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Sample records for neutral wind structures

  1. Equivalent Neutral Wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, W. Timothy; Tang, Wenqing

    1996-01-01

    The definition of equivalent neutral wind and the rationale for using it as the geophysical product of a spaceborne scatterometer are reviewed. The differences between equivalent neutral wind and actual wind, which are caused by atmospheric density stratification, are demonstrated with measurements at selected locations. A method of computing this parameter from ship and buoy measurements is described and some common fallacies in accounting for the effects of atmospheric stratification on wind shear are discussed. The computer code for the model to derive equivalent neutral wind is provided.

  2. Correlations Between Neutral and Ionized Solar Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, M.; Pilkerton, B.; Moore, T.

    The Low Energy Neutral Atom (LENA) Imager on the IMAGE spacecraft has observed the neutral component of the solar wind (JGR, 106, 24,893, 2001) independently adumbrated by Akasofu and Dessler about forty years ago. Neutral solar wind is formed by solar wind charge exchange with interstellar neutrals, dust and the Earth's exosphere, in addition to any intrinsically neutral component. Here we report the results of a statistical study correlating the solar wind fluxes observed by ACE during late 2000 and throughout 2001 with neutral solar wind fluxes observed by LENA. The average correlation coefficient between the neutral and ionized solar wind is 0.66 with "good" correlations (peak correlation coefficient above 0.80) occurring about 28% of the time. The results are similar to those obtained by in-situ multi-spacecraft correlation studies. In this study, however, IMAGE is almost never in the solar wind or magnetosheath. The slope of the relationship between the neutral solar wind flux and the solar wind flux shows a peak in the upstream direction, but shifted toward higher ecliptic longitudes than the interstellar neutral (ISN) flow direction by about 20 degrees. The estimated peak interstellar neutral upstream density is about 10-2 cm-3.

  3. Correlations between neutral and ionized solar wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilkerton, B. M.; Collier, M. R.; Moore, T. E.

    We report results of a statistical study correlating ionized solar wind (ISW) fluxes observed by ACE during late 2000 and throughout 2001 with neutral solar wind (NSW) fluxes observed by IMAGE/LENA over the same period. The average correlation coefficient between the neutral and ionized solar wind is 0.66 with correlations greater than 0.80 occurring about 29% of the time. Correlations appear to be driven by high solar wind flux variability, similar to results obtained by in situ multi-spacecraft correlation studies. In this study, however, IMAGE remains inside the magnetosphere on over 95% of its orbits. As a function of day of year, or equivalently ecliptic longitude, the slope of the relationship between the neutral solar wind flux and the ionized solar wind flux shows an enhancement near the upstream direction, but the symmetry point appears shifted toward higher ecliptic longitudes than the interstellar neutral (ISN) flow direction by about 20°. The estimated peak interstellar neutral upstream density inside of 1 AU is about 7 × 10 -3 cm -3.

  4. A study on three-dimensional structures of the ionospheric dynamo currents induced by the neutral winds simulated by the Kyushu-GCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawano-Sasaki, Keiko; Miyahara, Saburo

    2008-08-01

    Three-dimensional structures of the ionospheric dynamo currents are examined using the neutral winds in a general circulation model of the middle atmosphere at Kyushu University. A quasi-three-dimensional ionospheric dynamo model is constructed assuming an infinite parallel conductivity in the ionosphere. This model is able to simulate both the equatorial electrojet and the global Sq current system successfully. The simulated results reveal that the equatorial electrojet is confined in quite narrow latitudes around the equator accompanied with meridional current circulations and satisfies a non-divergent structure mainly within the E region. A vertically stratified double layered structure is seen in the east-west current density near the focus latitude of the global Sq current system. It is shown that the stratified structure mainly consists of the east-west Hall current associated with the eastward wind of zonal wavenumbers 1 and 2 in the lower altitudes and the westward wind of zonal wavenumber 2 in the upper altitudes. The day-to-day variation of the neutral winds can significantly vary the induced ionospheric dynamo current system, which is recognized as changes of the focus latitude and/or the maximum value of the equatorial electrojet.

  5. Neutral Wind Observations below 200 km altitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, S.; Abe, T.; Habu, H.; Kakinami, Y.; Larsen, M. F.; Pfaff, R. F., Jr.; Yamamoto, M.

    2015-12-01

    Neutral Wind Observations below 200 km altitudesS. Watanabe1, T. Abe2, H. Habu2, Y. Kakinami3, M. Larsen4, R. Pfaff5, M. Yamamoto6, M-Y. Yamamoto31Hokkaido University/Hokkaido Information University, 2JAXA/ISAS, 3Kochi University of Technology, 4Clemson University, 5NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, 6Kyoto University, Neutral wind in the thermosphere is one of the key parameters to understand the ionosphere-thermosphere coupling process. JAXA/ISAS successfully launched sounding rockets from Uchinoura Space Center (USC) on September 2, 2007, January 12, 2012, and July 20, 2013, and NASA launched sounding rockets from Kwajalein on May 7, 2013 and from Wallops on July 4, 2013. The rockets installed Lithium and/or TMA canisters as well as instruments for plasma and electric and magnetic fields. The atomic Lithium gases were released at altitudes between 150 km and 300 km in the evening on September 2, 2007, at altitude of ~100 km in the morning on January 12, 2012, at altitude of ~120km in the midnight on July 20, 2013, at altitude between 150 km and 300 km in the evening on May 7, 2013 and at altitude of ~150 km in the noon on July 4, 2013. The Lithium atoms were scattering sunlight by resonance scattering with wavelength of 670nm. However, the Lithium atoms scattered moon light on July 20, 2013. The moon light scattering is the first time to use for thermospheric wind measurement in the midnight. The Lithium clouds/trails and TMA trails showed clearly the neutral wind shears and atmospheric waves at ~150 km altitude in the lower thermosphere for all local time.

  6. Feedback between neutral winds and auroral arc electrodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, L. R.; Walterscheid, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    The feedback between neutral atmospheric winds and the electrodynamics of a stable, discrete auroral arc is analyzed. The ionospheric current continuity equation and the equation for neutral gas acceleration by ion drag are solved simultaneously, as a function of time. The results show that, in general, the electric field in the ionosphere adjusts to neutral wind acceleration so as to keep auroral field-aligned currents and electron acceleration approximately independent of time. It is thus concluded that the neutral winds that develop as a result of the electrodynamical forcing associated with an arc do not significantly affect the intensity of the arc.

  7. Neutral winds in the lower thermosphere from Dynamics Explorer 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killeen, T. L.; Nardi, B.; Purcell, P. N.; Roble, R. G.; Fuller-Rowell, T. J.; Rees, D.

    1992-01-01

    Doppler line profile measurements of the OI lambda 557.7 nm 'green line' emission, made by the Fabry-Perot interferometer on Dynamics Explorer 2, have provided altitude profiles of the meridional component of the lower thermospheric neutral wind. The wind inversion technique of Nardi has been used to extract the neutral wind profiles from the line-of-sight measurements. Individual lambda 557.7 nm Doppler line profiles and inverted volume-emission-rate and neutral-wind profiles are presented. Neutral wind measurements from the about 120 km altitude level, obtained on multiple orbital passes over the summer hemisphere polar region, have been merged to produce a synthesized averaged 'vector' wind field in geomagnetic coordinates. The wind pattern exhibits a region of anticyclonic vorticity in the daytime sector of the magnetic polar cap. Averaged winds of about 300 m/sec in the equatorial direction are observed in the early morning sector. The satellite winds are in reasonable agreement with the predictions of the NCAR and UCL thermosphere general circulation models, with significant regional discrepancies evident in both magnitude and direction.

  8. Wind Turbine Structural Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, D. R. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    A workshop on wind turbine structural dynamics was held to review and document current United States work on the dynamic behavior of large wind turbines, primarily of the horizontal-axis type, and to identify and discuss other wind turbine configurations that may have lower cost and weight. Information was exchanged on the following topics: (1) Methods for calculating dynamic loads; (2) Aeroelasticity stability (3) Wind loads, both steady and transient; (4) Critical design conditions; (5) Drive train dynamics; and (6) Behavior of operating wind turbines.

  9. Neutral winds above 200Km at high latitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meriwether, J. W.; Heppner, J. P.; Stolarik, J. D.; Wescott, E. M.

    1972-01-01

    Motion from multiple chemical releases between 200 and 300 km from 15 rockets launched from 4 high latitude locations are analyzed. The observations in the evening and midnight hours at magnetic altitudes or = 65 deg suggest that in these regions ion drag is the dominant force in driving neutral winds between 200 and 300 km. This conclusion is based on both the agreement between ion and neutral drift directions, and the fact that there are distinct changes in the wind associated with (a) the reversal in east-west ion drift at the Harang discontinuity, and (b) the transition from auroral belt, sunward ion drift and polar cap, anti-solar ion drift.

  10. How do horizontal neutral winds create vertical plasma flows?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasyliunas, V. M.

    2012-12-01

    The neutral-wind dynamo process produces a configuration of plasma flow that in general (particularly at low magnetic latitudes) includes vertical bulk flow components, even when the neutral winds are assumed to be purely horizontal at all altitudes. Conventionally the plasma flow is described as the E × B drift from the dynamo electric field, the vertical flow component being ascribed to the meridional component of E crossed with the horizontal component of B. This relation between the plasma flow and the electric field, however, merely states a necessary condition for the assumed quasi-steady state; it says nothing about how the quasi-steady state was created, or how either of the two quantities was produced. It has been shown (Buneman, 1992; Vasyliūnas, 2001) that, in a plasma sufficiently dense so that {VA2<neutral wind, but it can be transferred to the plasma only by plasma-neutral collisions; with the plasma initially at rest and the neutral wind assumed to flow horizontally everywhere, collisions cannot add vertical linear momentum to the plasma. The Lorentz force J × B, as long as J is described by the conventional ionospheric Ohm's law, simply balances the collisional frictional force (from plasma-neutral velocity difference) and does not add any net momentum to the plasma. In a time-dependent calculation of neutral-wind dynamo evolution (steady neutral wind imposed on an initially stationary plasma), a transient initial current appears, which does not obey the conventional ionospheric Ohm's law but produces an unbalanced J × B force that accelerates the plasma. The vertical component of this force can create the vertical plasma flows that exist in the asymptotic quasi-steady-state configuration. (The low

  11. Measurements of the E region neutral wind field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cogger, L. L.; Murphree, J. S.; Tepley, C. A.; Meriwether, J. W., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The neutral E-region wind field was measured at Calgary, Canada (51 N, 114 N) during 75 nights in 1982. Observations of the Doppler shift of the 5577-A emission line of atomic oxygen using a Fabry-Perot interferometer were converted to horizontal wind vectors. From the analysis of the data, four categories of wind characteristics were identified. In order of increasing magnetic activity these categories are: (1) wind field mostly variable in space and time; (2) predominantly equatorward flow throughout the night, (3) predominantly poleward flow throughout the night and (4) north-westward flow before midnight and southward after midnight. The wind magnitude was also variable and on some disturbed days exceeded 200 m/s.

  12. Comparison of high latitude thermospheric meridional neutral wind climatologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Eoghan Michael

    The combination of the long term databases of measurements from the Kiruna Fabry-Perot Interferometer and the EISCAT incoherent scatter radar, both covering more than a solar cycle of data, allows a unique comparison of the thermospheric meridional component of the neutral wind as observed by different experimental techniques. This allows the climatological behaviour of the neutral wind at high latitudes to be investigated, including the influence of both solar activity and season. Two techniques are applied to derive winds from the EISCAT database, one from previous work using the standard technique for incoherent scatter radars, and a new dataset derived using the Meridional Wind Model implementation of servo theory with the EISCAT data as input. The latter technique also uses contemporaneous EISCAT electric field data for correction to the equivalent servo winds. Alongside the local measurements from experiment, model predictions of the behaviour of the winds can also be compared. These have been included and use both empirical sources as in the Horizontal Wind Model and Meridional Wind Model with International Reference Ionosphere input, and also the results from a first principles theoretical model, the UCL Coupled Thermosphere and Ionosphere Model. Comparisons are made between the results from these techniques for each of eight categories corresponding to the four seasons, centred around the equinoxes and solstices, and for two solar activity levels. The detailed comparisons in each case and the implications of the results for the ability of the models to predict the long term behaviour of the winds and also for the degree of agreement between the techniques based on local measurements are discussed. Conclusions are drawn as to the major influences on the climatological behaviour of the wind at this latitude and the possibilities for further work to improve both experimental and modelling efforts.

  13. Day-To-Night Ionosphere Transport by Neutral Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grebowsky, J. M.; Bougher, S. W.; Benna, M.

    2015-12-01

    Nightside low altitude nightside ionosphere production sources for the terrestrial planets are either transport from the dayside and production due to energetic particle impacts. The transport can be driven by ion coupling to the neutral atmosphere motions as part of the general atmospheric global circulation patterns and/or by ionosphere density gradients near the terminators produced as a result of a dayside source of ionization (photoionization) and a nightside sink (chemical losses). The day to night transport of ionization at high altitudes on Venus (during solar max and at Earth maintains the ionosphere throughout the night. This is not the case for Mars, where the dense ionosphere carried from the day does not extend much further than ~120 degrees solar zenith angle. Although predicted neutral wind speeds in the lower thermosphere of Mars are comparable to those on Earth and Venus, the winds at Mars can have larger impacts on horizontal transport since the planet's circumference is much smaller. One prominent effect of the winds is indicated by the observed rapid global dispersal of long-lived metal ions associated following the short, localized impact of the meteor storm associated with Comet Siding Spring . This paper will explore wind control of the low altitude Mars ionosphere ion composition measurements across the terminator from day into night, using the Neutral Gas Ion Mass Spectrometer instrument on MAVEN with the wind patterns predicted by the Mars Global Ionosphere-Thermosphere Model (M-GITM).

  14. Compact Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer with Ion Drifts, Temperatures and Neutral Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paschalidis, Nikolaos

    2016-07-01

    In situ measurements of atmospheric neutral and ion composition and density, temperatures, ion drifts and neutral winds, are in high demand to study the dynamics of the ionosphere-theremosphere-mesosphere system. This paper presents a compact Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) with impended ion drifts and temperature, and neutral winds capability for in situ measurements of ions and neutrals H, He, N, O, N2, O2. The mass resolution M/dM is approximately 10 at an incoming energy range of 0-20eV. The goal is to resolve ion drifts in the range 0 to 3000m/sec with a resolution better than 50m/sec, and neutral winds in the range of 0 to 1000m/sec with similar resolution. For temperatures the goal is to cover a dynamic range of 0 to 5000K. The INMS is based on front end optics for ions and neutrals, pre acceleration, gated time of flight, top hat ESA, MCP detectors and compact electronics. The instrument is redundant for ions and neutrals with the ion and neutral sensor heads on opposite sides and with full electronics in the middle. The ion front end includes RPA for temperature scanning and neutral front end includes angular modulation and thermionic ionization and ion blocking grids. The electronics include fast electric gating, TOF electronics, TOF binning and C&DH digital electronics. The data package includes 400 mass bins each for ions and neutrals and key housekeeping data for instrument health and calibration. The data sampling can be commanded from 0.1 to 10 sec with 1sec nominal setting. The instrument has significant onboard storage capability and a data compression scheme. The mass spectrometer version of the instrument has been flown on the Exocube mission. The instrument occupied 1.5U volume, weighed only 560 g and required nominal power of 1.6W The ExoCube mission was designed to acquire global knowledge of in-situ densities of [H], [He], [O] and H+, He+, O+ in the upper ionosphere and lower exosphere in combination with incoherent scatter radar and

  15. Modeling of the Coupled Magnetospheric and Neutral Wind Dynamos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thayer, Jeffrey P.

    1997-01-01

    Over the past four years of funding, SRI, in collaboration with the University of Texas at Dallas, has been involved in assessing the influence of thermospheric neutral winds on the electric field and current systems at high latitudes. The initial direction of the project was to perform a set of numerical experiments concerning the contribution of the magnetospheric and neutral wind dynamo processes, under specific boundary conditions, to the polarization electric field and/or the field-aligned current distribution at high latitudes. To facilitate these numerical experiments we developed a numerical scheme that relied on using output from the NCAR Thermosphere-Ionosphere General Circulation Model (NCAR-TIGCM), expanding them in the form of spherical harmonics and solving the dynamo equations spectrally. Once initial calculations were completed, it was recognized that the neutral wind contribution could be significant but its actual contribution to the electric field or currents depended strongly on the generator properties of the magnetosphere. Solutions to this problem are not unique because of the unknown characteristics of the magnetospheric generator, therefore the focus was on two limiting cases. One limiting case was to consider the magnetosphere as a voltage generator delivering a fixed voltage to the high-latitude ionosphere and allowing for the neutral wind dynamo to contribute only to the current system. The second limiting case was to consider the magnetosphere as a current generator and allowing for the neutral wind dynamo to contribute only to the generation of polarization electric fields. This work was completed and presented at the l994 Fall AGU meeting. The direction of the project then shifted to applying the Poynting flux concept to the high-latitude ionosphere. This concept was more attractive as it evaluated the influence of neutral winds on the high-latitude electrodynamics without actually having to determine the generator characteristics of

  16. Satellite Studies of Ionospheric Electric Fields and Neutral Winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fejer, Bela G.

    2002-01-01

    We have studied mid- and low-latitude electrodynamic and neutral thermospheric dynamic processes using measurements on board the AE-E, DE-2, and UARS (Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite) satellites, and global convection and general circulation models. These studies have determined the morphology of the equatorial zonal electric fields, the response of equatorial plasma irregularities to magnetospheric disturbances, and the time dependent response of the mid- and low latitude electric fields to magnetospheric disturbances. We have also used extensive F region zonal and meridional wind data obtained by Wind Imaging Interferometer (WINDII) instrument on board the UARS to study the latitudinal dependence of daytime disturbance winds during magnetically disturbed periods and the general characteristics of the global thermospheric disturbance wind system during geomagnetically active periods. This project has supported the PhD thesis research of John Emmert.

  17. On Ion Drifts and Neutral Winds in Titan's Thermosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shebanits, Oleg; Wahlund, Jan-Erik; Edberg, Niklas J. T.; Andrews, David J.; Crary, Frank J.; Wellbrock, Anne; Coates, Andrew; Mandt, Kathleen E.; Waite, J. Hunter, Jr.

    2015-04-01

    Saturn's largest moon Titan hosts an atmosphere with complex organic chemistry initiated in the ionosphere. The nightside chemistry may be influenced by the ion transport from the dayside ionosphere. In turn, ion transport (ion drifts) may be affected by the neutral winds, which cannot be measured directly by Cassini. In this study we derive the ion drifts along the spacecraft trajectories based on analysis of in-situ measurements of electron and ion fluxes, positive and negative ion masses and the magnetic field. Data from Titan flybys TA to T100 was included (Oct 2005 - Apr 2014), of which 55 flybys were below 1400 km and 48 below 1200 km altitude. From the electron and ion flux measurements three regions were observed: 1) above 1600 km, ions are ExB-drifting (frozen into the fields), 2) 1100-1600 km altitudes, dynamo-region, ions drift in opposite directions (perpendicular to B) and 3) 880-1100 km altitude (upper limit depends on convection electric field strength), ions are following neutrals and ion drifts translate to neutral winds of 0.5-2.5 km/s with weaker winds on the dayside of Titan's ionosphere.

  18. Neutral Winds in Local Quasar-Dominated Mergers. II.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veilleux, Sylvain; Rupke, David S. N.; Trippe, Margaret; Teng, Stacy; Krug, Hannah; Kreimeyer, Kory; Sturm, Eckhard

    2012-08-01

    The role of galactic winds in gas-rich mergers is of crucial importance to understand galaxy and supermassive black hole evolution. In the past year, our group has discovered powerful neutral and molecular winds in several ULIRGs and quasars. These outflows may be the long-sought ``smoking gun" of quasar mechanical feedback purported to transform gas-rich mergers into red and dead spheroids. We have on- going Herschel, HST, and GBT programs to follow up on these results, but none of them will map the winds on the critical galactic scale (~1-2 arcsec). We propose deep long-slit Na I (lambda)(lambda)5890, 5896 spectroscopy to address this weakness. We already have high-S/N Na I spectroscopy of all starburst-dominated mergers in our sample; here we propose to do the quasar-dominated systems. We will look for trends between the basic measured properties of the neutral gas probed by the Na I doublet (incidence of absorption, kinematics, column densities) and host/evolutionary indicators. Measured velocities in excess of ~1000 km/s or inferred mass outflow rates much larger than the star formation rates would be telltale signs of AGN-driven winds.

  19. Wind tunnel simulation of a wind turbine wake in neutral, stable and unstable wind flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hancock, P. E.; Zhang, S.; Pascheke, F.; Hayden, P.

    2014-12-01

    Measurements of mean velocity, Reynolds stresses, temperature and heat flux have been made in the wake of a model wind turbine in the EnFlo meteorology wind tunnel, for three atmospheric boundary layer states: the base-line neutral case, stable and unstable. The full-to-model scale is approximately 300:1. Primary instrumentation is two-component LDA combine with cold-wire thermometry to measure heat flux. In terms of surface conditions, the stratified cases are weak, but there is a strong 'imposed' condition in the stable case. The measurements were made between 0.5D and 10D, where D is the turbine disk diameter. In the stable case the velocity deficit decreases more slowly; more quickly in the unstable case. Heights at which quantities are maximum or minimum are greater in the unstable case and smaller in the stable case. In the stable case the wake height is suppressed but the width is increased, while in the unstable case the height is increased and the width (at hub height) reaches a maximum and then decreases. The turbulence in the wake behaves in a complex way. Further work needs to be done, to cover stronger levels of surface condition, requiring more extensive measurements to properly capture the wake development.

  20. Neutral hydrogen in the solar wind acceleration region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, Espen Lyngdal; Leer, Egil; Holzer, Thomas E.

    1994-01-01

    Observation of solar Ly alpha radiation scattered by coronal neutral hydrogen atoms can be used to investigate the acceleration region of the solar wind. In this paper we focus on the use of these observations to study Alfven waves, which can accelerate the solar wind plasma to flow speeds observed in high-speed streams if their amplitude at the coronal base is 20 km/s or larger. The wave amplitude is then larger than the proton thermal speed in the outer corona, so that the mean proton speed (averaged over a wave period) is significantly larger than the proton thermal speed. For low-frequency wave the hydrogen atoms follow the proton motion in the waves, while for higher frequencies the protons move relative to the neutrals. Nevertheless, in the higher frequency case, the rates for charge exchange and recombination are high enough to broaden the velocity distribution function of neutral hydrogen. Both the wave motion of the hydrogen atoms in low-frequency Alfven waves and the 'heating' by higher frequency waves lead to a broadening of the scattered solar Ly alpha line. For coronal base amplitues of 20 km/s, the line broadening increases with heliocentric distance beyond 4-5 solar radii.

  1. Propagation of large amplitude Alfven waves in the solar wind neutral sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malara, F.; Primavera, L.; Veltri, P.

    1995-01-01

    Analysis of solar wind fluctuation data show that the correlation between velocity and magnetic field fluctuations decreases when going farther away from the Sun. This decorrelation can be attributed either to the time evolution of the fluctuations, carried away by the solar wind, or to the interaction between the solar wind neutral sheet and Alfven waves. To check this second hypothesis we have numerically studied the propagation of Alfven waves in the solar wind neutral sheet. The initial conditions have been set up in order to guarantee B(exp 2) = const, so that the following numerical evolution is only due to the inhomogeneity in the background magnetic field. The analysis of the results shows that compressive structures are formed, mainly in the neutral sheet where they have been identified as pressure balanced structures, i.e., tangential discontinuities. Fast perturbations, which are also produced, have a tendency to leave the simulation domain, propagating also perpendicularly to the mean magnetic field. For this reason the level of fast perturbations is always smaller with respect to the previously cited plasma balanced structures, which are slow mode perturbations. A comparison between the numerical results and some particular observational issues is also presented.

  2. Modeling of the coupled magnetospheric and neutral wind dynamos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thayer, J. P.; Vickrey, J. F.; Heelis, R. A.; Gary, J. B.

    1995-01-01

    Work at SRI involved modeling the exchange of electromagnetic energy between the ionosphere and magnetosphere to help interpret the DE-B Poynting flux observations. To describe the electrical properties of the high-latitude ionosphere, we constructed a numerical model, from the framework provided by the Vector Spherical Harmonic (VSH) model, that determines the ionospheric currents, conductivities, and electric fields including both magnetospheric inputs and neutral wind dynamo effects. This model development grew from the earlier question of whether an electrical energy source in the ionosphere was capable of providing an upward Poynting flux. The model solves the steady-state neutral wind dynamo equations and the Poynting flux equation to provide insight into the electrodynamic role of the neutral winds. The modeling effort to determine the high-latitude energy flux has been able to reproduce many of the large-scale features observed in the Poynting flux measurements made by DE-2. Because the Poynting flux measurement is an integrated result of energy flux into or out of the ionosphere, we investigated the ionospheric properties that may contribute to the observed flux of energy measured by the spacecraft. During steady state the electromagnetic energy flux, or DC Poynting flux, is equal to the Joule heating rate and the mechanical energy transfer rate in the high-latitude ionosphere. Although the Joule heating rate acts as an energy sink, transforming electromagnetic energy into thermal or internal energy of the gas, the mechanical energy transfer rate may be either a sink or source of electromagnetic energy. In the steady state, it is only the mechanical energy transfer rate that can generate electromagnetic energy and result in a DC Poynating flux that is directed out of the ionosphere.

  3. The 630 nm MIG and the vertical neutral wind in the low latitude nighttime thermosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrero, F. A.; Meriwether, J. W., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    It is shown that large negative divergences (gradients) in the horizontal neutral wind in the equatorial thermosphere can support downward neutral winds in excess of 20 m/s. With attention to the meridional and vertical winds only, the pressure tendency equation is used to derive the expression U(sub z0) approximately equals (Partial derivative U(sub y)/Partial derivative y)H for the vertical wind U(sub z0) at the reference altitude for the pressure tendency equation; H is the atmospheric density scale height, and (Partial derivative U(sub y)/Partial derivative y) is the meridional wind gradient. The velocity gradient associated with the Meridional Intensity Gradient (MIG) of the O((sup 1)D) emission (630 nm) at low latitudes is used to estimate the vertical neutral wind in the MIG region. Velocity gradients derived from MIG data are about 0.5 (m/s)/km) or more, indicating that the MIG region may contain downward neutral winds in excess of 20 m/s. Though direct measurements of the vertical wind are scarce, Fabry-Perot interferometer data of the equatorial F-region above Natal, Brazil, showed downward winds of 30 m/s occurring during a strong meridional wind convergence in 1982. In-situ measurements with the WATS instrument on the DE-2 satellite also show large vertical neutral winds in the equatorial region.

  4. Wind turbine wakes in forest and neutral plane wall boundary layer large-eddy simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröttle, Josef; Piotrowski, Zbigniew; Gerz, Thomas; Englberger, Antonia; Dörnbrack, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    Wind turbine wake flow characteristics are studied in a strongly sheared and turbulent forest boundary layer and a neutral plane wall boundary layer flow. The reference simulations without wind turbine yield similar results as earlier large-eddy simulations by Shaw and Schumann (1992) and Porte-Agel et al. (2000). To use the fields from the homogeneous turbulent boundary layers on the fly as inflow fields for the wind turbine wake simulations, a new and efficient methodology was developed for the multiscale geophysical flow solver EULAG. With this method fully developed turbulent flow fields can be achieved upstream of the wind turbine which are independent of the wake flow. The large-eddy simulations reproduce known boundary-layer statistics as mean wind profile, momentum flux profile, and eddy dissipation rate of the plane wall and the forest boundary layer. The wake velocity deficit is more asymmetric above the forest and recovers faster downstream compared to the velocity deficit in the plane wall boundary layer. This is due to the inflection point in the mean streamwise velocity profile with corresponding turbulent coherent structures of high turbulence intensity in the strong shear flow above the forest.

  5. Kalman filter based data fusion for neutral axis tracking in wind turbine towers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soman, Rohan; Malinowski, Pawel; Ostachowicz, Wieslaw; Paulsen, Uwe S.

    2015-03-01

    Wind energy is seen as one of the most promising solutions to man's ever increasing demands of a clean source of energy. In particular to reduce the cost of energy (COE) generated, there are efforts to increase the life-time of the wind turbines, to reduce maintenance costs and to ensure high availability. Maintenance costs may be lowered and the high availability and low repair costs ensured through the use of condition monitoring (CM) and structural health monitoring (SHM). SHM allows early detection of damage and allows maintenance planning. Furthermore, it can allow us to avoid unnecessary downtime, hence increasing the availability of the system. The present work is based on the use of neutral axis (NA) for SHM of the structure. The NA is tracked by data fusion of measured yaw angle and strain through the use of Extended Kalman Filter (EKF). The EKF allows accurate tracking even in the presence of changing ambient conditions. NA is defined as the line or plane in the section of the beam which does not experience any tensile or compressive forces when loaded. The NA is the property of the cross section of the tower and is independent of the applied loads and ambient conditions. Any change in the NA position may be used for detecting and locating the damage. The wind turbine tower has been modelled with FE software ABAQUS and validated on data from load measurements carried out on the 34m high tower of the Nordtank, NTK 500/41 wind turbine.

  6. Satellite accelerometer measurements of neutral density and winds during geomagnetic storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marcos, F. A.; Forbes, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    A new thermospheric wind measurement technique is reported which is based on a Satellite Electrostatic Triaxial Accelerometer (SETA) system capable of accurately measuring accelerations in the satellite's in-track, cross-track and radial directions. Data obtained during two time periods are presented. The first data set describes cross-track winds measured between 170 and 210 km during a 5-day period (25 to 29 March 1979) of mostly high geomagnetic activity. In the second data set, cross-track winds and neutral densities from SETA and exospheric temperatures from the Millstone Hill incoherent scatter radar are examined during an isolated magnetic substorm occurring on 21 March 1979. A polar thermospheric wind circulation consisting of a two cell horizontal convection pattern is reflected in both sets of cross-track acceleration measurements. The density response is highly asymmetric with respect to its day/night behavior. Latitude structures of the density response at successive times following the substorm peak suggest the equatorward propagation of a disturbance with a phase speed between 300 and 600 m/s. A deep depression in the density at high latitudes (less than 70 deg) is evident in conjunction with this phenomenon. The more efficient propagation of the disturbance to lower latitudes during the night is probably due to the midnight surge effect.

  7. Investigation of Neutral Wind Effects on the Global Joule Heating Rate Using MHD and TI Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalafatoglu, E.; Kaymaz, Z.

    2013-12-01

    Precise calculation of global Joule heating rate is a long standing question in thermosphere-ionosphere coupling processes. The absence of the complete and direct, in-situ measurements of the parameters involved in the calculation of Joule heating such as the conductivity of the medium, small-scale variations of electric fields, and neutral winds at the ionospheric heights poses a great uncertainty in its determination. In this work, we study the effects of the neutral wind on the global Joule heating rate. Most of the time, owing to above mentioned difficulties the effects of the neutral wind have been neglected in the calculations. We investigate their effects using BATSRUS MHD model, TIEGCM and GITM. Using horizontal current density, Cowling conductivity, and Pedersen conductivities from the MHD model, we calculate the joule heating rate with and without the neutral wind contribution. We apply the procedure for March 2008 magnetospheric substorm events and quantify the differences to show the neutral wind contribution. We compare the results with those obtained using neutral wind velocities from TIEGCM and GITM models. This way while we compare and demonstrate the discrepancies between the models, we also provide an assessment for the integration of thermospheric and magnetospheric models.

  8. Periodic solar wind density structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viall, Nicholeen Mary

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation addresses a specific aspect of the Sun-Earth connection: we show that coronal activity creates periodic density structures in the solar wind which convect radially outward and interact with Earth's magnetosphere. First, we analyze 11 years (1995-2005) of in situ solar wind density observations from the Wind spacecraft and find that periodic density structures occur at particular sets of radial length-scales more often than others. This indicates that these density fluctuations, which have radial length-scales of hundreds of megameters, cannot be attributed entirely to turbulence. Next, we analyze their effect on Earth's magnetosphere. Though these structures are not waves in the solar wind rest frame, they appear at discrete frequencies in Earth's reference frame. They compress the magnetosphere as they convect past, driving global magnetospheric oscillations at the same discrete frequencies as the periodic density structures. Last, we investigate source regions and mechanisms of the periodic solar wind density structures. We analyze the alpha particle to proton abundance ratio during events of periodic density structures. In many events, the proton and alpha density fluctuations are anti- correlated, which strongly argues for either temporally or spatially varying coronal source plasma. We examine white light images of the solar wind taken with SECCHI HI1 on the STEREO spacecraft and find periodic density structures as near to the Sun as 15 solar radii. The smallest resolvable periodic structures that we identify are of comparable length to those found at 1 AU, providing further evidence that at least some periodic density structures are generated in the solar corona as the solar wind is formed. Guided by the properties observed during previous studies and the characteristics established through the work presented here, we examine possible candidate mechanisms in the solar corona that can form periodic density structures. We conclude that

  9. Neutral winds derived from IRI parameters and from the HWM87 wind model for the sundial campaign of September, 1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, K. L.; Hedin, A. E.; Wilkinson, P. J.; Torr, D. G.; Richards, P. G.

    1990-01-01

    Meridional neutral winds derived from the height of the maximum ionization of the F2 layer are compared with values from results of the HWM87 empirical neutral wind model. The time period considered is the SUNDIAL-2 campaign, 21 Sept. through 5 Oct. 1986. Winds were derived from measurements by a global network of ionosondes, as well as from similar quantities generated by the International Reference Ionosphere. Global wind patterns from the three sources are similar. Differences tend to be the result of local or transient phenomena that are either too rapid to be described by the order of harmonics of the empirical models, or are the result of temporal changes not reproduced by models based on average conditions.

  10. Local scale structures in Earth's thermospheric winds and their consequences for wind driven transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhadly, Manbharat Singh

    In the traditional picture of Earth's upper thermosphere (~190--300 km), it is widely presumed that its convective stability and enormous kinematic viscosity attenuate wind gradients, and hence smooth out any structure present in the wind over scale size of several hundreds of kilometers. However, several independent experimental studies have shown that observed upper thermospheric wind fields at high latitudes contain stronger than expected local-scale spatial structures. The motivation of this dissertation is to investigate how the resulting local-scale gradients would distort neutral air masses and complicate thermospheric wind transport. To achieve this goal, we examined the behavior of a simple parameter that we refer to as the "distortion gradient". It incorporates all of the wind field's departures from uniformity, and is thus capable of representing all resulting contributions to the distortion or mixing of air masses. Climatological analysis of the distortion gradient using 2010, 2011, and 2012 wind data from the All-sky Scanning Doppler Imager (SDI) located at Poker Flat (65.12N, 147.47W) revealed the diurnal and seasonal trends in distortion of thermospheric masses. Distortion was observed to be dependent on geomagnetic activity and orientation of the interplanetary magnetic field. To understand the time-cumulative influence of these local-scale non-uniformities on thermospheric wind driven transport, time-resolved two-dimensional maps of the thermospheric vector wind fields were used to infer forward and backward air parcel trajectories. Tracing air parcel trajectories through a given geographic location indicates where they came from previously, and where they will go in the future. Results show that wind driven transport is very sensitive to small-scale details of the wind field. Any local-scale spatial wind gradients can significantly complicate air parcel trajectories. Transport of thermospheric neutral species in the presence of the local

  11. A new satellite-borne neutral wind instrument for thermospheric diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Earle, G D; Klenzing, J H; Roddy, P A; Macaulay, W A; Perdue, M D; Patrick, E L

    2007-11-01

    The bulk motion of the neutral gas at altitudes between about 200 and 600 km is an important factor in predicting the onset of plasma instabilities that are known to distort and/or disrupt high frequency radio communications. These neutral winds have historically been quite difficult to measure, especially from a moving spacecraft. A new space science instrument called the ram wind sensor has been developed to measure the component of the neutral gas velocity that lies along the orbit track of a satellite in low Earth orbit. Laboratory tests of an engineering model of the instrument have been carried out using a supersonic neutral argon beam, in order to validate the measurement concept. The results show that the technique is viable for measurements of neutral flow velocities in future satellite missions.

  12. Detailed Atomic Structure of Neutral and Near-Neutral Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Oliver, Paul; Hibbert, Alan

    2011-05-11

    This paper highlights the issues which need to be addressed in undertaking accurate calculations of multi-electron atoms and ions, particularly at or near the neutral end of an isoelectronic sequence. We illustrate the processes through two calculations--of transitions in Cl I and Sn II--and discuss the convergence of our results as well as updating previous work. In particular, in the case of Cl I, we propose new identifications of the levels involved in certain transitions which are important in determining the abundance of chlorine in the inter-stellar medium (ISM), while in singly ionised tin, our calculations suggest a re-evaluation of the the abundance of tin in the ISM. We also confirm recent identification of Sn II lines seen in tokamak plasmas.

  13. Generation of auroral Omega bands by shear instability of the neutral winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, L. R.; Walterscheid, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    Thermospheric neutral wind acceleration via ion drag in the conducting E-region of the ionosphere is greatly increased by electron precipitation associated with auroras. This increased acceleration can lead to the development of significant horizontal wind shears, which were found to be unstable to the Kelvin-Helmholtz shear instability. Numerical simulation of the neutral response to an intense, postmidnight, diffuse aurora shows tne formation of an E-region 'jet stream' within the aurora, with peak winds speeds greather than 700 m/s after one hour. It is proposed that this jet stream produces unstable Kelvin-Helmholtz waves, which can drive waves of discrete aurora along the poleward boundary of the preexisting diffuse aurora. It is suggested that such auroral waves, driven by the neutral winds, form eastward propagating waves (omega bands) occasionally observed along the poleward boundary of postmidnight diffuse auroras. It was found that neutral wind shears that develop in response to discrete auroral arcs are unstable; however, the resulting wind waves are not expected to drive significant auroral waves along discrete arcs.

  14. Molecule formation in fast neutral winds from protostars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glassgold, A. E.; Mamon, G. A.; Huggins, P. J.

    1989-01-01

    A time-dependent chemical model is used to analyze the processes generating and destroying molecules in very high velocity winds from low-mass protostars. CO and SiO are found to be generated in significant quantities despite the persistence of H in atomic form, consistently with recent protostellar wind detections of CO and H I at velocities in excess of 100 km/sec. A moderate mass-loss rate, in conjunction with a temperature distribution that decreases rather rapidly with distance from the protostar, are the conditions for substantial molecule formation.

  15. Neutral Winds through the Mesosphere and Thermosphere derived from Incoherent Scatter Radar: Variability and Climatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolls, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    Incoherent Scatter Radar (ISR) measurements of ion drifts in the ionosphere are sensitive to neutral motions through ion-neutral collisions. At D-region / mesospheric altitudes, the plasma is collisional on scales of the radar wavelength and thus ion drifts can be used as a direct proxy for neutral motions. At E-region / lower-thermospheric altitudes, the ions undergo a transition whereby the mean free path approaches the scale of the Bragg-scattering wavelength. In the F-region / upper thermosphere, the ions are collisionless and drift at the ExB velocity. The sensing of ion motions is thus extremely useful for the assessment of ionospheric electrodynamics. We utilize case studies from the Poker Flat and Arecibo ISRs to illustrate the utility of this feature of ion motions by showing (a) examples of neutral wind measurements from the mesosphere through the thermosphere, (b) the impact of derived neutral winds on the interpretation of gravity wave dissipation and forcing, and (c) climatological variations of the lower thermospheric winds and the response of the high-latitude lower thermospheric winds to forcing.

  16. Neutral wind acceleration in the polar lower E-region during an intense electric-field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuda, Takuo T.; Buchert, Stephan C.; Nozawa, Satonori; Oyama, Shin-ichiro; Ogawa, Yasunobu; Fujii, Ryoichi

    2016-04-01

    The Joule heating and ion drag effects are considered as important factors in the neutral wind dynamics in the polar E-region. However, quantitative evaluations for these effects are insufficient for correct understanding, particularly, in the lower E-region (100-110 km heights) where the anomalous heating effect, related with the electron Pedersen currents, can occur during the intense electric field. In the present study, using EISCAT Svalbard radar data, we have investigated, for the first time, the normal and anomalous heating effects to the neutral wind acceleration in the lower E-region.

  17. WINCS v.2 for the Neutral Wind and Ion-drift in the Thermosphere/Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrero, F. A.; Nicholas, A. C.

    2013-12-01

    The Wind Ion-drift Neutral Composition Suite (WINCS) has been updated to increase sensitivity to wind/ion-drift change and to further reduce risk and cost. Description of the new neutral wind/ion-drift spectrometer component of WINCS will be given with data results from simulations and laboratory tests of WINCS version 2. A 20-fold increase in wind/ion-drift sensitivity brings their uncertainties to about × 0.5 m/s; corresponding to a pointing uncertainty of × 0.005°. This precision improves accuracy in the wind/ion-drift when used with new star cameras that provide ×0.005° or better pointing accuracy; thus allowing vertical wind and vertical ion-drift measurements over broad regions of the upper atmosphere. The new design uses a larger aperture (0.1cm diameter instead of the 0.02cm diameter of WINCS v.1), and replaces the energy-scanning energy analyzer with a 30° PPA (parallel plate analyzer) energy spectrograph that simultaneously measures all energies of interest. These two features increase the signal to enable the new wind/ion-drift precisions stated above. Risk and cost reduction follow from the new electro-mechanical format that combines spectrometer mechanical mounting with the actual electrical connection. The presentation will close with discussion of cross-track and in-track wind and ion-drift components to emphasize the requirement of the energy analyzer in obtaining the magnitude of the total velocity in both cross-track and in-track winds and ion-drifts - that is, the total velocity of the neutrals or ions incident upon WINCS.

  18. Climatology of thermospheric neutral winds over Oukaïmeden Observatory in Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaab, Mohamed; Benkhaldoun, Zouhair; Fisher, Daniel J.; Harding, Brian; Bounhir, Aziza; Makela, Jonathan J.; Laghriyeb, Amine; Malki, Khalifa; Daassou, Ahmed; Lazrek, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    In order to explore coupling between the thermosphere and ionosphere and to address the lack of data relating to thermospheric neutral winds and temperatures over the African sector, a new system of instruments was installed at the Oukaïmeden Observatory located in the high Atlas Mountains, 75 km south of Marrakesh, Morocco (31.206° N, 7.866° W, 22.84° N magnetic). In this work we present the first multi-year results of the climatology of meridional and zonal winds obtained during the period from January 2014 to February 2016, including observations from 648 nights. The measurements are obtained using an imaging Fabry-Pérot interferometer, which measures the 630.0 nm emissions caused by dissociative recombination of O2+. The basic climatology of the winds is as expected, showing zonal winds that are strongly eastward in the early evening just after sunset with a speed of 50 to 100 m s-1 decreasing in magnitude, and reversing directions in the local summer months, towards sunrise. The meridional winds are slightly poleward in the early evening during the local winter, before reversing directions around 21:00 LT. In the local summer months, the meridional winds are equatorward for the entire night, reaching a maximum equatorward speed of 75 m s-1. We compare the observed climatologies of neutral winds to that provided by the recently updated Horizontal Wind Model (HWM14) in order to validate that model's predictions of the thermospheric wind patterns over the eastern portion of Africa. The model captures much of the features in the observational climatologies. The most notable exception is for the zonal winds during local summer, when the maximum eastward wind in the observations occurs approximately 4 h later than seen in the model results.

  19. A preliminary study of the neutral wind in the auroral E region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brekke, A.; Doupnik, J. R.; Banks, P. M.

    1973-01-01

    Auroral zone E region neutral winds have been derived from simultaneous measurements of ion drift velocities at different altitudes by the incoherent scatter radar facility at Chatanika, Alaska. The wind derived for quiet and moderately disturbed days shows a consistent pattern during the daytime and appears to be that expected from a day-night pressure asymmetry. In the nighttime, however, the winds are much more variable, apparently responding to the momentum transfer and heating effects of ion drag when sizable electric fields and electron densities are present.

  20. Project CONDOR: Middle atmosphere wind structure obtained with lightweight inflatable spheres near the equatorial electrojet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidlin, F. J.

    1987-01-01

    Observed correlations between the atmospheric electric field and the neutral wind were studied using additional atmospheric measurements during Project CONDOR. Project CONDOR obtained measurements near the equatorial electrojet (12 S) during March 1983. Neutral atmosphere wind measurements were obtained using lightweight inflatable spheres and temperatures were obtained using a datasonde. The lightweight sphere technology, the wind structure, and temperature structure are described. Results show that the lightweight sphere gives higher vertical resolution of winds below 75 km compared with the standard sphere, but gives little or no improvement above 80 km, and no usable temperature and density data.

  1. A case study of the thermospheric neutral wind response to geomagnetic storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Guoying; Zhang, Shunrong; Wang, Wenbin; Yuan, Wei; Wu, Qian; Xu, Jiyao

    A minor geomagnetic storm (Kp=5) occurred on March 27-28, 2012. The response of the thermospheric neutral wind at ~ 250 km to this storm was investigated by the 630.0 nm nightglow measurements of Fabry-Perot interferometers (FPIs) over Xinglong (geographic location: 40.2N, 117.4E; geomagnetic location: 29.8N, 193.2E) and Millstone Hill (geographic location: 42.6N, 71.5W; geomagnetic location: 53.1N, 65.1W). Our results show that the minor storm on March 27-28, 2012 obviously effected on the thermospheric neutral winds over Xinglong and Millstone Hill, especially Millstone Hill had larger response because of its higher geomagnetic latitude. Another interesting result is that a small variation in geomagnetic activity (Kp=2.7) could enough introduce a clear disturbance in the nighttime thermospheric neutral wind over Millstone hill. NCAR-TIME-GCM (National Center for Atmospheric Research-Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Electrodynamics-General Circulation Model) was employed to study the evolution and mechanism of the thermospheric neutral wind response.

  2. ANALYTIC MODEL OF THE IBEX RIBBON WITH NEUTRAL SOLAR WIND BASED ION PICKUP BEYOND THE HELIOPAUSE

    SciTech Connect

    Moebius, E.; Liu, K.; Funsten, H.; Gary, S. P.; Winske, D.

    2013-04-01

    Energetic neutral atom (ENA) full sky maps obtained with the Interstellar Boundary Explorer revealed a surprising narrow band of increased intensity, the Ribbon, which has been attributed to the ordering effect of the interstellar magnetic field immediately outside the heliosphere. Among models to explain the enhanced ENA Ribbon intensity, Heerikhuisen et al. base theirs on neutral solar wind origin. It reflects the Ribbon angular and energy distribution correctly, but experiences inherent challenges from the long-term stability of the pickup ion (PUI) ring in velocity space, required for the observed ENA fluxes, and from time variations observed after less than one year due to the long integration length. We provide a simplified analytic model of the neutral solar wind, PUI production beyond the heliopause, and subsequent ENA production. We include convection of the PUIs with the interstellar flow toward the heliopause perpendicular to the interstellar magnetic field, thus far not in any model, extinction of the outward propagating neutral solar wind, and of the PUIs and ENAs on their way inward. Based on hybrid simulations of PUI driven instabilities, with injection rates from this model, scattering and isotropization of the PUIs is noticeably weaker than previously thought, yet too fast for ENA production. Assuming a narrow PUI velocity ring, we find a strong concentration of the ENA origin just outside the heliopause and Ribbon intensities comparable with the observations. Conversely, an isotropic PUI distribution produces ENA fluxes factor of ten too low, thus reemphasizing the need of very slow scattering.

  3. The Wind and Temperature Spectrometer (WTS) in the Atmospheric Neutral Density Experiment (ANDE) Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrero, F. A.; Vancil, B.; Nicholas, A.; Zaruba, C.; Beasley, L.

    2004-01-01

    Miniaturization efforts in new spectrometers for ionosphere/thermosphere investigations of the ion-drifts and neutral winds and corresponding temperatures make possible very light (about 250 g) packages consuming less than 0.4 W. Previously described, our approach measures the angular and energy distributions of neutral atoms and molecules (or ions) in two perpendicular planes; using those distributions to determine the full wind vector, the temperature and the relative densities of O and N2, as required for the ANDE mission. The measurements require two separate electron impact ion sources each with its own electron beam cathode. We have developed a low-temperature thermionic emission cathode that delivers 1 mA electron current at 80 mW power, making it possible to operate neutral wind-temperature experiments for the first time with powers less than 0.5 W. Advances in the ion optics of the energy-angle spectrometer enhance the energy resolution-aperture product more than a factor of 3 to enable energy resolutions of a few percent with large apertures. With these technology improvements it is now possible to obtain the full neutral wind vector, temperature and O/N2, density ratio once per second in a 250g/0.4W package with sensitivity up to about 500 km altitude in the thermosphere. We will describe the WTS as deployed in ANDE and show simulated data with the non-linear least squares analysis to illustrate expected performance of the WTS in the estimated errors in the three components of the wind, the temperature, and the relative densities.

  4. Neutral wind and electric field calculation from monostatic IS radar measurements by means of stochastic inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aikio, A.; Nygren, T.; Kuula, R.; Voiculescu, M.

    2012-04-01

    We present the principles of a new method that utilises stochastic inversion in determining the electric field and neutral wind from monostatic beam swing incoherent scatter (IS) radar measurements (Nygren et al., J. Geophys. Res., 2011). The method consists of two stages. In the first inversion of beam-aligned ion velocities from the F region, we get the two perpendicular electric field components and the field-aligned ion velocity profile together with their error estimates. The number of beam directions can be freely selected, as long as there are at least three non-coplanar directions. Typically, we use the best possible time resolution for electric field, which is about 6 min for the Tromso CP2 experiment. In the second stage, the input to the inversion problem consists of beam-aligned ion velocities from the E region as well as the calculated electric field components. The number of applied beam cycles for E-region winds is typically greater than in the first inversion problem, since the neutral wind usually changes more slowly than the electric field. The solution of the second inversion problem gives the most probable values of the three neutral wind components and their errors. In the method described above, a stationary and horizontally homogeneous ionosphere has been assumed. These assumptions are not necessarily valid during a single beam cycle or within the whole measurement region. Disturbances in the receiver may also cause errors. Thus the results may contain errors, which are not of statistical nature. A method has been developed that finds and rejects such measurements from the analysis described above (Nygrén et al., submitted). In consequence, more reliable results for electric fields and neutral winds are expected.

  5. Characteristics of satellite accelerometer measurements of thermospheric neutral winds at high latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doornbos, E.; Ridley, A. J.; Cnossen, I.; Aruliah, A. L.; Foerster, M.

    2015-12-01

    Thermospheric neutral winds play an important part in the coupled thermosphere-ionosphere system at high latitudes. Neutral wind speeds have been derived from the CHAMP and GOCE satellites, which carried precise accelerometers in low Earth orbits. Due to the need to simultaneously determine thermosphere neutral density from the accelerometer in-track measurements, only information on the wind component in the cross-track direction, perpendicular to the flight direction can be derived. However, contrary to ground-based Fabry-Perot interferometer and scanning Doppler imager observations of the thermosphere wind, these satellite-based measurements provide equally distributed coverage over both hemispheres. The sampling of seasonal and local time variations depend on the precession rate of the satellite's orbital plane, with CHAMP covering about 28 cycles of 24-hour local solar time coverage, during its 10 year mission (2000-2010), while the near sun-synchronous orbit of GOCE resulted in a much more limited local time coverage ranging from 6:20 to 8:00 (am and pm), during a science mission duration of 4 years (2009-2013). For this study, the wind data from both CHAMP and GOCE have been analysed in terms of seasonal variations and geographic and geomagnetic local solar time and latitude coordinates, in order to make statistical comparisons for both the Northern and Southern polar areas. The wind data from both satellites were studied independently and in combination, in order to investigate how the strengths and weaknesses of the instruments and orbit parameters of these missions affect investigations of interhemispheric differences. Finally, the data have been compared with results from coupled ionosphere-thermosphere models and from ground-based FPI and SDI measurements.

  6. Impact of Neutral Boundary-Layer Turbulence on Wind-Turbine Wakes: A Numerical Modelling Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Englberger, Antonia; Dörnbrack, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    The wake characteristics of a wind turbine in a turbulent boundary layer under neutral stratification are investigated systematically by means of large-eddy simulations. A methodology to maintain the turbulence of the background flow for simulations with open horizontal boundaries, without the necessity of the permanent import of turbulence data from a precursor simulation, was implemented in the geophysical flow solver EULAG. These requirements are fulfilled by applying the spectral energy distribution of a neutral boundary layer in the wind-turbine simulations. A detailed analysis of the wake response towards different turbulence levels of the background flow results in a more rapid recovery of the wake for a higher level of turbulence. A modified version of the Rankine-Froude actuator disc model and the blade element momentum method are tested as wind-turbine parametrizations resulting in a strong dependence of the near-wake wind field on the parametrization, whereas the far-wake flow is fairly insensitive to it. The wake characteristics are influenced by the two considered airfoils in the blade element momentum method up to a streamwise distance of 14 D ( D = rotor diameter). In addition, the swirl induced by the rotation has an impact on the velocity field of the wind turbine even in the far wake. Further, a wake response study reveals a considerable effect of different subgrid-scale closure models on the streamwise turbulent intensity.

  7. Impact of Neutral Boundary-Layer Turbulence on Wind-Turbine Wakes: A Numerical Modelling Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Englberger, Antonia; Dörnbrack, Andreas

    2016-10-01

    The wake characteristics of a wind turbine in a turbulent boundary layer under neutral stratification are investigated systematically by means of large-eddy simulations. A methodology to maintain the turbulence of the background flow for simulations with open horizontal boundaries, without the necessity of the permanent import of turbulence data from a precursor simulation, was implemented in the geophysical flow solver EULAG. These requirements are fulfilled by applying the spectral energy distribution of a neutral boundary layer in the wind-turbine simulations. A detailed analysis of the wake response towards different turbulence levels of the background flow results in a more rapid recovery of the wake for a higher level of turbulence. A modified version of the Rankine-Froude actuator disc model and the blade element momentum method are tested as wind-turbine parametrizations resulting in a strong dependence of the near-wake wind field on the parametrization, whereas the far-wake flow is fairly insensitive to it. The wake characteristics are influenced by the two considered airfoils in the blade element momentum method up to a streamwise distance of 14D (D = rotor diameter). In addition, the swirl induced by the rotation has an impact on the velocity field of the wind turbine even in the far wake. Further, a wake response study reveals a considerable effect of different subgrid-scale closure models on the streamwise turbulent intensity.

  8. Global and Meso-scale Thermospheric Neutral Wind Response to Geomagnetic Storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, G.; Conde, M.; Doornbos, E.

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents a case study of thermospheric response to the 5 April 2010 geomagnetic storm. The NCAR Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere Electrodynamic General Circulation Model (TIMEGCM) is used to investigate thermospheric neutral wind variations during the storm, and the model results are validated through comparison with ground and space based observations. More specifically, we conduct detailed inter-comparison of the winds observed by scanning Doppler imagers (SDI) in Alaska with those derived from the TIMEGCM simulations in order to assess model's ability in reproducing the observed meso-scale wind field. The thermospheric winds obtained from the accelerometers on board the GOCE satellite are also used to validate the simulation results on a global scale. While globally the wind velocity tends to be smaller than ion drift velocity, locally the winds can exceed ion drifts and also blow in the different direction than the ions. We will discuss how the thermospheric winds affect the energetic coupling of the magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere system in terms of Joule heating and field-aligned currents.

  9. E region neutral winds in the postmidnight diffuse aurora during the Atmospheric Response in Aurora 1 rocket campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinkman, D. G.; Walterscheid, R. L.; Lyons, L. R.; Kayser, D. C.; Christensen, A. B.; Sharber, J. R.; Frahm, R. A.; Larsen, M. F.

    1995-09-01

    Measured E region neutral winds from the Atmospheric Response in Aurora (ARIA 1) rocket campaign are compared with winds predicted by a high-resolution nonhydrostatic dynamical thermosphere model. The ARIA 1 rockets were launched into the postmidnight diffuse aurora during the recovery phase of a substorm. Simulations have shown that electrodynamical coupling between the auroral ionosphere and the thermosphere was expected to be strong during active diffuse auroral conditions (Walterscheid and Lyons, 1989). This is the first time that simulations using the time history of detailed specifications of the magnitude and latitudinal variation of the auroral forcing based on measurements have been compared to simultaneous wind measurements. Model inputs included electron densities derived from ground-based airglow measurements, precipitating electron fluxes measured by the rocket, electron densities measured on the rocket, electric fields derived from magnetometer and satellite ion drift measurements, and large-scale background winds from a thermospheric general circulation model. Our model predicted a strong jet of eastward winds at E region heights. A comparison between model predicted and observed winds showed modest agreement. Above 135 km the model predicted zonal winds with the correct sense, the correct profile shape, and the correct altitude of the peak wind. However, it overpredicted the magnitude of the eastward winds by more than a factor or 2. For the meridional winds the model predicted the general sense of the winds but was unable to predict the structure or strength of the winds seen in the observations. Uncertainties in the magnitude and latitudinal structure of the electric field and in the magnitude of the background winds are the most likely sources of error contributing to the differences between model and observed winds. Between 110 and 135 km the agreement between the model and observations was poor because of a large unmodeled jetlike feature in

  10. Electric fields and neutral winds from monostatic incoherent scatter measurements by means of stochastic inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nygrén, T.; Aikio, A. T.; Kuula, R.; Voiculescu, M.

    2011-05-01

    A new method utilizing stochastic inversion in determining the electric field and neutral wind from monostatic beam swing incoherent scatter measurements is described. The method consists of two stages. In the first stage, beam-aligned ion velocities from a chosen F region height interval and a set of subsequent beam directions are taken as measurements. The unknowns are the two electric field components and the field-aligned ion velocity profile. The solution gives the most probable values of the unknowns with error estimates. In the second stage, the measurements consist of beam-aligned ion velocities from the E region, and the electric fields given by the first inversion problem are also used as measurements. The number of applied beam directions may be greater than in the first inversion problem. This is a feasible approach since the neutral wind usually changes more slowly than the electric field. The solution of the second inversion problem gives the most probable values of the three neutral wind components. Results of the method are shown for 11 September 2005, when the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT) UHF radar was running in the CP2 experiment mode, which is a four-position 6 min monostatic cycle. In addition, from each beam direction a tristatic measurement at one F region range gate was made using two additional receivers. That allowed comparison between the monostatic and tristatic electric field results, which were in excellent agreement. The calculated neutral wind components were in good accordance with previous measurements during disturbed conditions from the same site.

  11. Observations of meso-scale neutral wind interaction with auroral precipitation in the thermosphere at EISCAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosch, Michael; Nozawa, Satonori; Yiu, Ho-Ching Iris; Anderson, Callum; Ogawa, Yasunobu; Howells, Vikki; Baddeley, Lisa; Aruliah, Anasuya; McWhirter, Ian; McCrea, I. W.; Fujii, Ryoichi

    We report on observations of E-region neutral wind fields and their interaction with auroral precipitation at meso-scale spatial resolution. The EISCAT Svalbard radar was used to observe the ionospheric line-of-sight ion flows and temperatures in the E-and F-regions whilst scan-ning its beam. An all-sky optical Scanning Doppler Imager was used at 557.7 nm to observe thermospheric neutral line-of-sight winds and temperatures. High-latitude data from February 2010 are presented. In the case of an auroral arc, strong acceleration of the E-region neutral wind occurs within 10s of km to the arc on a time scale of 10s of minutes. We demonstrate through modelling that this effect cannot be explained by height changes in the 557.7 nm emis-sion layer. The most likely explanation seems to be greatly enhanced ion drag associated with the increased plasma density caused by the particle precipitation, and the localised ionospheric electric field associated with the Pedersen closure current of auroral arcs. Since Joule heat-ing occurs predominantly in the E-region, meso-scale variability in the thermosphere probably accounts for a significant under-estimation in the total energy dissipation.

  12. Measurements of Ion Drifts and Thermospheric Neutral Winds at the Jicamarca Radio Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meriwether, J. W.; Navarro, L.; Chau, J. L.; Fejer, B. G.

    2010-12-01

    Measurements of ion drifts and thermospheric neutral winds obtained simultaneously with zonal and vertical ion drift measurements of F-region plasma have been made at the Jicamarca Radio Observatory at different times during the year since August, 2009. This period is coincident with an anomalous period of extremely low solar activity. For campaigns taking place in September, 2009, March, 2010, and September, 2010, the Jicamarca 50 MHz radar operated to measure both vertical ion drifts and horizontal neutral winds from 200 to 800 km. The Jicamarca Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) was installed in August, 2009, and measurements have been ongoing since first light on 15 August, 2010. The FPI instrument is located in an observatory installed on a hill overlooking the Jicamarca valley and located above the cloud inversion layer, which improved the chances of observing during local summer. This instrument after an upgrade in August 2010 is able to make zonal and meridional thermospheric wind and temperature measurements with an accuracy of 5 to 10 ms-1 and 15 to 30 K. Also obtained during the measurement campaigns with the JRO radar facility were simultaneous measurements of thermospheric winds from the FPI observatory located in Arequipa, Peru, which is located 4 degrees latitude to the south of Jicamarca. The results obtained generally showed good agreement between the observed neutral winds and ion drifts. The vertical variation of the ion drifts is significant from the early evening twilight period to midnight suggesting that the transition from the E-region dynamo to the F-region dynamo takes place rather slowly as compared with more active solar flux periods.

  13. Ionosonde and optical determinations of thermospheric neutral winds over the Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foppiano, A. J.; Won, Y.-I.; Torres, X. A.; Flores, P. A.; Veloso, A. Daniel; Arriagada, M. A.

    2016-11-01

    Ionosonde observations have been made at Great Wall station (62.22°S; 58.97°W), King George Island, and at further south Vernadsky station (65.25°S; 64.27°W), Argentine Islands, for many years. For several days at the two locations the magnetic meridional component of the thermospheric neutral wind has also been derived using three different algorithms with ionosonde data input. At King Sejong station (62.22°S; 58.78°W), close to Great Wall, almost simultaneous thermospheric winds were measured with a Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FPI) during a few days in 1997. All days correspond to intervals of low solar and geomagnetic activity levels and for different seasons. Here, the geographic meridional FPI winds measured at the geographic south pointing location are compared with the magnetic meridional component of the wind derived from ionosonde observations at Vernadsky. Also, the magnetic meridian FPI winds measured using all four cardinal pointing locations are compared with the magnetic meridional component of the wind derived from ionosonde observations at Great Wall. The patterns of the diurnal variations of the magnetic meridional component of ionosonde derived winds using the three different techniques are similar in most cases. However, the amplitudes of these variations and some individual values can differ by more than 150 m/s depending on season, particularly during daytime. Comparison of the autumn FPI with the ionosonde winds for Vernadsky and Great Wall shows that they coincide within observation uncertainties. Results for other seasons are not so good. Some of the discrepancies are discussed in relation to the hour-to-hour variability of ionosonde based winds and the latitudinal gradients of ionospheric characteristics. Other discrepancies need to be further explained. Recently reported FPI mean winds for tens of days in different seasons for Palmer (64.77°S; 64.05°W), Anvers Island, are found to be particularly close to ionosonde derived mean

  14. Fabry-Perot interferometer measurements of thermospheric neutral wind gradients and reversals at Arecibo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, J. F.; Herrero, F. A.

    1982-01-01

    Direct measurements of the meridional neutral winds in the thermosphere made with the Fabry-Perot interferometer at the Arecibo Observatory show the postmidnight meridional wind reversal that was inferred from previous incoherent scatter radar ion-drift data and airglow intensity maps and observed in-situ with the Atmosphere Explorer-E satellite. Data for three nights between October 29 and December 9, 1981, are presented. For this period, the meridional wind is observed to be northward after sunset and to turn south before midnight; the velocities often exceed 100 m/sec. After midnight, its direction is seen to reverse to northward for one to two hours. The reversal after midnight is recurrent and propagates from the equator, as predicted on the basis of previous meridional airglow intensity measurements.

  15. Observations of neutral winds in the auroral E region during the magnetospheric storm of August 3-9, 1972

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brekke, A.; Doupnik, J. R.; Banks, P. M.

    1974-01-01

    Auroral zone E-region neutral winds have been derived from simultaneous measurements of ion drift velocities in different altitudes by the incoherent radar facility at Chatanika, Alaska, on a quiet day before and during the great magnetospheric storm of Aug. 3-9, 1972. The neutral wind expected for a day-night pressure asymmetry appears to be strongly opposed by ion drag and local pressure gradients in the auroral oval.

  16. Jupiter's winds and Arnol'd's second stability theorem: Slowly moving waves and neutral stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stamp, Andrew P.; Dowling, Timothy E.

    1993-01-01

    Since the Voyager encounters in 1979, it has been known that Jupiter's cloud-top zonal winds violate the barotropic stability criterion. A vortex-tube stretching analysis of the Voyager wind data indicates that the more general Charney-Stern stability criterion is also violated. On the other hand, the zonal winds determined by tracking cloud features in Hubble Space Telescope images taken in 1991 precisely match the zonal winds determined by tracking cloud features in Voyager images, and it is hard to understand how a complicated zonal wind profile like Jupiter's could be unstable and yet not change at all in 12 years. In fact, there are at least two unknown ways to violate the Charney-Stern stability criterion and still have a stable flow. The better known of these is called Fjortoft's theorem, or Arnol'd's 1st theorem for the case of large-amplitude perturbations. Although the Fjortoft-Arnol'd theorem has been extended from the quasi-geostrophic equations to the primitive equations, the basic requirement that the potential vorticity be an increasing function of streamfunction is opposite to the case found in Jupiter, where the Voyager data indicate that the potential vorticity is a decreasing function of streamfunction. But this second case is precisely that which is covered by Arnol'd's 2nd stability theorem. In fact, the Voyager data suggest that Jupiter's zonal winds are neutrally stable with respect to Arnol'd's 2nd stability theorem. Here, we analyze the linear stability problem of a one-parameter family of sinusoidal zonal wind profiles that are close to neutral stability with respect to Arnol'd's 2nd stability theorem. We find numerically that the most unstable mode is always stationary, which may help to explain the slowly moving mode 10 waves observed on Jupiter. We find that violation of Arnol'd's 2nd stability theorem is both necessary and sufficient for instability of sinusoidal profiles. However, there appears to be no simple extension of Arnol'd's 2

  17. Large-scale wind turbine structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spera, David A.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to show how structural technology was applied in the design of modern wind turbines, which were recently brought to an advanced stage of development as sources of renewable power. Wind turbine structures present many difficult problems because they are relatively slender and flexible; subject to vibration and aeroelastic instabilities; acted upon by loads which are often nondeterministic; operated continuously with little maintenance in all weather; and dominated by life-cycle cost considerations. Progress in horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWT) development was paced by progress in the understanding of structural loads, modeling of structural dynamic response, and designing of innovative structural response. During the past 15 years a series of large HAWTs was developed. This has culminated in the recent completion of the world's largest operating wind turbine, the 3.2 MW Mod-5B power plane installed on the island of Oahu, Hawaii. Some of the applications of structures technology to wind turbine will be illustrated by referring to the Mod-5B design. First, a video overview will be presented to provide familiarization with the Mod-5B project and the important components of the wind turbine system. Next, the structural requirements for large-scale wind turbines will be discussed, emphasizing the difficult fatigue-life requirements. Finally, the procedures used to design the structure will be presented, including the use of the fracture mechanics approach for determining allowable fatigue stresses.

  18. Neutral stellar winds that drive bipolar outflows in low-mass protostars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lizano, Susana; Heiles, Carl; Koo, Bon-Ghul; Shu, Frank H.; Rodriguez, Luis F.

    1988-01-01

    The Arecibo radio telescope at the 21-cm line of atomic hydrogen has been used to detect a neutral atomic wind in the bipolar flow source HH 7-11. An atomic mass of about 0.015 solar associated with the rapidly flowing gas is deduced. The stellar mass-loss rate is roughly 3 x 10 to the -6th solar mass/yr if the crossing time of the decelerating wind is 5000 yr. The excess emission in the H I line core gives a total duration of the outflow of about 70,000 yr. A detailed analysis of the H I line shape yields a reasonable deceleration rate for the atomic wind if the stellar wind continuously entrains ambient molecular gas as it propagates from the protostar. A stellar wind with the described characteristics and a terminal velocity of 170 km/s would be more than sufficient to drive the known extended CO bipolar outflow in HH 7-11.

  19. Tracing Trajectories of Air Parcels Transported through Spatially Resolved Horizontal Neutral Wind Fields Observed in the Thermosphere above Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhadly, M. S.; Conde, M.

    2014-12-01

    Transport by fluid flow is a very complex problem. Any type of velocity gradient introduces distortion of the original air masses which, over time, can become extraordinarily severe. In Earth's thermosphere, it is however widely presumed that viscosity hinders both horizontal and vertical wind shears, and hence rapidly attenuates any gradients that might occur over distances shorter than synoptic scales. As a result, particle trajectories predicted by current models are often relatively simple, so that transport effects only slowly disperse and mix air masses. This means that regions of perturbed chemical composition, formed for example by intense aurora, would be expected to remain intact for many hours or even days. However, our observations show that this simple picture does not hold in practice; wind fields in the thermosphere have much more local-scale structure than predicated by models, at least in the auroral zone. These local small scale structures complicate air parcel trajectories enormously, relative to typical expectations. In Alaska, three Scanning Doppler Imaging Fabry-Perot interferometers are currently in operation. A single SDI instrument can simultaneously observe the thermospheric wind's line-of-sight component in 115 (typically) independent look directions. From these data it is possible to reconstruct time-resolved two-dimensional maps of the horizontal vector wind field, and use these to infer forward and backward air parcel trajectories over time. Tracing parcel trajectories through a given geographic location maps where they will go from there (forward tracing in time) and where they come from previously (history of parcels or tracing back in time). Results show that transport of thermospheric neutral species in the presence of the local scale wind gradients that are actually observed is far more complicated than what current models typically predict.

  20. Vertical neutral wind in the equatorial F-region deduced from electric field and ion density measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laakso, Harri; Aggson, Thomas L.; Herrero, F. A.; Pfaff, Robert F.; Hanson, William B.

    1995-01-01

    Direct current (DC) electric field and ion density measurements near density depletion regions (that is, equatorial plasma bubbles) are used to estimate the vertical neutral wind speed. The measured zonal electric field in a series of density depletions crossed by the San Marco D satellite at 01.47-01.52 Universal Time (UT) on 25 October 1988, can be explained if a downward neutral wind of 15-30 m/s exists. Simultaneously, the F-region plasma was moving downward at a speed of 30-50 m/s. These events appear in the local time sector of 23.00-23.15 in which strong downward neutral winds may occur. Indeed, airglow measurements suggest that downward neutral velocities of 25-50 m/s are possible at time near midnight in the equatorial F-region.

  1. Structural analysis considerations for wind turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spera, D. A.

    1979-01-01

    Approaches to the structural analysis of wind turbine blade designs are reviewed. Specifications and materials data are discussed along with the analysis of vibrations, loads, stresses, and failure modes.

  2. Watershed Scale Shear Stress From Tethersonde Wind Profile Measurements Under Near Neutral and Unstable Atmospheric Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parlange, M. B.; Katul, G. G.

    1995-04-01

    Mean wind speed profiles were measured in the atmospheric surface layer, using a tethersonde system, above the Ojai Valley Watershed in southern California. The valley is mainly planted with mature avocado and orange trees. The surface shear stress and latent and sensible heat fluxes were measured above the trees which are up to 9 m in height. Near-neutral wind speed profile measurements allowed the determination of the watershed surface roughness (z0 = 1.4 m) and the momentum displacement height (d0 = 7.0 m). The wind speed measurements obtained under unstable atmospheric stability were analyzed using Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. New stability correction functions proposed based on theory and experiments of Kader-Yaglom as well as the now classic Businger-Dyer type functions were tested. The watershed shear stress values calculated using the surface layer wind speed profiles with the new Monin-Obukhov stability functions were found to be improved in comparison with the values obtained with the Businger-Dyer functions under strongly unstable stability conditions. The Monin-Obukhov model with the Businger-Dyer stability correction function underpredicted the momentum flux by 25% under strongly unstable stability conditions, while the new Kader-Yaglom formulation compared well on average (R2 = 0.77) with the surface eddy correlation measurements for all atmospheric stability conditions. The unstable 100-m drag coefficient was found to be u*2/V1002 = 0.0182.

  3. Structural basis of hepatitis C virus neutralization by broadly neutralizing antibody HCV1

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, Leopold; Giang, Erick; Robbins, Justin B.; Stanfield, Robyn L.; Burton, Dennis R.; Wilson, Ian A.; Law, Mansun

    2012-10-29

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects more than 2% of the global population and is a leading cause of liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and end-stage liver diseases. Circulating HCV is genetically diverse, and therefore a broadly effective vaccine must target conserved T- and B-cell epitopes of the virus. Human mAb HCV1 has broad neutralizing activity against HCV isolates from at least four major genotypes and protects in the chimpanzee model from primary HCV challenge. The antibody targets a conserved antigenic site (residues 412-423) on the virus E2 envelope glycoprotein. Two crystal structures of HCV1 Fab in complex with an epitope peptide at 1.8-{angstrom} resolution reveal that the epitope is a {beta}-hairpin displaying a hydrophilic face and a hydrophobic face on opposing sides of the hairpin. The antibody predominantly interacts with E2 residues Leu{sup 413} and Trp{sup 420} on the hydrophobic face of the epitope, thus providing an explanation for how HCV isolates bearing mutations at Asn{sup 415} on the same binding face escape neutralization by this antibody. The results provide structural information for a neutralizing epitope on the HCV E2 glycoprotein and should help guide rational design of HCV immunogens to elicit similar broadly neutralizing antibodies through vaccination.

  4. Mesosphere and lower thermosphere neutral winds observations using rocket-released chemical trails at Poker Flat, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Tianyu

    Sounding rocket campaigns ARIA I through ARIA IV, CODA 2, HEX 1, JOULE 1 and JOULE 2 all carried out at Poker Flat Research Range at Alaska, covering the geomagnetic condition from quiet to highly disturbed. Trimethyl aluminum (TMA) were released during the rocket flights to study the mesosphere and lower thermosphere neutral wind at high-latitude region. The results of horizontal neutral wind profiles are presented. The comparison shows that under disturbed condition the wind velocity is stronger and the jet feature at the bottom side of wind maximum with unstable wind shear is lifted to a higher altitude. Under the quiet condition, the dominance forcing acting on the neutral atmosphere is the upward propagating tides below 120 km and the Lorentz force and viscosity in the region above 120 km. While under the disturbed condition, the tidal force is disrupted by Hall drag in the region of 105--125 km and the wind profile is a result of complex interplay of tidal force, Lorentz force and Joule heating. Modeling works have also been presented. The comparisons are poor for the global general circulation models and are better for localized non-hydrostatic models. It is also concluded that a detailed high-resolution time-history of auroral forcing and the upward propagating tidal forcing are both important for theoretical model to predict the small scale features of the horizontal neutral wind in the auroral E region and lower F region.

  5. Feedbacks of Composition and Neutral Density Changes on the Structure of the Cusp Density Anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinkman, D. G.; Walterscheid, R. L.; Clemmons, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    The Earth's magnetospheric cusp provides direct access of energetic particles to the thermosphere. These particles produce ionization and kinetic (particle) heating of the atmosphere. The increased ionization coupled with enhanced electric fields in the cusp produces increased Joule heating and ion drag forcing. These energy inputs cause large wind and temperature changes in the cusp region. Measurements by the CHAMP satellite (460-390- km altitude) have shown strongly enhanced density in the cusp region. The Streak mission (325-123 km), on the other hand, showed a relative depletion. The atmospheric response in the cusp can be sensitive to composition and neutral density changes. In response to heating in the cusp, air of heavier mean molecular weight is brought up from lower altitudes significantly affecting pressure gradients. This opposes the effects of temperature change due to heating and in-turn affects the density and winds produced in the cusp. Also changes in neutral density change the interaction between precipitating particles and the atmosphere and thus change heating rates and ionization in the region affected by cusp precipitation. In this study we assess the sensitivity of the wind and neutral density structure in the cusp region to changes in the mean molecular weight induced by neutral dynamics, and the changes in particle heating rates and ionization which result from changes in neutral density. We use a high resolution two-dimensional time-dependent nonhydrostatic nonlinear dynamical model where inputs can be systematically altered. The resolution of the model allows us to examine the complete range of cusp widths. We compare the current simulations to observations by CHAMP and Streak. Acknowledgements: This research was supported by The Aerospace Corporation's Technical Investment program

  6. Structural basis of anthrax edema factor neutralization by a neutralizing antibody

    PubMed Central

    Makiya, Michelle; Dolan, Michael; Agulto, Liane; Purcell, Robert; Chen, Zhaochun

    2012-01-01

    Fine epitope mapping of EF13D, ahighly potent neutralizing monoclonal antibody specific for the anthrax edema factor (EF), was accomplished through random mutagenesis and yeast surface display. A yeast-displayed library of single point mutants of an EF domain III (DIII), comprising amino acids624-800, was constructed by random mutagenesis and screened for reduced binding to EF13D. With this method, residues Leu 667, Ser 668, Arg 671, and Arg 672 were identified as key residues important for EF13D binding. They form a contiguous patch on a solvent-exposed surface at one end of the four-helixbundle of DIII. Computational protein-protein docking experiments between an EF13D model and a crystal structure of EF indicate that the EF13D heavy chain complementarity-determining region 3 (HCDR3) is deeply buried within a hydrophobic cleft between two helices of DIII and interacts directly with residues Leu 667, Ser 668, Arg 671 and Arg 672, providing an explanation for the high binding affinity. In addition, they show that the HCDR3 binding site overlaps with the binding site of the N-terminal lobe of calmodulin (CaM), an EF enzymatic activator, consistent with a previous finding showing direct competition with CaM that results in neutralization of EF. Identifying the neutralization epitope of EF13D on EF improves our understanding of the neutralization mechanism and has implications for vaccine development. PMID:22155239

  7. Thermospheric neutral winds at southern mid-latitudes: A comparison of optical and ionosonde hmF2 methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyson, L.; Davies, T. P.; Parkinson, M. L.; Reeves, A. J.; Richards, P. G.; Fairchild, C. E.

    1997-12-01

    During the first 6 days of March 1995, measurements of the ionospheric electron density were made with a digisonde, and thermospheric winds were measured with a Fabry-Perot interferometer. This was a period of low solar activity and moderate to high magnetic activity. The ionograms have been scaled and the traces inverted to obtain the electron density profile and the peak height of the F2 layer (). Modeling has been employed to derive equivalent thermospheric neutral winds at hmF2. The derived neutral winds are in very good agreement with the measured optical winds most of the time. The winds follow a strong diurnal pattern with poleward winds during the day, weak winds near dawn and dusk, and strong equatorward winds peaking near local midnight. On most nights the peak equatorward wind speed was around 200ms-1, but on March 1 it did not exceed 110ms-1. For these magnetic and solar activity conditions the wind at the F2 peak altitude (~350km) from the HWM93 empirical wind model [Hedin et al., 1996] did not exceed 90ms-1 at any time but was in generally good agreement with the hmF2 wind during the day and with both measured winds on the nights of March 1 and 2. The good agreement between the optical and hmF2 winds was obtained by using the recommended Burnside factor of 1.7 to multiply the O+-O collision frequency, but better agreement was obtained either by using a Burnside factor of 2.0 or by increasing the atomic oxygen density by 20%. Recent suggestions of much lower Burnside factors could be tolerated only if there were large systematic errors in the measurements or large electric fields.

  8. The interaction between the solar wind and the heterogeneous neutral gas coma of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, Martin; Toth, Gabor; Tenishev, Valeriy; Fougere, Nicolas; Huang, Zhenguang

    2016-07-01

    Comets are surrounded by an extended gas and dust coma. Neutral particles are continuously ionized by solar irradiation and then picked-up by the solar wind. This leads to a complex interaction between the neutral gas coma and the solar wind, which changes over the course of the comet's orbit around the Sun. The European Space Agency's Rosetta spacecraft has been in orbit around comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko since August 2014. Rosetta carries several instruments to investigate the comet's nucleus and surrounding neutral gas coma and plasma. Part of the payload is the Rosetta Orbiter Spectrometer for Ion and Neutral Analysis (ROSINA) that consists of two mass spectrometers and a pressure sensor. ROSINA was designed to measure the neutral gas abundance and composition and low energy ions in the coma in situ. ROSINA observations have shown that the coma is very heterogeneous both in total density and composition of the neutral gas. This heterogeneity is driven in large part by the complex shape of the nucleus and the varying illumination conditions associated with the comet's rotation. In this presentation we will show the time-dependent distribution of the major volatiles around the comet constrained by ROSINA observations. Furthermore we will investigate the impact of the highly non-symmetric neutral gas coma on the interaction of the solar wind with the comet.

  9. Analysis of Solar Wind Samples Returned by Genesis Using Laser Post Ionization Secondary Neutral Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veryovkin, I. V.; Calaway, W. F.; Tripa, C. E.; Pellin, M. J.; Burnett, D. S.

    2005-12-01

    A new secondary neutral mass spectrometry (SNMS) instrument implementing laser post ionization (LPI) of ion sputtered and laser desorbed neutral species has been developed and constructed for the specific purpose of quantitative analysis of metallic elements at ultra trace levels in solar wind collector samples returned to Earth by the Genesis Discovery mission. The first LPI SNMS measurements are focusing on determining Al, Ca, Cr, and Mg in these samples. These measurements provide the first concentration and isotopic abundances determinations for several key metallic elements and also elucidate possible fractionation effects between the photosphere and the solar wind compositions. It is now documented that Genesis samples suffered surface contamination both during flight and during the breach of the Sample Return Capsule when it crashed. Since accurate quantitative analysis is compromised by sample contamination, several features have been built into the new LPI SNMS instrument to mitigate this difficulty. A normally-incident, low-energy (<500 eV) ion beam combined with a keV energy ion beam and a desorbing laser beam (both microfocused) enables dual beam analyses. The low-energy ion beam can be used to remove surface contaminant by sputtering with minimum ion beam mixing. This low-energy beam also will be used to perform ion beam milling, while either the microfocused ion or laser beam probes the solar wind elemental compositions as a function of sample depth. Because of the high depth resolution of dual beam analyses, such depth profiles clearly distinguish between surface contaminants and solar wind implanted atoms. In addition, in-situ optical and electron beam imaging for observing and avoiding particulates and scratches on solar wind sample surfaces is incorporated in the new LPI SNMS instrument to further reduce quantification problems. The current status of instrument tests and analyses will be presented. This work is supported by the U. S. Department of

  10. Horizontal and Vertical Wave Parameters of Thermospheric Gravity Waves, and Relationship to Neutral Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolls, M. J.; Vadas, S.; Sulzer, M. P.; Aponte, N.

    2013-12-01

    We report on experimental techniques and results for extracting horizontal and vertical wave parameters of thermospheric gravity waves using incoherent scatter radar (ISR) measurements of the three-dimensional properties of traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs). We use results from the Poker Flat Incoherent Scatter Radar (PFISR) and the Arecibo Observatory (AO) to extract the three-dimensional properties of waves, including horizontal and vertical wavelengths, phase speeds, and propagation directions. Comparison to theoretical ray tracing results sheds light on the dissipative and wind filtering mechanisms that drive the measurements. High-resolution vertical wavelength measurements reveal maxima at the altitudes near where the TID amplitude is maximum, consistent with gravity wave packet theory. Simultaneous measurements of lower thermospheric neutral winds reveal the effects of strong winds (often greater that 150 m/s) on determining the wave spectra at higher altitudes. We discuss how these measurements can shed light on the lower atmospheric sources that contribute to thermospheric gravity waves and drive ionospheric variability.

  11. Filament Winding Of Carbon/Carbon Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacoy, Paul J.; Schmitigal, Wesley P.; Phillips, Wayne M.

    1991-01-01

    Improved method of winding carbon filaments for carbon/carbon composite structures less costly and labor-intensive, also produces more consistent results. Involves use of roller squeegee to ensure filaments continuously wet with resin during winding. Also involves control of spacing and resin contents of plies to obtain strong bonds between carbon filaments and carbon matrices. Lends itself to full automation and involves use of filaments and matrix-precursor resins in their simplest forms, thereby reducing costs.

  12. Thermospheric neutral wind profile in moonlit midnight by Lithium release experiments in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, M. Y.; Watanabe, S.; Abe, T.; Kakinami, Y.; Habu, H.; Yamamoto, M.

    2015-12-01

    Neutral wind profiles were observed in lower thermosphere at about between 90 km and 130 km altitude by using resonance scattering light of moonlit Lithium (Li) vapor released from sounding rockets in midnight (with almost full-moon condition) in 2013 in Japan. As a target of the Daytime Dynamo campaign, Li release experiment was operated at Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) of NASA, U.S.A. in July, 2013 (Pfaff et al., 2015, this meeting), while the same kind of rocket-ground observation campaign in midnight was carried out by using S-520-27/S-310-42 sounding rockets in Uchinoura Space Center (USC) of JAXA, Kagoshima, Japan, also in July 2013.Since imaging signal-to-noise (S/N) condition of the experiment was so severe, we conducted to apply airborne observation for imaging the faint moonlit Li tracers so as to reduce the illuminating intensity of the background skies as an order of magnitude. Two independent methods for calculating the wind profile were applied to the Lithium emission image sequences successfully obtained by the airborne imaging by special Li imagers aboard the airplanes in order to derive precise information of Li tracers motion under the condition of single observation site on a moving aircraft along its flight path at about 12 km altitude in lower stratosphere. Slight attitude-feedback motion of the aircraft's 3-axes attitude changes (rolling, yawing and pitching) was considered for obtaining precise coordinates on each snapshot. Another approach is giving a simple mathematic function for wind profile to resolve the shape displacement of the imaged Li tracers. As a result, a wind profile in moonlit thermosphere was calculated in a range up to about 150 m/s with some fluctuated parts possibly disturbed by wind shears. In the same experiment, another sounding rocket S-310-42 with a TMA canister was also launched from USC/JAXA at about 1 hour before the rocket with carrying the Lithium canisters, thus, we can derive the other 2 profiles determined by

  13. Atmospheric response in aurora experiment: Observations of E and F region neutral winds in a region of postmidnight diffuse aurora

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, M.F.; Marshall, T.R.; Mikkelsen, I.S.

    1995-09-01

    The goal of the Atmospheric Response in Aurora (ARIA) experiment carried out at Poker Flat, Alaska, on March 3, 1992, was to determine the response of the neutral atmosphere to the long-lived, large-scale forcing that is characteristic of the diffuse aurora in the postmidnight sector. A combination of chemical release rocket wind measurements, intrumented rocket composition measurements, and ground-based optical measurements were used to characterize the response of the neutral atmosphere. The rocket measurements were made at the end of a 90-min period of strong Joule heating. We focus on the neutral wind measurements made with the rocket. The forcing was determined by running the assimilated mapping of ionospheric electrodynamics (AMIE) analysis procedure developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research. The winds expected at the latitude and longitude of the experiment were calculated using the spectral thermospheric general circulation model developed at the Danish Meteorological Institute. Comparisons of the observations and the model suggest that the neutral winds responded strongly in two height ranges. An eastward wind perturbation of {approximately}100 m s{sup -1} developed between 140 and 200 km altitude with a peak near 160 km. A southwestward wind with peak magnitude of {approximately}150 m s{sup -1} developed near 115 km altitude. The large amplitude winds at the lower altitude are particularly surprising. They appear to be associated with the upward propagating semidiurnal tide. However, the amplitude is much larger than predicted by any of the tidal models, and the shear found just below the peak in the winds was nomially unstable with a Richardson number of {approximately}0.08. 17 refs., 12 figs.

  14. Atmospheric response in aurora experiment: Observations of E and F region neutral winds in a region of postmidnight diffuse aurora

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, M.F.; Marshall, T.R.; Mikkelsen, I.S.; Emery, B.A.; Christensen, A.; Kayser, D.; Hecht, J.; Lyons, L.; Walterscheid, R.

    1995-11-01

    The goal of the Atmospheric Response in Aurora (ARIA) experiment carried out at Poker Flat, Alaska, on March 3, 1992, was to determine the response of the neutral atmosphere to the long-lived, large-scale forcing that is characteristic of the diffuse aurora in the post midnight sector. A combination of chemical release rocket wind measurements, instrumented rocket composition measurements, and ground-based optical measurements were used to characterize the response of the neutral atmosphere. The rocket measurements were made at the end of a 90-min period of strong Joule heating. The authors focus on the neutral wind measurements made with the rocket. The forcing was determined by running the assimilated mapping of ionospheric electrodynamics (AMIE) analysis procedure developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research. The winds expected at the latitude and longitude of the experiment were calculated using the spectral thermospheric general circulation model developed at the Danish Meteorological Institute. Comparisons of the observations and the model suggest that the neutral winds responded strongly in two height ranges. An eastward wind perturbation of approximately 100 m/s developed between 140 and 200 km altitude with a peak near 160 km. A southwestward wind with peak magnitude of approximately 150 m/s developed near 115 km altitude. The large amplitude winds at the lower altitude are particularly surprising. They appear to be associated with the upward propagating semidiurnal tide. However, the amplitude is much larger than predicted by any of the tidal models, and the shear found just below the peak in the winds was nominally unstable with a Richardson number of approximately 0.08.

  15. Atmospheric response in aurora experiment: Observations of E and F region neutral winds in a region of postmidnight diffuse aurora

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, M. F.; Marshall, T. R.; Mikkelsen, I. S.; Emery, B. A.; Christensen, A.; Kayser, D.; Hecht, J.; Lyons, L.; Walterscheid, R.

    1995-01-01

    The goal of the Atmospheric Response in Aurora (ARIA) experiment carried out at Poker Flat, Alaska, on March 3, 1992, was to determine the response of the neutral atmosphere to the long-lived, large-scale forcing that is characteristic of the diffuse aurora in the post midnight sector. A combination of chemical release rocket wind measurements, instrumented rocket composition measurements, and ground-based optical measurements were used to characterize the response of the neutral atmosphere. The rocket measurements were made at the end of a 90-min period of strong Joule heating. We focus on the neutral wind measurements made with the rocket. The forcing was determined by running the assimilated mapping of ionospheric electrodynamics (AMIE) analysis procedure developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research. The winds expected at the latitude and longitude of the experiment were calculated using the spectral thermospheric general circulation model developed at the Danish Meteorological Institute. Comparisons of the observations and the model suggest that the neutral winds responded strongly in two height ranges. An eastward wind perturbation of approximately 100 m/s developed between 140 and 200 km altitude with a peak near 160 km. A southwestward wind with peak magnitude of approximately 150 m/s developed near 115 km altitude. The large amplitude winds at the lower altitude are particularly surprising. They appear to be associated with the upward propagating semidiurnal tide. However, the amplitude is much larger than predicted by any of the tidal models, and the shear found just below the peak in the winds was nominally unstable with a Richardson number of approximately 0.08.

  16. Imaging the heliosphere using neutral atoms from solar wind energy down to 15 eV

    SciTech Connect

    Galli, A.; Wurz, P.; Fuselier, S. A.; McComas, D. J.; Bzowski, M.; Sokół, J. M.; Kubiak, M. A.; Möbius, E.

    2014-11-20

    We study the spatial and temporal distribution of hydrogen energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) from the heliosheath observed with the IBEX-Lo sensor of the Interstellar Boundary EXplorer (IBEX) from solar wind energies down to the lowest available energy (15 eV). All available IBEX-Lo data from 2009 January until 2013 June were included. The sky regions imaged when the spacecraft was outside of Earth's magnetosphere and when the Earth was moving toward the direction of observation offer a sufficient signal-to-noise ratio even at very low energies. We find that the ENA ribbon—a 20° wide region of high ENA intensities—is most prominent at solar wind energies whereas it fades at lower energies. The maximum emission in the ribbon is located near the poles for 2 keV and closer to the ecliptic plane for energies below 1 keV. This shift is an evidence that the ENA ribbon originates from the solar wind. Below 0.1 keV, the ribbon can no longer be identified against the globally distributed ENA signal. The ENA measurements in the downwind direction are affected by magnetospheric contamination below 0.5 keV, but a region of very low ENA intensities can be identified from 0.1 keV to 2 keV. The energy spectra of heliospheric ENAs follow a uniform power law down to 0.1 keV. Below this energy, they seem to become flatter, which is consistent with predictions. Due to the subtraction of local background, the ENA intensities measured with IBEX agree with the upper limit derived from Lyα observations.

  17. A new approach to the mapping of the equatorial neutral wind field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meriwether, John; Makela, Jonathan J.; Navarro, Luis; Harding, Brian; Milla, Marco

    Increased information about the spatial structure of thermospheric winds may be retrieved through the combination of Doppler shift observations from multiple Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) observatories. In this paper we present examples of results obtained for a network of three FPIs located in central Peru at Jicamarca, Nazca, and Arequipa. These results are based upon the application of a second-order Taylor series expansion of the zonal and meridional wind components as a model of the thermospheric wind field for the latitudinal span of 10 S to 20 S. The Doppler shift data are analyzed with the singular value decomposition algorithm to determine these model parameters. Results of the model fits are compared with the zonal and meridional winds observed at six common volume locations in the thermosphere for 250 km height, and good agreement was found indicating a successful application of the SVD analysis. One example of the results found from the inspection of the maps produced with this approach shows near 1-2 UT an area of weak winds that is seen to move southward as an entity through the region10-20 S near 1-2 LT. The cause of this 'null zone' region in the thermospheric wind field is proposed to be a result of the balancing of the eastward day to night pressure gradient with the westward pressure gradient of the pressure bulge as this bulge (associated with the midnight temperature maximum) propagates through the equatorial thermosphere region from the southwest toward the northeast. Further discussion about alternative basis functions that might be used in this analysis is provided.

  18. Highly Structured Wind in Vela X-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kreykenbohm, Ingo; Wilms, Joern; Kretschmar, Peter; Torrejon, Jose Miguel; Pottschmidt, Katja; Hanke, Manfred; Santangelo, Andrea; Ferrigno, Carlo; Staubert, Ruediger

    2008-01-01

    We present an in-depth analysis of the spectral and temporal behavior of a long almost uninterrupted INTEGRAL observation of Vela X-1 in Nov/Dec 2003. In addition to an already high activity level, Vela X-1 exhibited several very intense flares with a maximum intensity of more than 5 Crab in the 20 40 keV band. Furthermore Vela X-1 exhibited several off states where the source became undetectable with ISGRI. We interpret flares and off states as being due to the strongly structured wind of the optical companion: when Vela X-1 encounters a cavity in the wind with strongly reduced density, the flux will drop, thus potentially triggering the onset of the propeller effect which inhibits further accretion, thus giving rise to the off states. The required drop in density to trigger the propeller effect in Vela X-1 is of the same order as predicted by theoretical papers for the densities in the OB star winds. The same structured wind can give rise to the giant flares when Vela X-1 encounters a dense blob in the wind. Further temporal analysis revealed that a short lived QPO with a period of 6800 sec is present. The part of the light curve during which the QPO is present is very close to the off states and just following a high intensity state, thus showing that all these phenomena are related.

  19. EFFECT OF SOLAR CHROMOSPHERIC NEUTRALS ON EQUILIBRIUM FIELD STRUCTURES

    SciTech Connect

    Arber, T. D.; Botha, G. J. J.; Brady, C. S. E-mail: G.J.J.Botha@warwick.ac.u

    2009-11-10

    Solar coronal equilibrium fields are often constructed by nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) extrapolation from photospheric magnetograms. It is well known that the photospheric field is not force-free and the correct lower boundary for NLFFF construction ought to be the top of the chromosphere. To compensate for this, pre-filtering algorithms are often applied to the photospheric data to remove the non-force-free components. Such pre-filtering models, while physically constrained, do not address the mechanisms that may be responsible for the field becoming force-free. The chromospheric field can change through, for example, field expansion due to gravitational stratification, reconnection, or flux emergence. In this paper, we study and quantify the effect of the chromospheric neutrals on equilibrium field structures. It is shown that, depending on the degree to which the photospheric field is not force-free, the chromosphere will change the structure of the equilibrium field. This is quantified to give an estimate of the change in alpha profiles one might expect due to neutrals in the chromosphere. Simple scaling of the decay time of non-force-free components of the magnetic field due to chromospheric neutrals is also derived. This is used to quantify the rate at which, or equivalent at which height, the chromosphere is expected to become force-free.

  20. Heliolatitude structure of the solar wind proton speed and density at 1 AU for heliospheric modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokol, Justyna Maria; Swaczyna, Pawel; Bzowski, Maciej; Tokumaru, Munetoshi

    2014-05-01

    The heliolatitudinal structure of solar wind proton speed and density varies with solar activity. A model of its variation with time is needed for heliospheric studies and modeling. It is important for the global heliospheric structure, allows for an assessment of ionization rates of neutral species in the heliosphere and interpretation of observations of the energetic neutral atoms and neutral interstellar atoms. Sokół et al. 2013 presented a model of the heliolatitudinal and time variations of solar wind structure based on results of the computer assisted tomography analysis of the solar wind speed enabled by remote-sensing observations of interplanetary scintillations, in-situ measurements from Ulysses, and in-ecliptic measurements from various missions gathered in the OMNI2 database. They determined the 3D structure of solar wind on a yearly time grid from 1990 to 2011. Now we increase the time resolution of the grid used in the model. Because of the weather conditions in Japan, where the interplanetary scintillation observations are carried out, the solar wind data sets contain systematic gaps. For the purposes of the increase of the time resolution of the model for heliospheric studies the method of filling of these gap is needed. We present a comparison of various methods of gap filling. We present results of the investigation of the procedures of reconstruction of the solar wind density with the use of the solar wind invariants published in the literature. Additionally we study various algorithms of extrapolation of the heliolatitudinal time series of the solar wind proton speed and number density in time.

  1. PULSAR WIND NEBULAE WITH THICK TOROIDAL STRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Chevalier, Roger A.; Reynolds, Stephen P. E-mail: reynolds@ncsu.edu

    2011-10-10

    We investigate a class of pulsar wind nebulae that show synchrotron emission from a thick toroidal structure. The best studied such object is the small radio and X-ray nebula around the Vela pulsar, which can be interpreted as the result of interaction of a mildly supersonic inward flow with the recent pulsar wind. Such a flow near the center of a supernova remnant can be produced in a transient phase when the reverse shock reaches the center of the remnant. Other nebulae with a thick toroidal structure are G106.6+2.9 and G76.9+1.0. Their structure contrasts with young pulsar nebulae like the Crab Nebula and 3C 38, which show a more chaotic, filamentary structure in the synchrotron emission. In both situations, a torus-jet structure is present where the pulsar wind passes through a termination shock, indicating the flow is initially toroidal. We suggest that the difference is due to the Rayleigh-Taylor instability that operates when the outer boundary of the nebula is accelerating into freely expanding supernova ejecta. The instability gives rise to mixing in the Crab and related objects, but is not present in the nebulae with thick toroidal regions.

  2. Spatial-temporal analysis of coherent offshore wind field structures measured by scanning Doppler-lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valldecabres, L.; Friedrichs, W.; von Bremen, L.; Kühn, M.

    2016-09-01

    An analysis of the spatial and temporal power fluctuations of a simplified wind farm model is conducted on four offshore wind fields data sets, two from lidar measurements and two from LES under unstable and neutral atmospheric conditions. The integral length scales of the horizontal wind speed computed in the streamwise and the cross-stream direction revealed the elongation of the structures in the direction of the mean flow. To analyse the effect of the structures on the power output of a wind turbine, the aggregated equivalent power of two wind turbines with different turbine spacing in the streamwise and cross-stream direction is analysed at different time scales under 10 minutes. The fact of considering the summation of the power of two wind turbines smooths out the fluctuations of the power output of a single wind turbine. This effect, which is stronger with increasing spacing between turbines, can be seen in the aggregation of the power of two wind turbines in the streamwise direction. Due to the anti-correlation of the coherent structures in the cross-stream direction, this smoothing effect is stronger when the aggregated power is computed with two wind turbines aligned orthogonally to the mean flow direction.

  3. Structural basis for the antibody neutralization of Herpes simplex virus

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Cheng-Chung; Lin, Li-Ling; Chan, Woan-Eng; Ko, Tzu-Ping; Lai, Jiann-Shiun; Wang, Andrew H.-J.

    2013-10-01

    The gD–E317-Fab complex crystal revealed the conformational epitope of human mAb E317 on HSV gD, providing a molecular basis for understanding the viral neutralization mechanism. Glycoprotein D (gD) of Herpes simplex virus (HSV) binds to a host cell surface receptor, which is required to trigger membrane fusion for virion entry into the host cell. gD has become a validated anti-HSV target for therapeutic antibody development. The highly inhibitory human monoclonal antibody E317 (mAb E317) was previously raised against HSV gD for viral neutralization. To understand the structural basis of antibody neutralization, crystals of the gD ectodomain bound to the E317 Fab domain were obtained. The structure of the complex reveals that E317 interacts with gD mainly through the heavy chain, which covers a large area for epitope recognition on gD, with a flexible N-terminal and C-terminal conformation. The epitope core structure maps to the external surface of gD, corresponding to the binding sites of two receptors, herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM) and nectin-1, which mediate HSV infection. E317 directly recognizes the gD–nectin-1 interface and occludes the HVEM contact site of gD to block its binding to either receptor. The binding of E317 to gD also prohibits the formation of the N-terminal hairpin of gD for HVEM recognition. The major E317-binding site on gD overlaps with either the nectin-1-binding residues or the neutralizing antigenic sites identified thus far (Tyr38, Asp215, Arg222 and Phe223). The epitopes of gD for E317 binding are highly conserved between two types of human herpesvirus (HSV-1 and HSV-2). This study enables the virus-neutralizing epitopes to be correlated with the receptor-binding regions. The results further strengthen the previously demonstrated therapeutic and diagnostic potential of the E317 antibody.

  4. Magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere coupling: Effect of neutral winds on energy transfer and field-aligned current

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, G.; Richmond, A.D.; Emery, B.A.

    1995-10-01

    The assimilative mapping of ionospheric electrodynamics (AMIE) algorithm has been applied to derive the realistic time-dependent large-scale global distributions of the ionospheric convection and particle precipitation during a recent Geospace Environment Modeling (GEM) campaign period: March 28-29, 1992. The AMIE outputs are then used as the inputs of the National Center for Atmospheric Research thermosphere-ionosphere general circulation model to estimate the electrodynamic quantities in the ionosphere and thermosphere. It is found that the magnetospheric electromagnetic energy dissipated in the high-latitude ionosphere is mainly converted into Joule heating, with only a small fraction (6%) going to acceleration of thermospheric neutral winds. This study also reveals that the thermospheric winds can have significant influence on the ionospheric electrodynamics. On the average for these 2 days, the neutral winds have approximately a 28% negative effect on Joule heating and approximately a 27% negative effect on field-aligned currents. The field-aligned currents driven by the neutral wind flow in the opposite direction to those driven by the plasma convection. On the average, the global electromagnetic energy input is about 4 times larger than the particle energy input. 65 refs., 10 figs.

  5. Structural Dynamic Behavior of Wind Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thresher, Robert W.; Mirandy, Louis P.; Carne, Thomas G.; Lobitz, Donald W.; James, George H. III

    2009-01-01

    The structural dynamicist s areas of responsibility require interaction with most other members of the wind turbine project team. These responsibilities are to predict structural loads and deflections that will occur over the lifetime of the machine, ensure favorable dynamic responses through appropriate design and operational procedures, evaluate potential design improvements for their impact on dynamic loads and stability, and correlate load and control test data with design predictions. Load prediction has been a major concern in wind turbine designs to date, and it is perhaps the single most important task faced by the structural dynamics engineer. However, even if we were able to predict all loads perfectly, this in itself would not lead to an economic system. Reduction of dynamic loads, not merely a "design to loads" policy, is required to achieve a cost-effective design. The two processes of load prediction and structural design are highly interactive: loads and deflections must be known before designers and stress analysts can perform structural sizing, which in turn influences the loads through changes in stiffness and mass. Structural design identifies "hot spots" (local areas of high stress) that would benefit most from dynamic load alleviation. Convergence of this cycle leads to a turbine structure that is neither under-designed (which may result in structural failure), nor over-designed (which will lead to excessive weight and cost).

  6. The neutral wind in ionospheric modeling: the month-long ISR campaign at Millstone Hill, October 2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, M.; Sojka, J. J.; Schunk, R. W.; Holt, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    The thermospheric wind is one of the most important inputs in modeling the mid-latitude ionosphere; unfortunately the currently available models do not seem to provide a very accurate representation of it. When running an ionospheric model, such as Utah State University's TDIM, the neutral wind input has a large effect on both the peak density of the F-layer (NmF2) as well as the height of the layer (hmF2). The month-long campaign of the Incoherent Scatter Radar at Millstone Hill provides an excellent base for the comparison of model runs to observations, to determine what sort of neutral wind is needed to provide a match with the height and peak density of the F layer. The data base shows a marked degree of day-to-day variability in two regards: the value of NmF2 (or TEC) at the time of sunrise (approximately 1100 hrs UT), and the rate at which the value of TEC increases during the morning sunlit hours. In a previous study we showed that this day-to-day variability could be accounted for by variations in either a neutral wind, or a penetrating electric field. Recent work has indicated that in this case the electric field will not account for the variation, therefore we look to the neutral wind. Total Electron Content (TEC) at Millstone Hill during the month-long ISR campaign of October 2002. Notice the day-to-day variability in the TEC value at the time of sunrise (about 1100 UT) as well as the rate at which TEC increases during the morning hours.

  7. Boundary-layer flow and power output in large wind farms during transition from neutral to stable conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allaerts, Dries; Meyers, Johan

    2016-11-01

    In wind farms, power deficits are directly related to ambient turbulence levels. Power deficits will therefore increase during the transition from a daytime, conventionally neutral boundary layer (CNBL) to the stable boundary layer (SBL) at night. Besides turbulent decay, a multitude of effects occurs during this transition. For instance, low-level jets may cause strong winds at high elevations, while the velocity near the surface generally decreases. Consequently, Coriolis forces induce a change in wind direction, which alters the apparent wind-farm layout in streamwise direction. In this study, we perform LES of a large onshore wind farm in the late-afternoon transition from an equilibrium CNBL to a surface-cooled SBL. The results of two different cooling rates are compared with the wind-farm performance in the CNBL. The power output decrease during the transition, with faster decrease for stronger surface cooling. However, the initial decrease is dominated by the reduction in wind speed, and the relative power deficits do not increase. Further, considerable wake deflection occurs, and a spatially heterogeneous distribution of temperature and heat flux is observed. The authors acknowledge support from the European Research Council (FP7-Ideas, Grant No. 306471).

  8. Evidence of active region imprints on the solar wind structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hick, P.; Jackson, B. V.

    1995-01-01

    A common descriptive framework for discussing the solar wind structure in the inner heliosphere uses the global magnetic field as a reference: low density, high velocity solar wind emanates from open magnetic fields, with high density, low speed solar wind flowing outward near the current sheet. In this picture, active regions, underlying closed magnetic field structures in the streamer belt, leave little or no imprint on the solar wind. We present evidence from interplanetary scintillation measurements of the 'disturbance factor' g that active regions play a role in modulating the solar wind and possibly contribute to the solar wind mass output. Hence we find that the traditional view of the solar wind, though useful in understanding many features of solar wind structure, is oversimplified and possibly neglects important aspects of solar wind dynamics

  9. Large eddy simulation of a large wind-turbine array in a conventionally neutral atmospheric boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allaerts, Dries; Meyers, Johan

    2015-06-01

    Under conventionally neutral conditions, the boundary layer is frequently capped by an inversion layer, which counteracts vertical entrainment of kinetic energy. Very large wind farms are known to depend on vertical entrainment to transport energy from above the farm towards the turbines. In this study, large eddy simulations of an infinite wind-turbine array in a conventionally neutral atmospheric boundary layer are performed. By carefully selecting the initial potential-temperature profile, the influence of the height and the strength of a capping inversion on the power output of a wind farm is investigated. Results indicate that both the height and the strength have a significant effect on the boundary layer flow, and that the height of the neutral boundary layer is effectively controlled by the capping inversion. In addition, it is shown that the vertical entrainment rate decreases for increasing inversion strength or height. In our infinite wind-farm simulations, varying the inversion characteristics leads to differences in power extraction on the order of 13% ± 0.2% (for increasing the strength from 2.5 to 10 K), and 31% ± 0.4% (for increasing the height from 500 to 1500 m). A detailed analysis of the mean kinetic-energy equation is included, showing that the variation in power extraction originates from the work done by the driving pressure gradient related to the boundary layer height and the geostrophic angle, while entrainment of kinetic energy from the free atmosphere does not play a significant role. Also, the effect of inversion strength on power extraction is energetically not related to different amounts of energy entrained, but explained by a difference in boundary layer growth, leading to higher boundary layers for lower inversion strengths. We further present a simple analytical model that allows to obtain wind-farm power output and driving power for the fully developed regime as function of Rossby number and boundary layer height.

  10. Structures, energies and bonding in neutral and charged Li microclusters.

    PubMed

    Yepes, Diana; Kirk, Steven Robert; Jenkins, Samantha; Restrepo, Albeiro

    2012-09-01

    Structural and chemical properties of charged and neutral Lithium microclusters are investigated for [Formula: see text]. A total of 18 quantum conformational spaces are randomly walked to produce candidate structures for local minima. Very rich potential energy surfaces are produced, with the largest structural complexity predicted for anionic clusters. Analysis of the electron charge distributions using the quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) predicts major stabilizing roles of Non-nuclear attractors (NNAs) via NNA···Li interactions with virtually no direct Li···Li interactions, except in the least stable configurations. A transition in behavior for clusters containing more than seven nuclei is observed by using the recently introduced quantum topology to determine in a quantum mechanically consistent fashion the number of spatial dimensions each cluster has. We experiment with a novel scheme for extracting persistent structural motifs with increase in cluster size. The new structural motifs correlate well with the energetic stability, particularly in highlighting the least stable structures. Quantifying the degree of covalent character in Lithium bonding independently agrees with the observation in the transition in cluster behavior for lithium clusters containing more than seven nuclei. Good correlation with available experimental data is obtained for all properties reported in this work.

  11. Determining the power-law wind-profile exponent under near-neutral stability conditions at sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, S. A.; Meindl, Eric A.; Gilhousen, David B.

    1994-01-01

    On the basis of 30 samples from near-simultaneous overwater measurements by pairs of anemometers located at different heights in the Gulf of Mexico and off the Chesapeake Bay, Virginia, the mean and standard deviation for the exponent of the power-law wind profile over the ocean under near-neutral atmospheric stability conditions were determined to be 0.11 +/- 0.03. Because this mean value is obtained from both deep and shallow water environments, it is recommended for use at sea to adjust the wind speed measurements at different heights to the standard height of 10 m above the mean sea surface. An example to apply this P value to estimate the momentum flux or wind stress is provided.

  12. Solar wind compressible structures at ion scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrone, D.; Alexandrova, O.; Rocoto, V.; Pantellini, F. G. E.; Zaslavsky, A.; Maksimovic, M.; Issautier, K.; Mangeney, A.

    2014-12-01

    In the solar wind turbulent cascade, the energy partition between fluid and kinetic degrees of freedom, in the vicinity of plasma characteristic scales, i.e. ion and electron Larmor radius and inertial lengths, is still under debate. In a neighborhood of the ion scales, it has been observed that the spectral shape changes and fluctuations become more compressible. Nowadays, a huge scientific effort is directed to the comprehension of the link between macroscopic and microscopic scales and to disclose the nature of compressive fluctuations, meaning that if space plasma turbulence is a mixture of quasi-linear waves (as whistler or kinetic Alfvèn waves) or if turbulence is strong with formation of coherent structures responsible for dissipation. Here we present an automatic method to identify compressible coherent structures around the ion spectral break, using Morlet wavelet decomposition of magnetic signal from Cluster spacecraft and reconstruction of magnetic fluctuations in a selected scale range. Different kind of coherent structures have been detected: from soliton-like one-dimensional structures to current sheet- or wave-like two-dimensional structures. Using a multi-satellite analysis, in order to characterize 3D geometry and propagation in plasma rest frame, we recover that these structures propagate quasi-perpendicular to the mean magnetic field, with finite velocity. Moreover, without using the Taylor hypothesis, the spatial scales of coherent structures have been estimated. Our observations in the solar wind can provide constraints on theoretical modeling of small scale turbulence and dissipation in collisionless magnetized plasmas.

  13. Confirming the potential for nucleon structure studies with neutral final states and the Neutral Particle Spectrometer at JLab Hall C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uniyal, Rishabh; Horn, Tanja

    2017-01-01

    The two-arm combination of neutral-particle detection and a high-resolution magnetic spectrometer offers unique scientific capabilities to push the energy scale for studies of the transverse spatial and momentum structure of the nucleon through reactions with neutral particles requiring precision and high luminosity. As example, it enables precision measurements of the deeply-virtual Compton scattering cross section and the basic semi-inclusive neutral-pion cross section, which is crucial to validate a cornerstone of 3D transverse momentum imaging. This science program is enabled by a Neutral-Particle Spectrometer (NPS) and the magnetic spectrometer pair in Hall C at the 12 GeV JLab. In this talk we will discuss the experiment the NPS will be used for and its components, for instance, the crystal array and what properties are desirable from the crystals to meet the specifications of the experiments. supported in part by NSF grants PHY-1306227 and PHY-1306418.

  14. Structural health monitoring of wind turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumsey, Mark A.; Paquette, Joshua A.

    2008-03-01

    As electric utility wind turbines increase in size, and correspondingly, increase in initial capital investment cost, there is an increasing need to monitor the health of the structure. Acquiring an early indication of structural or mechanical problems allows operators to better plan for maintenance, possibly operate the machine in a de-rated condition rather than taking the unit off-line, or in the case of an emergency, shut the machine down to avoid further damage. This paper describes several promising structural health monitoring (SHM) techniques that were recently exercised during a fatigue test of a 9 meter glass-epoxy and carbon-epoxy wind turbine blade. The SHM systems were implemented by teams from NASA Kennedy Space Center, Purdue University and Virginia Tech. A commercial off-the-shelf acoustic emission (AE) NDT system gathered blade AE data throughout the test. At a fatigue load cycle rate around 1.2 Hertz, and after more than 4,000,000 fatigue cycles, the blade was diagnostically and visibly failing at the out-board blade spar-cap termination point at 4.5 meters. For safety reasons, the test was stopped just before the blade completely failed. This paper provides an overview of the SHM and NDT system setups and some current test results.

  15. Using IBEX data to constrain the heliosphere's large-scale structure: interstellar neutral gas and the Warm Breeze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bzowski, Maciej; McComas, David; Galli, Andre; Kucharek, Harald; Wurz, Peter; Sokol, Justyna M.; Schwadron, Nathan; Heirtzler, David M.; Kubiak, M. Marzena A.; Möbius, Eberhard; Fuselier, Stephen; Swaczyna, Paweł; Leonard, Trevor; Park, Jeewoo

    2016-07-01

    The large-scale structure of the heliosphere is governed by the interaction of the partly ionized, magnetized interstellar gas and the magnetized, fully ionized solar wind, structured in heliolatitude. Determining factors of this interaction are the density and flow velocity of interstellar gas relative to the Sun, the Mach number of this flow and the strength and inclination of the interstellar magnetic field to the flow vector at the interstellar side, and the magnitude of dynamic pressure of solar wind and the strength of its embedded magnetic field at the solar side. As a result of charge exchange interactions operating in the boundary region between the heliosphere and interstellar matter, a new population of neutral atoms is created, in addition to the population of unperturbed interstellar neutral gas. Both of these populations penetrate deep inside the heliosphere, where they can be sampled by the first space probe dedicated to observations of the heliosphere and its immediate surroundings by means of neutral atoms: the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX). Due to distortion of the heliosphere from axial symmetry, the secondary population of interstellar neutrals, created via charge exchange between the plasma flowing past the heliopause and the unperturbed pristine neutral interstellar gas, appears to be coming from a different direction than the unperturbed interstellar neutral flow. These two directions should be coplanar with the plane defined by the local interstellar magnetic field and the flow direction of the unperturbed gas. IBEX provides an unprecedented opportunity to study and interpret these relations. The IBEX science team have recently accomplished important milestones in researching the primary and secondary populations of interstellar gas and their relation to the local interstellar magnetic fields. First, the temperature and velocity vector of the inflowing interstellar neutral gas has been determined with unprecedented robustness based

  16. Flow Structure and Turbulence in Wind Farms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Richard J. A. M.; Meneveau, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Similar to other renewable energy sources, wind energy is characterized by a low power density. Hence, for wind energy to make considerable contributions to the world's overall energy supply, large wind farms (on- and offshore) consisting of arrays of ever larger wind turbines are being envisioned and built. From a fluid mechanics perspective, wind farms encompass turbulent flow phenomena occurring at many spatial and temporal scales. Of particular interest to understanding mean power extraction and fluctuations in wind farms are the scales ranging from 1 to 10 m that comprise the wakes behind individual wind turbines, to motions reaching 100 m to kilometers in scale, inherently associated with the atmospheric boundary layer. In this review, we summarize current understanding of these flow phenomena (particularly mean and second-order statistics) through field studies, wind tunnel experiments, large-eddy simulations, and analytical modeling, emphasizing the most relevant features for wind farm design and operation.

  17. Wind Turbine Controller to Mitigate Structural Loads on a Floating Wind Turbine Platform

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, Paul A.; Peiffer, Antoine; Schlipf, David

    2016-06-24

    This paper summarizes the control design work that was performed to optimize the controller of a wind turbine on the WindFloat structure. The WindFloat is a semi-submersible floating platform designed to be a support structure for a multi-megawatt power-generating wind turbine. A controller developed for a bottom-fixed wind turbine configuration was modified for use when the turbine is mounted on the WindFloat platform. This results in an efficient platform heel resonance mitigation scheme. In addition several control modules, designed with a coupled linear model, were added to the fixed-bottom baseline controller. The approach was tested in a fully coupled nonlinear aero-hydroelastic simulation tool in which wind and wave disturbances were modeled. This testing yielded significant improvements in platform global performance and tower-base-bending loading.

  18. Structural Integrity of a Wind Tunnel Balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karkehabadi, R.; Rhew, R. D.

    2004-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center (LaRC) has been designing strain-gage balances for utilization in wind tunnels since its inception. The utilization of balances span over a wide variety of aerodynamic tests. A force balance is an inherently critically stressed component due to the requirements of measurement sensitivity. Research and analyses are done in order to investigate the structural integrity of the balances as well as developing an understanding of their performance in order to enhance their capability. Maximum loading occurs when all 6 components of the loads are applied simultaneously with their maximum value allowed (limit load). This circumstance normally does not occur in the wind tunnel. However, if it occurs, is the balance capable of handling the loads with an acceptable factor of safety? LaRC Balance 1621 was modeled and meshed in PATRAN for analysis in NASTRAN. For a complete analysis, it is necessary to consider all the load cases as well as use dense mesh near all the edges. Because of computer limitations, it is not possible to have one model with the dense mesh near all edges. In the present study, a dense mesh is limited to the surface corners where the cage and axial sections meet. Four different load combinations are used for the current analysis. Linear analysis is performed for each load case. In the case where the stress value is above linear elastic region, it is necessary to perform nonlinear analysis. It is also important to investigate the variables limiting the structural integrity of the balances. In order to investigate the possibility of modifying the existing balances to enhance the structural integrity, some modifications are done on this balance. The structural integrity of the balance after modification is investigated.

  19. Turbulent kinetics of a large wind farm and their impact in the neutral boundary layer

    DOE PAGES

    Na, Ji Sung; Koo, Eunmo; Munoz-Esparza, Domingo; ...

    2015-12-28

    High-resolution large-eddy simulation of the flow over a large wind farm (64 wind turbines) is performed using the HIGRAD/FIRETEC-WindBlade model, which is a high-performance computing wind turbine–atmosphere interaction model that uses the Lagrangian actuator line method to represent rotating turbine blades. These high-resolution large-eddy simulation results are used to parameterize the thrust and power coefficients that contain information about turbine interference effects within the wind farm. Those coefficients are then incorporated into the WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting) model in order to evaluate interference effects in larger-scale models. In the high-resolution WindBlade wind farm simulation, insufficient distance between turbines createsmore » the interference between turbines, including significant vertical variations in momentum and turbulent intensity. The characteristics of the wake are further investigated by analyzing the distribution of the vorticity and turbulent intensity. Quadrant analysis in the turbine and post-turbine areas reveals that the ejection motion induced by the presence of the wind turbines is dominant compared to that in the other quadrants, indicating that the sweep motion is increased at the location where strong wake recovery occurs. Regional-scale WRF simulations reveal that although the turbulent mixing induced by the wind farm is partly diffused to the upper region, there is no significant change in the boundary layer depth. The velocity deficit does not appear to be very sensitive to the local distribution of turbine coefficients. However, differences of about 5% on parameterized turbulent kinetic energy were found depending on the turbine coefficient distribution. Furthermore, turbine coefficients that consider interference in the wind farm should be used in wind farm parameterization for larger-scale models to better describe sub-grid scale turbulent processes.« less

  20. Turbulent kinetics of a large wind farm and their impact in the neutral boundary layer

    SciTech Connect

    Na, Ji Sung; Koo, Eunmo; Munoz-Esparza, Domingo; Jin, Emilia Kyung; Linn, Rodman; Lee, Joon Sang

    2015-12-28

    High-resolution large-eddy simulation of the flow over a large wind farm (64 wind turbines) is performed using the HIGRAD/FIRETEC-WindBlade model, which is a high-performance computing wind turbine–atmosphere interaction model that uses the Lagrangian actuator line method to represent rotating turbine blades. These high-resolution large-eddy simulation results are used to parameterize the thrust and power coefficients that contain information about turbine interference effects within the wind farm. Those coefficients are then incorporated into the WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting) model in order to evaluate interference effects in larger-scale models. In the high-resolution WindBlade wind farm simulation, insufficient distance between turbines creates the interference between turbines, including significant vertical variations in momentum and turbulent intensity. The characteristics of the wake are further investigated by analyzing the distribution of the vorticity and turbulent intensity. Quadrant analysis in the turbine and post-turbine areas reveals that the ejection motion induced by the presence of the wind turbines is dominant compared to that in the other quadrants, indicating that the sweep motion is increased at the location where strong wake recovery occurs. Regional-scale WRF simulations reveal that although the turbulent mixing induced by the wind farm is partly diffused to the upper region, there is no significant change in the boundary layer depth. The velocity deficit does not appear to be very sensitive to the local distribution of turbine coefficients. However, differences of about 5% on parameterized turbulent kinetic energy were found depending on the turbine coefficient distribution. Furthermore, turbine coefficients that consider interference in the wind farm should be used in wind farm parameterization for larger-scale models to better describe sub-grid scale turbulent processes.

  1. Structure of wind-shear turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trevino, G.; Laituri, T. R.

    1989-01-01

    The statistical characteristics of wind shear turbulence are modelled. Isotropic turbulence serves as the basis of comparison for the anisotropic turbulence which exists in wind shear. The question of turbulence scales in wind shear is addressed from the perspective of power spectral density.

  2. IUE's View of Callisto: Detection of an SO2 Absorption Correlated to Possible Torus Neutral Wind Alterations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Arthur L.; Domingue, Deborah L.

    1997-01-01

    Observations taken with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) detected a 0.28 micron absorption feature on Callisto's leading and Jupiter-facing hemispheres. This feature is similar to Europa's 0.28 micron feature, however it shows no correlation with magnetospheric ion bombardment. The strongest 0.28 micron signature is seen in the region containing the Valhalla impact. This absorption feature also shows some spatial correlation to possible neutral wind interactions, suggestive of S implantation (rather than S(sub x)) into Callisto's water ice surface, Indications of possible temporal variations (on the 10% level) are seen at other wavelengths between the 1984-1986 and the 1996 observations.

  3. Correcting the Record on the Analysis of IBEX and STEREO Data Regarding Variations in the Neutral Interstellar Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frisch, P. C.; Bzowski, M.; Drews, C.; Leonard, T.; Livadiotis, G.; McComas, D. J.; Möbius, E.; Schwadron, N.; Sokół, J. M.

    2015-03-01

    The journey of the Sun through space carries the solar system through a dynamic interstellar environment that is presently characterized by a Mach ~1 motion between the heliosphere and the surrounding warm partially ionized interstellar cloud. The interaction between the heliosphere and interstellar medium is an evolving process due to variable solar wind properties and the turbulent nature of the interstellar cloud that surrounds the heliosphere. Frisch et al. presented a meta-analysis of the historical data on the interstellar wind flowing through the heliosphere and concluded that temporal changes in the ecliptic longitude of the flow direction with time were statistically indicated by the data available in the refereed literature at the time of that writing. Lallement & Bertaux disagree with this result, and suggested, for instance, that a key instrumental response function of IBEX-Lo was incorrect and that the STEREO pickup ion data are unsuitable for diagnosing the flow of interstellar neutrals through the heliosphere. In this paper we first show that temporal variations in the interstellar wind through the heliosphere are consistent with our knowledge of the very local interstellar medium. The statistical analysis of the helium wind data is revisited, and a recent correction of a typographical error in the literature is incorporated into the new fits. With this correction, and including no newer IBEX results, these combined data still indicate that a change in the longitude of the interstellar neutral wind of λ = 5.°6 ± 2.°4 over the past forty years remains statistically likely, but an constant flow longitude is now statistically possible. Other scenarios for the selection of subsets of these data used in the fitting process produce similar conclusions. We show that the speculations made by Lallement & Bertin about the IBEX instrumental response function are incorrect, and that their other objections to the data used in the meta-analysis are either

  4. A simulation study of thermospheric neutral winds over the MU radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Jiuhou; Roble, Raymond G.; Kawamura, Seiji; Fukao, Shoichiro

    2007-04-01

    The climatological thermospheric winds observed by the Shigaraki middle and upper atmosphere (MU) radar in East Asia are compared for the first time with simulation results from the National Center for Atmospheric Research Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (NCAR-TIEGCM). The comparisons show that the predicted meridional winds are in excellent agreement with the observations; their differences generally fall within 20 m/s except for the summer nighttime at high solar activity. A harmonic analysis of the observed and model meridional winds is carried out to extract the mean winds and the amplitudes and phases of diurnal, semidiurnal, and terdiurnal components. The model tidal waves are also in good agreement with the observed values except for the summer diurnal amplitude at high solar activity. Comparisons of the model electron densities with the radar observations suggest that the solar activity variation of the meridional winds can be mainly explained by the role of ion drag. Interestingly, the numerical simulations predict a feature not previously interpreted well: the diurnal amplitude and the mean wind depend nonlinearly on solar activity because the electron density saturates at high solar activity levels. It is further shown that both the observed and predicted diurnal phases remain almost stable at different solar activity levels, regardless of season.

  5. Wind-farms in shallow conventionally neutral boundary layers: effects of transition and gravity waves on energy budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyers, Johan; Allaerts, Dries

    2016-11-01

    Conventionally neutral boundary layers (CNBL) often arise in offshore conditions. In these situations the neutral boundary layer is capped by a strong inversion layer and a stably stratified free atmosphere aloft. We use large-eddy simulations to investigate the interaction between a CNBL and a large wind farm. Following the approach of Allaerts & Meyers (2015), a set of equilibrium CNBLs are produced in a precursor simulation, with a height of approx. 300, 500, and 1000m, respectively. These are used at the inlet of a large wind-farm with a fetch of 15 km, and 20 rows of turbines. We find that above the farm, an internal boundary layer (IBL) develops. For the two lower CNBL cases, the IBL growth is stopped by the overlying capping inversion. Moreover, the upward displacement of the CNBL excites gravity waves in the inversion layer and the free atmosphere above. For the lower CNBL cases, these waves induce significant pressure gradients in the farm. A detailed energy budget analysis of the CNBL is further presented. The authors acknowledge support from the European Research Council (FP7-Ideas, Grant No. 306471).

  6. Crystal structures of ricin toxin's enzymatic subunit (RTA) in complex with neutralizing and non-neutralizing single-chain antibodies.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, Michael J; Vance, David J; Cheung, Jonah; Franklin, Matthew C; Burshteyn, Fiana; Cassidy, Michael S; Gary, Ebony N; Herrera, Cristina; Shoemaker, Charles B; Mantis, Nicholas J

    2014-08-26

    Ricin is a select agent toxin and a member of the RNA N-glycosidase family of medically important plant and bacterial ribosome-inactivating proteins. In this study, we determined X-ray crystal structures of the enzymatic subunit of ricin (RTA) in complex with the antigen binding domains (VHH) of five unique single-chain monoclonal antibodies that differ in their respective toxin-neutralizing activities. None of the VHHs made direct contact with residues involved in RTA's RNA N-glycosidase activity or induced notable allosteric changes in the toxin's subunit. Rather, the five VHHs had overlapping structural epitopes on the surface of the toxin and differed in the degree to which they made contact with prominent structural elements in two folding domains of the RTA. In general, RTA interactions were influenced most by the VHH CDR3 (CDR, complementarity-determining region) elements, with the most potent neutralizing antibody having the shortest and most conformationally constrained CDR3. These structures provide unique insights into the mechanisms underlying toxin neutralization and provide critically important information required for the rational design of ricin toxin subunit vaccines.

  7. Damage tolerance and structural monitoring for wind turbine blades

    PubMed Central

    McGugan, M.; Pereira, G.; Sørensen, B. F.; Toftegaard, H.; Branner, K.

    2015-01-01

    The paper proposes a methodology for reliable design and maintenance of wind turbine rotor blades using a condition monitoring approach and a damage tolerance index coupling the material and structure. By improving the understanding of material properties that control damage propagation it will be possible to combine damage tolerant structural design, monitoring systems, inspection techniques and modelling to manage the life cycle of the structures. This will allow an efficient operation of the wind turbine in terms of load alleviation, limited maintenance and repair leading to a more effective exploitation of offshore wind. PMID:25583858

  8. Damage tolerance and structural monitoring for wind turbine blades.

    PubMed

    McGugan, M; Pereira, G; Sørensen, B F; Toftegaard, H; Branner, K

    2015-02-28

    The paper proposes a methodology for reliable design and maintenance of wind turbine rotor blades using a condition monitoring approach and a damage tolerance index coupling the material and structure. By improving the understanding of material properties that control damage propagation it will be possible to combine damage tolerant structural design, monitoring systems, inspection techniques and modelling to manage the life cycle of the structures. This will allow an efficient operation of the wind turbine in terms of load alleviation, limited maintenance and repair leading to a more effective exploitation of offshore wind.

  9. Adjustment of mean velocity and turbulence due to a finite-size wind farm in a neutral ABL - A LES study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Varun; Parlange, Marc B.; Calaf, Marc

    2015-11-01

    Large-eddy simulation (LES) has become a well-established tool to simulate and understand the interaction between wind farms and the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). A popular simulation technique considers wind turbines as actuator disks and simulates `infinite' wind farms due to periodic boundary conditions in the horizontal directions. These simulations have indicated the presence of a fully developed internal boundary layer (IBL) due to `wind farm roughness', which has been shown to have important implications, especially in stratified flow conditions. However, the relationship between the length of the wind farm and the resulting IBL vis-à-vis the asymptotic IBL and its relevance in real-world wind farms is not well understood at present. To address this issue, simulations of wind farms with different horizontal extents are performed in a neutral ABL using an extremely elongated computational domain. Results focus on identifying length scales defining the adjustment of the ABL to a new equilibrium within the wind farm and comparing it to the infinite wind farm case. Furthermore, analyses shall be extended upstream as well as downstream of the wind farm to determine the `impact' region and the `exit' region of the wind farm.

  10. Structure, dynamics, and seasonal variability of the Mars-solar wind interaction: MAVEN Solar Wind Ion Analyzer in-flight performance and science results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halekas, J. S.; Ruhunusiri, S.; Harada, Y.; Collinson, G.; Mitchell, D. L.; Mazelle, C.; McFadden, J. P.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Espley, J. R.; Eparvier, F.; Luhmann, J. G.; Jakosky, B. M.

    2017-01-01

    We report on the in-flight performance of the Solar Wind Ion Analyzer (SWIA) and observations of the Mars-solar wind interaction made during the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) prime mission and a portion of its extended mission, covering 0.85 Martian years. We describe the data products returned by SWIA and discuss the proper handling of measurements made with different mechanical attenuator states and telemetry modes, and the effects of penetrating and scattered backgrounds, limited phase space coverage, and multi-ion populations on SWIA observations. SWIA directly measures solar wind protons and alpha particles upstream from Mars. SWIA also provides proxy measurements of solar wind and neutral densities based on products of charge exchange between the solar wind and the hydrogen corona. Together, upstream and proxy observations provide a complete record of the solar wind experienced by Mars, enabling organization of the structure, dynamics, and ion escape from the magnetosphere. We observe an interaction that varies with season and solar wind conditions. Solar wind dynamic pressure, Mach number, and extreme ultraviolet flux all affect the bow shock location. We confirm the occurrence of order-of-magnitude seasonal variations of the hydrogen corona. We find that solar wind Alfvén waves, which provide an additional energy input to Mars, vary over the mission. At most times, only weak mass loading occurs upstream from the bow shock. However, during periods with near-radial interplanetary magnetic fields, structures consistent with Short Large Amplitude Magnetic Structures and their wakes form upstream, dramatically reconfiguring the Martian bow shock and magnetosphere.

  11. Estimated Drag Coefficients and Wind Structure of Hurricane Frances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zedler, S. E.; Niiler, P. P.; Stammer, D.; Terrill, E.

    2006-12-01

    As part of the Coupled Boundary Layers Air Sea Transfer (CBLAST) experiment, an array of drifters and floats was deployed from an aircraft just ahead of Hurricane Frances during it's passage to the northwest side of the Caribbean Island chain in August, 2004. The ocean and surface air conditions prior to, during, and after Hurricane Frances were documented by multiple sensors. Two independent estimates of the surface wind field suggest different storm structures. NOAA H*WINDS, an objectively analyzed product using a combination of data collected at the reconnaissance flight level, GPS profilers (dropwindsondes), satellites, and other data, suggest a 40km radius of maximum wind. A product based on the radial momentum equation balance using \\ital{in-situ} surface pressure data and wind direction measurements from the CBLAST drifter array suggests that the radius of maximum winds was 15km. We used a regional version of the MITGCM model with closed boundaries and realistic temperature and salinity fields which was forced with these wind field products to determine which wind field leads to circulation and SST structures that are most consistent with observed sea surface temperature fields and float profile data. Best estimates of the surface wind structure are then used to estimate the appropriate drag coefficient corresponding to the maximum velocity. Our results are compared with those obtained previously.

  12. In search of the long-trend meridional neutral wind variations at Arecibo using FPI and ISR measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Pedrina; Brum, Christiano; Gonzalez, Sixto; Tepley, Craig; Robles, Eva

    This work presents the long-term meridional neutral wind variations observed at Arecibo (18.35o N, 66.75o W) using 630nm Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FPI) data from 1980 to 2006. Analysis of the residues obtained from the difference between the FPI data and an empiric model were used to detect these variations. Preliminary results indicate that there is an increasing rate of the north velocity up to 1.07 ms-1 year-1 for the period of 20LT - 24LT and about 0.18 ms-1 year-1 between 00LT - 06LT for aeronomic conditions of F10.7 flux <=200 and Kp index <= 5 . These results are compared with hmF2 and apparent velocity (vap) variations measured by the Incoherent Scattering Radar (ISR).

  13. Measurements from the Daytime Dynamo Sounding Rocket missions: Altitude Profiles of Neutral Temperature, Density, Winds, and Con Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemmons, J. H.; Bishop, R. L.; Pfaff, R. F., Jr.; Rowland, D. E.; Larsen, M. F.

    2015-12-01

    Results from the two Daytime Dynamo sounding rocket missions launched from Wallops Island, Virginia, in July 2011 and July 2013 are presented and discussed. Measurements returned by the rockets' multiple-sensor ionization gauge instrumentation are used to derive profiles vs. altitude of neutral temperature, density, and, using a new technique, winds. The techniques used are described in detail and the resulting profiles discussed in the context of the daytime atmospheric dynamo. The profiles are also compared to those of established models. Also presented are measurements returned by the high-speed ion mass spectrometer on the 2011 flight. The measurements show the dominance of NO+ ions up to apogee at 160 km, but also reveal a significant admixture of O2+ ions below an intense daytime sporadic-E layer observed at 100.5 km.

  14. Neutral winds and thermosphere/ionosphere coupling and energetics during the geomagnetic disturbances of March 6-10, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Buonsanto, M.J.; Foster, J.C.; Galasso, A.D.; Sipler, D.P.; Holt, J.M. )

    1990-12-01

    Observations of electron density made using the fully steerable 46-m-diameter antenna at Millstone Hill have been used to derive the peak electron density (NmF2) and the peak height of the F2 region (hmF2) as a function of latitude during the March 6-10, 1989, period. This period was characterized by varying levels of geomagnetic activity, with a magnetic storm commencing near 1,800 UT on March 8. The radar data set presented for this period provides a detailed example of the mid-latitude ionospheric response to geomagnetic disturbances. The derived hmF2 values are combined with measurements of electric field-induced ion drifts and the MSIS-86 model to estimate the meridional neutral winds at thermospheric heights over the geodetic latitude range 30{degree} to 56 N. Strong postmidnight surges in the neutral wind were observed on March 7, 9, and 10 which reached well equatorward of Millstone Hill. The nighttime electron density trough was above Millstone Hill during the disturbances and hmF2 exceeded 500 km in the trough on March 7 and 9. A dusk enhancement in NmF2 followed the magnetic storm commencement on March 8. This is associated with a large increase in westward ion velocity due to the equatorward penetration of magnetospheric electric fields. Large daytime decreases in NmF2, apparently due to a neutral composition disturbance zone, were observed on March 9 and 10, with a sharp gradient on March 9, and a stronger equatorward penetration of the NmF2 decreases on March 10. The Joule heating as a function of latitude is estimated for March 7 and March 9 from calculations of height-integrated Pedersen conductivity and incoherent scatter electric field measurements. In spite of considerably more Joule heating input at high latitudes on March 9, the postmidnight surge is stronger on March 7. This is explained by a combination of Coriolis and ion drag effects.

  15. The Effects of Plasma-Neutral Interactions on Neutral Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, V.; Thayer, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    Plasma-neutral interactions are fundamental to the structure and behavior of the neutral thermosphere. This interaction, primarily through ion-neutral collisions, ties electrodynamics with hydrodynamics requiring a fully coupled ionosphere - thermosphere model to simulate and dissect the sequence of responses that occur in the neutral gas when a change occurs in the ionosphere. In particular, changes in the ion drag force prompt a hydrodynamic response that will alter several properties of the thermosphere, including neutral winds. Here, the fully coupled National Center for Atmospheric Research Thermosphere-Ionosphere Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (NCAR TIEGCM) is used to evaluate how changes in mechanical coupling, through the ion drag force, alter thermosphere properties, with a focus on thermospheric neutral winds. The equatorial thermosphere anomaly (ETA) produces a transient wind system, and a dissection of the hydrodynamic processes responsible for its formation will be used to demonstrate the causal structure in neutral gas response to a change in field-aligned ion drag force. This well-behaved response elucidates processes that must be occurring in other regions of the thermosphere where more significant changes in the ion drag force occur.

  16. Structural comparison of four different antibodies interacting with human papillomavirus 16 and mechanisms of neutralization

    SciTech Connect

    Guan, Jian; Bywaters, Stephanie M.; Brendle, Sarah A.; Lee, Hyunwook; Ashley, Robert E.; Makhov, Alexander M.; Conway, James F.; Christensen, Neil D.; Hafenstein, Susan

    2015-09-15

    Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) was used to solve the structures of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) complexed with fragments of antibody (Fab) from three different neutralizing monoclonals (mAbs): H16.1A, H16.14J, and H263.A2. The structure-function analysis revealed predominantly monovalent binding of each Fab with capsid interactions that involved multiple loops from symmetry related copies of the major capsid protein. The residues identified in each Fab-virus interface map to a conformational groove on the surface of the capsomer. In addition to the known involvement of the FG and HI loops, the DE loop was also found to constitute the core of each epitope. Surprisingly, the epitope mapping also identified minor contributions by EF and BC loops. Complementary immunological assays included mAb and Fab neutralization. The specific binding characteristics of mAbs correlated with different neutralizing behaviors in pre- and post-attachment neutralization assays. - Highlights: • We present HPV16-Fab complexes from neutralizing mAbs: H16.1A, H16.14J, and H263.A2. • The structure-function analysis revealed predominantly monovalent binding of each mAb. • Capsid–Fab interactions involved multiple loops from symmetry related L1 proteins. • Besides the known FG and HI loops, epitope mapping also identified DE, EF, and BC loops. • Neutralizing assays complement the structures to show multiple neutralization mechanisms.

  17. An Empirical Reference Model of the Quiet-Time Thermospheric Neutral Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drob, D. P.

    2014-12-01

    The Horizontal Wind Model (HWM) provides a framework for summarizing five decades of satellite, rocket, and ground-based observations. The development of a statistical consensus of these data provided the means to accurately specify the climatological spatiotemporal variability of upper atmospheric winds as function of day-of-year, time-of-day, latitude, longitude, and altitude. HWM includes representations of annual and semi-annual variations of the general circulation patterns and migrating tides via Fourier modulated vector spherical harmonics, B-splines, and 17,4000 optimally estimated coefficients. The approach works well for the thermosphere which is dominated by forced periodic oscillations driven by in-situ solar heating under the influence of the earths rotation, tilt, and orbit around the sun. Where average climatological specification are adequate for basic research and engineering applications HWM provides a readily accessible observationally based alternative to the need to compute them from first principles. Results from the newly updated version of the model (HWM14) are presented. In this update new satellite- and ground-based observations fill data gaps in the prior observational database of the 250 km altitude region. Additional changes where made to the model formulation to rectify problems near the poles. The model parameter estimation procedure was also improved. In the new approach all 17,400 unknown model parameters are simultaneously estimated using error-weighted sequential optimal estimation theory. This mitigates difficulties from local-time aliasing of synoptically sampled single satellite datasets; however the utilization of multiple satellite- and ground-based datasets is essential. Construction of the reference model also provides the opportunity to inter-compare the new measurements. Results are presented highlighting important aspects of; 1) the thermosphere zonal mean general circulation, 2) equatorial local time variations, 3) the

  18. Wind Turbine Blade Design System - Aerodynamic and Structural Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Soumitr

    2011-12-01

    The ever increasing need for energy and the depletion of non-renewable energy resources has led to more advancement in the "Green Energy" field, including wind energy. An improvement in performance of a Wind Turbine will enhance its economic viability, which can be achieved by better aerodynamic designs. In the present study, a design system that has been under development for gas turbine turbomachinery has been modified for designing wind turbine blades. This is a very different approach for wind turbine blade design, but will allow it to benefit from the features inherent in the geometry flexibility and broad design space of the presented system. It starts with key overall design parameters and a low-fidelity model that is used to create the initial geometry parameters. The low-fidelity system includes the axisymmetric solver with loss models, T-Axi (Turbomachinery-AXIsymmetric), MISES blade-to-blade solver and 2D wing analysis code XFLR5. The geometry parameters are used to define sections along the span of the blade and connected to the CAD model of the wind turbine blade through CAPRI (Computational Analysis PRogramming Interface), a CAD neutral API that facilitates the use of parametric geometry definition with CAD. Either the sections or the CAD geometry is then available for CFD and Finite Element Analysis. The GE 1.5sle MW wind turbine and NERL NASA Phase VI wind turbine have been used as test cases. Details of the design system application are described, and the resulting wind turbine geometry and conditions are compared to the published results of the GE and NREL wind turbines. A 2D wing analysis code XFLR5, is used for to compare results from 2D analysis to blade-to-blade analysis and the 3D CFD analysis. This kind of comparison concludes that, from hub to 25% of the span blade to blade effects or the cascade effect has to be considered, from 25% to 75%, the blade acts as a 2d wing and from 75% to the tip 3D and tip effects have to be taken into account

  19. Turbulent Structure Under Short Fetch Wind Waves

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    partitioned into wave growth , wave breaking, and wave forcing of the ocean surface layer. The purpose of this study was to support the ONR Coupled Boundary...complicated by the presence of surface waves. Wind momentum and energy are partitioned into wave growth , wave breaking, and wave forcing of the ocean surface...subrange, beyond which will display a rapid exponential decay through the dissipation range as shown in Figure 1. There are six properties that best

  20. Structure of Rotavirus Outer-Layer Protein VP7 Bound with a Neutralizing Fab

    SciTech Connect

    Aoki, Scott T.; Settembre, Ethan C.; Trask, Shane D.; Greenberg, Harry B.; Harrison, Stephen C.; Dormitzer, Philip R.

    2009-06-17

    Rotavirus outer-layer protein VP7 is a principal target of protective antibodies. Removal of free calcium ions (Ca{sup 2+}) dissociates VP7 trimers into monomers, releasing VP7 from the virion, and initiates penetration-inducing conformational changes in the other outer-layer protein, VP4. We report the crystal structure at 3.4 angstrom resolution of VP7 bound with the Fab fragment of a neutralizing monoclonal antibody. The Fab binds across the outer surface of the intersubunit contact, which contains two Ca{sup 2+} sites. Mutations that escape neutralization by other antibodies suggest that the same region bears the epitopes of most neutralizing antibodies. The monovalent Fab is sufficient to neutralize infectivity. We propose that neutralizing antibodies against VP7 act by stabilizing the trimer, thereby inhibiting the uncoating trigger for VP4 rearrangement. A disulfide-linked trimer is a potential subunit immunogen.

  1. Wind-induced vibrations of structures using design spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Vazquez, P.

    2016-12-01

    This paper discusses the estimation of wind dynamic response of two types of structures by following classical and novel approaches. A new method for structural analysis based on wind design spectra is introduced and tested against simulated and experimental data. Design spectra are derived from the dynamic response of a group of oscillators subject to wind, using similar techniques than those used to derive design spectra for seismic engineering applications. The method is used on three chimneys of different height as well as on a regular building which has been experimentally tested in the past. The chimneys and building are also submitted to simulated wind fields to provide additional sets of results. It is observed that the spectral approach is consistent with experimental and simulated results and therefore is concluded that design spectra can cover broad range of practical applications.

  2. The Structure and Evolution of Pulsar Wind Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slane, Patrick O.

    2010-01-01

    The extended nebulae formed as pulsar winds expand into their surroundings provide information about the composition of the winds, the injection history from the host pulsar, and the material into which the nebulae are expanding. Observations from across the electromagnetic spectrum provide constraints on the evolution of the nebulae, the density and composition of the surrounding ejecta, the geometry of the central engines, and the long-term fate of the energetic particles produced in these systems. Such observations reveal the presence of jets and wind termination shocks, time-varying compact emission structures, shocked supernova ejecta, and newly formed dust. Here I provide a broad overview of the structure of pulsar wind nebulae, with specific examples from observations extending from the radio band to very high energy gamma-rays that demonstrate our ability to constrain the history and ultimate fate of the energy released in the spin-down of young pulsars.

  3. Coherent structure and Intermittent Turbulence in the Solar Wind Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sondhiya, Deepak Kumar; Gwal, Ashok Kumar; Kasde, Satish Kumar

    2016-07-01

    We analyze the coherent structures and intermittent turbulence in the solar wind plasma using measurements from the Wind spacecraft. Previously established novel wavelet and higher order statistics are used in this work. We analyze the wavelet power spectrum of various solar wind plasma parameters. We construct a statistical significance level in the wavelet power spectrum to quantify the interference effects arising from filling missing data in the time series, allowing extraction of significant power from the measured data. We analyze each wavelet power spectra for transient coherency, and global periodicities resulting from the superposition of repeating coherent structures. Furthermore, these coherent structures are preferentially found in plasma unstable to the mirror and firehose instabilities. These results offer a new understanding of various processes in a turbulent regime. Finally, we discuss the implications of our results for current theories of solar wind generation and describe future work for determining the relationship between the coherent structures in our ionic composition data and the structure of the coronal magnetic field. Keywords: Wavelet Power Spectrum, Coherent structure and Solar wind plasma

  4. The structure of the solar wind in the inner heliosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Christina On-Yee

    2010-12-01

    This dissertation is devoted to expanding our understanding of the solar wind structure in the inner heliosphere and variations therein with solar activity. Using spacecraft observations and numerical models, the origins of the large-scale structures and long-term trends of the solar wind are explored in order to gain insights on how our Sun determines the space environments of the terrestrial planets. I use long term measurements of the solar wind density, velocity, interplanetary magnetic field, and particles, together with models based on solar magnetic field data, to generate time series of these properties that span one solar rotation (˜27 days). From these time series, I assemble and obtain the synoptic overviews of the solar wind properties. The resulting synoptic overviews show that the solar wind around Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars is a complex co-rotating structure with recurring features and occasional transients. During quiet solar conditions, the heliospheric current sheet, which separates the positive interplanetary magnetic field from the negative, usually has a remarkably steady two- or four-sector structure that persists for many solar rotations. Within the sector boundaries are the slow and fast speed solar wind streams that originate from the open coronal magnetic field sources that map to the ecliptic. At the sector boundaries, compressed high-density and the related high-dynamic pressure ridges form where streams from different coronal source regions interact. High fluxes of energetic particles also occur at the boundaries, and are seen most prominently during the quiet solar period. The existence of these recurring features depends on how long-lived are their source regions. In the last decade, 3D numerical solar wind models have become more widely available. They provide important scientific tools for obtaining a more global view of the inner heliosphere and of the relationships between conditions at Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars. When

  5. Field-aligned neutral wind bias correction scheme for global ionospheric modeling at midlatitudes by assimilating FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC hmF2 data under geomagnetically quiet conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yang-Yi; Matsuo, Tomoko; Maruyama, Naomi; Liu, Jann-Yenq

    2015-04-01

    This study demonstrates the usage of a data assimilation procedure, which ingests the FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC (F3/C) hmF2 observations to correct the model wind biases to enhance the capability of the new global Ionosphere Plasmasphere Electrodynamics (IPE) model under geomagnetically quiet conditions. The IPE model is built upon the field line interhemispheric plasma model with a realistic geomagnetic field model and empirical model drivers. The hmF2 observed by the F3/C radio occultation technique is utilized to adjust global thermospheric field-aligned neutral winds (i.e., a component of the thermospheric neutral wind parallel to the magnetic field) at midlatitudes according to a linear relationship between time differentials of the field-aligned wind and hmF2. The adjusted winds are further applied to drive the IPE model. The comparison of the modeled electron density with the observations of F3/C and ground-based GPS receivers at the 2012 March equinox suggests that the modeled electron density can be significantly improved in the midlatitude regions of the Southern Hemisphere, if the wind correction scheme is applied. Moreover, the F3/C observation, the IPE model, and the wind bias correction scheme are applied to study the 2012 Southern Hemisphere Midlatitude Summer Nighttime Anomaly (southern MSNA)/Weddell Sea Anomaly (WSA) event at December solstice for examining the role of the neutral winds in controlling the longitudinal variation of the southern MSNA/WSA behavior. With the help of the wind bias correction scheme, the IPE model better tracks the F3/C-observed eastward movement of the southern MSNA/WSA feature. The apparent eastward movement of the southern MSNA/WSA features in the local time coordinate is primarily caused by the longitudinal variation in the declination angle of the geomagnetic field that controls the field-aligned projection of both geographic meridional and zonal components of the neutral wind. Both the IPE simulations and the F3/C

  6. Search for fine scale structures in high latitude solar wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livi, S.; Parenti, S.; Poletto, G.

    1995-01-01

    About 25 years ago, E. Parker suggested that, as a consequence of the inhomogeneous structure of the corona, the solar wind might consist of adjacent structures with different physical conditions. Since that suggestion was made, the solar wind plasma characteristics have been measured in situ through many experiments, but little has been done to check whether the solar wind shows any evidence for fine scale structures, and, in the affirmative, how far from the Sun these structures persist. A previous work on this subject, by Thieme, Marsch and Schwenn (1990), based on Helios data, lead these authors to claim that the solar wind, between 0.3 and 1 AU, is inhomogeneous on a scale consistent with the hypothesis that the plume-interplume plasmas, at those distances, still retain their identity. In this work we present preliminary results from an investigation of the solar wind fine structure from Ulysses high latitude observations. To this end, we have analyzed data over several months, during 1994, at times well after Ulysses's last encounter with the Heliospheric Current Sheet, when the spacecraft was at latitudes above 50 degrees. These data refer to high speed wind coming from southern polar coronal holes and are best suited for plume-interplume identification. We have performed a power spectra analysis of typical plasma parameters, to test whether the wind plasma consist of two distinct plasma populations. We also examined data to check whether there is any evidence for an horizontal pressure balance over the hypothesized distinct structures. Our results are discussed and compared with previous findings.

  7. Density, Velocity and Ionization Structure in Accretion-disc Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Knox

    We propose to exploit the unique capabilities of it FUSE to monitor variations in the wind-formed spectral lines of 3 luminous, low-inclination, cataclysmic variables (CVs). Our principal goal is to improve our understanding of the dynamics of accretion-disc winds. We have previously used HST to investigate substantial and rapid (sim hours to minutes) variability in our target stars, BZ Cam, RW Sex and V603 Aql, and have demonstrated that their disc-outflows are highly structured. We aim here to follow up our discoveries by securing FUSE time-series data. These observations will allow us to determine the relative roles of density and ionization state changes in the outflow and to search for spectroscopic signatures of stochastic small-scale structure and shocked gas. By monitoring the temporal behavior of blue-ward extended absorption lines with a wide range of ionization potentials and excitation energies, we will track the changing physical conditions in the outflow. A new sophisticated Monte Carlo code will be used to calculate the ionization structure of and radiative transfer through CV winds. This will allow us to establish the wind geometry, kinematics and ionization state, both in a time-averaged sense and as a function of time. Our FUSE observations will provide a legacy that will be fundamental to the development of dynamical models of accretion-disc-driven winds, permitting critical tests of recent hydrodynamic simulations of unstable, line-driven disc winds.

  8. Wind/seismic comparisons for upgrading existing structures

    SciTech Connect

    Giller, R.A. )

    1989-10-01

    This paper depicts the analysis procedures and methods used to evaluate three existing building structures for extreme wind loads. The three structures involved in this evaluation are located at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. This site is characterized by open flat grassland with few surrounding obstructions and has extreme winds in lieu of tornados as a design basis accident condition. This group of buildings represents a variety of construction types, including a concrete stack, a concrete load-bearing wall structure, and a rigid steel-frame building. The three structures included in this group have recently been evaluated for response to the design basis earthquake that included non-linear time history effects. The resulting loads and stresses from the wind analyses were compared to the loads and stresses resulting from seismic analyses. This approach eliminated the need to prepare additional capacity calculations that were already contained in the seismic evaluations. 4 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Electrospray neutralization process and apparatus for generation of nano-aerosol and nano-structured materials

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, Charles L.; Morozov, Victor; Vsevolodov, Nikolai N.

    2010-08-17

    The claimed invention describes methods and apparatuses for manufacturing nano-aerosols and nano-structured materials based on the neutralization of charged electrosprayed products with oppositely charged electrosprayed products. Electrosprayed products include molecular ions, nano-clusters and nano-fibers. Nano-aerosols can be generated when neutralization occurs in the gas phase. Neutralization of electrospan nano-fibers with molecular ions and charged nano-clusters may result in the formation of fibrous aerosols or free nano-mats. Nano-mats can also be produced on a suitable substrate, forming efficient nano-filters.

  10. Neutral Wind Determination from SuperDARN Backscatter: Technique and Application to the Study of Atmospheric Waves and Tides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCubbin, Elizabeth Ann

    The Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) is a network of high-frequency (HF) radars designed to detect the horizontal motion of plasma drifting in the ionosphere over the Earth's mid- to high-latitude regions. These radars are also sensitive to ionization trails caused by meteors ablating in the upper atmosphere at mesosphere altitudes (85-100 km). Since the ionized meteor trails drift with the neutral atmosphere at these altitudes, they serve as a tracer for studying the dynamics of atmospheric waves. To analyze the background mean wind flow and atmospheric waves, a more reliable technique was developed for identifying meteor echoes from the variety of signals detected by these radars. Applying this technique to data obtained from several mid-latitude radars in 2011 reveals a diurnal and seasonal dependence of the occurrence of meteor echoes. In addition there is a dependence on the orientation between the radar viewing direction and the background wind direction. Further analysis identifies bursts of wave activity throughout the year, showing interesting results from a particular source known as the quasi-two-day wave (QTDW). It is shown that the variability in the amplitude of the QTDW maximizes near particular longitudes across North America. Furthermore, a detailed study of non-linear interactions between the QTDW and multiple wave periods is performed. A technique known as bispectral analysis, a third-order statistical method that identifies phase coupling between harmonic frequencies and secondary waves, is used to confirm that nonlinear wave interactions exist with the QTDW, as suggested by the power spectrum. This research provides a more reliable method for identifying meteor echoes from SuperDARN measurements and furthers our understanding of atmospheric dynamics in the mesosphere.

  11. Neutral Buoyancy Simulator - NB32 - Large Space Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a cooperative program of the European Space Agency (ESA) and the National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) to operate a long-lived space-based observatory; it was the flagship mission of NASA's Great Observatories program. The HST program began as an astronomical dream in the 1940s. During the 1970s and 1980s, HST was finally designed and built; and it finally became operational in the 1990s. HST was deployed into a low-Earth orbit on April 25, 1990 from the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31). The design of the HST took into consideration its length of service and the necessity of repairs and equipment replacement by making the body modular. In doing so, subsequent shuttle missions could recover the HST, replace faulty or obsolete parts and be re-released. MSFC's Neutral Buoyancy Simulator served as the training facility for shuttle astronauts for Hubble related missions. Shown is astronaut Sharnon Lucid having her life support system being checked prior to entering the NBS to begin training on the space telescope axial scientific instrument changeout.

  12. Structural transitions in neutral and charged proteins in vacuo.

    PubMed

    Arteca, G A; Tapia, O

    2001-01-01

    In vacuo proteins provide a simple laboratory to explore the roles of sequence, temperature, charge state, and initial configuration in protein folding. Moreover, by the very absence of solvent, the study of anhydrous proteins in vacuo will also help us to understand specific environmental effects. From the experimental viewpoint, these systems are now beginning to be characterized at low resolution. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, in combination with tools for protein shape analysis, can complement experiments and provide further insights on the folding-unfolding transitions of these proteins. We review some aspects of this issue by using the results from a detailed MD study of hen egg-white lysozyme. For lysozyme ions, unfolding can be triggered by Coulombic repulsion. In neutral lysozyme, unfolding can be induced by centrifugal forces and also by weakening the monomer-monomer interaction. In both cases, the resulting unfolded transients can be used as initial configurations for relaxation dynamics. All trajectories are analyzed in terms of global molecular shape features of the backbone, including its anisometry and chain entanglement complexity. This strategy allows us to quantify separately the degree of polymer collapse and the evolution of large-scale folding features. Using these last two notions, we discuss some basic questions regarding the nature of the accessible paths associated with unfolding from, and refolding into, compact conformers.

  13. Structural basis of respiratory syncytial virus neutralization by motavizumab

    SciTech Connect

    McLellan, Jason S.; Chen, Man; Kim, Albert; Yang, Yongping; Graham, Barney S.; Kwong, Peter D.

    2010-04-13

    Motavizumab is {approx}tenfold more potent than its predecessor, palivizumab (Synagis), the FDA-approved monoclonal antibody used to prevent respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. The structure of motavizumab in complex with a 24-residue peptide corresponding to its epitope on the RSV fusion (F) glycoprotein reveals the structural basis for this greater potency. Modeling suggests that motavizumab recognizes a different quaternary configuration of the F glycoprotein than that observed in a homologous structure.

  14. Spiropyran salts and their neutral precursors: synthesis, crystal structure, photochromic transformations in solutions and solid state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurieva, E. A.; Aldoshin, S. M.

    2015-06-01

    This review covers investigations of spiropyran iodides with N-substituted indoline fragment, and with the pyran cycle being annelated to N-methylated pyridine ring. The schemes of synthesis of iodides and their neutral precursors, as well as results of X-ray analysis and photochemical study of the crystals of the obtained compounds are presented. Based on our and literature data, the relationship between the structure and photochromic properties has been discussed for a series of salts and neutral pyridospiropyrans.

  15. Structural health monitoring of wind towers: residual fatigue life estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedetti, M.; Fontanari, V.; Battisti, L.

    2013-04-01

    In a recent paper (Benedetti et al 2011 Smart Mater. Struct. 20 055009), the authors investigated the possibility of detecting cracks in critical sites of onshore wind towers using a radial arrangement of strain sensors around the tower periphery in the vicinity of the base welded joint. Specifically, the strain difference between adjacent strain sensors is used as a damage indicator. The number of sensors to be installed is determined by the minimum crack size to be detected, which in turn depends on the expected extreme wind conditions and programmed inspection/repair schedule. In this companion paper, we address these issues by investigating possible strategies for residual fatigue life assessment and management of onshore wind towers once the crack has been detected. For this purpose, fracture mechanics tests are carried out using welded samples to quantify the resistance to fatigue crack growth as well as the elastic-plastic fracture toughness of the welded joint at the tower base. These material strength characteristics are used to estimate (i) the critical crack size for structural integrity on the basis of fracture toughness tests, elastoplastic finite element analyses and loading spectra under extreme wind conditions, (ii) the residual life before structural collapse, applying a frequency-domain method to typical in-service wind actions and wind directionality.

  16. On the relationship between wind profiles and the STS ascent structural loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Orvel E.; Adelfang, Stanley I.; Whitehead, Douglas S.

    1989-01-01

    The response of STS ascent structural load indicators to the wind profile is analyzed. The load indicator values versus Mach numbers are calculated with algorithms using trajectory information. The ascent load minimum margin concept is used to show that the detailed wind profile structure measured by the Jimsphere wind system is not needed to assess the STS rigid body structural wind loads.

  17. Structure of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Fusion Glycoprotein in the Postfusion Conformation Reveals Preservation of Neutralizing Epitopes

    SciTech Connect

    McLellan, Jason S.; Yang, Yongping; Graham, Barney S.; Kwong, Peter D.

    2011-09-16

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) invades host cells via a type I fusion (F) glycoprotein that undergoes dramatic structural rearrangements during the fusion process. Neutralizing monoclonal antibodies, such as 101F, palivizumab, and motavizumab, target two major antigenic sites on the RSV F glycoprotein. The structures of these sites as peptide complexes with motavizumab and 101F have been previously determined, but a structure for the trimeric RSV F glycoprotein ectodomain has remained elusive. To address this issue, we undertook structural and biophysical studies on stable ectodomain constructs. Here, we present the 2.8-{angstrom} crystal structure of the trimeric RSV F ectodomain in its postfusion conformation. The structure revealed that the 101F and motavizumab epitopes are present in the postfusion state and that their conformations are similar to those observed in the antibody-bound peptide structures. Both antibodies bound the postfusion F glycoprotein with high affinity in surface plasmon resonance experiments. Modeling of the antibodies bound to the F glycoprotein predicts that the 101F epitope is larger than the linear peptide and restricted to a single protomer in the trimer, whereas motavizumab likely contacts residues on two protomers, indicating a quaternary epitope. Mechanistically, these results suggest that 101F and motavizumab can bind to multiple conformations of the fusion glycoprotein and can neutralize late in the entry process. The structural preservation of neutralizing epitopes in the postfusion state suggests that this conformation can elicit neutralizing antibodies and serve as a useful vaccine antigen.

  18. Structure and composition of the neutral upper atmosphere of Mars from the MAVEN NGIMS investigation

    PubMed Central

    Benna, M.; Elrod, M.; Yelle, R. V.; Bougher, S. W.; Stone, S. W.; Jakosky, B. M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer (NGIMS) provides sensitive detections of neutral gas and ambient ion composition. NGIMS measurements of nine atomic and molecular neutral species, and their variation with altitude, latitude, and solar zenith angle are reported over several months of operation of the MAVEN mission. Sampling NGIMS signals from multiple neutral species every several seconds reveals persistent and unexpectedly large amplitude density structures. The scale height temperatures are mapped over the course of the first few months of the mission from high down to midlatitudes. NGIMS measurements near the homopause of 40Ar/N2 ratios agree with those reported by the Sample Analysis at Mars investigation and allow the altitude of the homopause for the most abundant gases to be established. PMID:27667873

  19. Centrifugally driven winds from protostellar disks. I - Wind model and thermal structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Safier, Pedro N.

    1993-01-01

    The thermal structure of a wind that is centrifugally driven from the surface of a protostellar disk is studied. A generalized version of the Blandford and Payne self-similar wind model is introduced, and the temperature and ionization distributions in the outflow are investigated. For the evolution of atomic winds, the heat equation and the rate equations that describe the ionization and excitation state of hydrogen are solved self-consistently. Ambipolar diffusion is found to be a robust mechanism for heating the gas. In the more powerful outflows, molecular hydrogen is collisionally dissociated close to the disk surface, and hydrogen is mainly atomic within a few astronomical units from the central source. It is also demonstrated that these outflows have enough momentum to lift dust grains from the disk surface.

  20. Density, Velocity and Ionization Structure in Accretion-Disc Winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonneborn, George (Technical Monitor); Long, Knox

    2004-01-01

    This was a project to exploit the unique capabilities of FUSE to monitor variations in the wind- formed spectral lines of the luminous, low-inclination, cataclysmic variables(CV) -- RW Sex. (The original proposal contained two additional objects but these were not approved.) These observations were intended to allow us to determine the relative roles of density and ionization state changes in the outflow and to search for spectroscopic signatures of stochastic small-scale structure and shocked gas. By monitoring the temporal behavior of blue-ward extended absorption lines with a wide range of ionization potentials and excitation energies, we proposed to track the changing physical conditions in the outflow. We planned to use a new Monte Carlo code to calculate the ionization structure of and radiative transfer through the CV wind. The analysis therefore was intended to establish the wind geometry, kinematics and ionization state, both in a time-averaged sense and as a function of time.

  1. A Review of Wind Project Financing Structures in the USA

    SciTech Connect

    Bolinger, Mark A; Harper, John; Karcher, Matthew

    2008-09-24

    The rapid pace of wind power development in the U.S. over the last decade has outstripped the ability of most project developers to provide adequate equity capital and make efficient use of project-related tax benefits. In response, the sector has created novel project financing structures that feature varying combinations of equity capital from project developers and third-party tax-oriented investors, and in some cases commercial debt. While their origins stem from variations in the financial capacity and business objectives of wind project developers, as well as the risk tolerances and objectives of equity and debt providers, each structure is, at its core, designed to manage project risk and allocate federal tax incentives to those entities that can use them most efficiently. This article surveys the six principal financing structures through which most new utility-scale wind projects (excluding utility-owned projects) in the U.S. have been financed from 1999 to the present. These structures include simple balance-sheet finance, several varieties of all-equity special allocation partnership 'flip' structures, and two leveraged structures. In addition to describing each structure's mechanics, the article also discusses its rationale for use, the types of investors that find it appealing and why, and its relative frequency of use in the market. The article concludes with a generalized summary of how a developer might choose one structure over another.

  2. Some Notes on the Determination of the Stick-Free Neutral Point from Wind-Tunnel Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuldenfrei, Marvin

    1944-01-01

    Two graphical methods are presented for determining the stick-free neutral point, and they are extensions of the methods commonly used to determine the stick-free neutral point. A mathematical formula for computing the stick-free neutral point is also given. These methods may be applied to determine approximately the increase in tail size necessary to shift the neutral point (stick fixed or free) to any desired location on an airplane having inadequate longitudinal stability.

  3. Electronic and magnetic structure of neutral radical FBBO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, Stephen M.; Mailman, Aaron; Oakley, Richard T.; Thirunavukkuarasu, Komalavalli; Hill, Stephen; Graf, David E.; Tozer, Stanley W.; Tse, John S.; Mito, Masaki; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi

    2014-06-01

    The fluorinated oxobenzo-bridged bisdithiazolyl radical FBBO was recently observed to undergo a pressure-induced Mott insulator-to-metal transition, suggesting a novel organic system for studying Mott physics. This report describes the electronic structure of this material in relation to the observed magnetic response at low pressures. Through analysis of antiferromagnetic resonance measurements, we identify a layered antiferromagnetic ordered phase below TN=13 K at ambient pressure, which requires strong ferromagnetic coupling between nearest neighbours. The origin of such coupling is elucidated from both molecular and solid-state electronic-structure calculations, which suggest a minimal two-orbital model with strong Hund's-rule coupling. This layered phase is partially frustrated by a second-nearest-neighbor antiferromagnetic coupling, which drives a magnetic phase transition at elevated pressure. On the basis of the two-orbital model, we suggest the pressure-induced Mott transition to proceed via rehybridization of the frontier molecular orbitals, resulting in a half-filled insulator to quarter-filled metal crossover.

  4. Rotor blade structure and mounting for vertical axis wind machines

    SciTech Connect

    Lechner, W. L.

    1981-02-03

    A lightweight simplified economical and efficient sail or rotor blade for a vertical axis wind machine and simplified self-acting restraining means for the blade during rotor operation are disclosed. The rotor structure is characterized by ease of assembly and the absence of need for adjustment and frequent maintenance. Individual rotor blades are attached to vertical axis whips extending above and below horizontal rotor arms. The rotor is self-starting and turns in one direction only in response to wind coming from any direction on the compass.

  5. Focused Evolution of HIV-1 Neutralizing Antibodies Revealed by Structures and Deep Sequencing

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Xueling; Zhou, Tongqing; Zhu, Jiang; Zhang, Baoshan; Georgiev, Ivelin; Wang, Charlene; Chen, Xuejun; Longo, Nancy S.; Louder, Mark; McKee, Krisha; O’Dell, Sijy; Perfetto, Stephen; Schmidt, Stephen D.; Shi, Wei; Wu, Lan; Yang, Yongping; Yang, Zhi-Yong; Yang, Zhongjia; Zhang, Zhenhai; Bonsignori, Mattia; Crump, John A.; Kapiga, Saidi H.; Sam, Noel E.; Haynes, Barton F.; Simek, Melissa; Burton, Dennis R.; Koff, Wayne C.; Doria-Rose, Nicole A.; Connors, Mark; Mullikin, James C.; Nabel, Gary J.; Roederer, Mario; Shapiro, Lawrence; Kwong, Peter D.; Mascola, John R.

    2013-03-04

    Antibody VRC01 is a human immunoglobulin that neutralizes about 90% of HIV-1 isolates. To understand how such broadly neutralizing antibodies develop, we used x-ray crystallography and 454 pyrosequencing to characterize additional VRC01-like antibodies from HIV-1-infected individuals. Crystal structures revealed a convergent mode of binding for diverse antibodies to the same CD4-binding-site epitope. A functional genomics analysis of expressed heavy and light chains revealed common pathways of antibody-heavy chain maturation, confined to the IGHV1-2*02 lineage, involving dozens of somatic changes, and capable of pairing with different light chains. Broadly neutralizing HIV-1 immunity associated with VRC01-like antibodies thus involves the evolution of antibodies to a highly affinity-matured state required to recognize an invariant viral structure, with lineages defined from thousands of sequences providing a genetic roadmap of their development.

  6. Structural Constraints of Vaccine-Induced Tier-2 Autologous HIV Neutralizing Antibodies Targeting the Receptor-Binding Site.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Todd; Fera, Daniela; Bhiman, Jinal; Eslamizar, Leila; Lu, Xiaozhi; Anasti, Kara; Zhang, Ruijung; Sutherland, Laura L; Scearce, Richard M; Bowman, Cindy M; Stolarchuk, Christina; Lloyd, Krissey E; Parks, Robert; Eaton, Amanda; Foulger, Andrew; Nie, Xiaoyan; Karim, Salim S Abdool; Barnett, Susan; Kelsoe, Garnett; Kepler, Thomas B; Alam, S Munir; Montefiori, David C; Moody, M Anthony; Liao, Hua-Xin; Morris, Lynn; Santra, Sampa; Harrison, Stephen C; Haynes, Barton F

    2016-01-05

    Antibodies that neutralize autologous transmitted/founder (TF) HIV occur in most HIV-infected individuals and can evolve to neutralization breadth. Autologous neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) against neutralization-resistant (Tier-2) viruses are rarely induced by vaccination. Whereas broadly neutralizing antibody (bnAb)-HIV-Envelope structures have been defined, the structures of autologous nAbs have not. Here, we show that immunization with TF mutant Envs gp140 oligomers induced high-titer, V5-dependent plasma neutralization for a Tier-2 autologous TF evolved mutant virus. Structural analysis of autologous nAb DH427 revealed binding to V5, demonstrating the source of narrow nAb specificity and explaining the failure to acquire breadth. Thus, oligomeric TF Envs can elicit autologous nAbs to Tier-2 HIVs, but induction of bnAbs will require targeting of precursors of B cell lineages that can mature to heterologous neutralization.

  7. Structural integrity of wind tunnel wooden fan blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Clarence P., Jr.; Wingate, Robert T.; Rooker, James R.; Mort, Kenneth W.; Zager, Harold E.

    1991-01-01

    Information is presented which was compiled by the NASA Inter-Center Committee on Structural Integrity of Wooden Fan Blades and is intended for use as a guide in design, fabrication, evaluation, and assurance of fan systems using wooden blades. A risk assessment approach for existing NASA wind tunnels with wooden fan blades is provided. Also, state of the art information is provided for wooden fan blade design, drive system considerations, inspection and monitoring methods, and fan blade repair. Proposed research and development activities are discussed, and recommendations are provided which are aimed at future wooden fan blade design activities and safely maintaining existing NASA wind tunnel fan blades. Information is presented that will be of value to wooden fan blade designers, fabricators, inspectors, and wind tunnel operations personnel.

  8. Effects of structure flexibility on horizontal axis wind turbine performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coiro, D. P.; Daniele, E.; Scherillo, F.

    2013-10-01

    This work illustrates the effects of flexibility of rotor blades and turbine tower on the performances of an horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) designed by our ADAG research group, by means of several example applied on a recent project for a active pitch controlled upwind 60 kW HAWT. The influence of structural flexibility for blade only, tower only and blade coupled with tower configuration is investigated using an aero-elastic computer-aided engineering (CAE) tool for horizontal axis wind turbines named FAST developed at National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) of USA. For unsteady inflow conditions in front of the isolated HAWT the performances in rigid and flexible operation mode are computed and compared in order to illustrate the limitation included within a classical rigid body approach to wind turbine simulation.

  9. Wind turbines mounted on existing structures in windy areas

    SciTech Connect

    Manalis, M.S.; Smith, D.R.

    1995-12-31

    Mel Manalis and Jim Davidson of the Environmental Studies Program at UCSB have done a wind energy study for the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans). Caltrans has control of large areas in California and uses significant amounts of electricity for industrial, commercial, and highway illumination uses, and would like to use as much environmentally sustainable energy as possible. A particularly promising result of the study was the wind resource found to exist under the Antioch Highway Bridge from Solano to Contra Costa counties over the Sacramento River, just downwind (east) of the wind power plants built by Kenetech Windpower for PG&E and the Sacramento Municipal Utility District. Meteorological monitoring has shown the existing bridge structure tends to concentrate the wind flow just under the bridge. In addition, if small wind turbines (in the range of 10 kW) could be suspended from the bridge, the savings in tower costs could result in competitive costs of energy with a short payback time to Caltrans.

  10. Simultaneous Observations of Electric Fields, Current Density, Plasma Density, and Neutral Winds During Two Sounding Rocket Experiments Launched from Wallops Island into Strong Daytime Dynamo Currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfaff, R. F., Jr.; Rowland, D. E.; Klenzing, J.; Freudenreich, H. T.; Martin, S. C.; Abe, T.; Habu, H.; Yamamoto, M. Y.; Watanabe, S.; Yamamoto, M.; Yokoyama, T.; Kakinami, Y.; Yamazaki, Y.; Larsen, M. F.; Hurd, L.; Clemmons, J. H.; Bishop, R. L.; Walterscheid, R. L.; Fish, C. S.; Bullett, T. W.; Mabie, J. J.; Murphy, N.; Angelopoulos, V.; Leinweber, H. K.; Bernal, I.; Chi, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the ion-neutral coupling that creates the global electrical daytime "dynamo" currents in the mid-latitude, lower ionosphere, NASA carried out two multiple sounding rocket experiments from Wallops Island, VA on July 10, 2011 (14:00 UT, 10:00 LT) and July 4, 2013 (14:31 UT, 10:31 LT). The rockets were launched in the presence of well-defined, westward Hall currents observed on the ground with ΔH values of ­-25 nT and -30 nT, respectively, as well as a well-defined, daytime ionospheric density observed by the VIPIR ionosonde at Wallops. During the 2011 experiment, a narrow, intense sporadic-E layer was observed near 102 km. Each experiment consisted of a pair of rockets launched 15 sec apart. The first rocket of each pair carried instruments to measure DC electric and magnetic fields, as well as the ambient plasma and neutral gases and attained apogees of 158 km and 135 km in the 2011 and 2013 experiments, respectively. The second rocket of each pair carried canisters which released a lithium vapor trail along the upleg to illuminate neutral winds in the upper atmosphere. This daytime vapor trail technology was developed jointly by researchers at JAXA and Clemson University. In the second experiment, the lithium release was clearly visible in cameras with infrared filters operated by US and Japanese researchers in a NASA airplane at 9.6 km altitude. The observed wind profiles reached speeds of 100 m/s with strong shears with respect to altitude and were consistent with an independent derivation of the wind from the ionization gauge sensor suite on the instrumented rocket. The "vapor trail" rockets, which also included a falling sphere, attained apogees of 150 km and 143 km in the 2011 and 2013 experiments, respectively. By measuring the current density, conductivity, DC electric fields, and neutral winds, we solve the dynamo equation as a function of altitude, revealing the different contributions to the lower E-region currents. We find that the DC

  11. From structuralism to neutral monism in Arthur S. Eddington's philosophy of physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gherab-Martin, Karim J.

    2013-11-01

    Arthur S. Eddington is remembered as one of the best astrophysicists and popularizers of physics in the twentieth century. Nevertheless, his stimulating speculations in philosophy produced serious disputes among philosophers of his time, his philosophy remaining linked to idealism and mysticism. This paper shows this label to be misleading and argues for the identification of Eddington's philosophy with a kind of neutral monism regained from Bertrand Russell and influenced by the Gestalt psychology. The concept of structure is fundamental to our argument for the existence of a veiled neutral monism in Eddington's ideas.

  12. Structural Basis for Recognition of Human Enterovirus 71 by a Bivalent Broadly Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibody

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Zhiqiang; Zuo, Teng; Kong, Liangliang; Zhang, Chao; Shi, Jinping; Liu, Qingwei; Chen, Tan; Zhang, Yingyi; Jiang, Wen; Zhang, Linqi; Huang, Zhong; Cong, Yao

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the main pathogen responsible for hand, foot and mouth disease with severe neurological complications and even death in young children. We have recently identified a highly potent anti-EV71 neutralizing monoclonal antibody, termed D5. Here we investigated the structural basis for recognition of EV71 by the antibody D5. Four three-dimensional structures of EV71 particles in complex with IgG or Fab of D5 were reconstructed by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) single particle analysis all at subnanometer resolutions. The most critical EV71 mature virion-Fab structure was resolved to a resolution of 4.8 Å, which is rare in cryo-EM studies of virus-antibody complex so far. The structures reveal a bivalent binding pattern of D5 antibody across the icosahedral 2-fold axis on mature virion, suggesting that D5 binding may rigidify virions to prevent their conformational changes required for subsequent RNA release. Moreover, we also identified that the complementary determining region 3 (CDR3) of D5 heavy chain directly interacts with the extremely conserved VP1 GH-loop of EV71, which was validated by biochemical and virological assays. We further showed that D5 is indeed able to neutralize a variety of EV71 genotypes and strains. Moreover, D5 could potently confer protection in a mouse model of EV71 infection. Since the conserved VP1 GH-loop is involved in EV71 binding with its uncoating receptor, the scavenger receptor class B, member 2 (SCARB2), the broadly neutralizing ability of D5 might attribute to its inhibition of EV71 from binding SCARB2. Altogether, our results elucidate the structural basis for the binding and neutralization of EV71 by the broadly neutralizing antibody D5, thereby enhancing our understanding of antibody-based protection against EV71 infection. PMID:26938634

  13. Structural Basis for Recognition of Human Enterovirus 71 by a Bivalent Broadly Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibody.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xiaohua; Fan, Chen; Ku, Zhiqiang; Zuo, Teng; Kong, Liangliang; Zhang, Chao; Shi, Jinping; Liu, Qingwei; Chen, Tan; Zhang, Yingyi; Jiang, Wen; Zhang, Linqi; Huang, Zhong; Cong, Yao

    2016-03-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the main pathogen responsible for hand, foot and mouth disease with severe neurological complications and even death in young children. We have recently identified a highly potent anti-EV71 neutralizing monoclonal antibody, termed D5. Here we investigated the structural basis for recognition of EV71 by the antibody D5. Four three-dimensional structures of EV71 particles in complex with IgG or Fab of D5 were reconstructed by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) single particle analysis all at subnanometer resolutions. The most critical EV71 mature virion-Fab structure was resolved to a resolution of 4.8 Å, which is rare in cryo-EM studies of virus-antibody complex so far. The structures reveal a bivalent binding pattern of D5 antibody across the icosahedral 2-fold axis on mature virion, suggesting that D5 binding may rigidify virions to prevent their conformational changes required for subsequent RNA release. Moreover, we also identified that the complementary determining region 3 (CDR3) of D5 heavy chain directly interacts with the extremely conserved VP1 GH-loop of EV71, which was validated by biochemical and virological assays. We further showed that D5 is indeed able to neutralize a variety of EV71 genotypes and strains. Moreover, D5 could potently confer protection in a mouse model of EV71 infection. Since the conserved VP1 GH-loop is involved in EV71 binding with its uncoating receptor, the scavenger receptor class B, member 2 (SCARB2), the broadly neutralizing ability of D5 might attribute to its inhibition of EV71 from binding SCARB2. Altogether, our results elucidate the structural basis for the binding and neutralization of EV71 by the broadly neutralizing antibody D5, thereby enhancing our understanding of antibody-based protection against EV71 infection.

  14. THE MULTIPHASE STRUCTURE AND POWER SOURCES OF GALACTIC WINDS IN MAJOR MERGERS

    SciTech Connect

    Rupke, David S. N.; Veilleux, Sylvain

    2013-05-01

    Massive, galaxy-scale outflows are known to be ubiquitous in major mergers of disk galaxies in the local universe. In this paper, we explore the multiphase structure and power sources of galactic winds in six ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) at z < 0.06 using deep integral field spectroscopy with the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph (GMOS) on Gemini North. We probe the neutral, ionized, and dusty gas phases using Na I D, strong emission lines ([O I], H{alpha}, and [N II]), and continuum colors, respectively. We separate outflow motions from those due to rotation and tidal perturbations, and find that all of the galaxies in our sample host high-velocity flows on kiloparsec scales. The properties of these outflows are consistent with multiphase (ionized, neutral, and dusty) collimated bipolar winds emerging along the minor axis of the nuclear disk to scales of 1-2 kpc. In two cases, these collimated winds take the form of bipolar superbubbles, identified by clear kinematic signatures. Less collimated (but still high-velocity) flows are also present on scales up to 5 kpc in most systems. The three galaxies in our sample with obscured QSOs host higher velocity outflows than those in the three galaxies with no evidence for an active galactic nucleus. The peak outflow velocity in each of the QSOs is in the range 1450-3350 km s{sup -1}, and the highest velocities (2000-3000 km s{sup -1}) are seen only in ionized gas. The outflow energy and momentum in the QSOs are difficult to produce from a starburst alone, but are consistent with the QSO contributing significantly to the driving of the flow. Finally, when all gas phases are accounted for, the outflows are massive enough to provide negative feedback to star formation.

  15. Structural Basis for Broad and Potent Neutralization of HIV-1 by Antibody VRC01

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Tongqing; Georgiev, Ivelin; Wu, Xueling; Yang, Zhi-Yong; Dai, Kaifan; Finzi, Andrés; Kwon, Young Do; Scheid, Johannes F.; Shi, Wei; Xu, Ling; Yang, Yongping; Zhu, Jiang; Nussenzweig, Michel C.; Sodroski, Joseph; Shapiro, Lawrence; Nabel, Gary J.; Mascola, John R.; Kwong, Peter D.

    2010-08-26

    During HIV-1 infection, antibodies are generated against the region of the viral gp120 envelope glycoprotein that binds CD4, the primary receptor for HIV-1. Among these antibodies, VRC01 achieves broad neutralization of diverse viral strains. We determined the crystal structure of VRC01 in complex with a human immunodeficiency virus HIV-1 gp120 core. VRC01 partially mimics CD4 interaction with gp120. A shift from the CD4-defined orientation, however, focuses VRC01 onto the vulnerable site of initial CD4 attachment, allowing it to overcome the glycan and conformational masking that diminishes the neutralization potency of most CD4-binding-site antibodies. To achieve this recognition, VRC01 contacts gp120 mainly through immunoglobulin V-gene regions substantially altered from their genomic precursors. Partial receptor mimicry and extensive affinity maturation thus facilitate neutralization of HIV-1 by natural human antibodies.

  16. Structural interfaces in linear elasticity. Part II: Effective properties and neutrality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertoldi, K.; Bigoni, D.; Drugan, W. J.

    2007-01-01

    The model of structural interfaces developed in Part I of this paper allows us to analytically attack and solve different problems of stress concentration and composites. In particular, (i) new formulae are given for effective properties of composite materials containing dilute suspensions of (randomly oriented) reinforced elliptical voids or inclusions; (ii) a new definition is proposed for inclusion neutrality (to account for the fact that the matrix is always 'overstressed', and thus non-neutral in a classical sense, at the contacts with the interfacial structure), which is shown to provide interesting stress optimality conditions. More generally, it is shown that the incorporation of an interfacial structure at the contact between two elastic solids exhibits properties that cannot be obtained using the more conventional approach of the zero-thickness, linear interface. For instance: contrary to the zero-thickness interface, both bulk and shear effective moduli can be optimized for a structural interface; effective properties higher that those possible with a perfect interface can be attained with a structural interface; and neutrality holds with a structural interface for a substantially broader range of parameters than for a zero-thickness interface.

  17. Understanding the structural transformation, stability of medium-sized neutral and charged silicon clusters

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Li Ping; Zhang, Fang Hui; Zhu, Yong Sheng; Lu, Cheng; Kuang, Xiao Yu; Lv, Jian; Shao, Peng

    2015-01-01

    The structural and electronic properties for the global minimum structures of medium-sized neutral, anionic and cationic Sinμ (n = 20–30, μ = 0, −1 and +1) clusters have been studied using an unbiased CALYPSO structure searching method in conjunction with first-principles calculations. A large number of low-lying isomers are optimized at the B3PW91/6-311 + G* level of theory. Harmonic vibrational analysis has been performed to assure that the optimized geometries are stable. The growth behaviors clearly indicate that a structural transition from the prolate to spherical-like geometries occurs at n = 26 for neutral silicon clusters, n = 27 for anions and n = 25 for cations. These results are in good agreement with the available experimental and theoretical predicted findings. In addition, no significant structural differences are observed between the neutral and cation charged silicon clusters with n = 20–24, both of them favor prolate structures. The HOMO-LUMO gaps and vertical ionization potential patterns indicate that Si22 is the most chemical stable cluster, and its dynamical stability is deeply discussed by the vibrational spectra calculations. PMID:26526519

  18. Understanding the structural transformation, stability of medium-sized neutral and charged silicon clusters.

    PubMed

    Ding, Li Ping; Zhang, Fang Hui; Zhu, Yong Sheng; Lu, Cheng; Kuang, Xiao Yu; Lv, Jian; Shao, Peng

    2015-11-03

    The structural and electronic properties for the global minimum structures of medium-sized neutral, anionic and cationic Sin(μ) (n = 20-30, μ = 0, -1 and +1) clusters have been studied using an unbiased CALYPSO structure searching method in conjunction with first-principles calculations. A large number of low-lying isomers are optimized at the B3PW91/6-311 + G* level of theory. Harmonic vibrational analysis has been performed to assure that the optimized geometries are stable. The growth behaviors clearly indicate that a structural transition from the prolate to spherical-like geometries occurs at n = 26 for neutral silicon clusters, n = 27 for anions and n = 25 for cations. These results are in good agreement with the available experimental and theoretical predicted findings. In addition, no significant structural differences are observed between the neutral and cation charged silicon clusters with n = 20-24, both of them favor prolate structures. The HOMO-LUMO gaps and vertical ionization potential patterns indicate that Si22 is the most chemical stable cluster, and its dynamical stability is deeply discussed by the vibrational spectra calculations.

  19. Visualising the electron density structure of blobs and studying its possible effect on neutral turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Cal, E.; The TJ-II Team

    2016-10-01

    The electron density n e of turbulent coherent structures (blobs) has been measured at the edge plasma of the TJ-II stellarator using the helium line ratio technique. A spectroscopic high-speed camera set-up allowed 2D imaging of n e with spatial resolutions of a few millimetres and exposure times down to 15 µs. The turbulent plasma density structures have been compared with the raw helium emission structures, which in principle should be similar due to the expected relation between both, and although generally positive (negative) emission structures correspond to n e blobs (holes), we see that the shape is different and that in some cases there is even no correspondence at all. A possible explanation could be that the neutral distribution, which relates the intensity emission with the n e, varies on the same spatio-temporal scale as the plasma turbulence. This would be the case if the local n e variations of blobs and holes regulated the neutral density through ionisation, making it also turbulent within our experimental frequency (<100 kHz) and spatial scale (>1 cm). To study this point we simulate the neutrals with a simple transport model to reconstruct the corresponding measured emission profiles using the experimentally obtained n e and T e radial profiles. We do this for two cases: one where the neutral distribution is stationary and another where the atoms respond to the measured n e blob and get locally depleted through ionisation. Comparing the simulated and experimental emission profiles and looking at the characteristic ionisation times we find clear indications that point to the fact that slow thermal neutrals could react to the plasma fluctuations in the 10-100 kHz frequency range, also becoming turbulent.

  20. Community investment in wind farms: funding structure effects in wind energy infrastructure development.

    PubMed

    Beery, Joshua A; Day, Jennifer E

    2015-03-03

    Wind energy development is an increasingly popular form of renewable energy infrastructure in rural areas. Communities generally perceive socioeconomic benefits accrue and that community funding structures are preferable to corporate structures, yet lack supporting quantitative data to inform energy policy. This study uses the Everpower wind development, to be located in Midwestern Ohio, as a hypothetical modeling environment to identify and examine socioeconomic impact trends arising from corporate, community and diversified funding structures. Analysis of five National Renewable Energy Laboratory Jobs and Economic Development Impact models incorporating local economic data and review of relevant literature were conducted. The findings suggest that community and diversified funding structures exhibit 40-100% higher socioeconomic impact levels than corporate structures. Prioritization of funding sources and retention of federal tax incentives were identified as key elements. The incorporation of local shares was found to mitigate the negative effects of foreign private equity, local debt financing increased economic output and opportunities for private equity investment were identified. The results provide the groundwork for energy policies focused to maximize socioeconomic impacts while creating opportunities for inclusive economic participation and improved social acceptance levels fundamental to the deployment of renewable energy technology.

  1. Further Study of Isolated Electrostatic Structures in the Solar Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellogg, P. J.

    2003-12-01

    A large number of short (sub-millisecond) waveforms has been observed by the Waves Time Domain Sampler on Wind. Similar waveforms have been analyzed by Mangeney et al (1999). They and Lacombe et al (2002) concentrated on double layer-like waveforms having a net potential change, but this study concentrates on electron hole-like waveforms with little potential change. The waveforms are compact, having Debye-length scales. They are often shorter than the X antenna, 100 m tip to tip, and this allows determination of their size and velocity. In many cases they are associated with magnetic discontinuities, and also in many cases occur in close proximity to ion acoustic wave bursts, from which they may evolve. Like the cases analyzed by Mangeney et al, they are quite weak, leading to electric fields of a few tenths of a millivolt per meter. Their structures are generally consistent with electron holes. Lacombe, C., C.Salem, A.Mangeney, D.Hubert, C.Perche, J-L.Bougeret, P.J.Kellogg, K.Goetz, J-M.Bosqued, "Evidence for the interplanetary potential? WIND observations of electrostatic fluctuations", Annales Geophysicae, 20, 609-618, 2002 Mangeney A., C.Salem, C.Lacombe, J-L.Bougeret, C.Perche, R.Manning, P.J.Kellogg, K.Goetz, S.J.Monson, J-M.Bosqued, "WIND observations of coherent electrostatic waves in the solar wind" Annales Geophysicae 17, 307-320, 1999

  2. Stapled HIV-1 Peptides Recapitulate Antigenic Structures and Engage Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Bird, Gregory H.; Irimia, Adriana; Ofek, Gilad; Kwong, Peter D.; Wilson, Ian A.; Walensky, Loren D.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrocarbon stapling can restore bioactive, α-helical structure to natural peptides, yielding research tools and prototype therapeutics to dissect and target protein interactions. Here, we explore the capacity of peptide stapling to generate high fidelity, protease-resistant mimics of antigenic structures for vaccine development. HIV-1 has been refractory to vaccine technologies thus far, although select human antibodies can broadly neutralize HIV-1 by targeting sequences of the gp41 juxtamembrane fusion apparatus. To develop candidate HIV-1 immunogens, we generated and characterized stabilized α-helices of the membrane proximal external region (SAH-MPER) of gp41. SAH-MPER peptides were remarkably protease-resistant and bound to the broadly neutralizing 4E10 and 10E8 antibodies with high affinity, recapitulating the structure of the MPER epitope when differentially engaged by the two anti-HIV Fabs. Thus, stapled peptides may provide a new opportunity to develop chemically-stabilized antigens for vaccination. PMID:25420104

  3. Stapled HIV-1 peptides recapitulate antigenic structures and engage broadly neutralizing antibodies.

    PubMed

    Bird, Gregory H; Irimia, Adriana; Ofek, Gilad; Kwong, Peter D; Wilson, Ian A; Walensky, Loren D

    2014-12-01

    Hydrocarbon stapling can restore bioactive α-helical structure to natural peptides, yielding research tools and prototype therapeutics to dissect and target protein interactions. Here we explore the capacity of peptide stapling to generate high-fidelity, protease-resistant mimics of antigenic structures for vaccine development. HIV-1 has been refractory to vaccine technologies thus far, although select human antibodies can broadly neutralize HIV-1 by targeting sequences of the gp41 juxtamembrane fusion apparatus. To develop candidate HIV-1 immunogens, we generated and characterized stabilized α-helices of the membrane-proximal external region (SAH-MPER) of gp41. SAH-MPER peptides were remarkably protease resistant and bound to the broadly neutralizing 4E10 and 10E8 antibodies with high affinity, recapitulating the structure of the MPER epitope when differentially engaged by the two anti-HIV Fabs. Thus, stapled peptides may provide a new opportunity to develop chemically stabilized antigens for vaccination.

  4. Electronic structure of neutral and charged vacancies in GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Hongqi; Lindefelt, U.

    1990-03-01

    We have performed self-consistent tight-binding calculations on the neutral and charged states of the undistorted Ga and As vacancies in GaAs with the Lanczos-Haydock recursion method. For neutral states, defect potentials on the first- and second-nearest neighbors of a vacancy are obtained by a charge-neutrality condition, while for charged states these potentials are determined self-consistently. A discussion of the nature of both anion and cation vacancies in III-V compound semiconductors in terms of the bulk properties is given. The general characteristics of the electronic structure of the vacancies in GaAs are extracted from a detailed calculation and analysis in the case where a vacancy is neutral. In addition, we have calculated the electronic structure for the various charge states of the vacancies in GaAs. The predicted trends for the bound electron states in the gap are presented. Our results agree well with the self-consistent local-density-theory calculation for GaAs:V0Ga and GaAs:V0As of Bachelet et al. and with the recently published positron-annihilation-spectroscopy data for two charge-state transitions of the arsenic vacancy, V2-As-->V-As and V-As-->V0As, by Corbel et al.

  5. Crystal structure of SmcL, a bacterial neutral sphingomyelinase C from Listeria.

    PubMed

    Openshaw, Amy E A; Race, Paul R; Monzó, Hector J; Vázquez-Boland, José-Antonio; Banfield, Mark J

    2005-10-14

    Sphingomyelinases C are enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of sphingomyelin in biological membranes to ceramide and phosphorylcholine. Various pathogenic bacteria produce secreted neutral sphingomyelinases C that act as membrane-damaging virulence factors. Mammalian neutral sphingomyelinases C, which display sequence homology to the bacterial enzymes, are involved in sphingolipid metabolism and signaling. This article describes the first structure to be determined for a member of the neutral sphingomyelinase C family, SmcL, from the intracellular bacterial pathogen Listeria ivanovii. The structure has been refined to 1.9-A resolution with phases derived by single isomorphous replacement with anomalous scattering techniques from a single iridium derivative. SmcL adopts a DNase I-like fold, and is the first member of this protein superfamily to have its structure determined that acts as a phospholipase. The structure reveals several unique features that adapt the protein to its phospholipid substrate. These include large hydrophobic beta-hairpin and hydrophobic loops surrounding the active site that may bind and penetrate the lipid bilayer to position sphingomyelin in a catalytically competent position. The structure also provides insight into the proposed general base/acid catalytic mechanism, in which His-325 and His-185 play key roles.

  6. Near-Atomic Resolution Structure of a Highly Neutralizing Fab Bound to Canine Parvovirus.

    PubMed

    Organtini, Lindsey J; Lee, Hyunwook; Iketani, Sho; Huang, Kai; Ashley, Robert E; Makhov, Alexander M; Conway, James F; Parrish, Colin R; Hafenstein, Susan

    2016-11-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) is a highly contagious pathogen that causes severe disease in dogs and wildlife. Previously, a panel of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAb) raised against CPV was characterized. An antibody fragment (Fab) of MAb E was found to neutralize the virus at low molar ratios. Using recent advances in cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), we determined the structure of CPV in complex with Fab E to 4.1 Å resolution, which allowed de novo building of the Fab structure. The footprint identified was significantly different from the footprint obtained previously from models fitted into lower-resolution maps. Using single-chain variable fragments, we tested antibody residues that control capsid binding. The near-atomic structure also revealed that Fab binding had caused capsid destabilization in regions containing key residues conferring receptor binding and tropism, which suggests a mechanism for efficient virus neutralization by antibody. Furthermore, a general technical approach to solving the structures of small molecules is demonstrated, as binding the Fab to the capsid allowed us to determine the 50-kDa Fab structure by cryo-EM.

  7. Simulation of the atmospheric boundary layer in the wind tunnel for modeling of wind loads on low-rise structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tieleman, H. W.; Reinhold, T. A.; Marshall, R. D.

    1976-01-01

    The lower part of the atmospheric boundary layer (strong wind conditions) was simulated in low speed wind tunnel for the modeling of wind loads on low-rise structures. The turbulence characteristics of the turbulent boundary layer in the wind tunnel are compared with full scale measurements and with measurements made at NASA Wallops Flight Center. Wind pressures measured on roofs of a 1:70 scale model of a small single family dwelling were compared with results obtained from full scale measurements. The results indicate a favorable comparison between full scale and model pressure data as far as mean, r.m.s. and peak pressures are concerned. In addition, results also indicate that proper modeling of the turbulence is essential for proper simulation of the wind pressures.

  8. Isolation and immunizations with hepatitis A viral structural proteins: induction of antiprotein, antiviral, and neutralizing responses.

    PubMed

    Hughes, J V; Stanton, L W

    1985-08-01

    An immune affinity purification procedure for hepatitis A virus (HAV) was designed which yielded milligram quantities of the virus with greater than 95% purity. The major structural proteins VP-1, VP-2, and VP-3 were isolated from the purified virus by electroelution from sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels and used to immunize Lewis rats (three to four doses, 10 to 15 micrograms per dose). The two Lewis rats immunized with VP-1 developed a strong antibody response to VP-1, as determined by Western blot analysis and immune precipitation of the denatured protein. These animals also developed a good antibody response to the whole virus, as demonstrated by a positive response in a competitive radioimmunoassay (HAV antibody test) and by precipitation of the whole virus. In addition, both animals developed a low titer neutralizing antibody to HAV, as demonstrated by an in vitro cell culture assay. While the two rats receiving VP-2 developed only minimal responses to the protein and to the virus by the same assays described above, one of the two developed a significant neutralizing antibody to HAV. The immunization of one Lewis rat with VP-3 induced a good antibody response to both denatured protein and the whole virus. This serum sample was also demonstrated to neutralize the viral infectivity. Finally, two rabbits that had received inoculations of sodium dodecyl sulfate and heat-disrupted HAV (containing 20 to 30 micrograms of each protein per dose) developed good antiprotein responses to all of the proteins and good antiviral responses, including a consistently significant neutralizing activity. The neutralizing antibody responses suggest that the structural proteins of HAV, or a portion of them, could provide the basis for a subunit vaccine for HAV.

  9. Structural insights into the neutralization mechanism of monoclonal antibody 6C2 against ricin.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yuwei; Dai, Jianxin; Zhang, Tiancheng; Li, Xu; Fang, Pengfei; Wang, Huajing; Jiang, Yongliang; Yu, Xiaojie; Xia, Tian; Niu, Liwen; Guo, Yajun; Teng, Maikun

    2013-08-30

    Ricin belongs to the type II ribosome-inactivating proteins that depurinate the universally conserved α-sarcin loop of rRNA. The RNA N-glycosidase activity of ricin also largely depends on the ribosomal proteins that play an important role during the process of rRNA depurination. Therefore, the study of the interaction between ricin and the ribosomal elements will be better to understand the catalysis mechanism of ricin. The antibody 6C2 is a mouse monoclonal antibody exhibiting unusually potent neutralizing ability against ricin, but the neutralization mechanism remains unknown. Here, we report the 2.8 Å crystal structure of 6C2 Fab in complex with the A-chain of ricin (RTA), which reveals an extensive antigen-antibody interface that contains both hydrogen bonds and van der Waals contacts. The complementarity-determining region loops H1, H2, H3, and L3 form a pocket to accommodate the epitope on the RTA (residues Asp(96)-Thr(116)). ELISA results show that Gln(98), Glu(99), Glu(102), and Thr(105) (RTA) are the key residues that play an important role in recognizing 6C2. With the perturbation of the 6C2 Fab-RTA interface, 6C2 loses its neutralization ability, measured based on the inhibition of protein synthesis in a cell-free system. Finally, we propose that the neutralization mechanism of 6C2 against ricin is that the binding of 6C2 hinders the interaction between RTA and the ribosome and the surface plasmon resonance and pulldown results confirm our hypothesis. In short, our data explain the neutralization mechanism of mAb 6C2 against ricin and provide a structural basis for the development of improved antibody drugs with better specificity and higher affinity.

  10. Spatial structure of morphological and neutral genetic variation in Brook Trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kazyak, David C.; Hilderbrand, Robert H.; Keller, Stephen R.; Colaw, Mark C.; Holloway, Amanda E.; Morgan, Raymond P.; King, Timothy L.

    2015-01-01

    Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis exhibit exceptional levels of life history variation, remarkable genetic variability, and fine-scale population structure. In many cases, neighboring populations may be highly differentiated from one another to an extent that is comparable with species-level distinctions in other taxa. Although genetic samples have been collected from hundreds of populations and tens of thousands of individuals, little is known about whether differentiation at neutral markers reflects phenotypic differences among Brook Trout populations. We compared differentiation in morphology and neutral molecular markers among populations from four geographically proximate locations (all within 24 km) to examine how genetic diversity covaries with morphology. We found significant differences among and/or within streams for all three morphological axes examined and identified the source stream of many individuals based on morphology (52.3% classification efficiency). Although molecular and morphological differentiation among streams ranged considerably (mean pairwise FST: 0.023–0.264; pairwise PST: 0.000–0.339), the two measures were not significantly correlated. While in some cases morphological characters appear to have diverged to a greater extent than expected by neutral genetic drift, many traits were conserved to a greater extent than were neutral genetic markers. Thus, while Brook Trout exhibit fine-scale spatial patterns in both morphology and neutral genetic diversity, these types of biological variabilities are being structured by different ecological and evolutionary processes. The relative influences of genetic drift versus selection and phenotypic plasticity in shaping morphology appear to vary among populations occupying nearby streams.

  11. Structural insights into the neutralization mechanism of a higher primate antibody against dengue virus

    PubMed Central

    Cockburn, Joseph JB; Navarro Sanchez, M Erika; Goncalvez, Ana P; Zaitseva, Elena; Stura, Enrico A; Kikuti, Carlos M; Duquerroy, Stéphane; Dussart, Philippe; Chernomordik, Leonid V; Lai, Ching-Juh; Rey, Felix A

    2012-01-01

    The four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV-1 to -4) cause the most important emerging viral disease. Protein E, the principal viral envelope glycoprotein, mediates fusion of the viral and endosomal membranes during virus entry and is the target of neutralizing antibodies. However, the epitopes of strongly neutralizing human antibodies have not been described despite their importance to vaccine development. The chimpanzee Mab 5H2 potently neutralizes DENV-4 by binding to domain I of E. The crystal structure of Fab 5H2 bound to E from DENV-4 shows that antibody binding prevents formation of the fusogenic hairpin conformation of E, which together with in-vitro assays, demonstrates that 5H2 neutralizes by blocking membrane fusion in the endosome. Furthermore, we show that human sera from patients recovering from DENV-4 infection contain antibodies that bind to the 5H2 epitope region on domain I. This study, thus, provides new information and tools for effective vaccine design to prevent dengue disease. PMID:22139356

  12. Role of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Envelope Structure in the Induction of Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Benjelloun, F.; Lawrence, P.; Verrier, B.; Genin, C.

    2012-01-01

    Very soon after the discovery of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) toward human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, it became apparent that characterization of these NAbs would be an important step in finding a cure for or a vaccine to eradicate HIV-1. Since the initial description of broadly cross-clade NAbs naturally produced in HIV-1 patients, numerous studies have described new viral targets for these antibodies. More recently, studies concerning new groups of patients able to control their viremia, such as long-term nonprogressors (LTNPs) or elite controllers, have described the generation of numerous envelope-targeted NAbs. Recent studies have marked a new stage in research on NAbs with the description of antibodies obtained from a worldwide screening of HIV-positive patients. These studies have permitted the discovery of NAb families with great potential for both neutralization and neutralization breadth, such as PG, PGT, CH, and highly active agonistic anti-CD4 binding site antibodies (HAADs), of which VRC01 and its variants are members. These antibodies are able to neutralize more than 80% of circulating strains without any autoreactivity and can be rapidly integrated into clinical trials in order to test their protective potential. In this review, we will focus on new insights into HIV-1 envelope structure and their implications for the generation of potent NAbs. PMID:23015715

  13. Structural repertoire of HIV-1-neutralizing antibodies targeting the CD4 supersite in 14 donors

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Tongqing; Lynch, Rebecca M.; Chen, Lei; Acharya, Priyamvada; Wu, Xueling; Doria-Rose, Nicole A.; Joyce, M. Gordon; Lingwood, Daniel; Soto, Cinque; Bailer, Robert T.; Ernandes, Michael J.; Kong, Rui; Longo, Nancy S.; Louder, Mark K.; McKee, Krisha; O’Dell, Sijy; Schmidt, Stephen D.; Tran, Lillian; Yang, Zhongjia; Druz, Aliaksandr; Luongo, Timothy S.; Moquin, Stephanie; Srivatsan, Sanjay; Yang, Yongping; Zhang, Baoshan; Zheng, Anqi; Pancera, Marie; Kirys, Tatsiana; Georgiev, Ivelin S.; Gindin, Tatyana; Peng, Hung-Pin; Yang, An-Suei; Mullikin, James C.; Gray, Matthew D.; Stamatatos, Leonidas; Burton, Dennis R.; Koff, Wayne C.; Cohen, Myron S.; Haynes, Barton F.; Casazza, Joseph P.; Connors, Mark; Corti, Davide; Lanzavecchia, Antonio; Sattentau, Quentin J.; Weiss, Robin A.; West, Anthony P.; Bjorkman, Pamela J.; Scheid, Johannes F.; Nussenzweig, Michel C.; Shapiro, Lawrence; Mascola, John R.; Kwong, Peter D.

    2015-01-01

    The site on the HIV-1 gp120 glycoprotein that binds the CD4 receptor is recognized by broadly reactive antibodies, several of which neutralize over 90% of HIV-1 strains. To understand how antibodies achieve such neutralization, we isolated CD4-binding-site (CD4bs) antibodies and analyzed 16 co-crystal structures –8 determined here– of CD4bs antibodies from 14 donors. The 16 antibodies segregated by recognition mode and developmental ontogeny into two types: CDR H3-dominated and VH-gene-restricted. Both could achieve greater than 80% neutralization breadth, and both could develop in the same donor. Although paratope chemistries differed, all 16 gp120-CD4bs antibody complexes showed geometric similarity, with antibody-neutralization breadth correlating with antibody-angle of approach relative to the most effective antibody of each type. The repertoire for effective recognition of the CD4 supersite thus comprises antibodies with distinct paratopes arrayed about two optimal geometric orientations, one achieved by CDR H3 ontogenies and the other achieved by VH-gene-restricted ontogenies. PMID:26004070

  14. MCDHF calculations of isotope shifts of even-parity fine-structure levels in neutral osmium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmeri, P.; Quinet, P.; Bouazza, S.

    2016-12-01

    Ab initio multiconfiguration Dirac-Hartree-Fock (MCDHF) calculations have been carried out in order to determine the isotope shifts of all the fine-structure levels belonging to the even-parity configurations (5d+6s)8 in neutral osmium, Os I. The theoretical predictions have been compared to laser spectroscopy measurements available in the literature showing a good agreement between theory and experiment.

  15. Hyperfine structure and isotope shifts of transitions in neutral and singly ionized ytterbium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berends, R. W.; Maleki, L.

    1992-01-01

    The present experimental investigation of the hyperfine structure and isotopic shifts of transitions in neutral and singly-ionized Yb, which constitute a system of some interest to microwave-frequency standards, used counterpropagating pump and probe laser beams directed through a hollow-cathode discharge lamp. The results obtained are in agreement with previous measurements except in the case of the Yb-173(+) 6 2P0 sub 3/2 state, which is more accurately determined.

  16. Structural and physical properties of collagen extracted from moon jellyfish under neutral pH conditions.

    PubMed

    Miki, Ayako; Inaba, Satomi; Baba, Takayuki; Kihira, Koji; Fukada, Harumi; Oda, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    We extracted collagen from moon jellyfish under neutral pH conditions and analyzed its amino acid composition, secondary structure, and thermal stability. The content of hydroxyproline was 4.3%, which is lower than that of other collagens. Secondary structure analysis using circular dichroism (CD) showed a typical collagen helix. The thermal stability of this collagen at pH 3.0 was lower than those from fish scale and pig skin, which also correlates closely with jellyfish collagen having lower hydroxyproline content. Because the solubility of jellyfish collagen used in this study at neutral pH was quite high, it was possible to analyze its structural and physical properties under physiological conditions. Thermodynamic analysis using CD and differential scanning calorimetry showed that the thermal stability at pH 7.5 was higher than at pH 3.0, possibly due to electrostatic interactions. During the process of unfolding, fibrillation would occur only at neutral pH.

  17. Structure and Composition of the Neutral Upper Atmosphere of Mars from the MAVEN NGIMS Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahaffy, P. R.; Benna, M.; Yelle, R. V.; Stone, S. W.; Elrod, M. K.; Fox, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    The Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer (NGIMS) on the MAVEN mission is designed to characterize the state of the upper atmosphere and its response to perturbations from the sun and from lower atmosphere. These measurements complement other instruments on the MAVEN spacecraft and support the MAVEN science goal [Jakosky et al., 2015] of understanding atmospheric escape and over the course of martian history. We report NGIMS measurements of the neutral composition of multiple atomic and molecular species over hundreds of orbits since the science phase of this mission began late in 2014. Ion measurements from NGIMS are reported separately in other contributions to this session. The wide dynamic range, the high temporal resolution, and the use of two different ion source configurations of the NGIMS instrument [Mahaffy et al., 2014] allows neutral density structure and its variability to be characterized in detail. Large amplitude wave structure is observed on the lowest altitude portion of many orbits that dissipates at higher altitudes. Although this structure puts scatter in the retrieval of scale height temperatures these are nevertheless robustly secured by averaging over several orbits. The variability of the upper atmosphere temperature with latitude and local solar time is reported. The deep dip campaign approach to the homopause allows the mixing ratio of the major gases in the lower atmosphere to be measured. We compare these mixing ratios with those reported by the Sample Analysis at Mars investigation and previous Viking measurements. Jakosky, B. M., et al. (2015), The Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) Mission, Space Sci Rev, 21. Mahaffy, P. R., et al. (2014), The Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer on the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution Mission, Space Sci Rev, 185, DOI: 10.1007/s11214-11014-10091-11211.

  18. Relationships between adaptive and neutral genetic diversity and ecological structure and functioning: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Whitlock, Raj

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the effects of intraspecific genetic diversity on the structure and functioning of ecological communities is a fundamentally important part of evolutionary ecology and may also have conservation relevance in identifying the situations in which genetic diversity coincides with species-level diversity.Early studies within this field documented positive relationships between genetic diversity and ecological structure, but recent studies have challenged these findings. Conceptual synthesis has been hampered because studies have used different measures of intraspecific variation (phenotypically adaptive vs. neutral) and have considered different measures of ecological structure in different ecological and spatial contexts. The aim of this study is to strengthen conceptual understanding by providing an empirical synthesis quantifying the relationship between genetic diversity and ecological structure.Here, I present a meta-analysis of the relationship between genetic diversity within plant populations and the structure and functioning of associated ecological communities (including 423 effect sizes from 70 studies). I used Bayesian meta-analyses to examine (i) the strength and direction of this relationship, (ii) the extent to which phenotypically adaptive and neutral (molecular) measures of diversity differ in their association with ecological structure and (iii) variation in outcomes among different measures of ecological structure and in different ecological contexts.Effect sizes measuring the relationship between adaptive diversity (genotypic richness) and both community- and ecosystem-level ecological responses were small, but significantly positive. These associations were supported by genetic effects on species richness and productivity, respectively.There was no overall association between neutral genetic diversity and measures of ecological structure, but a positive correlation was observed under a limited set of demographic conditions. These

  19. Remote Structural Health Monitoring and Advanced Prognostics of Wind Turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas Brown; Bernard Laskowski

    2012-05-29

    The prospect of substantial investment in wind energy generation represents a significant capital investment strategy. In order to maximize the life-cycle of wind turbines, associated rotors, gears, and structural towers, a capability to detect and predict (prognostics) the onset of mechanical faults at a sufficiently early stage for maintenance actions to be planned would significantly reduce both maintenance and operational costs. Advancement towards this effort has been made through the development of anomaly detection, fault detection and fault diagnosis routines to identify selected fault modes of a wind turbine based on available sensor data preceding an unscheduled emergency shutdown. The anomaly detection approach employs spectral techniques to find an approximation of the data using a combination of attributes that capture the bulk of variability in the data. Fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) is performed using a neural network-based classifier trained from baseline and fault data recorded during known failure conditions. The approach has been evaluated for known baseline conditions and three selected failure modes: pitch rate failure, low oil pressure failure and a gearbox gear-tooth failure. Experimental results demonstrate the approach can distinguish between these failure modes and normal baseline behavior within a specified statistical accuracy.

  20. Structural health and prognostics management for offshore wind turbines :

    SciTech Connect

    Myrent, Noah J.; Kusnick, Joshua F.; Barrett, Natalie C.; Adams, Douglas E.; Griffith, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    Operations and maintenance costs for offshore wind plants are significantly higher than the current costs for land-based (onshore) wind plants. One way to reduce these costs would be to implement a structural health and prognostic management (SHPM) system as part of a condition based maintenance paradigm with smart load management and utilize a state-based cost model to assess the economics associated with use of the SHPM system. To facilitate the development of such a system a multi-scale modeling approach developed in prior work is used to identify how the underlying physics of the system are affected by the presence of damage and faults, and how these changes manifest themselves in the operational response of a full turbine. This methodology was used to investigate two case studies: (1) the effects of rotor imbalance due to pitch error (aerodynamic imbalance) and mass imbalance and (2) disbond of the shear web; both on a 5-MW offshore wind turbine in the present report. Based on simulations of damage in the turbine model, the operational measurements that demonstrated the highest sensitivity to the damage/faults were the blade tip accelerations and local pitching moments for both imbalance and shear web disbond. The initial cost model provided a great deal of insight into the estimated savings in operations and maintenance costs due to the implementation of an effective SHPM system. The integration of the health monitoring information and O&M cost versus damage/fault severity information provides the initial steps to identify processes to reduce operations and maintenance costs for an offshore wind farm while increasing turbine availability, revenue, and overall profit.

  1. Structure of HCMV glycoprotein B in the postfusion conformation bound to a neutralizing human antibody

    PubMed Central

    Chandramouli, Sumana; Ciferri, Claudio; Nikitin, Pavel A.; Caló, Stefano; Gerrein, Rachel; Balabanis, Kara; Monroe, James; Hebner, Christy; Lilja, Anders E.; Settembre, Ethan C.; Carfi, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) poses a significant threat to immunocompromised individuals and neonates infected in utero. Glycoprotein B (gB), the herpesvirus fusion protein, is a target for neutralizing antibodies and a vaccine candidate due to its indispensable role in infection. Here we show the crystal structure of the HCMV gB ectodomain bound to the Fab fragment of 1G2, a neutralizing human monoclonal antibody isolated from a seropositive subject. The gB/1G2 interaction is dominated by aromatic residues in the 1G2 heavy chain CDR3 protruding into a hydrophobic cleft in the gB antigenic domain 5 (AD-5). Structural analysis and comparison with HSV gB suggest the location of additional neutralizing antibody binding sites on HCMV gB. Finally, immunoprecipitation experiments reveal that 1G2 can bind to HCMV virion gB suggesting that its epitope is exposed and accessible on the virus surface. Our data will support the development of vaccines and therapeutic antibodies against HCMV infection. PMID:26365435

  2. Predicting community structure in snakes on Eastern Nearctic islands using ecological neutral theory and phylogenetic methods.

    PubMed

    Burbrink, Frank T; McKelvy, Alexander D; Pyron, R Alexander; Myers, Edward A

    2015-11-22

    Predicting species presence and richness on islands is important for understanding the origins of communities and how likely it is that species will disperse and resist extinction. The equilibrium theory of island biogeography (ETIB) and, as a simple model of sampling abundances, the unified neutral theory of biodiversity (UNTB), predict that in situations where mainland to island migration is high, species-abundance relationships explain the presence of taxa on islands. Thus, more abundant mainland species should have a higher probability of occurring on adjacent islands. In contrast to UNTB, if certain groups have traits that permit them to disperse to islands better than other taxa, then phylogeny may be more predictive of which taxa will occur on islands. Taking surveys of 54 island snake communities in the Eastern Nearctic along with mainland communities that have abundance data for each species, we use phylogenetic assembly methods and UNTB estimates to predict island communities. Species richness is predicted by island area, whereas turnover from the mainland to island communities is random with respect to phylogeny. Community structure appears to be ecologically neutral and abundance on the mainland is the best predictor of presence on islands. With regard to young and proximate islands, where allopatric or cladogenetic speciation is not a factor, we find that simple neutral models following UNTB and ETIB predict the structure of island communities.

  3. Predicting community structure in snakes on Eastern Nearctic islands using ecological neutral theory and phylogenetic methods

    PubMed Central

    Burbrink, Frank T.; McKelvy, Alexander D.; Pyron, R. Alexander; Myers, Edward A.

    2015-01-01

    Predicting species presence and richness on islands is important for understanding the origins of communities and how likely it is that species will disperse and resist extinction. The equilibrium theory of island biogeography (ETIB) and, as a simple model of sampling abundances, the unified neutral theory of biodiversity (UNTB), predict that in situations where mainland to island migration is high, species-abundance relationships explain the presence of taxa on islands. Thus, more abundant mainland species should have a higher probability of occurring on adjacent islands. In contrast to UNTB, if certain groups have traits that permit them to disperse to islands better than other taxa, then phylogeny may be more predictive of which taxa will occur on islands. Taking surveys of 54 island snake communities in the Eastern Nearctic along with mainland communities that have abundance data for each species, we use phylogenetic assembly methods and UNTB estimates to predict island communities. Species richness is predicted by island area, whereas turnover from the mainland to island communities is random with respect to phylogeny. Community structure appears to be ecologically neutral and abundance on the mainland is the best predictor of presence on islands. With regard to young and proximate islands, where allopatric or cladogenetic speciation is not a factor, we find that simple neutral models following UNTB and ETIB predict the structure of island communities. PMID:26609083

  4. Structure of HCMV glycoprotein B in the postfusion conformation bound to a neutralizing human antibody.

    PubMed

    Chandramouli, Sumana; Ciferri, Claudio; Nikitin, Pavel A; Caló, Stefano; Gerrein, Rachel; Balabanis, Kara; Monroe, James; Hebner, Christy; Lilja, Anders E; Settembre, Ethan C; Carfi, Andrea

    2015-09-14

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) poses a significant threat to immunocompromised individuals and neonates infected in utero. Glycoprotein B (gB), the herpesvirus fusion protein, is a target for neutralizing antibodies and a vaccine candidate due to its indispensable role in infection. Here we show the crystal structure of the HCMV gB ectodomain bound to the Fab fragment of 1G2, a neutralizing human monoclonal antibody isolated from a seropositive subject. The gB/1G2 interaction is dominated by aromatic residues in the 1G2 heavy chain CDR3 protruding into a hydrophobic cleft in the gB antigenic domain 5 (AD-5). Structural analysis and comparison with HSV gB suggest the location of additional neutralizing antibody binding sites on HCMV gB. Finally, immunoprecipitation experiments reveal that 1G2 can bind to HCMV virion gB suggesting that its epitope is exposed and accessible on the virus surface. Our data will support the development of vaccines and therapeutic antibodies against HCMV infection.

  5. Structures and vibrations of neutral and cationic 3- and 4-aminophenol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unterberg, C.; Gerlach, A.; Jansen, A.; Gerhards, M.

    2004-10-01

    A combined experimental and theoretical study on the structures and vibrations of 3- and 4-aminophenol in their neutral and ionic ground states is presented. The vibrations of the two possible isomers of 3-aminophenol and the one isomer of 4-aminophenol are investigated by mass analyzed threshold ionization (MATI) spectroscopy in the ionic ground state and by infrared resonant 2-photon ionization (IR/R2PI) spectroscopy in the neutral ground state. The experimentally observed vibrational frequencies of all isomers are in excellent agreement with the calculated values obtained by density functional theory (DFT) and at the complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) level of theory. The calculations support the assignment of different isomers. Furthermore, the experimentally observed ionization potentials are well predicted by CASMP2//CASSCF calculations.

  6. The Origins of Magnetic Structure in the Corona and Wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antiochos, Spiro K.

    2010-01-01

    One of the most important and most puzzling features of the coronal magnetic field is that it appears to have smooth magnetic structure with little evidence for non-potentiality except at two special locations: photospheric polarity inversions lines. (non-potentiality observed as a filament channel) and coronal hole boundaries, (observed as the slow solar wind). This characteristic feature of the closed-field corona is highly unexpected given that its magnetic field is continuously tangled by photospheric motions. Although reconnection can eliminate some of the injected structure, it cannot destroy the helicity, which should build up to produce observable complexity. I propose that an inverse cascade process transports the injected helicity from the interior of closed flux regions to their boundaries inversion lines and coronal holes, creating both filament channels and the slow wind. We describe how the helicity is injected and transported and calculate the relevant rates. I argue that one process, helicity transport, can explain both the observed lack and presence of structure in the coronal magnetic field. This work has been supported by the NASA HTP, SR&T, and LWS programs.

  7. The Response of the Ionospheric Cusp to the Solar Wind Through Two Perspectives: Low Energy Charged Particle In-Situ Measurements and Low-Energy Neutral Atom Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffey, V. N.; Moore, T. E.; Chandler, M. O.; Giles, B. L.; Craven, P. D.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE) mission provides a new perspective on the study of the response of the magnetosphere/ionosphere system to changing solar wind conditions, particularly the variability of ion outflow. Learning to interpret this new type of data becomes an essential step in the process of melding these results with the wealth of in-situ charged particle observations obtained over the past 25 years. In order to understand how the in-situ data correspond to and contrast with IMAGE results we will perform a conjunctive study of event data from two instruments to shed light on the coupling of the solar wind and ionosphere from these different perspectives. We will use the Low Energy Neutral Atom instrument (LENA) which images energetic neutral atom emissions from upward flowing ionospheric ions and the Thermal Ion Dynamics Instrument (TIDE) on the Polar satellite which measures in-situ ion outflow from 0.3-300 eV. Our primary goal will be to understand how comparing the imaging and in-situ perspectives can aid in the analysis of both data sets.

  8. Mirror mode structures ahead of dipolarization front near the neutral sheet observed by Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, G. Q.; Zhang, T. L.; Volwerk, M.; Schmid, D.; Baumjohann, W.; Nakamura, R.; Pan, Z. H.

    2016-09-01

    Magnetic compressional structures ahead of a dipolarization front (DF) on 30 August 2002 are investigated by using Cluster data. Our findings are as follows: (1) the structures, observed near the neutral sheet, are mainly compressional and dominant in BZ; (2) they are almost nonpropagating relative to the local ion bulk flow and their lengths are several local proton gyroradius; (3) the ion density increases when BT decreases; (4) ions are partially trapped by the structures with parallel and perpendicular velocities varying in antiphase; and (5) local conditions are favorable for excitation of the mirror instability, and we suggest that these structures are mirror mode-like. Our findings also suggest that local conditions ahead of the DF are viable for exciting the mirror instability to generate mirror mode waves or structures.

  9. Global Structure of HIV-1 Neutralizing Antibody IgG1 b12 is Asymmetric

    SciTech Connect

    Ashish, F.; Solanki, A; Boone, C; Krueger, J

    2010-01-01

    Human antibody IgG1 b12 is one of the four antibodies known to neutralize a broad range of human immunodeficiency virus-1. The crystal structure of this antibody displayed an asymmetric disposition of the Fab arms relative to its Fc portion. Comparison of structures solved for other IgG1 antibodies led to a notion that crystal packing forces entrapped a 'snap-shot' of different conformations accessible to this antibody. To elucidate global structure of this unique antibody, we acquired small-angle X-ray scattering data from its dilute solution. Data analysis indicated that b12 adopts a bilobal globular structure in solution with a radius of gyration and a maximum linear dimension of {approx}54 and {approx}180 {angstrom}, respectively. Extreme similarity between its solution and crystal structure concludes that non-flexible, asymmetric shape is an inherent property of this rare antibody.

  10. Electrodynamics, wind and temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidlin, F. J.

    1988-01-01

    This RTOP provides for correlative meteorological wind and temperature measurements with atmospheric electrodynamic measurements. Meteorological rocketsondes were launched as part of a number of electrodynamic investigations in Alaska, Norway, Peru, Sweden, and at the Wallops Flight Facility, Wallops Island, Virginia. Measurements obtained as part of the MAC/Epsilon campaign during October 1987 from Andoya, Norway, were in conjunction with electric field, ion mobility, conductivity, and energy deposition studies. The measurements obtained between 30 and 90 km are to evaluate and correlate changes in the atmospheric electrical structure caused by the neutral wind and temperature, or changes in the neutral atmosphere resulting from electrical anomalies.

  11. Structure-guided alterations of the gp41-directed HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibody 2F5 reveal new properties regarding its neutralizing function.

    PubMed

    Guenaga, Javier; Wyatt, Richard T

    2012-01-01

    The broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibody 2F5 recognizes an epitope in the gp41 membrane proximal external region (MPER). The MPER adopts a helical conformation as free peptide, as post-fusogenic forms of gp41, and when bound to the 4E10 monoclonal antibody (Mab). However, when bound to 2F5, the epitope is an extended-loop. The antibody-peptide structure reveals binding between the heavy and light chains with most the long, hydrophobic CDRH3 not contacting peptide. However, mutagenesis identifies this loop as critical for binding, neutralization and for putative hydrophobic membrane interactions. Here, we examined length requirements of the 2F5 CDRH3 and plasticity regarding binding and neutralization. We generated 2F5 variants possessing either longer or shorter CDRH3s and assessed function. The CDRH3 tolerated elongations and reductions up to four residues, displaying a range of binding affinities and retaining some neutralizing capacity. 2F5 antibody variants selective recognition of conformationally distinctive MPER probes suggests a new role for the CDRH3 loop in destabilizing the helical MPER. Binding and neutralization were enhanced by targeted tryptophan substitutions recapitulating fully the activities of the wild-type 2F5 antibody in a shorter CDRH3 variant. MPER alanine scanning revealed binding contacts of this variant downstream of the 2F5 core epitope, into the 4E10 epitope region. This variant displayed increased reactivity to cardiolipin-beta-2-glycoprotein. Tyrosine replacements maintained neutralization while eliminating cardiolipin-beta-2-glycoprotein interaction. The data suggest a new mechanism of action, important for vaccine design, in which the 2F5 CDRH3 contacts and destabilizes the MPER helix downstream of its core epitope to allow induction of the extended-loop conformation.

  12. Wind structure and small-scale wind variability in the stratosphere and mesosphere during the November 1980 Energy Budget Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidlin, F. J.; Carlson, M.; Rees, D.; Offermann, D.; Philbrick, C. R.; Widdel, H. U.

    1982-01-01

    Rocket observations made from two sites in northern Scandinavia between November 6 and December 1, 1980, as part of the Energy Budget Campaign are discussed. It was found that significant vertical and temporal changes in the wind structure were present and that they coincided with different geomagnetic conditions, that is, quiet and enhanced. Before November 16, the meridional wind component above 60 km was found to be positive (southerly), whereas the magnitude of the zonal wind component increased with altitude. After November 16 the meridional component became negative (northerly), and the magnitude of the zonal wind component was observed to decrease with altitude. Time sections of the perturbations of the zonal wind reveal the presence of vertically propagating waves, suggesting gravity wave activity. The waves are found to increase in wavelength from 3-4 km near 40 km to more than 12 km near 80 km. The observational techniques made use of chaff foil, chemical trails, inflatable spheres, and parachutes.

  13. The global structure of hot star winds: Constraints from spectropolarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eversberg, Thomas

    2000-11-01

    Chapter 1. We present time-series of ultra-high S/N, high resolution spectra of the He II λ 4686 Å emission line in the O4I(n)f supergiant ζ Puppis, the brightest early-type O-star in the sky. These reveal stochastic, variable substructures in the line, which tend to move away from the line-center with time. Similar scaled-up features are well established in the strong winds of Wolf-Rayet stars (the presumed descendants of O stars), where they are explained by outward moving inhomogeneities (e.g., blobs, clumps, shocks) in the winds. If all hot-star winds are clumped like that of ζ Pup, as is plausible, then mass-low rates based on recombination-line intensities will have to be revised downwards. Using a standard `β' velocity law we deduce a value of β = 1.0-1.2 to account for the kinematics of these structures in the wind of ζ Pup. In addition to the small-scale stochastic variations we also find a slow systematic variation of the mean central absorption reversal. Chapter 2. We introduce a new polarimeter unit which, mounted at the Cassegrain focus of any telescope and fiber-connected to a fixed CCD spectrograph, is able to measure all Stokes parameters I, Q, U and V across spectral lines of bright stellar targets and other point sources in a quasi-simultaneous manner. Applying standard reduction techniques for linearly and circularly polarized light we are able to obtain photon-noise limited line polarization. We briefly outline the technical design of the polarimeter unit and the linear algebraic Mueller calculus for obtaining polarization parameters of any point source. In addition, practical limitations of the optical elements are outlined. We present first results obtained with our spectropolarimeter for four bright, hot-star targets: We confirm previous results for Hα in the bright Be star γ Cas and find linear depolarization features across the emission line complex C III/C IV (λ 5696/λ 5808 Å) of the WR+O binary γ2 Vel. We also find circular

  14. Crystal Structures of Ricin Toxin’s Enzymatic Subunit (RTA) in Complex with Neutralizing and Non-neutralizing Single Chain Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Rudolph, Michael J.; Vance, David J.; Cheung, Jonah; Franklin, Matthew C.; Burshteyn, Fiana; Cassidy, Michael S.; Gary, Ebony N.; Herrera, Cristina; Shoemaker, Charles B.; Mantis, Nicholas J.

    2014-01-01

    Ricin is a Select Agent Toxin and a member of the RNA N-glycosidase family of medically important plant and bacterial ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs). In this study, we determined x-ray crystal structures of the enzymatic subunit of ricin (RTA) in complex with the antigen binding domains (VHH) of five unique single-chain monoclonal antibodies that differ in their respective toxin-neutralizing activities. None of the VHHs made direct contact with residues involved in RTA’s RNA N-glycosidase activity or induced notable allosteric changes in the toxin’s subunit. Rather, the five VHHs had overlapping structural epitopes on the surface of the toxin and differed in the degree to which they made contact with prominent structural elements in two folding domains of the RTA. In general, RTA interactions were influenced most by the VHH CDR3 elements, with the most potent neutralizing antibody having the shortest and most conformationally constrained CDR3. These structures provide unique insights into the mechanisms underlying toxin neutralization and provide critically important information required for the rational design of ricin toxin subunit vaccines. PMID:24907552

  15. The Role of Spatial and Temporal Variability in Determining the Magnitude and Structure of Thermospheric Vertical Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yigit, E.; Ridley, A. J.

    2010-12-01

    Vertical winds in the thermosphere can occur in various spatial scales and vary in very short time-scales. They are typically associated with barometric, divergent, and nonhydrostatic motions. Increasing number of observational studies suggest that vertical winds are temporally and spatially highly variable and their magnitudes and structures are overall not captured well enough by contemporary general circulation models (GCMs) that are based on the hydrostatic assumption and have coarse spatial resolutions and relatively large time steps. In this study, using the 3-D nonhydrostatic Global Ionosphere Thermosphere Model (GITM) developed at the University of Michigan, we investigate the physical mechanisms that control the magnitudes and structures of the thermosphere neutral vertical winds, focusing on the role of spatial and temporal variability simulated by GITM. To identify the response of the high-latitude thermosphere-ionosphere (TI) to variable magnetospheric inputs, such as the IMF Bz, the associated Joule and auroral heating are analyzed. In a series of systematic simulations, the magnitude and temporal variations of Bz are modulated. Additionally, the effects of random electric field variability are investigated by implementing first constant and then temporally variable noise term in the electric fields. Vertical winds are found to be sensitive to spatial resolution as well as to the specific form of temporally varying magnetospheric input and random noise in the electric field input.

  16. Structural Insights into Reovirus σ1 Interactions with Two Neutralizing Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Melanie H; Ogden, Kristen M; Katen, Sarah P; Reiss, Kerstin; Sutherland, Danica M; Carnahan, Robert H; Goff, Matthew; Cooper, Tracy; Dermody, Terence S; Stehle, Thilo

    2017-02-15

    Reovirus attachment protein σ1 engages glycan receptors and junctional adhesion molecule-A (JAM-A) and is thought to undergo a conformational change during the proteolytic disassembly of virions to infectious subvirion particles (ISVPs) that accompanies cell entry. The σ1 protein is also the primary target of neutralizing antibodies. Here, we present a structural and functional characterization of two neutralizing antibodies that target σ1 of serotype 1 (T1) and serotype 3 (T3) reoviruses. The crystal structures revealed that each antibody engages its cognate σ1 protein within the head domain via epitopes distinct from the JAM-A-binding site. Surface plasmon resonance and cell-binding assays indicated that both antibodies likely interfere with JAM-A engagement by steric hindrance. To define the interplay between the carbohydrate receptor and antibody binding, we conducted hemagglutination inhibition assays using virions and ISVPs. The glycan-binding site of T1 σ1 is located in the head domain and is partly occluded by the bound Fab in the crystal structure. The T1-specific antibody inhibited hemagglutination by virions and ISVPs, probably via direct interference with glycan engagement. In contrast to T1 σ1, the carbohydrate-binding site of T3 σ1 is located in the tail domain, distal to the antibody epitope. The T3-specific antibody inhibited hemagglutination by T3 virions but not ISVPs, indicating that the antibody- and glycan-binding sites in σ1 are in closer spatial proximity on virions than on ISVPs. Our results provide direct evidence for a structural rearrangement of σ1 during virion-to-ISVP conversion and contribute new information about the mechanisms of antibody-mediated neutralization of reovirus.

  17. Wind tunnel measurements of wake structure and wind farm power for actuator disk model wind turbines in yaw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howland, Michael; Bossuyt, Juliaan; Kang, Justin; Meyers, Johan; Meneveau, Charles

    2016-11-01

    Reducing wake losses in wind farms by deflecting the wakes through turbine yawing has been shown to be a feasible wind farm control approach. In this work, the deflection and morphology of wakes behind a wind turbine operating in yawed conditions are studied using wind tunnel experiments of a wind turbine modeled as a porous disk in a uniform inflow. First, by measuring velocity distributions at various downstream positions and comparing with prior studies, we confirm that the nonrotating wind turbine model in yaw generates realistic wake deflections. Second, we characterize the wake shape and make observations of what is termed a "curled wake," displaying significant spanwise asymmetry. Through the use of a 100 porous disk micro-wind farm, total wind farm power output is studied for a variety of yaw configurations. Strain gages on the tower of the porous disk models are used to measure the thrust force as a substitute for turbine power. The frequency response of these measurements goes up to the natural frequency of the model and allows studying the spatiotemporal characteristics of the power output under the effects of yawing. This work has been funded by the National Science Foundation (Grants CBET-113380 and IIA-1243482, the WINDINSPIRE project). JB and JM are supported by ERC (ActiveWindFarms, Grant No. 306471).

  18. Capturing neutral and adaptive genetic diversity for conservation in a highly structured tree species.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Quilón, Isabel; Santos-Del-Blanco, Luis; Serra-Varela, María Jesús; Koskela, Jarkko; González-Martínez, Santiago C; Alía, Ricardo

    2016-10-01

    Preserving intraspecific genetic diversity is essential for long-term forest sustainability in a climate change scenario. Despite that, genetic information is largely neglected in conservation planning, and how conservation units should be defined is still heatedly debated. Here, we use maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.), an outcrossing long-lived tree with a highly fragmented distribution in the Mediterranean biodiversity hotspot, to prove the importance of accounting for genetic variation, of both neutral molecular markers and quantitative traits, to define useful conservation units. Six gene pools associated to distinct evolutionary histories were identified within the species using 12 microsatellites and 266 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). In addition, height and survival standing variation, their genetic control, and plasticity were assessed in a multisite clonal common garden experiment (16 544 trees). We found high levels of quantitative genetic differentiation within previously defined neutral gene pools. Subsequent cluster analysis and post hoc trait distribution comparisons allowed us to define 10 genetically homogeneous population groups with high evolutionary potential. They constitute the minimum number of units to be represented in a maritime pine dynamic conservation program. Our results uphold that the identification of conservation units below the species level should account for key neutral and adaptive components of genetic diversity, especially in species with strong population structure and complex evolutionary histories. The environmental zonation approach currently used by the pan-European genetic conservation strategy for forest trees would be largely improved by gradually integrating molecular and quantitative trait information, as data become available.

  19. Synthesis, molecular structure, and properties of a neutral Schiff base phenolic complex of magnesium

    SciTech Connect

    Polyakov, V.R.; Sharma, V.; Crankshaw, C.L.; Piwnica-Worms, D.

    1998-09-07

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer mediated by the MDR1 P-glycoprotein (Pgp), a 140--180 kDa plasma membrane protein, renders chemotherapeutic treatment ineffective by pumping a variety of natural product cytotoxic agents and xenobiotic compounds out of cancer cells. Pgp has been a major target for synthesis and development of both therapeutic antagonists that block its transport function and diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals that are transported by the protein for use in functional imaging of Pgp transport activity in tumors in vivo. Most, but not all, compounds that interact with Pgp are hydrophobic and cationic at physiological pH. To further understand the Pgp targeting properties, the authors sought to directly evaluate the effect of charge of the complex on Pgp interactions. This could be done by comparing the cytotoxicity profile of a neutral complex to that of an identical, but positively charged, complex in both drug-sensitive and multidrug-resistant cancer cells. Thus, a neutral analogue of the Ga(III) and Fe(III) complexes was desired. Herein the authors describe the synthesis and structure of a novel neutral Schiff base Mg complex and evaluate its cytotoxic potency in human drug-sensitive KB-3-1 and multi-drug-resistant KB-8-5 tumor cells.

  20. Structural and functional bases for broad-spectrum neutralization of avian and human influenza A viruses.

    PubMed

    Sui, Jianhua; Hwang, William C; Perez, Sandra; Wei, Ge; Aird, Daniel; Chen, Li-mei; Santelli, Eugenio; Stec, Boguslaw; Cadwell, Greg; Ali, Maryam; Wan, Hongquan; Murakami, Akikazu; Yammanuru, Anuradha; Han, Thomas; Cox, Nancy J; Bankston, Laurie A; Donis, Ruben O; Liddington, Robert C; Marasco, Wayne A

    2009-03-01

    Influenza virus remains a serious health threat, owing to its ability to evade immune surveillance through rapid genetic drift and reassortment. Here we used a human non-immune antibody phage-display library and the H5 hemagglutinin ectodomain to select ten neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) that were effective against all group 1 influenza viruses tested, including H5N1 'bird flu' and the H1N1 'Spanish flu'. The crystal structure of one such nAb bound to H5 shows that it blocks infection by inserting its heavy chain into a conserved pocket in the stem region, thus preventing membrane fusion. Nine of the nAbs employ the germline gene VH1-69, and all seem to use the same neutralizing mechanism. Our data further suggest that this region is recalcitrant to neutralization escape and that nAb-based immunotherapy is a promising strategy for broad-spectrum protection against seasonal and pandemic influenza viruses.

  1. Vertical structure of the ionosphere and upper neutral atmosphere of saturn from the pioneer radio occultation.

    PubMed

    Kliore, A J; Lindal, G F; Patel, I R; Sweetnam, D N; Hotz, H B; McDonough, T R

    1980-01-25

    Radio occultation measurements at S band (2.293 gigahertz) of the ionosphere and upper neutral atmosphere of Saturn were obtained during the flyby of the Pioneer 11 Saturn spacecraft on 5 September 1979. Preliminary analysis of the occultation exit data taken at a latitude of 9.5 degrees S and a solar zenith angle of 90.6 degrees revealed the presence of a rather thin ionosphere, having a main peak electron density of about 9.4 x 10/(3) per cubic centimeter at an altitude of about 2800 above the level of a neutral number density of 10(19) per cubic centimeter and a lower peak of about 7 x 10(3) per cubic centimeter at 2200 kilometers. Data in the neutral atmosphere were obtained to a pressure level of about 120 millibars. The temperature structure derived from these data is consistent with the results of the Pioneer 11 Saturn infrared radiometer experiment (for a helium fraction of 15 percent) and with models derived from Earth-based observations for a helium fraction by number of about 4 to 10 percent. The helium fraction will be further defined by mutual iteration with the infrared radiometer team.

  2. Structural analysis of wind turbine rotors for NSF-NASA Mod-0 wind power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spera, D. A.

    1976-01-01

    Preliminary estimates are presented of vibratory loads and stresses in hingeless and teetering rotors for the proposed NSF-NASA Mod-0 wind power system. Preliminary blade design utilizes a tapered tubular aluminum spar which supports nonstructural aluminum ribs and skin and is joined to the rotor hub by a steel shank tube. Stresses in the shank of the blade are calculated for static, rated, and overload operating conditions. Blade vibrations were limited to the fundamental flapping modes, which were elastic cantilever bending for hingeless rotor blades and rigid-body rotation for teetering rotor blades. The MOSTAB-C computer code was used to calculate aerodynamic and mechanical loads. The teetering rotor has substantial advantages over the hingeless rotor with respect to shank stresses, fatigue life, and tower loading. The hingeless rotor analyzed does not appear to be structurally stable during overloads.

  3. Structural integrity of wind turbines impacted by tropical cyclones: A case study from China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiao; Li, Chuanfeng; Tang, Jing

    2016-09-01

    This study presents a case study on wind turbines impacted by tropical cyclones in China. A quantitative investigation is conducted by integrating aerodynamic, aero-elastic and structural analysis to provide insights into structural integrity of wind turbines under extreme wind conditions. Local mean wind profiles at each turbine site are reconstructed using threedimensional CFD calculation considering terrain topography of the wind farm. Failure modes and failure locations of rotor blades and tubular towers are predicted using finite element analysis. “The lesser of two evils” principle in the turbine design is addressed regarding the criticality of blade fracture and tower collapse. Referring to the current IEC standard for wind turbine design, it is suggested that the partial safety factor associated with failure of turbine tower should be larger than, instead of equal to, the one for the rotor blade to reduce the risk of the total loss of wind turbines in extreme wind conditions.

  4. Advanced Fluid--Structure Interaction Techniques in Application to Horizontal and Vertical Axis Wind Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korobenko, Artem

    During the last several decades engineers and scientists put significant effort into developing reliable and efficient wind turbines. As a wind power production demands grow, the wind energy research and development need to be enhanced with high-precision methods and tools. These include time-dependent, full-scale, complex-geometry advanced computational simulations at large-scale. Those, computational analysis of wind turbines, including fluid-structure interaction simulations (FSI) at full scale is important for accurate and reliable modeling, as well as blade failure prediction and design optimization. In current dissertation the FSI framework is applied to most challenging class of problems, such as large scale horizontal axis wind turbines and vertical axis wind turbines. The governing equations for aerodynamics and structural mechanics together with coupled formulation are explained in details. The simulations are performed for different wind turbine designs, operational conditions and validated against field-test and wind tunnel experimental data.

  5. Structural Qualification Testing of the WindSat Payload Using Sine Bursts Near Structural Resonance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pontius, Jim; Barnes, Donald; Broduer, Steve (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Sine burst tests are often used for structural qualification of space flight hardware. In most instances, the driving frequency of the shaker is specified far below the structure's first resonant mode, such that the entire test article sees uniform acceleration. For large structures, this limits qualification testing to lower parts of the structure, or else it over-tests the lower structure to achieve qualification of the upper structure. The WindSat payload, a 10.5 foot tall graphite/epoxy, titanium, and aluminum radiometer, experiences accelerations at the six foot diameter reflector nearly four times that at the spacecraft interface. Due to size of the payload, the number of bonded joints, and the lightweight reflector support structure design and construction, using static pull testing to qualify all of the bonded joints in the upper structure would result in large, expensive, and extensive test fixturing. Sine burst testing near the first two structural resonant modes was performed on the WindSat payload to achieve the correct load factor distribution up the stack for structural qualification. In this presentation, how finite element method (FEM) sine burst predictions were used in conjunction with low level random and sine burst tests to achieve correct qualification test load factor distribution on the WindSat payload is discussed. Also presented is the risk mitigation approach for using the uncorrelated FEM in this procedure.

  6. Users manual for KSP data-structure-neutral codes implementing Krylov space methods

    SciTech Connect

    Gropp, W.; Smith, B.

    1994-08-01

    The combination of a Krylov space method and a preconditioner is at the heart of most modern numerical codes for the iterative solution of linear systems. This document contains both a users manual and a description of the implementation for the Krylov space methods package KSP included as part of the Portable, Extensible Tools for Scientific computation package (PETSc). PETSc is a large suite of data-structure-neutral libraries for the solution of large-scale problems in scientific computation, in particular on massively parallel computers. The methods in KSP are conjugate gradient method, GMRES, BiCG-Stab, two versions of transpose-free QMR, and others. All of the methods are coded using a common, data-structure-neutral framework and are compatible with the sequential, parallel, and out-of-core solution of linear systems. The codes make no assumptions about the representation of the linear operator; implicitly defined operators (say, calculated using differencing) are fully supported. In addition, unlike all other iterative packages we are aware of, the vector operations are also data-structure neutral. Once certain vector primitives are provided, the same KSP software runs unchanged using any vector storage format. It is not restricted to a few common vector representations. The codes described are actual working codes that run on a large variety of machines including the IBM SP1, Intel DELTA, workstations, networks of workstations, the TMC CM-5, and the CRAY C90. New Krylov space methods may be easily added to the package and used immediately with any application code that has been written using KSP; no changes to the application code are needed.

  7. Structural basis for the neutralization of hepatitis E virus by a cross-genotype antibody

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Ying; Tang, Xuhua; Zhang, Xiao; Song, Cuiling; Zheng, Minghua; Wang, Kaihang; Zhang, Jun; Ng, Mun-Hon; Hew, Choy-Leong; Li, Shaowei; Xia, Ningshao; Sivaraman, J.

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV), a non-enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus, is a major cause of enteric hepatitis. Classified into the family Hepeviridae, HEV comprises four genotypes (genotypes 1-4), which belong to a single serotype. We describe a monoclonal antibody (mAb), 8G12, which equally recognizes all four genotypes of HEV, with ∼2.53–3.45 nM binding affinity. The mAb 8G12 has a protective, neutralizing capacity, which can significantly block virus infection in host cells. Animal studies with genotypes 1, 3 and 4 confirmed the cross-genotype neutralizing capacity of 8G12 and its effective prevention of hepatitis E disease. The complex crystal structures of 8G12 with the HEV E2s domain (the most protruded region of the virus capsid) of the abundant genotypes 1 and 4 were determined at 4.0 and 2.3 Å resolution, respectively. These structures revealed that 8G12 recognizes both genotypes through the epitopes in the E2s dimerization region. Structure-based mutagenesis and cell-model assays with virus-like particles identified several conserved residues (Glu549, Lys554 and Gly591) that are essential for 8G12 neutralization. Moreover, the epitope of 8G12 is identified as a key epitope involved in virus-host interactions. These findings will help develop a common strategy for the prevention of the most abundant form of HEV infection. PMID:25793314

  8. The Photoevaporation of a Neutral Structure by an EUV+FUV Radiation Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lora, Veronica; Vasconcelos, M. J.; Raga, A. C.; Cerqueira, A. H.; Esquivel, A.

    The expansion of an HII region into a surrounding inhomogeneous molecular cloud, leads to the formation of elongated "elephant trunk" structures. The EUV photo-ionising radiation and FUV dissociating radiation from newly born stars photo-evaporate their parental neutral cloud, leading to the formation of dense clumps in the tips of elephant trunks, that could in principle eventually form stars. We study th effects of including a photo-dissociating FUV flux in models of fragmentation of a photo-evaporating, self-gravitating molecular cloud.

  9. Structural health and prognostics management for offshore wind turbines :

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, Daniel; Resor, Brian Ray; White, Jonathan Randall; Paquette, Joshua A.; Yoder, Nathanael C.

    2012-12-01

    Operations and maintenance costs for offshore wind plants are expected to be significantly higher than the current costs for onshore plants. One way in which these costs may be able to be reduced is through the use of a structural health and prognostic management system as part of a condition based maintenance paradigm with smart load management. To facilitate the creation of such a system a multiscale modeling approach has been developed to identify how the underlying physics of the system are affected by the presence of damage and how these changes manifest themselves in the operational response of a full turbine. The developed methodology was used to investigate the effects of a candidate blade damage feature, a trailing edge disbond, on a 5-MW offshore wind turbine and the measurements that demonstrated the highest sensitivity to the damage were the local pitching moments around the disbond. The multiscale method demonstrated that these changes were caused by a local decrease in the blades torsional stiffness due to the disbond, which also resulted in changes in the blades local strain field. Full turbine simulations were also used to demonstrate that derating the turbine power by as little as 5% could extend the fatigue life of a blade by as much as a factor of 3. The integration of the health monitoring information, conceptual repair cost versus damage size information, and this load management methodology provides an initial roadmap for reducing operations and maintenance costs for offshore wind farms while increasing turbine availability and overall profit.

  10. Structural basis for antibody cross-neutralization of respiratory syncytial virus and human metapneumovirus.

    PubMed

    Wen, Xiaolin; Mousa, Jarrod J; Bates, John T; Lamb, Robert A; Crowe, James E; Jardetzky, Theodore S

    2017-01-30

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human metapneumovirus (HMPV) are two closely related viruses that cause bronchiolitis and pneumonia in infants and the elderly(1), with a significant health burden(2-6). There are no licensed vaccines or small-molecule antiviral treatments specific to these two viruses at present. A humanized murine monoclonal antibody (palivizumab) is approved to treat high-risk infants for RSV infection(7,8), but other treatments, as well as vaccines, for both viruses are still in development. Recent epidemiological modelling suggests that cross-immunity between RSV, HMPV and human parainfluenzaviruses may contribute to their periodic outbreaks(9), suggesting that a deeper understanding of host immunity to these viruses may lead to enhanced strategies for their control. Cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies to the RSV and HMPV fusion (F) proteins have been identified(10,11). Here, we examine the structural basis for cross-reactive antibody binding to RSV and HMPV F protein by two related, independently isolated antibodies, MPE8 and 25P13. We solved the structure of the MPE8 antibody bound to RSV F protein and identified the 25P13 antibody from an independent blood donor. Our results indicate that both antibodies use germline residues to interact with a conserved surface on F protein that could guide the emergence of cross-reactivity. The induction of similar cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies using structural vaccinology approaches could enhance intrinsic cross-immunity to these paramyxoviruses and approaches to controlling recurring outbreaks.

  11. EVA Assembly of Large Space Structure Neutral Buoyancy, Zero-Gravity Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    EVA Assembly of Large Space Structure Neutral Buoyancy, Zero-Gravity Simulation: NASA-LaRC Nestable Columns and Joints. The film depicts an extravehicular activity (EVA) that involved the assembly of six 'space-weight' columns into a regular tetrahedral cell by a team of two 'space'-suited test subjects. This cell represents the fundamental 'element' of a tetrahedral truss structure. The tests were conducted under simulated zero-gravity conditions, achieved by neutral buoyancy in water. The cell was assembled on an 'outrigger' assembly aid off the side of a mockup of the Shuttle Orbiter cargo bay. Both manual and simulated remote manipulator system (RMS) modes were evaluated. The simulated RMS was used only to transfer stowed hardware from the cargo bay to the work sites. Articulation limits of the pressure suit and zero gravity could be accommodated by work stations with foot restraints. The results of this study have confirmed that astronaut EVA assembly of large, erectable space structur is well within man's capabilities. [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070031008. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov

  12. Structure of adeno-associated virus-2 in complex with neutralizing monoclonal antibody A20

    SciTech Connect

    McCraw, Dustin M.; O'Donnell, Jason K.; Taylor, Kenneth A.; Stagg, Scott M.; Chapman, Michael S.

    2012-09-15

    The use of adeno-associated virus (AAV) as a gene therapy vector is limited by the host neutralizing immune response. The cryo-electron microscopy (EM) structure at 8.5 A resolution is determined for a complex of AAV-2 with the Fab' fragment of monoclonal antibody (MAb) A20, the most extensively characterized AAV MAb. The binding footprint is determined through fitting the cryo-EM reconstruction with a homology model following sequencing of the variable domain, and provides a structural basis for integrating diverse prior epitope mappings. The footprint extends from the previously implicated plateau to the side of the spike, and into the conserved canyon, covering a larger area than anticipated. Comparison with structures of binding and non-binding serotypes indicates that recognition depends on a combination of subtle serotype-specific features. Separation of the neutralizing epitope from the heparan sulfate cell attachment site encourages attempts to develop immune-resistant vectors that can still bind to target cells.

  13. Structural and electronic properties of small neutral (MgO)n clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Puente, E.; Aguado, A.; Ayuela, A.; López, J. M.

    1997-09-01

    Ab initio perturbed ion calculations are reported for neutral stoichiometric (MgO)n (n<=13) clusters. A great number of isomer structures are identified and studied. For the isomers of (MgO)n (n<=7) clusters, a full geometrical relaxation is considered. Correlation corrections are included for all cluster sizes using the Coulomb-Hartree-Fock model proposed by Clementi [IBM J. Res. Dev. 9, 2 (1965)]. The results obtained compare favorably with the experimental data and other previous theoretical studies. The inclusion of correlation is crucial in order to achieve a good description of these systems. We find a number of important isomers that allow us to interpret the experimental magic numbers without the assumption of structures based on (MgO)3 subunits. Finally, as an electronic property, the variations in the cluster ionization potential with the cluster size are studied and related to the structural isomer properties.

  14. An integrated structural strength analysis method for Spar type floating wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zhi-qiang; Liu, Yi; Wang, Jin

    2016-04-01

    An integrated structural strength analysis method for a Spar type floating wind turbine is proposed in this paper, and technical issues related to turbine structure modeling and stress combination are also addressed. The NREL-5MW "Hywind" Spar type wind turbine is adopted as study object. Time-domain dynamic coupled simulations are performed by a fully-coupled aero-hydro-servo-elastic tool, FAST, on the purpose of obtaining the dynamic characteristics of the floating wind turbine, and determining parameters for design load cases of finite element calculation. Then design load cases are identified, and finite element analyses are performed for these design load cases. The structural stresses due to wave-induced loads and wind-induced loads are calculated, and then combined to assess the structural strength of the floating wind turbine. The feasibility of the proposed structural strength analysis method for floating wind turbines is then validated.

  15. Structure of a Human Astrovirus Capsid-Antibody Complex and Mechanistic Insights into Virus Neutralization

    SciTech Connect

    Bogdanoff, Walter A.; Campos, Jocelyn; Perez, Edmundo I.; Yin, Lu; Alexander, David L.; DuBois, Rebecca M.; López, Susana

    2016-11-02

    ABSTRACT

    Human astroviruses (HAstVs) are a leading cause of viral diarrhea in young children, the immunocompromised, and the elderly. There are no vaccines or antiviral therapies against HAstV disease. Several lines of evidence point to the presence of protective antibodies in healthy adults as a mechanism governing protection against reinfection by HAstV. However, development of anti-HAstV therapies is hampered by the gap in knowledge of protective antibody epitopes on the HAstV capsid surface. Here, we report the structure of the HAstV capsid spike domain bound to the neutralizing monoclonal antibody PL-2. The antibody uses all six complementarity-determining regions to bind to a quaternary epitope on each side of the dimeric capsid spike. We provide evidence that the HAstV capsid spike is a receptor-binding domain and that the antibody neutralizes HAstV by blocking virus attachment to cells. We identify patches of conserved amino acids that overlap the antibody epitope and may comprise a receptor-binding site. Our studies provide a foundation for the development of therapies to prevent and treat HAstV diarrheal disease.

    IMPORTANCEHuman astroviruses (HAstVs) infect nearly every person in the world during childhood and cause diarrhea, vomiting, and fever. Despite the prevalence of this virus, little is known about how antibodies in healthy adults protect them against reinfection. Here, we determined the crystal structure of a complex of the HAstV capsid protein and a virus-neutralizing antibody. We show that the antibody binds to the outermost spike domain of the capsid, and we provide evidence that the antibody blocks virus attachment to human cells. Importantly, our findings suggest that a subunit-based vaccine focusing the immune system on the HAstV capsid spike domain could be effective in protecting children against HAstV disease.

  16. Crystal structure of human antibody 2909 reveals conserved features of quaternary structure-specific antibodies that potently neutralize HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Changela, Anita; Wu, Xueling; Yang, Yongping; Zhang, Baoshan; Zhu, Jiang; Nardone, Glenn A; O'Dell, Sijy; Pancera, Marie; Gorny, Miroslaw K; Phogat, Sanjay; Robinson, James E; Stamatatos, Leonidas; Zolla-Pazner, Susan; Mascola, John R; Kwong, Peter D

    2011-03-01

    Monoclonal antibody 2909 belongs to a class of potently neutralizing antibodies that recognize quaternary epitopes on HIV-1. Some members of this class, such as 2909, are strain specific, while others, such as antibody PG16, are broadly neutralizing; all, however, recognize a region on the gp120 envelope glycoprotein that includes two loops (V2 and V3) and forms appropriately only in the oligomeric HIV-1 spike (gp120(3)/gp41(3)). Here we present the crystal structure of 2909 and report structure-function analysis with antibody chimeras composed of 2909 and other members of this antibody class. The 2909 structure was dominated by a heavy-chain third-complementarity-determining region (CDR H3) of 21 residues, which comprised 36% of the combining surface and formed a β-hairpin club extending ∼20 Å beyond the rest of the antibody. Sequence analysis and mass spectrometry identified sites of tyrosine sulfation at the middle and top of CDR H3; substitutions with phenylalanine either ablated (middle substitution) or substantially diminished (top substitution) neutralization. Chimeric antibodies composed of heavy and light chains, exchanged between 2909 and other members of the class, indicated a substantial lack of complementation. Comparison of 2909 to PG16 (which is tyrosine sulfated and the only other member of the class for which a structure has previously been reported) showed that both utilize protruding, anionic CDR H3s for recognition. Thus, despite some diversity, members of this class share structural and functional similarities, with conserved features of the CDR H3 subdomain likely reflecting prevalent solutions by the human immune system for recognition of a quaternary site of HIV-1 vulnerability.

  17. Molecular dimensions and structural features of neutral polysaccharides from the seed mucilage of Hyptis suaveolens L.

    PubMed

    Praznik, Werner; Čavarkapa, Andrea; Unger, Frank M; Loeppert, Renate; Holzer, Wolfgang; Viernstein, Helmut; Mueller, Monika

    2017-04-15

    The seed mucilage of Hyptis suaveolens L. includes acid - and neutral heteropolysaccharides in a ratio of about 1:1. The anionic charged fraction responsible for swelling and viscous behaviour possesses an average molar mass of Mw=350kg/mol, Mn=255kg/mol. The neutral polysaccharide fraction shows an average molar mass of Mw=47kg/mol and Mn=28kg/mol and is composed of d-Galp-, d-Glcp- and d-Manp residues in a molar ratio of about 3:2:1. The structural features present galactoglucan (30%) and galactoglucomannan (70%) with a high level of terminal β-linked d-Galp residues (18%). Structural details of galactoglucomannan are derived by combined enzymatic and chemical methods as well as NMR spectroscopy. Sequences of octa/nonasaccharide β-d-Glcp-(1→4)[β-d-Galp-(1→2)-α-d-Galp-(1→6)]-β-d-Manp-(1→4)-β-d-Glcp-(1→4)-β-d-Glcp-(1→4)[β-d-Galp-(1→2)-α-d-Galp-(1→6)]-β-d-Manp and lower mass tetrasaccharide repeating units β-d-Glcp-(1→4)[β-d-Galp-(1→2)-α-d-Galp-(1→6)]-β-d-Manp were found. The level of the prebiotic activity is related to the availability of β-linked d-Galp residues in the side chains of the molecules.

  18. Solar Cyclical Trend Study of the Mid-Latitude, Quiet-Time, Meridional, Neutral Winds at Winter Solstice Conditions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    thermosphere , as seen in Figure 1 [Banks and Kockarts, 1973; Jacchia and Slowey, 1973; Hedin and Mayr, 1987]. A similar solar cycle effect is expected in...approximately two times lower at solar minimum than it is at solar maximum. Cor- responding to this solar cycle effect , a factor of 4.5 difference has been...investigation of the effect of combined auroral forcing and solar forcing on the mid- latitude thermospheric winds. This type of study would provide

  19. Structural fatigue test results for large wind turbine blade sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faddoul, J. R.; Sullivan, T. L.

    1982-01-01

    In order to provide quantitative information on the operating life capabilities of wind turbine rotor blade concepts for root-end load transfer, a series of cantilever beam fatigue tests was conducted. Fatigue tests were conducted on a laminated wood blade with bonded steel studs, a low cost steel spar (utility pole) with a welded flange, a utility pole with additional root-end thickness provided by a swaged collar, fiberglass spars with both bonded and nonbonded fittings, and, finally, an aluminum blade with a bolted steel fitting (Lockheed Mod-0 blade). Photographs, data, and conclusions for each of these tests are presented. In addition, the aluminum blade test results are compared to field failure information; these results provide evidence that the cantilever beam type of fatigue test is a satisfactory method for obtaining qualitative data on blade life expectancy and for identifying structurally underdesigned areas (hot spots).

  20. Ion-Neutral Coupling in Solar Prominence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, H.; DeVore, C. R.; Karpen, J.; Kucera, T.; Antiochos, S.; Kawashima, R.

    2011-01-01

    Coupling between ions and neutrals in magnetized plasmas is fundamentally important to many aspects of heliophysics, including our ionosphere, the solar chromosphere, the solar wind interaction with planetary atmospheres, and the interface between the heliosphere and the interstellar medium. Ion-neutral coupling also plays a major role in the physics of solar prominences. By combining theory, modeling, and observations we are working toward a better understanding of the structure and dynamics of partially ionized prominence plasma. Two key questions are addressed in the present work: 1) what physical mechanism(s) sets the cross-field scale of prominence threads? 2) Are ion-neutral interactions responsible for the vertical flows and structure in prominences? We present initial results from a study investigating what role ion-neutral interactions play in prominence dynamics and structure. This research was supported by NASA.

  1. Orbital motion of dust particles in an rf magnetron discharge. Ion drag force or neutral atom wind force

    SciTech Connect

    Pal, A. F.; Ryabinkin, A. N.; Serov, A. O.; Dyatko, N. A.; Starostin, A. N.; Filippov, A. V.

    2012-03-15

    Microparticles with sizes up to 130 {mu}m have been confined and the velocity and diameter of particles in a plasma trap of an rf magnetron discharge with an arc magnetic field have been simultaneously measured. The motion of the gas induced by electron and ion cyclotron currents has been numerically simulated using the Navier-Stokes equation. The experimental and numerical results confirm the mechanism of the orbital motion of dust particles in the magnetron discharge plasma that is associated with the orbital motion of the neutral gas accelerated by electron and ion drift flows in crossed electric and magnetic fields.

  2. Observed wind and wave field structures from multi-sensor satellite measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Queffeulou, P.; Bentamy, A.

    1994-12-31

    Sea surface wind speed and wave data are presently available from various sensors in flight on several satellites. The wind speed and direction are available from the wind scatterometer of ERS-1. The wind speed can also be inferred from altimeters on board ERS-1 and TOPEX POSEIDON, and from the Special Microwave Imager on the satellites of the Defense Meteorological Space Program. These data are merged and used to investigate sea surface wind and wave field structure. One application study presently in progress, concerning the Mistral, is presented.

  3. Modeling the uptake of neutral organic chemicals on XAD passive air samplers under variable temperatures, external wind speeds and ambient air concentrations (PAS-SIM).

    PubMed

    Armitage, James M; Hayward, Stephen J; Wania, Frank

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the performance and demonstrate the utility of a fugacity-based model of XAD passive air samplers (XAD-PAS) designed to simulate the uptake of neutral organic chemicals under variable temperatures, external wind speeds and ambient air concentrations. The model (PAS-SIM) simulates the transport of the chemical across the air-side boundary layer and within the sampler medium, which is segmented into a user-defined number of thin layers. Model performance was evaluated using data for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from a field calibration study (i.e., active and XAD-PAS data) conducted in Egbert, Ontario, Canada. With some exceptions, modeled PAS uptake curves are in good agreement with the empirical PAS data. The results are highly encouraging, given the uncertainty in the active air sampler data used as input and other uncertainties related to model parametrization (e.g., sampler-air partition coefficients, the influence of wind speed on sampling rates). The study supports the further development and evaluation of the PAS-SIM model as a diagnostic (e.g., to aid interpretation of calibration studies and monitoring data) and prognostic (e.g., to inform design of future passive air sampling campaigns) tool.

  4. Exploring Vertical Turbulence Structure in Neutrally and Stably Stratified Flows Using the Weather Research and Forecasting-Large-Eddy Simulation (WRF-LES) Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udina, Mireia; Sun, Jielun; Kosović, Branko; Soler, Maria Rosa

    2016-11-01

    Following Sun et al. (J Atmos Sci 69(1):338-351, 2012), vertical variations of turbulent mixing in stably stratified and neutral environments as functions of wind speed are investigated using the large-eddy simulation capability in the Weather Research and Forecasting model. The simulations with a surface cooling rate for the stable boundary layer (SBL) and a range of geostrophic winds for both stable and neutral boundary layers are compared with observations from the Cooperative Atmosphere-Surface Exchange Study 1999 (CASES-99). To avoid the uncertainty of the subgrid scheme, the investigation focuses on the vertical domain when the ratio between the subgrid and the resolved turbulence is small. The results qualitatively capture the observed dependence of turbulence intensity on wind speed under neutral conditions; however, its vertical variation is affected by the damping layer used in absorbing undesirable numerical waves at the top of the domain as a result of relatively large neutral turbulent eddies. The simulated SBL fails to capture the observed temperature variance with wind speed and the observed transition from the SBL to the near-neutral atmosphere with increasing wind speed, although the vertical temperature profile of the simulated SBL resembles the observed profile. The study suggests that molecular thermal conduction responsible for the thermal coupling between the surface and atmosphere cannot be parameterized through the Monin-Obukhov bulk relation for turbulent heat transfer by applying the surface radiation temperature, as is common practice when modelling air-surface interactions.

  5. Charge Neutral Fermionic States and Current Oscillation in a Graphene-Superconductor Hybrid Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Wenye; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Chao; Jin, Kuijuan; Ma, Zhongshui

    2016-10-01

    The proximity properties of edge currents in the vicinity of the interface between the graphene and superconductor in the presence of magnetic field are investigated. It is shown that the edge states introduced by Andreev reflection at the graphene-superconductor (G/S) interface give rise to the charge neutral states in all Landau levels. We note that in a topological insulator-superconductor (TI/S) hybrid structure, only N = 0 Landau level can support this type of charge neutral states. The different interface states of a G/S hybrid and a TI/S hybrid is due to that graphene consists of two distinct sublattices. The armchair edge consists of two inequivalent atoms. This gives rise to unique electronic properties of edge states when connected to a superconductor. A direct consequence of zero charge states in all Landau levels is that the current density approaches zero at interface. The proximity effect leads to quantum magnetic oscillation of the current density in the superconductor region. The interface current density can also be tuned with a finite interface potential. For sharp δ-type interface potential, the derivative of the wavefunction is discontinuous. As a result, we found that there is current density discontinuity at the interface. The step of the current discontinuity is proportional to the strength of the interface potential.

  6. Somatic Hypermutation-Induced Changes in the Structure and Dynamics of HIV-1 Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Davenport, Thaddeus M; Gorman, Jason; Joyce, M Gordon; Zhou, Tongqing; Soto, Cinque; Guttman, Miklos; Moquin, Stephanie; Yang, Yongping; Zhang, Baoshan; Doria-Rose, Nicole A; Hu, Shiu-Lok; Mascola, John R; Kwong, Peter D; Lee, Kelly K

    2016-07-20

    Antibody somatic hypermutation (SHM) and affinity maturation enhance antigen recognition by modifying antibody paratope structure to improve its complementarity with the target epitope. SHM-induced changes in paratope dynamics may also contribute to antibody maturation, but direct evidence of this is limited. Here, we examine two classes of HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) for SHM-induced changes in structure and dynamics, and delineate the effects of these changes on interactions with the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env). In combination with new and existing structures of unmutated and affinity matured antibody Fab fragments, we used hydrogen/deuterium exchange with mass spectrometry to directly measure Fab structural dynamics. Changes in antibody structure and dynamics were positioned to improve complementarity with Env, with changes in dynamics primarily observed at the paratope peripheries. We conclude that SHM optimizes paratope complementarity to conserved HIV-1 epitopes and restricts the mobility of paratope-peripheral residues to minimize clashes with variable features on HIV-1 Env.

  7. Coronal hole structure and the high speed solar wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holzer, Thomas E.; Leer, Egil

    1997-01-01

    The basic physical processes which are important in the acceleration of high speed wind from coronal holes are reviewed. The early works of Birkeland and Parker are discussed. The extension of Parker's work is included. It is shown that the greatest area of uncertainty is that of coronal heating. It is demonstrated that in modeling solar wind acceleration, it is important to carry out a study on the chromosphere-corona-wind system analysis.

  8. Spatial structure of low-frequency wind noise.

    PubMed

    Wilson, D Keith; Greenfield, Roy J; White, Michael J

    2007-12-01

    The distinguishing spatial properties of low-frequency microphone wind noise (turbulent pressure disturbances) are examined with a planar, 49-element array. Individual, propagating transient pressure disturbances are imaged by wavelet processing to the array data. Within a given frequency range, the wind disturbances are much smaller and less spatially coherent than sound waves. Conventional array processing techniques are particularly sensitive to wind noise when sensor separations are small compared to the acoustic wavelengths of interest.

  9. Lewis Structures Technology, 1988. Volume 3: Structural Integrity Fatigue and Fracture Wind Turbines HOST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The charter of the Structures Division is to perform and disseminate results of research conducted in support of aerospace engine structures. These results have a wide range of applicability to practioners of structural engineering mechanics beyond the aerospace arena. The specific purpose of the symposium was to familiarize the engineering structures community with the depth and range of research performed by the division and its academic and industrial partners. Sessions covered vibration control, fracture mechanics, ceramic component reliability, parallel computing, nondestructive evaluation, constitutive models and experimental capabilities, dynamic systems, fatigue and damage, wind turbines, hot section technology (HOST), aeroelasticity, structural mechanics codes, computational methods for dynamics, structural optimization, and applications of structural dynamics, and structural mechanics computer codes.

  10. Design of the precast, post-tensioned concrete shielding structure for the TFTR neutral beam test cell

    SciTech Connect

    Kaminsky, E.L.; Nilsson, E.T.

    1981-01-01

    At the TFTR facility, the Neutral Beam Test Cell is a room separated from the TFTR Cell by a 4-foot-thick concrete wall and devoted to testing the neutral beam injector. The function of the shielding structure is to protect personnel from radiation casued by pulsing the injector. The distance from the TFTR device to the injector is large enough to permit use of magnetic materials in the shielding structure, and the neutron flux levels are small enough so that ordinary concrete of moderate thickness may be employed. Radiation considerations are not discussed in this paper, which is devoted to a description of the structural design of the shield.

  11. Structural properties of reciprocal form factor in neutral atoms and singly charged ions.

    PubMed

    Romera, E; Angulo, J C

    2004-04-22

    Structural characteristics of the spherically averaged internally folded density or reciprocal form factor Br are studied within the Hartree-Fock framework for 103 neutral atoms, 54 singly charged cations, and 43 anions in their ground state. The function Br is classified throughout the Periodic Table into three types: (i) monotonic decrease from the origin, (ii) maximum at r=0 and a negative minimum at r>0, and (iii) a local maximum at r=0 and a pair maximum-minimum out of the origin. A detailed study of the corresponding properties for individual subshells as well as their relative weight for the total Br is also carried out. For completeness, the analytical Br for hydrogenlike atoms in both ground and excited states is also analyzed.

  12. Infrared Action Spectroscopy of Low-Temperature Neutral Gas-Phase Molecules of Arbitrary Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatsyna, Vasyl; Bakker, Daniël J.; Salén, Peter; Feifel, Raimund; Rijs, Anouk M.; Zhaunerchyk, Vitali

    2016-09-01

    We demonstrate a technique for IR action spectroscopy that enables measuring IR spectra in a background-free fashion for low-temperature neutral gas-phase molecules of arbitrary structure. The method is exemplified experimentally for N -methylacetamide molecules in the mid-IR spectral range of 1000 - 1800 cm-1 , utilizing the free electron laser FELIX. The technique involves the resonant absorption of multiple mid-IR photons, which induces molecular dissociation. The dissociation products are probed with 10.49 eV vacuum ultraviolet photons and analyzed with a mass spectrometer. We also demonstrate the capability of this method to record, with unprecedented ease, mid-IR spectra for the molecular associates, such as clusters and oligomers, present in a molecular beam. In this way the mass-selected spectra of low-temperature gas-phase dimers and trimers of N -methylacetamide are measured in the full amide I-III range.

  13. Alfvén eigenmode structure during off-axis neutral beam injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobias, B.; Bass, E. M.; Classen, I. G. J.; Domier, C. W.; Grierson, B. A.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Luhmann, N. C., Jr.; Nazikian, R.; Park, H. K.; Spong, D. A.; Van Zeeland, M. A.

    2012-10-01

    The spatial structure of Alfvén eigenmodes on the DIII-D tokamak is compared for contrasting fast ion deposition profiles resulting from on- and off-axis neutral beam injection (NBI). In both cases, poloidal mode rotation and eigenmode twist, or radial phase variation, are correlated with the direction of the normal ion diamagnetic flow and readily inverted with a reversal of toroidal magnetic field, BT. While off-axis NBI results in weakly driven reversed shear induced Alfvén eigenmodes due to reduced fast ion pressure gradient, ∇βfast, in the region of the mode, these marginally unstable modes exhibit a 2D phase structure that is indistinguishable from that observed during on-axis injection. This result is consistent with recent explorations using the non-perturbative codes Gyro and TAEFL that show a weak dependence of eigenmode structure on drive when fast ion density is uniformly reduced by a scalar multiplier. These codes also obtain unstable, counter-propagating modes with the inverted 2D phase structure when BT is kept constant and the diamagnetic flow direction is reversed by making ∇βfast sufficiently positive for an isotropic population of fast ions. While measurements of the spatial profile of fast ion D-α light from the recently upgraded charge exchange recombination diagnostic on DIII-D suggest a strong modification of fast ion pressure towards this limit, no counter-propagating modes have yet been observed in experiment.

  14. Structure Topology Optimization of Brake Pad in Large- megawatt Wind Turbine Brake Considering Thermal- structural Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S. F.; Yin, J.; Liu, Y.; Sha, Z. H.; Ma, F. J.

    2016-11-01

    There always exists severe non-uniform wear of brake pad in large-megawatt wind turbine brake during the braking process, which has the brake pad worn out in advance and even threats the safety production of wind turbine. The root cause of this phenomenon is the non-uniform deformation caused by thermal-structural coupling effect between brake pad and disc while braking under the conditions of both high speed and heavy load. For this problem, mathematical model of thermal-structural coupling analysis is built. Based on the topology optimization method of Solid Isotropic Microstructures with Penalization, SIMP, structure topology optimization of brake pad is developed considering the deformation caused by thermal-structural coupling effect. The objective function is the minimum flexibility, and the structure topology optimization model of brake pad is established after indirect thermal- structural coupling analysis. Compared with the optimization result considering non-thermal- structural coupling, the conspicuous influence of thermal effect on brake pad wear and deformation is proven as well as the rationality of taking thermal-structural coupling effect as optimization condition. Reconstructed model is built according to the result, meanwhile analysis for verification is carried out with the same working condition. This study provides theoretical foundation for the design of high-speed and heavy-load brake pad. The new structure may provide design reference for improving the stress condition between brake pad and disc, enhancing the use ratio of friction material and increasing the working performance of large-megawatt wind turbine brake.

  15. Modification of the solar wind plasma and magnetic structures in magnetosheath: correlation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liudmila, Rakhmanova; Zastenker, Georgy; Riazantseva, Maria

    The report is devoted to the modification of the solar wind (SW) structures during transferring through the bow shock and magnetosheath (MSH). The study is based on the correlation analysis of data obtained from two closely located THEMIS spacecrafts placed in SW and MSH simultaneously. We find out that bow shock and MSH typically add only high frequency fluctuations (with frequencies exceeding 0.01-0.02 Hz) to the variations of solar wind parameters. We observed time variations of correlation coefficient calculated on 2-hour and 30-minute data intervals. We find that that small-scale solar wind structures are extremely modified in MSH though structures of larger scales transfer to the MSH without modification. We suggest that the amplitude of structure , amplitude of IMF and the value of the density of the solar wind plasma are the main parameters controlling the level of modification of the solar wind structure’s in MSH.

  16. Identification of the optimal structure required for a Shiga toxin neutralizer with oriented carbohydrates to function in the circulation.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Kiyotaka; Matsuoka, Koji; Watanabe, Miho; Igai, Katsura; Hino, Kumiko; Hatano, Ken; Yamada, Akihiro; Abe, Nobuhisa; Terunuma, Daiyo; Kuzuhara, Hiroyoshi; Natori, Yasuhiro

    2005-06-15

    Shiga toxin (Stx) is a major virulence factor of Stx-producing Escherichia coli. Recently, we developed a therapeutic Stx neutralizer with 6 trisaccharides of globotriaosyl ceramide, a receptor for Stx, in its dendrimer structure (referred to as "SUPER TWIG [1]6") to function in the circulation. Here, we determined the optimal structure of SUPER TWIG for it to function in the circulation and identified a SUPER TWIG with 18 trisaccharides, SUPER TWIG (2)18, as another potent Stx neutralizer. SUPER TWIGs (1)6 and (2)18 shared a structural similarity, a dumbbell shape in which 2 clusters of trisaccharides were connected via a linkage with a hydrophobic chain. The dumbbell shape was found to be required for formation of a complex with Stx that enables efficient uptake and degradation of Stx by macrophages and, consequently, for potent Stx-neutralizing activity in the circulation. We also determined the binding site of the SUPER TWIGs on Stx.

  17. Neutral and charged gallium clusters: structures, physical properties and implications for the melting features.

    PubMed

    Núñez, Sara; López, José M; Aguado, Andrés

    2012-10-21

    We report the putative Global Minimum (GM) structures and electronic properties of Ga(N)(+), Ga(N) and Ga(N)(-) clusters with N = 13-37 atoms, obtained from first-principles density functional theory structural optimizations. The calculations include spin polarization and employ an exchange-correlation functional which accounts for van der Waals dispersion interactions (vdW-DFT). We find a wide diversity of structural motifs within the located GM, including decahedral, polyicosahedral, polytetrahedral and layered structures. The GM structures are also extremely sensitive to the number of electrons in the cluster, so that the structures of neutral and charged clusters differ for most sizes. The main magic numbers (clusters with an enhanced stability) are identified and interpreted in terms of electronic and geometric shell closings. The theoretical results are consistent with experimental abundance mass spectra of Ga(N)(+) and with photoelectron spectra of Ga(N)(-). The size dependence of the latent heats of melting, the shape of the heat capacity peaks, and the temperature dependence of the collision cross-sections, all measured for Ga(N)(+) clusters, are properly interpreted in terms of the calculated cohesive energies, spectra of configurational excitations, and cluster shapes, respectively. The transition from "non-melter" to "magic-melter" behaviour, experimentally observed between Ga(30)(+) and Ga(31)(+), is traced back to a strong geometry change. Finally, the higher-than-bulk melting temperatures of gallium clusters are correlated with a more typically metallic behaviour of the clusters as compared to the bulk, contrary to previous theoretical claims.

  18. Neutral Buoyancy Simulator: MSFC-Langley joint test of large space structures component assembly:

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Once the United States' space program had progressed from Earth's orbit into outerspace, the prospect of building and maintaining a permanent presence in space was realized. To accomplish this feat, NASA launched a temporary workstation, Skylab, to discover the effects of low gravity and weightlessness on the human body, and also to develop tools and equipment that would be needed in the future to build and maintain a more permanent space station. The structures, techniques, and work schedules had to be carefully designed to fit this unique construction site. The components had to be lightweight for transport into orbit, yet durable. The station also had to be made with removable parts for easy servicing and repairs by astronauts. All of the tools necessary for service and repairs had to be designed for easy manipulation by a suited astronaut. And construction methods had to be efficient due to limited time the astronauts could remain outside their controlled environment. In lieu of all the specific needs for this project, an environment on Earth had to be developed that could simulate a low gravity atmosphere. A Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS) was constructed by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in 1968. Since then, NASA scientists have used this facility to understand how humans work best in low gravity and also provide information about the different kinds of structures that can be built. With the help of the NBS, building a space station became more of a reality. In a joint venture between NASA/Langley Research Center in Hampton, VA and MSFC, the Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structures (ACCESS) was developed and demonstrated at MSFC's NBS. The primary objective of this experiment was to test the ACCESS structural assembly concept for suitability as the framework for larger space structures and to identify ways to improve the productivity of space construction. Pictured is a demonstration of ACCESS.

  19. Structural basis for immunization with postfusion respiratory syncytial virus fusion F glycoprotein (RSV F) to elicit high neutralizing antibody titers

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, Kurt A.; Settembre, Ethan C.; Shaw, Christine A.; Dey, Antu K.; Rappuoli, Rino; Mandl, Christian W.; Dormitzer, Philip R.; Carfi, Andrea

    2012-02-07

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), the main cause of infant bronchiolitis, remains a major unmet vaccine need despite more than 40 years of vaccine research. Vaccine candidates based on a chief RSV neutralization antigen, the fusion (F) glycoprotein, have foundered due to problems with stability, purity, reproducibility, and potency. Crystal structures of related parainfluenza F glycoproteins have revealed a large conformational change between the prefusion and postfusion states, suggesting that postfusion F antigens might not efficiently elicit neutralizing antibodies. We have generated a homogeneous, stable, and reproducible postfusion RSV F immunogen that elicits high titers of neutralizing antibodies in immunized animals. The 3.2-{angstrom} X-ray crystal structure of this substantially complete RSV F reveals important differences from homology-based structural models. Specifically, the RSV F crystal structure demonstrates the exposure of key neutralizing antibody binding sites on the surface of the postfusion RSV F trimer. This unanticipated structural feature explains the engineered RSV F antigen's efficiency as an immunogen. This work illustrates how structural-based antigen design can guide the rational optimization of candidate vaccine antigens.

  20. Numerical simulation of tornado wind loading on structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maiden, D. E.

    1976-01-01

    A numerical simulation of a tornado interacting with a building was undertaken in order to compare the pressures due to a rotational unsteady wind with that due to steady straight winds used in design of nuclear facilities. The numerical simulations were performed on a two-dimensional compressible hydrodynamics code. Calculated pressure profiles for a typical building were then subjected to a tornado wind field and the results were compared with current quasisteady design calculations. The analysis indicates that current design practices are conservative.

  1. Structural analysis of wind turbine rotors for NSF-NASA Mod-0 wind power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spera, D. A.

    1975-01-01

    Preliminary estimates of vibratory loads and stresses in hingeless and teetering rotors for the proposed 100-kW wind power system are presented. Stresses in the shank areas of the 19-m (62.5-ft) blades are given for static, rated, and overload conditions. The teetering rotor has substantial advantages over the hingeless rotor with respect to shank stresses, fatigue life, and tower loading. A teetering rotor will probably be required in order to achieve a long service life in a large wind turbine exposed to periodic overload conditions.

  2. Correlations of charge neutrality level with electronic structure and p-d hybridization

    PubMed Central

    Das, Arkaprava; Gautam, Subodh K.; Shukla, D. K.; Singh, Fouran

    2017-01-01

    The formation of charge neutrality level (CNL) in highly conducting Cadmium oxide (CdO) thin films is demonstarted by the observed variation in the band gap upon annealing and doping. It may be explained by the observation that Tin (Sn) doping breaks the perfect periodicity of CdO cubic crystal structure and creates virtual gap states (ViGS). The level of local CNL resides at the branch point of ViGS, making the energy at which native defect’s character changes from predominantly donor-like below CNL to predominantly acceptor-like above the CNL and a schematic band diagram is developed to substantiate the same. Further investigations using soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy (SXAS) at Oxygen and Cadmium edges show the reduction of Sn4+ to Sn2+. The analysis of the spectral features has revealed an evidence of p-d interaction between O 2p and Cd 4d orbitals that pushes the valence band minima at higher energies which is symmetry forbidden at г point and causing a positive valance band dispersion away from the zone centre in the г ~ L, K direction. Thus, origin of the CNL is attributed to the high density of the Oxygen vacancies as confirmed by the change in the local electronic structure and p-d hybridization of orbitals. PMID:28102312

  3. Correlations of charge neutrality level with electronic structure and p-d hybridization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Arkaprava; Gautam, Subodh K.; Shukla, D. K.; Singh, Fouran

    2017-01-01

    The formation of charge neutrality level (CNL) in highly conducting Cadmium oxide (CdO) thin films is demonstarted by the observed variation in the band gap upon annealing and doping. It may be explained by the observation that Tin (Sn) doping breaks the perfect periodicity of CdO cubic crystal structure and creates virtual gap states (ViGS). The level of local CNL resides at the branch point of ViGS, making the energy at which native defect’s character changes from predominantly donor-like below CNL to predominantly acceptor-like above the CNL and a schematic band diagram is developed to substantiate the same. Further investigations using soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy (SXAS) at Oxygen and Cadmium edges show the reduction of Sn4+ to Sn2+. The analysis of the spectral features has revealed an evidence of p-d interaction between O 2p and Cd 4d orbitals that pushes the valence band minima at higher energies which is symmetry forbidden at г point and causing a positive valance band dispersion away from the zone centre in the г ~ L, K direction. Thus, origin of the CNL is attributed to the high density of the Oxygen vacancies as confirmed by the change in the local electronic structure and p-d hybridization of orbitals.

  4. Lawn Structured Triboelectric Nanogenerators for Scavenging Sweeping Wind Energy on Rooftops.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Binbin; Chen, Jun; Jin, Long; Deng, Weili; Tang, Junfeng; Zhang, Haitao; Pan, Hong; Zhu, Minhao; Yang, Weiqing; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-02-24

    A novel triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) is designed, based on flexible and transparent vertical-strip arrays, for environmental wind-energy harvesting. Given the low cost, simple structure, and wide applicability, the TENGs present a green alternative to traditional methods used for large-scale wind-energy harvesting.

  5. The measurement of the ground wind structure at Wallops Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tielman, H. W.

    1981-01-01

    The mean and turbulence characteristics of the surface wind measured near the Atlantic coast were measured. The experimental data were acquired from a 76 meter tall instrumented micrometeorological tower. Mean wind and turbulence measurements were made with two types of instrumentation consisting of cup vane and temperature probes, primarily used for mean profile measurements of velocity and temperature respectively. The second system, a hot film and thermocouple system, was used for measurement of turbulence variances and covariances and spectra. The cup vane system was used to acquire data from all wind directions, while the hot film system was primarily used for turbulence measurements from the two prevailing wind directions, south and northwest. The micrometeorological tower is a self standing nonguyed tower with five working platforms at 15.2m (50 ft.) intervals, with cup vane and aspirated temperature probes mounted at each platform.

  6. The fossil wind structures of Eta Carinae: changes across one 5.54-yr cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gull, Theodore R.; Madura, Thomas I.; Teodoro, Mairan; Clementel, Nicola; Corcoran, Michael; Damineli, Augusto; Groh, Jose H.; Hamaguchi, Kenji; Hillier, D. John; Moffat, Anthony F. J.; Richardson, Noel D.; Weigelt, Gerd; Lindler, Don; Feggans, Keith

    2016-11-01

    Eta Carinae, the closest, active, massive binary containing a highly unstable Luminous Blue Variable, exhibits expanding, compressed wind shells, seen in emission, that are spatially and spectrally resolved by Hubble Space Telescope/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph. Starting in 2009 June, these structures were mapped across its 5.54-yr, highly elliptical, binary orbit to follow temporal changes in the light of [Fe III] 4659 Å and [Fe II] 4815 Å. The emissions trace portions of fossil wind shells, that were formed by wind-wind interactions across each cycle. Over the high-ionization state, dense arcs, photoionized by far-ultraviolet radiation from the hot secondary, are seen in [Fe III]. Other arcs, ionized by mid-ultraviolet radiation from the primary star, are seen in [Fe II]. The [Fe III] structures tend to be interior to [Fe II] structures that trace extensive, less disturbed primary wind. During the brief periastron passage when the secondary plunges deep into the primary's extremely dense wind, on the far side of primary star, high-ionization [Fe III] structures fade and reappear in [Fe II]. Multiple fossil wind structures were traced across the 5.7-yr monitoring interval. The strong similarity of the expanding [Fe II] shells suggests that the wind and photoionization properties of the massive binary have not changed substantially from one orbit to the next over the past several orbital cycles. These observations trace structures that can be used to test 3D hydrodynamical and radiative-transfer models of massive, interacting winds. They also provide a baseline for following future changes in η Car, especially of its winds and photoionization properties.

  7. Wind Energy's New Role in Supplying the World's Energy: What Role Will Structural Health Monitoring Play?

    SciTech Connect

    Butterfield, S.; Sheng, S.; Oyague, F.

    2009-12-01

    Wind energy installations are leading all other forms of new energy installations in the United States and Europe. In Europe, large wind plants are supplying as much as 25% of Denmark's energy needs and 8% of the electric needs for Germany and Spain, who have more ambitious goals on the horizon. Although wind energy only produces about 2% of the current electricity demand in the United States, the U.S. Department of Energy, in collaboration with wind industry experts, has drafted a plan that would bring the U.S. installed wind capacity up to 20% of the nation's total electrical supply. To meet these expectations, wind energy must be extremely reliable. Structural health monitoring will play a critical role in making this goal successful.

  8. Crystal Structure of PG16 and Chimeric Dissection with Somatically Related PG9: Structure-Function Analysis of Two Quaternary-Specific Antibodies That Effectively Neutralize HIV-1

    SciTech Connect

    Pancera, Marie; McLellan, Jason S.; Wu, Xueling; Zhu, Jiang; Changela, Anita; Schmidt, Stephen D.; Yang, Yongping; Zhou, Tongqing; Phogat, Sanjay; Mascola, John R.; Kwong, Peter D.

    2010-11-03

    HIV-1 resists neutralization by most antibodies. Two somatically related human antibodies, PG9 and PG16, however, each neutralize 70 to 80% of circulating HIV-1 isolates. Here we present the structure of the antigen-binding fragment of PG16 in monoclinic and orthorhombic lattices at 2.4 and 4.0 {angstrom}, respectively, and use a combination of structural analysis, paratope dissection, and neutralization assessment to determine the functional relevance of three unusual PG9/PG16 features: N-linked glycosylation, extensive affinity maturation, and a heavy chain-third complementarity-determining region (CDR H3) that is one of the longest observed in human antibodies. Glycosylation extended off the side of the light chain variable domain and was not required for neutralization. The CDR H3 formed an axe-shaped subdomain, which comprised 42% of the CDR surface, with the axe head looming {approx}20 {angstrom} above the other combining loops. Comprehensive sets of chimeric swaps between PG9 and PG16 of light chain, heavy chain, and CDR H3 were employed to decipher structure-function relationships. Chimeric swaps generally complemented functionally, with differences in PG9/PG16 neutralization related primarily to residue differences in CDR H3. Meanwhile, chimeric reversions to genomic V genes showed isolate-dependent effects, with affinity maturation playing a significant role in augmenting neutralization breadth (P = 0.036) and potency (P < 0.0001). The structural and functional details of extraordinary CDR H3 and extensive affinity maturation provide insights into the neutralization mechanism of and the elicitation pathway for broadly neutralizing antibodies like PG9 and PG16.

  9. Structure of a Major Antigenic Site on the Respiratory Syncytial Virus Fusion Glycoprotein in Complex with Neutralizing Antibody 101F

    SciTech Connect

    McLellan, Jason S.; Chen, Man; Chang, Jung-San; Yang, Yongping; Kim, Albert; Graham, Barney S.; Kwong, Peter D.

    2010-11-19

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of pneumonia and bronchiolitis in infants and elderly people. Currently there is no effective vaccine against RSV, but passive prophylaxis with neutralizing antibodies reduces hospitalizations. To investigate the mechanism of antibody-mediated RSV neutralization, we undertook structure-function studies of monoclonal antibody 101F, which binds a linear epitope in the RSV fusion glycoprotein. Crystal structures of the 101F antigen-binding fragment in complex with peptides from the fusion glycoprotein defined both the extent of the linear epitope and the interactions of residues that are mutated in antibody escape variants. The structure allowed for modeling of 101F in complex with trimers of the fusion glycoprotein, and the resulting models suggested that 101F may contact additional surfaces located outside the linear epitope. This hypothesis was supported by surface plasmon resonance experiments that demonstrated 101F bound the peptide epitope {approx}16,000-fold more weakly than the fusion glycoprotein. The modeling also showed no substantial clashes between 101F and the fusion glycoprotein in either the pre- or postfusion state, and cell-based assays indicated that 101F neutralization was not associated with blocking virus attachment. Collectively, these results provide a structural basis for RSV neutralization by antibodies that target a major antigenic site on the fusion glycoprotein.

  10. Crystal structure of the neutralizing Llama V(HH) D7 and its mode of HIV-1 gp120 interaction.

    PubMed

    Hinz, Andreas; Lutje Hulsik, David; Forsman, Anna; Koh, Willie Wee-Lee; Belrhali, Hassan; Gorlani, Andrea; de Haard, Hans; Weiss, Robin A; Verrips, Theo; Weissenhorn, Winfried

    2010-05-05

    HIV-1 entry into host cells is mediated by the sequential binding of the envelope glycoprotein gp120 to CD4 and a chemokine receptor. Antibodies binding to epitopes overlapping the CD4-binding site on gp120 are potent inhibitors of HIV entry, such as the llama heavy chain antibody fragment V(HH) D7, which has cross-clade neutralizing properties and competes with CD4 and mAb b12 for high affinity binding to gp120. We report the crystal structure of the D7 V(HH) at 1.5 A resolution, which reveals the molecular details of the complementarity determining regions (CDR) and substantial flexibility of CDR3 that could facilitate an induced fit interaction with gp120. Structural comparison of CDRs from other CD4 binding site antibodies suggests diverse modes of interaction. Mutational analysis identified CDR3 as a key component of gp120 interaction as determined by surface plasmon resonance. A decrease in affinity is directly coupled to the neutralization efficiency since mutations that decrease gp120 interaction increase the IC50 required for HIV-1 IIIB neutralization. Thus the structural study identifies the long CDR3 of D7 as the key determinant of interaction and HIV-1 neutralization. Furthermore, our data confirm that the structural plasticity of gp120 can accommodate multiple modes of antibody binding within the CD4 binding site.

  11. Nucleon transverse spatial and momentum structure with the Neutral Particle Spectrometer at Jefferson Lab Hall C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas, Andres; Horn, Tanja; NPS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    A representation of the proton's true inner structure requires one to describe orbital angular momentum, and important aspect for nucleon spin, for which one needs to describe the correlation between the momentum and spatial coordinates. A three-dimensional description of the nucleon has been developed through the Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) and the Transverse Momentum-Dependent parton distributions (TMDs). The tomography of the nucleon is one of the flagship science programs at the Jefferson Lab and the characterization of the anticipated GPD and TMD behavior as enabled by the Neutral Particle Spectrometer in Hall C is an important aspect. The NPS will allow accurate access to measurements of the hard exclusive and semi-inclusive scattering processes. The default readout of the NPS PbWO4-based calorimeter will be with conventional photomultipliers. However, reading out with SiPMs or other sensors with tolerance to radiation and magnetic fields may have advantages. In this talk we will review the experiment requirements and discuss an alternative readout system with silicon-based sensors. Supported in part by NSF grants PHY-1306227 and PHY-1306418.

  12. Synthesis, structural characterisation and antibacterial activity of Ag+-doped fluorapatite nanomaterials prepared by neutralization method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanić, Vojislav; Radosavljević-Mihajlović, Ana S.; Živković-Radovanović, Vukosava; Nastasijević, Branislav; Marinović-Cincović, Milena; Marković, Jelena P.; Budimir, Milica D.

    2015-05-01

    Silver doped fluorapatite nanopowders were synthesised by neutralization method, which consists of dissolving Ag2O in solution of HF and H3PO4 and addition to suspension of Ca(OH)2. The powder XRD, SEM and FTIR studies indicated the formation of a fluorapatite nanomaterials with average length of the particles is about 80 nm and a width of about 15 nm. The FTIR studies show that carbonate content in samples is very small and carbonte ions substitute both phosphate and hydroxyl groups in the crystal structure of samples, forming AB-type fluorapatite. Antibacterial studies have demonstrated that all Ag+-doped fluorapatite samples exhibit bactericidal effect against pathogens: Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus and Kllebsiela pneumoniae. Antibacterial activity increased with the increase of Ag+ in the samples. The atomic force microscopy studies revealed extensive damage to the bacterial cell envelops in the presence of Ag+-doped fluorapatite particles which may lead to their death. The synthesized Ag+-doped fluorapatite nanomaterials are promising as antibacterial biomaterials in orthopedics and dentistry.

  13. Neutral “Cp-Free” Silyl-Lanthanide(II) Complexes: Synthesis, Structure, and Bonding Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Complexes featuring lanthanide silicon bonds represent a research area still in its infancy. Herein, we report a series of Cp-free lanthanide (+II) complexes bearing σ-bonded silyl ligands. By reactions of LnI2 (Ln = Yb, Eu, Sm) either with a 1,4-oligosilanyl dianion [K-Si(SiMe3)2SiMe2SiMe2Si(SiMe3)2-K)] (1) or with 2 (Me3Si)3SiK (3) the corresponding neutral metallacyclopentasilanes ({Me2Si(Me3Si)2Si}2)Ln·(THF)4 (Ln = Yb (2a), Eu (2b), Sm (2c)), or the disilylated complexes ({Me3Si}3Si)2Ln·(THF)3 (Ln = Yb (4a), Eu (4b), Sm (4c)), were selectively obtained. Complexes 2b, 2c, 4b, and 4c represent the first examples of structurally characterized Cp-free Eu and Sm complexes with silyl ligands. In both series, a linear correlation was observed between the Ln–Si bond lengths and the covalent radii of the corresponding lanthanide metals. Density functional theory calculations were also carried out for complexes 2a–c and 4a–c to elucidate the bonding situation between the Ln(+II) centers and Si. PMID:26132550

  14. The Structure of the Solar Wind at Large Heliocentric Distances: CIRs and their Successors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gazis, P. R.

    1997-01-01

    Co-rotating interaction regions (CIRs) and their associated shock pairs are dominant structures in the solar wind between the heliocentric distances of 2 and 8 AU. At larger heliocentric distances, these structures undergo a qualitative change. Shocks decay to a point where they are often difficult to detect, and may have little influence on the dynamics of the solar wind. Interaction regions spread and merge, though they appear to retain their identity to surprisingly large distances from the Sun. Solar wind and IMF data from the Pioneer 10, Pioneer 11, and Voyager 2 spacecraft were used to conduct a comprehensive survey of CIRs and their successors between heliocentric distances of 1 and 55 AU over the last two solar cycles. The structure of the solar wind varied in a consistent fashion with heliocentric distance. Similar structures were observed at similar heliocentric distances by all three spacecraft during different portions of the solar cycle.

  15. The Structure of the Solar Wind at Large Heliocentric Distances: CIRs and their Successors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gazis, P. R.

    1999-01-01

    Co-rotating interaction regions (CIRs) and their associated shock pairs are dominant structures in the solar wind between the heliocentric distances of 2 and 8 AU. At larger heliocentric distances, these structures undergo a qualitative change. Shocks decay to a point where they are often difficult to detect, and may have little influence on the dynamics of the solar wind. Interaction regions spread and merge, though they appear to retain their identity to surprisingly large distances from the Sun. Solar wind and IMF data from the Pioneer 10, Pioneer 11, and Voyager 2 spacecraft were used to conduct a comprehensive survey of CIRs and their successors between heliocentric distances of 1 and 55 AU over the last two solar cycles. The structure of the solar wind varied in a consistent fashion with heliocentric distance. Similar structures were observed at similar heliocentric distances by all three spacecraft during different portions of the solar cycle.

  16. Investigation of UH-60A Rotor Structural Loads from Flight and Wind Tunnel Tests

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-19

    Investigation of UH-60A Rotor Structural Loads From Flight and Wind Tunnel Tests Hyeonsoo Yeo Mark Potsdam US Army Aviation Development Directorate... Aviation & Missile Research, Development & Engineering Center Research, Development, and Engineering Command Ames Research Center, Moffett Field

  17. Neutral Exosphere Densities and Structures at Titan Inferred from Pickup Ions Observed by CAPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartle, R. E.; Sittler, E. C.; Neubauer, F. M.; Johnson, R. E.; Crary, F.; McComas, D. J.; Young, D. T.; Coates, A. J.; Simpson, D. J.; Bolton, S.; Reisenfeld, D.; Szego, K.; Berthelier, J.

    2005-12-01

    Measurements of pickup ions, born from neutral exospheres imbedded in moving plasmas, can be used to determine the composition and structure of the parent neutral exosphere constituents [1]. Pickup ions have been observed in Saturn's rotating magnetosphere near Titan by the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) instrument during the Cassini orbiter's recent flybys of the moon. Pickup ions observed by CAPS include H+, H2+, N+/CH2+, CH4+, and N2+. These ions slow down Saturn's magnetospheric plasma beyond Titan's ionosphere through mass loading. Because of its relatively high mass and high concentration, CH4+ is the dominant mass loading ion. The other ions make negligible contributions to the mass loading process except for N2+ just above the ionopause, where its concentration becomes important. The phase space densities of pickup ions are sensitive functions of the spatial variations of the parent exosphere gasses of the pickup ions [2]. Accounting for such variations, model phase space densities [2], derived from the Vlasov equation, are used in an algorithm to obtain ion density and velocity moments from CAPS measurements. The model implicitly maps an ions trajectory from its observation point to its source point. The analysis shows that because the gyroradius of CH4+ is much greater than the scale height of the source gas, CH4, the ion fluxes are beamlike with velocities distributed over a narrow range. The observed pickup ion velocities are found to be in ring distributions, with the light ion H+ occupying all of its allowed velocities and CH4+ only a small portion of its ring velocities. Applying the algorithm, exosphere densities are inferred. Using CAPS time-of-flight data and empirical cracking patterns, we show that the 14 amu ion is more likely N+. We compare ratios of the inferred N and CH4 exosphere densities with existing exosphere models. 1. Hartle, R. E., K. W. Ogilvie and C. S. Wu, Planet Space Sci., 21, 2181, 1973. 2. Hartle, R. E. and E. C. Sittler

  18. Interplanetary shock waves and the structure of solar wind disturbances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hundhausen, A. J.

    1972-01-01

    Observations and theoretical models of interplanetary shock waves are reviewed, with emphasis on the large-scale characteristics of the associated solar wind disturbances and on the relationship of these disturbances to solar activity. The sum of observational knowledge indicates that shock waves propagate through the solar wind along a broad, roughly spherical front, ahead of plasma and magnetic field ejected from solar flares. Typically, the shock front reaches 1 AU about two days after its flare origin, and is of intermediate strength. Not all large flares produce observable interplanetary shock waves; the best indicator of shock production appears to be the generation of both type 2 and type 4 radio bursts by a flare. Theoretical models of shock propagation in the solar wind can account for the typically observed shock strength, transit time, and shape.

  19. Framework to model neutral particle flux in convex high aspect ratio structures using one-dimensional radiosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manstetten, Paul; Filipovic, Lado; Hössinger, Andreas; Weinbub, Josef; Selberherr, Siegfried

    2017-02-01

    We present a computationally efficient framework to compute the neutral flux in high aspect ratio structures during three-dimensional plasma etching simulations. The framework is based on a one-dimensional radiosity approach and is applicable to simulations of convex rotationally symmetric holes and convex symmetric trenches with a constant cross-section. The framework is intended to replace the full three-dimensional simulation step required to calculate the neutral flux during plasma etching simulations. Especially for high aspect ratio structures, the computational effort, required to perform the full three-dimensional simulation of the neutral flux at the desired spatial resolution, conflicts with practical simulation time constraints. Our results are in agreement with those obtained by three-dimensional Monte Carlo based ray tracing simulations for various aspect ratios and convex geometries. With this framework we present a comprehensive analysis of the influence of the geometrical properties of high aspect ratio structures as well as of the particle sticking probability on the neutral particle flux.

  20. A New Quaternary Structure Epitope on Dengue Virus Serotype 2 Is the Target of Durable Type-Specific Neutralizing Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Gallichotte, E. N.; Widman, D. G.; Yount, B. L.; Wahala, W. M.; Durbin, A.; Whitehead, S.; Sariol, C. A.; Crowe, J. E.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV2) is widespread and responsible for severe epidemics. While primary DENV2 infections stimulate serotype-specific protective responses, a leading vaccine failed to induce a similar protective response. Using human monoclonal antibodies (hMAbs) isolated from dengue cases and structure-guided design of a chimeric DENV, here we describe the major site on the DENV2 envelope (E) protein targeted by neutralizing antibodies. DENV2-specific neutralizing hMAb 2D22 binds to a quaternary structure epitope. We engineered and recovered a recombinant DENV4 that displayed the 2D22 epitope. DENV2 neutralizing antibodies in people exposed to infection or a live vaccine tracked with the 2D22 epitope on the DENV4/2 chimera. The chimera remained sensitive to DENV4 antibodies, indicating that the major neutralizing epitopes on DENV2 and -4 are at different sites. The ability to transplant a complex epitope between DENV serotypes demonstrates a hitherto underappreciated structural flexibility in flaviviruses, which could be harnessed to develop new vaccines and diagnostics. PMID:26463165

  1. Raman spectra and structures of 1-methyl-4-(4-diethylaminophenylazo)-pyridinium iodide in neutral and acidic aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwase, Akitaka; Ueda, Atsushi; Kuwae, Akio; Hanai, Kazuhiko; Kunimoto, Ko-Ki

    2013-09-01

    Fourier transform (FT) and resonance Raman spectra of 1-methyl-4-(4-diethylaminophenylazo)-pyridinium iodide (MDP) and its four deuterated and three 15N stable isotopic compounds have been measured in neutral and acidic aqueous solutions, and the molecular structures have been discussed on the basis of detailed vibrational assignments using the isotope shifts. No Raman band due to the azo Ndbnd N group is observed in a neutral aqueous solution and also in the solid state of MDP; therefore, this finding suggests that double bond character of the azo group becomes weak and, consequently, the structures of both benzene and pyridinium rings are close to that of a quinoid. The Raman and the 15N NMR spectra indicate that the Nβ of the azo group is protonated in an acidic solution of MDP. Comparison of the spectra of the two solutions suggests that the benzene ring has more quinoid character in the acidic than in the neutral solution. The chromophore structures have been revealed in each of the neutral (purple) and the acidic (yellow) solution.

  2. Observations of the structure and development of nocturnal slope winds

    SciTech Connect

    Horst, T.W.; Doran, J.C.

    1981-06-01

    This paper presents the slope flow data at an intermediate stage of analysis. Work is continuing on both the Cobb Mountain and Rattlesnake data. The Unit 19 data will be compared to the less-detailed wind and temperature data from other locations in order to obtain a more general picture of both the slope flow and the resulting drainage flow during the 1980 Geysers field study. In addition, during the summer of 1981 new data are being collected at the Rattlesnake site with an expanded array of instrumentation, including both wind and temperature profiles at site A and a fast-response anemometer for detailed turbulence measurements at site B.

  3. Spatiotemporal structure of wind farm-atmospheric boundary layer interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervarich, Matthew; Baidya Roy, Somnath; Zhou, Liming

    2013-04-01

    Wind power is currently one of the fastest growing energy sources in the world. Most of the growth is in the utility sector consisting of large wind farms with numerous industrial-scale wind turbines. Wind turbines act as a sink of mean kinetic energy and a source of turbulent kinetic energy in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). In doing so, they modify the ABL profiles and land-atmosphere exchanges of energy, momentum, mass and moisture. This project explores theses interactions using remote sensing data and numerical model simulations. The domain is central Texas where 4 of the world's largest wind farms are located. A companion study of seasonally-averaged Land Surface Temperature data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on TERRA and AQUA satellites shows a warming signal at night and a mixed cooling/warming signal during the daytime within the wind farms. In the present study, wind farm-ABL interactions are simulated with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The simulations show that the model is capable of replicating the observed signal in land surface temperature. Moreover, similar warming/cooling effect, up to 1C, was observed in seasonal mean 2m air temperature as well. Further analysis show that enhanced turbulent mixing in the rotor wakes is responsible for the impacts on 2m and surface air temperatures. The mixing is due to 2 reasons: (i) turbulent momentum transport to compensate the momentum deficit in the wakes of the turbines and (ii) turbulence generated due to motion of turbine rotors. Turbulent mixing also alters vertical profiles of moisture. Changes in land-atmosphere temperature and moisture gradient and increase in turbulent mixing leads to more than 10% change in seasonal mean surface sensible and latent heat flux. Given the current installed capacity and the projected installation across the world, wind farms are likely becoming a major driver of anthropogenic land use change on Earth. Hence

  4. Aspects of structural health and condition monitoring of offshore wind turbines

    PubMed Central

    Antoniadou, I.; Dervilis, N.; Papatheou, E.; Maguire, A. E.; Worden, K.

    2015-01-01

    Wind power has expanded significantly over the past years, although reliability of wind turbine systems, especially of offshore wind turbines, has been many times unsatisfactory in the past. Wind turbine failures are equivalent to crucial financial losses. Therefore, creating and applying strategies that improve the reliability of their components is important for a successful implementation of such systems. Structural health monitoring (SHM) addresses these problems through the monitoring of parameters indicative of the state of the structure examined. Condition monitoring (CM), on the other hand, can be seen as a specialized area of the SHM community that aims at damage detection of, particularly, rotating machinery. The paper is divided into two parts: in the first part, advanced signal processing and machine learning methods are discussed for SHM and CM on wind turbine gearbox and blade damage detection examples. In the second part, an initial exploration of supervisor control and data acquisition systems data of an offshore wind farm is presented, and data-driven approaches are proposed for detecting abnormal behaviour of wind turbines. It is shown that the advanced signal processing methods discussed are effective and that it is important to adopt these SHM strategies in the wind energy sector. PMID:25583864

  5. Aspects of structural health and condition monitoring of offshore wind turbines.

    PubMed

    Antoniadou, I; Dervilis, N; Papatheou, E; Maguire, A E; Worden, K

    2015-02-28

    Wind power has expanded significantly over the past years, although reliability of wind turbine systems, especially of offshore wind turbines, has been many times unsatisfactory in the past. Wind turbine failures are equivalent to crucial financial losses. Therefore, creating and applying strategies that improve the reliability of their components is important for a successful implementation of such systems. Structural health monitoring (SHM) addresses these problems through the monitoring of parameters indicative of the state of the structure examined. Condition monitoring (CM), on the other hand, can be seen as a specialized area of the SHM community that aims at damage detection of, particularly, rotating machinery. The paper is divided into two parts: in the first part, advanced signal processing and machine learning methods are discussed for SHM and CM on wind turbine gearbox and blade damage detection examples. In the second part, an initial exploration of supervisor control and data acquisition systems data of an offshore wind farm is presented, and data-driven approaches are proposed for detecting abnormal behaviour of wind turbines. It is shown that the advanced signal processing methods discussed are effective and that it is important to adopt these SHM strategies in the wind energy sector.

  6. Spectra and Large-Scale Structures in a Turbulent Boundary Layer Interacting with Wind Turbine Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peet, Yulia; Chatterjee, Tanmoy

    2016-11-01

    Wind Turbine Array Boundary Layer is a relatively simple, yet useful theoretical conceptualization to study very large wind farms in an atmospheric boundary layer. In this talk, we investigate the length scales of eddies involved in the power generation in these very large, "infinite" wind farms by analyzing the spectra of the turbulent flux of the mean kinetic energy from Large Eddy Simulations (LES). A goal is to provide a fundamental understanding of the dynamic behavior, the size, the scaling laws and the anisotropic structure of the energy containing eddies responsible for power generation from the wind turbines. Large-scale structures with an order of magnitude bigger than the turbine rotor diameter are shown to have substantial contribution to wind power. The study is performed with a Spectral Element LES code with the recently implemented near-wall model and the actuator line model to represent the effect of rotating wind turbine blades. In this presentation, we also explore an idea of a "multiscale" wind farm, where larger and smaller turbines are arranged in a symbiotic way, with smaller turbines helping to harvest additional power from the wakes of the larger turbines, inspired by the findings of the spectral analysis in uniform wind farms. NSF CBET 13358568 award.

  7. Line profiles variations from atmospheric eclipses: Constraints on the wind structure in Wolf-Rayet stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auer, L. H.; Koenigsberger, G.

    1994-01-01

    Binary systems in which one of the components has a stellar wind may present a phenomenon known as 'wind' or 'atmospheric eclipse', in which that wind occults the luminous disk of the companion. The enhanced absorption profile, relative to the spectrum at uneclipsed orbital phases, can be be modeled to yield constraints on the spatial structure of the eclipsing wind. A new, very efficient approach to the radiative transfer problem, which makes no requirements with respect to monotonicity of the velocity gradient or size of that gradient, is presented. The technique recovers both the comoving frame calculation and the Sobolev approximation in the appropiate limits. Sample computer simulations of the line profile variations induced by wind eclipses are presented. It is shown that the location of the wind absorption features in frequency is a diagnostic tool for identifying the size of the wind acceleration region. Comparison of the model profile variations with the observed variations in the Wolf-Rayet (W-R)+6 binary system V444 Cyg illustrate how the method can be used to derive information on the structure of the wind of the W-R star constrain the size of the W-R core radius.

  8. Wind turbine control systems: Dynamic model development using system identification and the fast structural dynamics code

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart, J.G.; Wright, A.D.; Butterfield, C.P.

    1996-10-01

    Mitigating the effects of damaging wind turbine loads and responses extends the lifetime of the turbine and, consequently, reduces the associated Cost of Energy (COE). Active control of aerodynamic devices is one option for achieving wind turbine load mitigation. Generally speaking, control system design and analysis requires a reasonable dynamic model of {open_quotes}plant,{close_quotes} (i.e., the system being controlled). This paper extends the wind turbine aileron control research, previously conducted at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC), by presenting a more detailed development of the wind turbine dynamic model. In prior research, active aileron control designs were implemented in an existing wind turbine structural dynamics code, FAST (Fatigue, Aerodynamics, Structures, and Turbulence). In this paper, the FAST code is used, in conjunction with system identification, to generate a wind turbine dynamic model for use in active aileron control system design. The FAST code is described and an overview of the system identification technique is presented. An aileron control case study is used to demonstrate this modeling technique. The results of the case study are then used to propose ideas for generalizing this technique for creating dynamic models for other wind turbine control applications.

  9. The structure and strength of public attitudes towards wind farm development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bidwell, David Charles

    A growing social science literature seeks to understand why, despite broad public support for wind energy, proposals for specific projects are often met with strong local opposition. This gap between general and specific attitudes is viewed as a significant obstacle to the deployment of wind energy technologies. This dissertation applies theoretical perspectives and methodological tools from social psychology to provide insights on the structure and strength of attitudes towards the potential development of commercial wind farm in three coastal areas of Michigan. A survey of attitudes was completed by 375 residents in these communities and structural equation modeling was used to explore the relationship among variables. The analysis found that attitudes towards wind farm development are shaped by anticipated economic benefits to the community, but expectations of economic benefit are driven by personal values. Social psychology has long recognized that all attitudes are not created equal. Weak attitudes are fleeting and prone to change, while strong attitudes are stable over time and resistant to change. There are two fundamental paths to strong attitudes: repeated experience with an attitude object or the application of deeply held principles or values to that object. Structural equation models were also used to understand the strength of attitudes among the survey respondents. Both the anticipated effects of wind farm development and personal values were found to influence the strength of attitudes towards wind farms. However, while expectations that wind farm development will have positive effects on the economy bolster two measures of attitude strength (collective identity and importance), these expectations are associated with a decline in a third measure (confidence). A follow-up survey asking identical questions was completed by completed by 187 respondents to the initial survey. Linear regressions models were used to determine the effects of attitude

  10. Finest Filamentary Structures of the Corona in the Slow and Fast Solar Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Richard; Habbal, Shadia Rifai

    1997-01-01

    Recent progress in our understanding of electron density fluctuations observed by radio occultation measurements has demonstrated that a break in the vicinity of 1 Hz in the temporal frequency spectrum of the density fluctuations provides a measure of the size of the finest filamentary structures in the solar corona. Breaks in frequency have been inferred from the density spectra deduced by Coles et al. from 1979-1980 Voyager phase scintillation and spectral broadening measurements. These results show that the finest filamentary structures are found in the extensions or stalks of coronal streamers--the likely sources of the slow solar wind--and are over a factor of 3 smaller than those in the fast wind emanating from coronal holes. The inferred sizes of the finest filamentary structures are approximately 6 km in the slow wind at 8 Rsolar and 22 km in the fast wind at 9.1 Rsolar.

  11. Two cases of convecting structure in the slow solar wind turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Chuanyi; Wang, Xin; He, Jiansen; Marsch, Eckart; Wang, Linghua

    2016-03-01

    The slow solar wind turbulence has recently been considered as fully evolved turbulence which can be described by critical balance theory. However, here we present two cases of convecting structure that support a different understanding. By using the measurements from WIND spacecraft in the slow solar wind, we find that Elsässer variables Z± of these two cases do not represent inward and outward Alfvén waves, but are determined mainly by the magnetic variations, including tangentially varying structures. We then propose that the slow wind turbulence may be composed of convecting magnetic-field tangential and directional turnings, as well as current sheets, which may be considered as left-over fossils from Kolmogorov fluid turbulence. The fluid kinetic energy has been damped out, and the remaining magnetic fluctuations thus tend to become force-free structures.

  12. Modified Adaptive Control for Region 3 Operation in the Presence of Wind Turbine Structural Modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, Susan Alane; Balas, Mark J.; Wright, Alan D.

    2010-01-01

    Many challenges exist for the operation of wind turbines in an efficient manner that is reliable and avoids component fatigue and failure. Turbines operate in highly turbulent environments resulting in aerodynamic loads that can easily excite turbine structural modes, possibly causing component fatigue and failure. Wind turbine manufacturers are highly motivated to reduce component fatigue and failure that can lead to loss of revenue due to turbine down time and maintenance costs. The trend in wind turbine design is toward larger, more flexible turbines that are ideally suited to adaptive control methods due to the complexity and expense required to create accurate models of their dynamic characteristics. In this paper, we design an adaptive collective pitch controller for a high-fidelity simulation of a utility-scale, variable-speed horizontal axis wind turbine operating in Region 3. The objective of the adaptive pitch controller is to regulate generator speed, accommodate wind gusts, and reduce the excitation of structural modes in the wind turbine. The control objective is accomplished by collectively pitching the turbine blades. The adaptive collective pitch controller for Region 3 was compared in simulations with a baseline classical Proportional Integrator (PI) collective pitch controller. The adaptive controller will demonstrate the ability to regulate generator speed in Region 3, while accommodating gusts, and reducing the excitation of certain structural modes in the wind turbine.

  13. Al and Ge simultaneous oxidation using neutral beam post-oxidation for formation of gate stack structures

    SciTech Connect

    Ohno, Takeo; Nakayama, Daiki; Samukawa, Seiji

    2015-09-28

    To obtain a high-quality Germanium (Ge) metal–oxide–semiconductor structure, a Ge gate stacked structure was fabricated using neutral beam post-oxidation. After deposition of a 1-nm-thick Al metal film on a Ge substrate, simultaneous oxidation of Al and Ge was carried out at 300 °C, and a Ge oxide film with 29% GeO{sub 2} content was obtained by controlling the acceleration bias power of the neutral oxygen beam. In addition, the fabricated AlO{sub x}/GeO{sub x}/Ge structure achieved a low interface state density of less than 1 × 10{sup 11 }cm{sup −2 }eV{sup −1} near the midgap.

  14. Structural study of complexes formed by acidic and neutral organophosphorus reagents

    DOE PAGES

    Braatz, Alexander D.; Oak Ridge National Lab.; Antonio, Mark R.; ...

    2017-01-01

    The coordination of the trivalent 4f ions, Ln = La3+, Dy3+, and Lu3+, with neutral and acidic organophosphorus reagents, both individually and combined, was studied by use of X-ray absorption spectroscopy. These studies provide metrical information about the interatomic interactions between these cations and the ligands tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) and di-n-butyl phosphoric acid (HDBP), whose behavior are of practical importance to chemical separation processes that are currently used on an industrial scale. Previous studies have suggested the existence of complexes involving a mixture of ligands, accounting for extraction synergy. Through systematic variation of the aqueous phase acidity and extractant concentrationmore » and combination, we have found that complexes with Ln and TBP : HDBP at any mixture and HDBP alone involve direct Ln–O interactions involving 6 oxygen atoms and distant Ln–P interactions involving on average 3–5 phosphorus atoms per Ln ion. It was also found that Ln complexes formed by TBP alone seem to favor eight oxygen coordination, though we were unable to obtain metrical results regarding the distant Ln–P interactions due to the low signal attributed to a lower concentration of Ln ions in the organic phases. Our study does not support the existence of mixed Ln–TBP–HDBP complexes but, rather, indicates that the lanthanides are extracted as either Ln–HDBP complexes or Ln–TBP complexes and that these complexes exist in different ratios depending on the conditions of the extraction system. This fundamental structural information offers insight into the solvent extraction processes that are taking place and are of particular importance to issues arising from the separation and disposal of radioactive materials from used nuclear fuel.« less

  15. Structural study of complexes formed by acidic and neutral organophosphorus reagents

    SciTech Connect

    Braatz, Alexander D.; Antonio, Mark R.; Nilsson, Mikael

    2017-01-01

    The coordination of the trivalent 4f ions, Ln = La3+, Dy3+, and Lu3+, with neutral and acidic organophosphorus reagents, both individually and combined, was studied by use of X-ray absorption spectroscopy. These studies provide metrical information about the interatomic interactions between these cations and the ligands tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) and di-n-butyl phosphoric acid (HDBP), whose behavior are of practical importance to chemical separation processes that are currently used on an industrial scale. Previous studies have suggested the existence of complexes involving a mixture of ligands, accounting for extraction synergy. Through systematic variation of the aqueous phase acidity and extractant concentration and combination, we have found that complexes with Ln and TBP : HDBP at any mixture and HDBP alone involve direct Ln–O interactions involving 6 oxygen atoms and distant Ln–P interactions involving on average 3–5 phosphorus atoms per Ln ion. It was also found that Ln complexes formed by TBP alone seem to favor eight oxygen coordination, though we were unable to obtain metrical results regarding the distant Ln–P interactions due to the low signal attributed to a lower concentration of Ln ions in the organic phases. Our study does not support the existence of mixed Ln–TBP–HDBP complexes but, rather, indicates that the lanthanides are extracted as either Ln–HDBP complexes or Ln–TBP complexes and that these complexes exist in different ratios depending on the conditions of the extraction system. This fundamental structural information offers insight into the solvent extraction processes that are taking place and are of particular importance to issues arising from the separation and disposal of radioactive materials from used nuclear fuel.

  16. Dynamics of neutralized electrons and the focusability of intenseion beams in HIF accelerating structures

    SciTech Connect

    Lifschitz, A.F.; Maynard, G.; Vay, J.-V.

    2005-01-18

    In most of the proposals for HIF reactors, beams propagate ballistically through the containment chamber. To get the required final radius ({approx} 3 mm), the charge of the beam must be neutralized to some extent. Several neutralization schemes are possible, as co-injection of negative-ions beams, inclusion of external sources of electrons, or it can be provided by electrons coming from ionization of the background gas. In this work, we study the role of the electron dynamic on the neutralization and final radius of the beam. This is done by performing fully-electromagnetic PIC simulations of the beam ballistic transport using the BPIC code[1]. In agreement with previous works we found that the evolution of an isolated beam is well described as a bidimensional adiabatic compression, and the beam neutralization degree and final radius can be estimated from the initial electron transversal temperature. When a background gas is present the evolution differs significantly from an adiabatic compression. Even for low gas densities, the continuous electrons flow coming from gas ionization limits efficiently the compressional heating, thus reducing the final radius. Aspects of beam neutralization by background gas ionization are discussed.

  17. Coronal sources of the intrastream structure of the solar wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, J. D.; Bridge, H. S.

    1983-01-01

    Short time scale changes in the bulk speed were found not to coincide with X-ray transients near the sub-earth point nor with the number of X-ray bright points within a coronal hole and near the equator. The changes in bulk speed, it is shown, are associated with changes in light areas in a hole which may be associated with the opening or closing of magnetic field lines within the coronal hole. That there is a causal connection between these sudden changes (apperance or disappearance) in light area and sudden changes in the bulk speed of the solar wind is further evidenced by the spatial proximity on the Sun of these changing light regions to the source position of stream lines from Levine's model that connect into the same solar wind streams.

  18. Development of a FBG based distributed strain sensor system for wind turbine structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsenault, Tyler J.; Achuthan, Ajit; Marzocca, Pier; Grappasonni, Chiara; Coppotelli, Giuliano

    2013-07-01

    The development of a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) based distributed strain sensor system for real time structural health monitoring of a wind turbine rotor and its validation under a laboratory scale test setup is discussed in this paper. A 1 kW, 1.6 m diameter rotor, horizontal axis wind turbine with three instrumented blades is used in this study. The sensor system consists of strain sensors, surface mounted at various locations on the blade. At first the sensors are calibrated under static loading conditions to validate the FBG mounting and the proposed data collection techniques. Then, the capability of the sensor system coupled with the operational modal analysis (OMA) methods to capture natural frequencies and corresponding mode shapes in terms of distributed strains are validated under various non-rotating dynamic loading conditions. Finally, the sensor system is tested under rotating conditions using the wind flow from an open-jet wind tunnel, for both a baseline wind turbine and a wind turbine with a structurally modified blade. The blade was modified by attaching a lumped mass at the blade tip simulating structural damage or ice accretion. The dynamic characteristics of the baseline (healthy) blade and modified (altered) blade are compared to validate the sensor system’s ability for real time structural health monitoring of the rotor.

  19. The effects of vortex structure and vortex translation on the tropical cyclone boundary layer wind field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Gabriel J.

    2015-03-01

    The effects of vortex translation and radial vortex structure in the distribution of boundary layer winds in the inner core of mature tropical cyclones are examined using a high-resolution slab model and a multilevel model. It is shown that the structure and magnitude of the wind field (and the corresponding secondary circulation) depends sensitively on the radial gradient of the gradient wind field above the boundary layer. Furthermore, it is shown that vortex translation creates low wave number asymmetries in the wind field that rotate anticyclonically with height. A budget analysis of the steady state wind field for both models was also performed in this study. Although the agradient force drives the evolution of the boundary layer wind field for both models, it is shown that the manner in which the boundary layer flow responds to this force differs between the two model representations. In particular, the inner core boundary layer flow in the slab model is dominated by the effects of horizontal advection and horizontal diffusion, leading to the development of shock structures in the model. Conversely, the inner core boundary layer flow in the multilevel model is primarily influenced by the effects of vertical advection and vertical diffusion, which eliminates shock structures in this model. These results further indicate that special care is required to ensure that qualitative applications from slab models are not unduly affected by the neglect of vertical advection. This article was corrected on 31 MAR 2015. See the end of the full text for details.

  20. Crystal structure of the HIV neutralizing antibody 2G12 in complex with a bacterial oligosaccharide analog of mammalian oligomannose

    PubMed Central

    Stanfield, Robyn L; De Castro, Cristina; Marzaioli, Alberto M; Wilson, Ian A; Pantophlet, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) is a major public health threat that continues to infect millions of people worldwide each year. A prophylactic vaccine remains the most cost-effective way of globally reducing and eliminating the spread of the virus. The HIV envelope spike, which is the target of many vaccine design efforts, is densely mantled with carbohydrate and several potent broadly neutralizing antibodies to HIV-1 recognize carbohydrate on the envelope spike as a major part of their epitope. However, immunizing with recombinant forms of the envelope glycoprotein does not typically elicit anti-carbohydrate antibodies. Thus, studies of alternative antigens that may serve as a starting point for carbohydrate-based immunogens are of interest. Here, we present the crystal structure of one such anti-carbohydrate HIV neutralizing antibody (2G12) in complex with the carbohydrate backbone of the lipooligosaccharide from Rhizobium radiobacter strain Rv3, which exhibits a chemical structure that naturally mimics the core high-mannose carbohydrate epitope of 2G12 on HIV-1 gp120. The structure described here provides molecular evidence of the structural homology between the Rv3 oligosaccharide and highly abundant carbohydrates on the surface of HIV-1 and raises the potential for the design of novel glycoconjugates that may find utility in efforts to develop immunogens for eliciting carbohydrate-specific neutralizing antibodies to HIV. PMID:25380763

  1. Molecular structures, energetics, and electronic properties of neutral and charged Hg(n) clusters (n = 2-8).

    PubMed

    Kang, Jeewon; Kim, Joonghan; Ihee, Hyotcherl; Lee, Yoon Sup

    2010-05-13

    The geometric and electronic structures of small mercury clusters, Hg(n), Hg(n)(+), and Hg(n)(-) (n neutral and anionic mercury clusters prefer three-dimensional structure whereas those of cationic clusters are peculiarly linear structure due to s-p hybridization. This structural feature has influence on the energetic and electronic properties of cationic clusters which deviate from the characteristics of van der Waals cluster. As the cluster size increases, energetic properties, binding energies per atom and second order difference in total energy of cationic clusters consistently decrease, in contrast to the neutral and anionic clusters. However, neutral and charged mercury clusters show common features in terms of size dependent transition of bonding character, such as the decrease of band gap and vertical ionization potential, and the increase of vertical electron affinity. These various properties are also qualitatively and quantitatively in line with the available experimental and theoretical results, implying the reliability of the ground state geometries of these clusters.

  2. Crystal structure of the HIV neutralizing antibody 2G12 in complex with a bacterial oligosaccharide analog of mammalian oligomannose.

    PubMed

    Stanfield, Robyn L; De Castro, Cristina; Marzaioli, Alberto M; Wilson, Ian A; Pantophlet, Ralph

    2015-04-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) is a major public health threat that continues to infect millions of people worldwide each year. A prophylactic vaccine remains the most cost-effective way of globally reducing and eliminating the spread of the virus. The HIV envelope spike, which is the target of many vaccine design efforts, is densely mantled with carbohydrate and several potent broadly neutralizing antibodies to HIV-1 recognize carbohydrate on the envelope spike as a major part of their epitope. However, immunizing with recombinant forms of the envelope glycoprotein does not typically elicit anti-carbohydrate antibodies. Thus, studies of alternative antigens that may serve as a starting point for carbohydrate-based immunogens are of interest. Here, we present the crystal structure of one such anti-carbohydrate HIV neutralizing antibody (2G12) in complex with the carbohydrate backbone of the lipooligosaccharide from Rhizobium radiobacter strain Rv3, which exhibits a chemical structure that naturally mimics the core high-mannose carbohydrate epitope of 2G12 on HIV-1 gp120. The structure described here provides molecular evidence of the structural homology between the Rv3 oligosaccharide and highly abundant carbohydrates on the surface of HIV-1 and raises the potential for the design of novel glycoconjugates that may find utility in efforts to develop immunogens for eliciting carbohydrate-specific neutralizing antibodies to HIV.

  3. Three-Dimensional Mapping of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Structure and Winds with a High Performance Lidar

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-01

    layer (usually less than half the boundary layer height) for each of the shots in a PPI scan using 12 Si 12--F1 S ( 1 ) 2- 1 1 = 11 where Sil is the natural...between 1 and 1024), and ( 11 to 12) is the range segment located well within the boundary layer. Within this range interval, the aerosol contribution...the CBL, mean CBL wind, surface wind, and the wind at a height of 1 . 1 Zi. The orientation of the aerosol structures is also shown. Figure 11 . The

  4. Solar wind and coronal structure near sunspot minimum - Pioneer and SMM observations from 1985-1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mihalov, J. D.; Barnes, A.; Hundhausen, A. J.; Smith, E. J.

    1990-01-01

    Changes in solar wind speed and magnetic polarity observed at the Pioneer spacecraft are discussed here in terms of the changing magnetic geometry implied by SMM coronagraph observations over the period 1985-1987. The pattern of recurrent solar wind streams, the long-term average speed, and the sector polarity of the interplanetary magnetic field all changed in a manner suggesting both a temporal variation, and a changing dependence on heliographic latitude. Coronal observations during this epoch show a systematic variation in coronal structure and the magnetic structure imposed on the expanding solar wind. These observations suggest interpretation of the solar wind speed variations in terms of the familiar model where the speed increases with distance from a nearly flat interplanetary current sheet, and where this current sheet becomes aligned with the solar equatorial plane as sunspot minimum approaches, but deviates rapidly from that orientation after minimum.

  5. Structural Basis for HIV-1 Neutralization by 2F5-Like Antibodies m66 and m66.6

    PubMed Central

    Zirkle, Brett; Yang, Yongping; Zhu, Zhongyu; McKee, Krisha; Zhang, Baoshan; Chuang, Gwo-Yu; Georgiev, Ivelin S.; O'Dell, Sijy; Doria-Rose, Nicole; Mascola, John R.; Dimitrov, Dimiter S.

    2014-01-01

    Antibodies m66.6 and 2F5 are the only effective human HIV-1-neutralizing antibodies reported thus far to recognize the N-terminal region of the membrane-proximal external region (MPER) of the gp41 subunit of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein. Although 2F5 has been extensively characterized, much less is known about antibody m66.6 or antibody m66, a closely related light-chain variant. Here, we report the crystal structure of m66 in complex with its gp41 epitope, along with unbound structures of m66 and m66.6. We used mutational and binding analyses to decipher antibody elements critical for their recognition of gp41 and determined the molecular basis that underlies their neutralization of HIV-1. When bound by m66, the N-terminal region of the gp41 MPER adopts a conformation comprising a helix, followed by an extended loop. Comparison of gp41-bound m66 to unbound m66.6 identified three light-chain residues of m66.6 that were confirmed through mutagenesis to underlie the greater breadth of m66.6-mediated virus neutralization. Recognition of gp41 by m66 also revealed similarities to antibody 2F5 both in the conformation of crucial epitope residues as well as in the angle of antibody approach. Aromatic residues at the tip of the m66.6 heavy-chain third complementarity-determining region, as in the case of 2F5, were determined to be critical for virus neutralization in a manner that correlated with antibody recognition of the MPER in a lipid context. Antibodies m66, m66.6, and 2F5 thus utilize similar mechanistic elements to recognize a common gp41-MPER epitope and to neutralize HIV-1. PMID:24335316

  6. Titan's Temperature and Zonal Wind Structure and Seasonal Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flasar, F.; Achterberg, Richard; Schinder, Paul

    2016-06-01

    Titan's atmosphere near 80 km (20 mbar) marks the transition between large radiative damping times at lower altitudes, where seasonal variations are muted, and small damping times higher up, where temperatures and winds vary significantly over the year. Cassini CIRS and Radio-Occultation measurements obtained in 2004-2016 have tracked the evolution of temperatures and winds in Titan's atmosphere from early northern winter to late spring. In winter, the northern hemisphere was characterized by cold temperatures at high latitudes in the lower stratosphere and a strong circumpolar vortex that extended to subtropical northern latitudes. At high altitudes over the north pole, there was an elevated stratopause with a temperature roughly 30 K above the seasonal average, associated with subsidence and adiabatic warming. As the northern hemisphere has moved toward summer the dissolution of the circumpolar vortex has been gradual, and there is no evidence of rapid distortion and disruption forced by planetary waves like that seen on Earth. During this time, the southern hemisphere has cooled fairly abruptly at high latitudes. A circumpolar vortex has formed in the stratosphere, but it is more compact than seen in the north, with maximum winds at 60°S. Potential vorticity maps now indicate steep meridional gradients at high southern latitudes, implying a barrier to efficient mixing between the polar region and lower latitudes. One of the curious features of Titan's temperatures has been the destabilization seen in the winter north polar region, where negative temperature gradients were observed between 80 and 100 km. As the southern hemisphere moves toward winter, temperatures retrieved from radio occultation soundings have shown the early development this phenomenon at high southernlatitudes. The cause of the destabilization in winter may be associated with a cloud of organic ices. However, the transition region near 80 km is also where the zonal winds exhibit a sharp

  7. An acoustic-array based structural health monitoring technique for wind turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aizawa, Kai; Poozesh, Peyman; Niezrecki, Christopher; Baqersad, Javad; Inalpolat, Murat; Heilmann, Gunnar

    2015-04-01

    This paper proposes a non-contact measurement technique for health monitoring of wind turbine blades using acoustic beamforming techniques. The technique works by mounting an audio speaker inside a wind turbine blade and observing the sound radiated from the blade to identify damage within the structure. The main hypothesis for the structural damage detection is that the structural damage (cracks, edge splits, holes etc.) on the surface of a composite wind turbine blade results in changes in the sound radiation characteristics of the structure. Preliminary measurements were carried out on two separate test specimens, namely a composite box and a section of a wind turbine blade to validate the methodology. The rectangular shaped composite box and the turbine blade contained holes with different dimensions and line cracks. An acoustic microphone array with 62 microphones was used to measure the sound radiation from both structures when the speaker was located inside the box and also inside the blade segment. A phased array beamforming technique and CLEAN-based subtraction of point spread function from a reference (CLSPR) were employed to locate the different damage types on both the composite box and the wind turbine blade. The same experiment was repeated by using a commercially available 48-channel acoustic ring array to compare the test results. It was shown that both the acoustic beamforming and the CLSPR techniques can be used to identify the damage in the test structures with sufficiently high fidelity.

  8. High-R Walls for New Construction Structural Performance. Wind Pressure Testing

    SciTech Connect

    DeRenzis, A.; Kochkin, V.

    2013-01-01

    This technical report is focused primarily on laboratory testing that evaluates wind pressure performance characteristics for wall systems constructed with exterior insulating sheathing. This research and test activity will help to facilitate the ongoing use of non-structural sheathing options and provide a more in-depth understanding of how wall system layers perform in response to high wind perturbations normal to the surface.

  9. High-R Walls for New Construction Structural Performance: Wind Pressure Testing

    SciTech Connect

    DeRenzis, A.; Kochkin, V.

    2013-01-01

    This technical report is focused primarily on laboratory testing that evaluates wind pressure performance characteristics for wall systems constructed with exterior insulating sheathing. This research and test activity will help to facilitate the ongoing use of non-structural sheathing options and provide a more in-depth understanding of how wall system layers perform in response to high wind perturbations normal to the surface.

  10. The Structure of the Venus Neutral Atmosphere from the Radio Science Experiment VeRa on Venus Express

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tellmann, S. A.; Häusler, B.; Pätzold, M.; Bird, M. K.; Tyler, G. L.

    2007-12-01

    The Venus Express Radio Science Experiment VeRa is sounding the Venus neutral atmosphere and ionosphere using the spacecraft radio subsystem in the oneway radio link mode. An Ultrastable Oscillator (USO) provides a high quality onboard frequency reference source for the derivation of electron density profiles in the ionosphere and profiles of pressure, temperature and neutral number density of the neutral atmosphere. The measurement configuration allows an altitude resolution of only a few hundred metres from the cloud deck at about 40 km to approximately 100 km. Three occultation seasons could be covered in the first two years of the Venus Express mission resulting in a data set of about 140 profiles of the neutral atmosphere. The polar orbit of Venus Express provides the opportunity to study the atmosphere at all planetocentric latitudes under varying illumination conditions. Special attention will be given to day-night variations of the thermal structure and the temperature distribution at high polar latitudes on both hemispheres ("cold collar region") and signal absorption effects caused by the H2SO4 vapour.

  11. Multiple Eyewall Structure and its Wind Features in 2012 Typhoon Bolaven

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Origuchi, S.

    2015-12-01

    Typhoon 'Bolaven' passed the Okinawa Main Island at about 1200 UTC 26 August 2012, while moving northwestward. The radar images showed that 'Bolaven' had the multiple eyewall structure. The surface observation data at Nago of Okinawa showed that the precipitation and surface wind velocity in the typhoon's central region were weaker than those of the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)'s operational forecast. Cloud-resolving ensemble simulations were performed to investigate the relations between the multiple eyewall structure and the wind features in the typhoon's central regions. The ensemble simulations reproduced double eyewall structures in several members. To evaluate the reproducibility of multiple eyewall structures, the multi-eye index (MEI) was defined in this study. Compared with the members in which the typhoon had the spiral rainband structures, the pressure gradients in the typhoon's central region of the small MEI (multiple eyewall) members were weak. The precipitation and surface wind velocity were also weaker than those of the typhoons with spiral rainbands. In case of the multiple eyewall typhoon, the gentle pressure gradients and the associated weaker surface inflows suppressed convections in the inner eyewall. The statistical analysis was performed based on the ensemble prediction. A clear positive correlation was indicated between the MEI and the wind velocity (tangential wind and inward radial wind) in the typhoon's central region. This result explains the reason why the actual wind velocity was weaker than that of the original JMA's forecast. The relationship between the atmospheric environmental factors around the typhoon (e.g., level of free convection and convective available potential energy) and MEI was investigated from the outputs of ensemble simulations. The results indicated that there were no strong relations between them. This suggests that the formation of the multiple eyewall structures is not simply determined by the atmospheric

  12. Structural Health Monitoring challenges on the 10-MW offshore wind turbine model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Lorenzo, E.; Kosova, G.; Musella, U.; Manzato, S.; Peeters, B.; Marulo, F.; Desmet, W.

    2015-07-01

    The real-time structural damage detection on large slender structures has one of its main application on offshore Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines (HAWT). The renewable energy market is continuously pushing the wind turbine sizes and performances. This is the reason why nowadays offshore wind turbines concepts are going toward a 10 MW reference wind turbine model. The aim of the work is to perform operational analyses on the 10-MW reference wind turbine finite element model using an aeroelastic code in order to obtain long-time-low- cost simulations. The aeroelastic code allows simulating the damages in several ways: by reducing the edgewise/flapwise blades stiffness, by adding lumped masses or considering a progressive mass addiction (i.e. ice on the blades). The damage detection is then performed by means of Operational Modal Analysis (OMA) techniques. Virtual accelerometers are placed in order to simulate real measurements and to estimate the modal parameters. The feasibility of a robust damage detection on the model has been performed on the HAWT model in parked conditions. The situation is much more complicated in case of operating wind turbines because the time periodicity of the structure need to be taken into account. Several algorithms have been implemented and tested in the simulation environment. They are needed in order to carry on a damage detection simulation campaign and develop a feasible real-time damage detection method. In addition to these algorithms, harmonic removal tools are needed in order to dispose of the harmonics due to the rotation.

  13. Advanced system identification techniques for wind turbine structures with special emphasis on modal parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bialasiewicz, J. T.

    1995-06-01

    The goal is to develop advanced system identification techniques that can be used to accurately measure the frequency response functions of a wind-turbine structure immersed in wind noise. To allow for accurate identification, the authors have developed a special test signal called the pseudo-random binary sequence (PRBS). The Matlab program that generates this signal allows the user to interactively tailor its parameters for the frequency range of interest based on the response of the wind turbine under test. By controlling NREL's Mobile Hydraulic Shaker System, which is attached to the wind turbine structure, the PRBS signal produces the wide-band excitation necessary to perform system identification in the presence of wind noise. The techniques presented here will enable researchers to obtain modal parameters from an operating wind turbine, including frequencies, damping coefficients, and mode shapes. More importantly, the algorithms they have developed and tested (so far using input-output data from a simulated structure) permit state-space representation of the system under test, particularly the modal state space representation. This is the only system description that reveals the internal behavior of the system, such as the interaction between the physical parameters, and which, in contrast to transfer functions, is valid for non-zero initial conditions.

  14. Augmented Adaptive Control of a Wind Turbine in the Presence of Structural Modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, Susan A.; Balas, Mark J.; Wright, Alan D.

    2010-01-01

    Wind turbines operate in highly turbulent environments resulting in aerodynamic loads that can easily excite turbine structural modes, potentially causing component fatigue and failure. Two key technology drivers for turbine manufacturers are increasing turbine up time and reducing maintenance costs. Since the trend in wind turbine design is towards larger, more flexible turbines with lower frequency structural modes, manufacturers will want to develop methods to operate in the presence of these modes. Accurate models of the dynamic characteristics of new wind turbines are often not available due to the complexity and expense of the modeling task, making wind turbines ideally suited to adaptive control. In this paper, we develop theory for adaptive control with rejection of disturbances in the presence of modes that inhibit the controller. We use this method to design an adaptive collective pitch controller for a high-fidelity simulation of a utility-scale, variable-speed wind turbine operating in Region 3. The objective of the adaptive pitch controller is to regulate generator speed, accommodate wind gusts, and reduce the interference of certain structural modes in feedback. The control objective is accomplished by collectively pitching the turbine blades. The adaptive pitch controller for Region 3 is compared in simulations with a baseline classical Proportional Integrator (PI) collective pitch controller.

  15. Flow around new wind fence with multi-scale fractal structure in an atmospheric boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClure, Sarah; Lee, Sang-Joon; Zhang, Wei

    2015-11-01

    Understanding and controlling atmospheric boundary-layer flows with engineered structures, such as porous wind fences or windbreaks, has been of great interest to the fluid mechanics and wind engineering community. Previous studies found that the regular mono-scale grid fence of 50% porosity and a bottom gap of 10% of the fence height are considered to be optimal over a flat surface. Significant differences in turbulent flow structure have recently been noted behind multi-scale fractal wind fences, even with the same porosity. In this study, wind-tunnel tests on the turbulent flow and the turbulence kinetic energy transport of 1D and 2D multi-scale fractal fences under atmospheric boundary-layer were conducted. Velocity fields around the fractal fences were systematically measured using Particle Image Velocimetry to uncover effects of key parameters on turbulent flows around the fences at a Reynolds number of approximately 3.6x104 based on the free-stream speed and fence height. The turbulent flow structures induced by specific 1D/2D multi-scale fractal wind fences were compared to those of a conventional grid fence. The present results would contribute to the design of new-generation wind fences to reduce snow/sand deposition on critical infrastructure such as roads and bridges.

  16. Structures and energetics of neutral and ionic silicon-germanium clusters: density functional theory and coupled cluster studies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Siang; Chao, Sheng D

    2011-03-10

    We have calculated the structural and energetic properties of neutral and ionic (singly charged anionic and cationic) semiconductor binary silicon-germanium clusters Si(m)Ge(n) for s = m + n ≤ 12 using the density functional theory (DFT-B3LYP) and coupled cluster [CCSD(T)] methods with Pople's 6-311++G(3df, 3pd) basis set. Neutral and anionic clusters share similar ground state structures for s = 3-7, independent of the stoichiometry and atom locations, but start to deviate at s = 8. The relative energetic stability of the calculated ground state structures among possible isomers has been analyzed through a bond strength propensity model where the pair interactions of Si-Si, Si-Ge, and Ge-Ge are competing. Electron affinities, ionization potentials, energy gaps between the highest and lowest occupied molecular orbitals (HOMO-LUMO gaps), and cluster mixing energies were calculated and analyzed. Overall, for a fixed s, the vertical ionization potential increases as the number of silicon atoms m increases, while the vertical electron affinity shows a dip at m = 2. As s increases, the ionization potentials increase from s = 2 to s = 3 and then decrease slowly to s = 8. The mixing energies for neutral and ionic clusters are all negative, indicating that the binary clusters are more stable than pure elemental clusters. Except for s = 4 and 8, cationic clusters are more stable than anionic ones and, thus, are more likely to be observed in experiments.

  17. Modal testing of a very flexible 110 m wind turbine structure

    SciTech Connect

    Carne, T.G.; Lauffer, J.P.; Gomez, A.J.; Benjannet, Hassine

    1988-01-01

    Modal Testing of immense and very flexible structures poses a number of problems. It requires innovative excitation techniques since the modal frequencies of these stuctures can be quite low. Also, substantial energy must be input to the structure to obtain reasonable levels of response. In this paper, results are presented from a modal test of the 110 m tall EOLE wind turbine which had four modal frequencies below 1.0 Hz. Step-relaxation and wind were used to excite the structure. 5 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Approximate method for calculating free vibrations of a large-wind-turbine tower structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Das, S. C.; Linscott, B. S.

    1977-01-01

    A set of ordinary differential equations were derived for a simplified structural dynamic lumped-mass model of a typical large-wind-turbine tower structure. Dunkerley's equation was used to arrive at a solution for the fundamental natural frequencies of the tower in bending and torsion. The ERDA-NASA 100-kW wind turbine tower structure was modeled, and the fundamental frequencies were determined by the simplified method described. The approximate fundamental natural frequencies for the tower agree within 18 percent with test data and predictions analyzed.

  19. Structure-borne sound and vibration from building-mounted wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moorhouse, Andy; Elliott, Andy; Eastwick, Graham; Evans, Tomos; Ryan, Andy; von Hunerbein, Sabine; le Bescond, Valentin; Waddington, David

    2011-07-01

    Noise continues to be a significant factor in the development of wind energy resources. In the case of building-mounted wind turbines (BMWTs), in addition to the usual airborne sound there is the potential for occupants to be affected by structure-borne sound and vibration transmitted through the building structure. Usual methods for prediction and evaluation of noise from large and small WTs are not applicable to noise of this type. This letter describes an investigation aiming to derive a methodology for prediction of structure-borne sound and vibration inside attached dwellings. Jointly funded by three UK government departments, the work was motivated by a desire to stimulate renewable energy generation by the removal of planning restrictions where possible. A method for characterizing BMWTs as sources of structure-borne sound was first developed during a field survey of two small wind turbines under variable wind conditions. The 'source strength' was established as a function of rotor speed although a general relationship to wind speed could not be established. The influence of turbulence was also investigated. The prediction methodology, which also accounts for the sound transmission properties of the mast and supporting building, was verified in a field survey of existing installations. Significant differences in behavior and subjective character were noted between the airborne and structure-borne noise from BMWTs.

  20. Examining Periodic Solar-Wind Density Structures Observed in the SECCHI Heliospheric Imagers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viall, Nicholeen M.; Spence, Harlan E.; Vourlidas, Angelos; Howard, Russell

    2010-01-01

    We present an analysis of small-scale, periodic, solar-wind density enhancements (length scales as small as approximately equals 1000 Mm) observed in images from the Heliospheric Imager (HI) aboard STEREO-A. We discuss their possible relationship to periodic fluctuations of the proton density that have been identified at 1 AU using in-situ plasma measurements. Specifically, Viall, Kepko, and Spence examined 11 years of in-situ solar-wind density measurements at 1 AU and demonstrated that not only turbulent structures, but also nonturbulent, periodic density structures exist in the solar wind with scale sizes of hundreds to one thousand Mm. In a subsequent paper, Viall, Spence, and Kasper analyzed the alpha-to-proton solar-wind abundance ratio measured during one such event of periodic density structures, demonstrating that the plasma behavior was highly suggestive that either temporally or spatially varying coronal source plasma created those density structures. Large periodic density structures observed at 1 AU, which were generated in the corona, can be observable in coronal and heliospheric white-light images if they possess sufficiently high density contrast. Indeed, we identify such periodic density structures as they enter the HI field of view and follow them as they advect with the solar wind through the images. The smaller, periodic density structures that we identify in the images are comparable in size to the larger structures analyzed in-situ at 1 AU, yielding further evidence that periodic density enhancements are a consequence of coronal activity as the solar wind is formed.

  1. NREL Wind Turbine Blade Structural Testing of the Modular Wind Energy MW45 Blade: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-09-354

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, S.

    2012-05-01

    This CRADA was a purely funds-in CRADA with Modular Wind Energy (MWE). MWE had a need to perform full-scale testing of a 45-m wind turbine blade. NREL/NWTC provided the capabilities, facilities, and equipment to test this large-scale MWE wind turbine blade. Full-scale testing is required to demonstrate the ability of the wind turbine blade to withstand static design load cases and demonstrate the fatigue durability. Structural testing is also necessary to meet international blade testing certification requirements. Through this CRADA, MWE would obtain test results necessary for product development and certification, and NREL would benefit by working with an industrial partner to better understand the unique test requirements for wind turbine blades with advanced structural designs.

  2. Interplanetary Scintillation Observations of the Large-Scale Structure of the Solar Wind Using EISCAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisi, M. M.; Breen, A. R.; Habbal, S. R.; Fallows, R. A.

    2004-12-01

    Measurements of interplanetary scintillation (IPS) taken with the European Incoherent SCATter radar (EISCAT) in northern Scandinavia can be used to study the evolution of the solar wind as it expands through interplanetary space. IPS arises from changes in the apparent brightness of distant, compact radio sources due to scattering by density irregularities in the solar wind and can be used to obtain estimates of the solar wind speed. In this paper we present the results of a study of the large-scale structure of the fast solar wind under near solar minimum conditions, using data taken with the EISCAT system, and the extremely long baseline observations which combine the EISCAT and MERLIN systems. The latter are the best measurements to date of meridional components of velocity in the inner solar wind. In particular, the existence of a gradient in solar wind velocity of the fast wind over the polar crown, at latitudes corresponding to the x-ray and ultra-violet coronal hole boundary, as reported by Habbal and Woo (2001), is also explored.

  3. 3D printing meets computational astrophysics: deciphering the structure of η Carinae's inner colliding winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madura, T. I.; Clementel, N.; Gull, T. R.; Kruip, C. J. H.; Paardekooper, J.-P.

    2015-06-01

    We present the first 3D prints of output from a supercomputer simulation of a complex astrophysical system, the colliding stellar winds in the massive (≳120 M⊙), highly eccentric (e ˜ 0.9) binary star system η Carinae. We demonstrate the methodology used to incorporate 3D interactive figures into a PDF (Portable Document Format) journal publication and the benefits of using 3D visualization and 3D printing as tools to analyse data from multidimensional numerical simulations. Using a consumer-grade 3D printer (MakerBot Replicator 2X), we successfully printed 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of η Carinae's inner (r ˜ 110 au) wind-wind collision interface at multiple orbital phases. The 3D prints and visualizations reveal important, previously unknown `finger-like' structures at orbital phases shortly after periastron (φ ˜ 1.045) that protrude radially outwards from the spiral wind-wind collision region. We speculate that these fingers are related to instabilities (e.g. thin-shell, Rayleigh-Taylor) that arise at the interface between the radiatively cooled layer of dense post-shock primary-star wind and the fast (3000 km s-1), adiabatic post-shock companion-star wind. The success of our work and easy identification of previously unrecognized physical features highlight the important role 3D printing and interactive graphics can play in the visualization and understanding of complex 3D time-dependent numerical simulations of astrophysical phenomena.

  4. Identification of minute damage in composite bridge structures equipped with fiber optic sensors using the location of neutral axis and finite element analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xi; Glisic, Branko

    2016-04-01

    By definition, the neutral axis of a loaded composite beam structure is the curve along which the section experiences zero bending strain. When no axial loading is present, the location of the neutral axis passes through the centroid of stiffness of the beam cross-section. In the presence of damage, the centroid of stiffness, as well as the neutral axis, shift from the healthy position. The concept of neutral axis can be widely applied to all beam-like structures. According to literature, a change in location of the neutral axis can be associated with damage in the corresponding cross-section. In this paper, the movement of neutral axis near locations of minute damage in a composite bridge structure was studied using finite element analysis and experimental results. The finite element model was developed based on a physical scale model of a composite simply-supported structure with controlled minute damage in the reinforced concrete deck. The structure was equipped with long-gauge fiber optic strain and temperature sensors at a healthy reference location as well as two locations of damage. A total of 12 strain sensors were installed during construction and used to monitor the structure during various loading events. This paper aims to explain previous experimental results which showed that the observed positions of neutral axis near damage locations were higher than the predicted healthy locations in some loading events. Analysis has shown that finite element analysis has potential to simulate and explain the physical behavior of the test structure.

  5. Fluid-structure coupled computations of the NREL 5MW wind turbine blade during standstill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dose, B.; Rahimi, H.; Herráez, I.; Stoevesandt, B.; Peinke, J.

    2016-09-01

    This work is aimed at investigating the aero-elastic behavior of a wind turbine blade subjected to strong wind speeds during standstill. This type of investigation still remains a challenge for most wind turbine simulation codes. For this purpose, a new developed high fidelity framework for fluid-structure coupled computations of wind turbines is presented and numerical simulations are conducted on the NREL 5MW reference wind turbine. The framework couples the open-source Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) toolbox OpenFOAM with an in-house beam solver, based on the Geometrically Exact Beam Theory (GEBT). The obtained results are compared to the aero-elastic tool FAST, which is based on the Blade Element Momentum theory (BEM) and can be considered as a state-of-the-art wind turbine simulation code. The evaluation of the fluid-structure coupled CFD simulations reveals clear differences in the results compared to FAST. While the mean deflections show a reasonable agreement, the dynamics of the edgewise deflections differ significantly. Furthermore, the effect of an explicit coupling versus an implicit coupling strategy on the results is investigated.

  6. Magnetic field sector structure and origins of solar wind streams in 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shugay, Yulia; Slemzin, Vladimir; Veselovsky, Igor

    2014-08-01

    The origins of the solar wind and the interplanetary magnetic field sector structure in the beginning of the magnetic polarity reversal of 24th solar cycle were investigated using the Wilcox Solar Observatory magnetic field measurements and their products as well as the solar wind data from ACE and the SDO/AIA EUV images. The dominance of the quadrupole harmonics in the solar magnetic field in this period resulted in a four-sector structure of the interplanetary magnetic field. The dominating source of recurrent high-speed solar wind stream was a large trans-equatorial coronal hole of negative polarity evolving in the course of the polarity reversal process. The contribution of ICMEs to the high-speed solar wind did not exceed 17% of the total flux. The solar wind density flux averaged over the year amounted to 1 × 108 cm-2 s-1 which is considerably lower than the typical long-term value (2-4 × 108 cm-2 s-1). The slow-speed component of solar wind density flux constituted in average more than 68% of the total flux, the high-speed component was about 10%, reaching the maximum of 32% in some Carrington rotations.

  7. Influence of the Coriolis force on the structure and evolution of wind turbine wakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abkar, Mahdi; Porté-Agel, Fernando

    2016-10-01

    In this study, large-eddy simulation combined with a turbine model is used to investigate the effect of vertical wind veer associated with the Coriolis force on the structure and evolution of wind turbine wakes. In order to isolate the Coriolis effect on the wake, two cases are considered. In the first case, atmospheric boundary-layer flow is driven by a geostrophic wind, including the effect of Earth's rotation and the Coriolis force. In the second case, the boundary-layer flow is unidirectional and is forced by an imposed pressure gradient. Both cases have the same mean horizontal velocity and turbulence intensity at the hub height. The simulation results show that the Coriolis force significantly affects the aerodynamics of the wake including the mean velocity deficit, turbulence statistics, and wake-meandering characteristics downwind of the turbine. In particular, when the flow is forced by a geostrophic wind, vertical wind veer causes a skewed spatial structure in the wake. Moreover, the presence of lateral wind shear, in addition to the vertical one, enhances the shear production of turbulent kinetic energy and the turbulent momentum flux. This leads to a larger flow entrainment and, thus, a faster wake recovery compared to the case forced by unidirectional pressure gradient. Consistent with this result, wake meandering is also stronger in both lateral and vertical directions in the case of geostrophic forcing compared to the case with pressure-gradient forcing.

  8. Mechanistic implications for LDL receptor degradation from the PCSK9/LDLR structure at neutral pH.

    PubMed

    Lo Surdo, Paola; Bottomley, Matthew J; Calzetta, Alessandra; Settembre, Ethan C; Cirillo, Agostino; Pandit, Shilpa; Ni, Yan G; Hubbard, Brian; Sitlani, Ayesha; Carfí, Andrea

    2011-12-01

    The protein PCSK9 (proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9) is a key regulator of low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) levels and cardiovascular health. We have determined the crystal structure of LDLR bound to PCSK9 at neutral pH. The structure shows LDLR in a new extended conformation. The PCSK9 C-terminal domain is solvent exposed, enabling cofactor binding, whereas the catalytic domain and prodomain interact with LDLR epidermal growth factor(A) and β-propeller domains, respectively. Thus, PCSK9 seems to hold LDLR in an extended conformation and to interfere with conformational rearrangements required for LDLR recycling.

  9. Cellular porous anodic alumina grown in neutral organic electrolyte. 1. Structure, composition, and properties of the films

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y.; Alwitt, R.S.; Shimizu, K.

    2000-04-01

    Anodic alumina films with cellular porous structure grow in neutral organic electrolytes with low water content and containing ethylene glycol and a large dicarboxylic acid. An Al carboxylate precipitates in the pore and is extruded from the coating. The porous structure develops even though the current efficiency for film formation is near 95%. The coating matrix contains substantial organic material, 15 wt % by thermal analysis. It is an oxide/organic composite with higher field strength and lower dielectric constant than pure anodic alumina.

  10. Structural basis for type VI secreted peptidoglycan dl-endopeptidase function, specificity and neutralization in Serratia marcescens

    SciTech Connect

    Srikannathasan, Velupillai; English, Grant; Bui, Nhat Khai; Trunk, Katharina; O’Rourke, Patrick E. F.; Rao, Vincenzo A.; Vollmer, Waldemar; Coulthurst, Sarah J. Hunter, William N.

    2013-12-01

    Crystal structures of type VI secretion system-associated immunity proteins, a peptidoglycan endopeptidase and a complex of the endopeptidase and its cognate immunity protein are reported together with assays of endopeptidase activity and functional assessment. Some Gram-negative bacteria target their competitors by exploiting the type VI secretion system to extrude toxic effector proteins. To prevent self-harm, these bacteria also produce highly specific immunity proteins that neutralize these antagonistic effectors. Here, the peptidoglycan endopeptidase specificity of two type VI secretion-system-associated effectors from Serratia marcescens is characterized. These small secreted proteins, Ssp1 and Ssp2, cleave between γ-d-glutamic acid and l-meso-diaminopimelic acid with different specificities. Ssp2 degrades the acceptor part of cross-linked tetratetrapeptides. Ssp1 displays greater promiscuity and cleaves monomeric tripeptides, tetrapeptides and pentapeptides and dimeric tetratetra and tetrapenta muropeptides on both the acceptor and donor strands. Functional assays confirm the identity of a catalytic cysteine in these endopeptidases and crystal structures provide information on the structure–activity relationships of Ssp1 and, by comparison, of related effectors. Functional assays also reveal that neutralization of these effectors by their cognate immunity proteins, which are called resistance-associated proteins (Raps), contributes an essential role to cell fitness. The structures of two immunity proteins, Rap1a and Rap2a, responsible for the neutralization of Ssp1 and Ssp2-like endopeptidases, respectively, revealed two distinct folds, with that of Rap1a not having previously been observed. The structure of the Ssp1–Rap1a complex revealed a tightly bound heteromeric assembly with two effector molecules flanking a Rap1a dimer. A highly effective steric block of the Ssp1 active site forms the basis of effector neutralization. Comparisons with Ssp2–Rap2

  11. Application of a Neutral Community Model To Assess Structuring of the Human Lung Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Venkataraman, Arvind; Bassis, Christine M.; Beck, James M.; Young, Vincent B.; Curtis, Jeffrey L.; Huffnagle, Gary B.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT  DNA from phylogenetically diverse microbes is routinely recovered from healthy human lungs and used to define the lung microbiome. The proportion of this DNA originating from microbes adapted to the lungs, as opposed to microbes dispersing to the lungs from other body sites and the atmosphere, is not known. We use a neutral model of community ecology to distinguish members of the lung microbiome whose presence is consistent with dispersal from other body sites and those that deviate from the model, suggesting a competitive advantage to these microbes in the lungs. We find that the composition of the healthy lung microbiome is consistent with predictions of the neutral model, reflecting the overriding role of dispersal of microbes from the oral cavity in shaping the microbial community in healthy lungs. In contrast, the microbiome of diseased lungs was readily distinguished as being under active selection. We also assessed the viability of microbes from lung samples by cultivation with a variety of media and incubation conditions. Bacteria recovered by cultivation from healthy lungs represented species that comprised 61% of the 16S rRNA-encoding gene sequences derived from bronchoalveolar lavage samples. Importance  Neutral distribution of microbes is a distinguishing feature of the microbiome in healthy lungs, wherein constant dispersal of bacteria from the oral cavity overrides differential growth of bacteria. No bacterial species consistently deviated from the model predictions in healthy lungs, although representatives of many of the dispersed species were readily cultivated. In contrast, bacterial populations in diseased lungs were identified as being under active selection. Quantification of the relative importance of selection and neutral processes such as dispersal in shaping the healthy lung microbiome is a first step toward understanding its impacts on host health. PMID:25604788

  12. Studying neutral hydrogen structures during the epoch of reionization using fractal dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandyopadhyay, Bidisha; Choudhury, T. Roy; Seshadri, T. R.

    2017-04-01

    Fractal dimensions can be used to characterize the clustering and lacunarities in density distributions. We use generalized fractal dimensions to study the neutral hydrogen distribution (H I) during the epoch of reionization. Using a semi-numeric model of ionized bubbles to generate the H I field, we calculate the fractal dimensions for length-scales ∼10 h-1cMpc. We find that the H I field displays significant multifractal behaviour and is not consistent with homogeneity at these scales when the mass-averaged neutral fraction bar{x}_{H I}^M ≳ 0.5. This multifractal nature is driven entirely by the shapes and distribution of the ionized regions. The sensitivity of the fractal dimension to the neutral fraction implies that it can be used for constraining reionization history. We find that the fractal dimension is relatively less sensitive to the value of the minimum mass of ionizing haloes when it is in the range ∼109-1010h-1M⊙. Interestingly, the fractal dimension is very different when the reionization proceeds inside-out compared to when it is outside-in. Thus, the multifractal nature of H I density field at high redshifts can be used to study the nature of reionization.

  13. Structural Studies of Chikungunya Virus-Like Particles Complexed with Human Antibodies: Neutralization and Cell-to-Cell Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Mangala Prasad, Vidya; Wang, Cheng-I; Akahata, Wataru; Ng, Lisa F. P.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chikungunya virus is a positive-stranded RNA alphavirus. Structures of chikungunya virus-like particles in complex with strongly neutralizing antibody Fab fragments (8B10 and 5F10) were determined using cryo-electron microscopy and X-ray crystallography. By fitting the crystallographically determined structures of these Fab fragments into the cryo-electron density maps, we show that Fab fragments of antibody 8B10 extend radially from the viral surface and block receptor binding on the E2 glycoprotein. In contrast, Fab fragments of antibody 5F10 bind the tip of the E2 B domain and lie tangentially on the viral surface. Fab 5F10 fixes the B domain rigidly to the surface of the virus, blocking exposure of the fusion loop on glycoprotein E1 and therefore preventing the virus from becoming fusogenic. Although Fab 5F10 can neutralize the wild-type virus, it can also bind to a mutant virus without inhibiting fusion or attachment. Although the mutant virus is no longer able to propagate by extracellular budding, it can, however, enter the next cell by traveling through junctional complexes without being intercepted by a neutralizing antibody to the wild-type virus, thus clarifying how cell-to-cell transmission can occur. IMPORTANCE Alphaviral infections are transmitted mainly by mosquitoes. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), which belongs to the Alphavirus genus, has a wide distribution in the Old World that has expanded in recent years into the Americas. There are currently no vaccines or drugs against alphaviral infections. Therefore, a better understanding of CHIKV and its associated neutralizing antibodies will aid in the development of effective treatments. PMID:26537684

  14. Contribution of coherent structures to momentum and concentration fluxes over a flat vegetation canopy modelled in a wind tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conan, Boris; Aubrun, Sandrine; Coudour, Bruno; Chetehouna, Khaled; Garo, Jean-Pierre

    2015-04-01

    Coherent structures dominate the shear flow in and above the vegetation canopy, affecting the transport of passive scalars. Their detailed understanding is therefore of great interest for a number of environmental studies such as organic gas exchange, pollution dispersion, or forest fire propagation. In the present study, a forest embedded in an atmospheric boundary layer was reproduced in a wind tunnel. An area source was installed to mimic the volatile organic compounds emission coming from the vegetation. A fast gas analyser combined to a triple hot-wire anemometer were used to measure simultaneously and at the same point the momentum and the concentration fluxes above the canopy. This particular set-up enabled the complex scalar exchange mechanism to be studied in the well defined and stationary boundary conditions of a laboratory experiment simulating neutral atmospheric conditions. Measurements showed that the contribution of coherent structures to the momentum and the concentration flux was 80% and 60% respectively. Contributions were found to be nearly constant with height. The combination of velocity and concentration measurements enabled the determination of the mean concentration of the coherent structures. Results highlights the preponderant role of ejections in releasing highly concentrated gas pockets above the forest canopy. These releases were measured to be, in average, 40% more concentrated than the average gas concentration at the same height. It is shown that 70% of the extreme events observed are linked to an ejection process.

  15. Splitting of the neutral mechanical plane depends on the length of the multi-layer structure of flexible electronics.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuang; Su, Yewang; Li, Rui

    2016-06-01

    Multi-layer structures with soft (compliant) interlayers have been widely used in flexible electronics and photonics as an effective design for reducing interactions among the hard (stiff) layers and thus avoiding the premature failure of an entire device. The analytic model for bending of such a structure has not been well established due to its complex mechanical behaviour. Here, we present a rational analytic model, without any parameter fitting, to study the bending of a multi-layer structure on a cylinder, which is often regarded as an important approach to mechanical reliability testing of flexible electronics and photonics. For the first time, our model quantitatively reveals that, as the key for accurate strain control, the splitting of the neutral mechanical plane depends not only on the relative thickness of the middle layer, but also on the length-to-thickness ratio of the multi-layer structure. The model accurately captures the key quantities, including the axial strains in the top and bottom layers, the shear strain in the middle layer and the locations of the neutral mechanical planes of the top and bottom layers. The effects of the length of the multi-layer and the thickness of the middle layer are elaborated. This work is very useful for the design of multi-layer structure-based flexible electronics and photonics.

  16. Full-scale tests of wind effects on a long span roof structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Jiyang; Zheng, Qingxing; Wu, Jiurong; Xu, An

    2015-06-01

    Full-scale measurements are regarded as the most reliable method to evaluate wind effects on large buildings and structures. Some selected results are presented in this paper from the full-scale measurement of wind effects on a long-span steel roof structure during the passage of Typhoon Fanapi. Some field data, including wind speed and direction, acceleration responses, etc., were continuously and simultaneously recorded during the passage of the typhoon. Comprehensive analysis of the measured data is conducted to evaluate the typhoon-generated wind characteristics and its effects on a long-span steel roof. The first four natural frequencies and their vibration mode shapes of the Guangzhou International Sports Arena (GISA) roof are evaluated by the stochastic subspace identification (SSI) method and comparisons with those from finite element (FE) analysis are made. Meanwhile, damping ratios of the roof are also identified by the SSI method and compared with those identified by the random decrement method; the amplitude-dependent damping behaviors are also discussed. The fullscale measurement results are further compared with the corresponding wind tunnel test results to evaluate its reliability. The results obtained from this study are valuable for academic and professional engineers involved in the design of large-span roof structures.

  17. Impact of vertical wind shear on roll structure in idealized hurricane boundary layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shouping; Jiang, Qingfang

    2017-03-01

    Quasi-two-dimensional roll vortices are frequently observed in hurricane boundary layers. It is believed that this highly coherent structure, likely caused by the inflection-point instability, plays an important role in organizing turbulent transport. Large-eddy simulations are conducted to investigate the impact of wind shear characteristics, such as the shear strength and inflection-point level, on the roll structure in terms of its spectral characteristics and turbulence organization. A mean wind nudging approach is used in the simulations to maintain the specified mean wind shear without directly affecting turbulent motions. Enhancing the radial wind shear expands the roll horizontal scale and strengthens the roll's kinetic energy. Increasing the inflection-point level tends to produce a narrow and sharp peak in the power spectrum at the wavelength consistent with the roll spacing indicated by the instantaneous turbulent fields. The spectral tangential momentum flux, in particular, reaches a strong peak value at the roll wavelength. In contrast, the spectral radial momentum flux obtains its maximum at the wavelength that is usually shorter than the roll's, suggesting that the roll radial momentum transport is less efficient than the tangential because of the quasi-two-dimensionality of the roll structure. The most robust rolls are produced in a simulation with the highest inflection-point level and relatively strong radial wind shear. Based on the spectral analysis, the roll-scale contribution to the turbulent momentum flux can reach 40 % in the middle of the boundary layer.

  18. Structural effects of unsteady aerodynamic forces on horizontal-axis wind turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.S.; Shipley, D.E.

    1994-08-01

    Due to its renewable nature and abundant resources, wind energy has the potential to fulfill a large portion of this nation`s energy needs. The simplest means of utilizing wind energy is through the use of downwind, horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWT) with fixed-pitch rotors. This configuration regulates the peak power by allowing the rotor blade to aerodynamically stall. The stall point, the point of maximum coefficient of lift, is currently predicted using data obtained from wind tunnel tests. Unfortunately, these tests do not accurately simulate conditions encountered in the field. Flow around the tower and nacelle coupled with inflow turbulence and rotation of the turbine blades create unpredicted aerodynamic forces. Dynamic stall is hypothesized to occur. Such aerodynamic loads are transmitted into the rotor and tower causing structural resonance that drastically reduces the design lifetime of the wind turbine. The current method of alleviating this problem is to structurally reinforce the tower and blades. However, this adds unneeded mass and, therefore, cost to the turbines. A better understanding of the aerodynamic forces and the manner in which they affect the structure would allow for the design of more cost effective and durable wind turbines. Data compiled by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for a downwind HAWT with constant chord, untwisted, fixed-pitch rotors is analyzed. From these data, the actual aerodynamic characteristics of the rotor are being portrayed and the potential effects upon the structure can for the first time be fully analyzed. Based upon their understanding, solutions to the problem of structural resonance are emerging.

  19. Wind-Flow Dynamics Over a Vineyard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chahine, Ali; Dupont, Sylvain; Sinfort, Carole; Brunet, Yves

    2014-06-01

    Wind-flow dynamics has been extensively studied over horizontally uniform canopies, but agricultural plantations structured in rows such as vineyards have received less attention. Here, the wind flow over a vineyard is studied in neutral stratification from both large-eddy simulation (LES) and in situ measurements. The impact of row structure on the wind dynamics is investigated over a range of wind directions from cross-row to down-row, and a typical range of row aspect ratio (row separation/height ratio). It is shown that the mean flow over a vineyard is similar to that observed in uniform canopies, especially for wind directions from cross-row to diagonal. For down-row winds, the mean flow exhibits noticeable spatial variability across each elementary row-gap pattern, as the wind is channeled in the inter-row. This spatial variability increases with the aspect ratio. With down-row winds the turbulent structures are also more intermittent and generate larger turbulent kinetic energy and momentum flux. The displacement height and roughness length of the vineyard vary with the aspect ratio in a way similar to their variation with canopy density in uniform canopies. Both parameters take smaller values in down-row wind flow, for which the canopy appears more open. The analysis of velocity spectra and autocorrelation functions shows that vineyard canopies share similar features to uniform canopies in terms of turbulent coherent structures, with only minor changes with wind direction.

  20. Ascent structural wind loads for the National Space Transportation System (NSTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, O. E.; Adelfang, S. I.; Brown, R. P.

    1988-01-01

    An aerospace vehicle must withstand the design ascent structural load or be within any flight constraint to safely reach orbit. For the NSTS an assessment for flight readiness is made for each mission. This assessment for ascent loads and performance parameters is stated in terms of launch probability derived from samples of Jimsphere wind profiles. For the day of launch operations an allowance is made for the ascent load variability due to the wind profile variability over a 3.5-hour period. This is the current time period required to obtain a Jimsphere measurement and perform a complete load simulation prior to launch time. The load variability is derived from a sample of 3.5-hour Jimsphere wind profile pairs. It is applied as a conditional percentile value given the wind load at 3.5 hours prior to launch time. Probability models are used for these analyses. Application of the univariate, bivariate and conditional forms of the extreme value (Gumbel) probability distribution to the analysis of extreme wind speeds, wind shears and vehicle loads is described.

  1. Structural Basis of Neutralization by a Human Anti-severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Spike Protein Antibody,80R.

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang,W.; Lin, Y.; Santelli, E.; Sui, J.; Jaroszewski, L.; Stec, B.; Farzan, M.; Marasco, W.; Liddington, R.

    2006-01-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a newly emerged infectious disease that caused pandemic spread in 2003. The etiological agent of SARS is a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV). The coronaviral surface spike protein S is a type I transmembrane glycoprotein that mediates initial host binding via the cell surface receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), as well as the subsequent membrane fusion events required for cell entry. Here we report the crystal structure of the S1 receptor binding domain (RBD) in complex with a neutralizing antibody, 80R, at 2.3 {angstrom} resolution, as well as the structure of the uncomplexed S1 RBD at 2.2 {angstrom} resolution. We show that the 80R-binding epitope on the S1 RBD overlaps very closely with the ACE2-binding site, providing a rationale for the strong binding and broad neutralizing ability of the antibody. We provide a structural basis for the differential effects of certain mutations in the spike protein on 80R versus ACE2 binding, including escape mutants, which should facilitate the design of immunotherapeutics to treat a future SARS outbreak. We further show that the RBD of S1 forms dimers via an extensive interface that is disrupted in receptor- and antibody-bound crystal structures, and we propose a role for the dimer in virus stability and infectivity.

  2. Density functional study of carbon clusters C2n (2<=n<=16). I. Structure and bonding in the neutral clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, R. O.

    1999-03-01

    Density functional calculations have been performed for many isomers of neutral carbon clusters Cn (4⩽n⩽32, n even) using both local spin density (LSD) and gradient-corrected (Becke-Perdew) approximations to the exchange-correlation energy. The stable isomers include chains, rings, cages, and graphitic ("plate " and "bowl") structures, and we observe a fourfold periodicity in several structural classes as n changes. Stable cages exist for all clusters with n⩾8, and double rings are less stable than the monocyclic rings in all cases. Most planar structures have low-frequency out-of-plane vibrations. Gradient corrections often change the ordering of the energies of the isomers, but the effects are remarkably regular within a given structural type.

  3. Structural basis for the neutralization of MERS-CoV by a human monoclonal antibody MERS-27

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Senyan; Jiang, Liwei; Cui, Ye; Li, Dongxia; Wang, Dongli; Wang, Nianshuang; Fu, Lili; Shi, Xuanlin; Li, Ziqiang; Zhang, Linqi; Wang, Xinquan

    2015-01-01

    The recently reported Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes severe respiratory illness in humans with an approximately 30% mortality rate. The envelope spike glycoprotein on the surface of MERS-CoV mediates receptor binding, membrane fusion, and viral entry. We previously reported two human monoclonal antibodies that target the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the spike and exhibit strong neutralization activity against live and pesudotyped MERS-CoV infection. Here we determined the crystal structure of MERS-CoV RBD bound to the Fab fragment of MERS-27 antibody at 3.20 Å resolution. The MERS-27 epitope in the RBD overlaps with the binding site of the MERS-CoV receptor DPP4. Further biochemical, viral entry, and neutralization analyses identified two critical residues in the RBD for both MERS-27 recognition and DPP4 binding. One of the residues, Trp535, was found to function as an anchor residue at the binding interface with MERS-27. Upon receptor binding, Trp535 interacts with the N-linked carbohydrate moiety of DPP4. Thus, MERS-27 inhibits MERS-CoV infection by directly blocking both protein-protein and protein-carbohydrate interactions between MERS-CoV RBD and DPP4. These results shed light on the molecular basis of MERS-27 neutralization and will assist in the optimization of MERS-27 as a tool to combat MERS-CoV infection. PMID:26281793

  4. 3D Solar Wind Structure Features Characterizing the Rise of Cycle 24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luhmann, J. G.; Ellenburg, M. A.; Riley, P.; Lee, C. O.; Arge, C. N.; Jian, L.; Russell, C. T.; Simunac, K.; Galvin, A. B.; Petrie, G. J.

    2011-12-01

    Since the launch of the STEREO mission in 2006, there has been renewed interest in the 3D structure of the solar wind, spurred in part by the unusual cycle 23 solar minimum and current solar cycle rise. Of particular significance for this subject has been the ubiquitous occurrence of low latitude coronal holes and coronal pseudo-streamers. These coupled features have been common both because of the relative strength of high order spherical harmonic content of the global coronal field, and the weakness of the field compared to the previous two well-observed cycles. We consider the effects of the low latitude coronal holes and pseudo-streamers on the near-ecliptic solar wind and interplanetary field. In particular, we illustrate how the now common passage of streams with low latitude sources and pseudo-streamer boundaries is changing our traditional perceptions of local solar wind structures.

  5. Structural damage identification in wind turbine blades using piezoelectric active sensing with ultrasonic validation

    SciTech Connect

    Claytor, Thomas N; Ammerman, Curtt N; Park, Gyu Hae; Farinholt, Kevin M; Farrar, Charles R; Atterbury, Marie K

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives a brief overview of a new project at LANL in structural damage identification for wind turbines. This project makes use of modeling capabilities and sensing technology to understand realistic blade loading on large turbine blades, with the goal of developing the technology needed to automatically detect early damage. Several structural health monitoring (SHM) techniques using piezoelectric active materials are being investigated for the development of wireless, low power sensors that interrogate sections of the wind turbine blade using Lamb wave propagation data, frequency response functions (FRFs), and time-series analysis methods. The modeling and sensor research will be compared with extensive experimental testing, including wind tunnel experiments, load and fatigue tests, and ultrasonic scans - on small- to mid-scale turbine blades. Furthermore, this study will investigate the effect of local damage on the global response of the blade by monitoring low-frequency response changes.

  6. Wind energy systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, H. J.

    1978-01-01

    A discussion on wind energy systems involved with the DOE wind energy program is presented. Some of the problems associated with wind energy systems are discussed. The cost, efficiency, and structural design of wind energy systems are analyzed.

  7. Entangling strings of neutral atoms in 1D atomic pipeline structures.

    PubMed

    Dorner, U; Fedichev, P; Jaksch, D; Lewenstein, M; Zoller, P

    2003-08-15

    We study a string of neutral atoms with nearest neighbor interaction in a 1D beam splitter configuration, where the longitudinal motion is controlled by a moving optical lattice potential. The dynamics of the atoms crossing the beam splitter maps to a 1D spin model with controllable time dependent parameters, which allows the creation of maximally entangled states of atoms by crossing a quantum phase transition. Furthermore, we show that this system realizes protected quantum memory, and we discuss the implementation of one- and two-qubit gates in this setup.

  8. Structural and Functional Characterization of Anti-A33 Antibodies Reveal a Potent Cross-Species Orthopoxviruses Neutralizer

    PubMed Central

    Matho, Michael H.; Schlossman, Andrew; Meng, Xiangzhi; Benhnia, Mohammed Rafii-El-Idrissi; Kaever, Thomas; Buller, Mark; Doronin, Konstantin; Parker, Scott; Peters, Bjoern; Crotty, Shane; Xiang, Yan; Zajonc, Dirk M.

    2015-01-01

    Vaccinia virus A33 is an extracellular enveloped virus (EEV)-specific type II membrane glycoprotein that is essential for efficient EEV formation and long-range viral spread within the host. A33 is a target for neutralizing antibody responses against EEV. In this study, we produced seven murine anti-A33 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) by immunizing mice with live VACV, followed by boosting with the soluble A33 homodimeric ectodomain. Five A33 specific MAbs were capable of neutralizing EEV in the presence of complement. All MAbs bind to conformational epitopes on A33 but not to linear peptides. To identify the epitopes, we have adetermined the crystal structures of three representative neutralizing MAbs in complex with A33. We have further determined the binding kinetics for each of the three antibodies to wild-type A33, as well as to engineered A33 that contained single alanine substitutions within the epitopes of the three crystallized antibodies. While the Fab of both MAbs A2C7 and A20G2 binds to a single A33 subunit, the Fab from MAb A27D7 binds to both A33 subunits simultaneously. A27D7 binding is resistant to single alanine substitutions within the A33 epitope. A27D7 also demonstrated high-affinity binding with recombinant A33 protein that mimics other orthopoxvirus strains in the A27D7 epitope, such as ectromelia, monkeypox, and cowpox virus, suggesting that A27D7 is a potent cross-neutralizer. Finally, we confirmed that A27D7 protects mice against a lethal challenge with ectromelia virus. PMID:26325270

  9. A 100-kW wind turbine blade dynamics analysis, weight-balance, and structural test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, W. D.

    1975-01-01

    The results of dynamic analyses, weight and balance tests, static stiffness tests, and structural vibration tests on the 60-foot-long metal blades for the ERDA-NASA 100-kW wind turbine are presented. The metal blades are shown to be free from structural or dynamic resonance at the wind turbine design speed. Aeroelastic instabilities are unlikely to occur within the normal operating range of the wind turbine.

  10. NWTC Researchers Field-Test Advanced Control Turbine Systems to Increase Performance, Decrease Structural Loading of Wind Turbines and Plants

    SciTech Connect

    2015-08-01

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) are studying component controls, including new advanced actuators and sensors, for both conventional turbines as well as wind plants. This research will help develop innovative control strategies that reduce aerodynamic structural loads and improve performance. Structural loads can cause damage that increase maintenance costs and shorten the life of a turbine or wind plant.

  11. Structural basis for the binding of the neutralizing antibody, 7D11, to the poxvirus L1 protein

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Hua-Poo; Golden, Joseph W.; Gittis, Apostolos G.; Hooper, Jay W.; Garboczi, David N.

    2007-11-25

    Medical countermeasures to prevent or treat smallpox are needed due to the potential use of poxviruses as biological weapons. Safety concerns with the currently available smallpox vaccine indicate a need for research on alternative poxvirus vaccine strategies. Molecular vaccines involving the use of proteins and/or genes and recombinant antibodies are among the strategies under current investigation. The poxvirus L1 protein, encoded by the L1R open reading frame, is the target of neutralizing antibodies and has been successfully used as a component of both protein subunit and DNA vaccines. L1-specific monoclonal antibodies (e.g., mouse monoclonal antibody mAb-7D11, mAb-10F5) with potent neutralizing activity bind L1 in a conformation-specific manner. This suggests that proper folding of the L1 protein used in molecular vaccines will affect the production of neutralizing antibodies and protection. Here, we co-crystallized the Fab fragment of mAb-7D11 with the L1 protein. The crystal structure of the complex between Fab-7D11 and L1 reveals the basis for the conformation-specific binding as recognition of a discontinuous epitope containing two loops that are held together by a disulfide bond. The structure of this important conformational epitope of L1 will contribute to the development of molecular poxvirus vaccines and also provides a novel target for anti-poxvirus drugs. In addition, the sequence and structure of Fab-7D11 will contribute to the development of L1-targeted immunotherapeutics.

  12. Statistical Evaluation of the Identified Structural Parameters of an idling Offshore Wind Turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramers, Hendrik C.; van der Valk, Paul L. C.; van Wingerden, Jan-Willem

    2016-09-01

    With the increased need for renewable energy, new offshore wind farms are being developed at an unprecedented scale. However, as the costs of offshore wind energy are still too high, design optimization and new innovations are required for lowering its cost. The design of modern day offshore wind turbines relies on numerical models for estimating ultimate and fatigue loads of the turbines. The dynamic behavior and the resulting structural loading of the turbines is determined for a large part by its structural properties, such as the natural frequencies and damping ratios. Hence, it is important to obtain accurate estimates of these modal properties. For this purpose stochastic subspace identification (SSI), in combination with clustering and statistical evaluation methods, is used to obtain the variance of the identified modal properties of an installed 3.6MW offshore wind turbine in idling conditions. It is found that one is able to obtain confidence intervals for the means of eigenfrequencies and damping ratios of the fore-aft and side-side modes of the wind turbine.

  13. Gas-phase structures and thermochemistry of neutral histidine and its conjugated acid and base.

    PubMed

    Riffet, Vanessa; Bouchoux, Guy

    2013-04-28

    Extensive exploration of the conformational space of neutral, protonated and deprotonated histidine has been conducted at the G4MP2 level. Theoretical protonation and deprotonation thermochemistry as well as heats of formation of gaseous histidine and its ionized forms have been calculated at the G4 level considering either the most stable conformers or an equilibrium population of conformers at 298 K. These theoretical results were compared to evaluated experimental determinations. Recommended proton affinity and protonation entropy deduced from these comparisons are PA(His) = 980 kJ mol(-1) and ΔpS(His) ∼ 0 J mol(-1) K(-1), thus leading to a gas-phase basicity value of GB(His) = 947.5 kJ mol(-1). Similarly, gas phase acidity parameters are ΔacidH(o)(His) = 1373 kJ mol(-1), ΔacidS(His) ∼ 10 J mol(-1) K(-1) and ΔacidG(o)(His) = 1343 kJ mol(-1). Computed G4 heats of formation values are equal to -290, 265 and -451 kJ mol(-1) for gaseous neutral histidine and its protonated and deprotonated forms, respectively. The present computational data correct, and complete, previous thermochemical parameter estimates proposed for gas-phase histidine and its acido-basic properties.

  14. Density-dependent speciation alters the structure and dynamics of neutral communities.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shaopeng; Chen, Anping; Pacala, Stephen W; Fang, Jingyun

    2015-05-07

    The neutral theory of biodiversity (NTB) provides an individual-based modeling framework to study eco-evolutionary dynamics. Previous NTB models usually assumed the same per capita rate of speciation across lineages. However, population dynamics may induce macroevolutionary feedbacks that can result in variable per capita speciation rates across lineages. In this paper, with analytical and simulation approaches, we explore how different scenarios of density-dependent speciation may impact the diversity and phylogenetic patterns of neutral communities, and compare the results to predictions of the original NTB model with an invariant speciation rate. Our results show that positive per capita speciation rate-abundance relationships could result in higher species richness and evenness, enhanced stability (evidenced by higher post-disturbance recovery rates and lower temporal variability in species diversity), and higher imbalance in phylogenetic trees. The opposite patterns are predicted when per capita speciation rates decrease with abundance. Particularly, strong negative speciation rate-abundance relationships can generate a positive correlation between phylogenetic age and abundance, which has been observed in Panamanian tree species. Our findings demonstrate the importance of eco-evolutionary feedbacks for understanding long-term diversity and phylogenetic patterns in ecological communities.

  15. Crystal structure of a 3B3 variant - A broadly neutralizing HIV-1 scFv antibody

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, K. Reed; Walsh, Scott T.R.

    2009-12-10

    We present the crystal structure determination of an anti-HIV-1 gp120 single-chain variable fragment antibody variant, 3B3, at 2.5 {angstrom} resolution. This 3B3 variant was derived from the b12 antibody, using phage display and site-directed mutagenesis of the variable heavy chain (V{sub H}) complementary-determining regions (CDRs). 3B3 exhibits enhanced binding affinity and neutralization activity against several cross-clade primary isolates of HIV-1 by interaction with the recessed CD4-binding site on the gp120 envelope protein. Comparison with the structures of the unbound and bound forms of b12, the 3B3 structure closely resembles these structures with minimal differences with two notable exceptions. First, there is a reorientation of the CDR-H3 of the V{sub H} domain where the primary sequences evolved from b12 to 3B3. The structural changes in CDR-H3 of 3B3, in light of the b12-gp120 complex structure, allow for positioning an additional Trp side chain in the binding interface with gp120. Finally, the second region of structural change involves two peptide bond flips in CDR-L3 of the variable light (VL) domain triggered by a point mutation in CDR-H3 of Q100eY resulting in changes in the intramolecular hydrogen bonding patterning between the VL and VH domains. Thus, the enhanced binding affinities and neutralization capabilities of 3B3 relative to b12 probably result from higher hydrophobic driving potential by burying more aromatic residues at the 3B3-gp120 interface and by indirect stabilization of intramolecular contacts of the core framework residues between the VL and VH domains possibly through more favorable entropic effect through the expulsion of water.

  16. Three-dimensional structure of the wind-driven water surface flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caulliez, Guillemette

    2014-05-01

    The structure of the water boundary layer forced by wind underneath surface wind waves is investigated experimentally in the large Marseille-Luminy wind wave tank. Measurements of the vertical velocity profiles inside the subsurface shear layer were performed by a three-component Nortek acoustic Doppler velocimeter. An overview of the water surface flow patterns which develop at larger scales was provided by simultaneous flow visualizations. To that end, tiny hydrogen bubbles were generated by electrolysis along a 60 cm long thin wire set up crosswise to the wind direction at a short distance from the water surface. The bubble motions were recorded by a video camera looking vertically from below or above the water surface. Observations were made at low to moderate wind speeds for four fetches ranging from 2 to 26 m. This work reveals that under such steady wind conditions, the transition of the water surface boundary layer to turbulent flow is marked by the fast development of coherent longitudinal vortices downstream the surface wave generation area observed at short fetches. These structures are characterized by the occurrence of intense upwellings localized in narrow streaks in the crosswise direction. There, the upper wind-induced shear flow is confined in a very thin layer. In the wider areas between these streaks, the surface flow exhibits a much more turbulent behaviour over a deeper but slightly-sheared boundary layer. In accordance with this inhomogeneous flow pattern, the velocity field observed at a fixed location over one vertical profile is highly variable in time. These three-dimensional large-scale structures present strong similarities with the so-called Langmuir circulations. This work will focus on the description of the qualitative and quantitative properties of these longitudinal vortices, in particular the conditions of their occurence and the dependency of their characteristic scales on wind forcing and surface wave development. The main

  17. Syntheses and structural characterization of mercury (II) coordination polymers with neutral bidentate flexible pyrazole-based ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lalegani, Arash; Khaledi Sardashti, Mohammad; Salavati, Hossein; Asadi, Amin; Gajda, Roman; Woźniak, Krzysztof

    2016-03-01

    Mercury(II) coordination compounds [Hg(μ-bbd)(μ-SCN)4]n(1) and [Hg(bpp)(SCN)2] (2) were synthesized by using the neutral flexible bidentate N-donor ligands 1,4-bis(3,5-dimethypyrazol-1-yl)butane (bbd) and 1,3-bis(3,5-dimethylpyrazolyl)propane (bpp), NCS- ligand and appropriate mercury(II) salts. Compound 1 forms a polymeric network with moieties which are connected by SCN groups and the mercury ions present as HgN3S2 trigonal bipyramides. The crystal structure of 2 is build of monomers and the mercury(II) ion adopts an HgN2S2 tetrahedral geometry. In the complex 1, each bbd acts as bridging ligand connecting Hg(μ-SCN)4 ions, while in the complex 2, the bpp ligand is coordinated to an mercury(II) ion in a cyclic-bidentate fashion forming an eight-membered metallocyclic ring. Moreover, in the tetrahedral structure of 2, the neutral molecules form a 1D chain structure through the C-H···N hydrogen bonds, whereas in 1 no hydrogen bonds are observed. Coordination compounds 1 and 2 have been characterized by infrared spectroscopy, elemental analyses and single-crystal X-ray diffraction.

  18. Structural Characterization of Neutral Oligosaccharides by Laser-Enhanced In-Source Decay of MALDI-FTICR MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hongmei; Yu, Yingning; Song, Fengrui; Liu, Shuying

    2011-05-01

    MALDI in-source decay (ISD) technique described to date has proven to be a convenient and rapid method for sequencing purified peptides and proteins. However, the general ISD still can not produce adequate fragments for the detailed structural elucidation of oligosaccharides. In this study, an efficient and practical method termed the laser-enhanced ISD (LEISD) technique of MALDI-FTICR MS allows highly reliable and abundant fragmentation of the neutral oligosaccharides, which was attributed to the ultrahigh irradiation laser of mJ level. The yield of ISD fragmentation was evaluated under different laser powers for 7 neutral oligosaccharides using DHB as matrix. Better quality ISD spectra including fragment ions in low-mass region were obtained at higher laser power. Results from the LEISD of oligosaccharides demonstrated that a significantly better signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) and more structural information could be obtained in comparison to the conventional CID. It was also suggested that the valuable A ions derived from cross-ring cleavage of the linear oligosaccharides allowed the distinction among α(1 → 4)-, α(1 → 6)-, β(1 → 4)-, and β(1 → 3)-linked isobaric structures according to fragment types and intensities. In addition, ideal fragmentation ions observed by LEISD method facilitated the determination of the sequences and branched points of complex oligosaccharides from human milk.

  19. The oxygenation-linked binding of neutral red to spiny lobster hemocyanin. A structural study of the partially oxygenated protein.

    PubMed

    Makino, N

    1987-02-16

    The structural change of lobster hemocyanin in cooperative O2 binding was studied by the dye-binding method. It was found that neutral red shows an O2-linked binding to hemocyanin with a higher affinity for the oxy form. The number of the dye-binding sites was estimated to be three in the hexameric molecule of oxyhemocyanin. The course of the structural change in the partially oxygenated hemocyanin was examined using the absorbance change of the bound dye as a measure. It was found that the fractional change in the dye binding was considerably greater than the degree of O2 saturation of hemocyanin. The three-state allosteric model, which was proposed for explanation of the O2 binding properties of lobster hemocyanin [N. Makino (1986) Eur. J. Biochem. 154, 49--55], was also consistent with the effects of the dye on the O2 binding to the native hemocyanin. On the basis of this model, the dye binding to partially oxygenated hemocyanin could be connected with the populations of the affinity states. It was inferred that the binding of neutral red reflects the quaternary structure of the protein. In contrast, O2 binding to the stripped (EDTA-treated) hemocyanin showed a considerable decrease in the cooperativity in the presence of the dye. The O2-binding isotherms could not be explained by the three-state model. It is suggested that the subunit interaction is partially blocked by the dye in the absence of divalent cations.

  20. Structure of HIV-1 gp120 V1/V2 domain with broadly neutralizing antibody PG9

    SciTech Connect

    McLellan, Jason S.; Pancera, Marie; Carrico, Chris; Gorman, Jason; Julien, Jean-Philippe; Khayat, Reza; Louder, Robert; Pejchal, Robert; Sastry, Mallika; Dai, Kaifan; O’Dell, Sijy; Patel, Nikita; Shahzad-ul-Hussan, Syed; Yang, Yongping; Zhang, Baoshan; Zhou, Tongqing; Zhu, Jiang; Boyington, Jeffrey C.; Chuang, Gwo-Yu; Diwanji, Devan; Georgiev, Ivelin; Kwon, Young Do; Lee, Doyung; Louder, Mark K.; Moquin, Stephanie; Schmidt, Stephen D.; Yang, Zhi-Yong; Bonsignori, Mattia; Crump, John A.; Kapiga, Saidi H.; Sam, Noel E.; Haynes, Barton F.; Burton, Dennis R.; Koff, Wayne C.; Walker, Laura M.; Phogat, Sanjay; Wyatt, Richard; Orwenyo, Jared; Wang, Lai-Xi; Arthos, James; Bewley, Carole A.; Mascola, John R.; Nabel, Gary J.; Schief, William R.; Ward, Andrew B.; Wilson, Ian A.; Kwong, Peter D.

    2012-12-13

    Variable regions 1 and 2 (V1/V2) of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) gp120 envelope glycoprotein are critical for viral evasion of antibody neutralization, and are themselves protected by extraordinary sequence diversity and N-linked glycosylation. Human antibodies such as PG9 nonetheless engage V1/V2 and neutralize 80% of HIV-1 isolates. Here we report the structure of V1/V2 in complex with PG9. V1/V2 forms a four-stranded {beta}-sheet domain, in which sequence diversity and glycosylation are largely segregated to strand-connecting loops. PG9 recognition involves electrostatic, sequence-independent and glycan interactions: the latter account for over half the interactive surface but are of sufficiently weak affinity to avoid autoreactivity. The structures of V1/V2-directed antibodies CH04 and PGT145 indicate that they share a common mode of glycan penetration by extended anionic loops. In addition to structurally defining V1/V2, the results thus identify a paradigm of antibody recognition for highly glycosylated antigens, which - with PG9 - involves a site of vulnerability comprising just two glycans and a strand.

  1. Structure of HIV-1 gp120 V1/V2 domain with broadly neutralizing antibody PG9.

    PubMed

    McLellan, Jason S; Pancera, Marie; Carrico, Chris; Gorman, Jason; Julien, Jean-Philippe; Khayat, Reza; Louder, Robert; Pejchal, Robert; Sastry, Mallika; Dai, Kaifan; O'Dell, Sijy; Patel, Nikita; Shahzad-ul-Hussan, Syed; Yang, Yongping; Zhang, Baoshan; Zhou, Tongqing; Zhu, Jiang; Boyington, Jeffrey C; Chuang, Gwo-Yu; Diwanji, Devan; Georgiev, Ivelin; Kwon, Young Do; Lee, Doyung; Louder, Mark K; Moquin, Stephanie; Schmidt, Stephen D; Yang, Zhi-Yong; Bonsignori, Mattia; Crump, John A; Kapiga, Saidi H; Sam, Noel E; Haynes, Barton F; Burton, Dennis R; Koff, Wayne C; Walker, Laura M; Phogat, Sanjay; Wyatt, Richard; Orwenyo, Jared; Wang, Lai-Xi; Arthos, James; Bewley, Carole A; Mascola, John R; Nabel, Gary J; Schief, William R; Ward, Andrew B; Wilson, Ian A; Kwong, Peter D

    2011-11-23

    Variable regions 1 and 2 (V1/V2) of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) gp120 envelope glycoprotein are critical for viral evasion of antibody neutralization, and are themselves protected by extraordinary sequence diversity and N-linked glycosylation. Human antibodies such as PG9 nonetheless engage V1/V2 and neutralize 80% of HIV-1 isolates. Here we report the structure of V1/V2 in complex with PG9. V1/V2 forms a four-stranded β-sheet domain, in which sequence diversity and glycosylation are largely segregated to strand-connecting loops. PG9 recognition involves electrostatic, sequence-independent and glycan interactions: the latter account for over half the interactive surface but are of sufficiently weak affinity to avoid autoreactivity. The structures of V1/V2-directed antibodies CH04 and PGT145 indicate that they share a common mode of glycan penetration by extended anionic loops. In addition to structurally defining V1/V2, the results thus identify a paradigm of antibody recognition for highly glycosylated antigens, which-with PG9-involves a site of vulnerability comprising just two glycans and a strand.

  2. Suspended chains damp wind-induced oscillations of tall flexible structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, W. H., III

    1968-01-01

    Hanging-chain system, which is a form of impact damper, suppresses wind-induced bending oscillations of tall cylindrical antenna masts. A cluster of chains enclosed in a neoprene shroud is suspended inside the tip of the antenna mast, forming a simple method of damping structural vibrations.

  3. Simulation of wind effects on tall structures by finite element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrahimi, Masood

    2016-06-01

    In the present study finite element method is used to predict the wind forces on a tall structure. The governing equations of mass and momentum with boundary conditions are solved. The κ- ɛ turbulence model is utilized to calculate the turbulence viscosity. The results are independent from the generated mesh. The numerical results are validated with American Society of Civil Engineering standards.

  4. The 1.51-Angstrom structure of the poxvirus L1 protein, a target of potent neutralizing antibodies.

    PubMed

    Su, Hua-Poo; Garman, Scott C; Allison, Timothy J; Fogg, Christiana; Moss, Bernard; Garboczi, David N

    2005-03-22

    Although eradicated from nature more than two decades ago, the threat of smallpox has reemerged because of concerns over its use as a biological weapon. We present the structure of the poxvirus L1 protein, a molecule that is conserved throughout the poxvirus family and is nearly identical in vaccinia virus and in variola virus, which causes smallpox. L1 is a myristoylated envelope protein that is a potent target for neutralizing antibodies and an important component of current experimental vaccines. The L1 structure reveals a hydrophobic cavity located adjacent to its N terminus. The cavity would be capable of shielding the myristate moiety, which is essential for virion assembly. The structure of L1 is a step in the elucidation of molecular mechanisms common to all poxviruses that may stimulate the design of safer vaccines and new antipoxvirus drugs.

  5. Crystal Structures of the Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine Interleukin-23 and Its Complex with a High-Affinity Neutralizing Antibody

    SciTech Connect

    Beyer, Brian M.; Ingram, Richard; Ramanathan, Lata; Reichert, Paul; Le, Hung V.; Madison, Vincent; Orth, Peter

    2009-06-25

    Interleukin (IL)-23 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine playing a key role in the pathogenesis of several autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. We have determined the crystal structures of the heterodimeric p19-p40 IL-23 and its complex with the Fab (antigen-binding fragment) of a neutralizing antibody at 2.9 and 1.9 {angstrom}, respectively. The IL-23 structure closely resembles that of IL-12. They share the common p40 subunit, and IL-23 p19 overlaps well with IL-12 p35. Along the hydrophilic heterodimeric interface, fewer charged residues are involved for IL-23 compared with IL-12. The binding site of the Fab is located exclusively on the p19 subunit, and comparison with published cytokine-receptor structures suggests that it overlaps with the IL-23 receptor binding site.

  6. An extended structure-function model and its application to the analysis of solar wind intermittency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tu, C.-Y.; Marsch, E.; Rosenbauer, H.

    1995-01-01

    An extended structure-function model is developed by including the new effect in the p-model of Meneveau and Sreenivasan (1987a), i.e., that the averaged energy cascade rate changes with scale, a situation which has been found to prevail in non-fully-developed turbulence in the inner solar wind. This model is useful for the small-scale fluctuations in the inner heliosphere, where the turbulence is not fully developed and cannot be explained quantitatively by any of the previous intermittency turbulence models. With two model parameters, the intrinsic index of the energy spectrum, alpha and the fragmentation fraction p, the model can fit, for the first time, all the observed scaling exponents of the structure functions, which are calculated for time lags ranging from 81 seconds to 0.7 hours from the Helios solar wind data. From the cases we studied we can establish for p neither a clear radial evolution trend, nor a solar-wind-speed, or stream-structure dependence, or a systematic anisotropy for both the flow velocity and magnetic field component fluctuations. Generally, p has values between 0. 7 and 0.8. However, in some cases in low-speed wind p has somewhat higher values for the magnetic components, especially for the radial component. In high-speed wind, the inferred intrinsic spectral indices (alpha) of the velocity and magnetic field components are about equal, while the experimental spectral indices derived from the observed power spectra differ. The magnetic index is somewhat larger than the index of the velocity spectrum. For magnetic fluctuations in both high- and low-speed winds, the intrinsic exponent alpha has values which are near 1.5, while the observed spectral exponent has much higher values.

  7. Structural Insights into Antibody Sequestering and Neutralizing of Na+ Channel α-Type Modulator from Old World Scorpion Venom

    PubMed Central

    Fabrichny, Igor P.; Mondielli, Grégoire; Conrod, Sandrine; Martin-Eauclaire, Marie-France; Bourne, Yves; Marchot, Pascale

    2012-01-01

    The Old World scorpion Androctonus australis hector (Aah) produces one of the most lethal venoms for humans. Peptidic α-toxins AahI to AahIV are responsible for its potency, with AahII accounting for half of it. All four toxins are high affinity blockers of the fast inactivation phase of mammalian voltage-activated Na+ channels. However, the high antigenic polymorphism of α-toxins prevents production of a polyvalent neutralizing antiserum, whereas the determinants dictating their trapping by neutralizing antibodies remain elusive. From an anti-AahII mAb, we generated an antigen binding fragment (Fab) with high affinity and selectivity for AahII and solved a 2.3 Å-resolution crystal structure of the complex. Sequestering of the C-terminal region of the bound toxin within a groove formed by the Fab combining loops is associated with a toxin orientation and main and side chain conformations that dictate the AahII antigenic specificity and efficient neutralization. From an anti-AahI mAb, we also preformed and crystallized a high affinity AahI-Fab complex. The 1.6 Å-resolution structure solved revealed a Fab molecule devoid of a bound AahI and with combining loops involved in packing interactions, denoting expulsion of the bound antigen upon crystal formation. Comparative analysis of the groove-like combining site of the toxin-bound anti-AahII Fab and planar combining surface of the unbound anti-AahI Fab along with complementary data from a flexible docking approach suggests occurrence of distinctive trapping orientations for the two toxins relative to their respective Fab. This study provides complementary templates for designing new molecules aimed at capturing Aah α-toxins and suitable for immunotherapy. PMID:22371498

  8. Structural basis of clade-specific HIV-1 neutralization by humanized anti-V3 monoclonal antibody KD-247

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, Karen A.; Ong, Yee Tsuey; Hachiya, Atsuko; Laughlin, Thomas G.; Chiang, Leslie A.; Pan, Yun; Moran, Jennifer L.; Marchand, Bruno; Singh, Kamalendra; Gallazzi, Fabio; Quinn, Thomas P.; Yoshimura, Kazuhisa; Murakami, Toshio; Matsushita, Shuzo; Sarafianos, Stefan G.

    2015-01-01

    Humanized monoclonal antibody KD-247 targets the Gly312-Pro313-Gly314-Arg315 arch of the third hypervariable (V3) loop of the HIV-1 surface glycoprotein. It potently neutralizes many HIV-1 clade B isolates, but not of other clades. To understand the molecular basis of this specificity, we solved a high-resolution (1.55 Å) crystal structure of the KD-247 antigen binding fragment and examined the potential interactions with various V3 loop targets. Unlike most antibodies, KD-247 appears to interact with its target primarily through light chain residues. Several of these interactions involve Arg315 of the V3 loop. To evaluate the role of light chain residues in the recognition of the V3 loop, we generated 20 variants of KD-247 single-chain variable fragments with mutations in the antigen-binding site. Purified proteins were assessed for V3 loop binding using AlphaScreen technology and for HIV-1 neutralization. Our data revealed that recognition of the clade-specificity defining residue Arg315 of the V3 loop is based on a network of interactions that involve TyrL32, TyrL92, and AsnL27d that directly interact with Arg315, thus elucidating the molecular interactions of KD-247 with its V3 loop target.—Kirby, K. A., Ong, Y. T., Hachiya, A., Laughlin, T. G., Chiang, L. A., Pan, Y., Moran, J. L., Marchand, B., Singh, K., Gallazzi, F., Quinn, T. P., Yoshimura, K., Murakami, T., Matsushita, S., Sarafianos, S. G. Structural basis of clade-specific HIV-1 neutralization by humanized anti-V3 monoclonal antibody KD-247. PMID:25351987

  9. Structural and Molecular Basis for Ebola Virus Neutralization by Protective Human Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Misasi, John; Gilman, Morgan S.A.; Kanekiyo, Masaru; Gui, Miao; Cagigi, Alberto; Mulangu, Sabue; Corti, Davide; Ledgerwood, Julie E.; Lanzavecchia, Antonio; Cunningham, James; Muyembe-Tamfun, Jean Jacques; Baxa, Ulrich; Graham, Barney S.; Xiang, Ye; Sullivan, Nancy J.; McLellan, Jason S.

    2017-01-01

    Ebola virus causes hemorrhagic fever with a high mortality rate and for which there is no approved therapy. Two human monoclonal antibodies, mAb100 and mAb114, in combination protect non-human primates against all signs of Ebola virus disease, including viremia. Here, we demonstrate that mAb100 recognizes the base of the Ebola virus glycoprotein (GP) trimer, occludes access to the cathepsin-cleavage loop, and prevents the proteolytic cleavage of GP that is required for virus entry. We show that mAb114 interacts with the glycan cap and inner chalice of GP, remains associated following proteolytic removal of the glycan cap, and inhibits binding of cleaved GP to its receptor. These results define the basis of neutralization for two protective antibodies and may facilitate development of therapies and vaccines. PMID:26917592

  10. Structure-based ligand discovery for the Large-neutral Amino Acid Transporter 1, LAT-1

    PubMed Central

    Geier, Ethan G.; Schlessinger, Avner; Fan, Hao; Gable, Jonathan E.; Irwin, John J.; Sali, Andrej; Giacomini, Kathleen M.

    2013-01-01

    The Large-neutral Amino Acid Transporter 1 (LAT-1)—a sodium-independent exchanger of amino acids, thyroid hormones, and prescription drugs—is highly expressed in the blood–brain barrier and various types of cancer. LAT-1 plays an important role in cancer development as well as in mediating drug and nutrient delivery across the blood–brain barrier, making it a key drug target. Here, we identify four LAT-1 ligands, including one chemically novel substrate, by comparative modeling, virtual screening, and experimental validation. These results may rationalize the enhanced brain permeability of two drugs, including the anticancer agent acivicin. Finally, two of our hits inhibited proliferation of a cancer cell line by distinct mechanisms, providing useful chemical tools to characterize the role of LAT-1 in cancer metabolism. PMID:23509259

  11. Teaching Technology-Structure Contingencies by "Harnessing the Wind"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Lynn E.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a role-playing simulation that demonstrates how organizational structure is influenced by organizational and departmental technologies. Students act as employees of firms that must manufacture either a range of innovative products or a large number of standardized products. The simulation can be used in organizational…

  12. A NASTRAN-based computer program for structural dynamic analysis of Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lobitz, Don W.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a computer program developed for structural dynamic analysis of horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWT's). It is based on the finite element method through its reliance on NASTRAN for the development of mass, stiffness, and damping matrices of the tower end rotor, which are treated in NASTRAN as separate structures. The tower is modeled in a stationary frame and the rotor in one rotating at a constant angular velocity. The two structures are subsequently joined together (external to NASTRAN) using a time-dependent transformation consistent with the hub configuration. Aerodynamic loads are computed with an established flow model based on strip theory. Aeroelastic effects are included by incorporating the local velocity and twisting deformation of the blade in the load computation. The turbulent nature of the wind, both in space and time, is modeled by adding in stochastic wind increments. The resulting equations of motion are solved in the time domain using the implicit Newmark-Beta integrator. Preliminary comparisons with data from the Boeing/NASA MOD2 HAWT indicate that the code is capable of accurately and efficiently predicting the response of HAWT's driven by turbulent winds.

  13. Fluid-structure coupling for wind turbine blade analysis using OpenFOAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dose, Bastian; Herraez, Ivan; Peinke, Joachim

    2015-11-01

    Modern wind turbine rotor blades are designed increasingly large and flexible. This structural flexibility represents a problem for the field of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), which is used for accurate load calculations and detailed investigations of rotor aerodynamics. As the blade geometries within CFD simulations are considered stiff, the effect of blade deformation caused by aerodynamic loads cannot be captured by the common CFD approach. Coupling the flow solver with a structural solver can overcome this restriction and enables the investigation of flexible wind turbine blades. For this purpose, a new Finite Element (FE) solver was implemented into the open source CFD code OpenFOAM. Using a beam element formulation based on the Geometrically Exact Beam Theory (GEBT), the structural model can capture geometric non-linearities such as large deformations. Coupled with CFD solvers of the OpenFOAM package, the new framework represents a powerful tool for aerodynamic investigations. In this work, we investigated the aerodynamic performance of a state of the art wind turbine. For different wind speeds, aerodynamic key parameters are evaluated and compared for both, rigid and flexible blade geometries. The present work is funded within the framework of the joint project Smart Blades (0325601D) by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi) under decision of the German Federal Parliament.

  14. Wind Turbine Model and Observer in Takagi-Sugeno Model Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georg, Sören; Müller, Matthias; Schulte, Horst

    2014-12-01

    Based on a reduced-order, dynamic nonlinear wind turbine model in Takagi- Sugeno (TS) model structure, a TS state observer is designed as a disturbance observer to estimate the unknown effective wind speed. The TS observer model is an exact representation of the underlying nonlinear model, obtained by means of the sector-nonlinearity approach. The observer gain matrices are obtained by means of a linear matrix inequality (LMI) design approach for optimal fuzzy control, where weighting matrices for the individual system states and outputs are included. The observer is tested in simulations with the aero-elastic code FAST for the NREL 5 MW reference turbine, where it shows a stable behaviour in turbulent wind simulations.

  15. Wind tunnel measurements in the wake of a simple structure in a simulated atmospheric flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, A. C.; Peterka, J. A.; Cermak, J. E.

    1975-01-01

    Measurements of longitudinal mean velocity and turbulence intensity were made in the wake of a rectangular model building in a simulated atmospheric boundary-layer wind. The model building was a 1:50 scale model of a structure used in a wake measurement program at the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center 8-tower boundary-layer facility. The approach wind profile and measurement locations were chosen to match the field site conditions. The wakes of the building in winds from azimuths of 0 and 47 degrees referenced to the normal to the building long axis were examined. The effect of two lines of trees upwind of the building on the wake and the importance of the ratio of the building height to boundary-layer thickness on the extent of the wake were determined.

  16. Longitudinal structure in atomic oxygen concentrations observed with WINDII on UARS. [Wind Imaging Interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, G. G.; Thuillier, G.; Solheim, B. H.; Chandra, S.; Cogger, L. L.; Duboin, M. L.; Evans, W. F. J.; Gattinger, R. L.; Gault, W. A.; Herse, M.

    1993-01-01

    WINDII, the Wind Imaging Interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite, began atmospheric observations on September 28, 1991 and since then has been collecting data on winds, temperatures and emissions rates from atomic, molecular and ionized oxygen species, as well as hydroxyl. The validation of winds and temperatures is not yet complete, and scientific interpretation has barely begun, but the dominant characteristic of these data so far is the remarkable structure in the emission rate from the excited species produced by the recombination of atomic oxygen. The latitudinal and temporal variability has been noted before by many others. In this preliminary report on WINDII results we draw attention to the dramatic longitudinal variations of planetary wave character in atomic oxygen concentration, as reflected in the OI 557.7 nm emission, and to similar variations seen in the Meine1 hydroxyl band emission.

  17. Smart Sensor System for Structural Condition Monitoring of Wind Turbines: 30 May 2002--30 April 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, M. J.; Sundaresan, M. J.

    2006-08-01

    This report describes the efforts of the University of Cincinnati, North Carolina A&T State University, and NREL to develop a structural neural system for structural health monitoring of wind turbine blades.

  18. Cryo-EM structures elucidate neutralizing mechanisms of anti-chikungunya human monoclonal antibodies with therapeutic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Feng; Fong, Rachel H.; Austin, Stephen K.; Chen, Zhenguo; Klose, Thomas; Fokine, Andrei; Liu, Yue; Porta, Jason; Sapparapu, Gopal; Akahata, Wataru; Doranz, Benjamin J.; Crowe, James E.; Diamond, Michael S.; Rossmann, Michael G.

    2015-10-26

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that causes severe acute and chronic disease in humans. Although highly inhibitory murine and human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been generated, the structural basis of their neutralizing activity remains poorly characterized. In this paper, we determined the cryo-EM structures of chikungunya virus-like particles complexed with antibody fragments (Fab) of two highly protective human mAbs, 4J21 and 5M16, that block virus fusion with host membranes. Both mAbs bind primarily to sites within the A and B domains, as well as to the B domain’s β-ribbon connector of the viral glycoprotein E2. The footprints of these antibodies on the viral surface were consistent with results from loss-of-binding studies using an alanine scanning mutagenesis-based epitope mapping approach. The Fab fragments stabilized the position of the B domain relative to the virus, particularly for the complex with 5M16. Finally, this finding is consistent with a mechanism of neutralization in which anti-CHIKV mAbs that bridge the A and B domains impede movement of the B domain away from the underlying fusion loop on the E1 glycoprotein and therefore block the requisite pH-dependent fusion of viral and host membranes.

  19. Cryo-EM structures elucidate neutralizing mechanisms of anti-chikungunya human monoclonal antibodies with therapeutic activity

    DOE PAGES

    Long, Feng; Fong, Rachel H.; Austin, Stephen K.; ...

    2015-10-26

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that causes severe acute and chronic disease in humans. Although highly inhibitory murine and human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been generated, the structural basis of their neutralizing activity remains poorly characterized. In this paper, we determined the cryo-EM structures of chikungunya virus-like particles complexed with antibody fragments (Fab) of two highly protective human mAbs, 4J21 and 5M16, that block virus fusion with host membranes. Both mAbs bind primarily to sites within the A and B domains, as well as to the B domain’s β-ribbon connector of the viral glycoprotein E2. The footprints ofmore » these antibodies on the viral surface were consistent with results from loss-of-binding studies using an alanine scanning mutagenesis-based epitope mapping approach. The Fab fragments stabilized the position of the B domain relative to the virus, particularly for the complex with 5M16. Finally, this finding is consistent with a mechanism of neutralization in which anti-CHIKV mAbs that bridge the A and B domains impede movement of the B domain away from the underlying fusion loop on the E1 glycoprotein and therefore block the requisite pH-dependent fusion of viral and host membranes.« less

  20. Crystal Structure of the Hendra Virus Attachment G Glycoprotein Bound to a Potent Cross-Reactive Neutralizing Human Monoclonal Antibody

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Kai; Rockx, Barry; Xie, Yihu; DeBuysscher, Blair L.; Fusco, Deborah L.; Zhu, Zhongyu; Chan, Yee-Peng; Xu, Yan; Luu, Truong; Cer, Regina Z.; Feldmann, Heinz; Mokashi, Vishwesh; Dimitrov, Dimiter S.; Bishop-Lilly, Kimberly A.; Broder, Christopher C.; Nikolov, Dimitar B.

    2013-01-01

    The henipaviruses, represented by Hendra (HeV) and Nipah (NiV) viruses are highly pathogenic zoonotic paramyxoviruses with uniquely broad host tropisms responsible for repeated outbreaks in Australia, Southeast Asia, India and Bangladesh. The high morbidity and mortality rates associated with infection and lack of licensed antiviral therapies make the henipaviruses a potential biological threat to humans and livestock. Henipavirus entry is initiated by the attachment of the G envelope glycoprotein to host cell membrane receptors. Previously, henipavirus-neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies (hmAb) have been isolated using the HeV-G glycoprotein and a human naïve antibody library. One cross-reactive and receptor-blocking hmAb (m102.4) was recently demonstrated to be an effective post-exposure therapy in two animal models of NiV and HeV infection, has been used in several people on a compassionate use basis, and is currently in development for use in humans. Here, we report the crystal structure of the complex of HeV-G with m102.3, an m102.4 derivative, and describe NiV and HeV escape mutants. This structure provides detailed insight into the mechanism of HeV and NiV neutralization by m102.4, and serves as a blueprint for further optimization of m102.4 as a therapeutic agent and for the development of entry inhibitors and vaccines. PMID:24130486

  1. Structural basis for diverse N-glycan recognition by HIV-1-neutralizing V1-V2-directed antibody PG16

    SciTech Connect

    Pancera, Marie; Shahzad-ul-Hussan, Syed; Doria-Rose, Nicole A.; McLellan, Jason S.; Bailer, Robert T.; Dai, Kaifan; Loesgen, Sandra; Louder, Mark K.; Staupe, Ryan P.; Yang, Yongping; Zhang, Baoshan; Parks, Robert; Eudailey, Joshua; Lloyd, Krissey E.; Blinn, Julie; Alam, S. Munir; Haynes, Barton F.; Amin, Mohammed N.; Wang, Lai-Xi; Burton, Dennis R.; Koff, Wayne C.; Nabel, Gary J.; Mascola, John R.; Bewley, Carole A; Kwong, Peter D.

    2013-08-05

    HIV-1 uses a diverse N-linked-glycan shield to evade recognition by antibody. Select human antibodies, such as the clonally related PG9 and PG16, recognize glycopeptide epitopes in the HIV-1 V1–V2 region and penetrate this shield, but their ability to accommodate diverse glycans is unclear. Here we report the structure of antibody PG16 bound to a scaffolded V1–V2, showing an epitope comprising both high mannose–type and complex-type N-linked glycans. We combined structure, NMR and mutagenesis analyses to characterize glycan recognition by PG9 and PG16. Three PG16-specific residues, arginine, serine and histidine (RSH), were critical for binding sialic acid on complex-type glycans, and introduction of these residues into PG9 produced a chimeric antibody with enhanced HIV-1 neutralization. Although HIV-1–glycan diversity facilitates evasion, antibody somatic diversity can overcome this and can provide clues to guide the design of modified antibodies with enhanced neutralization.

  2. Wind structure and variability in the middle atmosphere during the November 1980 energy budget campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidlin, F. J.; Carlson, M.; Rees, D.; Offermann, D.; Philbrick, C. R.; Widdel, H. U.

    1985-01-01

    Between November 6 and December 1, 1980 series of rocket observations were obtained from two sites in northern Scandinavia (68 deg N) as part of the Energy Budget Campaign, revealing the presence of significant vertical and temporal changes in the wind structure. These changes coincided with different geomagnetic conditions, i.e. quiet and enhanced. Large amounts of rocket data were gathered from high latitudes over such a short interval of time. Prior to November 16 the meridional wind component above 60 km was found to be positive (southerly), while the magnitude of the zonal wind component incresed with altitude. After November 16 the meridional component became negative (northerly) and the magnitude of the zonal wind component was noted to decrease with altitude. Time-sections of the perturbations of the zonal wind show the presence of vertically propagating waves, which suggest gravity wave activity. These waves increase in length from 1 km near 30 km to over 12 km near 80 km. The observational techniques employed Andoya (69 deg N), Norway, and Esrange (67.9 deg N), Sweden, consisted of chaff foil, instrumented rigid spheres, chemical trails, inflatable spheres and parachutes.

  3. Structural Load Analysis of a Wind Turbine under Pitch Actuator and Controller Faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etemaddar, Mahmoud; Gao, Zhen; Moan, Torgeir

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate the characteristics of a wind turbine under blade pitch angle and shaft speed sensor faults as well as pitch actuator faults. A land-based NREL 5MW variable speed pitch reg- ulated wind turbine is considered as a reference. The conventional collective blade pitch angle controller strategy with independent pitch actuators control is used for load reduction. The wind turbine class is IEC-BII. The main purpose is to investigate the severity of end effects on structural loads and responses and consequently identify the high-risk components according to the type and amplitude of fault using a servo-aero-elastic simulation code, HAWC2. Both transient and steady state effects of faults are studied. Such information is useful for wind turbine fault detection and identification as well as system reliability analysis. Results show the effects of faults on wind turbine power output and responses. Pitch sensor faults mainly affects the vibration of shaft main bearing, while generator power and aerodynamic thrust are not changed significantly, due to independent pitch actuator control of three blades. Shaft speed sensor faults can seriously affect the generator power and aerodynamic thrust. Pitch actuator faults can result in fully pitching of the blade, and consequently rotor stops due to negative aerodynamic torque.

  4. Spatial variances of wind fields and their relation to second-order structure functions and spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogelzang, Jur; King, Gregory P.; Stoffelen, Ad

    2015-02-01

    Kinetic energy variance as a function of spatial scale for wind fields is commonly estimated either using second-order structure functions (in the spatial domain) or by spectral analysis (in the frequency domain). Both techniques give an order-of-magnitude estimate. More accurate estimates are given by a statistic called spatial variance. Spatial variances have a clear interpretation and are tolerant for missing data. They can be related to second-order structure functions, both for discrete and continuous data. Spatial variances can also be Fourier transformed to yield a relation with spectra. The flexibility of spatial variances is used to study various sampling strategies, and to compare them with second-order structure functions and spectral variances. It is shown that the spectral sampling strategy is not seriously biased to calm conditions for scatterometer ocean surface vector winds. When the second-order structure function behaves like rp, its ratio with the spatial variance equals >(p+1>)>(p+2>). Ocean surface winds in the tropics have p between 2/3 and 1, so one-sixth to one-fifth of the second-order structure function value is a good proxy for the cumulative variance.

  5. Formation of ion clusters in the phase separated structures of neutral-charged polymer blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Ha-Kyung; Olvera de La Cruz, Monica

    2015-03-01

    Polyelectrolyte blends, consisting of at least one charged species, are promising candidate materials for fuel cell membranes, for their mechanical stability and high selectivity for proton conduction. The phase behavior of the blends is important to understand, as this can significantly affect the performance of the device. The phase behavior is controlled by χN, the Flory-Huggins parameter multiplied by the number of mers, as well as the electrostatic interactions between the charged backbone and the counterions. It has recently been shown that local ionic correlations, incorporated via liquid state (LS) theory, enhance phase separation of the blend, even in the absence of polymer interactions. In this study, we show phase diagrams of neutral-charged polymer blends including ionic correlations via LS theory. In addition to enhanced phase separation at low χN, the blends show liquid-liquid phase separation at high electrostatic interaction strengths. Above the critical strength, the charged polymer phase separates into ion-rich and ion-poor regions, resulting in the formation of ion clusters within the charged polymer phase. This can be shown by the appearance of multiple spinodal and critical points, indicating the coexistence of several charge separated phases. This work was performed under the following financial assistance award 70NANB14H012 from U.S. Department of Commerce, National Institute of Standards and Technology as part of the Center for Hierarchical Materials Design (CHiMaD).

  6. Solar Wind Speed Structure in the Inner Corona at 3-12 Ro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woo, Richard

    1995-01-01

    Estimates of solar wind speed obtained by Armstrong et al. [1986] based on 1983 VLA multiple-station intensity scintillation measurements inside 12 R(sub o) have been correlated with the electron density structure observed in white-light coronagraph measurements. The observed large- scale and apparently systematic speed variations are found to depend primarily on changes in heliographic latitude and longitude, which leads to the first results on large-scale speed structure in the acceleration region of the solar wind. Over an equatorial hole, solar wind speed is relatively steady, with peak-to-peak variations of 50 km/s and an average of 230 km/s. In contrast, the near-Sun flow speed across the streamer belt shows regular large-scale variations in the range of 100-300 km/s. Based on four groups of data, the gradient is 36 km/s per degree in heliocentric coordinates (corresponding to a rise of 260 km/s over a spatial distance on the Sun of two arcmin) with a standard deviation of 2.4 km/s per degree. The lowest speeds most likely coincide with the stalks of coronal streamers observed in white-light measurements. The detection of significant wind shear over the streamer belt is consistent with in situ and scintillation measurements showing that the density spectrum has a power-law form characteristic of fully developed turbulence over a much broader range of scales than in neighboring regions.

  7. The structure and appearance of winds from supercritical accretion disks. I - Numerical models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meier, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    Equations for the structure and appearance of supercritical accretion disks and the radiation-driven winds which emanate from them are derived and solved by a steady-state hydrodynamic computer code with a relaxation technique used in stellar structure problems. The present model takes into account the mass of the accreting star, the total accretion rate, a generalization of the disk alpha parameter which accounts for heating by processes in addition to viscosity, and the ratio of the total luminosity to the Eddington luminosity. Solutions indicate that for accretion onto a hard-surfaced star, steady, optically thick winds result for even slightly supercritical accretion, and the object will appear as a supergiant star with a high mass loss rate and a nonblackbody spectrum. Winds from black hole accretion disks are expected to depend on the form of the accretion interior to the critical radius, possibly consisting of no ejection at all, a wind similar to that of a hard-surfaced star, or a column of material ejected from a hole in the accretion disk.

  8. Investigation of the adhesive bonding technology for the insulator structure of EAST neutral beam injector

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Jiang-Long Li, Jun; Hu, Chun-Dong; Xie, Ya-Hong; Jing, Hao

    2014-07-15

    A key issue on the development of EAST ion source was the junction design of insulator structure, which consists of three insulators and four supporting flanges of electrode grid. Because the ion source is installed on the vertical plane, the insulator structure has to withstand large bending and shear stress due to the gravity of whole ion source. Through a mechanical analysis, it was calculated that the maximum bending normal stress was 0.34 MPa and shear stress was 0.23 MPa on the insulator structure. Due to the advantages of simplicity and high strength, the adhesive bonding technology was applied to the junction of insulator structure. A tensile testing campaign of different junction designs between insulator and supporting flange was performed, and a junction design of stainless steel and fiber enhanced epoxy resin with epoxy adhesive was determined. The insulator structure based on the determined design can satisfy both the requirements of high-voltage holding and mechanical strength.

  9. Residual oxygen releasing time from dental structure after carbamide peroxide exposure: study of the effects of a neutralizer gel.

    PubMed

    Salome, Paloma; Bueno, Renata Pla Rizzolo; Nascimento, Paulo Cicero; Pozzobon, Roselaine Terezinha

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to assess in vitro the effects of a catalase-based neutralizer gel in the release of residual oxygen in permanent human teeth specimens exposed to 10% carbamide peroxide. Thirty teeth specimens (5.0 x 5.0 x 3.0 mm3) were randomly divided into three groups (n = 10): Group 1, nonbleached negative control specimens; Group 2, bleached positive control specimens; and Group 3, bleached specimens exposed to a catalase-based gel. The bleaching treatment was performed six hours per day for 14 days. At the end of the bleaching treatment, Group 3 specimens were immersed in a receptacle containing the catalase-based experimental gel for three minutes. Titrations were performed to determine the quantity of residual oxygen that each test specimen released, starting immediately after the end of the bleaching treatment and exposure (or not) to the catalase-based gel, and repeated on days 1-5, 10, and 15. The values obtained were statistically analyzed by ANOVA and a Tukey post hoc test (P < 0.05). The release values of residual O2 for Group 2 were equal to those of Group 1 after 10 days and to those of Group 3 after five days. The use of a catalase-based experimental neutralizer gel, applied for three minutes, reduced by half the time required for complete release of residual oxygen from tooth structure after exposure to a 10% carbamide peroxide bleaching agent.

  10. Improvement of neutral beam injection heating efficiency with magnetic field well structures in a tokamak with a low magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. K.; Na, D. H.; Lee, J. W.; Yoo, M. G.; Kim, H.-S.; Hwang, Y. S.; Hahm, T. S.; Na, Yong-Su

    2016-10-01

    Magnetic well structures are introduced as an effective means to reduce the prompt loss of fast ions, the so-called first orbit loss from neutral beam injection (NBI), which is beneficial to tokamaks with a low magnetic field strength such as small spherical torus devices. It is found by single-particle analysis that this additional field structure can modify the gradient of the magnetic field to reduce the shift of the guiding center trajectory of the fast ion. This result is verified by a numerical calculation of following the fast ion’s trajectory. We apply this concept to the Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus [1], where NBI is under design for the purpose of achieving high-performance plasma, to evaluate the effect of the magnetic well structure on NBI efficiency. A 1D NBI analysis code and the NUBEAM code are employed for detailed NBI calculations. The simulation results show that the orbit loss can be reduced by 70%-80%, thereby improving the beam efficiency twofold compared with the reference case without the well structure. The well-shaped magnetic field structure in the low-field side can significantly decrease orbit loss by broadening the non-orbit loss region and widening the range of the velocity direction, thus improving the heating efficiency. It is found that this magnetic well can also improve orbit loss during the slowing down process.

  11. Effects of precipitation on the thermodynamic structure of the trade wind boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albrecht, Bruce A.

    1993-01-01

    A model of the thermodynamic structure of the trade wind boundary layer is formulated to include the parameterization of precipitation in relatively shallow clouds. Although the area-averaged simulated precipitation rates are relatively small (less than 1 mm/day), the inclusion of precipitation has an appreciable effect on the predicted thermodynamic structure. The cloud layer structure simulated with precipitation is warmer, drier, and more stable than that simulated without precipitation. The simulated inversion height is lowered by as much as 60 mbar when precipitation is included.

  12. Integrated Layout and Support Structure Optimization for Offshore Wind Farm Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashuri, T.; Ponnurangam, C.; Zhang, J.; Rotea, M.

    2016-09-01

    This paper develops a multidisciplinary design optimization framework for integrated design optimization of offshore wind farm layout and support structure. A computational model is developed to characterize the physics of the wind farm wake, aerodynamic and hydrodynamic loads, response of the support structure to these loads, soil- structure interaction, as well as different cost elements. Levelized cost of energy is introduced as the objective function. The design constraints are the farm external boundary, and support structure buckling, first modal-frequency, fatigue damage and ultimate stresses. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, four optimization scenarios are considered: a feasible baseline design, optimization of layout only, optimization of support structure only, and integrated design of the layout and support structure. Compared to the baseline design, the optimization results show that the isolated support structure design reduces the levelized cost of energy by 0.6%, the isolated layout design reduces the levelized cost of energy by 2.0%, and the integrated layout and support structure design reduces the levelized cost of energy by 2.6%.

  13. General asymmetric neutral networks and structure design by genetic algorithms: A learning rule for temporal patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Bornholdt, S.; Graudenz, D.

    1993-07-01

    A learning algorithm based on genetic algorithms for asymmetric neural networks with an arbitrary structure is presented. It is suited for the learning of temporal patterns and leads to stable neural networks with feedback.

  14. Structure of relativistic shocks in pulsar winds: A model of the wisps in the Crab Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallant, Yves A.; Arons, Jonathan

    1994-01-01

    We propose a model of a optical 'wisps' of the Crab Nebula, features observed in the nebular synchrotron surface brightness near the central pulsar, as manifestations of the internal structure of the shock terminating the pulsar wind. We assume that this wind is composed of ions and a much denser plasma of electrons and positrons, frozen together to a toroidal magnetic field and flowing relativistically. We construct a form of solitary wave model of the shock structure in which we self-consistently solve for the ion orbits and the dynamics of the relativistically hot, magnetized e(+/-) background flow. We ignore dispersion in the ion energies, and we treat the pairs as an adiabatic fluid. The synchrotron emission enhancements, observed as the wisps, are then explained as the regions where reflection of the ions in the self-consistent magnetic field causes compressions of the e(+/-).

  15. Structural Load Alleviation Applied to Next Generation Aircraft and Wind Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Reducing the environmental impact of aviation is a goal of the Subsonic Fixed Wing Project under the Fundamental Aeronautics Program of NASAs Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate. Environmental impact of aviation is being addressed by novel aircraft configurations and materials that reduce aircraft weight and increase aerodynamic efficiency. NASA is developing tools to address the challenges of increased airframe flexibility created by wings constructed with reduced structural material and novel light-weight materials. This talk will present a framework and demonstration of a flight control system using optimal control allocation with structural load feedback and constraints to achieve safe aircraft operation. As wind turbines age, they become susceptible to many forms of blade degradation. Results will be presented on work in progress that uses adaptive contingency control for load mitigation in a wind turbine simulation with blade damage progression modeled.

  16. Understanding the Global Structure and Evolution of Coronal Mass Ejections in the Solar Wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Pete

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes the technical progress made during the first six months of the second year of the NASA Living with a Star program contract Understanding the global structure and evolution of coronal mass ejections in the solar wind, between NASA and Science Applications International Corporation, and covers the period November 18, 2003 - May 17,2004. Under this contract SAIC has conducted numerical and data analysis related to fundamental issues concerning the origin, intrinsic properties, global structure, and evolution of coronal mass ejections in the solar wind. During this working period we have focused on a quantitative assessment of 5 flux rope fitting techniques. In the following sections we summarize the main aspects of this work and our proposed investigation plan for the next reporting period. Thus far, our investigation has resulted in 6 refereed scientific publications and we have presented the results at a number of scientific meetings and workshops.

  17. Dynamical Structure of Venus' Middle Atmosphere Constrained by Direct Wind Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widemann, Thomas; Lellouch, E.; Luz, D.; Moreno, R.

    2006-09-01

    Dynamical study of Venus' mesosphere from Venus Express will largely rely on temperature measurements, cloud motion tracking and the structure of non-LTE O2 and CO2 emissions. However, direct wind measurements can only be provided using high spectral resolution (105-107) ground-based facilities measuring Doppler shifts in CO and isotopic 13CO rotational millimeter lines (95-115 km), solar Fraunhofer (67 km) and CO2 5ν3 lines (74 km), or O emission line at 557 nm (100 km). Following our observations in 2001 and 2002 [1], we report new wind measurements using OHP 1.5-m/Aurélie (R 120,000) in April 2006. We measured drastic time variability of the lower mesospheric zonal wind field over a 24-h period, sometimes on the hour time scale, with equatorial zonal velocities about 0-20 ms-1 in CO2 lines on Apr. 22 (about 30 ms-1 in solar lines) and 125-195 ms-1 in CO2 lines on Apr. 23 (95-115 ms-1 in solar lines). The difference of altitude estimate probed by the two sets of lines, near 67 km for the solar lines, and about 74 km for the CO2 5ν3 lines, indicates that the general agreement between wind values inferred from the two types of lines support the case for a negligible wind shear over two scale heights near and above clouds top. Although the characteristic timescales of zonal wind variations in the visible lines are the same as those measured in CO millimeter lines [2], the vertical gradient of zonal wind appears negligible in the visible but reveals a strong vertical shear in CO data over 95-115 km. Future coordinated observations at various wavelengths from the ground, will investigate the dynamical coupling between different altitude levels and provide independent wind measurements at various altitudes. [1] Widemann et al, 2006, Planet Space Sci., in press. [2] Clancy et al. 2005, BAAS. 37, n°3, 54.04

  18. Breaking wave impact forces on truss support structures for offshore wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cieślikiewicz, Witold; Gudmestad, Ove T.; Podrażka, Olga

    2014-05-01

    Due to depletion of the conventional energy sources, wind energy is becoming more popular these days. Wind energy is being produced mostly from onshore farms, but there is a clear tendency to transfer wind farms to the sea. The foundations of offshore wind turbines may be truss structures and might be located in shallow water, where are subjected to highly varying hydrodynamic loads, particularly from plunging breaking waves. There are models for impact forces prediction on monopiles. Typically the total wave force on slender pile from breaking waves is a superposition of slowly varying quasi-static force, calculated from the Morison equation and additional dynamical, short duration force due to the impact of the breaker front or breaker tongue. There is not much research done on the truss structures of wind turbines and there are still uncertainties on slamming wave forces, due to plunging breaking waves on those structures. Within the WaveSlam (Wave slamming forces on truss structures in shallow water) project the large scale tests were carried out in 2013 at the Large Wave Flume in Forschungszentrum Küste (FZK) in Hannover, Germany. The following institutions participated in this initiative: the University of Stavanger and the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (project management), University of Gdańsk, Poland, Hamburg University of Technology and the University of Rostock, Germany and Reinertsen AS, Norway. This work was supported by the EU 7th Framework Programme through the grant to the budget of the Integrating Activity HYDRALAB IV. The main aim of the experiment was to investigate the wave slamming forces on truss structures, development of new and improvement of existing methods to calculate forces from the plunging breakers. The majority of the measurements were carried out for regular waves with specified frequencies and wave heights as well as for the irregular waves based on JONSWAP spectrum. The truss structure was equipped with both

  19. Structure and oxidation state of hemitite surfaces reacted with aqueous Fe(II) at acidic and neutral pH.

    SciTech Connect

    Catalano, J. G.; Fenter, P.; Park, C.; Zhang, Z.; Rosso, K. M.; Washington Univ.; PNNL

    2010-01-01

    Structural changes and surface oxidation state were examined following the reaction of hematite (0 0 1), (0 1 2), and (1 1 0) with aqueous Fe(II). X-ray reflectivity measurements indicated that Fe(II) induces changes in the structure of all three surfaces under both acidic (pH 3) and neutral (pH 7) conditions. The structural changes were generally independent of pH although the extent of surface transformation varied slightly between acidic and neutral conditions; no systematic trends with pH were observed. Induced changes on the (1 1 0) and (0 1 2) surfaces include the addition or removal of partial surface layers consistent with either growth or dissolution. In contrast, a <1 nm thick, discontinuous film formed on the (0 0 1) surface that appears to be epitaxial yet is not a perfect extension of the underlying hematite lattice, being either structurally defective, compositionally distinct, or nanoscale in size and highly relaxed. Resonant anomalous X-ray reflectivity measurements determined that the surface concentration of Fe(II) present after reaction at pH 7 was below the detection limit of approximately 0.5-1 {micro}mol/m{sup 2} on all surfaces. These observations are consistent with Fe(II) oxidative adsorption, whereby adsorbed Fe(II) is oxidized by structural Fe(III) in the hematite lattice, with the extent of this reaction controlled by surface structure at the atomic scale. The observed surface transformations at pH 3 show that Fe(II) oxidatively adsorbs on hematite surfaces at pH values where little net adsorption occurs, based on historical macroscopic Fe(II) adsorption behavior on fine-grained hematite powders. This suggests that Fe(II) plays a catalytic role, in which an electron from an adsorbed Fe(II) migrates to and reduces a lattice Fe(III) cation elsewhere, which subsequently desorbs in a scenario with zero net reduction and zero net adsorption. Given the general pH-independence and substantial mass transfer involved, this electron and atom

  20. Structure and oxidation state of hematite surfaces reacted with aqueous Fe(II) at acidic and neutral pH

    SciTech Connect

    Catalano, Jeffrey G.; Fenter, Paul; Park, Changyong; Zhang, Zhan; Rosso, Kevin M.

    2010-03-01

    Structural changes and surface oxidation state were examined following the reaction of hematite (0 0 1), (0 1 2), and (1 1 0) with aqueous Fe(II). X-ray reflectivity measurements indicated that Fe(II) induces changes in the structure of all three surfaces under both acidic (pH 3) and neutral (pH 7) conditions. The structural changes were generally independent of pH although the extent of surface transformation varied slightly between acidic and neutral conditions; no systematic trends with pH were observed. Induced changes on the (1 1 0) and (0 1 2) surfaces include the addition or removal of partial surface layers consistent with either growth or dissolution. In contrast, a <1 nm thick, discontinuous film formed on the (0 0 1) surface that appears to be epitaxial yet is not a perfect extension of the underlying hematite lattice, being either structurally defective, compositionally distinct, or nanoscale in size and highly relaxed. Resonant anomalous X-ray reflectivity measurements determined that the surface concentration of Fe(II) present after reaction at pH 7 was below the detection limit of approximately 0.5–1 μmol/m2 on all surfaces. These observations are consistent with Fe(II) oxidative adsorption, whereby adsorbed Fe(II) is oxidized by structural Fe(III) in the hematite lattice, with the extent of this reaction controlled by surface structure at the atomic scale. The observed surface transformations at pH 3 show that Fe(II) oxidatively adsorbs on hematite surfaces at pH values where little net adsorption occurs, based on historical macroscopic Fe(II) adsorption behavior on fine-grained hematite powders. This suggests that Fe(II) plays a catalytic role, in which an electron from an adsorbed Fe(II) migrates to and reduces a lattice Fe(III) cation elsewhere, which subsequently desorbs in a scenario with zero net reduction and zero net adsorption. Finally, given the general pH-independence and substantial mass transfer involved, this electron and

  1. Two-dimensional structure of the solar wind near the sun

    SciTech Connect

    Washimi, H.; Ogino, T.; Yoshino, Y.

    1987-05-01

    The two-dimensional structure of the solar wind near the sun is analyzed by the method of MHD simulation. The helmet-streamer configuration with a sharp boundary between the closed and open field regions has been reproduced. Due to the pressure-driven current in the sheet, the magnetic field, which has a dipole configuration at the photosphere, is found to behave like R/sup -2/ at a large distance, R, from the sun. copyrightAmerican Geophysical Union 1987

  2. Profile of the horizontal wind variance near the ground in near neutral flow - K-theory and the transport of the turbulent kinetic energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahaya, S.; Frangi, J. P.

    2009-05-01

    This paper deals with the characteristics of the atmospheric turbulent flow in the vicinity of the ground, and particularly with the profile of the horizontal wind variance. The study is based on experimental measurements performed with fast cup anemometers located near the ground at 5 different levels (from 0.25 to 4 m) and sampled at 1 Hz. The experiment was carried over two agricultural plots with various tillage treatments in a fallow semiarid area (Central Aragon, Spain). The results of this study reveal that near the ground surface and under moderate wind, the horizontal wind variance logarithmically increases with height, in direct relationship with the friction velocity and the roughness length scale. A theoretical development has allowed us to link this behaviour to the modeling of the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) transport through the eddy diffusivity. Thus, the study proposes a formulation of the similarity universal function of the horizontal wind variance. Besides, the formulation offers a new method for the determination of the friction velocity and the roughness length scale and can be used for the evaluation of the TKE transport rate.

  3. Structure-based design of a protein immunogen that displays an HIV-1 gp41 neutralizing epitope.

    PubMed

    Stanfield, Robyn L; Julien, Jean-Philippe; Pejchal, Robert; Gach, Johannes S; Zwick, Michael B; Wilson, Ian A

    2011-12-02

    Antibody Z13e1 is a relatively broadly neutralizing anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 antibody that recognizes the membrane-proximal external region (MPER) of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein gp41. Based on the crystal structure of an MPER epitope peptide in complex with Z13e1 Fab, we identified an unrelated protein, interleukin (IL)-22, with a surface-exposed region that is structurally homologous in its backbone to the gp41 Z13e1 epitope. By grafting the gp41 Z13e1 epitope sequence onto the structurally homologous region in IL-22, we engineered a novel protein (Z13-IL22-2) that contains the MPER epitope sequence for use as a potential immunogen and as a reagent for the detection of Z13e1-like antibodies. The Z13-IL22-2 protein binds Fab Z13e1 with a K(d) of 73 nM. The crystal structure of Z13-IL22-2 in complex with Fab Z13e1 shows that the epitope region is faithfully replicated in the Fab-bound scaffold protein; however, isothermal calorimetry studies indicate that Fab binding to Z13-IL22-2 is not a lock-and-key event, leaving open the question of whether conformational changes upon binding occur in the Fab, in Z13-IL-22, or in both.

  4. Structure-Based Design of a Protein Immunogen that Displays an HIV-1 gp41 Neutralizing Epitope

    SciTech Connect

    Stanfield, Robyn L.; Julien, Jean-Philippe; Pejchal, Robert; Gach, Johannes S.; Zwick, Michael B.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2012-06-27

    Antibody Z13e1 is a relatively broadly neutralizing anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 antibody that recognizes the membrane-proximal external region (MPER) of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein gp41. Based on the crystal structure of an MPER epitope peptide in complex with Z13e1 Fab, we identified an unrelated protein, interleukin (IL)-22, with a surface-exposed region that is structurally homologous in its backbone to the gp41 Z13e1 epitope. By grafting the gp41 Z13e1 epitope sequence onto the structurally homologous region in IL-22, we engineered a novel protein (Z13-IL22-2) that contains the MPER epitope sequence for use as a potential immunogen and as a reagent for the detection of Z13e1-like antibodies. The Z13-IL22-2 protein binds Fab Z13e1 with a K{sub d} of 73 nM. The crystal structure of Z13-IL22-2 in complex with Fab Z13e1 shows that the epitope region is faithfully replicated in the Fab-bound scaffold protein; however, isothermal calorimetry studies indicate that Fab binding to Z13-IL22-2 is not a lock-and-key event, leaving open the question of whether conformational changes upon binding occur in the Fab, in Z13-IL-22, or in both.

  5. Solar wind density structure at 1 AU and comparison to Doppler scintillation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huddleston, D. E.; Woo, R.; Neugebauer, M.

    1996-07-01

    Results of a survey of solar wind density fluctuations in different flow types observed by ISEE-3 at 1 AU are presented and compared with Doppler scintillation measurements. We consider coronal hole, plasma sheet, interstream, CME and sheath interaction region flow types. For the quasi-stationary solar wind, densities (N) and density fluctuation levels (ΔN) are low in coronal hole flow, and high in the plasma sheet containing the heliospheric current sheet (HCS). The highest fluctuation levels are found in the sheath compression regions between CMEs and associated forward shocks. The streamer structure around the HCS broadens and erodes with distance from the Sun, and the broadened Doppler scintillation signature at 1 AU is in good qualitative agreement with ISEE-3 superposed epoch analysis. The observed asymmetry about the HCS is an expected result of solar wind dynamic evolution. A greater contrast between flow types is seen in ΔN levels rather than in N itself. Doppler scintillation responds to ΔN and thus provides a sensitive means of detecting interplanetary disturbances. However, we find that ΔN/N is not constant in the solar wind, and thus enhanced scintillation cannot unambiguously imply enhanced density.

  6. THz Limb Sounder (TLS) for Lower Thermospheric Wind, Oxygen Density, and Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Dong L.; Yee, Jeng-Hwa; Schlecht, Erich; Mehdi, Imran; Siles, Jose; Drouin, Brian J.

    2016-01-01

    Neutral winds are one of the most critical measurements in the lower thermosphere and E region ionosphere (LTEI) for understanding complex electrodynamic processes and ion-neutral interactions. We are developing a high-sensitivity, low-power, noncryogenic 2.06 THz Schottky receiver to measure wind profiles at 100-140 km. The new technique, THz limb sounder (TLS), aims to measure LTEI winds by resolving the wind-induced Doppler shift of 2.06 THz atomic oxygen (OI) emissions. As a transition between fine structure levels in the ground electronic state, the OI emission is in local thermodynamic equilibrium(LTE) at altitudes up to 350km. This LTE property, together with day-and-night capability and small line-of-sight gradient, makes the OI limb sounding a very attractive technique for neutral wind observations. In addition to the wind measurement, TLS can also retrieve [OI] density and neutral temperature in the LTEI region. TLS leverages rapid advances in THz receiver technologies including subharmonically pumped (SHP)mixers and Schottky-diode-based power multipliers. Current SHP Schottky receivers have produced good sensitivity for THz frequencies at ambient environment temperatures (120-150 K), which are achievable through passively cooling in spaceflight. As an emerging technique, TLS can fill the critical data gaps in the LTEI neutral wind observations to enable detailed studies on the coupling and dynamo processes between charged and neutral molecules.

  7. THz limb sounder (TLS) for lower thermospheric wind, oxygen density, and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Dong L.; Yee, Jeng-Hwa; Schlecht, Erich; Mehdi, Imran; Siles, Jose; Drouin, Brian J.

    2016-07-01

    Neutral winds are one of the most critical measurements in the lower thermosphere and E region ionosphere (LTEI) for understanding complex electrodynamic processes and ion-neutral interactions. We are developing a high-sensitivity, low-power, noncryogenic 2.06 THz Schottky receiver to measure wind profiles at 100-140 km. The new technique, THz limb sounder (TLS), aims to measure LTEI winds by resolving the wind-induced Doppler shift of 2.06 THz atomic oxygen (OI) emissions. As a transition between fine structure levels in the ground electronic state, the OI emission is in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) at altitudes up to 350 km. This LTE property, together with day-and-night capability and small line-of-sight gradient, makes the OI limb sounding a very attractive technique for neutral wind observations. In addition to the wind measurement, TLS can also retrieve [OI] density and neutral temperature in the LTEI region. TLS leverages rapid advances in THz receiver technologies including subharmonically pumped (SHP) mixers and Schottky-diode-based power multipliers. Current SHP Schottky receivers have produced good sensitivity for THz frequencies at ambient environment temperatures (120-150 K), which are achievable through passively cooling in spaceflight. As an emerging technique, TLS can fill the critical data gaps in the LTEI neutral wind observations to enable detailed studies on the coupling and dynamo processes between charged and neutral molecules.

  8. Study of compressible coherent structures, close to ion scales, in solar wind turbulence using Cluster data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrone, Denise; Alexandrova, Olga; Mangeney, André; Maksimovic, Milan; Rocoto, Virgile; Pantellini, Filippo; Zaslavsky, Arnaud; Issautier, Karine

    2015-04-01

    The interplanetary medium, a weakly collisional and fully turbulent medium, can be considered the best natural laboratory to study the dynamical behavior of turbulent plasmas. A fundamental question in solar wind plasma physics is whether, space plasma turbulence can be considered as a mixture of quasi-linear waves or if the turbulence is strong with formation of coherent structures responsible for the dissipation. Here we present an automatic method to identify compressible coherent structures using Morlet wavelet decomposition of magnetic signal from Cluster spacecraft and reconstruction of magnetic fluctuations in a selected scale range (0.033-0.2 Hz). Different kind of coherent structures have been detected: from soliton-like compressible structures to current sheet- or vortex-like alfvenic structures. A multi-satellite analysis, in order to characterize 3D geometry and propagation in plasma rest frame, reveals that these structures propagate quasi-perpendicular to the mean magnetic field, with finite velocity. Moreover, the spatial scales of coherent structures have been estimated: for the selected frequency range, the distribution of spatial scales is picked around ~30 ion Larmor radius or ion inertial length (~1200 km). Our observations in the solar wind can provide constraints on theoretical modeling of small-scale turbulence and dissipation in collisionless magnetized plasmas.

  9. Inverse structure functions in the canonical wind turbine array boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viggiano, Bianca; Gion, Moira; Ali, Naseem; Tutkun, Murat; Cal, Raúl Bayoán

    2015-11-01

    Insight into the statistical behavior of the flow past an array of wind turbines is useful in determining how to improve power extraction from the overall available energy. Considering a wind tunnel experiment, hot-wire anemometer velocity signals are obtained at the centerline of a 3 x 3 canonical wind turbine array boundary layer. Two downstream locations are considered referring to the near- and far-wake, and 21 vertical points were acquired per profile. Velocity increments are used to quantify the ordinary and inverse structure functions at both locations and their relationship between the scaling exponents is noted. It is of interest to discern if there is evidence of an inverted scaling. The inverse structure functions will also be discussed from the standpoint of the proximity to the array. Observations will also address if inverted scaling exponents follow a power law behavior and furthermore, extended self-similarity of the second moment is used to obtain the scaling exponent of other moments. Inverse structure functions of moments one through eight are tested via probability density functions and the behavior of the negative moment is investigated as well. National Science Foundation-CBET-1034581.

  10. Numerical study of the propagation characteristics of coronal mass ejections in a structured ambient solar wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yufen; Feng, Xueshang

    2017-02-01

    Using a three-dimensional (3-D) magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) model, we analyze and study the propagation characteristics of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) launched at different positions in a realistic structured ambient solar wind. Here the ambient solar wind structure during the Carrington rotation 2095 is selected, which is the characteristics of activity rising phase. CMEs with a simple spherical plasmoid structure are initiated at different solar latitudes with respect to the heliospheric current sheet (HCS) and the Earth in the same ambient solar wind. Then, we numerically obtained the evolution process of the CMEs from the Sun to the interplanetary space. When the Earth and the CME launch position are located on the same side of the HCS, the arrival time of the shock at the Earth is faster than that when the Earth and the CME launch position are located on the opposite side of the HCS. The disturbance amplitudes for the same side event are also larger than those for the opposite side event. This may be due to the fact that the HCS between the CME and the Earth for the opposite side event hinders its propagation and weaken it. The CMEs tend to deflect toward the HCS in the latitudinal direction near the corona and then propagate almost parallel to the HCS in the interplanetary space. This deflecting tendency may be caused by the dynamic action of near-Sun magnetic pressure gradient force on the ejected coronal plasma.

  11. Anisotropy of the energetic neutral atom flux in the heliosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruntman, Michael A.

    1992-01-01

    Characteristics of the energetic neutral atoms born at the heliospheric interface are considered for plasma flow structure resulting from a two-shock model of the interaction between the solar wind and the interstellar medium. The energy distributions of heliospheric energetic neutral atoms (HELENAs) are calculated and it is shown that the HELENA flux is highly anisotropic at the earth's orbit. The characteristics of the HELENA flux are highly sensitive to the size of the heliosphere. This supports the conclusion that measurements of HELENAs from the earth's orbit would provide an efficient tool to remotely study the heliosphere.

  12. Optimization of the Solubility of HIV-1-Neutralizing Antibody 10E8 through Somatic Variation and Structure-Based Design

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Young D.; Georgiev, Ivelin S.; Ofek, Gilad; Zhang, Baoshan; Asokan, Mangaiarkarasi; Bailer, Robert T.; Bao, Amy; Caruso, William; Chen, Xuejun; Choe, Misook; Druz, Aliaksandr; Ko, Sung-Youl; Louder, Mark K.; McKee, Krisha; O'Dell, Sijy; Pegu, Amarendra; Rudicell, Rebecca S.; Shi, Wei; Wang, Keyun; Yang, Yongping; Alger, Mandy; Bender, Michael F.; Carlton, Kevin; Cooper, Jonathan W.; Blinn, Julie; Eudailey, Joshua; Lloyd, Krissey; Parks, Robert; Alam, S. Munir; Haynes, Barton F.; Padte, Neal N.; Yu, Jian; Ho, David D.; Huang, Jinghe; Connors, Mark; Schwartz, Richard M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Extraordinary antibodies capable of near pan-neutralization of HIV-1 have been identified. One of the broadest is antibody 10E8, which recognizes the membrane-proximal external region (MPER) of the HIV-1 envelope and neutralizes >95% of circulating HIV-1 strains. If delivered passively, 10E8 might serve to prevent or treat HIV-1 infection. Antibody 10E8, however, is markedly less soluble than other antibodies. Here, we describe the use of both structural biology and somatic variation to develop optimized versions of 10E8 with increased solubility. From the structure of 10E8, we identified a prominent hydrophobic patch; reversion of four hydrophobic residues in this patch to their hydrophilic germ line counterparts resulted in an ∼10-fold decrease in turbidity. We also used somatic variants of 10E8, identified previously by next-generation sequencing, to optimize heavy and light chains; this process yielded several improved variants. Of these, variant 10E8v4 with 26 changes versus the parent 10E8 was the most soluble, with a paratope we showed crystallographically to be virtually identical to that of 10E8, a potency on a panel of 200 HIV-1 isolates also similar to that of 10E8, and a half-life in rhesus macaques of ∼10 days. An anomaly in 10E8v4 size exclusion chromatography that appeared to be related to conformational isomerization was resolved by engineering an interchain disulfide. Thus, by combining a structure-based approach with natural variation in potency and solubility from the 10E8 lineage, we successfully created variants of 10E8 which retained the potency and extraordinary neutralization breadth of the parent 10E8 but with substantially increased solubility. IMPORTANCE Antibody 10E8 could be used to prevent HIV-1 infection, if manufactured and delivered economically. It suffers, however, from issues of solubility, which impede manufacturing. We hypothesized that the physical characteristic of 10E8 could be improved through rational design

  13. Optimization of the Solubility of HIV-1-Neutralizing Antibody 10E8 through Somatic Variation and Structure-Based Design

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Young D.; Georgiev, Ivelin S.; Ofek, Gilad; Zhang, Baoshan; Asokan, Mangaiarkarasi; Bailer, Robert T.; Bao, Amy; Caruso, William; Chen, Xuejun; Choe, Misook; Druz, Aliaksandr; Ko, Sung-Youl; Louder, Mark K.; McKee, Krisha; O'Dell, Sijy; Pegu, Amarendra; Rudicell, Rebecca S.; Shi, Wei; Wang, Keyun; Yang, Yongping; Alger, Mandy; Bender, Michael F.; Carlton, Kevin; Cooper, Jonathan W.; Blinn, Julie; Eudailey, Joshua; Lloyd, Krissey; Parks, Robert; Alam, S. Munir; Haynes, Barton F.; Padte, Neal N.; Yu, Jian; Ho, David D.; Huang, Jinghe; Connors, Mark; Schwartz, Richard M.; Mascola, John R.; Kwong, Peter D.; Sundquist, W. I.

    2016-04-06

    ABSTRACT

    Extraordinary antibodies capable of near pan-neutralization of HIV-1 have been identified. One of the broadest is antibody 10E8, which recognizes the membrane-proximal external region (MPER) of the HIV-1 envelope and neutralizes >95% of circulating HIV-1 strains. If delivered passively, 10E8 might serve to prevent or treat HIV-1 infection. Antibody 10E8, however, is markedly less soluble than other antibodies. Here, we describe the use of both structural biology and somatic variation to develop optimized versions of 10E8 with increased solubility. From the structure of 10E8, we identified a prominent hydrophobic patch; reversion of four hydrophobic residues in this patch to their hydrophilic germ line counterparts resulted in an ~10-fold decrease in turbidity. We also used somatic variants of 10E8, identified previously by next-generation sequencing, to optimize heavy and light chains; this process yielded several improved variants. Of these, variant 10E8v4 with 26 changes versus the parent 10E8 was the most soluble, with a paratope we showed crystallographically to be virtually identical to that of 10E8, a potency on a panel of 200 HIV-1 isolates also similar to that of 10E8, and a half-life in rhesus macaques of ~10 days. An anomaly in 10E8v4 size exclusion chromatography that appeared to be related to conformational isomerization was resolved by engineering an interchain disulfide. Thus, by combining a structure-based approach with natural variation in potency and solubility from the 10E8 lineage, we successfully created variants of 10E8 which retained the potency and extraordinary neutralization breadth of the parent 10E8 but with substantially increased solubility.

    IMPORTANCE Antibody 10E8 could be used to prevent HIV-1 infection, if manufactured and delivered economically. It suffers, however, from issues of solubility, which impede manufacturing. We hypothesized that the physical characteristic of 10E8 could be

  14. Microtraps for neutral atoms using superconducting structures in the critical state

    SciTech Connect

    Emmert, A.; Brune, M.; Raimond, J.-M.; Nogues, G.; Lupascu, A.; Haroche, S.

    2009-12-15

    Recently demonstrated superconducting atom chips provide a platform for trapping atoms and coupling them to solid-state quantum systems. Controlling these devices requires a full understanding of the supercurrent distribution in the trapping structures. For type-II superconductors, this distribution is hysteretic in the critical state due to the partial penetration of the magnetic field in the thin superconducting film through pinned vortices. We report here an experimental observation of this memory effect. Our results are in good agreement with the predictions of the Bean model of the critical state without adjustable parameters. The memory effect allows to write and store permanent currents in micron-sized superconducting structures and paves the way toward engineered trapping potentials.

  15. Measurements of internal magnetic structures from neutral beam emission spectra in KSTAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, J.; Chung, J.; Song, M.; You, K. I.

    2012-10-01

    The magnetic pitch angle and the magnitude from magnetically confined fusion devices are measured by fitting the beam emission spectra under the motional Stark effect (MSE). Initial values for the free parameters in the complicated raw spectra are obtained from and constrained by the MSE model in the Atomic Data and Analysis Structure (ADAS) which uses a collisional-radiative model with level populations nlm-resolved up to n = 4 and a simple born approximation for ion-impact cross sections. This technique is examined for the MSE spectra taken from the KSTAR plasma discharges and its validity and applicability are discussed to directly infer the internal magnetic field structure with a wide range of pitch angles. The sensitivity of EFIT reconstruction on these internal magnetic data is also discussed.

  16. A novel structure of transmission line pulse transformer with mutually coupled windings.

    PubMed

    Yu, Binxiong; Su, Jiancang; Li, Rui; Zhao, Liang; Zhang, Xibo; Wang, Junjie

    2014-03-01

    A novel structure of transmission line transformer (TLT) with mutually coupled windings is described in this paper. All transmission lines except the first stage of the transformer are wound on a common ferrite core for the TLT with this structure. A referral method was introduced to analyze the TLT with this structure, and an analytic expression of the step response was derived. It is shown that a TLT with this structure has a significantly slower droop rate than a TLT with other winding structures and the number of ferrite cores needed is largely reduced. A four-stage TLT with this structure was developed, whose input and output impedance were 4.2 Ω and 67.7 Ω, respectively. A frequency response test of the TLT was carried out. The test results showed that pulse response time of the TLT is several nanoseconds. The TLT described in this paper has the potential to be used as a rectangle pulse transformer with very fast response time.

  17. Structural basis for Marburg virus neutralization by a cross-reactive human antibody.

    PubMed

    Hashiguchi, Takao; Fusco, Marnie L; Bornholdt, Zachary A; Lee, Jeffrey E; Flyak, Andrew I; Matsuoka, Rei; Kohda, Daisuke; Yanagi, Yusuke; Hammel, Michal; Crowe, James E; Saphire, Erica Ollmann

    2015-02-26

    The filoviruses, including Marburg and Ebola, express a single glycoprotein on their surface, termed GP, which is responsible for attachment and entry of target cells. Filovirus GPs differ by up to 70% in protein sequence, and no antibodies are yet described that cross-react among them. Here, we present the 3.6 Å crystal structure of Marburg virus GP in complex with a cross-reactive antibody from a human survivor, and a lower resolution structure of the antibody bound to Ebola virus GP. The antibody, MR78, recognizes a GP1 epitope conserved across the filovirus family, which likely represents the binding site of their NPC1 receptor. Indeed, MR78 blocks binding of the essential NPC1 domain C. These structures and additional small-angle X-ray scattering of mucin-containing MARV and EBOV GPs suggest why such antibodies were not previously elicited in studies of Ebola virus, and provide critical templates for development of immunotherapeutics and inhibitors of entry.

  18. Trends in Energies and Geometric Structures of Neutral and Charged Aluminum Clusters.

    PubMed

    Fournier, René

    2007-05-01

    The minimum energy geometric structures of Aln, A[Formula: see text] , and A[Formula: see text] (4 ≤ n ≤ 15) are predicted from the results of "Tabu Search" (TS) global optimizations performed directly on the BPW91/LANL2DZ potential energy surface. In 24 of the 36 cases investigated, the TS delivered a lower energy structure than previously reported, in one case (A[Formula: see text] ) it failed to find the global minimum, and in the remaining 11 cases TS confirmed previous structures. All clusters (with 4 ≤ n ≤ 15) have the lowest spin state as their ground state except Al4 (triplet), A[Formula: see text] (quartet), A[Formula: see text] (triplet), and maybe A[Formula: see text] (singlet and triplet are degenerate). The 20-electron A[Formula: see text] and 40-electron A[Formula: see text] clusters are relatively stable compared to other clusters, on several criteria; to a lesser degree, Al7, Al12, and A[Formula: see text] are also stable.

  19. Differential Velocity between Solar Wind Protons and Alpha Particles in Pressure Balance Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamauchi, Yohei; Suess, Steven T.; Steinberg, John T.; Sakurai, Takashi

    2004-01-01

    Pressure balance structures (PBSs) are a common high-plasma beta feature in high-latitude, high-speed solar wind. They have been proposed as remnants of coronal plumes. If true, they should reflect the observation that plumes are rooted in unipolar magnetic flux concentrations in the photosphere and are heated as oppositely directed flux is advected into and reconnects with the flux concentration. A minimum variance analysis (MVA) of magnetic discontinuities in PBSs showed there is a larger proportion of tangential discontinuities than in the surrounding high-speed wind, supporting the hypothesis that plasmoids or extended current sheets are formed during reconnection at the base of plumes. To further evaluate the character of magnetic field discontinuities in PBSs, differential streaming between alpha particles and protons is analyzed here for the same sample of PBSs used in the MVA. Alpha particles in high-speed wind generally have a higher radial flow speed than protons. However, if the magnetic field is folded back on itself, as in a large-amplitude Alfven wave, alpha particles will locally have a radial flow speed less than protons. This characteristic is used here to distinguish between folded back magnetic fields (which would contain rotational discontinuities) and tangential discontinuities using Ulysses high-latitude, high-speed solar wind data. The analysis indicates that almost all reversals in the radial magnetic field in PBSs are folded back field lines. This is found to also be true outside PBSs, supporting existing results for typical high-speed, high-latitude wind. There remains a small number of cases that appear not to be folds in the magnetic field and which may be flux tubes with both ends rooted in the Sun. The distinct difference in MVA results inside and outside PBSs remains unexplained.

  20. Spatial Variations of Turbulent Properties in Neutral Hydrogen Observations of the Small Magellanic Cloud Using Structure Function Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nestingen-Palm, David; Stanimirovic, Snezana; Babler, Brian L.; Gonzalez Casanova, Diego; Jameson, Katherine; Bolatto, Alberto D.

    2017-01-01

    Turbulence is known to play a key role in shaping the many structures and features which make the Interstellar Medium (ISM) so interesting to study. It is still not understood, however, which processes are responsible for the turbulence in the ISM, and the scales at which these processes dominate. In our study, we use the structure function to analyze neutral hydrogen (HI) observations of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) to search for spacial variations in turbulent properties. Using an estimate of the star formation surface density as a guide, we separate the HI SMC observations into a central region which contains star formation rate (SFR) regions above a certain contour level, and an outer region which has SFR values below the chosen contour level. Our contour level begins at 1e-3 M⊙yr-1kpc-2 and is raised to 5e-3 M⊙yr-1kpc-2 by increments of 1e-4 M⊙yr-1kpc-2. At each contour level, we calculate the HI structure function slope for both the central and outer region by applying the Velocity Channel Analysis (VCA) and progressively averaging HI velocity channels. Our preliminary results suggest a difference in the slopes of both velocity and density fields between the inner and outer SMC.

  1. Hydrophobic End-Modulated Amino-Acid-Based Neutral Hydrogelators: Structure-Specific Inclusion of Carbon Nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Pritam; Mandal, Deep; Brahmachari, Sayanti; Das, Prasanta Kumar

    2016-04-04

    Hydrophobic end-modulated l-phenylalanine-containing triethylene glycol monomethyl ether tagged neutral hydrogelators (1-4) are developed. Investigations determine the gelators' structure-dependent inclusion of carbon nanomaterials (CNMs) in the self-assembled fibrillar network (SAFIN). The gelators (1, 3, and 4) can immobilize water and aqueous buffer (pH 3-7) with a minimum gelator concentration of 10-15 mg mL(-1). The hydrophobic parts of the gelators are varied from a long chain (C-16) to an extended aromatic pyrenyl moiety, and their abilities to integrate 1 D and 2 D allotropes of carbon (i.e., single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and graphene oxide (GO), respectively) within the gel are investigated. Gelator 1, containing a long alkyl chain (C-16), can include SWNTs, whereas the pyrene-containing 4 can include both SWNTs and GO. Gelator 3 fails to incorporate SWNTs or GO owing to its slow rate of gelation and possibly a mismatch between the aggregated structure and CNMs. The involvement of various forces in self-aggregated gelation and physicochemical changes occurring through CNM inclusion are examined by spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. The distinctive pattern of self-assembly of gelators 1 and 4 through J- and H-type aggregation might facilitate the structure-specific CNM inclusion. Inclusion of SWNTs/GO within the hydrogel matrix results in a reinforcement in mechanical stiffness of the composites compared with that of the native hydrogels.

  2. Structural characterization of neutral oligosaccharides with blood-group A and H activity isolated from bovine submaxillary mucin.

    PubMed Central

    Savage, A V; D'Arcy, S M; Donoghue, C M

    1991-01-01

    In this study we investigated the structures of 11 neutral oligosaccharides released from bovine submaxillary mucin by alkaline borohydride treatment and isolated by h.p.l.c. One hexa-, one penta-, three tetra-, four tri- and two di-saccharides containing core types 1, 2, 3 or 4 were obtained. We report their structures, determined by a combination of one- and two-dimensional 1H n.m.r. spectroscopy at 270 MHz and methylation analysis involving g.l.c.-m.s., along with their approximate molar ratios. Only three of these oligosaccharides have previously been reported in this source. Of the new oligosaccharides, one contains the blood-group-A antigenic determinant, two contain the blood-group-H type 2 determinant, while another contains the blood-group-H type 3 determinant. The oligosaccharide GlcNAc beta (1----6)[GlcNAc beta (1----3)]GalNAcol, although previously found as a core structure, has been isolated here as a novel trisaccharide. PMID:1718265

  3. The Complex Structure of Magnetic Field Discontinuities in the Turbulent Solar Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greco, Antonella; Perri, Silvia; Servidio, Sergio; Veltri, Pierluigi

    2016-04-01

    Using high resolution Cluster satellite observations, we show that the turbulent solar wind is populated by magnetic discontinuities at different scales, going from proton down to electron scales, whose structure resembles the Harris equilibrium profile in plasmas. Using a multi-dimensional intermittency technique, we establish that these structures are connected through the scales. We show that observations are consistent with a scenario where many current layers develop in turbulence, and where the outflow of these reconnection events are characterized by complex sub-proton networks of secondary islands, in a self-similar way, confirming that ``reconnection in turbulence'' and ``turbulent reconnection'' coexist in space plasmas.

  4. Distortion of thermospheric air masses by horizontal neutral winds over Poker Flat Alaska measured using an all-sky scanning Doppler imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhadly, M. S.; Conde, M.

    2016-01-01

    An air mass transported by a wind field will become distorted over time by any gradients present in the wind field. To study this effect in Earth's thermosphere, we examine the behavior of a simple parameter that we describe here as the "distortion gradient." It incorporates all of the wind field's departures from uniformity and is thus capable of representing all contributions to the distortion or mixing of air masses. The distortion gradient is defined such that it is always positive, so averaging over time and/or space does not suppress small-scale features. Conventional gradients, by contrast, are signed quantities that would often average to zero. To analyze the climatological behavior of this distortion gradient, we used three years (2010, 2011, and 2012) of thermospheric F region wind observations from a high-latitude ground-based all-sky wavelength scanning Doppler Fabry-Perot interferometer located at Poker Flat Alaska. Climatological averaging of the distortion gradient allowed us to investigate its diurnal and seasonal (annual) behaviors at our observing location. Distortion was observed to be higher before local magnetic midnight and to be seasonally dependent. While maximum distortion occurred before local magnetic midnight under all geomagnetic conditions, the peak distortion occurred earlier under moderate geomagnetic conditions as compared to the quiet geomagnetic conditions and even earlier still when geomagnetic conditions were active. Peak distortion was stronger and appeared earlier when interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) was southward compared to northward. By contrast, we could not resolve any time-shift effect due to the IMF component tangential to Earth's orbit.

  5. A numerical investigation of the wake structure of vertical axis wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaras, Elias; Posa, Antonio; Leftwich, Megan

    2014-11-01

    Recent field-testing has shown that vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT) in wind farm configurations have the potential to reach higher power densities, when compared to the more widespread horizontal axis turbines. A critical component in achieving this goal is a good understanding of the wake structure and how it is influenced by operating conditions. In the present study the Large-Eddy Simulation technique is adopted to characterize the wake of a small vertical axis wind turbine and to explore its dependence on the value of its Tip Speed Ratio (TSR). It will be shown that its wake significantly differs from that of a spinning cylinder, often adopted to model this typology of machines: the displacement of the momentum deficit towards the windward side follows the same behavior, but turbulence is higher on the leeward side. An initial increase of the momentum deficit is observed moving downstream, with central peaks in the core of the near wake for both momentum and turbulent kinetic energy, especially at lower TSRs. No back-flow is produced downstream of the turbine. The interaction between blades is stronger at higher values of the TSR, while the production of coherent structures is enhanced at lower TSRs, with large rollers populating the leeward side of the wake.

  6. A Data-Driven Diagnostic Framework for Wind Turbine Structures: A Holistic Approach.

    PubMed

    Bogoevska, Simona; Spiridonakos, Minas; Chatzi, Eleni; Dumova-Jovanoska, Elena; Höffer, Rudiger

    2017-03-30

    The complex dynamics of operational wind turbine (WT) structures challenges the applicability of existing structural health monitoring (SHM) strategies for condition assessment. At the center of Europe's renewable energy strategic planning, WT systems call for implementation of strategies that may describe the WT behavior in its complete operational spectrum. The framework proposed in this paper relies on the symbiotic treatment of acting environmental/operational variables and the monitored vibration response of the structure. The approach aims at accurate simulation of the temporal variability characterizing the WT dynamics, and subsequently at the tracking of the evolution of this variability in a longer-term horizon. The bi-component analysis tool is applied on long-term data, collected as part of continuous monitoring campaigns on two actual operating WT structures located in different sites in Germany. The obtained data-driven structural models verify the potential of the proposed strategy for development of an automated SHM diagnostic tool.

  7. Interception of spray drift by border structures. Part 1: wind tunnel experiments.

    PubMed

    De Schampheleire, M; Nuyttens, D; Dekeyser, D; Verboven, P; Cornelis, W; Gabriels, D; Spanoghe, P

    2008-01-01

    This research investigated the drift-intercepting potential of structures surrounding the field borders, like artificial screens and crops, which are not yet a part of the drift mitigation measures for field crop sprayers in Belgium. Drift-interception experiments were performed in the wind tunnel of the International Centre for Eremology (Ghent University, Belgium) with various interception structures: Artificial screens with heights of 0.5, 0.75 and 1 m and screen open areas of 16, 36 and 63%; a row of plastic Christmas trees with heights of 0.5 and 0.75 m; and a potato canopy. The interception structure was positioned at 1 m from the field border. From the results it was found that type of border structure has a pronounced effect on the drift interception, while the height of the border structure had no significant effect.

  8. The dynamics and structure of the ionized and neutral gas in the 30 Doradus nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, N. J.

    1981-08-01

    A variety of new optical observations have been made over the bright core of the supermassive H II region 30 Doradus and the ionized filamentary material surrounding this object. In addition, a more detailed analysis of previously published interstellar absorption and H I emission profiles has been undertaken. The velocity and density structure of this complex region is discussed and the new results analyzed here shown to be compatible to the model of 30 Doradus presented in Canto et al. (1980) and Meaburn (1980).

  9. Reconfigurable Structure using Multifunctional Mechanized Materials for Threats Precognition and Neutralization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-24

    adaptive   mechanized  materials  (muscles)  on  the  fight-­‐or-­‐flight  response.  Information  detected  from...fully   adaptive   multifunctional  materials  for  reconfigurable  structures,  three  important  components  must   be... adaptive   mechanized   materials   (muscles).   Although   many   natural   materials   are   remarkably   adaptive

  10. Electronic Structure Determination of Pyridine N-Heterocyclic Carbene Iron Dinitrogen Complexes and Neutral Ligand Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The electronic structures of pyridine N-heterocyclic dicarbene (iPrCNC) iron complexes have been studied by a combination of spectroscopic and computational methods. The goal of these studies was to determine if this chelate engages in radical chemistry in reduced base metal compounds. The iron dinitrogen example (iPrCNC)Fe(N2)2 and the related pyridine derivative (iPrCNC)Fe(DMAP)(N2) were studied by NMR, Mössbauer, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy and are best described as redox non-innocent compounds with the iPrCNC chelate functioning as a classical π acceptor and the iron being viewed as a hybrid between low-spin Fe(0) and Fe(II) oxidation states. This electronic description has been supported by spectroscopic data and DFT calculations. Addition of N,N-diallyl-tert-butylamine to (iPrCNC)Fe(N2)2 yielded the corresponding iron diene complex. Elucidation of the electronic structure again revealed the CNC chelate acting as a π acceptor with no evidence for ligand-centered radicals. This ground state is in contrast with the case for the analogous bis(imino)pyridine iron complexes and may account for the lack of catalytic [2π + 2π] cycloaddition reactivity. PMID:25328270

  11. Exploring the connections between dark spot dynamics and zonal wind structure on Uranus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Beau, Raymond P.; Palotai, Csaba

    2015-11-01

    The past several years have witnessed new observations revealing more clouds and long-lived features in the atmosphere of Uranus. Each new set of images provides new cloud-tracking data and the opportunity to assess the structure of the zonal winds on Uranus. This has led to a sequence of fits for the Uranian zonal winds with the latest entries being those proposed in Sromovsky et al. (2015). Karkoschka (2015) also provides a new view of the zonal winds, but in this case through reanalyzing the Voyager II observations. While all these profiles have in common features like a retrograde equatorial jet, the details of these profiles differ significantly. These differences can be further accentuated when considering the vorticity profiles derived from these zonal winds. As shown in LeBeau and Dowling (1998) and Hammel et al. (2009), atmospheric simulations using different zonal vorticity profiles suggest that the vorticity gradient can affect the dynamics of dark spot vortices in the atmosphere. Later work (Deng et al. 2009) has indicated that these dynamics may be further complicated by the presence of cloud companion features.To further investigate these interactions, some of the most recent zonal profiles are used in simulations of Uranus with the Explicit Planetary Isentropic Coordinate (EPIC) atmospheric model. By inducing vortices at different latitudes, the effects of different zonal wind profiles on these features can be investigated. A methane microphysics model is used to generate representative companion clouds. The subsequent vortex and companion cloud motions can then be compared to observations, providing another tool in the effort to understand possible changes in the zonal wind structure of Uranus.References:L.A. Sromovsky et al. Icarus 258:192-223, 2015E. Karkoschka. Icarus 250:294-307, 2015H.B. Hammel et al. Icarus 201:257-271, 2009R.P. LeBeau and T.E. Dowling. Icarus 132:239-265, 1998X. Deng et al. 1st AIAA Atmospheric and Space Environments

  12. The use of long term monitoring data for the extension of the service duration of existing wind turbine support structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loraux, C.; Brühwiler, E.

    2016-09-01

    Actual wind energy converter (WEC) are designed for a relatively short service life of 20 years and the limiting criterion is the fatigue safety. However, effective fatigue loading endured by the structural components of the wind turbines (WT) is likely to be much below design assumptions provided by current codes. This paper describes a simple but efficient long term monitoring system that allows owners to verify the fatigue safety of their existing WTs. The monitored data will also help to drastically extend the service life of existing wind turbine support structure and will thus reduce the global environmental footprint of WTs.

  13. Detection of small-scale structures in the dissipation regime of solar-wind turbulence.

    PubMed

    Perri, S; Goldstein, M L; Dorelli, J C; Sahraoui, F

    2012-11-09

    Recent observations of the solar wind have pointed out the existence of a cascade of magnetic energy from the scale of the proton Larmor radius ρ(p) down to the electron Larmor radius ρ(e) scale. In this Letter we study the spatial properties of magnetic field fluctuations in the solar wind and find that at small scales the magnetic field does not resemble a sea of homogeneous fluctuations, but rather a two-dimensional plane containing thin current sheets and discontinuities with spatial sizes ranging from l >/~ ρ(p) down to ρ(e) and below. These isolated structures may be manifestations of intermittency that localize sites of turbulent dissipation. Studying the relationship between turbulent dissipation, reconnection, and intermittency is crucial for understanding the dynamics of laboratory and astrophysical plasmas.

  14. Seismic analysis of offshore wind turbines on bottom-fixed support structures.

    PubMed

    Alati, Natale; Failla, Giuseppe; Arena, Felice

    2015-02-28

    This study investigates the seismic response of a horizontal axis wind turbine on two bottom-fixed support structures for transitional water depths (30-60 m), a tripod and a jacket, both resting on pile foundations. Fully coupled, nonlinear time-domain simulations on full system models are carried out under combined wind-wave-earthquake loadings, for different load cases, considering fixed and flexible foundation models. It is shown that earthquake loading may cause a significant increase of stress resultant demands, even for moderate peak ground accelerations, and that fully coupled nonlinear time-domain simulations on full system models are essential to capture relevant information on the moment demand in the rotor blades, which cannot be predicted by analyses on simplified models allowed by existing standards. A comparison with some typical design load cases substantiates the need for an accurate seismic assessment in sites at risk from earthquakes.

  15. Structural characterization of poorly-crystalline scorodite, iron(III)-arsenate co-precipitates and uranium mill neutralized raffinate solids using X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, N.; Jiang, D. T.; Cutler, J.; Kotzer, T.; Jia, Y. F.; Demopoulos, G. P.; Rowson, J. W.

    2009-06-01

    X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) is used to characterize the mineralogy of the iron(III)-arsenate(V) precipitates produced during the raffinate (aqueous effluent) neutralization process at the McClean Lake uranium mill in northern Saskatchewan, Canada. To facilitate the structural characterization of the precipitated solids derived from the neutralized raffinate, a set of reference compounds were synthesized and analyzed. The reference compounds include crystalline scorodite, poorly-crystalline scorodite, iron(III)-arsenate co-precipitates obtained under different pH conditions, and arsenate-adsorbed on goethite. The poorly-crystalline scorodite (prepared at pH 4 with Fe/As = 1) has similar As local structure as that of crystalline scorodite. Both As and Fe K-edge XAFS of poorly-crystalline scorodite yield consistent results on As-Fe (or Fe-As) shell. From As K-edge analysis the As-Fe shell has an inter-atomic distance of 3.33 ± 0.02 Å and coordination number of 3.2; while from Fe K-edge analysis the Fe-As distance and coordination number are 3.31 ± 0.02 Å and 3.8, respectively. These are in contrast with the typical arsenate adsorption on bidentate binuclear sites on goethite surfaces, where the As-Fe distance is 3.26 ± 0.03 Å and coordination number is close to 2. A similar local structure identified in the poorly-crystalline scorodite is also found in co-precipitation solids (Fe(III)/As(V) = 3) when precipitated at the same pH (pH = 4): As-Fe distance 3.30 ± 0.03 Å and coordination number 3.9; while at pH = 8 the co-precipitate has As-Fe distance of 3.27 ± 0.03 Å and coordination number about 2, resembling more closely the adsorption case. The As local structure in the two neutralized raffinate solid series (precipitated at pH values up to 7) closely resembles that in the poorly-crystalline scorodite. All of the raffinate solids have the same As-Fe inter-atomic distance as that in the poorly-crystalline scorodite, and a systematic decrease in the

  16. Synthetic magnetic field effects on neutral bosonic condensates in quasi-three-dimensional anisotropic layered structures

    SciTech Connect

    Zaleski, T. A.; Polak, T. P.

    2011-02-15

    We discuss a system of dilute Bose gas confined in a layered structure of stacked square lattices (slab geometry). A derived phase diagram reveals a nonmonotonic dependence of the ratio of tunneling to on-site repulsion on the artificial magnetic field applied to the system. The effect is reduced when more layers are added, which mimics a two- to quasi-three-dimensional geometry crossover. Furthermore, we establish a correspondence between anisotropic infinite (quasi-three-dimensional) and isotropic finite (slab geometry) systems that share exactly the same critical values, which can be an important clue for choosing experimental setups that are less demanding, but still leading to the identical results. Finally, we show that the properties of the ideal Bose gas in a three-dimensional optical lattice can be closely mimicked by finite (slab) systems when the number of two-dimensional layers is larger than 10 for isotropic interactions, or even less when the layers are weakly coupled.

  17. Interstellar neutrals in interplanetary space

    SciTech Connect

    Hovestadt, D.; Moebius, E. )

    1989-03-01

    The solar system is moving through the interstellar medium with a velocity of about 20 km/s. The neutral interstellar gas, which thereby penetrates the heliosphere, is subject to ionization by solar UV radiation, charge exchange with the solar wind, and electron collisions. The newly created ions are then picked by the solar wind through interaction of interstellar neutrals with the interplanetary magnetic field. The pick-up ions with their peculiar elemental composition probably also constitute the source particles of the Anomalous Cosmic Ray Component (ACR). In this report descriptions of the interaction with the solar wind are reviewed. While most of the constituents are already ionized far beyond the orbit of the Earth, neutral helium (because of its high ionization potential) approaches the Sun to {lt}1 AU. The pick-up of interstellar He{sup +} ions has recently been directly observed for the first time. The observed velocity distribution of He{sup +} extending up to twice the solar wind velocity can be explained in terms of pitch angle scattering of the ions probably by interplanetary Alven waves and subsequent adiabatic cooling in the expanding solar wind. Thermal coupling of the He{sup +} to the solar wind is negligible in the inner heliosphere. Detailed studies of the pick-up distribution provide a method to investigate the interplanetary propagation parameters and the state of the local interstellar medium.

  18. Structure of the neutral capsular polysaccharide of Acinetobacter baumannii NIPH146 that carries the KL37 capsule gene cluster.

    PubMed

    Arbatsky, Nikolay P; Shneider, Mikhail M; Kenyon, Johanna J; Shashkov, Alexander S; Popova, Anastasiya V; Miroshnikov, Konstantin A; Volozhantsev, Nikolay V; Knirel, Yuriy A

    2015-09-02

    Capsular polysaccharide (CPS) was isolated from Acinetobacter baumannii NIPH146, and the following structure of branched pentasaccharide repeating unit was established by sugar analyses along with 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy: In comparison to most other known capsular polysaccharides of A. baumannii, the CPS studied is neutral and lacks any specific monosaccharide component. The synthesis, assembly and export of this structure could be attributed to genes in a novel capsule biosynthesis gene cluster, designated KL37, which was found in the NIPH146 genome. The CPS of A. baumannii NIPH146 shares the α-d-Galp-(1→6)-β-d-Glcp-(1→3)-d-GalpNAc-(1→ trisaccharide fragment with the CPS units of several A. baumannii strains, including ATCC 17978 and LUH 5537 that carry the KL3 and KL22 gene clusters, respectively. KL37 contains two genes for glycosyltransferases that are related to two glycosyltransferase genes present in both KL3 and KL22, and the encoded proteins could be tentatively assigned to linkages between sugars in the CPS repeat.

  19. Approach on quantitative structure-activity relationship for design of a pH neutral carrier containing tertiary amino group.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zhong; Gong, Fu-Chun; Li, He-Ping; Xiao, Zhong-Liang; Long, Shu; Zhang, Ling; Peng, San-Jun

    2007-01-02

    The quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) for neutral carriers used to prepare hydrogen ion sensors has been studied. A series of synthesized carrier compounds were taken as the training set. Five molecular structure parameters of the compounds were calculated by using CNDO/2 algorithm and used as feature variables in constructing QSAR model. The lower and upper limits of the linear pH response range were taken as the activity measure. The corresponding model equations were derived from the stepwise regression procedure. With the established QSAR model, a new pH carrier, (4-hydroxybenzyl) didodecylamine (XIII) was proposed and synthesized. The PVC membrane pH electrode based on carrier XIII with a wide pH linear response range of 2.0-12.5 was prepared. Having a theoretical Nernstian response slope of 57.2+/-0.3 mV/pH (n=5 at 25 degrees C) without a super-Nernstian phenomenon, the sensor had low resistance, short response time, high selectivity and good reproducibility. Moreover, the sensor was successfully applied to detecting the pH value of serum samples.

  20. Structural, morphological and catalytic characterization of neutral Ag salt of 12-tungstophosphoric acid: Influence of preparation conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holclajtner-Antunović, Ivanka; Bajuk-Bogdanović, Danica; Popa, Alexandru; Nedić Vasiljević, Bojana; Krstić, Jugoslav; Mentus, Slavko; Uskoković-Marković, Snežana

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study is the structural and morphological characterization of the Ag3PW12O40 salts (AgWPA) of 12-tungstophosphoric acid (WPA) obtained under different preparation conditions and testing of their acid catalytic activity in dehydration of ethanol. The structure, morphology and physicochemical characteristics were determined by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen physisorption at -196 °C, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential thermal (DTA) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). It is shown that the preparation process has a significant influence on the morphological properties of the obtained materials which may be explained by the supposed mechanism of the formation of nanocrystallite‧s aggregates with more or less epitaxial connection. Neutral AgWPA obtained by filtration from supernatant forms porous aggregates of a symmetric dodecahedral shape, having average sizes about 2 μm. This sample shows higher specific area in comparison with the salt obtained by evaporation due to the higher micropore volume, while mesopore volumes are the same for both salts. Thus conversion of ethanol and selectivities of the main products, ethylene and diethyl ether, are almost the same and constant for both prepared salts, while their values are changed over the reaction time for the parent WPA acid.

  1. Structure and spectroscopic properties of neutral and cationic tetratomic [C,H,N,Zn] isomers: A theoretical study

    SciTech Connect

    Redondo, Pilar; Largo, Antonio; Vega-Vega, Álvaro; Barrientos, Carmen

    2015-05-14

    The structure and spectroscopic parameters of the most relevant [C,H,N,Zn] isomers have been studied employing high-level quantum chemical methods. For each isomer, we provide predictions for their molecular structure, thermodynamic stabilities as well as vibrational and rotational spectroscopic parameters which could eventually help in their experimental detection. In addition, we have carried out a detailed study of the bonding situations by means of a topological analysis of the electron density in the framework of the Bader’s quantum theory of atoms in molecules. The analysis of the relative stabilities and spectroscopic parameters suggests two linear isomers of the neutral [C,H,N,Zn] composition, namely, cyanidehydridezinc HZnCN ({sup 1}Σ) and hydrideisocyanidezinc HZnNC ({sup 1}Σ), as possible candidates for experimental detections. For the cationic [C,H,N,Zn]{sup +} composition, the most stable isomers are the ion-molecule complexes arising from the direct interaction of the zinc cation with either the nitrogen or carbon atom of either hydrogen cyanide or hydrogen isocyanide, namely, HCNZn{sup +} ({sup 2}Σ) and HCNZn{sup +} ({sup 2}Σ)

  2. Intermolecular interactions in the solid state structures of neutral and N-protonated 5-alkoxymethyl-8-hydroxyquinolines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze, Mathias M.; Böhme, Uwe; Schwarzer, Anke; Weber, Edwin

    2017-04-01

    A series of five different alkoxymethyl substituted derivatives of 8-hydroxyquinoline was synthesised both in protonated (1a-1e) and neutral (2a-2e) form. The alkoxymethyl groups are MeO (1a, 2a), EtO (1b, 2b), n-PrO (1c, 2c), iso-PrO (1d, 2d), n-BuO (1e, 2e). The compounds were characterised by single crystal X-ray diffraction and spectroscopic methods. Hirshfeld surface analysis was performed to analyse the crystal packing quantitatively. Topological analysis of the electron density distribution delivers information about the strength of the hydrogen bonds. The overall results reveal a main difference between the charged (1a-1d) and uncharged (2a-2e) compounds in the orientation of the hydroxyl group resulting in a different cyclic dimer formation. In both cases the structures are dominated by hydrogen bonding (1a-1d: Osbnd H⋯Cl, Nsbnd H⋯Cl and 2a-2e: Osbnd H⋯N). Furthermore, all crystal structures show π involved interactions though taking only a minor part in the packing of the molecules.

  3. Structural Analysis of Human and Macaque Monoclonal Antibodies 2909 and 2.5B: Implications for the Configuration of the Quaternary Neutralizing Epitope of HIV-1 gp120

    SciTech Connect

    B Spurrier; J Sampson; M Totrov; H Li; T ONeal; C Williams; J Robinson; M Gorny; S Zolla-Pazner; X Kong

    2011-12-31

    The quaternary neutralizing epitope (QNE) of HIV-1 gp120 is preferentially expressed on the trimeric envelope spikes of intact HIV virions, and QNE-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) potently neutralize HIV-1. Here, we present the crystal structures of the Fabs of human mAb 2909 and macaque mAb 2.5B. Both mAbs have long beta hairpin CDR H3 regions >20 {angstrom} in length that are each situated at the center of their respective antigen-binding sites. Computational analysis showed that the paratopes include the whole CDR H3, while additional CDR residues form shallow binding pockets. Structural modeling suggests a way to understand the configuration of QNEs and the antigen-antibody interaction for QNE mAbs. Our data will be useful in designing immunogens that may elicit potent neutralizing QNE Abs.

  4. Structural basis of the broadly neutralizing anti-interferon-α antibody rontalizumab

    PubMed Central

    Maurer, Brigitte; Bosanac, Ivan; Shia, Steven; Kwong, Mandy; Corpuz, Racquel; Vandlen, Richard; Schmidt, Kerstin; Eigenbrot, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Interferons-alpha (IFN-α) are the expressed gene products comprising thirteen type I interferons with protein pairwise sequence similarities in the 77–96% range. Three other widely expressed human type I interferons, IFN-β, IFN-κ and IFN-ω have sequences 29–33%, 29–32% and 56–60% similar to the IFN-αs, respectively. Type I interferons act on immune cells by producing subtly different immune-modulatory effects upon binding to the extracellular domains of a heterodimeric cell-surface receptor composed of IFNAR1 and IFNAR2, most notably anti-viral effects. IFN-α has been used to treat infection by hepatitis-virus type C (HCV) and a correlation between hyperactivity of IFN-α-induced signaling and systemic lupus erythematosis (SLE), or lupus, has been noted. Anti-IFN-α antibodies including rontalizumab have been under clinical study for the treatment of lupus. To better understand the rontalizumab mechanism of action and specificity, we determined the X-ray crystal structure of the Fab fragment of rontalizumab bound to human IFN-α2 at 3Å resolution and find substantial overlap of the antibody and IFNA2 epitopes on IFN-α2. PMID:26099203

  5. Characterization of a neutral and thermostable glucoamylase from the thermophilic mold Thermomucor indicae-seudaticae: activity, stability, and structural correlation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pardeep; Islam, Asimul; Ahmad, Faizan; Satyanarayana, T

    2010-03-01

    Glucoamylase from the thermophilic mold Thermomucor indicae-seudaticae was purified by anion exchange and gel filtration chromatographic techniques using a fast protein liquid chromatographic system. The structure and thermal stability of this unique 'thermostable and neutral glucoamylase' were analyzed by circular dichroism (CD). T. indicae-seudaticae glucoamylase (TGA) contained typical aromatic amino acid (tryptophan/tyrosine) fingerprints in its tertiary structure. Analysis of the far-UV CD spectrum at pH 7.0 and 25 degrees Celsius revealed the presence of 45% alpha-helix, 43% beta-sheet, and 12% remaining structures. The alpha-helix content was highest at pH 7.0, where glucoamylase is optimally active. This observation points towards the possible (alpha/alpha)(6) barrel catalytic domain in TGA, as reported in microbial glucoamylases. Thermal denaturation curves of the pure protein at different pH values revealed maximum stability at pH 7.0, where no change in the secondary structure was observed upon heating in the temperature range between 20 degrees Celsius and 60 degrees Celsius. The observed midpoint of thermal denaturation (T (m)) of glucoamylase at pH 7.0 was 67.1 degrees Celsius, which decreased on either sides of this pH. Thermostability of TGA enhanced in the presence of starch (0.1%) as no transition curve was obtained in the temperature range between 20 degrees Celsius and 85 degrees Celsius. The only product of TGA action on starch was glucose, and it did not exhibit transglycosylation activity even at 40% glucose that can also be considered as an advantage during starch saccharification.

  6. Structure, Aggregation, and Activity of a Covalent Insulin Dimer Formed During Storage of Neutral Formulation of Human Insulin.

    PubMed

    Hjorth, Christian Fogt; Norrman, Mathias; Wahlund, Per-Olof; Benie, Andrew J; Petersen, Bent O; Jessen, Christian M; Pedersen, Thomas Å; Vestergaard, Kirsten; Steensgaard, Dorte B; Pedersen, Jan Skov; Naver, Helle; Hubálek, František; Poulsen, Christian; Otzen, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    A specific covalently linked dimeric species of insulin high molecular weight products (HMWPs), formed during prolonged incubation of a neutral pharmaceutical formulation of human insulin, were characterized in terms of tertiary structure, self-association, biological activity, and fibrillation properties. The dimer was formed by a covalent link between A21Asn and B29Lys. It was analyzed using static and dynamic light scattering and small-angle X-ray scattering to evaluate its self-association behavior. The tertiary structure was obtained using nuclear magnetic resonance and X-ray crystallography. The biological activity of HMWP was determined using 2 in vitro assays, and its influence on fibrillation was investigated using Thioflavin T assays. The dimer's tertiary structure was nearly identical to that of the noncovalent insulin dimer, and it was able to form hexamers in the presence of zinc. The dimer exhibited reduced propensity for self-association in the absence of zinc but significantly postponed the onset of fibrillation in insulin formulations. Consistent with its dimeric state, the tested species of HMWP showed little to no biological activity in the used assays. This study is the first detailed characterization of a specific type of human insulin HMWP formed during storage of a marketed pharmaceutical formulation. These results indicate that this specific type of HMWP is unlikely to antagonize the physical stability of the formulation, as HMWP retained a tertiary structure similar to the noncovalent dimer and participated in hexamer assembly in the presence of zinc. In addition, increasing amounts of HMWP reduce the rate of insulin fibrillation.

  7. Supramolecular structure of enterobacterial wild-type lipopolysaccharides (LPS), fractions thereof, and their neutralization by Pep19-2.5.

    PubMed

    Brandenburg, Klaus; Heinbockel, Lena; Correa, Wilmar; Fukuoka, Satoshi; Gutsmann, Thomas; Zähringer, Ulrich; Koch, Michel H J

    2016-04-01

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) belong to the strongest immune-modulating compounds known in nature, and are often described as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). In particular, at higher concentrations they are responsible for sepsis and the septic shock syndrome associated with high lethality. Since most data are indicative that LPS aggregates are the bioactive units, their supramolecular structures are considered to be of outmost relevance for deciphering the molecular mechanisms of its bioactivity. So far, however, most of the data available addressing this issue, were published only for the lipid part (lipid A) and the core-oligosaccharide containing rough LPS, representing the bioactive unit. By contrast, it is well known that most of the LPS specimen identified in natural habitats contain the smooth-form (S-form) LPS, which carry additionally a high-molecular polysaccharide (O-chain). To fill this lacuna and going into a more natural system, here various wild-type (smooth form) LPS including also some LPS fractions were investigated by small-angle X-ray scattering with synchrotron radiation to analyze their aggregate structure. Furthermore, the influence of a recently designed synthetic anti-LPS peptide (SALP) Pep19-2.5 on the aggregate structure, on the binding thermodynamics, and on the cytokine-inducing activity of LPS were characterized, showing defined aggregate changes, high affinity binding and inhibition of cytokine secretion. The data obtained are suitable to refine our view on the preferences of LPS for non-lamellar structures, representing the highest bioactive forms which can be significantly influenced by the binding with neutralizing peptides such as Pep19-2.5.

  8. Vibration Based Wind Turbine Tower Foundation Design Utilizing Soil-Foundation-Structure Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Satari, P. E. Mohamed; Hussain, S. E. Saif

    2008-07-01

    Wind turbines have been used to generate electricity as an alternative energy source to conventional fossil fuels. This case study is for multiple wind towers located at different villages in Alaska where severe arctic weather conditions exist. The towers are supported by two different types of foundations; large mat or deep piles foundations. Initially, a Reinforced Concrete (RC) mat foundation was utilized to provide the system with vertical and lateral support. Where soil conditions required it, a pile foundation solution was devised utilizing a 30″ thick RC mat containing an embedded steel grillage of W18 beams supported by 20″-24″ grouted or un-grouted piles. The mixing and casting of concrete in-situ has become the major source of cost and difficulty of construction at these remote Alaska sites. An all-steel foundation was proposed for faster installation and lower cost, but was found to impact the natural frequencies of the structural system by significantly softening the foundation system. The tower-foundation support structure thus became near-resonant with the operational frequencies of the wind turbine leading to a likelihood of structural instability or even collapse. A detailed 3D Finite-Element model of the original tower-foundation-pile system with RC foundation was created using SAP2000. Soil springs were included in the model based on soil properties obtained from the geotechnical consultant. The natural frequency from the model was verified against the tower manufacturer analytical and the experimental values. Where piles were used, numerous iterations were carried out to eliminate the need for the RC and optimize the design. An optimized design was achieved with enough separation between the natural and operational frequencies to prevent damage to the structural system eliminating the need for any RC encasement to the steel foundation or grouting to the piles.

  9. Periodic Density Structures and the Origin of the Slow Solar Wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viall-Kepko, Nicholeen M.; Vourlidas, Angelos

    2015-01-01

    The source of the slow solar wind has challenged scientists for years. Periodic density structures (PDSs), observed regularly in the solar wind at 1 AU (Astronomical Unit), can be used to address this challenge. These structures have length scales of hundreds to several thousands of megameters and frequencies of tens to hundreds of minutes. Two lines of evidence indicate that PDSs are formed in the solar corona as part of the slow solar wind release and/or acceleration processes. The first is corresponding changes in compositional data in situ, and the second is PDSs observed in the inner Heliospheric Imaging data on board the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO)/Sun Earth Connection Coronal and Heliospheric Investigation (SECCHI) suite. The periodic nature of these density structures is both a useful identifier as well as an important physical constraint on their origin. In this paper, we present the results of tracking periodic structures identified in the inner Heliospheric Imager in SECCHI back in time through the corresponding outer coronagraph (COR2) images. We demonstrate that the PDSs are formed around or below 2.5 solar radii-the inner edge of the COR2 field of view. We compute the occurrence rates of PDSs in 10 days of COR2 images both as a function of their periodicity and location in the solar corona, and we find that this set of PDSs occurs preferentially with a periodicity of approximately 90 minutes and occurs near streamers. Lastly, we show that their acceleration and expansion through COR2 is self-similar, thus their frequency is constant at distances beyond 2.5 solar radii.

  10. Periodic Density Structures and the Origin of the Slow Solar Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viall, Nicholeen M.; Vourlidas, Angelos

    2015-07-01

    The source of the slow solar wind has challenged scientists for years. Periodic density structures (PDSs), observed regularly in the solar wind at 1 AU, can be used to address this challenge. These structures have length scales of hundreds to several thousands of megameters and frequencies of tens to hundreds of minutes. Two lines of evidence indicate that PDSs are formed in the solar corona as part of the slow solar wind release and/or acceleration processes. The first is corresponding changes in compositional data in situ, and the second is PDSs observed in the inner Heliospheric Imaging data on board the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO)/Sun Earth Connection Coronal and Heliospheric Investigation (SECCHI) suite. The periodic nature of these density structures is both a useful identifier as well as an important physical constraint on their origin. In this paper, we present the results of tracking periodic structures identified in the inner Heliospheric Imager in SECCHI back in time through the corresponding outer coronagraph (COR2) images. We demonstrate that the PDSs are formed around or below 2.5 solar radii—the inner edge of the COR2 field of view. We compute the occurrence rates of PDSs in 10 days of COR2 images both as a function of their periodicity and location in the solar corona, and we find that this set of PDSs occurs preferentially with a periodicity of ˜90 minutes and occurs near streamers. Lastly, we show that their acceleration and expansion through COR2 is self-similar, thus their frequency is constant at distances beyond 2.5 solar radii.

  11. Optimal Neutralization of Centruroides noxius Venom Is Understood through a Structural Complex between Two Antibody Fragments and the Cn2 Toxin.

    PubMed

    Riaño-Umbarila, Lidia; Ledezma-Candanoza, Luis M; Serrano-Posada, Hugo; Fernández-Taboada, Guillermo; Olamendi-Portugal, Timoteo; Rojas-Trejo, Sonia; Gómez-Ramírez, Ilse V; Rudiño-Piñera, Enrique; Possani, Lourival D; Becerril, Baltazar

    2016-01-22

    The current trend of using recombinant antibody fragments in research to develop novel antidotes against scorpion stings has achieved excellent results. The polyclonal character of commercial antivenoms, obtained through the immunization of animals and which contain several neutralizing antibodies that recognize different epitopes on the toxins, guarantees the neutralization of the venoms. To avoid the use of animals, we aimed to develop an equivalent recombinant antivenom composed of a few neutralizing single chain antibody fragments (scFvs) that bind to two different epitopes on the scorpion toxins. In this study, we obtained scFv RU1 derived from scFv C1. RU1 showed a good capacity to neutralize the Cn2 toxin and whole venom of the scorpion Centruroides noxius. Previously, we had produced scFv LR, obtained from a different parental fragment (scFv 3F). LR also showed a similar neutralizing capacity. The simultaneous administration of both scFvs resulted in improved protection, which was translated as a rapid recovery of previously poisoned animals. The crystallographic structure of the ternary complex scFv LR-Cn2-scFv RU1 allowed us to identify the areas of interaction of both scFvs with the toxin, which correspond to non-overlapping sites. The epitope recognized by scFv RU1 seems to be related to a greater efficiency in the neutralization of the whole venom. In addition, the structural analysis of the complex helped us to explain the cross-reactivity of these scFvs and how they neutralize the venom.

  12. Optimal Neutralization of Centruroides noxius Venom Is Understood through a Structural Complex between Two Antibody Fragments and the Cn2 Toxin*

    PubMed Central

    Riaño-Umbarila, Lidia; Ledezma-Candanoza, Luis M.; Serrano-Posada, Hugo; Fernández-Taboada, Guillermo; Olamendi-Portugal, Timoteo; Rojas-Trejo, Sonia; Gómez-Ramírez, Ilse V.; Rudiño-Piñera, Enrique; Possani, Lourival D.; Becerril, Baltazar

    2016-01-01

    The current trend of using recombinant antibody fragments in research to develop novel antidotes against scorpion stings has achieved excellent results. The polyclonal character of commercial antivenoms, obtained through the immunization of animals and which contain several neutralizing antibodies that recognize different epitopes on the toxins, guarantees the neutralization of the venoms. To avoid the use of animals, we aimed to develop an equivalent recombinant antivenom composed of a few neutralizing single chain antibody fragments (scFvs) that bind to two different epitopes on the scorpion toxins. In this study, we obtained scFv RU1 derived from scFv C1. RU1 showed a good capacity to neutralize the Cn2 toxin and whole venom of the scorpion Centruroides noxius. Previously, we had produced scFv LR, obtained from a different parental fragment (scFv 3F). LR also showed a similar neutralizing capacity. The simultaneous administration of both scFvs resulted in improved protection, which was translated as a rapid recovery of previously poisoned animals. The crystallographic structure of the ternary complex scFv LR-Cn2-scFv RU1 allowed us to identify the areas of interaction of both scFvs with the toxin, which correspond to non-overlapping sites. The epitope recognized by scFv RU1 seems to be related to a greater efficiency in the neutralization of the whole venom. In addition, the structural analysis of the complex helped us to explain the cross-reactivity of these scFvs and how they neutralize the venom. PMID:26589800

  13. Structural Considerations of a 20MW Multi-Rotor Wind Energy System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamieson, P.; Branney, M.

    2014-12-01

    The drive to upscale offshore wind turbines relates especially to possiblereductions in O&M and electrical interconnection costs per MW of installed capacity.Even with best current technologies, designs with rated capacity above about 3 MW are less cost effective exfactory per rated MW(turbine system costs) than smaller machines.Very large offshore wind turbines are thereforejustifiedprimarily by overall offshore project economics. Furthermore, continuing progress in materials and structures has been essential to avoid severe penalties in the power/mass ratio of large multi-MW machines.The multi-rotor concept employs many small rotors to maximise energy capture area withminimum systemvolume. Previous work has indicated that this can enablea very large reduction in the total weight and cost of rotors and drive trains compared to an equivalent large single rotor system.Thus the multi rotor concept may enable rated capacities of 20 MW or more at a single maintenancesite. Establishing the cost benefit of a multi rotor system requires examination of solutions for the support structure and yawing, ensuring aerodynamic losses from rotor interaction are not significant and that overall logistics, with much increased part count (more reliable components) and less consequence of single failuresare favourable. This paper addresses the viability of a support structure in respect of structural concept and likely weight as one necessary step in exploring the potential of the multi rotor concept.

  14. Structure and function of broadly reactive antibody PG16 reveal an H3 subdomain that mediates potent neutralization of HIV-1

    SciTech Connect

    Pejchal, Robert; Walker, Laura M.; Stanfield, Robyn L.; Phogat, Sanjay K.; Koff, Wayne C.; Poignard, Pascal; Burton, Dennis R.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2010-11-15

    Development of an effective vaccine against HIV-1 will likely require elicitation of broad and potent neutralizing antibodies against the trimeric surface envelope glycoprotein (Env). Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) PG9 and PG16 neutralize {approx}80% of HIV-1 isolates across all clades with extraordinary potency and target novel epitopes preferentially expressed on Env trimers. As these neutralization properties are ideal for a vaccine-elicited antibody response to HIV-1, their structural basis was investigated. The crystal structure of the antigen-binding fragment (Fab) of PG16 at 2.5 {angstrom} resolution revealed its unusually long, 28-residue, complementarity determining region (CDR) H3 forms a unique, stable subdomain that towers above the antibody surface. A 7-residue 'specificity loop' on the 'hammerhead' subdomain was identified that, when transplanted from PG16 to PG9 and vice versa, accounted for differences in the fine specificity and neutralization of these two mAbs. The PG16 electron density maps also revealed that a CDR H3 tyrosine was sulfated, which was confirmed for both PG9 (doubly) and PG16 (singly) by mass spectral analysis. We further showed that tyrosine sulfation plays a role in binding and neutralization. An N-linked glycan modification is observed in the variable light chain, but not required for antigen recognition. Further, the crystal structure of the PG9 light chain at 3.0 {angstrom} facilitated homology modeling to support the presence of these unusual features in PG9. Thus, PG9 and PG16 use unique structural features to mediate potent neutralization of HIV-1 that may be of utility in antibody engineering and for high-affinity recognition of a variety of therapeutic targets.

  15. VLA Observations of ζ Aurigae: Confirmation of the Slow Acceleration Wind Density Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harper, Graham M.; Brown, Alexander; Bennett, Philip D.; Baade, Robert; Walder, Rolf; Hummel, Christian A.

    2005-02-01

    structure does not appear to be typical of single stars with similar spectral types. This highlights the need for more comprehensive multiwavelength studies for both single stars, which have been sadly neglected, and other ζ Aur systems to determine if its wind properties are typical.

  16. Morphology of solar wind fluctuations and structure in the vicinity of the Sun from radio propagation measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woo, R.

    1995-01-01

    Radio propagation measurements represent a powerful means for remote probing of electron density and solar wind speed in the acceleration region of the solar wind not yet explored by in situ measurements. Recent investigations based on radio propagation measurements have led to considerable progress in our knowledge of the general morphology of solar wind fluctuations and structure, especially in terms of their relationship to solar wind properties that have been observed directly by fields and particles measurements, and to coronal features observed in white-light measurements. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the latest results on quasi-stationary structure covering the large scale variation of solar wind speed over the streamer belt and coronal hole regions, coronal streamers (source of slow solar wind) and their associated small-scale electron density structure, plumes, density and fractional or relative density fluctuations, and the spectral characteristics of the electron density fluctuations. The radio propagation measurements not only reveal new information on the structure near the Sun, but also show that the structure appears to undergo substantial evolution on its way to 0.3 AU, the closest radial distance for which direct in situ spacecraft measurements are available.

  17. Structural health and prognostics management for the enhancement of offshore wind turbine operations and maintenance strategies

    DOE PAGES

    Griffith, D. Todd; Yoder, Nathanael C.; Resor, Brian; ...

    2013-09-19

    Offshore wind turbines are an attractive source for clean and renewable energy for reasons including their proximity to population centers and higher capacity factors. One obstacle to the more widespread installation of offshore wind turbines in the USA, however, is that recent projections of offshore operations and maintenance costs vary from two to five times the land-based costs. One way in which these costs could be reduced is through use of a structural health and prognostics management (SHPM) system as part of a condition-based maintenance paradigm with smart loads management. Our paper contributes to the development of such strategies bymore » developing an initial roadmap for SHPM, with application to the blades. One of the key elements of the approach is a multiscale simulation approach developed to identify how the underlying physics of the system are affected by the presence of damage and how these changes manifest themselves in the operational response of a full turbine. A case study of a trailing edge disbond is analysed to demonstrate the multiscale sensitivity of damage approach and to show the potential life extension and increased energy capture that can be achieved using simple changes in the overall turbine control and loads management strategy. Finally, the integration of health monitoring information, economic considerations such as repair costs versus state of health, and a smart loads management methodology provides an initial roadmap for reducing operations and maintenance costs for offshore wind farms while increasing turbine availability and overall profit.« less

  18. Economics of online structural health monitoring of wind turbines: Cost benefit analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Dam, Jeremy; Bond, Leonard J.

    2015-03-01

    Operations and maintenance (O&M) costs have an average share over the lifetime of the turbine of approximately 20%-25% of the total levelized cost per kWh of electricity produced. Online structural health monitoring (OSHM) and condition-based maintenance (CBM) of wind turbine blades has the potential to reduce O&M costs and hence reduce the overall cost of wind energy. OSHM and CBM offer the potential to improve turbine blade life cycle management, limit the number of physical inspections, and reduce the potential for missed significant defects. An OSHM system would reduce the need for physical inspections, and have inspections occur only after problem detection takes place. In the economics of wind energy, failures and unplanned outages can cause significant downtime, particularly while waiting for the manufacturing and shipping of major parts. This paper will report a review and assessment of SHM technologies and a cost benefit analysis, which will examine whether the added costs associated with an OSHM system will give an adequate return on the investment. One method in which OSHM reduces costs is, in part, by converting corrective maintenance to preventative maintenance. This paper shows that under both best and worse conditions implementing an OSHM system is cost effective in more than 50% of the trials, which have been performed. Opportunities appear to exist to improve the economic justification for implementing OSHM.

  19. A (semi)-analytic view of the inner structure of Pulsar Wind Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandiera, R.; Olmi, B.; del Zanna, L.; Bucciantini, N.; Amato, E.

    2016-06-01

    When the wind of an active pulsar impacts on the surrounding medium, it forms a termination shock (TS) that feeds a relativistic and magnetized bubble, known as "Pulsar Wind Nebula". About thirty years ago, Kennel Coroniti investigated this scenario, but unfortunately their results failed to match the observed morphologies. That model was in principle correct, but its main drawback was the assumption of a spherical symmetry. More recently, numerical codes have been used to simulate in detail the dynamical structure of PWNe: they have shown complex morphologies, with a closer resemblance with observations. We show how Kennel Coroniti model can be generalized to two dimensions, by solving the jump equations for an oblique TS, and then the relativistic MHD equations in the downstream regions closest to the TS. In this way we can obtain two dimensional, steady state solutions, which in the inner regions agree quite well with the numerical ones. This method is semi-analytic and computationally rather light: given the shape of the TS (in an analytic form), the spatial behaviour of the physical quantities (like velocity, pressure, magnetic field) is derived. Maps of the synchrotron emission are also obtained. A final goal is to use semi-analytic modelling, together with numerical simulations, to improve inversion techniques, aimed at deriving the pulsar-wind parameters from observations.

  20. Structural health and prognostics management for the enhancement of offshore wind turbine operations and maintenance strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, D. Todd; Yoder, Nathanael C.; Resor, Brian; White, Jonathan; Paquette, Joshua

    2013-09-19

    Offshore wind turbines are an attractive source for clean and renewable energy for reasons including their proximity to population centers and higher capacity factors. One obstacle to the more widespread installation of offshore wind turbines in the USA, however, is that recent projections of offshore operations and maintenance costs vary from two to five times the land-based costs. One way in which these costs could be reduced is through use of a structural health and prognostics management (SHPM) system as part of a condition-based maintenance paradigm with smart loads management. Our paper contributes to the development of such strategies by developing an initial roadmap for SHPM, with application to the blades. One of the key elements of the approach is a multiscale simulation approach developed to identify how the underlying physics of the system are affected by the presence of damage and how these changes manifest themselves in the operational response of a full turbine. A case study of a trailing edge disbond is analysed to demonstrate the multiscale sensitivity of damage approach and to show the potential life extension and increased energy capture that can be achieved using simple changes in the overall turbine control and loads management strategy. Finally, the integration of health monitoring information, economic considerations such as repair costs versus state of health, and a smart loads management methodology provides an initial roadmap for reducing operations and maintenance costs for offshore wind farms while increasing turbine availability and overall profit.

  1. Effect of coherent structures on energetic particle intensity in the solar wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tessein, Jeffrey A.

    Solar energetic particles in the solar wind are accelerated in both solar flares and shocks assocated with fast coronal mass ejections. They follow the interplanetary magnetic field and, upon reaching Earth, have implications for space weather. Space weather affects astronaut health and orbiting equipment through radiation hazard and electrical infrastructure on the ground with ground induced currents. Economic im- pacts include disruption of GPS and redirection of commercial polar flights due to a dangerous radiation environment over the poles. By studying how these particles interact with the magnetic fields we can better predict onset times and diffusion of these events. We find, using superposed epoch analysis and conditional statisitics from spacecraft observations that there is a strong association between energetic particles in the solar wind and magnetic discontinuities. This may be related to turbulent dissipa- tion mechanisms in which coherent structures in the solar wind seem to be preferred sites of heating, plasma instabilites and dissipation. In the case of energetic particles, magnetic reconnection and transport in flux tubes are likely to play a role. Though we focus on data away from large shocks, trapping can occur in the downstream region of shocks due to the preponderance of compressive turbulence in these areas. This thesis lays the ground work for the results described above with an intro- duction to solar wind and heliospheric physics in Chapter 1. Chapter 2 is an intro- duction to the acceleration mechanisms that give rise to observed energetic particle events. Chapter 3 describes various data analysis techniques and statistics that are bread and butter when analyzing spacecraft data for turbulence and energetic particle studies. Chapter 4 is a digression that covers preliminary studies that were done on the side; scale dependent kurtosis, ergodic studies and initial conditions for simulations. Chapter 5 contains that central published

  2. Associations between Small-scale Structure in Local Galactic Neutral Hydrogen and in the Cosmic Microwave Background Observed by PLANCK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verschuur, Gerrit L.

    2015-11-01

    High-resolution galactic neutral hydrogen (HI) data obtained with the Green Bank Telescope (GBT) over 56 square degrees of sky around l = 132°, b = 25° are compared with small-scale structure in the Cosmic Microwave Background observed by PLANCK, specifically at 143 and 857 GHz, as well as with 100 μm observations from the IRIS survey. The analysis uses data in 13 2° × 2° sub-areas found in the IRSA database at IPAC. The results confirm what has been reported previously; nearby galactic HI features and high-frequency continuum sources believed to be cosmological are in fact clearly associated. While several attempts strongly suggest that the associations are statistically significant, the key to understanding the phenomenon lies in the fact that in any given area HI is associated with cirrus dust at certain HI velocities and with 143 GHz features at different velocities. At the same time, for the 13 sub-areas studied, there is very little overlap between the dust and 143 GHz features. The data do not imply that the HI itself gives rise to the high-frequency continuum emission. Rather, they appear to indicate undiagnosed brightness enhancements indirectly associated with the HI. If low density interstellar electrons concentrated into clumps, or observed in directions where their integrated line-of-sight column densities are greater than the background in a manner similar to the phenomena that give rise to structure in diffuse HI structure, they will profoundly affect attempts to create a foreground electron mask used for processing PLANCK as well as WMAP data.

  3. ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN SMALL-SCALE STRUCTURE IN LOCAL GALACTIC NEUTRAL HYDROGEN AND IN THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND OBSERVED BY PLANCK

    SciTech Connect

    Verschuur, Gerrit L.

    2015-11-01

    High-resolution galactic neutral hydrogen (HI) data obtained with the Green Bank Telescope (GBT) over 56 square degrees of sky around l = 132°, b = 25° are compared with small-scale structure in the Cosmic Microwave Background observed by PLANCK, specifically at 143 and 857 GHz, as well as with 100 μm observations from the IRIS survey. The analysis uses data in 13 2° × 2° sub-areas found in the IRSA database at IPAC. The results confirm what has been reported previously; nearby galactic HI features and high-frequency continuum sources believed to be cosmological are in fact clearly associated. While several attempts strongly suggest that the associations are statistically significant, the key to understanding the phenomenon lies in the fact that in any given area HI is associated with cirrus dust at certain HI velocities and with 143 GHz features at different velocities. At the same time, for the 13 sub-areas studied, there is very little overlap between the dust and 143 GHz features. The data do not imply that the HI itself gives rise to the high-frequency continuum emission. Rather, they appear to indicate undiagnosed brightness enhancements indirectly associated with the HI. If low density interstellar electrons concentrated into clumps, or observed in directions where their integrated line-of-sight column densities are greater than the background in a manner similar to the phenomena that give rise to structure in diffuse HI structure, they will profoundly affect attempts to create a foreground electron mask used for processing PLANCK as well as WMAP data.

  4. The Geometry of the Stellar Winds and Shock Structure in V444 Cyg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, Jennifer

    Given the importance of mass loss in the evolution of massive stars, it is imperative that we improve our understanding of the processes by which the outer layers of a star may be lost to its environment. The eclipsing nature of the Wolf-Rayet binary star V444 Cyg provides us with a unique opportunity to study the detailed characteristics of the radiatively driven mass loss in colliding-wind systems. Our multi-technique study combines X-ray spectroscopic and optical spectropolarimetric methods to describe the three-dimensional nature of the shock and wind structure in V444 Cyg. In support of this project, we have won new X-ray observations of V444 Cyg using the XMM-Newton telescope through the Guest Observer program in AO-11 (proposal ID #069281). We will combine these new data with six archival XMM-Newton observations and with optical spectropolarimetry obtained with the newly refurbished Half-Wave Spectropolarimeter (HPOL) at Ritter Observatory in Toledo, OH and archival data from both HPOL and the ESPaDOnS instrument at CFHT. Detailed X-ray light curve analysis and modeling of the X-ray spectra will constrain the location of the wind collision region and the mass-loss properties of the system. Polarized light curves in optical broad bands and emission lines combined with spectropolarimetric line profile analysis and radiative transfer simulations will trace the geometrical structure of various emission and scattering regions within the winds. Joint analysis of these two data sets will allow us to construct a self-consistent, physically realistic three-dimensional model of the complex winds in V444 Cyg and quantify its mass loss characteristics. We request support for data analysis and interpretation of our four new XMM-Newton observations. This will consist primarily of salaries for program personnel, who will analyze the new data in conjunction with previous X-ray results, carry out detailed radiation-hydrodynamic simulations to investigate the effect of

  5. Structure of Turbulence in Katabatic Flows Below and Above the Wind-Speed Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grachev, Andrey A.; Leo, Laura S.; Sabatino, Silvana Di; Fernando, Harindra J. S.; Pardyjak, Eric R.; Fairall, Christopher W.

    2016-06-01

    Measurements of small-scale turbulence made in the atmospheric boundary layer over complex terrain during the Mountain Terrain Atmospheric Modeling and Observations (MATERHORN) Program are used to describe the structure of turbulence in katabatic flows. Turbulent and mean meteorological data were continuously measured on four towers deployed along the east lower slope (2-4°) of Granite Mountain near Salt Lake City in Utah, USA. The multi-level (up to seven) observations made during a 30-day long MATERHORN field campaign in September-October 2012 allowed the study of temporal and spatial structure of katabatic flows in detail, and herein we report turbulence statistics (e.g., fluxes, variances, spectra, and cospectra) and their variations in katabatic flow. Observed vertical profiles show steep gradients near the surface, but in the layer above the slope jet the vertical variability is smaller. It is found that the vertical (normal to the slope) momentum flux and horizontal (along-slope) heat flux in a slope-following coordinate system change their sign below and above the wind maximum of a katabatic flow. The momentum flux is directed downward (upward) whereas the along-slope heat flux is downslope (upslope) below (above) the wind maximum. This suggests that the position of the jet-speed maximum can be obtained by linear interpolation between positive and negative values of the momentum flux (or the along-slope heat flux) to derive the height where the flux becomes zero. It is shown that the standard deviations of all wind-speed components (and therefore of the turbulent kinetic energy) and the dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy have a local minimum, whereas the standard deviation of air temperature has an absolute maximum at the height of wind-speed maximum. We report several cases when the destructive effect of vertical heat flux is completely cancelled by the generation of turbulence due to the along-slope heat flux. Turbulence above the wind

  6. Inverse Load Calculation of Wind Turbine Support Structures - A Numerical Verification Using the Comprehensive Simulation Code FAST: Preprint (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    Pahn, T.; Jonkman, J.; Rolges, R.; Robertson, A.

    2012-11-01

    Physically measuring the dynamic responses of wind turbine support structures enables the calculation of the applied loads using an inverse procedure. In this process, inverse means deriving the inputs/forces from the outputs/responses. This paper presents results of a numerical verification of such an inverse load calculation. For this verification, the comprehensive simulation code FAST is used. FAST accounts for the coupled dynamics of wind inflow, aerodynamics, elasticity and turbine controls. Simulations are run using a 5-MW onshore wind turbine model with a tubular tower. Both the applied loads due to the instantaneous wind field and the resulting system responses are known from the simulations. Using the system responses as inputs to the inverse calculation, the applied loads are calculated, which in this case are the rotor thrust forces. These forces are compared to the rotor thrust forces known from the FAST simulations. The results of these comparisons are presented to assess the accuracy of the inverse calculation. To study the influences of turbine controls, load cases in normal operation between cut-in and rated wind speed, near rated wind speed and between rated and cut-out wind speed are chosen. The presented study shows that the inverse load calculation is capable of computing very good estimates of the rotor thrust. The accuracy of the inverse calculation does not depend on the control activity of the wind turbine.

  7. Structural Basis of HIV-1 Neutralization by Affinity Matured Fabs Directed against the Internal Trimeric Coiled-Coil of gp41

    SciTech Connect

    Gustchina, Elena; Li, Mi; Louis, John M.; Anderson, D.Eric; Lloyd, John; Frisch, Christian; Bewley, Carole A.; Gustchina, Alla; Wlodawer, Alexander; Clore, G.Marius

    2010-12-03

    The conserved internal trimeric coiled-coil of the N-heptad repeat (N-HR) of HIV-1 gp41 is transiently exposed during the fusion process by forming a pre-hairpin intermediate, thus representing an attractive target for the design of fusion inhibitors and neutralizing antibodies. In previous studies we reported a series of broadly neutralizing mini-antibodies derived from a synthetic naive human combinatorial antibody library by panning against a mimetic of the trimeric N-HR coiled coil, followed by affinity maturation using targeted diversification of the CDR-H2 loop. Here we report crystal structures of the N-HR mimetic 5-Helix with two Fabs that represent the extremes of this series: Fab 8066 is broadly neutralizing across a wide panel of B and C type HIV-1 viruses, whereas Fab 8062 is non-neutralizing. The crystal structures reveal important differences in the conformations of the CDR-H2 loops in the complexes that propagate into other regions of the antigen-antibody interface, and suggest that both neutralization properties and affinity for the target can be attributed, at least in part, to the differences in the interactions of the CDR-H2 loops with the antigen. Furthermore, modeling of the complex of an N-HR trimer with three Fabs suggests that the CDR-H2 loop may be involved in close intermolecular contacts between neighboring antibody molecules, and that such contacts may hinder the formation of complexes between the N-HR trimer and more than one antibody molecule depending on the conformation of the bound CDR-H2 loop which is defined by its interactions with antigen. Comparison with the crystal structure of the complex of 5-Helix with another neutralizing monoclonal antibody known as D5, derived using an entirely different antibody library and panning procedure, reveals remarkable convergence in the optimal sequence and conformation of the CDR-H2 loop.

  8. The neutral surface layer above rough surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smedman, Ann-Sofi; Sahlee, Erik

    2014-05-01

    It is generally accepted that turbulent fluxes (momentum and scalar fluxes) are approx. constant with height above horizontal surfaces with low roughness. But what will happen when the roughness sub-layer is large as found over cities, forests and rough seas? In a study of the kinematic structure of the near neutral atmospheric surface layer, Högström, Hunt and Smedman, 2002, it was demonstrated that a model with detached eddies from above the surface layer impinging on to the surface (Hunt and Morison, 2000) could explain some of the observed features in the neutral atmospheric boundary layer. Thus the detached eddy model proved successful in explaining the dynamic structure of the near neutral atmospheric surface layer, especially the shape of the spectra of the wind components and scalars and corresponding fluxes. Here we make the hypothesis that the detached-eddy model can also be used to explain the experimental results related to the 3-dimensional turbulence structure above rough surfaces. Measurements are taken both over land (grass and forest) and over sea (Baltic Sea and hurricane Fabian in the Atlantic) above the roughness sub-layer. Analysis of the turbulence structure shows a striking similarity between the different sites. Hunt, J.C.R and Morrison, J.F., 2000: Eddy structure in turbulent boundary layers, Euro. J. Mech. B-Fluids, 19, 673-694. Högström, U., Hunt, J.C.R., and Smedman, A., 2002: Theory and measurements for turbulence spectra and variances in the atmospheric neutral surface layer, Bound.-Layer Meteorol., 103,101-124.

  9. Structural dynamic testing of composite propfan blades for a cruise missile wind tunnel model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elgin, Stephen D.; Sutliff, Thomas J.

    1993-02-01

    The Naval Weapons Center at China Lake, California is currently evaluating a counter rotating propfan system as a means of propulsion for the next generation of cruise missiles. The details and results of a structural dynamic test program are presented for scale model graphite-epoxy composite propfan blades. These blades are intended for use on a cruise missile wind tunnel model. Both dynamic characteristics and strain operating limits of the blades are presented. Complications associated with high strain level fatigue testing methods are also discussed.

  10. Development of Self-Powered Wireless Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) for Wind Turbine Blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Dong-Won

    Wind turbine blade failure can lead to unexpected power interruptions. Monitoring wind turbine blades is important to ensure seamless electricity delivery from power generation to consumers. Structural health monitoring (SHM) enables early recognition of structural problems so that the safety and reliability of operation can be enhanced. This dissertation focuses on the development of a wireless SHM system for wind turbine blades. The sensor is comprised of a piezoelectric energy harvester (EH) and a telemetry unit. The sensor node is mounted on the blade surface. As the blade rotates, the blade flexes, and the energy harvester captures the strain energy on the blade surface. Once sufficient electricity is captured, a pulse is sent from the sensing node to a gateway. Then, a central monitoring algorithm processes a series of pulses received from all three blades. This wireless SHM, which uses commercially available components, can be retrofitted to existing turbines. The harvested energy for sensing can be estimated in terms of two factors: the available strain energy and conversion efficiency. The available strain energy was evaluated using the FAST (Fatigue, Aerodynamics, Structures, and Turbulence) simulator. The conversion efficiency was studied analytically and experimentally. An experimental set-up was designed to mimic the expected strain frequency and amplitude for rotor blades. From a series of experiments, the efficiency of a piezoelectric EH at a typical rotor speed (0.2 Hz) was approximately 0.5%. The power requirement for sending one measurement (280 muJ) can be achieved in 10 minutes. Designing a detection algorithm is challenging due to this low sampling rate. A new sensing approach-the timing of pulses from the transmitter-was introduced. This pulse timing, which is tied to the charging time, is indicative of the structural health. The SHM system exploits the inherent triple redundancy of the three blades. The timing data of the three blades are

  11. Structural and functional plasticity specific to musical training with wind instruments.

    PubMed

    Choi, Uk-Su; Sung, Yul-Wan; Hong, Sujin; Chung, Jun-Young; Ogawa, Seiji

    2015-01-01

    Numerous neuroimaging studies have shown structural and functional changes resulting from musical training. Among these studies, changes in primary sensory areas are mostly related to motor functions. In this study, we looked for some similar functional and structural changes in other functional modalities, such as somatosensory function, by examining the effects of musical training with wind instruments. We found significant changes in two aspects of neuroplasticity, cortical thickness, and resting-state neuronal networks. A group of subjects with several years of continuous musical training and who are currently playing in university wind ensembles showed differences in cortical thickness in lip- and tongue-related brain areas vs. non-music playing subjects. Cortical thickness in lip-related brain areas was significantly thicker and that in tongue-related areas was significantly thinner in the music playing group compared with that in the non-music playing group. Association analysis of lip-related areas in the music playing group showed that the increase in cortical thickness was caused by musical training. In addition, seed-based correlation analysis showed differential activation in the precentral gyrus and supplementary motor areas (SMA) between the music and non-music playing groups. These results suggest that high-intensity training with specific musical instruments could induce structural changes in related anatomical areas and could also generate a new functional neuronal network in the brain.

  12. Structural and functional plasticity specific to musical training with wind instruments

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Uk-Su; Sung, Yul-Wan; Hong, Sujin; Chung, Jun-Young; Ogawa, Seiji

    2015-01-01

    Numerous neuroimaging studies have shown structural and functional changes resulting from musical training. Among these studies, changes in primary sensory areas are mostly related to motor functions. In this study, we looked for some similar functional and structural changes in other functional modalities, such as somatosensory function, by examining the effects of musical training with wind instruments. We found significant changes in two aspects of neuroplasticity, cortical thickness, and resting-state neuronal networks. A group of subjects with several years of continuous musical training and who are currently playing in university wind ensembles showed differences in cortical thickness in lip- and tongue-related brain areas vs. non-music playing subjects. Cortical thickness in lip-related brain areas was significantly thicker and that in tongue-related areas was significantly thinner in the music playing group compared with that in the non-music playing group. Association analysis of lip-related areas in the music playing group showed that the increase in cortical thickness was caused by musical training. In addition, seed-based correlation analysis showed differential activation in the precentral gyrus and supplementary motor areas (SMA) between the music and non-music playing groups. These results suggest that high-intensity training with specific musical instruments could induce structural changes in related anatomical areas and could also generate a new functional neuronal network in the brain. PMID:26578939

  13. Wind tunnel investigation of the effect of high relative velocities on the structural integrity of birds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bresnahan, D. L.

    1972-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted in a supersonic wind tunnel to determine the effect a sudden high velocity headwind had on the physical deformation and structural breakup characteristics of birds. Several sizes of recently killed birds were dropped into the test section at free-stream Mach numbers ranging from 0.2 to 0.8 and photographed with high-speed motion-picture cameras. These conditions simulated flow conditions encountered when birds are ingested into the inlets of high speed aircraft, thereby constituting a safety hazard to the aircraft and its occupants. The investigation shows that, over the range of headwind conditions tested, the birds remained structurally intact and did not suffer any appreciable deformation or structural breakup.

  14. Structures of HIV-1-Env V1V2 with broadly neutralizing antibodies reveal commonalities that enable vaccine design

    PubMed Central

    Gorman, Jason; Soto, Cinque; Yang, Max M.; Davenport, Thaddeus M.; Guttman, Miklos; Bailer, Robert T.; Chambers, Michael; Chuang, Gwo-Yu; DeKosky, Brandon J.; Doria-Rose, Nicole A.; Druz, Aliaksandr; Ernandes, Michael J.; Georgiev, Ivelin S.; Jarosinski, Marissa C.; Joyce, M. Gordon; Lemmin, Thomas M.; Leung, Sherman; Louder, Mark K.; McDaniel, Jonathan R.; Narpala, Sandeep; Pancera, Marie; Stuckey, Jonathan; Wu, Xueling; Yang, Yongping; Zhang, Baoshan; Zhou, Tongqing; Mullikin, James C.; Baxa, Ulrich; Georgiou, George; McDermott, Adrian B.; Bonsignori, Mattia; Haynes, Barton F.; Moore, Penny L.; Morris, Lynn; Lee, Kelly K.; Shapiro, Lawrence; Mascola, John R.; Kwong, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) against HIV-1-Env V1V2 arise in multiple donors. However, atomic-level interactions had only been determined with antibodies from a single donor, making commonalities in recognition uncertain. Here we report the co-crystal structure of V1V2 with antibody CH03 from a second donor and model Env interactions of antibody CAP256-VRC26 from a third. These V1V2-directed bNAbs utilized strand-strand interactions between a protruding antibody loop and a V1V2 strand, but differed in their N-glycan recognition. Ontogeny analysis indicated protruding loops to develop early, with glycan interactions maturing over time. Altogether, the multidonor information suggested V1V2-directed bNAbs to form an ‘extended class’, for which we engineered ontogeny-specific antigens: Env trimers with chimeric V1V2s that interacted with inferred ancestor and intermediate antibodies. The ontogeny-based design of vaccine antigens described here may provide a general means for eliciting antibodies of a desired class. PMID:26689967

  15. Learning the Relationship between the Primary Structure of HIV Envelope Glycoproteins and Neutralization Activity of Particular Antibodies by Using Artificial Neural Networks

    PubMed Central

    Buiu, Cătălin; Putz, Mihai V.; Avram, Speranta

    2016-01-01

    The dependency between the primary structure of HIV envelope glycoproteins (ENV) and the neutralization data for given antibodies is very complicated and depends on a large number of factors, such as the binding affinity of a given antibody for a given ENV protein, and the intrinsic infection kinetics of the viral strain. This paper presents a first approach to learning these dependencies using an artificial feedforward neural network which is trained to learn from experimental data. The results presented here demonstrate that the trained neural network is able to generalize on new viral strains and to predict reliable values of neutralizing activities of given antibodies against HIV-1. PMID:27727189

  16. A bow-shaped thermal structure traveling upstream of the zonal wind flow of Venus atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taguchi, Makoto; Fukuhara, Tetsuya; Imamura, Takeshi; Kouyama, Toru; Nakamura, Masato; Sato, Takao M.; Ueno, Munetaka; Suzuki, Makoto; Iwagami, Naomoto; Sato, Mitsuteru; Hashimoto, George L.; Takagi, Seiko; Akatsuki Science Team

    2016-10-01

    The Longwave Infrared Camera (LIR) onboard the Japanese Venus orbiter Akatsuki acquires a snap shot of Venus in the middle infrared region, and provides a brightness temperature distribution at the cloud-top altitudes of about 65 km. Hundreds of images taken by LIR have been transferred to the ground since the successful Venus orbit insertion of Akatsuki on Dec. 7, 2015. Here we report that a bow shaped thermal structure extending from the northern high latitudes to the southern high latitudes was found in the brightness temperature map on Dec. 7, 2015, and that it lasted for four days at least surprisingly at almost same geographical position. The bow shape structure looks symmetrical with the equator, and consists of a high temperature region in east or upstream of the background strong westward wind or the super rotation of the Venus atmosphere followed by a low temperature region in west with an amplitude of 5 K. It appeared close to the evening terminator in the dayside, and seems not to have stayed in the same local time rather to have co-rotated with the slowly rotating ground where the western part of Aphrodite Continent was below the center of the bow shape. Meridionally aligned dark filaments similar to the bow shape structure in shape but in much smaller scale were also identified in the brightness temperature map on Dec. 7, and they propagated upstream of the zonal wind as well. The bow shape structure disappeared when LIR observed the same local time and longitude in the earliest opportunity on Jan. 16, 2016. Similar events, though their amplitudes were less than 1 K, were found on Apr. 15 and 26, 2016, but they appeared in different local times and longitudes. A simulation of a gravity wave generated in the lower atmosphere and propagating upward reproduces the observed bow shape structure. The bow shape structure could be a signature of transferring momentum from the ground to the upper atmosphere.

  17. Enhanced humanization and affinity maturation of neutralizing anti-hepatitis B virus preS1 antibody based on antigen-antibody complex structure.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Hong; Gripon, Philippe; Bouezzedine, Fidaa; Jeong, Mun Sik; Chi, Seung-Wook; Ryu, Seong-Eon; Hong, Hyo Jeong

    2015-01-16

    To improve a previously constructed broadly neutralizing hepatitis B virus (HBV)-specific preS1 humanized antibody (HzKR127), we further humanized it through specificity-determining residue (SDR) grafting. Moreover, we improved affinity by mutating two residues in heavy-chain complementarity-determining regions (CDR), on the basis of the crystal structure of the antigen-antibody complex. HzKR127-3.2 exhibited 2.5-fold higher affinity and enhanced virus-neutralizing activity compared to the original KR127 antibody and showed less immunogenic potential than HzKR127. Enhanced virus-neutralizing activity was achieved by the increased association rate, providing insights into engineering potent antibody therapeutics for HBV immunoprophylaxis. HzKR127-3.2 may be a good candidate for HBV immunoprophylaxis.

  18. Influence of electron-neutral collisions on the Compton scattering cross section and the Salpeter structure factor in warm collisional plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Mi-Young; Yoon, Jung-Sik; Jung, Young-Dae

    2015-03-15

    The electron-neutral collision effects on the Compton scattering process are investigated in warm collisional plasmas. The Compton scattering cross section in warm collisional plasmas is obtained by the Salpeter structure factor with the fluctuation-dissipation theorem and the plasma dielectric function as a function of the electron-neutral collision frequency, Debye length, and wave number. It is shown that the influence of electron-neutral collision strongly suppresses the Compton scattering cross section in warm collisional plasmas. It is also found that the electron-neutral collision effect on the differential Compton scattering cross section is more significant in forward scattering directions. We show that the differential Compton scattering cross section has a maximum at the scattering angle φ=π/2. In addition, we find that the electron-neutral collision effect on the total Compton scattering cross section increases with increasing Debye length and wave number. The variation of the Compton scattering cross section due to the change of collision frequency and plasma parameters is also discussed.

  19. Brillouin Corrosion Expansion Sensors for Steel Reinforced Concrete Structures Using a Fiber Optic Coil Winding Method

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xuefeng; Gong, Peng; Qiao, Guofu; Lu, Jie; Lv, Xingjun; Ou, Jinping

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a novel kind of method to monitor corrosion expansion of steel rebars in steel reinforced concrete structures named fiber optic coil winding method is proposed, discussed and tested. It is based on the fiber optical Brillouin sensing technique. Firstly, a strain calibration experiment is designed and conducted to obtain the strain coefficient of single mode fiber optics. Results have shown that there is a good linear relationship between Brillouin frequency and applied strain. Then, three kinds of novel fiber optical Brillouin corrosion expansion sensors with different fiber optic coil winding packaging schemes are designed. Sensors were embedded into concrete specimens to monitor expansion strain caused by steel rebar corrosion, and their performance was studied in a designed electrochemical corrosion acceleration experiment. Experimental results have shown that expansion strain along the fiber optic coil winding area can be detected and measured by the three kinds of sensors with different measurement range during development the corrosion. With the assumption of uniform corrosion, diameters of corrosion steel rebars were obtained using calculated average strains. A maximum expansion strain of 6,738 με was monitored. Furthermore, the uniform corrosion analysis model was established and the evaluation formula to evaluate mass loss rate of steel rebar under a given corrosion rust expansion rate was derived. The research has shown that three kinds of Brillouin sensors can be used to monitor the steel rebar corrosion expansion of reinforced concrete structures with good sensitivity, accuracy and monitoring range, and can be applied to monitor different levels of corrosion. By means of this kind of monitoring technique, quantitative corrosion expansion monitoring can be carried out, with the virtues of long durability, real-time monitoring and quasi-distribution monitoring. PMID:22346672

  20. Structural health monitoring of wind turbine blades : SE 265 Final Project.

    SciTech Connect

    Barkley, W. C.; Jacobs, Laura D.; Rutherford, A. C.; Puckett, Anthony

    2006-03-23

    ACME Wind Turbine Corporation has contacted our dynamic analysis firm regarding structural health monitoring of their wind turbine blades. ACME has had several failures in previous years. Examples are shown in Figure 1. These failures have resulted in economic loss for the company due to down time of the turbines (lost revenue) and repair costs. Blade failures can occur in several modes, which may depend on the type of construction and load history. Cracking and delamination are some typical modes of blade failure. ACME warranties its turbines and wishes to decrease the number of blade failures they have to repair and replace. The company wishes to implement a real time structural health monitoring system in order to better understand when blade replacement is necessary. Because of warranty costs incurred to date, ACME is interested in either changing the warranty period for the blades in question or predicting imminent failure before it occurs. ACME's current practice is to increase the number of physical inspections when blades are approaching the end of their fatigue lives. Implementation of an in situ monitoring system would eliminate or greatly reduce the need for such physical inspections. Another benefit of such a monitoring system is that the life of any given component could be extended since real conditions would be monitored. The SHM system designed for ACME must be able to operate while the wind turbine is in service. This means that wireless communication options will likely be implemented. Because blade failures occur due to cyclic stresses in the blade material, the sensing system will focus on monitoring strain at various points.

  1. Vertical structure of cross-shore currents from wind-induced setup

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gelfenbaum, Guy

    1991-01-01

    Most of the storm surge models presented in the literature are vertically averaged and calculate only the sea-surface elevation and mean flow. Whereas these models may be adequate for predicting storm surge heights for flooding purposes, they neglect the vertical structure of the flow and the boundary shear stress, which are both critical for predicting cross-shore sediment transport. The steady and horizontally uniform equations of motion are used here to compute the sea-surface slope, the vertical structure of the cross-shore currents, and the boundary shear stress in a shallow wind dominated environment. The steady state model developed here balances the pressure gradient and the stress divergence, resulting in sea-surface slope and associated pressure gradient in the opposite direction of the wind, thus inducing a reversal in the currents near the bed. The Reynolds stress is modeled with a depth-dependent turbulent diffusion coefficient so that both the boundary shear stress and the velocity field are calculated, avoiding the need to set a bottom drag coefficient. Input parameters for this model are simply the wind stress, the water depth, and z0, the bed roughness parameter. A sensitivity test of the model results to various values of z0 indicates that large changes in z0 cause only minor differences in the surface slope, and moderate differences in the velocity field and boundary shear stress. Given the sediment size distribution and the small scale morphology of the bed, a reasonable estimate of z0 may be obtained and the above uncertainty will be nearly eliminated.

  2. Brillouin corrosion expansion sensors for steel reinforced concrete structures using a fiber optic coil winding method.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xuefeng; Gong, Peng; Qiao, Guofu; Lu, Jie; Lv, Xingjun; Ou, Jinping

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a novel kind of method to monitor corrosion expansion of steel rebars in steel reinforced concrete structures named fiber optic coil winding method is proposed, discussed and tested. It is based on the fiber optical Brillouin sensing technique. Firstly, a strain calibration experiment is designed and conducted to obtain the strain coefficient of single mode fiber optics. Results have shown that there is a good linear relationship between Brillouin frequency and applied strain. Then, three kinds of novel fiber optical Brillouin corrosion expansion sensors with different fiber optic coil winding packaging schemes are designed. Sensors were embedded into concrete specimens to monitor expansion strain caused by steel rebar corrosion, and their performance was studied in a designed electrochemical corrosion acceleration experiment. Experimental results have shown that expansion strain along the fiber optic coil winding area can be detected and measured by the three kinds of sensors with different measurement range during development the corrosion. With the assumption of uniform corrosion, diameters of corrosion steel rebars were obtained using calculated average strains. A maximum expansion strain of 6,738 με was monitored. Furthermore, the uniform corrosion analysis model was established and the evaluation formula to evaluate mass loss rate of steel rebar under a given corrosion rust expansion rate was derived. The research has shown that three kinds of Brillouin sensors can be used to monitor the steel rebar corrosion expansion of reinforced concrete structures with good sensitivity, accuracy and monitoring range, and can be applied to monitor different levels of corrosion. By means of this kind of monitoring technique, quantitative corrosion expansion monitoring can be carried out, with the virtues of long durability, real-time monitoring and quasi-distribution monitoring.

  3. A Study of the Structure of the Source Region of the Solar Wind in Support of a Solar Probe Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habbal , Shadia R.

    1998-01-01

    Despite the richness of the information about the physical properties and the structure of the solar wind provided by the Ulysses and SOHO observations, fundamental questions regarding the nature of the coronal heating mechanisms, their source, and the manifestations of the fast and slow solar wind, still remain unanswered. The last unexplored frontier to establish the connection between the structure and dynamics of the solar atmosphere, its extension into interplanetary space, and the mechanisms responsible for the evolution of the solar wind, is the corona between 1 and 30 R(sub s). A Solar Probe mission offers an unprecedented opportunity to explore this frontier. The uniqueness of this mission stems from its trajectory in a plane perpendicular to the ecliptic which reaches within 9 R(sub s), of the solar surface over the poles and 3 - 9 R(sub s), at the equator. With a complement of simultaneous in situ and remote sensing observations, this mission is destined to have a significant impact on our understanding of the fundamental processes that heat the corona and drive the solar wind. The Solar Probe should be able to detect remnants and signatures of the processes which heat the corona and accelerate the solar wind. The primary objective of this proposal was to explore the structure of the different source regions of the solar wind through complementary observational and theoretical studies in support of a Solar Probe mission.

  4. Structural damage detection in wind turbine blades based on time series representations of dynamic responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoell, Simon; Omenzetter, Piotr

    2015-03-01

    The development of large wind turbines that enable to harvest energy more efficiently is a consequence of the increasing demand for renewables in the world. To optimize the potential energy output, light and flexible wind turbine blades (WTBs) are designed. However, the higher flexibilities and lower buckling capacities adversely affect the long-term safety and reliability of WTBs, and thus the increased operation and maintenance costs reduce the expected revenue. Effective structural health monitoring techniques can help to counteract this by limiting inspection efforts and avoiding unplanned maintenance actions. Vibration-based methods deserve high attention due to the moderate instrumentation efforts and the applicability for in-service measurements. The present paper proposes the use of cross-correlations (CCs) of acceleration responses between sensors at different locations for structural damage detection in WTBs. CCs were in the past successfully applied for damage detection in numerical and experimental beam structures while utilizing only single lags between the signals. The present approach uses vectors of CC coefficients for multiple lags between measurements of two selected sensors taken from multiple possible combinations o