained eaters. These findings contribute to our understanding of susceptibility to food cues: in addition to the special sensitivity (attentional bias) to high-energy food images, restrained eaters may also be more sensitive (allocate more attentional resources) to low-energy food images. These potential neural bases of restrained eaters may help clarify why dieting to lose or maintain weight is so often unsuccessful. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Visual Cues for Enhancing Depth Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, L. M.; Smith, A. J.

    1994-01-01

    This article describes the physiological mechanisms involved in three-dimensional depth perception and presents a variety of distance and depth cues and strategies for detecting and estimating curbs and steps for individuals with impaired vision. (Author/DB)

  1. The Perceptual Cues that Reshape Expert Reasoning

    PubMed Central

    Harré, Michael; Bossomaier, Terry; Snyder, Allan

    2012-01-01

    The earliest stages in our perception of the world have a subtle but powerful influence on later thought processes; they provide the contextual cues within which our thoughts are framed and they adapt to many different environments throughout our lives. Understanding the changes in these cues is crucial to understanding how our perceptual ability develops, but these changes are often difficult to quantify in sufficiently complex tasks where objective measures of development are available. Here we simulate perceptual learning using neural networks and demonstrate fundamental changes in these cues as a function of skill. These cues are cognitively grouped together to form perceptual templates that enable rapid ‘whole scene' categorisation of complex stimuli. Such categories reduce the computational load on our capacity limited thought processes, they inform our higher cognitive processes and they suggest a framework of perceptual pre-processing that captures the central role of perception in expertise. PMID:22792435

  2. Visual Cues for Enhancing Depth Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, L. M.; Smith, A. J.

    1994-01-01

    This article describes the physiological mechanisms involved in three-dimensional depth perception and presents a variety of distance and depth cues and strategies for detecting and estimating curbs and steps for individuals with impaired vision. (Author/DB)

  3. Aging effects in cueing tasks as assessed by the ideal observer: peripheral cues.

    PubMed

    Swan, Eleanor F; Hutchinson, Claire V; Everard, Mark; Shimozaki, Steven S

    2015-02-04

    Previous aging and cueing studies suggest that automatic orienting driven by peripheral cues is preserved with aging; however, inconsistencies can be found. One issue might be the use of response times (RT) to assess cueing effects (invalid RT--valid RT), which, in many cases, may not have clear quantitative predictions. We propose an ideal observer (IO) analysis of accuracy estimating participants' internal value of cue validity, or weight, which should equal the actual cue validity. The weight measures the use of information provided by the cue and is insensitive to variations in set size and difficulty, thus potentially providing advantages to RT. Older (n = 54) and younger (n = 58) participants performed a yes/no detection task of a two-dimensional (2-D) Gaussian (60 ms). Square peripheral precues (150 ms) indicated likely target locations (70% valid) across two or six locati