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Sample records for neutral kaon interferometry

  1. Open-quantum-systems approach to complementarity in neutral-kaon interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, Gustavo; de Oliveira, J. G. G.; Varizi, Adalberto D.; Nogueira, Edson C.; Sampaio, Marcos D.

    2016-12-01

    In bipartite quantum systems, entanglement correlations between the parties exerts direct influence in the phenomenon of wave-particle duality. This effect has been quantitatively analyzed in the context of two qubits by Jakob and Bergou [Opt. Commun. 283, 827 (2010), 10.1016/j.optcom.2009.10.044]. Employing a description of the K -meson propagation in free space where its weak decay states are included as a second party, we study here this effect in the kaon-antikaon oscillations. We show that a new quantitative "triality" relation holds, similar to the one considered by Jakob and Bergou. In our case, it relates the distinguishability between the decay-product states corresponding to the distinct kaon propagation modes KS, KL, the amount of wave-like path interference between these states, and the amount of entanglement given by the reduced von Neumann entropy. The inequality can account for the complementarity between strangeness oscillations and lifetime information previously considered in the literature, therefore allowing one to see how it is affected by entanglement correlations. As we will discuss, it allows one to visualize clearly through the K0-K ¯0 oscillations the fundamental role of entanglement in quantum complementarity.

  2. Pion and kaon interferometry of nuclear collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Gyulassy, M.; Padula, S.S.

    1989-08-04

    In the study complex reactions, the simple space-time interpretation of pion interferometry often breaks down due to strong correlations between spatial and momentum coordinates. In those cases, pion interferometry is still useful as a complementary test of specific dynamic models, but a refined formalism must be used, as discussed in the introduction. With this formalism, we show that recent NA35 data on O + Au {yields} {pi}{sup {minus}}{pi}{sup {minus}} + X at 200 AGeV are consistent with both hadronic resonance and quark-gluon plasma models for this reaction. The sensitivity of the outward and sideward transverse projected correlation function for pions is investigated. Finally, we compare pion and kaon interferometry predictions of these two models. 31 refs., 3 figs.

  3. Neutral Kaon Interferometry in Au+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN) =200 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Abelev, B.I.; Adams, J.; Aggarwal, M.M.; Ahammed, Z.; Amonett,J.; Anderson, B.D.; Anderson, M.; Arkhipkin, D.; Averichev, G.S.; Bai,Y.; Balewski, J.; Barannikova, O.; Barnby, L.S.; Baudot, J.; Bekele, S.; Belaga, V.V.; Bellingeri-Laurikainen, A.; Bellwied, R.; Benedosso, F.; Bhardwaj, S.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A.K.; Bichsel, H.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L.C.; Blyth, S.-L.; Bonner, B.E.; Botje, M.; Bouchet, J.; Brandin, A.V.; Bravar, A.; Bystersky, M.; Cadman, R.V.; Cai,X.Z.; Caines, H.; Calderon de la Barca Sanchez, M.; Castillo, J.; Catu,O.; Cebra, D.; Chajecki, Z.; Chaloupka, P.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen,H.F.; Chen, J.H.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Chikanian, A.; Christie, W.; Coffin, J.P.; Cormier, T.M.; Cosentino, M.R.; Cramer, J.G.; Crawford,H.J.; Das, D.; Das, S.; Daugherity, M.; de Moura, M.M.; Dedovich, T.G.; DePhillips, M.; Derevschikov, A.A.; Didenko, L.; Dietel, T.; Djawotho,P.; Dogra, S.M.; Dong, W.J.; Dong, X.; Draper, J.E.; Du, F.; Dunin, V.B.; Dunlop, J.C.; Dutta Mazumdar, M.R.; Eckardt, V.; Edwards, W.R.; Efimov,L.G.; Emelianov, V.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Erazmus, B.; Estienne, M.; Fachini, P.; Fatemi, R.; Fedorisin, J.; Filimonov, K.; Filip, P.; Finch,E.; Fine, V.; Fisyak, Y.; Fu, J.; Gagliardi, C.A.; Gaillard, L.; Ganti,M.S.; Ghazikhanian, V.; Ghosh, P.; Gonzalez, J.S.; Gorbunov, Y.G.; Gos,H.; Grebenyuk, O.; Grosnick, D.; Guertin, S.M.; Guimaraes, K.S.F.F.; Guo,Y.; Gupta, N.; Gutierrez, T.D.; Haag, B.; Hallman, T.J.; Hamed, A.; Harris, J.W.; He, W.; Heinz, M.; Henry, T.W.; Hepplemann, S.; Hippolyte,B.; Hirsch, A.; Hjort, E.; Hoffman, A.M.; Hoffmann, G.W.; Horner, M.J.; Huang, H.Z.; Huang, S.L.; Hughes, E.W.; Humanic, T.J.; Igo, G.; Jacobs,P.; Jacobs, W.W.; Jakl, P.; Jia, F.; Jiang, H.; Jones, P.G.; Judd, E.G.; Kabana, S.; Kang, K.; Kapitan, J.; Kaplan, M.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Khodyrev, V.Yu.; Kim, B.C.; Kiryluk, J.; Kisiel, A.; Kislov, E.M.; Klein,S.R.; Kocoloski, A.; Koetke, D.D.; et al.

    2006-08-05

    We present the first statistically meaningful results fromtwo-K0s interferometry in heavy-ion collisions. A model that takes theeffect of the strong interaction into account has been used to fit themeasured correlation function. The effects of single and coupled channelwere explored. At the mean transverse mass m_T = 1.07 GeV, we obtain thevalues R = 4.09 +- 0.46 (stat.) +- 0.31 (sys) fm and lambda = 0.92 +-0.23 (stat) +- 0.13 (sys), where R and lambda are the invariant radiusand chaoticity parameters respectively. The results are qualitativelyconsistent with m_T systematics established with pions in a scenariocharacterized by a strong collective flow.

  4. CP violation in neutral kaon decays

    SciTech Connect

    Buchalla, G.

    1997-05-01

    A brief review of the theoretical status of CP violation in decays of neutral kaons is presented. We focus on three important topics: {epsilon}, {epsilon}`/{epsilon} and K{sub L}{yields}{pi}{sup 0}{nu}{anti {nu}}.

  5. Electromagnetic charged and neutral kaon form factors

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, C.D.; Burden, C.J.; Thomson, M.J.

    1995-08-01

    The electromagnetic form factor of the charged and neutral kaon is calculated using the approach applied in the successful study of the pion form factor, described above. The charged kaon form factor will be measured in forthcoming experiments at CEBAF. Our calculation involves the dressed strange quark propagator, to which F{sub {pi}}(q{sup 2}) is not sensitive, and hence it provides us with constraints on the strange-quark sector of QCD. Our preliminary results are encouraging. We find that the strange and up/down quark propagators are not too different, once the change in the current-quark-mass is accounted for. However, the difference that remains is important since it allows {l_angle}{bar s}s{r_angle}<{l_angle}{bar u}u{r_angle}. This calculation is the first to yield a value of f{sub K}/f{sub {pi}} that is in good agreement with experiment and also yields r{sub K+}/r{sub {pi}} in good agreement with experiment. Our calculated charged kaon form factor provides a prediction that will be tested in the forthcoming CEBAF experiments. Our studies also show that K{sup 0} has a negative charge radius, as is to be expected. Our calculated value will be compared with that measured in K{sub s}{sup 0} regeneration from electrons.

  6. Photoproduction of Neutral Kaons on Deuterons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckford, Brian

    2006-11-01

    Experimentation to greater understand the strangeness production mechanism can be performed by observing the electromagnetic interaction that leads to Kaon photoproduction. The n (γ, K^0) λ reaction may assist in answering questions about the strangeness photo-production process. An experiment into the elementary Kaon photoproduction process was investigated in an experiment conducted at the Laboratory of Nuclear Science of Tohoku University (LNS) using the Neutral Kaon Spectrometer. (NKS). The experiment was conducted by the d (γ, K^0) reaction. K^0 will be measured in the K^0->π^+π^- decay chain by the NKS. The NKS implements many detectors working in coincidence: These ranging from the Tagged Photon Beam generated by the 1.2 GeV Electron beam via bremsstrahlung, an Inner Plastic Scintillator Hodoscope (IH), a Straw Drift Chamber (SDC), a Cylindrical Drift Chamber (CDC), and an Outer Plastic Scintillator Hodoscope. Due to the background produced through the γ-> e+e- process, electron veto counters (EV) were placed in the middle of the OH to reject charged particles in the horizontal plane of the beam line. Preliminary analysis of the data indicates the need for pulse height correction. This was achieved by analysis of the Inner and Outer hodoscopes, and determining the energy deposit in the scintillators.

  7. Targets for a Neutral Kaon Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Keith, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    A secondary beam of neutral Kaons is under consideration for Hall D at Jefferson Lab to perform spectroscopic studies of hyperons produced by K 0 L particles scattering from proton and deuteron targets. The proposed physics program would utilize the GlueX detector package currently installed in Hall D. This contribution looks at potential targets for use in the new facility, paying close attention to the existing infrastructure of GlueX and Hall D. Unpolarized cryotargets of liquid hydrogen and deuerium, as well as polarized solid targets of protons and deuterons are examined.

  8. The effects of external fields on the neutral kaon system

    SciTech Connect

    Sudarsky, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    The authors extended the field theoretical treatment developed by Sachs for the neutral kaon system to study the possible observable effects that external macroscopic fields may cause on this system. In particular, he used this treatment to study the interaction of the kaon system with the hypothetical hypercharge fields of various spatial configurations, and compared the theoretical predictions with the available experimental results. He recovered the results of ABCF {sup 38} for the case of a spatially constant potential, and concluded that the most interesting parameters to study are the phase {phi}{sub +{minus}} of the CP violation parameter {eta}{sub +{minus}}, and the charge asymmetry parameter {delta}. He also applied the formalism to study the effects of the interaction of the neutral kaon system with the hypothetical cosmological axion field, and concluded that the effects are too small to be observable. Furthermore, he illustrated the use of the formalism to give derivations of the regeneration formula.

  9. About Neutral Kaons and Similar Systems:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machet, B.

    Systems of neutral interacting mesons are investigated, concerning in particular their description by an effective Hamiltonian, with a special emphasis on discrete symmetries. Several ambiguities are pointed out. First, the connection to quantum field theory, in which the physical masses mL2 and mS2 are the poles of the full renormalized propagator, shows that, for mass-split binary systems, two mass matrices rather than a single effective one are at work; they correspond to the two values p2=mL^2 and p2=mS^2 of the momentum squared. Transformation properties of the physical eigenstates by discrete symmetries may not reflect the ones of these two mass matrices (and those of the Lagrangian at any given p2). Then, after showing that a bi-orthogonal basis has to be used to diagonalize the complex mass matrix of such unstable systems, and not a bi-unitary transformation, we turn to the ambiguity linked to the commutation of the fields of the K0 and of its charge conjugate /line K0: any constant effective mass matrix is defined, in the (K0, /line K0) basis, up to arbitrary diagonal antisymmetric terms; I use this freedom to deform it in various ways, in both the (K0,/line{K^0}) and (KL,KS) basis, and I study the consequences on the spectrum. CPT symmetry is specially concerned. An effective mass matrix can always be cast into a CPT invariant form, and only T violating eigenstates can never be cast into CP eigenstates. The dual formalism of |in> and

  10. The Measurement of CP Asymmetries in the Three-Body Charmless Decay Neutral B Meson Decays to Neutral Kaon(S) Neutral Kaon(S) Neutral Kaon(S)

    SciTech Connect

    Hadavand, Haleh K.; /UC, San Diego

    2006-03-28

    In this dissertation, a measurement of CP-violating effects in decays of neutral B mesons is presented. The data sample for this measurement consists of about 272 million {Upsilon}(4S) {yields} B{bar B} decays collected between 1999 and 2004 with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collider, located at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. One neutral B meson is fully reconstructed in the CP eigenstate B{sup 0} {yields} K{sub S}{sup 0} K{sub S}{sup 0} K{sub S}{sup 0}. The other B meson is determined to be either a B{sup 0} or a {bar B}{sup 0}, at the time of its decay, from the properties of its decay products. The proper time {Delta}t elapsed between the decay of the two mesons is determined by reconstructing their decay vertices, and by measuring the distance between them. A novel technique for determining the B vertex of the decay to the CP eigenstate B{sup 0} {yields} K{sub S}{sup 0} K{sub S}{sup 0} K{sub S}{sup 0} has been applied since the tracks in the final state do not originate from the B decay vertex. The time-dependent CP asymmetry amplitudes are determined by the distributions of {Delta}t in events with a reconstructed B meson in the CP eigenstate. The detector resolution and the b flavor tagging parameters are constrained by the {Delta}t distributions of events with a fully reconstructed flavor eigenstate. Because of the special topology of this decay, the detector resolution on {Delta}t must be checked for consistency with decays with tracks which originate from the B decay. From a maximum likelihood fit to the {Delta}t distributions of all selected events, the value of the CP violating asymmetries are measured to be S{sub 3K{sub S}{sup 0}} = -0.71{sub -0.32}{sup +0.38} {+-} 0.04 and C{sub 3K{sub S}{sup 0}} = -0.34{sub -0.25}{sup +0.28} {+-} 0.05. Fixing C = 0 we measure the time-dependent CP asymmetry amplitude sin 2{beta} = -S{sub 3K{sub S}{sup 0}} = 0.79{sub -0.36}{sup +0.39} {+-} 0.04. The value of sin 2{beta} is

  11. Equivalence between classical and quantum dynamics. Neutral kaons and electric circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Caruso, M. Fanchiotti, H.; Canal, C.A. Garcia

    2011-10-15

    An equivalence between the Schroedinger dynamics of a quantum system with a finite number of basis states and a classical dynamics is presented. The equivalence is an isomorphism that connects in univocal way both dynamical systems. We treat the particular case of neutral kaons and found a class of electric networks uniquely related to the kaon system finding the complete map between the matrix elements of the effective Hamiltonian of kaons and those elements of the classical dynamics of the networks. As a consequence, the relevant {epsilon} parameter that measures CP violation in the kaon system is completely determined in terms of network parameters. - Highlights: > We provide a formal equivalence between classical and quantum dynamics. > We make use of the decomplexification concept. > Neutral kaon systems can be represented by electric circuits. > CP symmetry violation can be taken into account by non-reciprocity. > Non-reciprocity is represented by gyrators.

  12. Kaon interferometry: a sensitive probe of the QCD equation of state?

    PubMed

    Soff, Sven; Bass, Steffen A; Hardtke, David H; Panitkin, Sergey Y

    2002-02-18

    We calculate the kaon-interferometry radius parameters for high-energy heavy-ion collisions, assuming a first-order phase transition from a thermalized quark-gluon plasma (QGP) to a gas of hadrons. At high transverse momenta K(T) approximately 1 GeV/c direct emission from the phase boundary becomes important; the emission duration signal, i.e., the R(out)/R(side) ratio, and its sensitivity to T(c) (and thus to the latent heat) are enlarged. The QGP+hadronic rescattering transport model calculations do not yield unusually large radii (R(i) < or = 9 fm). Finite-momentum-resolution effects have a strong impact on the extracted interferometry parameters ( R(i) and lambda), as well as on the ratio R(out)/R(side).

  13. Effects of external fields on the neutral kaon system

    SciTech Connect

    Sudarsky, D.; Fischbach, E.; Talmadge, C. ); Aronson, S.H. ); Hai-Yang Cheng )

    1991-04-01

    The authors develop a rigorous relativistic formalism for dealing with the interaction of high-energy neutral kaons with an external field. This approach, which is based on Sachs' propagator formalism, is then used to describe for the first time the behavior of the K{degree} {minus} {bar K}{degree} system at high energy in the presence of a spatially-varying vector potential. They show that the effect of such a spatial variation is to induce in the fundamental parameters of the K{degree} {minus} {bar K}{degree} system an energy-dependence in addition to that expected from the usual behavior of vector fields under Lorentz transformations. One consequence of the present formalism is that different experimental determinations of the same fundamental parameters may yield different results, depending on the details of the experimental configuration. They illustrate this by several examples, and by reference to existing high-energy data on the {bar K}{degree} {minus} {bar K}{degree} system.

  14. Decay of B mesons into charged and neutral kaons

    SciTech Connect

    Brody, A.; Chen, A.; Goldberg, M.; Horwitz, N.; Kandaswamy, J.; Kooy, H.; Moneti, G.C.; Pistilli, P.; Alam, M.S.; Csorna, S.E.; Fridman, A.; Hicks, R.G.; Panvini, R.S.; Andrews, D.; Avery, P.; Berkelman, K.; Cabenda, R.; Cassel, D.G.; DeWire, J.W.; Ehrlich, R.; Ferguson, T.; Gilchriese, M.G.D.; Gittelman, B.; Hartill, D.L.; Herrup, D.; Herzlinger, M.; Kreinick, D.L.; Mistry, N.B.; Morrow, F.; Nordberg, E.; Perchonok, R.; Plunkett, R.; Shinsky, K.A.; Siemann, R.H.; Silverman, A.; Stein, P.C.; Stone, S.; Talman, R.; Weber, D.; Wilcke, R.; Sadoff, A.J.; Bebek, C.; Haggerty, J.; Hempstead, M.; Izen, J.M.; Longuemare, C.; Loomis, W.A.; MacKay, W.W.; Pipkin, F.M.; Rohlf, J.; Tanenbaum, W.; Wilson, R.; Chadwick, K.; Chauveau, J.; Ganci, P.; Gentile, T.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Melissinos, A.C.; Olsen, S.L.; Poling, R.; Rosenfeld, C.; Rucinski, G.; Thorndike, E.H.; Green, J.; Mueller, J.J.; Sannes, F.; Skubic, P.; Snyder, A.; Stone, R.

    1982-04-19

    Data on inclusive kaon production in e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilations at energies in the vicinity of the UPSILON(4S) resonance are presented. A clear excess of kaons is observed on the UPSILON(4S) compared to the continuum. Under the assumption that the UPSILON(4S) decays into BB-bar, a total of 3.38 +- 0.34 +- 0.68 kaons per UPSILON(4S) decay is found. In the context of the standard B-decay model this leads to a value for (b..-->..c)/(b..-->..all) of 1.09 +- 0.33 +- 0.13.

  15. The Dynamical Nonlocality of Neutral Kaons and the Kaonic Quantum Eraser

    SciTech Connect

    Hiesmayr, Beatrix C.

    2011-03-28

    Testing quantum foundations for systems in high energy physics gets currently more and more attention e.g. witnessed for entangled neutral K-mesons by the approved programme of the KLOE collaboration at the accelerator facility DAPHNE (Frascati, Italy). We focus on this quantum system in high energy physics and discuss two topics, Bell inequalities and the kaonic quantum eraser, and show how the neutral kaon system differs from systems of ordinary matter and light. In detail, we show a relation of the imbalance of matter and antimatter to the violation of a Bell inequality and discuss another Bell inequality which is maximally violated for a non-maximally entangled state though neutral kaons can be considered as two state systems. We compare in general this system in high energy physics with bipartite qudits. Last but not least we review the quantum marking and eraser procedure and explain why neutral kaons offer more eraser possibilities than usual quantum systems.

  16. Search for New Physics in Neutral Kaon Decays

    SciTech Connect

    Comfort, Joseph R.

    2016-04-30

    This report will summarize contributions made by the ASU group during the grant period. Focus will be given to three areas: (1) Monte Carlo simulations; (2) signal processing in the electronics; and (3) data analysis software. For reference, a drawing of the KOTO detector is shown in Fig. 1. The production target for the neutral beam particles was about 20 meters upstream of the detector.

  17. Discrete symmetries and QM studies with entangled neutral kaons at KLOE-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajos, Aleksander; KLOE-2 Collaboration

    2017-07-01

    The long history of kaon physics results produced by KLOE is being continued at the upgraded KLOE-2 detector. Entangled neutral kaon pairs produced at DAΦNE are a unique tool to probe discrete symmetries and QM basic principles at the utmost precision. The status of the newest ongoing analyses using the most refined analysis tools will be presented and discussed:(i) search for decoherence and CPT violation effects in the φ → KSKL → π + π - π + π - decay,(ii) test of CP and CPT symmetries in KS semileptonic decays,(iii) test of time reversal and CPT in transitions in φ → KSKL → πeν, 3π 0, 2π decays,(iv) study of the KS → π + π - π 0 decay.

  18. Associated production of ϕ mesons and neutral kaons in the EXCHARM experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleev, A. N.; Amaglobeli, N. S.; Balandin, V. P.; Balev, S. Z.; Bulekov, O. V.; Geshkov, I. M.; Goudzovski, E. A.; Emelianov, D. D.; Eremin, S. V.; Zinchenko, A. I.; Ivanchenko, Z. M.; Ivanchenko, I. M.; Kapishin, M. N.; Kvatadze, R. A.; Kekelidze, V. D.; Kozhenkova, Z. I.; Kosarev, I. G.; Kuzmin, N. A.; Loktionov, A. A.; Ljubimov, A. L.; Madigozhin, D. T.; Mazny, V. G.; Mestvirishvili, A. S.; Mitsyn, V. V.; Molokanova, N. A.; Morozov, A. N.; Pismenyi, R. E.; Polenkevich, I. A.; Polansky, A.; Ponosov, A. K.; Potrebenikov, Yu. K.; Sergeev, F. M.; Slepets, L. A.; Spaskov, V. N.; Shkorovsky, S. N.; Excharm Collaboration

    2006-05-01

    The features of the associated production of ϕ mesons and neutral kaons are studied on the basis of data obtained at the EXCHARM spectrometer (Serpukhov accelerator) in neutron—carbon interactions at neutron-beam energies in the range 20-70 GeV. The cross section for the inclusive associated production of ϕ and K 0/ -K 0 is obtained. The fraction of processes allowed by the Okubo-Zweig-Iizuka rule is estimated in the reactions of ϕ-meson inclusive production.

  19. Tests of Discrete Symmetries in the Semileptonic Decays of Neutral Kaons at Cplear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chertok, Maxwell Benjamin

    The semileptonic decays of neutral kaon beams, K0/rightarrow/pi e/nu and /bar K0/rightarrow/pi e/nu, were measured in the CPLEAR experiment, and the parameters /Delta m, Re (x), Im (x), and Re (ɛ S) were extracted using the time-dependent asymmetries in the rates for these two decay channels. Here, /Delta m is the mass difference between the long and short lived components of the neutral kaons, Re (x) and Im (x) are proportional to the real and imaginary parts, respectively, of the /Delta S=-/Delta Q amplitude in semileptonic decays, and Re (ɛ S) is the real part of the [/cal CP] violating mixing parameter for the short lived neutral kaon. The experiment was performed at the Low Energy Antiproton Ring at CERN. Antiprotons were stopped in a gaseous hydrogen target, and the reactions pp /rightarrow K+/bar K0/pi/sp- and pp /rightarrow K/sp- K0π+ were selected. This resulted in beams of neutral kaons with known initial strangeness: K0 and K0. Using CPLEAR data taken during 1993 and 1994, 669K semileptonic events were selected. By fitting the decay rate asymmetries, the parameters were measured to be:/eqalign[/Delta m&=(0.5278/pm0.0029stat./pm0.0007syst.)×1010/hbar/s/cr [ Re]/ (x)&=(5.5/pm10.2stat./pm7.5syst.)×10- 3/cr [ Im]/ (x)&=(1.6/pm3.4stat./pm1.8syst.)×10- 3/cr [ Re]/ (ɛ S)&=(2.25/pm0.76stat./pm0.52syst.)×10- 3/cr]where the first error is statistical and the second error is systematic. The precision of Δm obtained from this analysis is on the same order as the best published values. The results for x are much better than previously published values, and are consistent with the standard model prediction of |x| ~10-6. This is the first experiment to make a measurement of Re (ɛ S), and the value obtained in this analysis is in agreement with the published value of Re (ɛ L), as predicted by [/cal CPT] invariance.

  20. Measurements of Direct CP Violation, CPT Symmetry, and Other Parameters in the Neutral Kaon System

    SciTech Connect

    Worcester, Elizabeth Turner

    2007-12-01

    The authors present precision measurements of the direct CP violation parameter, Re(ϵ'/ϵ), the kaon parameters, Δm and τS, and the CPT tests, Φ± and ΔΦ, in neutral kaon decays. These results are based on the full dataset collected by the KTeV experiment at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory during 1996, 1997, and 1999. This dataset contains ~ 15 million K → π0π0 decays and ~ 69 million K → π+π- decays. They describe significant improvements to the precision of these measurements relative to previous KTeV analyses. They find Re(ϵ'/ϵ = [19.2 ± 1.1(stat) ± 1.8(syst)] x 10-4, Δm = (5265 ± 10) x 106 hs-1, and τS = (89.62 ± 0.05) x 10-12 s. They measure Φ± = (44.09 ± 1.00)° and ΔΦ = (0.29 ± 0.31)°; these results are consistent with CPT symmetry.

  1. Panofsky Prize Talk: Measurements of Direct CP Violation in the Decays of Neutral Kaons at Fermilab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winstein, Bruce

    2007-04-01

    For many years after its discovery, CP Violation appeared to be a phenomenon isolated from the rest of physics. The first goal was to see if tCP violation was due to a ``superweak'' interaction in neutral kaon mixing (``indirect'' CP violation) or if there were a ``direct'' effect which would be manifest in the kaon decays themselves. For years, it seemed to be an interaction of the former kind, one that might not have any additional manifestations. A few years after the discovery, Sakharov realized that CP Violation in the very early Universe, in particular direct CP Violation, could lead to the matter-antimatter imbalance. A key development was the Kobayashi-Maskawa model which provided a framework in which to think about the problem, connecting it to quark mixing. This motivated a series of 2nd, 3rd, and 4th generation experiments to isolate the predicted direct effect. This talk will review how the problem was addressed in 3 Fermilab- based experiments spanning a 20 year period which culminated in a definitive detection of the effect by KTeV. The motivation and technical approaches to isolate this tiny effect with good control of systematic uncertainty will be reviewed together with the results and future prospects.

  2. Long-lived neutral-kaon flux measurement for the KOTO experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Masuda, T.; Ahn, J. K.; Banno, S.; Campbell, M.; Comfort, J.; Duh, Y. T.; Hineno, T.; Hsiung, Y. B.; Inagaki, T.; Iwai, E.; Kawasaki, N.; Kim, E. J.; Kim, Y. J.; Ko, J. W.; Komatsubara, T. K.; Kurilin, A. S.; Lee, G. H.; Lee, J. W.; Lee, S. K.; Lim, G. Y.; Ma, J.; MacFarland, D.; Maeda, Y.; Matsumura, T.; Murayama, R.; Naito, D.; Nakaya, Y.; Nanjo, H.; Nomura, T.; Odani, Y.; Okuno, H.; Ri, Y. D.; Sasao, N.; Sato, K.; Sato, T.; Seki, S.; Shimogawa, T.; Shinkawa, T.; Shiomi, K.; Son, J. S.; Sugiyama, Y.; Suzuki, S.; Tajima, Y.; Takahashi, G.; Takashima, Y.; Tecchio, M.; Togawa, M.; Toyoda, T.; Tung, Y. C.; Wah, Y. W.; Watanabe, H.; Woo, J. K.; Xu, J.; Yamanaka, T.; Yanagida, Y.; Yoshida, H. Y.; Yoshimoto, H.

    2016-01-24

    The KOTO(K0 at Tokai) experiment aims to observe the CP-violating rare decay KL → π0νν¯ over bar by using a long-lived neutral-kaon beam produced by the 30 GeV proton beam at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex. The KL flux is an essential parameter for the measurement of the branching fraction. Three KL neutral decay modes, KL → 3 π0, KL → 2 π0, and KL → 2γ, were used to measure the KL flux in the beam line in the 2013 KOTO engineering run. A Monte Carlo simulation was used to estimate the detector acceptance for these decays. Agreement was found between the simulation model and the experimental data, and the remaining systematic uncertainty was estimated at the 1.4% level. Here, the KL flux was measured as (4.183 ± 0.017stat. ± 0.059sys.) x 107 KL per 2 x 1014 protons on a 66-mm-long Au target.

  3. Long-lived neutral-kaon flux measurement for the KOTO experiment

    DOE PAGES

    Masuda, T.; Ahn, J. K.; Banno, S.; ...

    2016-01-24

    The KOTO(K0 at Tokai) experiment aims to observe the CP-violating rare decay KL → π0νν¯ over bar by using a long-lived neutral-kaon beam produced by the 30 GeV proton beam at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex. The KL flux is an essential parameter for the measurement of the branching fraction. Three KL neutral decay modes, KL → 3 π0, KL → 2 π0, and KL → 2γ, were used to measure the KL flux in the beam line in the 2013 KOTO engineering run. A Monte Carlo simulation was used to estimate the detector acceptance for these decays. Agreementmore » was found between the simulation model and the experimental data, and the remaining systematic uncertainty was estimated at the 1.4% level. Here, the KL flux was measured as (4.183 ± 0.017stat. ± 0.059sys.) x 107 KL per 2 x 1014 protons on a 66-mm-long Au target.« less

  4. The production of neutral kaons in Z0 decays and their Bose-Einstein correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akers, R.; Alexander, G.; Allison, J.; Ametewee, K.; Anderson, K. J.; Arcelli, S.; Asai, S.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Ball, A. H.; Barberio, E.; Barlow, R. J.; Bartoldus, R.; Batley, J. R.; Beaudoin, G.; Beck, A.; Beck, G. A.; Beeston, C.; Behnke, T.; Bell, K. W.; Bella, G.; Bentvelsen, S.; Berlich, P.; Bethke, S.; Biebel, O.; Bloodworth, I. J.; Bock, P.; Bosch, H. M.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Bright-Thomas, P.; Brown, R. M.; Buijs, A.; Burckhart, H. J.; Bürgin, R.; Burgard, C.; Capdevielle, N.; Capiluppi, P.; Carnegie, R. K.; Carter, A. A.; Carter, J. R.; Chang, C. Y.; Charlesworth, C.; Charlton, D. G.; Chu, S. L.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clayton, J. C.; Clowes, S. G.; Cohen, I.; Conboy, J. E.; Cooke, O. C.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dallavalle, G. M.; Darling, C.; de Jong, S.; Del Pozo, L. A.; Deng, H.; Dittmar, M.; Dixit, M. S.; Do Couto E Silva, E.; Duboscq, J. E.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I. P.; Dunwoody, U. C.; Edwards, J. E. G.; Elcombe, P. A.; Estabrooks, P. G.; Etzion, E.; Evans, H. G.; Fabbri, F.; Fabbro, B.; Fanti, M.; Fath, P.; Fierro, M.; Fincke-Keeler, M.; Fischer, H. M.; Fischer, P.; Folman, R.; Fong, D. G.; Foucher, M.; Fukui, H.; Fürtjes, A.; Gagnon, P.; Gaidot, A.; Gary, J. W.; Gascon, J.; Geddes, N. I.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Gensler, S. W.; Gentit, F. X.; Geralis, T.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Giacomelli, R.; Gibson, V.; Gibson, W. R.; Gillies, J. D.; Goldberg, J.; Gingrich, D. M.; Goodrick, M. J.; Gorn, W.; Grandi, C.; Gross, E.; Hagemann, J.; Hanson, G. G.; Hansroul, M.; Hargrove, C. K.; Hart, P. A.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C. M.; Heflin, E.; Hemingway, R. J.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R. D.; Hill, J. C.; Hillier, S. J.; Hilse, T.; Hobson, P. R.; Hochman, D.; Homer, R. J.; Honma, A. K.; Howard, R.; Hughes-Jones, R. E.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Imrie, D. C.; Jawahery, A.; Jeffreys, P. W.; Jeremie, H.; Jimack, M.; Jones, M.; Jones, R. W. L.; Jovanovic, P.; Jui, C.; Karlen, D.; Kanzaki, J.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Keeler, R. K.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kennedy, B. W.; King, B.; King, J.; Kirk, J.; Kluth, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Koetke, D. S.; Kokott, T. P.; Komamiya, S.; Kowalewski, R.; Kress, T.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Kyberd, P.; Lafferty, G. D.; Lafoux, H.; Lahmann, R.; Lai, W. P.; Lauber, J.; Layter, J. G.; Leblanc, P.; Lee, A. M.; Lefebvre, E.; Lellouch, D.; Leroy, C.; Letts, J.; Levinson, L.; Lloyd, S. L.; Loebinger, F. K.; Long, G. D.; Lorazo, B.; Losty, M. J.; Lou, X. C.; Ludwig, J.; Luig, A.; Mannelli, M.; Marcellini, S.; Markus, C.; Martin, A. J.; Martin, J. P.; Mashimo, T.; Matthews, W.; Mättig, P.; Maur, U.; McKenna, J.; McMahon, T. J.; McNab, A. I.; Meijers, F.; Merritt, F. S.; Mes, H.; Michelini, A.; Middleton, R. P.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D. J.; Mir, R.; Mohr, W.; Montanari, A.; Mori, T.; Morii, M.; Müller, U.; Nellen, B.; Nijjhar, B.; O'Neale, S. W.; Oakham, F. G.; Odorici, F.; Ogren, H. O.; Oldershaw, N. J.; Oram, C. J.; Oreglia, M. J.; Orito, S.; Palmonari, F.; Pansart, J. P.; Patrick, G. N.; Pearce, M. J.; Phillips, P. D.; Pilcher, J. E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, D. E.; Poffenberger, P.; Poli, B.; Posthaus, A.; Pritchard, T. W.; Przysiezniak, H.; Redmond, M. W.; Rees, D. L.; Rigby, D.; Rison, M. G.; Robins, S. A.; Robinson, D.; Rodning, N.; Roney, J. M.; Ros, E.; Rossi, A. M.; Rosvick, M.; Routenburg, P.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Runolfsson, O.; Rust, D. R.; Sasaki, M.; Sbarra, C.; Schaile, A. D.; Schaile, O.; Scharf, F.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schenk, P.; Schmitt, B.; Schröder, M.; Schultz-Coulon, H. C.; Schütz, P.; Schulz, M.; Schwick, C.; Schwiening, J.; Scott, W. G.; Settles, M.; Shears, T. G.; Shen, B. C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C. H.; Sherwood, P.; Siroli, G. P.; Skillman, A.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A. M.; Smith, T. J.; Snow, G. A.; Sobie, R.; Söldner-Rembold, S.; Springer, R. W.; Sproston, M.; Stahl, A.; Starks, M.; Stegmann, C.; Stephens, K.; Steuerer, J.; Stockhausen, B.; Strom, D.; Szymanski, P.; Tafirout, R.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Taras, P.; Tarem, S.; Tecchio, M.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Tesch, N.; Thomson, M. A.; Tousignant, O.; Towers, S.; Tscheulin, M.; Tsukamoto, T.; Turcot, A. S.; Turner-Watson, M. F.; Utzat, P.; van Kooten, R.; Vasseur, G.; Vikas, P.; Vincter, M.; Wagner, A.; Wagner, D. L.; Ward, C. P.; Ward, D. R.; Ward, J. J.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, N. K.; Weber, P.; Wells, P. S.; Wermes, N.; Wilkens, B.; Wilson, G. W.; Wilson, J. A.; Winterer, V.-H.; Wlodek, T.; Wolf, G.; Wotton, S.; Wyatt, T. R.; Yeaman, A.; Yekutieli, G.; Yurko, M.; Zacek, V.; Zeuner, W.; Zorn, G. T.

    1995-09-01

    The production of neutral kaons in e+e- annihilation at centre-of-mass energies in the region of the Z0 mass and their Bose-Einstein correlations are investigated with the OPAL detector at LEP. A total of about 1.26×106 Z0 hadronic decay events are used in the analysis. The production rate of K0 mesons is found to be 1.99±0.01±0.04 per hadronic event, where the first error is statistical and the second systematic. Both the rate and the differential cross section for K0 production are compared to the predictions of Monte Carlo generators. This comparison indicates that the fragmentation is too soft in both Jetset and Herwig. Bose-Einstein correlations in K{s/0}K{s/0} pairs are measured through the quantity Q, the four momentum difference of the pair. A threshold enhancement is observed in K{s/0}K{s/0} pairs originating from a mixed sample ofK^0 bar K^0 and K0K0 (bar K^0 bar K^0) pairs. For the strength of the effect and for the radius of the emitting source we find values of λ=1.14±0.23±0.32 and R 0=(0.76±0.10±0.11) fm respectively. The first error is statistical and the second systematic.

  5. The Neutral kaon mixing parameter B(K) from unquenched mixed-action lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher Aubin, Jack Laiho, Ruth S. Van de Water

    2010-01-01

    We calculate the neutral kaon mixing parameter B{sub K} in unquenched lattice QCD using asqtad-improved staggered sea quarks and domain-wall valence quarks. We use the '2+1' flavor gauge configurations generated by the MILC Collaboration, and simulate with multiple valence and sea quark masses at two lattice spacings of a {approx} 0.12 fm and a {approx} 0.09 fm. We match the lattice determination of B{sub K} to the continuum value using the nonperturbative method of Rome-Southampton, and extrapolate B{sub K} to the continuum and physical quark masses using mixed action chiral perturbation theory. The 'mixed-action' method enables us to control all sources of systematic uncertainty and therefore to precisely determine B{sub K}; we find a value of B{sub K}{sup {ovr MS},NDR} (2 GeV) = 0.527(6)(21), where the first error is statistical and the second is systematic.

  6. Ultra-sensitive inertial sensors via neutral-atom interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clauser, John F.

    1989-01-01

    Upon looking at the various colossal interferometers, etc., discussed at this conference to test gravitational theory, one cannot avoid feeling that easier approaches exist. The use of low velocity, neutral atom matter waves in place of electromagnetic waves in sensitive inertial interferometer configurations is proposed. For applications, spacecraft experiments to sense a drag-free condition, to measure the Lense-Thirring precession, to measure the gravitomagnetic effect and/or the earth's geopotential (depending on altitude), and to detect long period gravitational waves are considered. Also, a terrestrial precision test of the equivalence principle on spin polarized atoms, capable of detecting effects of the 5th force is considered. While the ideas described herein are preliminary, the orders of magnitude are sufficiently tantalizing to warrant further study. Although existing proposed designs may be adequate for some of these experiments, the use of matter-wave interferometry offers reduced complexity and cost, and an absence of cryogenics.

  7. Positive Kaon Neutral Antikaon Negative Pion Production in Negative Kaon Proton Interactions at 8 Gev/c

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehnlein, David Jude

    1990-01-01

    K^- p interactions at 8 GeV/c have been produced at Brookhaven National Laboratory's Multi-Particle Spectrometer to study the final state K ^+{| K^0}pi^ - in the mass range 1-2 GeV/c^2. A total of 1711 events have been produced in the reaction K^- pto(K^+{| K^0}pi^-) + Y where Y is a neutral baryon with strangeness -1. The Y's identified include the Lambda(1115), Sigma(1192), Sigma (1385), and Lambda(1530). We see no clear signals for the resonances D(1285), E(1420), and D^'(1520). Upper limits for the production cross sections of these mesons are computed. Through comparison with data obtained in the reaction pi^- pto( K^+{| K^0}pi ^-) + n we find that the production cross sections for the D(1285) and E(1420) are at least an order of magnitude smaller for the K^{-}p interactions than for the pi^ {-}p interactions, while that of the D^'(1530) may be of the same order of magnitude for both interactions, indicating the possibility of a significant s{| s} component. Also, a Partial Wave Analysis shows some evidence of an interference of 1^{++} and 1^{+-} J^{PG} states near 1.4 GeV/c^2. The 1^{+-} wave appears to be the strongest in this mass region.

  8. Workshop on Physics with Neutral Kaon Beam at JLab (KL2016) Mini-Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Strakovsky, Igor I.; Amaryan, Moskov; Chudakov, Eugene A.; Meyer, Curtis A.; Pennington, Michael R.; Ritman, James L.

    2016-05-01

    The KL2016 Workshop is following the Letter of Intent LoI12-15-001 "Physics Opportunities with Secondary KL beam at JLab" submitted to PAC43 with the main focus on the physics of excited hyperons produced by the Kaon beam on unpolarized and polarized targets with GlueX setup in Hall D. Such studies will broaden a physics program of hadron spectroscopy extending it to the strange sector. The Workshop was organized to get a feedback from the community to strengthen physics motivation of the LoI and prepare a full proposal.

  9. How to Test Atom and Neutron Neutrality with Atom Interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Arvanitaki, Asimina; Dimopoulos, Savas; Geraci, Andrew A.; Hogan, Jason; Kasevich, Mark

    2008-03-28

    We propose an atom-interferometry experiment based on the scalar Aharonov-Bohm effect which detects an atom charge at the 10{sup -28}e level, and improves the current laboratory limits by 8 orders of magnitude. This setup independently probes neutron charges down to 10{sup -28}e, 7 orders of magnitude below current bounds.

  10. Testing Atom and Neutron Neutrality with Atom Interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Arvanitaki, Asimina; Dimopoulos, Savas; Geraci, Andrew A.; Hogan, Jason; Kasevich, Mark; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2008-01-07

    We propose an atom-interferometry experiment based on the scalar Aharonov-Bohm effect which detects an atom charge at the 10{sup -28} e level, and improves the current laboratory limits by 8 orders of magnitude. This setup independently probes neutron charges down to 10{sup 28} e, 7 orders of magnitude below current bounds.

  11. Application of Fourier-Fresnel Imaging to Neutral - Atom Interferometry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-10-03

    this Moire pattern by maximizing the n - 1 harmonic signal. In addition, since the grating period d can be much larger than that required For the...acnil4cations of their work to light is quite limited.The results are primarily interesting in that they span t e toundarg between zraoezcidal Moire Frlnges...suitable For use by techniques available For eutral-acm iic erfermer. --- I : r1. Possible Layouts for a Neutral-Atom Interferometer . I. ! c Figure

  12. New directions in kaon-nucleus physics

    SciTech Connect

    Dover, C.B.

    1982-01-01

    The prospects for nuclear physics with kaons are reviewed including (1) elementary interactions k/sup +-/N; (2) K/sup +/-induced processes on nuclei; (3) resonance physics with K/sup -/ and ..pi../sup +-/ (greater than or equal to 1 GeV/c/); (4) neutral kaon interactions; and (5) hypernuclear physics. Summary of kaon beam requirements is given. (WHK)

  13. Neutral kaon femtoscopy in Pb-Pb collisions at √ sNN = 2.76 TeV at the LHC with ALICE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinpreis, Matthew

    Femtoscopy is an experimental method used to study the spatio-temporal characteristics of the particle-emitting "sources" of ultra-relativistic particle collisions. This method allows us to measure the size, shape, and lifetime of the kinetic freeze-out region of the particles created in the collisions as they are emitted from the expanding system. Studying these source regions allows us to investigate the dynamics of the system as it evolves from the hot, dense state of matter known as the Quark-Gluon Plasma into a dilute, free-streaming hadronic gas. The analysis of the extracted femtoscopic radii and their dependences on event centrality, momentum, and particle species can help put constaints on unknown quantities used in theoretical models such as time-scales and particle-particle scattering parameters. The femtoscopic tool is the two-particle relative momentum correlation function, which connects the final-state momentum distributions measured by the detector to the spacetime distributions of particle emission, which are on the order of 10--15 m, or femtometers, and cannot be directly measured. These correlations are sensitive to the quantum statistics of identical particles as well as the strong and/or Coulomb interactions between particles. Neutral kaon femtoscopy acts as an excellent complement to similar analyses of other particle species. Kaon analyses are generally able to reach higher values of transverse momentum (KT) and transverse mass (MT = √ K2 T + m2) than the more commonly studied pion analyses. The comparison of kaon radii with those of pions and protons allows us to check for universal MT-scaling, which is predicted by some hydrodynamic models. The study of neutral kaons also acts as a convenient consistency check for the charged kaon analysis, as both analyses are expected to produce similar results while employing significantly different analysis methods, e.g. directly measured tracks vs. decay vertex reconstruction and Coulomb-dominated vs

  14. Measurement of CP-Violating Asymmetries In Neutral B Meson Decays Into Three Kaons

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Joshua M.

    2008-12-01

    The Standard Model (SM) of particle physics successfully describes all of the observed interactions of the fundamental particles (with the exception of non-zero neutrino mass). Despite this enormous success, the SM is widely viewed as an incomplete theory. For example, the size of the asymmetry between matter and antimatter is not nearly large enough to account for the abundance of matter observed throughout the universe. It is thus believed that as-yet-unknown physical phenomena must exist that introduce new asymmetries between matter and antimatter. In this thesis, by studying decays that happen only rarely in the SM, we make measurements of asymmetries between matter and antimatter that are potentially sensitive to the existence of processes beyond the SM. At the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B Factory at SLAC, electrons and positrons are collided at the Υ(4S) resonance to create pairs of B mesons. The BABAR detector is used to measure the subsequent decay products. Using 383 million Υ(4S) → B$\\bar{B}$ decays, we study the decay B0 → K+K-K0. In the SM, this decay is dominated by loop amplitudes. Asymmetries between matter and antimatter (CP asymmetries) are extracted by measuring the time-dependence of the complex amplitudes describing the B0 and $\\bar{B}$0 decays as functions of their kinematics. The interference between decays with and without the mixing of neutral B mesons allows for the measurement of the angle βeff, which is a measure of CP violation. We also measure the direct CP asymmetry ACP. Data samples reconstructed from three K0 modes (KS0 → π+π-, KS0 → π0π0, and KL0) are fit simultaneously. They find ACP = -0.015 ± 0.077 ± 0.053 and βeff = 0.352 ± 0.076 ± 0.026 rad, corresponding to a CP violation

  15. Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ridgway, Stephen; Wilson, Robert W.; Begelman, Mitchell C.; Bender, Peter; Burke, Bernard F.; Cornwell, Tim; Drever, Ronald; Dyck, H. Melvin; Johnston, Kenneth J.; Kibblewhite, Edward

    1991-01-01

    The following recommended programs are reviewed: (1) infrared and optical interferometry (a ground-based and space programs); (2) compensation for the atmosphere with adaptive optics (a program for development and implementation of adaptive optics); and (3) gravitational waves (high frequency gravitational wave sources (LIGO), low frequency gravitational wave sources (LAGOS), a gravitational wave observatory program, laser gravitational wave observatory in space, and technology development during the 1990's). Prospects for international collaboration and related issues are also discussed.

  16. Simulations for Kaon Absorption Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Danielle; Wood, Michael; CLAS Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    The three pieces needed to determine the Ks0 transparency ratios are the kaon yields, the target thickness, and the detector acceptance. This poster will describe our simulations for the neutral kaon acceptance by the CLAS detector for the E01-112 experiment. The experiment was conducted in Hall B at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility for the purpose of searching for medium modifications of mesons. The reactions are the photo-production of mesons from targets of deuterium, carbon, iron, and lead. Our calculations employ the PLUTO++ software for the generator and GSIM to simulate the detector.

  17. Measurement of CP Asymmetries and Branching Fractions in Neutral B Meson Decays to Charged Pions and Kaons with the BABAR Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Farbin, A.

    2005-02-10

    This dissertation presents a measurement of CP asymmetries and branching fractions for neutral B meson decays to two-body final states of charged pions and kaons. The results are obtained from a data sample of about 88 million {Upsilon}(4S) {yields} B{bar B} decays collected between 1999 and 2002 with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B factory located at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. A fit to kinematic, topological, and particle identification information measures the charge-averaged branching fractions {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}) = (4.7 {+-} 0.6 {+-} 0.2) x 10{sup -6} and {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} K{sup +}{pi}{sup -}) = (17.9 {+-} 0.9 {+-} 0.7) x 10{sup -6}; the 90% confidence level upper limit {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup -}) < 0.6 x 10{sup -6}; and the direct CP-violating charge asymmetry {Alpha}{sub K{pi}} = -0.102 {+-} 0.050 {+-} 0.016 [-0.188, -0.016], where the first uncertainties are statistical and the second are systematic and the ranges in square brackets indicate the 90% confidence interval. A fit which adds decay time and b-flavor tagging information measures the CP-violating parameters for B{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} decays S{sub {pi}{pi}} = 0.02 {+-} 0.34 {+-} 0.05 [-0.54, +0.58] and C{sub {pi}{pi}} = -0.30 {+-} 0.25 {+-} 0.04 [-0.72, +0.12].

  18. Neutral kaon and lambda production in electron-positron annihilation at 29 GeV and the Z boson resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Fordham, C.S.

    1990-10-01

    The production of K{sup 0} and {Lambda} in the hadronization of q{bar q} events from e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} collisions at 29 GeV and the Z{sup 0} resonance is studied using the Mark II detector as upgraded for running at the Stanford Linear Collider. Hadronization processes cannot presently be calculated with Quantum Chromodynamics; instead, hadronization models must be used in comparisons with data. In these models, hadronization occurs at local energy scales of a few GeV, a level at which small differences in quark and diquark mass significantly affect the production of particles such as K{sup 0} and {Lambda}, the lightest neutral meson and baryon containing strange quarks. Their production and behavior in hadronic events is a test for the accuracy of our understanding of hadronization. Two-charged- particle decays of the K{sup 0} and {Lambda} are isolated within the hadronic event sample. The resulting distribution of K{sup 0} and {Lambda} are corrected for inefficiencies and generalized to include all K{sup 0} and {Lambda}. Various kinematic distributions of the strange particles are examined. These distributions include the momentum and scaled momentum of the particles. The kinematics of the particles with respect to the original quark direction are examined through the distributions of rapidity and momentum transverse to the thrust both in and out of the event plane. The dependence of K{sup 0} and {Lambda} production on the sphericity of the hadronic events is also examined. All these distributions show that the behavior of K{sup 0} and {Lambda} in hadronic events is consistent with the hadronization models.

  19. Supersymmetry and Kaon physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Kei

    2017-01-01

    Kaon physics has played an essential role in testing the Standard Model and in searching for new physics with measurements of CP violation and rare decays. Current progress of lattice calculations enables us to predict kaon observables accurately, especially for the direct CP violation, ε‧/ε, and there is a discrepancy from the experimental data at the 2.9 σ level. On the experimental side, the rare kaon decays and are ongoing to be measured at the SM accuracy by KOTO at J-PARC and NA62 at CERN. These kaon observables are good probes for new physics. We study supersymmetric effects; the chargino and gluino contributions to Z penguin, in kaon observables.

  20. Velocity distribution of neutral species during magnetron sputtering by Fabry-Perot interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Britun, N.; Han, J. G.; Oh, S.-G.

    2008-04-07

    The velocity distribution of a metallic neutral species sputtered in a dc magnetron discharge was measured using a planar Fabry-Perot interferometer and a hollow cathode lamp as a reference source. The measurement was performed under different angles of view relative to the target surface. The velocity distribution function in the direction perpendicular to the target becomes asymmetrical as the Ar pressure decreases, whereas it remains nearly symmetrical when the line of sight is parallel to the target surface. The average velocity of the sputtered Ti atoms was measured to be about 2 km/s.

  1. RARE KAON DECAYS.

    SciTech Connect

    LITTENBERG, L.

    2005-07-19

    Lepton flavor violation (LFV) experiments have probed sensitivities corresponding to mass scales of well over 100 TeV, making life difficult for models predicting accessible LFV in kaon decay and discouraging new dedicated experiments of this type.

  2. Measurements of CP Violation and Neutral Kaon Charge Radius using K(L) → π+π-e+e- Decays

    SciTech Connect

    Golossanov, Alexander

    2005-05-01

    CP violation and K{sup 0} charge radius were measured using KL → π+π-e+e- decays. Specifically, a unique CP-violating decay-plane asymmetry was measured along with the parameters of individual contributions to the decay invariant amplitude: (1) CP-conserving magnetic dipole direct emission form factor, (2) CP-conserving K0 charge radius transition amplitude and (3) an upper limit for the CP-violating electric dipole direct emission amplitude. The measurements were obtained from the data sample accumulated by KTeV experiment at Fermilab. KTeV had two major goals: the measurement of direct CP violation parameter Re(ϵ'/ϵ) and the study of rare kaon decays. The state of the art detector was constructed, commissioned, operated and maintained by an international collaboration of scientists from fourteen institutions. The KL → π+π-e+e-L decays took place in the KTeV fiducial decay region.

  3. Nonsinglet kaon fragmentation function from e{sup +}e{sup -} kaon production

    SciTech Connect

    Albino, Simon; Christova, Ekaterina

    2010-05-01

    We perform fits to the available charged and neutral kaon-production data in e{sup +}+e{sup -{yields}}K+X, K=K{sup {+-},} and K{sub S}{sup 0}, and determine the nonsinglet combination of kaon fragmentation functions D{sub u}{sup K{+-}-}D{sub d}{sup K{+-}}in a model independent way and without any correlations to the other fragmentation functions. Only nuclear isospin invariance is assumed. Working with nonsinglets allows us to include the data at very low momentum fractions, which have so far been excluded in global fits, and to perform a first next-next-to leading order fit to fragmentation functions. We find that the kaon nonsinglet fragmentation function at large z is larger than that obtained by the other collaborations from global fit analysis and differs significantly at low z.

  4. Physics Results from KTeV (E799-II and E832): The Search for Direct CP Violation in 2 PI Decays and Rare Decays of the Neutral Kaon

    DOE Data Explorer

    KTeV includes the study of fundamental symmetries, rare decay processes, weak interactions, and polarization phenomena. A striking asymmetry of our world is the fact that the universe appears to be composed entirely of matter and no astronomical object made of anti-matter has ever been detected. In fact, the only anti-matter we find anywhere is minute quantities produced in high energy particle interactions like those studied at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab). At the time of this experiment, only one other place where an asymmetry of this kind, formally called "CP violation," has been observed. This is a tiny effect (about 1 part in 500) in certain decays of a particular elementary particle called the neutral Kaon. KTeV seeks to determine whether or not this effect can be fully understood in the context of the present picture of matter (the "Standard Model"). To do this, high-precision measurements on decays which are known to manifest CP violation are performed in order to study a variety of extremely rare decay processes.[copied with editing from http://ktev.fnal.gov/public/plain_english.html] This website provides access to numeric data and data plots from published papers. Drs Makoto Kobayashi, Toshihide Maskawa, and Yoichiro Nambu share a 2008 Nobel Prize in Physics for their work in this experiment.

  5. KAON CONDENSATION IN NEUTRON STARS.

    SciTech Connect

    RAMOS,A.; SCHAFFNER-BIELICH,J.; WAMBACH,J.

    2001-04-24

    We discuss the kaon-nucleon interaction and its consequences for the change of the properties of the kaon in the medium. The onset of kaon condensation in neutron stars under various scenarios as well its effects for neutron star properties are reviewed.

  6. CPT Tests: Kaon vs neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Murayama, Hitoshi

    2003-07-09

    CPT violation has an impressive limit in the neutral kaon system |m(K{sup 0})-m({bar K}{sup 0})| < 10{sup -18} m{sub K} = 0.50 x 10{sup -18} GeV. However, if viewed as a constraint on the mass-squared, the bound appears weak, |m{sup 2}(K{sup 0})-m{sup 2}({bar K}{sup 0})| < 0.25 eV{sup 2}. the authors point out that neutrino oscillation offers better limits on CPT violation in this case. The comparison of solar and rector neutrino results puts the best limit on CPT violation by far, |{Delta}m{sub {nu}}{sup 2}-{Delta}m{sub {rho}}{sup 2}| < 1.3 x 10{sup -3} eV{sup 2} (90% CL).

  7. Kaon-nucleus scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, Byungsik; Maung, Khin Maung; Wilson, John W.; Buck, Warren W.

    1989-01-01

    The derivations of the Lippmann-Schwinger equation and Watson multiple scattering are given. A simple optical potential is found to be the first term of that series. The number density distribution models of the nucleus, harmonic well, and Woods-Saxon are used without t-matrix taken from the scattering experiments. The parameterized two-body inputs, which are kaon-nucleon total cross sections, elastic slope parameters, and the ratio of the real to the imaginary part of the forward elastic scattering amplitude, are presented. The eikonal approximation was chosen as our solution method to estimate the total and absorptive cross sections for the kaon-nucleus scattering.

  8. Kaon-nucleus scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, Byungsik; Buck, Warren W.; Maung, Khin M.

    1989-01-01

    Two kinds of number density distributions of the nucleus, harmonic well and Woods-Saxon models, are used with the t-matrix that is taken from the scattering experiments to find a simple optical potential. The parameterized two body inputs, which are kaon-nucleon total cross sections, elastic slope parameters, and the ratio of the real to imaginary part of the forward elastic scattering amplitude, are shown. The eikonal approximation was chosen as the solution method to estimate the total and absorptive cross sections for the kaon-nucleus scattering.

  9. Kaon Electroproduction on Deuterium

    SciTech Connect

    David Abbott; Abdellah Ahmidouch, Pawel Ambrozewicz; Chris Armstrong; John Arrington; K. Assamagan; Kevin Bailey; Oliver K. Baker; Shelton Beedoe; Elizabeth Beise; Herbert Breuer; Roger Carlini; Jinseok Cha; G. Collins; C. Cothran; W.J. Cummings; Samuel Danagoulian; Fraser Duncan; Jim Dunne; Dipangkar Dutta; Tom Eden; Rolf Ent; Lars Ewell; H.T. Fortune; Haiyan Gao; Donald Geesaman; Kenneth Gustafsson; Paul Gueye; Jens-Ole Hansen; Wendy Hinton; Hal Jackson; Cynthia Keppel; Andi Klein; D. Koltenok; David Mack; Richard Madey; Pete Markowitz; C.J. Martoff; David Meekins; Joseph Mitchell; R. Mohring; Hamlet Mkrtchyan; S.K. Mtingwa; Tom O'Neill; Gabriel Niculescu; Ioana Niculescu; Dave Potterveld; John Price; Philip Roos; Brian Raue; J.J. Reidy; Juerg Reinhold; G. Savage; Reyad Sawafta; J.P. Schiffer; Ralph Segel; Stepan Stepanyan; V. Tadevosian; Liguang Tang; B. Terburg; Stephen Wood; Chen Yan; Ben Zeidman; Beni Zihlmann

    1998-08-01

    Kaon electroproduction on deuterium and hydrogen targets has been measured at beam energies of 3.245 and 2.445GeV and momentum transfer Q{sup 2}=0.38 and O.5(GeV/c ){sup 2} Associated production off a proton in the deuteron exhibits a quasifree production mechanism. The electroproduction of a Sigma - off the neutron could be extracted for the first time with reasonable errors.

  10. Classical illustrations of CP violation in kaon decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosner, Jonathan L.; Slezak, Scott A.

    2001-01-01

    It is easy to construct classical two-state systems illustrating the behavior of the short-lived and long-lived neutral K mesons in the limit of CP conservation. The emulation of CP violation is more tricky, but is provided by the two-dimensional motion of a Foucault pendulum. Analogies are drawn between the pendulum and observables in neutral kaon decays. An emulation of CP and CPT violation using electric circuits is also discussed.

  11. Kaon Production Off the Nucleon

    SciTech Connect

    Alam, M. Rafi; Athar, M. Sajjad; Simo, I. Ruiz; Vacas, M. J. Vicente

    2011-10-06

    We have studied the weak kaon production off the nucleon induced by neutrinos at the low and intermediate energies. The studied mechanisms are the main source of kaon production for neutrino energies up to 1.2 to 1.5 GeV for the various channels and the cross sections are large enough to be amenable to be measured by experiments such as MINERvA and T2K.

  12. Collins and Sivers asymmetries in muonproduction of pions and kaons off transversely polarised protons

    DOE PAGES

    Adolph, C.; Akhunzyanov, R.; Alexeev, M. G.; ...

    2015-05-01

    Measurements of the Collins and Sivers asymmetries for charged pions and charged and neutral kaons produced in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering of high energy muons off transversely polarised protons are presented. The results were obtained using all the available COMPASS proton data, which were taken in the years 2007 and 2010. The Collins asymmetries exhibit in the valence region a non-zero signal for pions and there are hints of non-zero signal also for kaons. The Sivers asymmetries are found to be positive for positive pions and kaons and compatible with zero otherwise.

  13. Kaon photoproduction off proton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skoupil, Dalibor; Bydžovský, Petr

    2016-11-01

    We have recently constructed our version of the Regge-plus-resonance (RPR) model and two variants of an isobar model for photoproduction of kaons on the proton, utilizing new experimental data from CLAS, LEPS, and GRAAL collaborations for adjusting free parameters of the models. Higher-spin nucleon (3/2 and 5/2) and hyperon (3/2) resonances were included using the consistent formalism by Pascalutsa and found to play an important role in data description. The set of chosen nucleon resonances in our new isobar models agrees well with the set of the most probable contributing states determined in the Bayesian analysis with the RPR model whilst only 6 out of 10 N*'s selected in the RPR fit of ours overlap with the nucleon resonant states in the Bayesian analysis. Results of two versions of the isobar model are compared to the new version of the RPR model and experimental data in the third-resonance region and their properties are discussed. We place an emphasis on the choice of resonances, the predictions in the forward- and backward-angle region as well as the choice of the hadron form factor.

  14. Mixing kaons with mixed action chiral perturbation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubin, Christopher

    2006-12-01

    We calculate the neutral kaon mixing parameter, BK , to next-to-leading order in mixed action (domain-wall valence with staggered sea quarks) chiral perturbation theory. We find the expres- sion for BK in this mixed-action case only differs from the continuum partially quenched expres- sion by an additional analytic term. Additionally, in preparation for a lattice calculation of BK with a mixed action, we discuss quantitatively the effects of the taste violations as well as finite volume effects.

  15. Hints for Enhanced b -> sg From Charm and Kaon Counting

    SciTech Connect

    Rathsman, Johan

    2003-05-09

    Previously, motivation for enhanced b {yields} sg from new flavor physics has centered on discrepancies between theory and experiment. Here two experimental hints are considered: (1) updated measurements of the charm multiplicity and {Beta}({bar B} {yields} X{sub c{bar c}s}) at the {Upsilon}(4S) imply {Beta}(B {yields} X{sub no charm}) {approx} 12.4 {+-} 5.6%, (2) the {bar B} {yields} K{sup -}X and {bar B} {yields} K{sup +}/K{sup -}X branching fractions are in excess of conventional {bar B} {yields} X{sub c} {yields} KX yields by about 16.9 {+-} 5.6% and 18 {+-} 5.3%, respectively. JETSET 7.4 was used to estimate kaon yields from s{bar s} popping in {bar B} {yields} X{sub c{bar u}d} decays. JETSET 7.4 Monte Carlos for {Beta}({bar B} {yields} X{sub sg}) {approx} 15% imply that the additional kaon production would lead to 1{sigma} agreement with observed charged and neutral kaon yields. The K{sub s} momentum spectrum would be consistent with recent CLEO bounds in the end point region. Search strategies for enhanced b {yields} sg are discussed in light of large theoretical uncertainty in the standard model fast kaon background from b {yields} s penguin operators.

  16. Quasifree kaon photoproduction on nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Frank Lee; T. MART; Cornelius Bennhold; Lester Wright

    2001-12-01

    Investigations of the quasifree reaction A({gamma}, K Y)B are presented in the distorted wave impulse approximation (DWIA). For this purpose, we present a revised tree-level model of elementary kaon photoproduction that incorporates hadronic form factors consistent with gauge invariance, uses SU(3) values for the Born couplings and uses resonances consistent with multi-channel analyses. The potential of exclusive quasifree kaon photoproduction on nuclei to reveal details of the hyperon-nucleus interaction is examined. Detailed predictions for the coincidence cross section, the photon asymmetry, and the hyperon polarization and their sensitivities to the ingredients of the model are obtained for all six production channels. Under selected kinematics these observables are found to be sensitive to the hyperon-nucleus final state interaction. Some polarization observables are found to be insensitive to distortion effects, making them ideal tools to search for possible medium modifications of the elementary amplitude.

  17. Bayesian analysis for kaon photoproduction

    SciTech Connect

    Marsainy, T. Mart, T.

    2014-09-25

    We have investigated contribution of the nucleon resonances in the kaon photoproduction process by using an established statistical decision making method, i.e. the Bayesian method. This method does not only evaluate the model over its entire parameter space, but also takes the prior information and experimental data into account. The result indicates that certain resonances have larger probabilities to contribute to the process.

  18. Systematic study of charged-pion and kaon femtoscopy in Au+Au collisions at √sNN = 200 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Adare, A.

    2015-09-23

    We present a systematic study of charged pion and kaon interferometry in Au+Au collisions at √sNN=200 GeV. The kaon mean source radii are found to be larger than pion radii in the outward and longitudinal directions for the same transverse mass; this difference increases for more central collisions. The azimuthal-angle dependence of the radii was measured with respect to the second-order event plane and similar oscillations of the source radii were found for pions and kaons. Hydrodynamic models qualitatively describe the similar oscillations of the mean source radii for pions and kaons, but they do not fully describe the transverse-mass dependence of the oscillations.

  19. Systematic study of charged-pion and kaon femtoscopy in Au+Au collisions at √sNN = 200 GeV

    DOE PAGES

    Adare, A.

    2015-09-23

    We present a systematic study of charged pion and kaon interferometry in Au+Au collisions at √sNN=200 GeV. The kaon mean source radii are found to be larger than pion radii in the outward and longitudinal directions for the same transverse mass; this difference increases for more central collisions. The azimuthal-angle dependence of the radii was measured with respect to the second-order event plane and similar oscillations of the source radii were found for pions and kaons. Hydrodynamic models qualitatively describe the similar oscillations of the mean source radii for pions and kaons, but they do not fully describe the transverse-massmore » dependence of the oscillations.« less

  20. Interferometry concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millour, F.

    2014-09-01

    This paper serves as an introduction to the current book. It provides the basic notions of long-baseline optical/infrared interferometry prior to reading all the subsequent chapters, and is not an extended introduction to the field.

  1. Measurements of CP-Violating Asymmetries and Branching Fractions in the Decays of B Mesons to Charged Pions and Kaons at the Babar Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Danielson, Morris Nicholas; /Princeton U.

    2006-04-10

    This dissertation describes the measurement of branching fractions and CP asymmetries in neutral B meson decays to charmless two-body final states of charged pions and kaons. CP violation is a poorly-constrained phenomenon in the Standard model (SM) of particle physics and had been studied only in the kaon system before the Babar and Belle experiments. The decay of the neutral B meson to charged pions and kaons is particularly useful for the study of CP violation because they can be related to the Unitarity Triangle angle {alpha}.

  2. The quantum CP-violating kaon system reproduced in the electronic laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caruso, M.; Fanchiotti, H.; García Canal, C. A.; Mayosky, M.; Veiga, A.

    2016-11-01

    The equivalence between the Schrödinger dynamics of a quantum system with a finite number of basis states and a classical dynamics is realized in terms of electric networks. The isomorphism that connects in a univocal way both dynamical systems was applied to the case of neutral mesons, kaons in particular, and the class of electric networks univocally related to the quantum system was analysed. Moreover, under CPT invariance, the relevant ɛ parameter that measures CP violation in the kaon system is reinterpreted in terms of network parameters. All these results were explicitly shown by means of both a numerical simulation of the implied networks and by constructing the corresponding circuits.

  3. Flavor changing kaon decays from hypercp: Measurements of the K+ ---> pi+- mu+ mu- branching ratios

    SciTech Connect

    E. Craig Dukes et al.

    2004-01-12

    The Fermilab HyperCP collaboration is making precision studies of charged hyperon and kaon decays, as well as searches for rare and forbidden hyperon and kaon decays. We report here on measurements of the branching ratios of the flavor-changing neutral-current decays: K{sup {+-}} {yields} {pi}{sup {+-}} {mu}{sup +} {mu}{sup -}, and compare our results to theoretical predictions. This is the first observation of the K{sup -} {yields} {pi}{sup -} {mu}{sup +} {mu}{sup -} decay.

  4. Pion and kaon correlations in high energy heavy-ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, K.L.; Wolf, K.L.

    1996-12-31

    Data analysis is in progress for recent experiments performed by the NA44 collaboration with the first running of 160 A GeV {sup 208}Pb-induced reactions at the CERN SPS. Identified singles spectra were taken for pions, kaons, protons, deuterons, antiprotons and antideuterons. Two-pion interferometry measurements were made for semi-central-triggered {sup 208}Pb + Pb collisions. An upgraded multi-particle spectrometer allows high statistics data sets of identified particles to be collected near mid-rapidity. A second series of experiments will be performed in the fall of 1995 with more emphasis on identical kaon interferometry and on the measurement of rare particle spectra and correlations. Modest instrumentation upgrades by TAMU are designed to increase the trigger function for better impact parameter selection and improved collection efficiency of valid events. An effort to achieve the highest degree of projectile-target stopping is outlined and it is argued that an excitation function on the SPS is needed to better understand reaction mechanisms. Analysis of experimental results is in the final stages at LBL in the EOS collaboration for two-pion interferometry in the 1.2 A GeV Au+Au reaction, taken with full event characterization. 35 refs., 15 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Kaon physics at Fermilab Main Injector

    SciTech Connect

    Hsiung, Y.

    1992-03-01

    For high precision and high sensitivity studies of the physics of kaon physics of kaon decays, the important characteristics of the new Main Injector at Fermilab are its high energy (relative to other factories'') and its high intensity. Experiments of this kind are becoming increasingly important in the study of CP violation and for searches for new interactions. An extracted beam of 120 GeV will produce a source of high energy kaons (10--50 GeV) that will not be surpassed in intensity by any facility new under consideration world-wide.

  6. Kaon physics at Fermilab Main Injector

    SciTech Connect

    Hsiung, Y.

    1992-03-01

    For high precision and high sensitivity studies of the physics of kaon physics of kaon decays, the important characteristics of the new Main Injector at Fermilab are its high energy (relative to other ``factories``) and its high intensity. Experiments of this kind are becoming increasingly important in the study of CP violation and for searches for new interactions. An extracted beam of 120 GeV will produce a source of high energy kaons (10--50 GeV) that will not be surpassed in intensity by any facility new under consideration world-wide.

  7. GPS Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vangrass, Frank

    1992-01-01

    This semi-annual progress report provides an overview of the work performed during the first six months of Grant NAG 1 1423, titled 'GPS Interferometry'. The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a satellite-based positioning and timing system. Through the use of interferometric processing techniques, it is feasible to obtain sub-decimeter position accuracies for an aircraft in flight. The proposed duration of this Grant is three years. During the first year of the Grant, the efforts are focussed on two topics: (1) continued development of GPS Interferometry core technology; and (2) rapid technology demonstration of GPS interferometry through the design and implementation of a flight reference/autoland system. Multipath error has been the emphasis of the continued development of GPS Interferometry core technology. The results have been documented in a Doctoral Dissertation and a conference paper. The design and implementation of the flight reference/autoland system is nearing completion. The remainder of this progress report summarizes the architecture of this system.

  8. Rare and radiative kaon decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D’Ambrosio, Giancarlo

    2017-01-01

    We discuss theoretical issues in radiative rare kaon decays. The interest is twofold: to extract useful short-distance information and understand the underlying dynamics. We emphasize channels where either we can understand non-perturbative aspects of QCD or there is a chance to test the Standard Model. An interesting channel, K + → π + π 0 e + e ‑, is studied also in connection with the recent experimental NA48 results. Motivated by LHCB results on KS → μ + μ ‑ we discuss other channels like KS,L → l + l ‑ l + l ‑. Motivated by recent theoretical work by Buras and collaborators we study also the K ± → π±l + l ‑ form factor.

  9. Kaon Flavour Physics Strikes Back

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buras, Andrzej J.

    2017-01-01

    In this short presentation I emphasize the increased importance of kaon flavour physics in the search for new physics (NP) that we should witness in the rest of this decade and in the next decade. The main actors will be the branching ratios for the rare decays and , to be measured by NA62 and KOTO, and their correlations with the ratio ɛ‧/ɛ on which recently progress by lattice QCD and large N dual QCD approach has been made implying a new flavour anomaly. Further correlations of , and ɛ‧/ɛ with ɛK , ΔMK , KL → μ + μ - and will help us to identify indirectly possible NP at short distance scales. This talk summarizes the present highlights of this facinating field including some results from concrete NP scenarios.

  10. Neutral pion form factor measurement by the NA62 experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamkovsky, Michal; Ambrosino, F.; Antonelli, A.; Anzivino, G.; Arcidiacono, R.; Baldini, W.; Balev, S.; Batley, J. R.; Behler, M.; Bifani, S.; Biino, C.; Bizzeti, A.; Blazek, T.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Bocquet, G.; Bolotov, V.; Bucci, F.; Cabibbo, N.; Calvetti, M.; Cartiglia, N.; Ceccucci, A.; Cenci, P.; Cerri, C.; Cheshkov, C.; Chze, J. B.; Clemencic, M.; Collazuol, G.; Costantini, F.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Coward, D.; Cundy, D.; Dabrowski, A.; DAgostini, G.; Dalpiaz, P.; Damiani, C.; Danielsson, H.; De Beer, M.; Dellacasa, G.; Derr, J.; Dibon, H.; Di Filippo, D.; DiLella, L.; Doble, N.; Duk, V.; Engelfried, J.; Eppard, K.; Falaleev, V.; Fantechi, R.; Fidecaro, M.; Fiorini, L.; Fiorini, M.; Fonseca Martin, T.; Frabetti, P. L.; Fucci, A.; Gallorini, S.; Gatignon, L.; Gersabeck, E.; Gianoli, A.; Giudici, S.; Gonidec, A.; Goudzovski, E.; Goy Lopez, S.; Gushchin, E.; Hallgren, B.; Hita-Hochgesand, M.; Holder, M.; Hristov, P.; Iacopini, E.; Imbergamo, E.; Jeitler, M.; Kalmus, G.; Kekelidze, V.; Kleinknecht, K.; Koval, M.; Kozhuharov, V.; Kubischta, W.; Kurshetsov, V.; Lamanna, G.; Lazzeroni, C.; Lenti, M.; Leonardi, E.; Litov, L.; Lurkin, N.; Madigozhin, D.; Maier, A.; Mannelli, I.; Marchetto, F.; Marel, G.; Markytan, M.; Marouelli, P.; Martini, M.; Masetti, L.; Massarotti, P.; Mazzucato, E.; Michetti, A.; Mikulec, I.; Misheva, M.; Molokanova, N.; Monnier, E.; Moosbrugger, U.; Morales Morales, C.; Moulson, M.; Movchan, S.; Munday, D. J.; Napolitano, M.; Nappi, A.; Neuhofer, G.; Norton, A.; Numao, T.; Obraztsov, V.; Palladino, V.; Patel, M.; Pepe, M.; Peters, A.; Petrucci, F.; Petrucci, M. C.; Peyaud, B.; Piandani, R.; Piccini, M.; Pierazzini, G.; Polenkevich, I.; Popov, I.; Potrebenikov, Y.; Raggi, M.; Renk, B.; Retire, F.; Riedler, P.; Romano, A.; Rubin, P.; Ruggiero, G.; Salamon, A.; Saracino, G.; Savri, M.; Scarpa, M.; Semenov, V.; Sergi, A.; Serra, M.; Shieh, M.; Shkarovskiy, S.; Slater, M. W.; Sozzi, M.; Spadaro, T.; Stoynev, S.; Swallow, E.; Szleper, M.; Valdata-Nappi, M.; Valente, P.; Vallage, B.; Velasco, M.; Veltri, M.; Venditti, S.; Wache, M.; Wahl, H.; Walker, A.; Wanke, R.; Widhalm, L.; Winhart, A.; Winston, R.; Wood, M. D.; Wotton, S. A.; Yushchenko, O.; Zinchenko, A.; Ziolkowski, M.

    2017-07-01

    The NA62 experiment at CERN collected a large sample of charged kaon decays with a highly efficient trigger for decays into electrons in 2007. The kaon beam represents a source of tagged neutral pion decays in vacuum. A measurement of the electromagnetic transition form factor slope of the neutral pion in the time-like region from ∼1 million fully reconstructed π 0 Dalitz decay is presented. The limits on dark photon production in π 0 decays from the earlier kaon experiment at CERN, NA48/2, are also reported.

  11. Kaon femtoscopy at the STAR experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lidrych, Jindřich; STAR Collaboration

    2017-04-01

    The properties of the quark-gluon plasma have been extensively studied in high-energy nuclear collisions at RHIC. Femtoscopic measurements of two-particle correlations at small relative momenta reveal the space-time characteristics of the system at the moment of particle emission. In comparison to analyses using the most abundant pions, like-sign kaons provide a cleaner probe of the emission source as they less frequently result from resonance weak decays. Additionally, kaons contain strange quarks so these measurements can be sensitive to different effects and earlier collision stages. Pairs of like-sign kaons exhibit correlations due to Coulomb interactions and Bose-Einstein quantum statistics. The system of unlike-sign kaons contains a narrow φ(1020) resonance in the final state. Femtoscopic measurements have been predicted to be particularly sensitive to the source size and momentum-space correlations in the region of this resonance. In this proceedings, we present the STAR preliminary results on the like-sign and unlike-sign kaon femtoscopic correlation functions in 200 GeV Au+Au collisions at RHIC. Collision centrality and the transverse pair momentum kT dependence of the radius parameters will be discussed. The results from unlike-sign kaon correlation functions will be compared with model predictions [1].

  12. Spin Observables in Kaon Electroproduction

    SciTech Connect

    O.K. Baker

    1998-06-01

    The CEBAF accelerator at Jefferson Lab has proven to be a powerful tool for use in studying the electromagnetic production of hadronic systems containing a strange constituent quark. The electromagnetic probe only marginally disturbs the system being investigated, and is well understood. Its use as a means to probe the internal structure of hadronic systems has been well documented. Among the most studied of these hadronic systems, currently, is the nucleon. The unique opportunities afforded by the use of polarized, high-current, high-duty-factor electron beams provides an even more powerful probe of the electromagnetic structure of hadronic systems; the study of the spin dependence of the electromagnetic production and weak decay of the hyperon, specifically the {Lambda}-hyperon, becomes feasible. An experiment to study the electroproduction of the {Lambda} as a function of virtual photon momentum transfer, angle, and energy, using spin polarization observables in order to extract insights into its production and weak decay dynamics has already been approved at Jefferson Lab (E98-101; Spin Polarization in Kaon Electroproduction). The experiment aims to study the mechanism of polarization transfer in the reaction e + p {yields} e' + K + {Lambda}. The experiment requires only moderate momentum resolution and no specialized equipment other than that associated with the polarized beam. The data quality is expected to improve with higher electron beam energies, for higher Q{sup 2} measurements. Additionally, at higher energies the increased virtual photon flux allows the 4experiment to be run at lower currents (and therefore high beam polarization). A polarized electron beam and an unpolarized cryogenic hydrogen target are required. The study uses the electron arm spectrometer and the hadron arm spectrometer to detect the scattered electron and the electroproduced kaon before it decays in flight, respectively. Additionally, the hadron arm will be used to detect the

  13. X International Conference on Kaon Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2017-01-01

    The International Conference on Kaon Physics 2016 took place at the University of Birmingham (United Kingdom) on 14–17 September 2016. This conference continued the KAON series, offering an opportunity for theorists and experimentalists from the high-energy physics community to discuss all aspects of kaon physics. The 2016 edition saw a strong participation from theory and phenomenology and the first kaon results from the LHCb experiment at CERN, as well as updates from several experiments around the world including NA62 and KOTO. All papers published in this volume of KAON2016 have been peer reviewed through processes administered by the proceedings Editors. Reviews were conducted by expert referees to the professional and scientific standards expected of a proceedings journal published by IOP Publishing. The organizers and the participants wish to thank the University of Birmingham, the European Research Council, CERN, the UK Science and Technology Facility Council and the UK Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology for their support in the organization of this successful edition. Figure for summary

  14. Entanglement properties of kaons and tests of hidden-variable models

    SciTech Connect

    Genovese, M.

    2004-02-01

    In this paper we discuss entanglement properties of neutral kaons systems and their use for testing local realism. In particular, we analyze a Hardy-type scheme [A. Bramon and G. Garbarino, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 160401 (2002)] recently suggested for performing a test of hidden-variable theories against standard quantum mechanics. Our result is that this scheme could, in principle, lead to a conclusive test of local realism, but only if higher identification efficiencies than in today's experiments will be reached.

  15. Kaon condensation in dense stellar matter

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Chang-Hwan; Rho, M. |

    1995-03-01

    This article combines two talks given by the authors and is based on Works done in collaboration with G.E. Brown and D.P. Min on kaon condensation in dense baryonic medium treated in chiral perturbation theory using heavy-baryon formalism. It contains, in addition to what was recently published, astrophysical backgrounds for kaon condensation discussed by Brown and Bethe, a discussion on a renormalization-group analysis to meson condensation worked out together with H.K. Lee and S.J. Sin, and the recent results of K.M. Westerberg in the bound-state approach to the Skyrme model. Negatively charged kaons are predicted to condense at a critical density 2 {approx_lt} {rho}/{rho}o {approx_lt} 4, in the range to allow the intriguing new phenomena predicted by Brown and Bethe to take place in compact star matter.

  16. Kaons in flavour tagged B decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, H.; Ehrlichmann, H.; Hamacher, T.; Hofmann, R. P.; Kirchhoff, T.; Nau, A.; Nowak, S.; Schröder, H.; Schulz, H. D.; Walter, M.; Wurth, R.; Hast, C.; Kolanoski, H.; Kosche, A.; Lange, A.; Lindner, A.; Mankel, R.; Schieber, M.; Siegmund, T.; Spaan, B.; Thurn, H.; Töpfer, D.; Wegener, D.; Bittner, M.; Eckstein, P.; Paulini, M. G.; Reim, K.; Wegener, H.; Mundt, R.; Oest, T.; Reiner, R.; Schmidt-Parzefall, W.; Funk, W.; Stiewe, J.; Werner, S.; Ehret, K.; Hofmann, W.; Hüpper, A.; Khan, S.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Seeger, M.; Spengler, J.; Britton, D. I.; Charlesworth, C. E. K.; Edwards, K. W.; Hyatt, E. R. F.; Kapitza, H.; Krieger, P.; Macfarlane, D. B.; Patel, P. M.; Prentice, J. D.; Saull, P. R. B.; Tzamariudaki, K.; van de Water, R. G.; Yoon, T.-S.; Reßing, D.; Schmidtler, M.; Schneider, M.; Schubert, K. R.; Strahl, K.; Waldi, R.; Weseler, S.; Kernel, G.; Križan, P.; Križnič, E.; Podobnik, T.; Živko, T.; Cronström, H. I.; Jönsson, L.; Balagura, V.; Belyaev, I.; Chechelnitsky, S.; Danilov, M.; Droutskoy, A.; Gershtein, Yu.; Golutvin, A.; Kostina, G.; Litvintsev, D.; Lubimov, V.; Pakhlov, P.; Ratnikov, F.; Semenov, S.; Snizhko, A.; Soloshenko, V.; Tichomirov, I.; Zaitsev, Yu.

    1994-09-01

    Using the ARGUS detector at the e + e - storage ring DORIS II, flavour-dependent kaon production in B meson decays has been studied. Using the leptons as flavour tags, it has been possible to separately measure the multiplicities of K +, K - and K {/s 0} in inclusive B decays and in semileptonic B decays. The kaon production in semileptonic B decays was further used to estimate the ratio of charmed decays over all decays, and thus also the fraction of charmless B decays.

  17. Atom Interferometry

    ScienceCinema

    Mark Kasevich

    2016-07-12

    Atom de Broglie wave interferometry has emerged as a tool capable of addressing a diverse set of questions in gravitational and condensed matter physics, and as an enabling technology for advanced sensors in geodesy and navigation. This talk will review basic principles, then discuss recent applications and future directions. Scientific applications to be discussed include measurement of G (Newton’s constant), tests of the Equivalence Principle and post-Newtonian gravity, and study of the Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition in layered superfluids. Technology applications include development of precision gryoscopes and gravity gradiometers. The talk will conclude with speculative remarks looking to the future: Can atom interference methods be sued to detect gravity waves? Can non-classical (entangled/squeezed state) atom sources lead to meaningful sensor performance improvements?

  18. Atom Interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Kasevich

    2008-05-07

    Atom de Broglie wave interferometry has emerged as a tool capable of addressing a diverse set of questions in gravitational and condensed matter physics, and as an enabling technology for advanced sensors in geodesy and navigation. This talk will review basic principles, then discuss recent applications and future directions. Scientific applications to be discussed include measurement of G (Newton’s constant), tests of the Equivalence Principle and post-Newtonian gravity, and study of the Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition in layered superfluids. Technology applications include development of precision gryoscopes and gravity gradiometers. The talk will conclude with speculative remarks looking to the future: Can atom interference methods be sued to detect gravity waves? Can non-classical (entangled/squeezed state) atom sources lead to meaningful sensor performance improvements?

  19. Atom Interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Kasevich, Mark

    2008-05-08

    Atom de Broglie wave interferometry has emerged as a tool capable of addressing a diverse set of questions in gravitational and condensed matter physics, and as an enabling technology for advanced sensors in geodesy and navigation. This talk will review basic principles, then discuss recent applications and future directions. Scientific applications to be discussed include measurement of G (Newton's constant), tests of the Equivalence Principle and post-Newtonian gravity, and study of the Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition in layered superfluids. Technology applications include development of precision gyroscopes and gravity gradiometers. The talk will conclude with speculative remarks looking to the future: Can atom interference methods be used to detect gravity waves? Can non-classical (entangled/squeezed state) atom sources lead to meaningful sensor performance improvements?

  20. Pion and kaon correlations in high energy heavy-ion collisions. Annual report, April 1, 1995--March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, K.L.

    1996-12-31

    Data analysis is in progress for recent experiments performed by the NA44 collaboration with the first running of 160 A GeV {sup 208}Pb-induced reactions at the CERN SPS. Identified singles spectra were taken for pions, kaons, protons, deuterons, antiprotons and antideuterons. Two-pion interferometry measurements were made for semi-central-triggered {sup 208}Pb + Pb collisions. An upgraded multiple-particle spectrometer allows high statistics data sets of identified particles to be collected near mid-rapidity. A second series of experiments will be performed in the fall of 1995 with more emphasis on identical kaon interferometry and on the measurement of rare particle spectra and correlations. Modest instrumentation upgrades by TAMU are designed to increase the trigger function for better impact parameter selection and improved collection efficiency of valid events. An effort to achieve the highest degree of projectile-target stopping is outlined and it is argued that an excitation function on the SPS is needed to better understand reaction mechanisms. Analysis of experimental results is in the final stages at LBL in the EOS collaboration for two-ion interferometry in the 1.2 A GeV Au+Au reaction, taken with full event characterization.

  1. PLANS FOR KAON PHYSICS AT BNL.

    SciTech Connect

    REDLINGER,G.

    2004-06-05

    The author gives an overview of current plans for kaon physics at BNL. The program is centered around the rare decay modes K{sup +} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{nu}{bar {nu}} and K{sub L} {yields} {pi}{sup 0}{nu}{bar {nu}}.

  2. Quantum Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowling, Jonathan P.

    2000-01-01

    Recently, several researchers, including yours truly, have been able to demonstrate theoretically that quantum photon entanglement has the potential to also revolutionize the entire field of optical interferometry, by providing many orders of magnitude improvement in interferometer sensitivity. The quantum entangled photon interferometer approach is very general and applies to many types of interferometers. In particular, without nonlocal entanglement, a generic classical interferometer has a statistical-sampling shot-noise limited sensitivity that scales like 1/Sqrt[N], where N is the number of particles (photons, electrons, atoms, neutrons) passing through the interferometer per unit time. However, if carefully prepared quantum correlations are engineered between the particles, then the interferometer sensitivity improves by a factor of Sqrt[N] (square root of N) to scale like 1/N, which is the limit imposed by the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. For optical (laser) interferometers operating at milliwatts of optical power, this quantum sensitivity boost corresponds to an eight-order-of-magnitude improvement of signal to noise. Applications are to tests of General Relativity such as ground and orbiting optical interferometers for gravity wave detection, Laser Interferometer Gravity Observatory (LIGO) and the European Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), respectively.

  3. Quantum Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowling, Jonathan P.

    2000-01-01

    Recently, several researchers, including yours truly, have been able to demonstrate theoretically that quantum photon entanglement has the potential to also revolutionize the entire field of optical interferometry, by providing many orders of magnitude improvement in interferometer sensitivity. The quantum entangled photon interferometer approach is very general and applies to many types of interferometers. In particular, without nonlocal entanglement, a generic classical interferometer has a statistical-sampling shot-noise limited sensitivity that scales like 1/Sqrt[N], where N is the number of particles (photons, electrons, atoms, neutrons) passing through the interferometer per unit time. However, if carefully prepared quantum correlations are engineered between the particles, then the interferometer sensitivity improves by a factor of Sqrt[N] (square root of N) to scale like 1/N, which is the limit imposed by the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. For optical (laser) interferometers operating at milliwatts of optical power, this quantum sensitivity boost corresponds to an eight-order-of-magnitude improvement of signal to noise. Applications are to tests of General Relativity such as ground and orbiting optical interferometers for gravity wave detection, Laser Interferometer Gravity Observatory (LIGO) and the European Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), respectively.

  4. Study of the Positive Kaon, Neutral Antikaon, Negative Pion System Produced in the Reaction Negative Kaon Proton Goes to Positive Kaon Neutral Antikaon Negative Pion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Edward Walter

    The results of a partial wave analysis of the K^{+}overline{K^0 }pi^{-} system produced in the reaction K^{-}pto K^{+}overline{K^0 }pi^{-} (Lambda/ Sigma^0) at 8 GeV/c are presented. A total of 2043 events in the mass range 1.24 to 1.64 GeV/c ^2 was collected using Brookhaven National Laboratory's Multiparticle Spectrometer facility. The K^{+}overline {K^0}pi^{-} mass spectrum shows a small peak at 1.280 +/- .001 GeV/c^2 and a large peak at 1.438 +/-.003 GeV/c ^2. The large peak is consistent with an enhancement at K^{*}K threshold which is cut off by our falling acceptance. There is some evidence for an accumulation of events in the region near 1.53 GeV/c^2 where previous experiments find an enhancement. The results of the partial wave analysis show that the small peak at 1.28 GeV/c^2 contains very little J^{PG} = 1^{++} with a _0 as the isobar, which implies that the f_1(1285) contains very little soverline s. The large peak near 1.4 GeV/c^2 is largely produced by J^{PG} = 1 ^{+-} and, to a lesser extent, 1^{++} partial waves with K^* as the isobar and with evidence for these waves being produced coherently, 180 ^circ out of phase. There is evidence for a below K^* K threshold resonance in the J^{PG} = 1^{+-} partial waves with mass 1344 + 29 - 43 MeV/c ^2 and width 40 + 38 - 40 MeV/c^2. There is little evidence in the partial wave analysis results for the f _sp{1}{'}(1530). The J^{PG} = 0^ {-+} partial wave with a_0 as the isobar, although small, shows rising phase in the region from 1.34 to 1.64 GeV/c^2 indicating resonance behavior.

  5. Weak kaon production off the nucleon

    SciTech Connect

    Rafi Alam, M.; Sajjad Athar, M.; Ruiz Simo, I.; Vicente Vacas, M. J.

    2010-08-01

    The weak kaon production off the nucleon induced by neutrinos is studied at the low and intermediate energies of interest for some ongoing and future neutrino oscillation experiments. This process is also potentially important for the analysis of proton decay experiments. We develop a microscopical model based on the SU(3) chiral Lagrangians. The basic parameters of the model are f{sub {pi},} the pion decay constant, Cabibbo's angle, the proton and neutron magnetic moments, and the axial vector coupling constants for the baryons octet, D and F, that are obtained from the analysis of the semileptonic decays of neutron and hyperons. The studied mechanisms are the main source of kaon production for neutrino energies up to 1.2 to 1.5 GeV for the various channels and the cross sections are large enough to be amenable to be measured by experiments such as Minerva and T2K.

  6. Hadronic form factors in kaon photoproduction

    SciTech Connect

    Syukurilla, L. Mart, T.

    2014-09-25

    We have revisited the effect of hadronic form factors in kaon photoproduction process by utilizing an isobaric model developed for kaon photoproduction off the proton. The model is able to reproduce the available experimental data nicely as well as to reveal the origin of the second peak in the total cross section, which was the main source of confusion for decades. Different from our previous study, in the present work we explore the possibility of using different hadronic form factors in each of the KΛN vertices. The use of different hadronic form factors, e.g. dipole, Gaussian, and generalized dipole, has been found to produce a more flexible isobar model, which can provide a significant improvement in the model.

  7. Pion and kaon freezeout in NA44

    SciTech Connect

    NA44 Collaboration

    1994-12-01

    The NA44 spectrometer is optimized for the study of single and two-particle particle spectra near mid-rapidity for transverse momenta below {approx} 1 GeV/c. A large fraction of all pairs in the spectrometer`s acceptance are at low relative momenta, resulting in small statistical uncertainties on the extracted size parameters. In addition, the spectrometer`s clean particle identification allows the authors to measure correlation functions for pions, kaons, and protons. This contribution will concentrate on the source size parameters determined from pion and kaon correlation functions. These size parameters will be compared to calculations from the RQMD event generator and also interpreted in the context of a hydrodynamic model. Finally, the measured single particle spectra will be examined from the viewpoint of hydrodynamics.

  8. Kaons, hyperphotons, and the fifth force

    SciTech Connect

    Aronson, S.H.; Cheng, Hai Yang; Fischbach, E.; Sudarsky, D.; Talmadge, C.; Trampetic, J.

    1988-01-01

    After briefly reviewing the status of recent experiments looking for the fifth force in ordinary matter, we discuss two classes of experiments sensitive to the presence of a coupling of kaons to the fifth force. These are attempts to detect hyperphotons (..gamma../sub Y/) in the decay K/sub L/ ..-->.. ..pi../sup +/..pi../sup -/..gamma../sub Y/, and searches for an energy-dependence of the K/sup 0/ - /bar K/sup 0// parameters. 29 refs.

  9. Sterile neutrinos facing kaon physics experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abada, A.; Bečirević, D.; Sumensari, O.; Weiland, C.; Funchal, R. Zukanovich

    2017-04-01

    We discuss weak kaon decays in a scenario in which the Standard Model is extended by massive sterile fermions. After revisiting the analytical expressions for leptonic and semileptonic decays we derive the expressions for decay rates with two neutrinos in the final state. By using a simple effective model with only one sterile neutrino, compatible with all current experimental bounds and general theoretical constraints, we conduct a thorough numerical analysis which reveals that the impact of the presence of massive sterile neutrinos on kaon weak decays is very small, less than 1% on decay rates. The only exception is B (KL→ν ν ) , which can go up to O (10-10), thus possibly within the reach of the KOTO, NA62 and SHIP experiments. Plans have also been proposed to search for this decay at the NA64 experiment. In other words, if all the future measurements of weak kaon decays turn out to be compatible with the Standard Model predictions, this will not rule out the existence of massive light sterile neutrinos with non-negligible active-sterile mixing. Instead, for a sterile neutrino of mass below mK, one might obtain a huge enhancement of B (KL→ν ν ), otherwise negligibly small in the Standard Model.

  10. Neutral Atom deBroglie-Wave Interferometry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-14

    vibrations of constant amplitude the amoiitude of the resulting acceleration scales with the square of the vibration frequency. Thus, one might exoect...that the interferometer fringe shift (proportional to linear acceleration) will scale similarly. Fortunateig, this is not the case for periodic...increased thrcuqn-cut -;>x. ab~i.ty tc ucrK<~.~ very4 short: waveienqt." (anC/or hIiq!h ve i c i ,._ atcms j. 𔄁aru of th7e 7asuits =resertec h"-ere are no

  11. Kaon condensation in CFL quark matter, the Goldstone theorem, and the 2PI Hartree approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leganger, Lars E.

    2011-05-01

    At very high densities, QCD is in the color-flavor-locked phase, which is a color-superconducting phase. The diquark condensates break chiral symmetry in the same way as it is broken in vacuum QCD and gives rise to an octet of pseudo-Goldstone bosons and a superfluid mode. The lightest of these are the charged and neutral kaons. For energies below the superconducting gap, the kaons are described by an O(2)×O(2)-symmetric effective scalar field theory with chemical potentials. We use this effective theory to study Bose-condensation of kaons and their properties as functions of the temperature and the chemical potentials. We use the 2-particle irreducible effective action formalism in the Hartree approximation. The renormalization of the gap equations and the effective potential is studied in detail and we show that the counterterms are independent of temperature and chemical potentials. We determine the phase diagram and the medium-dependent quasiparticle masses. It is shown that the Goldstone theorem is satisfied to a very good approximation.

  12. Kaon condensation in CFL quark matter, the Goldstone theorem, and the 2PI Hartree approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Leganger, Lars E.

    2011-05-23

    At very high densities, QCD is in the color-flavor-locked phase, which is a color-superconducting phase. The diquark condensates break chiral symmetry in the same way as it is broken in vacuum QCD and gives rise to an octet of pseudo-Goldstone bosons and a superfluid mode. The lightest of these are the charged and neutral kaons. For energies below the superconducting gap, the kaons are described by an O(2)xO(2)-symmetric effective scalar field theory with chemical potentials. We use this effective theory to study Bose-condensation of kaons and their properties as functions of the temperature and the chemical potentials. We use the 2-particle irreducible effective action formalism in the Hartree approximation. The renormalization of the gap equations and the effective potential is studied in detail and we show that the counterterms are independent of temperature and chemical potentials. We determine the phase diagram and the medium-dependent quasiparticle masses. It is shown that the Goldstone theorem is satisfied to a very good approximation.

  13. Antiproton-proton annihilation into collinear charged pions and kaons

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, S.; Amsler, C.; Armenteros, R.; Auld, E.; Axen, D.; Bailey, D.; Barlag, S.; Beer, G.; Bizot, J.h.; Botlo, M.; and others

    1986-10-15

    AN analysis is presented of two body final states of collinear charged pions or kaons from antiproton-proton annihilation at rest in the ASTERIX spectrometer at LEAR. The relative branching ratio of kaons to pions, which is sensitive to the dynamics of quark-antiquark annihilation and rearrangement, is shown to differ for P and S wave initial states.

  14. Kaon condensation and multi-strange matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazda, D.; Friedman, E.; Gal, A.; Mareš, J.

    2010-04-01

    We report on dynamical calculations of multi- K¯ hypernuclei, which were performed by adding K¯ mesons to particle-stable configurations of nucleons, Λ and Ξ hyperons. The K¯ separation energy as well as the baryonic densities saturate with the number of antikaons. We demonstrate that the saturation is a robust feature of multi- K¯ hypernuclei. Because the K¯ separation energy B does not exceed 200 MeV, we conclude that kaon condensation is unlikely to occur in finite strong-interaction self-bound {N,Λ,Ξ} strange hadronic systems.

  15. Electroproduction of kaons on hydrogen and deuterium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koltenuk, Douglas Michael

    1999-10-01

    High-statistics data have been acquired for the reactions p(e,e'K+) and d(e,eK+) over a range of W from 1.70-1.95 GeV. Coincidence measurements at Q 2 = 0.38, 0.50, and 0.52 GeV2 cover a range of virtual photon-kaon angles for both liquid hydrogen and deuterium targets. Monte Carlo simulations have been matched to the data in order to extract cross sections. The W-dependence of the p(e,e'K+)Λ and p(e,e'K+)Σ0 cross sections deviates from a previous model fitted to photoproduction data. The difference in cross sections on hydrogen and on the proton in deuterium has been quantified for Λ production. The subtraction of the Λ and Σ 0 contribution from the proton in the deuteron allows the extraction of n(e,e'K+)Σ- cross sections. The wealth of new data on Λ, Σ0, and Σ - production will put tight constraints on existing models for kaon production and form factors.

  16. Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, P. A.; Hensley, S.; Joughin, I. R.; Li, F.; Madsen, S. N.; Rodriguez, E.; Goldstein, R. M.

    1998-01-01

    Synthetic aperture radar interferometry is an imaging technique for measuring the topography of a surface, its changes over time, and other changes in the detailed characteristics of the surface. This paper reviews the techniques of interferometry, systems and limitations, and applications in a rapidly growing area of science and engineering.

  17. Extracting the kaon Collins function from e+e- hadron pair production data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anselmino, M.; Boglione, M.; D'Alesio, U.; Hernandez, J. O. Gonzalez; Melis, S.; Murgia, F.; Prokudin, A.

    2016-02-01

    The latest data released by the BABAR Collaboration on azimuthal correlations measured for pion-kaon and kaon-kaon pairs produced in e+e- annihilations allow, for the first time, a direct extraction of the kaon Collins functions. These functions are then used to compute the kaon Collins asymmetries in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering processes, which result in good agreement with the measurements performed by the HERMES and COMPASS collaborations.

  18. Kaon electroproduction at large four-momentum transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Pete Markowitz

    2003-06-16

    Exclusive H(e,e'K)Y data were taken in January, March and April of 2001 at the Jefferson Lab Hall A. The electrons and kaons were detected in coincidence in the hall's two High Resolution Spectrometers (HRS). The kaon arm of the pair had been specifically outfitted with two aerogel Cerenkov threshold detectors, designed to separately provide pion and proton particle identification thus allowing kaon identification. Preliminary data show the cross section's dependence on the invariant mass, W, along with results of systematic studies. Ultimately the data will be used to perform a Rosenbluth Separation as well, separating the longitudinal from the transverse response functions.

  19. Kaon, pion, and proton associated photofission of Bi nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Y.; Margaryan, A.; Acha, A.; Ahmidouch, A.; Androic, D.; Asaturyan, A.; Asaturyan, R.; Baker, O. K.; Baturin, P.; Benmokhtar, F.; Carlini, R.; Chen, X.; Christy, M.; Cole, L.; Danagoulian, S.; Daniel, A.; Dharmawardane, V.; Egiyan, K.; Elaasar, M.; Ent, R.

    2010-10-15

    The first measurement of proton, pion, and kaon associated fission of Bi nuclei has been performed in a photon energy range 1. 45 < E{sub {gamma}}< 1. 55 GeV. The fission probabilities are compared with an inclusive fission probabilities obtained with photons, protons and pions. The fission probability of Bi nuclei in coincidence with kaons is 0. 18 {+-} 0. 06 which is {approx}3 times larger than the proton and pion associated fission probabilities and {approx}2 times larger than inclusive ones. The kaon associated excess fission events are explained in terms of bound {Lambda} residual states and their weak nonmesonic decays.

  20. Kaon production and kaon to pion ratio in Au+Au collisions at {radical}(s{sub NN})=130 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Adler, C.; Ahammed, Z.; Allgower, C.; Amonett, J.; Anderson, B.D.; Anderson, M.; Arkhipkin, D.; Averichev, G.S.; Balewski, J.; Barannikova, O.; Barnby, L.S.; Baudot, J.; Bekele, S.; Belaga, V.V.; Bellwied, R.; Berger, J.; Bichsel, H.; Billmeier, A.; Bland, L.C.; Blyth, C.O.; Bonner, B.E.; Boucham, A.; Brandin, A.; Bravar, A.; Cadman, R.V.; Caines, H.; Calderon de la Barca Sanchez, M.; Cardenas, A.; Carroll, J.; Castillo, J.; Castro, M.; Cebra, D.; Chaloupka, P.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, Y.; Chernenko, S.P.; Cherney, M.; Chikanian, A.; Choi, B.; Christie, W.; Coffin, J.P.; Cormier, T.M.; Cramer, J.G.; Crawford, H.J.; Deng, W.S.; Derevschikov, A.A.; Didenko, L.; Dietel, T.; Draper, J.E.; Dunin, V.B.; Dunlop, J.C.; Eckardt, V.; Efimov, L.G.; Emelianov, V.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Erazmus, B.; Fachini, P.; Faine, V.; Faivre, J.; Filimonov, K.; Finch, E.; Fisyak, Y.; Flierl, D.; Foley, K.J.; Fu, J.; Gagliardi, C.A.; Gagunashvili, N.; Gans, J.; Gaudichet, L.; Germain, M.; Geurts, F.; Ghazikhanian, V.; Grachov, O.; Grigoriev, V.; Guedon, M.; Gushin, E.; Hallman, T.J.; Hardtke, D.; Harris, J.W.; Henry, T.W.; Heppelmann, S.; Herston, T.; Hippolyte, B.; Hirsch, A.; Hjort, E.; Hoffmann, G.W.; Horsley, M.; Huang, H.Z.; Humanic, T.J.; Igo, G.; Ishihara, A.; Ivanshin, Yu.I.; Jacobs, P.; Jacobs, W.W.; Janik, M.; Johnson, I.; Jones, P.G.; Judd, E.G.; Kaneta, M.; Kaplan, M.; Keane, D.; Kiryluk, J.; Kisiel, A.; Klay, J.; Klein, S.R.; Klyachko, A.; Konstantinov, A.; Kopytine, S.M.; Kotchenda, L.; Kovalenko, A.D.; Kramer, M.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Kuhn, C.; Kulikov, A.I.; Kunde, G.J.; Kunz, C.L.; Kutuev, R.Kh.; Kuznetsov, A.A.; Lakehal-Ayat, L.; Lamont, M.A.C.; Landgraf, J.M.; Lange, S.; Lansdell, C.P.; Lasiuk, B.; Laue, F.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Leontiev, V.M.; LeVine, M.J.; Li, Q.; Lindenbaum, S.J.; Lisa, M.A.; Liu, F.; Liu, L.; Liu, Z.; Liu, Q.J.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W.J.; LoCurto, G.; Long, H.; Longacre, R.S.; et al.

    2002-06-13

    Mid-rapidity transverse mass spectra and multiplicity densities of charged and neutral kaons are reported for Au+Au collisions at {radical}s{sub NN}=130 GeV at RHIC. The spectra are exponential in transverse mass, with an inverse slope of about 280 MeV in central collisions. The multiplicity densities for these particles scale with the negative hadron pseudo-rapidity density. The charged kaon to pion ratios are K{sup +}/{pi}{sup -} = 0.161 {+-} 0.002(stat) {+-} 0.024(syst) and K{sup -}/{pi}{sup -} = 0.146 {+-} 0.002(stat) {+-} 0.022(syst) for the most central collisions. The K{sup +}/{pi}{sup -} ratio is lower than the same ratio observed at the SPS while the K{sup -}/{pi}{sup -} is higher than the SPS result. Both ratios are enhanced by about 50% relative to p+p and {bar p}+p collision data at similar energies.

  1. Geometric-phase atom optics and interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zygelman, B.

    2015-10-01

    We illustrate how geometric gauge forces and topological phase effects emerge in atomic and molecular systems without employing assumptions that rely on adiabaticity. We show how geometric magnetism may be harnessed to engineer novel quantum devices including a velocity sieve, a component in mass spectrometers, for neutral atoms. We introduce and outline a possible experimental setup that demonstrates topological interferometry for neutral spin-1/2 systems. For that two-level system, we study the transition from Abelian to non-Abelian behavior and explore its relation to the molecular Aharonov-Bohm effect.

  2. Laser trapping of neutral particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Steven

    1992-02-01

    The use of lasers for trapping and manipulating electrically neutral particles is reviewed. The underlying physical phenomena are examined, and some applications in physics, chemistry, and biology are discussed. In particular, attention is given to laser cooling of vapors to nearly absolute zero, development of an improved atomic clock, atom interferometry, and optical tweezers capable of manipulating a single DNA molecule.

  3. Speckle interferometry of asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, Jack

    1988-01-01

    This final report for NASA Contract NAGw-867 consists of abstracts of the first three papers in a series of four appearing in Icarus that were funded by the preceding contract NAGw-224: (1) Speckle Interferometry of Asteroids I. 433 Eros; (2) Speckle Interferometry of Asteroids II. 532 Herculina; (3) Speckle Interferometry of Asteroids III. 511 Davida and its Photometry; and the fourth abstract attributed to NAGw-867, (4) Speckle Interferometry of Asteroids IV. Reconstructed images of 4 Vesta; and a review of the results from the asteroid interferometry program at Steward Observatory prepared for the Asteroids II book, (5) Speckle Interferometry of Asteroids. Two papers on asteroids, indirectly related to speckle interferometry, were written in part under NAGw-867. One is in press and its abstract is included here: Photometric Geodesy of Main-Belt Asteroids. II. Analysis of Lightcurves for Poles, Periods and Shapes; and the other paper, Triaxial Ellipsoid Dimensions and Rotational Pole of 2 Pallas from Two Stellar Occultations, is included in full.

  4. Searches for very rare decays of kaons

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, K.

    1997-01-01

    The physics motivation for searches for very rare kaon decays, either forbidden or suppressed within the Standard Model, is briefly discussed. Simple arguments conclude that such searches probe possible new forces at a 200 TeV mass scale or constitute a precision test of the electroweak model. The examples of such process are decays of K{sub L}{sup 0} {yields} {mu} {sup {+-}}e{sup -+}, K{sup +} {yields} {pi}{sup +} {mu}{sup +} e{sup -}, K{sub L}{sup 0} {yields} {mu}{sup +} {mu}{sup -}, and K{sup +} {yields} {pi} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{nu}{bar {nu}}. We present the current experimental status and describe the new efforts to reach sensitivities down to one part in 10{sup 12}. The discussion is focused on the experimental program at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron at Brookhaven National Laboratory, where intense beams make such studies possible.

  5. Strange Baryonic Matter and Kaon Condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazda, D.; Friedman, E.; Gal, A.; Mareš, J.

    In this contribution we address the question whether kaon condensation could occur in strongly interacting self-bound strange hadronic matter. In our comprehensive dynamical relativistic mean-field (RMF) calculations of nuclear and hypernuclear systems containing several antikaons we found saturation of bar K separation energy as well as the associated nuclear and bar K density distributions upon increasing the number of bar K mesons. The saturation pattern was found to be a universal feature of these multi-strangeness configurations. Since in all cases the bar K separation energy does not exceed 200 MeV, we conclude that bar K mesons do not provide the physical "strangeness" degrees of freedom for self-bound strange hadronic matter.

  6. Multi-kaonic Hypernuclei and Kaon Condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazda, D.; Friedman, E.; Gal, A.; Mareš, J.

    2011-09-01

    This contribution reports on dynamical, self-consistent calculations of multi-bar K hypernuclei, which were performed by adding antikaons to particle-stable nuclear configurations of nucleons, Λ and Ξ hyperons. Our results show a robust pattern of saturation of the bar K separation energy Bbar K as a function of the number of bar K mesons, with Bbar K bounded from above by 200 MeV. The associated baryon densities saturate at values 2-3 times nuclear-matter density. The main reason for saturation is the repulsion induced by the vector meson fields between bar K mesons, similarly to what was found for multi-bar K nuclei. The calculations confirm that strangeness in finite strong-interaction self-bound systems is realized through hyperons, with no room for kaon condensation.

  7. Rare and forbidden kaon decays at the AGS

    SciTech Connect

    Kettell, S.

    1997-12-09

    An overview of the Rare Kaon Decay program at the AGS is presented, with particular emphasis on the three major experiments currently running and analyzing data. A brief overview of earlier kaon decay experiments and of the AGs performance improvements is also provided. This review concludes with a discussion of proposed and developing experiments planned to run in the year 2000 and beyond (AGS-2000).

  8. Photon intensity interferometry with multidetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badalà, A.; Barbera, R.; Palmeri, A.; Pappalardo, G. S.; Riggi, F.; Russo, A. C.; Russo, G.; Turrisi, R.

    1994-12-01

    The technique of two-photon interferometry in heavy ion collisions at the intermediate energies is discussed and the importance of a new methodology, used in the treatment of the experimental data, is evidenced. For the first time, both the relative momentum, qrel, and the relative energy, q0, of the two correlated photons have been simultaneously used to extract the source size and lifetime of the emitting source. As an application, the performances of the BaF 2 ball of the MEDEA multidetector as a photon intensity interferometer have been evaluated. The response of such a detector to correlated pairs of photons has been studied through full GEANT3 simulations. The effects of the experimental filter on the photon correlation function have been investigated, and the noise, induced in the correlation signal by cosmic radiation, neutral pion decay, and γ-conversion, has also been estimated.

  9. Holograph and Interferometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altman, Thomas C.

    1992-01-01

    Describes a method to create holograms for use in different interferometry techniques. Students utilize these techniques in experiments to study the structural integrity of a clarinet reed and the effects of temperature on objects. (MDH)

  10. Neutral pion form factor measurement by the NA62 experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepe, Monica

    2017-03-01

    The NA62 experiment at CERN collected a large sample of charged kaon decays with a highly efficient trigger for decays into electrons in 2007. A measurement of the electromagnetic transition form factor slope of the neutral pion in the time-like region from about one million fully reconstructed π0 Dalitz decays is presented. The limits on dark photon production from a sample of about 1.7 × 107 π0 Dalitz decays collected in 2003-2004 by the earlier kaon experiment at CERN NA48/2 are also reported.

  11. CP violation and kaon-pion interactions in B→Kπ+π- decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Bennich, B.; Furman, A.; Kamiński, R.; Leśniak, L.; Loiseau, B.; Moussallam, B.

    2009-05-01

    We study CP violation and the contribution of the strong kaon-pion interactions in the three-body B→Kπ+π- decays. We extend our recent work on the effect of the two-pion S- and P-wave interactions to that of the corresponding kaon-pion ones. The weak amplitudes have a first term derived in QCD factorization and a second one as a phenomenological contribution added to the QCD penguin amplitudes. The effective QCD coefficients include the leading order contributions plus next-to-leading order vertex and penguins corrections. The matrix elements of the transition to the vacuum of the kaon-pion pairs, appearing naturally in the factorization formulation, are described by the strange Kπ scalar (S-wave) and vector (P-wave) form factors. These are determined from Muskhelishvili-Omn e s coupled channel equations using experimental kaon-pion T-matrix elements, together with chiral symmetry and asymptotic QCD constraints. From the scalar form factor study, the modulus of the K0*(1430) decay constant is found to be (32±5)MeV. The additional phenomenological amplitudes are fitted to reproduce the Kπ effective mass and helicity angle distributions, the B→K*(892)π branching ratios and the CP asymmetries of the recent data from Belle and BABAR collaborations. We use also the new measurement by the BABAR group of the phase difference between the B0 and Bmacr 0 decay amplitudes to K*(892)π. Our predicted B±→K0*(1430)π±, K0*(1430)→K±π∓ branching fraction, equal to (11.6±0.6)×10-6, is smaller than the result of the analyzes of both collaborations. For the neutral B0 decays, the predicted value is (11.1±0.5)×10-6. In order to reduce the large systematic uncertainties in the experimental determination of the B→K0*(1430)π branching fractions, a new parametrization is proposed. It is based on the Kπ scalar form factor, well constrained by theory and experiments other than those of B decays.

  12. a Semirelativistic Quark Model for Kaon Photoproduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Anita

    A semirelativistic quark model which incorporates the Isgur-Karl model is developed. It describes both electromagnetic as well as strong interactions. The Hamiltonian explicitly entails the production of qq pairs and thus permits description of strong decays. In this formulation no adjustable parameters beyond those of the Isgur-Karl model are used. This model has been applied to kaon production from protons by real photons (gamma+pto K^++Lambda ^0, gamma+pto K^++Sigma ^0). The differential cross sections and polarizations for both the KLambda and KSigma channels are calculated. The relative contributions of the Born terms, the seagull term and the various s-, u- and t-channel resonances are discussed. It is seen that the seagull term and the s-channel resonances dominate the cross sections. The results are compared with calculations from phenomenological models and experimental data. A reasonable agreement with the experimental data is obtained in most cases, but the need for more data of a better quality is evident.

  13. The Revival of Kaon Flavour Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buras, Andrzej J.

    2016-11-01

    After years of silence we should witness in the rest of this decade and in the next decade the revival of kaon flavour physics. This is not only because of the crucial measurements of the branching ratios for the rare decays K+ → π+vv¯ and KL → π0vv¯ by NA62 and KOTO that being theoretically clean and very sensitive to new physics (NP) could hint for new phenomena even beyond the reach of the LHC without any significant theoretical uncertainties. Indeed simultaneously the advances in the calculations of perturbative and in particular non-perturbative QCD effects in ɛ'/ɛ, ɛK, ΔMK, KL → μ+μ- and KL → π0ℓ+ℓ- will increase the role of these observables in searching for NP. In fact the hints for NP contributing to ɛ'/ɛ have been already signalled last year through improved estimates of hadronic matrix elements of QCD and electroweak penguin operators Q6 and Q8 by lattice QCD and large N dual QCD approach. This talk summarizes in addition to this new flavour anomaly the present highlights of this field including some results from concrete NP scenarios.

  14. Multi-K¯ nuclei and kaon condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazda, D.; Friedman, E.; Gal, A.; Mareš, J.

    2008-04-01

    We extend previous relativistic mean-field (RMF) calculations of multi-K¯ nuclei, using vector boson fields with SU(3) PPV coupling constants and scalar boson fields constrained phenomenologically. For a given core nucleus, the resulting K¯ separation energy BK¯, as well as the associated nuclear and K¯-meson densities, saturate with the number κ of K¯ mesons for κ>κsat~10. Saturation appears robust against a wide range of variations, including the RMF nuclear model used and the type of boson fields mediating the strong interactions. Because BK¯ generally does not exceed 200 MeV, it is argued that multi-K¯ nuclei do not compete with multihyperonic nuclei in providing the ground state of strange hadronic configurations and that kaon condensation is unlikely to occur in strong-interaction self-bound strange hadronic matter. Last, we explore possibly self-bound strange systems made of neutrons and K¯0 mesons, or protons and K- mesons, and study their properties.

  15. Hadron spectroscopy at RHIC and KAON

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, S.U.

    1990-01-01

    A description is given of the physics opportunities at RHIC regarding quark-gluon spectroscopy. The basic idea is to isolate with appropriate triggers the sub-processes pomeron + pomeron {yields} hadrons and {gamma}{sup +}+{gamma}{sup +} {yields} hadrons with the net effective mass of hadrons in the range of 1.0 to 10.0 GeV, in order to study the hadronic states composed of u, d, c, b and gluons. The double-pomeron interactions are expected to produce glueballs and hybrids preferentially, while the two-offshell-photon initial states should couple predominantly to quarkonia and multiquark states. Of particular interest is the possibility of carrying out a CP-violation study in the B decays. The KAON facility, proposed for TRIUMF, Vancouver, Canada, is an intense hadron factory with a proton flux some 25 times higher than that available at the BNL AGS with the Booster. Therefore, a general purpose hadron spectrometer will be able to tackle the problem of studying gluonic and multiquark degrees of freedom in strangeonia. 19 refs., 3 figs.

  16. The Kaon identification system of the NA62 experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurice, E.

    2017-01-01

    The main goal of the NA62 experiment at the CERN SPS is to measure the branching ratio of the ultra-rare decay with 10% accuracy. This can be achieved by detecting about 100 Standard Model events with 10% background in 2 - 3 years of data taking. NA62 is exposed to a 750 MHz high-energy unseparated charged hadron beam, with a 6% kaons component, and uses kaon decay-in-flight technique. Precise timing matching of the incident kaon and of the downstream charged track is essential to reject accidental coincidences when working in such a high rate environment. This is achieved by the kaon tagging system KTAG, which identifies kaons with an efficiency higher than 95% and provides precise time information with a resolution better than 100 ps. KTAG re-uses the Cherenkov radiator and optics of a CEDAR, a ring-focusing Cherenkov detector designed for MHz beam intensity in the 1970s. To reach the required performance, KTAG is equipped with new photon detectors, electronics readout, mechanics, cooling and safety systems.

  17. LISA Long-Arm Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorpe, James I.

    2009-01-01

    An overview of LISA Long-Arm Interferometry is presented. The contents include: 1) LISA Interferometry; 2) Constellation Design; 3) Telescope Design; 4) Constellation Acquisition; 5) Mechanisms; 6) Optical Bench Design; 7) Phase Measurement Subsystem; 8) Phasemeter Demonstration; 9) Time Delay Interferometry; 10) TDI Limitations; 11) Active Frequency Stabilization; 12) Spacecraft Level Stabilization; 13) Arm-Locking; and 14) Embarassment of Riches.

  18. Optical Long Baseline Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Bouquin, Jean-Baptiste

    Optical Long Baseline Interferometry provides unrivalled angular resolution on bright and compact astrophysical sources. The link between the observables (interferometric phase and contrast) and the image of the source is a Fourier transform expressed first by van Cittert and Zernike. Depending on the source size and the amount of information collected, the analysis of these Fourier components allows a measurement of the typical source size, a parametric modelling of its spatial structures, or a model-independent image reconstruction to be carried. In the past decades, optical long baseline interferometry provided fundamental measurements for astronomy (ex. Cepheids distances, surface-brightness relations) as well as iconic results such as the first images of stellar surfaces other than the Sun. Optical long baseline interferometers exist in the Northern and Southern hemisphere and are open to the astronomical community with modern level of support. We provide in this chapter an introduction to the fundamental principles of optical interferometry and introduce the currently available facilities.

  19. Multiple telescope infrared interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townes, C. H.; Sutton, E. C.

    1981-01-01

    The advantages of multiple telescope infrared interferometry are discussed in detail, using the 10 micron region as a specific example. Scale and seeing considerations are addressed, taking into account analytically the distorting effect of turbulent air and discussing the effect of water vapor on seeing. The usefulness of fringe phase determination to determine the intensities in the radiation field, and the effect of atmospheric fluctuations on their use, are considered. Astrometry by means of interferometry is extensively covered, with examples such as a plot of the fringe phase of o Ceti as a function of time compared with a theoretical fringe phase of the star with a fixed best-fit baseline. The sensitivity of an interferometer involving two receiving telescopes is considered. Finally, an example of a telescope design for 10-micron interferometry is described and depicted.

  20. Simultaneous immersion Mirau interferometry

    PubMed Central

    Lyulko, Oleksandra V.; Randers-Pehrson, Gerhard; Brenner, David J.

    2013-01-01

    A novel technique for label-free imaging of live biological cells in aqueous medium that is insensitive to ambient vibrations is presented. This technique is a spin-off from previously developed immersion Mirau interferometry. Both approaches utilize a modified Mirau interferometric attachment for a microscope objective that can be used both in air and in immersion mode, when the device is submerged in cell medium and has its internal space filled with liquid. While immersion Mirau interferometry involves first capturing a series of images, the resulting images are potentially distorted by ambient vibrations. Overcoming these serial-acquisition challenges, simultaneous immersion Mirau interferometry incorporates polarizing elements into the optics to allow simultaneous acquisition of two interferograms. The system design and production are described and images produced with the developed techniques are presented. PMID:23742552

  1. Measurement of the relative amplitude and strong phase between antineutral D meson decaying to kaon+ resonance kaon- and neutral D meson decaying to kaon+ resonance kaon- via Dalitz plot analysis of neutral D meson decaying to kaon+ kaon- neutral pion decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naik, Paras P.

    I present physics concepts, which are useful to understand our analyses, and describe the CLEO III and CLEO-c experiments at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring. I also present motivations for a Dalitz plot analysis of the Cabibbo-suppressed charmed meson decay mode D0 → K+K-pi 0 at CLEO. The analysis uses 9.0 fb-1 of data collected at s ≈ 10.58 GeV with the CLEO III detector. We find the strong phase difference deltaD ≡ argAD 0→K*+K- AD0→K*+K - = 332° +/- 8° +/- 11° and relative amplitude rD ≡ AD0→ K*+K-A D0→K*+K- = 0.52 +/- 0.05 +/- 0.04. This measurement indicates significant destructive interference between D0 → K+(K-pi 0)K*- and D0 → K- (K+pi0) K*+ in the D 0 → K+ K-pi0 Dalitz plot region where these two modes overlap. The fit includes the K*+/- and φ resonances and a non-resonant amplitude, and the measured fit fractions for each resonance (with statistical uncertainty only) are (46.1 +/- 3.1)% for the K*+, (12.3 +/- 2.2)% for the K*-, (14.9 +/- 1.6)% for the φ, and (36.0 +/- 3.7)% for the non-resonant contribution. We find deltaD = 313° +/- 9° (stat.) and an amplitude ratio of rD = 0.52 +/- 0.05 (stat.) from a second fit which substitutes scalar kappa+/- (mass 878 MeV/c2, width 499 MeV/c2) amplitudes for the non-resonant amplitude. The measured fit fractions for each resonance (with statistical uncertainty only) are (48.1 +/- 4.5)% for the K*+, (12.9 +/- 2.6)% for the K*-, (16.1 +/- 1.9)% for the φ, (12.6 +/- 5.8)% for the kappa+, and (11.1 +/- 4.7)% for the kappa-. We also investigate the D 0 → K+K -pi0 Dalitz plot in 281 pb-1 of data collected at s ≈ 3.77 GeV with the CLEO-c detector. We find results which are consistent with the CLEO III analysis. I conclude by summarizing our results and present a brief appendix detailing the K-matrix formalism.

  2. Interferometry science center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sargent, A. I.

    2002-01-01

    The Interferometry Science Center (ISC) is operated jointly by Caltech and JPL and is part of NASA's Navigator Program. The ISC has been created to facilitate the timely and successful execution of scientific investigations within the Navigator program, particularly those that rely on observations from NASA's interferometer projects. Currently, ISC is expected to provide full life cycle support for the Keck Interferometer, the Starlight mission, the Space Interferometry Mission, and the Terrestrial Planet Finder Mission. The nature and goals of ISc will be described.

  3. Interferometry science center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sargent, A. I.

    2002-01-01

    The Interferometry Science Center (ISC) is operated jointly by Caltech and JPL and is part of NASA's Navigator Program. The ISC has been created to facilitate the timely and successful execution of scientific investigations within the Navigator program, particularly those that rely on observations from NASA's interferometer projects. Currently, ISC is expected to provide full life cycle support for the Keck Interferometer, the Starlight mission, the Space Interferometry Mission, and the Terrestrial Planet Finder Mission. The nature and goals of ISc will be described.

  4. 2013 Interferometry Forum Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Belle, G.; Ridgway, S.; ten Brummelaar, T.

    2014-04-01

    The 2013 Interferometry Forum was organized around a list of topics - each topic had a moderator and an archivist. Each participant in the forum had one or more assignments - this was not a meeting for passive participation. The following summaries are a slightly edited version of those notes; conclusions and recommendations are presented at the end of the document(An expanded version of the Forum Report may be found online at the IAU Commission 54 website, http://iau-c54.wikispaces.com/2013+Interferometry+Forum).

  5. Exposing strangeness: Projections for kaon electromagnetic form factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Fei; Chang, Lei; Liu, Yu-Xin; Roberts, Craig D.; Tandy, Peter C.

    2017-08-01

    A continuum approach to the kaon and pion bound-state problems is used to reveal their electromagnetic structure. For both systems, when used with parton distribution amplitudes appropriate to the scale of the experiment, Standard Model hard-scattering formulas are accurate to within 25% at momentum transfers Q2≈8 GeV2. There are measurable differences between the distribution of strange and normal matter within the kaons, e.g. the ratio of their separate contributions reaches a peak value of 1.5 at Q2≈6 GeV2. Its subsequent Q2 evolution is accurately described by the hard scattering formulas. Projections for the ratio of kaon and pion form factors at timelike momenta beyond the resonance region are also presented. These results and projections should prove useful in planning next-generation experiments.

  6. Valence-quark distribution functions in the kaon and pion

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Chen; Chang, Lei; Roberts, Craig D.; Wan, Shaolong; Zong, Hong-Shi

    2016-04-18

    We describe expressions for pion and kaon dressed-quark distribution functions that incorporate contributions from gluons which bind quarks into these mesons and hence overcome a flaw of the commonly used handbag approximation. The distributions therewith obtained are purely valence in character, ensuring that dressed quarks carry all the meson’s momentum at a characteristic hadronic scale and vanish as ( 1 - x ) 2 when Bjorken- x → 1 . Comparing such distributions within the pion and kaon, it is apparent that the size of S U ( 3 ) -flavor symmetry breaking in meson parton distribution functions is modulated by the flavor dependence of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking. Corrections to these leading-order formulas may be divided into two classes, responsible for shifting dressed-quark momentum into glue and sea quarks. Working with available empirical information, we build an algebraic framework that is capable of expressing the principal impact of both classes of corrections. This enables a realistic comparison with experiment which allows us to identify and highlight basic features of measurable pion and kaon valence-quark distributions. We find that whereas roughly two thirds of the pion’s light-front momentum is carried by valence dressed quarks at a characteristic hadronic scale; this fraction rises to 95% in the kaon; evolving distributions with these features to a scale typical of available Drell-Yan data produces a kaon-to-pion ratio of u -quark distributions that is in agreement with the single existing data set, and predicts a u -quark distribution within the pion that agrees with a modern reappraisal of π N Drell-Yan data. Precise new data are essential in order to validate this reappraisal and because a single modest-quality measurement of the kaon-to-pion ratio cannot be considered definitive.

  7. Electroproduction of kaons and light hypernuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Geesaman, D.F.; Jackson, H.E.; Jones, C.E.

    1995-08-01

    A detailed investigation of the basic hyperon-nucleon interactions in nuclei is one of the aims of Experiment 91-016, approved with high priority at CEBAF, to study the electroproduction of kaons on targets of deuterium, {sup 3}He, and {sup 4}He. Inasmuch as both the electron and K{sup +} are particles that interact relatively weakly with nucleons, electroproduction of light hypernuclei provides a low-distortion method for investigating the fundamental interactions between nucleons, {Alpha}`s, and {Epsilon}`s in few-body systems. In particular, the (e,e`K{sup +}) reactions on cryogenic targets of D, {sup 3}He, and {sup 4}He will be studied at incident electron energies near 3 GeV with coincident detection of the emergent e and K{sup +} in the HMS and SOS magnetic spectrometers in Hall C. Construction of the He target, operating at {approximately}10 atm, {approximately}50 K and capable of dissipating {approximately}30 W, is expected to be complete prior to commencement of production runs in Hall C. The first data runs for E91-016, expected to begin late in FY 1995, will also be the basis for a doctoral thesis at Hampton University. In addition to providing new information on the phases of hyperon-nucleon interactions, measurements of cross sections for hypernuclear formation, and interference phenomena, the data may provide evidence for the presence of bound {Epsilon}`s and strange di-baryonic states that are the subject of considerable theoretical discussion.

  8. The low energy kaon program at the celsius storage ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badalà, A.; Barbera, R.; Gulino, M.; Librizzi, F.; Mascali, A.; Nicotra, D.; Palmeri, A.; Pappalardo, G. S.; Riggi, F.; Russo, A. C.; Russo, G.; Santoro, A.; Turrisi, R.; Dunin, V.; Ekström, C.; Ericsson, G.; Höistad, B.; Johansson, J.; Johansson, T.; Westerberg, L.; Zlomaczhuk, J.

    1997-02-01

    The CLAMSUD spectrometer has been recently installed at the jet-target position of the CELSIUS ring at "THE SVEDBERG LABORATORY." The physical purpose is the study of kaon production at energies below the N-N threshold. Due to the low cross-section and short lifetime of kaons we increased the solid angle by means of two quadrupoles positioned at the entrance of the dipole. The experimental quality of the measurements due both to the beam characteristics and to the CLAMSUD detector will be shown.

  9. Goldstone boson currents in a kaon condensed color-flavor locked phase

    SciTech Connect

    Gerhold, A.; Schaefer, T.; Kryjevski, A.

    2007-03-01

    We study the stability of the kaon condensed color-flavor locked (CFL) phase of dense quark matter with regard to the formation of a nonzero Goldstone boson current. In the kaon condensed phase there is an electrically charged fermion which becomes gapless near {mu}{sub s}{sup (1)}{approx_equal}1.35{delta} and a neutral fermion which becomes gapless near {mu}{sub s}{sup (2)}{approx_equal}1.61{delta}. Here, {mu}{sub s}=m{sub s}{sup 2}/(2p{sub F}) is the shift in the Fermi energy due to the strange quark mass m{sub s} and {delta} is the gap in the chiral limit. The transition to the gapless phase is continuous at {mu}{sub s}{sup (1)} and first order at {mu}{sub s}{sup (2)}. We find that the magnetic screening masses are real in the regime {mu}{sub s}<{mu}{sub s}{sup (2)}, but some screening masses are imaginary for {mu}{sub s}>{mu}{sub s}{sup (2)}. We show that there is a very weak current instability for {mu}{sub s}>{mu}{sub s}{sup (1)} and a more robust instability in a small window near {mu}{sub s}{sup (2)}. We show that in the Goldstone boson current phase all components of the magnetic screening mass are real. There is a range of values of {mu}{sub s} below 2{delta} in which the magnetic gluon screening masses are imaginary but the phase is stable with respect to electrically neutral fluctuations of the gauge field.

  10. Kaon physics: Probing the standard model and beyond

    SciTech Connect

    Tschirhart, R.; /Fermilab

    2009-01-01

    The status and prospects of current and future kaon physics experiments is discussed. Both precision measurements and the search for and measurement of ultra-rare decays are powerful probes of many models of new physics beyond the Standard Model. The physics reach of these experiments is briefly discussed.

  11. Kaon photoproduction in field theoretic and multipoles approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mart, T.

    2017-07-01

    In this paper we review our strategy to update the phenomenological model Kaon-Maid, which has been used since the year of 2000 and starts to indicate some inconsistencies with the presently available experimental data. There are two approaches used to this end, i.e., the field-theoretic and multipoles models. The advantages and disadvantages of both models are briefly discussed.

  12. Determination of Transverse Charge Density from Kaon Form Factor Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejia-Ott, Johann; Horn, Tanja; Pegg, Ian; Mecholski, Nicholas; Carmignotto, Marco; Ali, Salina

    2016-09-01

    At the level of nucleons making up atomic nuclei, among subatomic particles made up of quarks, K-mesons or kaons represent the most simple hadronic system including the heavier strange quark, having a relatively elementary bound state of a quark and an anti-quark as its valence structure. Its electromagnetic structure is then parametrized by a single, dimensionless quantity known as the form factor, the two-dimensional Fourier transform of which yields the quantity of transverse charge density. Transverse charge density, in turn, provides a needed framework for the interpretation of form factors in terms of physical charge and magnetization, both with respect to the propagation of a fast-moving nucleon. To this is added the value of strange quarks in ultimately presenting a universal, process-independent description of nucleons, further augmenting the importance of studying the kaon's internal structure. The pressing character of such research questions directs the present paper, describing the first extraction of transverse charge density from electromagnetic kaon form factor data. The extraction is notably extended to form factor data at recently acquired higher energy levels, whose evaluation could permit more complete phenomenological models for kaon behavior to be proposed. This work was supported in part by NSF Grant PHY-1306227.

  13. Pion and kaon in the Beth-Uhlenbeck approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubinin, A.; Blaschke, D.; Radzhabov, A.

    2016-01-01

    In the present work the Mott effect for pions and kaons is described within a Beth- Uhlenbeck approach on the basis of the PNJL model. The contribution of these degrees of freedom to the thermodynamics is encoded in the temperature dependence of their phase shifts. A comparison with results from Nf = 2 + 1 lattice QCD thermodynamics is performed.

  14. Recent results and prospects on kaon physics at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrosino, Fabio; Ambrosino, F.; Antonelli, A.; Anzivino, G.; Arcidiacono, R.; Baldini, W.; Balev, S.; Batley, J. R.; Behler, M.; Bifani, S.; Biino, C.; Bizzeti, A.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Bocquet, G.; Bolotov, V.; Bucci, F.; Cabibbo, N.; Calvetti, M.; Cartiglia, N.; Ceccucci, A.; Cenci, P.; Cerri, C.; Cheshkov, C.; Chèze, J. B.; Clemencic, M.; Collazuol, G.; Costantini, F.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Coward, D.; Cundy, D.; Dabrowski, A.; D'Agostini, G.; Dalpiaz, P.; Damiani, C.; Danielsson, H.; De Beer, M.; Dellacasa, G.; Derré, J.; Dibon, H.; Di Filippo, D.; DiLella, L.; Doble, N.; Duk, V.; Engelfried, J.; Eppard, K.; Falaleev, V.; Fantechi, R.; Fidecaro, M.; Fiorini, L.; Fiorini, M.; Fonseca Martin, T.; Frabetti, P. L.; Fucci, A.; Gallorini, S.; Gatignon, L.; Gersabeck, E.; Gianoli, A.; Giudici, S.; Gonidec, A.; Goudzovski, E.; Goy Lopez, S.; Gushchin, E.; Hallgren, B.; Hita-Hochgesand, M.; Holder, M.; Hristov, P.; Iacopini, E.; Imbergamo, E.; Jeitler, M.; Kalmus, G.; Kekelidze, V.; Kleinknecht, K.; Kozhuharov, V.; Kubischta, W.; Kurshetsov, V.; Lamanna, G.; Lazzeroni, C.; Lenti, M.; Leonardi, E.; Litov, L.; Madigozhin, D.; Maier, A.; Mannelli, I.; Marchetto, F.; Marel, G.; Markytan, M.; Marouelli, P.; Martini, M.; Masetti, L.; Massarotti, P.; Mazzucato, E.; Michetti, A.; Mikulec, I.; Misheva, M.; Molokanova, N.; Monnier, E.; Moosbrugger, U.; Morales Morales, C.; Moulson, M.; Movchan, S.; Munday, D. J.; Napolitano, M.; Nappi, A.; Neuhofer, G.; Norton, A.; Numao, T.; Obraztsov, V.; Palladino, V.; Patel, M.; Pepe, M.; Peters, A.; Petrucci, F.; Petrucci, M. C.; Peyaud, B.; Piandani, R.; Piccini, M.; Pierazzini, G.; Polenkevich, I.; Popov, I.; Potrebenikov, Yu.; Raggi, M.; Renk, B.; Retière, F.; Riedler, P.; Romano, A.; Rubin, P.; Ruggiero, G.; Salamon, A.; Saracino, G.; Savrié, M.; Scarpa, M.; Semenov, V.; Sergi, A.; Serra, M.; Shieh, M.; Shkarovskiy, S.; Slater, M. W.; Sozzi, M.; Spadaro, T.; Stoynev, S.; Swallow, E.; Szleper, M.; Valdata-Nappi, M.; Valente, P.; Vallage, B.; Velasco, M.; Veltri, M.; Venditti, S.; Wache, M.; Wahl, H.; Walker, A.; Wanke, R.; Widhalm, L.; Winhart, A.; Winston, R.; Wood, M. D.; Wotton, S. A.; Yushchenko, O.; Zinchenko, A.; Ziolkowski, M.

    2013-12-01

    A review of recent experimental results on charged kaon decays from NA48/2 and NA62 collaborations is given, together with a description of the NA62 experiment to study the ultra-rare decay K+→π+νν¯ starting in fall 2014.

  15. Kaon condensation in proto-neutron star matter

    SciTech Connect

    Pons, Jose A.; Reddy, Sanjay; Ellis, Paul J.; Prakash, Madappa; Lattimer, James M.

    2000-09-01

    We study the equation of state of kaon-condensed matter including the effects of temperature and trapped neutrinos. Several different field-theoretical models for the nucleon-nucleon and kaon-nucleon interactions are considered. It is found that the order of the phase transition to a kaon-condensed phase, and whether or not Gibbs' rules for phase equilibrium can be satisfied in the case of a first order transition, depend sensitively on the choice of the kaon-nucleon interaction. To avoid the anomalous high-density behavior of previous models for the kaon-nucleon interaction, a new functional form is developed. For all interactions considered, a first order phase transition is possible only for magnitudes of the kaon-nucleus optical potential (greater-or-similar sign)100 MeV. The main effect of finite temperature, for any value of the lepton fraction, is to mute the effects of a first order transition, so that the thermodynamics becomes similar to that of a second order transition. Above a critical temperature, found to be at least 30-60 MeV depending upon the interaction, the first order transition disappears. The phase boundaries in baryon density versus lepton number and baryon density versus temperature planes are delineated, which is useful in understanding the outcomes of proto-neutron star simulations. We find that the thermal effects on the maximum gravitational mass of neutron stars are as important as the effects of trapped neutrinos, in contrast to previously studied cases in which the matter contained only nucleons or in which hyperons and/or quark matter were considered. Kaon-condensed equations of state permit the existence of metastable neutron stars, because the maximum mass of an initially hot, lepton-rich proto-neutron star is greater than that of a cold, deleptonized neutron star. The large thermal effects imply that a metastable proto-neutron star's collapse to a black hole could occur much later than in previously studied cases that allow

  16. Digitally Enhanced Heterodyne Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaddock, Daniel; Ware, Brent; Lay, Oliver; Dubovitsky, Serge

    2010-01-01

    Spurious interference limits the performance of many interferometric measurements. Digitally enhanced interferometry (DEI) improves measurement sensitivity by augmenting conventional heterodyne interferometry with pseudo-random noise (PRN) code phase modulation. DEI effectively changes the measurement problem from one of hardware (optics, electronics), which may deteriorate over time, to one of software (modulation, digital signal processing), which does not. DEI isolates interferometric signals based on their delay. Interferometric signals are effectively time-tagged by phase-modulating the laser source with a PRN code. DEI improves measurement sensitivity by exploiting the autocorrelation properties of the PRN to isolate only the signal of interest and reject spurious interference. The properties of the PRN code determine the degree of isolation.

  17. A LISA Interferometry Primer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorpe, James Ira

    2010-01-01

    A key challenge for all gravitational wave detectors in the detection of changes in the fractional difference between pairs of test masses with sufficient precision to measure astrophysical strains with amplitudes on the order of approx.10(exp -21). ln the case of the five million km arms of LISA, this equates to distance measurements on the ten picometer level. LISA interferometry utilizes a decentralized topology, in which each of the sciencecraft houses its own light sources, detectors, and electronics. The measurements made at each of the sciencecraft are then telemetered to ground and combined to extract the strain experienced by the constellation as a whole. I will present an overview of LISA interferometry and highlight some of the key components and technologies that make it possible.

  18. Spatial interferometry in optical astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gezari, Daniel Y.; Roddier, Francois; Roddier, Claude

    1990-01-01

    A bibliographic guide is presented to publications of spatial interferometry techniques applied to optical astronomy. Listings appear in alphabetical order, by first author, as well as in specific subject categories listed in chronological order, including imaging theory and speckle interferometry, experimental techniques, and observational results of astronomical studies of stars, the Sun, and the solar system.

  19. Vibration Analysis by Speckle Interferometry,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The vibrational modes of complex systems can be visualized with high sensitivity by laser light speckle interferometry. Electronic speckle pattern...interferometry (ESPI), in contrast to holography, does not use photo-chemical storage media but shows a live image of the vibrational modes created by

  20. Exposing strangeness: Projections for kaon electromagnetic form factors

    DOE PAGES

    Gao, Fei; Chang, Lei; Liu, Yu -Xin; ...

    2017-08-28

    A continuum approach to the kaon and pion bound-state problems is used to reveal their electromagnetic structure. For both systems, when used with parton distribution amplitudes appropriate to the scale of the experiment, Standard Model hard-scattering formulas are accurate to within 25% at momentum transfers Q2 ≈ 8 GeV2. There are measurable differences between the distribution of strange and normal matter within the kaons, e.g. the ratio of their separate contributions reaches a peak value of 1.5 at Q2 ≈ 6 GeV2. Its subsequent Q2 evolution is accurately described by the hard scattering formulas. Projections for the ratio of kaonmore » and pion form factors at timelike momenta beyond the resonance region are also presented. In conclusion, these results and projections should prove useful in planning next-generation experiments.« less

  1. KTAG: The Kaon Identification Detector for CERN experiment NA62

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fry, J. R.

    2016-07-01

    In the study of ultra-rare kaon decays, CERN experiment NA62 exploits an unseparated monochromatic (75 GeV/c) beam of charged particles of flux 800 MHz, of which 50 MHz are K+. Kaons are identified with more than 95% efficiency, a time resolution of better than 100 ps, and misidentification of less than 10-4 using KTAG, a differential, ring-focussed, Cherenkov detector. KTAG utilises 8 sets of 48 Hamamatsu PMTs, of which 32 are of type 9880 and 16 of type 7400, with signals fed directly to the differential inputs of NINO front-end boards and then to TDC cards within the TEL62 system. Leading and trailing edges of the PMT signal are digitised, enabling slewing corrections to be made, and a mean hit rate of 5 MHz per PMT is supported. The electronics is housed within a cooled and insulated Faraday cage with environmental monitoring capabilities.

  2. Spin-Orbit Correlations in Kaon SIDIS at JLab

    SciTech Connect

    Avakian, H.; Hafidi, K.

    2009-08-04

    We present studies of the transverse momentum dependence of valence quark transverse and longitudinal spin distributions through measurements of spin-azimuthal asymmetries in Semi-Inclusive Deep Inelastic Scattering (SIDIS) of kaons using the upgraded JLab 11 GeV polarized electron beam and the CLAS12 detector with longitudinally polarized proton and deuteron targets. Measurements with kaons are complementary to measurements with pions and will provide additional information on the Collins fragmentation mechanism. The P{sub T} dependence of the double spin asymmetry provides additional information on the flavor and polarization dependence of transverse-momentum-dependent helicity distributions of quarks, which provides complementary to the Single-Spin Asymmetry (SSA) measurements access to spin-orbit correlations. The large acceptance of CLAS12 would allow simultaneous detection of scattered electrons and leading hadrons, providing information on the struck quark's flavor and transverse momentum.

  3. Studies of the Strange Sea-Quarks Spin with Kaons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benmokhtar, Fatiha; Voloshin, Andrew; Goodwill, Justin; Lendacky, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that quarks and gluons give the substructure to the nucleons. and understanding of the spin structure of the nucleon in terms of quarks and gluons has been the goal of intense investigations during the last decades. The determination of strangeness is challenging and the only way of determining the strange distribution accurately from data is to improve the semi-inclusive information. This talk is focused on the determination of the strange sea contribution to the nucleon spin through the pseudo-scalar method using semi-inclusive Kaon detection technique with CLAS12 at Jefferson Lab. A Ring Imaging CHerenkov (RICH) detector is under construction and will be used for pion-kaon-proton separation. National Science Foundation #1615067.

  4. Kaon Photoproduction at Large Space-Like Momentum Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    O.K. Baker

    2000-05-12

    The ^1H(e,e'K^+)Lambda reaction was studied as a function of squared four-momentum transfer, Q^2, between 0.52 and 2.00 (GeV/c)^2, and of the virtual photon polarization parameter, epsilon, with high precision. The experiment, E93018, was carried out in Hall C at Jefferson Lab in 1996. The results of the experiment show the need for revision of the previous models of kaon electroproduction in this kinematic regime.

  5. The Strange Quark Polarisation from Charged Kaon Production on Deuterons

    SciTech Connect

    Windmolders, R.

    2009-08-04

    The strange quark helicity distribution {delta}s(x) is derived at LO from the semi-inclusive and inclusive spin asymmetries measured by the COMPASS experiment at CERN. The significance of the results is found to depend critically on the ratio of the s-bar and u quark fragmentation functions into kaons {integral}D{sub s-bar}{sup K+}(z)dz/{integral}D{sub u}{sup K+}(z)dz.

  6. Kaon content of three-prong decays of the tau lepton

    SciTech Connect

    Eastman, J.J.

    1990-12-01

    We present a series of measurements involving the production of charged kaons in three-prong hadronic decays of the {tau} lepton. The data sample was obtained with the TPC/Two-Gamma detector facility at PEP. We set a limit on the branching fraction BR({tau}{sup {minus}} {yields} {nu}{sub {tau}}K{sup {minus}}K{sup 0}) < 0.26% at the 95% confidence level. The process {tau}{sup {minus}} {yields} {nu}{sub {tau}}K{sup {minus}}K{sup 0} is related via SU(3) to the second-class current decay {tau}{sup {minus}} {yields} {nu}{sub {tau}}{pi}{sup {minus}}{eta}. We also present new measurements of the three-prong branching fractions BR({tau}{sup {minus}} {yields} {nu}{sub {tau}}K{sup {minus}}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup {minus}} + neutrals) = 0.70 (+0.20/{minus}0.17)% and BR({tau}{sup {minus}} {yields} {nu}{sub {tau}}K{sup {minus}}K{sup +}{pi}{sup {minus}} + neutrals) = 0.16 (+0.10/{minus}0.07)%. 68 refs., 29 figs., 15 tabs.

  7. Variable sensitivity moire interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson-Cole, Helen; Bennewitz, James H.; Gilbert, John A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that optical microlithography can be used to produce a crossed grating which diffracts light into multiple orders sufficient to record moire interferograms with sensitivities ranging from 2.0 to 0.285 micron/fringe. The grating profile produced by the method is analyzed to establish the diffraction efficiency in each diffraction order, and generalized expressions are given for variable sensitivity moire interferometry. Experimental tests are conducted to verify analytical arguments. In one of these tests, two different diffraction order pairs are used simultaneously to verify that surface displacement can be measured at different sensitivities.

  8. Chromatic confocal spectral interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Papastathopoulos, Evangelos; Koerner, Klaus; Osten, Wolfgang

    2006-11-10

    Chromatic confocal spectral interferomertry (CCSI) is a novel scheme for topography measurements that combines the techniques of spectral interferometry and chromatic confocal microscopy. This hybrid method allows for white-light interferometric detection with a high NA in a single-shot manner. To the best of our knowledge, CCSI is the first interferometric method that utilizes a confocally filtered and chromatically dispersed focus for detection and simultaneously allows for retrieval of the depth position of reflecting or scattering objects utilizing the phase (modulation frequency) of the interferometric signals acquired. With the chromatically dispersed focus, the depth range of the sensor is decoupled from the NA of the microscope objective.

  9. Developments In Moire Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, Daniel

    1982-06-01

    Recent progress in high-sensitivity moire interferometry is reviewed. Interference patterns reveal full-field contour maps of in-plane displacements. Sensitivity corresponds to moire with 1200 lines/mm (30,480 //in.) for most examples, but approaches the theoretical limit of X/2 displacement per fringe in one demonstration. Techniques for producing cross-line phase gratings on specimens are described, as well as use of real and virtual reference gratings. Carrier patterns and optical filtering are used to cancel initial or no-load patterns. Diverse applications are illustrated.

  10. Kaon Contributions to the Gerasimov-Drell Integrals on the Proton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mart, T.

    Using KAON-MAID, an operator for kaon photo- and electro-production on the nucleon, we calculate contributions of kaon-hyperon final states to the Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn (GDH) integrals on the proton. We also calculate the corresponding contributions to the forward spin polarizability γ0 of the proton. By extending the operator to the finite Q2 region we then calculate kaon contributions to the generalized GDH integrals, as well as to the longitudinal-transverse polarizability δ0. Our results show relatively small but still sizable contributions.

  11. Dressed Quark Mass Dependence of Pion and Kaon Form Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Ninomiya, Y.; Bentz, W.; Cloet, I. C.

    2015-02-04

    The structure of hadrons is described well by the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model, which is a chiral effective quark theory of QCD. In this work we explore the electromagnetic structure of the pion and kaon using the three-flavor NJL model in the proper-time regularization scheme, including effects of the pion cloud at the quark level. In the calculation there is only one free parameter, which we take as the dressed light quark (u and d) mass. In the regime where the dressed light quark mass is approximately 0.25 GeV we find that the calculated values of the kaon decay constant, current quark masses, and quark condensates are consistent with experiment- and QCD-based analyses. We also investigate the dressed light quark mass dependence of the pion and kaon electromagnetic form factors, where comparison with empirical data and QCD predictions also favors a dressed light quark mass near 0.25 GeV.

  12. Lattice QCD study of mixed systems of pions and kaons

    SciTech Connect

    William Detmold, Brian Smigielski

    2011-07-01

    The O(100) different ground state energies of N-pion and M-kaon systems for N+M <= 12 are studied in lattice QCD. These energies are then used to extract the various two- and three- body interactions that occur in these systems. These calculations are performed using one ensemble of 2+1 flavor anisotropic lattices with a spatial lattice spacing $a_s$ ~ 0.125 fm, an anisotropy factor $\\xi=a_s/a_t=3.5$, and a spatial volume $L^3\\sim (2.5\\ {\\rm fm})^3$. Particular attention is paid to additional thermal states present in the spectrum because of the finite temporal extent. The quark masses used correspond to pion and kaon masses of $m_\\pi$ ~ 383 MeV and $m_K$ ~ 537 MeV, respectively. The isospin and strangeness chemical potentials of these systems are found to be in the region where chiral perturbation theory and hadronic models predict a phase transition between a pion condensed phase and a kaon condensed phase.

  13. Measurement of the charged kaon mass with the MIPP RICH

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, Nicholas J.

    2008-08-01

    The currently accepted value of the charged kaon mass is 493.677 ± 0.013 MeV (26 ppm). It is a weighted average of six measurements, most of which use kaonic atom X-ray energy techniques. The two most recent and precise results dominate the average but differ by 122 ppm. Inconsistency in the data set needs to be resolved, preferably using independent techniques. One possibility uses the Cherenkov effect. A measurement of the charged kaon mass using this technique is presented. The data was taken with the Main Injector Particle Production experiment at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory using a tagged beam of protons, kaons, and pions ranging in momentum from 37 GeV/c to 63 GeV/c. The measured value is 491.3 ± 1.7 MeV. This is within 1.4σ of the current value. An improvement in precision by a factor of 35 would make this technique competitive for resolving the ambiguity in the X-ray data.

  14. Charged Kaon Mass Measurement using the Cherenkov Effect

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, N.; Lebedev, A.; Abrams, R.J.; Akgun, U.; Aydin, G.; Baker, W.; Barnes, P.D., Jr.; Bergfeld, T.; Beverly, L.; Bujak, A.; Carey, D.; /Fermilab /Virginia U. /Iowa U.

    2009-09-01

    The two most recent and precise measurements of the charged kaon mass use X-rays from kaonic atoms and report uncertainties of 14 ppm and 22 ppm yet differ from each other by 122 ppm. We describe the possibility of an independent mass measurement using the measurement of Cherenkov light from a narrow-band beam of kaons, pions, and protons. This technique was demonstrated using data taken opportunistically by the Main Injector Particle Production experiment at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory which recorded beams of protons, kaons, and pions ranging in momentum from +37 GeV/c to +63 GeV/c. The measured value is 491.3 {+-} 1.7 MeV/c{sup 2}, which is within 1.4{sigma} of the world average. An improvement of two orders of magnitude in precision would make this technique useful for resolving the ambiguity in the X-ray data and may be achievable in a dedicated experiment.

  15. Induced polarization of Λ(1116) in kaon electroproduction with CLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabrielyan, Marianna; Raue, Brian; Carman, Daniel S.; Park, Kijun

    2013-10-01

    The CLAS Collaboration is using the p(e,e'K+p)π- reaction to perform a measurement of the induced polarization of the electroproduced Λ(1116). The parity-violating weak decay of the Λ into p&pgr- (64%) allows extraction of the recoil polarization of the Λ. This study uses the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) to detect the scattered electron, the kaon, and the decay proton. CLAS allows for a large kinematic acceptance with 0.8 ≤ Q2 ≤ 3.5 GeV2, 1.6 ≤ W ≤ 3.0 GeV, as well as the kaon scattering angle. In this experiment a 5.5 GeV electron beam was incident upon an unpolarized liquid-hydrogen target. The goal is to map out the kinematic dependencies for this polarization observable to provide new constraints for theoretical models of the electromagnetic production of kaon-hyperon final states. Along with previously published photo- and electro-production cross sections and polarization observables from CLAS, SAPHIR, and GRAAL, these data are needed in a coupled-channel analysis to identify previously unobserved s-channel resonances.

  16. Complex master slave interferometry.

    PubMed

    Rivet, Sylvain; Maria, Michael; Bradu, Adrian; Feuchter, Thomas; Leick, Lasse; Podoleanu, Adrian

    2016-02-08

    A general theoretical model is developed to improve the novel Spectral Domain Interferometry method denoted as Master/Slave (MS) Interferometry. In this model, two functions, g and h are introduced to describe the modulation chirp of the channeled spectrum signal due to nonlinearities in the decoding process from wavenumber to time and due to dispersion in the interferometer. The utilization of these two functions brings two major improvements to previous implementations of the MS method. A first improvement consists in reducing the number of channeled spectra necessary to be collected at Master stage. In previous MSI implementation, the number of channeled spectra at the Master stage equated the number of depths where information was selected from at the Slave stage. The paper demonstrates that two experimental channeled spectra only acquired at Master stage suffice to produce A-scans from any number of resolved depths at the Slave stage. A second improvement is the utilization of complex signal processing. Previous MSI implementations discarded the phase. Complex processing of the electrical signal determined by the channeled spectrum allows phase processing that opens several novel avenues. A first consequence of such signal processing is reduction in the random component of the phase without affecting the axial resolution. In previous MSI implementations, phase instabilities were reduced by an average over the wavenumber that led to reduction in the axial resolution.

  17. CP violation and kaon-pion interactions in B {r_arrow} K {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} decays.

    SciTech Connect

    El-Bennich, B.; Furman, A.; Kaminski, R.; Lesniak, L.; Loiseau, B.; Moussallam, B.; Physics; Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie; ul. Bronowicka; Polish Academy of Sciences; Univ. Paris-Sud

    2009-01-01

    We study CP violation and the contribution of the strong kaon-pion interactions in the three-body B {yields} Kpi{sup +}pi{sup -} decays. We extend our recent work on the effect of the two-pion S- and P-wave interactions to that of the corresponding kaon-pion ones. The weak amplitudes have a first term derived in QCD factorization and a second one as a phenomenological contribution added to the QCD penguin amplitudes. The effective QCD coefficients include the leading order contributions plus next-to-leading order vertex and penguins corrections. The matrix elements of the transition to the vacuum of the kaon-pion pairs, appearing naturally in the factorization formulation, are described by the strange Kpi scalar (S-wave) and vector (P-wave) form factors. These are determined from Muskhelishvili-Omnes coupled channel equations using experimental kaon-pion T-matrix elements, together with chiral symmetry and asymptotic QCD constraints. From the scalar form factor study, the modulus of the K*{sub 0}(1430) decay constant is found to be (32 {+-} 5) MeV. The additional phenomenological amplitudes are fitted to reproduce the Kpi effective mass and helicity angle distributions, the B {yields} K*(892)pi branching ratios and the CP asymmetries of the recent data from Belle and BABAR collaborations. We use also the new measurement by the BABAR group of the phase difference between the B{sup 0} and [overline B]{sup 0} decay amplitudes to K*(892)pi. Our predicted B{sup {+-}} {yields} K*{sub 0}(1430)pi{sup {+-}}, K*{sub 0}(1430) {yields} K{sup {+-}}pi{sup {-+}} branching fraction, equal to (11.6 {+-} 0.6) x 10{sup -6}, is smaller than the result of the analyzes of both collaborations. For the neutral B{sup 0} decays, the predicted value is (11.1 {+-} 0.5) x 10{sup -6}. In order to reduce the large systematic uncertainties in the experimental determination of the B {yields} K*{sub 0}(1430)pi branching fractions, a new parametrization is proposed. It is based on the Kpi scalar

  18. CP violation and kaon-pion interactions in B{yields}K{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} decays

    SciTech Connect

    El-Bennich, B.; Furman, A.; Loiseau, B.; Moussallam, B.

    2009-05-01

    We study CP violation and the contribution of the strong kaon-pion interactions in the three-body B{yields}K{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} decays. We extend our recent work on the effect of the two-pion S- and P-wave interactions to that of the corresponding kaon-pion ones. The weak amplitudes have a first term derived in QCD factorization and a second one as a phenomenological contribution added to the QCD penguin amplitudes. The effective QCD coefficients include the leading order contributions plus next-to-leading order vertex and penguins corrections. The matrix elements of the transition to the vacuum of the kaon-pion pairs, appearing naturally in the factorization formulation, are described by the strange K{pi} scalar (S-wave) and vector (P-wave) form factors. These are determined from Muskhelishvili-Omnes coupled channel equations using experimental kaon-pion T-matrix elements, together with chiral symmetry and asymptotic QCD constraints. From the scalar form factor study, the modulus of the K{sub 0}*(1430) decay constant is found to be (32{+-}5) MeV. The additional phenomenological amplitudes are fitted to reproduce the K{pi} effective mass and helicity angle distributions, the B{yields}K*(892){pi} branching ratios and the CP asymmetries of the recent data from Belle and BABAR collaborations. We use also the new measurement by the BABAR group of the phase difference between the B{sup 0} and B{sup 0} decay amplitudes to K*(892){pi}. Our predicted B{sup {+-}}{yields}K{sub 0}*(1430){pi}{sup {+-}}, K{sub 0}*(1430){yields}K{sup {+-}}{pi}{sup {+-}} branching fraction, equal to (11.6{+-}0.6)x10{sup -6}, is smaller than the result of the analyzes of both collaborations. For the neutral B{sup 0} decays, the predicted value is (11.1{+-}0.5)x10{sup -6}. In order to reduce the large systematic uncertainties in the experimental determination of the B{yields}K{sub 0}{sup *}(1430){pi} branching fractions, a new parametrization is proposed. It is based on the K{pi} scalar form

  19. Intellectual property in holographic interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reingand, Nadya; Hunt, David

    2006-08-01

    This paper presents an overview of patents and patent applications on holographic interferometry, and highlights the possibilities offered by patent searching and analysis. Thousands of patent documents relevant to holographic interferometry were uncovered by the study. The search was performed in the following databases: U.S. Patent Office, European Patent Office, Japanese Patent Office and Korean Patent Office for the time frame from 1971 through May 2006. The patent analysis unveils trends in patent temporal distribution, patent families formation, significant technological coverage within the market of system that employ holographic interferometry and other interesting insights.

  20. Measurements of CP-violating asymmetries and branching fractions in the decays of B mesons to charged pions and kaons at the Babar detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danielson, Morris Nicholas

    This dissertation describes the measurement of branching fractions and CP asymmetries in neutral B meson decays to charmless two-body final states of charged pions and kaons. CP violation is a poorly-constrained phenomenon in the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics and had been studied only in the kaon system before the Babar and Belle experiments. The decay of the neutral B meson to charged pions and kaons is particularly useful for the study of CP violation because they can be related to the Unitarity Triangle angle alpha. We use an extended maximum likelihood technique that incorporates kinematic, event-shape, and particle identification information to measure the branching fractions of the neutral B meson to pipi, Kpi. These branching fractions are found to be (5.6 +/- 0.4 +/- 0.3) x 10-6 and (19.2 +/- 0.6 +/- 0.6) x 10 -6 respectively. The decay to KK is found to have a branching fraction of less than 0.4 x 10-6 at the 90% confidence level. We also measure the direct CP-violating asymmetry between decays to K+pi- and K-pi+ to be -0.133 +/- 0.030 +/- 0.009. Decay time information and b quark flavor information are then added to determine the time-dependent CP violation parameters S and C, which we find to be -0.30 +/- 0.17 +/- 0.03 and -0.09 +/- 0.15 +/- 0.04, respectively. For all measurements above the first error is statistical and the second is systematic. The results are obtained from a data sample of 227 million decays of the Υ(4S) to B0 B¯z collected between 1999 and 2004 with the Babar detector at the PEP-II asymmetric B factory located at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center.

  1. Spectroscopic Low Coherence Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosschaart, Nienke; van Leeuwen, T. G.; Aalders, Maurice C.; Hermann, Boris; Drexler, Wolfgang; Faber, Dirk J.

    Low-coherence interferometry (LCI) allows high-resolution volumetric imaging of tissue morphology and provides localized optical properties that can be related to the physiological status of tissue. This chapter discusses the combination of spatial and spectroscopic information by means of spectroscopic OCT (sOCT) and low-coherence spectroscopy (LCS). We describe the theory behind these modalities for the assessment of spatially resolved optical absorption and (back)scattering coefficient spectra. These spectra can be used for the highly localized quantification of chromophore concentrations and assessment of tissue organization on (sub)cellular scales. This leads to a wealth of potential clinical applications, ranging from neonatology for the determination of billibrubin concentrations, to oncology for the optical assessment of the aggressiveness of a cancerous lesion.

  2. Deep frequency modulation interferometry.

    PubMed

    Gerberding, Oliver

    2015-06-01

    Laser interferometry with pm/Hz precision and multi-fringe dynamic range at low frequencies is a core technology to measure the motion of various objects (test masses) in space and ground based experiments for gravitational wave detection and geodesy. Even though available interferometer schemes are well understood, their construction remains complex, often involving, for example, the need to build quasi-monolithic optical benches with dozens of components. In recent years techniques have been investigated that aim to reduce this complexity by combining phase modulation techniques with sophisticated digital readout algorithms. This article presents a new scheme that uses strong laser frequency modulations in combination with the deep phase modulation readout algorithm to construct simpler and easily scalable interferometers.

  3. Kaon condensation in the linear sigma model at finite density and temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Tran Huu Phat; Nguyen Van Long; Nguyen Tuan Anh; Le Viet Hoa

    2008-11-15

    Basing on the Cornwall-Jackiw-Tomboulis effective action approach we formulate a theoretical formalism for studying kaon condensation in the linear sigma model at finite density and temperature. We derive the renormalized effective potential in the Hartree-Fock approximation, which preserves the Goldstone theorem. This quantity is then used to consider physical properties of kaon matter.

  4. Optical Long Baseline Interferometry News

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, P. R.; Malbet, F.

    2005-12-01

    The Optical Long Baseline Interferometry News is a website and forum for scientists, engineers, and students who share an interest in long baseline stellar interferometry. It was established in 1995 and is the focus of activity of the IAU Working Group on Optical/Infrared Interferometry. Here you will find links to projects devoted to stellar interferometry, news items, recent papers and preprints, and resources for further research. The email news forum was established in 2001 to complement the website and to facilitate exchanges and collaborations. The forum includes an email exploder and an archived list of discussions. You are invited to explore the forum and website at http://olbin.jpl.nasa.gov. Work by PRL was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  5. Electric polarizability of neutral hadrons from lattice QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Frank; Alexandru, Andrei; Lujan, Michael; Freeman, Walter

    2017-01-01

    We report on the electric polarizability for the neutron, neutral pion, and neutral kaon from lattice QCD. The results are based on dynamical QCD ensembles at two different pion masses: 306 and 227 MeV. An infinite volume extrapolation is performed for each hadron at both pion masses. The resulting polarizabilities are compared with other lattice calculations, ChPT, and experiment. This work is supported in part by the NSF CAREER grant PHY-1151648, the U.S. Department of Energy grant DE-FG02-95ER40907, and the ARCS foundation.

  6. Optical Interferometry Motivation and History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, Peter

    2006-01-01

    A history and motivation of stellar interferometry is presented. The topics include: 1) On Tides, Organ Pipes, and Soap Bubbles; 2) Armand Hippolyte Fizeau (1819-1896); 3) Fizeau Suggests Stellar Interferometry 1867; 4) Edouard Stephan (1837-1923); 5) Foucault Refractor; 6) Albert A. Michelson (1852-1931); 7) On the Application of Interference Methods to Astronomy (1890); 8) Moons of Jupiter (1891); 9) Other Applications in 19th Century; 10) Timeline of Interferometry to 1938; 11) 30 years goes by; 12) Mount Wilson Observatory; 13) Michelson's 20 ft Interferometer; 14) Was Michelson Influenced by Fizeau? 15) Work Continues in the 1920s and 30s; 16) 50 ft Interferometer (1931-1938); 17) Light Paths in the 50 ft Interferometer; 18) Ground-level at the 50 ft; 19) F.G. Pease (1881-1938); 20) Timeline of Optical Interferometry to 1970; 21) A New Type of Stellar Interferometer (1956); 22) Intensity Interferometer (1963- 1976; 23) Robert Hanbury Brown; 24) Interest in Optical Interferometry in the 1960s; 25) Interferometry in the Early 1970s; and 26) A New Frontier is Opened up in 1974.

  7. Optical Interferometry Motivation and History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, Peter

    2006-01-01

    A history and motivation of stellar interferometry is presented. The topics include: 1) On Tides, Organ Pipes, and Soap Bubbles; 2) Armand Hippolyte Fizeau (1819-1896); 3) Fizeau Suggests Stellar Interferometry 1867; 4) Edouard Stephan (1837-1923); 5) Foucault Refractor; 6) Albert A. Michelson (1852-1931); 7) On the Application of Interference Methods to Astronomy (1890); 8) Moons of Jupiter (1891); 9) Other Applications in 19th Century; 10) Timeline of Interferometry to 1938; 11) 30 years goes by; 12) Mount Wilson Observatory; 13) Michelson's 20 ft Interferometer; 14) Was Michelson Influenced by Fizeau? 15) Work Continues in the 1920s and 30s; 16) 50 ft Interferometer (1931-1938); 17) Light Paths in the 50 ft Interferometer; 18) Ground-level at the 50 ft; 19) F.G. Pease (1881-1938); 20) Timeline of Optical Interferometry to 1970; 21) A New Type of Stellar Interferometer (1956); 22) Intensity Interferometer (1963- 1976; 23) Robert Hanbury Brown; 24) Interest in Optical Interferometry in the 1960s; 25) Interferometry in the Early 1970s; and 26) A New Frontier is Opened up in 1974.

  8. Charged kaon and proton production in B-hadron decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tegenfeldt, Fredrik Per

    The production of charged kaons and protons in B-hadron decays has been measured in e+e- annihilations at centre-of-mass energies corresponding to the Z0 mass. In total 1.6 million hadronic Z0 decays were analysed, corresponding to about 690000 B-hadron decays. They were collected using the DELPHI detector at the LEP collider at CERN during 1994 and 1995. Events containing B-hadron decays were identified using special characteristics of the B-hadron decay topology. In particular, the long lifetime of the B-hadron leads to decay vertices significantly displaced relative the interaction point. These so called secondary vertices were reconstructed using a powerful micro vertex detector. In order to discriminate B-hadron decay products from fragmentation tracks, a method was used where the impact parameter measured by the vertex detector was employed as a discriminating variable. The tracks were thus divided into two classes, one compatible with the interaction point and the other compatible with a secondary vertex. An unfolding method was used to extract the true B-hadron decay tracks from the two classes. Charged kaons and protons were identified using the Ring Imaging CHerenkov (RICH) detector and corrected for misidentification using an efficiency matrix. The analysis resulted in charged kaon and proton spectra from B-hadron decays, including previously unmeasured momentum regions. Integrating the spectra yielded the following multiplicities n(B- hadron-->K+/- X)=0.683+/-0.021(stat) +/-0.017(syst) n(B- hadron-->p/p X)=0.127+/-0.013(stat) +/-0.019(syst) where the proton multiplicity does not include Λ baryon decay products.

  9. Flavour symmetry breaking in the kaon parton distribution amplitude

    DOE PAGES

    none,

    2014-11-01

    We compute the kaon's valence-quark (twist-two parton) distribution amplitude (PDA) by projecting its Poincaré-covariant Bethe–Salpeter wave-function onto the light-front. At a scale ζ = 2 GeV, the PDA is a broad, concave and asymmetric function, whose peak is shifted 12–16% away from its position in QCD's conformal limit. These features are a clear expression of SU(3)-flavour-symmetry breaking. They show that the heavier quark in the kaon carries more of the bound-state's momentum than the lighter quark and also that emergent phenomena in QCD modulate the magnitude of flavour-symmetry breaking: it is markedly smaller than one might expect based on themore » difference between light-quark current masses. Our results add to a body of evidence which indicates that at any energy scale accessible with existing or foreseeable facilities, a reliable guide to the interpretation of experiment requires the use of such nonperturbatively broadened PDAs in leading-order, leading-twist formulae for hard exclusive processes instead of the asymptotic PDA associated with QCD's conformal limit. We illustrate this via the ratio of kaon and pion electromagnetic form factors: using our nonperturbative PDAs in the appropriate formulae, FK/Fπ=1.23 at spacelike-Q2=17 GeV2, which compares satisfactorily with the value of 0.92(5) inferred in e+e- annihilation at s=17 GeV2.« less

  10. Loop corrections to pion and kaon neutrino production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddikov, Marat; Schmidt, Iván

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we study the next-to-leading-order corrections to deeply virtual pion and kaon production in neutrino experiments. We estimate these corrections in the kinematics of the minerva experiment at Fermilab, and find that they are sizable and increase the leading-order cross section by up to a factor of 2. We provide a computational code which can be used for the evaluation of the cross sections, taking into account these corrections and employing various generalized parton distribution models.

  11. Pion and kaon valence-quark parton distribution functions.

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, T.; Bashir, A.; Roberts, C. D.; Tandy, P. C.

    2011-06-16

    A rainbow-ladder truncation of QCD's Dyson-Schwinger equations, constrained by existing applications to hadron physics, is employed to compute the valence-quark parton distribution functions of the pion and kaon. Comparison is made to {pi}-N Drell-Yan data for the pion's u-quark distribution and to Drell-Yan data for the ratio u{sub K}(x)/u{sub {pi}}(x): the environmental influence of this quantity is a parameter-free prediction, which agrees well with existing data. Our analysis unifies the computation of distribution functions with that of numerous other properties of pseudoscalar mesons.

  12. Kaon condensation, black holes, and cosmological natural selection.

    PubMed

    Brown, G E; Lee, Chang-Hwan; Rho, Mannque

    2008-08-29

    It is argued that a well-measured double neutron-star binary in which the two neutron stars are more than 4% different from each other in mass or a massive neutron star with mass M > or approximately 2M(middle dot in circle) would put in serious doubt or simply falsify the following chain of predictions: (1) a nearly vanishing vector meson mass at chiral restoration, (2) kaon condensation at a density n-3n0, (3) the Brown-Bethe maximum neutron-star mass Mmax approximately 1.5M(middle dot in circle), and (4) Smolin's "cosmological natural selection" hypothesis.

  13. Kaon-nucleon scattering in three-dimensional technique

    SciTech Connect

    Salam, Agus Fachruddin, Imam

    2016-03-11

    Kaon-nucleon (KN) scattering is formulated in the three-dimensional (3D) momentum space, in which the basis state is not expanded into partial waves. Based on this basis the Lippmann-Schwinger equation for the T-matrix is evaluated. We obtain as final equation for the T-matrix elements a set of two coupled integral equations in two variables, which are the momentum’s magnitude and the scattering angle. Calculations for the differential cross section and some spin observables are shown, for which we employ a hadrons exchange model with the second order contributions only.

  14. Pion and kaon valence-quark parton distribution functions

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Trang; Bashir, Adnan; Roberts, Craig D.; Tandy, Peter C.

    2011-06-15

    A rainbow-ladder truncation of QCD's Dyson-Schwinger equations, constrained by existing applications to hadron physics, is employed to compute the valence-quark parton distribution functions of the pion and kaon. Comparison is made to {pi}-N Drell-Yan data for the pion's u-quark distribution and to Drell-Yan data for the ratio u{sub K}(x)/u{sub {pi}}(x): the environmental influence of this quantity is a parameter-free prediction, which agrees well with existing data. Our analysis unifies the computation of distribution functions with that of numerous other properties of pseudoscalar mesons.

  15. CEBAF at higher energies and the kaon electromagnetic form factor

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, O.K.

    1994-04-01

    The electromagnetic production of strangeness, the physics of exciting systems having strangeness degrees of freedom (production of hadrons with one or more strange constituent quarks) using electromagnetic probes (real or virtual photons), is one of the frontier areas of research which will be investigated at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) when it becomes operational. CEBAF is expected to have an important impact upon this field of research using its specialized set of detection instruments and high quality electron beam. This paper focusses upon one aspect of the associated production of strangeness - the determination of the kaon electromagnetic form factor at high squared momentum transfers.

  16. Stellar Temporal Intensity Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kian, Tan Peng

    Stellar intensity interferometry was developed by Hanbury-Brown & Twiss [1954, 1956b, 1957, 1958] to bypass the diffraction limit of telescope apertures, with successful measurements including the determination of 32 stellar angular diameters using the Narrabri Stellar Intensity Interferometer [Hanbury-Brown et al., 1974]. This was achieved by measuring the intensity correlations between starlight received by a pair of telescopes separated by varying baselines b which, by invoking the van Cittert-Zernicke theorem [van Cittert, 1934; Zernicke, 1938], are related to the angular intensity distributions of the stellar light sources through a Fourier transformation of the equal-time complex degree of coherence gamma(b) between the two telescopes. This intensity correlation, or the second order correlation function g(2) [Glauber, 1963], can be described in terms of two-photoevent coincidence measurements [Hanbury-Brown, 1974] for our use of photon-counting detectors. The application of intensity interferometry in astrophysics has been largely restricted to the spatial domain but not found widespread adoption due to limitations by its signal-to-noise ratio [Davis et al., 1999; Foellmi, 2009; Jensen et al., 2010; LeBohec et al., 2008, 2010], although there is a growing movement to revive its use [Barbieri et al., 2009; Capraro et al., 2009; Dravins & Lagadec, 2014; Dravins et al., 2015; Dravins & LeBohec, 2007]. In this thesis, stellar intensity interferometry in the temporal domain is investigated instead. We present a narrowband spectral filtering scheme [Tan et al., 2014] that allows direct measurements of the Lorentzian temporal correlations, or photon bunching, from the Sun, with the preliminary Solar g(2)(tau = 0) = 1.3 +/- 0.1, limited mostly by the photon detector response [Ghioni et al., 2008], compared to the theoretical value of g(2)(0) = 2. The measured temporal photon bunching signature of the Sun exceeded the previous records of g(2)(0) = 1.03 [Karmakar et al

  17. Kaon condensation in a Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model at high density

    SciTech Connect

    Forbes, Michael McNeil

    2005-11-01

    We demonstrate a fully self-consistent microscopic realization of a kaon-condensed color-flavor locked state (CFLK{sup 0}) within the context of a mean-field Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model at high density. The properties of this state are shown to be consistent with the QCD low-energy effective theory once the proper gauge neutrality conditions are satisfied, and a simple matching procedure is used to compute the pion decay constant, which agrees with the perturbative QCD result. The NJL model is used to compare the energies of the CFLK{sup 0} state to the parity even CFL state, and to determine locations of the metal/insulator transition to a phase with gapless fermionic excitations in the presence of a nonzero hypercharge chemical potential and a nonzero strange quark mass. The transition points are compared with results derived previously via effective theories and with partially self-consistent NJL calculations. We find that the qualitative physics does not change, but that the transitions are slightly lower.

  18. Isospin symmetry violating effects and scattering length extraction from kaon decays

    SciTech Connect

    Gevorkyan, S. R.

    2013-08-15

    The isospin symmetry breaking effects in the charged kaons decays to two or three pions are considered. In semileptonic decay K{sup {+-}} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}e{sup {+-}}{nu} (called K{sub e4}) these effects turn out to be crucial for correct extraction of {pi}{pi} scattering lengths. Taking in account electromagnetic interaction between the pions in the final state and isospin symmetry breaking due to different masses of charged and neutral pions allows to adjust the values of scattering lengths obtained from experimental data on K{sub e4} decay and predictions of Chiral Perturbation Theory (ChPT). Final state interactions of pions in the decay K{sup {+-}} {yields} {pi}{sup {+-}}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} leading to the anomaly (cusp) in the {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} invariant mass distribution in the vicinity of charged pions' threshold are discussed and recent results of accounting of the electromagnetic interaction among charged pions leading to {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} bound states (pioniumatom) just under the charged pions' threshold are presented.

  19. Extreme ultraviolet interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, Kenneth A.

    1997-12-01

    EUV lithography is a promising and viable candidate for circuit fabrication with 0.1-micron critical dimension and smaller. In order to achieve diffraction-limited performance, all-reflective multilayer-coated lithographic imaging systems operating near 13-nm wavelength and 0.1 NA have system wavefront tolerances of 0.27 nm, or 0.02 waves RMS. Owing to the highly-sensitive resonant reflective properties of multilayer mirrors and extraordinarily tight tolerances set forth for their fabrication, EUV optical systems require at-wavelength EUV interferometry for final alignment and qualification. This dissertation discusses the development and successful implementation of high-accuracy EUV interferometric techniques. Proof-of-principle experiments with a prototype EUV point-diffraction interferometer for the measurement of Fresnel zoneplate lenses first demonstrated sub-wavelength EUV interferometric capability. These experiments spurred the development of the superior phase-shifting point-diffraction interferometer (PS/PDI), which has been implemented for the testing of an all-reflective lithographic-quality EUV optical system. Both systems rely on pinhole diffraction to produce spherical reference wavefronts in a common-path geometry. Extensive experiments demonstrate EUV wavefront-measuring precision beyond 0.02 waves RMS. EUV imaging experiments provide verification of the high-accuracy of the point-diffraction principle, and demonstrate the utility of the measurements in successfully predicting imaging performance. Complementary to the experimental research, several areas of theoretical investigation related to the novel PS/PDI system are presented. First-principles electromagnetic field simulations of pinhole diffraction are conducted to ascertain the upper limits of measurement accuracy and to guide selection of the pinhole diameter. Investigations of the relative merits of different PS/PDI configurations accompany a general study of the most significant sources

  20. DETECTORS AND EXPERIMENTAL METHODS: Application of the HKS in the identification of kaons produced in the reaction (e,e'K+)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yu-Shou; Hu, Bi-Tao

    2009-06-01

    At Jefferson Laboratory the experiment E02-017 was carried out to investigate the fission associated with kaons in the hypernuclei-producing interaction p(e,K+e')Λ. The newly installed high resolution kaon spectrometer (HKS) in Hall C was used as a key instrument to identify kaons. This paper introduces the HKS hardware and describes the way the kaons are identified. Maintaining most of the kaons (nearly 100%) in the data, HKS identifies kaons with a purity of ~67% in this experiment. The resolution of the kaon target time reconstructed by HKS reaches 0.42 ns.

  1. RF design of a transverse mode cavity for kaon separation

    SciTech Connect

    Michael McAshan and Rainer Wanzenberg

    2001-05-15

    Two deflecting mode RF systems can be used to separate secondary kaons from a momentum selected particle beam, primarily consisting of a mix of protons, pions and kaons, by a time of flight method. The principles of this methods and the choices of the parameters are explained. It is planned to use a 3.9 GHz 13-cell super-conducting cavity operated in a {pi}-dipole-mode. First, the passband structure of different cavity shapes, which mainly differ by the cell-to-cell coupling and the resulting dispersion slope, is investigated. The main concern is the frequency difference between the {pi}-mode and the next lowest mode in the same passband and the implications on the tuneability of the cavity. For three shapes the possible end-cell designs for a 7-cell and 13-cell cavity are presented. All numerical field calculations are performed by the MAFIA code. An equivalent circuit model, based on a two chain model, is applied to a 7-cell cavity. It is demonstrated that the dispersion diagram obtained by MAFIA calculations can be very well approximated by this equivalent circuit.

  2. The 'horn' in the kaon-to-pion ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Nayak, Jajati K.; Banik, Sarmistha; Alam, Jan-e

    2010-08-15

    A microscopic approach has been employed to study the kaon productions in heavy-ion collisions. The momentum-integrated Boltzmann equation has been used to study the evolution of strangeness in the system formed in heavy-ion collisions at relativistic energies. The kaon productions have been calculated for different center-of-mass energies ({radical}(s{sub NN})) ranging from the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) to the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The results have been compared with available experimental data. We obtain a nonmonotonic hornlike structure for K{sup +}/{pi}{sup +} when plotted with {radical}(s{sub NN}) with the assumption of an initial partonic phase beyond a certain threshold in {radical}(s{sub NN}). However, a monotonic rise of K{sup +}/{pi}{sup +} is observed when a hadronic initial state is assumed for all {radical}(s{sub NN}). Experimental values of K{sup -}/{pi}{sup -} are also reproduced within the ambit of the same formalism. Results from scenarios where the strange quarks and hadrons are formed in equilibrium and evolve with and without secondary productions have also been presented.

  3. Induced polarization of Λ (1116) in kaon electroproduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabrielyan, M.; Raue, B. A.; Carman, D. S.; Park, K.; Adhikari, K. P.; Adikaram, D.; Amaryan, M. J.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Avakian, H.; Ball, J.; Baltzell, N. A.; Battaglieri, M.; Baturin, V.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Biselli, A. S.; Bono, J.; Boiarinov, S.; Briscoe, W. J.; Brooks, W. K.; Burkert, V. D.; Cao, T.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Charles, G.; Colaneri, L.; Cole, P. L.; Contalbrigo, M.; Cortes, O.; Crede, V.; D'Angelo, A.; Dashyan, N.; De Vita, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Deur, A.; Djalali, C.; Doughty, D.; Dupre, R.; El Fassi, L.; Eugenio, P.; Fedotov, G.; Fegan, S.; Fleming, J. A.; Forest, T. A.; Garillon, B.; Gevorgyan, N.; Ghandilyan, Y.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Goetz, J. T.; Golovatch, E.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guidal, M.; Guo, L.; Hafidi, K.; Hakobyan, H.; Hattawy, M.; Hicks, K.; Ho, D.; Holtrop, M.; Hughes, S. M.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Jenkins, D.; Jiang, H.; Jo, H. S.; Joo, K.; Keller, D.; Khandaker, M.; Kim, W.; Klein, F. J.; Koirala, S.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuhn, S. E.; Kuleshov, S. V.; Lenisa, P.; Levine, W. I.; Livingston, K.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; Mayer, M.; McKinnon, B.; Meyer, C. A.; Mestayer, M. D.; Mirazita, M.; Mokeev, V.; Moody, C. I.; Moutarde, H.; Movsisyan, A.; Munevar, E.; Munoz Camacho, C.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Niccolai, S.; Niculescu, G.; Osipenko, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Paremuzyan, R.; Pasyuk, E.; Peng, P.; Phelps, W.; Phillips, J. J.; Pisano, S.; Pogorelko, O.; Pozdniakov, S.; Price, J. W.; Procureur, S.; Protopopescu, D.; Rimal, D.; Ripani, M.; Rizzo, A.; Sabatié, F.; Salgado, C.; Schott, D.; Schumacher, R. A.; Simonyan, A.; Smith, G. D.; Sober, D. I.; Sokhan, D.; Stepanyan, S. S.; Stepanyan, S.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Strauch, S.; Sytnik, V.; Tang, W.; Ungaro, M.; Vlassov, A. V.; Voskanyan, H.; Voutier, E.; Walford, N. K.; Watts, D. P.; Wei, X.; Weinstein, L. B.; Zachariou, N.; Zana, L.; Zhang, J.; Zonta, I.; CLAS Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    We have measured. the induced polarization of the Λ(1116) in the reaction ep →e'K+Λ, detecting the scattered e' and K+ in the final state along with the proton from the decay Λ →pπ-. The present study used the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS), which allowed for a large kinematic acceptance in invariant energy W (1.6≤W≤2.7 GeV) and covered the full range of the kaon production angle at an average momentum transfer Q2=1.90GeV2. In this experiment a 5.50-GeV electron beam was incident upon an unpolarized liquid-hydrogen target. We have mapped out the W and kaon production angle dependencies of the induced polarization and found striking differences from photoproduction data over most of the kinematic range studied. However, we also found that the induced polarization is essentially Q2 independent in our kinematic domain, suggesting that somewhere below the Q2 covered here there must be a strong Q2 dependence. Along with previously published photo- and electroproduction cross sections and polarization observables, these data are needed for the development of models, such as effective field theories, and as input to coupled-channel analyses that can provide evidence of previously unobserved s-channel resonances.

  4. Indirect CP violation in the neutral kaon system beyond leading logarithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrlich, Stefan; Nierste, Ulrich

    1995-12-01

    We have calculated the short distance QCD coefficient η3 of the effective ||ΔS||=2 Hamiltonian in the next-to-leading order of renormalization group improved perturbation theory. Since now all coefficients η1, η2, and η3 are known beyond the leading log approximation, one can achieve a much higher precision in the theoretical analysis of ɛK, the parameter of indirect CP violation in K0-K0¯ mixing. The measured value for ɛK yields a lower bound on each of ||Vcb||,Vub/Vcb||, the top quark mass mt, and the nonperturbative parameter BK as a function of the remaining three quantities. For example, mpolet=176 GeV, ||Vcb||=0.040, and BK=0.75 implies ||Vub/Vcb||>=0.0778, if the measured value for ɛK is attributed solely to standard model physics. We further discuss the implications on the CKM phase δ, ||Vtd||, and the key quantity for all CP-violating processes, Imλt=Im[V*tsVtd]. These quantities and the improved Wolfenstein parameters ρ¯ and η¯ are tabulated and the shape of the unitarity triangle is discussed. We compare the range for ||Vtd|| with the one obtained from the analysis of B0d-B0d¯ mixing. For 0.037<=||Vcb||<=0.043, 0.06<=||Vub/Vcb||<=0.10, and 0.65<=BK<=0.85 we find from a combined analysis of ɛK and the B0d-B0d¯-mixing parameter xd: 49°<=δ<=146°, 7.4×10-3<=||Vtd||<=12.4×10-3, 0.85×10-4<=Imλt<=1.60×10-4, -0.36<=ρ¯<=0.28, and 0.21<=η¯<=0.44. We predict the mass difference of the B0s system to lie in the range 6.5 ps-1<=ΔmBs<=28 ps-1. Finally we have a 1995 look at the KL-KS-mass difference.

  5. An experimental study of the decay neutral D meson going to kaon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devmal, Shiral Cleophas

    Using data from the E791 experiment at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), we have studied the Cabibbo favored, but phase space suppressed decay D0-->K-K- K+p + with the normalization channel D0-->K-p- p +p+ . We report the branching ratio of D0-->K-K- K+p + relative to the branching ratio of D0-->K-p- p +p+ . This value is (0.54 +/- 0.13 +/- 0.07)%. We see a clear signal of K- K+ resonance in the decay D0-->K-K- K+p + from which we conclude that about (60 +/- 30)% of KKKp comes from D0-->fK- p+ ; f-->K-K+ . We also set the range (0.30%-0.90%) for the ratio Pqq¯/PNoPop where Pqq¯ is the contribution from either D0-->K-K- K+p + terms that pop an ss¯ or corresponding D0-->K- p-p +p+ terms that pop either uū or dd¯ pair and PNoPop is the contributions from the D0-->K-p- p +p+ terms that do not have such corresponding popping.

  6. Measurement of CP observables with B meson going to neutral D meson kaon resonance decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Quincy

    Using a sample of 379 million Upsilon(4S) → BB¯ events collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II B-factory, I study decays of B - → D0 K*- where K*- → K0s pi-, K0s → pi+pi- and D0 decays into K+/-pi ∓ and CP-eigenstates. Both CP+ (K+K-, pi +pi-) and CP- final states ( K0s pi0, K0s φ, K0s o) are included. Using the Gronau-London-Wyler (GLW) and Atwood-Dunietz-Soni (ADS) methods, CP-observables which are sensitive to the CKM angle gamma are measured.

  7. Preview of Blackbeard interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, M. J.

    Blackbeard is a broadband VHF measurement satellite experiment designed and built by the Space Science and Technology Division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Blackbeard is a piggy-back experiment on the ALEXIS satellite to be launched into a 70 degree inclination orbit at an altitude of 750 km. The satellite experimental operation and data retrieval are controlled through a telemetry link from the Satellite Operations Center (SOC) located at Los Alamos, NM. The primary experimental objectives of Blackbeard are three-fold: (1) Study the dispersion of broad-band impulsive electromagnetic signals -- in particular, the higher-order amplitude and phase distortion due to propagation through the ionosphere. These depend on ionospheric conditions and irregularities. (2) Utilize RF interferometry and scintillation techniques in the low VHF-band to determine the size and extent of ionospheric irregularities and wave structure -- both natural and artificially induced. This narrow-band data will be used to categorize the ionospheric media as undisturbed, oscillatory, or turbulent. These parameters will then be input into transfer function simulations for broad-band propagation and compared with broad-band propagation data from Blackbeard. (3) Survey and characterize background noise in the VHF-band-consisting of (1) cataloging broadcast amplitudes and signatures and mapping their global pattern, and (2) cataloging the signatures of lightning events. Also, correlate emissions in the visible and VHF bands in an attempt to confirm broad-band RF emissions assumed to be associated with lightning.

  8. Preview of Blackbeard interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    Blackbeard is a broadband VHF measurements satellite experiment designed and built by the Space Science and Technology division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Blackbeard is a piggy-back experiment on the ALEXIS satellite to be launched into a 70 degree inclination orbit at an altitude of 750 km. The satellite experimental operation and data retrieval are controlled through a telemetry link from the Satellite Operations Center (SOC) located at Los Alamos, NM. The primary experimental objectives of Blackbeard are three-fold: (1) Study the dispersion of broad-band impulsive electromagnetic signals -- in particular, the higher-order amplitude and phase distortion due to propagation through the ionosphere. These depend on ionospheric conditions and irregularities. (2) Utilize RF interferometry and scintillation techniques in the low VHF-band to determine the size and extent of ionospheric irregularities and wave structure -- both natural and artificially induced. This narrow-band data will be used to categorize the ionospheric media as undisturbed, oscillatory, or turbulent. These parameters will then be input into transfer function simulations for broad-band propagation and compared with broad-band propagation data from Blackbeard. (3) Survey and characterize background noise in the VHF-band-consisting of (1) cataloging broadcast amplitudes and signatures and mapping their global pattern, and (2) cataloging the signatures of lightning events. Also, correlate emissions in the visible and VHF bands in an attempt to confirm broad-band RF emissions assumed to be associated with lightning.

  9. Preview of Blackbeard interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, M.J.

    1992-09-01

    Blackbeard is a broadband VHF measurements satellite experiment designed and built by the Space Science and Technology division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Blackbeard is a piggy-back experiment on the ALEXIS satellite to be launched into a 70 degree inclination orbit at an altitude of 750 km. The satellite experimental operation and data retrieval are controlled through a telemetry link from the Satellite Operations Center (SOC) located at Los Alamos, NM. The primary experimental objectives of Blackbeard are three-fold: (1) Study the dispersion of broad-band impulsive electromagnetic signals -- in particular, the higher-order amplitude and phase distortion due to propagation through the ionosphere. These depend on ionospheric conditions and irregularities. (2) Utilize RF interferometry and scintillation techniques in the low VHF-band to determine the size and extent of ionospheric irregularities and wave structure -- both natural and artificially induced. This narrow-band data will be used to categorize the ionospheric media as undisturbed, oscillatory, or turbulent. These parameters will then be input into transfer function simulations for broad-band propagation and compared with broad-band propagation data from Blackbeard. (3) Survey and characterize background noise in the VHF-band-consisting of (1) cataloging broadcast amplitudes and signatures and mapping their global pattern, and (2) cataloging the signatures of lightning events. Also, correlate emissions in the visible and VHF bands in an attempt to confirm broad-band RF emissions assumed to be associated with lightning.

  10. Geometric time delay interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Vallisneri, Michele

    2005-08-15

    The space-based gravitational-wave observatory LISA, a NASA-ESA mission to be launched after 2012, will achieve its optimal sensitivity using time delay interferometry (TDI), a LISA-specific technique needed to cancel the otherwise overwhelming laser noise in the interspacecraft phase measurements. The TDI observables of the Michelson and Sagnac types have been interpreted physically as the virtual measurements of a synthesized interferometer. In this paper, I present Geometric TDI, a new and intuitive approach to extend this interpretation to all TDI observables. Unlike the standard algebraic formalism, Geometric TDI provides a combinatorial algorithm to explore exhaustively the space of second-generation TDI observables (i.e., those that cancel laser noise in LISA-like interferometers with time-dependent arm lengths). Using this algorithm, I survey the space of second-generation TDI observables of length (i.e., number of component phase measurements) up to 24, and I identify alternative, improved forms of the standard second-generation TDI observables. The alternative forms have improved high-frequency gravitational-wave sensitivity in realistic noise conditions (because they have fewer nulls in the gravitational-wave and noise response functions), and are less susceptible to instrumental gaps and glitches (because their component phase measurements span shorter time periods)

  11. Tests of non-local interferences in kaon physics at asymmetric {phi}-factories

    SciTech Connect

    Eberhard, P.H.

    1993-04-16

    Tests of non-local interference effects in the two-kaon system are proposed. The first kind of tests consists of measuring the amount of destructive interference between K{sub S} {yields} K{sub L} regeneration processes of two distant kaons. The second kind deals with constructive interference. These tests could be performed at an asymmetric {phi}-factory. Estimates are given of the number of events predicted by orthodox quantum mechanics and kaon regeneration theory in various suitable experimental conditions. The impact on local theories if the predictions of quantum mechanics hold is discussed.

  12. Tests of non-local interferences in kaon physics at asymmetric [phi]-factories

    SciTech Connect

    Eberhard, P.H.

    1993-04-16

    Tests of non-local interference effects in the two-kaon system are proposed. The first kind of tests consists of measuring the amount of destructive interference between K[sub S] [yields] K[sub L] regeneration processes of two distant kaons. The second kind deals with constructive interference. These tests could be performed at an asymmetric [phi]-factory. Estimates are given of the number of events predicted by orthodox quantum mechanics and kaon regeneration theory in various suitable experimental conditions. The impact on local theories if the predictions of quantum mechanics hold is discussed.

  13. Bulk viscosity due to kaons in color-flavor-locked quark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Alford, Mark G.; Braby, Matt; Reddy, Sanjay; Schaefer, Thomas

    2007-05-15

    We calculate the bulk viscosity of color-superconducting quark matter in the color-flavor-locked (CFL) phase. We assume that the lightest bosons are the superfluid mode H and the kaons K{sup 0} and K{sup +}, and that there is no kaon condensate. We calculate the rate of strangeness-equilibrating processes that convert kaons into superfluid modes, and the resultant bulk viscosity. We find that for oscillations with a timescale of milliseconds, at temperatures T<1 MeV, the CFL bulk viscosity is much less than that of unpaired quark matter, but at higher temperatures the bulk viscosity of CFL matter can become larger.

  14. 100-Picometer Interferometry for EUVL

    SciTech Connect

    Sommargren, G E; Phillion, D W; Johnson, M A; Nguyen, N O; Barty, A; Snell, F J; Dillon, D R; Bradsher, L S

    2002-03-18

    Future extreme ultraviolet lithography (EWL) steppers will, in all likelihood, have six-mirror projection cameras. To operate at the diffraction limit over an acceptable depth of focus each aspheric mirror will have to be fabricated with an absolute figure accuracy approaching 100 pm rms. We are currently developing visible light interferometry to meet this need based on modifications of our present phase shifting diffraction interferometry (PSDI) methodology where we achieved an absolute accuracy of 250pm. The basic PSDI approach has been further simplified, using lensless imaging based on computational diffractive back-propagation, to eliminate auxiliary optics that typically limit measurement accuracy. Small remaining error sources, related to geometric positioning, CCD camera pixel spacing and laser wavelength, have been modeled and measured. Using these results we have estimated the total system error for measuring off-axis aspheric EUVL mirrors with this new approach to interferometry.

  15. Noise-assisted Ramsey interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorner, U.

    2013-12-01

    I analyze a metrological strategy for improving the precision of frequency estimation via Ramsey interferometry with strings of atoms in the presence of correlated dephasing. This strategy does not employ entangled states but rather a product state which evolves into a stationary state under the influence of correlated dephasing. It is shown that by using this state an improvement in precision compared to standard Ramsey interferometry can be gained. This improvement is not an improvement in scaling; i.e., the estimation precision has the same scaling with the number of atoms as the standard quantum limit but gains an improvement proportional to the free evolution time in the Ramsey interferometer. Since a stationary state is used, this evolution time can be substantially larger than in standard Ramsey interferometry which is limited by the coherence time of the atoms.

  16. Bandwidth in bolometric interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charlassier, R.; Bunn, E. F.; Hamilton, J.-Ch.; Kaplan, J.; Malu, S.

    2010-05-01

    Context. Bolometric interferometry is a promising new technology with potential applications to the detection of B-mode polarization fluctuations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). A bolometric interferometer will have to take advantage of the wide spectral detection band of its bolometers to be competitive with imaging experiments. A crucial concern is that interferometers are assumed to be significantly affected by a spoiling effect known as bandwidth smearing. Aims: We investigate how the bandwidth modifies the work principle of a bolometric interferometer and affects its sensitivity to the CMB angular power spectra. Methods: We obtain analytical expressions for the broadband visibilities measured by broadband heterodyne and bolometric interferometers. We investigate how the visibilities must be reconstructed in a broadband bolometric interferometer and show that this critically depends on hardware properties of the modulation phase shifters. If the phase shifters produce shifts that are constant with respect to frequency, the instrument works like its monochromatic version (the modulation matrix is not modified), while if they vary (linearly or otherwise) with respect to frequency, one has to perform a special reconstruction scheme, which allows the visibilities to be reconstructed in frequency subbands. Using an angular power spectrum estimator that accounts for the bandwidth, we finally calculate the sensitivity of a broadband bolometric interferometer. A numerical simulation is performed that confirms the analytical results. Results: We conclude that (i) broadband bolometric interferometers allow broadband visibilities to be reconstructed regardless of the type of phase shifters used and (ii) for dedicated B-mode bolometric interferometers, the sensitivity loss caused by bandwidth smearing is quite acceptable, even for wideband instruments (a factor of 2 loss for a typical 20% bandwidth experiment).

  17. Techniques in Broadband Interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Erskine, D J

    2004-01-04

    This is a compilation of my patents issued from 1997 to 2002, generally describing interferometer techniques that modify the coherence properties of broad-bandwidth light and other waves, with applications to Doppler velocimetry, range finding, imaging and spectroscopy. Patents are tedious to read in their original form. In an effort to improve their readability I have embedded the Figures throughout the manuscript, put the Figure captions underneath the Figures, and added section headings. Otherwise I have resisted the temptation to modify the words, though I found many places which could use healthy editing. There may be minor differences with the official versions issued by the US Patent and Trademark Office, particularly in the claims sections. In my shock physics work I measured the velocities of targets impacted by flyer plates by illuminating them with laser light and analyzing the reflected light with an interferometer. Small wavelength changes caused by the target motion (Doppler effect) were converted into fringe shifts by the interferometer. Lasers having long coherence lengths were required for the illumination. While lasers are certainly bright sources, and their collimated beams are convenient to work with, they are expensive. Particularly if one needs to illuminate a wide surface area, then large amounts of power are needed. Orders of magnitude more power per dollar can be obtained from a simple flashlamp, or for that matter, a 50 cent light bulb. Yet these inexpensive sources cannot practically be used for Doppler velocimetry because their coherence length is extremely short, i.e. their bandwidth is much too wide. Hence the motivation for patents 1 & 2 is a method (White Light Velocimetry) for allowing use of these powerful but incoherent lamps for interferometry. The coherence of the illumination is modified by passing it through a preparatory interferometer.

  18. Precision geodesy via radio interferometry.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinteregger, H. F.; Shapiro, I. I.; Robertson, D. S.; Knight, C. A.; Ergas, R. A.; Whitney, A. R.; Burke, B. F.; Rogers, A. E. E.; Moran, J. M.; Clark, T. A.

    1972-01-01

    Very-long-baseline interferometry experiments, involving observations of extragalactic radio sources, were performed in 1969 to determine the vector separations between antenna sites in Massachusetts and West Virginia. The 845.130-kilometer baseline was estimated from two separate experiments. The results agreed with each other to within 2 meters in all three components and with a special geodetic survey to within 2 meters in length; the differences in baseline direction as determined by the survey and by interferometry corresponded to discrepancies of about 5 meters. The experiments also yielded positions for nine extragalactic radio sources and allowed the hydrogen maser clocks at the two sites to be synchronized.

  19. The development of astronomical interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quirrenbach, Andreas

    2009-08-01

    Astronomical interferometry was pioneered by Fizeau and Michelson in the 19th century. In the 1920s, the first stellar diameters were measured. The development of radio interferometry began in the 1950s, and led to the construction of powerful synthesis arrays operating at cm, mm, and sub-mm wavelengths. Modern computer and control technology has enabled the interferometric combination of light from separate telescopes also in the visible and infrared regimes. Imaging with milliarcsecond resolution and astrometry with microarcsecond precision have thus become reality.

  20. High-Speed Digital Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Vine, Glenn; Shaddock, Daniel A.; Ware, Brent; Spero, Robert E.; Wuchenich, Danielle M.; Klipstein, William M.; McKenzie, Kirk

    2012-01-01

    Digitally enhanced heterodyne interferometry (DI) is a laser metrology technique employing pseudo-random noise (PRN) codes phase-modulated onto an optical carrier. Combined with heterodyne interferometry, the PRN code is used to select individual signals, returning the inherent interferometric sensitivity determined by the optical wavelength. The signal isolation arises from the autocorrelation properties of the PRN code, enabling both rejection of spurious signals (e.g., from scattered light) and multiplexing capability using a single metrology system. The minimum separation of optical components is determined by the wavelength of the PRN code.

  1. Kaon B-parameter from quenched domain-wall QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Aoki, Y.; Blum, T.; Christ, N.H.; Mawhinney, R.D.

    2006-05-01

    We present numerical results for the kaon B-parameter, B{sub K}, determined in the quenched approximation of lattice QCD. Our simulations are performed using domain-wall fermions and the renormalization group improved, DBW2 gauge action which combine to give quarks with good chiral symmetry at finite lattice spacing. Operators are renormalized nonperturbatively using the RI/MOM scheme. We study scaling by performing the simulation on two different lattices with a{sup -1}=1.982(30) and 2.914(54) GeV. We combine this quenched scaling study with an earlier calculation of B{sub K} using two flavors of dynamical, domain-wall quarks at a single lattice spacing to obtain B{sub K}{sup MSNDR}({mu}=2 GeV)=0.563(21)(39)(30), were the first error is statistical, the second systematic (without quenching errors) and the third estimates the error due to quenching.

  2. Ratio of Pion Kaon Production in Proton Carbon Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Lebedev, Andrey V.

    2007-05-01

    The ratio of pion-kaon production by 120 GeV/c protons incident on carbon target is presented. The data was recorded with the Main Injector Particle Production experiment at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. Production ratios of K++, K--, K-/K+, and π-+ are measured in 24 bins in longitudinal momentum from 20 to 90 GeV/c and transverse momentum up to 2 GeV/c. The measurement is compared to existing data sets, particle production Monte Carlo results from FLUKA-06, parametrization of proton-beryllium data at 400/450 GeV/c, and ratios measured by the MINOS experiment on the NuMI target.

  3. Higher Moments of Net-Kaon Multiplicity Distributions at STAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ji; STAR Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Fluctuations of conserved quantities such as baryon number (B), electric charge number (Q), and strangeness number (S), are sensitive to the correlation length and can be used to probe non-gaussian fluctuations near the critical point. Experimentally, higher moments of the multiplicity distributions have been used to search for the QCD critical point in heavy-ion collisions. In this paper, we report the efficiency-corrected cumulants and their ratios of mid-rapidity (|y| < 0.5) net-kaon multiplicity distributions in Au+Au collisions at = 7.7, 11.5, 14.5, 19.6, 27, 39, 62.4, and 200 GeV collected in 2010, 2011, and 2014 with STAR at RHIC. The centrality and energy dependence of the cumulants and their ratios, are presented. Furthermore, the comparisons with baseline calculations (Poisson) and non-critical-point models (UrQMD) are also discussed.

  4. Pentaquark, cusp and rescattering in single kaon photoproduction off deuterium

    SciTech Connect

    J.M. Laget

    2006-02-28

    In very well defined part of the phase space, K N and {Lambda} N rescattering depend on on-shell elementary matrix elements and on the low momentum components of the deuteron wave function. This provides us with the unique opportunity to study details in the scattering amplitudes that may have escaped the analysis of reactions induced on a nucleon target by Kaon and Hyperon beams at low energies. When folded with a typical experimental mass resolution, a narrow state with a width of 1 {approx} MeV would contribute by no more than 10% to the KN mass spectrum. On the contrary, a cusp would be easily detected near the {Sigma} production threshold in the {Lambda} N mass spectrum.

  5. MULTI-bar K (hyper)nuclei and Kaon Condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazda, D.; Mareš, J.; Friedman, E.; Gal, A.

    We report on recent relativistic mean-field calculations of multi-bar K nuclei1,2 which were performed fully and self-consistently across the periodic table. The bar K separation energy B{bar K} as well as the nuclear and bar K-meson densities were found to saturate with the number of antikaons in the nuclear medium. Saturation appears robust against a wide range of variations, including the nuclear model used and the type of boson fields mediating the strong interactions. In addition, we have explored properties of kaonic hypernuclei — strange systems made of nucleons, hyperons and K- mesons. We observed saturation also in these objects. Since the bar K separation energy B{bar K} does not exceed 200 MeV, multi-bar K nuclei lie energetically well above multi-hyperonic nuclei and it is unlikely that kaon condensation could occur in strong-interaction self-bound hadronic matter.

  6. MULTI-bar K (hyper)nuclei and Kaon Condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazda, D.; Mareš, J.; Friedman, E.; Gal, A.

    2010-10-01

    We report on recent relativistic mean-field calculations of multi-bar K nuclei1,2 which were performed fully and self-consistently across the periodic table. The bar K separation energy B{bar K} as well as the nuclear and bar K-meson densities were found to saturate with the number of antikaons in the nuclear medium. Saturation appears robust against a wide range of variations, including the nuclear model used and the type of boson fields mediating the strong interactions. In addition, we have explored properties of kaonic hypernuclei - strange systems made of nucleons, hyperons and K- mesons. We observed saturation also in these objects. Since the bar K separation energy B{bar K} does not exceed 200 MeV, multi-bar K nuclei lie energetically well above multi-hyperonic nuclei and it is unlikely that kaon condensation could occur in strong-interaction self-bound hadronic matter.

  7. ENUBET: Enhanced NeUtrino BEams from kaon Tagging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meregaglia, A.

    2016-12-01

    A reduction of the neutrino flux uncertainty by one order of magnitude in conventional neutrino beams can be achieved monitoring the positron production in the decay tunnel originating from the Ke3 decays of charged kaons. This novel approach will be developed in the framework of the ERC ENUBET Project. In this talk we present the aims of the project and the ongoing R&D for the instrumentation of the decay tunnel. In particular, we describe a specialized shashlik calorimeter (iron-scintillator) with a compact readout based on small-area silicon photo multipliers that allows for a very effective longitudinal segmentation of the detector to enhance electron/hadron separation. The expected performance of the detector estimated from a full GEANT4 simulation of the neutrino decay tunnel are presented. We also discuss preliminary results on a prototype composed by 12 ultra compact modules exposed to pions and electrons at CERN-PS.

  8. 1 to 2 GeV/c beam line for hypernuclear and kaon research

    SciTech Connect

    Chrien, R.E.

    1985-02-15

    A kaon beam line operating in the range from 1.0 to 2.0 GeV/c is proposed. The line is meant for kaon and pion research in a region hitherto inaccessible to experimenters. Topics in hypernuclear and kaon physics of high current interest include the investigation of doubly strange nuclear systems with the K/sup -/,K/sup +/ reaction, searching for dibaryon resonances, hyperon-nucleon interactions, hypernuclear ..gamma.. rays, and associated production of excited hypernuclei. The beam line would provide separated beams of momentum analyzed kaons at intensities greater than 10/sup 6/ particles per spill with a momentum determined to one part in a thousand. This intensity is an order of magnitude greater than that currently available. 63 references.

  9. The Space Interferometry Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unwin, Stephen C.

    1998-01-01

    The Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) is the next major space mission in NASA's Origins program after SIRTF. The SIM architecture uses three Michelson interferometers in low-earth orbit to provide 4 microarcsecond precision absolute astrometric measurements on approx. 40,000 stars. SIM will also provide synthesis imaging in the visible waveband to a resolution of 10 milliarcsecond, and interferometric nulling to a depth of 10(exp -4). A near-IR (1-2 micron) capability is being considered. Many key technologies will be demonstrated by SIM that will be carried over directly or can be readily scaled to future Origins missions such as TPF. The SIM spacecraft will carry a triple Michelson interferometer with baselines in the 10 meter range. Two interferometers act as high precision trackers, providing attitude information at all time, while the third one conducts the science observations. Ultra-accurate laser metrology and active systems monitor the systematic errors and to control the instrument vibrations in order to reach the 4 microarcsecond level on wide-angle measurements. SIM will produce a wealth of new astronomical data. With an absolute positional precision of 4 microarcsecond, SIM will improve on the best currently available measures (the Hipparcos catalog) by 2 or 3 orders of magnitude, providing parallaxes accurate to 10% and transverse velocities to 0.2 km/s anywhere in the Galaxy, to stars as faint as 20th magnitude. With the addition of radial velocities, knowledge of the 6-dimension phase space for objects of interest will allow us to attack a wide array of previously inaccessible problems such as: search for planets down to few earth masses; calibration of stellar luminosities and by means of standard candles, calibration of the cosmic distance scale; detecting perturbations due to spiral arms, disk warps and central bar in our galaxy; probe of the gravitational potential of the Galaxy, several kiloparsecs out of the galactic plane; synthesis imaging

  10. The Space Interferometry Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unwin, Stephen C.

    1998-01-01

    The Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) is the next major space mission in NASA's Origins program after SIRTF. The SIM architecture uses three Michelson interferometers in low-earth orbit to provide 4 microarcsecond precision absolute astrometric measurements on approx. 40,000 stars. SIM will also provide synthesis imaging in the visible waveband to a resolution of 10 milliarcsecond, and interferometric nulling to a depth of 10(exp -4). A near-IR (1-2 micron) capability is being considered. Many key technologies will be demonstrated by SIM that will be carried over directly or can be readily scaled to future Origins missions such as TPF. The SIM spacecraft will carry a triple Michelson interferometer with baselines in the 10 meter range. Two interferometers act as high precision trackers, providing attitude information at all time, while the third one conducts the science observations. Ultra-accurate laser metrology and active systems monitor the systematic errors and to control the instrument vibrations in order to reach the 4 microarcsecond level on wide-angle measurements. SIM will produce a wealth of new astronomical data. With an absolute positional precision of 4 microarcsecond, SIM will improve on the best currently available measures (the Hipparcos catalog) by 2 or 3 orders of magnitude, providing parallaxes accurate to 10% and transverse velocities to 0.2 km/s anywhere in the Galaxy, to stars as faint as 20th magnitude. With the addition of radial velocities, knowledge of the 6-dimension phase space for objects of interest will allow us to attack a wide array of previously inaccessible problems such as: search for planets down to few earth masses; calibration of stellar luminosities and by means of standard candles, calibration of the cosmic distance scale; detecting perturbations due to spiral arms, disk warps and central bar in our galaxy; probe of the gravitational potential of the Galaxy, several kiloparsecs out of the galactic plane; synthesis imaging

  11. New Methods in Moire Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czarnek, Robert

    Experimental observations and measurements are the essential source of information necessary for correct development of mathematical models of real materials. Moire interferometry offers high sensitivity in full-field measurements of the in-plane displacements on the surface of the specimen. The (+OR-)45(DEGREES) method of moire interferometry increases the efficiency of a three-beam interferometer making its use outside of an optical laboratory more practical. Analysis of the (+OR-)45(DEGREES) method is provided. A concept of the vector representation of the fringe gradient is introduced and used in the analysis. Although existing systems require coherent light, the proposed system can use a relatively broad spectral bandwidth. Features that are related to the vibration sensitivity of such an instrument are investigated analytically. The basic concepts of an achromatic moire interferometry system are developed. Attachment of the critical elements of the system to the specimen solves the problem of relative rigid body motions, including vibrations, between the specimen and the virtual reference grating. Application of a laser diode light source reduces size, weight and cost of the interferometer making moire interferometry more practical for most materials testing laboratories. Laboratory tests confirmed the developed methods. This work enhances the probability of successful construction of a portable moire interferometer for measurements outside of the optical laboratory, in a mechanical testing or field environment.

  12. Polarimetric Interferometry - Remote Sensing Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    This lecture is mainly based on the work of S.R. Cloude and presents examples for remote sensing applications Polarimetric SAR Interferometry...PolInSAR). PolInSAR has its origins in remote sensing and was first developed for applications in 1997 using SIRC L-Band data [1,2]. In its original form it

  13. Precision Geodesy via Radio Interferometry.

    PubMed

    Hinteregger, H F; Shapiro, I I; Robertson, D S; Knight, C A; Ergas, R A; Whitney, A R; Rogers, A E; Moran, J M; Clark, T A; Burke, B F

    1972-10-27

    Very-long-baseline interferometry experiments, involving observations of extragalactic radio sources, were performed in 1969 to determine the vector separations between antenna sites in Massachusetts and West Virginia. The 845.130-kilometer baseline was estimated from two separate experiments. The results agreed with each other to within 2 meters in all three components and with a special geodetic survey to within 2 meters in length; the differences in baseline direction as determined by the survey and by interferometry corresponded to discrepancies of about 5 meters. The experiments also yielded positions for nine extragalactic radio sources, most to within 1 arc second, and allowed the hydrogen maser clocks at the two sites to be synchronized a posteriori with an uncertainty of only a few nanoseconds.

  14. Optical and Infrared Interferometry IV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajagopal, Jayadev K.; Creech-Eakman, Michelle J.; Malbet, Fabien

    2014-08-01

    Optical and IR Interferometry IV at the SPIE 2014 symposium in Montreal had a strong and vibrant program. After initial fears about budget cuts and travel-funding constraints, the Program Committee had to work hard to accommodate as many quality submissions as possible. Innovative, creative and visionary work ensured that the field has progressed well, despite the bleak funding climate felt in the US, Europe and elsewhere. Montreal proved an excellent venue for this, the largest of Interferometry conferences and the only one that brings together practitioners from the world over. Let us summarize a few highlights to convey a glimpse of the excitement that is detailed in the rest of these Proceedings.

  15. Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, P. V. S.; Ghasempour, A.; Alexandre, D.; Leite, A. M. P.; Garcia, P. J. V.; Reynaud, F.

    2011-05-01

    Integrated optics is a well established technology that finds its main applications in the fields of optical communication and sensing. However, it is expanding into new areas, and in the last decade application in astronomical interferometry has been explored. In particular, several examples have been demonstrated in the areas of beam control and combination. In this paper, different examples of application integrated optics devices for fabrication of beam combiners for astronomical interferometry is given. For the multiaxial beam combiners, a UV laser direct writing unit is used for mask fabrication. The operation principles of the coaxial combiners fabricated in hybrid sol-gel were validated using an interferometric set-up. These results demonstrate that hybrid sol-gel technology can produce quality devices, opening the possibility of rapid prototyping of new designs and concepts.

  16. Separated exclusive kaon production cross sections up to Q2=2.1 GeV2 and the kaon form factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmignotto, Marco; Horn, Tanja

    2017-01-01

    Electromagnetic form factors are a key observable in probing hadronic structure, providing us with important information about underlying physical quantities related to nonperturbative QCD. Light mesons composed of a valence quark-antiquark pair can be described by a single electric form factor and have been shown to be a great laboratory for these studies. Using electroproduction experiments, a successful program was developed at Jefferson Laboratory for probing the charged pion form factor in the regime of Q2 up to 2.45 GeV2. This provided a first glimpse at a possible transition from the nonperturbative to the perturbative regime, and also information on the structure of the pion. The kaon is the next lightest existing hadron, providing an interesting channel for assessing the strangeness degree of freedom with mesons. Although the kaon is relatively unexploited to date, there are promising results from experiments of the 6 GeV era of Jefferson Laboratory with potential for kaon form factor extractions. In this talk we will present the recent analysis of the t-channel kaon cross section and discuss the relative contribution of longitudinal and transverse photons to the cross section up to Q2 values of 2.1 GeV2 and prospects for form factor extractions. Supported in part by NSF grants PHY-1306227 and PHY-1306418 and by the JSA Graduate Fellowship.

  17. Meson interferometry in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This report contains discussions on the following topics: Recent HBT results form CERN experiment NA44; interferometry results from E802/E859/E866; recent results on two particle correlations from E814; source sizes from CERN data; intermittency and interferometry; Bose-Einstein correlations in 200A GeV S+Au collisions; HBT correlations at STAR; HBT interferometry with PHENIX; HBT calculations from ARC; three pion correlations; and pion correlations in proton-induced reactions.

  18. Normal and Differential SAR Interferometry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    This Interferogramme is defined as the product of the complex SAR values of the second image with the complex conjugate of the reference image...which is covered by vegetation in the yellow Square. The phase information can be used for Digital Elevation Model (DEM) production , provided the...and X-Band There are a number of causes for de-correlation in Interferometry, and it is possible to write the coherence as a product of factors

  19. White Light Heterodyne Interferometry SNR

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-09

    INTRODUCTION The subject of heterodyne interferometry, most successfully demonstrated for astronomy in the long- wave infrared (LWIR) at the...zero sun -like star puts out 4 × 107 photons/s/m2/nm at the surface of the earth at this wavelength, which corresponds to a power per unit bandwidth...MID- WAVE AND LONG- WAVE INFRARED While there is a significant penalty to the heterodyne approach in the visible through short- wave infrared (SWIR

  20. Normal and Differential SAR Interferometry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-01

    Geudtner, B. Schättler, P. Vachon, U. Steinbrecher, J. Holzner, J. Mittermayer , H. Breit, A. Moreira. RADARSAT ScanSAR interferometry. In: Proceedings of...part 4, pp. 470-475 Krieger, G., Wendler, M., Fiedler, H., Mittermayer , J., Moreira, A., 2002. Performance analysis for bistatic interferometric...SAR configurations. In: Proceedings of IGARSS 2002, Toronto, Canada, vol. 1, pp. 650-652. Krieger, G., Fiedler, H., Mittermayer , J., Papathanassiou, K

  1. Special topics in infrared interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanel, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Topics in IR interferometry related to the development of a Michelson interferometer are treated. The selection and reading of the signal from the detector to the analog to digital converter is explained. The requirements for the Michelson interferometer advance speed are deduced. The effects of intensity modulation on the interferogram are discussed. Wavelength and intensity calibration of the interferometer are explained. Noise sources (Nyquist or Johnson noise, phonon noise), definitions of measuring methods of noise, and noise measurements are presented.

  2. Holographic Interferometry The Twentieth Anniversary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pryputniewicz, Ryszard J.

    1985-08-01

    Professor Ryszard Pryputniewicz of Worcester Polytechnic Institute has assembled a significant group of papers on the subject of holographic interferometry in celebration of the first twenty years of activity in this field. Several of these papers were received too late for inclusion in this issue but will be published as a group in the next issue of Optical Engineering. Taken together, these papers are an indication of the tremendous progress made during the twenty years of this field's existence.

  3. Lucky interferometry for displacement measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioniţă, Bogdan; Logofătu, Petre Cătălin; Apostol, Dan

    2009-11-01

    We extrapolated the lucky imaging technique, mostly used in astronomy, to the field of interferometry for displacement measurement. From the batch of interferograms generated by a Twyman-Green-type interferometer and acquired by a CCD camera, those with high overall contrast were selected and fitted to a sinusoidal function. The high-contrast interferograms showed a significantly lower dispersion and, consequently, a lower uncertainty of the measured displacement.

  4. Geometric Landau-Zener interferometry.

    PubMed

    Gasparinetti, S; Solinas, P; Pekola, J P

    2011-11-11

    We propose a new type of interferometry, based on geometric phases accumulated by a periodically driven two-level system undergoing multiple Landau-Zener transitions. As a specific example, we study its implementation in a superconducting charge pump. We find that interference patterns appear as a function of the pumping frequency and the phase bias, and clearly manifest themselves in the pumped charge. We also show that the effects described should persist in the presence of realistic decoherence.

  5. A new look on Intensity Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunez, Paul; Le Bohec, Stephan; Kieda, David; Holmes, Richard

    2009-05-01

    Intensity interferometry was introduced in the 1950's and implemented in the late 1960's with the Narrabri Interferometer. Very high angular resolution at visible wavelengths made it possible to measure stellar diameters of a few milli-arc-seconds. Air Cherenkov telescope arrays used for high energy gammaray astronomy can provide perfect sites for a revival of Intensity Interferometry in the optical region. Also, improvements in technology make the implementation of Intensity Interferometry easier and can improve sensitivity. Novel ideas on phase recovery also make it possible to reconstruct high resolution optical images of astrophysical objects in a model independent way. The capabilities and limitations of modern intensity interferometry are discussed.

  6. First exploratory calculation of the long-distance contributions to the rare kaon decays K →π ℓ+ℓ-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christ, Norman H.; Feng, Xu; Jüttner, Andreas; Lawson, Andrew; Portelli, Antonin; Sachrajda, Christopher T.; Rbc; Ukqcd Collaborations

    2016-12-01

    The rare decays of a kaon into a pion and a charged lepton/antilepton pair proceed via a flavor changing neutral current and therefore may only be induced beyond tree level in the Standard Model. This natural suppression makes these decays sensitive to the effects of potential new physics. The C P -conserving K →π ℓ+ℓ-decaychannelshowever are dominated by a single-photon exchange; this involves a sizeable long-distance hadronic contribution which represents the current major source of theoretical uncertainty. Here we outline our methodology for the computation of the long-distance contributions to these rare decay amplitudes using lattice QCD and present the numerical results of the first exploratory studies of these decays in which all but the disconnected diagrams are evaluated. The domain wall fermion ensembles of the RBC and UKQCD Collaborations are used, with a pion mass of Mπ˜430 MeV and a kaon mass of MK˜625 MeV . In particular we determine the form factor, V (z ), of the K +→π+ℓ+ℓ-decay from the lattice at small values of z =q 2/MK2, obtaining V (z )=1.37 (36 ) , 0.68(39), 0.96(64) for the three values of z =-0.5594 (12 ) , -1.0530 (34 ) , -1.4653 (82 ) respectively.

  7. Hunting Down Massless Dark Photons in Kaon Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabbrichesi, M.; Gabrielli, E.; Mele, B.

    2017-07-01

    If dark photons are massless, they couple to standard-model particles only via higher dimensional operators, while direct (renormalizable) interactions induced by kinetic mixing, which motivates most of the current experimental searches, are absent. We consider the effect of possible flavor-changing magnetic-dipole couplings of massless dark photons in kaon physics. In particular, we study the branching ratio for the process K+→π+π0γ ¯ with a simplified-model approach, assuming the chiral quark model to evaluate the hadronic matrix element. Possible effects in the K0-K¯ 0 mixing are taken into account. We find that branching ratios up to O (10-7) are allowed—depending on the dark-sector masses and couplings. Such large branching ratios for K+→π+π0γ ¯ could be of interest for experiments dedicated to rare K+ decays like NA62 at CERN, where γ ¯ can be detected as a massless invisible system.

  8. Resonance effects in pion and kaon decay constants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Zhi-Hui; Sanz-Cillero, Juan José

    2014-05-01

    In this article we study the impact of the lightest vector and scalar resonance multiplets in the pion and kaon decay constants up to next-to-leading order in the 1/NC expansion, i.e., up to the one-loop level. The Fπ and FK predictions obtained within the framework of resonance chiral theory are confronted with lattice simulation data. The vector loops (and the ρ-ππ coupling GV in particular) are found to play a crucial role in the determination of the chiral perturbation theory couplings L4 and L5 at next-to-leading order in 1/NC. Puzzling, values of GV≲40 MeV seem to be necessary to agree with current phenomenological results for L4 and L5. Conversely, a value of GV≳60 MeV compatible with standard ρ -ππ determinations turns these chiral couplings negative. However, in spite of the strong anti-correlation with L4, the SU(3) chiral coupling F0 remains stable all the time and stays within the range 78˜86 MeV when GV is varied in a wide range, from 40 up to 70 MeV. Finally, we would like to remark that the leading order expressions used in this article for the η-η' mixing, mass splitting of the vector multiplet masses and the quark mass dependence of the ρ(770) mass are found in reasonable agreement with the lattice data.

  9. Kaon B-parameter in mixed action chiral perturbation theory

    SciTech Connect

    Aubin, C.; Laiho, Jack; Water, Ruth S. van de

    2007-02-01

    We calculate the kaon B-parameter, B{sub K}, in chiral perturbation theory for a partially quenched, mixed-action theory with Ginsparg-Wilson valence quarks and staggered sea quarks. We find that the resulting expression is similar to that in the continuum, and in fact has only two additional unknown parameters. At 1-loop order, taste-symmetry violations in the staggered sea sector only contribute to flavor-disconnected diagrams by generating an O(a{sup 2}) shift to the masses of taste-singlet sea-sea mesons. Lattice discretization errors also give rise to an analytic term which shifts the tree-level value of B{sub K} by an amount of O(a{sup 2}). This term, however, is not strictly due to taste breaking, and is therefore also present in the expression for B{sub K} for pure Ginsparg-Wilson lattice fermions. We also present a numerical study of the mixed B{sub K} expression in order to demonstrate that both discretization errors and finite volume effects are small and under control on the MILC improved staggered lattices.

  10. Effective kaon masses in dense nuclear and neutron matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waas, T.; Kaiser, N.; Weise, W.

    1996-02-01

    The effective mass and decay width of kaonic modes in baryonic matter are studied within a coupled-channel approach based on the Chiral SU(3) Effective Lagrangian which describes all available low energy data of the coupled overlineKN, π∑, πΛ system. Including Pauli blocking and Fermi motion in the kaon dispersion relation, we find a strong non-linear density dependence of the K - effective mass and decay width in symmetric nuclear matter at densities around 0.1 times normal nuclear matter density ϱ0 due to the in-medium dynamics of the Λ(1405) resonance. At higher densities the K - effective mass decreases slowly but stays above 0.5 mK at least up to densities below 3 ϱ0. In neutron matter the K - effective mass decreases almost linearly with increasing density but remains relatively large ( m K∗ > 0.65 m K) for ϱn ≲ 3 ϱ0. The K + effective mass turns out to increase very slowly with rising density.

  11. The kaon identification system in the NA62 experiment at CERN

    SciTech Connect

    Romano, A.

    2015-07-01

    The main goal of the NA62 experiment at CERN is to measure the branching ratio of the ultra-rare K{sup +} → π{sup +} ν ν-bar decay with 10% accuracy. NA62 will use a 750 MHz high-energy un-separated charged hadron beam, with kaons corresponding to ∼6% of the beam, and a kaon decay-in-flight technique. The positive identification of kaons is performed with a differential Cherenkov detector (CEDAR), filled with Nitrogen gas and placed in the incoming beam. To stand the kaon rate (45 MHz average) and meet the performances required in NA62, the Cherenkov detector has been upgraded (KTAG) with new photon detectors, readout, mechanics and cooling systems. The KTAG provides a fast identification of kaons with an efficiency of at least 95% and precise time information with a resolution below 100 ps. A half-equipped KTAG detector has been commissioned during a technical run at CERN in 2012, while the fully equipped detector, its readout and front-end have been commissioned during a pilot run at CERN in October 2014. The measured time resolution and efficiency are within the required performances. (authors)

  12. Progress in interferometry for LISA at JPL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spero, Robert; Bachman, Brian; de Vine, Glenn; Dickson, Jeffrey; Klipstein, William; Ozawa, Tetsuo; McKenzie, Kirk; Shaddock, Daniel; Robison, David; Sutton, Andrew; Ware, Brent

    2011-05-01

    Recent advances at JPL in experimentation and design for LISA interferometry include the demonstration of time delay interferometry using electronically separated end stations, a new arm-locking design with improved gain and stability, and progress in flight readiness of digital and analog electronics for phase measurements.

  13. Astronomical imaging by pupil plane interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ribak, Erez

    1989-01-01

    Comparing rotational shear interferometry to standard speckle interferometry, it is found that it is easier in the first case to separate the atmospheric phases from the object transform phases. Phase closure and blind deconvolution should be directly applicable. Laboratory simulations were conducted to verify theoretical predictions and computer simulations for the phase closure case, and preliminary results show promise.

  14. An Introduction to Optical Stellar Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labeyrie, A.; Lipson, S. G.; Nisenson, P.

    2006-06-01

    1. Introduction; 2 Basic concepts: a qualitative introduction; 3. Interference, diffraction and coherence; 4. Aperture synthesis; 5. Optical effects of the atmosphere; 6. Single-aperture techniques; 7. Intensity interferometry; 8. Amplitude interferometry: techniques and instruments; 9. The hypertelescope; 10. Nulling and coronagraphy; 11. A sampling of interferometric science; 12. Future ground and space projects; Appendices.

  15. An Introduction to Optical Stellar Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labeyrie, A.; Lipson, S. G.; Nisenson, P.

    2014-03-01

    1. Introduction; 2 Basic concepts: a qualitative introduction; 3. Interference, diffraction and coherence; 4. Aperture synthesis; 5. Optical effects of the atmosphere; 6. Single-aperture techniques; 7. Intensity interferometry; 8. Amplitude interferometry: techniques and instruments; 9. The hypertelescope; 10. Nulling and coronagraphy; 11. A sampling of interferometric science; 12. Future ground and space projects; Appendices.

  16. Absolute distance interferometry using diode lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meiners-Hagen, K.; Abou-Zeid, A.; Hartmann, L.

    2008-10-01

    An approach to a homodyne absolute distance interferometer (ADI) was previously presented which makes use of two extended cavity diode lasers (ECDL). The length measurement is performed by combining variable synthetic wavelength interferometry and two wavelength interferometry in one setup. In this contribution the ADI was compared to a counting HeNe laser interferometer up to a length of 10 m.

  17. Shear viscosity from kaon condensation in color-flavor-locked quark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alford, Mark G.; Braby, Matt; Mahmoodifar, Simin

    2010-02-01

    We calculate the kaonic contribution to the shear viscosity of quark matter in the kaon-condensed color-flavor-locked phase (CFL-K0). This contribution comes from a light pseudo-Goldstone boson that arises from the spontaneous breaking of the flavor symmetry by the kaon condensate. The other contribution, from the exactly massless superfluid “phonon,” has been calculated previously. We specialize to a particular form of the interaction Lagrangian, parameterized by a single coupling. We find that if we make reasonable guesses for the values of the parameters of the effective theory, the kaons have a much smaller shear viscosity than the superfluid phonons but also a much shorter mean free path, so they could easily provide the dominant contribution to the shear viscosity of CFL-K0 quark matter in a neutron star in the temperature range 0.01 to 1 MeV (108 to 1010 K).

  18. Constraints on Lμ-Lτ gauge interactions from rare kaon decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibe, Masahiro; Nakano, Wakutaka; Suzuki, Motoo

    2017-03-01

    A model with Lμ-Lτ gauge symmetry is the least constrained model as a resolution to the disagreement of the muon anomalous magnetic moment between the theoretical predictions and the experimental results. In this paper, we discuss how well the Lμ-Lτ model can be constrained by looking for decays of the charged kaon associated with a Lμ-Lτ gauge boson. More concretely, we consider searches for single muon tracks from the decays of stopped charged kaon as in the E949 experiment. In our conservative estimation, we find that the favored parameter region for the muon anomalous magnetic moment can be tested by using a 10 times larger number of the stopped charged kaons and about a 100 times better photon rejection rate than the E949 experiment.

  19. The atmospheric charged kaon/pion ratio using seasonal variation methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grashorn, E. W.; de Jong, J. K.; Goodman, M. C.; Habig, A.; Marshak, M. L.; Mufson, S.; Osprey, S.; Schreiner, P.

    2010-04-01

    Observed since the 1950s, the seasonal effect on underground muons is a well studied phenomenon. The interaction height of incident cosmic rays changes as the temperature of the atmosphere changes, which affects the production height of mesons (mostly pions and kaons). The decay of these mesons produces muons that can be detected underground. The production of muons is dominated by pion decay, and previous work did not include the effect of kaons. In this work, the methods of Barrett and MACRO are extended to include the effect of kaons. These efforts give rise to a new method to measure the atmospheric K/π ratio at energies beyond the reach of current fixed target experiments. These methods were applied to data from the MINOS far detector. A method is developed for making these measurements at other underground detectors, including OPERA, Super-K, IceCube, Baksan and the MINOS near detector.

  20. Kaon-Nucleon systems and their interactions in the Skyrme model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezoe, Takashi; Hosaka, Atsushi

    2016-08-01

    We study kaon-nucleon systems in the Skyrme model in a method based on the bound state approach of Callan-Klebanov but with the kaon around the physical nucleon of the rotating hedgehog. This corresponds to the variation after projection, reversing the order of semiclassical quantization of 1 /Nc expansion. The method, however, is considered to be suited to the study of weakly interacting kaon-nucleon systems including loosely K ¯N bound states such as Λ (1405 ). We have found a bound state with binding energy of order 10 MeV, consistent with the observed state. We also discuss the K ¯N interaction and find that it consists of an attraction in the middle range and a repulsion in the short range.

  1. Inclusive production of charged pions, kaons and protons in υ(4 S) decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, H.; Cronström, H. I.; Ehrlichmann, H.; Hamacher, T.; Hofmann, R. P.; Kirchhoff, T.; Nau, A.; Nowak, S.; Reidenbach, M.; Reiner, R.; Schröder, H.; Schulz, H. D.; Walter, M.; Wurth, R.; Appuhn, R. D.; Hast, C.; Kolanoski, H.; Lange, A.; Lindner, A.; Mankel, R.; Schieber, M.; Siegmund, T.; Spaan, B.; Thurn, H.; Töpfer, D.; Walther, A.; Wegener, D.; Paulini, M.; Reim, K.; Wegener, H.; Mundt, R.; Oest, T.; Schmidt-Parzefall, W.; Funk, W.; Stiewe, J.; Werner, S.; Ehret, K.; Hölscher, A.; Hofmann, W.; Hüpper, A.; Khan, S.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Spengler, J.; Britton, D. I.; Charlesworth, C. E. K.; Edwards, K. W.; Hyatt, E. R. F.; Kapitza, H.; Krieger, P.; Macfarlane, D. B.; Patel, P. M.; Prentice, J. D.; Saull, P. R. B.; Seidel, S. C.; Tzamariudaki, K.; van de Water, R. G.; Yoon, T.-S.; Reßing, D.; Schmidtler, M.; Schneider, M.; Schubert, K. R.; Strahl, K.; Waldi, R.; Weseler, S.; Kernel, G.; Križan, P.; Križnič, E.; Podobnik, T.; Živko, T.; Jönsson, L.; Balagura, V.; Belyaev, I.; Danilov, M.; Droutskoy, A.; Golutvin, A.; Gorelov, I.; Kostina, G.; Lubimov, V.; Murat, P.; Pakhlov, P.; Ratnikov, F.; Semenov, S.; Shibaev, V.; Soloshenko, V.; Tichomirov, I.; Zaitsev, Yu.

    1993-06-01

    Using the detector ARGUS at the e + e - storage ring DORIS II, we have investigated inclusive momentum spectra of charged pions, kaons, and protons from decays of the υ(4S) meson. The kaon spectra have been measured in two independent ways, by coherently exploiting the detector's particle identification capabilities, and by detecting decays in-flight. The extracted mean multiplicities for charged hadrons are 7.17±0.05±0.14 pions, 1.56±0.03±0.05 kaons and 0.110±0.010±0.007 protons per υ(4 S) decay, where pions and protons from K {/s o } and Δ decays have been subtracted.

  2. Shear viscosity from kaon condensation in color-flavor-locked quark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Alford, Mark G.; Mahmoodifar, Simin; Braby, Matt

    2010-02-15

    We calculate the kaonic contribution to the shear viscosity of quark matter in the kaon-condensed color-flavor-locked phase (CFL-K0). This contribution comes from a light pseudo-Goldstone boson that arises from the spontaneous breaking of the flavor symmetry by the kaon condensate. The other contribution, from the exactly massless superfluid 'phonon', has been calculated previously. We specialize to a particular form of the interaction Lagrangian, parameterized by a single coupling. We find that if we make reasonable guesses for the values of the parameters of the effective theory, the kaons have a much smaller shear viscosity than the superfluid phonons but also a much shorter mean free path, so they could easily provide the dominant contribution to the shear viscosity of CFL-K0 quark matter in a neutron star in the temperature range 0.01 to 1 MeV (10{sup 8} to 10{sup 10} K).

  3. TDRS orbit determination by radio interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavloff, Michael S.

    1994-01-01

    In support of a NASA study on the application of radio interferometry to satellite orbit determination, MITRE developed a simulation tool for assessing interferometry tracking accuracy. The Orbit Determination Accuracy Estimator (ODAE) models the general batch maximum likelihood orbit determination algorithms of the Goddard Trajectory Determination System (GTDS) with the group and phase delay measurements from radio interferometry. ODAE models the statistical properties of tracking error sources, including inherent observable imprecision, atmospheric delays, clock offsets, station location uncertainty, and measurement biases, and through Monte Carlo simulation, ODAE calculates the statistical properties of errors in the predicted satellites state vector. This paper presents results from ODAE application to orbit determination of the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) by radio interferometry. Conclusions about optimal ground station locations for interferometric tracking of TDRS are presented, along with a discussion of operational advantages of radio interferometry.

  4. CURIE: Cubesat Radio Interferometry Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundkvist, D. J.; Saint-Hilaire, P.; Bain, H. M.; Bale, S. D.; Bonnell, J. W.; Hurford, G. J.; Maruca, B.; Martinez Oliveros, J. C.; Pulupa, M.

    2016-12-01

    The CUbesat Radio Interferometry Experiment (CURIE) is a proposed two-element radio interferometer, based on proven and developed digital radio receivers and designed to fit within a Cubesat platform. CURIE will launch as a 6U Cubesat and then separate into two 3U Cubesats once in orbit. CURIE measures radio waves from 0.1-19MHz, which must be measured from space, as those frequencies fall below the cutoff imposed by Earth's ionosphere. The principal science objective for CURIE is to use radio interferometry to study radio burst emissions from solar eruptive events such as flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in the inner heliosphere, providing observations important for our understanding of the heliospheric space weather environment. The influence of space weather can be felt at Earth and other planets, as radiation levels increase and lead to auroral activity and geomagnetic effects. CURIE will be able to determine the location and size of radio burst source regions and then to track their movement outward from the Sun. In addition to the primary objective CURIE will measure the gradients of the local ionospheric density and electron temperature on the spatial scale of a few kilometers, as well as create an improved map of the radio sky at these unexplored frequencies. A space based radio interferometry observatory has long been envisioned, in orbit around the Earth or the Moon, or on the far side of the Moon. Beyond its important science objectives, CURIE will prove that the concept of a dedicated space-based interferometer can be realized by using relatively cheap Cubesats. CURIE will therefore not only provide new important science results but also serve as a pathfinder in the development of new space-based radio observation techniques for helio- and astro-physics.

  5. Kaon matrix elements and CP violation from quenched lattice QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristian, Calin-Radu

    We report the results of a calculation of the K → pipi matrix elements relevant for the DeltaI = 1/2 rule and epsilon '/epsilon in quenched lattice QCD using domain wall fermions at a fixed lattice spacing of a-1 ˜ 2 GeV. Working in the three-quark effective theory, where only the u, d and s quarks enter and which is known perturbatively to next-to-leading order; we calculate the lattice K → pi and K → |0> matrix elements of dimension six, four-fermion operators. Through lowest order chiral perturbation theory these yield K → pipi matrix elements, which we then normalize to continuum values through a non-perturbative renormalization technique. For the Delta I = 1/2 rule we find a value of 25.3 +/- 1.8 (statistical error only) compared to the experimental value of 22.2, with individual isospin amplitudes 10--20% below the experimental values. For epsilon '/epsilon; using known central values for standard model parameters, we calculate (-4.0 +/- 2.3) x 10-4 (statistical error only) compared to the current experimental average of (17.2 +/- 1.8) x 10-4. Because we find a large cancellation between the I = 0 and I = 2 contributions to epsilon'/epsilon, the result may be very sensitive to the approximations employed. Among these are the use of: quenched QCD, lowest order chiral perturbation theory and continuum perturbation theory below 1.3 GeV. We have also calculated the kaon B parameter, BK and find BK(2 GeV) = 0.532(11). Although currently unable to give a reliable systematic error; we have control over statistical errors and more simulations will yield information about the effects of the approximations on this first-principles determination of these important quantities.

  6. Results on kaon physics from OKA setup at U-70

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obraztsov, V.

    2017-01-01

    Some recent results from OKA setup are presented. First, the decay K + →π0 e+υ(K e3) is studied. About 3.15M events are selected for the analysis. The linear and quadratic slopes for the decay formfactor f +(t) are measured: . For the exotic scalar and tensor interactions we get: FS /f +(0) = (-0.44±0.7±0.24) × 10-2 FT /f +(0) = (0.16±2±1.3) × 10-2. Several alternative parametrizations are tried: the Pole fit parameter is found to be MV = 890 ± 3.7 MeV; the parameter of the Dispersive parametrization is measured to be Λ+ = (24.72 ± 0.23) × 10-3. Second, the results of a search for heavy neutrino in the K μ2 decay are shown. The upper limits on the mixing parameter of the heavy neutrino with the muon neutrino |U μH |2 are obtained. Typically, |U μH |2 ≤ 10-6 for the region 225 ≤ mH ≤ 375 MeV. Third, a new study of the radiative K μ3 decay are presented. The number of signal events is ˜ 580 which is 4 times larger than in previous measurements. which should be compared with 4.7 × 10-4 from the theory. An estimate of the T-odd asymmetry gives A ξ = (-0.19±0.05±0.09). A space asymmetry over , where is the angle between photon and muon momenta in the kaon rest frame is measured to be A(cosθ*) = 0.6±0.05±0.1.

  7. An Interferometry Imaging Beauty Contest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, Peter R.; Cotton, William D.; Hummel, Christian A.; Monnier, John D.; Zhaod, Ming; Young, John S.; Thorsteinsson, Hrobjartur; Meimon, Serge C.; Mugnier, Laurent; LeBesnerais, Guy; Thiebaut, Eric; Tuthill, Peter G.; Hani, Christopher A.; Pauls, Thomas; DuvertI, Gilles; Garcia, Paulo; Kuchner, Marc

    2004-01-01

    We present a formal comparison of the performance of algorithms used for synthesis imaging with optical/infrared long-baseline interferometers. Six different algorithms are evaluated based on their performance with simulated test data. Each set of test data is formated in the interferometry Data Exchange Standard and is designed to simulate a specific problem relevant to long-baseline imaging. The data are calibrated power spectra and bispectra measured with a ctitious array, intended to be typical of existing imaging interferometers. The strengths and limitations of each algorithm are discussed.

  8. Aperture masking interferometry research simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haitao; Luo, Qiufeng; Fan, Weijun; Zhang, Xian Ling; Tao, Chunkan; Zhu, Yongtian; Zhou, Bifang; Chen, Hanliang

    2004-10-01

    Aperture Masking Interferometry (AMI) is one of the high-resolution astronomical image observation technologies. It is also an important research way to the Optical Aperture Synthesis (OAS). The theory of OAS is simply introduced and AMI simulation method is raised. The mathematics model is built and the interferogram fringes are got. The aperture mask u-v coverage is discussed and one image reconstruction method is done. The reconstructed image result is got with CLEAN method. Shortcoming of this work is also referred and the future research work is mentioned at last.

  9. Golographic interferometry of physical processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrovskaya, G. V.

    2016-06-01

    This paper is devoted to the contribution of Yuri Ostrovsky to holographic interferometry, one of the fundamental scientific and practical applications of holography. The title of this paper is the same as the title of his doctoral thesis that he defended in 1974, and, as it seems to me, reflects most of the specific features of the majority of his scientific publications, viz., an inseparable link of the methods developed by him with the results obtained with the help of these methods in a wide range of investigations of physical processes and phenomena.

  10. Virtual Reference Interferometry: Theory & Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galle, Michael Anthony

    This thesis introduces the idea that a simulated interferogram can be used as a reference for an interferometer. This new concept represents a paradigm shift from the conventional thinking, where a reference is the phase of a wavefront that traverses a known path. The simulated interferogram used as a reference is called a virtual reference. This thesis develops the theory of virtual reference interferometry and uses it for the characterization of chromatic dispersion in short length (<1m) fibers and optical components. Characterization of chromatic dispersion on short length fiber and optical components is a very difficult challenge. Accurate measurement of first and second order dispersion is important for applications from optical component design to nonlinear photonics, sensing and communications. Techniques for short-length dispersion characterization are therefore critical to the development of many photonic systems. The current generation of short-length dispersion measurement techniques are either easy to operate but lack sufficient accuracy, or have sufficient accuracy but are difficult to operate. The use of a virtual reference combines the advantages of these techniques so that it is both accurate and easy to operate. Chromatic dispersion measurements based on virtual reference interferometry have similar accuracy as the best conventional measurement techniques due to the ability to measure first and second order dispersion directly from the interference pattern. Unique capabilities of virtual reference interferometry are demonstrated, followed by a derivation of the operational constraints and system parameters. The technique is also applied to the characterization of few-mode fibers, a hot topic in telecommunications research where mode division multiplexing promises to expand network bandwidth. Also introduced is the theory of dispersive virtual reference interferometry, which can be used to overcome the bandwidth limitations associated with the

  11. 50 years of holographic interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stetson, Karl A.

    2015-01-01

    Fifty years ago, Robert L. Powell and I discovered holographic interferometry while working at the Radar Laboratory of the University of Michigan's Institute of Science and Technology. I have worked in this field for this entire time span, watched it grow from an unexplored technology to become a widespread industrial testing method, and I have contributed to these developments. In this paper, I will trace my history in this field from our discovery to my involvement in its theory and applications. I will conclude with a discussion of digital holography, which is currently replacing photographic holography for most research and industrial applications.

  12. On Khalfin's improvement of the LOY effective Hamiltonian for neutral meson complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jankiewicz, J.; Urbanowski, K.

    2007-02-01

    The general properties of the effective Hamiltonian for the neutral meson system improved by Khalfin in 1980 are studied. It is shown that contrary to the standard result of the Lee Oehme Yang (LOY) theory, the diagonal matrix elements of this effective Hamiltonian cannot be equal in a CPT invariant system. It is also shown that the scalar product of short, |K_{text{S}}rangle, and long, |K_{text{L}}rangle, living superpositions of neutral kaons cannot be real when CPT symmetry is conserved in the system under consideration, whereas within the LOY theory such a scalar product is real.

  13. Pion, Kaon, Proton and Antiproton Production in Proton-Proton Collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.; Blattnig, Steve R.

    2008-01-01

    Inclusive pion, kaon, proton, and antiproton production from proton-proton collisions is studied at a variety of proton energies. Various available parameterizations of Lorentz-invariant differential cross sections as a function of transverse momentum and rapidity are compared with experimental data. The Badhwar and Alper parameterizations are moderately satisfactory for charged pion production. The Badhwar parameterization provides the best fit for charged kaon production. For proton production, the Alper parameterization is best, and for antiproton production the Carey parameterization works best. However, no parameterization is able to fully account for all the data.

  14. Spin 3/2 and 5/2 nucleon resonances in kaon electroproduction

    SciTech Connect

    Mart, T.

    2016-04-19

    We have analyzed the available kaon electroproduction data by using the field theoretical approach involving spin 3/2 and 5/2 nucleon resonances. To this end we extend our previous isobar model for photoproduction to the finite Q{sup 2} region by making use of different electromagnetic form factors. The result indicates that kaon electroproduction data can be nicely described by the photoproduction isobar model, provided that the inserted electromagnetic form factors in all electromagnetic vertices are constructed from a combination of dipole and exponential form factors is included in all electromagnetic vertices.

  15. Parameterizations of Inclusive Cross Sections for Kaon, Proton, and Antiproton Production in Proton-Proton Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norbury, John W.

    2009-05-01

    Inclusive kaon, proton, and antiproton production from high-energy proton-proton collisions is studied. Various available parameterizations of Lorentz-invariant, differential cross sections, as a function of transverse momentum and rapidity, are compared with experimental data. This paper shows that the Badhwar parameterization provides the best fit for charged kaon production. For proton production, the Alper parameterization is best and for antiproton production the Carey parameterization works best. The formulae for these cross sections are suitable for use in high-energy cosmic ray transport codes.

  16. Multiple pion and kaon production in high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions: measurements versus specific models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guptaroy, P.; de, Bh.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Bhattacharyya, D. P.

    The pion and kaon rapidity densities and the nature of kaon-pion ratios offer two very prominent and crucial physical observables on which modestly sufficient data for heavy nucleus collisions are available to date. In the light of two sets of models - one purely phenomenological and the other with a modest degree of a dynamical basis - we try to examine the state of agreement between calculations and experimental results obtainable from the past and the latest measurements. Impact and implications of all these would also finally be spelt out.

  17. The transverse momentum dependence of charged kaon Bose–Einstein correlations in the SELEX experiment

    DOE PAGES

    Nigmatkulov, G. A.; et al.

    2015-12-18

    We report the measurement of the one-dimensional charged kaon correlation functions using 600 GeV/c Σ–, π– and 540 GeV/Cρ beams from the SELEX (E781) experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron. K±K± correlation functions are studied for three transverse pair momentum, kT, ranges and parameterized by a Gaussian form. The emission source radii, R, and the correlation strength, λ, are extracted. Furthermore, the analysis shows a decrease of the source radii with increasing kaon transverse pair momentum for all beam types.

  18. Multi-Photon Quantum Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouwmeester, Dirk

    2007-06-01

    Based on the investigation of multi-photon entanglement, as produced by stimulated parametric down-conversion, a technique is presented to create heralded ``noon'' states. The relevance for interferometry will be discussed. Furthermore we explored the use of photon-number resolving detectors in Mach-Zehnder type of interferometers. Our current detectors can distinguish 0, 1, 2, to7, photon impacts. Although the overall collection and detection efficiency of photons is well below unity (about 0.3) the photon number resolving property is still very useful if combined with coherent input states since those state are eigenstates of the photon annihilation operator. First we analyze the coherent state interferometer with a single photon-number resolving detector, revealing the strong non-linear response of an interferometer in the case of Fock-state projection. Second, we use two such detectors together with a Baysian phase estimation strategy to demonstrate that it is possible to achieve the standard quantum limit independently from the true value of the phase shift. This protocol is unbiased and saturates the Cramer-Rao phase uncertainty bound and, therefore, is an optimal phase estimation strategy. As a final topic it will be shown how quantum interferometry combined with micromechanical structures can be used to investigate quantum superpositions and quantum decoherence of macroscopic objects.

  19. Bibliography of spatial interferometry in optical astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gezari, Daniel Y.; Roddier, Francois; Roddier, Claude

    1990-01-01

    The Bibliography of Spatial Interferometry in Optical Astronomy is a guide to the published literature in applications of spatial interferometry techniques to astronomical observations, theory and instrumentation at visible and infrared wavelengths. The key words spatial and optical define the scope of this discipline, distinguishing it from spatial interferometry at radio wavelengths, interferometry in the frequency domain applied to spectroscopy, or more general electro-optics theoretical and laboratory research. The main bibliography is a listing of all technical articles published in the international scientific literature and presented at the major international meetings and workshops attended by the spatial interferometry community. Section B summarizes publications dealing with the basic theoretical concepts and algorithms proposed and applied to optical spatial interferometry and imaging through a turbulent atmosphere. The section on experimental techniques is divided into twelve categories, representing the most clearly identified major areas of experimental research work. Section D, Observations, identifies publications dealing specifically with observations of astronomical sources, in which optical spatial interferometry techniques have been applied.

  20. A Measurement of Charged and Neutral Elementary Particles Emitted from Antiproton Annihilation at Rest in Heavy Nuclei

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-15

    1991 SUMMARY Yields and ,nergy spectra of nuclear fragments and mesons emitted from antiproton crnihilation at rest in carbon, bismuth and uranium...anti- proton annihilation at rest in nuclei (carbon and uranium). These particles include (charged) pions, kaons, protons, light nuclear fragments ...included in order to demonstrate as discussed in [10], and escape of excess neutral pions the effect of pion absorption in the nuclear environment , due to

  1. High sensitivity moiré interferometry with compact achromatic interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czarnek, Robert

    Experimental observations and measurements are the sources of information essential for correct development of mathematical models of real structural materials. Moiré interferometry offers high sensitivity in full-field measurements of in-plane displacements on the surface of a specimen. Although it is a powerful method in experimental stress analysis, it has some shortcomings. One is that existing systems require highly coherent light. The only sufficient source of light for this application is a long cavity laser, which is relatively expensive and at best cumbersome. Another shortcoming is that measurements must be performed in a vibration-free environment, such as that found on a holographic table. These requirements limit the use of existing moiré interferometers to a holographic laboratory. In this paper a modified concept of compensation is presented, which permits the use of a chromatic source of light in a compact moiré system. The compensator provides order in the angles of incident light for each separate wavelength, so that the virtual reference grating created by each wavelength in a continuous spectrum is identical in frequency and spatial position. The result is a virtual reference grating that behaves exactly like that created in coherent light. With this development the use of a laser diode, which is a non-coherent light source of tiny dimensions, becomes practical. The special configuration of the optics that create the virtual grating allows its synchronization with the specimen grating and leads to an interferometer design that is relatively insensitive to the vibrations found in a mechanical testing laboratory. Sensitivity to relative motion is analyzed theoretically. This development provides the oppurtunity to apply moiré interferometry to solid mechanics problems that cannot be studied in an optics laboratory. Experimental verification of the optical concepts is provided. A compact moiré interferometer based on the presented idea was

  2. Optical Long Baseline Interferometry News (OLBIN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Peter R.; Malbet, Fabien

    2010-07-01

    The Optical Long Baseline Interferometry News (OLBIN) is a website and forum for scientists, engineers, and students who share a common interest in long-baseline stellar interferometry. Through OLBIN you will find links to projects devoted to stellar interferometry, as well as news items, recent papers and preprints, notices of upcoming meetings, and resources for further research. This paper describes the history of the website, how it has evolved to serve the community, and the current plans for its future development. The website can be found at http://olbin.jpl.nasa.gov/.

  3. Parameterization of spectral distributions for pion and kaon production in proton-proton collisions.

    PubMed

    Schneider, J P; Norbury, J W; Cucinotta, F A

    1995-04-01

    Accurate semi-empirical parameterizations of the energy-differential cross sections for charged pion and kaon production from proton-proton collisions are presented at energies relevant to cosmic rays. The parameterizations depend on the outgoing meson momentum and also the proton energy, and are able to be reduced to very simple analytical formulas suitable for cosmic-ray transport.

  4. Analysis of the consistency of kaon photoproduction data with Λ in the final state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bydžovský, P.; Mart, T.

    2007-12-01

    The recent CLAS 2005, SAPHIR 2003, LEPS, and the old, pre-1972, data on K+Λ photoproduction are compared with theoretical calculations in the energy region of Eγlab<2.6 GeV in order to learn about their mutual consistency. The isobaric models Kaon-Maid and Saclay-Lyon, along with new fits to the CLAS data, are utilized in this analysis. The SAPHIR 2003 data are shown to be coherently shifted down with respect to the CLAS, LEPS, and pre-1972 data, especially at forward kaon angles. The CLAS, LEPS, and pre-1972 data in the forward hemisphere can be described satisfactorily by using the isobaric model without hadronic form factors. The inclusion of the hadronic form factors yields a strong suppression of the cross sections at small kaon angles and c.m. energies larger than 1.9 GeV, which is not observed in the existing experimental data. We demonstrate that the discrepancy between the CLAS and SAPHIR data has a significant impact on the predicted values of the mass and width of the “missing resonance” D13(1895) in the Kaon-Maid model.

  5. Kaon Condensation and Lambda-Nucleon Loop in the Relativistic Mean-Field Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Tomoyuki Maruyama; Takumi Muto; Toshitaka Tatsumi; Kazuo Tsushima; Anthony W. Thomas

    2005-02-24

    The possibility of kaon condensation in high-density symmetric nuclear matter is investigated including both s- and p-wave kaon-baryon interactions within the relativistic mean-field (RMF) theory. Above a certain density, we have a collective K{sub s} state carrying the same quantum numbers as the antikaon. The appearance of the K{sub s} state is caused by the time component of the axial-vector interaction between kaons and baryons. It is shown that the system becomes unstable with respect to condensation of K-Kbar{sub s} pairs. We consider how the effective baryon masses affect the kaon self-energy coming from the time component of the axial-vector interaction. Also, the role of the spatial component of the axial-vector interaction on the possible existence of the collective kaonic states is discussed in connection with Lambda-mixing effects in the ground state of high-density matter. Implications of K-Kbar{sub s} condensation for high-energy heavy-ion collisions are briefly mentioned.

  6. Possibility of studying. nu. /sub e/ and anti. nu. /sub e/ interactions at a Kaon Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, C.M.

    1981-03-01

    The possibility of observing ..nu../sub e/- and anti ..nu../sub e/-induced reactions at a high-flux Kaon Factory is discussed. A recently suggested neutrino beam derived from K/sub L//sup 0/ decays is the enriched source of ..nu../sub e/ and anti ..nu../sub e/. Some specific measurements which are feasible are described.

  7. Parameterization of spectral distributions for pion and kaon production in proton-proton collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, John P.; Norbury, John W.; Cucinotta, Frank A.

    1995-01-01

    Accurate semi-empirical parameterizations of the energy-differential cross sections for charged pion and kaon production from proton-proton collisions are presented at energies relevant to cosmic rays. The parameterizations depend on the outgoing meson momentum and also the proton energy, and are able to be reduced to very simple analytical formulas suitable for cosmic-ray transport.

  8. Kaon Transverse Charge Density from Space- and Time-like Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mecholsky, Nicholas; Meija-Ott, Johann; Carmignotto, Marco; Horn, Tanja; Miller, Gerald; Pegg, Ian; Resca, Lorenzo

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of electromagnetic form factors play an important role in our understanding of the structure and interactions of hadrons based on the principles of QCD. Transverse charge densities provide a framework for the interpretation of these form factors in terms of the physical charge and magnetization densities. They are obtained as two-dimensional Fourier transforms of the elastic form factors and describe the distribution of charge and magnetization in the plane transverse to the propagation direction of a fast moving nucleon. They are related to the Generalized Parton distributions (GPDs), which are expected to provide a universal (process-independent) description of the nucleon. The simplest hadronic system that also includes a heavier strange quark is the kaon, whose valence structure is a bound state of a quark and an antiquark. Its elastic electromagnetic structure is parameterized by a single form factor. Recent calculations suggest that strange quarks play a large role in, e.g., the shape of the parton distribution amplitude, making studies of the kaon's internal structure of the kaon even more important. I will present the first extraction of the kaon transverse charge density from timelike and spacelike data including new data at high center of mass energies. NSF Grant PHY-1306227, PHY-1306418; USDOE Grant DE-FG02-97ER-41014; Vitreous State Laboratory.

  9. Pion and kaon structure functions at 12 GeV JLab and EIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horn, Tanja

    2017-01-01

    Pions and kaons are, along with protons and neutrons, the main building blocks of nuclear matter. They are connected to the Goldstone modes of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking, the mechanism thought to generate all hadron mass in the visible universe. The distribution of the fundamental constituents, the quarks and gluons, is expected to be different in pions, kaons, and nucleons. However, experimental data are sparse. As a result, there has been persistent doubt about the behavior of the pion's valence quark structure function at large Bjorken-x and virtually nothing is known about the contribution of gluons. A 12 GeV JLab experiment using tagged DIS may contribute to the resolution of the former. The Electron-Ion Collider with an acceptance optimized for forward physics could provide access to structure functions over a larger kinematic region. This would allow for measurements testing if the origin of mass is encoded in the differences of gluons in pions, kaons, and nucleons, and measurements testing assumptions used in the extraction of structure functions and the pion and kaon form factors. Electroweak measurements at an EIC would also potentially allow to disentangle the role of quark flavors at high x. In this talk we will discuss the prospects of such measurements. Supported in part by NSF grants PHY-1306227 and PHY-1306418.

  10. Kaon condensation in the quark-meson coupling model and compact stars

    SciTech Connect

    Menezes, D.P.; Panda, P.K.; Providencia, C.

    2005-09-01

    The properties of neutron stars, consisting of a crust of hadrons and an internal part of hadrons and kaon condensate, are calculated within the quark-meson-coupling model. We considered stars with nucleons only in the hadron phase and also stars with hyperons as well. The results are compared with the ones obtained from the nonlinear Walecka model for the hadronic phase.

  11. Parameterization of spectral distributions for pion and kaon production in proton-proton collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, John P.; Norbury, John W.; Cucinotta, Frank A.

    1995-01-01

    Accurate semi-empirical parameterizations of the energy-differential cross sections for charged pion and kaon production from proton-proton collisions are presented at energies relevant to cosmic rays. The parameterizations depend on the outgoing meson momentum and also the proton energy, and are able to be reduced to very simple analytical formulas suitable for cosmic-ray transport.

  12. Pion-Kaon correlations in central Au+Au collisions at square root [sNN] = 130 GeV.

    PubMed

    Adams, J; Adler, C; Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Amonett, J; Anderson, B D; Anderson, M; Arkhipkin, D; Averichev, G S; Badyal, S K; Balewski, J; Barannikova, O; Barnby, L S; Baudot, J; Bekele, S; Belaga, V V; Bellwied, R; Berger, J; Bezverkhny, B I; Bhardwaj, S; Bhaskar, P; Bhati, A K; Bichsel, H; Billmeier, A; Bland, L C; Blyth, C O; Bonner, B E; Botje, M; Boucham, A; Brandin, A; Bravar, A; Cadman, R V; Cai, X Z; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M; Carroll, J; Castillo, J; Castro, M; Cebra, D; Chaloupka, P; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, H F; Chen, Y; Chernenko, S P; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Choi, B; Christie, W; Coffin, J P; Cormier, T M; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Das, D; Das, S; Derevschikov, A A; Didenko, L; Dietel, T; Dong, X; Draper, J E; Du, F; Dubey, A K; Dunin, V B; Dunlop, J C; Dutta Majumdar, M R; Eckardt, V; Efimov, L G; Emelianov, V; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Erazmus, B; Fachini, P; Faine, V; Faivre, J; Fatemi, R; Filimonov, K; Filip, P; Finch, E; Fisyak, Y; Flierl, D; Foley, K J; Fu, J; Gagliardi, C A; Ganti, M S; Gutierrez, T D; Gagunashvili, N; Gans, J; Gaudichet, L; Germain, M; Geurts, F; Ghazikhanian, V; Ghosh, P; Gonzalez, J E; Grachov, O; Grigoriev, V; Gronstal, S; Grosnick, D; Guedon, M; Guertin, S M; Gupta, A; Gushin, E; Hallman, T J; Hardtke, D; Harris, J W; Heinz, M; Henry, T W; Heppelmann, S; Herston, T; Hippolyte, B; Hirsch, A; Hjort, E; Hoffmann, G W; Horsley, M; Huang, H Z; Huang, S L; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Ishihara, A; Jacobs, P; Jacobs, W W; Janik, M; Johnson, I; Jones, P G; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kaneta, M; Kaplan, M; Keane, D; Kiryluk, J; Kisiel, A; Klay, J; Klein, S R; Klyachko, A; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Konstantinov, A S; Kopytine, M; Kotchenda, L; Kovalenko, A D; Kramer, M; Kravtsov, P; Krueger, K; Kuhn, C; Kulikov, A I; Kumar, A; Kunde, G J; Kunz, C L; Kutuev, R Kh; Kuznetsov, A A; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Lange, S; Lansdell, C P; Lasiuk, B; Laue, F; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednický, R; Leontiev, V M; LeVine, M J; Li, C; Li, Q; Lindenbaum, S J; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Liu, L; Liu, Z; Liu, Q J; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Long, H; Longacre, R S; Lopez-Noriega, M; Love, W A; Ludlam, T; Lynn, D; Ma, J; Ma, Y G; Magestro, D; Mahajan, S; Mangotra, L K; Mahapatra, D P; Majka, R; Manweiler, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Martin, L; Marx, J; Matis, H S; Matulenko, Yu A; McShane, T S; Meissner, F; Melnick, Yu; Meschanin, A; Messer, M; Miller, M L; Milosevich, Z; Minaev, N G; Mironov, C; Mishra, D; Mitchell, J; Mohanty, B; Molnar, L; Moore, C F; Mora-Corral, M J; Morozov, V; de Moura, M M; Munhoz, M G; Nandi, B K; Nayak, S K; Nayak, T K; Nelson, J M; Nevski, P; Nikitin, V A; Nogach, L V; Norman, B; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Okorokov, V; Oldenburg, M; Olson, D; Paic, G; Pandey, S U; Pal, S K; Panebratsev, Y; Panitkin, S Y; Pavlinov, A I; Pawlak, T; Perevoztchikov, V; Peryt, W; Petrov, V A; Phatak, S C; Picha, R; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Porile, N; Porter, J; Poskanzer, A M; Potekhin, M; Potrebenikova, E; Potukuchi, B V K S; Prindle, D; Pruneau, C; Putschke, J; Rai, G; Rakness, G; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ravel, O; Ray, R L; Razin, S V; Reichhold, D; Reid, J G; Renault, G; Retiere, F; Ridiger, A; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevski, O V; Romero, J L; Rose, A; Roy, C; Ruan, L J; Rykov, V; Sahoo, R; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Savin, I; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmitz, N; Schroeder, L S; Schweda, K; Seger, J; Seliverstov, D; Seyboth, P; Shahaliev, E; Shao, M; Sharma, M; Shestermanov, K E; Shimanskii, S S; Singaraju, R N; Simon, F; Skoro, G; Smirnov, N; Snellings, R; Sood, G; Sorensen, P; Sowinski, J; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stanislaus, S; Stock, R; Stolpovsky, A; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Struck, C; Suaide, A A P; Sugarbaker, E; Suire, C; Sumbera, M; Surrow, B; Symons, T J M; Szanto de Toledo, A; Szarwas, P; Tai, A; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Thein, D; Thomas, J H; Tikhomirov, V; Tokarev, M; Tonjes, M B; Trainor, T A; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Trivedi, M D; Trofimov, V; Tsai, O; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; VanderMolen, A M; Vasiliev, A N; Vasiliev, M; Vigdor, S E; Viyogi, Y P; Voloshin, S A; Waggoner, W; Wang, F; Wang, G; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Ward, H; Watson, J W; Wells, R; Westfall, G D; Whitten, C; Wieman, H; Willson, R; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wood, J; Wu, J; Xu, N; Xu, Z; Xu, Z Z; Yakutin, A E; Yamamoto, E; Yang, J; Yepes, P; Yurevich, V I; Zanevski, Y V; Zborovský, I; Zhang, H; Zhang, H Y; Zhang, W M; Zhang, Z P; Zołnierczuk, P A; Zoulkarneev, R; Zoulkarneeva, J; Zubarev, A N

    2003-12-31

    Pion-kaon correlation functions are constructed from central Au+Au STAR data taken at sqrt[s(NN)]=130 GeV by the STAR detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The results suggest that pions and kaons are not emitted at the same average space-time point. Space-momentum correlations, i.e., transverse flow, lead to a space-time emission asymmetry of pions and kaons that is consistent with the data. This result provides new independent evidence that the system created at RHIC undergoes a collective transverse expansion.

  13. Synthetic aperture interferometry: error analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Amiya; Coupland, Jeremy

    2010-07-10

    Synthetic aperture interferometry (SAI) is a novel way of testing aspherics and has a potential for in-process measurement of aspherics [Appl. Opt.42, 701 (2003)].APOPAI0003-693510.1364/AO.42.000701 A method to measure steep aspherics using the SAI technique has been previously reported [Appl. Opt.47, 1705 (2008)].APOPAI0003-693510.1364/AO.47.001705 Here we investigate the computation of surface form using the SAI technique in different configurations and discuss the computational errors. A two-pass measurement strategy is proposed to reduce the computational errors, and a detailed investigation is carried out to determine the effect of alignment errors on the measurement process.

  14. Nonclassicality Criteria in Multiport Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigovacca, L.; Di Franco, C.; Metcalf, B. J.; Walmsley, I. A.; Kim, M. S.

    2016-11-01

    Interference lies at the heart of the behavior of classical and quantum light. It is thus crucial to understand the boundaries between which interference patterns can be explained by a classical electromagnetic description of light and which, on the other hand, can only be understood with a proper quantum mechanical approach. While the case of two-mode interference has received a lot of attention, the multimode case has not yet been fully explored. Here we study a general scenario of intensity interferometry: we derive a bound on the average correlations between pairs of output intensities for the classical wavelike model of light, and we show how it can be violated in a quantum framework. As a consequence, this violation acts as a nonclassicality witness, able to detect the presence of sources with sub-Poissonian photon-number statistics. We also develop a criterion that can certify the impossibility of dividing a given interferometer into two independent subblocks.

  15. Recording materials for holographic interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grichine, Mikhail V.; Skokov, Gleb R.; Ratcliffe, David B.; Kumonko, Petr I.; Sazonov, Yury A.

    1999-08-01

    We present a general review of our current recording materials suitable for laser interferometry applications. The review will cover fine-grain Silver-Halide materials sensitive to the red (PFG-01) and green (VRP-M) spectral ranges. These products have characteristics very similar to the old Agfa products 8E75 and 8E56. Additionally ultra-fine grain red-sensitive and panchromatic Silver-Halide materials will be covered as well as products based on dichromated gelatin. In each case detailed characteristics of each emulsion type will be presented and recommended processing schemes will be discussed in the context of both Pulsed and CW radiation sources. The choice of commercially available substrate and material dimensions will be mentioned.

  16. Moire interferometry with increased sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Bongtae; Post, Daniel

    The basic sensitivity of moire interferometry was increased beyond the previously conceived theoretical limit. This was accomplished by creating the virtual reference grating inside a refractive medium instead of air, thus shortening the wavelength of light. A very compact four-beam moire interferometer in a refractive medium was developed for microscopic viewing, which produced a basic sensitivity of 208 nm per fringe order, corresponding to moire with 4800 lines per mm. Its configuration made it inherently stable and relatively insensitive to environmental disturbances. An optical microscope was employed as the image recording system to obtain high spatial resolution. The method was demonstrated for deformation of a thick graphite/epoxy composite at the 0/90 deg ply interface.

  17. Decoherence-free neutron interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Pushin, D. A.; Cory, D. G.; Arif, M.

    2009-05-15

    Perfect single-crystal neutron interferometers are adversely sensitive to environmental disturbances, particularly mechanical vibrations. The sensitivity to vibrations results from the slow velocity of thermal neutrons and the long measurement time that are encountered in a typical experiment. Consequently, to achieve a good interference solutions for reducing vibration other than those normally used in optical experiments must be explored. Here we introduce a geometry for a neutron interferometer that is less sensitive to low-frequency vibrations. This design may be compared with both dynamical decoupling methods and decoherence-free subspaces that are described in quantum information processing. By removing the need for bulky vibration isolation setups, this design will make it easier to adopt neutron interferometry to a wide range of applications and increase its sensitivity.

  18. Neutron interferometry for precise characterization of quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarenac, Dusan; Shahi, Chandra; Mineeva, Taisiya; Wood, Christopher J.; Huber, Michael G.; Arif, Muhammad; Clark, Charles W.; Cory, David G.; Pushin, Dmitry A.

    Neutron interferometry (NI) is among the most precise techniques used to test the postulates of quantum mechanics. It has demonstrated coherent spinor rotation and superposition, gravitationally induced quantum interference, the Aharonov-Casher effect, violation of a Bell-like inequality, and generation of a single-neutron entangled state. As massive, penetrating and neutral particles neutrons now provide unique capabilities in classical imaging applications that we seek to extend to the quantum domain. We present recent results on NI measurements of quantum discord in a bipartite quantum system and neutron orbital angular momentum multiplexing, and review progress on our commissioning of a decoherence-free-subspace NI user facility at the NIST Center for Neutron Research. Supported in part by CERC, CIFAR, NSERC and CREATE.

  19. Intensity Interferometry for the 21ST Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horch, E. P.; van Belle, G.; Genet, R. M.; Holenstein, B. D.

    Advances in detector technology and electronic timing capabilities in recent years have resulted in a new opportunity for ultra-high resolution in astronomy using intensity interferometry. We have been working with this technology and describe here the potential as we see it. Two separate opportunities exist at present: the use of Single Photon Avalanche Diode (SPAD) detectors with existing research-grade telescopes and photomultipliers coupled with light bucket telescopes. In the future, there may also be potential for space-based intensity interferometry. While intensity interferometry is not likely to replace amplitude-based interferometry, it does have certain advantages in terms of portability, use of large baselines, narrow-band imaging, and imaging in the blue. We see a new possibility for its use particularly in stellar astrophysics for these reasons.

  20. Some applications of holographic interferometry in biomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebbeni, Jean P. L.

    1992-03-01

    Holographic interferometry is well adapted for the determination of 2D strain fields in osseous structures. The knowledge of those strain fields is important for the understanding of structure behavior such as arthrosis.

  1. The Path to Interferometry in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinehart, S. A.; Savini, G.; Holland, W.; Absil, O.; Defrere, D.; Spencer, L.; Leisawitz, D.; Rizzo, M.; Juanola-Parramon, R.; Mozurkewich, D.

    2016-01-01

    For over two decades, astronomers have considered the possibilities for interferometry in space. The first of these missions was the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM), but that was followed by missions for studying exoplanets (e.g Terrestrial Planet Finder, Darwin), and then far-infrared interferometers (e.g. the Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope, the Far-Infrared Interferometer). Unfortunately, following the cancellation of SIM, the future for space-based interferometry has been in doubt, and the interferometric community needs to reevaluate the path forward. While interferometers have strong potential for scientific discovery, there are technological developments still needed, and continued maturation of techniques is important for advocacy to the broader astronomical community. We review the status of several concepts for space-based interferometry, and look for possible synergies between missions oriented towards different science goals.

  2. The path to interferometry in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinehart, S. A.; Savini, G.; Holland, W.; Absil, O.; Defrère, D.; Spencer, L.; Leisawitz, D.; Rizzo, M.; Juanola-Paramon, R.; Mozurkewich, D.

    2016-08-01

    For over two decades, astronomers have considered the possibilities for interferometry in space. The first of these missions was the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM), but that was followed by missions for studying exoplanets (e.g Terrestrial Planet Finder, Darwin), and then far-infrared interferometers (e.g. the Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope, the Far-Infrared Interferometer). Unfortunately, following the cancellation of SIM, the future for space-based interferometry has been in doubt, and the interferometric community needs to reevaluate the path forward. While interferometers have strong potential for scientific discovery, there are technological developments still needed, and continued maturation of techniques is important for advocacy to the broader astronomical community. We review the status of several concepts for space-based interferometry, and look for possible synergies between missions oriented towards different science goals.

  3. Advanced interferometry at Carl Zeiss (Summary Only)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuechel, Michael F.

    1992-10-01

    Research at Carl Zeiss has led to some innovative solutions in the field of optical test methods and interferometry. One example is the method of `direct measuring interferometry' (DMI), which was developed to overcome the problems of vibration and air turbulence when testing big astronomical primaries and is now the heart of the Carl Zeiss laser-interferometer DIRECT 100. Since DMI offers real-time capabilities for the wavefront evaluation, a built-in frame-memory can act as an `electronic hologram' and opens very elegant ways for in-situ correction of small residual errors, for easy aspherical testing, a very simple way of two- wavelength-interferometry, or a new discipline of time-resolved interferometry.

  4. Fringe Formation in Dual-Hologram Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burner, A. W.

    1989-01-01

    A first order geometrical optics treatment of holograms combined with the generation of interference fringes by two point sources is used to describe reference fringe formation in non-diffuse dual-hologram interferometry.

  5. Measuring Close Binary Stars with Speckle Interferometry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    Measuring Close Binary Stars with Speckle Interferometry Keith T. Knox Air Force Research Laboratory ABSTRACT Speckle interferometry...Labeyrie, 1970) is a well-tested and still used method for detecting and measuring binary stars that are closer together than the width of the...orientation of the binary star system (Horch, 1996, Tokovinin, 2010). In this talk, a method for analyzing the fringes in the power spectrum will be

  6. Accurate phase-shifting digital interferometry.

    PubMed

    Atlan, M; Gross, M; Absil, E

    2007-06-01

    In phase-shifting interferometry experiments, the accuracy of the phase shift is a major issue. Many experimental and data analyses are done to cancel phase-shift errors inherent to the modulation techniques used. We propose to remove most of the phase-shift error by recourse to a frequency-shifting method. This approach can be applied to both holography and interferometry. We validate the idea with a holographic experiment.

  7. Fluorescence interferometry: principles and applications in biology.

    PubMed

    Bilenca, Alberto; Cao, Jing; Colice, Max; Ozcan, Aydogan; Bouma, Brett; Raftery, Laurel; Tearney, Guillermo

    2008-01-01

    The use of fluorescence radiation is of fundamental importance for tackling measurement problems in the life sciences, with recent demonstrations of probing biological systems at the nanoscale. Usually, fluorescent light-based tools and techniques use the intensity of light waves, which is easily measured by detectors. However, the phase of a fluorescence wave contains subtle, but no less important, information about the wave; yet, it has been largely unexplored. Here, we introduce the concept of fluorescence interferometry to allow the measurement of phase information of fluorescent light waves. In principle, fluorescence interferometry can be considered a unique form of optical low-coherence interferometry that uses fluorophores as a light source of low temporal coherence. Fluorescence interferometry opens up new avenues for developing new fluorescent light-based imaging, sensing, ranging, and profiling methods that to some extent resemble interferometric techniques based on white light sources. We propose two experimental realizations of fluorescence interferometry that detect the interference pattern cast by the fluorescence fields. This article discusses their measurement capabilities and limitations and compares them with those offered by optical low-coherence interferometric schemes. We also describe applications of fluorescence interferometry to imaging, ranging, and profiling tasks and present experimental evidences of wide-field cross-sectional imaging with high resolution and large range of depth, as well as quantitative profiling with nanometer-level precision. Finally, we point out future research directions in fluorescence interferometry, such as fluorescence tomography of whole organisms and the extension to molecular interferometry by means of quantum dots and bioluminescence.

  8. Fringe formation in dual-hologram interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burner, A. W.

    Reference-fringe formation in nondiffuse dual-hologram interferometry is described by combining a first-order geometrical hologram treatment with interference fringes generated by two point sources. The first-order imaging relationships can be used to describe reference-fringe patterns for the geometry of the dual-hologram interferometry. The process can be completed without adjusting the two holograms when the reconstructing wavelength is less than the exposing wavelength, and the process is found to facilitate basic intereferometer adjustments.

  9. The Michelson Interferometry Summer School Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, P. R.; Danner, R.

    2001-05-01

    The Michelson Interferometry Summer Schools exists to support the scientific community in building expertise in optical and infrared long-baseline interferometry. The lectures emphasize the fundamentals of astronomical interferometry, including the engineering and design of interferometers, the astrophysical potential of current and future instruments, and methods of observation, data reduction, and interpretation. The schools engage speakers from the interferometry community both in the United States and overseas, and seek to provide opportunities not only to teach but for students to interact with a broad range of specialists in the field. The schools followed on initially from the Workshop on Optical/IR Interferometry organized by USNO and JPL in 1998, and were then shaped into a cycle of three separate schools from 1999 to 2001 (engineering, astrophysics, data reduction). The current status and future plans for the schools will be described. The schools are funded through NASA's Origins Program and the Space Interferometry mission at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory with additional support from participating groups.

  10. Stitching interferometry of aspherical surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haensel, Thomas; Nickel, Andreas; Schindler, Axel

    2001-12-01

    Sub-aperture stitching interferometry (SASI) is an appropriate method to measure either large optical plane surface topologies or aspheres with strong deviation from the flatness with standard interferometers. Using SASI the surface shape is measured with a higher lateral resolution by multiple adjacent sub-aperture measurements with a sufficient overlap of the neighboring areas. In a second step, the total surface shape is composed with the help of a computer code by stitching the sub-aperture areas together. The overlap areas allow fitting. By means of a regression analysis, tilt and vertical displacement of adjacent areas are calculated and minimized. A confidence band calculated using a MATLAB based code describes the accuracy of the composition. The variance of this estimation is inverse proportional to the peak to valley value (PV) of the measured area and decreases with a 10-3 scaling of the width of the overlapping area. A statistical experimental design method is used to minimize the number of sub-apertures to be measured. The accuracy of the stitched total surface measurement can be increased with the help of model calculations by optimizing (i) the position of the sub-aperture, which was regarded as a standard, and (ii) the sequence of the stitched adjacent areas.

  11. Precision optical interferometry in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reasenberg, Robert D.

    1993-01-01

    POINTS, an astrometric Optical interferometer with a nominal measurement accuracy of 5 microarcseconds for the angle between a pair of stars separated by about 90 deg, is presently under consideration by two divisions of NASA-OSSA. It will be a powerful new multi-disciplinary tool for astronomical research. If chosen as the TOPS-1 (Toward Other Planetary Systems) instrument by the Solar-System Exploration Division, it will perform a definitive search for extra-solar planetary systems, either finding and characterizing a large number of them or showing that they are far less numerous than now believed. If chosen as the AIM (Astrometric Interferometry Mission) by the Astrophysics Division, POINTS will open new areas of astrophysical research and change the nature of the questions being asked in some old areas. In either case. it will be the first of a new class of powerful instruments in space and will prove the technology for the larger members of that class to follow. Based on a preliminary indication of the observational needs of the two missions, we find that a single POINTS mission will meet the science objectives of both TOPS-1 and AIM. The instrument detects dispersed fringe (channel led spectrum) and therefore can tolerate large pointing errors.

  12. KERNEL PHASE IN FIZEAU INTERFEROMETRY

    SciTech Connect

    Martinache, Frantz

    2010-11-20

    The detection of high contrast companions at small angular separation appears feasible in conventional direct images using the self-calibration properties of interferometric observable quantities. The friendly notion of closure phase, which is key to the recent observational successes of non-redundant aperture masking interferometry used with adaptive optics, appears to be one example of a wide family of observable quantities that are not contaminated by phase noise. In the high-Strehl regime, soon to be available thanks to the coming generation of extreme adaptive optics systems on ground-based telescopes, and already available from space, closure phase like information can be extracted from any direct image, even taken with a redundant aperture. These new phase-noise immune observable quantities, called kernel phases, are determined a priori from the knowledge of the geometry of the pupil only. Re-analysis of archive data acquired with the Hubble Space Telescope NICMOS instrument using this new kernel-phase algorithm demonstrates the power of the method as it clearly detects and locates with milliarcsecond precision a known companion to a star at angular separation less than the diffraction limit.

  13. Spectral Interferometry with Electron Microscopes.

    PubMed

    Talebi, Nahid

    2016-09-21

    Interference patterns are not only a defining characteristic of waves, but also have several applications; characterization of coherent processes and holography. Spatial holography with electron waves, has paved the way towards space-resolved characterization of magnetic domains and electrostatic potentials with angstrom spatial resolution. Another impetus in electron microscopy has been introduced by ultrafast electron microscopy which uses pulses of sub-picosecond durations for probing a laser induced excitation of the sample. However, attosecond temporal resolution has not yet been reported, merely due to the statistical distribution of arrival times of electrons at the sample, with respect to the laser time reference. This is however, the very time resolution which will be needed for performing time-frequency analysis. These difficulties are addressed here by proposing a new methodology to improve the synchronization between electron and optical excitations through introducing an efficient electron-driven photon source. We use focused transition radiation of the electron as a pump for the sample. Due to the nature of transition radiation, the process is coherent. This technique allows us to perform spectral interferometry with electron microscopes, with applications in retrieving the phase of electron-induced polarizations and reconstructing dynamics of the induced vector potential.

  14. Spectral Interferometry with Electron Microscopes

    PubMed Central

    Talebi, Nahid

    2016-01-01

    Interference patterns are not only a defining characteristic of waves, but also have several applications; characterization of coherent processes and holography. Spatial holography with electron waves, has paved the way towards space-resolved characterization of magnetic domains and electrostatic potentials with angstrom spatial resolution. Another impetus in electron microscopy has been introduced by ultrafast electron microscopy which uses pulses of sub-picosecond durations for probing a laser induced excitation of the sample. However, attosecond temporal resolution has not yet been reported, merely due to the statistical distribution of arrival times of electrons at the sample, with respect to the laser time reference. This is however, the very time resolution which will be needed for performing time-frequency analysis. These difficulties are addressed here by proposing a new methodology to improve the synchronization between electron and optical excitations through introducing an efficient electron-driven photon source. We use focused transition radiation of the electron as a pump for the sample. Due to the nature of transition radiation, the process is coherent. This technique allows us to perform spectral interferometry with electron microscopes, with applications in retrieving the phase of electron-induced polarizations and reconstructing dynamics of the induced vector potential. PMID:27649932

  15. Neutron interferometry with cold stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mineeva, Taisiya; Arif, M.; Huber, M. G.; Shahi, C. B.; Clark, C. W.; Cory, D. G.; Nsofini, J.; Sarenac, D.; Pushin, D. A.

    Neutron interferometry (NI) is amongst the most precise methods for characterizing neutron interactions by measuring the relative difference between two neutron paths, one of which contains a sample-of-interest. Because neutrons carry magnetic moment and are deeply penetrating, they are excellent probes to investigate properties of magnetic materials. The advantage of NI is its unique sensitivity which allows to directly measure magnetic and structural transitions in materials. Up to now NI has been sparingly used in material research due to its sensitivity to environmental noise. However, recent successes in implementing Quantum Error Correction principles lead to an improved NI design making it robust against mechanical vibrations. Following these advances, a new user facility at the National Institute for Standards and Technology was built to study condensed matter applications, biology and quantum physics. Incorporating cold sample stage inside NI is the first of its kind experiment which can be carried out on large range of temperatures down to 4K. Upon successful realization, it will open new frontiers to characterize magnetic domains, phase transitions and spin properties in a variety of materials such as, for example, iron-based superconductors and spintronic materials. Supported in part by CERC, CIFAR, NSERC and CREATE.

  16. Study of the Positive Kaon Neutral Antikaon Negative Pion System Produced in the Reaction Antiproton-Proton Going to Positive Kaon Neutral Antikaon Negative Pion + Chi at 8 Gev/c

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehnlein, Amber Stephanie

    1990-01-01

    The results of an amplitude analysis to determine the spin-parity components of the K^+{ | K^0} pi^{-} system produced in the reaction { | p}pto K^+{| K^0 }pi^- + X at 8 GeV/c are presented. This experiment has better particle identification than the previously reported results examining this reaction. A total of 3595 events was collected in the mass range 1.24 -1.56 GeV/c^2. The data were collected at the Brookhaven National Laboratory Multi-Particle Spectrometer. Two peaks are observed in the K^+{| K^0}pi^- mass spectrum, one at (1279 +/- 2) MeV/c ^2 with a width of 21 +/- 2) MeV/c^2, and one at (1417 +/- 3) MeV/c^2 with a width of (62 +/- 5) MeV/c ^2. There is evidence for two resonances around 1.3 GeV/c^2. The J^ {PG} = 1^{++} resonance that peaks near 1.27 Gev/c^2 is identified with the f_1(1285). The J^{PG} = 0^ {-+} resonance observed at the same mass is identified with the eta(1280). In the 1.4 GeV/c^2 range, the data are consistant with the presence of at least one J^{PG} = 0^ {-+} resonance that peaks near 1.43 GeV/c ^2. This resonance decays only to a_{0}pi. There is also evidence for a 1^{++}K ^{*}K resonance that peaks around 1.40 GeV/c^2. These results are in agreement with the results from the partial wave analysis performed by members of this collaboration on the K^+{| K^0} pi^- system produced in the reaction pi^-pto K^+{| K^0}pi^-n at 8 GeV/c. This experiment also examined the reactions {| p}pto{| Lambda }p+pi s+X in a search for the U(3100). No evidence for the U(3100) is observed.

  17. Exclusive channels in semi-inclusive production of pions and kaons

    SciTech Connect

    Markus Diehl; Wolfgang Kugler; Andreas Schaefer; Christian Weiss

    2005-06-01

    We investigate the role of exclusive channels in semi-inclusive electroproduction of pions and kaons. Using the QCD factorization theorem for hard exclusive processes we evaluate the cross sections for exclusive pseudoscalar and vector meson production in terms of generalized parton distributions and meson distribution amplitudes. We investigate the uncertainties arising from the modeling of the nonperturbative input quantities. Combining these results with available experimental data, we compare the cross sections for exclusive channels to that obtained from quark fragmentation in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering. We find that rho0 production is the only exclusive channel with significant contributions to semi-inclusive pion production at large z and moderate Q2. The corresponding contribution to kaon production from the decay of exclusively produced phi and Kstar is rather small.

  18. Bulk viscosity coefficients due to phonons and kaons in superfluid color-flavor locked quark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bierkandt, Robert; Manuel, Cristina

    2011-07-01

    We evaluate the three bulk viscosity coefficients ζ1, ζ2 and ζ3 in the color-flavor locked superfluid phase due to phonons and kaons, which are the lightest modes in that system. We first show that the computation is rather analogous to the computation of the same coefficients in superfluid He4, as due to phonons and rotons. For astrophysical applications, we also find the value of the viscosities when there is a periodic disturbance, and the viscosities also depend on the frequency of the disturbance. In a temperature regime that might be of astrophysical relevance, we find that the contributions of both the phonons and kaons should be considered, and that ζ2 is much less that the same coefficient in unpaired quark matter.

  19. Measurement of pion, kaon and proton production in proton-proton collisions at TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, J.; Adamová, D.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Rinella, G. Aglieri; Agnello, M.; Agrawal, N.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahmed, I.; Ahn, S. U.; Aimo, I.; Aiola, S.; Ajaz, M.; Akindinov, A.; Alam, S. N.; Aleksandrov, D.; Alessandro, B.; Alexandre, D.; Molina, R. Alfaro; Alici, A.; Alkin, A.; Alme, J.; Alt, T.; Altinpinar, S.; Altsybeev, I.; Prado, C. Alves Garcia; Andrei, C.; Andronic, A.; Anguelov, V.; Anielski, J.; Antičić, T.; Antinori, F.; Antonioli, P.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelshäuser, H.; Arcelli, S.; Armesto, N.; Arnaldi, R.; Aronsson, T.; Arsene, I. C.; Arslandok, M.; Augustinus, A.; Averbeck, R.; Azmi, M. D.; Bach, M.; Badalà, A.; Baek, Y. W.; Bagnasco, S.; Bailhache, R.; Bala, R.; Baldisseri, A.; Ball, M.; Pedrosa, F. Baltasar Dos Santos; Baral, R. C.; Barbano, A. M.; Barbera, R.; Barile, F.; Barnaföldi, G. G.; Barnby, L. S.; Barret, V.; Bartalini, P.; Bartke, J.; Bartsch, E.; Basile, M.; Bastid, N.; Basu, S.; Bathen, B.; Batigne, G.; Camejo, A. Batista; Batyunya, B.; Batzing, P. C.; Bearden, I. G.; Beck, H.; Bedda, C.; Behera, N. K.; Belikov, I.; Bellini, F.; Martinez, H. Bello; Bellwied, R.; Belmont, R.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; Belyaev, V.; Bencedi, G.; Beole, S.; Berceanu, I.; Bercuci, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Berenyi, D.; Bertens, R. A.; Berzano, D.; Betev, L.; Bhasin, A.; Bhat, I. R.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattacharjee, B.; Bhom, J.; Bianchi, L.; Bianchi, N.; Bianchin, C.; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, J.; Bilandzic, A.; Biswas, S.; Bjelogrlic, S.; Blanco, F.; Blau, D.; Blume, C.; Bock, F.; Bogdanov, A.; Bøggild, H.; Boldizsár, L.; Bombara, M.; Book, J.; Borel, H.; Borissov, A.; Borri, M.; Bossú, F.; Botje, M.; Botta, E.; Böttger, S.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Bregant, M.; Breitner, T.; Broker, T. A.; Browning, T. A.; Broz, M.; Brucken, E. J.; Bruna, E.; Bruno, G. E.; Budnikov, D.; Buesching, H.; Bufalino, S.; Buncic, P.; Busch, O.; Buthelezi, Z.; Buxton, J. T.; Caffarri, D.; Cai, X.; Caines, H.; Diaz, L. Calero; Caliva, A.; Villar, E. Calvo; Camerini, P.; Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Castellanos, J. Castillo; Castro, A. J.; Casula, E. A. R.; Cavicchioli, C.; Sanchez, C. Ceballos; Cepila, J.; Cerello, P.; Chang, B.; Chapeland, S.; Chartier, M.; Charvet, J. L.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chelnokov, V.; Cherney, M.; Cheshkov, C.; Cheynis, B.; Barroso, V. Chibante; Chinellato, D. D.; Chochula, P.; Choi, K.; Chojnacki, M.; Choudhury, S.; Christakoglou, P.; Christensen, C. H.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, S. U.; Cicalo, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Cleymans, J.; Colamaria, F.; Colella, D.; Collu, A.; Colocci, M.; Balbastre, G. Conesa; Valle, Z. Conesa del; Connors, M. E.; Contreras, J. G.; Cormier, T. M.; Morales, Y. Corrales; Maldonado, I. Cortés; Cortese, P.; Cosentino, M. R.; Costa, F.; Crochet, P.; Albino, R. Cruz; Cuautle, E.; Cunqueiro, L.; Dahms, T.; Dainese, A.; Danu, A.; Das, D.; Das, I.; Das, S.; Dash, A.; Dash, S.; De, S.; Caro, A. De; Cataldo, G. de; Cuveland, J. de; Falco, A. De; Gruttola, D. De; Marco, N. De; Pasquale, S. De; Deisting, A.; Deloff, A.; Dénes, E.; D'Erasmo, G.; Bari, D. Di; Mauro, A. Di; Nezza, P. Di; Corchero, M. A. Diaz; Dietel, T.; Dillenseger, P.; Divià, R.; Djuvsland, Ø.; Dobrin, A.; Dobrowolski, T.; Gimenez, D. Domenicis; Dönigus, B.; Dordic, O.; Dubey, A. K.; Dubla, A.; Ducroux, L.; Dupieux, P.; Ehlers, R. J.; Elia, D.; Engel, H.; Erazmus, B.; Erhardt, F.; Eschweiler, D.; Espagnon, B.; Estienne, M.; Esumi, S.; Eum, J.; Evans, D.; Evdokimov, S.; Eyyubova, G.; Fabbietti, L.; Fabris, D.; Faivre, J.; Fantoni, A.; Fasel, M.; Feldkamp, L.; Felea, D.; Feliciello, A.; Feofilov, G.; Ferencei, J.; Téllez, A. Fernández; Ferreiro, E. G.; Ferretti, A.; Festanti, A.; Figiel, J.; Figueredo, M. A. S.; Filchagin, S.; Finogeev, D.; Fionda, F. M.; Fiore, E. M.; Fleck, M. G.; Floris, M.; Foertsch, S.; Foka, P.; Fokin, S.; Fragiacomo, E.; Francescon, A.; Frankenfeld, U.; Fuchs, U.; Furget, C.; Furs, A.; Girard, M. Fusco; Gaardhøje, J. J.; Gagliardi, M.; Gago, A. M.; Gallio, M.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Ganoti, P.; Gao, C.; Garabatos, C.; Garcia-Solis, E.; Gargiulo, C.; Gasik, P.; Germain, M.; Gheata, A.; Gheata, M.; Ghosh, P.; Ghosh, S. K.; Gianotti, P.; Giubellino, P.; Giubilato, P.; Dziadus, E. Gladysz; Glässel, P.; Ramirez, A. Gomez; Zamora, P. González; Gorbunov, S.; Görlich, L.; Gotovac, S.; Grabski, V.; Graczykowski, L. K.; Grelli, A.; Grigoras, A.; Grigoras, C.; Grigoriev, V.; Grigoryan, A.; Grigoryan, S.; Grinyov, B.; Grion, N.; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J. F.; Grossiord, J.-Y.; Grosso, R.; Guber, F.; Guernane, R.; Guerzoni, B.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gulkanyan, H.; Gunji, T.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, R.; Haake, R.; Haaland, Ø.; Hadjidakis, C.; Haiduc, M.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamar, G.; Hanratty, L. D.; Hansen, A.; Harris, J. W.; Hartmann, H.; Harton, A.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hayashi, S.; Heckel, S. T.; Heide, M.; Helstrup, H.; Herghelegiu, A.; Corral, G. Herrera; Hess, B. A.; Hetland, K. F.; Hilden, T. E.; Hillemanns, H.; Hippolyte, B.; Hristov, P.; Huang, M.; Humanic, T. J.; Hussain, N.; Hussain, T.; Hutter, D.; Hwang, D. S.; Ilkaev, R.; Ilkiv, I.; Inaba, M.; Ionita, C.; Ippolitov, M.; Irfan, M.; Ivanov, M.; Ivanov, V.; Izucheev, V.; Jacobs, P. M.; Jahnke, C.; Jang, H. J.; Janik, M. A.; Jayarathna, P. H. S. Y.; Jena, C.; Jena, S.; Bustamante, R. T. Jimenez; Jones, P. G.; Jung, H.; Jusko, A.; Kalinak, P.; Kalweit, A.; Kamin, J.; Kang, J. H.; Kaplin, V.; Kar, S.; Uysal, A. Karasu; Karavichev, O.; Karavicheva, T.; Karpechev, E.; Kebschull, U.; Keidel, R.; Keijdener, D. L. D.; Keil, M.; Khan, K. H.; Khan, M. M.; Khan, P.; Khan, S. A.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kharlov, Y.; Kileng, B.; Kim, B.; Kim, D. W.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, H.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, M.; Kim, M.; Kim, S.; Kim, T.; Kirsch, S.; Kisel, I.; Kiselev, S.; Kisiel, A.; Kiss, G.; Klay, J. L.; Klein, C.; Klein, J.; Klein-Bösing, C.; Kluge, A.; Knichel, M. L.; Knospe, A. G.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobdaj, C.; Kofarago, M.; Köhler, M. K.; Kollegger, T.; Kolojvari, A.; Kondratiev, V.; Kondratyeva, N.; Kondratyuk, E.; Konevskikh, A.; Kouzinopoulos, C.; Kovalenko, O.; Kovalenko, V.; Kowalski, M.; Kox, S.; Meethaleveedu, G. Koyithatta; Kral, J.; Králik, I.; Kravčáková, A.; Krelina, M.; Kretz, M.; Krivda, M.; Krizek, F.; Kryshen, E.; Krzewicki, M.; Kubera, A. M.; Kučera, V.; Kucheriaev, Y.; Kugathasan, T.; Kuhn, C.; Kuijer, P. G.; Kulakov, I.; Kumar, J.; Kumar, L.; Kurashvili, P.; Kurepin, A.; Kurepin, A. B.; Kuryakin, A.; Kushpil, S.; Kweon, M. J.; Kwon, Y.; Pointe, S. L. La; Rocca, P. La; Fernandes, C. Lagana; Lakomov, I.; Langoy, R.; Lara, C.; Lardeux, A.; Lattuca, A.; Laudi, E.; Lea, R.; Leardini, L.; Lee, G. R.; Lee, S.; Legrand, I.; Lehnert, J.; Lemmon, R. C.; Lenti, V.; Leogrande, E.; Monzón, I. León; Leoncino, M.; Lévai, P.; Li, S.; Li, X.; Lien, J.; Lietava, R.; Lindal, S.; Lindenstruth, V.; Lippmann, C.; Lisa, M. A.; Ljunggren, H. M.; Lodato, D. F.; Loenne, P. I.; Loggins, V. R.; Loginov, V.; Loizides, C.; Lopez, X.; Torres, E. López; Lowe, A.; Lu, X.-G.; Luettig, P.; Lunardon, M.; Luparello, G.; Maevskaya, A.; Mager, M.; Mahajan, S.; Mahmood, S. M.; Maire, A.; Majka, R. D.; Malaev, M.; Cervantes, I. Maldonado; Malinina, L.; Mal'Kevich, D.; Malzacher, P.; Mamonov, A.; Manceau, L.; Manko, V.; Manso, F.; Manzari, V.; Marchisone, M.; Mareš, J.; Margagliotti, G. V.; Margotti, A.; Margutti, J.; Marín, A.; Markert, C.; Marquard, M.; Martin, N. A.; Blanco, J. Martin; Martinengo, P.; Martínez, M. I.; Martínez García, G.; Pedreira, M. Martinez; Martynov, Y.; Mas, A.; Masciocchi, S.; Masera, M.; Masoni, A.; Massacrier, L.; Mastroserio, A.; Masui, H.; Matyja, A.; Mayer, C.; Mazer, J.; Mazzoni, M. A.; Mcdonald, D.; Meddi, F.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Meninno, E.; Pérez, J. Mercado; Meres, M.; Miake, Y.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Mikhaylov, K.; Milano, L.; Milosevic, J.; Minervini, L. M.; Mischke, A.; Mishra, A. N.; Miśkowiec, D.; Mitra, J.; Mitu, C. M.; Mohammadi, N.; Mohanty, B.; Molnar, L.; Zetina, L. Montaño; Montes, E.; Morando, M.; Godoy, D. A. Moreira De; Moretto, S.; Morreale, A.; Morsch, A.; Muccifora, V.; Mudnic, E.; Mühlheim, D.; Muhuri, S.; Mukherjee, M.; Müller, H.; Mulligan, J. D.; Munhoz, M. G.; Murray, S.; Musa, L.; Musinsky, J.; Nandi, B. K.; Nania, R.; Nappi, E.; Naru, M. U.; Nattrass, C.; Nayak, K.; Nayak, T. K.; Nazarenko, S.; Nedosekin, A.; Nellen, L.; Ng, F.; Nicassio, M.; Niculescu, M.; Niedziela, J.; Nielsen, B. S.; Nikolaev, S.; Nikulin, S.; Nikulin, V.; Noferini, F.; Nomokonov, P.; Nooren, G.; Norman, J.; Nyanin, A.; Nystrand, J.; Oeschler, H.; Oh, S.; Oh, S. K.; Ohlson, A.; Okatan, A.; Okubo, T.; Olah, L.; Oleniacz, J.; Silva, A. C. Oliveira Da; Oliver, M. H.; Onderwaater, J.; Oppedisano, C.; Velasquez, A. Ortiz; Oskarsson, A.; Otwinowski, J.; Oyama, K.; Ozdemir, M.; Pachmayer, Y.; Pagano, P.; Paić, G.; Pajares, C.; Pal, S. K.; Pan, J.; Pandey, A. K.; Pant, D.; Papikyan, V.; Pappalardo, G. S.; Pareek, P.; Park, W. J.; Parmar, S.; Passfeld, A.; Paticchio, V.; Paul, B.; Pawlak, T.; Peitzmann, T.; Costa, H. Pereira Da; Filho, E. Pereira De Oliveira; Peresunko, D.; Lara, C. E. Pérez; Peskov, V.; Pestov, Y.; Petráček, V.; Petrov, V.; Petrovici, M.; Petta, C.; Piano, S.; Pikna, M.; Pillot, P.; Pinazza, O.; Pinsky, L.; Piyarathna, D. B.; Płoskoń, M.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Pochybova, S.; Podesta-Lerma, P. L. M.; Poghosyan, M. G.; Polichtchouk, B.; Poljak, N.; Poonsawat, W.; Pop, A.; Porteboeuf-Houssais, S.; Porter, J.; Pospisil, J.; Prasad, S. K.; Preghenella, R.; Prino, F.; Pruneau, C. A.; Pshenichnov, I.; Puccio, M.; Puddu, G.; Pujahari, P.; Punin, V.; Putschke, J.; Qvigstad, H.; Rachevski, A.; Raha, S.; Rajput, S.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ramello, L.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Räsänen, S. S.; Rascanu, B. T.; Rathee, D.; Razazi, V.; Read, K. F.; Real, J. S.; Redlich, K.; Reed, R. J.; Rehman, A.; Reichelt, P.; Reicher, M.; Reidt, F.; Ren, X.; Renfordt, R.; Reolon, A. R.; Reshetin, A.; Rettig, F.; Revol, J.-P.; Reygers, K.; Riabov, V.; Ricci, R. A.; Richert, T.; Richter, M.; Riedler, P.; Riegler, W.; Riggi, F.; Ristea, C.; Rivetti, A.; Rocco, E.; Cahuantzi, M. Rodríguez; Manso, A. Rodriguez; Røed, K.; Rogochaya, E.; Rohr, D.; Röhrich, D.; Romita, R.; Ronchetti, F.; Ronflette, L.; Rosnet, P.; Rossi, A.; Roukoutakis, F.; Roy, A.; Roy, C.; Roy, P.; Montero, A. J. Rubio; Rui, R.; Russo, R.; Ryabinkin, E.; Ryabov, Y.; Rybicki, A.; Sadovsky, S.; Šafařík, K.; Sahlmuller, B.; Sahoo, P.; Sahoo, R.; Sahoo, S.; Sahu, P. K.; Saini, J.; Sakai, S.; Saleh, M. A.; Salgado, C. A.; Salzwedel, J.; Sambyal, S.; Samsonov, V.; Castro, X. Sanchez; Šándor, L.; Sandoval, A.; Sano, M.; Santagati, G.; Sarkar, D.; Scapparone, E.; Scarlassara, F.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schiaua, C.; Schicker, R.; Schmidt, C.; Schmidt, H. R.; Schuchmann, S.; Schukraft, J.; Schulc, M.; Schuster, T.; Schutz, Y.; Schwarz, K.; Schweda, K.; Scioli, G.; Scomparin, E.; Scott, R.; Seeder, K. S.; Seger, J. E.; Sekiguchi, Y.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Senosi, K.; Seo, J.; Serradilla, E.; Sevcenco, A.; Shabanov, A.; Shabetai, A.; Shadura, O.; Shahoyan, R.; Shangaraev, A.; Sharma, A.; Sharma, N.; Shigaki, K.; Shtejer, K.; Sibiriak, Y.; Siddhanta, S.; Sielewicz, K. M.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Simatovic, G.; Simonetti, G.; Singaraju, R.; Singh, R.; Singha, S.; Singhal, V.; Sinha, B. C.; Sinha, T.; Sitar, B.; Sitta, M.; Skaali, T. B.; Slupecki, M.; Smirnov, N.; Snellings, R. J. M.; Snellman, T. W.; Søgaard, C.; Soltz, R.; Song, J.; Song, M.; Song, Z.; Soramel, F.; Sorensen, S.; Spacek, M.; Spiriti, E.; Sputowska, I.; Stassinaki, M. Spyropoulou; Srivastava, B. K.; Stachel, J.; Stan, I.; Stefanek, G.; Steinpreis, M.; Stenlund, E.; Steyn, G.; Stiller, J. H.; Stocco, D.; Strmen, P.; Suaide, A. A. 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S.; Zhalov, M.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhigareva, N.; Zhou, D.; Zhou, Y.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, X.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, A.; Zimmermann, M. B.; Zinovjev, G.; Zyzak, M.

    2015-05-01

    The measurement of primary , , and production at mid-rapidity ( 0.5) in proton-proton collisions at 7 TeV performed with a large ion collider experiment at the large hadron collider (LHC) is reported. Particle identification is performed using the specific ionisation energy-loss and time-of-flight information, the ring-imaging Cherenkov technique and the kink-topology identification of weak decays of charged kaons. Transverse momentum spectra are measured from 0.1 up to 3 GeV/ for pions, from 0.2 up to 6 GeV/ for kaons and from 0.3 up to 6 GeV/ for protons. The measured spectra and particle ratios are compared with quantum chromodynamics-inspired models, tuned to reproduce also the earlier measurements performed at the LHC. Furthermore, the integrated particle yields and ratios as well as the average transverse momenta are compared with results at lower collision energies.

  20. Sivers asymmetries for inclusive pion and kaon production in deep-inelastic scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, John; Hwang, Dae Sung; Kotzinian, Aram

    2009-10-01

    We calculate the Sivers distribution functions induced by the final-state interaction due to one-gluon exchange in diquark models of a nucleon structure, treating the cases of scalar and axial-vector diquarks with both dipole and Gaussian form factors. We use these distribution functions to calculate the Sivers single-spin asymmetries for inclusive pion and kaon production in deep-inelastic scattering. We compare our calculations with the results of HERMES and COMPASS, finding good agreement for {pi}{sup +} production at HERMES, and qualitative agreement for {pi}{sup 0} and K{sup +} production. Our predictions for pion and kaon production at COMPASS could be probed with increased statistics. The successful comparison of our calculations with the HERMES data constitutes prima facie evidence that the quarks in the nucleon have some orbital angular momentum in the infinite-momentum frame.

  1. Charged kaon femtoscopic correlations in pp collisions at s=7TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

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K.; Palaha, A.; Palmeri, A.; Papikyan, V.; Pappalardo, G. S.; Park, W. J.; Passfeld, A.; Patalakha, D. I.; Paticchio, V.; Paul, B.; Pavlinov, A.; Pawlak, T.; Peitzmann, T.; Pereira Da Costa, H.; Pereira De Oliveira Filho, E.; Peresunko, D.; Pérez Lara, C. E.; Perini, D.; Perrino, D.; Peryt, W.; Pesci, A.; Peskov, V.; Pestov, Y.; Petráček, V.; Petran, M.; Petris, M.; Petrov, P.; Petrovici, M.; Petta, C.; Piano, S.; Piccotti, A.; Pikna, M.; Pillot, P.; Pinazza, O.; Pinsky, L.; Pitz, N.; Piyarathna, D. B.; Planinic, M.; Płoskoń, M.; Pluta, J.; Pocheptsov, T.; Pochybova, S.; Podesta-Lerma, P. L. M.; Poghosyan, M. G.; Polák, K.; Polichtchouk, B.; Pop, A.; Porteboeuf-Houssais, S.; Pospíšil, V.; Potukuchi, B.; Prasad, S. K.; Preghenella, R.; Prino, F.; Pruneau, C. A.; Pshenichnov, I.; Puddu, G.; Punin, V.; Putiš, M.; Putschke, J.; Quercigh, E.; Qvigstad, H.; Rachevski, A.; Rademakers, A.; Räihä, T. S.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ramello, L.; Ramírez Reyes, A.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Räsänen, S. S.; Rascanu, B. T.; Rathee, D.; Read, K. F.; Real, J. S.; Redlich, K.; Reed, R. J.; Rehman, A.; Reichelt, P.; Reicher, M.; Renfordt, R.; Reolon, A. R.; Reshetin, A.; Rettig, F.; Revol, J.-P.; Reygers, K.; Riccati, L.; Ricci, R. A.; Richert, T.; Richter, M.; Riedler, P.; Riegler, W.; Riggi, F.; Rodríguez Cahuantzi, M.; Rodriguez Manso, A.; Røed, K.; Rohr, D.; Röhrich, D.; Romita, R.; Ronchetti, F.; Rosnet, P.; Rossegger, S.; Rossi, A.; Roy, P.; Roy, C.; Rubio Montero, A. J.; Rui, R.; Russo, R.; Ryabinkin, E.; Rybicki, A.; Sadovsky, S.; Šafařík, K.; Sahoo, R.; Sahu, P. K.; Saini, J.; Sakaguchi, H.; Sakai, S.; Sakata, D.; Salgado, C. A.; Salzwedel, J.; Sambyal, S.; Samsonov, V.; Sanchez Castro, X.; Šándor, L.; Sandoval, A.; Sano, M.; Santagati, G.; Santoro, R.; Sarkamo, J.; Scapparone, E.; Scarlassara, F.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schiaua, C.; Schicker, R.; Schmidt, H. R.; Schmidt, C.; Schuchmann, S.; Schukraft, J.; Schuster, T.; Schutz, Y.; Schwarz, K.; Schweda, K.; Scioli, G.; Scomparin, E.; Scott, P. A.; Scott, R.; Segato, G.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Senyukov, S.; Seo, J.; Serci, S.; Serradilla, E.; Sevcenco, A.; Shabetai, A.; Shabratova, G.; Shahoyan, R.; Sharma, S.; Sharma, N.; Rohni, S.; Shigaki, K.; Shtejer, K.; Sibiriak, Y.; Sicking, E.; Siddhanta, S.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Simatovic, G.; Simonetti, G.; Singaraju, R.; Singh, R.; Singha, S.; Singhal, V.; Sinha, T.; Sinha, B. C.; Sitar, B.; Sitta, M.; Skaali, T. B.; Skjerdal, K.; Smakal, R.; Smirnov, N.; Snellings, R. J. M.; Søgaard, C.; Soltz, R.; Son, H.; Song, M.; Song, J.; Soos, C.; Soramel, F.; Sputowska, I.; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, M.; Srivastava, B. K.; Stachel, J.; Stan, I.; Stefanek, G.; Steinpreis, M.; Stenlund, E.; Steyn, G.; Stiller, J. H.; Stocco, D.; Stolpovskiy, M.; Strmen, P.; Suaide, A. A. P.; Subieta Vásquez, M. A.; Sugitate, T.; Suire, C.; Sultanov, R.; Šumbera, M.; Susa, T.; Symons, T. J. M.; Szanto de Toledo, A.; Szarka, I.; Szczepankiewicz, A.; Szostak, A.; Szymański, M.; Takahashi, J.; Tapia Takaki, J. D.; Tarantola Peloni, A.; Tarazona Martinez, A.; Tauro, A.; Tejeda Muñoz, G.; Telesca, A.; Terrevoli, C.; Thäder, J.; Thomas, D.; Tieulent, R.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Toia, A.; Torii, H.; Toscano, L.; Trubnikov, V.; Truesdale, D.; Trzaska, W. H.; Tsuji, T.; Tumkin, A.; Turrisi, R.; Tveter, T. S.; Ulery, J.; Ullaland, K.; Ulrich, J.; Uras, A.; Urbán, J.; Urciuoli, G. M.; Usai, G. L.; Vajzer, M.; Vala, M.; Valencia Palomo, L.; Vallero, S.; Vande Vyvre, P.; van Leeuwen, M.; Vannucci, L.; Vargas, A.; Varma, R.; Vasileiou, M.; Vasiliev, A.; Vechernin, V.; Veldhoen, M.; Venaruzzo, M.; Vercellin, E.; Vergara, S.; Vernet, R.; Verweij, M.; Vickovic, L.; Viesti, G.; Vilakazi, Z.; Villalobos Baillie, O.; Vinogradov, Y.; Vinogradov, L.; Vinogradov, A.; Virgili, T.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vodopyanov, A.; Voloshin, K.; Voloshin, S.; Volpe, G.; von Haller, B.; Vorobyev, I.; Vranic, D.; Vrláková, J.; Vulpescu, B.; Vyushin, A.; Wagner, V.; Wagner, B.; Wan, R.; Wang, D.; Wang, M.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y.; Watanabe, K.; Weber, M.; Wessels, J. P.; Westerhoff, U.; Wiechula, J.; Wikne, J.; Wilde, M.; Wilk, A.; Wilk, G.; Williams, M. C. S.; Windelband, B.; Xaplanteris Karampatsos, L.; Yaldo, C. G.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yang, H.; Yang, S.; Yasnopolskiy, S.; Yi, J.; Yin, Z.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yoon, J.; Yu, W.; Yuan, X.; Yushmanov, I.; Zaccolo, V.; Zach, C.; Zampolli, C.; Zaporozhets, S.; Zarochentsev, A.; Závada, P.; Zaviyalov, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zelnicek, P.; Zgura, I. S.; Zhalov, M.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, X.; Zhou, D.; Zhou, Y.; Zhou, F.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, X.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, A.; Zinovjev, G.; Zoccarato, Y.; Zynovyev, M.; Zyzak, M.

    2013-03-01

    Correlations of two charged identical kaons (KchKch) are measured in pp collisions at s=7TeV by the ALICE experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). One-dimensional KchKch correlation functions are constructed in three multiplicity and four transverse momentum ranges. The KchKch femtoscopic source parameters R and λ are extracted. The KchKch correlations show a slight increase of femtoscopic radii with increasing multiplicity and a slight decrease of radii with increasing transverse momentum. These trends are similar to the ones observed for ππ and Ks0Ks0 correlations in pp and heavy-ion collisions. However at high multiplicities, there is an indication that the one-dimensional correlation radii for charged kaons are larger than those for pions in contrast to what was observed in heavy-ion collisions at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider.

  2. Isobar model for kaon photoproduction with spin-7 /2 and -9 /2 nucleon resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clymton, S.; Mart, T.

    2017-09-01

    We have investigated the effects of spin-7 /2 and -9 /2 nucleon resonances in the kaon photoproduction process γ p →K+Λ . To this end, the corresponding propagators were derived from the generalized spin projection operators. To remove the lower spin backgrounds in the scattering amplitude, we used the vertex factors obtained from the consistent interaction Lagrangians inspired by Pascalutsa and Vrancx et al. The scattering amplitude was included in our previous isobar model, and the effects of four nucleon resonances with spins 7 /2 and 9 /2 listed by the Particle Data Group were investigated by making use of all available kaon photoproduction data. A significant improvement to our previous model has been observed in all observables, especially in the beam-recoil double-polarization observables Cx, Cz, Ox', and Oz'.

  3. The time-like electromagnetic form factors of proton and charged kaon at high energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anulli, Fabio

    2016-05-01

    The Initial State Radiation method in the BABAR experiment has been used to measure the time-like electromagnetic form factors at the momentum transfer from 9 to 42 (GeV/c)2 for proton and from 7 to 56 (GeV/c)2 for charged kaon. The obtained data show the tendency to approach the QCD asymptotic prediction for kaons and space-like form factor values for proton. The BABAR data have been used together with data from other experiments, to perform a model-independent determination of the relative phases between the single-photon and the three-gluon amplitudes in ψ → KK ¯ decays. The values of the branching fractions measured in the reaction e+e- → K+ K- are shifted due to interference of resonant and nonresonant amplitudes. We have determined the absolute values of the shifts to be 5% for J/ψ and 15% for ψ(2S) decays.

  4. Two measurements of B 0overlineB0 mixing using kaon tagging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, H.; Hamacher, T.; Hofmann, R. P.; Kirchhoff, T.; Mankel, R.; Nau, A.; Nowak, S.; Reßing, D.; Schröder, H.; Schulz, H. D.; Walter, M.; Wurth, R.; Hast, C.; Kapitza, H.; Kolanoski, H.; Kosche, A.; Lange, A.; Lindner, A.; Schieber, M.; Siegmund, T.; Spaan, B.; Thurn, H.; Töpfer, D.; Wegener, D.; Eckstein, P.; Frankl, C.; Graf, J.; Schmidtler, M.; Schramm, M.; Schubert, K. R.; Schwierz, R.; Waldi, R.; Reim, K.; Wegener, H.; Eckmann, R.; Kuipers, H.; Mai, O.; Mundt, R.; Oest, T.; Reiner, R.; Schmidt-Parzefall, W.; Stiewe, J.; Werner, S.; Ehret, K.; Hofmann, W.; Hüpper, A.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Spengler, J.; Krieger, P.; Macfarlane, D. B.; Prentice, J. D.; Saull, P. R. B.; Tzamariudaki, K.; van de Water, R. G.; Yoon, T.-S.; Schneider, M.; Weseler, S.; Kernel, G.; Križan, P.; Križnič, E.; Podobnik, T.; Živko, T.; Balagura, V.; Belyaev, I.; Chistov, R.; Danilov, M.; Eiges, V.; Gershtein, L.; Gershtein, Yu.; Golutvin, A.; Igonkina, O.; Korolko, I.; Kostina, G.; Litvintsev, D.; Pakhlov, P.; Semenov, S.; Snizhko, A.; Tichomirov, I.; Zaitsev, Yu.; Argus Collaboration

    1996-02-01

    Using the ARGUS detector at the e+e- storage ring DORIS II at DESY, we have made two measurements of the mixing parameter χd using kaons as flavour tags. Using D ∗+ K ± correlations we found χd = 0.20 ± 0.13 ± 0.12 and from the study of (D ∗+ℓ -) K ± correlations we obtained χd = 0.19 ± 0.07 ± 0.09. The branching ratio for overlineB → D ∗+ X has been updated: Br( overlineB → D ∗+ X) = (19.6 ± 1.9) %. We have also determined the average multiplicity of charged kaons in B0 decays to be 0.78 ± 0.08.

  5. Rescattering effects on intensity interferometry and initial conditions in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yang

    The properties of the quark-gluon plasma are being thoroughly studied by utilizing relativistic heavy ion collisions. After its invention in astronomy in the 1950s, intensity interferometry was found to be a robust method to probe the spatial and temporal information of the nuclear collisions also. Although rescattering effects are negligible in elementary particle collisions, it may be very important for heavy ion collisions at RHIC and in the future LHC. Rescattering after production will modify the measured correlation function and make it harder to extract the dynamical information from data. To better understand the data which are dimmed by this final state process, we derive a general formula for intensity interferometry which can calculate rescattering effects easily. The formula can be used both non-relativistically and relativistically. Numerically, we found that rescattering effects on kaon interferometry for RHIC experiments can modify the measured ratio of the outward radius to the sideward radius, which is a sensitive probe to the equation of state, by as large as 15%. It is a nontrivial contribution which should be included to understand the data more accurately. The second part of this thesis is on the initial conditions in relativistic heavy ion collisions. Although relativistic hydrodynamics is successful in explaining many aspects of the data, it is only valid after some finite time after nuclear contact. The results depend on the choice of initial conditions which, so far, have been very uncertain. I describe a formula based on the McLerran-Venugopalan model to compute the initial energy density. The soft gluon fields produced immediately after the overlap of the nuclei can be expanded as a power series of the proper time t. Solving Yang-Mills equations with color current conservation can give us the analytical formulas for the fields. The local color charges on the transverse plane are stochastic variables and have to be taken care of by random

  6. Flavor dependence of the pion and kaon form factors and parton distribution functions

    DOE PAGES

    Hutauruk, Parada T. P.; Cloët, Ian C.; Thomas, Anthony W.

    2016-09-01

    The separate quark flavor contributions to the pion and kaon valence quark distribution functions are studied, along with the corresponding electromagnetic form factors in the space-like region. The calculations are made using the solution of the Bethe-Salpeter equation for the model of Nambu and Jona-Lasinio with proper-time regularization. Both the pion and kaon form factors and the valence quark distribution functions reproduce many features of the available empirical data. The larger mass of the strange quark naturally explains the empirical fact that the ratio u(K) + (x)/u(pi) + (x) drops below unity at large x, with a value of approximately Mmore » $$2\\atop{u}$$/Ms$$2\\atop{s}$$ as x → 1. With regard to the elastic form factors we report a large flavor dependence, with the u-quark contribution to the kaon form factor being an order of magnitude smaller than that of the s-quark at large Q2, which may be a sensitive measure of confinement effects in QCD. Surprisingly though, the total K+ and π+ form factors differ by only 10%. Lastly, in general we find that flavor breaking effects are typically around 20%.« less

  7. Flavor dependence of the pion and kaon form factors and parton distribution functions

    SciTech Connect

    Hutauruk, Parada T. P.; Cloët, Ian C.; Thomas, Anthony W.

    2016-09-01

    The separate quark flavor contributions to the pion and kaon valence quark distribution functions are studied, along with the corresponding electromagnetic form factors in the space-like region. The calculations are made using the solution of the Bethe-Salpeter equation for the model of Nambu and Jona-Lasinio with proper-time regularization. Both the pion and kaon form factors and the valence quark distribution functions reproduce many features of the available empirical data. The larger mass of the strange quark naturally explains the empirical fact that the ratio u(K) + (x)/u(pi) + (x) drops below unity at large x, with a value of approximately M$2\\atop{u}$/Ms$2\\atop{s}$ as x → 1. With regard to the elastic form factors we report a large flavor dependence, with the u-quark contribution to the kaon form factor being an order of magnitude smaller than that of the s-quark at large Q2, which may be a sensitive measure of confinement effects in QCD. Surprisingly though, the total K+ and π+ form factors differ by only 10%. Lastly, in general we find that flavor breaking effects are typically around 20%.

  8. Measuring subwavelength spatial coherence with plasmonic interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrill, Drew; Li, Dongfang; Pacifici, Domenico

    2016-10-01

    Optical interferometry has enabled quantification of the spatial and temporal correlations of electromagnetic fields, which laid the foundations for the theory of optical coherence. Despite significant advances in fundamental theories and applications, the measurement of nanoscale coherence lengths for highly incoherent optical fields has remained elusive. Here, we employ plasmonic interferometry (that is, optical interferometry with surface plasmons) to characterize the spatial degree of coherence of light beams down to subwavelength scales, with measured coherence lengths as low as ∼330 nm for an incident wavelength of 500 nm. Furthermore, we demonstrate a compact coherence meter that integrates this method with an image sensor. Precise determination of spatial coherence can advance high-resolution imaging and tomographic schemes, and provide an experimental platform for the development and testing of optical coherence theories at the nanoscale.

  9. Optical tests with Bessel beam interferometry.

    PubMed

    Fortin, Mathieu; Piché, Michel; Borra, Ermanno

    2004-11-29

    In this paper we demonstrate how Bessel beam interferometry can be used to characterize the curvature of a reflecting surface. The approach is based on the fact that the intensity distribution produced by the coherent superposition of Bessel beams is a sensitive function of the relative phases between the constituting beams. We show how this phase sensitivity can translate into accurate measurements of the curvature of a wavefront. Experimental tests were made with a liquid mirror. We have also used Bessel beams to measure the precession angle of the liquid mirror. Our results show that Bessel beam interferometry is a very accurate tool for the optical testing of non-stationary surfaces and that it could be used as a general method of real-time, non-contact sensing. Bessel beam interferometry has the advantage of not requiring any reference arm that needs to be stabilized.

  10. Virtual shearing interferometry by digital holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, L. Z.; Meng, X. F.; Wang, Y. R.; Shen, X. X.; Dong, G. Y.; Yang, X. L.

    2006-03-01

    A novel method of virtual shearing interferometry (VSI) is proposed. In this method, the shearogram is obtained by interference of a real object wave-front and a virtual object wave-front. The former is optically recorded and then digitally reconstructed; and the latter is introduced digitally by repositioning or reforming the former. The obvious advantages of VSI over conventional shearing interferometry (SI) are its versatility, accuracy, and simplicity. Only one real field is necessary to produce shearogram; there is no need of any real shearing device or even the phase unwrapping computation; and the digital shear can take any possible form according to different purposes. Both the optical experiments and computer simulations with lateral shearing, 180° rotational shearing and double lateral shearing for evaluation of lens aberrations in the general case including spherical aberration, coma, astigmatism, defocus, and tilts based on phase-shifting interferometry are given to verify the effectiveness of this method.

  11. A search for neutral D meson decaying to kaon electron anti-electron neutrino (via mixing) at CLEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedlack, Christopher

    I provide a general overview of particle physics, including a brief introduction to the Standard Model. I describe the theory behind the phenomenon of charm mixing and present a method of searching for D0 - D0 mixing using the CLEO detector at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring. Analyzing the 9.0fb-1 CLEO II.V, I find a value for the mixing rate, Rmix = 1.10% +/- 76%(stat.) +/- .68%(syst.). This corresponds to a limit of Rmix < 3.24% at the 95% confidence level.

  12. Study of Branching Ratio And Polarization Fraction in Neutral B Meson Decays to Negative Rho Meson Positive Kaon Resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Baosen; /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2006-03-07

    We present the preliminary results on the search for B{sup 0} {yields} {rho}{sup -}K*{sup +}. The data sample comprises 122.7 million B{bar B} pairs in the e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation through the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance collected during 1999-2003 with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy collider at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). We obtain an upper limit of the branching ratio at 90% confidence level as {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} {rho}{sup -}K*{sup +}) < 17.2 x 10{sup -6}. The fitted result on the polarization fraction shows no evidence that the decay is longitudinally dominated as predicted by various theoretical models.

  13. Soft x-ray interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of the soft x-ray interferometry workshop held at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory was to discuss with the scientific community the proposed technical design of the soft x-ray Fourier-transform spectrometer being developed at the ALS. Different design strategies for the instrument`s components were discussed, as well as detection methods, signal processing issues, and how to meet the manufacturing tolerances that are necessary for the instrument to achieve the desired levels of performance. Workshop participants were encouraged to report on their experiences in the field of Fourier transform spectroscopy. The ALS is developing a Fourier transform spectrometer that is intended to operate up to 100 eV. The motivation is solely improved resolution and not the throughput (Jaquinot) or multiplex (Fellgett) advantage, neither of which apply for the sources and detectors used in this spectral range. The proposed implementation of this is via a Mach-Zehnder geometry that has been (1) distorted from a square to a rhombus to get grazing incidence of a suitable angle for 100 eV and (2) provided with a mirror-motion system to make the path difference between the interfering beams tunable. The experiment consists of measuring the emergent light intensity (I(x)) as a function of the path difference (x). The resolving power of the system is limited by the amount of path difference obtainable that is 1 cm (one million half-waves at 200{angstrom} wavelength) in the design thus allowing a resolving power of one million. The free spectral range of the system is limited by the closeness with which the function I(x) is sampled. It is proposed to illuminate a helium absorption cell with roughly 1%-band-width light from a monochromator thus allowing one hundred aliases without spectral overlap even for sampling of I(x) at one hundredth of the Nyquist frequency.

  14. Shear-strain contours from moire interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Post, D.; Czarnek, R.; Joh, D.

    1985-01-01

    The development of whole-field contour maps of shear strains gamma (xy), derived from displacement fields obtained by moire interferometry with 2400 lines/mm, is described. The use of mechanical differentiation to obtain cross-derivatives of displacements and the use of graphical additive moire to sum the cross-derivatives are explained. Quantitative analysis in the small-strain domain is possible because of the high sensitivity of moire interferometry. The applicability of this technique is shown by the testing of a short epoxy beam under three-point bending.

  15. Altimetry Using GPS-Reflection/Occultation Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardellach, Estel; DeLaTorre, Manuel; Hajj, George A.; Ao, Chi

    2008-01-01

    A Global Positioning System (GPS)- reflection/occultation interferometry was examined as a means of altimetry of water and ice surfaces in polar regions. In GPS-reflection/occultation interferometry, a GPS receiver aboard a satellite in a low orbit around the Earth is used to determine the temporally varying carrier- phase delay between (1) one component of a signal from a GPS transmitter propagating directly through the atmosphere just as the GPS transmitter falls below the horizon and (2) another component of the same signal, propagating along a slightly different path, reflected at glancing incidence upon the water or ice surface.

  16. Spectral modulation interferometry for quantitative phase imaging

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Ruibo; Chen, Shichao; Li, Chengshuai; Zhu, Yizheng

    2015-01-01

    We propose a spectral-domain interferometric technique, termed spectral modulation interferometry (SMI), and present its application to high-sensitivity, high-speed, and speckle-free quantitative phase imaging. In SMI, one-dimensional complex field of an object is interferometrically modulated onto a broadband spectrum. Full-field phase and intensity images are obtained by scanning along the orthogonal direction. SMI integrates the high sensitivity of spectral-domain interferometry with the high speed of spectral modulation to quantify fast phase dynamics, and its dispersive and confocal nature eliminates laser speckles. The principle and implementation of SMI are discussed. Its performance is evaluated using static and dynamic objects. PMID:25780737

  17. The PICNIC Interferometry Camera at IOTA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedretti, E.; Millan-Gabet, R.; Monnier, J. D.; Traub, W. A.; Carleton, N. P.; Berger, J.-P.; Lacasse, M. G.; Schloerb, F. P.; Brewer, M. K.

    2004-04-01

    We describe the control and performance of a new near-infrared camera based on a Rockwell PICNIC array detector for interferometry observations at the Infrared-Optical Telescope Array (IOTA). The camera control uses a complex programmable logic device that allows fast and stable clocking of the PICNIC array and on-the-fly reconfiguration of the readout method. We measured a read noise as low as 12.4 e per correlated double sample. The read noise can be reduced even more through nondestructive readout, and decreases as the square root of the number of successive reads. We discuss the advantages of this system for near-infrared interferometry.

  18. Holographic interferometry: A user`s guide

    SciTech Connect

    Griggs, D.

    1993-10-01

    This manual describes the procedures and components necessary to produce a holographic interferogram of a flow field in the Sandia National Laboratories hypersonic wind tunnel. In contrast to classical interferometry, holographic interferometry records the amplitude and phase distribution of a lightwave passing through the flow field at some instant of time. This information can then be reconstructed outside the wind tunnel for visual analysis and digital processing, yielding precise characterizations of aerodynamic phenomena. The reconstruction and subsequent hologram image storage process is discussed, with particular attention paid to the digital image processor and the data reduction technique.

  19. Rare Kaon Decays, KEK experiment E391 and E14 at the Japan Physics and Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC)

    SciTech Connect

    Wah, Yau Wai

    2012-12-06

    The goal of the J-PARC neutral kaon experiment (E14/KOTO) is to discover and measure the rate of the kaon rare decay to pi-zero and two neutrinos. This flavor changing neutral current decay proceeds through second-order weak interactions. Other, as yet undiscovered particles, which can mediate the decay could provide an enhancement (or depletion) to the branching ratio which in the Standard Model is accurately predicted within a few percent to be 2.8x10-11. The experiment is designed to observe more than 100 events at the Standard Model branching. It is a follow-up of the KEK E391a experiment and has stage-2 approval by J-PARC PAC in 2007. E14/KOTO has collaborators from Japan (Kyoto, Osaka, Yamagata, Saga), US (Arizona State, Chicago, Michigan Ann Arbor), Taiwan (National Taiwan), Korea, and Russia (Dubna). The experiment exploits the 300kW 30-50 GeV proton delivery of the J-PARC accelerator with a hermetic high acceptance detector with a fine grained Cesium Iodide (CsI) crystal calorimeter, and state of the art electronic front end and data acquisition system. With the recovery of the tsunami disaster on March 11th 2011, E14 is scheduled to start collecting data in December 2012. During the detector construction phase, Chicago focuses on the front end electronics readout of the entire detector system, particularly the CsI calorimeter. The CsI crystals together with its photomultipliers were previously used at the Fermilab KTeV experiment (E832/E799), and were loaned to E14 via this Chicago DOE support. The new readout electronics includes an innovative 10-pole pulse-shaping technique coupled with high speed digitization (14-bit 125MHz and 12-bit 500MHz). This new instrument enables us to measure both energy and timing, particularly with timing resolution better than 100 psec. Besides the cost saving by elimination of the standard time to digital converters, it is now possible to measure the momenta of the final state photons for additional background suppression

  20. Precision measurements with atom interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, Christian; Abend, Sven; Schlippert, Dennis; Ertmer, Wolfgang; Rasel, Ernst M.

    2017-04-01

    Interferometry with matter waves enables precise measurements of rotations, accelerations, and differential accelerations [1-5]. This is exploited for determining fundamental constants [2], in fundamental science as e.g. testing the universality of free fall [3], and is applied for gravimetry [4], and gravity gradiometry [2,5]. At the Institut für Quantenoptik in Hannover, different approaches are pursued. A large scale device is designed and currently being set up to investigate the gain in precision for gravimetry, gradiometry, and fundamental tests on large baselines [6]. For field applications, a compact and transportable device is being developed. Its key feature is an atom chip source providing a collimated high flux of atoms which is expected to mitigate systematic uncertainties [7,8]. The atom chip technology and miniaturization benefits from microgravity experiments in the drop tower in Bremen and sounding rocket experiments [8,9] which act as pathfinders for space borne operation [10]. This contribution will report about our recent results. The presented work is supported by the CRC 1227 DQ-mat, the CRC 1128 geo-Q, the RTG 1729, the QUEST-LFS, and by the German Space Agency (DLR) with funds provided by the Federal Ministry of Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi) due to an enactment of the German Bundestag under Grant No. DLR 50WM1552-1557. [1] P. Berg et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 114, 063002, 2015; I. Dutta et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 116, 183003, 2016. [2] J. B. Fixler et al., Science 315, 74 (2007); G. Rosi et al., Nature 510, 518, 2014. [3] D. Schlippert et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 112, 203002, 2014. [4] A. Peters et al., Nature 400, 849, 1999; A. Louchet-Chauvet et al., New J. Phys. 13, 065026, 2011; C. Freier et al., J. of Phys.: Conf. Series 723, 012050, 2016. [5] J. M. McGuirk et al., Phys. Rev. A 65, 033608, 2002; P. Asenbaum et al., arXiv:1610.03832. [6] J. Hartwig et al., New J. Phys. 17, 035011, 2015. [7] H. Ahlers et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 173601

  1. Freeze-out dynamics via charged kaon femtoscopy in sNN=200 GeV central Au + Au collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Alekseev, I.; Alford, J.; Anson, C. D.; Aparin, A.; Arkhipkin, D.; Aschenauer, E.; Averichev, G. S.; Balewski, J.; Banerjee, A.; Barnovska, Z.; Beavis, D. R.; Bellwied, R.; Betancourt, M. J.; Betts, R. R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattarai; Bichsel, H.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L. C.; Bordyuzhin, I. G.; Borowski, W.; Bouchet, J.; Brandin, A. V.; Brovko, S. G.; Bruna, E.; Bültmann, S.; Bunzarov, I.; Burton, T. P.; Butterworth, J.; Caines, H.; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M.; Cebra, D.; Cendejas, R.; Cervantes, M. C.; Chaloupka, P.; Chang, Z.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, H. F.; Chen, J. H.; Chen, J. Y.; Chen, L.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Chikanian, A.; Christie, W.; Chung, P.; Chwastowski, J.; Codrington, M. J. M.; Corliss, R.; Cramer, J. G.; Crawford, H. J.; Cui, X.; Das, S.; Davila Leyva, A.; De Silva, L. C.; Debbe, R. R.; Dedovich, T. G.; Deng, J.; Derradi de Souza, R.; Dhamija, S.; di Ruzza, B.; Didenko, L.; Dilks; Ding, F.; Dion, A.; Djawotho, P.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Du, C. M.; Dunkelberger, L. E.; Dunlop, J. C.; Efimov, L. G.; Elnimr, M.; Engelage, J.; Engle, K. S.; Eppley, G.; Eun, L.; Evdokimov, O.; Fatemi, R.; Fazio, S.; Fedorisin, J.; Fersch, R. G.; Filip, P.; Finch, E.; Fisyak, Y.; Flores, C. E.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Garand, D.; Geurts, F.; Gibson, A.; Gliske, S.; Grebenyuk, O. G.; Grosnick, D.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, S.; Guryn, W.; Haag, B.; Hajkova, O.; Hamed, A.; Han, L.-X.; Haque, R.; Harris, J. W.; Hays-Wehle, J. P.; Heppelmann, S.; Hirsch, A.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Hofman, D. J.; Horvat, S.; Huang, B.; Huang, H. Z.; Huck, P.; Humanic, T. J.; Igo, G.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jena, C.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kang, K.; Kauder, K.; Ke, H. W.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Kesich, A.; Kikola, D. P.; Kiryluk, J.; Kisel, I.; Kisiel, A.; Koetke, D. D.; Kollegger, T.; Konzer, J.; Koralt, I.; Korsch, W.; Kotchenda, L.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Kulakov, I.; Kumar, L.; Kycia, R. A.; Lamont, M. A. C.; Landgraf, J. M.; Landry, K. D.; LaPointe, S.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, J. H.; Leight, W.; LeVine, M. J.; Li, C.; Li, W.; Li, X.; Li, X.; Li, Y.; Li, Z. M.; Lima, L. M.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, F.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Longacre, R. S.; Luo, X.; Ma, G. L.; Ma, Y. G.; Madagodagettige Don, D. M. M. D.; Mahapatra, D. P.; Majka, R.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Masui, H.; Matis, H. S.; McDonald, D.; McShane, T. S.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mitrovski, M. K.; Mohammed, Y.; Mohanty, B.; Mondal, M. M.; Munhoz, M. G.; Mustafa, M. K.; Naglis, M.; Nandi, B. K.; Nasim, Md.; Nayak, T. K.; Nelson, J. M.; Nogach, L. V.; Novak, J.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Oh, K.; Ohlson, A.; Okorokov, V.; Oldag, E. W.; Oliveira, R. A. N.; Olson, D.; Pachr, M.; Page, B. S.; Pal, S. K.; Pan, Y. X.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pawlak, T.; Pawlik, B.; Pei, H.; Perkins, C.; Peryt, W.; Pile, P.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Plyku, D.; Poljak, N.; Porter, J.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Powell, C. B.; Pruneau, C.; Pruthi, N. K.; Przybycien, M.; Pujahari, P. R.; Putschke, J.; Qiu, H.; Ramachandran, S.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Ray, R. L.; Riley, C. K.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Ross, J. F.; Roy, A.; Ruan, L.; Rusnak, J.; Sahoo, N. R.; Sahu, P. K.; Sakrejda, I.; Salur, S.; Sandacz, A.; Sandweiss, J.; Sangaline, E.; Sarkar, A.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schmah, A. M.; Schmidke, B.; Schmitz, N.; Schuster, T. R.; Seger, J.; Seyboth, P.; Shah, N.; Shahaliev, E.; Shao, M.; Sharma, B.; Sharma, M.; Shen, W. Q.; Shi, S. S.; Shou, Q. Y.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Singaraju, R. N.; Skoby, M. J.; Smirnov, D.; Smirnov, N.; Solanki, D.; Sorensen, P.; deSouza, U. G.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Stevens, J. R.; Stock, R.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Suaide, A. A. P.; Suarez, M. C.; Sumbera, M.; Sun, X. M.; Sun, Y.; Sun, Z.; Surrow, B.; Svirida, D. N.; Symons, T. J. M.; Szanto de Toledo, A.; Takahashi, J.; Tang, A. H.; Tang, Z.; Tarini, L. H.; Tarnowsky, T.; Thomas, J. H.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Tokarev, M.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tribedy, P.; Trzeciak, B. A.; Tsai, O. D.; Turnau, J.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Van Buren, G.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Vanfossen, J. A., Jr.; Varma, R.; Vasconcelos, G. M. S.; Vertesi, R.; Videbæk, F.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vokal, S.; Voloshin, S. A.; Vossen, A.; Wada, M.; Walker, M.; Wang, F.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, J. S.; Wang, Q.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Y.; Webb, G.; Webb, J. C.; Westfall, G. D.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S. W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y. F.; Xiao, Z.; Xie, W.; Xin, K.; Xu, H.; Xu, N.; Xu, Q. H.; Xu, W.; Xu, Y.; Xu, Z.; Yan; Yang, C.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y.; Yepes, P.; Yi, L.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I.-K.; Zawisza, Y.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zha, W.; Zhang, J. B.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, X. P.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhao, F.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, C.; Zhu, X.; Zhu, Y. H.; Zoulkarneeva, Y.; Zyzak, M.

    2013-09-01

    We present measurements of three-dimensional correlation functions of like-sign, low-transverse-momentum kaon pairs from sNN=200 GeV Au+Au collisions. A Cartesian surface-spherical harmonic decomposition technique was used to extract the kaon source function. The latter was found to have a three-dimensional Gaussian shape and can be adequately reproduced by Therminator event-generator simulations with resonance contributions taken into account. Compared to the pion one, the kaon source function is generally narrower and does not have the long tail along the pair transverse momentum direction. The kaon Gaussian radii display a monotonic decrease with increasing transverse mass mT over the interval of 0.55≤mT≤1.15 GeV/c2. While the kaon radii are adequately described by the mT -scaling in the outward and sideward directions, in the longitudinal direction the lowest mT value exceeds the expectations from a pure hydrodynamical model prediction.

  2. SAR Interferometry with TerraSAR-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eineder, M.; Runge, H.; Boerner, E.; Bamler, R.; Adam, N.; Schättler, B.; Breit, H.; Suchandt, S.

    2004-06-01

    The TerraSAR-X project is a public private partnership between Astrium GmbH and the German Aerospace Center DLR. Astrium will launch the satellite in late 2005 and holds the rights of commercial data exploitation. DLR is currently developing the ground segment and is responsible for the scientific exploitation of the data. Even if the mission goal is not primarily SAR interferometry, TerraSAR-X offers a number of new perspectives to SAR interferometry when compared to ERS and also ENVISAT: a) High resolution of 3 meters and better in stripmap and spotlight mode. b) The option for a burst synchronized ScanSAR mode. c) The high range bandwidth will allow large baselines and the option for highly precise DEM generation. d) X- Band will show new scattering properties. e) High observation frequency due to the short repeat cycle and variable incidence angles. f) An along track interferometric mode. The available products relevant for interferometry are presented and other relevant topics like orbit control and delta-k interferometry are discussed.

  3. Automatic stitching interferometry for large plano optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ang; Gao, Bo; Xu, Kaiyuan; He, Yuhang; Li, Qiang; Chai, Liqun

    2015-02-01

    The paper will describe an automated subaperture stitching interferometry for large plano surface based on relevant algorithm, which restruct the whole surface without recording the position of every subaperture. Both correction and data fusion algorithm are used to minimize the stitching error.

  4. Phase-Shifted Laser Feedback Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ovryn, Benjie

    1999-01-01

    Phase-shifted, laser feedback interferometry is a new diagnostic tool developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center under the Advanced Technology Development (ATD) Program directed by NASA Headquarters Microgravity Research Division. It combines the principles of phase-shifting interferometry (PSI) and laser-feedback interferometry (LFI) to produce an instrument that can quantify both optical path length changes and sample reflectivity variations. In a homogenous medium, the optical path length between two points is the product of the index of refraction and the geometric distance between the two points. LFI differs from other forms of interferometry by using the laser as both the source and the phase detector. In LFI, coherent feedback of the incident light either reflected directly from a surface or reflected after transmission through a region of interest will modulate the output intensity of the laser. The combination of PSI and LFI has produced a robust instrument, based on a low-power helium-neon (HeNe) gas laser, with a high dynamic range that can be used to measure either static or oscillatory changes of the optical path length. Small changes in optical path length are limited by the fraction of a fringe that can be measured; we can measure nonoscillatory changes with a root mean square (rms) error of the wavelength/1000 without averaging.

  5. Multiple Beam Interferometry in Elementary Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolansky, S.

    1970-01-01

    Discusses a relatively simple technique for demonstrating multiple beam interferometry. The technique can be applied to measuring (1) radii of curvature of lenses, (2) surface finish of glass, and (3) differential phase change on reflection. Microtopographies, modulated fringe systems and opaque objects may also be observed by this technique.…

  6. Detection of deoxynivalenol using biolayer interferometry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Biolayer interferometry allows for the real time monitoring of the interactions between molecules without the need for reagents with enzymatic, fluorescent, or radioactive labels. The technology is based upon the changes in interference pattern of light reflected from the surface of an optical fiber...

  7. JERS SAR interferometry for land subsidence monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strozzi, Tazio; Wegmüller, Urs; Werner, Charles; Wiesmann, Andreas

    2002-01-01

    In this paper the potential of L-Band repeat-pass differential SAR interferometry for land subsidence monitoring is evaluated using JERS SAR data. Bologna, Mexico City and the Ruhrgebiet were selected as application sites representing slow to fast deformation velocities. The investigation includes feasibility aspects as the data availability, the temporal decorrelation over different landcover classes and the range of useful spatial baselines, an analysis of the achieved deformation accuracy and considerations on the complementarity to ERS SAR interferometry and levelling surveys. In spite of the rather limited data availability, land subsidence maps could be generated for the three selected application sites. Unlike with ERS C-Band SAR data, JERS L-Band interferometry permitted to retrieve subsidence values also over vegetated areas and forest when using interferograms of less than one year acquisition time interval and short baseline. In addition, the longer L-Band wavelength was found to be superior in the case of large deformation gradients that lead to phase unwrapping problems in C-Band interferometry.

  8. Piston measurement by quadriwave lateral shearing interferometry.

    PubMed

    Mousset, Soazic; Rouyer, Claude; Marre, Gabrielle; Blanchot, Nathalie; Montant, Sébastien; Wattellier, Benoit

    2006-09-01

    We present what is to our knowledge a new method for measuring the relative piston between two independent beams separated by a physical gap, typical of petawatt facilities. The feasibility of this measurement, based on quadriwave lateral shearing interferometry, has been demonstrated experimentally: piston has been measured with accuracy and sensitivity better than 50 nm.

  9. Astrometric Speckle Interferometry for the Amateur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Nils; Argyle, R. W.

    Today's amateur astronomer has access to technology and reference information that one could barely imagine even just a decade ago. The march of technology has made electronics and computers both more sophisticated and cheaper, encouraging the savvy amateur to try an astronomical technique not usually thought of as being in the amateur arsenal, speckle interferometry.

  10. Radio interferometry: Techniques for Geodesy. [conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Progress in the development and application of radio interferometry as a tool for geophysical research is reported and discussed. Among the topics reviewed are: Surveys of is the Seventies, Movements, Terrestrial and Celestial, Degrees Kelvin and Degrees of Phase, the Mark 3 VLBI System, Waves of the Future and other Emissions, and Adherence and Coherence in Networks, and Plans.

  11. Apparatus and method for laser velocity interferometry

    DOEpatents

    Stanton, Philip L.; Sweatt, William C.; Crump, Jr., O. B.; Bonzon, Lloyd L.

    1993-09-14

    An apparatus and method for laser velocity interferometry employing a fixed interferometer cavity and delay element. The invention permits rapid construction of interferometers that may be operated by those non-skilled in the art, that have high image quality with no drift or loss of contrast, and that have long-term stability even without shock isolation of the cavity.

  12. A measurement of the branching ration of the neutral pion Dalitz decay using kaon(long) going to 3 neutral pion decays from KTeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abouzaid, Erin E.

    2007-12-01

    We present a measurement of B(pi0 → e+e- g )/B(pi0 → gg ) using data taken in 1999 by the E832 KTeV experiment at Fermilab. The pi0s were produced by KL decays in flight that are fully reconstructed. We find 63,693 K L → 3pi0 → gggg e+e- g decays in KTeV data (an increase of a factor of ˜ 20 in event statistics over previous experiments), and normalize to KL → 3pi0 → 6 g , to extract Bp0 →e+e-g,me+e ->15MeV/c2 /Bp0→gg =3.920+/-0.016+/-0.036 x10-3, where the first error is statistical and the second is systematic. Using the Mikaelian and Smith prediction for the e +e- mass spectrum as implemented in the KTeV Monte Carlo to correct to the full e+ e- mass range yields Bp0 →e+e-g /Bp0→gg =1.1559+/-0.0046+/-0.0107 %. This result is consistent with previous measurements and with theoretical predictions, and the uncertainty is a factor of three smaller than any previous measurement.

  13. Future Looks Bright for Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-09-01

    First Light for the PRIMA instrument The PRIMA instrument [1] of the ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) recently saw "first light" at its new home atop Cerro Paranal in Chile. When fully operational, PRIMA will boost the capabilities of the VLTI to see sources much fainter than any previous interferometers, and enable astrometric precision unmatched by any other existing astronomical facility. PRIMA will be a unique tool for the detection of exoplanets. First Light of the PRIMA Instrument ESO PR Photo 29a/08 Preparing for PRIMA "PRIMA is specifically designed to see if one star 'wobbles' to and fro because it is has unseen planetary companions", says instrument scientist Gerard van Belle. "This allows us to not only detect exoplanets, but to measure their mass." PRIMA's expected astrometric precision of tens of micro-arcseconds is unmatched by any other existing astronomical facility, whether on the ground or in orbit [2]. In addition to taking astrometric measurements PRIMA will be the key to the imaging of faint sources with the VLTI using the science instruments AMBER and MIDI. Interferometry combines the light received by two or more telescopes, concentrating on tiny differences between the signals to measure angles with exquisite precision. Using this technique PRIMA can pick out details as sharply as a single telescope with a diameter equivalent to the largest distance between the telescopes. For the VLTI, the distance between the two telescope elements is about 200 metres. The PRIMA instrument is unique amongst the VLTI instruments, in that it is effectively two interferometers in one. PRIMA will take data from two sources on the sky simultaneously: the brighter source can be used for tracking, allowing the interferometer to "stare" at the fainter source for longer than is now possible with conventional interferometers. Although there have been earlier pathfinder experiments to test this technique, PRIMA represents the first facility

  14. A 50 Hz dipole magnet for the TRIUMF KAON Factory booster ring

    SciTech Connect

    Otter, A.J. )

    1992-01-01

    The 3 GeV Booster synchrotron for TRIUMF's KAON Factory will need 24 dipole magnets each 3.0 m long operating with a resonant power system designed to give a 50 Hz ac field superimposed onto a dc field. The maximum and minimum field levels are 1.118 and 0.295 T respectively. In this paper the magnet design is presented and compared with measured results from a prototype which was constructed to evaluate fabrication procedures and to verify the ac loss calculations. The experiences gained from this fabrication are described.

  15. Effects of the Consistent Interaction on Kaon Photoproduction with Spin 5/2 Nucleon Resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clymton, S.; Mart, T.

    2016-08-01

    Theoretical models for kaon photoproduction with spin 5/2 nucleon resonances have been plagued with the problem of interaction consistency. A number of studies predicted that a model with a consistent interaction leads to a better agreement with data. In this study a model with consistent interaction (model 2) is compared to the old model, which utilizes an inconsistent interaction (model 1), as well as to experimental data. The unknown parameters in scattering amplitude are extracted from fitting to 7400 experimental data points. This is performed by minimizing the X2/N value. It is found that model with a consistent interaction (model 2) is more suitable for explaining experimental data.

  16. Exclusive production of pion and kaon meson pairs in two photon collisions at LEP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ALEPH Collaboration; Heister, A.; Schael, S.; Barate, R.; Brunelière, R.; de Bonis, I.; Decamp, D.; Goy, C.; Jezequel, S.; Lees, J.-P.; Martin, F.; Merle, E.; Minard, M.-N.; Pietrzyk, B.; Trocmé, B.; Bravo, S.; Casado, M. P.; Chmeissani, M.; Crespo, J. M.; Fernandez, E.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Garrido, Ll.; Martinez, M.; Pacheco, A.; Ruiz, H.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; de Filippis, N.; de Palma, M.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Nuzzo, S.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Tricomi, A.; Zito, G.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Ouyang, Q.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, R.; Xue, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, W.; Abbaneo, D.; Barklow, T.; Buchmüller, O.; Cattaneo, M.; Clerbaux, B.; Drevermann, H.; Forty, R. W.; Frank, M.; Gianotti, F.; Hansen, J. B.; Harvey, J.; Hutchcroft, D. E.; Janot, P.; Jost, B.; Kado, M.; Mato, P.; Moutoussi, A.; Ranjard, F.; Rolandi, L.; Schlatter, D.; Sguazzoni, G.; Teubert, F.; Valassi, A.; Videau, I.; Badaud, F.; Dessagne, S.; Falvard, A.; Fayolle, D.; Gay, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Monteil, S.; Pallin, D.; Pascolo, J. M.; Perret, P.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, P. H.; Kraan, A. C.; Nilsson, B. S.; Kyriakis, A.; Markou, C.; Simopoulou, E.; Vayaki, A.; Zachariadou, K.; Blondel, A.; Brient, J.-C.; Machefert, F.; Rougé, A.; Videau, H.; Ciulli, V.; Focardi, E.; Parrini, G.; Antonelli, A.; Antonelli, M.; Bencivenni, G.; Bossi, F.; Capon, G.; Cerutti, F.; Chiarella, V.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, G. P.; Passalacqua, L.; Kennedy, J.; Lynch, J. G.; Negus, P.; O'Shea, V.; Thompson, A. S.; Wasserbaech, S.; Cavanaugh, R.; Dhamotharan, S.; Geweniger, C.; Hanke, P.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E. E.; Putzer, A.; Stenzel, H.; Tittel, K.; Wunsch, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Cameron, W.; Davies, G.; Dornan, P. J.; Girone, M.; Hill, R. D.; Marinelli, N.; Nowell, J.; Rutherford, S. A.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Thompson, J. C.; White, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Girtler, P.; Kneringer, E.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Bouhova-Thacker, E.; Bowdery, C. K.; Clarke, D. P.; Ellis, G.; Finch, A. J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Jones, R. W. L.; Pearson, M. R.; Robertson, N. A.; Smizanska, M.; van der Aa, O.; Delaere, C.; Leibenguth, G.; Lemaitre, V.; Blumenschein, U.; Hölldorfer, F.; Jakobs, K.; Kayser, F.; Kleinknecht, K.; Müller, A.-S.; Renk, B.; Sander, H.-G.; Schmeling, S.; Wachsmuth, H.; Zeitnitz, C.; Ziegler, T.; Bonissent, A.; Coyle, P.; Curtil, C.; Ealet, A.; Fouchez, D.; Payre, P.; Tilquin, A.; Ragusa, F.; David, A.; Dietl, H.; Ganis, G.; Hüttmann, K.; Lütjens, G.; Männer, W.; Moser, H.-G.; Settles, R.; Villegas, M.; Wolf, G.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Davier, M.; Duflot, L.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Heusse, Ph.; Jacholkowska, A.; Serin, L.; Veillet, J.-J.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Boccali, T.; Foà, L.; Giammanco, A.; Giassi, A.; Ligabue, F.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Sanguinetti, G.; Sciabà, A.; Spagnolo, P.; Tenchini, R.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Awunor, O.; Blair, G. A.; Cowan, G.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Green, M. G.; Jones, L. T.; Medcalf, T.; Misiejuk, A.; Strong, J. A.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Clifft, R. W.; Edgecock, T. R.; Norton, P. R.; Tomalin, I. R.; Ward, J. J.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Boumediene, D.; Colas, P.; Fabbro, B.; Lançon, E.; Lemaire, M.-C.; Locci, E.; Perez, P.; Rander, J.; Tuchming, B.; Vallage, B.; Litke, A. M.; Taylor, G.; Booth, C. N.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Hodgson, P. N.; Lehto, M.; Thompson, L. F.; Böhrer, A.; Brandt, S.; Grupen, C.; Hess, J.; Ngac, A.; Prange, G.; Borean, C.; Giannini, G.; He, H.; Putz, J.; Rothberg, J.; Armstrong, S. R.; Berkelman, K.; Cranmer, K.; Ferguson, D. P. S.; Gao, Y.; González, S.; Hayes, O. J.; Hu, H.; Jin, S.; Kile, J.; McNamara, P. A.; Nielsen, J.; Pan, Y. B.; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J. H.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wu, J.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Zobernig, G.; Dissertori, G.

    2003-09-01

    Exclusive production of /π and K meson pairs in two photon collisions is measured with ALEPH data collected between 1992 and 2000. Cross-sections are presented as a function of cosθ* and invariant mass, for cosθ*<0.6 and invariant masses between 2.0 and 6.0 GeV/c2 (2.25 and 4.0 GeV/c2) for pions (kaons). The shape of the distributions are found to be well described by QCD predictions but the data have a significantly higher normalization.

  17. Pion and kaon condensations in three-flavor random matrix theory

    SciTech Connect

    Arai, Ryoichi; Yoshinaga, Naotaka

    2008-11-01

    We study the QCD phase structure in a three-flavor random matrix model with symmetries of QCD formulated at finite temperature and nonzero chemical potentials of baryon number, isospin, and strangeness. We numerically investigate the phase diagram in the chemical potential plane at zero temperature with finite quark masses. We find a rich phase structure separated by both first and second order phase transition lines, which qualitatively agrees with the predictions of effective chiral models and Nambu-Jona-Lasinio models. The phases are characterized by the chiral condensates of three flavors, pion and kaon condensates.

  18. Precision measurement of the ratio of the charged kaon leptonic decay rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    NA62 Collaboration; Lazzeroni, C.; Romano, A.; Ceccucci, A.; Danielsson, H.; Falaleev, V.; Gatignon, L.; Goy Lopez, S.; Hallgren, B.; Maier, A.; Peters, A.; Piccini, M.; Riedler, P.; Frabetti, P. L.; Gersabeck, E.; Kekelidze, V.; Madigozhin, D.; Misheva, M.; Molokanova, N.; Movchan, S.; Potrebenikov, Yu.; Shkarovskiy, S.; Zinchenko, A.; Rubin, P.; Baldini, W.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Dalpiaz, P.; Fiorini, M.; Gianoli, A.; Norton, A.; Petrucci, F.; Savrié, M.; Bizzeti, A.; Bucci, F.; Iacopini, E.; Lenti, M.; Veltri, M.; Antonelli, A.; Moulson, M.; Raggi, M.; Spadaro, T.; Eppard, K.; Hita-Hochgesand, M.; Kleinknecht, K.; Renk, B.; Wanke, R.; Winhart, A.; Winston, R.; Bolotov, V.; Duk, V.; Gushchin, E.; Ambrosino, F.; Di Filippo, D.; Massarotti, P.; Napolitano, M.; Palladino, V.; Saracino, G.; Anzivino, G.; Imbergamo, E.; Piandani, R.; Sergi, A.; Cenci, P.; Pepe, M.; Costantini, F.; Doble, N.; Giudici, S.; Pierazzini, G.; Sozzi, M.; Venditti, S.; Balev, S.; Collazuol, G.; DiLella, L.; Gallorini, S.; Goudzovski, E.; Lamanna, G.; Mannelli, I.; Ruggiero, G.; Cerri, C.; Fantechi, R.; Kurshetsov, V.; Obraztsov, V.; Popov, I.; Semenov, V.; Yushchenko, O.; D'Agostini, G.; Leonardi, E.; Serra, M.; Valente, P.; Fucci, A.; Salamon, A.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Peyaud, B.; Engelfried, J.; Coward, D.; Kozhuharov, V.; Litov, L.; Arcidiacono, R.; Bifani, S.; Biino, C.; Dellacasa, G.; Marchetto, F.; Numao, T.; Retière, F.

    2013-02-01

    A precision measurement of the ratio RK of the rates of kaon leptonic decays K±→e±ν and K±→μ±ν with the full data sample collected by the NA62 experiment at CERN in 2007-2008 is reported. The result, obtained by analysing ˜150000 reconstructed K±→e±ν candidates with 11% background contamination, is RK=(2.488±0.010)×10-5, in agreement with the Standard Model expectation.

  19. Precision measurement of the ratio of the charged kaon leptonic decay rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazzeroni, C.; Romano, A.; Ceccucci, A.; Danielsson, H.; Falaleev, V.; Gatignon, L.; Goy Lopez, S.; Hallgren, B.; Maier, A.; Peters, A.; Piccini, M.; Riedler, P.; Frabetti, P. L.; Gersabeck, E.; Kekelidze, V.; Madigozhin, D.; Misheva, M.; Molokanova, N.; Movchan, S.; Potrebenikov, Yu.; Shkarovskiy, S.; Zinchenko, A.; Rubin, P.; Baldini, W.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Dalpiaz, P.; Fiorini, M.; Gianoli, A.; Norton, A.; Petrucci, F.; Savrié, M.; Bizzeti, A.; Bucci, F.; Iacopini, E.; Lenti, M.; Veltri, M.; Antonelli, A.; Moulson, M.; Raggi, M.; Spadaro, T.; Eppard, K.; Hita-Hochgesand, M.; Kleinknecht, K.; Renk, B.; Wanke, R.; Winhart, A.; Winston, R.; Bolotov, V.; Duk, V.; Gushchin, E.; Ambrosino, F.; Di Filippo, D.; Massarotti, P.; Napolitano, M.; Palladino, V.; Saracino, G.; Anzivino, G.; Imbergamo, E.; Piandani, R.; Sergi, A.; Cenci, P.; Pepe, M.; Costantini, F.; Doble, N.; Giudici, S.; Pierazzini, G.; Sozzi, M.; Venditti, S.; Balev, S.; Collazuol, G.; DiLella, L.; Gallorini, S.; Goudzovski, E.; Lamanna, G.; Mannelli, I.; Ruggiero, G.; Cerri, C.; Fantechi, R.; Kurshetsov, V.; Obraztsov, V.; Popov, I.; Semenov, V.; Yushchenko, O.; D'Agostini, G.; Leonardi, E.; Serra, M.; Valente, P.; Fucci, A.; Salamon, A.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Peyaud, B.; Engelfried, J.; Coward, D.; Kozhuharov, V.; Litov, L.; Arcidiacono, R.; Bifani, S.; Biino, C.; Dellacasa, G.; Marchetto, F.; Numao, T.; Retière, F.; NA62 Collaboration

    2013-02-01

    A precision measurement of the ratio RK of the rates of kaon leptonic decays K± →e± ν and K± →μ± ν with the full data sample collected by the NA62 experiment at CERN in 2007-2008 is reported. The result, obtained by analysing ∼ 150 000 reconstructed K± →e± ν candidates with 11% background contamination, is RK = (2.488 ± 0.010) ×10-5, in agreement with the Standard Model expectation.

  20. Kinetic titration series with biolayer interferometry.

    PubMed

    Frenzel, Daniel; Willbold, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Biolayer interferometry is a method to analyze protein interactions in real-time. In this study, we illustrate the usefulness to quantitatively analyze high affinity protein ligand interactions employing a kinetic titration series for characterizing the interactions between two pairs of interaction patterns, in particular immunoglobulin G and protein G B1 as well as scFv IC16 and amyloid beta (1-42). Kinetic titration series are commonly used in surface plasmon resonance and involve sequential injections of analyte over a desired concentration range on a single ligand coated sensor chip without waiting for complete dissociation between the injections. We show that applying this method to biolayer interferometry is straightforward and i) circumvents problems in data evaluation caused by unavoidable sensor differences, ii) saves resources and iii) increases throughput if screening a multitude of different analyte/ligand combinations.

  1. Speckle Interferometry with Amateur-Class Equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harshaw, Richard; Wuthrich, Ethan; Dolbear, Kyle

    2015-05-01

    The relatively young field of speckle interferometry of close double stars has up to now been the domain of large telescopes and expensive scientific CCD cameras. With the advent of relatively inexpensive and high-performance CCD cameras, the domain of speckle interferometry has been extended into the serious amateur realm allowing amateurs with equipment as small as 8-inches aperture to do actual speckle analysis of binary star systems. This paper describes the work of one such team of amateur astronomers and students as part of their course work for an on-line scientific research experience course provided on-line by Cuesta College of San Luis Obispo, California. An explanation of speckle and how it works is followed by a discussion of how the camera was calibrated, then a discussion of the research methodology. Results of calibration and double star measurements are then given and implications of the process and results discussed.

  2. Nanoscale optical interferometry with incoherent light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dongfang; Feng, Jing; Pacifici, Domenico

    2016-02-01

    Optical interferometry has empowered an impressive variety of biosensing and medical imaging techniques. A widely held assumption is that devices based on optical interferometry require coherent light to generate a precise optical signature in response to an analyte. Here we disprove that assumption. By directly embedding light emitters into subwavelength cavities of plasmonic interferometers, we demonstrate coherent generation of surface plasmons even when light with extremely low degrees of spatial and temporal coherence is employed. This surprising finding enables novel sensor designs with cheaper and smaller light sources, and consequently increases accessibility to a variety of analytes, such as biomarkers in physiological fluids, or even airborne nanoparticles. Furthermore, these nanosensors can now be arranged along open detection surfaces, and in dense arrays, accelerating the rate of parallel target screening used in drug discovery, among other high volume and high sensitivity applications.

  3. Freeform metrology using subaperture stitching interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supranowitz, Chris; Lormeau, Jean-Pierre; Maloney, Chris; Murphy, Paul; Dumas, Paul

    2016-11-01

    As applications for freeform optics continue to grow, the need for high-precision metrology is becoming more of a necessity. Currently, coordinate measuring machines (CMM) that implement touch probes or optical probes can measure the widest ranges of shapes of freeform optics, but these measurement solutions often lack sufficient lateral resolution and accuracy. Subaperture stitching interferometry (SSI™) extends traditional Fizeau interferometry to provide accurate, high-resolution measurements of flats, spheres, and aspheres, and development is currently on-going to enable measurements of freeform surfaces. We will present recent freeform metrology results, including repeatability and cross-test data. We will also present MRF® polishing results where the stitched data was used as the input "hitmap" to the deterministic polishing process.

  4. Near-Earth Object Astrometric Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werner, Martin R.

    2005-01-01

    Using astrometric interferometry on near-Earth objects (NEOs) poses many interesting and difficult challenges. Poor reflectance properties and potentially no significant active emissions lead to NEOs having intrinsically low visual magnitudes. Using worst case estimates for signal reflection properties leads to NEOs having visual magnitudes of 27 and higher. Today the most sensitive interferometers in operation have limiting magnitudes of 20 or less. The main reason for this limit is due to the atmosphere, where turbulence affects the light coming from the target, limiting the sensitivity of the interferometer. In this analysis, the interferometer designs assume no atmosphere, meaning they would be placed at a location somewhere in space. Interferometer configurations and operational uncertainties are looked at in order to parameterize the requirements necessary to achieve measurements of low visual magnitude NEOs. This analysis provides a preliminary estimate of what will be required in order to take high resolution measurements of these objects using interferometry techniques.

  5. Atom interferometry in an optical cavity.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Paul; Jaffe, Matt; Brown, Justin M; Maisenbacher, Lothar; Estey, Brian; Müller, Holger

    2015-03-13

    We propose and demonstrate a new scheme for atom interferometry, using light pulses inside an optical cavity as matter wave beam splitters. The cavity provides power enhancement, spatial filtering, and a precise beam geometry, enabling new techniques such as low power beam splitters (<100  μW), large momentum transfer beam splitters with modest power, or new self-aligned interferometer geometries utilizing the transverse modes of the optical cavity. As a first demonstration, we obtain Ramsey-Raman fringes with >75% contrast and measure the acceleration due to gravity, g, to 60  μg/sqrt[Hz] resolution in a Mach-Zehnder geometry. We use >10(7) cesium atoms in the compact mode volume (600  μm 1/e(2) waist) of the cavity and show trapping of atoms in higher transverse modes. This work paves the way toward compact, high sensitivity, multiaxis interferometry.

  6. Atom Interferometry in an Optical Cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Paul; Jaffe, Matt; Brown, Justin M.; Maisenbacher, Lothar; Estey, Brian; Müller, Holger

    2015-03-01

    We propose and demonstrate a new scheme for atom interferometry, using light pulses inside an optical cavity as matter wave beam splitters. The cavity provides power enhancement, spatial filtering, and a precise beam geometry, enabling new techniques such as low power beam splitters (<100 μ W ), large momentum transfer beam splitters with modest power, or new self-aligned interferometer geometries utilizing the transverse modes of the optical cavity. As a first demonstration, we obtain Ramsey-Raman fringes with >75 % contrast and measure the acceleration due to gravity, g , to 60 μ g /√{Hz } resolution in a Mach-Zehnder geometry. We use >107 cesium atoms in the compact mode volume (600 μ m 1 /e2 waist) of the cavity and show trapping of atoms in higher transverse modes. This work paves the way toward compact, high sensitivity, multiaxis interferometry.

  7. Time-average dynamic speckle interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vladimirov, A. P.

    2014-05-01

    For the study of microscopic processes occurring at structural level in solids and thin biological objects, a method of dynamic speckle interferometry successfully applied. However, the method has disadvantages. The purpose of the report is to acquaint colleagues with the method of averaging in time in dynamic speckle - interferometry of microscopic processes, allowing eliminating shortcomings. The main idea of the method is the choice the averaging time, which exceeds the characteristic time correlation (relaxation) the most rapid process. The method theory for a thin phase and the reflecting object is given. The results of the experiment on the high-cycle fatigue of steel and experiment to estimate the biological activity of a monolayer of cells, cultivated on a transparent substrate is given. It is shown that the method allows real-time visualize the accumulation of fatigue damages and reliably estimate the activity of cells with viruses and without viruses.

  8. Externally Dispersed Interferometry for Planetary Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Erskine, D J; Edelstein, J; Harbeck, D; Lloyd, J

    2005-07-06

    We describe a plan to study the radial velocity of low mass stars and brown dwarfs using a combination of interferometry and multichannel dispersive spectroscopy, Externally Dispersed Interferometry (EDI). The EDI technology allows implementation of precision velocimetry and spectroscopy on existing moderate-resolution echelle or linear grating spectrograph over their full and simultaneous bandwidth. We intend to add EDI to the new Cornell TripleSpec infrared simultaneous JHK-band spectrograph at the Palomar Observatory 200'' telescope for a science-demonstration program that will allow a unique Doppler-search for planets orbiting low mass faint M, L and T type stars. The throughput advantage of EDI with a moderate resolution spectrograph is critical to achieving the requisite sensitivity for the low luminosity late L and T dwarfs.

  9. Kinetic Titration Series with Biolayer Interferometry

    PubMed Central

    Frenzel, Daniel; Willbold, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Biolayer interferometry is a method to analyze protein interactions in real-time. In this study, we illustrate the usefulness to quantitatively analyze high affinity protein ligand interactions employing a kinetic titration series for characterizing the interactions between two pairs of interaction patterns, in particular immunoglobulin G and protein G B1 as well as scFv IC16 and amyloid beta (1–42). Kinetic titration series are commonly used in surface plasmon resonance and involve sequential injections of analyte over a desired concentration range on a single ligand coated sensor chip without waiting for complete dissociation between the injections. We show that applying this method to biolayer interferometry is straightforward and i) circumvents problems in data evaluation caused by unavoidable sensor differences, ii) saves resources and iii) increases throughput if screening a multitude of different analyte/ligand combinations. PMID:25229647

  10. Nanoscale optical interferometry with incoherent light

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dongfang; Feng, Jing; Pacifici, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Optical interferometry has empowered an impressive variety of biosensing and medical imaging techniques. A widely held assumption is that devices based on optical interferometry require coherent light to generate a precise optical signature in response to an analyte. Here we disprove that assumption. By directly embedding light emitters into subwavelength cavities of plasmonic interferometers, we demonstrate coherent generation of surface plasmons even when light with extremely low degrees of spatial and temporal coherence is employed. This surprising finding enables novel sensor designs with cheaper and smaller light sources, and consequently increases accessibility to a variety of analytes, such as biomarkers in physiological fluids, or even airborne nanoparticles. Furthermore, these nanosensors can now be arranged along open detection surfaces, and in dense arrays, accelerating the rate of parallel target screening used in drug discovery, among other high volume and high sensitivity applications. PMID:26880171

  11. Moire interferometry near the theoretical limit.

    PubMed

    Weissman, E M; Post, D

    1982-05-01

    The theoretical upper limit of moire interferometry is approached as the reference grating pitch approaches lambda/2 and its frequency approaches 2/lambda. This work demonstrates the method at 97.6% of the theoretical limit. A virtual reference grating of 4000 lines/mm (101,600 lines/in.) was used in conjunction with a phase type reflection grating of half of that frequency on the specimen. Sensitivity was 0.25 microm/fringe (9.8 microin./fringe). In-plane displacement fringes of excellent definition were obtained throughout the 76 x 51-mm (3 x 2-in.) field of view. They were very closely packed, exhibiting a maximum fringe density of 24 fringes/mm (610 fringes/in.). Effectiveness of moire interferometry near the theoretical limit was proved.

  12. Immersion interferometer for microscopic moire interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, B.; Post, D.

    1992-03-01

    The basic sensitivity of moire interferometry has been increased beyond the previously conceived theoretical limit. This is accomplished by creating the virtual reference grating inside a refractive medium instead of air, thus shortening the wavelength of light. Various optical configurations of moire interferometry for operation in a refractive medium are introduced and one of them has been put into current practice. A very compact four-beam immersion interferometer has been developed for microscopic viewing, which produces a basic sensitivity of 4.8 fringes per micron displacement (contour interval of 0.208 micron per fringe order), corresponding to moire with 4800 lines per mm. Its configuration makes it inherently stable and relatively insensitive to environmental disturbances. An optical microscope is employed to obtain high spatial resolution. The method is demonstrated for deformation of a thick graphite/epoxy composite at the 0/90-deg ply interface.

  13. Permafrost Active Layer Seismic Interferometry Experiment (PALSIE).

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, Robert; Knox, Hunter Anne; James, Stephanie; Lee, Rebekah; Cole, Chris

    2016-01-01

    We present findings from a novel field experiment conducted at Poker Flat Research Range in Fairbanks, Alaska that was designed to monitor changes in active layer thickness in real time. Results are derived primarily from seismic data streaming from seven Nanometric Trillium Posthole seismometers directly buried in the upper section of the permafrost. The data were evaluated using two analysis methods: Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR) and ambient noise seismic interferometry. Results from the HVSR conclusively illustrated the method's effectiveness at determining the active layer's thickness with a single station. Investigations with the multi-station method (ambient noise seismic interferometry) are continuing at the University of Florida and have not yet conclusively determined active layer thickness changes. Further work continues with the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to determine if the ground based measurements can constrain satellite imagery, which provide measurements on a much larger spatial scale.

  14. A New Neutron Interferometry Facility at NCNR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahi, Chandra; Wietfeldt, Fred; Huber, Michael; Pushin, Dmitry; Arif, Muhammad

    2013-10-01

    A neutron interferometer splits an incoming neutron beam into two coherent partial beams, which travel on different paths and then recombine to form an interference pattern. This pattern is used to precisely determine the phase shift of a sample in one of the paths, thus the neutron interaction potential in the sample can be measured with high precision. A new neutron interferometry setup (NIOFa) has been constructed at the NIST Center for Neutron Research (NCNR). This new facility is mainly focused on spin based interferometry, which will expand its applications in both quantum computation and material research. New spin-control mechanisms are being tested; including thin-film spin flippers and efficient polarizing double cavity super mirrors. Doubling the neutron's degrees of freedom inside the interferometer promises exciting new quantum mechanical experiments and research capabilities. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation.

  15. Algorithms and Array Design Criteria for Robust Imaging in Interferometry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-01

    such measurements. There are two popular beam combination architectures in use in optical interferometry: the pairwise combination scheme, and the...Figure 1.1: The two popular beam combination schemes in optical interferometry quantify the impact of shot noise further in the course of the thesis. For...the two popular beam -combining architectures used in optical interferometry (pairwise, and Fizeau). The chapter is organized as follows. In Section

  16. Defect Depth Measurement Using White Light Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Don; Starr, Stan

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of the White Light Interferometry project are the following: (1) Demonstrate a small hand-held instrument capable of performing inspections of identified defects on Orbiter outer pane window surfaces. (2) Build and field-test a prototype device using miniaturized optical components. (3) Modify the instrument based on field testing and begin the conversion of the unit to become a certified shop-aid.

  17. Electronic speckle pattern interferometry using vortex beams.

    PubMed

    Restrepo, René; Uribe-Patarroyo, Néstor; Belenguer, Tomás

    2011-12-01

    We show that it is possible to perform electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) using, for the first time to our knowledge, vortex beams as the reference beam. The technique we propose is easy to implement, and the advantages obtained are, among others, environmental stability, lower processing time, and the possibility to switch between traditional ESPI and spiral ESPI. The experimental results clearly show the advantages of using the proposed technique for deformation studies of complex structures. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  18. Precision surveying using very long baseline interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, J. W.; Clark, T. A.; Coates, R.; Ma, C.; Robertson, D. S.; Corey, B. E.; Counselman, C. C.; Shapiro, I. I.; Wittels, J. J.; Hinteregger, H. F.

    1977-01-01

    Radio interferometry measurements were used to measure the vector baselines between large microwave radio antennas. A 1.24 km baseline in Massachusetts between the 36 meter Haystack Observatory antenna and the 18 meter Westford antenna of Lincoln Laboratory was measured with 5 mm repeatability in 12 separate experiments. Preliminary results from measurements of the 3,928 km baseline between the Haystack antenna and the 40 meter antenna at the Owens Valley Radio Observatory in California are presented.

  19. Generalised receiver functions and seismic interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galetti, Erica; Curtis, Andrew

    2012-04-01

    Classical seismological receiver functions are correlational or deconvolutional combinations of vertical and horizontal component seismometer recordings of earthquake waves that focus information on near-receiver subsurface Earth structure and properties. We show that seismic interferometry can be thought of as a generalisation of receiver functions analysis to cases where recordings at pairs of receivers are considered simultaneously, and where either the same or different component recordings are combined. Further, seismic interferometry uses any of deconvolution, convolution and cross-correlation, and energy from either impulsive or random noise sources. We show both how receiver functions can logically be extended to a new, convolutional form, and that the now little-used correlational form of receiver functions contains more intuitive information than previously realised. Seismic interferometry has provided other extraordinary extensions to seismologists' arsenal. Passive noise recordings can be converted into seismograms from virtual (imagined) earthquakes that in turn can be used to image the real Earth. Active sources (e.g., earthquakes or man-made sources) can be redatumed into new, virtual sources elsewhere, or can be converted into virtual sensors (seismometers) that record seismograms from other real earthquakes, man-made sources or noise sources that occur either in the future or in the past. And the ability to construct virtual sources and sensors at desired times and locations (rather than having to wait for earthquake sources that occur at uncontrollable locations) promises more repeatable monitoring of changes in Earth subsurface properties over time. Indeed, so-called coda wave interferometry offers unprecedented accuracy in detecting such changes. Finally, existing theoretical extensions to other regimes such as electromagnetic, electrokinetic and diffusive energy propagation may lead to future revolutions in other domains of science.

  20. Perspective on Interferometry Facilities and Community Access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridgway, S. T.

    2014-09-01

    The development of optical interferometry in the U.S. is contrasted to that in the ESO community. In the U.S., an erratic track record of support, limited community access and lack of a current, clear mandate continue to throttle development and science operations. The recent and on-going decommissioning of unique and productive facilities has exacted a significant price in lost infrastructure investment and science productivity.

  1. Thermal Strain Analysis using Moire Interferometry,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-01

    virtual reference grating of 2400 lines/mm. A four-beam interferometer illustrated if Pig. 3 was used to obtain the U (horizontal) and V (vertical...fields. The basic relationships of moire interferometry are given in the figure. The out-of-plane W displacement field was recorded using a Twyman -Green... Interferometer [2), illustrated in Fig. 4. The 0 order reflection from the specimen grating comprised the information beam; this interfered with a

  2. Interferometry theory for the block 2 processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, J. B.

    1987-01-01

    Presented is the interferometry theory for the Block 2 processor, including a high-level functional description and a discussion of data structure. The analysis covers the major processing steps: cross-correlation, fringe counter-rotation, transformation to the frequency domain, phase calibration, bandwidth synthesis, and extraction of the observables of amplitude, phase, phase rate, and delay. Also included are analyses for fractional bitshift correction, station clock error, ionosphere correction, and effective frequencies for the observables.

  3. Rejection of RFI by means of interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreher, J. W.

    1989-10-01

    The feasibility of using radio interferometry to reduce the levels of RF interference (RFI) encountered in the NASA Targeted Search SETI program is discussed. It is shown that a radio interferometer will be much less sensitive to RFI than a single antenna system. However, the use of an interferometer would entail a reduction in the noise-limited sensitivity of the system as well as some additional costs due to added complexity.

  4. ɛK^{} in the Standard Model and the kaon phase conventions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sala F.

    2017-07-01

    The parameter ɛ_K , that quantifies CP violation in kaon mixing, is the observable setting the strongest constraints on new physics with a generic flavour and CP structure. While its experimental uncertainty is at the half percent level, the theoretical one is at the level of 15%. One of the largest sources of the latter uncertainty is the poor perturbative behaviour of the short-distance contribution of the box diagram with two charm quarks. In this proceeding, based on Ligeti and Sala arXiv:1602.08494 [hep-ph], I summarise how that contribution can be removed, from the imaginary part of the mixing amplitude, by a rephasing of the kaon fields. A first outcome is a mild reduction of the total theoretical uncertainty of ɛ_K : while this might look counterintuitive at first sight, if different "pieces" ( i.e. short- and long-distance) of an observable are computed with different techniques, then it is possible to choose a phase convention where the total uncertainty of that observable is optimised. Moreover, it is worthy to discuss if and how this freedom of rephasing, which has been somehow overlooked in the past, can help in making progress in lattice QCD computations of immediate relevance for ɛ_K.

  5. Model for the electroproduction of kaons and Λ's from the deuteron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxwell, Oren V.

    2014-02-01

    A formalism is presented for the investigation of the reaction ed →e'K+Λn in the relativistic impulse approximation. The formalism is based on a tree-level, effective Lagrangian model for the underlying virtual photoproduction reaction amplitude which incorporates a variety of baryon resonances with spins up to 5/2 and the two kaon resonances, K(892) and K1(1270). The parameters of the model were fit to a large pool of proton photoproduction data from the CLAS, GRAAL, SAPHIR, and LEPS Collaborations and to CLAS data for the virtual photoproduction structure functions σU, σT, σL, σTT, σLT, and σLT'. The final-state Λn interaction is incorporated in the model by means of a three-dimensional overlap integral based on a simple phenomenological Λn potential. Results are presented for both the differential cross section, dσ /dΩK, and the double differential cross section, dσ /dΩKdEK, for the virtual photoproduction of positive kaons and Λ's from the deuteron.

  6. The kaon identification system in the NA62 experiment at the CERN SPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lurkin, Nicolas

    2017-02-01

    The fixed target experiment NA62 at CERN aims at measuring the ultra-rare decay K+ →π+ ν ν bar , whose branching ratio is of the order of 10-11. The main challenges faced by the experiment to achieve a 10% precision measurement are the required beam intensity and background rejection factor. The differential Cherenkov detector KTAG must be able to tag charged kaons in an unseparated hadron beam with an average particle rate of 750 MHz, of which 45 MHz are kaons, with a time precision of at least 100 ps and an efficiency higher than 95%. The additional pion contamination must be kept lower than 10-4. The RICH has been designed to separate charged pions from muons in the momentum range 15 < p < 35 GeV / c, contributing to a further muon rejection factor of 100. In order to match the upstream and downstream activity, a time resolution similar to the one of KTAG must be achieved. The RICH is also used as a primitive trigger generator for the level-0 trigger system. The construction and commissioning of both detectors was completed and their performances were studied during the 2014-2015 runs.

  7. Measurement of Induced Polarization of λ(1116) in Kaon Electroproduction With CLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabrielyan, M. Y.; Raue, B. A.; Dhamija, S.; Carman, D. S.

    2009-10-01

    The CLAS Collaboration is using the p(e,e'K^+p)&-circ; reaction to perform a measurement of the induced polarization of the electroproduced λ(1116). The parity-violating weak decay of the λ into p&-circ; (64%) allows extraction of the recoil polarization of the λ. This study uses the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) to detect the scattered electron, the kaon, and the decay proton. CLAS allows for a large kinematic acceptance in Q^2 (0.73<=Q^2<=3.5 GeV^2), W (1.6<=W <=3.0 GeV), as well as the kaon scattering angle. In this experiment a 5.499 GeV electron beam was incident upon an unpolarized liquid-hydrogen target. The goal is to map out the kinematic dependencies for this polarization observable to provide new constraints for models of the electromagnetic production of K-hyperon final states. Along with previously published photo- and electroproduction cross sections and polarization observables from CLAS, SAPHIR, and GRAAL, these data will ultimately be useful in coupled-channel analyses and will potentially help identify previously unobserved or poorly determined s-channel resonance terms. Preliminary results will be presented.

  8. Measurement of the Induced Polarization of Λ (1116) in Kaon Electroproduction with CLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabrielyan, Marianna; Raue, Brian; Dhamija, Seema; Carman, Daniel S.

    2010-08-01

    The CLAS Collaboration is using the p(e, e'K+p)π- reaction to measure the induced polarization of the electroproduced Λ(1116). In this experiment a 5.499-GeV electron beam was incident upon an unpolarized liquid-hydrogen target. The CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) was used to detect the scattered electron, the kaon, and the decay proton from the Λ hyperon. CLAS allowed for a large kinematic acceptance in Q2(0.75≤Q2≤3.5 GeV2) and W(1.6≤W≤3.0 GeV), as well as the kaon center-of-mass scattering angle. The goal is to map out the kinematic dependencies for the induced polarization in order to provide new constraints on models of K-hyperon production. Along with previously published photo- and electroproduction cross sections and polarization observables from CLAS, LEPS, SAPHIR, and GRAAL, these new induced polarization data are needed in coupled-channel analyses to search for previously unobserved s-channel resonances. Preliminary polarization results are presented.

  9. Holographic interferometry for security and forensic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambadiyil, Sajan; R. C., Sreelekshmi; Mahadevan Pillai, V. P.; Prabhu, Radhakrishna

    2016-10-01

    Security holograms having unique 3D images are one of the tools for enhancing the security for product and personnel authentication and anti-counterfeiting. Apart from the high technology that is required, the uniqueness of a 3D object presents a significant additional threshold for the counterfeiting of such security holograms. But, due to the development of 3D printing technology, the hurdles are disabled and allow the chances of counterfeiting. In order to overcome this, holographic interferometry is effectively utilized and the object is recorded twice before and after the state of random object change. At the time of reconstruction, two signal waves generated simultaneously interfere each other, resulting in a fringe modulation. This fringe modulation in 3D image hologram with respect to the random object change is exploited to generate a rigid and unique anticounterfeit feature. Though holographic interferometry techniques are being widely used for the non-destructive evaluation, the applicability of this technology for the security and forensic activity is less exploited. This paper describes our efforts to introduce holographic interferometry in 3D image holograms for security and forensic applications.

  10. Optical interferometry in fluid dynamics research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachalo, W. D.; Houser, M. J.

    1985-01-01

    Optical interferometry techniques have been applied to the investigation of transonic airfoil flow fields in large-scale wind tunnels. Holographic interferometry techniques were used in the study of two-dimensional symmetric NACA 64A010 and Douglas Aircraft Company DSMA671 supercritical airfoil performance in the NASA Ames 2 ft x 2 ft transonic wind tunnel. Quantitative data obtained from the interferograms were compared to the surface pressure data. The excellent agreement obtained verified the accuracy of the flow visualization and demonstrated the potential for acquiring quantitative scalar results. Measurements of the inviscid flow speed and the boundary layer and wake velocity profiles were extracted from the interferograms and compared to laser Doppler velocimeter measurements. These results were also in good agreement. A method for acquiring real-time interferometric data in large-scale facilities was developed. This method, based on the point diffraction interferometer, was successfully tested in the Ames 2 ft x 2 ft transonic wind tunnel. The holographic and real-time interferometry methods were applied to the investigations of circulation control airfoils utilizing the Coanda effect. These results revealed the details of the jet interaction with the trailing edge boundary layer and the other parameters affecting the lift augmentation.

  11. Optical interferometry in fluid dynamics research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachalo, W. D.; Houser, M. J.

    1987-01-01

    Optical interferometry techniques were applied to the investigation of transonic airfoil flow fields in large wind tunnels. Holographic interferometry techniques were used to study 2 dimensional symmetric NACA 64A010 and Douglas Aircraft Co. DSMA671 supercritical airfoil performance in the NASA Ames 2 x 2 ft transonic wind tunnel. Quantitative data obtained from the interferograms were compared to the surface pressure data. The agreement obtained verified the accuracy of the flow visualization and demonstrated the potential for acquiring quantitative scalar results. Measurements of the inviscid flow speed and the boundary layer and wake velocity profiles were extracted from the interferograms and compared to laser Doppler velocimeter measurements. These results were also in good agreement. A method for acquiring real time interferometric data in large scale facilities was developed. This method, based on the point diffraction interferometer, was successfully tested in the 2 x 2 ft transonic wind tunnel. The holographic and real time interferometry methods were applied to the investigations of circulation control airfoils utilizing the Coanda effect. These results reveals the details of the jet interacting with the trailing edge boundary layer and the other parameters affecting the lift augmentation.

  12. Optical interferometry in fluid dynamics research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachalo, W. D.; Houser, M. J.

    1985-01-01

    Optical interferometry techniques have been applied to the investigation of transonic airfoil flow fields in large-scale wind tunnels. Holographic interferometry techniques were used in the study of two-dimensional symmetric NACA 64A010 and Douglas Aircraft Company DSMA671 supercritical airfoil performance in the NASA Ames 2 ft x 2 ft transonic wind tunnel. Quantitative data obtained from the interferograms were compared to the surface pressure data. The excellent agreement obtained verified the accuracy of the flow visualization and demonstrated the potential for acquiring quantitative scalar results. Measurements of the inviscid flow speed and the boundary layer and wake velocity profiles were extracted from the interferograms and compared to laser Doppler velocimeter measurements. These results were also in good agreement. A method for acquiring real-time interferometric data in large-scale facilities was developed. This method, based on the point diffraction interferometer, was successfully tested in the Ames 2 ft x 2 ft transonic wind tunnel. The holographic and real-time interferometry methods were applied to the investigations of circulation control airfoils utilizing the Coanda effect. These results revealed the details of the jet interaction with the trailing edge boundary layer and the other parameters affecting the lift augmentation.

  13. Two color holographic interferometry for microgravity application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trolinger, James D.

    1993-01-01

    Holographic interferometry is a primary candidate for the measurement of temperature and concentration in various crystal growth experiments destined for space. The method measures refractive index changes in the experiment test cell. A refractive index change can be caused by concentration changes, temperature changes, or a combination of temperature and concentration changes. If the refractive index changes are caused by temperature and concentration changes occurring simultaneously in the experiment test cell, the contributions by the two effects cannot be separated by conventional measurement methods. By using two wavelengths, two independent interferograms can be produced from the reconstruction of the hologram. The two interferograms will be different due to dispersion properties of fluid materials. These differences provide the additional information that allows the separation of simultaneously occurring temperature and concentration gradients. There is no other technique available that can provide this type of information. The primary objectives of this effort are to experimentally verify the mathematical theory of two color holographic interferometry and to determine the practical value of this technique for space application. To achieve these objectives, the accuracy and sensitivity of the technique must be determined for geometry's and materials that are relevant to the Materials Processing in the Space program of NASA. This will be achieved through the use of a specially designed two-color holographic interferometry breadboard optical system. In addition to experiments to achieve the primary goals, the breadboard will also provide inputs to the design of an optimum space flight system.

  14. Two color holographic interferometry for microgravity application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trolinger, James D.; Weber, David C.

    1995-01-01

    Holographic interferometry is a primary candidate for determining temperature and concentration in crystal growth experiments designed for space. The method measures refractive index changes within the fluid of an experimental test cell resulting from temperature and/or concentration changes. When the refractive index changes are caused by simultaneous temperature and concentration changes, the contributions of the two effects cannot be separated by single wavelength interferometry. By using two wavelengths, however, two independent interferograms can provide the additional independent equation required to determine the two unknowns. There is no other technique available that provides this type of information. The primary objectives of this effort were to experimentally verify the mathematical theory of two color holographic interferometry (TCHI) and to determine the practical value of this technique for space application. In the foregoing study, the theory of TCHI has been tested experimentally over a range of interest for materials processing in space where measurements of temperature and concentration in a solution are required. New techniques were developed and applied to stretch the limits beyond what could be done with existing procedures. The study resulted in the production of one of the most advanced, enhanced sensitivity holographic interferometers in existence. The interferometric measurements made at MSFC represent what is believed to be the most accurate holographic interferometric measurements made in a fluid to date. The tests have provided an understanding of the limitations of the technique in practical use.

  15. Optical interferometry in fluid dynamics research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachalo, W. D.; Houser, M. J.

    1987-05-01

    Optical interferometry techniques were applied to the investigation of transonic airfoil flow fields in large wind tunnels. Holographic interferometry techniques were used to study 2 dimensional symmetric NACA 64A010 and Douglas Aircraft Co. DSMA671 supercritical airfoil performance in the NASA Ames 2 x 2 ft transonic wind tunnel. Quantitative data obtained from the interferograms were compared to the surface pressure data. The agreement obtained verified the accuracy of the flow visualization and demonstrated the potential for acquiring quantitative scalar results. Measurements of the inviscid flow speed and the boundary layer and wake velocity profiles were extracted from the interferograms and compared to laser Doppler velocimeter measurements. These results were also in good agreement. A method for acquiring real time interferometric data in large scale facilities was developed. This method, based on the point diffraction interferometer, was successfully tested in the 2 x 2 ft transonic wind tunnel. The holographic and real time interferometry methods were applied to the investigations of circulation control airfoils utilizing the Coanda effect. These results reveals the details of the jet interacting with the trailing edge boundary layer and the other parameters affecting the lift augmentation.

  16. Optical Interferometry In Fluid Dynamics Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachalo, W. D.; Houser, M. J.

    1985-06-01

    Optical interferometry techniques have been applied to the investiga-tion of transonic airfoil flow fields in large-scale wind tunnels. Holographic interferometry techniques were used in the study of two-dimensional sym-metric NACA 64A010 and Douglas Aircraft Company DSMA671 supercritical airfoil performance in the NASA Ames 2 ft X2 ft transonic wind tunnel. Quan-titative data obtained from the interferograms were compared to the surface pressure data. The excellent agreement obtained verified the accuracy of the flow visualization and demonstrated the potential for acquiring quantitative scalar results. Measurements of the inviscid flow speed and the boundary layer and wake velocity profiles were extracted from the interferograms and com-pared to laser Doppler velocimeter measurements. These results were also in good agreement. A method for acquiring real-time interferometric data in large-scale facilities was developed. This method, based on the point diffraction interferometer, was successfully tested in the Ames 2 ft X2 ft transonic wind tunnel. The holographic and real-time interferometry methods were applied to the investigations of circulation control airfoils utilizing the Coanda effect. These results revealed the details of the jet interaction with the trailing edge boundary layer and the other parameters affecting the lift augmentation.

  17. Comparing Laser Interferometry and Atom Interferometry Approaches to Space-Based Gravitational-Wave Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, John; Thorpe, Ira

    2012-01-01

    Thoroughly studied classic space-based gravitational-wave missions concepts such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) are based on laser-interferometry techniques. Ongoing developments in atom-interferometry techniques have spurred recently proposed alternative mission concepts. These different approaches can be understood on a common footing. We present an comparative analysis of how each type of instrument responds to some of the noise sources which may limiting gravitational-wave mission concepts. Sensitivity to laser frequency instability is essentially the same for either approach. Spacecraft acceleration reference stability sensitivities are different, allowing smaller spacecraft separations in the atom interferometry approach, but acceleration noise requirements are nonetheless similar. Each approach has distinct additional measurement noise issues.

  18. Fast white-light interferometry with Hilbert transform evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavliček, Pavel; Mikeska, Erik

    2016-12-01

    White-light interferometry is an established method for the measurement of the shape of objects. Unlike to the classical interferometry, white-light interferometry can measure the shape of objects with rough surface. A major disadvantage of white-light interferometry is the low scanning speed and thus the long measurement time. This disadvantage can be overcome by a strong undersampling and Hilbert transform evaluation. We propose a system that measures the shape of objects with rough surface with the scanning speed of more than 100 μm/s with the standard frame rate of 25 fps. The measurement uncertainty is comparable with that obtained with standard design.

  19. Domain-driven specification techniques simplify the analysis of requirements for the Kaon Factory central control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inwood, Clifford; Ludgate, G. A.; Dohan, D. A.; Osberg, E. A.; Koscielniak, S.

    1990-08-01

    Domain-driven modelling, outlined in this paper, has been successfully applied to the analysis, specification and design of the KAON Factory central control system (KF-CCS). This advanced object-oriented technique is especially suited to the development of complex systems. Early in the project, four very natural domains were identified which simplified the analysis of requirements.

  20. Measurement of production properties of positively charged kaons in proton-carbon interactions at 31 GeV/c

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abgrall, N.; Aduszkiewicz, A.; Anticic, T.; Antoniou, N.; Argyriades, J.; Baatar, B.; Blondel, A.; Blumer, J.; Bogusz, M.; Boldizsar, L.; Bravar, A.; Brooks, W.; Brzychczyk, J.; Bubak, A.; Bunyatov, S. A.; Busygina, O.; Cetner, T.; Choi, K.-U.; Christakoglou, P.; Czopowicz, T.; Davis, N.; Diakonos, F.; Di Luise, S.; Dominik, W.; Dumarchez, J.; Engel, R.; Ereditato, A.; Esposito, L. S.; Feofilov, G. A.; Fodor, Z.; Ferrero, A.; Fulop, A.; Garrido, X.; Gaździcki, M.; Golubeva, M.; Grebieszkow, K.; Grzeszczuk, A.; Guber, F.; Haesler, A.; Hakobyan, H.; Hasegawa, T.; Idczak, R.; Ivanov, Y.; Ivashkin, A.; Kadija, K.; Kapoyannis, A.; Katryńska, N.; Kiełczewska, D.; Kikola, D.; Kim, J.-H.; Kirejczyk, M.; Kisiel, J.; Kobayashi, T.; Kochebina, O.; Kolesnikov, V. I.; Kolev, D.; Kondratiev, V. P.; Korzenev, A.; Kowalski, S.; Krasnoperov, A.; Kuleshov, S.; Kurepin, A.; Lacey, R.; Lagoda, J.; Laszlo, A.; Lyubushkin, V. V.; Maćkowiak-Pawłowska, M.; Majka, Z.; Malakhov, A. I.; Marchionni, A.; Marcinek, A.; Maris, I.; Marin, V.; Matulewicz, T.; Matveev, V.; Melkumov, G. L.; Meregaglia, A.; Messina, M.; Mrówczyński, St.; Murphy, S.; Nakadaira, T.; Nishikawa, K.; Palczewski, T.; Palla, G.; Panagiotou, A. D.; Paul, T.; Peryt, W.; Petukhov, O.; Płaneta, R.; Pluta, J.; Popov, B. A.; Posiadała, M.; Puławski, S.; Rauch, W.; Ravonel, M.; Renfordt, R.; Robert, A.; Röhrich, D.; Rondio, E.; Rossi, B.; Roth, M.; Rubbia, A.; Rybczyński, M.; Sadovsky, A.; Sakashita, K.; Sekiguchi, T.; Seyboth, P.; Shibata, M.; Skrzypczak, E.; Słodkowski, M.; Staszel, P.; Stefanek, G.; Stepaniak, J.; Strabel, C.; Ströbele, H.; Susa, T.; Szaflik, P.; Szuba, M.; Tada, M.; Taranenko, A.; Tereshchenko, V.; Tsenov, R.; Turko, L.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Vassiliou, M.; Veberič, D.; Vechernin, V. V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Wilczek, A.; Włodarczyk, Z.; Wojtaszek-Szwarć, A.; Yi, J.-G.; Yoo, I.-K.; Zambelli, L.; Zipper, W.

    2012-03-01

    Spectra of positively charged kaons in p+C interactions at 31 GeV/c were measured with the NA61/SHINE spectrometer at the CERN SPS. The analysis is based on the full set of data collected in 2007 with a graphite target with a thickness of 4% of a nuclear interaction length. Interaction cross sections and charged pion spectra were already measured using the same set of data. These new measurements in combination with the published ones are required to improve predictions of the neutrino flux for the T2K long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment in Japan. In particular, the knowledge of kaon production is crucial for precisely predicting the intrinsic electron neutrino component and the high-energy tail of the T2K beam. The results are presented as a function of laboratory momentum in two intervals of the laboratory polar angle covering the range from 20 to 240 mrad. The kaon spectra are compared with predictions of several hadron production models. Using the published pion results and the new kaon data, the K+/π+ ratios are computed.

  1. Ion-Ion Neutralization.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-31

    Accession No. 3. Recipient’s Catalog Number FGL -TR-82 -0202 b- /- 4. Title (and Subtitle) 5. Type of Report & Period Covered ION-ION NEUTRALIZATION Final...few years under the terms of the grant has been the detailed study of binary ion-ion neutralization reactions involving ions of atmospheric...2TT, England. 1. INTRODUCTION Binary positive-ion negative-ion mutual neutralization viz: A+ + B->C + D (1) can be an important loss process for

  2. Electronic speckle pattern interferometry and digital holographic interferometry with microbolometer arrays at 10.6 {mu}m

    SciTech Connect

    Vandenrijt, Jean-Francois; Georges, Marc P.

    2010-09-20

    Electronic speckle pattern interferometry and digital holographic interferometry are investigated at long infrared wavelengths. Using such wavelengths allows one to extend the measurement range and decrease the sensitivity of the techniques to external perturbations. We discuss the behavior of reflection by the object surfaces due to the long wavelength. We have developed different experimental configurations associating a CO2 laser emitting at 10.6{mu}m and microbolometer arrays. Phase-shifting in-plane and out-of-plane electronic speckle pattern interferometry and lensless digital holographic interferometry are demonstrated on rotation measurements of a solid object.

  3. ALEX neutral beam probe

    SciTech Connect

    Pourrezaei, K.

    1982-01-01

    A neutral beam probe capable of measuring plasma space potential in a fully 3-dimensional magnetic field geometry has been developed. This neutral beam was successfully used to measure an arc target plasma contained within the ALEX baseball magnetic coil. A computer simulation of the experiment was performed to refine the experimental design and to develop a numerical model for scaling the ALEX neutral beam probe to other cases of fully 3-dimensional magnetic field. Based on this scaling a 30 to 50 keV neutral cesium beam probe capable of measuring space potential in the thermal barrier region of TMX Upgrade was designed.

  4. Experiments With Trapped Neutral Atoms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-05

    created close links with condensed matter and many body physics. During the funding period, major advances were done towards atom interferometry with Bose...Pulsed Quantum Zeno Effect Atom chips • Long Phase Coherence Time and Number Squeezing of two Bose-Einstein Condensates on an Atom Chip • Phase...This created close links with condensed matter and many body physics. During the funding period, major advances were done towards atom interferometry

  5. Atom Interferometry for Fundamental Physics and Gravity Measurements in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohel, James M.

    2012-01-01

    Laser-cooled atoms are used as freefall test masses. The gravitational acceleration on atoms is measured by atom-wave interferometry. The fundamental concept behind atom interferometry is the quantum mechanical particle-wave duality. One can exploit the wave-like nature of atoms to construct an atom interferometer based on matter waves analogous to laser interferometers.

  6. Phase-shift interferometry with a digital photocamera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vannoni, Maurizio; Trivi, Marcelo; Molesini, Giuseppe

    2007-01-01

    A phase-shift interferometry experiment is proposed, working on a Twyman-Green optical configuration with additional polarization components. A guideline is provided to modern phase-shift interferometry, using concepts and laboratory equipment at the level of undergraduate optics courses.

  7. Polarization Phase-Shift Interferometry: A Simple Laboratory Setup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vannoni, Maurizio; Trivi, Marcelo; Molesini, Giuseppe

    2008-04-01

    An interferometry experiment is proposed, working on a Twyman-Green optical configuration. The interferogram is acquired with a digital camera and processed. Using polarization components the interferogram is phase-shifted and four different interferograms are acquired. The experiment is proposed as an introduction to modern phase-shift interferometry, using concepts and laboratory equipment at the level of undergraduate optics courses.

  8. Atom Interferometry for Fundamental Physics and Gravity Measurements in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohel, James M.

    2012-01-01

    Laser-cooled atoms are used as freefall test masses. The gravitational acceleration on atoms is measured by atom-wave interferometry. The fundamental concept behind atom interferometry is the quantum mechanical particle-wave duality. One can exploit the wave-like nature of atoms to construct an atom interferometer based on matter waves analogous to laser interferometers.

  9. Kaon electroproduction

    SciTech Connect

    Markowitz, P.

    1994-04-01

    The talk will focus on the physics which can be addressed by looking at semi-inclusive and exclusive channels in the DIS region. In particular, the author examines how this physics is reflected in the separated response functions.

  10. Feasibility of satellite interferometry for surveillance, navigation, and traffic control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalapillai, S.; Ruck, G. T.; Mourad, A. G.

    1976-01-01

    The feasibility of using a satellite borne interferometry system for surveillance, navigation, and traffic control applications was investigated. The evaluation was comprised of: (1) a two part systems analysis (software and hardware); (2) a survey of competitive navigation systems (both experimental and planned); (3) a comparison of their characteristics and capabilities with those of an interferometry system; and (4) a limited survey of potential users to determine the variety of possible applications for the interferometry system and the requirements which it would have to meet. Five candidate or "strawman" interferometry systems for various applications with various capabilities were configured (on a preliminary basis) and were evaluated. It is concluded that interferometry in conjunction with a geostationary satellite has an inherent ability to provide both a means for navigation/position location and communication. It offers a very high potential for meeting a large number of user applications and requirements for navigation and related functions.

  11. Synchronous two-wavelength temporal interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoqiong; Gao, Zhan; Qin, Jie; Li, Guangyu; Feng, Ziang; Wang, Shengjia

    2016-09-01

    Interferometry is an optical measuring method with the character of non-destructive, high sensitivity and high accuracy. However, its measurement range is limited by the phase ambiguity. Hence the method with two separate different wavelengths light source is introduced to enlarge the measurement range. As for the two-wavelength interferometry case, phase shifting is the traditional way to acquire the phase map, it needs to repeat the measurement twice, which means the measurement cannot be accomplished in real time. Hence to solve the problem, a temporal sequence interferometry has been used. This method can obtain the desired phase information in real time by using the Fourier transform methods of the interferogram recorded in a sequence while the object is being deformed. But, it is difficult to retrieve the phase information directly due to the multi extreme points in one period of the cosine function. In this paper, an algorithm based on the wavelet ridge analysis is adopted to retrieve the two wavelength phase fluctuation caused by the displacement simultaneously. The preliminary experiment is conducted and the results are compared with theoretical simulations to validate the proposed approach. The laser emits light with two wavelengths 532 nm and 473 nm, two separated interference patterns in time sequence are detected by the CCD camera in the same time. The overlapped interferograms of two colors are analyzed by this algorithm and the corresponding phase information are obtained. The maximum error value between the simulation and theory is 0.03 um and the relative error is 0.33%.

  12. Damage Detection Using Holography and Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, Arthur J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews classical approaches to damage detection using laser holography and interferometry. The paper then details the modern uses of electronic holography and neural-net-processed characteristic patterns to detect structural damage. The design of the neural networks and the preparation of the training sets are discussed. The use of a technique to optimize the training sets, called folding, is explained. Then a training procedure is detailed that uses the holography-measured vibration modes of the undamaged structures to impart damage-detection sensitivity to the neural networks. The inspections of an optical strain gauge mounting plate and an International Space Station cold plate are presented as examples.

  13. Atom Interferometry in a Warm Vapor

    DOE PAGES

    Biedermann, G. W.; McGuinness, H. J.; Rakholia, A. V.; ...

    2017-04-17

    Here, we demonstrate matter-wave interference in a warm vapor of rubidium atoms. Established approaches to light-pulse atom interferometry rely on laser cooling to concentrate a large ensemble of atoms into a velocity class resonant with the atom optical light pulse. In our experiment, we show that clear interference signals may be obtained without laser cooling. This effect relies on the Doppler selectivity of the atom interferometer resonance. Lastly, this interferometer may be configured to measure accelerations, and we demonstrate that multiple interferometers may be operated simultaneously by addressing multiple velocity classes.

  14. Speckle Interferometry at Lowell's Discovery Channel Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Belle, Gerard; Horch, Elliott

    2017-01-01

    The high-spatial-resolution technique of speckle interferometry has been in use at Lowell Observatory's Discovery Channel Telescope since 2014 with the Dual-channel Stellar Speckle Imager (DSSI; Horch et al. 2009) as a visiting instrument. Using its standard bandpasses of 692 and 880nm, we have used highly efficient DSSI instrument to inspect over a thousand stellar systems over the course of 2014 (Horch et al. 2015). We have also demonstrated the usefulness of the DSSI@DCT system for resolved observations of high-altitude (>1,000 miles) man-made satellites in highly non-sidereal rate orbits.

  15. The critical angle in seismic interferometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Wijk, K.; Calvert, A.; Haney, M.; Mikesell, D.; Snieder, R.

    2008-01-01

    Limitations with respect to the characteristics and distribution of sources are inherent to any field seismic experiment, but in seismic interferometry these lead to spurious waves. Instead of trying to eliminate, filter or otherwise suppress spurious waves, crosscorrelation of receivers in a refraction experiment indicate we can take advantage of spurious events for near-surface parameter extraction for static corrections or near-surface imaging. We illustrate this with numerical examples and a field experiment from the CSM/Boise State University Geophysics Field Camp.

  16. Holographic diversity interferometry for optical storage.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Atsushi; Kunori, Keisuke; Takabayashi, Masanori; Tomita, Akihisa; Sato, Kunihiro

    2011-07-04

    This study proposes holographic diversity interferometry (HDI), a system that combines information from spatially dispersed plural image sensors to reconstruct complex amplitude distributions of light signals. HDI can be used to generate four holographic interference fringes having different phases, thus enabling optical phase detection in a single measurement. Unlike conventional phase-shifting digital holography, this system does not require piezoelectric elements and phase shift arrays. In order to confirm the effectiveness of HDI, we generated optical signals having multilevel phases and amplitudes by using two SLMs and performed an experiment for detection and demodulation with HDI.

  17. Atomic interferometry test of dark energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brax, Philippe; Davis, Anne-Christine

    2016-11-01

    Atomic interferometry can be used to probe dark energy models coupled to matter. We consider the constraints coming from recent experimental results on models generalizing the inverse power law chameleons such as f (R ) gravity in the large curvature regime, the environmentally dependent dilaton and symmetrons. Using the tomographic description of these models, we find that only symmetrons with masses smaller than the dark energy scale can be efficiently tested. In this regime, the resulting constraints complement the bounds from the Eötwash experiment and exclude small values of the symmetron self-coupling.

  18. Fabry-Perot interferometry for microplasma diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Hojo, H.; Mase, A.

    2006-10-15

    A new method for determining the electron density of a thin plasma by means of Fabry-Perot interferometry is proposed. The interferometer consists of two plasma layers and dielectric material surrounded by two plasma layers. The transmittance of electromagnetic waves across the interferometer is calculated, and Fabry-Perot resonances are demonstrated. It is shown that the electron density can be determined from the measurement of the Fabry-Perot resonance frequencies. This method can also be applied to the measurement of conduction electron density in semiconductor films.

  19. Space Interferometry Mission: Measuring the Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marr, James; Dallas, Saterios; Laskin, Robert; Unwin, Stephen; Yu, Jeffrey

    1991-01-01

    The Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) will be the NASA Origins Program's first space based long baseline interferometric observatory. SIM will use a 10 m Michelson stellar interferometer to provide 4 microarcsecond precision absolute position measurements of stars down to 20th magnitude over its 5 yr. mission lifetime. SIM will also provide technology demonstrations of synthesis imaging and interferometric nulling. This paper describes the what, why and how of the SIM mission, including an overall mission and system description, science objectives, general description of how SIM makes its measurements, description of the design concepts now under consideration, operations concept, and supporting technology program.

  20. Agile interferometry: a non-traditional approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riza, Nabeel A.; Yaqoob, Zahid

    2004-11-01

    A new approach called agile interferometry is introduced to attain interferometric information with high sensitivity and scenario-based intelligence. Compared to traditional interferometric techniques, the proposed method thrives on dynamic control of the reference signal strength and detector integration time for efficient interferometric detection with high signal-to-noise ratio and significantly improved detected signal dynamic range capabilities. Theoretical analysis is presented with the operational methodology of the new approach. A high-speed optical attenuator is required in the interferometer reference arm to implement the proposed agile interferometer.

  1. Fiber optic phase stepping system for interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.; Beheim, Glenn

    1991-01-01

    A closed loop phase control system using an all-fiber optical configuration has been developed for use in phase-stepping interferometry. This system drives the relative phase of two interfering beams through a sequence of pi/2 rad increments so that the initial relative phase of these beams can be determined. This phase-stepping system uses optical fibers to provide spatially uniform phase steps from a flexible, easily aligned optical configuration. In addition, this system uses phase feedback to eliminate phase modulator errors and to compensate for phase drifts caused by environmental disturbances.

  2. Probing dark energy with atom interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Burrage, Clare; Copeland, Edmund J.; Hinds, E.A. E-mail: Edmund.Copeland@nottingham.ac.uk

    2015-03-01

    Theories of dark energy require a screening mechanism to explain why the associated scalar fields do not mediate observable long range fifth forces. The archetype of this is the chameleon field. Here we show that individual atoms are too small to screen the chameleon field inside a large high-vacuum chamber, and therefore can detect the field with high sensitivity. We derive new limits on the chameleon parameters from existing experiments, and show that most of the remaining chameleon parameter space is readily accessible using atom interferometry.

  3. Lunar Structure from Coda Wave Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunn, Ceri; Igel, Heiner

    2017-04-01

    As part of the Apollo lunar missions, four seismometers were deployed on the near-side of the Moon between 1969 and 1972, and operated continuously until 1977. There are many difficulties associated with determining lunar structure from these records. As a result, many properties of the moon, such as the thickness, density and porosity of the crust are poorly constrained. This hampers our ability to determine the structure, geochemical composition of the moon, its evolution, and ultimately the evolution of the solar system. We explore the use of coda wave interferometry to reconstruct the near surface structure within the strongly scattering lunar crust.

  4. Painless Access to Interferometry Images Comes Closer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, A. M. S.; Diamond, P. J.; Garrington, S. T.; Holloway, A. J.; Muxlow, T. W. B.; Winstanley, N.; Harrison, P. A.; Walton, N. A.; Gonzales-Solares, E.; Rixon, G. T.; Venturi, T.; Reynolds, C.

    2006-07-01

    Ready-made radio interferometry archive images usually only cover a few percent of the potential field of view in the visibility data. The next generation of instruments will achieve orders of magnitude increases in sensitivity, giving many detectable sources in any one observation. The most economical (and user-friendly) solution is to provide images or other data products on-demand at the chosen positions and resolutions. This can be driven remotely using a Virtual Observatory interface. Radio observatories are also providing software to automate most stages of data processing and form the basis of tools for specialist users. Recording and supplying metadata is vital to these processes.

  5. Report on ''European Radio Interferometry School 2015''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laing, R.; Richards, A.

    2016-03-01

    The sixth European Interferometry School (ERIS2015) was held at ESO for the first time. As usual the school was aimed at graduate students and early-career postdocs, but this year the emphasis was on enhanced wide-bandwidth interferometers covering metre to submillimetre wavebands. More than 100 participants attended ERIS2015. The topics of the school are briefly described here. They covered a wide range, from an introduction to radio interferometric techniques through packages for data reduction and analysis to hands-on workshop sessions and proposal writing.

  6. Probing dark energy with atom interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burrage, Clare; Copeland, Edmund J.; Hinds, E. A.

    2015-03-01

    Theories of dark energy require a screening mechanism to explain why the associated scalar fields do not mediate observable long range fifth forces. The archetype of this is the chameleon field. Here we show that individual atoms are too small to screen the chameleon field inside a large high-vacuum chamber, and therefore can detect the field with high sensitivity. We derive new limits on the chameleon parameters from existing experiments, and show that most of the remaining chameleon parameter space is readily accessible using atom interferometry.

  7. Investigation of the low-energy kaons hadronic interactions in light nuclei by AMADEUS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piscicchia, K.; Cargnelli, M.; Curceanu, C.; Del Grande, R.; Fabbietti, L.; Marton, J.; Scordo, A.; Sirghi, D.; Tucakovic, I.; Vazquez Doce, O.; Wycech, S.; Zmeskal, J.; Mandaglio, G.; Martini, M.; Moskal, P.

    2017-03-01

    The AMADEUS experiment aims to provide unique quality data of K- hadronic interactions with light nuclear targets, in order to solve fundamental open questions in the non-perturbative strangeness QCD sector, like the controversial nature of the Λ(1405) state, the yield of hyperon formation below threshold, the yield and shape of multi-nucleon K- absorption, processes which are intimately connected to the possible existence of exotic antikaon multi-nucleon clusters. AMADEUS takes advantage of the DAΦNE collider, which provides a unique source of monochromatic low-momentum kaons and exploits the KLOE detector as an active target, in order to obtain excellent acceptance and resolution data for K- nuclear capture on H, 4He, 9Be and 12C, both at-rest and in-flight.

  8. Investigation of the low-energy kaons hadronic interactions in light nuclei by AMADEUS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scordo, A.; Cargnelli, M.; Curceanu, C.; Fabbietti, L.; Marton, J.; Piscicchia, K.; Sirghi, D.; Tucakovic, I.; Vazquez Doce, O.; Wycech, S.; Zmeskal, J.; Mandaglio, G.; Martini, M.; Moskal, P.

    2016-11-01

    The AMADEUS experiment deals with the investigation of the low-energy kaon-nuclei hadronic interaction at the DAΦNE collider at LNF-INFN. This study is fundamental to solve longstanding questions concerning interactions of strange quarks in the non-perturbative QCD. AMADEUS step 0 consisted in the reanalysis of the 2004/2005 KLOE data, exploiting K- absorptions in H, 4He, 9Be and 12C, leading to the first invariant mass spectroscopy study with very low momentum (100 MeV/c) in-flight K- captures. In this paper, we present an overview of the analysis strategy, with particular emphasis on the results obtained in the analyses of the events with correlated Σ0 and p.

  9. Direct Measurement of Ab and Ac Using Vertex/Kaon Charge Tags at SLD

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, K.

    2004-10-13

    Exploiting the manipulation of the SLC electron-beam polarization, we present precise direct measurements of the parity violation parameters A{sub c} and A{sub b} in the Z boson-c quark and Z boson-b quark coupling. Quark/antiquark discrimination is accomplished via a unique algorithm that takes advantage of the precise SLD CCD vertex detector, employing the net charge of displaced vertices as well as the charge of kaons that emanate from those vertices. From the 1996-98 sample of 400,000 Z decays, produced with an average beam polarization of 73.4%, we find A{sub c} = 0.673 {+-} 0.029(stat.) {+-} 0.023(syst.) and A{sub b} = 0.919 {+-} 0.018(stat.) {+-} 0.017(syst.).

  10. DIFFERENTIAL CROSS SECTION ANALYSIS IN KAON PHOTOPRODUCTION USING ASSOCIATED LEGENDRE POLYNOMIALS

    SciTech Connect

    P. T. P. HUTAURUK, D. G. IRELAND, G. ROSNER

    2009-04-01

    Angular distributions of differential cross sections from the latest CLAS data sets,6 for the reaction γ + p→K+ + Λ have been analyzed using associated Legendre polynomials. This analysis is based upon theoretical calculations in Ref. 1 where all sixteen observables in kaon photoproduction can be classified into four Legendre classes. Each observable can be described by an expansion of associated Legendre polynomial functions. One of the questions to be addressed is how many associated Legendre polynomials are required to describe the data. In this preliminary analysis, we used data models with different numbers of associated Legendre polynomials. We then compared these models by calculating posterior probabilities of the models. We found that the CLAS data set needs no more than four associated Legendre polynomials to describe the differential cross section data. In addition, we also show the extracted coefficients of the best model.

  11. Kaon electro-production on protons at JLab in Hall A

    SciTech Connect

    Mauro Iodice

    2003-07-15

    The elementary reaction of kaon exclusive electro-production on protons has been studied in a broad kinematical range at Jefferson Lab in Hall A. Data have been taken at different values of the invariant center-of-mass energy W in the range W=1.8-2.2 GeV, for two values of the transferred 4-momentum Q2 =1.9 and 2.4 (GeV/c)2. Each kinematics was measured at different electron beam energies so as to separate the longitudinal (L) and transverse (T) contributions to the cross-section. The LT interference term has also been measured for a limited number of kinematics. The preliminary data are compared to results of different models developed in the framework of hadronic field and Regge theories.

  12. Masses and decay constants of pions and kaons in mixed-action staggered chiral perturbation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Jon A.; Kim, Jongjeong; Lee, Weonjong; Kim, Hyung-Jin; Yoon, Boram

    2017-08-01

    Lattice QCD calculations with different staggered valence and sea quarks can be used to improve determinations of quark masses, Gasser-Leutwyler couplings, and other parameters relevant to phenomenology. We calculate the masses and decay constants of flavored pions and kaons through next-to-leading order in staggered-valence, staggered-sea mixed-action chiral perturbation theory. We present the results in the valence-valence and valence-sea sectors, for all tastes. As in unmixed theories, the taste-pseudoscalar, valence-valence mesons are exact Goldstone bosons in the chiral limit, at nonzero lattice spacing. The results reduce correctly when the valence and sea quark actions are identical, connect smoothly to the continuum limit, and provide a way to control light quark and gluon discretization errors in lattice calculations performed with different staggered actions for the valence and sea quarks.

  13. A proximity focusing RICH detector for kaon physics at Jefferson lab hall A

    SciTech Connect

    F. Garibaldi; E. Cisbani; S. Colilli; F. Cusanno; S. Frullani; R. Fratoni; F. Giuliani; M. Gricia; M. Iodice; M. Lucentini; L. Pierangeli; F. Santavenere; G.M. Urciuoli; P. Veneroni; G. De Cataldo; R. De Leo; L. Lagamba; E. Nappi; V. Paticchio; J. LeRose; B. Kross; B. Reitz; J. Segal; C. Zorn; H. Breuer

    2003-04-01

    Important information on the LN interaction can be obtained from High Resolution Hypernuclear Spectroscopy experiments with electromagnetic probes. A challenging experiment on electroproduction of hypernuclei is scheduled for 2003 in Hall A at Jefferson Lab. One of the challenges is the high performance particle identification system needed. The signal is expected to be rare compared to the very high pion and proton backgrounds due to the small electron and kaon detection angles. The ''standard'' Hall A PID apparatus (TOF and two aerogel threshold Cherenkov detectors) does not provide sufficient suppression of the background. Simulations and calculations have shown that a RICH detector would solve the problem. A proximity focusing fluorocarbon/CsI detector similar to the ALICE RICH detector has been designed, built, tested and commissioned. The results show that the detector performs as expected.

  14. The kaon B-parameter from 2+1-flavor Domain-Wall-Fermion lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, Saul; Anthony, David

    2007-11-01

    We present the final results of the RBC/UKQCD calculation of the kaon B-parameter on 2+1- flavor domain-wall fermion lattices at a^?1 = 1.73(3) GeV. We simulate on two lattice volumes of about (1.8 fm)^3 and (2.7 fm)^3, with the lightest valence pion about on the large volume approximately 250 MeV. The light pion masses and our chiral fermion action allow us to compare lattice data to NLO chiral perturbation theory, facilitating a controlled extrapolation to the physical point. We present a final result including nonperturbative renormalization and detailed systematic errors. Our final result is BMS/K (2 GeV) = 0.524(10)(28).

  15. Probing a dark photon using rare leptonic kaon and pion decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Cheng-Wei; Tseng, Po-Yan

    2017-04-01

    Rare leptonic kaon and pion decays K+ (π+) →μ+νμe+e- can be used to probe a dark photon of mass O (10) MeV, with the background coming from the mediation of a virtual photon. This is most relevant for the 16.7-MeV dark photon proposed to explain a 6.8σ anomaly recently observed in 8Be transitions by the Atomki Collaboration. We evaluate the reach of future experiments for the dark photon with vectorial couplings to the standard model fermions except for the neutrinos, and show that a great portion of the preferred 16.7-MeV dark photon parameter space can be decisively probed. We also show the use of angular distributions to further distinguish the signal from the background.

  16. Equivalent Neutral Wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, W. Timothy; Tang, Wenqing

    1996-01-01

    The definition of equivalent neutral wind and the rationale for using it as the geophysical product of a spaceborne scatterometer are reviewed. The differences between equivalent neutral wind and actual wind, which are caused by atmospheric density stratification, are demonstrated with measurements at selected locations. A method of computing this parameter from ship and buoy measurements is described and some common fallacies in accounting for the effects of atmospheric stratification on wind shear are discussed. The computer code for the model to derive equivalent neutral wind is provided.

  17. Deflectometry challenges interferometry: the competition gets tougher!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faber, Christian; Olesch, Evelyn; Krobot, Roman; Häusler, Gerd

    2012-09-01

    Deflectometric methods that are capable of providing full-field topography data for specular freeform surfaces have been around for more than a decade. They have proven successful in various fields of application, such as the measurement of progressive power eyeglasses, painted car body panels, or windshields. However, up to now deflectometry has not been considered as a viable competitor to interferometry, especially for the qualification of optical components. The reason is that, despite the unparalleled local sensitivity provided by deflectometric methods, the global height accuracy attainable with this measurement technique used to be limited to several microns over a field of 100 mm. Moreover, spurious reflections at the rear surface of transparent objects could easily mess up the measured signal completely. Due to new calibration and evaluation procedures, this situation has changed lately. We will give a comparative assessment of the strengths and - now partly revised - weaknesses of both measurement principles from the current perspective. By presenting recent developments and measurement examples from different applications, we will show that deflectometry is now heading to become a serious competitor to interferometry.

  18. Using atom interferometry to detect dark energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burrage, Clare; Copeland, Edmund J.

    2016-04-01

    We review the tantalising prospect that the first evidence for the dark energy driving the observed acceleration of the universe on giga-parsec scales may be found through metre scale laboratory-based atom interferometry experiments. To do that, we first introduce the idea that scalar fields could be responsible for dark energy and show that in order to be compatible with fifth force constraints, these fields must have a screening mechanism which hides their effects from us within the solar system. Particular emphasis is placed on one such screening mechanism known as the chameleon effect where the field's mass becomes dependent on the environment. The way the field behaves in the presence of a spherical source is determined and we then go on to show how in the presence of the kind of high vacuum associated with atom interferometry experiments, and when the test particle is an atom, it is possible to use the associated interference pattern to place constraints on the acceleration due to the fifth force of the chameleon field - this has already been used to rule out large regions of the chameleon parameter space and maybe one day will be able to detect the force due to the dark energy field in the laboratory.

  19. Electromagnetically induced transparency with quantum interferometry.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, Anindita; Dastidar, Krishna Rai

    2012-02-28

    We have shown that electromagnetically induced transparency can be achieved by control-probe interferometry using two delayed phase-locked ultrashort pulses. Two vibrational wavepackets on the excited state, excited by two delayed phase-locked ultrashort pulses, interfere constructively or destructively leading to enhancement or suppression of absorption to a selective set of vibrational levels. Depending on the phase difference and the delay between the pulses with same carrier frequency, one can design different transparency windows between absorption peaks at consecutive even(odd) vibrational levels by eliminating absorption at odd(even) vibrational levels. We have shown that by switching the phase difference of two delayed femtosecond pulses, one can switch to complete elimination of absorption from enhanced absorption to a particular set of vibrational levels in the excited state. Thus, switching of transparency through window between odd vibrational levels to that between even vibrational levels is possible. By properly choosing the temporal width and the carrier frequency of the pulses, lossless transmission of complete or bands of frequencies of the pulses can be achieved through these transparency windows. Hence, designing of single- or multi-mode transparency windows in NaH molecule is feasible by control-probe quantum interferometry.

  20. Stellar Interferometry from the Ground and Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danchi, William C.; Oegerle, William (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Stellar Interferometry began more than 80 years ago with the pioneering measurement of the diameter of Betelqueuse by Michelson and Pease using a 20 foot beam mounted at the top of the 10011 Hooker telescope at Mt. Wilson. Essentially no other work was done in this field until the 1960's when Hanbury-Brown and his colleagues developed and used the Intensity Interferometer at Narrabri, Australia to measure the diameters of a number of important hot stars. The modern period of Stellar Interferometry really began in the 1970's with the successes of 3 or 4 small research groups in the US and Europe, and scientific and technical progress in the field has been outstanding, particularly in the last decade. This has lead to the development of two major ground based facilities: NASA's own Keck Interferometer and ESO's Very Large Telescope Interferometer, and a number of space interferometers such as the Space Interferometer Mission (SIM), and the Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF), among others. I will review the principles, history, and scientific progress in the field both on the ground and in space, and I will discuss a mission concept under development here at NASA Goddard, the Fourier-Kelvin Stellar Interferometer, a near-term mid-infrared imaging interferometer, which can serve as a scientific and technical pre-cursor for some of the more ambitious concepts being discussed within the Astronomical and NASA communities.

  1. Spaceborne radar interferometry for coastal DEM construction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hong, S.-H.; Lee, C.-W.; Won, J.-S.; Kwoun, Oh-Ig; Lu, Zhiming

    2005-01-01

    Topographic features in coastal regions including tidal flats change more significantly than landmass, and are characterized by extremely low slopes. High precision DEMs are required to monitor dynamic changes in coastal topography. It is difficult to obtain coherent interferometric SAR pairs especially over tidal flats mainly because of variation of tidal conditions. Here we focus on i) coherence of multi-pass ERS SAR interferometric pairs and ii) DEM construction from ERS-ENVISAT pairs. Coherences of multi-pass ERS interferograms were good enough to construct DEM under favorable tidal conditions. Coherence in sand dominant area was generally higher than that in muddy surface. The coarse grained coastal areas are favorable for multi-pass interferometry. Utilization of ERS-ENVISAT interferometric pairs is taken a growing interest. We carried out investigation using a cross-interferometric pair with a normal baseline of about 1.3 km, a 30 minutes temporal separation and the height sensitivity of about 6 meters. Preliminary results of ERS-ENVISAT interferometry were not successful due to baseline and unfavorable scattering conditions. ?? 2005 IEEE.

  2. Diffusion in solids with holographic interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dingyu

    1996-12-01

    It is of great importance for the formation of p-n junction in semiconductors by penetrating some impurities through the depth near the surface, so it has long been paid attention to control the concentration distribution of impurities during the diffusion process. In recent years, ionic carburizing, and ion bombardment penetration etc. for the treatment of metal surface have also attracted by material sciences. It requires that the diffusion depth and the diffusion time of the impurities should be under precise control. Different methods, such as the method of radioisotopic detection and the method of chemical analysis have been adopted, however, the reports of different workers are very different, especially in the real time measurement, so, finding new method is never ending. In 1984, H. Fenichel have performed experiments on the solutions of table salt and sugar with the method of holographic interferometry. As for metals which are opaque for the visible light, but they become transparent by making them into a very thin film so that, in principle, the diffusion of atoms within a film is capable of measure by holographic interferometry. Alternatively, the electromagnetic waves within 1 - 70 micrometers wavelengths may be utilized, some materials, such as high purified germanium and silicon are good materials for infrared transmission. Some fluorides of alkaline-earth metals have high transmittance in the range of 1 - 8 micrometers , the concentration of impurities in the semiconductor and metal surface treatment are of 1015 - 1020 atoms per cubic cm, which is capable of detection.

  3. Is Space-based Interferometry Dead?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leisawitz, David; Benford, D.; Blain, A.; Carr, J.; Fich, M.; Fischer, J.; Goldsmith, P.; Greaves, J.; Griffin, M.; Helou, G.; Ivison, R.; Kuchner, M.; Lyon, R.; Matsuo, H.; Rinehart, S. A.; Serabyn, E.; Shibai, H.; Silverberg, R.; Staguhn, J.; Unwin, S.; Wilner, D.; Wootten, A.; Wright, E. L.

    2011-05-01

    In the wake of the Decadal Survey and a January 2011 meeting of NASA's Exoplanet Exploration Program Analysis Group (ExoPAG), one might be tempted to conclude that space interferometry is dead. We explain why this slogan is hyperbole, summarize the steps currently being taken to prepare for a space-based far-IR interferometer, and reiterate the science case for an imaging and spectroscopic interferometer - SPIRIT - that would operate in space at long infrared wavelengths. Space-based interferometry is alive and well, but the center of activity has shifted to a spectral region (25 to 400 microns) in which no alternative measurement technique can provide information essential to answering several scientific questions deemed compelling by the Decadal Survey. Astrophysicists will use SPIRIT to: discover how the conditions for habitability arise during planetary system formation; find and characterize exoplanets by measuring their sculpting effects on protoplanetary and debris disks; and study the formation, merger history, and star formation history of galaxies.

  4. Neutralization Assay for Chikungunya Virus Infection: Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test.

    PubMed

    Azami, Nor Azila Muhammad; Moi, Meng Ling; Takasaki, Tomohiko

    2016-01-01

    Neutralization assay is a technique that detects and quantifies neutralizing antibody in serum samples by calculating the percentage of reduction of virus activity, as the concentration of virus used is usually constant. Neutralizing antibody titer is conventionally determined by calculating the percentage reduction in total virus infectivity by counting and comparing number of plaques (localized area of infection due to cytopathic effect) with a standard amount of virus. Conventional neutralizing test uses plaque-reduction neutralization test (PRNT) to determine neutralizing antibody titers against Chikungunya virus (CHIKV). Here we describe the plaque reduction neutralization assay (PRNT) using Vero cell lines to obtain neutralizing antibody titers.

  5. Solar Neutral Particles

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This animation shows a neutral solar particle's path leaving the sun, following the magnetic field lines out to the heliosheath. The solar particle hits a hydrogen atom, stealing its electron, and ...

  6. Ions and neutralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poncet, A.

    After a short presentation of intensity limitations examples due to trapped ions, the processes of ionization and neutralization build up in particle accelerators and storage rings are briefly reviewed. The tolerable limits in neutralization are then assessed at the light of current theories of incoherent and coherent effects driven by ions. Finally the usual antidotes such as clearing electrodes, missing bunch schemes and beam shaking are presented.

  7. Bose-Einstein condensation of pions in ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions and the spectra of kaons

    SciTech Connect

    Kolomeitsev, E.E. |; Voskresensky, D.N.

    1995-12-01

    The properties of a pion gas that is formed in ultrarelativistic collisions of nuclei are studied in the Weinberg, model for {pi}{pi} interaction. The possible Bose-Einstein condensation of a dense n-gas is considered. The Green`s function and the spectrum of the overcondensate excitations are calculated. For a weak condensate, the results coincide with those obtained in the {lambda}{var_phi}{sup 4} model ({lambda} = const), while for a developed condensate there are significant differences. The properties of kaons are considered for temperatures below the critical temperature for Bose-Einstein pion condensation. It is shown that, in the presence of a condensate, the K-effective mass becomes substantially larger, while the K{sup +} effective mass becomes smaller. These features may manifest themselves in the observable momentum distributions of kaons. 16 refs., 4 figs.

  8. Vibration analysis by digital speckle pattern shearing interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinchen, Wolfgang; Yang, Lian Xiang; Kupfer, Gerhard; Maeckel, Peter; Thiemich, Anderas

    1997-09-01

    Digital speckle pattern shearing interferometry is described as a robust measuring method due to its simple optical setup and the insensitivity against ambient noise. It has been sued in industry for nondestructive testing and strain measuring. This paper explores the possibilities for vibration analysis using digital speckle pattern shearing interferometry. The measuring device performing both time- average and stroboscopic methods is described. The time average digital speckle patten shearing interferometry in conjunction with the stroboscopic technique is suited well for both qualitative and quantitative vibration analyses. The determination of dynamic deformation and strain fields form the phase map of shearogram is demonstrated, and some preliminary results are shown.

  9. Multi-chord fiber-coupled interferometry of supersonic plasma jets andcomparisons with synthetic data

    SciTech Connect

    Merritt, Elizabeth C.; Lynn, Alan G.; Gilmore, Mark A.; Thoma, Carsten; Loverich, John; Hsu, Scott C.

    2012-05-03

    A multi-chord fiber-coupled interferometer [Merritt et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 033506 (2012)] is being used to make time-resolved density measurements of supersonic argon plasma jets on the Plasma Liner Experiment [Hsu et al., Bull. Amer. Phys. Soc. 56, 307 (2011)]. The long coherence length of the laser (> 10 m) allows signal and reference path lengths to be mismatched by many meters without signal degradation, making for a greatly simplified optical layout. Measured interferometry phase shifts are consistent with a partially ionized plasma in which an initially positive phase shift becomes negative when the ionization fraction drops below a certain threshold. In this case, both free electrons and bound electrons in ions and neutral atoms contribute to the index of refraction. This paper illustrates how the interferometry data, aided by numerical modeling, are used to derive total jet density, jet propagation velocity ({approx} 15-50 km/s), jet length ({approx} 20-100 cm), and 3D expansion.

  10. The Prospects of SAS Interferometry for Detection and Classification (SAS Interferometrie voor Detectie en Classificatie)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-01

    zal interferometrie toegepast gaan worden voor detectie en classificatie van begraven objecten. zoals explosieven Op dit gebied /al een experiment...uitgevoerd gaan worden voor het detecteren van in modder wegge- zakte explosieven. waarbij de in dit project ontwikkelde processing toegepast /.al... gaan worden PROGRAMMA PROJECT Program mabegeleider Project begeleider LTZ1 drs. R.P.A. Dekeling, DMO/OT LTZ1 drs. R.P.A. Dekeling, DMO/OT

  11. The search for the H dibaryon with the BNL 2. 0 GeV/c kaon beam

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, B.P.

    1991-01-01

    The status is given for two experiments being carried out to search for evidence of the H dibaryon. BNL experiments E813 and E836 will use the new 2 GeV/c kaon beam line. The former has recently begun data taking. They cover complementary regions of mass-sensitivity and promise to provide sensitive tests of the existence of the H. 12 refs.

  12. Pion yields and the nature of kaon-pion ratios in high energy nucleus-nucleus collisons: models versus measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, S.; De, B.; Guptaroy, P.

    2001-08-01

    The pion densities and the nature of kaon-pion ratios offer two very prominent and crucial physical observables on which sufficient data for heavy nucleus collisions, to date, are available. In the light of two models - one purely phenomenological and the other with a sound dynamical basis - we would try to examine here the state of agreement between calculations and experimental results obtainable from the past and the latest measurements. Impact and implications of all these would also finally be spelt out.

  13. A Study of Quark Fragmentation Using Kaons Produced in Association with Prompt $D_s^±/D^±$ Mesons

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Niharika Ranjan

    2012-01-01

    Quarks are considered to be the fundamental constituents of hadronic matter, but they have never been observed as free particles. When quarks are produced at high energy colliders, they quickly form bound colorless states, which then decay to produce the particles observed in experiments. The process by which an initially free quark combines with other quarks to form a hadronic particle is called quark fragmentation and has been described using phenomenological models since quarks were first proposed. Since then, several models have been developed to describe the quark fragmentation phenomenon, and these have been tuned to reproduce many average properties of hadrons produced in high energy collisions. In this dissertation, we describe an analysis that probes the properties of particles produced in association with a hadron containing a charm quark that provides a way, for the first time, to study what is thought of as the second particle produced in the process of heavy quar k fragmentation. Data from proton anti-proton collisions was used to carry out this research, which were collected with the CDF II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron and corresponds to 360/pb-1 of integrated luminosity. We reconstruct $D_s^±$ and $D^±$ mesons, which contain charm quarks, and identify the kaons produced in association with them. The kinematic properties of these kaons are compared with predictions of the fragmentation models implemented in the PYTHIA and HERWIG event generators. We find that kaon production in association with $D_s^±$ mesons is enhanced at levels that are in agreement with the fragmentation models but observe differences in production rates of kaons that are produced later in the fragmentation process.

  14. Monitoring gas reservoirs by seismic interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoli, Francesco; Cesca, Simone; Sens-Schoenfelder, Christoph; Priolo, Enrico

    2014-05-01

    Ambient seismic noise can be used to image spatial anomalies in the subsurface, without the need of recordings from seismic sources, such as earthquakes or explosions. Furthermore, the temporal variation of ambient seismic noise's can be used to infer temporal changes of the seismic velocities in the investigated medium. Such temporal variations can reflect changes of several physical properties/conditions in the medium. For example, they may be consequence of stress changes, variation of hydrogeological parameters, pore pressure and saturation changes due to fluid injection or extraction. Passive image interferometry allows to continuously monitor small temporal changes of seismic velocities in the subsurface, making it a suitable tool to monitor time-variant systems such as oil and gas reservoirs or volcanic environments. The technique does not require recordings from seismic sources in the classical sense, but is based on the processing of noise records. Moreover, it requires only data from one or two seismic stations, their locations constraining the sampled target area. Here we apply passive image interferometry to monitor a gas storage reservoir in northern Italy. The Collalto field (Northern Italy) is a depleted gas reservoir located at 1500 m depth, now used as a gas storage facility. The reservoir experience a significant temporal variation in the amount of stored gas: the injection phases mainly occur in the summer, while the extraction take place mostly in winter. In order to monitor induced seismicity related to gas storage operations, a seismic network (the Collalto Seismic Network) has been deployed in 2011. The Collalto Seismic Network is composed by 10 broadband stations, deployed within an area of about 20 km x 20 km, and provides high-quality continuous data since January 1st, 2012. In this work we present preliminary results from ambient noise interferometry using a two-months sample of continuous seismic data, i.e. from October 1st, 2012, to the

  15. Interferometry of background acoustic-gravity waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabotin, Nikolay A.; Godin, Oleg A.; Sheehan, Anne F.

    2013-04-01

    In addition to acoustic-gravity waves generated in the ocean and atmosphere by strong transient events such as earthquakes and tsunamis, there exists a certain background level of acoustic-gravity waves. Because of their large free path length and a wide spatial distribution of the wave sources, background acoustic-gravity waves form a diffuse (but not necessarily isotropic), random wave field. Wave fields generated by uncorrelated sources are known to retain finite correlation at ranges large compared to the wavelength and spatial dimensions of the random wave sources. A technique known as noise (or wave) interferometry has been shown in seismology, helioseismology, acoustics, and other fields to be an effective tool for retrieving information about the deterministic propagation environment and the random wave field from two-point cross-correlation functions of diffuse noise. Here, we apply wave interferometry to acoustic-gravity waves in the coupled ocean-atmosphere system. The primary dataset analyzed in this study was obtained by 30 differential pressure gauges deployed from January 2009 to February 2010 on the seafloor offshore the South Island of New Zealand in the course of the Marine Observations of Anisotropy Near Aotearoa (MOANA) Seismic Experiment [Yang, Z., A. Sheehan, J. A. Collins, and G. Laske (2012), The character of seafloor ambient noise recorded offshore New Zealand: Results from the MOANA ocean bottom seismic experiment, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 13, Q10011]. By applying time-reversal ideas to processing of cross-correlations of random wave fields, we have developed a compressed cross-correlation function technique to compensate for wave dispersion in evaluating the cross-correlation function of a random wave field. When applied to the seafloor pressure data, the technique drastically reduces the signal averaging times necessary for emergence of deterministic features and allows for accurate passive measurements of wave travel times and

  16. Generalized interferometry - I: theory for interstation correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fichtner, Andreas; Stehly, Laurent; Ermert, Laura; Boehm, Christian

    2017-02-01

    We develop a general theory for interferometry by correlation that (i) properly accounts for heterogeneously distributed sources of continuous or transient nature, (ii) fully incorporates any type of linear and nonlinear processing, such as one-bit normalization, spectral whitening and phase-weighted stacking, (iii) operates for any type of medium, including 3-D elastic, heterogeneous and attenuating media, (iv) enables the exploitation of complete correlation waveforms, including seemingly unphysical arrivals, and (v) unifies the earthquake-based two-station method and ambient noise correlations. Our central theme is not to equate interferometry with Green function retrieval, and to extract information directly from processed interstation correlations, regardless of their relation to the Green function. We demonstrate that processing transforms the actual wavefield sources and actual wave propagation physics into effective sources and effective wave propagation. This transformation is uniquely determined by the processing applied to the observed data, and can be easily computed. The effective forward model, that links effective sources and propagation to synthetic interstation correlations, may not be perfect. A forward modelling error, induced by processing, describes the extent to which processed correlations can actually be interpreted as proper correlations, that is, as resulting from some effective source and some effective wave propagation. The magnitude of the forward modelling error is controlled by the processing scheme and the temporal variability of the sources. Applying adjoint techniques to the effective forward model, we derive finite-frequency Fréchet kernels for the sources of the wavefield and Earth structure, that should be inverted jointly. The structure kernels depend on the sources of the wavefield and the processing scheme applied to the raw data. Therefore, both must be taken into account correctly in order to make accurate inferences on

  17. Observation of CP Violation in the Neutral B Meson System

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, S

    2004-06-16

    This dissertation presents a measurement of time-dependent CP-violating asymmetries in neutral B meson decays collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B Factory at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The data sample consists of about 88 million {Upsilon}(4S) {yields} B{bar B} decays collected between 1999 and 2002. We study events in which one neutral B meson decay to the CP-eigenstates J/{psi} K{sub S}{sup 0}, {psi}(2S)K{sub S}{sup 0}, {chi}{sub c1}K{sub S}{sup 0}, and {eta}{sub c}K{sub S}{sup 0}, or to flavor-eigenstates involving D{sup (*)}{pi}/{rho}/a{sub 1} and J/{psi}K*{sup 0}(K*{sup 0} {yields} K{sup +} {pi}{sup -}), is fully reconstructed. The flavor of the other neutral B meson is tagged at the time of its decay, mainly using the charge of identified leptons and kaons. The proper time elapsed between the meson decays is determined by measuring the distance between the decay vertices. The amplitude of the CP-violating asymmetry, which in the Standard Model is proportional to sin2{beta}, is determined from a simultaneous maximum-likelihood fit to the time-difference distribution of the flavor- and CP-eigenstate samples. We measure sin2{beta} = 0.755 {+-} 0.074 (stat) {+-} 0.030 (syst).

  18. Measurements of strangeness production in the STAR experiment at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, W.K.

    1995-07-15

    Simulations of the ability of the STAR (Solenoidal Tracker at RHIC) detector to measure strangeness production in central Au+Au collisions at RHIC are presented. Emphasis is placed on the reconstruction of short lived particles using a high resolution inner tracker. The prospects for performing neutral kaon interferometry are discussed. Simulation results for measurements of strange and multi-strange baryons are presented.

  19. Quantum interferometry with three-dimensional geometry

    PubMed Central

    Spagnolo, Nicolò; Aparo, Lorenzo; Vitelli, Chiara; Crespi, Andrea; Ramponi, Roberta; Osellame, Roberto; Mataloni, Paolo; Sciarrino, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    Quantum interferometry uses quantum resources to improve phase estimation with respect to classical methods. Here we propose and theoretically investigate a new quantum interferometric scheme based on three-dimensional waveguide devices. These can be implemented by femtosecond laser waveguide writing, recently adopted for quantum applications. In particular, multiarm interferometers include “tritter” and “quarter” as basic elements, corresponding to the generalization of a beam splitter to a 3- and 4-port splitter, respectively. By injecting Fock states in the input ports of such interferometers, fringe patterns characterized by nonclassical visibilities are expected. This enables outperforming the quantum Fisher information obtained with classical fields in phase estimation. We also discuss the possibility of achieving the simultaneous estimation of more than one optical phase. This approach is expected to open new perspectives to quantum enhanced sensing and metrology performed in integrated photonics. PMID:23181189

  20. Edge effects in composites by moire interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Czarnek, R.; Post, D.; Herakovich, C.

    1983-01-01

    The very high sensitivity of moire interferometry has permitted the present edge effect experiments to be conducted at a low average stress and strain level, assuring linear and elastic behavior in the composite material samples tested. Sensitivity corresponding to 2450 line/mm moire was achieved with a 0.408 micron/fringe. Simultaneous observations of the specimen face and edge displacement fields showed good fringe definition despite the 1-mm thickness of the specimens and the high gradients, and it is noted that the use of a carrier pattern and optical filtering was effective in even these conditions. Edge effects and dramatic displacement gradients were confirmed in angle-ply composite laminates.

  1. Quantum interferometry with three-dimensional geometry.

    PubMed

    Spagnolo, Nicolò; Aparo, Lorenzo; Vitelli, Chiara; Crespi, Andrea; Ramponi, Roberta; Osellame, Roberto; Mataloni, Paolo; Sciarrino, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    Quantum interferometry uses quantum resources to improve phase estimation with respect to classical methods. Here we propose and theoretically investigate a new quantum interferometric scheme based on three-dimensional waveguide devices. These can be implemented by femtosecond laser waveguide writing, recently adopted for quantum applications. In particular, multiarm interferometers include "tritter" and "quarter" as basic elements, corresponding to the generalization of a beam splitter to a 3- and 4-port splitter, respectively. By injecting Fock states in the input ports of such interferometers, fringe patterns characterized by nonclassical visibilities are expected. This enables outperforming the quantum Fisher information obtained with classical fields in phase estimation. We also discuss the possibility of achieving the simultaneous estimation of more than one optical phase. This approach is expected to open new perspectives to quantum enhanced sensing and metrology performed in integrated photonics.

  2. Pulsed-Source Interferometry in Acoustic Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shcheglov, Kirill; Gutierrez, Roman; Tang, Tony K.

    2003-01-01

    A combination of pulsed-source interferometry and acoustic diffraction has been proposed for use in imaging subsurface microscopic defects and other features in such diverse objects as integrated-circuit chips, specimens of materials, and mechanical parts. A specimen to be inspected by this technique would be mounted with its bottom side in contact with an acoustic transducer driven by a continuous-wave acoustic signal at a suitable frequency, which could be as low as a megahertz or as high as a few hundred gigahertz. The top side of the specimen would be coupled to an object that would have a flat (when not vibrating) top surface and that would serve as the acoustical analog of an optical medium (in effect, an acoustical "optic").

  3. LISA Pathfinder interferometry: space hardware tests.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francisco García Marín, Antonio

    The optical metrology system (OMS) onboard LISA Pathfinder must measure picometre test mass displacements in the millihertz frequency range. It comprises the Laser Assembly for light generation and modulation, the Optical Bench where the interferometry properly takes place and the Phasemeter and Data Management Unit for signal processing and control. During the past years the Albert-Einstein-Institute has developed an OMS test-bed where each subsystem can be integrated sequentially. This way we could perform various system level test campaigns in close collaboration with our industrial partners without waiting for the last subsystems to be delivered. The most important milestone has been the recent tests of the complete OMS at engineering model level, including the demonstration of the required sensitivity. Flight model tests of the Laser Assembly are good underway and OMS flight model tests are planned for the second half of this year.

  4. Externally Dispersed Interferometry for Precision Radial Velocimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Erskine, D J; Muterspaugh, M W; Edelstein, J; Lloyd, J; Herter, T; Feuerstein, W M; Muirhead, P; Wishnow, E

    2007-03-27

    Externally Dispersed Interferometry (EDI) is the series combination of a fixed-delay field-widened Michelson interferometer with a dispersive spectrograph. This combination boosts the spectrograph performance for both Doppler velocimetry and high resolution spectroscopy. The interferometer creates a periodic spectral comb that multiplies against the input spectrum to create moire fringes, which are recorded in combination with the regular spectrum. The moire pattern shifts in phase in response to a Doppler shift. Moire patterns are broader than the underlying spectral features and more easily survive spectrograph blurring and common distortions. Thus, the EDI technique allows lower resolution spectrographs having relaxed optical tolerances (and therefore higher throughput) to return high precision velocity measurements, which otherwise would be imprecise for the spectrograph alone.

  5. Edge effects in composites by moire interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Czarnek, R.; Post, D.; Herakovich, C.

    1983-01-01

    The very high sensitivity of moire interferometry has permitted the present edge effect experiments to be conducted at a low average stress and strain level, assuring linear and elastic behavior in the composite material samples tested. Sensitivity corresponding to 2450 line/mm moire was achieved with a 0.408 micron/fringe. Simultaneous observations of the specimen face and edge displacement fields showed good fringe definition despite the 1-mm thickness of the specimens and the high gradients, and it is noted that the use of a carrier pattern and optical filtering was effective in even these conditions. Edge effects and dramatic displacement gradients were confirmed in angle-ply composite laminates.

  6. Shell deformation studies using holographic interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parmerter, R. R.

    1974-01-01

    The buckling of shallow spherical shells under pressure has been the subject of many theoretical and experimental papers. Experimental data above the theoretical buckling load of Huang have given rise to speculation that shallow shell theory may not adequately predict the stability of nonsymmetric modes in higher-rise shells which are normally classified as shallow by the Reissner criterion. This article considers holographic interferometry as a noncontact, high-resolution method of measuring prebuckling deformations. Prebuckling deformations of a lambda = 9, h/b = 0.038 shell are Fourier-analyzed. Buckling is found to occur in an N = 5 mode as predicted by Huang's theory. The N = 4 mode was unusually stable, suggesting that even at this low value of h/b, stabilizing effects may be at work.

  7. Phase difference enhancement with classical intensity interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirai, Tomohiro

    2016-12-01

    It is demonstrated theoretically and experimentally that, as a novel function of classical intensity interferometry, a phase difference distribution recorded in the form of an interferogram can be enhanced by a factor of 2 on the basis of the classical intensity correlation. Such phase difference enhancement which is also referred to as phase difference amplification is, in general, known to be practically important since it increases sensitivity and accuracy in interferometric measurements. The method proposed in this study prevails over the existing methods in the sense that it can be readily implemented without difficulty in comparison with all other methods so far proposed, although the phase difference enhancement is limited to a factor of 2 in our method and thus so is the improvement of sensitivity and accuracy.

  8. Study Of Ho Lo-Speckle Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jiabi

    1987-10-01

    Holo-speckle interferometry (HSI), as a 3-D displacement measuring method is studied in this paper. Three types of HSI are given. The average intensity distributions of its holographic and speckle interference fringes on the output planes are derived. The range of mea-surement and the problem of repositioning holograms for two-reference-beam HSI are disscussed. The results show that the upper limit of out-of-plane displacement is related to the parameters of the optical system and the in-plane displacement of specimen but the upper limit of in-plane displacement is determined by the paremeters only. The rigid body rotation of hologram in reconstruction process of two-reference-beam HSI influences the formation of interference fringes but the rigid body traslation does not have the influence.

  9. Nanoscale defect detection by heterodyne interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Lin Haoshan; Li Yuhe; Wang Dongsheng; Tong Xiaolei; Liu Mei

    2009-03-10

    We construct an instrument that facilitates the measurement of nanoscale defects. It is based on heterodyne interferometry with phase measurement that utilizes a polarizing beam splitter to form a measuring signal and an oscillating cantilever tip that acts as a scanning probe to get the measurement values of sample topography. The dependence of the tip displacement on the variation of tip-sample distance and the comb scanning of the sample topography are investigated by experiments. The results prove that the tip displacement increases and is enough to be discriminated in various positions where the sample is approached. The system has been successfully utilized to measure the defect characterization by measuring the pitch of the standard sample. The results also show that the heterodyne system has good repeatability, a large measurement range, and high accuracy, with a measurement stability of 0.5 nm.

  10. Endoscopic low coherence interferometry in upper airways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delacrétaz, Yves; Boss, Daniel; Lang, Florian; Depeursinge, Christian

    2009-07-01

    We introduce Endoscopic Low Coherence Interferometry to obtain topology of upper airways through commonly used rigid endoscopes. Quantitative dimensioning of upper airways pathologies is crucial to provide maximum health recovery chances, for example in order to choose the correct stent to treat endoluminal obstructing pathologies. Our device is fully compatible with procedures used in day-to-day examinations and can potentially be brought to bedside. Besides this, the approach described here can be almost straightforwardly adapted to other endoscopy-related field of interest, such as gastroscopy and arthroscopy. The principle of the method is first exposed, then filtering procedure used to extract the depth information is described. Finally, demonstration of the method ability to operate on biological samples is assessed through measurements on ex-vivo pork bronchi.

  11. Very high speed cw digital holographic interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-López, Carlos; de La Torre-Ibarra, Manuel H.; Mendoza Santoyo, Fernando

    2006-10-01

    It is reported for the first time the use of a very high speed camera in digital holographic interferometry with an out of plane sensitivity setup. The image plane holograms of a spherical latex balloon illuminated by a cw laser were acquired at a rate of 4000 frames per second, representing a time spacing between holograms of 250 microseconds, for 512 × 512 pixels at 8 bits resolution. Two types of tests were accomplished for a proof of principle of the technique, one with no constrains on the object which meant random movements due to non controlled environmental air currents, and the other with specific controlled conditions on the object. Results presented correspond to a random sample of sequential digital holograms, chosen from a 1 second exposure, individually Fourier processed in order to perform the usual comparison by subtraction between consecutive pairs thus obtaining the phase map of the object out of plane displacement, shown as a movie.

  12. Moire Interferometry For Deformation And Strain Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, Daniel

    1985-08-01

    Recent advances in high sensitivity moire interferometry are described. In-plane displacement fields are shown for very challenging problem areas: adhesive joints in tension and in bending, flexure of quasi-isotropic composite laminates, and fatigue cracks in aluminum. Reference gratings with 2400 lines/mm (60,960 //in.) were used, providing a sensitivity of 0.417 Am/fringe order (16.4 Ain./fringe order). Excellent fringe contrast was obtained in all cases, even for gradients of 64 fringes/mm (1600 fringes/in.). A four-beam optical system to produce two orthogonal virtual reference gratings was employed. The question of unknown relative displacements in two-body problems was answered by use of a soft bridge between the bodies to provide a continuous path for the fringe count.

  13. Moiré interferometry with white light.

    PubMed

    Post, D

    1979-12-15

    While high-sensitivity moiré interferometry requires monochromatic light, an auxiliary compensator grating removes the requirement. Experimental verification utilized white light for moiré interference of sensitivity 0.833 microm/fringe. Configurations readily amenable to compensation include moiré fringe multiplication by even factors and the minimum-deviation arrangement. Chromatic compensation is effective with virtual reference gratings as well as real reference gratings; in both cases the moiré interference system becomes achromatic. Compensation provides the special quality of nearly zero phase difference-an actual range of +/-pi-between interfering beams. Potential applications include use of electrical spark light sources for high-sensitivity dynamic moiré photography.

  14. Moire Interferometry for Deformation and Strain Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, Daniel

    1984-12-01

    Recent advances in high sensitivity moire interferometry are described. In-plane displacement fields are shown for very challenging problem areas: adhesive joints in tension and in bending; flexure of quasi-isotropic composite laminates; and fatigue cracks in aluminum. Reference gratings with 2400 lines/mm (60,960 l/in.) were used, providing a sensitivity of 0.417 μm/fringe order (16.4 μin./fringe order). Excellent fringe contrast was obtained in all cases, even for gradients of 64 fringes/mm (1600 fringes/in.). A 4-beam optical system to produce two orthogonal virtual reference gratings was employed. The question of unknown relative displacements in two-body problems was answered by use of a soft bridge between the bodies to provide a continuous path for the fringe count.

  15. Intensity interferometry: optical imaging with kilometer baselines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dravins, Dainis

    2016-07-01

    Optical imaging with microarcsecond resolution will reveal details across and outside stellar surfaces but requires kilometer-scale interferometers, challenging to realize either on the ground or in space. Intensity interferometry, electronically connecting independent telescopes, has a noise budget that relates to the electronic time resolution, circumventing issues of atmospheric turbulence. Extents up to a few km are becoming realistic with arrays of optical air Cherenkov telescopes (primarily erected for gamma-ray studies), enabling an optical equivalent of radio interferometer arrays. Pioneered by Hanbury Brown and Twiss, digital versions of the technique have now been demonstrated, reconstructing diffraction-limited images from laboratory measurements over hundreds of optical baselines. This review outlines the method from its beginnings, describes current experiments, and sketches prospects for future observations.

  16. Sagnac Interferometry with a Single Atomic Clock.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, R; Hush, M R; Bishop, T; Lesanovsky, I; Fernholz, T

    2015-10-16

    The Sagnac effect enables interferometric measurements of rotation with high precision. Using matter waves instead of light promises resolution enhancement by orders of magnitude that scales with particle mass. So far, the paradigm for matter wave Sagnac interferometry relies on de Broglie waves and thus on free propagation of atoms either in free fall or within waveguides. However, the Sagnac effect can be expressed as a proper time difference experienced by two observers moving in opposite directions along closed paths and has indeed been measured with atomic clocks flown around Earth. Inspired by this, we investigate an interferometer comprised of a single atomic clock. The Sagnac effect manifests as a phase shift between trapped atoms in different internal states after transportation along closed paths in opposite directions, without any free propagation. With analytic models, we quantify limitations of the scheme arising from atomic dynamics and finite temperature. Furthermore, we suggest an implementation with previously demonstrated technology.

  17. Optics and interferometry with atoms and molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Cronin, Alexander D.; Schmiedmayer, Joerg; Pritchard, David E.

    2009-07-15

    Interference with atomic and molecular matter waves is a rich branch of atomic physics and quantum optics. It started with atom diffraction from crystal surfaces and the separated oscillatory fields technique used in atomic clocks. Atom interferometry is now reaching maturity as a powerful art with many applications in modern science. In this review the basic tools for coherent atom optics are described including diffraction by nanostructures and laser light, three-grating interferometers, and double wells on atom chips. Scientific advances in a broad range of fields that have resulted from the application of atom interferometers are reviewed. These are grouped in three categories: (i) fundamental quantum science, (ii) precision metrology, and (iii) atomic and molecular physics. Although some experiments with Bose-Einstein condensates are included, the focus of the review is on linear matter wave optics, i.e., phenomena where each single atom interferes with itself.

  18. Polarization Effects Aboard the Space Interferometry Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levin, Jason; Young, Martin; Dubovitsky, Serge; Dorsky, Leonard

    2006-01-01

    For precision displacement measurements, laser metrology is currently one of the most accurate measurements. Often, the measurement is located some distance away from the laser source, and as a result, stringent requirements are placed on the laser delivery system with respect to the state of polarization. Such is the case with the fiber distribution assembly (FDA) that is slated to fly aboard the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) next decade. This system utilizes a concatenated array of couplers, polarizers and lengthy runs of polarization-maintaining (PM) fiber to distribute linearly-polarized light from a single laser to fourteen different optical metrology measurement points throughout the spacecraft. Optical power fluctuations at the point of measurement can be traced back to the polarization extinction ration (PER) of the concatenated components, in conjunction with the rate of change in phase difference of the light along the slow and fast axes of the PM fiber.

  19. Confocal simultaneous phase-shifting interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Chenguang; Tan Jiubin; Tang Jianbo; Liu Tao; Liu Jian

    2011-02-10

    In order to implement the ultraprecise measurement with large range and long working distance in confocal microscopy, confocal simultaneous phase-shifting interferometry (C-SPSI) has been presented. Four channel interference signals, with {pi}/2 phase shift between each other, are detected simultaneously in C-SPSI. The actual surface height is then calculated by combining the optical sectioning with the phase unwrapping in the main cycle of the interference phase response, and the main cycle is determined using the bipolar property of differential confocal microscopy. Experimental results showed that 1 nm of axial depth resolution was achieved for either low- or high-NA objective lenses. The reflectivity disturbance resistibility of C-SPSI was demonstrated by imaging a typical microcircuit specimen. C-SPSI breaks through the restriction of low NA on the axial depth resolution of confocal microscopy effectively.

  20. Low Coherence Interferometry in Selective Laser Melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neef, A.; Seyda, V.; Herzog, D.; Emmelmann, C.; Schönleber, M.; Kogel-Hollacher, M.

    Selective Laser Melting (SLM) is an additive layer manufacturing technology that offers several advantages compared to conven- tional methods of production such as an increased freedom of design and a toolless production suited for variable lot sizes. Despite these attractive aspects today's state of the art SLM machines lack a holistic process monitoring system that detects and records typical defects during production. A novel sensor concept based on the low coherence interferometry (LCI) was integrated into an SLM production setup. The sensor is mounted coaxially to the processing laser beam and is capable of sampling distances along the optical axis. Measurements during and between the processing of powder layers can reveal crucial topology information which is closely related to the final part quality. The overall potential of the sensor in terms of quality assurance and process control is being discussed. Furthermore fundamental experiments were performed to derive the performance of the system.

  1. Digital holographic interferometry as an experimental instrumentation for measurements of macroscopic properties of polydomain ferroelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokry, Pavel; Steiger, Kateřina; Psota, Pavel; Dolecek, Roman; Vojtisek, Petr; Ledl, Vit

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the theoretical study of macroscopic dielectric and optical properties of ferroelectric polydomain samples is presented. The role of average spontaneous polarization of the polydomain sample on the macroscopic dielectric response is analyzed. The measurement method of average spontaneous polarization using optical methods is suggested and analyzed. The presented analysis is focused on the computation of optical properties near ferroelectric domain walls. The computation of refractive index in the regions near neutral domain walls is presented. Since it is known that the refractive index depends on the configuration of the crystal lattice within a particular domain and on the internal and external electric fields, the obtained results will be used for a suggested method of 3D imaging of ferroelectric domain walls and internal electric fields using digital holographic interferometry.

  2. Moire Interferometry With Chromatic 1Ight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czarnek, Robert

    1986-12-01

    Experimental observations and measurements are essential sources of information for the correct development of mathematical models of real materials. Moire interferometry offers high sensitivity in full-field measurements of the in-plane displacements on the surface of a specimen. Although it is a powerful method in experimental stress analysis, it has some shortcomings. One is that existing systems require highly coherent light. The only sufficient source of light for this application is a long cavity laser, which is relatively expensive and at best quite cumbersome. Another shortcoming is that measurements must be performed in a vibration-free environment, such as that found on a holographic table. These requirements limit the use of existing moire interferometers to a holographic laboratory. In this publication a modified concept of compensation is developed that permits the use of a chromatic source of light in a compact moire system. The compensator provides order in the angles of incident light for every separate wavelength, so that the virtual reference gratings created by each wavelength in a continuous spectrum are identical in frequency and spatial position. The result is a virtual reference grating that behaves exactly like one created in coherent light. With this development the use of a laser diode, which is a noncoherent light source of tiny dimensions, becomes practical. The special configuration of the optics that create the virtual grating allows its synchronization with the specimen grating and leads to the design of an interferometer that is relatively insensitive to the vibrations found in a mechanical testing laboratory. Sensitivity to relative motion is analyzed theoretically. This development provides the opportunity to apply moire interferometry to solid mechanics problems that cannot be studied in an optics laboratory. Experimental verification of the optical concepts is provided.

  3. Determination of thin hydrodynamic lubricating film thickness using dichromatic interferometry.

    PubMed

    Guo, L; Wong, P L; Guo, F; Liu, H C

    2014-09-10

    This paper introduces the application of dichromatic interferometry for the study of hydrodynamic lubrication. In conventional methods, two beams with different colors are projected consecutively on a static object. By contrast, the current method deals with hydrodynamic lubricated contacts under running conditions and two lasers with different colors are projected simultaneously to form interference images. Dichromatic interferometry incorporates the advantages of monochromatic and chromatic interferometry, which are widely used in lubrication research. This new approach was evaluated statically and dynamically by measuring the inclination of static wedge films and the thickness of the hydrodynamic lubricating film under running conditions, respectively. Results show that dichromatic interferometry can facilitate real-time determination of lubricating film thickness and is well suited for the study of transient or dynamic lubricating problems.

  4. Difference Holographic Interferometry Of Light-Bulbs At Direct Transillumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyimesi, F.; Fuzessy, Z.

    1990-04-01

    Difference holographic interferometry makes the direct interferometric comparison of two objects possible by using holographic illuminations. In the present paper the case of phase objects is investigated at direct transillumination.

  5. Neutral particle lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craver, Barry Paul

    Neutral particle lithography (NPL) is a high resolution, proximity exposure technique where a broad beam of energetic neutral particles floods a stencil mask and transmitted beamlets transfer the mask pattern to resist on a substrate, such that each feature is printed in parallel, rather than in the serial manner of electron beam lithography. It preserves the advantages of ion beam lithography (IBL), including extremely large depth-of-field, sub-5 nm resist scattering, and the near absence of diffraction, yet is intrinsically immune to charge-related artifacts including line-edge roughness and pattern placement errors due to charge accumulation on the mask and substrate. In our experiments, a neutral particle beam is formed by passing an ion beam (e.g., 30 keV He+) through a high pressure helium gas cell (e.g., 100 mTorr) to convert the ions to energetic neutrals through charge transfer scattering. The resolution of NPL is generally superior to that of IBL for applications involving insulating substrates, large proximity gaps, and ultra-small features. High accuracy stepped exposures with energetic neutral particles, where magnetic or electrostatic deflection is impossible, have been obtained by clamping the mask to the wafer, setting the proximity gap with a suitable spacer, and mechanically inclining the mask/wafer stack relative to the beam. This approach is remarkably insensitive to vibration and thermal drift; nanometer scale image offsets have been obtained with +/-2 nm placement accuracy for experiments lasting over one hour. Using this nanostepping technique, linewidth versus dose curves were obtained, from which the NPL lithographic blur was determined as 4.4+/-1.4 nm (1sigma), which is 2-3 times smaller than the blur of electron beam lithography. Neutral particle lithography has the potential to form high density, periodic patterns with sub-10 nm resolution.

  6. A Possible Future for Space-Based Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labadie, L.; Leger, A.; Malbet, F.; Danchi, William C.; Lopez, B.

    2013-01-01

    We address the question of space interferometry following the recent outcome of the science themes selection by ESA for the L2/L3 missions slots. We review the current context of exoplanetary sciences and its impact for an interferometric mission. We argue that space interferometry will make a major step forward when the scientific communities interested in this technique will merge their efforts into a coherent technology development plan.

  7. Wedge Prism for Direction Resolved Speckle Correlation Interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Pechersky, M.J.

    1999-01-20

    The role of a wedge prism for strain sign determination and enhancing the sensitivity for sub-fringe changes is emphasized. The design and incorporation aspects for in-plane sensitive interferometers have been described in detail. Some experimental results dealing with stress determination by laser annealing and speckle corelation interferometry are presented. The prism can also be applied to produce standardized carrier fringes in spatial phase shifting interferometry.

  8. Tautomerism in neutral histidine.

    PubMed

    Bermúdez, Celina; Mata, Santiago; Cabezas, Carlos; Alonso, José L

    2014-10-06

    Histidine is an important natural amino acid, involved in many relevant biological processes, which, because of its physical properties, proved difficult to characterize experimentally in its neutral form. In this work, neutral histidine has been generated in the gas phase by laser ablation of solid samples and its N(ε)H tautomeric form unraveled through its rotational spectrum. The quadrupole hyperfine structure, arising from the existing three (14)N nuclei, constituted a site-specifically probe for revealing the tautomeric form as well as the side chain configuration of this proteogenic amino acid.

  9. Sentinel-1 TOPS interferometry for along-track displacement measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, H. J.; Pei, Y. Y.; Li, J.

    2017-02-01

    The European Space Agency’s Sentinel-1 mission, a constellation of two C-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) satellites, utilizes terrain observation by progressive scan (TOPS) antenna beam steering as its default operation mode to achieve wide-swath coverage and short revisit time. The beam steering during the TOPS acquisition provides a means to measure azimuth motion by using the phase difference between forward and backward looking interferograms within regions of burst overlap. Hence, there are two spectral diversity techniques for along-track displacement measurement, including multi-aperture interferometry (MAI) and “burst overlap interferometry”. This paper analyses the measurement accuracies of MAI and burst overlap interferometry. Due to large spectral separation in the overlap region, burst overlap interferometry is a more sensitive measurement. We present a TOPS interferometry approach for along-track displacement measurement. The phase bias caused by azimuth miscoregistration is first estimated by burst overlap interferometry over stationary regions. After correcting the coregistration error, the MAI phase and the interferometric phase difference between burst overlaps are recalculated to obtain along-track displacements. We test the approach with Sentinel-1 TOPS interferometric data over the 2015 Mw 7.8 Nepal earthquake fault. The results prove the feasibility of our approach and show the potential of joint estimation of along-track displacement with burst overlap interferometry and MAI.

  10. Resolving The Sky - Radio Interferometry: Past, Present and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    For more than half a century, radio interferometry has revolutionised our view of the Universe. New phenomena, such as relativistic motion in AGN have been discovered, and a wealth of detail has been revealed about a wide variety of astronomical sources, from nearby stars to the most distant galaxies. These discoveries have been enabled by radio interferometry's routine capability to deliver images with sub-milliarcsecond resolution and micro-arcsecond precision astrometry. Major new advances in both the interferometric technique and the science it delivers are expected over the coming decade. This conference will take a look at the past, present and future of radio interferometry, as the astronomical community prepares for the next big step forward, the Square Kilometre Array (SKA). The meeting coincides with the retirement of Prof. Richard T. Schilizzi, Director of the SKA Project Development Office (SPDO) and past director of the Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe (JIVE). We celebrate the major contribution Richard has made to the field with a scientific programme that will address the following topics: key historical developments in interferometry, the study of micro-quasars and AGN, the development of advanced interferometry techniques and new calibration algorithms, future interferometers (incl. ALMA, SKA and the SKA pathfinders & precursors), mm and sub-mm interferometry, precision spacecraft navigation, geodetic VLBI and Space VLBI.

  11. Analysis of variations of the thickness-phase objects by lateral shearing interferometry and white light scanning interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altamar, Hernando R.; Plata, Arturo

    2004-10-01

    The interferometric techniques of lateral shearing and white light scanning interferometry are combined to determine the variations of thickness of phase objects and the thickness of such objects is approximated through B-splines functions.

  12. Investigation of the low energy kaons hadronic interactions in light nuclei by AMADEUS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piscicchia, K.; Bazzi, M.; Berucci, C.; Bosnar, D.; Bragadireanu, A. M.; Cargnelli, M.; Clozza, A.; Curceanu, C.; Grande, R. Del; D'uffizi, A.; Fabbietti, L.; Fiorini, C.; Ghio, F.; Guaraldo, C.; Iliescu, M.; Sandri, P. Levi; Marton, J.; Moskal, P.; Pietreanu, D.; Lener, M. Poli; Quaglia, R.; Romero Vidal, A.; Sbardella, E.; Scordo, A.; Shi, H.; Skurzok, M.; Silarski, M.; Sirghi, D.; Sirghi, F.; Tucakovic, I.; Doce, O. Vazquez; Widmann, E.; Zmeskal, J.

    2015-08-01

    The AMADEUS experiment aims to provide unique quality data for K - interaction with nucleons and light nuclei, both at-rest and in-flight (for K - momenta of about 100 MeV). The goal is to solve longstanding open issues in the non-perturbative QCD in the strangeness sector, like the nature of the Λ(1405) state, the resonant versus non-resonant yield in nuclear K - capture and the properties of kaonic nuclear clusters which are strongly related to the multi-nucleon absorption processes. We can take advantage of the DA ΦNE collider representing a unique source of monochromatic low-momentum kaons, whose nuclear interaction with the materials of the KLOE detector (used as an active target) furnish us excellent acceptance and resolution data for K - capture on H, 4He, 9Be and 12C, both at-rest and in-flight. AMADEUS step 0 consisted in the analysis of the 2004-2005 KLOE data. A second step consisted in the implementation in the central region of the KLOE detector of a pure graphite target, providing a high statistic sample of K - 12 C nuclear captures at rest. For the future, new setups for various dedicated targets are under preparation.

  13. Multiplicities of charged kaons from deep-inelastic muon scattering off an isoscalar target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adolph, C.; Aghasyan, M.; Akhunzyanov, R.; Alexeev, M. G.; Alexeev, G. D.; Amoroso, A.; Andrieux, V.; Anfimov, N. V.; Anosov, V.; Augsten, K.; Augustyniak, W.; Austregesilo, A.; Azevedo, C. D. R.; Badełek, B.; Balestra, F.; Ball, M.; Barth, J.; Beck, R.; Bedfer, Y.; Bernhard, J.; Bicker, K.; Bielert, E. R.; Birsa, R.; Bodlak, M.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Braun, C.; Bressan, A.; Büchele, M.; Capozza, L.; Chang, W.-C.; Chatterjee, C.; Chiosso, M.; Choi, I.; Chung, S.-U.; Cicuttin, A.; Crespo, M. L.; Curiel, Q.; Dalla Torre, S.; Dasgupta, S. S.; Dasgupta, S.; Denisov, O. Yu.; Dhara, L.; Donskov, S. V.; Doshita, N.; Dreisbach, Ch.; Duic, V.; Dünnweber, W.; Dziewiecki, M.; Efremov, A.; Eversheim, P. D.; Eyrich, W.; Faessler, M.; Ferrero, A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; du Fresne von Hohenesche, N.; Friedrich, J. M.; Frolov, V.; Fuchey, E.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O. P.; Gerassimov, S.; Giordano, F.; Gnesi, I.; Gorzellik, M.; Grabmüller, S.; Grasso, A.; Grosse Perdekamp, M.; Grube, B.; Grussenmeyer, T.; Guskov, A.; Haas, F.; Hahne, D.; Hamar, G.; von Harrach, D.; Heinsius, F. H.; Heitz, R.; Herrmann, F.; Horikawa, N.; d'Hose, N.; Hsieh, C.-Y.; Huber, S.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, A.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jary, V.; Joosten, R.; Jörg, P.; Kabuß, E.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G. V.; Khokhlov, Yu. A.; Kisselev, Yu.; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koivuniemi, J. H.; Kolosov, V. N.; Kondo, K.; Königsmann, K.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V. F.; Kotzinian, A. M.; Kouznetsov, O. M.; Krämer, M.; Kremser, P.; Krinner, F.; Kroumchtein, Z. V.; Kulinich, Y.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Kurjata, R. P.; Lednev, A. A.; Lehmann, A.; Levillain, M.; Levorato, S.; Lian, Y.-S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Longo, R.; Maggiora, A.; Magnon, A.; Makins, N.; Makke, N.; Mallot, G. K.; Marianski, B.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Matoušek, J.; Matsuda, H.; Matsuda, T.; Meshcheryakov, G. V.; Meyer, M.; Meyer, W.; Mikhailov, Yu. V.; Mikhasenko, M.; Mitrofanov, E.; Mitrofanov, N.; Miyachi, Y.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nerling, F.; Neyret, D.; Nový, J.; Nowak, W.-D.; Nukazuka, G.; Nunes, A. S.; Olshevsky, A. G.; Orlov, I.; Ostrick, M.; Panzieri, D.; Parsamyan, B.; Paul, S.; Peng, J.-C.; Pereira, F.; Pešek, M.; Peshekhonov, D. V.; Pierre, N.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polyakov, V. A.; Pretz, J.; Quaresma, M.; Quintans, C.; Ramos, S.; Regali, C.; Reicherz, G.; Riedl, C.; Roskot, M.; Rossiyskaya, N. S.; Ryabchikov, D. I.; Rybnikov, A.; Rychter, A.; Salac, R.; Samoylenko, V. D.; Sandacz, A.; Santos, C.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I. A.; Sawada, T.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schmidt, K.; Schmieden, H.; Schönning, K.; Seder, E.; Selyunin, A.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sirtl, S.; Slunecka, M.; Smolik, J.; Sozzi, F.; Srnka, A.; Steffen, D.; Stolarski, M.; Subrt, O.; Sulc, M.; Suzuki, H.; Szabelski, A.; Szameitat, T.; Sznajder, P.; Takekawa, S.; Tasevsky, M.; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Thibaud, F.; Thiel, A.; Tosello, F.; Tskhay, V.; Uhl, S.; Veloso, J.; Virius, M.; Vondra, J.; Wallner, S.; Weisrock, T.; Wilfert, M.; Windmolders, R.; ter Wolbeek, J.; Zaremba, K.; Zavada, P.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Zhuravlev, N.; Ziembicki, M.; Zink, A.

    2017-04-01

    Precise measurements of charged-kaon multiplicities in deep inelastic scattering were performed. The results are presented in three-dimensional bins of the Bjorken scaling variable x, the relative virtual-photon energy y, and the fraction z of the virtual-photon energy carried by the produced hadron. The data were obtained by the COMPASS Collaboration by scattering 160 GeV muons off an isoscalar 6LiD target. They cover the kinematic domain 1(GeV / c)2 5 GeV /c2 in the invariant mass of the hadronic system. The results from the sum of the z-integrated K+ and K- multiplicities at high x point to a value of the non-strange quark fragmentation function larger than obtained by the earlier DSS fit.

  14. Energy dependence of pion and kaon production in central Pb+Pb collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanasiev, S. V.; Anticic, T.; Barna, D.; Bartke, J.; Barton, R. A.; Behler, M.; Betev, L.; Białkowska, H.; Billmeier, A.; Blume, C.; Blyth, C. O.; Boimska, B.; Botje, M.; Bracinik, J.; Bramm, R.; Brun, R.; Bunčić, P.; Cerny, V.; Cramer, J. G.; Csató, P.; Dinkelaker, P.; Eckhardt, V.; Filip, P.; Fodor, Z.; Foka, P.; Freund, P.; Friese, V.; Gál, J.; Gaździcki, M.; Georgopoulos, G.; Gładysz, E.; Hegyi, S.; Höhne, C.; Igo, G.; Jones, P. G.; Kadija, K.; Karev, A.; Kolesnikov, V. I.; Kollegger, T.; Kowalski, M.; Kraus, I.; Kreps, M.; van Leeuwen, M.; Lévai, P.; Malakhov, A. I.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Mayes, B. W.; Melkumov, G. L.; Mischke, A.; Molnár, J.; Nelson, J. M.; Pálla, G.; Panagiotou, A. D.; Perl, K.; Petridis, A.; Pikna, M.; Pinsky, L.; Pühlhofer, F.; Reid, J. G.; Renfordt, R.; Retyk, W.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rybicki, A.; Sammer, T.; Sandoval, A.; Sann, H.; Schmitz, N.; Seyboth, P.; Siklér, F.; Sitar, B.; Skrzypczak, E.; Squier, G. T.; Stock, R.; Ströbele, H.; Susa, T.; Szentpétery, I.; Sziklai, J.; Trainor, T. A.; Varga, D.; Vassiliou, M.; Veres, G. I.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vranić, D.; Wetzler, A.; Whitten, C.; Yoo, I. K.; Zaranek, J.; Zimányi, J.

    2002-11-01

    Measurements of charged pion and kaon production in central Pb+Pb collisions at 40, 80, and 158 A GeV are presented. These are compared with data at lower and higher energies as well as with results from p+p interactions. The mean pion multiplicity per wounded nucleon increases approximately linearly with s1/4NN with a change of slope starting in the region 15-40 A GeV. The change from pion suppression with respect to p+p interactions, as observed at low collision energies, to pion enhancement at high energies occurs at about 40A GeV. A nonmonotonic energy dependence of the ratio of K+ to π+ yields is observed, with a maximum close to 40A GeV and an indication of a nearly constant value at higher energies. The measured dependences may be related to an increase of the entropy production and a decrease of the strangeness to entropy ratio in central Pb+Pb collisions in the low SPS energy range, which is consistent with the hypothesis that a transient state of deconfined matter is created above these energies. Other interpretations of the data are also discussed.

  15. Proposed Fermilab fixed target experiment: Kaons at the Tevatron. Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), DOE/EA-0898, evaluating the impacts associated with the proposed fixed target experiment at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Femilab) in Batavia, Illinois, known as Kaons at the Tevatron (KTeV). The proposed KTeV project includes reconfiguration of an existing target station, enhancement of an existing beam transport system connected to existing utility facilities, and construction of a new experimental detector hall area. The study of the K meson, a type of subatomic particle, has been going on at Fermilab for 20 years. The proposed KTEV project advances the search for the origins of a violation of a fundamental symmetry of nature called charge parity (CP) violation. Based on the analysis in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required.

  16. The Kaon B-parameter in mixed action chiral perturbation theory

    SciTech Connect

    Aubin, C.; Laiho, Jack; Van de Water, Ruth S.; /Fermilab

    2006-09-01

    We calculate the kaon B-parameter, B{sub K}, in chiral perturbation theory for a partially quenched, mixed action theory with Ginsparg-Wilson valence quarks and staggered sea quarks. We find that the resulting expression is similar to that in the continuum, and in fact has only two additional unknown parameters. At one-loop order, taste-symmetry violations in the staggered sea sector only contribute to flavor-disconnected diagrams by generating an {Omicron}(a{sup 2}) shift to the masses of taste-singlet sea-sea mesons. Lattice discretization errors also give rise to an analytic term which shifts the tree-level value of B{sub K} by an amount of {Omicron}(a{sup 2}). This term, however, is not strictly due to taste-breaking, and is therefore also present in the expression for B{sub K} for pure G-W lattice fermions. We also present a numerical study of the mixed B{sub K} expression in order to demonstrate that both discretization errors and finite volume effects are small and under control on the MILC improved staggered lattices.

  17. Beam polarization asymmetry and the electromagnetic production of kaons from protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxwell, Oren V.

    2012-12-01

    The beam polarization asymmetry in the reaction ep→e'K+Λ has been investigated in a tree-level effective Lagrangian model. The model incorporates most of the well-established baryon resonances with spins up to (5)/(2), four less well-established nucleon resonances with larger mass, and the two kaon resonances K(892) and K1(1270). The off-shell structure of the electromagnetic vertices was accounted for by the inclusion of electromagnetic form factors at those vertices. The free parameters of the model were fitted in a previous study to a large pool of photoproduction data from the CLAS, GRAAL, SAPHIR, and LEPS collaborations and to CLAS data for the virtual photoproduction structure functions σU, σT, σL, σTT, and σLT. Using this model, results were obtained for the beam polarization asymmetry structure function σLT' and compared with CLAS data. Two new fits to the combined photoproduction and electroproduction data with the σLT' data included were then generated. The first of these includes contributions from all of the resonances included in the previous study; the second excludes contributions from the N(2080) and N(2200) resonances. The results of both fits for both photoproduction and electroproduction observables are compared with the results of the previous fit and the data.

  18. Unquenched determination of the kaon parameter B{sub K} from improved staggered fermions

    SciTech Connect

    Gamiz, Elvira; Collins, Sara; Davies, Christine T.H.; Lepage, G. Peter; Shigemitsu, Junko; Wingate, Matthew

    2006-06-01

    The use of improved staggered actions (HYP, Asqtad) has been proved to reduce the scaling corrections that affected previous calculations of B{sub K} with unimproved (standard) staggered fermions in the quenched approximation. This improved behavior allows us to perform a reliable calculation of B{sub K} including quark vacuum polarization effects, using the MILC configurations with n{sub f}=2+1 flavors of sea fermions. We perform such a calculation for a single lattice spacing, a=0.125 fm, and with kaons made up of degenerate quarks with m{sub s}/2. The valence strange quark mass m{sub s} is fixed to its physical value and we use two different values of the light sea quark masses. After a chiral extrapolation of the results to the physical value of the sea quark masses, we find B-circumflex{sub K}=0.83{+-}0.18, where the error is dominated by the uncertainty in the lattice to continuum matching at O({alpha}{sub s}{sup 2}). The matching will need to be improved to get the precision needed to make full use of the experimental data on {epsilon}{sub K} to constrain the unitarity triangle.

  19. A high-resolution x-ray spectrometer for a kaon mass measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phelan, Kevin; Suzuki, Ken; Zmeskal, Johann; Tortorella, Daniele; Bühler, Matthias; Hertrich, Theo

    2017-02-01

    The ASPECT consortium (Adaptable Spectrometer Enabled by Cryogenic Technology) is currently constructing a generalised cryogenic platform for cryogenic detector work which will be able to accommodate a wide range of sensors. The cryogenics system is based on a small mechanical cooler with a further adiabatic demagnetisation stage and will work with cryogenic detectors at sub-Kelvin temperatures. The commercial aim of the consortium is to produce a compact, user-friendly device with an emphasis on reliability and portability which can easily be transported for specialised on-site work, such as beam-lines or telescope facilities. The cryogenic detector platform will accommodate a specially developed cryogenic sensor, either a metallic magnetic calorimeter or a magnetic penetration-depth thermometer. The detectors will be designed to work in various temperatures regions with an emphasis on optimising the various detector resolutions for specific temperatures. One resolution target is of about 10 eV at the energies range typically created in kaonic atoms experiments (soft x-ray energies). A following step will see the introduction of continuous, high-power, sub-Kelvin cooling which will bring the cryogenic basis for a high resolution spectrometer system to the market. The scientific goal of the project will produce an experimental set-up optimised for kaon-mass measurements performing high-resolution x-ray spectroscopy on a beam-line provided foreseeably by the J-PARC (Tokai, Japan) or DAΦNE (Frascati, Italy) facilities.

  20. Kaon pair production in pp, pd and dd collisions at COSY

    SciTech Connect

    Hartmann, M.; Dzyuba, A.; Keshelashvili, I.; Maeda, Y.; Polyanskiy, A.; Wilkin, C.; Yuan, X.

    2010-08-05

    The near-threshold production of kaon-pairs has been investigated in proton-proton, proton-deuteron and deuteron-deuteron collisions at the Cooler Synchrotron COSY. The excitation function for the pp{yields}ppK{sup +}K{sup -} reaction and the invariant K{sup -}p, K{sup -}pp, and K{sup +}K{sup -} mass distributions indicate the presence of both K{sup -}p and K{sup +}K{sup -} final state interactions. Analogous final-state interactions of antikaons with deuterons has been found in the pp{yields}dK{sup +}K{sup 0}-bar reaction as well as in the pn{yields}dK{sup +}K{sup -} reaction, measured in the quasi-free pd{yields}p{sub sp}dK{sup +}K{sup -} process with a 'spectator' proton (p{sub sp}). The existing COSY data on the pd{yields}{sup 3}HeK{sup +}K{sup -} reaction are not yet sufficient to study the K{sup -3}He and K{sup +}K{sup -} final state interactions. A very small total cross section was found for the dd{yields}{sup 4}HeK{sup +}K{sup -} reaction.

  1. An rf separated kaon beam from the Main Injector: Superconducting aspects

    SciTech Connect

    D.A. Edwards

    1998-11-01

    ThE report is intended to focus on the superconducting aspects of a potential separated kaon beam facility for the Main Injector, and most of this document reflects that emphasis. However, the RF features cannot be divorced from the overall beam requirements, and so the next section is devoted to the latter subject. The existing optics design that meets the needs of the two proposed experiments is outliied, and its layout at Fermilab is shown. The frequency and deflection gradient choices present implementation dMiculties, and the section closes with some commentary on these issues. Sec. 3 provides an introduction to cavity design considerations, and, in particular carries forward the discussion of resonator shape and frequency selection. The R&D program is the subject of Sec. 4. Provisional parameter choices will be summarized. Initial steps toward cavity fabrication based `on copper models have been taken. The next stages in cavity fabrication will be reviewed in some detail. The infrastructure needs and availability will be discussed. Sec. 5 discusses what maybe characterized as the in~edlents of a point design. At this writing, some aspects are clear and some are not. The basic systems are reasonably clear and are described. The final section presents a cost and schedule estimate for both the Ft&D and production phase. Some supporting material and elaboration is provided in the Appendices.

  2. L/T separation in kaon electroproduction using CLAS at Jefferson Lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raue, Brian A.; Ambrozewicz, Pawel; Carman, Daniel S.; Mestayer, Mac D.; Tkabladze, Avtandil

    2005-04-01

    Measurements of the cross sections for the p(e,e^'K^+)λ/^0 reaction have been performed using the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) at Jefferson Lab. This process was selected since the measured observables are sensitive to the resonant and non-resonant amplitudes of the underlying cross section. The data were taken with beam energies of 2.567, 4.056 and 4.247 GeV, and covered Q^2 from ˜ 0.5 to 2.5 (GeV/c)^2 and W from threshold to ˜ 2.5 GeV. A substantial overlap in the Q^2 range for the data sets with different energies allowed us to perform a separation of the longitudinal and transverse contributions to the unpolarized cross section. The separation was performed using two different approaches, the Rosenbluth technique and simultaneous ɛ-φ fit to all of the data. We will present preliminary results on the extracted ratio, σL/σT, as a function of W and the center-of-momentum scattering angles. We will also discuss implications for the theoretical descriptions of these processes. This measurement is part of a larger CLAS program to measure cross sections and polarization observables for kaon electroproduction in the nucleon resonance region.

  3. Bleach Neutralizes Mold Allergens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Researchers at National Jewish Medical and Research Center have demonstrated that dilute bleach not only kills common household mold, but may also neutralize the mold allergens that cause most mold-related health complaints. The study, published in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, is the first to test the effect on allergic…

  4. CO2-Neutral Fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goede, Adelbert; van de Sanden, Richard

    2016-06-01

    Mimicking the biogeochemical cycle of System Earth, synthetic hydrocarbon fuels are produced from recycled CO2 and H2O powered by renewable energy. Recapturing CO2 after use closes the carbon cycle, rendering the fuel cycle CO2 neutral. Non-equilibrium molecular CO2 vibrations are key to high energy efficiency.

  5. Beyond Viral Neutralization.

    PubMed

    Lewis, George K; Pazgier, Marzena; Evans, David; Ferrari, Guido; Bournazos, Stylianos; Parsons, Matthew S; Bernard, Nicole F; Finzi, Andrés

    2017-01-13

    It has been known for more than 30 years that Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 (HIV-1) infection drives a very potent B cell response resulting in the production of anti-HIV-1 antibodies targeting several viral proteins, particularly its envelope glycoproteins (Env). Env epitopes are exposed on the surfaces of viral particles and infected cells where they are targets of potentially protective antibodies. These antibodies can interdict infection by neutralization and there is strong evidence suggesting that Fc-mediated effector function can also contribute to protection. Current evidence suggests that Fc-mediated effector function plays a role in protection against infection by broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) and it might be important for protection by non-neutralizing antibodies. Fc-mediated effector function includes diverse mechanisms that include antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), antibody-mediated complement activation (ADC), antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP), antibody-dependent cell-mediated virus inhibition (ADCVI), antibody-mediated trancytosis inhibition, and antibody-mediated virus opsonization. All these functions could be beneficial in fighting viral infections including HIV-1. In this perspective, we discuss the latest developments for ADCC responses discussed at the HIVR4P satellite session on non-neutralizing antibodies, with emphasis on the mechanisms of ADCC resistance employed by HIV-1, the structural basis of epitopes recognized by antibodies that mediate ADCC, NK-cell education and ADCC, and murine models to study ADCC against HIV-1.

  6. Bleach Neutralizes Mold Allergens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Researchers at National Jewish Medical and Research Center have demonstrated that dilute bleach not only kills common household mold, but may also neutralize the mold allergens that cause most mold-related health complaints. The study, published in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, is the first to test the effect on allergic…

  7. Modeling thermospheric neutral density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Liying

    Satellite drag prediction requires determination of thermospheric neutral density. The NCAR Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (TIEGCM) and the global-mean Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere-Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (TIMEGCM) were used to quantify thermospheric neutral density and its variations, focusing on annual/semiannual variation, the effect of using measured solar irradiance on model calculations of solar-cycle variation, and global change in the thermosphere. Satellite drag data and the MSIS00 empirical model were utilized to compare to the TIEGCM simulations. The TIEGCM simulations indicated that eddy diffusion and its annual/semiannual variation is a mechanism for annual/semiannual density variation in the thermosphere. It was found that eddy diffusion near the turbopause can effectively influence thermospheric neutral density. Eddy diffusion, together with annual insolation variation and large-scale circulation, generated global annual/semiannual density variation observed by satellite drag. Using measured solar irradiance as solar input for the TIEGCM improved the solar-cycle dependency of the density calculation shown in F10.7 -based thermospheric empirical models. It has been found that the empirical models overestimate density at low solar activity. The TIEGCM simulations did not show such solar-cycle dependency. Using historic measurements of CO2 and F 10.7, simulations of the global-mean TIMEGCM showed that thermospheric neutral density at 400 km had an average long-term decrease of 1.7% per decade from 1970 to 2000. A forecast of density decrease for solar cycle 24 suggested that thermospheric density will decrease at 400 km from present to the end of solar cycle 24 at a rate of 2.7% per decade. Reduction in thermospheric density causes less atmospheric drag on earth-orbiting space objects. The implication of this long-term decrease of thermospheric neutral density is that it will increase the

  8. The balloon experimental twin telescope for infrared interferometry (BETTII): interferometry at the edge of the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinehart, S.; Rizzo, M.; Fixsen, D.; Ade, P.; Barclay, R.; Barry, R.; Benford, D.; Dhabal, A.; Juanola-Parramon, R.; Klemencic, Georgina; Griffin, M.; Leisawitz, David T.; Maher, S.; Mentzell, J.; Mundy, Lee G.; Pascale, E.; Savini, G.; Silverberg, Robert F.; Staguhn, J.; Veach, T.

    2014-07-01

    The Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII) is an 8-meter baseline far-infrared interferometer designed to fly on a high altitude balloon. BETTII uses a double-Fourier Michelson interferometer to simultaneously obtain spatial and spectral information on science targets; the long baseline permits subarcsecond angular resolution, a capability unmatched by other far-infrared facilities. This program started in 2011, and is now in the process of building and testing components of the mission, aiming for first flight in fall of 2015. This paper will provide an overview of the BETTII experiment, with a discussion of current progress and of future plans.

  9. Testing nonlinear vacuum electrodynamics with Michelson interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schellstede, Gerold O.; Perlick, Volker; Lämmerzahl, Claus

    2015-07-01

    We discuss the theoretical foundations for testing nonlinear vacuum electrodynamics with Michelson interferometry. Apart from some nondegeneracy conditions to be imposed, our discussion applies to all nonlinear electrodynamical theories of the Plebański class, i.e., to all Lagrangians that depend only on the two Lorentz-invariant scalars quadratic in the field strength. The main idea of the experiment proposed here is to use the fact that, according to nonlinear electrodynamics, the phase velocity of light should depend on the strength and on the direction of an electromagnetic background field. There are two possible experimental setups for testing this prediction with Michelson interferometry. The first possibility is to apply a strong electromagnetic field to the beam in one arm of the interferometer and to compare the situation where the field is switched on with the situation where it is switched off. The second possibility is to place the whole interferometer in a strong electromagnetic field and to rotate it. If an electromagnetic field is placed in one arm, the interferometer could have the size of a gravitational wave detector, i.e., an arm length of several hundred meters. If the whole interferometer is placed in an electromagnetic field, one would have to do the experiment with a tabletop interferometer. As an alternative to a traditional Michelson interferometer, one could use a pair of optical resonators that are not bigger than a few centimeters. Then the whole apparatus would be placed in the background field and one would either compare the situation where the field is switched on with the situation where it is switched off or one would rotate the apparatus with the field kept switched on. We derive the theoretical foundations for these types of experiments, in the context of an unspecified nonlinear electrodynamics of the Plebański class, and we discuss their feasibility. A null result of the experiment would place bounds on the parameters of the

  10. Carbon neutral hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Zeman, Frank S; Keith, David W

    2008-11-13

    Reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector may be the most difficult aspect of climate change mitigation. We suggest that carbon neutral hydrocarbons (CNHCs) offer an alternative pathway for deep emission cuts that complement the use of decarbonized energy carriers. Such fuels are synthesized from atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and carbon neutral hydrogen. The result is a liquid fuel compatible with the existing transportation infrastructure and therefore capable of a gradual deployment with minimum supply disruption. Capturing the atmospheric CO2 can be accomplished using biomass or industrial methods referred to as air capture. The viability of biomass fuels is strongly dependent on the environmental impacts of biomass production. Strong constraints on land use may favour the use of air capture. We conclude that CNHCs may be a viable alternative to hydrogen or conventional biofuels and warrant a comparable level of research effort and support.

  11. Heterosis or Neutrality?

    PubMed Central

    Watterson, G. A.

    1977-01-01

    Various statistics have been proposed on an ad hoc basis to test whether alleles at a locus are selectively neutral. By considering population models in which selection operates, this paper shows that the population homozygosity is a powerful test statistic for testing departures from neutrality, in the direction of heterozygote advantage or disadvantage. The sample homozygosity plays a similar role when only sample data are available. Some numerical examples are included, showing the application of the test.—An analysis is made of the effect of heterosis on such quantities as the expected number of alleles in the population or sample, the effective number of alleles, the expected homozygosity, and on the population and sample allele frequency distributions generally. PMID:863245

  12. Neutral atom traps.

    SciTech Connect

    Pack, Michael Vern

    2008-12-01

    This report describes progress in designing a neutral atom trap capable of trapping sub millikelvin atom in a magnetic trap and shuttling the atoms across the atom chip from a collection area to an optical cavity. The numerical simulation and atom chip design are discussed. Also, discussed are preliminary calculations of quantum noise sources in Kerr nonlinear optics measurements based on electromagnetically induced transparency. These types of measurements may be important for quantum nondemolition measurements at the few photon limit.

  13. Antihypertensive neutral lipid

    DOEpatents

    Snyder, Fred L.; Blank, Merle L.

    1986-01-01

    The invention relates to the discovery of a class of neutral acetylated ether-linked glycerolipids having the capacity to lower blood pressure in warm-blooded animals. This physiological effect is structure sensitive requiring a long chain alkyl group at the sn-1 position and a short carbon chain acyl group (acetyl or propionyl) at the sn-2 position, and a hydroxyl group at the sn-3 position.

  14. Antihypertensive neutral lipid

    DOEpatents

    Snyder, F.L.; Blank, M.L.

    1984-10-26

    The invention relates to the discovery of a class of neutral acetylated either-linked glycerolipids having the capacity to lower blood presure in warm-blooded animals. This physiological effect is structure sensitive requiring a long chain alkyl group at the sn-1 position and a short carbon chain acyl group (acetyl or propionyl) at the sn-2 position, and a hydroxyl group at the sn-3 position.

  15. Exercise Equipment: Neutral Buoyancy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shackelford, Linda; Valle, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Load Bearing Equipment for Neutral Buoyancy (LBE-NB) is an exercise frame that holds two exercising subjects in position as they apply counter forces to each other for lower extremity and spine loading resistance exercises. Resistance exercise prevents bone loss on ISS, but the ISS equipment is too massive for use in exploration craft. Integrating the human into the load directing, load generating, and motion control functions of the exercise equipment generates safe exercise loads with less equipment mass and volume.

  16. Neutral Buoyancy Simulator Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    A diver tests a secondary camera and maneuvering platform in Marshall's Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS).The secondary camera will be beneficial for recording repairs and other extra vehicular activities (EVA) the astronuats will perform while making repairs on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The maneuvering platform was developed to give the astronauts something to stand on while performing maintenance tasks. These platforms were developed to be mobile so that the astronauts could move them to accommadate different sites.

  17. Multifrequency perturbations in matter-wave interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Günther, A.; Rembold, A.; Schütz, G.; Stibor, A.

    2015-11-01

    High-contrast matter-wave interferometry is essential in various fundamental quantum mechanical experiments as well as for technical applications. Thereby, contrast and sensitivity are typically reduced by decoherence and dephasing effects. While decoherence accounts for a general loss of quantum information in a system due to entanglement with the environment, dephasing is due to collective time-dependent external phase shifts, which can be related to temperature drifts, mechanical vibrations, and electromagnetic oscillations. In contrast to decoherence, dephasing can, in principle, be reversed. Here, we demonstrate in experiment and theory a method for the analysis and reduction of the influence of dephasing noise and perturbations consisting of several external frequencies in an electron interferometer. This technique uses the high spatial and temporal resolution of a delay-line detector to reveal and remove dephasing perturbations by second-order correlation analysis. It allows matter-wave experiments under perturbing laboratory conditions and can be applied, in principle, to electron, atom, ion, neutron, and molecule interferometers.

  18. Advancing differential atom interferometry for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiow, Sheng-Wey; Williams, Jason; Yu, Nan

    2016-05-01

    Atom interferometer (AI) based sensors exhibit precision and accuracy unattainable with classical sensors, thanks to the inherent stability of atomic properties. Dual atomic sensors operating in a differential mode further extend AI applicability beyond environmental disturbances. Extraction of the phase difference between dual AIs, however, typically introduces uncertainty and systematic in excess of that warranted by each AI's intrinsic noise characteristics, especially in practical applications and real time measurements. In this presentation, we report our efforts in developing practical schemes for reducing noises and enhancing sensitivities in the differential AI measurement implementations. We will describe an active phase extraction method that eliminates the noise overhead and demonstrates a performance boost of a gravity gradiometer by a factor of 3. We will also describe a new long-baseline approach for differential AI measurements in a laser ranging assisted AI configuration. The approach uses well-developed AIs for local measurements but leverage the mature schemes of space laser interferometry for LISA and GRACE. This research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a Contract with NASA.

  19. General Relativistic Effects in Atom Interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Dimopoulos, Savas; Graham, Peter W.; Hogan, Jason M.; Kasevich, Mark A.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2008-03-17

    Atom interferometry is now reaching sufficient precision to motivate laboratory tests of general relativity. We begin by explaining the non-relativistic calculation of the phase shift in an atom interferometer and deriving its range of validity. From this we develop a method for calculating the phase shift in general relativity. This formalism is then used to find the relativistic effects in an atom interferometer in a weak gravitational field for application to laboratory tests of general relativity. The potentially testable relativistic effects include the non-linear three-graviton coupling, the gravity of kinetic energy, and the falling of light. We propose experiments, one currently under construction, that could provide a test of the principle of equivalence to 1 part in 10{sup 15} (300 times better than the present limit), and general relativity at the 10% level, with many potential future improvements. We also consider applications to other metrics including the Lense-Thirring effect, the expansion of the universe, and preferred frame and location effects.

  20. Extending temporal coherence in speckle interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crespo Contiñas, J. M.; Moreno de las Cuevas, V.; Gallas Torreira, M.; Calizaya Calizaya, M.

    2013-11-01

    Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry (ESPI) and Shearography (ESPSI) techniques have been used in the field of non-destructive testing for a long time, providing accuracy, and allowing whole field analysis of pure deformation (ESPI) or the gradient of deformation (ESPSI). One of the major weaknesses of this two techniques is linked to speckle de-correlation. When the deformation process produces a displacement greater than a certain proportion of the speckle size, there is a severe loss of coherence which limits the application of these techniques to processes with strong or fast deformations. In order to avoid this limitation, the use of a dynamically updated reference frame is tested in this work. First, in ESPI and ESPSI setups, a metacrylathe bar is used as specimen for testing procedures, and finally a human jaw bone will be used in an ESPSI setup. One basic and regular-shaped object, the bar, and a structurally 3D complex structure, the human jaw bone, with complex elastic properties are the samples to test.