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Sample records for neutrino flux etude

  1. Muon and neutrino fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, P. G.; Protheroe, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    The result of a new calculation of the atmospheric muon and neutrino fluxes and the energy spectrum of muon-neutrinos produced in individual extensive air showers (EAS) initiated by proton and gamma-ray primaries is reported. Also explained is the possibility of detecting atmospheric nu sub mu's due to gamma-rays from these sources.

  2. Extraterrestrial high energy neutrino fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.

    1979-01-01

    Using the most recent cosmic ray spectra up to 2x10 to the 20th power eV, production spectra of high energy neutrinos from cosmic ray interactions with interstellar gas and extragalactic interactions of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays with 3K universal background photons are presented and discussed. Estimates of the fluxes from cosmic diffuse sources and the nearby quasar 3C273 are made using the generic relationship between secondary neutrinos and gammas and using recent gamma ray satellite data. These gamma ray data provide important upper limits on cosmological neutrinos. Quantitative estimates of the observability of high energy neutrinos from the inner galaxy and 3C273 above atmospheric background for a DUMAND type detector are discussed in the context of the Weinberg-Salam model with sq sin theta omega = 0.2 and including the atmospheric background from the decay of charmed mesons. Constraints on cosmological high energy neutrino production models are also discussed. It appears that important high energy neutrino astronomy may be possible with DUMAND, but very long observing times are required.

  3. On LBNE neutrino flux systematic uncertainties

    SciTech Connect

    Lebrun, Paul L. G.; Hylen, James; Marchionni, Alberto; Fields, Laura; Bashyal, Amit; Park, Seongtae; Watson, Blake

    2015-10-15

    The systematic uncertainties in the neutrino flux of the Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment, due to alignment uncertanties and tolerances of the neutrino beamline components, are estimated. In particular residual systematics are evaluated in the determination of the neutrino flux at the far detector, assuming that the experiment will be equipped with a near detector with the same target material of the far detector, thereby canceling most of the uncertainties from hadroproduction and neutrino cross sections. This calculation is based on a detailed Geant4-based model of the neutrino beam line that includes the target, two focusing horns, the decay pipe and ancillary items, such as shielding.

  4. Measurement of neutrino flux from neutrino-electron elastic scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J.; Aliaga, L.; Altinok, O.; Bellantoni, L.; Bercellie, A.; Betancourt, M.; Bodek, A.; Bravar, A.; Budd, H.; Cai, T.; Carneiro, M. F.; Christy, M. E.; Chvojka, J.; da Motta, H.; Dytman, S. A.; Díaz, G. A.; Eberly, B.; Felix, J.; Fields, L.; Fine, R.; Gago, A. M.; Galindo, R.; Ghosh, A.; Golan, T.; Gran, R.; Harris, D. A.; Higuera, A.; Kleykamp, J.; Kordosky, M.; Le, T.; Maher, E.; Manly, S.; Mann, W. A.; Marshall, C. M.; Martinez Caicedo, D. A.; McFarland, K. S.; McGivern, C. L.; McGowan, A. M.; Messerly, B.; Miller, J.; Mislivec, A.; Morfín, J. G.; Mousseau, J.; Naples, D.; Nelson, J. K.; Norrick, A.; Nuruzzaman; Osta, J.; Paolone, V.; Patrick, C. E.; Perdue, G. N.; Rakotondravohitra, L.; Ramirez, M. A.; Ray, H.; Ren, L.; Rimal, D.; Rodrigues, P. A.; Ruterbories, D.; Schellman, H.; Solano Salinas, C. J.; Tagg, N.; Tice, B. G.; Valencia, E.; Walton, T.; Wolcott, J.; Wospakrik, M.; Zavala, G.; Zhang, D.; Miner ν A Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    Muon-neutrino elastic scattering on electrons is an observable neutrino process whose cross section is precisely known. Consequently a measurement of this process in an accelerator-based νμ beam can improve the knowledge of the absolute neutrino flux impinging upon the detector; typically this knowledge is limited to ˜10 % due to uncertainties in hadron production and focusing. We have isolated a sample of 135 ±17 neutrino-electron elastic scattering candidates in the segmented scintillator detector of MINERvA, after subtracting backgrounds and correcting for efficiency. We show how this sample can be used to reduce the total uncertainty on the NuMI νμ flux from 9% to 6%. Our measurement provides a flux constraint that is useful to other experiments using the NuMI beam, and this technique is applicable to future neutrino beams operating at multi-GeV energies.

  5. Measurement of neutrino flux from neutrino-electron elastic scattering

    DOE PAGES

    Park, J.; Aliaga, L.; Altinok, O.; Bellantoni, L.; Bercellie, A.; Betancourt, M.; Bodek, A.; Bravar, A.; Budd, H.; Cai, T.; et al

    2016-06-10

    In muon-neutrino elastic scattering on electrons is an observable neutrino process whose cross section is precisely known. Consequently a measurement of this process in an accelerator-based νμ beam can improve the knowledge of the absolute neutrino flux impinging upon the detector; typically this knowledge is limited to ~10% due to uncertainties in hadron production and focusing. We also isolated a sample of 135±17 neutrino-electron elastic scattering candidates in the segmented scintillator detector of MINERvA, after subtracting backgrounds and correcting for efficiency. We show how this sample can be used to reduce the total uncertainty on the NuMI νμ flux frommore » 9% to 6%. Finally, our measurement provides a flux constraint that is useful to other experiments using the NuMI beam, and this technique is applicable to future neutrino beams operating at multi-GeV energies.« less

  6. Charm contribution to the atmospheric neutrino flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halzen, Francis; Wille, Logan

    2016-07-01

    We revisit the estimate of the charm particle contribution to the atmospheric neutrino flux that is expected to dominate at high energies because long-lived high-energy pions and kaons interact in the atmosphere before decaying into neutrinos. We focus on the production of forward charm particles which carry a large fraction of the momentum of the incident proton. In the case of strange particles, such a component is familiar from the abundant production of K+Λ pairs. These forward charm particles can dominate the high-energy atmospheric neutrino flux in underground experiments. Modern collider experiments have no coverage in the very large rapidity region where charm forward pair production dominates. Using archival accelerator data as well as IceCube measurements of atmospheric electron and muon neutrino fluxes, we obtain an upper limit on forward D¯0Λc pair production and on the associated flux of high-energy atmospheric neutrinos. We conclude that the prompt flux may dominate the much-studied central component and represent a significant contribution to the TeV atmospheric neutrino flux. Importantly, it cannot accommodate the PeV flux of high-energy cosmic neutrinos, or the excess of events observed by IceCube in the 30-200 TeV energy range indicating either structure in the flux of cosmic accelerators, or a presence of more than one component in the cosmic flux observed.

  7. The neutrino signal at HALO: learning about the primary supernova neutrino fluxes and neutrino properties

    SciTech Connect

    Väänänen, Daavid; Volpe, Cristina E-mail: volpe@ipno.in2p3.fr

    2011-10-01

    Core-collapse supernova neutrinos undergo a variety of phenomena when they travel from the high neutrino density region and large matter densities to the Earth. We perform analytical calculations of the supernova neutrino fluxes including collective effects due to the neutrino-neutrino interactions, the Mikheev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect due to the neutrino interactions with the background matter and decoherence of the wave packets as they propagate in space. We predict the numbers of one- and two-neutron charged and neutral-current electron-neutrino scattering on lead events. We show that, due to the energy thresholds, the ratios of one- to two-neutron events are sensitive to the pinching parameters of neutrino fluxes at the neutrinosphere, almost independently of the presently unknown neutrino properties. Besides, such events have an interesting sensitivity to the spectral split features that depend upon the presence/absence of energy equipartition among neutrino flavors. Our calculations show that a lead-based observatory like the Helium And Lead Observatory (HALO) has the potential to pin down important characteristics of the neutrino fluxes at the neutrinosphere, and provide us with information on the neutrino transport in the supernova core.

  8. Diffuse fluxes of cosmic high energy neutrinos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.

    1978-01-01

    Production spectra of high-energy neutrinos from galactic cosmic ray interactions with interstellar gas and extragalactic ultrahigh energy cosmic-ray interactions with microwave black-body photons are presented and discussed. These production processes involve the decay of charged pions and are thus related to the production of cosmic gamma-rays from the decay of neutral pions. Estimates of the neutrino fluxes from various diffuse cosmic sources are then made and the reasons fro significant differences with previous estimates are discussed. Predicted event rates for a DUMAND type detection system are significantly lower than early estimates indicated.

  9. Neutrino-Electron Scattering in MINERvA for Constraining the NuMI Neutrino Flux

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jaewon

    2013-01-01

    Neutrino-electron elastic scattering is used as a reference process to constrain the neutrino flux at the Main Injector (NuMI) beam observed by the MINERvA experiment. Prediction of the neutrino flux at accelerator experiments from other methods has a large uncertainty, and this uncertainty degrades measurements of neutrino oscillations and neutrino cross-sections. Neutrino-electron elastic scattering is a rare process, but its cross-section is precisely known. With a sample corresponding to $3.5\\times10^{20}$ protons on target in the NuMI low-energy neutrino beam, a sample of $120$ $\

  10. First measurement of the flux of solar neutrinos from the sun at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittich, Peter

    2000-12-01

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is a second generation solar neutrino detector. SNO is the first experiment that is able to measure both the electron neutrino flux and a flavor-blind flux of all active neutrino types, allowing a model-independent determination if the deficit of solar neutrinos known as the solar neutrino problem is due to neutrino oscillation. The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory started taking production data in November, 1999. A measurement of the charged current rate will be the first indication if SNO too sees a suppression of the solar neutrino signal relative to the theoretical predictions. Such a confirmation is the first step in SNO's ambitious science program. In this thesis, we present evidence that SNO is seeing solar neutrinos and a preliminary ratio of the measured vs predicted rate of electrons as induced by 8B neutrinos in the νe, + d --> p + p + e charged-current (CC) reaction.

  11. Three dimensional calculation of flux of low energy atmospheric neutrinos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, H.; Bludman, S. A.

    1985-01-01

    Results of three-dimensional Monte Carlo calculation of low energy flux of atmospheric neutrinos are presented and compared with earlier one-dimensional calculations 1,2 valid at higher neutrino energies. These low energy neutrinos are the atmospheric background in searching for neutrinos from astrophysical sources. Primary cosmic rays produce the neutrino flux peaking at near E sub=40 MeV and neutrino intensity peaking near E sub v=100 MeV. Because such neutrinos typically deviate by 20 approximately 30 from the primary cosmic ray direction, three-dimensional effects are important for the search of atmospheric neutrinos. Nevertheless, the background of these atmospheric neutrinos is negligible for the detection of solar and supernova neutrinos.

  12. Atmospheric muons and neutrinos, and the neutrino-induced muon flux underground

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liland, A.

    1985-01-01

    The diffusion equation for neutrino-induced cosmic ray muons underground was solved. The neutrino-induced muon flux and charge ratio underground have been calculated. The calculated horizontal neutrino-induced muon flux in the energy range 0.1 - 10000 GeV is in agreement with the measured horizontal flux. The calculated vertical flux above 2 GeV is in agreement with the measured vertical flux. The average charge ratio of neutrino-induced muons underground was found to be mu+/mu- = 0.40.

  13. Some Recent Secondary Production Measurements for Neutrino Flux Determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Geoffrey B.

    2011-12-01

    Recent measurements of meson production in proton-nucleus interactions have made possible reliable neutrino flux determinations at modern neutrino experiments. This article discusses preliminary results from the HARP, MIP, and E910 are discussed along with some of their implications for the MINOS, K2K, and MiniBooNE neutrino experiments.

  14. Characterization of the Astrophysical Neutrino Flux at the IceCube Neutrino Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohrmann, Lars; IceCube Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    With the discovery of a high-energy astrophysical neutrino flux, the IceCube Neutrino Observatory, located at the geographical South Pole, has opened the field of high-energy neutrino astronomy. While evidence for extraterrestrial neutrinos has been found in multiple searches, it was not yet possible to identify their sources; they appear as an isotropic excess. Nevertheless, it is possible to constrain the properties of the sources by measuring the energy spectrum and the flavor composition of the flux. Here, we present the latest results from a global analysis, combining all available detection channels and energy ranges. We derive the currently most precise constraints on the energy spectrum and flavor composition of the astrophysical neutrino flux. In addition, we show projected constraints on these properties that can be obtained with additional data in the future.

  15. High Energy Atmospheric Neutrino Fluxes From a Realistic Primary Spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos Penha, Felipe; Dembinski, Hans; Gaisser, Thomas K.; Tilav, Serap

    2016-03-01

    Atmospheric neutrino fluxes depend on the energy spectrum of primary nucleons entering the top of the atmosphere. Before the advent of AMANDA and the IceCube Neutrino Observatory, measurements of the neutrino fluxes were generally below ~ 1TeV , a regime in which a simple energy power law sufficed to describe the primary spectrum. Now, IceCube's muon neutrino data extends beyond 1PeV , including a combination of neutrinos from astrophysical sources with background from atmospheric neutrinos. At such high energies, the steepening at the knee of the primary spectrum must be accounted for. Here, we describe a semi-analytical approach for calculating the atmospheric differential neutrino fluxes at high energies. The input is a realistic primary spectrum consisting of 4 populations with distinct energy cutoffs, each with up to 7 representative nuclei, where the parameters were extracted from a global fit. We show the effect of each component on the atmospheric neutrino spectra, above 10TeV . The resulting features follow directly from recent air shower measurements included in the fit. Felipe Campos Penha gratefully acknowledges financial support from CAPES (Processo BEX 5348/14-5), CNPq (Processo 142180/2012-2), and the Bartol Research Institute.

  16. Diffuse fluxes of cosmic high-energy neutrinos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.

    1979-01-01

    Production spectra of high-energy neutrinos from galactic cosmic-ray interactions with interstellar gas and extragalactic ultrahigh-energy cosmic-ray interactions with microwave blackbody photons are presented and discussed. These production processes involve the decay of charged pions and are thus related to the production of cosmic gamma rays from the decay of neutral pions. Estimates of the neutrino fluxes from various diffuse cosmic sources are then made, and the reasons for significant differences with previous estimates are discussed. Small predicted event rates for a DUMAND (deep underwater muon and neutrino detector) type detection system, combined with a possible significant flux of prompt neutrinos from the atmosphere above 50 TeV, may make the study of diffuse extraterrestrial neutrinos more difficult than previously thought.

  17. Measurement of the Cosmic Ray and Neutrino-Induced Muon Flux at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    SNO collaboration; Aharmim, B.; Ahmed, S.N.; Andersen, T.C.; Anthony, A.E.; Barros, N.; Beier, E.W.; Bellerive, A.; Beltran, B.; Bergevin, M.; Biller, S.D.; Boudjemline, K.; Boulay, M.G.; Burritt, T.H.; Cai, B.; Chan, Y.D.; Chen, M.; Chon, M.C.; Cleveland, B.T.; Cox-Mobrand, G.A.; Currat, C.A.; Dai, X.; Dalnoki-Veress, F.; Deng, H.; Detwiler, J.; Doe, P.J.; Dosanjh, R.S.; Doucas, G.; Drouin, P.-L.; Duncan, F.A.; Dunford, M.; Elliott, S.R.; Evans, H.C.; Ewan, G.T.; Farine, J.; Fergani, H.; Fleurot, F.; Ford, R.J.; Formaggio, J.A.; Gagnon, N.; Goon, J.TM.; Grant, D.R.; Guillian, E.; Habib, S.; Hahn, R.L.; Hallin, A.L.; Hallman, E.D.; Hargrove, C.K.; Harvey, P.J.; Harvey, P.J.; Heeger, K.M.; Heintzelman, W.J.; Heise, J.; Helmer, R.L.; Hemingway, R.J.; Henning, R.; Hime, A.; Howard, C.; Howe, M.A.; Huang, M.; Jamieson, B.; Jelley, N.A.; Klein, J.R.; Kos, M.; Kruger, A.; Kraus, C.; Krauss, C.B.; Kutter, T.; Kyba, C.C.M.; Lange, R.; Law, J.; Lawson, I.T.; Lesko, K.T.; Leslie, J.R.; Levine, I.; Loach, J.C.; Luoma, S.; MacLellan, R.; Majerus, S.; Mak, H.B.; Maneira, J.; Marino, A.D.; Martin, R.; McCauley, N.; McDonald, A.B.; McGee, S.; Mifflin, C.; Miller, M.L.; Monreal, B.; Monroe, J.; Noble, A.J.; Oblath, N.S.; Okada, C.E.; O?Keeffe, H.M.; Opachich, Y.; Orebi Gann, G.D.; Oser, S.M.; Ott, R.A.; Peeters, S.J.M.; Poon, A.W.P.; Prior, G.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, B.C.; Robertson, R.G.H.; Rollin, E.; Schwendener, M.H.; Secrest, J.A.; Seibert, S.R.; Simard, O.; Simpson, J.J.; Sinclair, D.; Skensved, P.; Smith, M.W.E.; Sonley, T.J.; Steiger, T.D.; Stonehill, L.C.; Tagg, N.; Tesic, G.; Tolich, N.; Tsui, T.; Van de Water, R.G.; VanDevender, B.A.; Virtue, C.J.; Waller, D.; Waltham, C.E.; Wan Chan Tseung, H.; Wark, D.L.; Watson, P.; Wendland, J.; West, N.; Wilkerson, J.F.; Wilson, J.R.; Wouters, J.M.; Wright, A.; Yeh, M.; Zhang, F.; Zuber, K.

    2009-02-16

    Results are reported on the measurement of the atmospheric neutrino-induced muon flux at a depth of 2 kilometers below the Earth's surface from 1229 days of operation of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO). By measuring the flux of through-going muons as a function of zenith angle, the SNO experiment can distinguish between the oscillated and un-oscillated portion of the neutrino flux. A total of 514 muon-like events are measured between -1 {le} cos {theta}{sub zenith} 0.4 in a total exposure of 2.30 x 10{sup 14} cm{sup 2} s. The measured flux normalization is 1.22 {+-} 0.09 times the Bartol three-dimensional flux prediction. This is the first measurement of the neutrino-induced flux where neutrino oscillations are minimized. The zenith distribution is consistent with previously measured atmospheric neutrino oscillation parameters. The cosmic ray muon flux at SNO with zenith angle cos {theta}{sub zenith} > 0.4 is measured to be (3.31 {+-} 0.01 (stat.) {+-} 0.09 (sys.)) x 10{sup -10} {micro}/s/cm{sup 2}.

  18. Measurement of the Cosmic Ray and Neutrino-Induced Muon Flux at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    SNO collaboration; Aharmim, B.; Ahmed, S. N.; Andersen, T. C.; Anthony, A. E.; Barros, N.; Beier, E. W.; Bellerive, A.; Beltran, B.; Bergevin, M.; Biller, S. D.; Boudjemline, K.; Boulay, M. G.; Burritt, T. H.; Cai, B.; Chan, Y. D.; Chen, M.; Chon, M. C.; Cleveland, B. T.; Cox-Mobrand, G. A.; Currat, C. A.; Dai, X.; Dalnoki-Veress, F.; Deng, H.; Detwiler, J.; Doe, P. J.; Dosanjh, R. S.; Doucas, G.; Drouin, P.-L.; Duncan, F. A.; Dunford, M.; Elliott, S. R.; Evans, H. C.; Ewan, G. T.; Farine, J.; Fergani, H.; Fleurot, F.; Ford, R. J.; Formaggio, J. A.; Gagnon, N.; Goon, J. TM.; Grant, D. R.; Guillian, E.; Habib, S.; Hahn, R. L.; Hallin, A. L.; Hallman, E. D.; Hargrove, C. K.; Harvey, P. J.; Harvey, P. J.; Heeger, K. M.; Heintzelman, W. J.; Heise, J.; Helmer, R. L.; Hemingway, R. J.; Henning, R.; Hime, A.; Howard, C.; Howe, M. A.; Huang, M.; Jamieson, B.; Jelley, N. A.; Klein, J. R.; Kos, M.; Kruger, A.; Kraus, C.; Krauss, C. B.; Kutter, T.; Kyba, C. C. M.; Lange, R.; Law, J.; Lawson, I. T.; Lesko, K. T.; Leslie, J. R.; Levine, I.; Loach, J. C.; Luoma, S.; MacLellan, R.; Majerus, S.; Mak, H. B.; Maneira, J.; Marino, A. D.; Martin, R.; McCauley, N.; McDonald, A. B.; McGee, S.; Mifflin, C.; Miller, M. L.; Monreal, B.; Monroe, J.; Noble, A. J.; Oblath, N. S.; Okada, C. E.; O'Keeffe, H. M.; Opachich, Y.; Orebi Gann, G. D.; Oser, S. M.; Ott, R. A.; Peeters, S. J. M.; Poon, A. W. P.; Prior, G.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, B. C.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Rollin, E.; Schwendener, M. H.; Secrest, J. A.; Seibert, S. R.; Simard, O.; Simpson, J. J.; Sinclair, D.; Skensved, P.; Smith, M. W. E.; Sonley, T. J.; Steiger, T. D.; Stonehill, L. C.; Tagg, N.; Tesic, G.; Tolich, N.; Tsui, T.; Van de Water, R. G.; VanDevender, B. A.; Virtue, C. J.; Waller, D.; Waltham, C. E.; Wan Chan Tseung, H.; Wark, D. L.; Watson, P.; Wendland, J.; West, N.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wilson, J. R.; Wouters, J. M.; Wright, A.; Yeh, M.; Zhang, F.; Zuber, K.

    2009-07-10

    Results are reported on the measurement of the atmospheric neutrino-induced muon flux at a depth of 2 kilometers below the Earth's surface from 1229 days of operation of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO). By measuring the flux of through-going muons as a function of zenith angle, the SNO experiment can distinguish between the oscillated and un-oscillated portion of the neutrino flux. A total of 514 muon-like events are measured between -1 {le} cos {theta}{sub zenith} 0.4 in a total exposure of 2.30 x 10{sup 14} cm{sup 2} s. The measured flux normalization is 1.22 {+-} 0.09 times the Bartol three-dimensional flux prediction. This is the first measurement of the neutrino-induced flux where neutrino oscillations are minimized. The zenith distribution is consistent with previously measured atmospheric neutrino oscillation parameters. The cosmic ray muon flux at SNO with zenith angle cos {theta}{sub zenith} > 0.4 is measured to be (3.31 {+-} 0.01 (stat.) {+-} 0.09 (sys.)) x 10{sup -10} {micro}/s/cm{sup 2}.

  19. Variations in the Solar Neutrino Flux

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Davis, R. Jr.; Cleveland, B. T.; Rowley, J. K.

    1987-08-02

    Observations are reported from the chlorine solar neutrino detector in the Homestake Gold Mine, South Dakota, USA. They extend from 1970 to 1985 and yield an average neutrino capture rate of 2.1 +- 0.3 SNU. The results from 1977 to 1985 show an anti-correlation with the solar activity cycle, and an apparent increased rate during large solar flares.

  20. Neutrino Flux Prediction for the NuMI Beamline

    SciTech Connect

    Soplin, Leonidas Aliaga

    2016-01-01

    The determination of the neutrino flux in any conventional neutrino beam presents a challenge for the current and future short and long baseline neutrino experiments. The uncertainties associated with the production and attenuation of the hadrons in the beamline materials along with those associated with the beam optics have a big effect in the flux spectrum knowledge. For experiments like MINERvA, understanding the flux is crucial since it enters directly into every neutrino-nucleus cross-sections measurements. The foundation of this work is predicting the neutrino flux at MINERvA using dedicated measurements of hadron production in hadron-nucleus collisions and incorporating in-situ MINERvA data that can provide additional constraints. This work also includes the prospect for predicting the flux at other detectors like the NOvA Near detector. The procedure and conclusions of this thesis will have a big impact on future hadron production experiments and on determining the flux for the upcoming DUNE experiment.

  1. Nonstandard interaction effects on astrophysical neutrino fluxes

    SciTech Connect

    Blennow, Mattias; Meloni, Davide

    2009-09-15

    We investigate new physics effects in the production and detection of high-energy neutrinos at neutrino telescopes. Analyzing the flavor ratios {phi}{sub {mu}}/{phi}{sub {tau}} and {phi}{sub {mu}}/({phi}{sub {tau}}+{phi}{sub e}), we find that the standard model predictions for them can be sensibly altered by new physics effects in the case of pion sources. However, the experimental precision required to see the effects would be very difficult to obtain.

  2. Ultrahigh energy tau neutrino flux regeneration while skimming the Earth

    SciTech Connect

    Bigas, Oscar Blanch

    2008-09-15

    The detection of Earth-skimming tau neutrinos has turned into a very promising strategy for the observation of ultra-high-energy cosmic neutrinos. The sensitivity of this channel crucially depends on the parameters of the propagation of the tau neutrinos through the terrestrial crust, which governs the flux of emerging tau leptons that can be detected. One of the characteristics of this propagation is the possibility of regeneration through multiple {nu}{sub {tau}}{r_reversible}{tau} conversions, which are often neglected in the standard picture. In this paper, we solve the transport equations governing the {nu}{sub {tau}} propagation and compare the flux of emerging tau leptons obtained allowing regeneration or not. We discuss the validity of the approximation of neglecting the {nu}{sub {tau}} regeneration using different scenarios for the neutrino-nucleon cross sections and the tau energy losses.

  3. Neutrino Flux Prediction for the NuMI Beamline

    SciTech Connect

    Aliaga Soplin, Leonidas

    2016-01-01

    The determination of the neutrino flux in any conventional neutrino beam presents a challenge for the current and future short and long baseline neutrino experiments. The uncertainties associated with the production and attenuation of the hadrons in the beamline materials along with those associated with the beam optics have a big effect in the flux spectrum knowledge. For experiments like MINERvA, understanding the flux is crucial since it enters directly into every neutrino-nucleus cross-sections measurements. The foundation of this work is predicting the neutrino flux at MINERvA using dedicated measurements of hadron production in hadron-nucleus collisions and incorporating in-situ MINERvA data that can provide additional constraints. This work also includes the prospect for predicting the flux at other detectors like the NOvA Near detector. The procedure and conclusions of this thesis will have a big impact on future hadron production experiments and on determining the fl ux for the upcoming DUNE experiment.

  4. Evidence for electron neutrino flavor change through measurement of the (8)B solar neutrino flux at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neubauer, Mark Stephen

    2001-11-01

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is a water Cerenkov detector designed to study solar neutrinos. Using 1 kiloton of heavy water as the target and detection medium, SNO is able to separately determine the flux of electron neutrinos (νe) and the flux of all active neutrinos from the Sun by measuring the rate of charged current (CC) and neutral current (NC) interactions with deuterons. A comparison of these interaction rates allows for direct observation of solar neutrino oscillations. SNO can also search for oscillations by comparing the rate of CC and neutrino- electron elastic scattering (ES) events, since ES has both charged current and neutral current sensitivity. In this thesis, we present measurement of the 8B solar ν e flux of 1.78+0.13-0.14 (stat+syst) × 106cm-2s -1 (35% BP2000 SSM) through measurement of the CC rate over 169.3 days of livetime. We have also measured the 8B flux from the ES reaction to be 2.56+0.48-0.45 (stat+syst), consistent with measurements by previous water Cerenkov experiments. A flavor analysis comparing the CC measured flux with that determined through ES by SuperKamiokande yields a non- νe active neutrino flux from 8B of 3.62+1.06-1.08 × 106cm-2s-1 , providing evidence for νe --> ν μ,τ oscillations as a solution to the solar neutrino problem. This result excludes pure solar νe --> ν s oscillations at greater than the 99.7% C.I. The total active 8B neutrino flux has been measured to be 5.39+1.07-1.09 × 106cm-2s-1 , consistent with BP2000 SSM predictions. First analyses of the CC (NHit) spectrum and hep flux in SNO are presented. The CC spectrum is found to be a good fit to expectations from an undistorted 8B spectrum, and global best fit vacuum oscillation solutions are disfavored over the other solutions by the data. Through observations near the 8B endpoint with consideration of energy systematics, hep flux limits of 4.1 (90% C.I.) and 6.9 (99% C.I.) times SSM expectations are obtained. A statistical fit for the

  5. Experimental limit on the cosmic diffuse ultrahigh energy neutrino flux.

    PubMed

    Gorham, P W; Hebert, C L; Liewer, K M; Naudet, C J; Saltzberg, D; Williams, D

    2004-07-23

    We report results from 120 h of live time with the Goldstone lunar ultrahigh energy neutrino experiment (GLUE). The experiment searches for < or = 10 ns microwave pulses from the lunar regolith, appearing in coincidence at two large radio telescopes separated by 22 km and linked by optical fiber. Such pulses would arise from subsurface electromagnetic cascades induced by interactions of > or = 100 EeV (1 EeV = 10(18) eV neutrinos in the lunar regolith. No candidates are yet seen, and the implied limits constrain several current models for ultrahigh energy neutrino fluxes. PMID:15323748

  6. Simulation of Neutrino Flux in NO νA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maan, Kuldeep; Duyang, Hongyue; Mishra, Sanjib; NOvA Collaboration Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    We present the status of the simulation of the neutrino flux in NO νA. Effects of various error conditions in the beam-transport on the νμ and νe flux at the near (ND) and far (FD) detectors is evaluated. The NDOS data are used to constrain the Kaon contribution to the νe flux. Finally, the ND data are used to constrain the muon-induced νe. NO νA Collaboration, Fermilab.

  7. Disentangling neutrino-nucleon cross section and high energy neutrino flux with a km{sup 3} neutrino telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Borriello, E.; Miele, G.; Mangano, G.; Pisanti, O.; Pastor, S.

    2008-02-15

    The energy-zenith angular event distribution in a neutrino telescope provides a unique tool to determine at the same time the neutrino-nucleon cross section at extreme kinematical regions, and the high-energy neutrino flux. By using a simple parametrization for fluxes and cross sections, we present a sensitivity analysis for the case of a km{sup 3} neutrino telescope. In particular, we consider the specific case of an underwater Mediterranean telescope placed at the NEMO site, although most of our results also apply to an under-ice detector such as IceCube. We determine the sensitivity to departures from standard values of the cross sections above 1 PeV which can be probed independently from an a priori knowledge of the normalization and energy dependence of the flux. We also stress that the capability to tag downgoing neutrino showers in the PeV range against the cosmic-ray induced background of penetrating muons appears to be a crucial requirement to derive meaningful constraints on the cross section.

  8. Disentangling neutrino-nucleon cross section and high energy neutrino flux with a km^3 neutrino telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Borriello, E.; Cuoco, A.; Mangano, G.; Miele, G.; Pastor, S.; Pisanti, O.; Serpico, P.D.

    2007-11-01

    The energy-zenith angular event distribution in a neutrino telescope provides a unique tool to determine at the same time the neutrino-nucleon cross section at extreme kinematical regions, and the high energy neutrino flux. By using a simple parameterization for fluxes and cross sections, we present a sensitivity analysis for the case of a km{sup 3} neutrino telescope. In particular, we consider the specific case of an under-water Mediterranean telescope placed at the NEMO site, although most of our results also apply to an under-ice detector such as IceCube. We determine the sensitivity to departures from standard values of the cross sections above 1 PeV which can be probed independently from an a-priori knowledge of the normalization and energy dependence of the flux. We also stress that the capability to tag downgoing neutrino showers in the PeV range against the cosmic ray induced background of penetrating muons appears to be a crucial requirement to derive meaningful constraints on the cross section.

  9. Neutrinos

    PubMed Central

    Besson, Dave; Cowen, Doug; Selen, Mats; Wiebusch, Christopher

    1999-01-01

    Neutrinos represent a new “window” to the Universe, spanning a large range of energy. We discuss the science of neutrino astrophysics and focus on two energy regimes. At “lower” energies (≈1 MeV), studies of neutrinos born inside the sun, or produced in interactions of cosmic rays with the atmosphere, have allowed the first incontrovertible evidence that neutrinos have mass. At energies typically one thousand to one million times higher, sources further than the sun (both within the Milky Way and beyond) are expected to produce a flux of particles that can be detected only through neutrinos. PMID:10588680

  10. The Neutrino Flux prediction at MiniBooNE

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A.A.

    2008-06-01

    The Booster Neutrino Experiment (MiniBooNE) searches for {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub e} oscillations using the {Omicron}(1 GeV) neutrino beam produced by the Booster synchrotron at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL). The Booster delivers protons with 8 GeV kinetic energy (8.89 GeV=c momentum) to a beryllium target, producing neutrinos from the decay of secondary particles in the beam line. We describe the Monte Carlo simulation methods used to estimate the flux of neutrinos from the beamline incident on the MiniBooNE detector for both polarities of the focusing horn. The simulation uses the Geant4 framework for propagating particles, accounting for electromagnetic processes and hadronic interactions in the beamline materials, as well as the decay of particles. The absolute double differential cross sections of pion and kaon production in the simulation have been tuned to match external measurements, as have the hadronic cross sections for nucleons and pions. The statistical precision of the flux predictions is enhanced through reweighting and resampling techniques. Systematic errors in the flux estimation have been determined by varying parameters within their uncertainties, accounting for correlations where appropriate.

  11. Neutrino flux prediction at MiniBooNE

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A. A.; Bugel, L.; Coney, L.; Conrad, J. M.; Djurcic, Z.; Karagiorgi, G.; Mahn, K. B. M.; Monroe, J.; Nguyen, V. T.; Schmitz, D.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Sorel, M.; Anderson, C. E.; Curioni, A.; Linden, S. K.; Soderberg, M.; Bazarko, A. O.; Laird, E. M.; Meyers, P. D.; Patterson, R. B.

    2009-04-01

    The booster neutrino experiment (MiniBooNE) searches for {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub e} oscillations using the O(1 GeV) neutrino beam produced by the booster synchrotron at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory). The booster delivers protons with 8 GeV kinetic energy (8.89 GeV/c momentum) to a beryllium target, producing neutrinos from the decay of secondary particles in the beam line. We describe the Monte Carlo simulation methods used to estimate the flux of neutrinos from the beam line incident on the MiniBooNE detector for both polarities of the focusing horn. The simulation uses the Geant4 framework for propagating particles, accounting for electromagnetic processes and hadronic interactions in the beam line materials, as well as the decay of particles. The absolute double differential cross sections of pion and kaon production in the simulation have been tuned to match external measurements, as have the hadronic cross sections for nucleons and pions. The statistical precision of the flux predictions is enhanced through reweighting and resampling techniques. Systematic errors in the flux estimation have been determined by varying parameters within their uncertainties, accounting for correlations where appropriate.

  12. Possible explanation for the low flux of high energy astrophysical muon neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Pakvasa, Sandip

    2013-05-23

    I consider the possibility that some exotic neutrino property is responsible for reducing the muon neutrino flux at high energies from distant sources; specifically, (i) neutrino decay and (ii) neutrinos being pseudo-Dirac particles. This would provide a mechanism for the lack of high energy muon events in the Icecube detector.

  13. Searches for high frequency variations in the 8-B neutrino flux at the Sudbury neutrino observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Rielage, Keith; Seibert, Stanley R; Hime, Andrew; Elliott, Steven R; Stonehill, L C; Wouters, J M; Aharmim, B; Ahmed, S N; Anthony, A E; Barros, N; Beier, E W; Bellerive, A; Belttran, B; Bergevin, M; Biller, S D; Boudjemline, K; Burritt, T H; Cai, B; Chan, Y D; Chauhan, D; Chen, M; Cleveland, B T; Cox - Mobrand, G A; Dai, X; Deng, H; Detwiler, J; Dimarco, M; Doe, P J; Drouin, P - L; Duba, C A; Duncan, F A; Dunford, M; Earle, E D; Evans, H C; Ewan, G T; Farine, J; Fergani, H; Fleurot, F; Ford, R J; Formaggilo, J A; Gagnon, N; Goon, J Tm; Guillian, E; Habib, S; Hahn, R L; Hallin, A L; Hallman, E D; Harvey, P J; Hazama, R; Heintzelman, W J; Heise, J; Helmer, R L; Howard, C; Howe, M A; Huang, M; Jamieson, B; Jelley, N A; Keeter, K J; Klein, J R; Kos, M; Kraus, C; Krauss, C B; Kutter, T; Kyba, C C M; Law, J; Lawson, I T; Lesko, K T; Leslie, J R; Loach, J C; Maclellan, R; Majerus, S; Mak, H B; Maneira, J; Martin, R; Mccauley, N; Mc Donald, A B; Mcgee, S; Miffin, C; Miller, M L; Monreal, B; Monroe, J; Morissette, B; Nickel, B G; Noble, A J; O' Keeffe, H M; Oblath, N S; Orebi Gann, G D; Oser, S M; Ott, R A; Peeters, S J M; Poon, A W P; Prior, G; Reitzner, S D; Robertson, B C; Robertson, R G H; Rollin, E; Schwendener, M H; Secrest, J A; Seibert, S R; Simard, O; Sinclair, D; Sinclair, L; Skensved, P; Sonley, T J; Tesic, G; Tolich, N; Tsui, T; Tunnell, C D; Van Berg, R; Van Devender, B A; Virtue, C J; Wall, B L; Waller, D; Wan Chan Tseung, H; West, N; Wilkerson, J F; Wilson, J R; Wright, A; Yeh, M; Zhang, F; Zuber, K

    2009-01-01

    We have peformed three searches for high-frequency signals in the solar neutrino flux measured by the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO), motivated by the possibility that solar g-mode oscillations could affect the production or propagation of solar {sup 8}B neutrinos. The first search looked for any significant peak in the frequency range l/day to 144/day, with a sensitivity to sinusoidal signals with amplitudes of 12% or greater. The second search focused on regions in which g-mode signals have been claimed by experiments aboard the SoHO satellite, and was sensitive to signals with amplitudes of 10% or greater. The third search looked for extra power across the entire frequency band. No statistically significant signal was detected in any of the three searches.

  14. Atmospheric neutrino flux calculation using the NRLMSISE-00 atmospheric model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, M.; Athar, M. Sajjad; Kajita, T.; Kasahara, K.; Midorikawa, S.

    2015-07-01

    We extend our calculation of the atmospheric neutrino fluxes to polar and tropical regions. It is well known that the air density profiles in the polar and the tropical regions are different from the mid-latitude region. Also there are large seasonal variations in the polar region. In this extension, we use the NRLMSISE-00 global atmospheric model J. M. Picone, J. Geophys. Res. 107, SIA 15 (2002), replacing the U.S.-standard 1976 atmospheric model, which has no positional or seasonal variations. With the NRLMSISE-00 atmospheric model, we study the atmospheric neutrino flux at the polar and tropical regions with seasonal variations. The geomagnetic model international geomagnetic reference field (IGRF) we have used in our calculations seems accurate enough in the polar regions also. However, the polar and the equatorial regions are the two extremes in the IGRF model, and the magnetic field configurations are largely different from one another. Note that the equatorial region is also the tropical region generally. We study the effect of the geomagnetic field on the atmospheric neutrino flux in these extreme regions.

  15. Neutrino Fluxes from NUHM LSP Annihilations in the Sun

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, John; Olive, Keith A.; Savage, Christopher; Spanos, Vassilis C.; /Democritos Nucl. Res. Ctr.

    2011-08-12

    We extend our previous studies of the neutrino fluxes expected from neutralino LSP annihilations inside the Sun to include variants of the minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (MSSM) with squark, slepton and gaugino masses constrained to be universal at the GUT scale, but allowing one or two non-universal supersymmetry-breaking parameters contributing to the Higgs masses (NUHM1,2). As in the constrained MSSM (CMSSM) with universal Higgs masses, there are large regions of the NUHM parameter space where the LSP density inside the Sun is not in equilibrium, so that the annihilation rate may be far below the capture rate, and there are also large regions where the capture rate is not dominated by spin-dependent LSP-proton scattering. The spectra possible in the NUHM are qualitatively similar to those in the CMSSM. We calculate neutrino-induced muon fluxes above a threshold energy of 10 GeV, appropriate for the IceCube/DeepCore detector, for points where the NUHM yields the correct cosmological relic density for representative choices of the NUHM parameters. We find that the IceCube/DeepCore detector can probe regions of the NUHM parameter space in addition to analogues of the focus-point strip and the tip of the coannihilation strip familiar from the CMSSM. These include regions with enhanced Higgsino-gaugino mixing in the LSP composition, that occurs where neutralino mass eigenstates cross over. On the other hand, rapid-annihilation funnel regions in general yield neutrino fluxes that are unobservably small.

  16. Constraints on Cosmic Neutrino Fluxes from the Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Barwick, S.W.; Goldstein, D.; Nam, J.; Silvestri, A.; Wu, F.; Beatty, J.J.; Nichol, R.; Palladino, K.; Besson, D.Z.; Binns, W.R.; Dowkontt, P.F.; Israel, M.H.; Cai, B.; DuVernois, M.A.; Clem, J.M.; Evenson, P.A.; Seckel, D.; Connolly, A.; Saltzberg, D.; Cowen, D.F.

    2006-05-05

    We report new limits on cosmic neutrino fluxes from the test flight of the Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna (ANITA) experiment, which completed an 18.4 day flight of a prototype long-duration balloon payload, called ANITA-lite, in early 2004. We search for impulsive events that could be associated with ultrahigh energy neutrino interactions in the ice and derive limits that constrain several models for ultrahigh energy neutrino fluxes and rule out the long-standing Z-burst model.

  17. Axial symmetry breaking in self-induced flavor conversionof supernova neutrino fluxes.

    PubMed

    Raffelt, Georg; Sarikas, Srdjan; de Sousa Seixas, David

    2013-08-30

    Neutrino-neutrino refraction causes self-induced flavor conversion in dense neutrino fluxes. For the first time, we include the azimuth angle of neutrino propagation as an explicit variable and find a new generic multi-azimuth-angle instability which, for simple spectra, occurs in the normal neutrino mass hierarchy. Matter suppression of this instability in supernovae requires larger densities than the traditional bimodal case. The new instability shows explicitly that solutions of the equations for collective flavor oscillations need not inherit the symmetries of initial or boundary conditions. This change of paradigm requires reconsideration of numerous results in this field.

  18. Explanation for the low flux of high-energy astrophysical muon neutrinos.

    PubMed

    Pakvasa, Sandip; Joshipura, Anjan; Mohanty, Subhendra

    2013-04-26

    There has been some concern about the unexpected paucity of cosmic high-energy muon neutrinos in detectors probing the energy region beyond 1 PeV. As a possible solution we consider the possibility that some exotic neutrino property is responsible for reducing the muon neutrino flux at high energies from distant sources; specifically, we consider (i) neutrino decay and (ii) neutrinos being pseudo-Dirac-particles. This would provide a mechanism for the reduction of high-energy muon events in the IceCube detector, for example.

  19. Fast time variations of supernova neutrino fluxes and their detectability

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, Tina; Marek, Andreas; Janka, Hans-Thomas; Lunardini, Cecilia; Raffelt, Georg

    2010-09-15

    In the delayed explosion scenario of core-collapse supernovae, the accretion phase shows pronounced convective overturns and a low-multipole hydrodynamic instability, the standing accretion shock instability. These effects imprint detectable fast time variations on the emerging neutrino flux. Among existing detectors, IceCube is best suited to this task, providing an event rate of {approx}1000 ms{sup -1} during the accretion phase for a fiducial SN distance of 10 kpc, comparable to what could be achieved with a megaton water Cherenkov detector. If the standing accretion shock instability activity lasts for several hundred ms, a Fourier component with an amplitude of 1% of the average signal clearly sticks out from the shot noise. We analyze in detail the output of axially symmetric hydrodynamical simulations that predict much larger amplitudes up to frequencies of a few hundred Hz. If these models are roughly representative for realistic SNe, fast time variations of the neutrino signal are easily detectable in IceCube or future megaton-class instruments. We also discuss the information that could be deduced from such a measurement about the physics in the SN core and the explosion mechanism of the SN.

  20. High-energy neutrino fluxes from AGN populations inferred from X-ray surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsen, Idunn B.; Wu, Kinwah; On, Alvina Y. L.; Saxton, Curtis J.

    2015-08-01

    High-energy neutrinos and photons are complementary messengers, probing violent astrophysical processes and structural evolution of the Universe. X-ray and neutrino observations jointly constrain conditions in active galactic nuclei (AGN) jets: their baryonic and leptonic contents, and particle production efficiency. Testing two standard neutrino production models for local source Cen A (Koers & Tinyakov and Becker & Biermann), we calculate the high-energy neutrino spectra of single AGN sources and derive the flux of high-energy neutrinos expected for the current epoch. Assuming that accretion determines both X-rays and particle creation, our parametric scaling relations predict neutrino yield in various AGN classes. We derive redshift-dependent number densities of each class, from Chandra and Swift/BAT X-ray luminosity functions (Silverman et al. and Ajello et al.). We integrate the neutrino spectrum expected from the cumulative history of AGN (correcting for cosmological and source effects, e.g. jet orientation and beaming). Both emission scenarios yield neutrino fluxes well above limits set by IceCube (by ˜4-106 × at 1 PeV, depending on the assumed jet models for neutrino production). This implies that: (i) Cen A might not be a typical neutrino source as commonly assumed; (ii) both neutrino production models overestimate the efficiency; (iii) neutrino luminosity scales with accretion power differently among AGN classes and hence does not follow X-ray luminosity universally; (iv) some AGN are neutrino-quiet (e.g. below a power threshold for neutrino production); (v) neutrino and X-ray emission have different duty cycles (e.g. jets alternate between baryonic and leptonic flows); or (vi) some combination of the above.

  1. Self-induced spectral splits in supernova neutrino fluxes

    SciTech Connect

    Raffelt, Georg G.; Smirnov, Alexei Yu.

    2007-10-15

    In the dense-neutrino region above the neutrino sphere of a supernova (r < or approx. 400 km), neutrino-neutrino refraction causes collective flavor transformations. They can lead to 'spectral splits' where an energy E{sub split} splits the transformed spectrum sharply into parts of almost pure but different flavors. Unless there is an ordinary MSW resonance in the dense-neutrino region, E{sub split} is determined by flavor-lepton number conservation alone. Spectral splits are created by an adiabatic transition between regions of large and small neutrino density. We solve the equations of motion in the adiabatic limit explicitly and provide analytic expressions for a generic example.

  2. Observability of the neutrino flux from the inner region of the galactic disk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silberberg, R.; Shapiro, M. M.; Stecker, F. W.

    1978-01-01

    The observability of galactic neutrinos in a detector of 10 billion tons of water with an observing time of a few years is explored. Although the atmospheric flux exceeds the galactic flux considerably at energies greater than or equal to 1 TeV, the latter may still provide a marginally observable signal owing to its directionality. Galactic muon neutrinos with energy greater than or equal to 1 TeV will produce a signal approximately 2 sigma above the atmospheric background over a four year period. If electron neutrinos can also be studied with the deep underwater muon and neutrino detector, then galactic electron neutrinos above 1 TeV would give an approximate 4 to 5 sigma signal above the electron neutrino background over a four year integration time.

  3. Fluxes of diffuse gamma rays and neutrinos from cosmic-ray interactions with the circumgalactic gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalashev, Oleg; Troitsky, Sergey

    2016-09-01

    The Milky Way is surrounded by a gravitationally bound gas corona extending up to the Galaxy's virial radius. Interactions of cosmic-ray particles with this gas give rise to energetic secondary gamma rays and neutrinos. We present a quantitative analysis of the neutrino and gamma-ray fluxes from the corona of the Milky Way together with a combined contribution of coronae of other galaxies. The high-energy neutrino flux is insufficient to explain the IceCube results, while the contribution to the FERMI-LAT diffuse gamma-ray flux is not negligible.

  4. Behaviour of the high-energy neutrino flux in the Earth's atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochanov, Aleksey; Sinegovskiy, Sergey; Sinegovskaya, Tatyana; Morozova, Anna

    2015-12-01

    The processing of the IceCube experiment data obtained during 988 days (2010-2013) revealed 37 high-energy neutrino-induced events with deposited energies of 30 TeV - 2 PeV. The hypothesis of an astrophysical origin of these neutrinos is confirmed at the statistical confidence level of 5.7σ. To identify reliably the neutrino events, a thorough calculation of the atmospheric neutrino background is required. In this work we calculate the atmospheric neutrino spectra in the energy range of 100 GeV - 10 PeV with usage of several hadronic models and a few parametrizations of cosmic ray spectra supported by experimental data which take into account the knee. It is shown that rare decays of short-lived neutral ka ns K_S^0 contribute more than a third of the total ν_e +(ν)_e flux at the energies above 100 eV. The account for kaons production in pion-nucleus collisions increases the ν_e +(ν)_e flux by 5-7% in the energy range of 102-104 GeV. Calculated neutrino spectra agree on the whole with the measurement data. The neutrino flavor ratio extracted from the IceCube data possibly indicates that the conventional atmospheric electron neutrino flux obtained in the IceCube experiment contains an admixture of the astrophysical neutrinos in the range of 20-50 TeV.

  5. Intensity of Upward Muon Flux Due to Cosmic-Ray Neutrinos Produced in the Atmosphere

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Lee, T. D.; Robinson, H.; Schwartz, M.; Cool, R.

    1963-06-01

    Calculations were performed to determine the upward going muon flux leaving the earth's surface after production by cosmic-ray neutrinos in the crust. Only neutrinos produced in the earth's atmosphere are considered. Rates of the order of one per 100 sq m/day might be expected if an intermediate boson exists and has a mass less than 2 Bev. (auth)

  6. Measurement of the total active 8B solar neutrino flux at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory with enhanced neutral current sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, S N; Anthony, A E; Beier, E W; Bellerive, A; Biller, S D; Boger, J; Boulay, M G; Bowler, M G; Bowles, T J; Brice, S J; Bullard, T V; Chan, Y D; Chen, M; Chen, X; Cleveland, B T; Cox, G A; Dai, X; Dalnoki-Veress, F; Doe, P J; Dosanjh, R S; Doucas, G; Dragowsky, M R; Duba, C A; Duncan, F A; Dunford, M; Dunmore, J A; Earle, E D; Elliott, S R; Evans, H C; Ewan, G T; Farine, J; Fergani, H; Fleurot, F; Formaggio, J A; Fowler, M M; Frame, K; Fulsom, B G; Gagnon, N; Graham, K; Grant, D R; Hahn, R L; Hall, J C; Hallin, A L; Hallman, E D; Hamer, A S; Handler, W B; Hargrove, C K; Harvey, P J; Hazama, R; Heeger, K M; Heintzelman, W J; Heise, J; Helmer, R L; Hemingway, R J; Hime, A; Howe, M A; Jagam, P; Jelley, N A; Klein, J R; Kos, M S; Krumins, A V; Kutter, T; Kyba, C C M; Labranche, H; Lange, R; Law, J; Lawson, I T; Lesko, K T; Leslie, J R; Levine, I; Luoma, S; MacLellan, R; Majerus, S; Mak, H B; Maneira, J; Marino, A D; McCauley, N; McDonald, A B; McGee, S; McGregor, G; Mifflin, C; Miknaitis, K K S; Miller, G G; Moffat, B A; Nally, C W; Nickel, B G; Noble, A J; Norman, E B; Oblath, N S; Okada, C E; Ollerhead, R W; Orrell, J L; Oser, S M; Ouellet, C; Peeters, S J M; Poon, A W P; Robertson, B C; Robertson, R G H; Rollin, E; Rosendahl, S S E; Rusu, V L; Schwendener, M H; Simard, O; Simpson, J J; Sims, C J; Sinclair, D; Skensved, P; Smith, M W E; Starinsky, N; Stokstad, R G; Stonehill, L C; Tafirout, R; Takeuchi, Y; Tesić, G; Thomson, M; Thorman, M; Van Berg, R; Van de Water, R G; Virtue, C J; Wall, B L; Waller, D; Waltham, C E; Tseung, H Wan Chan; Wark, D L; West, N; Wilhelmy, J B; Wilkerson, J F; Wilson, J R; Wouters, J M; Yeh, M; Zuber, K

    2004-05-01

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory has precisely determined the total active (nu(x)) 8B solar neutrino flux without assumptions about the energy dependence of the nu(e) survival probability. The measurements were made with dissolved NaCl in heavy water to enhance the sensitivity and signature for neutral-current interactions. The flux is found to be 5.21 +/- 0.27(stat)+/-0.38(syst) x 10(6) cm(-2) s(-1), in agreement with previous measurements and standard solar models. A global analysis of these and other solar and reactor neutrino results yields Deltam(2)=7.1(+1.2)(-0.6) x 10(-5) eV(2) and theta=32.5(+2.4)(-2.3) degrees. Maximal mixing is rejected at the equivalent of 5.4 standard deviations.

  7. FERMI LIMIT ON THE NEUTRINO FLUX FROM GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Li Zhuo

    2013-06-20

    If gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) produce high-energy cosmic rays, neutrinos are expected to be generated in GRBs via photo-pion productions. However, we stress that the same process also generates electromagnetic (EM) emission induced by the secondary electrons and photons, and that the EM emission is expected to be correlated with neutrino flux. Using Fermi/Large Area Telescope results on gamma-ray flux from GRBs, the GRB neutrino emission is limited to be <20 GeV m{sup -2} per GRB event on average, which is independent of the unknown GRB proton luminosity. This neutrino limit suggests that IceCube, operating at full scale, requires stacking of more than 130 GRBs in order to detect one GRB muon neutrino.

  8. DETECTING GRAVITY MODES IN THE SOLAR {sup 8} B NEUTRINO FLUX

    SciTech Connect

    Lopes, Ilídio; Turck-Chièze, Sylvaine E-mail: ilopes@uevora.pt

    2014-09-10

    The detection of gravity modes produced in the solar radiative zone has been a challenge in modern astrophysics for more than 30 yr and their amplitude in the core is not yet determined. In this Letter, we develop a new strategy to look for standing gravity modes through solar neutrino fluxes. We note that due to a resonance effect, the gravity modes of low degree and low order have the largest impact on the {sup 8} B neutrino flux. The strongest effect is expected to occur for the dipole mode with radial order 2, corresponding to periods of about 1.5 hr. These standing gravity waves produce temperature fluctuations that are amplified by a factor of 170 in the boron neutrino flux for the corresponding period, in consonance with the gravity modes. From current neutrino observations, we determine that the maximum temperature variation due to the gravity modes in the Sun's core is smaller than 5.8 × 10{sup –4}. This study clearly shows that due to their high sensitivity to the temperature, the {sup 8} B neutrino flux time series is an excellent tool to determine the properties of gravity modes in the solar core. Moreover, if gravity mode footprints are discovered in the {sup 8} B neutrino flux, this opens a new line of research to probe the physics of the solar core as non-standing gravity waves of higher periods cannot be directly detected by helioseismology but could leave their signature on boron neutrino or on other neutrino fluxes.

  9. The fluxes of CN neutrinos from the Sun in case of mixing in a spherical layer in the solar core

    SciTech Connect

    Kopylov, Anatoly; Petukhov, Valery E-mail: beril@inr.ru

    2012-03-01

    The results of the calculation are presented for the fluxes of CN neutrinos from the Sun in case of mixing in a spherical layer in the solar core, consistent with the seismic data and with the measured solar neutrino fluxes. It is shown that a substantial increase of the flux of {sup 13}N neutrinos can be gained in this case. The possible implications for experiment are discussed.

  10. Gamma-ray and Neutrino Fluxes from Heavy Dark Matter in the Galactic Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gammaldi, V.; Cembranos, J. A. R.; de la Cruz-Dombriz, A.; Lineros, R. A.; Maroto, A. L.

    We present a study of the Galactic Center region as a possible source of both secondary gamma-ray and neutrino fluxes from annihilating dark matter. We have studied the gamma-ray flux observed by the High Energy Stereoscopic System (HESS) from the J1745-290 Galactic Center source. The data are well fitted as annihilating dark matter in combination with an astrophysical background. The analysis was performed by means of simulated gamma spectra produced by Monte Carlo event generators packages. We analyze the differences in the spectra obtained by the various Monte Carlo codes developed so far in particle physics. We show that, within some uncertainty, the HESS data can be fitted as a signal from a heavy dark matter density distribution peaked at the Galactic Center, with a power-law for the background with a spectral index which is compatible with the Fermi-Large Area Telescope (LAT) data from the same region. If this kind of dark matter distribution generates the gamma-ray flux observed by HESS, we also expect to observe a neutrino flux. We show prospective results for the observation of secondary neutrinos with the Astronomy with a Neutrino Telescope and Abyss environmental RESearch project (ANTARES), Ice Cube Neutrino Observatory (Ice Cube) and the Cubic Kilometer Neutrino Telescope (KM3NeT). Prospects solely depend on the device resolution angle when its effective area and the minimum energy threshold are fixed.

  11. Improvement of low energy atmospheric neutrino flux calculation using the JAM nuclear interaction model

    SciTech Connect

    Honda, M.; Kajita, T.; Kasahara, K.; Midorikawa, S.

    2011-06-15

    We present the calculation of the atmospheric neutrino fluxes with an interaction model named JAM, which is used in PHITS (Particle and Heavy-Ion Transport code System) [K. Niita et al., Radiation Measurements 41, 1080 (2006).]. The JAM interaction model agrees with the HARP experiment [H. Collaboration, Astropart. Phys. 30, 124 (2008).] a little better than DPMJET-III[S. Roesler, R. Engel, and J. Ranft, arXiv:hep-ph/0012252.]. After some modifications, it reproduces the muon flux below 1 GeV/c at balloon altitudes better than the modified DPMJET-III, which we used for the calculation of atmospheric neutrino flux in previous works [T. Sanuki, M. Honda, T. Kajita, K. Kasahara, and S. Midorikawa, Phys. Rev. D 75, 043005 (2007).][M. Honda, T. Kajita, K. Kasahara, S. Midorikawa, and T. Sanuki, Phys. Rev. D 75, 043006 (2007).]. Some improvements in the calculation of atmospheric neutrino flux are also reported.

  12. Measurement of the 8B Solar Neutrino Flux with KamLAND

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, S.; Furuno, K.; Gando, A.; Gando, Y.; Ichimura, K.; Ikeda, H.; Inoue, K.; Kibe, Y.; Kimura, W.; Kishimoto, Y.; Koga, M.; Minekawa, Y.; Mitsui, T.; Morikawa, T.; Nagai, N.; Nakajima, K.; Nakamura, K.; Nakamura, M.; Narita, K.; Shimizu, I.; Shimizu, Y.; Shirai, J.; Suekane, F.; Suzuki, A.; Takahashi, H.; Takahashi, N.; Takemoto, Y.; Tamae, K.; Watanabe, H.; Xu, B.D.; Yabumoto, H.; Yonezawa, E.; Yoshida, H.; Yoshida, S.; Enomoto, S.; Kozlov, A.; Murayama, H.; Grant, C.; Keefer, G.; McKee, D.; Piepke, A.; Banks, T.I.; Bloxham, T.; Detwiler, J.A.; Freedman, S.J.; Fujikawa, B.K.; Han, K.; Kadel, R.; O'Donnell, T.; Steiner, H.M.; Winslow, L.A.; Dwyer, D.A.; Mauger, C.; McKeown, R.D.; Zhang, C.; Berger, B.E.; Lane, C.E.; Maricic, J.; Miletic, T.; Batygov, M.; Learned, J.G.; Matsuno, S.; Pakvasa, S.; Sakai, M.; Horton-Smith, G.A.; Tang, A.; Downum, K.E.; Gratta, G.; Tolich, K.; Efremenko, Y.; Kamyshkov, Y.; Perevozchikov, O.; Karwowski, H.J.; Markoff, D.M.; Tornow, W.; Heeger, K.M.; Piquemal, F.; Ricol, J.-S.; Decowski, M.P.

    2011-06-04

    We report a measurement of the neutrino-electron elastic scattering rate from {sup 8}B solar neutrinos based on a 123 kton-day exposure of KamLAND. The background-subtracted electron recoil rate, above a 5.5-MeV analysis threshold is 1.49 {+-} 0.14(stat) {+-} 0.17(syst) events per kton-day. Interpreted as due to a pure electron flavor flux with a {sup 8}B neutrino spectrum, this corresponds to a spectrum integrated flux of 2.77 {+-} 0.26(stat) {+-} 0.32(syst) x 10{sup 6} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. The analysis threshold is driven by {sup 208}Tl present in the liquid scintillator, and the main source of systematic uncertainty is due to background from cosmogenic {sup 11}Be. The measured rate is consistent with existing measurements and with standard solar model predictions which include matter-enhanced neutrino oscillation.

  13. Magnetic neutrino resonant spin-flavor precession, 2. Helio-latitudinal asymmetry of solar neutrino fluxes and correlation coefficients.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorman, L. I.

    2001-08-01

    On the bases of available Homestake experimental data (Cleveland et al., 1998) for more than two solar cycles (1970-1994) we determine for each solar neutrino run "n" effective helio-latitude Lef(n). Then we separate all Homestake runs on three equal helio -latitudinal zones: SOUTHERLY, EQUATORIAL, and NORTHERLY with average helio-latitudes -5.3, -0.3 and +5.3 degrees, correspondingly. For each zone and each run we found effective Zurich sunspot number Zef(n), total effective surface of sunspots STef(n), as well as effective surfaces of sunspots in different non-symmetrical helio-latitudinal belts. We separated also all runs on 3 equal groups of LOW, MEDIUM and HIGH solar activity with average sunspot numbers 25.0, 80.1 and 149.9. We found that the biggest decrease of solar neutrino flux with increasing of solar activity was observed in EQUATORIAL zone: from 3.6 SNU at LOW solar activity to 2.1 SNU at HIGH solar activity. The biggest SOUTH -NORTH asymmetry in solar neutrino fluxes was observed in group of runs at LOW solar activity: 2.9 SNU in SOUTHERLY zone and 2.1 SNU in NORTHERLY zone. The SOUTHNORTH asymmetry is found also in correlation coefficients between solar neutrino fluxes in the helio-latitudinal zones SOUTHERLY, EQUATORIAL, and NORTHERLY with solar activity in different non-symmetrical helio-latitudinal belts. Obtained results support the model of magnetic neutrino resonant spin-flavor precession.

  14. Model-dependent high-energy neutrino flux from gamma-ray bursts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bing; Kumar, Pawan

    2013-03-22

    The IceCube Collaboration recently reported a stringent upper limit on the high energy neutrino flux from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), which provides a meaningful constraint on the standard internal shock model. Recent broadband electromagnetic observations of GRBs also challenge the internal shock paradigm for GRBs, and some competing models for γ-ray prompt emission have been proposed. We describe a general scheme for calculating the GRB neutrino flux, and compare the predicted neutrino flux levels for different models. We point out that the current neutrino flux upper limit starts to constrain the standard internal shock model. The dissipative photosphere models are also challenged if the cosmic ray luminosity from GRBs is at least 10 times larger than the γ-ray luminosity. If the neutrino flux upper limit continues to go down in the next few years, then it would suggest the following possibilities: (i) the photon-to-proton luminosity ratio in GRBs is anomalously high for shocks, which may be achieved in some dissipative photosphere models and magnetic dissipation models; or (ii) the GRB emission site is at a larger radius than the internal shock radius, as expected in some magnetic dissipation models such as the internal collision-induced magnetic reconnection and turbulence model.

  15. Search for Point-like Sources of Ultra-high Energy Neutrinos at the Pierre Auger Observatory and Improved Limit on the Diffuse Flux of Tau Neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierre Auger Collaboration; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Antiči'c, T.; Aramo, C.; Arganda, E.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Badescu, A. M.; Balzer, M.; Barber, K. B.; Barbosa, A. F.; Bardenet, R.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Baughman, B.; Bäuml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellétoile, A.; Bellido, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanch-Bigas, O.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Bruijn, R.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buroker, L.; Burton, R. E.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Cheng, S. H.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chirinos Diaz, J.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cook, H.; Cooper, M. J.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; De Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Vega, G.; de Mello Junior, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K. D.; del Peral, L.; del Río, M.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Díaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fliescher, S.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Fratu, O.; Fröhlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Gaior, R.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; García, B.; Garcia Roca, S. T.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giller, M.; Gitto, J.; Glass, H.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Vitale, P. F.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gookin, B.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Grashorn, E.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grigat, M.; Grillo, A. F.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Herve, A. E.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Jiraskova, S.; Josebachuili, M.; Kadija, K.; Kampert, K. H.; Karhan, P.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D.-H.; Kotera, K.; Krohm, N.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kulbartz, J. K.; Kunka, N.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leão, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; López, R.; Lopez Agüera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, J.; Marin, V.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martinez, H.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Masías Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Mertsch, P.; Meurer, C.; Meyhandan, R.; Mi'canovi'c, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, E.; Moreno, J. C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, G.; Münchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Nhung, P. T.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nožka, L.; Oehlschläger, J.; Olinto, A.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parra, A.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Peķala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Pfendner, C.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Ponce, V. H.; Pontz, M.; Porcelli, A.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rivera, H.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, J.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez, G.; Rodriguez Cabo, I.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Rouillé-d'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Rühle, C.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovancova, J.; Schovánek, P.; Schröder, F.; Schulte, S.; Schuster, D.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Silva Lopez, H. H.; Sima, O.; 'Smiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanic, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Šuša, T.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Tapia, A.; Tartare, M.; Taşcău, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Travnicek, P.; Tridapalli, D. B.; Tristram, G.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cárdenas, B.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Widom, A.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Wommer, M.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano Garcia, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zimbres Silva, M.; Ziolkowski, M.

    2012-08-01

    The surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory can detect neutrinos with energy E ν between 1017 eV and 1020 eV from point-like sources across the sky south of +55° and north of -65° declinations. A search has been performed for highly inclined extensive air showers produced by the interaction of neutrinos of all flavors in the atmosphere (downward-going neutrinos), and by the decay of tau leptons originating from tau neutrino interactions in Earth's crust (Earth-skimming neutrinos). No candidate neutrinos have been found in data up to 2010 May 31. This corresponds to an equivalent exposure of ~3.5 years of a full surface detector array for the Earth-skimming channel and ~2 years for the downward-going channel. An improved upper limit on the diffuse flux of tau neutrinos has been derived. Upper limits on the neutrino flux from point-like sources have been derived as a function of the source declination. Assuming a differential neutrino flux k PS · E -2 ν from a point-like source, 90% confidence level upper limits for k PS at the level of ≈5 × 10-7 and 2.5 × 10-6 GeV cm-2 s-1 have been obtained over a broad range of declinations from the searches for Earth-skimming and downward-going neutrinos, respectively.

  16. Ultra-high energy neutrino fluxes as a probe for non-standard physics

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharya, Atri; Choubey, Sandhya; Gandhi, Raj; Watanabe, Atsushi E-mail: sandhya@hri.res.in E-mail: watanabe@muse.sc.niigata-u.ac.jp

    2010-09-01

    We examine how light neutrinos coming from distant active galactic nuclei (AGN) and similar high energy sources may be used as tools to probe non-standard physics. In particular we discuss how studying the energy spectra of each neutrino flavour coming from such distant sources and their distortion relative to each other may serve as pointers to exotic physics such as neutrino decay, Lorentz symmetry violation, pseudo-Dirac effects, CP and CPT violation and quantum decoherence. This allows us to probe hitherto unexplored ranges of parameters for the above cases, for example lifetimes in the range 10{sup −3}−10{sup 4} s/eV for the case of neutrino decay. We show that standard neutrino oscillations ensure that the different flavours arrive at the earth with similar shapes even if their flavour spectra at source may differ strongly in both shape and magnitude. As a result, observed differences between the spectra of various flavours at the detector would be signatures of non-standard physics altering neutrino fluxes during propagation rather than those arising during their production at source. Since detection of ultra-high energy (UHE) neutrinos is perhaps imminent, it is possible that such differences in spectral shapes will be tested in neutrino detectors in the near future. To that end, using the IceCube detector as an example, we show how our results translate to observable shower and muon-track event rates.

  17. Measurement of the νe and total 8B solar neutrino fluxes with the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory phase-III data set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aharmim, B.; Ahmed, S. N.; Amsbaugh, J. F.; Anaya, J. M.; Anthony, A. E.; Banar, J.; Barros, N.; Beier, E. W.; Bellerive, A.; Beltran, B.; Bergevin, M.; Biller, S. D.; Boudjemline, K.; Boulay, M. G.; Bowles, T. J.; Browne, M. C.; Bullard, T. V.; Burritt, T. H.; Cai, B.; Chan, Y. D.; Chauhan, D.; Chen, M.; Cleveland, B. T.; Cox, G. A.; Currat, C. A.; Dai, X.; Deng, H.; Detwiler, J. A.; DiMarco, M.; Doe, P. J.; Doucas, G.; Dragowsky, M. R.; Drouin, P.-L.; Duba, C. A.; Duncan, F. A.; Dunford, M.; Earle, E. D.; Elliott, S. R.; Evans, H. C.; Ewan, G. T.; Farine, J.; Fergani, H.; Fleurot, F.; Ford, R. J.; Formaggio, J. A.; Fowler, M. M.; Gagnon, N.; Germani, J. V.; Goldschmidt, A.; Goon, J. TM.; Graham, K.; Guillian, E.; Habib, S.; Hahn, R. L.; Hallin, A. L.; Hallman, E. D.; Hamian, A. A.; Harper, G. C.; Harvey, P. J.; Hazama, R.; Heeger, K. M.; Heintzelman, W. J.; Heise, J.; Helmer, R. L.; Henning, R.; Hime, A.; Howard, C.; Howe, M. A.; Huang, M.; Jagam, P.; Jamieson, B.; Jelley, N. A.; Keeter, K. J.; Klein, J. R.; Kormos, L. L.; Kos, M.; Krüger, A.; Kraus, C.; Krauss, C. B.; Kutter, T.; Kyba, C. C. M.; Lange, R.; Law, J.; Lawson, I. T.; Lesko, K. T.; Leslie, J. R.; Loach, J. C.; MacLellan, R.; Majerus, S.; Mak, H. B.; Maneira, J.; Martin, R.; McCauley, N.; McDonald, A. B.; McGee, S. R.; Mifflin, C.; Miller, G. G.; Miller, M. L.; Monreal, B.; Monroe, J.; Morissette, B.; Myers, A. W.; Nickel, B. G.; Noble, A. J.; O'Keeffe, H. M.; Oblath, N. S.; Ollerhead, R. W.; Orebi Gann, G. D.; Oser, S. M.; Ott, R. A.; Peeters, S. J. M.; Poon, A. W. P.; Prior, G.; Reitzner, S. D.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, B. C.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Rollin, E.; Schwendener, M. H.; Secrest, J. A.; Seibert, S. R.; Simard, O.; Simpson, J. J.; Skensved, P.; Smith, M. W. E.; Sonley, T. J.; Steiger, T. D.; Stonehill, L. C.; Tešić, G.; Thornewell, P. M.; Tolich, N.; Tsui, T.; Tunnell, C. D.; Van Wechel, T.; Van Berg, R.; VanDevender, B. A.; Virtue, C. J.; Wall, B. L.; Waller, D.; Wan Chan Tseung, H.; Wendland, J.; West, N.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wilson, J. R.; Wouters, J. M.; Wright, A.; Yeh, M.; Zhang, F.; Zuber, K.

    2013-01-01

    This paper details the solar neutrino analysis of the 385.17-day phase-III data set acquired by the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO). An array of 3He proportional counters was installed in the heavy-water target to measure precisely the rate of neutrino-deuteron neutral-current interactions. This technique to determine the total active 8B solar neutrino flux was largely independent of the methods employed in previous phases. The total flux of active neutrinos was measured to be 5.54-0.31+0.33(stat.)-0.34+0.36(syst.)×106 cm-2 s-1, consistent with previous measurements and standard solar models. A global analysis of solar and reactor neutrino mixing parameters yielded the best-fit values of Δm2=7.59-0.21+0.19×10-5eV2 and θ=34.4-1.2+1.3degrees.

  18. Search for a diffuse flux of astrophysical muon neutrinos with the IceCube 40-string detector

    SciTech Connect

    Abbasi, R.; Aguilar, J. A.; Andeen, K.; Baker, M.; BenZvi, S.; Chirkin, D.; Desiati, P.; Diaz-Velez, J. C.; Dumm, J. P.; Eisch, J.; Feintzeig, J.; Gladstone, L.; Grullon, S.; Halzen, F.; Hill, G. C.; Hoshina, K.; Jacobsen, J.; Karle, A.; Krasberg, M.; Kurahashi, N.

    2011-10-15

    The IceCube Neutrino Observatory is a 1 km{sup 3} detector currently taking data at the South Pole. One of the main strategies used to look for astrophysical neutrinos with IceCube is the search for a diffuse flux of high-energy neutrinos from unresolved sources. A hard energy spectrum of neutrinos from isotropically distributed astrophysical sources could manifest itself as a detectable signal that may be differentiated from the atmospheric neutrino background by spectral measurement. This analysis uses data from the IceCube detector collected in its half completed configuration which operated between April 2008 and May 2009 to search for a diffuse flux of astrophysical muon neutrinos. A total of 12 877 upward-going candidate neutrino events have been selected for this analysis. No evidence for a diffuse flux of astrophysical muon neutrinos was found in the data set leading to a 90% C.L. upper limit on the normalization of an E{sup -2} astrophysical {nu}{sub {mu}} flux of 8.9x10{sup -9} GeV cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} sr{sup -1}. The analysis is sensitive in the energy range between 35 TeV and 7 PeV. The 12 877 candidate neutrino events are consistent with atmospheric muon neutrinos measured from 332 GeV to 84 TeV and no evidence for a prompt component to the atmospheric neutrino spectrum is found.

  19. New Limits on the Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Neutrino Flux from the ANITA Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Gorham, P.W.; Allison, P.; Barwick, S.W.; Beatty, J.J.; Besson, D.Z.; Binns, W.R.; Chen, C.; Chen, P.; Clem, J.M.; Connolly, A.; Dowkontt, P.F.; DuVernois, M.A.; Field, R.C.; Goldstein, D.; Goodhue, A.; Hast, C.; Hebert, C.L.; Hoover, S.; Israel, M.H.; Kowalski, J.; Learned, J.G.; /Hawaii U. /Caltech, JPL /Hawaii U. /Minnesota U. /Hawaii U. /Ohio State U. /Hawaii U. /UC, Irvine /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U. /Caltech, JPL /SLAC /University Coll. London /Ohio State U. /SLAC /Hawaii U. /UCLA /Delaware U. /Hawaii U. /SLAC /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U.

    2011-12-01

    We report initial results of the first flight of the Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna (ANITA-1) 2006-2007 Long Duration Balloon flight, which searched for evidence of a diffuse flux of cosmic neutrinos above energies of E{sub v} = 3 x 10{sup 18} eV. ANITA-1 flew for 35 days looking for radio impulses due to the Askaryan effect in neutrino-induced electromagnetic showers within the Antarctic ice sheets. We report here on our initial analysis, which was performed as a blind search of the data. No neutrino candidates are seen, with no detected physics background. We set model-independent limits based on this result. Upper limits derived from our analysis rule out the highest cosmogenic neutrino models. In a background horizontal-polarization channel, we also detect six events consistent with radio impulses from ultrahigh energy extensive air showers.

  20. Determination of the Atmospheric Neutrino Flux and Searches for New Physics with AMANDA-II

    SciTech Connect

    IceCube Collaboration; Klein, Spencer; Collaboration, IceCube

    2009-06-02

    The AMANDA-II detector, operating since 2000 in the deep ice at the geographic South Pole, has accumulated a large sample of atmospheric muon neutrinos in the 100 GeV to 10 TeV energy range. The zenith angle and energy distribution of these events can be used to search for various phenomenological signatures of quantum gravity in the neutrino sector, such as violation of Lorentz invariance (VLI) or quantum decoherence (QD). Analyzing a set of 5511 candidate neutrino events collected during 1387 days of livetime from 2000 to 2006, we find no evidence for such effects and set upper limits on VLI and QD parameters using a maximum likelihood method. Given the absence of evidence for new flavor-changing physics, we use the same methodology to determine the conventional atmospheric muon neutrino flux above 100 GeV.

  1. One-loop correction effects on supernova neutrino fluxes: a new possible probe for Beyond Standard Models

    SciTech Connect

    Gava, J.

    2010-05-01

    We present the consequences of a large radiative correction term coming from Supersymmetry (SUSY) upon the electron neutrino fluxes streaming off a core-collapse supernova using a 3-flavour neutrino-neutrino interaction code. We explore the interplay between the neutrino-neutrino interaction and the effects of the resonance associated with the μ−τ neutrino index of refraction. We find that sizeable effects may be visible in the flux on Earth and, consequently, on the number of events upon the energy signal of electron neutrinos in a liquid argon detector. Such effects could lead to a probe for Beyond Standard Model (BSM) physics and, ideally, to constraints in the SUSY parameter space.

  2. A case for radio galaxies as the sources of IceCube's astrophysical neutrino flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooper, Dan

    2016-09-01

    We present an argument that radio galaxies (active galaxies with mis-aligned jets) are likely to be the primary sources of the high-energy astrophysical neutrinos observed by IceCube. In particular, if the gamma-ray emission observed from radio galaxies is generated through the interactions of cosmic-ray protons with gas, these interactions can also produce a population of neutrinos with a flux and spectral shape similar to that measured by IceCube. We present a simple physical model in which high-energy cosmic rays are confined within the volumes of radio galaxies, where they interact with gas to generate the observed diffuse fluxes of neutrinos and gamma rays. In addition to simultaneously accounting for the observations of Fermi and IceCube, radio galaxies in this model also represent an attractive class of sources for the highest energy cosmic rays.

  3. SEARCH FOR GLOBAL f-MODES AND p-MODES IN THE {sup 8}B NEUTRINO FLUX

    SciTech Connect

    Lopes, Ilídio E-mail: ilopes@uevora.pt

    2013-11-01

    The impact of global acoustic modes on the {sup 8}B neutrino flux time series is computed for the first time. It is shown that the time fluctuations of the {sup 8}B neutrino flux depend on the amplitude of acoustic eigenfunctions in the region where the {sup 8}B neutrino flux is produced: modes with low n (or order) that have eigenfunctions with a relatively large amplitude in the Sun's core strongly affect the neutrino flux; conversely, modes with high n that have eigenfunctions with a minimal amplitude in the Sun's core have a very small impact on the neutrino flux. It was found that the global modes with a larger impact on the {sup 8}B neutrino flux have a frequency of oscillation in the interval 250 μHz to 500 μHz (or a period in the interval 30 minutes to 70 minutes), such as the f-modes (n = 0) for the low degrees, radial modes of order n ≤ 3, and the dipole mode of order n = 1. Their corresponding neutrino eigenfunctions are very sensitive to the solar inner core and are unaffected by the variability of the external layers of the solar surface. If time variability of neutrinos is observed for these modes, it will lead to new ways of improving the sound speed profile inversion in the central region of the Sun.

  4. ANTARES constraints on a Galactic component of the IceCube cosmic neutrino flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spurio, Maurizio

    2016-07-01

    The IceCube evidence for cosmic neutrinos has inspired a large number of hypothesis on their origin, mainly due to the poor precision on the measurement of the direction of showering events. A North/South asymmetry in the present data set suggests the presence of a possible Galactic component. This could be originated either by single point-like sources or from an extended Galactic region. Expected fluxes derived from these hypotheses are presented. Some values have been constrained from the present available upper limits from the ANTARES neutrino telescope.

  5. SEARCH FOR POINT-LIKE SOURCES OF ULTRA-HIGH ENERGY NEUTRINOS AT THE PIERRE AUGER OBSERVATORY AND IMPROVED LIMIT ON THE DIFFUSE FLUX OF TAU NEUTRINOS

    SciTech Connect

    Abreu, P.; Andringa, S.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aramo, C.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Antici'c, T.; Collaboration: Pierre Auger Collaboration; and others

    2012-08-10

    The surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory can detect neutrinos with energy E{sub {nu}} between 10{sup 17} eV and 10{sup 20} eV from point-like sources across the sky south of +55 Degree-Sign and north of -65 Degree-Sign declinations. A search has been performed for highly inclined extensive air showers produced by the interaction of neutrinos of all flavors in the atmosphere (downward-going neutrinos), and by the decay of tau leptons originating from tau neutrino interactions in Earth's crust (Earth-skimming neutrinos). No candidate neutrinos have been found in data up to 2010 May 31. This corresponds to an equivalent exposure of {approx}3.5 years of a full surface detector array for the Earth-skimming channel and {approx}2 years for the downward-going channel. An improved upper limit on the diffuse flux of tau neutrinos has been derived. Upper limits on the neutrino flux from point-like sources have been derived as a function of the source declination. Assuming a differential neutrino flux k{sub PS} {center_dot} E {sup -2}{sub {nu}} from a point-like source, 90% confidence level upper limits for k{sub PS} at the level of Almost-Equal-To 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} and 2.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} GeV cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} have been obtained over a broad range of declinations from the searches for Earth-skimming and downward-going neutrinos, respectively.

  6. Quasi-biennial modulation of solar neutrino flux: connections with solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vecchio, A.; Laurenza, M.; D'alessi, L.; Carbone, V.; Storini, M.

    2011-12-01

    A quasi-biennial periodicity has been recently found (Vecchio et al., 2010) in the solar neutrino flux, as detected at the Homestake experiment, as well as in the flux of solar energetic protons, by means of the Empirical Modes Decomposition technique. Moreover, both fluxes have been found to be significantly correlated at the quasi-biennial timescale, thus supporting the hypothesis of a connection between solar neutrinos and solar activity. The origin of this connection is investigated, by modeling how the standard Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect (the process for which the well-known neutrino flavor oscillations are modified in passing through the material) could be influenced by matter fluctuations. As proposed by Burgess et al., 2004, by introducing a background magnetic field in the helioseismic model, density fluctuations can be excited in the radiative zone by the resonance between helioseismic g-modes and Alfvén waves. In particular, with reasonable values of the background magnetic field (10-100 kG), the distance between resonant layers could be of the same order of neutrino oscillation length. We study the effect over this distance of a background magnetic field which is variable with a ~2 yr period, in agreement with typical variations of solar activity. Our findings suggest that the quasi-biennial modulation of the neutrino flux is theoretically possible as a consequence of the magnetic field variations in the solar interior. A. Vecchio, M. Laurenza, V. Carbone, M. Storini, The Astrophysical Journal Letters, 709, L1-L5 (2010). C. Burgess, N. S. Dzhalilov, T. I. Rashba, V., B.Semikoz, J. W. F. Valle, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 348, 609-624 (2004).

  7. Improvement of low energy atmospheric neutrino flux calculation using the JAM nuclear interaction model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, M.; Kajita, T.; Kasahara, K.; Midorikawa, S.

    2011-06-01

    We present the calculation of the atmospheric neutrino fluxes with an interaction model named JAM, which is used in PHITS (Particle and Heavy-Ion Transport code System) [K. Niita , Radiation MeasurementsRMEAEP1350-4487 41, 1080 (2006).10.1016/j.radmeas.2006.07.013]. The JAM interaction model agrees with the HARP experiment [H. Collaboration, Astropart. Phys. 30, 124 (2008).APHYEE0927-650510.1016/j.astropartphys.2008.07.007] a little better than DPMJET-III [S. Roesler, R. Engel, and J. Ranft, arXiv:hep-ph/0012252.]. After some modifications, it reproduces the muon flux below 1GeV/c at balloon altitudes better than the modified DPMJET-III, which we used for the calculation of atmospheric neutrino flux in previous works [T. Sanuki, M. Honda, T. Kajita, K. Kasahara, and S. Midorikawa, Phys. Rev. DPRVDAQ1550-7998 75, 043005 (2007).10.1103/PhysRevD.75.043005][M. Honda, T. Kajita, K. Kasahara, S. Midorikawa, and T. Sanuki, Phys. Rev. DPRVDAQ1550-7998 75, 043006 (2007).10.1103/PhysRevD.75.043006]. Some improvements in the calculation of atmospheric neutrino flux are also reported.

  8. Gamma-ray constraints on maximum cosmogenic neutrino fluxes and UHECR source evolution models

    SciTech Connect

    Gelmini, Graciela B.; Kalashev, Oleg; Semikoz, Dmitri V. E-mail: kalashev@ms2.inr.ac.ru

    2012-01-01

    The dip model assumes that the ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) above 10{sup 18} eV consist exclusively of protons and is consistent with the spectrum and composition measure by HiRes. Here we present the range of cosmogenic neutrino fluxes in the dip-model which are compatible with a recent determination of the extragalactic very high energy (VHE) gamma-ray diffuse background derived from 2.5 years of Fermi/LAT data. We show that the largest fluxes predicted in the dip model would be detectable by IceCube in about 10 years of observation and are within the reach of a few years of observation with the ARA project. In the incomplete UHECR model in which protons are assumed to dominate only above 10{sup 19} eV, the cosmogenic neutrino fluxes could be a factor of 2 or 3 larger. Any fraction of heavier nuclei in the UHECR at these energies would reduce the maximum cosmogenic neutrino fluxes. We also consider here special evolution models in which the UHECR sources are assumed to have the same evolution of either the star formation rate (SFR), or the gamma-ray burst (GRB) rate, or the active galactic nuclei (AGN) rate in the Universe and found that the last two are disfavored (and in the dip model rejected) by the new VHE gamma-ray background.

  9. Prediction of the diffuse neutrino flux from cosmic ray interactions near supernova remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandelartz, Matthias; Becker Tjus, Julia

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we present high-energy neutrino spectra from 21 Galactic supernova remnants (SNRs), derived from gamma-ray measurements in the GeV-TeV range. We find that only the strongest sources, i.e. G40.5-0.5 in the north and Vela Junior in the south could be detected as single point sources by IceCube or KM3NeT, respectively. For the first time, it is also possible to derive a diffuse signal by applying the observed correlation between gamma-ray emission and radio signal. Radio data from 234 supernova remnants listed in Green's catalog are used to show that the total diffuse neutrino flux is approximately a factor of 2.5 higher compared to the sources that are resolved so far. We show that the signal at above 10 TeV energies can actually become comparable to the diffuse neutrino flux component from interactions in the interstellar medium. Recently, the IceCube collaboration announced the detection of a first diffuse signal of astrophysical high-energy neutrinos. Directional information cannot unambiguously reveal the nature of the sources at this point due to low statistics. A number of events come from close to the Galactic center and one of the main questions is whether at least a part of the signal can be of Galactic nature. In this paper, we show that the diffuse flux from well-resolved SNRs is at least a factor of 20 below the observed flux.

  10. Effects of heavy-element settling on solar neutrino fluxes and interior structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proffitt, Charles R.

    1994-01-01

    We consider the effects of gravitational settling of both He and heavier elements on the predicted solar neutrino fluxes and interior sound speed and density profiles. We find that while the structural changes that result from the inclusion of both He and heavy-element settling are only slightly larger than the changes resulting from the inclusion of He settling alone, the additional increases in expected neutrino fluxes are of comparable size. Our preferred model with both He and heavy-element settling has neutrino count rates of 9.0 SNU for Cl-37 detectors and 137 SNU for Ga-71 detectors, as compared to 7.1 and 127 SNU for a comparable model without any diffusive separation, or 8.0 and 132 SNU for a model that includes He settling alone. We suggest that the correction factors by which the predicted neutrino fluxes of solar models calculated without including the effects of diffusion should be multiplied are 1.25 +/- 0.08 for Cl detectors, 1.07 +/- 0.02 for Ga detectors, and 1.28 +/- 0.09 for the B-8 flux (1 sigma errors). Comparison of internal sound speed and density profiles strongly suggests that the additional changes in calculated p-mode oscillation frequencies due to the inclusion of heavy-element settling will be small compared to the changes that result from He settling alone, especially for the higher degree modes. All models with diffusive separation give much better agreement with the observed depth of the convection zone than do nondiffusive models. The model that includes both He and heavy-element settling requires an initial He mass fraction Y = 0.280 and has a surface He abundance of Y = 0.251 at the solar age.

  11. Neutrino fluxes from CNO cycle in the Sun in the non stationary case with mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Kopylov, A.; Petukhov, V.

    2009-08-01

    The calculated deviations of the mean molecular weight and the abundances of hydrogen, helium etc. from the standard values are presented for the non stationary case with mixing of the solar model when the neutrino flux F{sub 13} from the decay of {sup 13}N is higher than a standard model predicts. The inferences for the future experiments are made, particularly for a lithium radiochemical detector.

  12. The diffuse gamma-ray flux associated with sub-PEV/PEV neutrinos from starburst galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Xiao-Chuan; Wang, Xiang-Yu

    2014-10-01

    One attractive scenario for the excess of sub-PeV/PeV neutrinos recently reported by IceCube is that they are produced by cosmic rays in starburst galaxies colliding with the dense interstellar medium. These proton-proton (pp) collisions also produce high-energy gamma rays, which finally contribute to the diffuse high-energy gamma-ray background. We calculate the diffuse gamma-ray flux with a semi-analytic approach and consider that the very high energy gamma rays will be absorbed in the galaxies and converted into electron-positron pairs, which then lose almost all of their energy through synchrotron radiation in the strong magnetic fields in the starburst region. Since the synchrotron emission goes into energies below GeV, this synchrotron loss reduces the diffuse high-energy gamma-ray flux by a factor of about two, thus leaving more room for other sources to contribute to the gamma-ray background. For an E{sub ν}{sup −2} neutrino spectrum, we find that the diffuse gamma-ray flux contributes about 20% of the observed diffuse gamma-ray background in the 100 GeV range. However, for a steeper neutrino spectrum, this synchrotron loss effect is less important, since the energy fraction in absorbed gamma rays becomes lower.

  13. Neutrino fluxes from constrained minimal supersymmetric standard model lightest supersymmetric particle annihilations in the Sun

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, John; Olive, Keith A.; Savage, Christopher; Spanos, Vassilis C.

    2010-04-15

    We evaluate the neutrino fluxes to be expected from neutralino lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) annihilations inside the Sun, within the minimal supersymmetric extension of the standard model with supersymmetry-breaking scalar and gaugino masses constrained to be universal at the grand unified theory scale [the constrained minimal supersymmetric standard model (CMSSM)]. We find that there are large regions of typical CMSSM (m{sub 1/2},m{sub 0}) planes where the LSP density inside the Sun is not in equilibrium, so that the annihilation rate may be far below the capture rate. We show that neutrino fluxes are dependent on the solar model at the 20% level, and adopt the AGSS09 model of Serenelli et al. for our detailed studies. We find that there are large regions of the CMSSM (m{sub 1/2},m{sub 0}) planes where the capture rate is not dominated by spin-dependent LSP-proton scattering, e.g., at large m{sub 1/2} along the CMSSM coannihilation strip. We calculate neutrino fluxes above various threshold energies for points along the coannihilation/rapid-annihilation and focus-point strips where the CMSSM yields the correct cosmological relic density for tan{beta}=10 and 55 for {mu}>0, exploring their sensitivities to uncertainties in the spin-dependent and -independent scattering matrix elements. We also present detailed neutrino spectra for four benchmark models that illustrate generic possibilities within the CMSSM. Scanning the cosmologically favored parts of the parameter space of the CMSSM, we find that the IceCube/DeepCore detector can probe at best only parts of this parameter space, notably the focus-point region and possibly also at the low-mass tip of the coannihilation strip.

  14. Constraints on the flux of ultra-high energy neutrinos from Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buitink, S.; Scholten, O.; Bacelar, J.; Braun, R.; de Bruyn, A. G.; Falcke, H.; Singh, K.; Stappers, B.; Strom, R. G.; Yahyaoui, R. Al

    2010-10-01

    Context. Ultra-high energy (UHE) neutrinos and cosmic rays initiate particle cascades underneath the Moon's surface. These cascades have a negative charge excess and radiate Cherenkov radio emission in a process known as the Askaryan effect. The optimal frequency window for observation of these pulses with radio telescopes on the Earth is around 150 MHz. Aims: By observing the Moon with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope array we are able to set a new limit on the UHE neutrino flux. Methods: The PuMa II backend is used to monitor the Moon in 4 frequency bands between 113 and 175 MHz with a sampling frequency of 40 MHz. The narrowband radio interference is digitally filtered out and the dispersive effect of the Earth's ionosphere is compensated for. A trigger system is implemented to search for short pulses. By inserting simulated pulses in the raw data, the detection efficiency for pulses of various strength is calculated. Results: With 47.6 hours of observation time, we are able to set a limit on the UHE neutrino flux. This new limit is an order of magnitude lower than existing limits. In the near future, the digital radio array LOFAR will be used to achieve an even lower limit.

  15. Independent Measurement of the Total Active B8 Solar Neutrino Flux Using an Array of He3 Proportional Counters at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aharmim, B.; Ahmed, S. N.; Amsbaugh, J. F.; Anthony, A. E.; Banar, J.; Barros, N.; Beier, E. W.; Bellerive, A.; Beltran, B.; Bergevin, M.; Biller, S. D.; Boudjemline, K.; Boulay, M. G.; Bowles, T. J.; Browne, M. C.; Bullard, T. V.; Burritt, T. H.; Cai, B.; Chan, Y. D.; Chauhan, D.; Chen, M.; Cleveland, B. T.; Cox-Mobrand, G. A.; Currat, C. A.; Dai, X.; Deng, H.; Detwiler, J.; Dimarco, M.; Doe, P. J.; Doucas, G.; Drouin, P.-L.; Duba, C. A.; Duncan, F. A.; Dunford, M.; Earle, E. D.; Elliott, S. R.; Evans, H. C.; Ewan, G. T.; Farine, J.; Fergani, H.; Fleurot, F.; Ford, R. J.; Formaggio, J. A.; Fowler, M. M.; Gagnon, N.; Germani, J. V.; Goldschmidt, A.; Goon, J. T. M.; Graham, K.; Guillian, E.; Habib, S.; Hahn, R. L.; Hallin, A. L.; Hallman, E. D.; Hamian, A. A.; Harper, G. C.; Harvey, P. J.; Hazama, R.; Heeger, K. M.; Heintzelman, W. J.; Heise, J.; Helmer, R. L.; Henning, R.; Hime, A.; Howard, C.; Howe, M. A.; Huang, M.; Jagam, P.; Jamieson, B.; Jelley, N. A.; Keeter, K. J.; Klein, J. R.; Kormos, L. L.; Kos, M.; Krüger, A.; Kraus, C.; Krauss, C. B.; Kutter, T.; Kyba, C. C. M.; Lange, R.; Law, J.; Lawson, I. T.; Lesko, K. T.; Leslie, J. R.; Loach, J. C.; MacLellan, R.; Majerus, S.; Mak, H. B.; Maneira, J.; Martin, R.; McBryde, K.; McCauley, N.; McDonald, A. B.; McGee, S.; Mifflin, C.; Miller, G. G.; Miller, M. L.; Monreal, B.; Monroe, J.; Morissette, B.; Myers, A.; Nickel, B. G.; Noble, A. J.; Oblath, N. S.; O'Keeffe, H. M.; Ollerhead, R. W.; Gann, G. D. Orebi; Oser, S. M.; Ott, R. A.; Peeters, S. J. M.; Poon, A. W. P.; Prior, G.; Reitzner, S. D.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, B. C.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Rollin, E.; Schwendener, M. H.; Secrest, J. A.; Seibert, S. R.; Simard, O.; Simpson, J. J.; Sinclair, L.; Skensved, P.; Smith, M. W. E.; Steiger, T. D.; Stonehill, L. C.; Tešić, G.; Thornewell, P. M.; Tolich, N.; Tsui, T.; Tunnell, C. D.; van Wechel, T.; van Berg, R.; Vandevender, B. A.; Virtue, C. J.; Walker, T. J.; Wall, B. L.; Waller, D.; Tseung, H. Wan Chan; Wendland, J.; West, N.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wilson, J. R.; Wouters, J. M.; Wright, A.; Yeh, M.; Zhang, F.; Zuber, K.

    2008-09-01

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) used an array of He3 proportional counters to measure the rate of neutral-current interactions in heavy water and precisely determined the total active (νx) B8 solar neutrino flux. This technique is independent of previous methods employed by SNO. The total flux is found to be 5.54-0.31+0.33(stat)-0.34+0.36(syst)×106cm-2s-1, in agreement with previous measurements and standard solar models. A global analysis of solar and reactor neutrino results yields Δm2=7.59-0.21+0.19×10-5eV2 and θ=34.4-1.2+1.3 degrees. The uncertainty on the mixing angle has been reduced from SNO’s previous results.

  16. Independent measurement of the total active 8B solar neutrino flux using an array of 3He proportional counters at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory.

    PubMed

    Aharmim, B; Ahmed, S N; Amsbaugh, J F; Anthony, A E; Banar, J; Barros, N; Beier, E W; Bellerive, A; Beltran, B; Bergevin, M; Biller, S D; Boudjemline, K; Boulay, M G; Bowles, T J; Browne, M C; Bullard, T V; Burritt, T H; Cai, B; Chan, Y D; Chauhan, D; Chen, M; Cleveland, B T; Cox-Mobrand, G A; Currat, C A; Dai, X; Deng, H; Detwiler, J; DiMarco, M; Doe, P J; Doucas, G; Drouin, P-L; Duba, C A; Duncan, F A; Dunford, M; Earle, E D; Elliott, S R; Evans, H C; Ewan, G T; Farine, J; Fergani, H; Fleurot, F; Ford, R J; Formaggio, J A; Fowler, M M; Gagnon, N; Germani, J V; Goldschmidt, A; Goon, J T M; Graham, K; Guillian, E; Habib, S; Hahn, R L; Hallin, A L; Hallman, E D; Hamian, A A; Harper, G C; Harvey, P J; Hazama, R; Heeger, K M; Heintzelman, W J; Heise, J; Helmer, R L; Henning, R; Hime, A; Howard, C; Howe, M A; Huang, M; Jagam, P; Jamieson, B; Jelley, N A; Keeter, K J; Klein, J R; Kormos, L L; Kos, M; Krüger, A; Kraus, C; Krauss, C B; Kutter, T; Kyba, C C M; Lange, R; Law, J; Lawson, I T; Lesko, K T; Leslie, J R; Loach, J C; MacLellan, R; Majerus, S; Mak, H B; Maneira, J; Martin, R; McBryde, K; McCauley, N; McDonald, A B; McGee, S; Mifflin, C; Miller, G G; Miller, M L; Monreal, B; Monroe, J; Morissette, B; Myers, A; Nickel, B G; Noble, A J; Oblath, N S; O'Keeffe, H M; Ollerhead, R W; Gann, G D Orebi; Oser, S M; Ott, R A; Peeters, S J M; Poon, A W P; Prior, G; Reitzner, S D; Rielage, K; Robertson, B C; Robertson, R G H; Rollin, E; Schwendener, M H; Secrest, J A; Seibert, S R; Simard, O; Simpson, J J; Sinclair, L; Skensved, P; Smith, M W E; Steiger, T D; Stonehill, L C; Tesić, G; Thornewell, P M; Tolich, N; Tsui, T; Tunnell, C D; Van Wechel, T; Van Berg, R; VanDevender, B A; Virtue, C J; Walker, T J; Wall, B L; Waller, D; Tseung, H Wan Chan; Wendland, J; West, N; Wilhelmy, J B; Wilkerson, J F; Wilson, J R; Wouters, J M; Wright, A; Yeh, M; Zhang, F; Zuber, K

    2008-09-12

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) used an array of 3He proportional counters to measure the rate of neutral-current interactions in heavy water and precisely determined the total active (nu_x) 8B solar neutrino flux. This technique is independent of previous methods employed by SNO. The total flux is found to be 5.54_-0.31;+0.33(stat)-0.34+0.36(syst)x10(6) cm(-2) s(-1), in agreement with previous measurements and standard solar models. A global analysis of solar and reactor neutrino results yields Deltam2=7.59_-0.21;+0.19x10(-5) eV2 and theta=34.4_-1.2;+1.3 degrees. The uncertainty on the mixing angle has been reduced from SNO's previous results.

  17. Independent measurement of the total active 8B solar neutrino flux using an array of 3He proportional counters at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory.

    PubMed

    Aharmim, B; Ahmed, S N; Amsbaugh, J F; Anthony, A E; Banar, J; Barros, N; Beier, E W; Bellerive, A; Beltran, B; Bergevin, M; Biller, S D; Boudjemline, K; Boulay, M G; Bowles, T J; Browne, M C; Bullard, T V; Burritt, T H; Cai, B; Chan, Y D; Chauhan, D; Chen, M; Cleveland, B T; Cox-Mobrand, G A; Currat, C A; Dai, X; Deng, H; Detwiler, J; DiMarco, M; Doe, P J; Doucas, G; Drouin, P-L; Duba, C A; Duncan, F A; Dunford, M; Earle, E D; Elliott, S R; Evans, H C; Ewan, G T; Farine, J; Fergani, H; Fleurot, F; Ford, R J; Formaggio, J A; Fowler, M M; Gagnon, N; Germani, J V; Goldschmidt, A; Goon, J T M; Graham, K; Guillian, E; Habib, S; Hahn, R L; Hallin, A L; Hallman, E D; Hamian, A A; Harper, G C; Harvey, P J; Hazama, R; Heeger, K M; Heintzelman, W J; Heise, J; Helmer, R L; Henning, R; Hime, A; Howard, C; Howe, M A; Huang, M; Jagam, P; Jamieson, B; Jelley, N A; Keeter, K J; Klein, J R; Kormos, L L; Kos, M; Krüger, A; Kraus, C; Krauss, C B; Kutter, T; Kyba, C C M; Lange, R; Law, J; Lawson, I T; Lesko, K T; Leslie, J R; Loach, J C; MacLellan, R; Majerus, S; Mak, H B; Maneira, J; Martin, R; McBryde, K; McCauley, N; McDonald, A B; McGee, S; Mifflin, C; Miller, G G; Miller, M L; Monreal, B; Monroe, J; Morissette, B; Myers, A; Nickel, B G; Noble, A J; Oblath, N S; O'Keeffe, H M; Ollerhead, R W; Gann, G D Orebi; Oser, S M; Ott, R A; Peeters, S J M; Poon, A W P; Prior, G; Reitzner, S D; Rielage, K; Robertson, B C; Robertson, R G H; Rollin, E; Schwendener, M H; Secrest, J A; Seibert, S R; Simard, O; Simpson, J J; Sinclair, L; Skensved, P; Smith, M W E; Steiger, T D; Stonehill, L C; Tesić, G; Thornewell, P M; Tolich, N; Tsui, T; Tunnell, C D; Van Wechel, T; Van Berg, R; VanDevender, B A; Virtue, C J; Walker, T J; Wall, B L; Waller, D; Tseung, H Wan Chan; Wendland, J; West, N; Wilhelmy, J B; Wilkerson, J F; Wilson, J R; Wouters, J M; Wright, A; Yeh, M; Zhang, F; Zuber, K

    2008-09-12

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) used an array of 3He proportional counters to measure the rate of neutral-current interactions in heavy water and precisely determined the total active (nu_x) 8B solar neutrino flux. This technique is independent of previous methods employed by SNO. The total flux is found to be 5.54_-0.31;+0.33(stat)-0.34+0.36(syst)x10(6) cm(-2) s(-1), in agreement with previous measurements and standard solar models. A global analysis of solar and reactor neutrino results yields Deltam2=7.59_-0.21;+0.19x10(-5) eV2 and theta=34.4_-1.2;+1.3 degrees. The uncertainty on the mixing angle has been reduced from SNO's previous results. PMID:18851271

  18. Neutrino Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergström, L.; Hulth, P. O.; Botner, O.; Carlson, P.; Ohlsson, T.

    2006-03-01

    J. N. Bahcall (1934-2005) -- Preface -- List of participants -- Committees -- Nobel symposium on neutrino physics - program -- The history of neutrino oscillations / S. M. Bilenky -- Super-Kamiokande results on neutrino oscillations / Y. Suzuki -- Sudbury neutrino observatory results / A. B. McDonald -- Results from KamLAND reactor neutrino detection / A. Suzuki -- New opportunities for surprise / J. Conrad -- Solar models and solar neutrinos / J. N. Bahcall -- Atmospheric neutrino fluxes / T. K. Gaisser -- The MSW effect and matter effects in neutrino oscillations / A. Yu. Smirnov -- Three-flavour effects and CP- and T-violation in neutrino oscillations / E. Kh. Akhmedov -- Global analysis of neutrino data / M. C. Gonzalez-Garcia -- Future precision neutrino oscillation experiments and theoretical implications / M. Lindner -- Experimental prospects of neutrinoless double beta decay / E. Fiorini -- Theoretical prospects of neutrinoless double beta decay / S. T. Petcov -- Supernova neutrino oscillations / G. G. Raffelt -- High-energy neutrino astronomy / F. Halzen -- Neutrino astrophysics in the cold: Amanda, Baikal and IceCube / C. Spiering -- Status of radio and acoustic detection of ultra-high energy cosmic neutrinos and a proposal on reporting results / D. Saltzberg -- Detection of neutrino-induced air showers / A. A. Watson -- Prospect for relic neutrino searches / G. B. Gelmini -- Leptogenesis in the early universe / T. Yanagida -- Neutrinos and big bang nucleosynthesis / G. Steigman -- Extra galactic sources of high energy neutrinos / E. Waxman -- Cosmological neutrino bounds for non-cosmologists / M. Tegmark -- Neutrino intrinsic properties: the neutrino-antineutrino relation / B. Kayser -- NuTeV and neutrino properties / M. H. Shaevitz -- Absolute masses of neutrinos - experimental results and future possibilities / C. Weinheimer -- Flavor theories and neutrino masses / P. Ramond -- Neutrino mass models and leptogenesis / S. F. King -- Neutrino mass and

  19. Measurement of the nue and Total 8B Solar Neutrino Fluxes with theSudbury Neutrino Observatory Phase I Data Set

    SciTech Connect

    Aharmim, B.; Ahmad, Q.R.; Ahmed, S.N.; Allen, R.C.; Andersen,T.C.; Anglin, J.D.; Buehler, G.; Barton, J.C.; Beier, E.W.; Bercovitch,M.; Bergevin, M.; Bigu, J.; Biller, S.D.; Black, R.A.; Blevis, I.; Boardman, R.J.; Boger, J.; Bonvin, E.; Boulay, M.G.; Bowler, M.G.; Bowles, T.J.; Brice, S.J.; Browne, M.C.; Bullard, T.V.; Burritt, T.H.; Cameron, J.; Chan, Y.D.; Chen, H.H.; Chen, M.; Chen, X.; Cleveland, B.T.; Cowan, J.H.M.; Cowen, D.F.; Cox, G.A.; Currat, C.A.; Dai, X.; Dalnoki-Veress, F.; Davidson, W.F.; Deng, H.; DiMarco, M.; Doe, P.J.; Doucas, G.; Dragowsky, M.R.; Duba, C.A.; Duncan, F.A.; Dunford, M.; Dunmore, J.A.; Earle, E.D.; Elliott, S.R.; Evans, H.C.; Ewan, G.T.; Farine, J.; Fergani, H.; Ferraris, A.P.; Fleurot, F.; Ford, R.J.; Formaggio, J.A.; Fowler, M.M.; Frame, K.; Frank, E.D.; Frati, W.; Gagnon,N.; Germani, J.V.; Gil, S.; Goldschmidt, A.; Goon, J.T.M.; Graham, K.; Grant, D.R.; Guillian, E.; Hahn, R.L.; Hallin, A.L.; Hallman, E.D.; Hamer, A.S.; Hamian, A.A.; Handler, W.B.; Haq, R.U.; Hargrove, C.K.; Harvey, P.J.; Hazama, R.; Heeger, K.M.; Heintzelman, W.J.; Heise, J.; Helmer, R.L.; Henning, R.; Hepburn, J.D.; Heron, H.; Hewett, J.; Hime,A.; Howard, C.; Howe, M.A.; Huang, M.; Hykawy, J.G.; Isaac, M.C.P.; Jagam, P.; Jamieson, B.; Jelley, N.A.; Jillings, C.; Jonkmans, G.; Kazkaz, K.; Keener, P.T.; Kirch, K.; Klein, J.R.; Knox, A.B.; Komar,R.J.; Kormos, L.L.; Kos, M.; Kouzes, R.; Krueger, A.; Kraus, C.; Krauss,C.B.; Kutter, T.; Kyba, C.C.M.; Labranche, H.; Lange, R.; Law, J.; Lawson, I.T.; Lay, M.; Lee, H.W.; Lesko, K.T.; Leslie, J.R.; Levine, I.; Loach, J.C.; Locke, W.; Luoma, S.; Lyon, J.; MacLellan, R.; Majerus, S.; Mak, H.B.; Maneira, J.; Marino, A.D.; Martin, R.; McCauley, N.; McDonald,A.B.; McDonald, D.S.; McFarlane, K.; McGee, S.; McGregor, G.; MeijerDrees, R.; Mes, H.; Mifflin, C.; Miknaitis, K.K.S.; Miller, M.L.; Milton,G.; Moffat, B.A.; Monreal, B.; Moorhead, M.; Morrissette, B.; Nally,C.W.; Neubauer, M.S.; et al.

    2007-02-01

    This article provides the complete description of resultsfrom the Phase I data set of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO). ThePhase I data set is based on a 0.65 kt-year exposure of heavy water tothe solar 8B neutrino flux. Included here are details of the SNO physicsand detector model, evaluations of systematic uncertainties, andestimates of backgrounds. Also discussed are SNO's approach tostatistical extraction of the signals from the three neutrino reactions(charged current, neutral current, and elastic scattering) and theresults of a search for a day-night asymmetry in the ?e flux. Under theassumption that the 8B spectrum is undistorted, the measurements fromthis phase yield a solar ?e flux of ?(?e) =1.76+0.05?0.05(stat.)+0.09?0.09 (syst.) x 106 cm?2 s?1, and a non-?ecomponent ?(? mu) = 3.41+0.45?0.45(stat.)+0.48?0.45 (syst.) x 106 cm?2s?1. The sum of these components provides a total flux in excellentagreement with the predictions of Standard Solar Models. The day-nightasymmetry in the ?e flux is found to be Ae = 7.0 +- 4.9 (stat.)+1.3?1.2percent (sys.), when the asymmetry in the total flux is constrained to bezero.

  20. Measurement of the {sup 8}B solar neutrino flux with the KamLAND liquid scintillator detector

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, S.; Furuno, K.; Gando, A.; Gando, Y.; Ichimura, K.; Ikeda, H.; Kibe, Y.; Kimura, W.; Kishimoto, Y.; Minekawa, Y.; Mitsui, T.; Morikawa, T.; Nagai, N.; Nakajima, K.; Nakamura, M.; Narita, K.; Shimizu, I.; Shimizu, Y.; Shirai, J.; Suekane, F.

    2011-09-15

    We report a measurement of the neutrino-electron elastic scattering rate from {sup 8}B solar neutrinos based on a 123 kton-day exposure of KamLAND. The background-subtracted electron recoil rate, above a 5.5-MeV analysis threshold is 1.49 {+-} 0.14(stat) {+-} 0.17(syst) events per kton-day. Interpreted as due to a pure electron flavor flux with a {sup 8}B neutrino spectrum, this corresponds to a spectrum integrated flux of 2.77 {+-} 0.26(stat) {+-} 0.32(syst) x10{sup 6} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. The analysis threshold is driven by {sup 208}Tl present in the liquid scintillator, and the main source of systematic uncertainty is due to background from cosmogenic {sup 11}Be. The measured rate is consistent with existing measurements and with standard solar model predictions which include matter-enhanced neutrino oscillation.

  1. Neutrino fluxes from nonuniversal Higgs mass LSP annihilations in the Sun

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, John; Olive, Keith A.; Savage, Christopher; Spanos, Vassilis C.

    2011-04-15

    We extend our previous studies of the neutrino fluxes expected from neutralino LSP annihilations inside the Sun to include variants of the minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (MSSM) with squark, slepton and gaugino masses constrained to be universal at the GUT scale, but allowing one or two nonuniversal supersymmetry breaking parameters contributing to the Higgs masses (NUHM1,2). As in the constrained MSSM (CMSSM) with universal Higgs masses, there are large regions of the NUHM parameter space where the LSP density inside the Sun is not in equilibrium, so that the annihilation rate may be far below the capture rate, and there are also large regions where the capture rate is not dominated by spin-dependent LSP-proton scattering. The spectra possible in the NUHM are qualitatively similar to those in the CMSSM. We calculate neutrino-induced muon fluxes above a threshold energy of 10 GeV, appropriate for the IceCube/DeepCore detector, for points where the NUHM yields the correct cosmological relic density for representative choices of the NUHM parameters. We find that the IceCube/DeepCore detector can probe regions of the NUHM parameter space in addition to analogues of the focus point strip and the tip of the coannihilation strip familiar from the CMSSM. These include regions with enhanced Higgsino-gaugino mixing in the LSP composition, that occurs where neutralino mass eigenstates cross over. On the other hand, rapid-annihilation funnel regions in general yield neutrino fluxes that are unobservably small.

  2. Constraints on the flux of Ultra-High Energy neutrinos from WSRT observations

    SciTech Connect

    Scholten, O; Bacelar, J; Braun, R; de Bruyn, A G; Falcke, H; Singh, K; Stappers, B; Strom, R G; al Yahyaoui, R

    2010-04-02

    Context. Ultra-high energy (UHE) neutrinos and cosmic rays initiate particle cascades underneath the Moon's surface. These cascades have a negative charge excess and radiate Cherenkov radio emission in a process known as the Askaryan effect. The optimal frequency window for observation of these pulses with radio telescopes on the Earth is around 150 MHz. Aims. By observing the Moon with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope array we are able to set a new limit on the UHEneutrino flux. Methods. The PuMa II backend is used to monitor the Moon in 4 frequency bands between 113 and 175 MHz with a sampling frequency of 40 MHz. The narrow band radio interference is digitally filtered out and the dispersive effect of the Earth?s ionosphere is compensated for. A trigger system is implemented to search for short pulses. By inserting simulated pulses in the raw data, the detection efficiency for pulses of various strength is calculated. Results. With 47.6 hours of observation time, we are able to set a limit on the UHE neutrino flux. This new limit is an order of magnitude lower than existing limits. In the near future, the digital radio array LOFAR will be used to achieve an even lower limit.

  3. Ultrahigh-energy neutrino flux as a probe of large extra-dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Lykken, Joseph; Mena, Olga; Razzaque, Soebur; /Penn State U., Astron. Astrophys. /Penn State U.

    2007-05-01

    A suppression in the spectrum of ultrahigh-energy (UHE, {ge} 10{sup 18} eV) neutrinos will be present in extra-dimensional scenarios, due to enhanced neutrino-antineutrino annihilation processes with the supernova relic neutrinos. In this scenario, neutrinos can not be responsible for the highest energy events observed in the UHE cosmic ray spectrum. A direct implication of these extra-dimensional interactions would be the absence of UHE neutrinos in ongoing and future neutrino telescopes.

  4. Predicted sensitivity of the KM3NeT/ARCA detector to a diffuse flux of cosmic neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coniglione, R.; Fusco, L. A.; Stransky, D.

    2016-04-01

    The KM3NeT Collaboration has started the construction of a research infrastructure hosting a network of underwater neutrino detectors in the Mediterranean Sea. Two instruments based on the same technology are being built: KM3NeT/ORCA to measure the neutrino mass hierarchy and to study atmospheric neutrino oscillations and KM3NeT/ARCA to detect high-energy cosmic neutrinos both in diffuse and point source mode. The excellent angular resolution of the ARCA detector, with an instrumented volume of about one Gton, will allow for an unprecedented exploration of the neutrino sky searching for neutrinos coming from defined sources of sky regions, like the Galactic Plane and the Fermi Bubbles. It will also look for diffuse high energy neutrino fluxes following the indication provided by the IceCube signal. This contribution will report on the sensitivity of the KM3NeT/ARCA telescope with particular attention to the region of the Galactic Plane. Comparisons with theoretical expectations are also discussed.

  5. Analysis of the cumulative neutrino flux from Fermi LAT blazar populations using 3 years of IceCube data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glüsenkamp, Thorsten

    2016-07-01

    The recent discovery of a diffuse neutrino flux up to PeV energies raises the question of which populations of astrophysical sources contribute to this diffuse signal. One extragalactic candidate source population to produce high-energy neutrinos are Blazars. We present results from a likelihood analysis searching for cumulative neutrino emission from Blazar populations selected with the 2nd Fermi LAT AGN catalogue (2LAC) using an IceCube data set that has been optimized for the detection of individual sources. In contrast to previous searches with IceCube, the investigated populations contain up to hundreds of sources, the biggest one being the entire Blazar sample measured by the Fermi-LAT. No significant neutrino signal was found from any of these populations. Some implications of this non-observation for the origin of the observed PeV diffuse signal will be discussed.

  6. Neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, K.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Neutrinos are electrically neutral ELEMENTARY PARTICLES which experience only the weak nuclear force and gravity. Their existence was introduced as a hypothesis by Wolfgang Pauli in 1930 to explain the apparent violation of energy conservation in radioactive beta decay. Chadwick had discovered in 1914 that the energy spectrum of electrons emitted in beta decay was not monoenergetic but continuous...

  7. Determination of the νe and total B8 solar neutrino fluxes using the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory Phase I data set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aharmim, B.; Ahmad, Q. R.; Ahmed, S. N.; Allen, R. C.; Andersen, T. C.; Anglin, J. D.; Bühler, G.; Barton, J. C.; Beier, E. W.; Bercovitch, M.; Bergevin, M.; Bigu, J.; Biller, S. D.; Black, R. A.; Blevis, I.; Boardman, R. J.; Boger, J.; Bonvin, E.; Boulay, M. G.; Bowler, M. G.; Bowles, T. J.; Brice, S. J.; Browne, M. C.; Bullard, T. V.; Burritt, T. H.; Cameron, J.; Chan, Y. D.; Chen, H. H.; Chen, M.; Chen, X.; Cleveland, B. T.; Cowan, J. H. M.; Cowen, D. F.; Cox, G. A.; Currat, C. A.; Dai, X.; Dalnoki-Veress, F.; Davidson, W. F.; Deng, H.; Dimarco, M.; Doe, P. J.; Doucas, G.; Dragowsky, M. R.; Duba, C. A.; Duncan, F. A.; Dunford, M.; Dunmore, J. A.; Earle, E. D.; Elliott, S. R.; Evans, H. C.; Ewan, G. T.; Farine, J.; Fergani, H.; Ferraris, A. P.; Fleurot, F.; Ford, R. J.; Formaggio, J. A.; Fowler, M. M.; Frame, K.; Frank, E. D.; Frati, W.; Gagnon, N.; Germani, J. V.; Gil, S.; Goldschmidt, A.; Goon, J. T. M.; Graham, K.; Grant, D. R.; Guillian, E.; Hahn, R. L.; Hallin, A. L.; Hallman, E. D.; Hamer, A. S.; Hamian, A. A.; Handler, W. B.; Haq, R. U.; Hargrove, C. K.; Harvey, P. J.; Hazama, R.; Heeger, K. M.; Heintzelman, W. J.; Heise, J.; Helmer, R. L.; Henning, R.; Hepburn, J. D.; Heron, H.; Hewett, J.; Hime, A.; Howard, C.; Howe, M. A.; Huang, M.; Hykaway, J. G.; Isaac, M. C. P.; Jagam, P.; Jamieson, B.; Jelley, N. A.; Jillings, C.; Jonkmans, G.; Kazkaz, K.; Keener, P. T.; Kirch, K.; Klein, J. R.; Knox, A. B.; Komar, R. J.; Kormos, L. L.; Kos, M.; Kouzes, R.; Krüger, A.; Kraus, C.; Krauss, C. B.; Kutter, T.; Kyba, C. C. M.; Labranche, H.; Lange, R.; Law, J.; Lawson, I. T.; Lay, M.; Lee, H. W.; Lesko, K. T.; Leslie, J. R.; Levine, I.; Loach, J. C.; Locke, W.; Luoma, S.; Lyon, J.; MacLellan, R.; Majerus, S.; Mak, H. B.; Maneira, J.; Marino, A. D.; Martin, R.; McCauley, N.; McDonald, A. B.; McDonald, D. S.; McFarlane, K.; McGee, S.; McGregor, G.; Drees, R. Meijer; Mes, H.; Mifflin, C.; Miknaitis, K. K. S.; Miller, M. L.; Milton, G.; Moffat, B. A.; Monreal, B.; Moorhead, M.; Morrissette, B.; Nally, C. W.; Neubauer, M. S.; Newcomer, F. M.; Ng, H. S.; Nickel, B. G.; Noble, A. J.; Norman, E. B.; Novikov, V. M.; Oblath, N. S.; Okada, C. E.; O'Keeffe, H. M.; Ollerhead, R. W.; Omori, M.; Orrell, J. L.; Oser, S. M.; Ott, R.; Peeters, S. J. M.; Poon, A. W. P.; Prior, G.; Reitzner, S. D.; Rielage, K.; Roberge, A.; Robertson, B. C.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Rosendahl, S. S. E.; Rowley, J. K.; Rusu, V. L.; Saettler, E.; Schülke, A.; Schwendener, M. H.; Secrest, J. A.; Seifert, H.; Shatkay, M.; Simpson, J. J.; Sims, C. J.; Sinclair, D.; Skensved, P.; Smith, A. R.; Smith, M. W. E.; Starinsky, N.; Steiger, T. D.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stonehill, L. C.; Storey, R. S.; Sur, B.; Tafirout, R.; Tagg, N.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tanner, N. W.; Taplin, R. K.; Thorman, M.; Thornewell, P. M.; Tolich, N.; Trent, P. T.; Tserkovnyak, Y. I.; Tsui, T.; Tunnell, C. D.; van Berg, R.; van de Water, R. G.; Virtue, C. J.; Walker, T. J.; Wall, B. L.; Waltham, C. E.; Tseung, H. Wan Chan; Wang, J.-X.; Wark, D. L.; Wendland, J.; West, N.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wilson, J. R.; Wittich, P.; Wouters, J. M.; Wright, A.; Yeh, M.; Zuber, K.

    2007-04-01

    This article provides the complete description of results from the Phase I data set of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO). The Phase I data set is based on a 0.65 kiloton-year exposure of 2H2O (in the following denoted as D2O) to the solar B8 neutrino flux. Included here are details of the SNO physics and detector model, evaluations of systematic uncertainties, and estimates of backgrounds. Also discussed are SNO's approach to statistical extraction of the signals from the three neutrino reactions (charged current, neutral current, and elastic scattering) and the results of a search for a day-night asymmetry in the νe flux. Under the assumption that the B8 spectrum is undistorted, the measurements from this phase yield a solar νe flux of ϕ(νe)=1.76-0.05+0.05(stat.)-0.09+0.09(syst.)×106 cm-2 s-1 and a non-νe component of ϕ(νμτ)=3.41-0.45+0.45(stat.)-0.45+0.48(syst.)×106 cm-2 s-1. The sum of these components provides a total flux in excellent agreement with the predictions of standard solar models. The day-night asymmetry in the νe flux is found to be Ae=7.0±4.9(stat.)-1.2+1.3%(syst.), when the asymmetry in the total flux is constrained to be zero.

  8. Upper limit on the diffuse flux of ultrahigh energy tau neutrinos from the Pierre Auger Observatory.

    PubMed

    Abraham, J; Abreu, P; Aglietta, M; Aguirre, C; Allard, D; Allekotte, I; Allen, J; Allison, P; Alvarez-Muñiz, J; Ambrosio, M; Anchordoqui, L; Andringa, S; Anzalone, A; Aramo, C; Argirò, S; Arisaka, K; Armengaud, E; Arneodo, F; Arqueros, F; Asch, T; Asorey, H; Assis, P; Atulugama, B S; Aublin, J; Ave, M; Avila, G; Bäcker, T; Badagnani, D; Barbosa, A F; Barnhill, D; Barroso, S L C; Bauleo, P; Beatty, J J; Beau, T; Becker, B R; Becker, K H; Bellido, J A; BenZvi, S; Berat, C; Bergmann, T; Bernardini, P; Bertou, X; Biermann, P L; Billoir, P; Blanch-Bigas, O; Blanco, F; Blasi, P; Bleve, C; Blümer, H; Bohácová, M; Bonifazi, C; Bonino, R; Boratav, M; Brack, J; Brogueira, P; Brown, W C; Buchholz, P; Bueno, A; Burton, R E; Busca, N G; Caballero-Mora, K S; Cai, B; Camin, D V; Caramete, L; Caruso, R; Carvalho, W; Castellina, A; Catalano, O; Cataldi, G; Cazon, L; Cester, R; Chauvin, J; Chiavassa, A; Chinellato, J A; Chou, A; Chye, J; Clark, P D J; Clay, R W; Colombo, E; Conceição, R; Connolly, B; Contreras, F; Coppens, J; Cordier, A; Cotti, U; Coutu, S; Covault, C E; Creusot, A; Criss, A; Cronin, J; Curutiu, A; Dagoret-Campagne, S; Daumiller, K; Dawson, B R; de Almeida, R M; De Donato, C; de Jong, S J; De La Vega, G; de Mello Junior, W J M; de Mello Neto, J R T; DeMitri, I; de Souza, V; del Peral, L; Deligny, O; Della Selva, A; Delle Fratte, C; Dembinski, H; Di Giulio, C; Diaz, J C; Dobrigkeit, C; D'Olivo, J C; Dornic, D; Dorofeev, A; dos Anjos, J C; Dova, M T; D'Urso, D; Dutan, I; DuVernois, M A; Engel, R; Epele, L; Erdmann, M; Escobar, C O; Etchegoyen, A; Facal San Luis, P; Falcke, H; Farrar, G; Fauth, A C; Fazzini, N; Ferrer, F; Ferry, S; Fick, B; Filevich, A; Filipcic, A; Fleck, I; Fonte, R; Fracchiolla, C E; Fulgione, W; García, B; García Gámez, D; Garcia-Pinto, D; Garrido, X; Geenen, H; Gelmini, G; Gemmeke, H; Ghia, P L; Giller, M; Glass, H; Gold, M S; Golup, G; Gomez Albarracin, F; Gómez Berisso, M; Gómez Herrero, R; Gonçalves, P; Gonçalves do Amaral, M; Gonzalez, D; Gonzalez, J G; González, M; Góra, D; Gorgi, A; Gouffon, P; Grassi, V; Grillo, A F; Grunfeld, C; Guardincerri, Y; Guarino, F; Guedes, G P; Gutiérrez, J; Hague, J D; Hamilton, J C; Hansen, P; Harari, D; Harmsma, S; Harton, J L; Haungs, A; Hauschildt, T; Healy, M D; Hebbeker, T; Hebrero, G; Heck, D; Hojvat, C; Holmes, V C; Homola, P; Hörandel, J; Horneffer, A; Horvat, M; Hrabovský, M; Huege, T; Hussain, M; Iarlori, M; Insolia, A; Ionita, F; Italiano, A; Kaducak, M; Kampert, K H; Karova, T; Kégl, B; Keilhauer, B; Kemp, E; Kieckhafer, R M; Klages, H O; Kleifges, M; Kleinfeller, J; Knapik, R; Knapp, J; Koang, D-H; Krieger, A; Krömer, O; Kuempel, D; Kunka, N; Kusenko, A; La Rosa, G; Lachaud, C; Lago, B L; Lebrun, D; Lebrun, P; Lee, J; Leigui de Oliveira, M A; Letessier-Selvon, A; Leuthold, M; Lhenry-Yvon, I; López, R; Lopez Agüera, A; Lozano Bahilo, J; Luna García, R; Maccarone, M C; Macolino, C; Maldera, S; Mancarella, G; Manceñido, M E; Mandat, D; Mantsch, P; Mariazzi, A G; Maris, I C; Marquez Falcon, H R; Martello, D; Martínez, J; Martínez Bravo, O; Mathes, H J; Matthews, J; Matthews, J A J; Matthiae, G; Maurizio, D; Mazur, P O; McCauley, T; McEwen, M; McNeil, R R; Medina, M C; Medina-Tanco, G; Meli, A; Melo, D; Menichetti, E; Menschikov, A; Meurer, Chr; Meyhandan, R; Micheletti, M I; Miele, G; Miller, W; Mollerach, S; Monasor, M; Monnier Ragaigne, D; Montanet, F; Morales, B; Morello, C; Moreno, J C; Morris, C; Mostafá, M; Muller, M A; Mussa, R; Navarra, G; Navarro, J L; Navas, S; Necesal, P; Nellen, L; Newman-Holmes, C; Newton, D; Nguyen Thi, T; Nierstenhoefer, N; Nitz, D; Nosek, D; Nozka, L; Oehlschläger, J; Ohnuki, T; Olinto, A; Olmos-Gilbaja, V M; Ortiz, M; Ortolani, F; Ostapchenko, S; Otero, L; Pacheco, N; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D; Palatka, M; Pallotta, J; Parente, G; Parizot, E; Parlati, S; Pastor, S; Patel, M; Paul, T; Pavlidou, V; Payet, K; Pech, M; Pekala, J; Pelayo, R; Pepe, I M; Perrone, L; Petrera, S; Petrinca, P; Petrov, Y; Pham Ngoc, Diep; Pham Ngoc, Dong; Pham Thi, T N; Pichel, A; Piegaia, R; Pierog, T; Pimenta, M; Pinto, T; Pirronello, V; Pisanti, O; Platino, M; Pochon, J; Privitera, P; Prouza, M; Quel, E J; Rautenberg, J; Redondo, A; Reucroft, S; Revenu, B; Rezende, F A S; Ridky, J; Riggi, S; Risse, M; Rivière, C; Rizi, V; Roberts, M; Robledo, C; Rodriguez, G; Rodríguez Frías, D; Rodriguez Martino, J; Rodriguez Rojo, J; Rodriguez-Cabo, I; Ros, G; Rosado, J; Roth, M; Rouillé-d'Orfeuil, B; Roulet, E; Rovero, A C; Salamida, F; Salazar, H; Salina, G; Sánchez, F; Santander, M; Santo, C E; Santos, E M; Sarazin, F; Sarkar, S; Sato, R; Scherini, V; Schieler, H; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, F; Schmidt, T; Scholten, O; Schovánek, P; Schüssler, F; Sciutto, S J; Scuderi, M; Segreto, A; Semikoz, D; Settimo, M; Shellard, R C; Sidelnik, I; Siffert, B B; Sigl, G; Smetniansky De Grande, N; Smiałkowski, A; Smída, R; Smith, A G K; Smith, B E; Snow, G R; Sokolsky, P; Sommers, P; Sorokin, J; Spinka, H; Squartini, R; Strazzeri, E; Stutz, A; Suarez, F; Suomijärvi, T; Supanitsky, A D; Sutherland, M S; Swain, J; Szadkowski, Z; Takahashi, J; Tamashiro, A; Tamburro, A; Taşcău, O; Tcaciuc, R; Thomas, D; Ticona, R; Tiffenberg, J; Timmermans, C; Tkaczyk, W; Todero Peixoto, C J; Tomé, B; Tonachini, A; Torres, I; Torresi, D; Travnicek, P; Tripathi, A; Tristram, G; Tscherniakhovski, D; Tueros, M; Tunnicliffe, V; Ulrich, R; Unger, M; Urban, M; Valdés Galicia, J F; Valiño, I; Valore, L; van den Berg, A M; van Elewyck, V; Vázquez, R A; Veberic, D; Veiga, A; Velarde, A; Venters, T; Verzi, V; Videla, M; Villaseñor, L; Vorobiov, S; Voyvodic, L; Wahlberg, H; Wainberg, O; Walker, P; Warner, D; Watson, A A; Westerhoff, S; Wieczorek, G; Wiencke, L; Wilczyńska, B; Wilczyński, H; Wileman, C; Winnick, M G; Wu, H; Wundheiler, B; Yamamoto, T; Younk, P; Zas, E; Zavrtanik, D; Zavrtanik, M; Zech, A; Zepeda, A; Ziolkowski, M

    2008-05-30

    The surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory is sensitive to Earth-skimming tau neutrinos that interact in Earth's crust. Tau leptons from nu(tau) charged-current interactions can emerge and decay in the atmosphere to produce a nearly horizontal shower with a significant electromagnetic component. The data collected between 1 January 2004 and 31 August 2007 are used to place an upper limit on the diffuse flux of nu(tau) at EeV energies. Assuming an E(nu)(-2) differential energy spectrum the limit set at 90% C.L. is E(nu)(2)dN(nu)(tau)/dE(nu)<1.3 x 10(-7) GeV cm(-2) s(-1) sr(-1) in the energy range 2 x 10(17) eV< E(nu)< 2 x 10(19) eV.

  9. ESTIMATION OF THE NEUTRINO FLUX AND RESULTING CONSTRAINTS ON HADRONIC EMISSION MODELS FOR Cyg X-3 USING AGILE DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Baerwald, P.; Guetta, D.

    2013-08-20

    In this work, we give an estimate of the neutrino flux that can be expected from the microquasar Cyg X-3. We calculate the muon neutrino flux expected here on Earth as well as the corresponding number of neutrino events in the IceCube telescope based on the so-called hypersoft X-ray state of Cyg X-3. If the average emission from Cyg X-3 over a period of 5 yr were as high as during the used X-ray state, a total of 0.8 events should be observed by the full IceCube telescope. We also show that this conclusion holds by a factor of a few when we consider the other measured X-ray states. Using the correlation of AGILE data on the flaring episodes in 2009 June and July to the hypersoft X-ray state, we calculate that the upper limits on the neutrino flux given by IceCube are starting to constrain the hadronic models, which have been introduced to interpret the high-energy emission detected by AGILE.

  10. An Independent Measurement of the Total Active 8B Solar Neutrino Flux Using an Array of 3He Proportional Counters at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    SNO Colla

    2008-06-05

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) used an array of {sup 3}He proportional counters to measure the rate of neutral-current interactions in heavy water and precisely determined the total active ({nu}{sub x}) {sup 8}B solar neutrino flux. This technique is independent of previous methods employed by SNO. The total flux is found to be 5.54{sub -0.31}{sup +0.33}(stat){sub -0.34}{sup +0.36}(syst) x 10{sup 6} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}, in agreement with previous measurements and standard solar models. A global analysis of solar and reactor neutrino results yields {Delta}m{sup 2} = 7.94{sub -0.26}{sup +0.42} x 10{sup -5} eV{sup 2} and {theta} = 33.8{sub -1.3}{sup +1.4} degrees. The uncertainty on the mixing angle has been reduced from SNO's previous results.

  11. Measurements of the atmospheric neutrino flux by Super-Kamiokande: Energy spectra, geomagnetic effects, and solar modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, E.; Okumura, K.; Abe, K.; Haga, Y.; Hayato, Y.; Ikeda, M.; Iyogi, K.; Kameda, J.; Kishimoto, Y.; Miura, M.; Moriyama, S.; Nakahata, M.; Nakajima, T.; Nakano, Y.; Nakayama, S.; Orii, A.; Sekiya, H.; Shiozawa, M.; Takeda, A.; Tanaka, H.; Tomura, T.; Wendell, R. A.; Akutsu, R.; Irvine, T.; Kajita, T.; Kaneyuki, K.; Nishimura, Y.; Labarga, L.; Fernandez, P.; Gustafson, J.; Kachulis, C.; Kearns, E.; Raaf, J. L.; Stone, J. L.; Sulak, L. R.; Berkman, S.; Nantais, C. M.; Tanaka, H. A.; Tobayama, S.; Goldhaber, M.; Kropp, W. R.; Mine, S.; Weatherly, P.; Smy, M. B.; Sobel, H. W.; Takhistov, V.; Ganezer, K. S.; Hartfiel, B. L.; Hill, J.; Hong, N.; Kim, J. Y.; Lim, I. T.; Park, R. G.; Himmel, A.; Li, Z.; O'Sullivan, E.; Scholberg, K.; Walter, C. W.; Wongjirad, T.; Ishizuka, T.; Tasaka, S.; Jang, J. S.; Learned, J. G.; Matsuno, S.; Smith, S. N.; Friend, M.; Hasegawa, T.; Ishida, T.; Ishii, T.; Kobayashi, T.; Nakadaira, T.; Nakamura, K.; Oyama, Y.; Sakashita, K.; Sekiguchi, T.; Tsukamoto, T.; Suzuki, A. T.; Takeuchi, Y.; Yano, T.; Cao, S. V.; Hiraki, T.; Hirota, S.; Huang, K.; Kikawa, T.; Minamino, A.; Nakaya, T.; Suzuki, K.; Fukuda, Y.; Choi, K.; Itow, Y.; Suzuki, T.; Mijakowski, P.; Frankiewicz, K.; Hignight, J.; Imber, J.; Jung, C. K.; Li, X.; Palomino, J. L.; Wilking, M. J.; Yanagisawa, C.; Fukuda, D.; Ishino, H.; Kayano, T.; Kibayashi, A.; Koshio, Y.; Mori, T.; Sakuda, M.; Xu, C.; Kuno, Y.; Tacik, R.; Kim, S. B.; Okazawa, H.; Choi, Y.; Nishijima, K.; Koshiba, M.; Totsuka, Y.; Suda, Y.; Yokoyama, M.; Bronner, C.; Hartz, M.; Martens, K.; Marti, Ll.; Suzuki, Y.; Vagins, M. R.; Martin, J. F.; Konaka, A.; Chen, S.; Zhang, Y.; Wilkes, R. J.; Super-Kamiokande Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    A comprehensive study of the atmospheric neutrino flux in the energy region from sub-GeV up to several TeV using the Super-Kamiokande (SK) water Cherenkov detector is presented in this paper. The energy and azimuthal spectra, and variation over time, of the atmospheric νe+ν¯ e and νμ+ν¯μ fluxes are measured. The energy spectra are obtained using an iterative unfolding method by combining various event topologies with differing energy responses. The azimuthal spectra depending on energy and zenith angle, and their modulation by geomagnetic effects, are also studied. A predicted east-west asymmetry is observed in both the νe and νμ samples at 8.0 σ and 6.0 σ significance, respectively, and an indication that the asymmetry dipole angle changes depending on the zenith angle was seen at the 2.2 σ level. The measured energy and azimuthal spectra are consistent with the current flux models within the estimated systematic uncertainties. A study of the long-term correlation between the atmospheric neutrino flux and the solar magnetic activity cycle is performed, and a weak preference for a correlation was seen at the 1.1 σ level, using SK-I-SK-IV data spanning a 20-year period. For several particularly strong solar activity periods, corresponding to Forbush decrease events, no theoretical prediction is available but a deviation below the typical neutrino event rate is seen at the 2.4 σ level. The seasonal modulation of the neutrino flux is also examined, but the change in flux at the SK site is predicted to be negligible, and, as expected, no evidence for a seasonal correlation is seen.

  12. A Combined Maximum-likelihood Analysis of the High-energy Astrophysical Neutrino Flux Measured with IceCube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aartsen, M. G.; Abraham, K.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Ahrens, M.; Altmann, D.; Anderson, T.; Archinger, M.; Arguelles, C.; Arlen, T. C.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Bay, R.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker Tjus, J.; Becker, K.-H.; Beiser, E.; BenZvi, S.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bernhard, A.; Besson, D. Z.; Binder, G.; Bindig, D.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Blumenthal, J.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Börner, M.; Bos, F.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Braun, J.; Brayeur, L.; Bretz, H.-P.; Brown, A. M.; Buzinsky, N.; Casey, J.; Casier, M.; Cheung, E.; Chirkin, D.; Christov, A.; Christy, B.; Clark, K.; Classen, L.; Coenders, S.; Cowen, D. F.; Cruz Silva, A. H.; Daughhetee, J.; Davis, J. C.; Day, M.; de André, J. P. A. M.; De Clercq, C.; Dembinski, H.; De Ridder, S.; Desiati, P.; de Vries, K. D.; de Wasseige, G.; de With, M.; DeYoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; Dumm, J. P.; Dunkman, M.; Eagan, R.; Eberhardt, B.; Ehrhardt, T.; Eichmann, B.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fadiran, O.; Fahey, S.; Fazely, A. R.; Fedynitch, A.; Feintzeig, J.; Felde, J.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Fischer-Wasels, T.; Flis, S.; Fuchs, T.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gaior, R.; Gallagher, J.; Gerhardt, L.; Ghorbani, K.; Gier, D.; Gladstone, L.; Glagla, M.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Golup, G.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Goodman, J. A.; Góra, D.; Grant, D.; Gretskov, P.; Groh, J. C.; Gross, A.; Ha, C.; Haack, C.; Haj Ismail, A.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hansmann, B.; Hanson, K.; Hebecker, D.; Heereman, D.; Helbing, K.; Hellauer, R.; Hellwig, D.; Hickford, S.; Hignight, J.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoffmann, R.; Holzapfel, K.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Huang, F.; Huber, M.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; In, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobi, E.; Japaridze, G. S.; Jero, K.; Jurkovic, M.; Kaminsky, B.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kauer, M.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, J.; Kheirandish, A.; Kiryluk, J.; Kläs, J.; Klein, S. R.; Kohnen, G.; Kolanoski, H.; Konietz, R.; Koob, A.; Köpke, L.; Kopper, C.; Kopper, S.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Krings, K.; Kroll, G.; Kroll, M.; Kunnen, J.; Kurahashi, N.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Lanfranchi, J. L.; Larson, M. J.; Lesiak-Bzdak, M.; Leuermann, M.; Leuner, J.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Maggi, G.; Mahn, K. B. M.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; Maunu, R.; McNally, F.; Meagher, K.; Medici, M.; Meli, A.; Menne, T.; Merino, G.; Meures, T.; Miarecki, S.; Middell, E.; Middlemas, E.; Miller, J.; Mohrmann, L.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naumann, U.; Niederhausen, H.; Nowicki, S. C.; Nygren, D. R.; Obertacke, A.; Olivas, A.; Omairat, A.; O'Murchadha, A.; Palczewski, T.; Paul, L.; Pepper, J. A.; Pérez de los Heros, C.; Pfendner, C.; Pieloth, D.; Pinat, E.; Posselt, J.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Pütz, J.; Quinnan, M.; Rädel, L.; Rameez, M.; Rawlins, K.; Redl, P.; Reimann, R.; Relich, M.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Richman, M.; Richter, S.; Riedel, B.; Robertson, S.; Rongen, M.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Ruzybayev, B.; Ryckbosch, D.; Saba, S. M.; Sabbatini, L.; Sander, H.-G.; Sandrock, A.; Sandroos, J.; Sarkar, S.; Schatto, K.; Scheriau, F.; Schimp, M.; Schmidt, T.; Schmitz, M.; Schoenen, S.; Schöneberg, S.; Schönwald, A.; Schukraft, A.; Schulte, L.; Seckel, D.; Seunarine, S.; Shanidze, R.; Smith, M. W. E.; Soldin, D.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stahlberg, M.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stanisha, N. A.; Stasik, A.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stössl, A.; Strahler, E. A.; Ström, R.; Strotjohann, N. L.; Sullivan, G. W.; Sutherland, M.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Terliuk, A.; Tešić, G.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Tobin, M. N.; Tosi, D.; Tselengidou, M.; Unger, E.; Usner, M.; Vallecorsa, S.; Vandenbroucke, J.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vanheule, S.; van Santen, J.; Veenkamp, J.; Vehring, M.; Voge, M.; Vraeghe, M.; Walck, C.; Wallace, A.; Wallraff, M.; Wandkowsky, N.; Weaver, Ch.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Whitehorn, N.; Wichary, C.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Wille, L.; Williams, D. R.; Wissing, H.; Wolf, M.; Wood, T. R.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, D. L.; Xu, X. W.; Xu, Y.; Yanez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Zoll, M.; IceCube Collaboration

    2015-08-01

    Evidence for an extraterrestrial flux of high-energy neutrinos has now been found in multiple searches with the IceCube detector. The first solid evidence was provided by a search for neutrino events with deposited energies ≳ 30 TeV and interaction vertices inside the instrumented volume. Recent analyses suggest that the extraterrestrial flux extends to lower energies and is also visible with throughgoing, νμ-induced tracks from the Northern Hemisphere. Here, we combine the results from six different IceCube searches for astrophysical neutrinos in a maximum-likelihood analysis. The combined event sample features high-statistics samples of shower-like and track-like events. The data are fit in up to three observables: energy, zenith angle, and event topology. Assuming the astrophysical neutrino flux to be isotropic and to consist of equal flavors at Earth, the all-flavor spectrum with neutrino energies between 25 TeV and 2.8 PeV is well described by an unbroken power law with best-fit spectral index -2.50 ± 0.09 and a flux at 100 TeV of ({6.7}-1.2+1.1)× {10}-18 {{GeV}}-1 {{{s}}}-1 {{sr}}-1 {{cm}}-2. Under the same assumptions, an unbroken power law with index -2 is disfavored with a significance of 3.8σ (p = 0.0066%) with respect to the best fit. This significance is reduced to 2.1σ (p = 1.7%) if instead we compare the best fit to a spectrum with index -2 that has an exponential cut-off at high energies. Allowing the electron-neutrino flux to deviate from the other two flavors, we find a νe fraction of 0.18 ± 0.11 at Earth. The sole production of electron neutrinos, which would be characteristic of neutron-decay-dominated sources, is rejected with a significance of 3.6σ (p = 0.014%).

  13. Neutrino, γ-Ray, and Cosmic-Ray Fluxes from the Core of the Closest Radio Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraija, N.; Marinelli, A.

    2016-10-01

    The closest radio galaxies; Centaurus A (Cen A), M87, and NGC 1275, have been detected from radio wavelengths to TeV γ-rays, and also studied as high-energy neutrino and ultra-high-energy cosmic-ray (UHECR) potential emitters. Their spectral energy distributions (SEDs) show a double-peak feature, which is explained by a synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) model. However, TeV γ-ray measured spectra could suggest that very-high-energy γ-rays might have a hadronic origin. We introduce a lepto-hadronic model to describe the broadband SED; from radio to sub-GeV photons as synchrotron SSC emission and TeV γ-ray photons as neutral pion decay resulting from pγ interactions occurring close to the core. These photo-hadronic interactions take place when Fermi-accelerated protons interact with the seed photons around synchrotron SSC peaks. Obtaining a good description of the TeV γ-ray fluxes, first, we compute neutrino fluxes and events expected in the IceCube detector and, second, we estimate UHECR fluxes and the event rate expected in Telescope Array, Pierre Auger, and HiRes observatories. Within this scenario, we show that the expected high-energy neutrinos cannot explain the astrophysical flux observed by IceCube, and the connection with UHECRs observed by Auger experiment around Cen A might be possible only considering a heavy nuclei composition in the observed events.

  14. The diffuse neutrino flux from FR-II radio galaxies and blazars: A source property based estimate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Julia K.; Biermann, Peter L.; Rhode, Wolfgang

    2005-05-01

    Water and ice Cherenkov telescopes of the present and future aim for the detection of a neutrino signal from extraterrestrial sources at energies Eν > PeV [Woschnagg and AMANDA Collaboration, Astro-ph/0409423, talk at Neutrino 2004; Montaruli, in: Peter W. Gorham, Particle Astrophysics Instrumentation, Proceedings of the SPIE, vol. 4858, 2003, p. 92; IceCube Collaboration, Astropart. Phys. 20 (2004) 507]. Some of the most promising extragalactic sources are active galactic nuclei (AGN). In this paper, the neutrino flux from two kinds of AGN sources will be estimated assuming pγ interactions in the jets of the AGN. The first analyzed sample contains FR-II radio galaxies while the second AGN type examined are blazars. The result is highly dependent on the proton's index of the energy spectrum. To normalize the spectrum, the connection between neutrino and disk luminosity will be used by applying the jet-disk symbiosis model from Falcke and Biermann [Astron. Astrophys. 293 (1995) 665]. The maximum proton energy and thus, also the maximum neutrino energy of the source is connected to its disk luminosity, which was shown by Lovelace [Nature 262 (1976) 649] and was confirmed by Falcke et al. [Astron. Astrophys. 298 (1995) 375].

  15. The directional dependence of apertures, limits and sensitivity of the lunar Cherenkov technique to a UHE neutrino flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, C. W.; Protheroe, R. J.

    2009-06-01

    We use computer simulations to obtain the directional-dependence of the lunar Cherenkov technique for ultra-high energy (UHE) neutrino detection. We calculate the instantaneous effective area of past lunar Cherenkov experiments at Parkes, Goldstone (Goldstone Lunar Ultra-high energy neutrino Experiment, GLUE), and Kalyazin, as a function of neutrino arrival direction, finding that the potential sensitivity to a point source of UHE neutrinos for these experiments was as much as thirty times that to an isotropic flux, depending on the beam-pointing position and incident neutrino energy. Convolving our results with the known lunar positions during the Parkes and Goldstone experiments allows us to calculate an exposure map, and hence the directional-dependence of the combined limit imposed by these experiments. In the 10 21-10 23 eV range, we find parts of the sky where the GLUE limit likely still dominates, and areas where none of the limits from either Parkes, GLUE, or experiments such as the Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna (ANITA) balloon experiment or FORTE (Fast On-orbit Recording of Transient Events) satellite experiment are likely to be significant. Hence a large anisotropic flux of UHE neutrinos from these regions is not yet excluded. We also determine the directional dependence of the aperture of future planned experiments with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA), Australian SKA Pathfinder (ASKAP) and the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) to a UHE neutrino flux, and calculate the potential annual exposure to astronomical objects as a function of angular distance from the lunar trajectory through celestial coordinates. We find that the potential exposure of all experiments at 10 20 eV and below, integrated over a calendar year, is flat out to ˜25° from the lunar trajectory and then drops off rapidly. The region of greater sensitivity includes much of the Supergalactic Plane, including M87 and Cen A, as well as the Galactic Centre. At higher energies

  16. Upper Limit on the Diffuse Flux of Ultrahigh Energy Tau Neutrinos from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, J.; Garcia, B.; Otero, L.; Abreu, P.; Andringa, S.; Assis, P.; Brogueira, P.; Conceicao, R.; Goncalves, P.; Pimenta, M.; Santo, C. E.; Tome, B.; Aglietta, M.; Bonino, R.; Castellina, A.; Chiavassa, A.; Fulgione, W.; Gorgi, A.; Hauschildt, T.; Maldera, S.

    2008-05-30

    The surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory is sensitive to Earth-skimming tau neutrinos that interact in Earth's crust. Tau leptons from {nu}{sub {tau}} charged-current interactions can emerge and decay in the atmosphere to produce a nearly horizontal shower with a significant electromagnetic component. The data collected between 1 January 2004 and 31 August 2007 are used to place an upper limit on the diffuse flux of {nu}{sub {tau}} at EeV energies. Assuming an E{sub {nu}}{sup -2} differential energy spectrum the limit set at 90% C.L. is E{sub {nu}}{sup 2}dN{sub {nu}{sub {tau}}}/dE{sub {nu}}<1.3x10{sup -7} GeV cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} sr{sup -1} in the energy range 2x10{sup 17} eV

  17. Upper limit on the diffuse flux of UHE tau neutrinos from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Collaboration, The Pierre Auger

    2007-12-01

    The surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory is sensitive to Earth-skimming tau-neutrinos {nu}{sub {tau}} that interact in the Earth's crust. Tau leptons from {tau}{sub {tau}} charged-current interactions can emerge and decay in the atmosphere to produce a nearly horizontal shower with a significant electromagnetic component. The data collected between 1 January 2004 and 31 August 2007 is used to place an upper limit on the diffuse flux of {nu}{sub {tau}} at EeV energies. Assuming an E{sub {nu}}{sup -2} differential energy spectrum the limit set at 90 % C.L. is E{sub {nu}}{sup 2} dN{sub {nu}{sub {tau}}}/dE{sub {nu}} < 1.3 x 10{sup -7} GeV cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} sr{sup -1} in the energy range 2 x 10{sup 17} eV < E{sub {nu}} < 2 x 10{sup 19} eV.

  18. Experimental Neutrino Physics: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, Charles E.; Maricic, Jelena

    2012-09-05

    Experimental studies of neutrino properties, with particular emphasis on neutrino oscillation, mass and mixing parameters. This research was pursued by means of underground detectors for reactor anti-neutrinos, measuring the flux and energy spectra of the neutrinos. More recent investigations have been aimed and developing detector technologies for a long-baseline neutrino experiment (LBNE) using a neutrino beam from Fermilab.

  19. Sensitivity of the KM3NeT detector to neutrino fluxes from Galactic point-like sources

    SciTech Connect

    Trovato, A.; Coniglione, R.; Sapienza, P.; Kooijman, P.; Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    The KM3NeT collaboration has started the implementation of the first phase of a cubic-kilometre-scale neutrino telescope in the Northern hemisphere with an integrated platform for Earth and deep sea sciences. The location in the Mediterranean Sea will allow for surveying a large part of the sky, including most of the Galactic Plane and the Galactic Centre, thus complementing the sky coverage of IceCube at the South Pole. Amongst the potential Galactic neutrino sources, SuperNova Remnants are particularly promising since their measured gamma-ray emission extends to several tenths of TeV and exhibits indications for hadronic processes. Assuming a hadronic origin of the gamma-ray emission, the models for neutrino emission from SuperNova Remnants and also from other source types such as pulsars are robustly constrained by gamma-ray measurements. We report expected KM3NeT sensitivities for neutrino fluxes from RXJ1713.7-3946 and Vela X. The sensitivity to point-like sources with a E{sup −2} power law energy spectrum is also reported and compared to the other existing detectors.

  20. How unequal fluxes of high energy astrophysical neutrinos and antineutrinos can fake new physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunokawa, Hiroshi; Panes, Boris; Zukanovich Funchal, Renata

    2016-10-01

    Flavor ratios of very high energy astrophysical neutrinos, which can be studied at the Earth by a neutrino telescope such as IceCube, can serve to diagnose their production mechanism at the astrophysical source. The flavor ratios for neutrinos and antineutrinos can be quite different as we do not know how they are produced in the astrophysical environment. Due to this uncertainty the neutrino and antineutrino flavor ratios at the Earth also could be quite different. Nonetheless, it is generally assumed that flavor ratios for neutrinos and antineutrinos are the same at the Earth, in fitting the high energy astrophysical neutrino data. This is a reasonable assumption for the limited statistics for the data we currently have. However, in the future the fit must be performed allowing for a possible discrepancy in these two fractions in order to be able to disentangle different production mechanisms at the source from new physics in the neutrino sector. To reinforce this issue, in this work we show that a wrong assumption about the distribution of neutrino flavor ratios at the Earth may indeed lead to misleading interpretations of IceCube results.

  1. Limit on the diffuse flux of ultrahigh energy tau neutrinos with the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, J.; De La Vega, G.; Garcia, B.; Videla, M.; Abreu, P.; Andringa, S.; Assis, P.; Brogueira, P.; Conceicao, R.; Goncalves, P.; Pimenta, M.; Santo, C. E.; Tome, B.; Aglietta, M.; Bonino, R.; Castellina, A.; Chiavassa, A.; Fulgione, W.; Gorgi, A.; Lucero, A.

    2009-05-15

    Data collected at the Pierre Auger Observatory are used to establish an upper limit on the diffuse flux of tau neutrinos in the cosmic radiation. Earth-skimming {nu}{sub {tau}} may interact in the Earth's crust and produce a {tau} lepton by means of charged-current interactions. The {tau} lepton may emerge from the Earth and decay in the atmosphere to produce a nearly horizontal shower with a typical signature, a persistent electromagnetic component even at very large atmospheric depths. The search procedure to select events induced by {tau} decays against the background of normal showers induced by cosmic rays is described. The method used to compute the exposure for a detector continuously growing with time is detailed. Systematic uncertainties in the exposure from the detector, the analysis, and the involved physics are discussed. No {tau} neutrino candidates have been found. For neutrinos in the energy range 2x10{sup 17} eV

  2. Solar Neutrinos

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Davis, R. Jr.; Harmer, D. S.

    1964-12-01

    The prospect of studying the solar energy generation process directly by observing the solar neutrino radiation has been discussed for many years. The main difficulty with this approach is that the sun emits predominantly low energy neutrinos, and detectors for observing low fluxes of low energy neutrinos have not been developed. However, experimental techniques have been developed for observing neutrinos, and one can foresee that in the near future these techniques will be improved sufficiently in sensitivity to observe solar neutrinos. At the present several experiments are being designed and hopefully will be operating in the next year or so. We will discuss an experiment based upon a neutrino capture reaction that is the inverse of the electron-capture radioactive decay of argon-37. The method depends upon exposing a large volume of a chlorine compound, removing the radioactive argon-37 and observing the characteristic decay in a small low-level counter.

  3. A Comparison of Boltzmann and Multigroup Flux-limited Diffusion Neutrino Transport during the Postbounce Shock Reheating Phase in Core-Collapse Supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Messer, O.E.; Mezzacappa, A. |; Bruenn, S.W.; Guidry, M.W. |

    1998-11-01

    We compare Newtonian three-flavor multigroup Boltzmann (MGBT) and (Bruenn`s) multigroup flux-limited diffusion (MGFLD) neutrino transport in postbounce core-collapse supernova environments. We focus our study on quantities central to the postbounce neutrino heating mechanism for reviving the stalled shock. Stationary-state three-flavor neutrino distributions are developed in thermally and hydrodynamically frozen time slices obtained from core collapse and bounce simulations that implement Lagrangian hydrodynamics and MGFLD neutrino transport. We obtain distributions for time slices at 106 and 233 ms after core bounce for the core of a 15 {ital M}{sub {circle_dot}} progenitor, and at 156 ms after core bounce for a 25 {ital M}{sub {circle_dot}} progenitor. For both transport methods, the electron neutrino and antineutrino luminosities, rms energies, and mean inverse flux factors, all of which enter the neutrino heating rates, are computed as functions of radius and compared. The net neutrino heating rates are also computed as functions of radius and compared. Notably, we find significant differences in neutrino luminosities and mean inverse flux factors between the two transport methods for both precollapse models and for all three time slices. In each case, the luminosities for each transport method begin to diverge above the neutrinospheres, where the MGBT luminosities become larger than their MGFLD counterparts, finally settling to a constant difference maintained to the edge of the core. We find that the mean inverse flux factors, which describe the degree of forward peaking in the neutrino radiation field, also differ significantly between the two transport methods, with MGBT providing more isotropic radiation fields in the gain region. Most important, for a region above the gain radius we find net heating rates for MGBT that are as much as {approximately}2 times the corresponding MGFLD rates, and we find net cooling rates below the gain radius that are

  4. HARP targets pion production cross section and yield measurements: Implications for MiniBooNE neutrino flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickremasinghe, Don Athula Abeyarathna

    The prediction of the muon neutrino flux from a 71.0 cm long beryllium target for the MiniBooNE experiment is based on a measured pion production cross section which was taken from a short beryllium target (2.0 cm thick - 5% nuclear interaction length) in the Hadron Production (HARP) experiment at CERN. To verify the extrapolation to our longer target, HARP also measured the pion production from 20.0 cm and 40.0 cm beryllium targets. The measured production yields on targets of 50% and 100% nuclear interaction lengths in the kinematic rage of momentum from 0.75 GeV/c to 6.5 GeV/c and the range of angle from 30 mrad to 210 mrad are presented along with an update of the short target cross sections. The best fitted extended Sanford-Wang (SW) model parameterization for updated short beryllium target positive pion production cross section is presented. Yield measurements for all three targets are also compared with that from the Monte Carlo predictions in the MiniBooNE experiment for different SW parameterization. The comparisons of muon neutrino flux predictions for updated SW model is presented.

  5. Measurement of the total flux averaged neutrino induced neutral current elastic scattering cross section with the T2K Pi-Zero detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruterbories, Daniel

    Tokai-to-Kamioka (T2K) is a second generation accelerator neutrino oscillation experiment. T2K uses a high intensity proton beam produced at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) incident on a carbon target and focused with three magnetic horns to produce a high intensity and nearly pure muon neutrino beam with a peak energy of 600 MeV at a 2.5º axis angle. The muon neutrino beam travels 295 km across Japan to the Super Kamiokande (SK) water Cherenkov detector in the Kamioka mine. The neutrino beam is also sampled by a complex of near detectors 280 m downstream of the carbon target located both on and off the beam axis. These detectors measure the neutrino beam before neutrino oscillations occur to provide input constraints to oscillation searches using SK. The off-axis near detector, ND280, is a composite detector made up of a tracker section and a Pi-Zero detector (POD), all surrounded by an electromagnetic calorimeter. The entire detector is enclosed in a dipole magnet with a field of 0.2 T. The primary purpose of the tracker section is to measure neutrino induced charged current events characterized by the production of muons. The POD is primarily designed to detect electromagnetic showers and to measure interactions on water through the use of a removable water target. In addition to these measurements, the ND280 detector is also used to study the cross sections of neutrino interactions on the various materials in the detectors. Limited knowledge of the cross sections in this neutrino energy regime are an important source of systematic error in neutrino oscillation measurements. This thesis presents a measurement of one neutrino interaction channel in the POD, neutral current elastic scattering (NCE). In this process a neutrino elastically scatters off a proton or neutron in the target nucleus producing a proton or neutron with higher energy. The signature of this process is a single proton track. A particle identification algorithm (PID) was

  6. Neutrino Oscillations and the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wark, David

    2001-04-01

    When the existence of the neutrino was almost apologetically first proposed by Wolfgang Pauli it was intended to explain the mysterious apparent absence of energy and momentum in beta decay. 70 years later the neutrino has indeed solved that mystery, but it has generated still more of its own. Are neutrinos massive? Is it possible to create a neutrino with its spin in the same direction as its momentum? What fraction of the mass of the Universe is made up of neutrinos? Are the flavour labels which we put on neutrinos, like electron and muon, really fixed or can they change? Why does no experiment see the predicted flux of neutrinos from the Sun? Why do there appear to be roughly equal numbers of muon and electron neutrinos created in our atmosphere, rather than the 2:1 ratio we would expect? Many of these questions were coupled when Bruno Pontecorvo first suggested that the shortfall in solar neutrino measurements were caused by neutrino oscillations - neutrinos spontaneously changing flavour as they travel from the Sun. 30 years later we still await definitive proof of that conjecture, and providing that proof is the reason for the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory. The talk will discuss the current state of neutrino oscillations studies, and show how the unique capabilities of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory can provide definitive proof of whether neutrino oscillations are the long-sought answer to the solar neutrino problem.

  7. Secondary atmospheric tau neutrino production

    SciTech Connect

    Bulmahn, Alexander; Hall Reno, Mary

    2010-09-01

    We evaluate the flux of tau neutrinos produced from the decay of pair produced taus from incident muons using a cascade equation analysis. To solve the cascade equations, our numerical result for the tau production Z moment is given. Our results for the flux of tau neutrinos produced from incident muons are compared to the flux of tau neutrinos produced via oscillations and the direct prompt atmospheric tau neutrino flux. Results are given for both downward and upward going neutrinos fluxes and higher zenith angles are discussed. We conclude that the direct prompt atmospheric tau neutrino flux dominates these other atmospheric sources of tau neutrinos for neutrino energies larger than a few TeV for upward fluxes, and over a wider range of energy for downward fluxes.

  8. Relic Neutrino Absorption Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Eberle, b

    2004-01-28

    Resonant annihilation of extremely high-energy cosmic neutrinos on big-bang relic anti-neutrinos (and vice versa) into Z-bosons leads to sizable absorption dips in the neutrino flux to be observed at Earth. The high-energy edges of these dips are fixed, via the resonance energies, by the neutrino masses alone. Their depths are determined by the cosmic neutrino background density, by the cosmological parameters determining the expansion rate of the universe, and by the large redshift history of the cosmic neutrino sources. We investigate the possibility of determining the existence of the cosmic neutrino background within the next decade from a measurement of these absorption dips in the neutrino flux. As a by-product, we study the prospects to infer the absolute neutrino mass scale. We find that, with the presently planned neutrino detectors (ANITA, Auger, EUSO, OWL, RICE, and SalSA) operating in the relevant energy regime above 10{sup 21} eV, relic neutrino absorption spectroscopy becomes a realistic possibility. It requires, however, the existence of extremely powerful neutrino sources, which should be opaque to nucleons and high-energy photons to evade present constraints. Furthermore, the neutrino mass spectrum must be quasi-degenerate to optimize the dip, which implies m{sub {nu}} 0.1 eV for the lightest neutrino. With a second generation of neutrino detectors, these demanding requirements can be relaxed considerably.

  9. Charged Cosmic Rays and Neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachelrieß, M.

    2013-04-01

    High-energy neutrino astronomy has grown up, with IceCube as one of its main experiments having sufficient sensitivity to test "vanilla" models of astrophysical neutrinos. I review predictions of neutrino fluxes as well as the status of cosmic ray physics. I comment also briefly on an improvement of the Fermi-LAT limit for cosmogenic neutrinos and on the two neutrino events presented by IceCube first at "Neutrino 2012".

  10. Improved flux limits for neutrinos with energies above 10(22) eV from observations with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope.

    PubMed

    Scholten, O; Buitink, S; Bacelar, J; Braun, R; de Bruyn, A G; Falcke, H; Singh, K; Stappers, B; Strom, R G; al Yahyaoui, R

    2009-11-01

    Particle cascades initiated by ultrahigh energy neutrinos in the lunar regolith will emit an electromagnetic pulse with a time duration of the order of nanoseconds through a process known as the Askaryan effect. It has been shown that in an observing window around 150 MHz there is a maximum chance for detecting this radiation with radio telescopes commonly used in astronomy. In 50 h of observation time with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope array we have set a new limit on the flux of neutrinos, summed over all flavors, with energies in excess of 4x10(22) eV.

  11. Improved flux limits for neutrinos with energies above 10(22) eV from observations with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope.

    PubMed

    Scholten, O; Buitink, S; Bacelar, J; Braun, R; de Bruyn, A G; Falcke, H; Singh, K; Stappers, B; Strom, R G; al Yahyaoui, R

    2009-11-01

    Particle cascades initiated by ultrahigh energy neutrinos in the lunar regolith will emit an electromagnetic pulse with a time duration of the order of nanoseconds through a process known as the Askaryan effect. It has been shown that in an observing window around 150 MHz there is a maximum chance for detecting this radiation with radio telescopes commonly used in astronomy. In 50 h of observation time with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope array we have set a new limit on the flux of neutrinos, summed over all flavors, with energies in excess of 4x10(22) eV. PMID:20365914

  12. Folds and Etudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bean, Robert

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about "Folds" and "Etudes" which are images derived from anonymous typing exercises that he found in a used copy of "Touch Typing Made Simple". "Etudes" refers to the musical tradition of studies for a solo instrument, which is a typewriter. Typing exercises are repetitive attempts to type words and phrases…

  13. HARP targets pion production cross section and yield measurements. Implications for MiniBooNE neutrino flux

    SciTech Connect

    Wickremasinghe, Don Athula Abeyarathna

    2015-07-01

    The prediction of the muon neutrino flux from a 71.0 cm long beryllium target for the MiniBooNE experiment is based on a measured pion production cross section which was taken from a short beryllium target (2.0 cm thick - 5% nuclear interaction length) in the Hadron Production (HARP) experiment at CERN. To verify the extrapolation to our longer target, HARP also measured the pion production from 20.0 cm and 40.0 cm beryllium targets. The measured production yields, d2Nπ± (p; θ )=dpd Ω, on targets of 50% and 100% nuclear interaction lengths in the kinematic rage of momentum from 0.75 GeV/c to 6.5 GeV/c and the range of angle from 30 mrad to 210 mrad are presented along with an update of the short target cross sections. The best fitted extended Sanford-Wang (SW) model parameterization for updated short beryllium target π+ production cross section is presented. Yield measurements for all three targets are also compared with that from the Monte Carlo predictions in the MiniBooNE experiment for different SW parameterization. The comparisons of vμ flux predictions for updated SW model is presented.

  14. Astroparticle physics with solar neutrinos

    PubMed Central

    NAKAHATA, Masayuki

    2011-01-01

    Solar neutrino experiments observed fluxes smaller than the expectations from the standard solar model. This discrepancy is known as the “solar neutrino problem”. Flux measurements by Super-Kamiokande and SNO have demonstrated that the solar neutrino problem is due to neutrino oscillations. Combining the results of all solar neutrino experiments, parameters for solar neutrino oscillations are obtained. Correcting for the effect of neutrino oscillations, the observed neutrino fluxes are consistent with the prediction from the standard solar model. In this article, results of solar neutrino experiments are reviewed with detailed descriptions of what Kamiokande and Super-Kamiokande have contributed to the history of astroparticle physics with solar neutrino measurements. PMID:21558758

  15. Astroparticle physics with solar neutrinos.

    PubMed

    Nakahata, Masayuki

    2011-01-01

    Solar neutrino experiments observed fluxes smaller than the expectations from the standard solar model. This discrepancy is known as the "solar neutrino problem". Flux measurements by Super-Kamiokande and SNO have demonstrated that the solar neutrino problem is due to neutrino oscillations. Combining the results of all solar neutrino experiments, parameters for solar neutrino oscillations are obtained. Correcting for the effect of neutrino oscillations, the observed neutrino fluxes are consistent with the prediction from the standard solar model. In this article, results of solar neutrino experiments are reviewed with detailed descriptions of what Kamiokande and Super-Kamiokande have contributed to the history of astroparticle physics with solar neutrino measurements. (Communicated by Toshimitsu Yamazaki, M.J.A.).

  16. Neutrino Observations from the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Q. R. Ahmad, R. C. Allen, T. C. Andersen, J. D. Anglin, G. Bühler, J. C. Barton, E. W. Beier, M. Bercovitch, J. Bigu, S. Biller, R. A. Black, I. Blevis, R. J. Boardman, J. Boger, E. Bonvin, M. G. Boulay, M. G. Bowler, T. J. Bowles, S. J. Brice, M. C. Browne, T. V. Bullard, T. H. Burritt, K. Cameron, J. Cameron, Y. D. Chan, M. Chen, H. H. Chen, X. Chen, M. C. Chon, B. T. Cleveland, E. T. H. Clifford, J. H. M. Cowan, D. F. Cowen, G. A. Cox, Y. Dai, X. Dai, F. Dalnoki-Veress, W. F. Davidson, P. J. Doe, G. Doucas, M. R. Dragowsky, C. A. Duba, F. A. Duncan, J. Dunmore, E. D. Earle, S. R. Elliott, H. C. Evans, G. T. Ewan, J. Farine, H. Fergani, A. P. Ferraris, R. J. Ford, M. M. Fowler, K. Frame, E. D. Frank, W. Frati, J. V. Germani, S. Gil, A. Goldschmidt, D. R. Grant, R. L. Hahn, A. L. Hallin, E. D. Hallman, A. Hamer, A. A. Hamian, R. U. Haq, C. K. Hargrove, P. J. Harvey, R. Hazama, R. Heaton, K. M. Heeger, W. J. Heintzelman, J. Heise, R. L. Helmer, J. D. Hepburn, H. Heron, J. Hewett, A. Hime, M. Howe, J. G. Hykawy, M. C. P. Isaac, P. Jagam, N. A. Jelley, C. Jillings, G. Jonkmans, J. Karn, P. T. Keener, K. Kirch, J. R. Klein, A. B. Knox, R. J. Komar, R. Kouzes, T. Kutter, C. C. M. Kyba, J. Law, I. T. Lawson, M. Lay, H. W. Lee, K. T. Lesko, J. R. Leslie, I. Levine, W. Locke, M. M. Lowry, S. Luoma, J. Lyon, S. Majerus, H. B. Mak, A. D. Marino, N. McCauley, A. B. McDonald, D. S. McDonald, K. McFarlane, G. McGregor, W. McLatchie, R. Meijer Drees, H. Mes, C. Mifflin, G. G. Miller, G. Milton, B. A. Moffat, M. Moorhead, C. W. Nally, M. S. Neubauer, F. M. Newcomer, H. S. Ng, A. J. Noble, E. B. Norman, V. M. Novikov, M. O'Neill, C. E. Okada, R. W. Ollerhead, M. Omori, J. L. Orrell, S. M. Oser, A. W. P. Poon, T. J. Radcliffe, A. Roberge, B. C. Robertson, R. G. H. Robertson, J. K. Rowley, V. L. Rusu, E. Saettler, K. K. Schaffer, A. Schuelke, M. H. Schwendener, H. Seifert, M. Shatkay, J. J. Simpson, D. Sinclair, P. Skensved, A. R. Smith, M. W. E. Smith, N. Starinsky, T. D. Steiger, R. G. Stokstad, R. S. Storey, B. Sur, R. Tafirout, N. Tagg, N. W. Tanner, R. K. Taplin, M. Thorman, P. Thornewell, P. T. Trent, Y. I. Tserkovnyak, R. Van Berg, R. G. Van de Water, C. J. Virtue, C. E. Waltham, J.-X. Wang, D. L. Wark, N. West, J. B. Wilhelmy, J. F. Wilkerson, J. Wilson, P. Wittich, J. M. Wouters, and M. Yeh

    2001-09-24

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is a water imaging Cherenkov detector. Its usage of 1000 metric tons of D{sub 2}O as target allows the SNO detector to make a solar-model independent test of the neutrino oscillation hypothesis by simultaneously measuring the solar {nu}{sub e} flux and the total flux of all active neutrino species. Solar neutrinos from the decay of {sup 8}B have been detected at SNO by the charged-current (CC) interaction on the deuteron and by the elastic scattering (ES) of electrons. While the CC reaction is sensitive exclusively to {nu}{sub e}, the ES reaction also has a small sensitivity to {nu}{sub {mu}} and {nu}{sub {tau}}. In this paper, recent solar neutrino results from the SNO experiment are presented. It is demonstrated that the solar flux from {sup 8}B decay as measured from the ES reaction rate under the no-oscillation assumption is consistent with the high precision ES measurement by the Super-Kamiokande experiment. The {nu}{sub e} flux deduced from the CC reaction rate in SNO differs from the Super-Kamiokande ES results by 3.3{sigma}. This is evidence for an active neutrino component, in additional to {nu}{sub e}, in the solar neutrino flux. These results also allow the first experimental determination of the total active {sup 8}B neutrino flux from the Sun, and is found to be in good agreement with solar model predictions.

  17. Neutrino-neutrino interactions in a supernova and their effect on neutrino flavor conversions

    SciTech Connect

    Dighe, Amol

    2011-11-23

    The neutrino-neutrino interactions inside a supernova core give rise to nonlinear collective effects that significantly influence the neutrino flavor conversions inside the star. I shall describe these interactions, the new oscillation phenomena they generate, and their effect on the neutrino fluxes arriving at the earth.

  18. Limits on the high-energy gamma and neutrino fluxes from the SGR 1806-20 giant flare of 27 December 2004 with the AMANDA-II detector.

    PubMed

    Achterberg, A; Ackermann, M; Adams, J; Ahrens, J; Andeen, K; Atlee, D W; Bahcall, J N; Bai, X; Baret, B; Bartelt, M; Barwick, S W; Bay, R; Beattie, K; Becka, T; Becker, J K; Becker, K-H; Berghaus, P; Berley, D; Bernardini, E; Bertrand, D; Besson, D Z; Blaufuss, E; Boersma, D J; Bohm, C; Bolmont, J; Böser, S; Botner, O; Bouchta, A; Braun, J; Burgess, C; Burgess, T; Castermans, T; Chirkin, D; Christy, B; Clem, J; Cowen, D F; D'Agostino, M V; Davour, A; Day, C T; De Clercq, C; Demirörs, L; Descamps, F; Desiati, P; Deyoung, T; Diaz-Velez, J C; Dreyer, J; Dumm, J P; Duvoort, M R; Edwards, W R; Ehrlich, R; Eisch, J; Ellsworth, R W; Evenson, P A; Fadiran, O; Fazely, A R; Feser, T; Filimonov, K; Fox, B D; Gaisser, T K; Gallagher, J; Ganugapati, R; Geenen, H; Gerhardt, L; Goldschmidt, A; Goodman, J A; Gozzini, R; Grullon, S; Gross, A; Gunasingha, R M; Gurtner, M; Hallgren, A; Halzen, F; Han, K; Hanson, K; Hardtke, D; Hardtke, R; Harenberg, T; Hart, J E; Hauschildt, T; Hays, D; Heise, J; Helbing, K; Hellwig, M; Herquet, P; Hill, G C; Hodges, J; Hoffman, K D; Hommez, B; Hoshina, K; Hubert, D; Hughey, B; Hulth, P O; Hultqvist, K; Hundertmark, S; Hülss, J-P; Ishihara, A; Jacobsen, J; Japaridze, G S; Jones, A; Joseph, J M; Kampert, K-H; Karle, A; Kawai, H; Kelley, J L; Kestel, M; Kitamura, N; Klein, S R; Klepser, S; Kohnen, G; Kolanoski, H; Köpke, L; Krasberg, M; Kuehn, K; Landsman, H; Leich, H; Liubarsky, I; Lundberg, J; Madsen, J; Mase, K; Matis, H S; McCauley, T; McParland, C P; Meli, A; Messarius, T; Mészáros, P; Miyamoto, H; Mokhtarani, A; Montaruli, T; Morey, A; Morse, R; Movit, S M; Münich, K; Nahnhauer, R; Nam, J W; Niessen, P; Nygren, D R; Ogelman, H; Olbrechts, Ph; Olivas, A; Patton, S; Peña-Garay, C; Pérez de Los Heros, C; Piegsa, A; Pieloth, D; Pohl, A C; Porrata, R; Pretz, J; Price, P B; Przybylski, G T; Rawlins, K; Razzaque, S; Refflinghaus, F; Resconi, E; Rhode, W; Ribordy, M; Rizzo, A; Robbins, S; Roth, P; Rott, C; Rutledge, D; Ryckbosch, D; Sander, H-G; Sarkar, S; Schlenstedt, S; Schmidt, T; Schneider, D; Seckel, D; Seo, S H; Seunarine, S; Silvestri, A; Smith, A J; Solarz, M; Song, C; Sopher, J E; Spiczak, G M; Spiering, C; Stamatikos, M; Stanev, T; Steffen, P; Stezelberger, T; Stokstad, R G; Stoufer, M C; Stoyanov, S; Strahler, E A; Straszheim, T; Sulanke, K-H; Sullivan, G W; Sumner, T J; Taboada, I; Tarasova, O; Tepe, A; Thollander, L; Tilav, S; Toale, P A; Turcan, D; van Eijndhoven, N; Vandenbroucke, J; Van Overloop, A; Voigt, B; Wagner, W; Walck, C; Waldmann, H; Walter, M; Wang, Y-R; Wendt, C; Wiebusch, C H; Wikström, G; Williams, D R; Wischnewski, R; Wissing, H; Woschnagg, K; Xu, X W; Yodh, G; Yoshida, S; Zornoza, J D

    2006-12-01

    On 27 December 2004, a giant gamma flare from the Soft Gamma-Ray Repeater 1806-20 saturated many satellite gamma-ray detectors, being the brightest transient event ever observed in the Galaxy. AMANDA-II was used to search for down-going muons indicative of high-energy gammas and/or neutrinos from this object. The data revealed no significant signal, so upper limits (at 90% C.L.) on the normalization constant were set: 0.05(0.5) TeV-1 m;{-2} s;{-1} for gamma=-1.47 (-2) in the gamma flux and 0.4(6.1) TeV-1 m;{-2} s;{-1} for gamma=-1.47 (-2) in the high-energy neutrino flux.

  19. EFFECTS OF A DEEP MIXED SHELL ON SOLAR g-MODES, p-MODES, AND NEUTRINO FLUX

    SciTech Connect

    Wolff, Charles L.

    2009-08-10

    A mixed-shell model that reflects g-modes away from the Sun's center is developed further by calibrating its parameters and evaluating a mixing mechanism: buoyancy. The shell roughly doubles g-mode oscillation periods and would explain why there is no definitive detection of their periods. But the shell has only minor effects on most p-modes. The model provides a mechanism for causing short-term fluctuations in neutrino flux and makes plausible the correlations between this flux and solar activity levels. Relations are derived for a shell heated asymmetrically by transient increases in nuclear burning in small 'hot spots'. The size of these spots and the timing of a heating event are governed by sets(l) of standing asymptotic g-modes, coupled by a maximal principle that greatly enhances their excitation and concentrates power toward the equator, assisting the detection of higher-l sets. Signals from all sets, except one, in the range 2 {<=} l {<=} 8 are identified by difference periods between consecutive radial states using the method of Garcia et al. and reinterpreting their latest spectrum. This confirms two detections of sets in a similar range of l by their rotation rates. The mean radius of shell mixing is r{sub m} = 0.16 R{sub sun}, which improves an earlier independent estimate of 0.18 by the author. The shell may cause the unexplained dip in measured sound speed at its location. Another sound speed error, centered near 0.67 R{sub sun}, and reversing flows in the same place with a period originally near 1.3 yr suggest that the g-modes are depositing there about 3% of the solar luminosity. That implies the shell at r{sub m} is receiving a similar magnitude of power, which would be enough energy to mix the corresponding shell in a standard solar model in <<10{sup 7} yr.

  20. Estimation of low energy neutron flux (En <= 15 MeV) in India-based Neutrino Observatory cavern using Monte Carlo techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dokania, N.; Singh, V.; Mathimalar, S.; Garai, A.; Nanal, V.; Pillay, R. G.; Bhushan, K. G.

    2015-12-01

    The neutron flux at low energy (En <= 15 MeV) resulting from the radioactivity of the rock in the underground cavern of the India-based Neutrino Observatory is estimated using Geant4-based Monte Carlo simulations. The neutron production rate due to the spontaneous fission of 235, 238U, 232Th and (α, n) interactions in the rock is determined employing the actual rock composition. It is shown that the total flux is equivalent to a finite size cylindrical rock (D=L=140 cm) element. The energy integrated neutron flux thus obtained at the center of the underground tunnel is 2.76 (0.47) × 10-6 n cm-2 s-1. The estimated neutron flux is of the same order (~10-6 n cm-2 s-1) as measured in other underground laboratories.

  1. Sensitivity of the KM3NeT detector to a neutrino flux from the Fermi bubbles

    SciTech Connect

    Coniglione, R.; Piattelli, P.; Sapienza, P.; Trovato, A.; Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    The Fermi Large Area Telescope data has provided evidence for a high-intensity emission of high-energy gamma rays with a E{sup −2} spectrum from two large bubbles above and below the Galactic Center. Hadronic mechanisms were proposed for this gamma-ray emission making the Fermi bubbles promising source candidates of high-energy neutrino emission. In this work preliminary simulation results regarding the detectability of high-energy neutrinos from the Fermi bubbles with the future multi-km{sup 3} neutrino telescope KM3NeT are presented.

  2. Gravitational Lensing of Supernova Neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Mena, Olga; Mocioiu, Irina; Quigg, Chris; /Fermilab

    2006-10-01

    The black hole at the center of the galaxy is a powerful lens for supernova neutrinos. In the very special circumstance of a supernova near the extended line of sight from Earth to the galactic center, lensing could dramatically enhance the neutrino flux at Earth and stretch the neutrino pulse.

  3. TeV γ-ray fluxes from the long campaigns on Mrk 421 as constraints on the emission of TeV-PeV neutrinos and UHECRs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraija, N.; Marinelli, A.

    2015-10-01

    Long TeV γ-ray campaigns have been carried out to study the spectrum, variability and duty cycle of the BL Lac object Markarian 421. These campaigns have given some evidence of the presence of protons in the jet: (i) Its spectral energy distribution which shows two main peaks; one at low energies (∼1 keV) and the other at high energies (hundreds of GeV), has been described by using synchrotron proton blazar model. (ii) The study of the variability at GeV γ-rays and X-rays has indicated no significant correlation. (iii) TeV γ-ray detections without activity in X-rays, called "orphan flares" have been observed in this object. Recently, The Telescope Array Collaboration reported the arrival of 72 ultra-high-energy cosmic rays with some of them possibly related to the direction of Markarian 421. The IceCube Collaboration reported the detection of 37 extraterrestrial neutrinos in the TeV-PeV energy range collected during three consecutive years. In particular, no neutrino track events were associated with this source. In this paper, we consider the proton-photon interactions to correlate the TeV γ-ray fluxes reported by long campaigns with the neutrino and ultra-high-energy cosmic ray observations around this blazar. Considering the results reported by The IceCube and Telescope Array Collaborations, we found that only from ∼25% to 70% of TeV fluxes described with a power law function with exponential cutoff can come from the proton-photon interactions.

  4. Theory and phenomenology of supernova neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Lunardini, Cecilia

    2015-07-15

    The theory and phenomenology of supernova neutrinos is reviewed, with focus on the most recent advancements on the neutrino flux predicted by supernova numerical models, on neutrino oscillations inside the star and in the Earth, and on the physics of the diffuse supernova neutrino background. Future directions of research are briefly summarized.

  5. Muons and neutrinos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanev, T.

    1986-01-01

    The first generation of large and precise detectors, some initially dedicated to search for nucleon decay has accumulated significant statistics on neutrinos and high-energy muons. A second generation of even better and bigger detectors are already in operation or in advanced construction stage. The present set of experimental data on muon groups and neutrinos is qualitatively better than several years ago and the expectations for the following years are high. Composition studies with underground muon groups, neutrino detection, and expected extraterrestrial neutrino fluxes are discussed.

  6. Neutrinos and dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Ibarra, Alejandro

    2015-07-15

    Neutrinos could be key particles to unravel the nature of the dark matter of the Universe. On the one hand, sterile neutrinos in minimal extensions of the Standard Model are excellent dark matter candidates, producing potentially observable signals in the form of a line in the X-ray sky. On the other hand, the annihilation or the decay of dark matter particles produces, in many plausible dark matter scenarios, a neutrino flux that could be detected at neutrino telescopes, thus providing non-gravitational evidence for dark matter. More conservatively, the non-observation of a significant excess in the neutrino fluxes with respect to the expected astrophysical backgrounds can be used to constrain dark matter properties, such as the self-annihilation cross section, the scattering cross section with nucleons and the lifetime.

  7. Solar Neutrino Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Bowles, T.J.; Brice, S.J.; Esch, E.-I.; Fowler, M.M.; Goldschmidt, A.; Hime, A.; McGirt, F.; Miller, G.G.; Thornewell, P.M.; Wilhelmy, J.B.; Wouters, J.M.

    1999-07-15

    With its heavy water target, the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) offers the unique opportunity to measure both the 8B flux of electron neutrinos from the Sun and, independently, the flux of all active neutrino species reaching the Earth. A model-independent test of the hypothesis that neutrino oscillations are responsible for the observed solar neutrino deficit can be made by comparing the charged-current (CC) and neutral-current (NC) rates. This LDRD proposal supported the research and development necessary for an assessment of backgrounds and performance of the SNO detector and the ability to extract the NC/CC-Ratio. Particular emphasis is put upon the criteria for deployment and signal extraction from a discrete NC detector array based upon ultra-low background 3He proportional counters.

  8. Solar neutrino detection

    SciTech Connect

    Miramonti, Lino

    2009-04-30

    More than 40 years ago, neutrinos where conceived as a way to test the validity of the solar models which tell us that stars are powered by nuclear fusion reactions. The first measurement of the neutrino flux, in 1968 in the Homestake mine in South Dakota, detected only one third of the expected value, originating what has been known as the Solar Neutrino Problem. Different experiments were built in order to understand the origin of this discrepancy. Now we know that neutrinos undergo oscillation phenomenon changing their nature traveling from the core of the Sun to our detectors. In the work the 40 year long saga of the neutrino detection is presented; from the first proposals to test the solar models to last real time measurements of the low energy part of the neutrino spectrum.

  9. Neutrino mass hierarchy and precision physics with medium-baseline reactors: Impact of energy-scale and flux-shape uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capozzi, F.; Lisi, E.; Marrone, A.

    2015-11-01

    Nuclear reactors provide intense sources of electron antineutrinos, characterized by few-MeV energy E and unoscillated spectral shape Φ (E ). High-statistics observations of reactor neutrino oscillations over medium-baseline distances L ˜O (50 ) km would provide unprecedented opportunities to probe both the long-wavelength mass-mixing parameters (δ m2 and θ12) and the short-wavelength ones (Δ mee 2 and θ13), together with the subtle interference effects associated with the neutrino mass hierarchy (either normal or inverted). In a given experimental setting—here taken as in the JUNO project for definiteness—the achievable hierarchy sensitivity and parameter accuracy depend not only on the accumulated statistics but also on systematic uncertainties, which include (but are not limited to) the mass-mixing priors and the normalizations of signals and backgrounds. We examine, in addition, the effect of introducing smooth deformations of the detector energy scale, E →E'(E ), and of the reactor flux shape, Φ (E )→Φ'(E ), within reasonable error bands inspired by state-of-the-art estimates. It turns out that energy-scale and flux-shape systematics can noticeably affect the performance of a JUNO-like experiment, both on the hierarchy discrimination and on precision oscillation physics. It is shown that a significant reduction of the assumed energy-scale and flux-shape uncertainties (by, say, a factor of 2) would be highly beneficial to the physics program of medium-baseline reactor projects. Our results also shed some light on the role of the inverse-beta decay threshold, of geoneutrino backgrounds, and of matter effects in the analysis of future reactor oscillation data.

  10. Probing Late Neutrino Mass Properties With SupernovaNeutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Joseph; Goldberg, Haim; Perez, Gilad; Sarcevic, Ina

    2007-08-08

    Models of late-time neutrino mass generation contain new interactions of the cosmic background neutrinos with supernova relic neutrinos (SRNs). Exchange of an on-shell light scalar may lead to significant modification of the differential SRN flux observed at earth. We consider an Abelian U(1) model for generating neutrino masses at low scales, and show that there are cases for which the changes induced in the flux allow one to distinguish the Majorana or Dirac nature of neutrinos, as well as the type of neutrino mass hierarchy (normal or inverted or quasi-degenerate). In some region of parameter space the determination of the absolute values of the neutrino masses is also conceivable. Measurements of the presence of these effects may be possible at the next-generation water Cerenkov detectors enriched with Gadolinium, or a 100 kton liquid argon detector.

  11. Constraints on neutrino oscillations using 1258 days of Super-Kamiokande solar neutrino data.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, S; Fukuda, Y; Ishitsuka, M; Itow, Y; Kajita, T; Kameda, J; Kaneyuki, K; Kobayashi, K; Koshio, Y; Miura, M; Moriyama, S; Nakahata, M; Nakayama, S; Okada, A; Sakurai, N; Shiozawa, M; Suzuki, Y; Takeuchi, H; Takeuchi, Y; Toshito, T; Totsuka, Y; Yamada, S; Desai, S; Earl, M; Kearns, E; Messier, M D; Scholberg, K; Stone, J L; Sulak, L R; Walter, C W; Goldhaber, M; Barszczak, T; Casper, D; Gajewski, W; Kropp, W R; Mine, S; Liu, D W; Price, L R; Smy, M B; Sobel, H W; Vagins, M R; Ganezer, K S; Keig, W E; Ellsworth, R W; Tasaka, S; Kibayashi, A; Learned, J G; Matsuno, S; Takemori, D; Hayato, Y; Ishii, T; Kobayashi, T; Nakamura, K; Obayashi, Y; Oyama, Y; Sakai, A; Sakuda, M; Kohama, M; Suzuki, A T; Inagaki, T; Nakaya, T; Nishikawa, K; Haines, T J; Blaufuss, E; Dazeley, S; Lee, K B; Svoboda, R; Goodman, J A; Guillian, G; Sullivan, G W; Turcan, D; Habig, A; Hill, J; Jung, C K; Martens, K; Malek, M; Mauger, C; McGrew, C; Sharkey, E; Viren, B; Yanagisawa, C; Mitsuda, C; Miyano, K; Saji, C; Shibata, T; Kajiyama, Y; Nagashima, Y; Nitta, K; Takita, M; Yoshida, M; Kim, H I; Kim, S B; Yoo, J; Okazawa, H; Ishizuka, T; Etoh, M; Gando, Y; Hasegawa, T; Inoue, K; Ishihara, K; Maruyama, T; Shirai, J; Suzuki, A; Koshiba, M; Hatakeyama, Y; Ichikawa, Y; Koike, M; Nishijima, K; Fujiyasu, H; Ishino, H; Morii, M; Watanabe, Y; Golebiewska, U; Kielczewska, D; Boyd, S C; Stachyra, A L; Wilkes, R J; Young, K K

    2001-06-18

    We report the result of a search for neutrino oscillations using precise measurements of the recoil electron energy spectrum and zenith angle variations of the solar neutrino flux from 1258 days of neutrino-electron scattering data in Super-Kamiokande. The absence of significant zenith angle variation and spectrum distortion places strong constraints on neutrino mixing and mass difference in a flux-independent way. Using the Super-Kamiokande flux measurement in addition, two allowed regions at large mixing are found.

  12. Enrichment services for chromium isotopes for the GALLEX (gallium experiment) international collaboration experiment on solar neutrino flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szady, Andrew J.

    1990-07-01

    Detailed discussions were held with members of the Gallium Experiment (GALLEX) international solar neutrino research collaboration concerning negotiations to provide $1.4 million in services to enrich (50)Cr for a (51)Cr neutrino source. The source will be used to calibrate the 20-ton gallium solar neutrino detector currently in place in the Gran Sasso Laboratory in Italy. Funding approval for the enrichment services is expected from the European Common Market by October 19, 1990. The discussions focused on the technical aspects of the enrichment, the health and safety requirements for handling the process gas, cost projections, schedule, the Work-for-Others contract, and the method of payment. Discussions were also held with members of the Nuclear Physics Dept. at the University of Milan concerning the availability of isotopes enriched by the Calutron at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Very high purity material is needed to grow crystals for use in double beta decay detectors. Finally, working sessions were held to draft a coauthored paper on the results of using the gas centrifuge to remove trace quantities of (85)Kr from natural xenon.

  13. Neutrino Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    McKeown, R. D.

    2010-08-04

    Recent studies of neutrino oscillations have established the existence of finite neutrino masses and mixing between generations of neutrinos. The combined results from studies of atmospheric neutrinos, solar neutrinos, reactor antineutrinos and neutrinos produced at accelerators paint an intriguing picture that clearly requires modification of the standard model of particle physics. These results also provide clear motivation for future neutrino oscillation experiments as well as searches for direct neutrino mass and nuclear double-beta decay. I will discuss the program of new neutrino oscillation experiments aimed at completing our knowledge of the neutrino mixing matrix.

  14. Status of High-Energy Neutrino Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalski, Marek

    2015-08-01

    With the recent discovery of high-energy neutrinos of extra-terrestrial origin by the IceCube neutrino observatory, neutrino-astronomy is entering a new era. This review will cover currently operating open water/ice neutrino telescopes, the latest evidence for a flux of extra-terrestrial neutrinos and current efforts in the search for steady and transient neutrino point sources. Generalised constraints on potential astrophysical sources are presented, allowing to focus the hunt for the sources of the observed high-energy neutrinos.

  15. Cosmic Neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Quigg, Chris; /Fermilab /CERN

    2008-02-01

    I recall the place of neutrinos in the electroweak theory and summarize what we know about neutrino mass and flavor change. I next review the essential characteristics expected for relic neutrinos and survey what we can say about the neutrino contribution to the dark matter of the Universe. Then I discuss the standard-model interactions of ultrahigh-energy neutrinos, paying attention to the consequences of neutrino oscillations, and illustrate a few topics of interest to neutrino observatories. I conclude with short comments on the remote possibility of detecting relic neutrinos through annihilations of ultrahigh-energy neutrinos at the Z resonance.

  16. The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellerive, A.; Klein, J. R.; McDonald, A. B.; Noble, A. J.; Poon, A. W. P.

    2016-07-01

    This review paper provides a summary of the published results of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) experiment that was carried out by an international scientific collaboration with data collected during the period from 1999 to 2006. By using heavy water as a detection medium, the SNO experiment demonstrated clearly that solar electron neutrinos from 8B decay in the solar core change into other active neutrino flavors in transit to Earth. The reaction on deuterium that has equal sensitivity to all active neutrino flavors also provides a very accurate measure of the initial solar flux for comparison with solar models. This review summarizes the results from three phases of solar neutrino detection as well as other physics results obtained from analyses of the SNO data.

  17. Small neutrino masses from gravitational θ -term

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvali, Gia; Funcke, Lena

    2016-06-01

    We present how a neutrino condensate and small neutrino masses emerge from a topological formulation of gravitational anomaly. We first recapitulate how a gravitational θ -term leads to the emergence of a new bound neutrino state analogous to the η' meson of QCD. Then we show the consequent formation of a neutrino vacuum condensate, which effectively generates small neutrino masses. Afterwards we outline numerous phenomenological consequences of our neutrino mass generation model. The cosmological neutrino mass bound vanishes since we predict the neutrinos to be massless until the phase transition in the late Universe, T ˜meV . Coherent radiation of new light particles in the neutrino sector can be detected in prospective precision experiments. Deviations from an equal flavor rate due to enhanced neutrino decays in extraterrestrial neutrino fluxes can be observed in future IceCube data. These neutrino decays may also necessitate modified analyses of the original neutrino spectra of the supernova SN 1987A. The current cosmological neutrino background only consists of the lightest neutrinos, which, due to enhanced neutrino-neutrino interactions, either bind up, form a superfluid, or completely annihilate into massless bosons. Strongly coupled relic neutrinos could provide a contribution to cold dark matter in the late Universe, together with the new proposed particles and topological defects, which may have formed during neutrino condensation. These enhanced interactions could also be a source of relic neutrino clustering in our Galaxy, which possibly makes the overdense cosmic neutrino background detectable in the KATRIN experiment. The neutrino condensate provides a mass for the hypothetical B -L gauge boson, leading to a gravity-competing force detectable in short-distance measurements. Prospective measurements of the polarization intensities of gravitational waves can falsify our neutrino mass generation model.

  18. Precision Solar Neutrino Measurements with the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Oblath, Noah

    2007-10-26

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is the first experiment to measure the total flux of active, high-energy neutrinos from the sun. Results from SNO have solved the long-standing 'Solar Neutrino Problem' by demonstrating that neutrinos change flavor. SNO measured the total neutrino flux with the neutral-current interaction of solar neutrinos with 1000 tonnes of D{sub 2}O. In the first two phases of the experiment we detected the neutron from that interaction by capture on deuterium and capture on chlorine, respectively. In the third phase an array of {sup 3}He proportional counters was deployed in the detector. This allows a measurement of the neutral-current neutrons that is independent of the Cherenkov light detected by the PMT array. We are currently developing a unique, detailed simulation of the current pulses from the proportional-counter array that will be used to help distinguish signal and background pulses.

  19. Contribution a l'etude et a la conception d'une machine synchrone a flux transverse destinee au degivrage d'aeronefs en cours de vol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boussetoua, Mohammed

    feeding the hearting system. In recent years, numerous research studies have started on the development of electromechanical system converters for various applications, such as transport by road, rail or aviation. The development of new low-speed, low-weight electric machines and their very high degree of compactness has become a very promising alternative. This project strongly interests many industries in the field of air transport. The transverse flux machine is considered as a compact structure having better mass power compared to other electrical machines. The design of transverse flux machine was the subject of an electromagnetic study. Also, the analytical study helped to determine the overall dimensions of the machine. The study was followed by a validation phase of the analytical model using numerical simulations. These two studies were intended to determine changes in the characteristics of the transverse flux machine according to the different geometric dimensions of its active parts. From the calculations made using analytical and numerical models, a prototype of the transverse flux machine (600 W, 320 RPM) was designed and manufactured in the AMIL laboratory at the Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi (UQAC). A bench test was conducted to compare the theoretical and experimental results. The measurements obtained on this prototype were compared with the theoretical results. This phase of the study demonstrates with satisfaction, the reliability of the theoretical models developed. Finally, a new configuration of this machine has been proposed. Numerical simulation results of this structure are particularly encouraging and require further investigations. For logistical and financial reasons, the prototype of this configuration has not been manufactured. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  20. Solar Neutrinos, SNO and SNOLAB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, A. B.

    2007-06-01

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory has completed operation in its third phase with an array of neutron detectors in 1000 tonnes of heavy water and Cherenkov light detection 2 km underground in INCO's Creighton mine near Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. Data from the third phase is now being analyzed. In the first two phases of the project reported previously, the neutral current reaction on deuterium was used to determine the total flux of active neutrinos and the charged current reaction on deuterium provided a measure of the flux and energy spectrum of solar electron neutrinos. The flux of electron neutrinos was found to be only about one third of the total flux, providing clear evidence of neutrino flavour change. The total flux of active neutrinos was found to be in agreement with solar model calculations. The underground laboratory is being expanded to create an international facility known as SNOLAB that will be completed at the end of 2007. Proposed future experiments for the detection of lower energy solar neutrinos, geo-neutrinos, dark matter and double beta decay are described.

  1. Neutrinos from neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helfand, D. J.

    1979-01-01

    A calculation of the flux of ultra-high energy neutrinos from galactic neutron stars is presented. The calculation is used to determine the number of point sources detectable at the sensitivity threshold of a proposed deep underwater muon and neutrino detector array. The detector array would have a point source detection threshold of about 100 eV/sq cm-sec. Analysis of neutrino luminosities and the number of detectable sources suggests that the deep underwater detector may make a few discoveries. In particular, a suspected neutron star in the Cyg X-3 source seems a promising target for the deep underwater array.

  2. Neutrino cross-sections: Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Sánchez, F.

    2015-07-15

    Neutrino-nucleus cross-sections are as of today the main source of systematic errors for oscillation experiments together with neutrino flux uncertainties. Despite recent experimental and theoretical developments, future experiments require even higher precisions in their search of CP violation. We will review the experimental status and explore possible future developments required by next generation of experiments.

  3. Next discoveries in neutrino mixing: Electron neutrino appearance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duyang, Hongyue

    The discovery of neutrino oscillation is a clear evidence of new physics beyond the Standard Model. Measurements of electron neutrino (nu e) and electron anti-neutrino (nu e) appearances are the most important channels to complete the neutrino mixing matrix. In a nue/ nue appearance experiment, a near detector (ND) is used to constrain the neutrino flux and measure the backgrounds to the signal. Backgrounds to the nue appearance comes from Neutral Current Muon Neutrino Interactions (numu-NC), Charged Current Muon Neutrino Interactions (numu-CC), beam nu e events and outside backgrounds. The background components are then extrapolated to the far detector (FD). By looking for excess of signal nu e/nue-like events in FD, we measure the neutrino mixing angle, neutrino's mass hierarchy and the elusive CP-violation in the lepton sector. This dissertation focuses on the signals and backgrounds in nu e/nue appearance measurements. The first part of the dissertation presents an analysis of nue appearance in a large Water Cherenkov detector such as the one proposed by the LBNE collaboration. The analysis, including scanning thousands of events, aims to distinguish nu e signals from the NC backgrounds. The second part of the dissertation presents measurements of Resonance Neutrino Interactions using the NOMAD data. This process plays a critical role in not only neutrino-nuclear cross section but also in the precision analysis of the next generation of neutrino oscillation experiments such as NOnuA and LBNE. The last part of the dissertation discusses the method of using low-nu fit method to measure relative neutrino flux and constrain beam nue background.

  4. Neutrino Physics

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Lederman, L. M.

    1963-01-09

    The prediction and verification of the neutrino are reviewed, together with the V A theory for its interactions (particularly the difficulties with the apparent existence of two neutrinos and the high energy cross section). The Brookhaven experiment confirming the existence of two neutrinos and the cross section increase with momentum is then described, and future neutrino experiments are considered. (D.C.W.)

  5. Detectors for Neutrino Physics at the First Muon Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, D.A.; McFarland, K.S.

    1998-04-01

    We consider possible detector designs for short-baseline neutrino experiments using neutrino beams produced at the First Muon Collider complex. The high fluxes available at the muon collider make possible high statistics deep-inelastic scattering neutrino experiments with a low-mass target. A design of a low-energy neutrino oscillation experiment on the ``tabletop`` scale is also discussed.

  6. Neutrino physics

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, Deborah A.; /Fermilab

    2008-09-01

    The field of neutrino physics has expanded greatly in recent years with the discovery that neutrinos change flavor and therefore have mass. Although there are many neutrino physics results since the last DIS workshop, these proceedings concentrate on recent neutrino physics results that either add to or depend on the understanding of Deep Inelastic Scattering. They also describe the short and longer term future of neutrino DIS experiments.

  7. Regional study of the Archean to Proterozoic crust at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO+), Ontario: Predicting the geoneutrino flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yu; Strati, Virginia; Mantovani, Fabio; Shirey, Steven B.; McDonough, William F.

    2014-10-01

    SNO+ detector that is currently under construction in Ontario, Canada, will be a new kiloton-scale liquid scintillation detector with the capability of recording geoneutrino events that can be used to constrain the strength of the Earth's radiogenic power, and in turn, to test compositional models of the bulk silicate Earth (BSE). We constructed a detailed 3-D model of the regional crust centered at SNO+ from compiled geological, geophysical, and geochemical information. Crustal cross sections obtained from refraction and reflection seismic surveys were used to characterize the crust and assign uncertainties to its structure. The average Moho depth in the study area is 42.3 ± 2.6 km. The upper crust was divided into seven dominant lithologic units on the basis of regional geology. The abundances of U and Th and their uncertainties in each upper crustal lithologic unit were determined from analyses of representative outcrop samples. The average chemical compositions of the middle and lower crust beneath the SNO+ region were determined by coupling local seismic velocity profiles with a global compilation of the chemical compositions of amphibolite and granulite facies rocks. Monte Carlo simulations were used to predict the geoneutrino signal originating from the regional crust at SNO+ and to track asymmetrical uncertainties of U and Th abundances. The total regional crust contribution of the geoneutrino signal at SNO+ is predicted to be 15.6-3.4+5.3 TNU (a Terrestrial Neutrino Unit is one geoneutrino event per 1032 target protons per year), with the Huronian Supergroup near SNO+ dominantly contributing 7.3-3.0+5.0 TNU to this total. Future systematically sampling of this regional unit and denser seismic surveys will better model its composition and structure, and thus reduce the uncertainty on geoneutrino signal at SNO+. The bulk crustal geoneutrino signal at SNO+ is estimated to be 30.7-4.2+6.0 TNU, which is lower than that predicted in a global-scale reference

  8. Oscillations of solar atmosphere neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Fogli, G. L.; Lisi, E.; Mirizzi, A.; Montanino, D.; Serpico, P. D.

    2006-11-01

    The Sun is a source of high-energy neutrinos (E(greater-or-similar sign)10 GeV) produced by cosmic ray interactions in the solar atmosphere. We study the impact of three-flavor oscillations (in vacuum and in matter) on solar atmosphere neutrinos, and calculate their observable fluxes at Earth, as well as their event rates in a kilometer-scale detector in water or ice. We find that peculiar three-flavor oscillation effects in matter, which can occur in the energy range probed by solar atmosphere neutrinos, are significantly suppressed by averaging over the production region and over the neutrino and antineutrino components. In particular, we find that the relation between the neutrino fluxes at the Sun and at the Earth can be approximately expressed in terms of phase-averaged vacuum oscillations, dominated by a single mixing parameter (the angle {theta}{sub 23})

  9. The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewan, G. T.

    1992-04-01

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) detector is a 1000 ton heavy water (D2O) Cherenkov detector designed to study neutrinos from the sun and other astrophysical sources. The use of heavy water allows both electron neutrinos and all other types of neutrinos to be observed by three complementary reactions. The detector will be sensitive to the electron neutrino flux and energy spectrum shape and to the total neutrino flux irrespective of neutrino type. These measurements will provide information on both vacuum neutrino oscillations and matter-enhanced oscillations, the MSW effect. In the event of a supernova it will be very sensitive to muon and tau neutrinos as well as the electron neutrinos emitted in the initial burst, enabling sensitive mass measurements as well as providing details of the physics of stellar collapse. On behalf of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) Collaboration : H.C . Evans, G.T . Ewan, H.W. Lee, J .R . Leslie, J .D. MacArthur, H .-B . Mak, A.B . McDonald, W. McLatchie, B.C . Robertson, B. Sur, P. Skensved (Queen's University) ; C.K . Hargrove, H. Mes, W.F. Davidson, D. Sinclair, 1 . Blevis, M. Shatkay (Centre for Research in Particle Physics) ; E.D. Earle, G.M. Milton, E. Bonvin, (Chalk River Laboratories); J .J . Simpson, P. Jagam, J . Law, J .-X . Wang (University of Guelph); E.D . Hallman, R.U. Haq (Laurentian University); A.L. Carter, D. Kessler, B.R . Hollebone (Carleton University); R. Schubank . C.E . Waltha m (University of British Columbia); R.T. Kouzes, M.M. Lowry, R.M. Key (Princeton University); E.W. Beier, W. Frati, M. Newcomer, R. Van Berg (University of Penn-sylvania), T.J . Bowles, P.J . Doe, S.R . Elliott, M.M. Fowler, R.G.H. Robertson, D.J . Vieira, J .B . Wilhelmy, J .F. Wilker-son, J .M. Wouters (Los Alamos National Laboratory) ; E. Norman, K. Lesko, A. Smith, R. Fulton, R. Stokstad (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory), N.W. Tanner, N. JCIILY, P. Trent, J . Barton, D.L . Wark (University of Oxford).

  10. The neutrino electron accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Shukla, P.K.; Stenflo, L.; Bingham, R.; Bethe, H.A.; Dawson, J.M.; Mendonca, J.T.

    1998-01-01

    It is shown that a wake of electron plasma oscillations can be created by the nonlinear ponderomotive force of an intense neutrino flux. The electrons trapped in the plasma wakefield will be accelerated to high energies. Such processes may be important in supernovas and pulsars. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  11. Flavor identification of astronomical high energy neutrinos and the accuracy of mixing angles

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Ggyoung-Riun; Siyeon, Kim

    2008-11-23

    Typical initial neutrino fluxes from pion decays may be different depending on energy, since the muon decays can be excluded due to the electromagnetic energy loss. However, the specification of the initial flux ratio is limited by the accuracy of neutrino mixing parameters. We will discuss the expected measurement of relative flavors at future neutrino telescopes, focusing on the ambiguity in current neutrino parameters.

  12. An ''archaeological'' quest for galactic supernova neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Lazauskas, Rimantas; Volpe, Cristina E-mail: Cecilia.Lunardini@asu.edu

    2009-04-15

    We explore the possibility to observe the effects of electron neutrinos from past galactic supernovae, through a geochemical measurement of the amount of Technetium 97 produced by neutrino-induced reactions in a Molybdenum ore. The calculations we present take into account the recent advances in our knowledge of neutrino interactions, of neutrino oscillations inside a supernova, of the solar neutrino flux at Earth and of possible failed supernovae. The predicted Technetium 97 abundance is of the order of 10{sup 7} atoms per 10 kilotons of ore, which is close to the current geochemical experimental sensitivity. Of this, {approx} 10-20% is from supernovae. Considering the comparable size of uncertainties, more precision in the modeling of neutrino fluxes as well as of neutrino cross sections is required for a meaningful measurement.

  13. Recent results of the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Hernández-Rey, Juan José

    2015-07-15

    The latest results from the ANTARES Neutrino Telescope are reported. Limits on a high energy neutrino diffuse flux have been set using for the first time both muon–track and showering events. The results for point sources obtained by ANTARES are also shown. These are the most stringent limits for the southern sky for neutrino energies below 100 TeV. Constraints on the nature of the cluster of neutrino events near the Galactic Centre observed by IceCube are also reported. In particular, ANTARES data excludes a single point–like neutrino source as the origin of this cluster. Looking for neutrinos coming from the Sun or the centre of the Galaxy, very competitive limits are set by the ANTARES data to the flux of neutrinos produced by self-annihilation of weakly interacting massive particles.

  14. A study of atmospheric neutrinos with the IMB detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Losecco, J. M.; Bionta, R. M.; Blewitt, G.; Bratton, C. B.; Casper, D.; Chrysicopoulou, P.; Claus, R.; Cortez, B. G.; Errede, S.; Foster, G. W.

    1985-01-01

    A sample of 401 contained neutrino interactions collected in the 3300 metric ton fiducial mass IMB detector was used to study neutrino oscillations, geomagnetic modulation of the flux and to search for point sources. The majority of these events are attributed to neutrino interactions. For the most part, these neutrinos are believed to originate as tertiary products of cosmic ray interactions in the atmosphere. The neutrinos are a mixture of v sub e and v sub micron.

  15. Neutrino Factories

    SciTech Connect

    Geer, Steve; /Fermilab

    2010-01-01

    Over the last decade there has been significant progress in developing the concepts and technologies needed to produce, capture and accelerate O(10{sup 21}) muons/year. This prepares the way for a Neutrino Factory (NF) in which high energy muons decay within the straight sections of a storage ring to produce a beam of neutrinos and anti-neutrinos. The NF concept was proposed in 1997 at a time when the discovery that the three known types of neutrino ({nu}{sub e}, {nu}{sub {mu}}, {nu}{sub {tau}}) can change their flavor as they propagate through space (neutrino oscillations) was providing a first glimpse of physics beyond the Standard Model. This development prepares the way for a new type of neutrino source: a Neutrino Factory. This article reviews the motivation, design and R&D for a Neutrino Factory.

  16. Neutrino physics

    SciTech Connect

    Kayser, Boris; /Fermilab

    2005-06-01

    Thanks to compelling evidence that neutrinos can change flavor, we now know that they have nonzero masses, and that leptons mix. In these lectures, we explain the physics of neutrino flavor change, both in vacuum and in matter. Then, we describe what the flavor-change data have taught us about neutrinos. Finally, we consider some of the questions raised by the discovery of neutrino mass, explaining why these questions are so interesting, and how they might be answered experimentally.

  17. Neutrino Factories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geer, Steve

    2010-06-01

    Over the last decade there has been significant progress in developing the concepts and technologies needed to produce, capture and accelerate O(1021) muons/year. This development prepares the way for a new type of neutrino source : a Neutrino Factory. This article reviews the motivation, design and R&D for a Neutrino Factory.

  18. Neutrino Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Feilitzsch, Franz; Lanfranchi, Jean-Côme; Wurm, Michael

    The neutrino was postulated by Wolfgang Pauli in the early 1930s, but could only be detected for the first time in the 1950s. Ever since scientists all around the world have worked on the detection and understanding of this particle which so scarcely interacts with matter. Depending on the origin and nature of the neutrino, various types of experiments have been developed and operated. In this entry, we will review neutrino detectors in terms of neutrino energy and associated detection technique as well as the scientific outcome of some selected examples. After a brief historical introduction, the detection of low-energy neutrinos originating from nuclear reactors or from the Earth is used to illustrate the principles and difficulties which are encountered in detecting neutrinos. In the context of solar neutrino spectroscopy, where the neutrino is used as a probe for astrophysics, three different types of neutrino detectors are presented - water Čerenkov, radiochemical, and liquid-scintillator detectors. Moving to higher neutrino energies, we discuss neutrinos produced by astrophysical sources and from accelerators. The entry concludes with an overview of a selection of future neutrino experiments and their scientific goals.

  19. Solar neutrino with Borexino: Results and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, O.; Bellini, G.; Benziger, J.; Bick, D.; Bonfini, G.; Bravo, D.; Caccianiga, B.; Calaprice, F.; Caminata, A.; Cavalcante, P.; Chavarria, A.; Chepurnov, A.; D'Angelo, D.; Davini, S.; Derbin, A.; Empl, A.; Etenko, A.; Fomenko, K.; Franco, D.; Fiorentini, G.; Galbiati, C.; Gazzana, S.; Ghiano, C.; Giammarchi, M.; Göger-Neff, M.; Goretti, A.; Hagner, C.; Hungerford, E.; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Kobychev, V.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Kryn, D.; Laubenstein, M.; Lehnert, B.; Lewke, T.; Litvinovich, E.; Lombardi, F.; Lombardi, P.; Ludhova, L.; Lukyanchenko, G.; Machulin, I.; Manecki, S.; Maneschg, W.; Mantovani, F.; Marcocci, S.; Meindl, Q.; Meroni, E.; Meyer, M.; Miramonti, L.; Misiaszek, M.; Mosteiro, P.; Muratova, V.; Oberauer, L.; Obolensky, M.; Ortica, F.; Otis, K.; Pallavicini, M.; Papp, L.; Perasso, L.; Pocar, A.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Re, A.; Ricci, B.; Romani, A.; Rossi, N.; Saldanha, R.; Salvo, C.; Schönert, S.; Simgen, H.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Sotnikov, A.; Sukhotin, S.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Testera, G.; Vignaud, D.; Vogelaar, R. B.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Wang, H.; Winter, J.; Wojcik, M.; Wright, A.; Wurm, M.; Zaimidoroga, O.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2015-03-01

    Borexino is a unique detector able to perform measurement of solar neutrinos fluxes in the energy region around 1 MeV or below due to its low level of radioactive background. It was constructed at the LNGS underground laboratory with a goal of solar 7Be neutrino flux measurement with 5% precision. The goal has been successfully achieved marking the end of the first stage of the experiment. A number of other important measurements of solar neutrino fluxes have been performed during the first stage. Recently the collaboration conducted successful liquid scintillator repurification campaign aiming to reduce main contaminants in the sub-MeV energy range. With the new levels of radiopurity Borexino can improve existing and challenge a number of new measurements including: improvement of the results on the Solar and terrestrial neutrino fluxes measurements; measurement of pp and CNO solar neutrino fluxes; search for non-standard interactions of neutrino; study of the neutrino oscillations on the short baseline with an artificial neutrino source (search for sterile neutrino) in context of SOX project.

  20. Cosmological and supernova neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajino, T.; Aoki, W.; Balantekin, A. B.; Cheoun, M.-K.; Hayakawa, T.; Hidaka, J.; Hirai, Y.; Kusakabe, M.; Mathews, G. J.; Nakamura, K.; Pehlivan, Y.; Shibagaki, S.; Suzuki, T.

    2014-06-01

    The Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) and the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies are the pillars of modern cosmology. It has recently been suggested that axion which is a dark matter candidate in the framework of the standard model could condensate in the early universe and induce photon cooling before the epoch of the photon last scattering. Although this may render a solution to the overproduction problem of primordial 7Li abundance, there arises another serious difficulty of overproducing D abundance. We propose a hybrid dark matter model with both axions and relic supersymmetric (SUSY) particles to solve both overproduction problems of the primordial D and 7Li abundances simultaneously. The BBN also serves to constrain the nature of neutrinos. Considering non-thermal photons produced in the decay of the heavy sterile neutrinos due to the magnetic moment, we explore the cosmological constraint on the strength of neutrino magnetic moment consistent with the observed light element abundances. Core-collapse supernovae eject huge flux of energetic neutrinos which affect explosive nucleosynthesis of rare isotopes like 7Li, 11B, 92Nb, 138La and 180Ta and r-process elements. Several isotopes depend strongly on the neutrino flavor oscillation due to the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect. Combining the recent experimental constraints on θ13 with predicted and observed supernova-produced abundance ratio 11B/7Li encapsulated in the presolar grains from the Murchison meteorite, we show a marginal preference for an inverted neutrino mass hierarchy. We also discuss supernova relic neutrinos (SRN) that may indicate the softness of the equation of state (EoS) of nuclear matter and adiabatic conditions of the neutrino oscillation.

  1. Cosmological and supernova neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Kajino, T.; Aoki, W.; Balantekin, A. B.; Cheoun, M.-K.; Hayakawa, T.; Hidaka, J.; Hirai, Y.; Shibagaki, S.; Kusakabe, M.; Mathews, G. J.; Nakamura, K.; Pehlivan, Y.; Suzuki, T.

    2014-06-24

    The Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) and the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies are the pillars of modern cosmology. It has recently been suggested that axion which is a dark matter candidate in the framework of the standard model could condensate in the early universe and induce photon cooling before the epoch of the photon last scattering. Although this may render a solution to the overproduction problem of primordial {sup 7}Li abundance, there arises another serious difficulty of overproducing D abundance. We propose a hybrid dark matter model with both axions and relic supersymmetric (SUSY) particles to solve both overproduction problems of the primordial D and {sup 7}Li abundances simultaneously. The BBN also serves to constrain the nature of neutrinos. Considering non-thermal photons produced in the decay of the heavy sterile neutrinos due to the magnetic moment, we explore the cosmological constraint on the strength of neutrino magnetic moment consistent with the observed light element abundances. Core-collapse supernovae eject huge flux of energetic neutrinos which affect explosive nucleosynthesis of rare isotopes like {sup 7}Li, {sup 11}B, {sup 92}Nb, {sup 138}La and {sup 180}Ta and r-process elements. Several isotopes depend strongly on the neutrino flavor oscillation due to the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect. Combining the recent experimental constraints on θ{sub 13} with predicted and observed supernova-produced abundance ratio {sup 11}B/{sup 7}Li encapsulated in the presolar grains from the Murchison meteorite, we show a marginal preference for an inverted neutrino mass hierarchy. We also discuss supernova relic neutrinos (SRN) that may indicate the softness of the equation of state (EoS) of nuclear matter and adiabatic conditions of the neutrino oscillation.

  2. Time-Dependent Collective Neutrino Oscillations in Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbar, Sajad; Duan, Huaiyu

    2015-10-01

    Neutrinos can experience self-induced flavor conversion in core-collapse supernovae due to neutrino-neutrino forward scattering. Previously a stationary supernova model, the so called ``neutrino bulb model,'' was used exclusively to study collective neutrino oscillations in the core-collapse supernova. We show that even a small time-dependent perturbation in neutrino fluxes on the surface of the proto-neutron star can lead to fast varying collective oscillations at large radii. This result calls for time-dependent supernova models for the study of collective neutrino oscillations. This work was supported by DOE EPSCoR Grant DE-SC0008142 at UNM.

  3. Study of accelerator neutrino detection at a spallation source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ming-Yang

    2016-06-01

    We study the detection of accelerator neutrinos produced at the China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS). Using the code FLUKA, we have simulated the production of neutrinos in a proton beam on a tungsten target and obtained the yield efficiency, numerical flux, and average energy of different flavors of neutrinos. Furthermore, detection of these accelerator neutrinos is investigated in two reaction channels: neutrino-electron reactions and neutrino-carbon reactions. The expected numbers of different flavors of neutrinos have also been calculated. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11205185, 11175020)

  4. Resonant Production of Sterile Neutrinos in the Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, Lauren; Grohs, Evan; Fuller, George M.

    2016-06-01

    This study examines the cosmological impacts of a light resonantly produced sterile neutrino in the early universe. Such a neutrino could be produced through lepton number-driven Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) conversion of active neutrinos around big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN), resulting in a non-thermal spectrum of both sterile and electron neutrinos. During BBN, the neutron-proton ratio depends sensitively on the electron neutrino flux. If electron neutrinos are being converted to sterile neutrinos, this makes the n/p ratio a probe of possible new physics. We use observations of primordial Yp and D/H to place limits on this process.

  5. The extended ROSAT-ESO Flux-Limited X-ray Galaxy Cluster Survey (REFLEX II). VI. Effect of massive neutrinos on the cosmological constraints from clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhringer, Hans; Chon, Gayoung

    2015-02-01

    Clusters of galaxies are important probes for the large-scale structure that allow us to test cosmological models. With the REFLEX II galaxy cluster survey we previously derived tight constraints on the cosmological parameters for the matter density, Ωm, and the amplitude parameter of the matter density fluctuations, σ8. Whereas in these previous studies no effect of massive neutrinos was taken into account, we explore these effects in the present publication. We derive cosmological constraints for the sum of the neutrino masses of the conventional three neutrino families in the range Mν = ∑ imνi = 0 to 0.6 eV. The influence on the constraints of Ωm and σ8 for the expected mass range is weak. Interesting constraints on the neutrino properties can be derived by comparing the cluster data with those from the Planck cosmic microwave background observations. The current tension between the Planck results and clusters can formally be resolved with neutrino masses of about Mν = 0.45(±0.28,1σ) eV. While we caution not to consider this a firm measurement because it might also be the result of unresolved systematics, it is interesting that other measurements of the local large-scale structure fluctuation amplitude, like that of cosmic lensing shear, yield similar results and additionally confirm the effect of massive neutrinos. Among the indicators for massive neutrinos, galaxy clusters and in particular our large and well-controlled cluster survey currently provide the best potential for constraints of the total neutrino mass.

  6. Supernova neutrinos and explosive nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Kajino, T.; Aoki, W.; Cheoun, M.-K.; Hayakawa, T.; Hidaka, J.; Hirai, Y.; Shibagaki, S.; Mathews, G. J.; Nakamura, K.; Suzuki, T.

    2014-05-09

    Core-collapse supernovae eject huge amount of flux of energetic neutrinos. We studied the explosive nucleosyn-thesis in supernovae and found that several isotopes {sup 7}Li, {sup 11}B, {sup 92}Nb, {sup 138}La and {sup 180}Ta as well as r-process nuclei are affected by the neutrino interactions. The abundance of these isotopes therefore depends strongly on the neutrino flavor oscillation due to the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect. We discuss first how to determine the neutrino temperatures in order to explain the observed solar system abundances of these isotopes, combined with Galactic chemical evolution of the light nuclei and the heavy r-process elements. We then study the effects of neutrino oscillation on their abundances, and propose a novel method to determine the still unknown neutrino oscillation parameters, mass hierarchy and θ{sub 13}, simultaneously. There is recent evidence that SiC X grains from the Murchison meteorite may contain supernova-produced light elements {sup 11}B and {sup 7}Li encapsulated in the presolar grains. Combining the recent experimental constraints on θ{sub 13}, we show that our method sug-gests at a marginal preference for an inverted neutrino mass hierarchy. Finally, we discuss supernova relic neutrinos that may indicate the softness of the equation of state (EoS) of nuclear matter as well as adiabatic conditions of the neutrino oscillation.

  7. Sterile Neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palazzo, Antonio

    2016-05-01

    Several anomalies recorded in short-baseline neutrino experiments suggest the possibility that the standard 3-flavor framework may be incomplete and point towards a manifestation of new physics. Light sterile neutrinos provide a credible solution to these puzzling results. Here, we present a concise review of the status of the neutrino oscillations within the 3+1 scheme, the minimal extension of the standard 3-flavor framework endowed with one sterile neutrino species. We emphasize the potential role of LBL experiments in the searches of CP violation related to sterile neutrinos and their complementarity with the SBL experiments.

  8. Are there sterile neutrinos at the eV scale?

    PubMed

    Kopp, Joachim; Maltoni, Michele; Schwetz, Thomas

    2011-08-26

    New predictions for the antineutrino flux from nuclear reactors suggest that reactor experiments may have measured a deficit in this flux, which can be interpreted in terms of oscillations between the known active neutrinos and new sterile states. We perform a reanalysis of global short-baseline neutrino oscillation data in a framework with one or two sterile neutrinos. While one sterile neutrino is still not sufficient to reconcile the signals suggested by reactor experiments and by the LSND and MiniBooNE experiments with null results from other searches, we find that, with the new reactor flux prediction, the global fit improves considerably when two sterile neutrinos are introduced.

  9. Atmospheric neutrinos observed in underground detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaisser, T. K.; Stanev, T.

    1985-01-01

    Atmospheric neutrinos are produced when the primary cosmic ray beam hits the atmosphere and initiates atmospheric cascades. Secondary mesons decay and give rise to neutrinos. The neutrino production was calculated and compared with the neutrino fluxes detected in underground detectors. Contained neutrino events are characterized by observation of an interaction within the fiducial volume of the detector when the incoming particle is not observed. Both the neutrino flux and the containment requirement restrict the energy of the neutrinos observed in contained interactions to less than several GeV. Neutrinos interact with the rock surrounding the detector but only muon neutrino interactions can be observed, as the electron energy is dissipated too fast in the rock. The direction of the neutrino is preserved in the interaction and at energies above 1 TeV the angular resolution is restricted by the scattering of the muon in the rock. The muon rate reflects the neutrino spectrum above some threshold energy, determined by the detector efficiency for muons.

  10. Evidence for neutrino oscillations in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Marino, Alysia Diane

    2004-01-01

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is a large-volume heavy water Cerenkov detector designed to resolve the solar neutrino problem. SNO observes charged-current interactions with electron neutrinos, neutral-current interactions with all active neutrinos, and elastic-scattering interactions primarily with electron neutrinos with some sensitivity to other flavors. This dissertation presents an analysis of the solar neutrino flux observed in SNO in the second phase of operation, while ~2 tonnes of salt (NaCl) were dissolved in the heavy water. The dataset here represents 391 live days of data. Only the events above a visible energy threshold of 5.5 MeV and inside a fiducial volume within 550 cm of the center of the detector are studied. The neutrino flux observed via the charged-current interaction is [1.71 ± 0.065(stat.)±$0.065\\atop{0.068}$(sys.)±0.02(theor.)] x 106cm-2s-1, via the elastic-scattering interaction is [2.21±0.22(stat.)±$0.12\\atop{0.11}$(sys.)±0.01(theor.)] x 106cm-2s-1, and via the neutral-current interaction is [5.05±0.23(stat.)±$0.31\\atop{0.37}$(sys.)±0.06(theor.)] x 106cm-2s-1. The electron-only flux seen via the charged-current interaction is more than 7σ below the total active flux seen via the neutral-current interaction, providing strong evidence that neutrinos are undergoing flavor transformation as they travel from the core of the Sun to the Earth. The most likely origin of the flavor transformation is matter-induced flavor oscillation.

  11. Unparticle effects in neutrino telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez-Sprinberg, G.; Martinez, R.; Sampayo, Oscar A.

    2009-03-01

    Recently H. Georgi has introduced the concept of unparticles in order to describe the low energy physics of a nontrivial scale invariant sector of an effective theory. We investigate its physical effects on the neutrino flux to be detected in a kilometer cubic neutrino telescope such as IceCube. We study the effects, on different observables, of the survival neutrino flux after through the Earth, and the regeneration originated in the neutral currents. We calculate the contribution of unparticle physics to the neutrino-nucleon interaction and, then, to the observables in order to evaluate detectable effects in IceCUbe. Our results are compared with the bounds obtained by other nonunderground experiments. Finally, the results are presented as an exclusion plot in the relevant parameters of the new physics stuff.

  12. Neutrino factory

    DOE PAGES

    Bogomilov, M.; Matev, R.; Tsenov, R.; Dracos, M.; Bonesini, M.; Palladino, V.; Tortora, L.; Mori, Y.; Planche, T.; Lagrange, J. B.; et al

    2014-12-08

    The properties of the neutrino provide a unique window on physics beyond that described by the standard model. The study of subleading effects in neutrino oscillations, and the race to discover CP-invariance violation in the lepton sector, has begun with the recent discovery that theta(13) > 0. The measured value of theta(13) is large, emphasizing the need for a facility at which the systematic uncertainties can be reduced to the percent level. The neutrino factory, in which intense neutrino beams are produced from the decay of muons, has been shown to outperform all realistic alternatives and to be capable ofmore » making measurements of the requisite precision. Its unique discovery potential arises from the fact that only at the neutrino factory is it practical to produce high-energy electron (anti) neutrino beams of the required intensity. This paper presents the conceptual design of the neutrino factory accelerator facility developed by the European Commission Framework Programme 7 EURO nu. Design Study consortium. EURO nu coordinated the European contributions to the International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory (the IDS-NF) collaboration. The EURO nu baseline accelerator facility will provide 10(21) muon decays per year from 12.6 GeV stored muon beams serving a single neutrino detector situated at a source-detector distance of between 1 500 km and 2 500 km. A suite of near detectors will allow definitive neutrino-scattering experiments to be performed.« less

  13. Neutrino factory

    SciTech Connect

    Bogomilov, M.; Matev, R.; Tsenov, R.; Dracos, M.; Bonesini, M.; Palladino, V.; Tortora, L.; Mori, Y.; Planche, T.; Lagrange, J. B.; Kuno, Y.; Benedetto, E.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Garoby, R.; Gilardoini, S.; Martini, M.; Wildner, E.; Prior, G.; Blondel, A.; Karadzhow, Y.; Ellis, M.; Kyberd, P.; Bayes, R.; Laing, A.; Soler, F. J. P.; Alekou, A.; Apollonio, M.; Aslaninejad, M.; Bontoiu, C.; Jenner, L. J.; Kurup, A.; Long, K.; Pasternak, J.; Zarrebini, A.; Poslimski, J.; Blackmore, V.; Cobb, J.; Tunnell, C.; Andreopoulos, C.; Bennett, J. R.J.; Brooks, S.; Caretta, O.; Davenne, T.; Densham, C.; Edgecock, T. R.; Fitton, M.; Kelliher, D.; Loveridge, P.; McFarland, A.; Machida, S.; Prior, C.; Rees, G.; Rogers, C.; Rooney, M.; Thomason, J.; Wilcox, D.; Booth, C.; Skoro, G.; Back, J. J.; Harrison, P.; Berg, J. S.; Fernow, R.; Gallardo, J. C.; Gupta, R.; Kirk, H.; Simos, N.; Stratakis, D.; Souchlas, N.; Witte, H.; Bross, A.; Geer, S.; Johnstone, C.; Makhov, N.; Neuffer, D.; Popovic, M.; Strait, J.; Striganov, S.; Morfín, J. G.; Wands, R.; Snopok, P.; Bagacz, S. A.; Morozov, V.; Roblin, Y.; Cline, D.; Ding, X.; Bromberg, C.; Hart, T.; Abrams, R. J.; Ankenbrandt, C. M.; Beard, K. B.; Cummings, M. A.C.; Flanagan, G.; Johnson, R. P.; Roberts, T. J.; Yoshikawa, C. Y.; Graves, V. B.; McDonald, K. T.; Coney, L.; Hanson, G.

    2014-12-08

    The properties of the neutrino provide a unique window on physics beyond that described by the standard model. The study of subleading effects in neutrino oscillations, and the race to discover CP-invariance violation in the lepton sector, has begun with the recent discovery that theta(13) > 0. The measured value of theta(13) is large, emphasizing the need for a facility at which the systematic uncertainties can be reduced to the percent level. The neutrino factory, in which intense neutrino beams are produced from the decay of muons, has been shown to outperform all realistic alternatives and to be capable of making measurements of the requisite precision. Its unique discovery potential arises from the fact that only at the neutrino factory is it practical to produce high-energy electron (anti) neutrino beams of the required intensity. This paper presents the conceptual design of the neutrino factory accelerator facility developed by the European Commission Framework Programme 7 EURO nu. Design Study consortium. EURO nu coordinated the European contributions to the International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory (the IDS-NF) collaboration. The EURO nu baseline accelerator facility will provide 10(21) muon decays per year from 12.6 GeV stored muon beams serving a single neutrino detector situated at a source-detector distance of between 1 500 km and 2 500 km. A suite of near detectors will allow definitive neutrino-scattering experiments to be performed.

  14. Neutrino factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogomilov, M.; Matev, R.; Tsenov, R.; Dracos, M.; Bonesini, M.; Palladino, V.; Tortora, L.; Mori, Y.; Planche, T.; Lagrange, J. B.; Kuno, Y.; Benedetto, E.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Garoby, R.; Gilardoini, S.; Martini, M.; Wildner, E.; Prior, G.; Blondel, A.; Karadzhow, Y.; Ellis, M.; Kyberd, P.; Bayes, R.; Laing, A.; Soler, F. J. P.; Alekou, A.; Apollonio, M.; Aslaninejad, M.; Bontoiu, C.; Jenner, L. J.; Kurup, A.; Long, K.; Pasternak, J.; Zarrebini, A.; Poslimski, J.; Blackmore, V.; Cobb, J.; Tunnell, C.; Andreopoulos, C.; Bennett, J. R. J.; Brooks, S.; Caretta, O.; Davenne, T.; Densham, C.; Edgecock, T. R.; Fitton, M.; Kelliher, D.; Loveridge, P.; McFarland, A.; Machida, S.; Prior, C.; Rees, G.; Rogers, C.; Rooney, M.; Thomason, J.; Wilcox, D.; Booth, C.; Skoro, G.; Back, J. J.; Harrison, P.; Berg, J. S.; Fernow, R.; Gallardo, J. C.; Gupta, R.; Kirk, H.; Simos, N.; Stratakis, D.; Souchlas, N.; Witte, H.; Bross, A.; Geer, S.; Johnstone, C.; Makhov, N.; Neuffer, D.; Popovic, M.; Strait, J.; Striganov, S.; Morfín, J. G.; Wands, R.; Snopok, P.; Bagacz, S. A.; Morozov, V.; Roblin, Y.; Cline, D.; Ding, X.; Bromberg, C.; Hart, T.; Abrams, R. J.; Ankenbrandt, C. M.; Beard, K. B.; Cummings, M. A. C.; Flanagan, G.; Johnson, R. P.; Roberts, T. J.; Yoshikawa, C. Y.; Graves, V. B.; McDonald, K. T.; Coney, L.; Hanson, G.

    2014-12-01

    The properties of the neutrino provide a unique window on physics beyond that described by the standard model. The study of subleading effects in neutrino oscillations, and the race to discover CP-invariance violation in the lepton sector, has begun with the recent discovery that θ13>0 . The measured value of θ13 is large, emphasizing the need for a facility at which the systematic uncertainties can be reduced to the percent level. The neutrino factory, in which intense neutrino beams are produced from the decay of muons, has been shown to outperform all realistic alternatives and to be capable of making measurements of the requisite precision. Its unique discovery potential arises from the fact that only at the neutrino factory is it practical to produce high-energy electron (anti)neutrino beams of the required intensity. This paper presents the conceptual design of the neutrino factory accelerator facility developed by the European Commission Framework Programme 7 EURO ν Design Study consortium. EURO ν coordinated the European contributions to the International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory (the IDS-NF) collaboration. The EURO ν baseline accelerator facility will provide 1 021 muon decays per year from 12.6 GeV stored muon beams serving a single neutrino detector situated at a source-detector distance of between 1 500 km and 2 500 km. A suite of near detectors will allow definitive neutrino-scattering experiments to be performed.

  15. Neutrino Oscillations With Two Sterile Neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisslinger, Leonard S.

    2016-10-01

    This work estimates the probability of μ to e neutrino oscillation with two sterile neutrinos using a 5×5 U-matrix, an extension of the previous estimate with one sterile neutrino and a 4×4 U-matrix. The sterile neutrino-active neutrino mass differences and the mixing angles of the two sterile neutrinos with the three active neutrinos are taken from recent publications, and the oscillation probability for one sterile neutrino is compared to the previous estimate.

  16. Neutrino Oscillations With Two Sterile Neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisslinger, Leonard S.

    2016-06-01

    This work estimates the probability of μ to e neutrino oscillation with two sterile neutrinos using a 5×5 U-matrix, an extension of the previous estimate with one sterile neutrino and a 4×4 U-matrix. The sterile neutrino-active neutrino mass differences and the mixing angles of the two sterile neutrinos with the three active neutrinos are taken from recent publications, and the oscillation probability for one sterile neutrino is compared to the previous estimate.

  17. Propagation of high-energy neutrinos in a background of ultralight scalar dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynoso, Matías M.; Sampayo, Oscar A.

    2016-09-01

    If high-energy neutrinos propagate in a background of ultralight scalar field particles of dark matter (mφ ∼10-23 eV), neutrino-dark matter interactions can play a role and affect the neutrino flux. In this work we analyse this effect using transport equations that account for the neutrino regeneration as well as absorption, and we consider the neutrino flux propagation in the extragalactic medium and also through the galactic halo of dark matter. We show the results for the final flux to arrive on Earth for different cases of point and diffuse neutrino fluxes. We conclude that this type of neutrino interactions with ultralight scalar particles as dark matter can yield very different results in the neutrino flux and in the flavor ratios that can be measured in neutrino detectors such as IceCube.

  18. Recent results from the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Eberl, Thomas; Collaboration: ANTARES Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    The ANTARES detector, located in the deep sea 40 km off the French coast, is the largest neutrino telescope in the northern hemisphere. It consists of an array of 885 photomultipliers detecting the Cherenkov light induced by charged leptons created in neutrino interactions in and around the detector. The main goal of ANTARES is to search for astrophysical neutrinos in the TeV-PeV range. This comprises searches for a diffuse cosmic neutrino flux and for fluxes from possible galactic and extragalactic sources of neutrinos. The search program also includes multi-messenger analyses based on time and/or space coincidences with other cosmic probes. The ANTARES detector is sensitive to a wide range of other phenomena, from atmospheric neutrino oscillations to dark matter annihilation or potential exotics such as nuclearites and magnetic monopoles.

  19. Report of the Solar and Atmospheric Neutrino Working Group

    SciTech Connect

    Back, H.; Bahcall, J.N.; Bernabeu, J.; Boulay, M.G.; Bowles, T.; Calaprice, F.; Champagne, A.; Freedman, S.; Gai, M.; Galbiati, C.; Gallagher, H.; Gonzalez-Garcia, C.; Hahn, R.L.; Heeger, K.M.; Hime, A.; Jung, C.K.; Klein, J.R.; Koike, M.; Lanou, R.; Learned, J.G.; Lesko, K.T.; Losecco, J.; Maltoni, M.; Mann, A.; McKinsey, D.; Palomares-Ruiz, S.; Pena-Garay, C.; Petcov, S.T.; Piepke, A.; Pitt, M.; Raghavan, R.; Robertson, R.G.H.; Scholberg, K.; Sobel, H.W.; Takeuchi, T.; Vogelaar, R.; Wolfenstein, L.

    2004-10-22

    The highest priority of the Solar and Atmospheric Neutrino Experiment Working Group is the development of a real-time, precision experiment that measures the pp solar neutrino flux. A measurement of the pp solar neutrino flux, in comparison with the existing precision measurements of the high energy {sup 8}B neutrino flux, will demonstrate the transition between vacuum and matter-dominated oscillations, thereby quantitatively testing a fundamental prediction of the standard scenario of neutrino flavor transformation. The initial solar neutrino beam is pure {nu}{sub e}, which also permits sensitive tests for sterile neutrinos. The pp experiment will also permit a significantly improved determination of {theta}{sub 12} and, together with other solar neutrino measurements, either a measurement of {theta}{sub 13} or a constraint a factor of two lower than existing bounds. In combination with the essential pre-requisite experiments that will measure the {sup 7}Be solar neutrino flux with a precision of 5%, a measurement of the pp solar neutrino flux will constitute a sensitive test for non-standard energy generation mechanisms within the Sun. The Standard Solar Model predicts that the pp and {sup 7}Be neutrinos together constitute more than 98% of the solar neutrino flux. The comparison of the solar luminosity measured via neutrinos to that measured via photons will test for any unknown energy generation mechanisms within the nearest star. A precise measurement of the pp neutrino flux (predicted to be 92% of the total flux) will also test stringently the theory of stellar evolution since the Standard Solar Model predicts the pp flux with a theoretical uncertainty of 1%. We also find that an atmospheric neutrino experiment capable of resolving the mass hierarchy is a high priority. Atmospheric neutrino experiments may be the only alternative to very long baseline accelerator experiments as a way of resolving this fundamental question. Such an experiment could be a very

  20. Neutrino mass

    SciTech Connect

    Bowles, T.J.

    1994-04-01

    The existence of a finite neutrino mass would have important consequences in particle physics, astrophysics, and cosmology. Experimental sensitivities have continued to be pushed down without any confirmed evidence for a finite neutrino mass. Yet there are several observations of discrepancies between theoretical predictions and observations which might be possible indications of a finite neutrino mass. Thus, extensive theoretical and experimental work is underway to resolve these issues.

  1. On near detectors at a neutrino factory

    SciTech Connect

    Tang Jian; Winter, Walter

    2010-03-30

    The geometric effects of the beam in near detectors at a neutrino factory are discussed. The refined systematics treatment, including cross section errors, flux errors and background uncertainties, is compared with the IDS-NF one. Different near detector setups are included. We also probe their effects both at the measurements of standard neutrino oscillation parameters and constraints of the non-standard neutrino interaction.

  2. Atmospheric neutrinos and discovery of neutrino oscillations.

    PubMed

    Kajita, Takaaki

    2010-01-01

    Neutrino oscillation was discovered through studies of neutrinos produced by cosmic-ray interactions in the atmosphere. These neutrinos are called atmospheric neutrinos. They are produced as decay products in hadronic showers resulting from collisions of cosmic rays with nuclei in the atmosphere. Electron-neutrinos and muon-neutrinos are produced mainly by the decay chain of charged pions to muons to electrons. Atmospheric neutrino experiments observed zenith-angle and energy dependent deficit of muon-neutrino events. Neutrino oscillations between muon-neutrinos and tau-neutrinos explain these data well. Neutrino oscillations imply that neutrinos have small but non-zero masses. The small neutrino masses have profound implications to our understanding of elementary particle physics and the Universe. This article discusses the experimental discovery of neutrino oscillations.

  3. Atmospheric neutrinos and discovery of neutrino oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Kajita, Takaaki

    2010-01-01

    Neutrino oscillation was discovered through studies of neutrinos produced by cosmic-ray interactions in the atmosphere. These neutrinos are called atmospheric neutrinos. They are produced as decay products in hadronic showers resulting from collisions of cosmic rays with nuclei in the atmosphere. Electron-neutrinos and muon-neutrinos are produced mainly by the decay chain of charged pions to muons to electrons. Atmospheric neutrino experiments observed zenith-angle and energy dependent deficit of muon-neutrino events. Neutrino oscillations between muon-neutrinos and tau-neutrinos explain these data well. Neutrino oscillations imply that neutrinos have small but non-zero masses. The small neutrino masses have profound implications to our understanding of elementary particle physics and the Universe. This article discusses the experimental discovery of neutrino oscillations. PMID:20431258

  4. First search for neutrinos in correlation with gamma-ray bursts with the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    SciTech Connect

    2013-03-01

    A search for neutrino-induced muons in correlation with a selection of 40 gamma-ray bursts that occurred in 2007 has been performed with the ANTARES neutrino telescope. During that period, the detector consisted of 5 detection lines. The ANTARES neutrino telescope is sensitive to TeV–PeV neutrinos that are predicted from gamma-ray bursts. No events were found in correlation with the prompt photon emission of the gamma-ray bursts and upper limits have been placed on the flux and fluence of neutrinos for different models.

  5. Neutrino Spectra and Uncertainties for MINOS

    SciTech Connect

    Kopp, Sacha

    2008-02-21

    The MINOS experiment at Fermilab has released an updated result on muon disappearance. The experiment utilizes the intense source of muon neutrinos provided by the NuMI beam line. This note summarizes the systematic uncertainties in the experiment's knowledge of the flux and energy spectrum of the neutrinos from NuMI.

  6. Galactic and extragalactic high energy neutrinos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.; Shapiro, M. M.; Silberberg, R.

    1980-01-01

    Estimates of fluxes from cosmic diffuse sources are made using the generic relationship between secondary gammas and neutrinos and using recent cosmic gamma-ray satellite observations. A quantitative estimate of the observability above the atmospheric background of 1-10 TeV neutrinos from the inner Galaxy for a DUMAND type detector is then given.

  7. SAGE: Solar Neutrino Data from SAGE, the Russian-American Gallium Solar Neutrino Experiment

    DOE Data Explorer

    SAGE Collaboration

    SAGE is a solar neutrino experiment based on the reaction 71Ga + n goes to 71Ge + e-. The 71Ge atoms are chemically extracted from a 50-metric ton target of Ga metal and concentrated in a sample of germane gas mixed with xenon. The atoms are then individually counted by observing their decay back to 71Ga in a small proportional counter. The distinguishing feature of the experiment is its ability to detect the low-energy neutrinos from proton-proton fusion. These neutrinos, which are made in the primary reaction that provides the Sun's energy, are the major component of the solar neutrino flux and have not been observed in any other way. To shield the experiment from cosmic rays, it is located deep underground in a specially built facility at the Baksan Neutrino Observatory in the northern Caucasus mountains of Russia. Nearly 100 measurements of the solar neutrino flux have been made during 1990-2000, and their combined result is a neutrino capture rate that is well below the prediction of the Standard Solar Model. The significant suppression of the solar neutrino flux that SAGE and other solar neutrino experiments have observed gives a strong indication for the existence of neutrino oscillations. [copied from the SAGE homepage at http://ewi.npl.washington.edu/SAGE/SAGE.html

  8. Measuring the Disappearance of Muon Neutrinos with the MINOS Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Radovic, Alexander

    2013-08-01

    MINOS is a long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment. It measures the flux from the predominately muon neutrino NuMI beam first 1 km from beam start and then again 735 km later using a pair of steel scintillator tracking calorimeters. The comparison of measured neutrino energy spectra at our Far Detector with the prediction based on our Near Detector measurement allows for a measurement of the parameters which define neutrino oscillations. This thesis will describe the most recent measurement of muon neutrino disappearance in the NuMI muon neutrino beam using the MINOS experiment.

  9. Neutrino telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    Costantini, H.

    2012-09-15

    Neutrino astrophysics offers a new possibility to observe our Universe: high-energy neutrinos, produced by the most energetic phenomena in our Galaxy and in the Universe, carry complementary (if not exclusive) information about the cosmos: this young discipline extends in fact the conventional astronomy beyond the usual electromagnetic probe. The weak interaction of neutrinos with matter allows them to escape from the core of astrophysical objects and in this sense they represent a complementary messenger with respect to photons. However, their detection on Earth due to the small interaction cross section requires a large target mass. The aim of this article is to review the scientific motivations of the high-energy neutrino astrophysics, the detection principles together with the description of a running apparatus, the experiment ANTARES, the performance of this detector with some results, and the presentation of other neutrino telescope projects.

  10. Revisiting the quark-lepton complementarity and triminimal parametrization of neutrino mixing matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Sin Kyu

    2011-05-01

    We examine how a parametrization of neutrino mixing matrix reflecting quark-lepton complementarity can be probed by considering phase-averaged oscillation probabilities, flavor composition of neutrino fluxes coming from atmospheric and astrophysical neutrinos and lepton flavor violating radiative decays. We discuss some distinct features of the parametrization by comparing the triminimal parametrization of perturbations to the tribimaximal neutrino mixing matrix.

  11. Neutrino factories

    SciTech Connect

    Soler, F. J. P.

    2015-07-15

    The Neutrino Factory is a facility that produces neutrino beams with a well-defined flavour content and energy spectrum from the decay of intense, high-energy, stored muon beams to establish CP violation in the neutrino sector. The International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory (the IDS-NF) is providing a Reference Design Report (RDR) for the facility. The present design is optimised for the recent measurements of θ{sub 13}. The accelerator facility will deliver 10{sup 21} muon decays per year from 10 GeV stored muon beams. The straight sections of the storage ring point to a 100 kton Magnetised Iron Neutrino Detector (MIND) at a distance of 2000-2500 km from the source. The accuracy in the value of δ{sub CP} that a Neutrino Factory can achieve and the δ{sub CP} coverage is unrivalled by other future facilities. Staging scenarios for the Neutrino Factory deliver facilities that can carry out physics at each stage. In the context of Fermilab, such a scenario would imply in the first stage the construction of a small storage ring, nuSTORM, to carry out neutrino cross-section and sterile neutrino measurements and to perform a programme of 6D muon cooling R&D. The second stage is the construction of a 5 GeV Neutrino Factory (nuMAX) pointing to the Sanford Underground Research Facility at Homestake and the final stage would use many of the components of this facility to construct a Muon Collider, initially as a 126 GeV CM Higgs Factory, which may be upgraded to a multi-TeV Muon Collider if required.

  12. Constraints on neutrino-nucleon interactions at energies of 1 EeV with the IceCube Neutrino Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, Shigeru

    2010-11-15

    A search for extremely high energy cosmic neutrinos has been carried out with the IceCube Neutrino Observatory. The main signals in the search are neutrino-induced energetic charged leptons and their rate depends on the neutrino-nucleon cross section. The upper limit on the neutrino flux has implications for possible new physics beyond the standard model such as the extra space-time dimension scenarios which lead to a cross section much higher than the standard particle physics prediction. In this study we constrain the neutrino-nucleon cross section at energies beyond 10{sup 9} GeV with the IceCube observation. The constraints are obtained as a function of the extraterrestrial neutrino flux in the relevant energy range, which accounts for the astrophysical uncertainty of neutrino production models.

  13. ANTARES and Baikal: Recent results from underwater neutrino telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schüssler, Fabian

    2016-07-01

    Two Northern hemisphere neutrino telescopes are currently searching for astrophysical neutrinos in the TeV/PeV range: ANTARES and Baikal. Both observatories utilize various signatures like a high energy excess over the atmospheric neutrino flux, searches for localized neutrino sources of various extensions and multi-messenger analyses based on time and/or space coincidences with other cosmic probes. We here review the status of both experiments and discuss a selection of recent results.

  14. John Bahcall and the Solar Neutrino Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahcall, Neta

    2016-03-01

    ``I feel like dancing'', cheered John Bahcall upon hearing the exciting news from the SNO experiment in 2001. The results confirmed, with remarkable accuracy, John's 40-year effort to predict the rate of neutrinos from the Sun based on sophisticated Solar models. What began in 1962 by John Bahcall and Ray Davis as a pioneering project to test and confirm how the Sun shines, quickly turned into a four-decade-long mystery of the `Solar Neutrino Problem': John's models predicted a higher rate of neutrinos than detected by Davis and follow-up experiments. Was the theory of the Sun wrong? Were John's calculations in error? Were the neutrino experiments wrong? John worked tirelessly to understand the physics behind the Solar Neutrino Problem; he led the efforts to greatly increase the accurately of the solar model, to understand its seismology and neutrino fluxes, to use the neutrino fluxes as a test for new physics, and to advocate for important new experiments. It slowly became clear that none of the then discussed possibilities --- error in the Solar model or neutrino experiments --- was the culprit. The SNO results revealed that John's calculations, and hence the theory of the Solar model, have been correct all along. Comparison of the data with John's theory demanded new physics --- neutrino oscillations. The Solar Neutrino saga is one of the most amazing scientific stories of the century: exploring a simple question of `How the Sun Shines?' led to the discovery of new physics. John's theoretical calculations are an integral part of this journey; they provide the foundation for the Solar Neutrino Problem, for confirming how the Sun shines, and for the need of neutrino oscillations. His tenacious persistence, dedication, enthusiasm and love for the project, and his leadership and advocacy of neutrino physics over many decades are a remarkable story of scientific triumph. I know John is smiling today.

  15. Measurement of neutrino oscillations in MACRO experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musser, J.

    1985-01-01

    The possibility of investigating neutrino oscillations in the proposed MACRO experiment are considered. Its sensitivity taking into account the theoretical uncertainties coming from flux calculations, geomagnetic effects and propagation through matter, and the experimental limitations.

  16. Indirect dark matter detection in the light of sterile neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Esmaili, Arman; Peres, O.L.G. E-mail: orlando@ifi.unicamp.br

    2012-05-01

    The recent global fit of short baseline neutrino oscillation data favors the presence of one (or more) sterile neutrino state which leads to new mass splitting Δm{sup 2} ∼ 1 eV{sup 2}. We consider the effect of this new states on the evolution of neutrinos from the dark matter annihilation inside the Sun. We show that neutrinos with energy E{sub ν}∼>100 GeV undergo resonant active-sterile oscillation which depletes the flux of neutrinos arriving at the Earth. As an example of this effect, we present the oscillation probabilities for the case of monochromatic neutrinos from the direct annihilation of dark matter particles to neutrinos and the depletion due to the presence of sterile neutrinos. We discuss the seasonal variation of oscillation probabilities which is expected for the case of monochromatic neutrinos.

  17. Measurement of the Muon Neutrino Inclusive Charged Current Cross Section on Iron using the MINOS Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Loiacono, Laura Jean

    2010-05-01

    The Neutrinos at the Main Injector (NuMI) facility at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) produces an intense muon neutrino beam used by the Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS), a neutrino oscillation experiment, and the Main INjector ExpeRiment v-A, (MINERv A), a neutrino interaction experiment. Absolute neutrino cross sections are determined via σv = N vv , where the numerator is the measured number of neutrino interactions in the MINOS Detector and the denominator is the flux of incident neutrinos. Many past neutrino experiments have measured relative cross sections due to a lack of precise measurements of the incident neutrino flux, normalizing to better established reaction processes, such as quasielastic neutrino-nucleon scattering. But recent measurements of neutrino interactions on nuclear targets have brought to light questions about our understanding of nuclear effects in neutrino interactions. In this thesis the vμ inclusive charged current cross section on iron is measured using the MINOS Detector. The MINOS detector consists of alternating planes of steel and scintillator. The MINOS detector is optimized to measure muons produced in charged current vμ interactions. Along with muons, these interactions produce hadronic showers. The neutrino energy is measured from the total energy the particles deposit in the detector. The incident neutrino flux is measured using the muons produced alongside the neutrinos in meson decay. Three ionization chamber monitors located in the downstream portion of the NuMI beamline are used to measure the muon flux and thereby infer the neutrino flux by relation to the underlying pion and kaon meson flux. This thesis describes the muon flux instrumentation in the NuMI beam, its operation over the two year duration of this measurement, and the techniques used to derive the neutrino flux.

  18. Experimental Anomalies in Neutrino Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palamara, Ornella

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, experimental anomalies ranging in significance (2.8-3.8 σ) have been reported from a variety of experiments studying neutrinos over baselines less than 1 km. Results from the LSND and MiniBooNE short-baseline νe /νe appearance experiments show anomalies which cannot be described by oscillations between the three standard model neutrinos (the ``LSND anomaly''). In addition, a re-analysis of the anti-neutrino flux produced by nuclear power reactors has led to an apparent deficit in νe event rates in a number of reactor experiments (the ``reactor anomaly''). Similarly, calibration runs using 51Cr and 37Ar radioactive sources in the Gallium solar neutrino experiments GALLEX and SAGE have shown an unexplained deficit in the electron neutrino event rate over very short distances (the ``Gallium anomaly''). The puzzling results from these experiments, which together may suggest the existence of physics beyond the Standard Model and hint at exciting new physics, including the possibility of additional low-mass sterile neutrino states, have raised the interest in the community for new experimental efforts that could eventually solve this puzzle. Definitive evidence for sterile neutrinos would be a revolutionary discovery, with implications for particle physics as well as cosmology. Proposals to address these signals by employing accelerator, reactor and radioactive source experiments are in the planning stages or underway worldwide. In this talk some of these will be reviewed, with emphasis on the accelerator programs.

  19. Updating neutrino magnetic moment constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cañas, B. C.; Miranda, O. G.; Parada, A.; Tórtola, M.; Valle, J. W. F.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we provide an updated analysis of the neutrino magnetic moments (NMMs), discussing both the constraints on the magnitudes of the three transition moments Λi and the role of the CP violating phases present both in the mixing matrix and in the NMM matrix. The scattering of solar neutrinos off electrons in Borexino provides the most stringent restrictions, due to its robust statistics and the low energies observed, below 1 MeV. Our new limit on the effective neutrino magnetic moment which follows from the most recent Borexino data is 3.1 ×10-11μB at 90% C.L. This corresponds to the individual transition magnetic moment constraints: |Λ1 | ≤ 5.6 ×10-11μB, |Λ2 | ≤ 4.0 ×10-11μB, and |Λ3 | ≤ 3.1 ×10-11μB (90% C.L.), irrespective of any complex phase. Indeed, the incoherent admixture of neutrino mass eigenstates present in the solar flux makes Borexino insensitive to the Majorana phases present in the NMM matrix. For this reason we also provide a global analysis including the case of reactor and accelerator neutrino sources, presenting the resulting constraints for different values of the relevant CP phases. Improved reactor and accelerator neutrino experiments will be needed in order to underpin the full profile of the neutrino electromagnetic properties.

  20. Observation of high energy atmospheric neutrinos with antarctic muon and neutrino detector array

    SciTech Connect

    Ahrens, J.; Andres, E.; Bai, X.; Barouch, G.; Barwick, S.W.; Bay, R.C.; Becka, T.; Becker, K.-H.; Bertrand, D.; Binon, F.; Biron, A.; Booth, J.; Botner, O.; Bouchta, A.; Bouhali, O.; Boyce, M.M.; Carius, S.; Chen, A.; Chirkin, D.; Conrad, J.; Cooley, J.; Costa, C.G.S.; Cowen, D.F.; Dalberg, E.; De Clercq, C.; DeYoung, T.; Desiati, P.; Dewulf, J.-P.; Doksus, P.; Edsjo, J.; Ekstrom, P.; Feser, T.; Frere, J.-M.; Gaisser, T.K.; Gaug, M.; Goldschmidt, A.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hanson, K.; Hardtke, R.; Hauschildt, T.; Hellwig, M.; Heukenkamp, H.; Hill, G.C.; Hulth, P.O.; Hundertmark, S.; Jacobsen, J.; Karle, A.; Kim, J.; Koci, B.; Kopke, L.; Kowalski, M.; Lamoureux, J.I.; Leich, H.; Leuthold, M.; Lindahl, P.; Liubarsky, I.; Loaiza, P.; Lowder, D.M.; Madsen, J.; Marciniewski, P.; Matis, H.S.; McParland, C.P.; Miller, T.C.; Minaeva, Y.; Miocinovic, P.; Mock, P.C.; Morse, R.; Neunhoffer, T.; Niessen, P.; Nygren, D.R.; Ogelman, H.; Olbrechts, Ph.; Perez de los Heros, C.; Pohl, A.C.; Porrata, R.; Price, P.B.; Przybylski, G.T.; Rawlins, K.; Reed, C.; Rhode, W.; Ribordy, M.; Richter, S.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Romenesko, P.; Ross, D.; Sander, H.-G.; Schmidt, T.; Schneider, D.; Schwarz, R.; Silvestri, A.; Solarz, M.; Spiczak, G.M.; Spiering, C.; Starinsky, N.; Steele, D.; Steffen, P.; Stokstad, R.G.; Streicher, O.; Sudhoff, P.; Sulanke, K.-H.; Taboada, I.; Thollander, L.; Thon, T.; Tilav, S.; Vander Donckt, M.; Walck, C.; Weinheimer, C.; Wiebusch, C.H.; Wiedeman, C.; Wischnewski, R.; Wissing, H.; Woschnagg, K.; Wu, W.; Yodh, G.; Young, S.

    2002-05-07

    The Antarctic Muon and Neutrino Detector Array (AMANDA) began collecting data with ten strings in 1997. Results from the first year of operation are presented. Neutrinos coming through the Earth from the Northern Hemisphere are identified by secondary muons moving upward through the array. Cosmic rays in the atmosphere generate a background of downward moving muons, which are about 10{sup 6} times more abundant than the upward moving muons. Over 130 days of exposure, we observed a total of about 300 neutrino events. In the same period, a background of 1.05 x 10{sup 9} cosmic ray muon events was recorded. The observed neutrino flux is consistent with atmospheric neutrino predictions. Monte Carlo simulations indicate that 90 percent of these events lie in the energy range 66 GeV to 3.4 TeV. The observation of atmospheric neutrinos consistent with expectations establishes AMANDA-B10 as a working neutrino telescope.

  1. Ultrahigh-energy neutrino astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margolis, S. H.; Schramm, D. N.; Silberberg, R.

    1978-01-01

    High-energy cosmic-ray interactions can produce neutrinos. The neutrino fluxes are calculated over a range of energies. The sources considered (and their ranges of importance) are cosmic-ray interactions in earth's atmosphere (neutrino energies less than 10,000 GeV), cosmic-ray interactions with ambient hydrogen in galaxies (neutrino energies between 10,000 and 1 million GeV), regions of cosmic-ray acceleration - e.g., pulsars - and cosmic-ray interactions with the microwave background radiation (neutrino energies greater than 100 million GeV). In addition, estimates of the flux from compact sources, such as active galaxies, are made. These flux levels, calculated conservatively, may be high enough for practical detection with a 1-cu km seawater detector; i.e., count rates greater than 1 per day. Such observations would provide information mainly about high-energy physics, but also (over long times) about cosmic-ray spectra, composition, and acceleration, as well as supernova and galactic-nucleus explosions.

  2. Neutrino Physics at J-PARC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friend, Megan

    The physics motivation, status, and prospects of currently running and proposed neutrino experiments at J-PARC are shown. This includes the currently running T2K (Tokai-to-Kamioka) long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment and a proposed Sterile Neutrino Search. The currently running T2K experiment detects oscillated ν μ to ν e appearance and unoscillated ν μ to ν μ disappearance neutrino events from an off-axis beam of primarily muon neutrinos produced at J-PARC. Propagated neutrinos are detected in a Near Detector complex, which sits 280 m from the neutrino source and is used to constrain the neutrino flux and measure neutrino cross sections, and in the Super-Kamiokande (SK) far detector, a 22.5 kT fiducial volume water Cherenkov detector with excellent performance in sub-GeV ν e/ν μ particle ID that sits 295 km from the neutrino source and is used to monitor neutrino oscillations. T2K has recently released a series of very interesting and important results, including the world's first definitive observation of neutrino appearance (ν e appearance from a ν μ beam), an observation which was made with only 8% of the proposed total data. T2K has continued to accumulate data since releasing these results, and has many exciting prospects, including potentially having sensitivity to show a first hint of CP violation in the lepton sector. These T2K recent results and future prospects will be shown. A brief overview of the prospects of a proposed future Sterile Neutrino Search, which plans to utilize the J-PARC Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility to initially search for sterile neutrinos with a large mass splitting, will also be shown.

  3. Neutrino astrophysics with Hyper-Kamiokande

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Takatomi; Hyper-Kamiokande proto Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    Hyper-Kamiokande (Hyper-K) is a proposed next generation underground large water Cherenkov detector. The detector consists of 1 Mt pure water tank with surrounding 99,000 newly developed photo sensors, providing fiducial volume of 0.56 Mt. The energies, positions and directions of charged particles produced by neutrino interactions are detected using its Cherenkov light in water. Our detector will be located at deep underground to reduce the cosmic muon flux and its spallation products, which is a dominant background at the low energy analysis. Hyper-K will play a considerable role in the next neutrino physics frontier, even in the neutrino astrophysics. The detection with large statistics of astrophysical neutrons, i.e., solar neutrino, supernova burst neutrino and supernova relic neutrino, will be remarkable information for both of particle physics and astrophysics.

  4. Sterile Neutrinos in Cold Climates

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Benjamin J.P.

    2015-09-01

    Measurements of neutrino oscillations at short baselines contain an intriguing set of experimental anomalies that may be suggestive of new physics such as the existence of sterile neutrinos. This three-part thesis presents research directed towards understanding these anomalies and searching for sterile neutrino oscillations. Part I contains a theoretical discussion of neutrino coherence properties. The open-quantum-system picture of neutrino beams, which allows a rigorous prediction of coherence distances for accelerator neutrinos, is presented. Validity of the standard treatment of active and sterile neutrino oscillations at short baselines is verified, and non-standard coherence loss effects at longer baselines are predicted. Part II concerns liquid argon detector development for the MicroBooNE experiment, which will search for short-baseline oscillations in the Booster Neutrino Beam at Fermilab. Topics include characterization and installation of the MicroBooNE optical system; test-stand measurements of liquid argon optical properties with dissolved impurities; optimization of wavelength-shifting coatings for liquid argon scintillation light detection; testing and deployment of high-voltage surge arrestors to protect TPC field cages; and software development for optical and TPC simulation and reconstruction. Part III presents a search for sterile neutrinos using the IceCube neutrino telescope, which has collected a large sample of atmospheric-neutrino-induced events in the 1-10 TeV energy range. Sterile neutrinos would modify the detected neutrino flux shape via MSW-resonant oscillations. Following a careful treatment of systematic uncertainties in the sample, no evidence for MSW-resonant oscillations is observed, and exclusion limits on 3+1 model parameter space are derived. Under the mixing assumptions made, the 90% confidence level exclusion limit extends to sin224 ≤ 0.02 at m2 ~ 0.3 eV2, and the LSND and Mini

  5. Studies of Near-Far Neutrino Beam Correlations for the DUNE Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashyal, Amit; DUNE Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    In the DUNE long-baseline neutrino experiment, the Near Detector near to the beamline sees a high neutrino flux, which helps to characterize the neutrino beam. Given a prediction for the neutrino flux at the Near Detector, the unoscillated flux at the Far Detector can be predicted and a transfer matrix constructed. We present results from a beam matrix method to predict the Far Detector flux from the Near Detector flux for the DUNE beamline and studies of the sensitivity to different physics models of the flux.

  6. Neutrino oscillations.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Mark

    2002-05-15

    The wave theory of light, and in particular the principle of interference, was formulated by Thomas Young in 1801. In the 20th century, the principle of interference was extended to the quantum mechanical wave functions describing matter. The phenomenon of quantum mechanical interference of different neutrino states, neutrino oscillations, has provided one of the most exciting developments in high energy particle physics of the last decade. Observations of the flavour oscillations of neutrinos produced by distant sources, such as from the core of the Sun, provide compelling evidence that neutrinos have mass. This article describes the main features and the most significant experimental observations of this unusual application of the principle of interference.

  7. Recent results from the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Elewyck, Véronique

    2014-04-01

    The ANTARES neutrino telescope is currently the largest operating water Cherenkov detector and the largest neutrino detector in the Northern Hemisphere. Its main scientific target is the detection of high-energy (TeV and beyond) neutrinos from cosmic accelerators, as predicted by hadronic interaction models, and the measurement of the diffuse neutrino flux. Its location allows for surveying a large part of the Galactic Plane, including the Galactic Centre. In addition to the standalone searches for point-like and diffuse high-energy neutrino signals, ANTARES has developed a range of multi-messenger strategies to exploit the close connection between neutrinos and other cosmic messengers such as gamma-rays, charged cosmic rays and gravitational waves. This contribution provides an overview of the recently conducted analyses, including a search for neutrinos from the Fermi bubbles region, searches for optical counterparts with the TAToO program, and searches for neutrinos in correlation with gamma-ray bursts, blazars, and microquasars. Further topics of investigation, covering e.g. the search for neutrinos from dark matter annihilation, searches for exotic particles and the measurement of neutrino oscillations, are also reviewed.

  8. Sterile neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, J.; Machado, P. A. N.; Maltoni, M.; Schwetz, T.

    2016-06-01

    We characterize statistically the indications of a presence of one or more light sterile neutrinos from MiniBooNE and LSND data, together with the reactor and gallium anomalies, in the global context. The compatibility of the aforementioned signals with null results from solar, atmospheric, reactor, and accelerator experiments is evaluated. We conclude that a severe tension is present in the global fit, and therefore the addition of eV-scale sterile neutrinos does not satisfactorily explain the anomalies.

  9. Neutrino-4 experiment on the search for a sterile neutrino at the SM-3 reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Serebrov, A. P. Ivochkin, V. G.; Samoylov, R. M.; Fomin, A. K.; Zinoviev, V. G.; Neustroev, P. V.; Golovtsov, V. L.; Gruzinsky, N. V.; Solovey, V. A.; Chernyi, A. V.; Zherebtsov, O. M.; Martemyanov, V. P.; Tsinoev, V. G.; Tarasenkov, V. G.; Aleshin, V. I.; Petelin, A. L.; Pavlov, S. V.; Izhutov, A. L.; Sazontov, S. A.; Ryazanov, D. K.; and others

    2015-10-15

    In view of the possibility of the existence of a sterile neutrino, test measurements of the dependence of the reactor antineutrino flux on the distance from the reactor core has been performed on SM-2 reactor with the Neutrino-2 detector model in the range of 6–11 m. Prospects of the search for reactor antineutrinos at short distances have been discussed.

  10. Self-induced decoherence in dense neutrino gases

    SciTech Connect

    Raffelt, Georg G.; Sigl, Guenter

    2007-04-15

    Dense neutrino gases exhibit collective oscillations where 'self-maintained coherence' is a characteristic feature, i.e., neutrinos of different energies oscillate with the same frequency. In a nonisotropic gas, however, the flux term of the neutrino-neutrino interaction has the opposite effect of causing kinematical decoherence of neutrinos propagating in different directions, an effect that is at the origin of the 'multiangle behavior' of neutrinos streaming off a supernova core. We cast the equations of motion in a form where the role of the flux term is manifest. We study in detail the symmetric case of equal neutrino and antineutrino densities where the evolution consists of collective pair conversions ('bipolar oscillations'). A gas of this sort is unstable in that an infinitesimal anisotropy is enough to trigger a runaway towards flavor equipartition. The 'self-maintained coherence' of a perfectly isotropic gas gives way to 'self-induced decoherence'.

  11. Angular distribution of muons produced by cosmic ray neutrinos in rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boliev, M. M.; Buckevich, A. V.; Chudakov, A. E.; Leonov-Vendrovsky, A. V.; Mikheyev, S. P.; Zakidyshev, V. N.

    1985-01-01

    Measurement of the upgoing muons flux, produced by cosmic ray neutrinos is aiming at: (1) search for neutrino oscillation; (2); search for extraterrestrial neutrinos from local sources; and (3); search for any hypothetical neutral penetrating radiation different from neutrinos. Experimental data of the Baksan underground telescope on intensity of upward muons for three years of living time, was analyzed having in mind mainly neutrino oscillation.

  12. Constraining astrophysical neutrino flavor composition from leptonic unitarity

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Xun-Jie; He, Hong-Jian; Rodejohann, Werner E-mail: hjhe@tsinghua.edu.cn

    2014-12-01

    The recent IceCube observation of ultra-high-energy astrophysical neutrinos has begun the era of neutrino astronomy. In this work, using the unitarity of leptonic mixing matrix, we derive nontrivial unitarity constraints on the flavor composition of astrophysical neutrinos detected by IceCube. Applying leptonic unitarity triangles, we deduce these unitarity bounds from geometrical conditions, such as triangular inequalities. These new bounds generally hold for three flavor neutrinos, and are independent of any experimental input or the pattern of lepton mixing. We apply our unitarity bounds to derive general constraints on the flavor compositions for three types of astrophysical neutrino sources (and their general mixture), and compare them with the IceCube measurements. Furthermore, we prove that for any sources without ν{sub τ} neutrinos, a detected ν{sub μ} flux ratio < 1/4 will require the initial flavor composition with more ν{sub e} neutrinos than ν{sub μ} neutrinos.

  13. Measurement of day and night neutrino energy spectra at SNO and constraints on neutrino mixing parameters.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Q R; Allen, R C; Andersen, T C; Anglin, J D; Barton, J C; Beier, E W; Bercovitch, M; Bigu, J; Biller, S D; Black, R A; Blevis, I; Boardman, R J; Boger, J; Bonvin, E; Boulay, M G; Bowler, M G; Bowles, T J; Brice, S J; Browne, M C; Bullard, T V; Bühler, G; Cameron, J; Chan, Y D; Chen, H H; Chen, M; Chen, X; Cleveland, B T; Clifford, E T H; Cowan, J H M; Cowen, D F; Cox, G A; Dai, X; Dalnoki-Veress, F; Davidson, W F; Doe, P J; Doucas, G; Dragowsky, M R; Duba, C A; Duncan, F A; Dunford, M; Dunmore, J A; Earle, E D; Elliott, S R; Evans, H C; Ewan, G T; Farine, J; Fergani, H; Ferraris, A P; Ford, R J; Formaggio, J A; Fowler, M M; Frame, K; Frank, E D; Frati, W; Gagnon, N; Germani, J V; Gil, S; Graham, K; Grant, D R; Hahn, R L; Hallin, A L; Hallman, E D; Hamer, A S; Hamian, A A; Handler, W B; Haq, R U; Hargrove, C K; Harvey, P J; Hazama, R; Heeger, K M; Heintzelman, W J; Heise, J; Helmer, R L; Hepburn, J D; Heron, H; Hewett, J; Hime, A; Howe, M; Hykawy, J G; Isaac, M C P; Jagam, P; Jelley, N A; Jillings, C; Jonkmans, G; Kazkaz, K; Keener, P T; Klein, J R; Knox, A B; Komar, R J; Kouzes, R; Kutter, T; Kyba, C C M; Law, J; Lawson, I T; Lay, M; Lee, H W; Lesko, K T; Leslie, J R; Levine, I; Locke, W; Luoma, S; Lyon, J; Majerus, S; Mak, H B; Maneira, J; Manor, J; Marino, A D; McCauley, N; McDonald, A B; McDonald, D S; McFarlane, K; McGregor, G; Meijer Drees, R; Mifflin, C; Miller, G G; Milton, G; Moffat, B A; Moorhead, M; Nally, C W; Neubauer, M S; Newcomer, F M; Ng, H S; Noble, A J; Norman, E B; Novikov, V M; O'Neill, M; Okada, C E; Ollerhead, R W; Omori, M; Orrell, J L; Oser, S M; Poon, A W P; Radcliffe, T J; Roberge, A; Robertson, B C; Robertson, R G H; Rosendahl, S S E; Rowley, J K; Rusu, V L; Saettler, E; Schaffer, K K; Schwendener, M H; Schülke, A; Seifert, H; Shatkay, M; Simpson, J J; Sims, C J; Sinclair, D; Skensved, P; Smith, A R; Smith, M W E; Spreitzer, T; Starinsky, N; Steiger, T D; Stokstad, R G; Stonehill, L C; Storey, R S; Sur, B; Tafirout, R; Tagg, N; Tanner, N W; Taplin, R K; Thorman, M; Thornewell, P M; Trent, P T; Tserkovnyak, Y I; Van Berg, R; Van de Water, R G; Virtue, C J; Waltham, C E; Wang, J-X; Wark, D L; West, N; Wilhelmy, J B; Wilkerson, J F; Wilson, J R; Wittich, P; Wouters, J M; Yeh, M

    2002-07-01

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) has measured day and night solar neutrino energy spectra and rates. For charged current events, assuming an undistorted 8B spectrum, the night minus day rate is 14.0%+/-6.3%(+1.5%)(-1.4%) of the average rate. If the total flux of active neutrinos is additionally constrained to have no asymmetry, the nu(e) asymmetry is found to be 7.0%+/-4.9%(+1.3%)(-1.2%). A global solar neutrino analysis in terms of matter-enhanced oscillations of two active flavors strongly favors the large mixing angle solution.

  14. The solar neutrino problem: mixing of neutrinos and mixing in the Sun.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haxton, W. C.

    The author reviews the current status of the solar neutrino problem, including the exciting possibility of matter enhanced neutrino oscillations. Neutrino flux measurements, independent of questions of solar dynamics, appear to leave only one competing candidate astrophysical solution, at least in the case of steady state solar models. That possibility - mixing of the solar core on time scales of 3He equilibration - appears to have some attractive features. A "score card" is presented in which the two alternatives - mixed neutrinos or a mixed Sun - are handicapped.

  15. The solar neutrino problem: Mixing of neutrinos and mixing in the sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haxton, W. C.

    I review the current status of the solar neutrino problem, including the exciting possibility of matter enhanced neutrino oscillations. Neutrino flux measurements, independent of questions of solar dynamics, appear to leave only one competing candidate astrophysical solution, at least in the case of steady-state solar models. That possibility - mixing of the solar core on time scales of 3He equilibration - appears to have some attractive features. A “score card” is presented in which the two alternatives - mixed neutrinos or a mixed sun - are handicapped.

  16. NEUTRINO SPECTRA FROM ACCRETION DISKS: NEUTRINO GENERAL RELATIVISTIC EFFECTS AND THE CONSEQUENCES FOR NUCLEOSYNTHESIS

    SciTech Connect

    Caballero, O. L.; McLaughlin, G. C.; Surman, R. E-mail: olcaball@ncsu.edu E-mail: surmanr@union.edu

    2012-02-01

    Black hole (BH) accretion disks have been proposed as good candidates for a range of interesting nucleosynthesis, including the r-process. The presence of the BH influences the neutrino fluxes and affects the nucleosynthesis resulting from the interaction of the emitted neutrinos and hot outflowing material ejected from the disk. We study the impact of general relativistic effects on the neutrinos emitted from BH accretion disks. We present abundances obtained by considering null geodesics and energy shifts for two different disk models. We find that both the bending of the neutrino trajectories and the energy shifts have important consequences for the nucleosynthetic outcome.

  17. Low energy neutrinos in Super-Kamiokande

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekiya, Hiroyuki

    2016-05-01

    Super-Kamiokande (SK), a 50 kton water Cherenkov detector, observes 8B solar neutrinos via neutrino-electron elastic scattering. The analysis threshold was successfully lowered to 3.5 MeV (recoil electron kinetic energy) in SK-IV. To date SK has observed solar neutrinos for 18 years. An analysis regarding possible correlations between the solar neutrino flux and the 11 year solar activity cycle is shown. With large statistics, SK searches for distortions of the solar neutrino energy spectrum caused by the MSW resonance in the core of the sun. SK also searches for a day/night solar neutrino flux asymmetry induced by the matter in the Earth. The Super-Kamiokande Gd (SK-Gd) project is the upgrade of the SK detector via the addition of water-soluble gadolinium (Gd) salt. This modification will enable it to efficiently identify low energy anti-neutrinos. SK-Gd will pursue low energy physics currently inaccessible to SK due to backgrounds. The most important will be the world’s first observation of the diffuse supernova neutrino background. The main R&D program towards SK-Gd is EG ADS: a 200 ton, fully instrumented tank built in a new cavern in the Kamioka mine.

  18. Application of Reactor Antineutrinos: Neutrinos for Peace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suekane, F.

    2013-02-01

    In nuclear reactors, 239Pu are produced along with burn-up of nuclear fuel. 239Pu is subject of safeguard controls since it is an explosive component of nuclear weapon. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is watching undeclared operation of reactors to prevent illegal production and removal of 239Pu. In operating reactors, a huge numbers of anti electron neutrinos (ν) are produced. Neutrino flux is approximately proportional to the operating power of reactor in short term and long term decrease of the neutrino flux per thermal power is proportional to the amount of 239Pu produced. Thus rector ν's carry direct and real time information useful for the safeguard purposes. Since ν can not be hidden, it could be an ideal medium to monitor the reactor operation. IAEA seeks for novel technologies which enhance their ability and reactor neutrino monitoring is listed as one of such candidates. Currently neutrino physicists are performing R&D of small reactor neutrino detectors to use specifically for the safeguard use in response to the IAEA interest. In this proceedings of the neutrino2012 conference, possibilities of such reactor neutrinos application and current world-wide R&D status are described.

  19. Neutrino masses, neutrino oscillations, and cosmological implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.

    1982-01-01

    Theoretical concepts and motivations for considering neutrinos having finite masses are discussed and the experimental situation on searches for neutrino masses and oscillations is summarized. The solar neutrino problem, reactor, deep mine and accelerator data, tri decay experiments and double beta-decay data are considered and cosmological implications and astrophysical data relating to neutrino masses are reviewed. The neutrino oscillation solution to the solar neutrino problem, the missing mass problem in galaxy halos and galaxy cluster galaxy formation and clustering, and radiative neutrino decay and the cosmic ultraviolet background radiation are examined.

  20. SEARCH FOR PROMPT NEUTRINO EMISSION FROM GAMMA-RAY BURSTS WITH ICECUBE

    SciTech Connect

    Aartsen, M. G.; Ackermann, M.; Berghaus, P.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Arguelles, C.; BenZvi, S.; Ahrens, M.; Altmann, D.; Anderson, T.; Arlen, T. C.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Bay, R.; Beatty, J. J.; Tjus, J. Becker; Becker, K.-H.; and others

    2015-05-20

    We present constraints derived from a search of four years of IceCube data for a prompt neutrino flux from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). A single low-significance neutrino, compatible with the atmospheric neutrino background, was found in coincidence with one of the 506 observed bursts. Although GRBs have been proposed as candidate sources for ultra-high-energy cosmic rays, our limits on the neutrino flux disfavor much of the parameter space for the latest models. We also find that no more than ∼1% of the recently observed astrophysical neutrino flux consists of prompt emission from GRBs that are potentially observable by existing satellites.

  1. Search for Prompt Neutrino Emission from Gamma-Ray Bursts with IceCube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aartsen, M. G.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Ahrens, M.; Altmann, D.; Anderson, T.; Arguelles, C.; Arlen, T. C.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Bay, R.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker Tjus, J.; Becker, K.-H.; BenZvi, S.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bernhard, A.; Besson, D. Z.; Binder, G.; Bindig, D.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Blumenthal, J.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Bos, F.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Brayeur, L.; Bretz, H.-P.; Brown, A. M.; Buzinsky, N.; Casey, J.; Casier, M.; Cheung, E.; Chirkin, D.; Christov, A.; Christy, B.; Clark, K.; Classen, L.; Clevermann, F.; Coenders, S.; Cowen, D. F.; Cruz Silva, A. H.; Daughhetee, J.; Davis, J. C.; Day, M.; de André, J. P. A. M.; De Clercq, C.; De Ridder, S.; Desiati, P.; de Vries, K. D.; de With, M.; DeYoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; Dunkman, M.; Eagan, R.; Eberhardt, B.; Ehrhardt, T.; Eichmann, B.; Eisch, J.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fadiran, O.; Fazely, A. R.; Fedynitch, A.; Feintzeig, J.; Felde, J.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Fischer-Wasels, T.; Flis, S.; Frantzen, K.; Fuchs, T.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gaior, R.; Gallagher, J.; Gerhardt, L.; Gier, D.; Gladstone, L.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Golup, G.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Goodman, J. A.; Góra, D.; Grant, D.; Gretskov, P.; Groh, J. C.; Groß, A.; Ha, C.; Haack, C.; Haj Ismail, A.; Hallen, P.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hanson, K.; Hebecker, D.; Heereman, D.; Heinen, D.; Helbing, K.; Hellauer, R.; Hellwig, D.; Hickford, S.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoffmann, R.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Huang, F.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobi, E.; Jacobsen, J.; Japaridze, G. S.; Jero, K.; Jlelati, O.; Jurkovic, M.; Kaminsky, B.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kauer, M.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kheirandish, A.; Kiryluk, J.; Kläs, J.; Klein, S. R.; Köhne, J.-H.; Kohnen, G.; Kolanoski, H.; Koob, A.; Köpke, L.; Kopper, C.; Kopper, S.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Kriesten, A.; Krings, K.; Kroll, G.; Kroll, M.; Kunnen, J.; Kurahashi, N.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Lanfranchi, J. L.; Larsen, D. T.; Larson, M. J.; Lesiak-Bzdak, M.; Leuermann, M.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Maggi, G.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; Maunu, R.; McNally, F.; Meagher, K.; Medici, M.; Meli, A.; Meures, T.; Miarecki, S.; Middell, E.; Middlemas, E.; Milke, N.; Miller, J.; Mohrmann, L.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naumann, U.; Niederhausen, H.; Nowicki, S. C.; Nygren, D. R.; Obertacke, A.; Odrowski, S.; Olivas, A.; Omairat, A.; O'Murchadha, A.; Palczewski, T.; Paul, L.; Penke, Ö.; Pepper, J. A.; Pérez de los Heros, C.; Pfendner, C.; Pieloth, D.; Pinat, E.; Posselt, J.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Pütz, J.; Quinnan, M.; Rädel, L.; Rameez, M.; Rawlins, K.; Redl, P.; Rees, I.; Reimann, R.; Relich, M.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Richman, M.; Riedel, B.; Robertson, S.; Rodrigues, J. P.; Rongen, M.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Ruzybayev, B.; Ryckbosch, D.; Saba, S. M.; Sander, H.-G.; Sandroos, J.; Santander, M.; Sarkar, S.; Schatto, K.; Scheriau, F.; Schmidt, T.; Schmitz, M.; Schoenen, S.; Schöneberg, S.; Schönwald, A.; Schukraft, A.; Schulte, L.; Schulz, O.; Seckel, D.; Sestayo, Y.; Seunarine, S.; Shanidze, R.; Smith, M. W. E.; Soldin, D.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stanisha, N. A.; Stasik, A.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stößl, A.; Strahler, E. A.; Ström, R.; Strotjohann, N. L.; Sullivan, G. W.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Tamburro, A.; Tepe, A.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Terliuk, A.; Tešić, G.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Tobin, M. N.; Tosi, D.; Tselengidou, M.; Unger, E.; Usner, M.; Vallecorsa, S.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vandenbroucke, J.; van Santen, J.; Vehring, M.; Voge, M.; Vraeghe, M.; Walck, C.; Wallraff, M.; Weaver, Ch.; Wellons, M.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Whitehorn, N.; Wichary, C.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Williams, D. R.; Wissing, H.; Wolf, M.; Wood, T. R.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, D. L.; Xu, X. W.; Xu, Y.; Yanez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Ziemann, J.; Zoll, M.

    2015-05-01

    We present constraints derived from a search of four years of IceCube data for a prompt neutrino flux from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). A single low-significance neutrino, compatible with the atmospheric neutrino background, was found in coincidence with one of the 506 observed bursts. Although GRBs have been proposed as candidate sources for ultra-high-energy cosmic rays, our limits on the neutrino flux disfavor much of the parameter space for the latest models. We also find that no more than ˜1% of the recently observed astrophysical neutrino flux consists of prompt emission from GRBs that are potentially observable by existing satellites.

  2. Tau neutrino propagation and tau energy loss

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, Sharada Iyer; Huang Yiwen; Reno, Mary Hall

    2005-07-01

    Electromagnetic energy loss of tau leptons is an important ingredient for eventual tau neutrino detection from high energy astrophysical sources. Proposals have been made to use mountains as neutrino converters, in which the emerging tau decays in an air shower. We use a stochastic evaluation of both tau neutrino conversion to taus and of tau electromagnetic energy loss. We examine the effects of the propagation for monoenergetic incident tau neutrinos as well as for several neutrino power-law spectra. Our main result is a parameterization of the tau electromagnetic energy loss parameter {beta}. We compare the results from the analytic expression for the tau flux using this {beta} with other parameterizations of {beta}.

  3. The SOX experiment in the neutrino physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Noto, L.; Agostini, M.; Althenmüller, K.; Bellini, G.; Benziger, J.; Berton, N.; Bick, D.; Bonfini, G.; Bravo-Berguño, D.; Caccianiga, B.; Cadonati, L.; Calaprice, F.; Caminata, A.; Cavalcante, P.; Chavarria, A.; Chepurnov, A.; Cribier, M.; DAngelo, D.; Davini, S.; Derbin, A.; Durero, M.; Empl, A.; Etenko, A.; Farinon, S.; Fischer, V.; Fomenko, K.; Franco, D.; Gabriele, F.; Gaffiot, J.; Galbiati, C.; Gazzana, S.; Ghiano, C.; Giammarchi, M.; Göger-Neff, M.; Goretti, A.; Grandi, L.; Gromov, M.; Hagner, C.; Houdy, Th.; Hungerford, E.; Ianni, Al.; Ianni, An.; Jonquères, N.; Kobychev, V.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Kryn, D.; Lasserre, T.; Laubenstein, M.; Lehnert, T.; Lewke, T.; Litvinovich, E.; Lombardi, F.; Lombardi, P.; Ludhova, L.; Lukyanchenko, G.; Machulin, I.; Manecki, S.; Maneschg, W.; Marcocci, S.; Maricic, J.; Meindl, Q.; Mention, G.; Meroni, E.; Meyer, M.; Miramonti, L.; Misiaszek, M.; Montuschi, M.; Mosteiro, P.; Musenich, R.; Muratova, V.; Oberauer, L.; Obolensky, M.; Ortica, F.; Otis, K.; Pallavicini, M.; Papp, L.; Perasso, L.; Perasso, S.; Pocar, A.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Re, A.; Romani, A.; Rossi, N.; Saldanha, R.; Salvo, C.; Schönert, S.; Scola, L.; Simgen, H.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Sukhotin, S.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Testera, G.; Veyssière, C.; Vivier, M.; Vogelaar, R. B.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Wang, H.; Winter, J.; Wojcik, M.; Wright, A.; Wurm, M.; Zaimidoroga, O.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2015-01-01

    SOX (Short distance neutrino Oscillations with BoreXino) is a new experiment that takes place at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) and it exploits the Borexino detector to study the neutrino oscillations at short distance. In different phases, by using two artificial sources 51Cr and 144Ce-144Pr, neutrino and antineutrino fluxes of measured intensity will be detected by Borexino in order to observe possible neutrino oscillations in the sterile state. In this paper an overview of the experiment is given and one of the two calorimeters that will be used to measure the source activity is described. At the end the expected sensitivity to determine the neutrino sterile mass is shown.

  4. Detecting Cosmic Neutrinos with IceCube at the Earth's South Pole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurahashi Neilson, Naoko

    2016-01-01

    The universe has been studied using light since the dawn of astronomy, when starlight captured the human eye. The IceCube Neutrino Observatory views the universe in a different and unique way: in high-energy neutrinos. IceCube's recent discovery of a diffuse flux of astrophysical neutrinos, in other words, the universe glowing in neutrinos from beyond the solar system, started a new era of neutrino astronomy. I will motivate why neutrinos are a necessary messenger in high-energy astronomy. I will discuss the multiple diffuse flux analyses in IceCube that observe the astrophysical flux, and what each can tell us. Spatial analyses that aim to identify the sources of such astrophysical neutrinos will also be discussed, followed by an attempt to reconcile all results, to draw a coherent picture that is the state of neutrino astronomy.

  5. Current MINOS Neutrino Oscillation Results

    SciTech Connect

    Habig, Alec; /Minnesota U., Duluth

    2009-07-01

    The MINOS experiment is now making precise measurements of the {nu}{sub {mu}} disappearance oscillations seen in atmospheric neutrinos, tests possible disappearance to sterile {nu} by measuring the neutral current flux, and has extended our reach towards the so far unseen {theta}{sub 13} by looking for {nu}{sub e} appearance in the {nu}{sub {mu}} beam. It does so by using the intense, well-understood NuMI neutrino beam created at Fermilab and observing it 735km away at the Soudan Mine in Northeast Minnesota. High-statistics studies of the neutrino interactions themselves and the cosmic rays seen by the MINOS detectors have also been made. Results from MINOS first three years of operations will be presented.

  6. Neutrino oscillations in noisy media

    SciTech Connect

    Loreti, F.N.; Balantekin, A.B.

    1994-05-27

    The authors develop the Redfield equation for delta-correlated gaussian noise and apply it to the case of two neutrino flavor or spin precession in the presence of a noisy matter density or magnetic field, respectively. The criteria under which physical fluctuations can be well approximated by the delta-correlated gaussian noise for the above cases are examined. Current limits on the possible neutrino magnetic moment and solar magnetic field suggest that a reasonably noisy solar magnetic field would not appreciably affect the solar electron neutrino flux. However, if the solar electron density has fluctuations of a few percent of the local density and a small enough correlation length, the MSW effect is suppressed for a range of parameters.

  7. Measurement of the intrinsic electron neutrino component in the T2K neutrino beam with the ND280 detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, K.; Adam, J.; Aihara, H.; Akiri, T.; Andreopoulos, C.; Aoki, S.; Ariga, A.; Ariga, T.; Assylbekov, S.; Autiero, D.; Barbi, M.; Barker, G. J.; Barr, G.; Bass, M.; Batkiewicz, M.; Bay, F.; Bentham, S. W.; Berardi, V.; Berger, B. E.; Berkman, S.; Bertram, I.; Bhadra, S.; Blaszczyk, F. d. M.; Blondel, A.; Bojechko, C.; Bordoni, S.; Boyd, S. B.; Brailsford, D.; Bravar, A.; Bronner, C.; Buchanan, N.; Calland, R. G.; Caravaca Rodríguez, J.; Cartwright, S. L.; Castillo, R.; Catanesi, M. G.; Cervera, A.; Cherdack, D.; Christodoulou, G.; Clifton, A.; Coleman, J.; Coleman, S. J.; Collazuol, G.; Connolly, K.; Cremonesi, L.; Dabrowska, A.; Danko, I.; Das, R.; Davis, S.; de Perio, P.; De Rosa, G.; Dealtry, T.; Dennis, S. R.; Densham, C.; Di Lodovico, F.; Di Luise, S.; Drapier, O.; Duboyski, T.; Duffy, K.; Dufour, F.; Dumarchez, J.; Dytman, S.; Dziewiecki, M.; Emery, S.; Ereditato, A.; Escudero, L.; Finch, A. J.; Floetotto, L.; Friend, M.; Fujii, Y.; Fukuda, Y.; Furmanski, A. P.; Galymov, V.; Giffin, S.; Giganti, C.; Gilje, K.; Goeldi, D.; Golan, T.; Gomez-Cadenas, J. J.; Gonin, M.; Grant, N.; Gudin, D.; Hadley, D. R.; Haesler, A.; Haigh, M. D.; Hamilton, P.; Hansen, D.; Hara, T.; Hartz, M.; Hasegawa, T.; Hastings, N. C.; Hayato, Y.; Hearty, C.; Helmer, R. L.; Hierholzer, M.; Hignight, J.; Hillairet, A.; Himmel, A.; Hiraki, T.; Hirota, S.; Holeczek, J.; Horikawa, S.; Huang, K.; Ichikawa, A. K.; Ieki, K.; Ieva, M.; Ikeda, M.; Imber, J.; Insler, J.; Irvine, T. J.; Ishida, T.; Ishii, T.; Ives, S. J.; Iwai, E.; Iyogi, K.; Izmaylov, A.; Jacob, A.; Jamieson, B.; Johnson, R. A.; Jo, J. H.; Jonsson, P.; Jung, C. K.; Kabirnezhad, M.; Kaboth, A. C.; Kajita, T.; Kakuno, H.; Kameda, J.; Kanazawa, Y.; Karlen, D.; Karpikov, I.; Kearns, E.; Khabibullin, M.; Khotjantsev, A.; Kielczewska, D.; Kikawa, T.; Kilinski, A.; Kim, J.; Kisiel, J.; Kitching, P.; Kobayashi, T.; Koch, L.; Kolaceke, A.; Konaka, A.; Kormos, L. L.; Korzenev, A.; Koseki, K.; Koshio, Y.; Kreslo, I.; Kropp, W.; Kubo, H.; Kudenko, Y.; Kumaratunga, S.; Kurjata, R.; Kutter, T.; Lagoda, J.; Laihem, K.; Lamont, I.; Larkin, E.; Laveder, M.; Lawe, M.; Lazos, M.; Lee, K. P.; Lindner, T.; Lister, C.; Litchfield, R. P.; Longhin, A.; Ludovici, L.; Macaire, M.; Magaletti, L.; Mahn, K.; Malek, M.; Manly, S.; Marino, A. D.; Marteau, J.; Martin, J. F.; Maruyama, T.; Marzec, J.; Mathie, E. L.; Matveev, V.; Mavrokoridis, K.; Mazzucato, E.; McCarthy, M.; McCauley, N.; McFarland, K. S.; McGrew, C.; Metelko, C.; Mezzetto, M.; Mijakowski, P.; Miller, C. A.; Minamino, A.; Mineev, O.; Mine, S.; Missert, A.; Miura, M.; Monfregola, L.; Moriyama, S.; Mueller, Th. A.; Murakami, A.; Murdoch, M.; Murphy, S.; Myslik, J.; Nagasaki, T.; Nakadaira, T.; Nakahata, M.; Nakai, T.; Nakamura, K.; Nakayama, S.; Nakaya, T.; Nakayoshi, K.; Naples, D.; Nielsen, C.; Nirkko, M.; Nishikawa, K.; Nishimura, Y.; O'Keeffe, H. M.; Ohta, R.; Okumura, K.; Okusawa, T.; Oryszczak, W.; Oser, S. M.; Owen, R. A.; Oyama, Y.; Palladino, V.; Palomino, J.; Paolone, V.; Payne, D.; Perevozchikov, O.; Perkin, J. D.; Petrov, Y.; Pickard, L.; Pinzon Guerra, E. S.; Pistillo, C.; Plonski, P.; Poplawska, E.; Popov, B.; Posiadala, M.; Poutissou, J.-M.; Poutissou, R.; Przewlocki, P.; Quilain, B.; Radicioni, E.; Ratoff, P. N.; Ravonel, M.; Rayner, M. A. M.; Redij, A.; Reeves, M.; Reinherz-Aronis, E.; Retiere, F.; Robert, A.; Rodrigues, P. A.; Rojas, P.; Rondio, E.; Roth, S.; Rubbia, A.; Ruterbories, D.; Sacco, R.; Sakashita, K.; Sánchez, F.; Sato, F.; Scantamburlo, E.; Scholberg, K.; Schoppmann, S.; Schwehr, J.; Scott, M.; Seiya, Y.; Sekiguchi, T.; Sekiya, H.; Sgalaberna, D.; Shiozawa, M.; Short, S.; Shustrov, Y.; Sinclair, P.; Smith, B.; Smith, R. J.; Smy, M.; Sobczyk, J. T.; Sobel, H.; Sorel, M.; Southwell, L.; Stamoulis, P.; Steinmann, J.; Still, B.; Suda, Y.; Suzuki, A.; Suzuki, K.; Suzuki, S. Y.; Suzuki, Y.; Szeglowski, T.; Tacik, R.; Tada, M.; Takahashi, S.; Takeda, A.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tanaka, H. K.; Tanaka, H. A.; Tanaka, M. M.; Terhorst, D.; Terri, R.; Thompson, L. F.; Thorley, A.; Tobayama, S.; Toki, W.; Tomura, T.; Totsuka, Y.; Touramanis, C.; Tsukamoto, T.; Tzanov, M.; Uchida, Y.; Ueno, K.; Vacheret, A.; Vagins, M.; Vasseur, G.; Wachala, T.; Waldron, A. V.; Walter, C. W.; Wark, D.; Wascko, M. O.; Weber, A.; Wendell, R.; Wilkes, R. J.; Wilking, M. J.; Wilkinson, C.; Williamson, Z.; Wilson, J. R.; Wilson, R. J.; Wongjirad, T.; Yamada, Y.; Yamamoto, K.; Yanagisawa, C.; Yen, S.; Yershov, N.; Yokoyama, M.; Yuan, T.; Yu, M.; Zalewska, A.; Zalipska, J.; Zambelli, L.; Zaremba, K.; Ziembicki, M.; Zimmerman, E. D.; Zito, M.; Żmuda, J.; T2K Collaboration

    2014-05-01

    The T2K experiment has reported the first observation of the appearance of electron neutrinos in a muon neutrino beam. The main and irreducible background to the appearance signal comes from the presence in the neutrino beam of a small intrinsic component of electron neutrinos originating from muon and kaon decays. In T2K, this component is expected to represent 1.2% of the total neutrino flux. A measurement of this component using the near detector (ND280), located 280 m from the target, is presented. The charged current interactions of electron neutrinos are selected by combining the particle identification capabilities of both the time projection chambers and electromagnetic calorimeters of ND280. The measured ratio between the observed electron neutrino beam component and the prediction is 1.01±0.10 providing a direct confirmation of the neutrino fluxes and neutrino cross section modeling used for T2K neutrino oscillation analyses. Electron neutrinos coming from muons and kaons decay are also separately measured, resulting in a ratio with respect to the prediction of 0.68±0.30 and 1.10±0.14, respectively.

  8. A Search for Neutrinos from the Solar hep Reaction and the DiffuseSupernova Neutrino Background with the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Aharmim, B.; Ahmed, S.N.; Anthony, A.E.; Beier, E.W.; Bellerive,A.; Bergevin, M.; Biller, S.D.; Boulay, M.G.; Chan, Y.D.; Chen, M.; Chen,X.; Cleveland, B.T.; Cox, G.A.; Currat, C.A.; Dai, X.; Dalnoki-Veress,F.; Deng, H.; Detwiler, J.; DiMarco, M.; Doe, P.J.; Doucas, G.; Drouin,P.-L.; Duncan, F.A.; Dunford, M.; Dunmore, J.A.; Earle, E.D.; Evans,H.C.; Ewan, G.T.; Farine, J.; Fergani, H.; Fleurot, F.; Ford, R.J.; Formaggio, J.A.; Gagnon, N.; Goon, J.T.M.; Graham, K.; Guillian, E.; Hahn, R.L.; Hallin, A.L.; Hallman, E.D.; Harvey, P.J.; Hazama, R.; Heeger, K.M.; Heintzelman, W.J.; Heise, J.; Helmer, R.L.; Hemingway,R.J.; Henning, R.; Hime, A.; Howard, C.; Howe, M.A.; Huang, M.; Jagam,P.; Jelley, N.A.; Klein, J.R.; Kormos, L.L.; Kos, M.; Krueger, A.; Kraus,C.; Krauss, C.B.; Kutter, T.; Kyba, C.C.M.; Labranche, H.; Lange, R.; Law, J.Lawson.I.T.; Lesko, K.T.; Leslie, J.R.; Loach, J.C.; Luoma, S.; MacLellan, R.; Majerus, S.; Mak, H.B.; Maneira, J.; Marino, A.D.; Martin,R.; McCauley, N.; McDonald, A.B.; McGee, S.; Mifflin, C.; Miknaitis,K.K.S.; Miller, M.L.; Monreal, B.; Nickel, B.G.; Noble, A.J.; Norman,E.B.; Oblath, N.S.; Okada, C.E.; O'Keeffe, H.M.; Orebi Gann, G.D.; Oser,S.M.; Ott, R.; Peeters, S.J.M.; Poon, A.W.P.; Prior, G.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, B.C.; Robertson, R.G.H.; Rollin, E.; Schwendener, M.H.; Secrest, J.A.; Seibert, S.R.; Simard, O.; Sims, C.J.; Sinclair, D.; Skensved, P.; Stokstad, R.G.; Stonehill, L.C.; Tesic, G.; Tolich, N.; Tsui, T.; Van Berg, R.; Van de Water, R.G.; VanDevender, B.A.; Virtue,C.J.; Walker, T.J.; Wall, B.L.; Waller, D.; Wan Chan Tseung, H.; Wark,D.L.; Wendland, J.; West, N.; Wilkerson, J.F.; Wilson, J.R.; Wouters,J.M.; Wright, A.; Yeh, M.; Zhang, F.; Zuber, K.

    2006-08-01

    A search has been made for neutrinos from the hep reactionin the Sun and from the diffuse supernova neutrino background (DSNB)using data collected during the first operational phase of the SudburyNeutrino Observatory, with an exposure of 0.65 kilotonne-years. For thehep neutrino search, two events are observed in the effective electronenergy range of 14.3 MeVneutrino oscillations, an upperlimit of 2.3 x 104 cm-2s-1 at the 90 percent confidence level is inferredon the integral total flux of hep neutrinos. For DSNB neutrinos, noevents are observed in the effective electron energy range of 21 MeVneutrino energy range of 22.9 MeVneutrino flux and by two orders of magnitude on theprevious upper limit on the nu e component of the DSNB flux.

  9. Neutrino-nucleus scattering off 136Xe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ydrefors, E.; Suhonen, J.; Zhao, Y. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Theoretical estimates of the cross sections for the neutrino-nucleus scattering off relevant nuclei for supernova neutrinos are essential for many applications in neutrino physics and astrophysics. The double-β -decaying nucleus 136Xe nucleus is used by the EXO Collaboration in the search for neutrinoless double-β decay. A ton-scale experiment based on 136Xe could also be used for studies of supernova neutrinos and/or solar neutrinos. Purpose: The purpose of the present work is, thus, to perform a study of the charged-current and neutral-current nuclear responses to supernova neutrinos for 136Xe . Method: The cross sections are computed by using the well-established framework for studies of semileptonic processes in nuclei introduced by O'Connell, Donnelly, and Walecka [Phys. Rev. C 6, 719 (1972), 10.1103/PhysRevC.6.719]. The nuclear wave functions of the initial and the final nuclear states for the neutral-current neutrino-nucleus scattering in 136Xe are computed by using the quasiparticle random-phase approximation (QRPA). Similarly, the pnQRPA is adopted to construct the initial and final nuclear states which are relevant for the charged-current reactions. The nuclear responses to supernova neutrinos are subsequently computed by folding the cross sections with appropriate energy spectra for the incoming neutrinos. Results: We present results for the cross sections of the charged-current and neutral-current neutrino and antineutrino scatterings off 136Xe . Nuclear responses to supernova neutrinos are also given. For the considered scenario for the neutrino mixing we have found that neutrino interactions with matter and so-called collective neutrino oscillations enhance significantly the neutrino and antineutrino flux-averaged cross sections. Conclusions: We have found that for the charged-current and neutral-current neutrino scatterings off 136Xe transitions mediated by the 1+ multipole are the most important ones. However, for the charged

  10. Neutrino refraction by the cosmic neutrino background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, J. S.; Klinkhamer, F. R.

    2016-03-01

    We have determined the dispersion relation of a neutrino test particle propagating in the cosmic neutrino background. Describing the relic neutrinos and antineutrinos from the hot big bang as a dense medium, a matter potential or refractive index is obtained. The vacuum neutrino mixing angles are unchanged, but the energy of each mass state is modified. Using a matrix in the space of neutrino species, the induced potential is decomposed into a part which produces signatures in beta-decay experiments and another part which modifies neutrino oscillations. The low temperature of the relic neutrinos makes a direct detection extremely challenging. From a different point of view, the identified refractive effects of the cosmic neutrino background constitute an ultralow background for future experimental studies of nonvanishing Lorentz violation in the neutrino sector.

  11. Solar neutrinos, solar flares, solar activity cycle and the proton decay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raychaudhuri, P.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown that there may be a correlation between the galactic cosmic rays and the solar neutrino data, but it appears that the neutrino flux which may be generated during the large solar cosmic ray events cannot in any way effect the solar neutrino data in Davis experiment. Only initial stage of mixing between the solar core and solar outer layers after the sunspot maximum in the solar activity cycle can explain the higher (run number 27 and 71) of solar neutrino data in Davis experiment. But solar flare induced atmospheric neutrino flux may have effect in the nucleon decay detector on the underground. The neutrino flux from solar cosmic rays may be a useful guide to understand the background of nucleon decay, magnetic monopole search, and the detection of neutrino flux in sea water experiment.

  12. Potential measurements of neutrino-deuterium interactions with the T2K near detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahn, Kendall; T2K Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    Uncertainties on neutrino interactions with matter are important for current and future generation neutrino long baseline experiments, which infer neutrino mixing parameters. Measurements of neutrinos on deuterium constrain neutrino-nucleon interaction models, such as axial form factors, and are relatively free of complicating nuclear effects. Existing measurements of neutrino interaction using deuterium bubble chambers suffer from low statistics and significant systematic uncertainty on neutrino flux production. This talk describes the possibility of modern neutrino-deuterium cross section measurements using modifications to the existing T2K experiment near detector complex. A comparison of data taken with deuterated water and normal water would provide a measurement of neutrino-deuteron interactions with high-intensity neutrino beam. T2K is supported by the Department of Energy.

  13. The status of the solar neutrino problem

    SciTech Connect

    Bowles, T.J.

    1993-12-01

    Perhaps the most outstanding discrepancy between prediction and measurements in current particle physics comes from the solar neutrino problem, in which a large deficit of high-energy solar neutrinos is observed. Many Nonstandard Solar Models have been invoked to try to reduce the predicted flux, but all have run into problems in trying to reproduce other measured parameters (e.g., the luminosity) of the Sun. Other explanations involving new physics such as neutrino decay and neutrino oscillations, etc. have also been proffered. Again, most of these explanations have been ruled out by either laboratory or astrophysical measurements. It appears that perhaps the most likely particle physics solution is that of matter enhanced neutrino oscillation, the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) oscillations. Two new radiochemical gallium experiments, which have a low enough threshold to be sensitive to the dominant flux of low-energy p-p neutrinos, now also report a deficit and also favor a particle physics solution. The next generation of solar experiments promise to finally resolve the source of the ``solar neutrino problem`` by the end of this decade.

  14. Interaction of electron neutrino with LSD detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryazhskaya, O. G.; Semenov, S. V.

    2016-06-01

    The interaction of electron neutrino flux, originating in the rotational collapse mechanism on the first stage of Supernova burst, with the LSD detector components, such as 56Fe (a large amount of this metal is included in as shielding material) and liquid scintillator barNnH2n+2, is being investigated. Both charged and neutral channels of neutrino reaction with 12barN and 56Fe are considered. Experimental data, giving the possibility to extract information for nuclear matrix elements calculation are used. The number of signals, produced in LSD by the neutrino pulse of Supernova 1987A is determined. The obtained results are in good agreement with experimental data.

  15. Neutral-current detectors for the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Hime, A.; SNO Collaboration

    1997-09-01

    With its heavy water target, the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory has the unique opportunity to measure both the {sup 8}B flux of electron neutrinos from the Sun and the flux of all active neutrino species independently, thus offering a direct and model-independent test of a neutrino oscillation solution to the solar neutrino problem. The authors report on the physics intent and design of a discrete method of neutral-current detection in the Sudbury neutrino observatory that will utilize ultra-low background {sup 3}He proportional counters dispersed throughout the heavy water volume. Projections of background in all components of the detector are considered in an analysis of the ability to extract the neutral-current signal and the neutral-current to charged-current ratio.

  16. Chemical potential effects on neutrino diffusion in supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazurek, T. J.

    1975-01-01

    The validity of imposing a zero chemical potential for neutrinos in hydrodynamic calculations of collapsing supernovae is investigated in the diffusion approximation of neutrino transport. A coupled system of equations is solved for neutrino and energy diffusion fluxes as well as lepton diffusion in a collapsing supernovae ambient medium, and the results indicate a substantial growth in the neutrino chemical potential for densities greater than 10 to the 12th power gm/cu cm. The rate of energy transport is shown to be significantly affected by increases in Fermi integrals and chemical-potential gradients accompanied by decreases in temperature, and the extent of neutrino particle/antiparticle reactions is found also to affect energy diffusion rates. It is concluded that the photon-like behavior usually assumed for neutrinos may be incorrect and that an extension of the Sn transport approximation to include lepton characteristics is necessary for a definitive answer to the question of neutrino transport in supernovae.

  17. Solar photons, phonons and neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitre, S. M.

    1998-06-01

    The inside of the Sun is not directly accessible to observations. Nonetheless, it is possible to construct a reasonable picture of its interior with the help of the theory of stellar structure along with the input physics describing a multitude of processes occurring inside the Sun. In order to check the validity of these theoretical models there have been valiant attempts to measure the flux of neutrinos generated in the Sun's energy-generating core. The solar neutrino event rates reported by all the experiments to date have been consistently lower than those predicted by standard solar models. There is now a complementary probe, furnished by the accurately measured helioseismic data which provides stringent constraints on the physical conditions prevailing inside the Sun. It turns out that the helioseismically inferred density and sound speed profiles throughout the Sun's internal layers are close to those obtained with a standard solar model. A cooler solar core is, therefore, not a viable solution to account for the deficit in the measured neutrino fluxes. This leads one to the unavoidable conclusion that the solution to the solar neutrino puzzle should be sought in the realm of particle physics.

  18. Neutrinos from dark matter annihilations at the galactic center

    SciTech Connect

    Bertone, Gianfranco; Orloff, Jean; Silk, Joseph

    2004-09-15

    We discuss the prospects for detection of high energy neutrinos from dark matter (DM) annihilation at the galactic center (GC). Despite the large uncertainties associated with our poor knowledge of the distribution of dark matter in the innermost regions of the Galaxy, we determine an upper limit on the neutrino flux by requiring that the associated gamma-ray emission does not exceed the observed flux. We conclude that a neutrino flux from the GC will not be observable by Antares if dark matter is made of neutralinos with mass smaller than 650 GeV, while for heavier neutralinos, corresponding to models that will soon be probed by HESS (high energy stereoscopic system), the upper limit on the neutrino flux is barely above the Antares sensitivity. The detection of a larger flux would either require an alternative explanation, in terms of astrophysical processes, or the adoption of other dark matter candidates, disfavouring the case for neutralinos.

  19. Neutrinos: Theory and Phenomenology

    SciTech Connect

    Parke, Stephen

    2013-10-22

    The theory and phenomenology of neutrinos will be addressed, especially that relating to the observation of neutrino flavor transformations. The current status and implications for future experiments will be discussed with special emphasis on the experiments that will determine the neutrino mass ordering, the dominant flavor content of the neutrino mass eigenstate with the smallest electron neutrino content and the size of CP violation in the neutrino sector. Beyond the neutrino Standard Model, the evidence for and a possible definitive experiment to confirm or refute the existence of light sterile neutrinos will be briefly discussed.

  20. A standard source for high energy neutrino astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berezinsky, V. S.; Castagnoli, C.; Galeotti, P.

    1985-01-01

    A standard source of high energy neutrinos composed of a source of accelerated particles imbedded in a cloud of low density gas is described. The main mechanism of neutrino production in the source is pp-collision, and the main process of detection is through muons produced underground by the neutrions. The flux of neutrino-produced muons is computed for sources with different spectral index.

  1. Probing neutrino mass hierarchy by comparing the charged-current and neutral-current interaction rates of supernova neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Kwang-Chang; Lee, Fei-Fan; Lee, Feng-Shiuh; Lin, Guey-Lin; Liu, Tsung-Che; Yang, Yi

    2016-07-01

    The neutrino mass hierarchy is one of the neutrino fundamental properties yet to be determined. We introduce a method to determine neutrino mass hierarchy by comparing the interaction rate of neutral current (NC) interactions, ν(bar nu) + p → ν(bar nu) + p, and inverse beta decays (IBD), bar nue + p → n + e+, of supernova neutrinos in scintillation detectors. Neutrino flavor conversions inside the supernova are sensitive to neutrino mass hierarchy. Due to Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effects, the full swapping of bar nue flux with the bar nux (x = μ, τ) one occurs in the inverted hierarchy, while such a swapping does not occur in the normal hierarchy. As a result, more high energy IBD events occur in the detector for the inverted hierarchy than the high energy IBD events in the normal hierarchy. By comparing IBD interaction rate with the mass hierarchy independent NC interaction rate, one can determine the neutrino mass hierarchy.

  2. Constraining absolute neutrino masses via detection of galactic supernova neutrinos at JUNO

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Jia-Shu; Cao, Jun; Li, Yu-Feng; Zhou, Shun

    2015-05-26

    A high-statistics measurement of the neutrinos from a galactic core-collapse supernova is extremely important for understanding the explosion mechanism, and studying the intrinsic properties of neutrinos themselves. In this paper, we explore the possibility to constrain the absolute scale of neutrino masses m{sub ν} via the detection of galactic supernova neutrinos at the Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) with a 20 kiloton liquid-scintillator detector. In assumption of a nearly-degenerate neutrino mass spectrum and a normal mass ordering, the upper bound on the absolute neutrino mass is found to be m{sub ν}<(0.83±0.24) eV at the 95% confidence level for a typical galactic supernova at a distance of 10 kpc, where the mean value and standard deviation are shown to account for statistical fluctuations. For comparison, we find that the bound in the Super-Kamiokande experiment is m{sub ν}<(0.94±0.28) eV at the same confidence level. However, the upper bound will be relaxed when the model parameters characterizing the time structure of supernova neutrino fluxes are not exactly known, and when the neutrino mass ordering is inverted.

  3. Constraining absolute neutrino masses via detection of galactic supernova neutrinos at JUNO

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Jia-Shu; Cao, Jun; Li, Yu-Feng; Zhou, Shun E-mail: caoj@ihep.ac.cn E-mail: zhoush@ihep.ac.cn

    2015-05-01

    A high-statistics measurement of the neutrinos from a galactic core-collapse supernova is extremely important for understanding the explosion mechanism, and studying the intrinsic properties of neutrinos themselves. In this paper, we explore the possibility to constrain the absolute scale of neutrino masses m{sub ν} via the detection of galactic supernova neutrinos at the Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) with a 20 kiloton liquid-scintillator detector. In assumption of a nearly-degenerate neutrino mass spectrum and a normal mass ordering, the upper bound on the absolute neutrino mass is found to be m{sub ν} < (0.83 ± 0.24) eV at the 95% confidence level for a typical galactic supernova at a distance of 10 kpc, where the mean value and standard deviation are shown to account for statistical fluctuations. For comparison, we find that the bound in the Super-Kamiokande experiment is m{sub ν} < (0.94 ± 0.28) eV at the same confidence level. However, the upper bound will be relaxed when the model parameters characterizing the time structure of supernova neutrino fluxes are not exactly known, and when the neutrino mass ordering is inverted.

  4. The Intermediate Neutrino Program

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, C.; et al.

    2015-03-23

    The US neutrino community gathered at the Workshop on the Intermediate Neutrino Program (WINP) at Brookhaven National Laboratory February 4-6, 2015 to explore opportunities in neutrino physics over the next five to ten years. Scientists from particle, astroparticle and nuclear physics participated in the workshop. The workshop examined promising opportunities for neutrino physics in the intermediate term, including possible new small to mid-scale experiments, US contributions to large experiments, upgrades to existing experiments, R&D plans and theory. The workshop was organized into two sets of parallel working group sessions, divided by physics topics and technology. Physics working groups covered topics on Sterile Neutrinos, Neutrino Mixing, Neutrino Interactions, Neutrino Properties and Astrophysical Neutrinos. Technology sessions were organized into Theory, Short-Baseline Accelerator Neutrinos, Reactor Neutrinos, Detector R&D and Source, Cyclotron and Meson Decay at Rest sessions.This report summarizes discussion and conclusions from the workshop.

  5. Neutrino decay and solar neutrino seasonal effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picoreti, R.; Guzzo, M. M.; de Holanda, P. C.; Peres, O. L. G.

    2016-10-01

    We consider the possibility of solar neutrino decay as a sub-leading effect on their propagation between production and detection. Using current oscillation data, we set a new lower bound to the ν2 neutrino lifetime at τ2 /m2 ≥ 7.2 ×10-4s .eV-1 at 99% C.L. Also, we show how seasonal variations in the solar neutrino data can give interesting additional information about neutrino lifetime.

  6. Physics from solar neutrinos in dark matter direct detection experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdeño, David G.; Fairbairn, Malcolm; Jubb, Thomas; Machado, Pedro A. N.; Vincent, Aaron C.; Bœhm, Céline

    2016-05-01

    The next generation of dark matter direct detection experiments will be sensitive to both coherent neutrino-nucleus and neutrino-electron scattering. This will enable them to explore aspects of solar physics, perform the lowest energy measurement of the weak angle sin2 θ W to date, and probe contributions from new theories with light mediators. In this article, we compute the projected nuclear and electron recoil rates expected in several dark matter direct detection experiments due to solar neutrinos, and use these estimates to quantify errors on future measurements of the neutrino fluxes, weak mixing angle and solar observables, as well as to constrain new physics in the neutrino sector. Our analysis shows that the combined rates of solar neutrino events in second generation experiments (SuperCDMS and LZ) can yield a measurement of the pp flux to 2.5% accuracy via electron recoil, and slightly improve the 8B flux determination. Assuming a low-mass argon phase, projected tonne-scale experiments like DARWIN can reduce the uncertainty on both the pp and boron-8 neutrino fluxes to below 1%. Finally, we use current results from LUX, SuperCDMS and CDMSlite to set bounds on new interactions between neutrinos and electrons or nuclei, and show that future direct detection experiments can be used to set complementary constraints on the parameter space associated with light mediators.

  7. Towards the resolution of the solar neutrino problem

    SciTech Connect

    Friedland, Alexander

    2000-08-29

    A number of experiments have accumulated over the years a large amount of solar neutrino data. The data indicate that the observed solar neutrino flux is significantly smaller than expected and, furthermore, that the electron neutrino survival probability is energy dependent. This ''solar neutrino problem'' is best solved by assuming that the electron neutrino oscillates into another neutrino species. Even though one can classify the solar neutrino deficit as strong evidence for neutrino oscillations, it is not yet considered a definitive proof. Traditional objections are that the evidence for solar neutrino oscillations relies on a combination of hard, different experiments, and that the Standard Solar Model (SSM) might not be accurate enough to precisely predict the fluxes of different solar neutrino components. Even though it seems unlikely that modifications to the SSM alone can explain the current solar neutrino data, one still cannot completely discount the possibility that a combination of unknown systematic errors in some of the experiments and certain modifications to the SSM could conspire to yield the observed data. To conclusively demonstrate that there is indeed new physics in solar neutrinos, new experiments are aiming at detecting ''smoking gun'' signatures of neutrino oscillations, such as an anomalous seasonal variation in the observed neutrino flux or a day-night variation due to the regeneration of electron neutrinos in the Earth. In this dissertation we study the sensitivity reach of two upcoming neutrino experiments, Borexino and KamLAND, to both of these effects. Results of neutrino oscillation experiments for the case of two-flavor oscillations have always been presented on the (sin{sup 2} 2{theta}, {Delta}m{sup 2}) parameter space. We point out, however, that this parameterization misses the half of the parameter space {pi}/4 < {theta} {le} {pi}/2, which is physically inequivalent to the region 0 {le} {theta} {le} {pi}/4 in the presence of

  8. IceCube and the Discovery of High-Energy Cosmic Neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halzen, Francis

    2015-04-01

    The IceCube project has transformed one cubic kilometer of natural Antarctic ice into a neutrino detector. The instrument detects 100,000 neutrinos per year in the GeV to PeV energy range. Among those, we have recently isolated a flux of high-energy cosmic neutrinos. I will discuss the instrument, the analysis of the data, and the significance of the discovery of cosmic neutrinos. The observed neutrino flux implies that a significant fraction of the energy in the non-thermal universe, powered by the gravitational energy of compact objects from neutron stars to supermassive black holes, is generated in hadronic accelerators.

  9. Neutrino oscillations with IceCube DeepCore and PINGU

    SciTech Connect

    DeYoung, T.; Collaboration: IceCube-PINGU Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    The IceCube neutrino telescope was augmented with the DeepCore infill array, completed in the 2010/11 austral summer, to enhance its response to neutrinos below 100 GeV. At these energies, neutrino oscillation effects are visible in the flux of atmospheric neutrinos traversing path lengths comparable to the Earth's diameter. Initial measurements of muon neutrino disappearance parameters using data from DeepCore are presented, as well as an estimate of potential future precision. In addition, plans for a Precision IceCube Next Generation Upgrade (PINGU), which could permit determination of the neutrino mass hierarchy within the coming decade, are discussed.

  10. Neutrinos from flat-spectrum radio quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mannheim, K.; Stanev, T.; Biermann, P. L.

    1992-01-01

    The GRO observation (Hartman et al., 1992) of a very strong flux of gamma rays with an energy index close to 2 from the distant quasar 3C279 and other extragalactic flat-spectrum radio sources is in very good agreement with models that advocate the important role of very high energy protons and nuclei in the energy transport in AGN. Protons and nuclei cool by interactions on the nonthermal fields in the nuclear jet of the AGN and generate gamma ray and neutrino fluxes. Ultra high energy neutrinos could be observed with sensitive air shower experiments in outbursts as powerful as the one seen by GRO.

  11. Neutrino in Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirilova, D.

    2010-09-01

    The relic neutrinos from the Big Bang or the Cosmic Neutrino Background (CNB) neutrinos are expected to be the most abundant particles in our universe after the relic photons of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). They carry precious information from the early epoch when our universe was only 1 sec old. Although not yet directly detected, CNB may be revealed indirectly through cosmological observations due to their important cosmological influence. I review the cosmological role of neutrinos and the present cosmological constraints on neutrino characteristics. Namely, I discuss the impact of neutrinos in the cosmic expansion, neutrino decoupling, the role of neutrinos in the primordial production of light elements, their effect on CMB anisotropies, LSS formation, the possible neutrino contribution to the Dark Matter in the universe, leptogenesis, etc. Due to the considerable cosmological influence of neutrinos, cosmological bounds on neutrino properties from observational data exist. I review the cosmological constraints on the neutrino characteristics, such as the effective number of neutrino species, neutrino mass and mixing parameters, lepton number of the universe, gravitational clustering of neutrinos, presence of sterile neutrino, etc.

  12. Neutrinos in Nuclear Physics

    SciTech Connect

    McKeown, Bob

    2015-06-01

    Since the discovery of nuclear beta decay, nuclear physicists have studied the weak interaction and the nature of neutrinos. Many recent and current experiments have been focused on the elucidation of neutrino oscillations and neutrino mass. The quest for the absolute value of neutrino mass continues with higher precision studies of the tritium beta decay spectrum near the endpoint. Neutrino oscillations are studied through measurements of reactor neutrinos as a function of baseline and energy. And experiments searching for neutrinoless double beta decay seek to discover violation of lepton number and establish the Majorana nature of neutrino masses.

  13. Low-energy neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludhova, Livia

    2016-05-01

    There exist several kinds of sources emitting neutrinos in the MeV energy range. These low-energy neutrinos from different sources can be often detected by the same multipurpose detectors. The status-of-art of the field of solar neutrinos, geoneutrinos, and the search for sterile neutrino with artificial neutrino sources is provided here; other neutrino sources, as for example reactor or high-energy neutrinos, are described elsewhere. For each of these three fields, the present-day motivation and open questions, as well as the latest experimental results and future perspectives are discussed.

  14. Neutral Current {nu} Induced Reactions in Nuclei at Supernova Neutrino Energies

    SciTech Connect

    Chauhan, S.; Athar, M. Sajjad; Singh, S. K.

    2011-11-23

    We calculate cross sections for the neutral current induced neutrino/antineutrino reaction from {sup 208}Pb target and applied it to study Supernova neutrino event rates. The calculations are done in local density approximation taking into account Pauli blocking, Fermi motion effects and renormalization of weak transition strengths in the nuclear medium. The numerical results for the neutrino nucleus total cross sections have been averaged over the various Supernova neutrino/antineutrino fluxes available in literature.

  15. Probing the origins of neutrino mass with supernova data.

    PubMed

    Davoudiasl, Hooman; Huber, Patrick

    2005-11-01

    We study type II supernova signatures of neutrino mass generation via symmetry breaking at a scale in the range from keV to MeV. The scalar responsible for symmetry breaking is thermalized in the supernova core and restores the symmetry. The neutrinos from scalar decays have about half the average energy of thermal neutrinos. The Bose-Einstein distribution of the scalars can be established with a megaton water Cerenkov detector. The discovery of the bimodal neutrino flux is, however, well within the reach of the Super-Kamiokande detector, without a detailed knowledge of the supernova parameters.

  16. High energy neutrinos from gamma-ray burst fireballs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamborra, Irene

    2016-05-01

    The diffuse high-energy neutrino emission from long and short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is studied within the fireball emission model. By requiring that the GRB high-energy neutrino counterparts follow up-to-date gamma-ray luminosity functions and redshift evolutions, we find that GRBs could contribute up to a few percents to the observed IceCube high-energy neutrino flux for sub-PeV energies, if the latter has a diffuse origin. Our findings suggest that larger exposure is mandatory to detect neutrinos from GRBs in future stacking searches.

  17. Solar neutrinos and the MSW effect for three-neutrino mixing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shi, X.; Schramm, David N.

    1991-01-01

    Researchers considered three-neutrino Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) mixing, assuming m sub 3 is much greater than m sub 2 is greater than m sub 1 as expected from theoretical consideration if neutrinos have mass. They calculated the corresponding mixing parameter space allowed by the Cl-37 and Kamiokande 2 experiments. They also calculated the expected depletion for the Ga-71 experiment. They explored a range of theoretical uncertainty due to possible astrophysical effects by varying the B-8 neutrino flux and redoing the MSW mixing calculation.

  18. Collective neutrino oscillations in nonspherical geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Dasgupta, Basudeb; Dighe, Amol; Mirizzi, Alessandro; Raffelt, Georg

    2008-08-01

    The rich phenomenology of collective neutrino oscillations has been studied only in one-dimensional or spherically symmetric systems. Motivated by the nonspherical example of coalescing neutron stars, presumably the central engines of short gamma-ray bursts, we use the Liouville equation to formulate the problem for general source geometries. Assuming the neutrino ensemble displays self-maintained coherence, the problem once more becomes effectively one-dimensional along the streamlines of the overall neutrino flux. This approach for the first time provides a formal definition of the 'single-angle approximation' frequently used for supernova neutrinos and allows for a natural generalization to nonspherical geometries. We study the explicit example of a disk-shaped source as a proxy for coalescing neutron stars.

  19. High energy neutrinos from the Fermi bubbles.

    PubMed

    Lunardini, Cecilia; Razzaque, Soebur

    2012-06-01

    Recently the Fermi-LAT data have revealed two gamma-ray emitting bubble-shaped structures at the Galactic center. If the observed gamma rays have hadronic origin (collisions of accelerated protons), the bubbles must emit high energy neutrinos as well. This new, Galactic, neutrino flux should trace the gamma-ray emission in spectrum and spatial extent. Its highest energy part, above 20-50 TeV, is observable at a kilometer-scale detector in the northern hemisphere, such as the planned KM3NeT, while interesting constraints on it could be obtained by the IceCube Neutrino Observatory at the South Pole. The detection or exclusion of neutrinos from the Fermi bubbles will discriminate between hadronic and leptonic models, thus bringing unique information on the still mysterious origin of these objects and on the time scale of their formation.

  20. nuSTORM: Neutrinos from STORed Muons

    SciTech Connect

    Bross, Alan

    2015-05-15

    The results of LSND and MiniBooNE, along with the recent papers on a possible reactor neutrino flux anomaly, give tantalizing hints of new physics. Models beyond the νSM have been developed to explain these results and involve one or more additional neutrinos that are non-interacting or “sterile.” Neutrino beams produced from the decay of muons in a racetrack-like decay ring provide a powerful way to study this potential new physics. In this paper, I will describe the facility, nuSTORM, and an appropriate far detector for neutrino oscillation searches at short baseline. I will present sensitivity plots that indicated that this experimental approach can provide well over 5 σ confirmation or rejection of the LSND/MinBooNE results.

  1. Measurement of neutrino oscillation parameters from muon neutrino disappearance with an off-axis beam.

    PubMed

    Abe, K; Adam, J; Aihara, H; Akiri, T; Andreopoulos, C; Aoki, S; Ariga, A; Ariga, T; Assylbekov, S; Autiero, D; Barbi, M; Barker, G J; Barr, G; Bass, M; Batkiewicz, M; Bay, F; Bentham, S W; Berardi, V; Berger, B E; Berkman, S; Bertram, I; Bhadra, S; Blaszczyk, F D M; Blondel, A; Bojechko, C; Bordoni, S; Boyd, S B; Brailsford, D; Bravar, A; Bronner, C; Buchanan, N; Calland, R G; Caravaca Rodríguez, J; Cartwright, S L; Castillo, R; Catanesi, M G; Cervera, A; Cherdack, D; Christodoulou, G; Clifton, A; Coleman, J; Coleman, S J; Collazuol, G; Connolly, K; Cremonesi, L; Curioni, A; Dabrowska, A; Danko, I; Das, R; Davis, S; de Perio, P; De Rosa, G; Dealtry, T; Dennis, S R; Densham, C; Di Lodovico, F; Di Luise, S; Drapier, O; Duboyski, T; Duffy, K; Dufour, F; Dumarchez, J; Dytman, S; Dziewiecki, M; Emery, S; Ereditato, A; Escudero, L; Finch, A J; Frank, E; Friend, M; Fujii, Y; Fukuda, Y; Furmanski, A P; Galymov, V; Gaudin, A; Giffin, S; Giganti, C; Gilje, K; Golan, T; Gomez-Cadenas, J J; Gonin, M; Grant, N; Gudin, D; Hadley, D R; Haesler, A; Haigh, M D; Hamilton, P; Hansen, D; Hara, T; Hartz, M; Hasegawa, T; Hastings, N C; Hayato, Y; Hearty, C; Helmer, R L; Hierholzer, M; Hignight, J; Hillairet, A; Himmel, A; Hiraki, T; Hirota, S; Holeczek, J; Horikawa, S; Huang, K; Ichikawa, A K; Ieki, K; Ieva, M; Ikeda, M; Imber, J; Insler, J; Irvine, T J; Ishida, T; Ishii, T; Ives, S J; Iyogi, K; Izmaylov, A; Jacob, A; Jamieson, B; Johnson, R A; Jo, J H; Jonsson, P; Joo, K K; Jung, C K; Kaboth, A C; Kajita, T; Kakuno, H; Kameda, J; Kanazawa, Y; Karlen, D; Karpikov, I; Kearns, E; Khabibullin, M; Khotjantsev, A; Kielczewska, D; Kikawa, T; Kilinski, A; Kim, J; Kim, S B; Kisiel, J; Kitching, P; Kobayashi, T; Kogan, G; Kolaceke, A; Konaka, A; Kormos, L L; Korzenev, A; Koseki, K; Koshio, Y; Kreslo, I; Kropp, W; Kubo, H; Kudenko, Y; Kumaratunga, S; Kurjata, R; Kutter, T; Lagoda, J; Laihem, K; Laveder, M; Lawe, M; Lazos, M; Lee, K P; Licciardi, C; Lim, I T; Lindner, T; Lister, C; Litchfield, R P; Longhin, A; Lopez, G D; Ludovici, L; Macaire, M; Magaletti, L; Mahn, K; Malek, M; Manly, S; Marino, A D; Marteau, J; Martin, J F; Maruyama, T; Marzec, J; Masliah, P; Mathie, E L; Matveev, V; Mavrokoridis, K; Mazzucato, E; McCarthy, M; McCauley, N; McFarland, K S; McGrew, C; Metelko, C; Mijakowski, P; Miller, C A; Minamino, A; Mineev, O; Mine, S; Missert, A; Miura, M; Monfregola, L; Moriyama, S; Mueller, Th A; Murakami, A; Murdoch, M; Murphy, S; Myslik, J; Nagasaki, T; Nakadaira, T; Nakahata, M; Nakai, T; Nakamura, K; Nakayama, S; Nakaya, T; Nakayoshi, K; Naples, D; Nielsen, C; Nirkko, M; Nishikawa, K; Nishimura, Y; O'Keeffe, H M; Ohta, R; Okumura, K; Okusawa, T; Oryszczak, W; Oser, S M; Otani, M; Owen, R A; Oyama, Y; Pac, M Y; Palladino, V; Paolone, V; Payne, D; Pearce, G F; Perevozchikov, O; Perkin, J D; Petrov, Y; Pinzon Guerra, E S; Pistillo, C; Plonski, P; Poplawska, E; Popov, B; Posiadala, M; Poutissou, J-M; Poutissou, R; Przewlocki, P; Quilain, B; Radicioni, E; Ratoff, P N; Ravonel, M; Rayner, M A M; Redij, A; Reeves, M; Reinherz-Aronis, E; Retiere, F; Robert, A; Rodrigues, P A; Rondio, E; Roth, S; Rubbia, A; Ruterbories, D; Sacco, R; Sakashita, K; Sánchez, F; Sato, F; Scantamburlo, E; Scholberg, K; Schwehr, J; Scott, M; Seiya, Y; Sekiguchi, T; Sekiya, H; Sgalaberna, D; Shiozawa, M; Short, S; Shustrov, Y; Sinclair, P; Smith, B; Smith, R J; Smy, M; Sobczyk, J T; Sobel, H; Sorel, M; Southwell, L; Stamoulis, P; Steinmann, J; Still, B; Suda, Y; Suzuki, A; Suzuki, K; Suzuki, S Y; Suzuki, Y; Szeglowski, T; Tacik, R; Tada, M; Takahashi, S; Takeda, A; Takeuchi, Y; Tanaka, H K; Tanaka, H A; Tanaka, M M; Taylor, I J; Terhorst, D; Terri, R; Thompson, L F; Thorley, A; Tobayama, S; Toki, W; Tomura, T; Totsuka, Y; Touramanis, C; Tsukamoto, T; Tzanov, M; Uchida, Y; Ueno, K; Vacheret, A; Vagins, M; Vasseur, G; Wachala, T; Waldron, A V; Walter, C W; Wark, D; Wascko, M O; Weber, A; Wendell, R; Wilkes, R J; Wilking, M J; Wilkinson, C; Williamson, Z; Wilson, J R; Wilson, R J; Wongjirad, T; Yamada, Y; Yamamoto, K; Yanagisawa, C; Yen, S; Yershov, N; Yokoyama, M; Yuan, T; Zalewska, A; Zalipska, J; Zambelli, L; Zaremba, K; Ziembicki, M; Zimmerman, E D; Zito, M; Zmuda, J

    2013-11-22

    The T2K Collaboration reports a precision measurement of muon neutrino disappearance with an off-axis neutrino beam with a peak energy of 0.6 GeV. Near detector measurements are used to constrain the neutrino flux and cross section parameters. The Super-Kamiokande far detector, which is 295 km downstream of the neutrino production target, collected data corresponding to 3.01×10(20) protons on target. In the absence of neutrino oscillations, 205±17 (syst) events are expected to be detected while only 58 muon neutrino event candidates are observed. A fit to the neutrino rate and energy spectrum, assuming three neutrino flavors and normal mass hierarchy yields a best-fit mixing angle sin2(θ23)=0.514±0.082 and mass splitting |Δm(32)(2)|=2.44(-0.15)(+0.17)×10(-3) eV2/c4. Our result corresponds to the maximal oscillation disappearance probability.

  2. The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory: Observation of Flavor Change for Solar Neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, A. B.

    2016-03-01

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) detector was developed by an international scientific collaboration (Canada, US, UK) to use 1000 tonnes of heavy water 2 km underground in ultra-clean conditions to observe flavor change for solar neutrinos from 8B decay in the sun. A clear observation of neutrino change was obtained by comparing two neutrino reactions on deuterium, one sensitive only to electron flavor neutrinos and one sensitive equally to all active neutrino types. The design and construction and the operation and data analysis for the three separate phases of the experiment will be described. The initial phase with pure heavy water provided conclusive evidence for flavor change and hence finite mass for neutrinos. Subsequent phases within added NaCl and with an array of neutron detectors provided improved accuracy for the measurements of oscillation parameters. The observed total flux of 8B solar electron neutrinos is in excellent agreement with and more accurate than solar models. Modification of the SNO detector to create SNO + and expansion of the laboratory to create a long-term international underground laboratory, SNOLAB, will be briefly described.

  3. Measurement of Neutrino Oscillation Parameters from Muon Neutrino Disappearance with an Off-Axis Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, K.; Adam, J.; Aihara, H.; Akiri, T.; Andreopoulos, C.; Aoki, S.; Ariga, A.; Ariga, T.; Assylbekov, S.; Autiero, D.; Barbi, M.; Barker, G. J.; Barr, G.; Bass, M.; Batkiewicz, M.; Bay, F.; Bentham, S. W.; Berardi, V.; Berger, B. E.; Berkman, S.; Bertram, I.; Bhadra, S.; Blaszczyk, F. d. M.; Blondel, A.; Bojechko, C.; Bordoni, S.; Boyd, S. B.; Brailsford, D.; Bravar, A.; Bronner, C.; Buchanan, N.; Calland, R. G.; Caravaca Rodríguez, J.; Cartwright, S. L.; Castillo, R.; Catanesi, M. G.; Cervera, A.; Cherdack, D.; Christodoulou, G.; Clifton, A.; Coleman, J.; Coleman, S. J.; Collazuol, G.; Connolly, K.; Cremonesi, L.; Curioni, A.; Dabrowska, A.; Danko, I.; Das, R.; Davis, S.; de Perio, P.; De Rosa, G.; Dealtry, T.; Dennis, S. R.; Densham, C.; Di Lodovico, F.; Di Luise, S.; Drapier, O.; Duboyski, T.; Duffy, K.; Dufour, F.; Dumarchez, J.; Dytman, S.; Dziewiecki, M.; Emery, S.; Ereditato, A.; Escudero, L.; Finch, A. J.; Frank, E.; Friend, M.; Fujii, Y.; Fukuda, Y.; Furmanski, A. P.; Galymov, V.; Gaudin, A.; Giffin, S.; Giganti, C.; Gilje, K.; Golan, T.; Gomez-Cadenas, J. J.; Gonin, M.; Grant, N.; Gudin, D.; Hadley, D. R.; Haesler, A.; Haigh, M. D.; Hamilton, P.; Hansen, D.; Hara, T.; Hartz, M.; Hasegawa, T.; Hastings, N. C.; Hayato, Y.; Hearty, C.; Helmer, R. L.; Hierholzer, M.; Hignight, J.; Hillairet, A.; Himmel, A.; Hiraki, T.; Hirota, S.; Holeczek, J.; Horikawa, S.; Huang, K.; Ichikawa, A. K.; Ieki, K.; Ieva, M.; Ikeda, M.; Imber, J.; Insler, J.; Irvine, T. J.; Ishida, T.; Ishii, T.; Ives, S. J.; Iyogi, K.; Izmaylov, A.; Jacob, A.; Jamieson, B.; Johnson, R. A.; Jo, J. H.; Jonsson, P.; Joo, K. K.; Jung, C. K.; Kaboth, A. C.; Kajita, T.; Kakuno, H.; Kameda, J.; Kanazawa, Y.; Karlen, D.; Karpikov, I.; Kearns, E.; Khabibullin, M.; Khotjantsev, A.; Kielczewska, D.; Kikawa, T.; Kilinski, A.; Kim, J.; Kim, S. B.; Kisiel, J.; Kitching, P.; Kobayashi, T.; Kogan, G.; Kolaceke, A.; Konaka, A.; Kormos, L. L.; Korzenev, A.; Koseki, K.; Koshio, Y.; Kreslo, I.; Kropp, W.; Kubo, H.; Kudenko, Y.; Kumaratunga, S.; Kurjata, R.; Kutter, T.; Lagoda, J.; Laihem, K.; Laveder, M.; Lawe, M.; Lazos, M.; Lee, K. P.; Licciardi, C.; Lim, I. T.; Lindner, T.; Lister, C.; Litchfield, R. P.; Longhin, A.; Lopez, G. D.; Ludovici, L.; Macaire, M.; Magaletti, L.; Mahn, K.; Malek, M.; Manly, S.; Marino, A. D.; Marteau, J.; Martin, J. F.; Maruyama, T.; Marzec, J.; Masliah, P.; Mathie, E. L.; Matveev, V.; Mavrokoridis, K.; Mazzucato, E.; McCarthy, M.; McCauley, N.; McFarland, K. S.; McGrew, C.; Metelko, C.; Mijakowski, P.; Miller, C. A.; Minamino, A.; Mineev, O.; Mine, S.; Missert, A.; Miura, M.; Monfregola, L.; Moriyama, S.; Mueller, Th. A.; Murakami, A.; Murdoch, M.; Murphy, S.; Myslik, J.; Nagasaki, T.; Nakadaira, T.; Nakahata, M.; Nakai, T.; Nakamura, K.; Nakayama, S.; Nakaya, T.; Nakayoshi, K.; Naples, D.; Nielsen, C.; Nirkko, M.; Nishikawa, K.; Nishimura, Y.; O'Keeffe, H. M.; Ohta, R.; Okumura, K.; Okusawa, T.; Oryszczak, W.; Oser, S. M.; Otani, M.; Owen, R. A.; Oyama, Y.; Pac, M. Y.; Palladino, V.; Paolone, V.; Payne, D.; Pearce, G. F.; Perevozchikov, O.; Perkin, J. D.; Petrov, Y.; Pinzon Guerra, E. S.; Pistillo, C.; Plonski, P.; Poplawska, E.; Popov, B.; Posiadala, M.; Poutissou, J.-M.; Poutissou, R.; Przewlocki, P.; Quilain, B.; Radicioni, E.; Ratoff, P. N.; Ravonel, M.; Rayner, M. A. M.; Redij, A.; Reeves, M.; Reinherz-Aronis, E.; Retiere, F.; Robert, A.; Rodrigues, P. A.; Rondio, E.; Roth, S.; Rubbia, A.; Ruterbories, D.; Sacco, R.; Sakashita, K.; Sánchez, F.; Sato, F.; Scantamburlo, E.; Scholberg, K.; Schwehr, J.; Scott, M.; Seiya, Y.; Sekiguchi, T.; Sekiya, H.; Sgalaberna, D.; Shiozawa, M.; Short, S.; Shustrov, Y.; Sinclair, P.; Smith, B.; Smith, R. J.; Smy, M.; Sobczyk, J. T.; Sobel, H.; Sorel, M.; Southwell, L.; Stamoulis, P.; Steinmann, J.; Still, B.; Suda, Y.; Suzuki, A.; Suzuki, K.; Suzuki, S. Y.; Suzuki, Y.; Szeglowski, T.; Tacik, R.; Tada, M.; Takahashi, S.; Takeda, A.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tanaka, H. K.; Tanaka, H. A.; Tanaka, M. M.; Taylor, I. J.; Terhorst, D.; Terri, R.; Thompson, L. F.; Thorley, A.; Tobayama, S.; Toki, W.; Tomura, T.; Totsuka, Y.; Touramanis, C.; Tsukamoto, T.; Tzanov, M.; Uchida, Y.; Ueno, K.; Vacheret, A.; Vagins, M.; Vasseur, G.; Wachala, T.; Waldron, A. V.; Walter, C. W.; Wark, D.; Wascko, M. O.; Weber, A.; Wendell, R.; Wilkes, R. J.; Wilking, M. J.; Wilkinson, C.; Williamson, Z.; Wilson, J. R.; Wilson, R. J.; Wongjirad, T.; Yamada, Y.; Yamamoto, K.; Yanagisawa, C.; Yen, S.; Yershov, N.; Yokoyama, M.; Yuan, T.; Zalewska, A.; Zalipska, J.; Zambelli, L.; Zaremba, K.; Ziembicki, M.; Zimmerman, E. D.; Zito, M.; Żmuda, J.

    2013-11-01

    The T2K Collaboration reports a precision measurement of muon neutrino disappearance with an off-axis neutrino beam with a peak energy of 0.6 GeV. Near detector measurements are used to constrain the neutrino flux and cross section parameters. The Super-Kamiokande far detector, which is 295 km downstream of the neutrino production target, collected data corresponding to 3.01×1020 protons on target. In the absence of neutrino oscillations, 205±17 (syst) events are expected to be detected while only 58 muon neutrino event candidates are observed. A fit to the neutrino rate and energy spectrum, assuming three neutrino flavors and normal mass hierarchy yields a best-fit mixing angle sin⁡2(θ23)=0.514±0.082 and mass splitting |Δm322|=2.44-0.15+0.17×10-3eV2/c4. Our result corresponds to the maximal oscillation disappearance probability.

  4. Hadron production measurements for neutrino physics

    SciTech Connect

    Panman, Jaap

    2008-02-21

    One of the limiting factors for the precision of neutrino oscillation experiments is the uncertainty in the composition and spectrum of the neutrino flux. Recently, dedicated hadron production experiments have been taking data and are being planned to supply measurements which can significantly reduce these uncertainties. The HARP experiment has presented results on the measurements of the double-differential production cross-section of charged pions in proton interactions with beryllium, carbon, aluminium, copper, tin, tantalum and lead targets. These results are relevant for a detailed understanding of neutrino flux in accelerator neutrino experiments K2K (p-Al data) and MiniBooNE/SciBooNE (p-Be data), for a better prediction of atmospheric neutrino fluxes (p-C, {pi}{sup +}-C and {pi}{sup -}-C data) as well as for a systematic improvement of hadron production models. The E910 experiment at BNL has recently published their p-Be data. NA49 has measured pion production spectra in p-C interactions and a new experiment, NA61, is starting to take data using essentially the same detector. NA61 plans to measure production spectra for the T2K experiment and for the calculation of extended air showers. MIPP has taken data with a copy of the NuMI target and is progressing in the analysis of these data. An upgrade of the readout of this experiment can greatly increase its potential.

  5. Low-energy neutrinos at off-axis from a standard beta beam

    SciTech Connect

    Lazauskas, R.; Volpe, C.; Balantekin, A. B.; Jesus, J. H. de

    2007-09-01

    We discuss a scenario to extract up to 150 MeV neutrinos at a standard beta-beam facility using one and two detectors off-axis. In particular we show that the high-energy component of the neutrino fluxes can be subtracted through a specific combination of the response of two off-axis detectors. A systematic analysis of the neutrino fluxes using different detector geometries is presented, as well as a comparison with the expected fluxes at a low-energy beta-beam facility. The presented option could offer an alternative way to perform low-energy neutrino experiments.

  6. The impact of Borexino on the solar and neutrino physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellini, Gianpaolo

    2016-07-01

    The Borexino detector is characterized by a very low background level due to an unprecedented radio-purity, which allows to study the entire spectrum of solar neutrinos from very low energies (∼150 keV). The solar neutrino rates from pp, 7Be, pep, 8B (with a threshold down to 3 MeV) and a stringent limit of the CNO cycle rate have been already measured. In addition evidences of a null day/night asymmetry and of the solar neutrino flux seasonal variation have been reached. The contribution provided until now by Borexino in understanding the neutrino oscillation phenomenon concerns the first evidence of the oscillation in vacuum and the determination of the νe survival probability in vacuum: these results validate the paradigmatic MSW model in the vacuum regime. The Borexino results are also in good agreement with the Standard Solar Model predictions, but the metallicity puzzle is still unsolved. In addition the pp flux measured by Borexino shows a good agreement with the Solar luminosity. Evidence of geo-neutrinos has been also obtained at the level of 5.9σ C.L. Borexino is still taking data in order to: upgrade the precision of the solar neutrino rates already measured, increase the sensitivity to the neutrino flux from the CNO cycle and hopefully measure it (very challenging), and test the existence of very short base-line neutrino oscillations.

  7. Solar neutrinos and the influence of radiative opacities on solar models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carson, T. R.; Ezer, D.; Stothers, R.

    1973-01-01

    Use of new radiative opacities based on the hot Thomas-Fermi model of the atom yields a predicted solar neutrino flux which is still considerably larger than the flux observed in Davis's Cl-37 experiment.

  8. A search for cosmic sources of high energy neutrinos with small underground detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berezinsky, V. S.; Castagnoli, C.; Galeotti, P.

    1985-01-01

    On the basis of standard source calculations of high energy neutrino fluxes, some models of astrophysical object (single stars and binary systems) are discussed from which a detectable muon flux is expected in small underground detectors.

  9. Neutrinos in IceCube from active galactic nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Kalashev, O.; Semikoz, D.; Tkachev, I.

    2015-03-15

    Recently, the IceCube collaboration reported first evidence for the astrophysical neutrinos. Observation corresponds to the total astrophysical neutrino flux of the order of 3 × 10{sup −8} GeV cm{sup −2} s{sup −1} sr{sup −1} in a PeV energy range [1]. Active galactic nuclei (AGN) are natural candidate sources for such neutrinos. To model the neutrino creation in AGNs, we study photopion production processes on the radiation field of the Shakura-Sunyaev accretion discs in the black hole vicinity. We show that this model can explain the detected neutrino flux and at the same time avoids the existing constraints from the gamma-ray and cosmic-ray observations.

  10. Status of the Borexino Solar Neutrino Experiment, 2006

    SciTech Connect

    McCarty, Kevin B.

    2006-11-17

    The Borexino experiment is designed to measure the flux of 7Be solar neutrinos. The experiment, having a 100-ton fiducial volume of organic liquid scintillator, should detect roughly 35 neutrinos per day in the energy range 250 - 1300 keV, a range lower than that of any previous real-time neutrino detector. Though the 862-keV 7Be neutrinos make up roughly 10% of the total solar neutrino flux, they have not previously been directly observed. Their energy is at a delicate point for confirmation of the vacuum-to-matter oscillation transition. In these proceedings, I will present the status of the Borexino experiment as of August 2006, as we prepare for final filling of the detector.

  11. Neutrino Oscillations with Three Active and Three Sterile Neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisslinger, Leonard S.

    2016-07-01

    This is an extension of estimates of the probability of μ to e neutrino oscillation with one sterile neutrino to three sterile neutrinos, using a 6x6 matrix. Since the mixing angle for only one sterile neutrino has been experimentally determined, we estimate the μ to e neutrino oscillation probability with different mixing angles for two of the sterile neutrinos.

  12. Muon-decay medium-baseline neutrino beam facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Jun; He, Miao; Hou, Zhi-Long; Jing, Han-Tao; Li, Yu-Feng; Li, Zhi-Hui; Song, Ying-Peng; Tang, Jing-Yu; Wang, Yi-Fang; Wu, Qian-Fan; Yuan, Ye; Zheng, Yang-Heng

    2014-09-01

    Neutrino beam with about 300 MeV in energy, high-flux and medium baseline is considered a rational choice for measuring CP violation before the more powerful Neutrino Factory is to be built. Following this concept, a unique neutrino beam facility based on muon-decayed neutrinos is proposed. The facility adopts a continuous-wave proton linac of 1.5 GeV and 10 mA as the proton driver, which can deliver an extremely high beam power of 15 MW. Instead of pion-decayed neutrinos, unprecedentedly intense muon-decayed neutrinos are used for better background discrimination. The schematic design for the facility is presented here, including the proton driver, the assembly of a mercury-jet target and capture superconducting solenoids, a pion /muon beam transport line, a long muon decay channel of about 600 m and the detector concept. The physics prospects and the technical challenges are also discussed.

  13. SEARCHES FOR POINT-LIKE AND EXTENDED NEUTRINO SOURCES CLOSE TO THE GALACTIC CENTER USING THE ANTARES NEUTRINO TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; Ardid, M.; Bou-Cabo, M.; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Aubert, J.-J.; Bertin, V.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Basa, S.; Biagi, S.; Capone, A.; and others

    2014-05-01

    A search for cosmic neutrino sources using six years of data collected by the ANTARES neutrino telescope has been performed. Clusters of muon neutrinos over the expected atmospheric background have been looked for. No clear signal has been found. The most signal-like accumulation of events is located at equatorial coordinates R.A. = –46.°8 and decl. = –64.°9 and corresponds to a 2.2σ background fluctuation. In addition, upper limits on the flux normalization of an E {sup –2} muon neutrino energy spectrum have been set for 50 pre-selected astrophysical objects. Finally, motivated by an accumulation of seven events relatively close to the Galactic Center in the recently reported neutrino sample of the IceCube telescope, a search for point sources in a broad region around this accumulation has been carried out. No indication of a neutrino signal has been found in the ANTARES data and upper limits on the flux normalization of an E {sup –2} energy spectrum of neutrinos from point sources in that region have been set. The 90% confidence level upper limits on the muon neutrino flux normalization vary between 3.5 and 5.1 × 10{sup –8} GeV cm{sup –2} s{sup –1}, depending on the exact location of the source.

  14. A Measurement of Neutrino Charged Current Interactions and a Search for Muon Neutrino Disappearance with the Fermilab Booster Neutrino Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Nakajima, Yasuhiro

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis, we report on a measurement of muon neutrino inclusive charged current interactions on carbon in the few GeV region, using the Fermilab Booster Neutrino Beam. The all neutrino mode data collected in the SciBooNE experiment is used for this analysis. We collected high-statistics CC interaction sample at SciBooNE, and extracted energy dependent inclusive charged current interaction rates and cross sections for a wide energy range from 0.25 GeV to ~3 GeV. We measure the interaction rates with 6-15% precision, and the cross sections with 10-30% precision. We also made an energy integrated measurements, with the precisions of 3% for the rate, and 8% for the cross section measurements. This is the first measurement of the CC inclusive cross section on carbon around 1 GeV. This inclusive interaction measurement is nearly free from effects of hadron re-interactions in the nucleus. Hence, it is complementary to other exclusive cross section measurements, and essential to understand the neutrino interaction cross sections in the few GeV region, which is relevant to ongoing and future neutrino oscillation experiments. This analysis also provides the normalization for SciBooNE's previous cross section ratio measurements for charged current coherent pion production and neutral current neutral pion production. Then, a precise comparison between our previous measurements and the model predictions becomes possible. The result of the interaction rate measurement is used to constrain the product of the neutrino flux and the cross section at the other experiment on the Fermilab Booster Neutrino Beam: Mini-BooNE. We conducted a search for short-baseline muon neutrino disappearance using data both from SciBooNE and MiniBooNE, to test a possible neutrino oscillation with sterile neutrinos which is suggested by the LSND experiment. With this constraint by SciBooNE, we significantly reduced the flux and the cross section uncertainties at MiniBooNE, and achieved the world

  15. Solar neutrino physics with low-threshold dark matter detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billard, J.; Strigari, L. E.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.

    2015-05-01

    Dark matter detectors will soon be sensitive to Solar neutrinos via two distinct channels: coherent neutrino-nucleus and neutrino-electron elastic scatterings. We establish an analysis method for extracting Solar model properties and neutrino properties from these measurements, including the possible effects of sterile neutrinos which have been hinted at by some reactor experiments and cosmological measurements. Even including sterile neutrinos, through the coherent scattering channel, a 1 ton-year exposure with a low-threshold background free Germanium detector could improve on the current measurement of the normalization of the B 8 Solar neutrino flux down to 3% or less. Combining with the neutrino-electron elastic scattering data will provide constraints on both the high- and low-energy survival probability and will improve on the uncertainty on the active-to-sterile mixing angle by a factor of 2. This sensitivity to active-to-sterile transitions is competitive and complementary to forthcoming dedicated short baseline sterile neutrino searches with nuclear decays. Finally, we show that such solar neutrino physics potentials can be reached as long as the signal-to-noise ratio is better than 0.1.

  16. Neutrino Physics at Fermilab

    ScienceCinema

    Saoulidou, Niki

    2016-07-12

    Neutrino oscillations provide the first evidence for physics beyond the Standard Model. I will briefly overview the neutrino "hi-story", describing key discoveries over the past decades that shaped our understanding of neutrinos and their behavior. Fermilab was, is and hopefully will be at the forefront of the accelerator neutrino experiments.  NuMI, the most powerful accelerator neutrino beam in the world has ushered us into the era of precise measurements. Its further upgrades may give a chance to tackle the remaining mysteries of the neutrino mass hierarchy and possible CP violation.

  17. Neutrino Nucleosynthesis in Supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, Takashi; Suzuki, Toshio; Chiba, Satoshi; Kajino, Toshitaka; Yokomakura, Hidekazu; Kimura, Keiichi; Takamura, Akira; Hartmann, Dieter H.

    2009-05-04

    Neutrino nucleosynthesis is an important synthesis process for light elements in supernovae. One important physics input of neutrino nucleosynthesis is cross sections of neutrino-nucleus reactions. The cross sections of neutrino-{sup 12}C and {sup 4}He reactions are derived using new shell model Hamiltonians. With the new cross sections, light element synthesis of a supernova is investigated. The appropriate range of the neutrino temperature for supernovae is constrained to be between 4.3 MeV and 6.5 MeV from the {sup 11}B abundance in Galactic chemical evolution. Effects by neutrino oscillations are also discussed.

  18. A spherical collapse solution with neutrino outflow

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, E.N. )

    1990-08-01

    A three-parameter family of solutions of Einstein's field equations is given that represents a collapsing perfect fluid with outgoing neutrino flux. Solutions with naked'' singularities are exhibited. They can be forbidden by requiring pressure less than or equal to the density as a condition of cosmic censorship.

  19. Neutrino measurements from the Sun and Earth: Results from Borexino

    SciTech Connect

    Bellini, G.; Caccianiga, B.; D’Angelo, D.; Giammarchi, M.; Lombardi, P.; Ludhova, L.; Meroni, E.; Miramonti, L.; Ranucci, G. Re, A.; Benziger, J.; Bick, D.; Hagner, C.; Meyer, M.; Bonfini, G.; Cavalcante, P.; Gabriele, F.; Gazzana, S.; Ianni, Aldo; Laubenstein, M.; and others

    2015-07-15

    Important neutrino results came recently from Borexino, a massive, calorimetric liquid scintillator detector installed at the underground Gran Sasso Laboratory. With its unprecedented radiopurity levels achieved in the core of the detection medium, it is the only experiment in operation able to study in real time solar neutrino interactions in the challenging sub-MeV energy region. The recently achieved breakthrough observation of the fundamental pp flux, the precise measurement of the {sup 7}Be solar neutrino flux, and the results concerning the pep, {sup 8}B and CNO fluxes, together with their physics implications, are described in this work. Moreover, the detector has also provided a clean detection of terrestrial neutrinos, from which they emerge as a new probe of the interior of the Earth.

  20. Implications of Fermi-LAT observations on the origin of IceCube neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Bin; Li, Zhuo; Zhao, Xiaohong E-mail: zhaoxh@ynao.ac.cn

    2014-11-01

    The IceCube (IC) collaboration recently reported the detection of TeV-PeV extraterrestrial neutrinos whose origin is yet unknown. By the photon-neutrino connection in pp and pγ interactions, we use the Fermi-LAT observations to constrain the origin of the IC detected neutrinos. We find that Galactic origins, i.e., the diffuse Galactic neutrinos due to cosmic ray (CR) propagation in the Milky Way, and the neutrinos from the Galactic point sources, may not produce the IC neutrino flux, thus these neutrinos should be of extragalactic origin. Moreover, the extragalactic gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) may not account for the IC neutrino flux, the jets of active galactic nuclei may not produce the IC neutrino spectrum, but the starburst galaxies (SBGs) may be promising sources. As suggested by the consistency between the IC detected neutrino flux and the Waxman-Bahcall bound, GRBs in SBGs may be the sources of both the ultrahigh energy, ∼> 10{sup 19}eV, CRs and the 1–100 PeV CRs that produce the IC detected TeV-PeV neutrinos.

  1. Solar Neutrino Problem

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Davis, R. Jr.; Evans, J. C.; Cleveland, B. T.

    1978-04-28

    A summary of the results of the Brookhaven solar neutrino experiment is given and discussed in relation to solar model calculations. A review is given of the merits of various new solar neutrino detectors that were proposed.

  2. Supernova neutrino detection

    SciTech Connect

    Scholberg, K.

    2015-07-15

    In this presentation I summarize the main detection channels for neutrinos from core-collapse supernovae, and describe current status of and future prospects for supernova-neutrino-sensitive detectors worldwide.

  3. Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment Sensitivity Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norrick, Anne; LBNE Collaboration

    2011-04-01

    The Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) will address the neutrino mass hierarchy, leptonic CP violation, and the value of the mixing angle Theta13 with unprecedented sensitivity. Protons from the Fermilab Main Injector will impinge on a target to create intense fluxes of charged pions and other mesons. The mesons will be guided down a 250 m length of pipe where they will decay creating a muon neutrino beam. The beam will pass through a near detector and travel on to massive detectors located in the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Lab (DUSEL) in Western South Dakota. The near detector at Fermilab will measure the absolute flux of neutrinos before oscillation, and measure signal and background processes in the poorly understood GeV neutrino energy range. To quantify the potential sensitivity of this experiment and the specific needs of the near detector, simulation work has been undertaken. In particular, results of studies using a more sophisticated understanding of various background processes will be presented. Additionally, hardware work for a possible near detector design will be presented.

  4. Galactic sources of high energy neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aharonian, Felix

    2011-12-01

    The undisputed galactic origin of cosmic rays at energies below the so-called knee implies an existence of a nonthemal population of galactic objects which effectively accelerate protons and nuclei to TeV-PeV energies. The distinct signatures of these cosmic PeVatrons are high energy neutrinos and γ-rays produced through hadronic interactions. While γ-rays can be produced also by directly accelerated electrons, high energy neutrinos provide the most straightforward and unambiguous information about the nucleonic component of accelerated particles. The planned km3-volume class high energy neutrino detectors are expected to be sensitive enough to provide the first astrophysically meaningful probes of potential VHE neutrino sources. This optimistic prediction is based on the recent discovery of high energy γ-ray sources with hard energy spectra extending to 10 TeV and beyond. Amongst the best-bet candidates are two young shell-type supernova remnants - RXJ 1713.7-4946 and RXJ 0852.0-4622, and perhaps also two prominent plerions - the Crab Nebula and Vela X. Because of strong absorption of TeV γ-rays, one may expect detectable neutrino fluxes also from (somewhat fainter) compact TeV γ-ray emitters like the binary systems LS 5039 and LS I+61 303, and, hopefully, also from hypothetical "hidden" or "orphan" neutrino sources.

  5. Geo-neutrino Observation

    SciTech Connect

    Dye, S. T.; Alderman, M.; Batygov, M.; Learned, J. G.; Matsuno, S.; Mahoney, J. M.; Pakvasa, S.; Rosen, M.; Smith, S.; Varner, G.; McDonough, W. F.

    2009-12-17

    Observations of geo-neutrinos measure radiogenic heat production within the earth, providing information on the thermal history and dynamic processes of the mantle. Two detectors currently observe geo-neutrinos from underground locations. Other detection projects in various stages of development include a deep ocean observatory. This paper presents the current status of geo-neutrino observation and describes the scientific capabilities of the deep ocean observatory, with emphasis on geology and neutrino physics.

  6. Neutrino Oscillation Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Kayser, Boris

    2012-06-01

    To complement the neutrino-physics lectures given at the 2011 International School on Astro Particle Physics devoted to Neutrino Physics and Astrophysics (ISAPP 2011; Varenna, Italy), at the 2011 European School of High Energy Physics (ESHEP 2011; Cheila Gradistei, Romania), and, in modified form, at other summer schools, we present here a written description of the physics of neutrino oscillation. This description is centered on a new way of deriving the oscillation probability. We also provide a brief guide to references relevant to topics other than neutrino oscillation that were covered in the lectures. Neutrinos and photons are by far the most abundant elementary particles in the universe. Thus, if we would like to comprehend the universe, we must understand the neutrinos. Of course, studying the neutrinos is challenging, since the only known forces through which these electrically-neutral leptons interact are the weak force and gravity. Consequently, interactions of neutrinos in a detector are very rare events, so that very large detectors and intense neutrino sources are needed to make experiments feasible. Nevertheless, we have confirmed that the weak interactions of neutrinos are correctly described by the Standard Model (SM) of elementary particle physics. Moreover, in the last 14 years, we have discovered that neutrinos have nonzero masses, and that leptons mix. These discoveries have been based on the observation that neutrinos can change from one 'flavor' to another - the phenomenon known as neutrino oscillation. We shall explain the physics of neutrino oscillation, deriving the probability of oscillation in a new way. We shall also provide a very brief guide to references that can be used to study some major neutrino-physics topics other than neutrino oscillation.

  7. Observation of high-energy neutrinos using Cerenkov detectors embedded deep in Antarctic ice.

    PubMed

    Andrés, E; Askebjer, P; Bai, X; Barouch, G; Barwick, S W; Bay, R C; Becker, K H; Bergström, L; Bertrand, D; Bierenbaum, D; Biron, A; Booth, J; Botner, O; Bouchta, A; Boyce, M M; Carius, S; Chen, A; Chirkin, D; Conrad, J; Cooley, J; Costa, C G; Cowen, D F; Dailing, J; Dalberg, E; DeYoung, T; Desiati, P; Dewulf, J P; Doksus, P; Edsjö, J; Ekström, P; Erlandsson, B; Feser, T; Gaug, M; Goldschmidt, A; Goobar, A; Gray, L; Haase, H; Hallgren, A; Halzen, F; Hanson, K; Hardtke, R; He, Y D; Hellwig, M; Heukenkamp, H; Hill, G C; Hulth, P O; Hundertmark, S; Jacobsen, J; Kandhadai, V; Karle, A; Kim, J; Koci, B; Köpke, L; Kowalski, M; Leich, H; Leuthold, M; Lindahl, P; Liubarsky, I; Loaiza, P; Lowder, D M; Ludvig, J; Madsen, J; Marciniewski, P; Matis, H S; Mihalyi, A; Mikolajski, T; Miller, T C; Minaeva, Y; Miocinović, P; Mock, P C; Morse, R; Neunhöffer, T; Newcomer, F M; Niessen, P; Nygren, D R; Ogelman, H; Pérez de los Heros, C; Porrata, R; Price, P B; Rawlins, K; Reed, C; Rhode, W; Richards, A; Richter, S; Martino, J R; Romenesko, P; Ross, D; Rubinstein, H; Sander, H G; Scheider, T; Schmidt, T; Schneider, D; Schneider, E; Schwarz, R; Silvestri, A; Solarz, M; Spiczak, G M; Spiering, C; Starinsky, N; Steele, D; Steffen, P; Stokstad, R G; Streicher, O; Sun, Q; Taboada, I; Thollander, L; Thon, T; Tilav, S; Usechak, N; Vander Donckt, M; Walck, C; Weinheimer, C; Wiebusch, C H; Wischnewski, R; Wissing, H; Woschnagg, K; Wu, W; Yodh, G; Young, S

    2001-03-22

    Neutrinos are elementary particles that carry no electric charge and have little mass. As they interact only weakly with other particles, they can penetrate enormous amounts of matter, and therefore have the potential to directly convey astrophysical information from the edge of the Universe and from deep inside the most cataclysmic high-energy regions. The neutrino's great penetrating power, however, also makes this particle difficult to detect. Underground detectors have observed low-energy neutrinos from the Sun and a nearby supernova, as well as neutrinos generated in the Earth's atmosphere. But the very low fluxes of high-energy neutrinos from cosmic sources can be observed only by much larger, expandable detectors in, for example, deep water or ice. Here we report the detection of upwardly propagating atmospheric neutrinos by the ice-based Antarctic muon and neutrino detector array (AMANDA). These results establish a technology with which to build a kilometre-scale neutrino observatory necessary for astrophysical observations.

  8. The Era of Kilometer-Scale Neutrino Detectors

    DOE PAGES

    Halzen, Francis; Katz, Uli

    2013-01-01

    Neutrino astronomy beyond the Sun was first imagined in the late 1950s; by the 1970s, it was realized that kilometer-scale neutrino detectors were required. The first such instrument, IceCube, transforms a cubic kilometer of deep and ultra-transparent Antarctic ice into a particle detector. KM3NeT, an instrument that aims to exploit several cubic kilometers of the deep Mediterranean sea as its detector medium, is in its final design stages. The scientific missions of these instruments include searching for sources of cosmic rays and for dark matter, observing Galactic supernova explosions, and studying the neutrinos themselves. Identifying the accelerators that produce Galacticmore » and extragalactic cosmic rays has been a priority mission of several generations of high-energy gamma-ray and neutrino telescopes; success has been elusive so far. Detecting the gamma-ray and neutrino fluxes associated with cosmic rays reaches a new watershed with the completion of IceCube, the first neutrino detector with sensitivity to the anticipated fluxes. In this paper, we will first revisit the rationale for constructing kilometer-scale neutrino detectors. We will subsequently recall the methods for determining the arrival direction, energy and flavor of neutrinos, and will subsequently describe the architecture of the IceCube and KM3NeT detectors.« less

  9. Yet another possible explanation of the solar-neutrino puzzle

    SciTech Connect

    Kolb, E.W.; Turner, M.S.; Walker, T.P.

    1986-04-01

    Mikheyev and Smirnov have shown that the interactions of neutrinos with matter can result in the conversion of electron neutrinos produced in the center of the sun to muon neutrinos. Bethe has exploited this and has pointed out that the solar-neutrino puzzle can be resolved if the mass difference squared of the two neutrinos is m/sub 2//sup 2/ - m /sub 1//sup 2/ approx. = 6 x 10/sup -5/ eV/sup 2/, and the mixing angle satisfies sin theta/sub v/ > 0.0065. We discuss a qualitatively different solution to the solar-neutrino puzzle which requires 1.0 x 10/sup -8/ < (m/sub 2//sup 2/ - m/sub 1//sup 2/) (sin/sup 2/ 2theta/sub v//cos 2theta/sub v/) < 6.1 x 10/sup -8/ eV/sup 2/. Our solutions result in a much smaller flux of neutrinos from the p - p process than predicted by standard solar models, while Bethe's solution results in a flux of neutrinos from the p - process that is about the same as standard solar models.

  10. Effects of Recent Reactor Anti-neutrino Spectra on Neutrino Oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterbenz, Ciara

    2015-10-01

    The β-decay of nuclear fission fragments produces a very large ve flux from nuclear reactions. The shape of the expected flux has previously been predicted by converting the measured β-electron spectrum to an ve spectrum. Recent reactor neutrino experiments, however, find a large shoulder in the observed ve spectrum relative to this prediction in the energy region 5 - 7 MeV. Accurate knowledge of the expected ve flux from reactors is important for oscillation experiments that only involve one neutrino detector. In this project, I examine the implications of these spectral changes on the ν oscillation result found by the KamLAND experiment. At the time of their finding, the spectral anomaly from 5 - 7 MeV had not be observed. I have re-derived the oscillation parameters Δm2 and sin2 (2 θ) using the anti-neutrino flux from Daya Bay and from nuclear database predictions. With these new expected fluxes, these oscillation parameters shifted and their uncertainties increased. I compare the new oscillation parameters with those derived from solar neutrino oscillation data.

  11. Speedy neutrinos, again

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, Frank

    2012-02-01

    I am writing with regard to the OPERA collaboration's recent publicizing of experimental results suggesting that neutrinos have been observed travelling faster than light (see "Superluminal neutrinos split OPERA collaboration", November 2011 pp12-13 "The brave new-media world", ibid p19; and "Speedy neutrinos", December 2011 pp20-21).

  12. DUMAND Summer Workshop, University of California, La Jolla, Calif., July 24-September 2, 1978, Proceedings. Volume 2 - UHE interactions, neutrino astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, A.

    1979-01-01

    The volume covers categories on inelastic neutrino scattering and the W-boson, and other ultra-high-energy processes, on pulsars, quasars and galactic nuclei, as well as other point sources and constants from gamma ray astronomy. Individual subjects include weak intermediate vector bosons and DUMAND, the Monte Carlo simulation of inelastic neutrino scattering in DUMAND, and Higgs boson production by very high-energy neutrinos. The observability of the neutrino flux from the inner region of the galactic disk, the diffuse fluxes of high-energy neutrinos, as well as the significance of gamma ray observations for neutrino astronomy are also among the topics covered.

  13. Neutrinos in the early universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirilova, D.; Frere, J.-M.

    2012-12-01

    The neutrinos from the Big Bang or the Cosmic Neutrino Background (CNB) carry precious information from the early epoch when our universe was only 1 s old. Although not yet directly detected, CNB may be revealed indirectly through cosmological observations due to neutrino important cosmological influence. We review the cosmological role of neutrinos and the cosmological constraints on neutrino characteristics. Namely, we discuss the impact of neutrinos in the early universe: the cosmic expansion, neutrino decoupling, the role of neutrinos in the primordial production of light elements, leptogenesis, etc. We briefly discuss the role of neutrino at later stages of the universe. Due to the considerable cosmological influence of neutrinos, cosmological bounds on neutrino properties from observational data exist. We review the cosmological constraints on the effective number of neutrino species, neutrino mass and mixing parameters, lepton number of the universe, presence of sterile neutrino, etc.

  14. FIRST SEARCH FOR POINT SOURCES OF HIGH-ENERGY COSMIC NEUTRINOS WITH THE ANTARES NEUTRINO TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Adrian-Martinez, S.; Ardid, M.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Al Samarai, I.; Aubert, J.-J.; Bertin, V.; Andre, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Assis Jesus, A. C.; Astraatmadja, T.; Bogazzi, C.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Biagi, S.; and others

    2011-12-10

    Results are presented of a search for cosmic sources of high-energy neutrinos with the ANTARES neutrino telescope. The data were collected during 2007 and 2008 using detector configurations containing between 5 and 12 detection lines. The integrated live time of the analyzed data is 304 days. Muon tracks are reconstructed using a likelihood-based algorithm. Studies of the detector timing indicate a median angular resolution of 0.5 {+-} 0.1 deg. The neutrino flux sensitivity is 7.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8}(E{sub {nu}}/ GeV){sup -2} GeV{sup -1} s{sup -1} cm{sup -2} for the part of the sky that is always visible ({delta} < -48 deg), which is better than limits obtained by previous experiments. No cosmic neutrino sources have been observed.

  15. Flavor ratios of extragalactic neutrinos and neutrino shortcuts in extra dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Aeikens, Elke; Päs, Heinrich; Sicking, Philipp; Pakvasa, Sandip E-mail: heinrich.paes@tu-dortmund.de E-mail: philipp.sicking@tu-dortmund.de

    2015-10-01

    The recent measurement of high energy extragalactic neutrinos by the IceCube Collaboration has opened a new window to probe non-standard neutrino properties. Among other effects, sterile neutrino altered dispersion relations (ADRs) due to shortcuts in an extra dimension can significantly affect astrophysical flavor ratios. We discuss two limiting cases of this effect, first active-sterile neutrino oscillations with a constant ADR potential and second an MSW-like resonant conversion arising from geodesics oscillating around the brane in an asymmetrically warped extra dimension. We demonstrate that the second case has the potential to suppress significantly the flux of specific flavors such as ν{sub μ} or ν{sub τ} at high energies.

  16. Flavor ratios of extragalactic neutrinos and neutrino shortcuts in extra dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Aeikens, Elke; Päs, Heinrich; Pakvasa, Sandip; Sicking, Philipp

    2015-10-02

    The recent measurement of high energy extragalactic neutrinos by the IceCube Collaboration has opened a new window to probe non-standard neutrino properties. Among other effects, sterile neutrino altered dispersion relations (ADRs) due to shortcuts in an extra dimension can significantly affect astrophysical flavor ratios. We discuss two limiting cases of this effect, first active-sterile neutrino oscillations with a constant ADR potential and second an MSW-like resonant conversion arising from geodesics oscillating around the brane in an asymmetrically warped extra dimension. We demonstrate that the second case has the potential to suppress significantly the flux of specific flavors such as ν{sub μ} or ν{sub τ} at high energies.

  17. Non-standard neutrino interactions in the earth and the flavor of astrophysical neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, M. C.; Maltoni, Michele; Martinez-Soler, Ivan; Song, Ningqiang

    2016-11-01

    We study the modification of the detected flavor content of ultra high-energy astrophysical neutrinos in the presence of non-standard interactions of neutrinos with the Earth matter. Unlike the case of new physics affecting the propagation from the source to the Earth, non-standard Earth matter effects induce a dependence of the flavor content on the arrival direction of the neutrino. We find that, within the current limits on non-standard neutrino interaction parameters, large deviations from the standard 3ν oscillation predictions can be expected, in particular for fluxes dominated by one flavor at the source. Conversely they do not give sizable corrections to the expectation of equalized flavors in the Earth for sources dominated by production via pion-muon decay-chain.

  18. First Search for Point Sources of High-energy Cosmic Neutrinos with the ANTARES Neutrino Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; Aguilar, J. A.; Samarai, I. Al; Albert, A.; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Assis Jesus, A. C.; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J.-J.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bigi, A.; Bigongiari, C.; Bogazzi, C.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Bouhou, B.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Camarena, F.; Capone, A.; Cârloganu, C.; Carminati, G.; Carr, J.; Cecchini, S.; Charif, Z.; Charvis, Ph.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Curtil, C.; Decowski, M. P.; Dekeyser, I.; Deschamps, A.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti, Q.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, U.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Escoffier, S.; Fermani, P.; Ferri, M.; Flaminio, V.; Folger, F.; Fritsch, U.; Fuda, J.-L.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Giacomelli, G.; Giordano, V.; Gómez-González, J. P.; Graf, K.; Guillard, G.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G.; van Haren, H.; Hartman, J.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Herold, B.; Hößl, J.; Hsu, C. C.; de Jong, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.; Kavatsyuk, O.; Kooijman, P.; Kopper, C.; Kouchner, A.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lamare, P.; Larosa, G.; Lattuada, D.; Lefèvre, D.; Lim, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Mangano, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martínez-Mora, J. A.; Meli, A.; Montaruli, T.; Moscoso, L.; Motz, H.; Neff, M.; Nezri, E.; Palioselitis, D.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Payet, K.; Payre, P.; Petrovic, J.; Piattelli, P.; Picot-Clemente, N.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Presani, E.; Racca, C.; Reed, C.; Richardt, C.; Richter, R.; Rivière, C.; Robert, A.; Roensch, K.; Rostovtsev, A.; Ruiz-Rivas, J.; Rujoiu, M.; Russo, G. V.; Salesa, F.; Samtleben, D. F. E.; Sapienza, P.; Schöck, F.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schüssler, F.; Seitz, T.; Shanidze, R.; Simeone, F.; Spies, A.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Toscano, S.; Vallage, B.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vannoni, G.; Vecchi, M.; Vernin, P.; Wagner, S.; Wijnker, G.; Wilms, J.; de Wolf, E.; Yepes, H.; Zaborov, D.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2011-12-01

    Results are presented of a search for cosmic sources of high-energy neutrinos with the ANTARES neutrino telescope. The data were collected during 2007 and 2008 using detector configurations containing between 5 and 12 detection lines. The integrated live time of the analyzed data is 304 days. Muon tracks are reconstructed using a likelihood-based algorithm. Studies of the detector timing indicate a median angular resolution of 0.5 ± 0.1 deg. The neutrino flux sensitivity is 7.5 × 10-8(E ν/ GeV)-2 GeV-1 s-1 cm-2 for the part of the sky that is always visible (δ < -48 deg), which is better than limits obtained by previous experiments. No cosmic neutrino sources have been observed. We dedicate this Letter to the memory of our colleague and friend Luciano Moscoso, who passed away during the preparation of this Letter.

  19. Decoherence in supernova neutrino transformations suppressed by deleptonization

    SciTech Connect

    Esteban-Pretel, Andreu; Pastor, Sergio; Tomas, Ricard; Sigl, Guenter

    2007-12-15

    In the dense-neutrino region at 50-400 km above the neutrino sphere in a supernova, neutrino-neutrino interactions cause large flavor transformations. We study when the multiangle nature of the neutrino trajectories leads to flavor decoherence between different angular modes. We consider a two-flavor mixing scenario between {nu}{sub e} and another flavor {nu}{sub x} and assume the usual hierarchy F{sub {nu}{sub e}}>F{sub {nu}{sub e}}>F{sub {nu}{sub x}}=F{sub {nu}{sub x}} for the number fluxes. We define {epsilon}=(F{sub {nu}{sub e}}-F{sub {nu}{sub e}})/(F{sub {nu}{sub e}}-F{sub {nu}{sub x}}) as a measure for the deleptonization flux which is the one crucial parameter. The transition between the quasi-single-angle behavior and multiangle decoherence is abrupt as a function of {epsilon}. For typical choices of other parameters, multiangle decoherence is suppressed for {epsilon} > or approx. 0.3, but a much smaller asymmetry suffices if the neutrino mass hierarchy is normal and the mixing angle small. The critical {epsilon} depends logarithmically on the neutrino luminosity. In a realistic supernova scenario, the deleptonization flux is probably enough to suppress multiangle decoherence.

  20. Hadron production measurements to constrain accelerator neutrino beams

    SciTech Connect

    Korzenev, Alexander

    2015-07-15

    A precise prediction of expected neutrino fluxes is required for a long-baseline accelerator neutrino experiment. The flux is used to measure neutrino cross sections at the near detector, while at the far detector it provides an estimate of the expected signal for the study of neutrino oscillations. In the talk several approaches to constrain the ν flux are presented. The first is the traditional one when an interaction chain for the neutrino parent hadrons is stored to be weighted later with real measurements. In this approach differential hadron cross sections are used which, in turn, are measured in ancillary hadron production experiments. The approach is certainly model dependent because it requires an extrapolation to different incident nucleon momenta assuming x{sub F} scaling as well as extrapolation between materials having different atomic numbers. In the second approach one uses a hadron production yields off a real target exploited in the neutrino beamline. Yields of neutrino parent hadrons are parametrized at the surface of the target, thus one avoids to trace the particle interaction history inside the target. As in the case of the first approach, a dedicated ancillary experiment is mandatory. Recent results from the hadron production experiments – NA61/SHINE at CERN (measurements for T2K) and MIPP at Fermilab (measurements for NuMI) – are reviewed.

  1. Astrophysical constraints on the radiative lifetime of neutrinos with mass between 10 and 100 eV/c-squared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimble, R.; Bowyer, S.; Jakobsen, P.

    1981-01-01

    Upper limits to astronomical photon backgrounds are used to derive constraints on the radiative lifetime of neutrinos. With the assumption that the radiative decay dominates the decay routes available, comparisons with predicted fluxes exclude radiative lifetimes between 10 to the 13th and 10 to the 22nd-23rd sec for neutrinos which decay to lighter neutrinos and 5-50 eV photons. For a secondary neutrino mass much less than the parent neutrino mass, this photon-energy range corresponds to a parent-neutrino-mass range of 10-100 eV/c-squared.

  2. Detecting Solar Neutrino Flares and Flavors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fargion, D.

    2004-06-01

    Most power-full solar flare as the ones occurred on 23th February 1956, September 29th 1989 and recent ones occurred on 28th October, on 2nd-4th and 13th November 2003 have been respectively recorded by Radio-X- and Cosmic Rays detectors. These flares took place most in the open or in the edge and in the hidden solar disk (as for the September 29th, 1989 beyond 105Wo and for last November 2003 flare events). The 4th November event was the most powerful X event in the highest known rank category X28. The observed and estimated total flare energy E = 1031-1033 erg should be a source also of a prompt secondary neutrino burst originated, by proton-proton-pion production on the sun itself; a more delayed and spread neutrino flux signal arise later on the terrestrial atmosphere. These first earliest prompt solar neutrino burst might be already recorde, in a few neutrino clustered events, in largest neutrino underground detectors as Super-Kamiokande one, in time correlation with the sharp X-Radio flare onset. Our first estimate at the Super-Kamiokande II Laboratory is found to be a few (1-5) events. Their discover (or absence) should constrains the solar flare acceleration, energetic and its inner environment. Any large neutrino flare event might even verify the expected neutrino flavour mixing leading to comparable electron- muon event as well as a comparable energy fluence and spectra. Rare Tau appearence by neutrino muon into tau conversion might also arise.

  3. Impact of sterile neutrino dark matter on core-collapse supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Mackenzie L.; Mathews, Grant J.; Meixner, Matthew; Hidaka, Jun; Kajino, Toshitaka

    2016-09-01

    We summarize the impact of sterile neutrino dark matter on core-collapse supernova explosions. We explore various oscillations between electron neutrinos or mixed μ ‑ τ neutrinos and right-handed sterile neutrinos that may occur within a core-collapse supernova. In particular, we consider sterile neutrino masses and mixing angles that are consistent with sterile neutrino dark matter candidates as indicated by recent X-ray flux measurements. We find that the interpretation of the observed 3.5 keV X-ray excess as due to a decaying 7 keV sterile neutrino that comprises 100% of the dark matter would have almost no observable effect on supernova explosions. However, in the more realistic case in which the decaying sterile neutrino comprises only a small fraction of the total dark matter density due to the presence of other sterile neutrino flavors, WIMPs, etc. a larger mixing angle is allowed. In this case a 7 keV sterile neutrino could have a significant impact on core-collapse supernovae. We also consider mixing between μ ‑ τ neutrinos and sterile neutrinos. We find, however, that this mixing does not significantly alter the explosion and has no observable effect on the neutrino luminosities at early times.

  4. OPERA neutrino oscillation search: Status and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gornushkin, Yu.

    2016-07-01

    OPERA is a long-baseline neutrino experiment at the Gran Sasso laboratory (LNGS) designed to search for ν_{{μ}}^{} → ν_{{τ}}^{} oscillations in a direct appearance mode on an event by event basis. OPERA took data in 2008-2012 with the CNGS neutrino beam from CERN. The data analysis is ongoing, with the goal of establishing ν_{{τ}}^{} appearance with a high significance. Complementary studies of the ν_{{μ}}^{} → ν_{{e}}^{} oscillations and atmospheric muons fluxes were performed as well. Current results of the experiment are presented and perspectives discussed.

  5. Nucleosynthesis and Neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Kajino, Toshitaka

    2011-05-06

    Neutrinos play the critical roles in nucleosynthesis of light-to-heavy mass nuclei in core-collapse supernovae. We study the nucleosynthesis induced by neutrino interactions and find suitable average neutrino temperatures in order to explain the observed solar system abundances of several isotopes {sup 7}Li, {sup 11}B, {sup 138}La and {sup 180}Ta. These isotopes are predominantly synthesized by the supernova {nu}-process. We also study the neutrino oscillation effects on their abundances and propose a method to determine the unknown neutrino oscillation parameters, i.e. {theta}{sub 13} and mass hierarchy.

  6. Mass determination of neutrinos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, Hong-Yee

    1988-01-01

    A time-energy correlation method has been developed to determine the signature of a nonzero neutrino mass in a small sample of neutrinos detected from a distant source. The method is applied to the Kamiokande II (Hirata et al., 1987) and IMB (Bionta et al., 1987) observations of neutrino bursts from SN 1987A. Using the Kamiokande II data, the neutrino rest mass is estimated at 2.8 + 2.0, - 1.4 eV and the initial neutrino pulse is found to be less than 0.3 sec full width, followed by an emission tail lasting at least 10 sec.

  7. Neutrinos from AGN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazanas, Demosthenes; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The great penetrating power of neutrinos makes them ideal probe of astrophysical sites and conditions inaccessible to other forms of radiation. These are the centers of stars (collapsing or not) and the centers of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). It has been suggested that AGN presented a very promising source of high energy neutrinos, possibly detectable by underwater neutrino detectors. This paper reviews the evolution of ideas concerning the emission of neutrinos from AGN in view of the more recent developments in gamma-ray astronomy and their implications for the neutrino emission from these class of objects.

  8. SEARCH FOR A CORRELATION BETWEEN ANTARES NEUTRINOS AND PIERRE AUGER OBSERVATORY UHECRs ARRIVAL DIRECTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Adrian-Martinez, S.; Ardid, M.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Andre, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Astraatmadja, T.; Beemster, L. J.; Bogazzi, C.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Baret, B.; Bouhou, B.; Basa, S.; Biagi, S.; and others

    2013-09-01

    A multimessenger analysis optimized for a correlation of arrival directions of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) and neutrinos is presented and applied to 2190 neutrino candidate events detected in 2007-2008 by the ANTARES telescope and 69 UHECRs observed by the Pierre Auger Observatory between 2004 January 1 and 2009 December 31. No significant correlation is observed. Assuming an equal neutrino flux (E {sup -2} energy spectrum) from all UHECR directions, a 90% CL upper limit on the neutrino flux of 5.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} GeV cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} per source is derived.

  9. Search for a Correlation between ANTARES Neutrinos and Pierre Auger Observatory UHECRs Arrival Directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; Samarai, I. Al; Albert, A.; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J.-J.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Beemster, L. J.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bigongiari, C.; Bogazzi, C.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Bouhou, B.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Camarena, F.; Capone, A.; Cârloganu, C.; Carminati, G.; Carr, J.; Cecchini, S.; Charif, Z.; Charvis, Ph.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coniglione, R.; Core, L.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Curtil, C.; De Bonis, G.; Decowski, M. P.; Dekeyser, I.; Deschamps, A.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti, Q.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, U.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Escoffier, S.; Fehn, K.; Fermani, P.; Ferri, M.; Ferry, S.; Flaminio, V.; Folger, F.; Fritsch, U.; Fuda, J.-L.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Geyer, K.; Giacomelli, G.; Giordano, V.; Gómez-González, J. P.; Graf, K.; Guillard, G.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G.; van Haren, H.; Hartman, J.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Herold, B.; Hößl, J.; Hsu, C. C.; de Jong, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.; Kavatsyuk, O.; Kooijman, P.; Kopper, C.; Kouchner, A.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lambard, G.; Larosa, G.; Lattuada, D.; Lefèvre, D.; Lim, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Louis, F.; Mangano, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martínez-Mora, J. A.; Meli, A.; Montaruli, T.; Morganti, N.; Moscoso, L.; Motz, H.; Neff, M.; Nezri, E.; Palioselitis, D.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Payet, K.; Payre, P.; Petrovic, J.; Picot-Clemente, N.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Presani, E.; Racca, C.; Reed, C.; Riccobene, G.; Richardt, C.; Richter, R.; Rivière, C.; Robert, A.; Roensch, K.; Rostovtsev, A.; Ruiz-Rivas, J.; Rujoiu, M.; Russo, G. V.; Salesa, F.; Samtleben, D. F. E.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Sapienza, P.; Schöck, F.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schüssler, F.; Seitz, T.; Shanidze, R.; Simeone, F.; Spies, A.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Toscano, S.; Vallage, B.; Vallée, C.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vannoni, G.; Vecchi, M.; Vernin, P.; Visser, E.; Wagner, S.; Wijnker, G.; Wilms, J.; de Wolf, E.; Yepes, H.; Zaborov, D.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2013-09-01

    A multimessenger analysis optimized for a correlation of arrival directions of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) and neutrinos is presented and applied to 2190 neutrino candidate events detected in 2007-2008 by the ANTARES telescope and 69 UHECRs observed by the Pierre Auger Observatory between 2004 January 1 and 2009 December 31. No significant correlation is observed. Assuming an equal neutrino flux (E -2 energy spectrum) from all UHECR directions, a 90% CL upper limit on the neutrino flux of 5.0 × 10-8 GeV cm-2 s-1 per source is derived.

  10. Neutrino signatures from the first stars

    SciTech Connect

    Daigne, Frederic; Vangioni, Elisabeth; Olive, Keith A.; Sandick, Pearl

    2005-11-15

    Evidence from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) polarization data indicates that the Universe may have been reionized at very high redshift. It is often suggested that the ionizing UV flux originates from an early population of massive or very massive stars. Depending on their mass, such stars can explode either as type II supernovae or pair-instability supernovae, or may entirely collapse into a black hole. The resulting neutrino emission can be quite different in each case. We consider here the relic neutrino background produced by an early burst of Population III stars coupled with a normal mode of star formation at lower redshift. The computation is performed in the framework of hierarchical structure formation and is based on cosmic star formation histories constrained to reproduce the observed star formation rate at redshift z < or approx. 6, the observed chemical abundances in damped Lyman alpha absorbers and in the intergalactic medium, and to allow for an early reionization of the Universe at z{approx}10-20. We find that although the high redshift burst of Population III stars does lead to an appreciable flux of neutrinos at relatively low energy (E{sub {nu}}{approx_equal}1 MeV), the observable neutrino flux is dominated by the normal mode of star formation. We also find that predicted fluxes are at the present level of the SuperK limit. As a consequence, the supernova relic neutrino background has a direct impact on models of chemical evolution and/or supernova dynamics.

  11. Atmospheric Neutrinos: Background and Signal

    SciTech Connect

    Mocioiu, Irina

    2010-11-24

    We discuss a brief history of atmospheric neutrinos, from background to proton decay searches to proving neutrino oscillations. We then discuss how high statistics atmospheric neutrino measurements in the IceCube Deep Core Array can provide useful information about neutrino oscillation parameters and other neutrino properties.

  12. Collective neutrino oscillations in supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Duan, Huaiyu

    2014-06-24

    In a dense neutrino medium neutrinos can experience collective flavor transformation through the neutrino-neutrino forward scattering. In this talk we present some basic features of collective neutrino flavor transformation in the context in core-collapse supernovae. We also give some qualitative arguments for why and when this interesting phenomenon may occur and how it may affect supernova nucleosynthesis.

  13. Neutrino physics with JUNO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Fengpeng; An, Guangpeng; An, Qi; Antonelli, Vito; Baussan, Eric; Beacom, John; Bezrukov, Leonid; Blyth, Simon; Brugnera, Riccardo; Buizza Avanzini, Margherita; Busto, Jose; Cabrera, Anatael; Cai, Hao; Cai, Xiao; Cammi, Antonio; Cao, Guofu; Cao, Jun; Chang, Yun; Chen, Shaomin; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Yixue; Chiesa, Davide; Clemenza, Massimiliano; Clerbaux, Barbara; Conrad, Janet; D'Angelo, Davide; De Kerret, Hervé; Deng, Zhi; Deng, Ziyan; Ding, Yayun; Djurcic, Zelimir; Dornic, Damien; Dracos, Marcos; Drapier, Olivier; Dusini, Stefano; Dye, Stephen; Enqvist, Timo; Fan, Donghua; Fang, Jian; Favart, Laurent; Ford, Richard; Göger-Neff, Marianne; Gan, Haonan; Garfagnini, Alberto; Giammarchi, Marco; Gonchar, Maxim; Gong, Guanghua; Gong, Hui; Gonin, Michel; Grassi, Marco; Grewing, Christian; Guan, Mengyun; Guarino, Vic; Guo, Gang; Guo, Wanlei; Guo, Xin-Heng; Hagner, Caren; Han, Ran; He, Miao; Heng, Yuekun; Hsiung, Yee; Hu, Jun; Hu, Shouyang; Hu, Tao; Huang, Hanxiong; Huang, Xingtao; Huo, Lei; Ioannisian, Ara; Jeitler, Manfred; Ji, Xiangdong; Jiang, Xiaoshan; Jollet, Cécile; Kang, Li; Karagounis, Michael; Kazarian, Narine; Krumshteyn, Zinovy; Kruth, Andre; Kuusiniemi, Pasi; Lachenmaier, Tobias; Leitner, Rupert; Li, Chao; Li, Jiaxing; Li, Weidong; Li, Weiguo; Li, Xiaomei; Li, Xiaonan; Li, Yi; Li, Yufeng; Li, Zhi-Bing; Liang, Hao; Lin, Guey-Lin; Lin, Tao; Lin, Yen-Hsun; Ling, Jiajie; Lippi, Ivano; Liu, Dawei; Liu, Hongbang; Liu, Hu; Liu, Jianglai; Liu, Jianli; Liu, Jinchang; Liu, Qian; Liu, Shubin; Liu, Shulin; Lombardi, Paolo; Long, Yongbing; Lu, Haoqi; Lu, Jiashu; Lu, Jingbin; Lu, Junguang; Lubsandorzhiev, Bayarto; Ludhova, Livia; Luo, Shu; Lyashuk, Vladimir; Möllenberg, Randolph; Ma, Xubo; Mantovani, Fabio; Mao, Yajun; Mari, Stefano M.; McDonough, William F.; Meng, Guang; Meregaglia, Anselmo; Meroni, Emanuela; Mezzetto, Mauro; Miramonti, Lino; Mueller, Thomas; Naumov, Dmitry; Oberauer, Lothar; Ochoa-Ricoux, Juan Pedro; Olshevskiy, Alexander; Ortica, Fausto; Paoloni, Alessandro; Peng, Haiping; Peng, Jen-Chieh; Previtali, Ezio; Qi, Ming; Qian, Sen; Qian, Xin; Qian, Yongzhong; Qin, Zhonghua; Raffelt, Georg; Ranucci, Gioacchino; Ricci, Barbara; Robens, Markus; Romani, Aldo; Ruan, Xiangdong; Ruan, Xichao; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Shaevitz, Mike; Sinev, Valery; Sirignano, Chiara; Sisti, Monica; Smirnov, Oleg; Soiron, Michael; Stahl, Achim; Stanco, Luca; Steinmann, Jochen; Sun, Xilei; Sun, Yongjie; Taichenachev, Dmitriy; Tang, Jian; Tkachev, Igor; Trzaska, Wladyslaw; van Waasen, Stefan; Volpe, Cristina; Vorobel, Vit; Votano, Lucia; Wang, Chung-Hsiang; Wang, Guoli; Wang, Hao; Wang, Meng; Wang, Ruiguang; Wang, Siguang; Wang, Wei; Wang, Yi; Wang, Yi; Wang, Yifang; Wang, Zhe; Wang, Zheng; Wang, Zhigang; Wang, Zhimin; Wei, Wei; Wen, Liangjian; Wiebusch, Christopher; Wonsak, Björn; Wu, Qun; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Wurm, Michael; Xi, Yufei; Xia, Dongmei; Xie, Yuguang; Xing, Zhi-zhong; Xu, Jilei; Yan, Baojun; Yang, Changgen; Yang, Chaowen; Yang, Guang; Yang, Lei; Yang, Yifan; Yao, Yu; Yegin, Ugur; Yermia, Frédéric; You, Zhengyun; Yu, Boxiang; Yu, Chunxu; Yu, Zeyuan; Zavatarelli, Sandra; Zhan, Liang; Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Hong-Hao; Zhang, Jiawen; Zhang, Jingbo; Zhang, Qingmin; Zhang, Yu-Mei; Zhang, Zhenyu; Zhao, Zhenghua; Zheng, Yangheng; Zhong, Weili; Zhou, Guorong; Zhou, Jing; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Rong; Zhou, Shun; Zhou, Wenxiong; Zhou, Xiang; Zhou, Yeling; Zhou, Yufeng; Zou, Jiaheng

    2016-03-01

    The Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO), a 20 kton multi-purpose underground liquid scintillator detector, was proposed with the determination of the neutrino mass hierarchy (MH) as a primary physics goal. The excellent energy resolution and the large fiducial volume anticipated for the JUNO detector offer exciting opportunities for addressing many important topics in neutrino and astro-particle physics. In this document, we present the physics motivations and the anticipated performance of the JUNO detector for various proposed measurements. Following an introduction summarizing the current status and open issues in neutrino physics, we discuss how the detection of antineutrinos generated by a cluster of nuclear power plants allows the determination of the neutrino MH at a 3-4σ significance with six years of running of JUNO. The measurement of antineutrino spectrum with excellent energy resolution will also lead to the precise determination of the neutrino oscillation parameters {{sin}}2{θ }12, {{Δ }}{m}212, and | {{Δ }}{m}{ee}2| to an accuracy of better than 1%, which will play a crucial role in the future unitarity test of the MNSP matrix. The JUNO detector is capable of observing not only antineutrinos from the power plants, but also neutrinos/antineutrinos from terrestrial and extra-terrestrial sources, including supernova burst neutrinos, diffuse supernova neutrino background, geoneutrinos, atmospheric neutrinos, and solar neutrinos. As a result of JUNO's large size, excellent energy resolution, and vertex reconstruction capability, interesting new data on these topics can be collected. For example, a neutrino burst from a typical core-collapse supernova at a distance of 10 kpc would lead to ˜5000 inverse-beta-decay events and ˜2000 all-flavor neutrino-proton ES events in JUNO, which are of crucial importance for understanding the mechanism of supernova explosion and for exploring novel phenomena such as collective neutrino oscillations

  14. Fiber optic hydrophones for acoustic neutrino detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buis, E. J.; Doppenberg, E. J. J.; Lahmann, R.; Toet, P. M.; de Vreugd, J.

    2016-04-01

    Cosmic neutrinos with ultra high energies can be detected acoustically using hydrophones. The detection of these neutrinos may provide crucial information about then GZK mechanism. The flux of these neutrinos, however, is expected to be low, so that a detection volume is required more than a order of magnitude larger than what has presently been realized. With a large detection volume and a large number of hydrophones, there is a need for technology that is cheap and easy to deploy. Fiber optics provide a natural way for distributed sensing. In addition, a sensor has been designed and manufactured that can be produced cost-effectively on an industrial scale. Sensitivity measurements show that the sensor is able to reach the required sea-state zero level. For a proper interpretation of the expected bipolar signals, filtering techniques should be applied to remove the effects of the unwanted resonance peaks.

  15. Extremely high energy neutrinos from cosmic strings

    SciTech Connect

    Berezinsky, Veniamin; Sabancilar, Eray; Vilenkin, Alexander

    2011-10-15

    Superstring theory and other supersymmetric theories predict the existence of relatively light, weakly interacting scalar particles, called moduli, with a universal form of coupling to matter. Such particles can be emitted from cusps of cosmic strings, where extremely large Lorentz factors are achieved momentarily. Highly boosted modulus bursts emanating from cusps subsequently decay into gluons; they generate parton cascades which in turn produce large numbers of pions and then neutrinos. Because of very large Lorentz factors, extremely high energy neutrinos, up to the Planck scale and above, are produced. For some model parameters, the predicted flux of neutrinos with energies > or approx. 10{sup 21} eV is observable by JEM-EUSO and by the future large radio detectors LOFAR and SKA.

  16. Search for sterile neutrino mixing in the MINOS long baseline experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, P.; Andreopoulos, C.; Auty, D.J.; Ayres, D.S.; Backhouse, C.; Barnes Jr., P.D.; Barr, G.; Barrett, W.L.; Bishai, M.; Blake, A.; Bock, G.J.; /Fermilab /Fermilab

    2010-01-01

    A search for depletion of the combined flux of active neutrino species over a 735 km baseline is reported using neutral-current interaction data recorded by the MINOS detectors in the NuMI neutrino beam. Such a depletion is not expected according to conventional interpretations of neutrino oscillation data involving the three known neutrino flavors. A depletion would be a signature of oscillations or decay to postulated noninteracting sterile neutrinos, scenarios not ruled out by existing data. From an exposure of 3.18 x 10{sup 20} protons on target in which neutrinos of energies between {approx}500 MeV and 120 GeV are produced predominantly as {nu}{sub {mu}}, the visible energy spectrum of candidate neutral-current reactions in the MINOS far-detector is reconstructed. Comparison of this spectrum to that inferred from a similarly selected near-detector sample shows that of the portion of the {nu}{sub {mu}} flux observed to disappear in charged-current interaction data, the fraction that could be converting to a sterile state is less than 52% at 90% confidence level (C.L.). The hypothesis that active neutrinos mix with a single sterile neutrino via oscillations is tested by fitting the data to various models. In the particular four-neutrino models considered, the mixing angles {theta}{sub 24} and {theta}{sub 34} are constrained to be less than 11{sup o} and 56{sup o} at 90% C.L., respectively. The possibility that active neutrinos may decay to sterile neutrinos is also investigated. Pure neutrino decay without oscillations is ruled out at 5.4 standard deviations. For the scenario in which active neutrinos decay into sterile states concurrently with neutrino oscillations, a lower limit is established for the neutrino decay lifetime {tau}{sub 3}/m{sub 3} > 2.1 x 10{sup -12} s/eV at 90% C.L.

  17. Search for Neutrino Radiation from Collapsing Stars and the Sensitivity of Experiments to the Different Types of Neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadykin, V. L.; Ryazhskaya, O. G.

    2013-11-01

    The experiments running to search for neutrino radiation from collapsing stars up to now traditionally take one's bearings for the detection of the ˜ ν e p -> e^ + n reaction and, accordingly, for the use of the hadrogenate targets. The observation of neutrino radiation from SN1987A showed that it is important to have in the composition of the targets beside the hadrogen also other nuclei suitable to neutrino radiation detection. In particular the presence of iron nuclei in the LSD provided for the sensational detection of νe flux at 2:52 UT on February 23 1987 when other more powerful detectors with their hadrogenate targets could not respond to this type of neutrino. The sensitivity of present searching experiments to different types of neutrino radiation from collapsing stars is discussed in the paper.

  18. MINOS Sterile Neutrino Search

    SciTech Connect

    Koskinen, David Jason

    2009-02-01

    The Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS) is a long-baseline accelerator neutrino experiment designed to measure properties of neutrino oscillation. Using a high intensity muon neutrino beam, produced by the Neutrinos at Main Injector (NuMI) complex at Fermilab, MINOS makes two measurements of neutrino interactions. The first measurement is made using the Near Detector situated at Fermilab and the second is made using the Far Detector located in the Soudan Underground laboratory in northern Minnesota. The primary goal of MINOS is to verify, and measure the properties of, neutrino oscillation between the two detectors using the v μ→ Vτ transition. A complementary measurement can be made to search for the existence of sterile neutrinos; an oft theorized, but experimentally unvalidated particle. The following thesis will show the results of a sterile neutrino search using MINOS RunI and RunII data totaling ~2.5 x 1020 protons on target. Due to the theoretical nature of sterile neutrinos, complete formalism that covers transition probabilities for the three known active states with the addition of a sterile state is also presented.

  19. Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Beier, E.W.

    1992-03-01

    This document is a technical progress report on work performed at the University of Pennsylvania during the current year on the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory project. The motivation for the experiment is the measurement of neutrinos emitted by the sun. The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is a second generation dedicated solar neutrino experiment which will extend the results of our work with the Kamiokande II detector by measuring three reactions of neutrinos rather than the single reaction measured by the Kamiokande experiment. The collaborative project includes physicists from Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Full funding for the construction of this facility was obtained in January 1990, and its construction is estimated to take five years. The motivation for the SNO experiment is to study the fundamental properties of neutrinos, in particular the mass and mixing parameters, which remain undetermined after decades of experiments in neutrino physics utilizing accelerators and reactors as sources of neutrinos. To continue the study of neutrino properties it is necessary to use the sun as a neutrino source. The long distance to the sun makes the search for neutrino mass sensitive to much smaller mass than can be studied with terrestrial sources. Furthermore, the matter density in the sun is sufficiently large to enhance the effects of small mixing between electron neutrinos and mu or tau neutrinos. This experiment, when combined with the results of the radiochemical {sup 37}Cl and {sup 71}Ga experiments and the Kamiokande II experiment, should extend our knowledge of these fundamental particles, and as a byproduct, improve our understanding of energy generation in the sun.

  20. Detecting Solar Neutrino Flare in Megaton and km3 detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fargion, Daniele; di Giacomo, Paola

    2009-03-01

    To foresee a solar flare neutrino signal we infer its upper and lower bound. The upper bound was derived since a few years by general energy equipartition arguments on observed solar particle flare. The lower bound, the most compelling one for any guarantee neutrino signal, is derived by most recent records of hard Gamma bump due to solar flare on January 2005 (by neutral pion decay). Because neutral and charged pions (made by hadron scattering in the flare) are born on the same foot, their link is compelling: the observed gamma flux [Grechnev V.V. et al., arXiv:0806.4424, Solar Physics, Vol. 1, October, (2008), 252] reflects into a corresponding one for the neutrinos, almost one to one. Moreover while gamma photons might be absorbed (in deep corona) or at least reduced inside the flaring plasma, the secondaries neutrino are not. So pion neutrinos should be even more abundant than gamma ones. Tens-hundred MeV neutrinos may cross undisturbed the whole Sun, doubling at least their rate respect a unique solar-side for gamma flare. Therefore we obtain minimal bounds opening a windows for neutrino astronomy, already at the edge of present but quite within near future Megaton neutrino detectors. Such detectors are considered mostly to reveal cosmic supernova background or rare Local Group (few Mpc) Supernovas events [Matthew D. Kistler et al. 0810.1959v1]. However rarest (once a decade), brief (a few minutes) powerful solar neutrino “flare” may shine and they may overcome by two to three order of magnitude the corresponding steady atmospheric neutrino noise on the Earth, leading in largest Neutrino detector at least to one or to meaning-full few events clustered signals. The voice of such a solar anti-neutrino flare component at a few tens MeVs may induce an inverse beta decay over a vanishing anti-neutrino solar background. Megaton or even inner ten Megaton Ice Cube detector at ten GeV threshold may also reveal traces in hardest energy of solar flares. Icecube

  1. The matter-neutrino resonance around thick disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deaton, Michael

    2016-03-01

    We are studying neutrino flavor transformations in typical neutron star merger environments. Here a dominance of νe over νe fluxes introduces transformation behaviors qualitatively different from those seen in supernovae. Discovered in thin disk models, the matter neutrino resonance (MNR) may behave differently around thick disks, or not appear at all. I'll present what we have learned about the MNR using a phenomenological model motivated by hydrodynamical simulations of post-merger disks. JINA-CEE.

  2. Constraints on the neutrino emission from the Galactic Ridge with the ANTARES telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; Albert, A.; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Aubert, J.-J.; Avgitas, T.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Martí, J.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bormuth, R.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Carr, J.; Celli, S.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coleiro, A.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Deschamps, A.; De Bonis, G.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; El Bojaddaini, I.; Elsässer, D.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Fehn, K.; Felis, I.; Fusco, L. A.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Geißelsöder, S.; Geyer, K.; Giordano, V.; Gleixner, A.; Glotin, H.; Gracia-Ruiz, R.; Graf, K.; Hallmann, S.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Hößl, J.; Hofestädt, J.; Hugon, C.; Illuminati, G.; James, C. W.; de Jong, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.; Kießling, D.; Kouchner, A.; Kreter, M.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lachaud, C.; Lahmann, R.; Lefèvre, D.; Leonora, E.; Loucatos, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Marinelli, A.; Martínez-Mora, J. A.; Mathieu, A.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Moussa, A.; Mueller, C.; Nezri, E.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Pellegrino, C.; Perrina, C.; Piattelli, P.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Racca, C.; Riccobene, G.; Roensch, K.; Saldaña, M.; Samtleben, D. F. E.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Sanguineti, M.; Sapienza, P.; Schnabel, J.; Schüssler, F.; Seitz, T.; Sieger, C.; Spurio, M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Taiuti, M.; Trovato, A.; Tselengidou, M.; Turpin, D.; Tönnis, C.; Vallage, B.; Vallée, C.; Van Elewyck, V.; Visser, E.; Vivolo, D.; Wagner, S.; Wilms, J.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2016-09-01

    A highly significant excess of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos has been reported by the IceCube Collaboration. Some features of the energy and declination distributions of IceCube events hint at a North/South asymmetry of the neutrino flux. This could be due to the presence of the bulk of our Galaxy in the Southern hemisphere. The ANTARES neutrino telescope, located in the Mediterranean Sea, has been taking data since 2007. It offers the best sensitivity to muon neutrinos produced by galactic cosmic ray interactions in this region of the sky. In this letter a search for an extended neutrino flux from the Galactic Ridge region is presented. Different models of neutrino production by cosmic ray propagation are tested. No excess of events is observed and upper limits for different neutrino flux spectral indices Γ are set. For Γ = 2.4 the 90% confidence level flux upper limit at 100 TeV for one neutrino flavour corresponds to Φ01 f (100 TeV) = 2.0 ṡ10-17 GeV-1cm-2s-1sr-1. Under this assumption, at most two events of the IceCube cosmic candidates can originate from the Galactic Ridge. A simple power-law extrapolation of the Fermi-LAT flux to account for IceCube High Energy Starting Events is excluded at 90% confidence level.

  3. Final State Interactions Effects in Neutrino-Nucleus Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Golan, Tomasz; Juszczak, Cezary; Sobczyk, Jan T.

    2012-07-01

    Final State Interactions effects are discussed in the context of Monte Carlo simulations of neutrino-nucleus interactions. A role of Formation Time is explained and several models describing this effect are compared. Various observables which are sensitive to FSI effects are reviewed including pion-nucleus interaction and hadron yields in backward hemisphere. NuWro Monte Carlo neutrino event generator is described and its ability to understand neutral current $\\pi^0$ production data in $\\sim 1$ GeV neutrino flux experiments is demonstrated.

  4. High-energy neutrinos from active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.; Done, C.; Salamon, M. H.; Sommers, P.

    1991-01-01

    The spectrum and high-energy neutrino background flux from photomeson production in active galactic nuclei (AGN) is calculated using the recent UV and X-ray observations to define the photon fields and an accretion-disk shock-acceleration model for producing high-energy particles. Collectively, AGN produce the dominant isotropic neutrino background between 10,000 and 10 to the 10th GeV, detectable with current instruments. AGN neutrinos should produce a sphere of stellar disruption which may explain the 'broad-line region' seen in AGN.

  5. Atmospheric electron neutrinos in the MINOS far detector

    SciTech Connect

    Speakman, Benjamin Phillip

    2007-01-01

    Neutrinos produced as a result of cosmic-ray interactions in the earth's atmosphere offer a powerful probe into the nature of this three-membered family of low-mass, weakly-interacting particles. Ten years ago, the Super-Kamiokande Experiment has confirmed earlier indications that neutrinos undergo lepton-flavor oscillations during propagation, proving that they are massive contrary to the previous Standard Model assumptions. The Soudan Underground Laboratory, located in northern Minnesota, was host to the Soudan2 Experiment, which has made important contributions to atmospheric neutrino research. This same lab has more recently been host to the MINOS far detector, a neutrino detector which serves as the downstream element of an accelerator-based long-baseline neutrino-oscillation experiment. This thesis has examined 418.5 live days of atmospheric neutrino data (fiducial exposure of 4.18 kton-years) collected in the MINOS far detector prior to the activation of the NuMI neutrino beam, with a specific emphasis on the investigation of electron-type neutrino interactions. Atmospheric neutrino interaction candidates have been selected and separated into showering or track-like events. The showering sample consists of 89 observed events, while the track-like sample consists of 112 observed events. Based on the Bartol atmospheric neutrino flux model of Barr et al. plus a Monte Carlo (MC) simulation of interactions in the MINOS detector, the expected yields of showering and track-like events in the absence of neutrino oscillations are 88.0 ± 1.0 and 149.1 ± 1.0 respectively (where the uncertainties reflect only the limited MC statistics). Major systematic uncertainties, especially those associated with the flux model, are cancelled by forming a double ratio of these observed and expected yields: R$data\\atop{trk/shw}$/R$MC\\atop{trk/shw}$ = 0.74$+0.12\\atop{-1.0}$(stat.) ± 0.04 (syst.) This double ratio should be equal to unity in the absence of oscillations, and the

  6. Geophysics with Hawaiian Anti-neutrino Observatory (Hanohano)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maricic, J.; Hanohano Collaboration

    2011-12-01

    The design studies are under way for the deep ocean anti-neutrino observatory located in the vicinity of the Big Island (Hawaii) with the main goal of measuring geo-neutrino flux from the mantle and core which can exclusively be done in a location far from the continental plates such is Hawaiian Islands chain. Hanohano will also accomplish the definitive measurement of the electron anti-neutrino signal from the core to observe or eliminate a hypothetical natural reactor in the Earth's core.

  7. The status of the solar neutrino problem and the Russian-American gallium experiment (SAGE)

    SciTech Connect

    Bowles, T.J.

    1994-04-01

    Perhaps the most outstanding discrepancy between prediction and measurements in current particle physics comes from the solar neutrino problem, in which a large deficit of high-energy solar neutrinos is observed. Many Nonstandard Solar Models have been invoked to try to reduce the predicted flux, but all have run into problems in trying to reproduce other measured parameters (e.g., the luminosity) of the Sun. Other explanations involving new physics such as neutrino decay and neutrino oscillations, etc. have also been proffered. Again, most of these explanations have been ruled out by either laboratory or astrophysical measurements. It appears that perhaps the most likely particle physics solution is that of matter enhanced neutrino oscillation, the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) oscillations. Two new radiochemical gallium experiments, which have a low enough threshold to be sensitive to the dominant flux of low-energy p-p neutrinos, now also report a deficit and also favor a particle physics solution.

  8. Light sterile neutrinos, spin flavor precession, and the solar neutrino experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, C. R.; Pulido, João; Picariello, Marco

    2009-04-01

    We generalize to three active flavors a previous two-flavor model for the resonant spin flavor conversion of solar neutrinos to sterile ones, a mechanism which is added to the well-known large mixing angle (LMA) one. The transition magnetic moments from the muon and tau neutrinos to the sterile play the dominant role in fixing the amount of active flavor suppression. We also show, through numerical integration of the evolution equations, that the data from all solar neutrino experiments except Borexino exhibit a clear preference for a sizable magnetic field either in the convection zone or in the core and radiation zone. This is possibly related to the fact that the data from the first set are average ones taken during a period of mostly intense solar activity, whereas in contrast Borexino data were taken during a period of quiet Sun. We argue that the solar neutrino experiments are capable of tracing the possible modulation of the solar magnetic field. Those monitoring the high-energy neutrinos, namely, the B8 flux, appear to be sensitive to a field modulation either in the convection zone or in the core and radiation zone. Those monitoring the low-energy fluxes will be sensitive to the second type of solar field profiles only. In this way Borexino alone may play an essential role, since it examines both energy sectors, although experimental redundancy from other experiments will be most important.

  9. Paradoxes of neutrino oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Akhmedov, E. Kh.; Smirnov, A. Yu.

    2009-08-15

    Despite the theory of neutrino oscillations being rather old, some of its basic issues are still being debated in the literature. We discuss a number of such issues, including the relevance of the 'same energy' and 'same momentum' assumptions, the role of quantum-mechanical uncertainty relations in neutrino oscillations, the dependence of the coherence and localization conditions that ensure the observability of neutrino oscillations on neutrino energy and momentum uncertainties, the question of (in)dependence of the oscillation probabilities on the neutrino production and detection processes, and the applicability limits of the stationary-source approximation. We also develop a novel approach to calculation of the oscillation probability in the wave-packet approach, based on the summation/integration conventions different from the standard one, which allows a new insight into the 'same energy' vs. 'same momentum' problem. We also discuss a number of apparently paradoxical features of the theory of neutrino oscillations.

  10. Observation of Muon Neutrino Charged Current Events in an Off-Axis Horn-Focused Neutrino Beam Using the NOvA Prototype Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz, Enrique Arrieta

    2014-01-01

    The NOνA is a long base-line neutrino oscillation experiment. It will study the oscillations between muon and electron neutrinos through the Earth. NOνA consists of two detectors separated by 810 km. Each detector will measure the electron neutrino content of the neutrino (NuMI) beam. Differences between the measurements will reveal details about the oscillation channel. The NOνA collaboration built a prototype detector on the surface at Fermilab in order to develop calibration, simulation, and reconstruction tools, using real data. This 220 ton detector is 110 mrad off the NuMI beam axis. This off-axis location allows the observation of neutrino interactions with energies around 2 GeV, where neutrinos come predominantly from charged kaon decays. During the period between October 2011 and April 2012, the prototype detector collected neutrino data from 1.67 × 1020 protons on target delivered by the NuMI beam. This analysis selected a number of candidate charged current muon neutrino events from the prototype data, which is 30% lower than predicted by the NOνA Monte Carlo simulation. The analysis suggests that the discrepancy comes from an over estimation of the neutrino flux in the Monte Carlo simulation, and in particular, from neutrinos generated in charged kaon decays. The ratio of measured divided by the simulated flux of muon neutrinos coming from charged kaon decays is: 0.70+0.108 -0.094. The NOνA collaboration may use the findings of this analysis to introduce a more accurate prediction of the neutrino flux produced by the NuMI beam in future Monte Carlo simulations.

  11. Ultra high energy photons and neutrinos with JEM-EUSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, J. H.; Ahmad, S.; Albert, J.-N.; Allard, D.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andreev, V.; Anzalone, A.; Arai, Y.; Asano, K.; Ave Pernas, M.; Baragatti, P.; Barrillon, P.; Batsch, T.; Bayer, J.; Bechini, R.; Belenguer, T.; Bellotti, R.; Belov, K.; Berlind, A. A.; Bertaina, M.; Biermann, P. L.; Biktemerova, S.; Blaksley, C.; Blanc, N.; Błȩcki, J.; Blin-Bondil, S.; Blümer, J.; Bobik, P.; Bogomilov, M.; Bonamente, M.; Briggs, M. S.; Briz, S.; Bruno, A.; Cafagna, F.; Campana, D.; Capdevielle, J.-N.; Caruso, R.; Casolino, M.; Cassardo, C.; Castellinic, G.; Catalano, C.; Catalano, G.; Cellino, A.; Chikawa, M.; Christl, M. J.; Cline, D.; Connaughton, V.; Conti, L.; Cordero, G.; Crawford, H. J.; Cremonini, R.; Csorna, S.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; de Castro, A. J.; De Donato, C.; de la Taille, C.; De Santis, C.; del Peral, L.; Dell'Oro, A.; De Simone, N.; Di Martino, M.; Distratis, G.; Dulucq, F.; Dupieux, M.; Ebersoldt, A.; Ebisuzaki, T.; Engel, R.; Falk, S.; Fang, K.; Fenu, F.; Fernández-Gómez, I.; Ferrarese, S.; Finco, D.; Flamini, M.; Fornaro, C.; Franceschi, A.; Fujimoto, J.; Fukushima, M.; Galeotti, P.; Garipov, G.; Geary, J.; Gelmini, G.; Giraudo, G.; Gonchar, M.; González Alvarado, C.; Gorodetzky, P.; Guarino, F.; Guzmán, A.; Hachisu, Y.; Harlov, B.; Haungs, A.; Hernández Carretero, J.; Higashide, K.; Ikeda, D.; Ikeda, H.; Inoue, N.; Inoue, S.; Insolia, A.; Isgrò, F.; Itow, Y.; Joven, E.; Judd, E. G.; Jung, A.; Kajino, F.; Kajino, T.; Kaneko, I.; Karadzhov, Y.; Karczmarczyk, J.; Karus, M.; Katahira, K.; Kawai, K.; Kawasaki, Y.; Keilhauer, B.; Khrenov, B. A.; Kim, J.-S.; Kim, S.-W.; Kim, S.-W.; Kleifges, M.; Klimov, P. A.; Kolev, D.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kudela, K.; Kurihara, Y.; Kusenko, A.; Kuznetsov, E.; Lacombe, M.; Lachaud, C.; Lee, J.; Licandro, J.; Lim, H.; López, F.; Maccarone, M. C.; Mannheim, K.; Maravilla, D.; Marcelli, L.; Marini, A.; Martinez, O.; Masciantonio, G.; Mase, K.; Matev, R.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Mernik, T.; Miyamoto, H.; Miyazaki, Y.; Mizumoto, Y.; Modestino, G.; Monaco, A.; Monnier-Ragaigne, D.; Morales de los Ríos, J. A.; Moretto, C.; Morozenko, V. S.; Mot, B.; Murakami, T.; Murakami, M. Nagano; Nagata, M.; Nagataki, S.; Nakamura, T.; Napolitano, T.; Naumov, D.; Nava, R.; Neronov, A.; Nomoto, K.; Nonaka, T.; Ogawa, T.; Ogio, S.; Ohmori, H.; Olinto, A. V.; Orleański, P.; Osteria, G.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Parizot, E.; Park, I. H.; Park, H. W.; Pastircak, B.; Patzak, T.; Paul, T.; Pennypacker, C.; Perez Cano, S.; Peter, T.; Picozza, P.; Pierog, T.; Piotrowski, L. W.; Piraino, S.; Plebaniak, Z.; Pollini, A.; Prat, P.; Prévôt, G.; Prieto, H.; Putis, M.; Reardon, P.; Reyes, M.; Ricci, M.; Rodríguez, I.; Rodríguez Frías, M. D.; Ronga, F.; Roth, M.; Rothkaehl, H.; Roudil, G.; Rusinov, I.; Rybczyński, M.; Sabau, M. D.; Sáez-Cano, G.; Sagawa, H.; Saito, A.; Sakaki, N.; Sakata, M.; Salazar, H.; Sánchez, S.; Santangelo, A.; Santiago Crúz, L.; Sanz Palomino, M.; Saprykin, O.; Sarazin, F.; Sato, H.; Sato, M.; Schanz, T.; Schieler, H.; Scotti, V.; Segreto, A.; Selmane, S.; Semikoz, D.; Serra, M.; Sharakin, S.; Shibata, T.; Shimizu, H. M.; Shinozaki, K.; Shirahama, T.; Siemieniec-Oziȩbło, G.; Silva López, H. H.; Sledd, J.; Słomińska, K.; Sobey, A.; Sugiyama, T.; Supanitsky, D.; Suzuki, M.; Szabelska, B.; Szabelski, J.; Tajima, F.; Tajima, N.; Tajima, T.; Takahashi, Y.; Takami, H.; Takeda, M.; Takizawa, Y.; Tenzer, C.; Tibolla, O.; Tkachev, L.; Tokuno, H.; Tomida, T.; Tone, N.; Toscano, S.; Trillaud, F.; Tsenov, R.; Tsunesada, Y.; Tsuno, K.; Tymieniecka, T.; Uchihori, Y.; Unger, M.; Vaduvescu, O.; Valdés-Galicia, J. F.; Vallania, P.; Valore, L.; Vankova, G.; Vigorito, C.; Villaseñor, L.; von Ballmoos, P.; Wada, S.; Watanabe, J.; Watanabe, S.; Watts, J.; Weber, M.; Weiler, T. J.; Wibig, T.; Wiencke, L.; Wille, M.; Wilms, J.; Włodarczyk, Z.; Yamamoto, T.; Yamamoto, Y.; Yang, J.; Yano, H.; Yashin, I. V.; Yonetoku, D.; Yoshida, K.; Yoshida, S.; Young, R.; Zotov, M. Yu.; Zuccaro Marchi, A.

    2015-11-01

    Ultra high energy photons and neutrinos are carriers of very important astrophysical information. They may be produced at the sites of cosmic ray acceleration or during the propagation of the cosmic rays in the intergalactic medium. In contrast to charged cosmic rays, photon and neutrino arrival directions point to the production site because they are not deflected by the magnetic fields of the Galaxy or the intergalactic medium. In this work we study the characteristics of the longitudinal development of showers initiated by photons and neutrinos at the highest energies. These studies are relevant for development of techniques for neutrino and photon identification by the JEM-EUSO telescope. In particular, we study the possibility of observing the multi-peak structure of very deep horizontal neutrino showers with JEM-EUSO. We also discuss the possibility to determine the flavor content of the incident neutrino flux by taking advantage of the different characteristics of the longitudinal profiles generated by different type of neutrinos. This is of grate importance for the study of the fundamental properties of neutrinos at the highest energies. Regarding photons, we discuss the detectability of the cosmogenic component by JEM-EUSO and also estimate the expected upper limits on the photon fraction which can be obtained from the future JEM-EUSO data for the case in which there are no photons in the samples.

  12. PREFACE: Prospects in Neutrino Physics 2013 - NuPhys2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-04-01

    The first "Prospects in Neutrino Physics 2013 - NuPhys2013" conference was held at the Institute of Physics, IoP, London, 19-20 December 2013 and was attended by about 130 delegates from institutions worldwide. Lunch and coffee breaks allowed discussions among delegates and speakers to take place in an informal setting. This conference is unique in discussing the worldwide strategy to address unresolved issues in neutrino physics, and shape the future directions of particle physics. We discussed the current status and focussed especially on the prospects of future experiments, their performance and physics reach. It is particularly timely due to the recent measurements in neutrino physics and planned worldwide experiments. The following topics were addressed: • Theory and Phenomenology Perspectives • Future Long and Short Baseline Neutrino Oscillation Experiments • Reactor neutrino and flux • Neutrinoless double beta decays • Solar, atmospheric, supernova neutrinosNeutrino cosmology in which both the phenomenological and experimental aspects were equally addressed. World-leading experts in the different neutrino areas were invited to give review talks. To encourage and facilitate the participation of early-career researchers and PhD students, a poster session formed a key aspect of this meeting. The conference was organized by Francesca Di Lodovico and Silvia Pascoli. It was sponsored by the IoP through their Topic Research Meeting Grant, and also supported by Durham IPPP, ERC-207282, FP7 invisibles project, Queen Mary University of London.

  13. Medium and high-energy neutrino physics from a lunar base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, T. L.

    1990-03-01

    Neutrino astronomy at high energy levels conducted from the moon is treated by considering 'particle astronomy' as a part of physics and the moon as a neutrino detector. The ability to observe the Galactic center is described by means of a 1-1000 TeV 'window' related to the drop in flux of atmospheric neutrinos from the earth. The long-baseline particle physics which are described in terms of a lunar observatory are found to be possible exclusively from a lunar station. The earth's neutrinos can be eliminated for the observations of astrophysical sources, and other potential areas of investigation include neutrino oscillation and the moon's interior. Neutrino exploration of the earth-moon and antineutrino radionuclide imaging are also considered. The moon is concluded to be a significantly more effective orbital platform for the study of neutrino physics than orbiting satellites developed on earth.

  14. Searches for ultra-high energy neutrinos at the Pierre Auger observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarez-Muñiz, Jaime

    2015-07-15

    Neutrinos in the sub-EeV energy range and above can be detected and identified with the Surface Detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The identification can be efficiently done for neutrinos of all flavours interacting in the atmosphere, typically above 60° (downward-going), as well as for “Earth-skimming” neutrino interactions in the case of tau neutrinos (upward-going). Three sets of identification criteria were designed to search for downward-going neutrinos in the zenith angle bins 60° − 75° and 75° − 90° as well as for upward-going neutrinos. The three searches have been recently combined, providing, in the absence of candidates in data from 1 January 04 until 31 December 12, a stringent limit to the diffuse flux of ultra-high energy neutrinos.

  15. Supernova constraints on neutrino oscillation and EoS for proto-neutron star

    SciTech Connect

    Kajino, T.; Aoki, W.; Cheoun, M.-K.; Hayakawa, T.; Hidaka, J.; Hirai, Y.; Shibagaki, S.; Mathews, G. J.; Nakamura, K.; Suzuki, T.

    2014-05-02

    Core-collapse supernovae eject huge amount of flux of energetic neutrinos which affect explosive nucleosynthesis of rare isotopes like {sup 7}Li, {sup 11}B, {sup 92}Nb, {sup 138}La and Ta and r-process elements. Several isotopes depend strongly on the neutrino flavor oscillation due to the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect. We here discuss how to determine the neutrino temperatures and propose a method to determine still unknown neutrino oscillation parameters, mass hierarchy and θ{sub 13}, simultaneously. Combining the recent experimental constraints on θ{sub 13} with isotopic ratios of the light elements discovered in presolar grains from the Murchison meteorite, we show that our method suggests at a marginal preference for an inverted neutrino mass hierarchy. We also discuss supernova relic neutrinos that may indicate the softness of the equation of state (EoS) of nuclear matter as well as adiabatic conditions of the neutrino oscillation.

  16. Medium and high-energy neutrino physics from a lunar base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Thomas L.

    1990-01-01

    Neutrino astronomy at high energy levels conducted from the moon is treated by considering 'particle astronomy' as a part of physics and the moon as a neutrino detector. The ability to observe the Galactic center is described by means of a 1-1000 TeV 'window' related to the drop in flux of atmospheric neutrinos from the earth. The long-baseline particle physics which are described in terms of a lunar observatory are found to be possible exclusively from a lunar station. The earth's neutrinos can be eliminated for the observations of astrophysical sources, and other potential areas of investigation include neutrino oscillation and the moon's interior. Neutrino exploration of the earth-moon and antineutrino radionuclide imaging are also considered. The moon is concluded to be a significantly more effective orbital platform for the study of neutrino physics than orbiting satellites developed on earth.

  17. Neutrinos in Cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Yvonne Y. Y.

    2008-01-24

    I give an overview of the effects of neutrinos on cosmology, focussing in particular on the role played by neutrinos in the evolution of cosmological perturbations. I discuss how recent observations of the cosmic microwave background and the large-scale structure of galaxies can probe neutrino masses with greater precision than current laboratory experiments. I describe several new techniques that will be used to probe cosmology in the future.

  18. Neutrinos: Nature's Ghosts?

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2013-06-18

    Dr. Don Lincoln introduces one of the most fascinating inhabitants of the subatomic realm: the neutrino. Neutrinos are ghosts of the microworld, almost not interacting at all. In this video, he describes some of their properties and how they were discovered. Studies of neutrinos are expected to be performed at many laboratories across the world and to form one of the cornerstones of the Fermilab research program for the next decade or more.

  19. Neutrinos: Nature's Ghosts?

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2016-07-12

    Dr. Don Lincoln introduces one of the most fascinating inhabitants of the subatomic realm: the neutrino. Neutrinos are ghosts of the microworld, almost not interacting at all. In this video, he describes some of their properties and how they were discovered. Studies of neutrinos are expected to be performed at many laboratories across the world and to form one of the cornerstones of the Fermilab research program for the next decade or more.

  20. Neutrino Physics at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Federspiel, F.; Garvey, G.; Louis, W.C.; Mills, G.B.; Tayloe, R.; Sandberg, V.; Sapp, B.; White, D.H.

    1999-07-09

    The Liquid Scintillator Neutrino Detector (LSND), located at the LANSCE (formerly LAMPF) linear accelerator at Los Alamos National Laboratory, has seen evidence for the oscillation of neutrinos, and hence neutrino mass. That discovery was the impetus for this LDRD project, begun in 1996. The goal of this project was to define the appropriate technologies to use in a follow up experiment and to set in place the requirements for such an experiment.

  1. High intensity neutrino beams

    SciTech Connect

    Ichikawa, A. K.

    2015-07-15

    High-intensity proton accelerator complex enabled long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments with a precisely controlled neutrino beam. The beam power so far achieved is a few hundred kW with enourmorous efforts of accelerator physicists and engineers. However, to fully understand the lepton mixing structure, MW-class accelerators are desired. We describe the current intensity-frontier high-energy proton accelerators, their plans to go beyond and technical challenges in the neutrino beamline facilities.

  2. Accelerator neutrino program at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Parke, Stephen J.; /Fermilab

    2010-05-01

    The accelerator neutrino programme in the USA consists primarily of the Fermilab neutrino programme. Currently, Fermilab operates two neutrino beamlines, the Booster neutrino beamline and the NuMI neutrino beamline and is the planning stages for a third neutrino beam to send neutrinos to DUSEL. The experiments in the Booster neutrino beamline are miniBooNE, SciBooNE and in the future microBooNE, whereas in the NuMI beamline we have MINOS, ArgoNut, MINERVA and coming soon NOvA. The major experiment in the beamline to DUSEL will be LBNE.

  3. Neutrino oscillation studies with reactors.

    PubMed

    Vogel, P; Wen, L J; Zhang, C

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear reactors are one of the most intense, pure, controllable, cost-effective and well-understood sources of neutrinos. Reactors have played a major role in the study of neutrino oscillations, a phenomenon that indicates that neutrinos have mass and that neutrino flavours are quantum mechanical mixtures. Over the past several decades, reactors were used in the discovery of neutrinos, were crucial in solving the solar neutrino puzzle, and allowed the determination of the smallest mixing angle θ13. In the near future, reactors will help to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy and to solve the puzzling issue of sterile neutrinos. PMID:25913819

  4. Neutrino oscillation studies with reactors.

    PubMed

    Vogel, P; Wen, L J; Zhang, C

    2015-04-27

    Nuclear reactors are one of the most intense, pure, controllable, cost-effective and well-understood sources of neutrinos. Reactors have played a major role in the study of neutrino oscillations, a phenomenon that indicates that neutrinos have mass and that neutrino flavours are quantum mechanical mixtures. Over the past several decades, reactors were used in the discovery of neutrinos, were crucial in solving the solar neutrino puzzle, and allowed the determination of the smallest mixing angle θ13. In the near future, reactors will help to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy and to solve the puzzling issue of sterile neutrinos.

  5. Neutrino oscillation studies with reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, P.; Wen, L.J.; Zhang, C.

    2015-04-27

    Nuclear reactors are one of the most intense, pure, controllable, cost-effective and well-understood sources of neutrinos. Reactors have played a major role in the study of neutrino oscillations, a phenomenon that indicates that neutrinos have mass and that neutrino flavours are quantum mechanical mixtures. Over the past several decades, reactors were used in the discovery of neutrinos, were crucial in solving the solar neutrino puzzle, and allowed the determination of the smallest mixing angle θ13. In the near future, reactors will help to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy and to solve the puzzling issue of sterile neutrinos.

  6. Neutrino oscillation studies with reactors

    DOE PAGES

    Vogel, P.; Wen, L.J.; Zhang, C.

    2015-04-27

    Nuclear reactors are one of the most intense, pure, controllable, cost-effective and well-understood sources of neutrinos. Reactors have played a major role in the study of neutrino oscillations, a phenomenon that indicates that neutrinos have mass and that neutrino flavours are quantum mechanical mixtures. Over the past several decades, reactors were used in the discovery of neutrinos, were crucial in solving the solar neutrino puzzle, and allowed the determination of the smallest mixing angle θ13. In the near future, reactors will help to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy and to solve the puzzling issue of sterile neutrinos.

  7. Novel Ideas for Neutrino Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Peach, Ken

    2007-04-23

    Recent developments in neutrino physics, primarily the demonstration of neutrino oscillations in both atmospheric neutrinos and solar neutrinos, provide the first conclusive evidence for physics beyond the Standard Model of particle physics. The simplest phenomenology of neutrino oscillations, for three generations of neutrino, requires six parameters - two squared mass differences, 3 mixing angles and a complex phase that could, if not 0 or {pi}, contribute to the otherwise unexplained baryon asymmetry observed in the universe. Exploring the neutrino sector will require very intense beams of neutrinos, and will need novel solutions.

  8. Neutrino oscillation studies with reactors

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, P.; Wen, L.J.; Zhang, C.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear reactors are one of the most intense, pure, controllable, cost-effective and well-understood sources of neutrinos. Reactors have played a major role in the study of neutrino oscillations, a phenomenon that indicates that neutrinos have mass and that neutrino flavours are quantum mechanical mixtures. Over the past several decades, reactors were used in the discovery of neutrinos, were crucial in solving the solar neutrino puzzle, and allowed the determination of the smallest mixing angle θ13. In the near future, reactors will help to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy and to solve the puzzling issue of sterile neutrinos. PMID:25913819

  9. Manipulating a neutrino spectrum to maximize the physics potential from a low-energy {beta} beam

    SciTech Connect

    Amanik, Philip S.; McLaughlin, Gail C.

    2007-06-15

    Proposed low-energy {beta}-beam facilities would be capable of producing intense beams of neutrinos (antineutrinos) with well-defined spectra. We present analytic expressions and numerical results that accurately show how the total neutrino flux reaching the detector depends on the geometry of the source and the detector. Several authors have proposed measurements which require using different flux shapes. We show that detectors of different sizes and shapes will receive neutrino fluxes with different spectral shapes and that the spectral shape will also be different in different regions of the same detector. Our findings also show that for certain measurements, systematic uncertainties and run time can be reduced.

  10. Neutrino-Triggered Asymmetric Magnetorotational Pulsar Natal Kick Cherry-Stone Shooting" Mechanism)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, A. V.; Mikheev, N. V.

    2013-11-01

    The sterile neutrino mechanisms for natal neutron stars kicks are re-analyzed. It is shown that the magnetic field strengths needed for a kick were underestimated essentially. Another mechanism with standard neutrinos is discussed where the outgoing neutrino flux in a supernova explosion with a strong toroidal magnetic field generation causes the field redistribution in "upper" and "lower" hemispheres of the supernova envelope. The resulting magnetic field pressure asymmetry causes the pulsar natal kick.

  11. Neutrino-nucleus interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, H.; Garvey, G.; Zeller, G.P.; /Fermilab

    2011-01-01

    The study of neutrino oscillations has necessitated a new generation of neutrino experiments that are exploring neutrino-nuclear scattering processes. We focus in particular on charged-current quasi-elastic scattering, a particularly important channel that has been extensively investigated both in the bubble-chamber era and by current experiments. Recent results have led to theoretical reexamination of this process. We review the standard picture of quasi-elastic scattering as developed in electron scattering, review and discuss experimental results, and discuss additional nuclear effects such as exchange currents and short-range correlations that may play a significant role in neutrino-nucleus scattering.

  12. Neutrinos in supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Cooperstein, J.

    1986-10-01

    The role of neutrinos in Type II supernovae is discussed. An overall view of the neutrino luminosity as expected theoretically is presented. The different weak interactions involved are assessed from the standpoint of how they exchange energy, momentum, and lepton number. Particular attention is paid to entropy generation and the path to thermal and chemical equilibration, and to the phenomenon of trapping. Various methods used to calculate the neutrino flows are considered. These include trapping and leakage schemes, distribution-averaged transfer, and multi-energy group methods. The information obtained from the neutrinos caught from Supernova 1987a is briefly evaluated. 55 refs., 7 figs.

  13. Nonlinear growing neutrino cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayaita, Youness; Baldi, Marco; Führer, Florian; Puchwein, Ewald; Wetterich, Christof

    2016-03-01

    The energy scale of dark energy, ˜2 ×10-3 eV , is a long way off compared to all known fundamental scales—except for the neutrino masses. If dark energy is dynamical and couples to neutrinos, this is no longer a coincidence. The time at which dark energy starts to behave as an effective cosmological constant can be linked to the time at which the cosmic neutrinos become nonrelativistic. This naturally places the onset of the Universe's accelerated expansion in recent cosmic history, addressing the why-now problem of dark energy. We show that these mechanisms indeed work in the growing neutrino quintessence model—even if the fully nonlinear structure formation and backreaction are taken into account, which were previously suspected of spoiling the cosmological evolution. The attractive force between neutrinos arising from their coupling to dark energy grows as large as 106 times the gravitational strength. This induces very rapid dynamics of neutrino fluctuations which are nonlinear at redshift z ≈2 . Nevertheless, a nonlinear stabilization phenomenon ensures only mildly nonlinear oscillating neutrino overdensities with a large-scale gravitational potential substantially smaller than that of cold dark matter perturbations. Depending on model parameters, the signals of large-scale neutrino lumps may render the cosmic neutrino background observable.

  14. Bolometric detection of neutrinos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabrera, B.; Krauss, L. M.; Wilczek, F.

    1985-01-01

    Elastic neutrino scattering off electrons in crystalline silicon at 1-10 mK results in measurable temperature changes in macroscopic amounts of material, even for low-energy (less than 0.41-MeV) pp neutrinos from the sun. New detectors for bolometric measurement of low-energy neutrino interactions, including coherent nuclear elastic scattering, are proposed. A new and more sensitive search for oscillations of reactor antineutrinos is practical (about 100 kg of Si), and would lay the groundwork for a more ambitious measurement of the spectrum of pp, Be-7, and B-8 solar neutrinos, and of supernovae anywhere in the Galaxy (about 10 tons of Si).

  15. UHE neutrino and cosmic ray emission from GRBs: Revising the models and clarifying the cosmic ray-neutrino connection

    SciTech Connect

    Bustamante, Mauricio Winter, Walter; Baerwald, Philipp

    2014-11-18

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have long been held as one of the most promising sources of ultra-high energy (UHE) neutrinos. The internal shock model of GRB emission posits the joint production of UHE cosmic rays (UHECRs, above 10{sup 8} GeV), photons, and neutrinos, through photohadronic interactions between source photons and magnetically-confined energetic protons, that occur when relativistically-expanding matter shells loaded with baryons collide with one another. While neutrino observations by IceCube have now ruled out the simplest version of the internal shock model, we show that a revised calculation of the emission, together with the consideration of the full photohadronic cross section and other particle physics effects, results in a prediction of the prompt GRB neutrino flux that still lies one order of magnitude below the current upper bounds, as recently exemplified by the results from ANTARES. In addition, we show that by allowing protons to directly escape their magnetic confinement without interacting at the source, we are able to partially decouple the cosmic ray and prompt neutrino emission, which grants the freedom to fit the UHECR observations while respecting the neutrino upper bounds. Finally, we briefly present advances towards pinning down the precise relation between UHECRs and UHE neutrinos, including the baryonic loading required to fit UHECR observations, and we will assess the role that very large volume neutrino telescopes play in this.

  16. Search for Muon Neutrino Disappearance in a Short-Baseline Accelerator Neutrino Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Nakajima, Y.; /Kyoto U.

    2010-04-25

    We report a search for muon neutrino disappearance in the {Delta}m{sup 2} region of 0.5--40 eV{sup 2} using data from both Sci-BooNE and MiniBooNE experiments. SciBooNE data provides a constraint on the neutrino flux, so that the sensitivity to {nu}{sub {mu}} disappearance with both detectors is better than with just MiniBooNE alone. The preliminary sensitivity for a joint {nu}{sub {mu}} disappearance search is presented.

  17. Multiple Spectral Splits of Supernova Neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Dasgupta, Basudeb; Raffelt, Georg G.; Dighe, Amol; Smirnov, Alexei Yu.

    2009-07-31

    Collective oscillations of supernova neutrinos swap the spectra f{sub n}u{sub e}(E) and f{sub n}u{sub e}(E) with those of another flavor in certain energy intervals bounded by sharp spectral splits. This phenomenon is far more general than previously appreciated: typically one finds one or more swaps and accompanying splits in the nu and nu channels for both inverted and normal neutrino mass hierarchies. Depending on an instability condition, swaps develop around spectral crossings (energies where f{sub n}u{sub e}=f{sub n}u{sub x}, f{sub n}u{sub e}=f{sub n}u{sub x} as well as E->infinity where all fluxes vanish), and the widths of swaps are determined by the spectra and fluxes. Washout by multiangle decoherence varies across the spectrum and splits can survive as sharp spectral features.

  18. Measuring the 13 Neutrino Mixing Angle and the CP Phase with Neutrino Telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    Serpico, P.D.; Kachelriess, M.

    2005-06-03

    The observed excess of high-energy cosmic rays from the Galactic plane in the energy range around 10{sup 18} eV may be explained by neutron primaries generated in the photodissociation of heavy nuclei. In this scenario, lower-energy neutrons decay before reaching the Earth and produce a detectable flux in a 1 km{sup 3} neutrino telescope. The initial flavor composition of the neutrino flux, {phi}({nu}{sub e}):{phi}({nu}{sub {mu}}):{phi}({nu}{sub {tau}})=1:0:0, permits a combined {nu}{sub {mu}}/{nu}{sub {tau}} appearance and {nu}{sub e} disappearance experiment. The observable flux ratio {phi}({nu}{sub {mu}})/{phi}({nu}{sub e}+{nu}{sub {tau}}) at Earth depends on the 13 mixing angle {theta}{sub 13} and the leptonic CP phase {delta}{sub CP}, thus opening a new way to measure these two quantities.

  19. A study of muon neutrino disappearance in the MINOS detectors and the NuMI beam

    SciTech Connect

    Ling, Jiajie

    2010-01-01

    There is now substantial evidence that the proper description of neutrino involves two representations related by the 3 x 3 PMNS matrix characterized by either distinct mass or flavor. The parameters of this mixing matrix, three angles and a phase, as well as the mass differences between the three mass eigenstates must be determined experimentally. The Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search experiment is designed to study the flavor composition of a beam of muon neutrinos as it travels between the Near Detector at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory at 1 km from the target, and the Far Detector in the Soudan iron mine in Minnesota at 735 km from the target. From the comparison of reconstructed neutrino energy spectra at the near and far location, precise measurements of neutrino oscillation parameters from muon neutrino disappearance and electron neutrino appearance are expected. It is very important to know the neutrino flux coming from the source in order to achieve the main goal of the MINOS experiment: precise measurements of the atmospheric mass splitting |Δm232|, sin2 θ23. The goal of my thesis is to accurately predict the neutrino flux for the MINOS experiment and measure the neutrino mixing angle and atmospheric mass splitting.

  20. Solar neutrino detection in a large volume double-phase liquid argon experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, D.; Giganti, C.; Agnes, P.; Agostino, L.; Bottino, B.; Canci, N.; Davini, S.; De Cecco, S.; Fan, A.; Fiorillo, G.; Galbiati, C.; Goretti, A. M.; Hungerford, E. V.; Ianni, Al.; Ianni, An.; Jollet, C.; Marini, L.; Martoff, C. J.; Meregaglia, A.; Pagani, L.; Pallavicini, M.; Pantic, E.; Pocar, A.; Razeti, M.; Renshaw, A. L.; Rossi, B.; Rossi, N.; Suvorov, Y.; Testera, G.; Tonazzo, A.; Wang, H.; Zavatarelli, S.

    2016-08-01

    Precision measurements of solar neutrinos emitted by specific nuclear reaction chains in the Sun are of great interest for developing an improved understanding of star formation and evolution. Given the expected neutrino fluxes and known detection reactions, such measurements require detectors capable of collecting neutrino-electron scattering data in exposures on the order of 1 ktonne-yr, with good energy resolution and extremely low background. Two-phase liquid argon time projection chambers (LAr TPCs) are under development for direct Dark Matter WIMP searches, which possess very large sensitive mass, high scintillation light yield, good energy resolution, and good spatial resolution in all three cartesian directions. While enabling Dark Matter searches with sensitivity extending to the ``neutrino floor'' (given by the rate of nuclear recoil events from solar neutrino coherent scattering), such detectors could also enable precision measurements of solar neutrino fluxes using the neutrino-electron elastic scattering events. Modeling results are presented for the cosmogenic and radiogenic backgrounds affecting solar neutrino detection in a 300 tonne (100 tonne fiducial) LAr TPC operating at LNGS depth (3,800 meters of water equivalent). The results show that such a detector could measure the CNO neutrino rate with ~15% precision, and significantly improve the precision of the 7Be and pep neutrino rates compared to the currently available results from the Borexino organic liquid scintillator detector.

  1. Measurement of Neutrino and Antineutrino Charged-Current Inclusive Cross Sections with the MINERvA Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Devan, Joshua D.

    2015-01-01

    Neutrinos are a nearly massless, neutral particle in the Standard Model that only interact via the weak interaction. Experimental confirmation of neutrino oscillations, in which a neutrino created as a particular type (electron, muon or tau) can be observed as a different type after propagating some distance, earned the 2015 Nobel Prize in Physics. Neutrino oscillation experiments rely on accurate measurements of neutrino interactions with matter, such as that presented here. Neutrinos also provide a unique probe of the nucleus, complementary to electron scattering experiments. This thesis presents a measurement of the charged-current inclusive cross section for muon neutrinos and antineutrinos in the energy range 2 to 50 GeV with the MINERvA detector. MINERvA is a neutrino scattering experiment in the NuMI neutrino beam at Fermilab, near Chicago. A cross section measures the probability of an interaction occurring, measured here as a function of neutrino energy. To extract a cross section from data, the observed rate of interactions is corrected for detector efficiency and divided by the number of scattering nucleons in the target and the flux of neutrinos in the beam. The neutrino flux is determined with the low-$\

  2. Extremely high energy cosmic neutrinos and relic neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Quigg, Chris; /Fermilab /CERN

    2006-03-01

    I review the essentials of ultrahigh-energy neutrino interactions, show how neutral-current detection and flavor tagging can enhance the scientific potential of neutrino telescopes, and sketch new studies on neutrino encounters with dark matter relics and on gravitational lensing of neutrinos.

  3. Review of neutrino oscillations with sterile and active neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisslinger, Leonard S.

    2016-08-01

    Recently neutrino oscillation experiments have shown that it is very likely that there are one or two sterile neutrinos. In this review neutrino oscillations with one, two, three sterile and three active neutrinos, and parameters that are consistent with experiments, are reviewed.

  4. PeV Neutrinos Observed by IceCube from Cores of Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, Floyd W.

    2013-01-01

    I show that the high energy neutrino flux predicted to arise from active galactic nuclei cores can explain the PeV neutrinos detected by IceCube without conflicting with the constraints from the observed extragalactic cosmic-ray and gamma-ray backgrounds.

  5. The status of the study of solar CNO neutrinos in the Borexino experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Lukyanchenko, G. A.; Collaboration: Borexino Collaboration

    2015-12-15

    Although less than 1% of solar energy is generated in the CNO cycle, it plays a critical role in astrophysics, since this cycle is the primary source of energy in certain more massive stars and at later stages of evolution of solar-type stars. Electron neutrinos are produced in the CNO cycle reactions. These neutrinos may be detected by terrestrial neutrino detectors. Various solar models with different abundances of elements heavier than helium predict different CNO neutrino fluxes. A direct measurement of the CNO neutrino flux could help distinguish between these models and solve several other astrophysical problems. No CNO neutrinos have been detected directly thus far, and the best upper limit on their flux was set in the Borexino experiment. The work on reducing the background in the region of energies of CNO neutrinos (up to 1.74 MeV) and developing novel data analysis methods is presently under way. These efforts may help detect the CNO neutrino flux in the Borexino experiment at the level predicted by solar models.

  6. Muon and Tau Neutrinos Spectra from Solar Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fargion, Daniele; Moscato, Federica

    2003-12-01

    Most power-full solar flare as the ones occurred on 23th February 1956, September 29th 1989, 28th October and on 2nd-4th November 2003 are sources of cosmic rays, X, gamma and neutrino bursts. These flares took place both on front or in the edge and in the hidden solar disk. The 4th November event was the most powerful X event in the highest known rank category X28 just at horizons. The observed and estimated total flare energy (EFL ≃ 1031div 1033 erg) should be a source of a prompt secondary neutrino burst originated, by proton-proton-pion production on the sun itself; a more delayed and spread neutrino flux signal arise by the solar charged flare particles reaching the terrestrial atmosphere. These first earliest prompt solar neutrino burst might be observed, in a few neutrino clustered events, in present or future largest neutrino underground detectors as Super-Kamiokande one, in time correlation with the X-Radio flare. The onset in time correlation has great statistical significance. Our first estimate on the neutrino number events detection at the Super-Kamiokande II Laboratory for horizontal or hidden flare is found to be few events: NeV_bar{ν}_e≃ 0.63&etae ()/(35 MeV) ()/(1031 erg); and NeV_bar{ν}μ ≃ 3.58()/(200 MeV) ()/(1031erg) η,SUB>μ, where η≃ 1, Eνμ > 113 MeV. Our first estimates of neutrino signals in largest underground detectors hint for few events in correlation with X, gamma, radio onser. Our approximated spectra for muons and taus from these rare solar eruption are shown over the most common background. The muon and tau signature is very peculiar and characteristic over electron and anti-electron neutrino fluxes. The rise of muon neutrinos will be detectable above the minimal muon threshold Eν ≃ 113 MeV energy, or above the pion and Δ ° thresholds (Eν≃ 151 and 484 MeV). Any large neutrino flare event record might also verify the expected neutrino flavour mixing leading to a few as well as a comparable

  7. Cosmological neutrino mass detection: The Best probe of neutrino lifetime

    SciTech Connect

    Serpico, Pasquale D.; /Fermilab

    2007-01-01

    Future cosmological data may be sensitive to the effects of a finite sum of neutrino masses even as small as {approx}0.06 eV, the lower limit guaranteed by neutrino oscillation experiments. We show that a cosmological detection of neutrino mass at that level would improve by many orders of magnitude the existing limits on neutrino lifetime, and as a consequence on neutrino secret interactions with (quasi-)massless particles as in majoron models. On the other hand, neutrino decay may provide a way-out to explain a discrepancy {approx}< 0.1 eV between cosmic neutrino bounds and Lab data.

  8. Monte Carlo neutrino oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Kneller, James P.; McLaughlin, Gail C.

    2006-03-01

    We demonstrate that the effects of matter upon neutrino propagation may be recast as the scattering of the initial neutrino wave function. Exchanging the differential, Schrodinger equation for an integral equation for the scattering matrix S permits a Monte Carlo method for the computation of S that removes many of the numerical difficulties associated with direct integration techniques.

  9. Physics of neutrino flavor transformation through matter-neutrino resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Meng-Ru; Duan, Huaiyu; Qian, Yong-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    In astrophysical environments such as core-collapse supernovae and neutron star-neutron star or neutron star-black hole mergers where dense neutrino media are present, matter-neutrino resonances (MNRs) can occur when the neutrino propagation potentials due to neutrino-electron and neutrino-neutrino forward scattering nearly cancel each other. We show that neutrino flavor transformation through MNRs can be explained by multiple adiabatic solutions similar to the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein mechanism. We find that for the normal neutrino mass hierarchy, neutrino flavor evolution through MNRs can be sensitive to the shape of neutrino spectra and the adiabaticity of the system, but such sensitivity is absent for the inverted hierarchy.

  10. Nuclear processes and neutrino production in solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lingenfelter, R. E.; Ramaty, R.; Murphy, R. J.; Kozlovsky, S.

    1985-01-01

    The determination of flare neutrino flux is approached from the standpoint of recent observations and theoretical results on the nuclear processes in solar flares. Attention is given to the energy spectra and total numbers of accelerated particles in flares, as well as their resulting production of beta(+)-emitting radionuclei and pions; these should be the primary sources of neutrinos. The observed 0.511 MeV line flux for the June 21, 1980 flare is compared with the expected from the number and spectrum of accelerated particles.

  11. Dark matter astrophysical uncertainties and the neutrino floor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Hare, Ciaran A. J.

    2016-09-01

    The search for weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) by direct detection faces an encroaching background due to coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering. For a given WIMP mass the cross section at which neutrinos constitute a dominant background is dependent on the uncertainty on the flux of each neutrino source, principally from the Sun, supernovae or atmospheric cosmic ray collisions. However there are also considerable uncertainties with regard to the astrophysical ingredients of the predicted WIMP signal. Uncertainties in the velocity of the Sun with respect to the Milky Way dark matter halo, the local density of WIMPs, and the shape of the local WIMP speed distribution all have an effect on the expected event rate in direct detection experiments and hence will change the region of the WIMP parameter space for which neutrinos are a significant background. In this work we extend the neutrino floor calculation to account for the uncertainty in the astrophysics dependence of the WIMP signal. We show the effect of uncertainties on projected discovery limits with an emphasis on low WIMP masses (less than 10 GeV) when solar neutrino backgrounds are most important. We find that accounting for astrophysical uncertainties changes the shape of the neutrino floor as a function of WIMP mass but also causes it to appear at cross sections up to an order of magnitude larger, extremely close to existing experimental limits, indicating that neutrino backgrounds will become an issue sooner than previously thought. We also explore how neutrinos hinder the estimation of WIMP parameters and how astrophysical uncertainties impact the discrimination of WIMPs and neutrinos with the use of their respective time dependencies.

  12. Cosmogenic neutrinos and signals of TeV gravity in air showers and neutrino telescopes.

    PubMed

    Illana, J I; Masip, M; Meloni, D

    2004-10-01

    The existence of extra dimensions allows the possibility that the fundamental scale of gravity is at the TeV. If that is the case, gravity could dominate the interactions of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays. In particular, the production of microscopic black holes by cosmogenic neutrinos has been estimated in a number of papers. We consider here gravity-mediated interactions at larger distances, where they can be calculated in the eikonal approximation. We show that for the expected flux of cosmogenic neutrinos these elastic processes give a stronger signal than black hole production in neutrino telescopes. Taking the bounds on the higher-dimensional Planck mass M(D) (D=4 + n) from current air shower experiments, for n=2(6) elastic collisions could produce up to 118 (34) events per year at IceCube. On the other hand, the absence of any signal would imply a bound of M(D) > or approximately 5 TeV.

  13. Neutrino propagation in a fluctuating sun

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, C.P.; Michaud, D.

    1997-05-01

    We adapt to neutrino physics a general formulation for particle propagation in fluctuating media, initially developed for applications to electromagnetism and neutron optics. In leading approximation this formalism leads to the usual MSW effective Hamiltonian governing neutrino propagation through a medium. Next-to-leading contributions describe deviations from this description, which arise due to neutrino interactions with fluctuations in the medium. We compute these corrections for two types of fluctuations: (i) microscopic thermal fluctuations and (ii) macroscopic fluctuations in the medium{close_quote}s density. While the first of these reproduces standard estimates, which are negligible for applications to solar neutrinos, we find that the second can be quite large, since it grows in size with the correlation length of the fluctuation. We consider two models in some detail. For fluctuations whose correlations extend only over a local region in space of length l, appreciable effects for MSW oscillations arise if ({delta}n/n){sup 2}l{approx_gt}100m or so. Alternatively, a crude model of helioseismic p-waves gives appreciable effects only when ({delta}n/n){approx_gt}1{percent}. In general the dominant effect is to diminish the quality of the resonance, making the suppression of the {sup 7}Be neutrinos a good experimental probe of fluctuations deep within the sun. Fluctuations can also provide a new mechanism for reducing the solar neutrino flux, giving an energy-independent suppression factor of 1/2 away from the resonant region, even for small vacuum mixing angles. {copyright} 1997 Academic Press, Inc.

  14. Simulation of neutrino and charged particle production and propagation in the atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Derome, L.

    2006-11-15

    A precise evaluation of the secondary particle production and propagation in the atmosphere is very important for the atmospheric neutrino oscillation studies. The issue is addressed with the extension of a previously developed full 3-dimensional Monte-Carlo simulation of particle generation and transport in the atmosphere, to compute the flux of secondary protons, muons, and neutrinos. Recent balloon borne experiments have performed a set of accurate flux measurements for different particle species at different altitudes in the atmosphere, which can be used to test the calculations for the atmospheric neutrino production, and constrain the underlying hadronic models. The simulation results are reported and compared with the latest flux measurements. It is shown that the level of precision reached by these experiments could be used to constrain the nuclear models used in the simulation. The implication of these results for the atmospheric neutrino flux calculation are discussed.

  15. Dust Obscured Blazars as sources of high-energy neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggi, G.; de Vries, K. D.; van Eijndhoven, N.

    2016-08-01

    Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) are believed to be among the most promising sources of the ultra-high-energy cosmic ray flux. A hadronic component which is accelerated in the high energy environment of an AGN immediately implies the production of high-energy neutrinos. Nevertheless, no clear correlation between AGN and the high-energy cosmic-neutrino flux obtained by IceCube has been found so-far, putting strong limits on the neutrino production at AGN. We discuss a specific type of AGN for which an enhanced neutrino production is expected. This specific sub-set is given by AGN with their high-energy jet directed toward Earth, which is obscured by surrounding dust or gas, defining Dust Obscured Blazars. This type of AGN is predicted to have an enhanced neutrino emission due to the interaction of a possible hadronic component inside the AGN-jet with the surrounding matter. From two different galaxy catalogs, we have selected a sample of nearby sources with the characteristics of Dust Obscured Blazars. This selection is based on observations in the X-ray and radio bands. The data is consequently used to investigate the column density of the surrounding matter, providing an estimate for the neutrino production enhancement due to the nucleon-matter interactions in a beam dump scenario for various dust or gas compositions.

  16. Do high energy astrophysical neutrinos trace star formation?

    SciTech Connect

    Emig, Kimberly; Windhorst, Rogier; Lunardini, Cecilia E-mail: Cecilia.Lunardini@asu.edu

    2015-12-01

    The IceCube Neutrino Observatory has provided the first map of the high energy (∼ 0.01–1 PeV) sky in neutrinos. Since neutrinos propagate undeflected, their arrival direction is an important identifier for sources of high energy particle acceleration. Reconstructed arrival directions are consistent with an extragalactic origin, with possibly a galactic component, of the neutrino flux. We present a statistical analysis of positional coincidences of the IceCube neutrinos with known astrophysical objects from several catalogs. When considering starburst galaxies with the highest flux in gamma-rays and infrared radiation, up to n=8 coincidences are found, representing an excess over the ∼4 predicted for the randomized, or ''null'' distribution. The probability that this excess is realized in the null case, the p-value, is p=0.042. This value falls to p=0.003 for a partial subset of gamma-ray-detected starburst galaxies and superbubble regions in the galactic neighborhood. Therefore, it is possible that starburst galaxies, and the typically hundreds of superbubble regions within them, might account for a portion of IceCube neutrinos. The physical plausibility of such correlation is discussed briefly.

  17. Coherent scattering of cosmic neutrinos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opher, R.

    1974-01-01

    It is shown that cosmic neutrino scattering can be non-negligible when coherence effects previously neglected are taken into account. The coherent neutrino scattering cross section is derived and the neutrino index of refraction evaluated. As an example of coherent neutrino scattering, a detector using critical reflection is described which in principle can detect the low energy cosmic neutrino background allowed by the measured cosmological red shift.

  18. Magnetic moment of the majorana neutrino in the left-right symmetric model

    SciTech Connect

    Boyarkin, O. M. Boyarkina, G. G.

    2013-04-15

    Corrections to the neutrino magnetic dipole moment from the singly charged Higgs bosons h{sup ({+-})} and {delta}-tilde{sup (}{+-}) were calculated within the left-right symmetric model involving Majorana neutrinos. It is shown that, if the h{sup ({+-})} and {delta}-tilde{sup (}{+-}) bosons lie at the electroweak scale, the contributions from Higgs sector are commensurate with the contribution of charged gauge bosons or may even exceed it. The behavior of the neutrino flux inmatter and in amagnetic field was studied. It was found that resonance transitions between light and heavy neutrinos are forbidden.

  19. Supernova neutrino halo and the suppression of self-induced flavor conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarikas, Srdjan; Tamborra, Irene; Raffelt, Georg; Hüdepohl, Lorenz; Janka, Hans-Thomas

    2012-06-01

    Neutrinos streaming from a supernova core occasionally scatter in the envelope, producing a small “neutrino halo” with a much broader angle distribution than the primary flux originating directly from the core. Cherry et al. have recently pointed out that, during the accretion phase, the halo actually dominates neutrino-neutrino refraction at distances exceeding some 100 km. However, the multiangle matter effect (which increases if the angle distribution is broader) still appears to suppress self-induced flavor conversion during the accretion phase.

  20. Neutrino Oscillation Parameter Sensitivity in Future Long-Baseline Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Bass, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    The study of neutrino interactions and propagation has produced evidence for physics beyond the standard model and promises to continue to shed light on rare phenomena. Since the discovery of neutrino oscillations in the late 1990s there have been rapid advances in establishing the three flavor paradigm of neutrino oscillations. The 2012 discovery of a large value for the last unmeasured missing angle has opened the way for future experiments to search for charge-parity symmetry violation in the lepton sector. This thesis presents an analysis of the future sensitivity to neutrino oscillations in the three flavor paradigm for the T2K, NO A, LBNE, and T2HK experiments. The theory of the three flavor paradigm is explained and the methods to use these theoretical predictions to design long baseline neutrino experiments are described. The sensitivity to the oscillation parameters for each experiment is presented with a particular focus on the search for CP violation and the measurement of the neutrino mass hierarchy. The variations of these sensitivities with statistical considerations and experimental design optimizations taken into account are explored. The effects of systematic uncertainties in the neutrino flux, interaction, and detection predictions are also considered by incorporating more advanced simulations inputs from the LBNE experiment.

  1. Absolute neutrino mass measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Joachim

    2011-10-06

    The neutrino mass plays an important role in particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. In recent years the detection of neutrino flavour oscillations proved that neutrinos carry mass. However, oscillation experiments are only sensitive to the mass-squared difference of the mass eigenvalues. In contrast to cosmological observations and neutrino-less double beta decay (0v2{beta}) searches, single {beta}-decay experiments provide a direct, model-independent way to determine the absolute neutrino mass by measuring the energy spectrum of decay electrons at the endpoint region with high accuracy.Currently the best kinematic upper limits on the neutrino mass of 2.2eV have been set by two experiments in Mainz and Troitsk, using tritium as beta emitter. The next generation tritium {beta}-experiment KATRIN is currently under construction in Karlsruhe/Germany by an international collaboration. KATRIN intends to improve the sensitivity by one order of magnitude to 0.2eV. The investigation of a second isotope ({sup 137}Rh) is being pursued by the international MARE collaboration using micro-calorimeters to measure the beta spectrum. The technology needed to reach 0.2eV sensitivity is still in the R and D phase. This paper reviews the present status of neutrino-mass measurements with cosmological data, 0v2{beta} decay and single {beta}-decay.

  2. The NuMI Beam at FNAL and its Use for Neutrino Cross Section Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Kopp, Sacha E.

    2007-12-21

    The Neutrinos at the Main Injector (NuMI) facility at Fermilab began operations in late 2004. NuMI will deliver an intense {nu}{sub {mu}} beam of variable energy (2-20 GeV). Several aspects of the design and results from runs of the MINOS experiment are reviewed. I also discuss technique to measure directly the neutrino flux using a muon flux system at the end of the NuMI line.

  3. Accounting for the Unresolved X-ray Background with Sterile Neutrino Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Cumberbatch, D.T.; Silk, Joseph

    2007-11-20

    We consider a scenario where keV sterile neutrinos constitute all of the currently inferred dark matter abundance, whose radiative decays could potentially account for the flux contributions to the X-ray background (XRB) by unresolved sources. Here we apply integrated flux methods to results from the observations of the North/South Chandra deep fields (CDF-N/S) in order to deduce constraints on the sterile neutrino mass-mixing parameters.

  4. One-pion production in neutrino-nucleus collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Hernández, E.; Nieves, J.; Vicente-Vacas, J. M.

    2015-05-15

    We use our model for neutrino pion production on the nucleon to study pion production on a nucleus. The model is conveniently modified to include in-medium corrections and its validity is extended up to 2 GeV neutrino energies by the inclusion of new resonant contributions in the production process. Our results are compared with recent MiniBooNE data measured in mineral oil. Our total cross sections are below data for neutrino energies above ≈ 1 GeV. As with other theoretical calculations, the agreement with data improves if we neglect pion final state interaction. This is also the case for differential cross sections convoluted over the neutrino flux.

  5. Neutrino probes of the nature of light dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwalla, Sanjib Kumar; Mena, Olga; Blennow, Mattias; Martinez, Enrique Fernandez E-mail: blennow@mppmu.mpg.de E-mail: omena@ific.uv.es

    2011-09-01

    Dark matter particles gravitationally trapped inside the Sun may annihilate into Standard Model particles, producing a flux of neutrinos. The prospects of detecting these neutrinos in future multi-kt neutrino detectors designed for other physics searches are explored here. We study the capabilities of a 34/100 kt liquid argon detector and a 100 kt magnetized iron calorimeter detector. These detectors are expected to determine the energy and the direction of the incoming neutrino with unprecedented precision allowing for tests of the dark matter nature at very low dark matter masses, in the range of 10–25 GeV. By suppressing the atmospheric background with angular cuts, these techniques would be sensitive to dark matter-nucleon spin-dependent cross sections at the fb level, reaching down to a few ab for the most favorable annihilation channels and detector technology.

  6. Latest progress from the Daya Bay reactor neutrino experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhe; Daya Bay Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    Recently the Daya Bay reactor neutrino experiment has presented several new results about neutrino and reactor physics after acquiring a large data sample and after gaining a more sophisticated understanding of the experiment. In this talk I will introduce the latest progress made by the experiment including a three-flavor neutrino oscillation analysis using neutron capture on gadolinium, which gave sin2 2θ 13 = 0.084 ± 0.005 and |Δm2 ee| = (2.42 ±0.11) × 10-3 eV2, an independent θ 13 measurement using neutron capture on hydrogen, a search for a light sterile neutrino, and a measurement of the reactor antineutrino flux and spectrum.

  7. Neutron star accretion and the neutrino fireball

    SciTech Connect

    Colgate, S.A.; Herant, M.E.; Benz, W.

    1991-11-26

    The mixing necessary to explain the ``Fe`` line widths and possibly the observed red shifts of 1987A is explained in terms of large scale, entropy conserving, up and down flows (calculated with a smooth particle 2-D code) taking place between the neutron star and the explosion shock wave due to the gravity and neutrino deposition. Depending upon conditions of entropy and mass flux further accretion takes place in single events, similar to relaxation oscillator, fed by the downward flows of low entropy matter. The shock, in turn, is driven by the upflow of the buoyant high entropy bubbles. Some accretion events will reach a temperature high enough to create a neutrino ``fireball,`` a region hot enough, 11 Mev, so as to be partially opaque to its own (neutrino) radiation. The continuing neutrino deposition drives the explosion shock until the entropy of matter flowing downwards onto the neutron star is high enough to prevent further accretion. This process should result in a robust supernova explosion.

  8. Oscillations of very low energy atmospheric neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Peres, Orlando L. G.; Smirnov, A. Yu.

    2009-06-01

    There are several new features in the production, oscillations, and detection of the atmospheric neutrinos of low energies E < or approx. 100 MeV. The flavor ratio r of muon to electron neutrino fluxes is substantially smaller than 2 and decreases with energy, a significant part of events is due to the decay of invisible muons at rest, etc. Oscillations in a two-layer medium (atmosphere-Earth) should be taken into account. We derive analytical and semianalytical expressions for the oscillation probabilities of these 'sub-sub-GeV' neutrinos. The energy spectra of the e-like events in water Cherenkov detectors are computed, and the dependence of the spectra on the 2-3 mixing angle {theta}{sub 23}, the 1-3 mixing, and the CP-violation phase are studied. We find that variations of {theta}{sub 23} in the presently allowed region change the number of e-like events by about 15%-20% as well as lead to distortion of the energy spectrum. The 1-3 mixing and CP violation can lead to {approx}10% effects. Detailed study of the sub-sub-GeV neutrinos will be possible in future megaton-scale detectors.

  9. Multi-messenger aspects of cosmic neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahlers, Markus

    2016-04-01

    The recent observation of TeV-PeV neutrinos by IceCube has opened a new window to the high-energy Universe. I will discuss this signal in the context of multi-messenger astronomy. For extragalactic source scenarios the corresponding gamma-rays are not directly observable due to interactions with the cosmic radiation backgrounds. Nevertheless, the isotropic sub-TeV gamma ray background observed by Fermi-LAT contains indirect information from secondary emission produced in electromagnetic cascades. On the other hand, observation of PeV gamma rays would provide a smoking-gun signal for Galactic emission. Interestingly, the overall energy density of the observed neutrino flux is close to a theoretical limit for neutrino production in ultra-high energy cosmic ray sources and might indicate a common origin of these phenomena. I will highlight various multi-messenger relations and their implications for neutrino source scenarios. This article is an excerpt from an ICRC 2015 proceedings contribution [1].

  10. Neutrinos: Nature's Identity Thieves?

    ScienceCinema

    Dr. Don Lincoln

    2016-07-12

    The oscillation of neutrinos from one variety to another has long been suspected, but was confirmed only about 15 years ago. In order for these oscillations to occur, neutrinos must have a mass, no matter how slight. Since neutrinos have long been thought to be massless, in a very real way, this phenomena is a clear signal of physics beyond the known. In this video, Fermilab's Dr Don Lincoln explains how we know it occurs and hints at the rich experimental program at several international laboratories designed to understand this complex mystery.

  11. Neutrinos: Nature's Identity Thieves?

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Don Lincoln

    2013-07-11

    The oscillation of neutrinos from one variety to another has long been suspected, but was confirmed only about 15 years ago. In order for these oscillations to occur, neutrinos must have a mass, no matter how slight. Since neutrinos have long been thought to be massless, in a very real way, this phenomena is a clear signal of physics beyond the known. In this video, Fermilab's Dr Don Lincoln explains how we know it occurs and hints at the rich experimental program at several international laboratories designed to understand this complex mystery.

  12. Neutrinos: Nature's Identity Thieves?

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2014-08-07

    The oscillation of neutrinos from one variety to another has long been suspected, but was confirmed only about 15 years ago. In order for these oscillations to occur, neutrinos must have a mass, no matter how slight. Since neutrinos have long been thought to be massless, in a very real way, this phenomena is a clear signal of physics beyond the known. In this video, Fermilab's Dr Don Lincoln explains how we know it occurs and hints at the rich experimental program at several international laboratories designed to understand this complex mystery.

  13. Search for astrophysical tau neutrinos in three years of IceCube data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aartsen, M. G.; Abraham, K.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Ahrens, M.; Altmann, D.; Anderson, T.; Ansseau, I.; Archinger, M.; Arguelles, C.; Arlen, T. C.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Bay, R.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker Tjus, J.; Becker, K.-H.; Beiser, E.; BenZvi, S.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bernhard, A.; Besson, D. Z.; Binder, G.; Bindig, D.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Blumenthal, J.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Börner, M.; Bos, F.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Braun, J.; Brayeur, L.; Bretz, H.-P.; Buzinsky, N.; Casey, J.; Casier, M.; Cheung, E.; Chirkin, D.; Christov, A.; Clark, K.; Classen, L.; Coenders, S.; Cowen, D. F.; Cruz Silva, A. H.; Daughhetee, J.; Davis, J. C.; Day, M.; de André, J. P. A. M.; De Clercq, C.; del Pino Rosendo, E.; Dembinski, H.; De Ridder, S.; Desiati, P.; de Vries, K. D.; de Wasseige, G.; de With, M.; DeYoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; di Lorenzo, V.; Dumm, J. P.; Dunkman, M.; Eagan, R.; Eberhardt, B.; Ehrhardt, T.; Eichmann, B.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fadiran, O.; Fahey, S.; Fazely, A. R.; Fedynitch, A.; Feintzeig, J.; Felde, J.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Fischer-Wasels, T.; Flis, S.; Fösig, C.-C.; Fuchs, T.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gaior, R.; Gallagher, J.; Gerhardt, L.; Ghorbani, K.; Gier, D.; Gladstone, L.; Glagla, M.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Golup, G.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Góra, D.; Grant, D.; Groh, J. C.; Groß, A.; Ha, C.; Haack, C.; Haj Ismail, A.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hansen, E.; Hansmann, B.; Hanson, K.; Hebecker, D.; Heereman, D.; Helbing, K.; Hellauer, R.; Hickford, S.; Hignight, J.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoffmann, R.; Holzapfel, K.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Huang, F.; Huber, M.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; In, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobi, E.; Japaridze, G. S.; Jero, K.; Jurkovic, M.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kauer, M.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, J.; Kheirandish, A.; Kiryluk, J.; Kläs, J.; Klein, S. R.; Kohnen, G.; Koirala, R.; Kolanoski, H.; Konietz, R.; Köpke, L.; Kopper, C.; Kopper, S.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Krings, K.; Kroll, G.; Kroll, M.; Kunnen, J.; Kurahashi, N.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Lanfranchi, J. L.; Larson, M. J.; Lesiak-Bzdak, M.; Leuermann, M.; Leuner, J.; Lu, L.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Maggi, G.; Mahn, K. B. M.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; Maunu, R.; McNally, F.; Meagher, K.; Medici, M.; Meli, A.; Menne, T.; Merino, G.; Meures, T.; Miarecki, S.; Middell, E.; Middlemas, E.; Mohrmann, L.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naumann, U.; Neer, G.; Niederhausen, H.; Nowicki, S. C.; Nygren, D. R.; Obertacke, A.; Olivas, A.; Omairat, A.; O'Murchadha, A.; Palczewski, T.; Pandya, H.; Pankova, D. V.; Paul, L.; Pepper, J. A.; Pérez de los Heros, C.; Pfendner, C.; Pieloth, D.; Pinat, E.; Posselt, J.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Pütz, J.; Quinnan, M.; Raab, C.; Rädel, L.; Rameez, M.; Rawlins, K.; Reimann, R.; Relich, M.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Richman, M.; Richter, S.; Riedel, B.; Robertson, S.; Rongen, M.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Ryckbosch, D.; Saba, S. M.; Sabbatini, L.; Sander, H.-G.; Sandrock, A.; Sandroos, J.; Sarkar, S.; Schatto, K.; Scheriau, F.; Schimp, M.; Schmidt, T.; Schmitz, M.; Schoenen, S.; Schöneberg, S.; Schönwald, A.; Schulte, L.; Seckel, D.; Seunarine, S.; Smith, M. W. E.; Soldin, D.; Song, M.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stahlberg, M.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stanisha, N. A.; Stasik, A.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stößl, A.; Ström, R.; Strotjohann, N. L.; Sullivan, G. W.; Sutherland, M.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Tatar, J.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Terliuk, A.; Tešić, G.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Tobin, M. N.; Toscano, S.; Tosi, D.; Tselengidou, M.; Turcati, A.; Unger, E.; Usner, M.; Vallecorsa, S.; Vandenbroucke, J.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vanheule, S.; van Santen, J.; Veenkamp, J.; Vehring, M.; Voge, M.; Vraeghe, M.; Walck, C.; Wallace, A.; Wallraff, M.; Wandkowsky, N.; Weaver, Ch.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Whitehorn, N.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Wille, L.; Williams, D. R.; Wissing, H.; Wolf, M.; Wood, T. R.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, D. L.; Xu, X. W.; Xu, Y.; Yanez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zoll, M.; IceCube Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The IceCube Neutrino Observatory has observed a diffuse flux of TeV-PeV astrophysical neutrinos at 5.7 σ significance from an all-flavor search. The direct detection of tau neutrinos in this flux has yet to occur. Tau neutrinos become distinguishable from other flavors in IceCube at energies above a few hundred TeV, when the cascade from the tau neutrino charged current interaction becomes resolvable from the cascade from the tau lepton decay. This paper presents results from the first dedicated search for tau neutrinos with energies between 214 TeV and 72 PeV in the full IceCube detector. The analysis searches for IceCube optical sensors that observe two separate pulses in a single event—one from the tau neutrino interaction and a second from the tau decay. No candidate events were observed in three years of IceCube data. For the first time, a differential upper limit on astrophysical tau neutrinos is derived around the PeV energy region, which is nearly 3 orders of magnitude lower in energy than previous limits from dedicated tau neutrino searches.

  14. Observation of disappearance of muon neutrinos in the NuMI beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlovic, Zarko

    The Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS) is a two detector long-baseline neutrino experiment designed to study the disappearance of muon neutrinos. MINOS will test the numu → nutau oscillation hypothesis and measure precisely Dm223 and sin22theta23 oscillation parameters. The source of neutrinos for MINOS experiment is Fermilab's Neutrinos at the Main Injector (NuMI) beamline. The energy spectrum and the composition of the beam is measured at two locations, one close to the source and the other 735 km downstream in the Soudan Mine Underground Laboratory in northern Minnesota. The precision measurement of the oscillation parameters requires an accurate prediction of the neutrino flux at the Far Detector. This thesis discusses the calculation of the neutrino flux at the Far Detector and its uncertainties. A technique that uses the Near Detector data to constrain the uncertainties in the calculation of the flux is described. The data corresponding to an exposure of 2.5x1020 protons on the NuMI target is presented and an energy dependent disappearance pattern predicted by neutrino oscillation hypotheses is observed in the Far Detector data. The fit to MINOS data, for given exposure, yields the best fit values for Dm223 and sin22theta23 to be ( 2.38+0.20-0.16 ) x 10-3 eV2/c4 and 1.00-0.08, respectively.

  15. Self-induced flavor conversion of supernova neutrinos on small scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, S.; Hansen, R. S.; Izaguirre, I.; Raffelt, G. G.

    2016-01-01

    Self-induced flavor conversion of supernova (SN) neutrinos is a generic feature of neutrino-neutrino dispersion. The corresponding run-away modes in flavor space can spontaneously break the original symmetries of the neutrino flux and in particular can spontaneously produce small-scale features as shown in recent schematic studies. However, the unavoidable ``multi-angle matter effect'' shifts these small-scale instabilities into regions of matter and neutrino density which are not encountered on the way out from a SN. The traditional modes which are uniform on the largest scales are most prone for instabilities and thus provide the most sensitive test for the appearance of self-induced flavor conversion. As a by-product we clarify the relation between the time evolution of an expanding neutrino gas and the radial evolution of a stationary SN neutrino flux. Our results depend on several simplifying assumptions, notably stationarity of the solution, the absence of a ``backward'' neutrino flux caused by residual scattering, and global spherical symmetry of emission.

  16. Method of fission product beta spectra measurements for predicting reactor anti-neutrino emission

    SciTech Connect

    Asner, David M.; Burns, Kimberly A.; Campbell, Luke W.; Greenfield, Bryce A.; Kos, Marek S.; Orrell, John L.; Schram, Malachi; VanDevender, Brent A.; Wood, Lynn S.; Wootan, David W.

    2015-03-01

    The nuclear fission process that occurs in the core of nuclear reactors results in unstable, neutron-rich fission products that subsequently beta decay and emit electron antineutrinos. These reactor neutrinos have served neutrino physics research from the initial discovery of the neutrino to today's precision measurements of neutrino mixing angles. The prediction of the absolute flux and energy spectrum of the emitted reactor neutrinos hinges upon a series of seminal papers based on measurements performed in the 1970s and 1980s. The steadily improving reactor neutrino measurement techniques and recent reconsiderations of the agreement between the predicted and observed reactor neutrino flux motivates revisiting the underlying beta spectra measurements. A method is proposed to use an accelerator proton beam delivered to an engineered target to yield a neutron field tailored to reproduce the neutron energy spectrum present in the core of an operating nuclear reactor. Foils of the primary reactor fissionable isotopes placed in this tailored neutron flux will ultimately emit beta particles from the resultant fission products. Measurement of these beta particles in a time projection chamber with a perpendicular magnetic field provides a distinctive set of systematic considerations for comparison to the original seminal beta spectra measurements. Ancillary measurements such as gamma-ray emission and post-irradiation radiochemical analysis will further constrain the absolute normalization of beta emissions per fission. The requirements for unfolding the beta spectra measured with this method into a predicted reactor neutrino spectrum are explored.

  17. Self-induced flavor conversion of supernova neutrinos on small scales

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, S.; Izaguirre, I.; Raffelt, G.G.; Hansen, R. S. E-mail: rshansen@phys.au.dk E-mail: raffelt@mpp.mpg.de

    2016-01-01

    Self-induced flavor conversion of supernova (SN) neutrinos is a generic feature of neutrino-neutrino dispersion. The corresponding run-away modes in flavor space can spontaneously break the original symmetries of the neutrino flux and in particular can spontaneously produce small-scale features as shown in recent schematic studies. However, the unavoidable ''multi-angle matter effect'' shifts these small-scale instabilities into regions of matter and neutrino density which are not encountered on the way out from a SN. The traditional modes which are uniform on the largest scales are most prone for instabilities and thus provide the most sensitive test for the appearance of self-induced flavor conversion. As a by-product we clarify the relation between the time evolution of an expanding neutrino gas and the radial evolution of a stationary SN neutrino flux. Our results depend on several simplifying assumptions, notably stationarity of the solution, the absence of a ''backward'' neutrino flux caused by residual scattering, and global spherical symmetry of emission.

  18. Panofsky Prize Lecture: Evidence for Oscillation of Atmospheric Neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Totsuka, Yoji

    2002-04-01

    Atmospheric neutrinos are decay products of pions and kaons (and of their decay products muons) produced by nuclear interactions of cosmic rays with air nuclei. Though their flux is not known well, only within 20 %, physics quantities that are independent of the flux uncertainty exist. The ratio of the number of muon neutrinos to the number of electron neutrinos is estimated to be accurate within 5 %. The other quantity is the shape of the zenith-angle distribution. Kamiokande and Super-Kamiokande are water Cherenkov detectors with 3,000 ton and 50,000 ton pure water, respectively. Kamiokande was operational in 1983 - 1996, and Super-K in 1996 - 2001 and 2003 - in future. We had already noted in 1988 that the observed μ/e ratio, which represented ν_mu/ν_e, was smaller by about 40 %. Later in 1994 we noted that the zenith angle distribution of muon neutrinos was strongly distorted, namely much fewer muons observed in the upward direction, while downward-going muons were what we expected. Electrons were quite normal. In 1996 Super-Kamiokande was ready. Its fiducial volume is 22.5 kton, much larger than Kamiokande's 1.04 kton. In 1998 based on 25.5 kton years of data we presented convincing results on the small μ/e ratio which was caused by fewer number of muons in the upward direction. The essential feature of the observed anomaly was that the disappearance of muon neutrinos depended strongly on their path length and on their energies. Electrons showed no anomaly within the experimental limit. These results were quantitatively and almost uniquely explained by oscillation of muon neutrinos to tau neutrinos, thus evidence for the finite but tiny mass of neutrinos.

  19. ecCNO solar neutrinos: A challenge for gigantic ultra-pure liquid scintillator detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villante, F. L.

    2015-03-01

    Neutrinos produced in the Sun by electron capture reactions on 13N, 15O and 17F, to which we refer as ecCNO neutrinos, are not usually considered in solar neutrino analysis since the expected fluxes are extremely low. The experimental determination of this sub-dominant component of the solar neutrino flux is very difficult but could be rewarding since it provides a determination of the metallic content of the solar core and, moreover, probes the solar neutrino survival probability in the transition region at Eν ∼ 2.5 MeV. In this Letter, we suggest that this difficult measure could be at reach for future gigantic ultra-pure liquid scintillator detectors, such as LENA.

  20. First Measurements of Inclusive Muon Neutrino Charged Current Differential Cross Sections on Argon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, C.; Antonello, M.; Baller, B.; Bolton, T.; Bromberg, C.; Cavanna, F.; Church, E.; Edmunds, D.; Ereditato, A.; Farooq, S.; Fleming, B.; Greenlee, H.; Guenette, R.; Haug, S.; Horton-Smith, G.; James, C.; Klein, E.; Lang, K.; Laurens, P.; Linden, S.; McKee, D.; Mehdiyev, R.; Page, B.; Palamara, O.; Partyka, K.; Patch, A.; Rameika, G.; Rebel, B.; Rossi, B.; Soderberg, M.; Spitz, J.; Szelc, A. M.; Weber, M.; Yang, T.; Zeller, G.

    2012-04-01

    The ArgoNeuT Collaboration presents the first measurements of inclusive muon neutrino charged current differential cross sections on argon. Obtained in the NuMI neutrino beam line at Fermilab, the flux-integrated results are reported in terms of outgoing muon angle and momentum. The data are consistent with the Monte Carlo expectation across the full range of kinematics sampled, 0°<θμ<36° and 0neutrino detection, the measurements allow tests of low-energy neutrino scattering models important for interpreting results from long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments designed to investigate CP violation and the orientation of the neutrino mass hierarchy.

  1. IceCube searches for neutrino emission from galactic and extragalactic sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palczewski, Tomasz Jan

    2015-03-01

    The IceCube Neutrino Observatory, located near the geographic South Pole, is currently the world's largest neutrino telescope. IceCube is principally designed to detect high-energy neutrinos from galactic and extragalactic sources. The detector comprises more than a cubic-kilometer of glacial ice instrumented with 86 vertical strings, each with 60 optical sensors, and a square-kilometer array at the surface. IceCube sensors detect Cherenkov radiation from charged particles produced in all neutrino flavor interactions in the ice. We discuss the recent results from searches for high-energy neutrinos, including the first detection of a diffuse flux of extraterrestrial origin with energies between about 30 TeV and 2 PeV. The events with energies above 1 PeV are the highest energy neutrinos ever observed.

  2. Neutrinos from the primary proton-proton fusion process in the Sun.

    PubMed

    2014-08-28

    In the core of the Sun, energy is released through sequences of nuclear reactions that convert hydrogen into helium. The primary reaction is thought to be the fusion of two protons with the emission of a low-energy neutrino. These so-called pp neutrinos constitute nearly the entirety of the solar neutrino flux, vastly outnumbering those emitted in the reactions that follow. Although solar neutrinos from secondary processes have been observed, proving the nuclear origin of the Sun's energy and contributing to the discovery of neutrino oscillations, those from proton-proton fusion have hitherto eluded direct detection. Here we report spectral observations of pp neutrinos, demonstrating that about 99 per cent of the power of the Sun, 3.84 × 10(33) ergs per second, is generated by the proton-proton fusion process. PMID:25164748

  3. Neutrinos from the primary proton-proton fusion process in the Sun.

    PubMed

    2014-08-28

    In the core of the Sun, energy is released through sequences of nuclear reactions that convert hydrogen into helium. The primary reaction is thought to be the fusion of two protons with the emission of a low-energy neutrino. These so-called pp neutrinos constitute nearly the entirety of the solar neutrino flux, vastly outnumbering those emitted in the reactions that follow. Although solar neutrinos from secondary processes have been observed, proving the nuclear origin of the Sun's energy and contributing to the discovery of neutrino oscillations, those from proton-proton fusion have hitherto eluded direct detection. Here we report spectral observations of pp neutrinos, demonstrating that about 99 per cent of the power of the Sun, 3.84 × 10(33) ergs per second, is generated by the proton-proton fusion process.

  4. First measurements of inclusive muon neutrino charged current differential cross sections on argon.

    PubMed

    Anderson, C; Antonello, M; Baller, B; Bolton, T; Bromberg, C; Cavanna, F; Church, E; Edmunds, D; Ereditato, A; Farooq, S; Fleming, B; Greenlee, H; Guenette, R; Haug, S; Horton-Smith, G; James, C; Klein, E; Lang, K; Laurens, P; Linden, S; McKee, D; Mehdiyev, R; Page, B; Palamara, O; Partyka, K; Patch, A; Rameika, G; Rebel, B; Rossi, B; Soderberg, M; Spitz, J; Szelc, A M; Weber, M; Yang, T; Zeller, G

    2012-04-20

    The ArgoNeuT Collaboration presents the first measurements of inclusive muon neutrino charged current differential cross sections on argon. Obtained in the NuMI neutrino beam line at Fermilab, the flux-integrated results are reported in terms of outgoing muon angle and momentum. The data are consistent with the Monte Carlo expectation across the full range of kinematics sampled, 0°<θ(μ)<36° and 0neutrino detection, the measurements allow tests of low-energy neutrino scattering models important for interpreting results from long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments designed to investigate CP violation and the orientation of the neutrino mass hierarchy.

  5. The next-generation liquid-scintillator neutrino observatory LENA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurm, Michael; Beacom, John F.; Bezrukov, Leonid B.; Bick, Daniel; Blümer, Johannes; Choubey, Sandhya; Ciemniak, Christian; D'Angelo, Davide; Dasgupta, Basudeb; Derbin, Alexander; Dighe, Amol; Domogatsky, Grigorij; Dye, Steve; Eliseev, Sergey; Enqvist, Timo; Erykalov, Alexey; von Feilitzsch, Franz; Fiorentini, Gianni; Fischer, Tobias; Göger-Neff, Marianne; Grabmayr, Peter; Hagner, Caren; Hellgartner, Dominikus; Hissa, Johannes; Horiuchi, Shunsaku; Janka, Hans-Thomas; Jaupart, Claude; Jochum, Josef; Kalliokoski, Tuomo; Kayunov, Alexei; Kuusiniemi, Pasi; Lachenmaier, Tobias; Lazanu, Ionel; Learned, John G.; Lewke, Timo; Lombardi, Paolo; Lorenz, Sebastian; Lubsandorzhiev, Bayarto; Ludhova, Livia; Loo, Kai; Maalampi, Jukka; Mantovani, Fabio; Marafini, Michela; Maricic, Jelena; Marrodán Undagoitia, Teresa; McDonough, William F.; Miramonti, Lino; Mirizzi, Alessandro; Meindl, Quirin; Mena, Olga; Möllenberg, Randolph; Muratova, Valentina; Nahnhauer, Rolf; Nesterenko, Dmitry; Novikov, Yuri N.; Nuijten, Guido; Oberauer, Lothar; Pakvasa, Sandip; Palomares-Ruiz, Sergio; Pallavicini, Marco; Pascoli, Silvia; Patzak, Thomas; Peltoniemi, Juha; Potzel, Walter; Räihä, Tomi; Raffelt, Georg G.; Ranucci, Gioacchino; Razzaque, Soebur; Rummukainen, Kari; Sarkamo, Juho; Sinev, Valerij; Spiering, Christian; Stahl, Achim; Thorne, Felicitas; Tippmann, Marc; Tonazzo, Alessandra; Trzaska, Wladyslaw H.; Vergados, John D.; Wiebusch, Christopher; Winter, Jürgen

    2012-06-01

    As part of the European LAGUNA design study on a next-generation neutrino detector, we propose the liquid-scintillator detector LENA (Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy) as a multipurpose neutrino observatory. The outstanding successes of the Borexino and KamLAND experiments demonstrate the large potential of liquid-scintillator detectors in low-energy neutrino physics. Low energy threshold, good energy resolution and efficient background discrimination are inherent to the liquid-scintillator technique. A target mass of 50 kt will offer a substantial increase in detection sensitivity. At low energies, the variety of detection channels available in liquid scintillator will allow for an energy - and flavor-resolved analysis of the neutrino burst emitted by a galactic Supernova. Due to target mass and background conditions, LENA will also be sensitive to the faint signal of the Diffuse Supernova Neutrino Background. Solar metallicity, time-variation in the solar neutrino flux and deviations from MSW-LMA survival probabilities can be investigated based on unprecedented statistics. Low background conditions allow to search for dark matter by observing rare annihilation neutrinos. The large number of events expected for geoneutrinos will give valuable information on the abundances of Uranium and Thorium and their relative ratio in the Earth's crust and mantle. Reactor neutrinos enable a high-precision measurement of solar mixing parameters. A strong radioactive or pion decay-at-rest neutrino source can be placed close to the detector to investigate neutrino oscillations for short distances and sub-MeV to MeV energies. At high energies, LENA will provide a new lifetime limit for the SUSY-favored proton decay mode into kaon and antineutrino, surpassing current experimental limits by about one order of magnitude. Recent studies have demonstrated that a reconstruction of momentum and energy of GeV particles is well feasible in liquid scintillator. Monte Carlo studies on the

  6. Update of GALLEX solar neutrino results and implications

    SciTech Connect

    Kirsten, T.

    1995-01-01

    The galliumchloride detector operated by the GALLEX-collaboration in the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory responds primarily to pp-neutrinos. They are produced in the primary fusion reaction of hydrogen into deuterium and directly coupled to the solar luminosity. Standard Solar Models predict ca. 58% of the total signal expected in GALLEX (123-132 SNU) to be due to pp-neutrinos. The relative pp-neutrino dominance becomes even larger if the deficit of higher energy neutrinos (as observed in the Homestake- and Kamiokande experiments) is considered. During the first data taking period, 15 solar runs had been performed within the exposure period 14.5.1991 - 29.4.1992. The result, 81 {+-} 17 {+-} 9 SNU provided the first experimental evidence for pp-neutrinos from the Sun. At the same time, it confirmed the depression of higher energy neutrino fluxes relative to the model predictions. Here the authors report the results of 15 more solar neutrino runs, covering the period 19.8.92 - 13.10.93. They obtain 78 {+-} 13 {+-} 5 SNU. Evaluated together, the result for all 30 runs is 79 {+-} 10 {+-} 6 SNU. While the SNU rate of GALLEX I is well reproduced the statistical error has been reduced so substantially that a value of signal +2{sigma} is required to accommodate not only pp-and pep- but also the {sup 7}Be-neutrino induced {sup 71}Ge-production. Contrary, the fate of {sup 8}B-neutrinos has only little discernible effect on the GALLEX data. In conclusion, with the present errors GALLEX constitutes a 2.5 {sigma} problem for {sup 7}Be neutrinos within the frame of {open_quotes}astrophysical{close_quotes} solutions. Alternatively, the particle physics solution (MSW-effect) can consistently explain all available solar neutrino results, leading to a most probable mass scale with the muon-neutrino at approximately 3 meV (milli-eV). However, since the GALLEX result allows the presence of pp and pep neutrinos at full strength. the latter explanation of the data is not forced.

  7. Fast time variations of supernova neutrino signals from 3-dimensional models

    DOE PAGES

    Lund, Tina; Wongwathanarat, Annop; Janka, Hans -Thomas; Muller, Ewald; Raffelt, Georg

    2012-11-19

    Here, we study supernova neutrino flux variations in the IceCube detector, using 3D models based on a simplified neutrino transport scheme. The hemispherically integrated neutrino emission shows significantly smaller variations compared with our previous study of 2D models, largely because of the reduced activity of the standing accretion shock instability in this set of 3D models which we interpret as a pessimistic extreme. For the studied cases, intrinsic flux variations up to about 100 Hz frequencies could still be detected in a supernova closer than about 2 kpc.

  8. Search for Cosmic Neutrino Point Sources with Four Years of Data from the ANTARES Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; Samarai, I. Al; Albert, A.; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J.-J.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bigongiari, C.; Bogazzi, C.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Bouhou, B.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Capone, A.; Cârloganu, C.; Carr, J.; Cecchini, S.; Charif, Z.; Charvis, Ph.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coniglione, R.; Core, L.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Curtil, C.; De Bonis, G.; Decowski, M. P.; Dekeyser, I.; Deschamps, A.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti, Q.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, U.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Escoffier, S.; Fehn, K.; Fermani, P.; Ferri, M.; Ferry, S.; Flaminio, V.; Folger, F.; Fritsch, U.; Fuda, J.-L.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Geyer, K.; Giacomelli, G.; Giordano, V.; Gleixner, A.; Gómez-González, J. P.; Graf, K.; Guillard, G.; Hallewell, G.; Hamal, M.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Herold, B.; Hößl, J.; Hsu, C. C.; de Jong, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.; Kavatsyuk, O.; Kooijman, P.; Kopper, C.; Kouchner, A.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lambard, G.; Larosa, G.; Lattuada, D.; Leonora, E.; Lefèvre, D.; Lim, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Louis, F.; Mangano, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martínez-Mora, J. A.; Meli, A.; Montaruli, T.; Morganti, M.; Motz, H.; Neff, M.; Nezri, E.; Palioselitis, D.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Payet, K.; Petrovic, J.; Piattelli, P.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Presani, E.; Racca, C.; Reed, C.; Riccobene, G.; Richter, R.; Rivière, C.; Robert, A.; Roensch, K.; Rostovtsev, A.; Ruiz-Rivas, J.; Rujoiu, M.; Samtleben, D. F. E.; Sapienza, P.; Schmid, J.; Schnabel, J.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schüssler, F.; Seitz, T.; Shanidze, R.; Simeone, F.; Spies, A.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Trovato, A.; Vallage, B.; Vallée, C.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vecchi, M.; Vernin, P.; Visser, E.; Wagner, S.; Wijnker, G.; Wilms, J.; de Wolf, E.; Yepes, H.; Zaborov, D.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, a time-integrated search for point sources of cosmic neutrinos is presented using the data collected from 2007 to 2010 by the ANTARES neutrino telescope. No statistically significant signal has been found and upper limits on the neutrino flux have been obtained. Assuming an E -2 ν spectrum, these flux limits are at 1-10 ×10-8 GeV cm-2 s-1 for declinations ranging from -90° to 40°. Limits for specific models of RX J1713.7-3946 and Vela X, which include information on the source morphology and spectrum, are also given.

  9. Probing Dark Energy via Neutrino and Supernova Observatories

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, Lawrence; Hall, Lawrence J.; Murayama, Hitoshi; Papucci, Michele; Perez, Gilad

    2006-07-10

    A novel method for extracting cosmological evolution parameters is proposed, using a probe other than light: future observations of the diffuse anti-neutrino flux emitted from core-collapse supernovae (SNe), combined with the SN rate extracted from future SN surveys. The relic SN neutrino differential flux can be extracted by using future neutrino detectors such as Gadolinium-enriched, megaton, water detectors or 100-kiloton detectors of liquid Argon or liquid scintillator. The core-collapse SN rate can be reconstructed from direct observation of SN explosions using future precision observatories. Our method, by itself, cannot compete with the accuracy of the optical-based measurements but may serve as an important consistency check as well as a source of complementary information. The proposal does not require construction of a dedicated experiment, but rather relies on future experiments proposed for other purposes.

  10. High-energy Neutrinos from Recent Blazar Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halzen, Francis; Kheirandish, Ali

    2016-11-01

    The energy density of cosmic neutrinos measured by IceCube matches the one observed by Fermi in extragalactic photons that predominantly originate in blazars. This has inspired attempts to match Fermi sources with IceCube neutrinos. A spatial association combined with a coincidence in time with a flaring source may represent a smoking gun for the origin of the IceCube flux. In 2015 June, the Fermi Large Area Telescope observed an intense flare from blazar 3C 279 that exceeded the steady flux of the source by a factor of 40 for the duration of a day. We show that IceCube is likely to observe neutrinos, if indeed hadronic in origin, in data that are still blinded at this time. We also discuss other opportunities for coincident observations that include a recent flare from blazar 1ES 1959+650 that previously produced an intriguing coincidence with AMANDA observations.

  11. Detecting the Neutrino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arns, Robert G.

    In 1930 Wolfgang Pauli suggested that a new particle might be required to make sense of the radioactive-disintegration mode known as beta decay. This conjecture initially seemed impossible to verify since the new particle, which became known as the neutrino, was uncharged, had zero or small mass, and interacted only insignificantly with other matter. In 1951 Frederick Reines and Clyde L. Cowan, Jr., of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory undertook the difficult task of detecting the free neutrino by observing its inverse beta-decay interaction with matter. They succeeded in 1956. The neutrino was accepted rapidly as a fundamental particle despite discrepancies in reported details of the experiments and despite the absence of independent verification of the result. This paper describes the experiments, examines the nature of the discrepancies, and discusses the circumstances of the acceptance of the neutrino's detection by the physics community.

  12. Light sterile neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gariazzo, S.; Giunti, C.; Laveder, M.; Li, Y. F.; Zavanin, E. M.

    2015-03-01

    The theory and phenomenology of light sterile neutrinos at the eV mass scale is reviewed. The reactor, gallium and Liquid Scintillator Neutrino Detector anomalies are briefly described and interpreted as indications of the existence of short-baseline oscillations which require the existence of light sterile neutrinos. The global fits of short-baseline oscillation data in 3 + 1 and 3 + 2 schemes are discussed, together with the implications for β-decay and neutrinoless double-β decay. The cosmological effects of light sterile neutrinos are briefly reviewed and the implications of existing cosmological data are discussed. The review concludes with a summary of future perspectives. This review is dedicated to the memory of Hai-Wei Long, our dear friend and collaborator, who passed away on 29 May 2015. He was an exceptionally kind person and an enthusiastic physicist. We deeply miss him.

  13. Light sterile neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gariazzo, S.; Giunti, C.; Laveder, M.; Li, Y. F.; Zavanin, E. M.

    2016-03-01

    The theory and phenomenology of light sterile neutrinos at the eV mass scale is reviewed. The reactor, gallium and Liquid Scintillator Neutrino Detector anomalies are briefly described and interpreted as indications of the existence of short-baseline oscillations which require the existence of light sterile neutrinos. The global fits of short-baseline oscillation data in 3 + 1 and 3 + 2 schemes are discussed, together with the implications for β-decay and neutrinoless double-β decay. The cosmological effects of light sterile neutrinos are briefly reviewed and the implications of existing cosmological data are discussed. The review concludes with a summary of future perspectives. This review is dedicated to the memory of Hai-Wei Long, our dear friend and collaborator, who passed away on 29 May 2015. He was an exceptionally kind person and an enthusiastic physicist. We deeply miss him.

  14. Neutrinos in Cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, Sacha

    2008-02-21

    Neutrinos can contribute to various episodes of the evolution of the Universe. For instance, in the seesaw model, they may generate the baryon asymmetry of the Universe via leptogenesis. This conference proceedings briefly reviews lepton flavour effects in thermal leptogenesis.

  15. ICFA neutrino panel report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, K.

    2015-07-01

    In the summer of 2013 the International Committee on Future Accelerators (ICFA) established a Neutrino Panel with the mandate: "To promote international cooperation in the development of the accelerator-based neutrino-oscillation program and to promote international collaboration in the development of a neutrino factory as a future intense source of neutrinos for particle physics experiments." In its first year the Panel organised a series of regional Town Meetings to collect input from the community and to receive reports from the regional planning exercises. The Panel distilled its findings and presented them in a report to ICFA [1]. In this contribution the formation and composition of the Panel are presented together with a summary of the Panel's findings from the three Regional Town Meetings. The Panel's initial conclusions are then articulated and the steps that the Panel seeks to take are outlined.

  16. ICFA neutrino panel report

    SciTech Connect

    Long, K.

    2015-07-15

    In the summer of 2013 the International Committee on Future Accelerators (ICFA) established a Neutrino Panel with the mandate: <<neutrino-oscillation program and to promote international collaboration in the development of a neutrino factory as a future intense source of neutrinos for particle physics experiments. >>>In its first year the Panel organised a series of regional Town Meetings to collect input from the community and to receive reports from the regional planning exercises. The Panel distilled its findings and presented them in a report to ICFA [1]. In this contribution the formation and composition of the Panel are presented together with a summary of the Panel’s findings from the three Regional Town Meetings. The Panel’s initial conclusions are then articulated and the steps that the Panel seeks to take are outlined.

  17. Ultrahigh energy neutrino interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domokos, G.; Elliot, B.; Kovesi-Domokos, S.; Mrenna, S.

    1990-03-01

    Ultrahigh energy neutrinos are valuable probes of physics beyond the Standard Model. Neutrinos of the highest energies are emitted by point sources in the sky. We review briefly the predictions of the Standard Model concerning neutrino interactions. We further argue that a number of preon models designed to overcome some difficulties of the Standard Model leads to a blurring of the distinction between leptons and quarks. As a consequence, at sufficiently high energies neutrinos acquire ``anomalous'' interactions. While this phenomenon can probably explain the observed muon excess in extensive air showers (EAS), it can be also tested by studying the absorption of the primaries on the cosmic microwave background. We discuss some observations to be performed in the search of such ``new physics'' beyond the Standard Model.

  18. WMAPping out neutrino masses

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, Aaron; Murayama, Hitoshi

    2003-10-28

    Recent data from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) place important bounds on the neutrino sector. The precise determination of the baryon number in the universe puts a strong constraint on the number of relativistic species during Big-Bang Nucleosynthesis. WMAP data, when combined with the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey (2dFGRS), also directly constrain the absolute mass scale of neutrinos. These results impinge upon a neutrino oscillation interpretation of the result from the Liquid Scintillator Neutrino Detector (LSND).We also note that the Heidelberg-Moscow evidence for neutrinoless double beta decay is only consistent with the WMAP+2dFGRS data for the largest values of the nuclear matrix element.

  19. Effective Majorana neutrino decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Lucía; Romero, Ismael; Peressutti, Javier; Sampayo, Oscar A.

    2016-08-01

    We study the decay of heavy sterile Majorana neutrinos according to the interactions obtained from an effective general theory. We describe the two- and three-body decays for a wide range of neutrino masses. The results obtained and presented in this work could be useful for the study of the production and detection of these particles in a variety of high energy physics experiments and astrophysical observations. We show in different figures the dominant branching ratios and the total decay width.

  20. Neutrinos from GRBs cannonballs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, J. R.; Ferry, S.

    We present a new estimation of the production of prompt neutrinos in the Cannonball Model of Gamma Ray Bursts proposed by Dar and De Rújula. Interactions between nucleons in the cannonballs and nucleons in the supernova shell are calculated in the rest frame of the shocked matter produced by these interactions. We explore the neutrino yield as a function of the parameters of the model.

  1. Neutrino experiments: Hierarchy, CP, CPT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Manmohan; Randhawa, Monika; Singh, Mandip

    2016-07-01

    We present an overview of our recent investigations regarding the prospects of ongoing neutrino experiments as well as future experiments in determining few of the most important unknowns in the field of neutrino physics, specifically the neutrino mass ordering and leptonic CP-violation phase. The effect of matter oscillations on the neutrino oscillation probabilities has been exploited in resolving the degeneracy between the neutrino mass ordering and the CP violation phase in the leptonic sector. Further, we estimate the extent of extrinsic CP and CPT violation in the experiments with superbeams as well as neutrino factories.

  2. Neutrino Detectors: Challenges and Opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Soler, F. J. P.

    2011-10-06

    This paper covers possible detector options suitable at future neutrino facilities, such as Neutrino Factories, Super Beams and Beta Beams. The Magnetised Iron Neutrino Detector (MIND), which is the baseline detector at a Neutrino Factory, will be described and a new analysis which improves the efficiency of this detector at low energies will be shown. Other detectors covered include the Totally Active Scintillating Detectors (TASD), particularly relevant for a low energy Neutrino Factory, emulsion detectors for tau detection, liquid argon detectors and megaton scale water Cherenkov detectors. Finally the requirements of near detectors for long-baseline neutrino experiments will be demonstrated.

  3. Electromagnetic properties of massive neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Dobrynina, A. A. Mikheev, N. V.; Narynskaya, E. N.

    2013-10-15

    The vertex function for a virtual massive neutrino is calculated in the limit of soft real photons. A method based on employing the neutrino self-energy operator in a weak external electromagnetic field in the approximation linear in the field is developed in order to render this calculation of the vertex function convenient. It is shown that the electric charge and the electric dipole moment of the real neutrino are zero; only the magnetic moment is nonzero for massive neutrinos. A fourth-generation heavy neutrino of mass not less than half of the Z-boson mass is considered as a massive neutrino.

  4. Neutrinos beyond the Standard Model

    SciTech Connect

    Valle, J.W.F.

    1989-08-01

    I review some basic aspects of neutrino physics beyond the Standard Model such as neutrino mixing and neutrino non-orthogonality, universality and CP violation in the lepton sector, total lepton number and lepton flavor violation, etc.. These may lead to neutrino decays and oscillations, exotic weak decay processes, neutrinoless double /beta/ decay, etc.. Particle physics models are discussed where some of these processes can be sizable even in the absence of measurable neutrino masses. These may also substantially affect the propagation properties of solar and astrophysical neutrinos. 39 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Nonthermal cosmic neutrino background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Mu-Chun; Ratz, Michael; Trautner, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    We point out that, for Dirac neutrinos, in addition to the standard thermal cosmic neutrino background (C ν B ), there could also exist a nonthermal neutrino background with comparable number density. As the right-handed components are essentially decoupled from the thermal bath of standard model particles, relic neutrinos with a nonthermal distribution may exist until today. The relic density of the nonthermal (nt) background can be constrained by the usual observational bounds on the effective number of massless degrees of freedom Neff and can be as large as nν nt≲0.5 nγ. In particular, Neff can be larger than 3.046 in the absence of any exotic states. Nonthermal relic neutrinos constitute an irreducible contribution to the detection of the C ν B and, hence, may be discovered by future experiments such as PTOLEMY. We also present a scenario of chaotic inflation in which a nonthermal background can naturally be generated by inflationary preheating. The nonthermal relic neutrinos, thus, may constitute a novel window into the very early Universe.

  6. The analysis of solar models: Neutrinos and oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulrich, R. K.; Rhodes, E. J., Jr.; Tomczyk, S.; Dumont, P. J.; Brunish, W. M.

    1983-01-01

    Tests of solar neutrino flux and solar oscillation frequencies were used to assess standard stellar structure theory. Standard and non-standard solar models are enumerated and discussed. The field of solar seismology, wherein the solar interior is studied from the measurement of solar oscillations, is introduced.

  7. Trapped ionic simulation of neutrino electromagnetic properties in neutrino oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z. S.; Cai, Xiaoya; Pan, Hui

    2015-11-01

    We present an approach to study neutrino electromagnetic properties by simulating neutrino oscillation in both dense background matter and external electromagnetic field in terms of trapped coupling ions. We find that the neutrino and anti-neutrino productions can be simulated by using large enough diagonal matter potentials and external magnetic field. We further show that the transition probabilities of flavor neutrino have rich features and time scales corresponding to the neutrino magnetic moments and electric millicharges. Especially, such features and scales can be achieved by tuning the laser parameters. At last, we show that the millicharge and magnetic moments can be detected in terms of flavor neutrino transition probabilities in the trapped ion system. Our approach provides a useful clue to measure the neutrino electromagnetic properties for experimental realization.

  8. Hunting in Daya Bay Neutrino Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feihong, Zhang

    2014-06-01

    The Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment has measured a nonzero value of θ13 with a significance of 7.7 standard deviation. Antineutrinos from six 2.9 GWth reactors were detected in six well-calibrated antineutrino detectors deployed in two near (flux-weighted baseline 470 m and 576 m) and one far (1648 m) underground experimental halls. Using 139 days of data, 28909 (205308) electron antineutrino candidates were detected at the far hall (near halls). The ratio of the observed to expected numbers of antineutrinos at the far hall is R = 0.944 ± 0.007(stat.) ± 0.003(syst.). A rate-only analysis finds s sin22θ13 = 0.089 ± 0.010(stat.) ± 0.005(syst.) in a three-neutrino framework.

  9. Testing Lorentz Invariance with Neutrinos from Ultrahigh Energy Cosmic Ray Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scully, Sean T.; Stecker, Floyd W.

    2010-01-01

    We have previously shown that a very small amount of Lorentz invariance violation (UV), which suppresses photomeson interactions of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) with cosmic background radiation (CBR) photons, can produce a spectrum of cosmic rays that is consistent with that currently observed by the Pierre Auger Observatory (PAO) and HiRes experiments. Here, we calculate the corresponding flux of high energy neutrinos generated by the propagation of UHECR protons through the CBR in the presence of UV. We find that UV produces a reduction in the flux of the highest energy neutrinos and a reduction in the energy of the peak of the neutrino energy flux spectrum, both depending on the strength of the UV. Thus, observations of the UHE neutrino spectrum provide a clear test for the existence and amount of UV at the highest energies. We further discuss the ability of current and future proposed detectors make such observations.

  10. Tau neutrinos favored over sterile neutrinos in atmospheric muon neutrino oscillations.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, S; Fukuda, Y; Ishitsuka, M; Kajita, T; Kameda, J; Kaneyuki, K; Kobayashi, K; Koshio, Y; Miura, M; Moriyama, S; Nakahata, M; Nakayama, S; Obayashi, Y; Okada, A; Okumura, K; Sakurai, N; Shiozawa, M; Suzuki, Y; Takeuchi, H; Takeuchi, Y; Toshito, T; Totsuka, Y; Yamada, S; Earl, M; Habig, A; Kearns, E; Messier, M D; Scholberg, K; Stone, J L; Sulak, L R; Walter, C W; Goldhaber, M; Barszczak, T; Casper, D; Gajewski, W; Kropp, W R; Mine, S; Price, L R; Smy, M; Sobel, H W; Vagins, M R; Ganezer, K S; Keig, W E; Ellsworth, R W; Tasaka, S; Kibayashi, A; Learned, J G; Matsuno, S; Takemori, D

    2000-11-01

    The previously published atmospheric neutrino data did not distinguish whether muon neutrinos were oscillating into tau neutrinos or sterile neutrinos, as both hypotheses fit the data. Using data recorded in 1100 live days of the Super-Kamiokande detector, we use three complementary data samples to study the difference in zenith angle distribution due to neutral currents and matter effects. We find no evidence favoring sterile neutrinos, and reject the hypothesis at the 99% confidence level. On the other hand, we find that oscillation between muon and tau neutrinos suffices to explain all the results in hand.

  11. No-neutrino double beta decay: more than one neutrino

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, S.P.

    1983-01-01

    Interference effects between light and heavy Majorana neutrinos in the amplitude for no-neutrino double beta decay are discussed. The effects include an upper bound on the heavy neutrino mass, and an A dependence for the effective mass extracted from double beta decay. Thus the search for the no-neutrino decay mode should be pursued in several nuclei, and particularly in Ca/sup 48/, where the effective mass may be quite large.

  12. Measurement of the rate of nu(e) + d --> p + p + e(-) interactions produced by (8)B solar neutrinos at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Q R; Allen, R C; Andersen, T C; Anglin, J D; Bühler, G; Barton, J C; Beier, E W; Bercovitch, M; Bigu, J; Biller, S; Black, R A; Blevis, I; Boardman, R J; Boger, J; Bonvin, E; Boulay, M G; Bowler, M G; Bowles, T J; Brice, S J; Browne, M C; Bullard, T V; Burritt, T H; Cameron, K; Cameron, J; Chan, Y D; Chen, M; Chen, H H; Chen, X; Chon, M C; Cleveland, B T; Clifford, E T; Cowan, J H; Cowen, D F; Cox, G A; Dai, Y; Dai, X; Dalnoki-Veress, F; Davidson, W F; Doe, P J; Doucas, G; Dragowsky, M R; Duba, C A; Duncan, F A; Dunmore, J; Earle, E D; Elliott, S R; Evans, H C; Ewan, G T; Farine, J; Fergani, H; Ferraris, A P; Ford, R J; Fowler, M M; Frame, K; Frank, E D; Frati, W; Germani, J V; Gil, S; Goldschmidt, A; Grant, D R; Hahn, R L; Hallin, A L; Hallman, E D; Hamer, A; Hamian, A A; Haq, R U; Hargrove, C K; Harvey, P J; Hazama, R; Heaton, R; Heeger, K M; Heintzelman, W J; Heise, J; Helmer, R L; Hepburn, J D; Heron, H; Hewett, J; Hime, A; Howe, M; Hykawy, J G; Isaac, M C; Jagam, P; Jelley, N A; Jillings, C; Jonkmans, G; Karn, J; Keener, P T; Kirch, K; Klein, J R; Knox, A B; Komar, R J; Kouzes, R; Kutter, T; Kyba, C C; Law, J; Lawson, I T; Lay, M; Lee, H W; Lesko, K T; Leslie, J R; Levine, I; Locke, W; Lowry, M M; Luoma, S; Lyon, J; Majerus, S; Mak, H B; Marino, A D; McCauley, N; McDonald, A B; McDonald, D S; McFarlane, K; McGregor, G; McLatchie, W; Meijer Drees, R; Mes, H; Mifflin, C; Miller, G G; Milton, G; Moffat, B A; Moorhead, M; Nally, C W; Neubauer, M S; Newcomer, F M; Ng, H S; Noble, A J; Norman, E B; Novikov, V M; O'Neill, M; Okada, C E; Ollerhead, R W; Omori, M; Orrell, J L; Oser, S M; Poon, A W; Radcliffe, T J; Roberge, A; Robertson, B C; Robertson, R G; Rowley, J K; Rusu, V L; Saettler, E; Schaffer, K K; Schuelke, A; Schwendener, M H; Seifert, H; Shatkay, M; Simpson, J J; Sinclair, D; Skensved, P; Smith, A R; Smith, M W; Starinsky, N; Steiger, T D; Stokstad, R G; Storey, R S; Sur, B; Tafirout, R; Tagg, N; Tanner, N W; Taplin, R K; Thorman, M; Thornewell, P; Trent, P T; Tserkovnyak, Y I; Van Berg, R; Van de Water, R G; Virtue, C J; Waltham, C E; Wang, J X; Wark, D L; West, N; Wilhelmy, J B; Wilkerson, J F; Wilson, J; Wittich, P; Wouters, J M; Yeh, M

    2001-08-13

    Solar neutrinos from (8)B decay have been detected at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory via the charged current (CC) reaction on deuterium and the elastic scattering (ES) of electrons. The flux of nu(e)'s is measured by the CC reaction rate to be straight phi(CC)(nu(e)) = 1.75 +/- 0.07(stat)(+0.12)(-0.11)(syst) +/- 0.05(theor) x 10(6) cm(-2) s(-1). Comparison of straight phi(CC)(nu(e)) to the Super-Kamiokande Collaboration's precision value of the flux inferred from the ES reaction yields a 3.3 sigma difference, assuming the systematic uncertainties are normally distributed, providing evidence of an active non- nu(e) component in the solar flux. The total flux of active 8B neutrinos is determined to be 5.44+/-0.99 x 10(6) cm(-2) s(-1).

  13. Constraining GRB as Source for UHE Cosmic Rays through Neutrino Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, P.

    2013-07-01

    The origin of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) has been widely regarded as one of the major questions in the frontiers of particle astrophysics. Gamma ray bursts (GRB), the most violent explosions in the universe second only to the Big Bang, have been a popular candidate site for UHECR productions. The recent IceCube report on the non-observation of GRB induced neutrinos therefore attracts wide attention. This dilemma requires a resolution: either the assumption of GRB as UHECR accelerator is to be abandoned or the expected GRB induced neutrino yield was wrong. It has been pointed out that IceCube has overestimated the neutrino flux at GRB site by a factor of ~5. In this paper we point out that, in addition to the issue of neutrino production at source, the neutrino oscillation and the possible neutrino decay during their flight from GRB to Earth should further reduce the detectability of IceCube, which is most sensitive to the muon-neutrino flavor as far as point-source identification is concerned. Specifically, neutrino oscillation will reduce the muon-neutrino flavor ratio from 2/3 per neutrino at GRB source to 1/3 on Earth, while neutrino decay, if exists and under the assumption of normal hierarchy of mass eigenstates, would result in a further reduction of muon-neutrino ratio to 1/8. With these in mind, we note that there have been efforts in recent years in pursuing other type of neutrino telescopes based on Askaryan effect, which can in principle observe and distinguish all three flavors with comparable sensitivities. Such new approach may therefore be complementary to IceCube in shedding more lights on this cosmic accelerator question.

  14. A combined muon-neutrino and electron-neutrino oscillation search at MiniBooNE

    SciTech Connect

    Monroe, Jocelyn Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    MiniBooNE seeks to corroborate or refute the unconfirmed oscillation result from the LSND experiment. If correct, the result implies that a new kind of massive neutrino, with no weak interactions, participates in neutrino oscillations. MiniBooNE searches for vμ → ve oscillations with the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory 8 GeV beam line, which produces a vμ beam with an average energy of ~ 0.8 GeV and an intrinsic ve content of 0.4%. The neutrino detector is a 6.1 m radius sphere filled with CH2, viewed by 1540 photo-multiplier tubes, and located 541 m downstream from the source. This work focuses on the estimation of systematic errors associated with the neutrino flux and neutrino interaction cross section predictions, and in particular, on constraining these uncertainties using in-situ MiniBooNE vμ charged current quasielastic (CCQE) scattering data. A data set with ~ 100,000 events is identified, with 91% CCQE purity. This data set is used to measure several parameters of the CCQE cross section: the axial mass, the Fermi momentum, the binding energy, and the functional dependence of the axial form factor on four-momentum transfer squared. Constraints on the vμ and ve fluxes are derived using the vμ CCQE data set. A Monte Carlo study of a combined vμ disappearance and ve appearance oscillation fit is presented, which improves the vμ → ve oscillation sensitivity of MiniBooNE with respect to a ve appearance-only fit by 1.2-1.5σ, depending on the value of Δm2.

  15. Analysis Techniques to Measure Charged Current Inclusive Water Cross Section and to Constrain Neutrino Oscillation Parameters using the Near Detector (ND280) of the T2K Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Rajarshi

    2014-03-01

    The Tokai to Kamioka (T2K) Experiment is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment located in Japan with the primary goal to precisely measure multiple neutrino flavor oscillation parameters. An off-axis muon neutrino beam with an energy that peaks at 600 MeV is generated at the JPARC facility and directed towards the kiloton Super-Kamiokande (SK) water Cherenkov detector located 295 km away. The rates of electron neutrino and muon neutrino interactions are measured at SK and compared with expected model values. This yields a measurement of the neutrino oscillation parameters sinq and sinq. Measurements from a Near Detector that is 280 m downstream of the neutrino beam target are used to constrain uncertainties in the beam flux prediction and neutrino interaction rates. We present a measurement of inclusive charged current neutrino interactions on water. We used several sub-detectors in the ND280 complex, including a Pi-Zero detector (P0D) that has alternating planes of plastic scintillator and water bag layers, a time projection chamber (TPC) and fine-grained detector (FGD) to detect and reconstruct muons from neutrino charged current events. Finally, we describe a ``forward-fitting'' technique that is used to constrain the beam flux and cross section as an input for the neutrino oscillation analysis and also to extract a flux-averaged inclusive charged current cross section on water.

  16. Atmospheric neutrinos in ice and measurement of neutrino oscillation parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez-Martinez, Enrique; Giordano, Gerardo; Mocioiu, Irina; Mena, Olga

    2010-11-01

    The main goal of the IceCube Deep Core array is to search for neutrinos of astrophysical origins. Atmospheric neutrinos are commonly considered as a background for these searches. We show that the very high statistics atmospheric neutrino data can be used to obtain precise measurements of the main oscillation parameters.

  17. Hadronization processes in neutrino interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Katori, Teppei; Mandalia, Shivesh

    2015-10-15

    Next generation neutrino oscillation experiments utilize details of hadronic final states to improve the precision of neutrino interaction measurements. The hadronic system was often neglected or poorly modelled in the past, but they have significant effects on high precision neutrino oscillation and cross-section measurements. Among the physics of hadronic systems in neutrino interactions, the hadronization model controls multiplicities and kinematics of final state hadrons from the primary interaction vertex. For relatively high invariant mass events, many neutrino experiments rely on the PYTHIA program. Here, we show a possible improvement of this process in neutrino event generators, by utilizing expertise from the HERMES experiment. Finally, we estimate the impact on the systematics of hadronization models for neutrino mass hierarchy analysis using atmospheric neutrinos such as the PINGU experiment.

  18. SNO: solving the mystery of the missing neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Jelley, Nick; Poon, Alan

    2007-03-30

    The end of an era came on 28 November 2006 when the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) finally stopped data-taking after eight exciting years of discoveries. During this time the Observatory saw evidence that neutrinos, produced in the fusion of hydrogen in the solar core, change flavour while passing through the Sun on their way to the Earth. This observation explained the longstanding puzzle as to why previous experiments had seen fewer solar neutrinos than predicted and confirmed that these elusive particles have mass. Solar neutrinos were first detected in Ray Davis's radiochemical experiment in 1967, for which discovery he shared the 2002 Nobel Prize in Physics. Surprisingly he found only about a third of the number predicted from models of the Sun's output. This deficit, the so-called Solar Neutrino Problem, was confirmed by Kamiokande-II while other experiments saw related deficits of solar neutrinos. A possible explanation for this deficit, suggested by Gribov and Pontecorvo in 1969, was that some of the electron-type neutrinos, which are produced in the Sun, had ''oscillated'' into neutrinos that could not be detected in the Davis detector. The oscillation mechanism requires that neutrinos have non-zero mass. The unique advantage, which was pointed out by the late Herb Chen in 1985, of using heavy water (D{sub 2}O) to detect the neutrinos from {sup 8}B decays in the solar fusion process is that it enables both the number of electron-type and of all types of neutrinos to be measured. A comparison of the flux of electron-type neutrinos to that of all flavours could then reveal whether flavour transformation is the cause of the solar neutrino deficit. In heavy water neutrinos of all types can break a deuteron apart into its constituent proton and neutron (neutral-current reaction), while only electron-type neutrinos can change the deuteron into two protons and release an electron (charged-current reaction). SNO was designed by scientists from Canada, the USA

  19. Progress in ultra high energy neutrino experiments using radio techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Jiali; Tiedt, Douglas

    2013-05-23

    Studying the source of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Ray (UHECR) can provide important clues on the understanding of UHE particle physics, astrophysics, and other extremely energetic phenomena in the universe. However, charged CR particles are deflected by magnetic fields and can not point back to the source. Furthermore, UHECR charged particles above the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK) cutoff (about 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} eV) suffer severe energy loss due to the interaction with the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMBR). Consequently almost all the information carried by CR particles about their origin is lost. Neutrinos, which are neutral particles and have extremely weak interactions with other materials can arrive at the earth without deflection and absorption. Therefore UHE neutrinos can be traced back to the place where they are produced. Due to their weak interaction and ultra high energies (thus extremely low flux) the detection of UHE neutrinos requires a large collecting area and massive amounts of material. Cherenkov detection at radio frequency, which has long attenuation lengths and can travel freely in natural dense medium (ice, rock and salt et al), can fulfill the detection requirement. Many UHE neutrino experiments are being performed by radio techniques using natural ice, lunar, and salt as detection mediums. These experiments have obtained much data about radio production, propagation and detection, and the upper limit of UHE neutrino flux.

  20. High-energy neutrinos from a lunar observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, M. M.; Silberberg, R.

    1985-01-01

    The detection of high-energy (HE) cosmic and solar-flare neutrions near the lunar surface would be feasible at energies much lower than for a terrestrial observatory. At these lower energies ( 10 to the 9th eV), the neutrino background is drastically reduced below that generated by cosmic rays in the Earth's atmosphere. Because of the short mean free path ( 1m) of the progenitor pi and K mesons against nuclear interactions in lunar rocks, the neutrino background would be quite low. At 1 GeV, less than 1% of the pions would decay; at 10 GeV, 0.1%. Thus, if the neutrino flux to be observed is intense enough, and its spectrum is steep enough, then the signal-to-noise ratio is very favorable. The observation of HE neutrinos from solar flares would be dramatically enhanced, especially at lower energies, since the flare spectra are very steep. Detection of these neutrinos on Earth does not appear to be feasible. A remarkable feature of solar flares as viewed in HE neutrinos from a lunar base is that the entire surface of the Sun would be visible.

  1. Neutrino signals from electroweak bremsstrahlung in solar WIMP annihilation

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Nicole F.; Brennan, Amelia J.; Jacques, Thomas D. E-mail: a.brennan@pgrad.unimelb.edu.au

    2012-10-01

    Bremsstrahlung of W and Z gauge bosons, or photons, can be an important dark matter annihilation channel. In many popular models in which the annihilation to a pair of light fermions is helicity suppressed, these bremsstrahlung processes can lift the suppression and thus become the dominant annihilation channels. The resulting dark matter annihilation products contain a large, energetic, neutrino component. We consider solar WIMP annihilation in the case where electroweak bremsstrahlung dominates, and calculate the resulting neutrino spectra. The flux consists of primary neutrinos produced in processes such as χχ→ν-bar νZ and χχ→ν-bar lW, and secondary neutrinos produced via the decays of gauge bosons and charged leptons. After dealing with the neutrino propagation and flavour evolution in the Sun, we consider the prospects for detection in neutrino experiments on Earth. We compare our signal with that for annihilation to W{sup +}W{sup −}, and show that, for a given annihilation rate, the bremsstrahlung annihilation channel produces a larger signal by a factor of a few.

  2. Results from Neutrino Oscillations Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar-Arevalo, Alexis

    2010-09-10

    The interpretation of the results of early solar and atmospheric neutrino experiments in terms of neutrino oscillations has been verified by several recent experiments using both, natural and man-made sources. The observations provide compelling evidence in favor of the existence of neutrino masses and mixings. These proceedings give a general description of the results from neutrino oscillation experiments, the current status of the field, and some possible future developments.

  3. Neutrino Masses and Flavor Mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Zhi-zhong

    2010-06-01

    I give a theoretical overview of some basic properties of massive neutrinos in these lectures. Particular attention is paid to the origin of neutrino masses, the pattern of lepton flavor mixing, the feature of leptonic CP violation and the electromagnetic properties of massive neutrinos. I highlight the TeV seesaw mechanisms as a possible bridge between neutrino physics and collider physics in the era characterized by the Large Hadron Collider.

  4. Neutrino sea scope takes shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartlidge, Edwin

    2016-03-01

    A consortium of European physicists building a vast neutrino detector on the floor of the Mediterranean Sea has unveiled the science it will carry out. The Cubic Kilometre Neutrino Telescope (KM3NeT) will use strings of radiation detectors arranged in a 3D network to measure the light emitted when neutrinos very occasionally interact with the surrounding sea water.

  5. Evidence for Astrophysical Muon Neutrinos from the Northern Sky with IceCube.

    PubMed

    Aartsen, M G; Abraham, K; Ackermann, M; Adams, J; Aguilar, J A; Ahlers, M; Ahrens, M; Altmann, D; Anderson, T; Archinger, M; Arguelles, C; Arlen, T C; Auffenberg, J; Bai, X; Barwick, S W; Baum, V; Bay, R; Beatty, J J; Tjus, J Becker; Becker, K-H; Beiser, E; BenZvi, S; Berghaus, P; Berley, D; Bernardini, E; Bernhard, A; Besson, D Z; Binder, G; Bindig, D; Bissok, M; Blaufuss, E; Blumenthal, J; Boersma, D J; Bohm, C; Börner, M; Bos, F; Bose, D; Böser, S; Botner, O; Braun, J; Brayeur, L; Bretz, H-P; Brown, A M; Buzinsky, N; Casey, J; Casier, M; Cheung, E; Chirkin, D; Christov, A; Christy, B; Clark, K; Classen, L; Coenders, S; Cowen, D F; Silva, A H Cruz; Daughhetee, J; Davis, J C; Day, M; de André, J P A M; De Clercq, C; Dembinski, H; De Ridder, S; Desiati, P; de Vries, K D; de Wasseige, G; de With, M; DeYoung, T; Díaz-Vélez, J C; Dumm, J P; Dunkman, M; Eagan, R; Eberhardt, B; Ehrhardt, T; Eichmann, B; Euler, S; Evenson, P A; Fadiran, O; Fahey, S; Fazely, A R; Fedynitch, A; Feintzeig, J; Felde, J; Filimonov, K; Finley, C; Fischer-Wasels, T; Flis, S; Fuchs, T; Glagla, M; Gaisser, T K; Gaior, R; Gallagher, J; Gerhardt, L; Ghorbani, K; Gier, D; Gladstone, L; Glüsenkamp, T; Goldschmidt, A; Golup, G; Gonzalez, J G; Goodman, J A; Góra, D; Grant, D; Gretskov, P; Groh, J C; Groß, A; Ha, C; Haack, C; Ismail, A Haj; Hallgren, A; Halzen, F; Hansmann, B; Hanson, K; Hebecker, D; Heereman, D; Helbing, K; Hellauer, R; Hellwig, D; Hickford, S; Hignight, J; Hill, G C; Hoffman, K D; Hoffmann, R; Holzapfe, K; Homeier, A; Hoshina, K; Huang, F; Huber, M; Huelsnitz, W; Hulth, P O; Hultqvist, K; In, S; Ishihara, A; Jacobi, E; Japaridze, G S; Jero, K; Jurkovic, M; Kaminsky, B; Kappes, A; Karg, T; Karle, A; Kauer, M; Keivani, A; Kelley, J L; Kemp, J; Kheirandish, A; Kiryluk, J; Kläs, J; Klein, S R; Kohnen, G; Kolanoski, H; Konietz, R; Koob, A; Köpke, L; Kopper, C; Kopper, S; Koskinen, D J; Kowalski, M; Krings, K; Kroll, G; Kroll, M; Kunnen, J; Kurahashi, N; Kuwabara, T; Labare, M; Lanfranchi, J L; Larson, M J; Lesiak-Bzdak, M; Leuermann, M; Leuner, J; Lünemann, J; Madsen, J; Maggi, G; Mahn, K B M; Maruyama, R; Mase, K; Matis, H S; Maunu, R; McNally, F; Meagher, K; Medici, M; Meli, A; Menne, T; Merino, G; Meures, T; Miarecki, S; Middell, E; Middlemas, E; Miller, J; Mohrmann, L; Montaruli, T; Morse, R; Nahnhauer, R; Naumann, U; Niederhausen, H; Nowicki, S C; Nygren, D R; Obertacke, A; Olivas, A; Omairat, A; O'Murchadha, A; Palczewski, T; Paul, L; Pepper, J A; de Los Heros, C Pérez; Pfendner, C; Pieloth, D; Pinat, E; Posselt, J; Price, P B; Przybylski, G T; Pütz, J; Quinnan, M; Rädel, L; Rameez, M; Rawlins, K; Redl, P; Reimann, R; Relich, M; Resconi, E; Rhode, W; Richman, M; Richter, S; Riedel, B; Robertson, S; Rongen, M; Rott, C; Ruhe, T; Ruzybayev, B; Ryckbosch, D; Saba, S M; Sabbatini, L; Sander, H-G; Sandrock, A; Sandroos, J; Sarkar, S; Schatto, K; Scheriau, F; Schimp, M; Schmidt, T; Schmitz, M; Schoenen, S; Schöneberg, S; Schönwald, A; Schukraft, A; Schulte, L; Seckel, D; Seunarine, S; Shanidze, R; Smith, M W E; Soldin, D; Spiczak, G M; Spiering, C; Stahlberg, M; Stamatikos, M; Stanev, T; Stanisha, N A; Stasik, A; Stezelberger, T; Stokstad, R G; Stößl, A; Strahler, E A; Ström, R; Strotjohann, N L; Sullivan, G W; Sutherland, M; Taavola, H; Taboada, I; Ter-Antonyan, S; Terliuk, A; Tešić, G; Tilav, S; Toale, P A; Tobin, M N; Tosi, D; Tselengidou, M; Unger, E; Usner, M; Vallecorsa, S; van Eijndhoven, N; Vandenbroucke, J; van Santen, J; Vanheule, S; Veenkamp, J; Vehring, M; Voge, M; Vraeghe, M; Walck, C; Wallraff, M; Wandkowsky, N; Weaver, C; Wendt, C; Westerhoff, S; Whelan, B J; Whitehorn, N; Wichary, C; Wiebe, K; Wiebusch, C H; Wille, L; Williams, D R; Wissing, H; Wolf, M; Wood, T R; Woschnagg, K; Xu, D L; Xu, X W; Xu, Y; Yanez, J P; Yodh, G; Yoshida, S; Zarzhitsky, P; Zoll, M

    2015-08-21

    Results from the IceCube Neutrino Observatory have recently provided compelling evidence for the existence of a high energy astrophysical neutrino flux utilizing a dominantly Southern Hemisphere data set consisting primarily of ν(e) and ν(τ) charged-current and neutral-current (cascade) neutrino interactions. In the analysis presented here, a data sample of approximately 35,000 muon neutrinos from the Northern sky is extracted from data taken during 659.5 days of live time recorded between May 2010 and May 2012. While this sample is composed primarily of neutrinos produced by cosmic ray interactions in Earth's atmosphere, the highest energy events are inconsistent with a hypothesis of solely terrestrial origin at 3.7σ significance. These neutrinos can, however, be explained by an astrophysical flux per neutrino flavor at a level of Φ(E(ν))=9.9(-3.4)(+3.9)×10(-19)  GeV(-1) cm(-2) sr(-1) s(-1)(E(ν)/100  TeV(-2), consistent with IceCube's Southern-Hemisphere-dominated result. Additionally, a fit for an astrophysical flux with an arbitrary spectral index is performed. We find a spectral index of 2.2(-0.2)(+0.2), which is also in good agreement with the Southern Hemisphere result. PMID:26340177

  6. Evidence for Astrophysical Muon Neutrinos from the Northern Sky with IceCube.

    PubMed

    Aartsen, M G; Abraham, K; Ackermann, M; Adams, J; Aguilar, J A; Ahlers, M; Ahrens, M; Altmann, D; Anderson, T; Archinger, M; Arguelles, C; Arlen, T C; Auffenberg, J; Bai, X; Barwick, S W; Baum, V; Bay, R; Beatty, J J; Tjus, J Becker; Becker, K-H; Beiser, E; BenZvi, S; Berghaus, P; Berley, D; Bernardini, E; Bernhard, A; Besson, D Z; Binder, G; Bindig, D; Bissok, M; Blaufuss, E; Blumenthal, J; Boersma, D J; Bohm, C; Börner, M; Bos, F; Bose, D; Böser, S; Botner, O; Braun, J; Brayeur, L; Bretz, H-P; Brown, A M; Buzinsky, N; Casey, J; Casier, M; Cheung, E; Chirkin, D; Christov, A; Christy, B; Clark, K; Classen, L; Coenders, S; Cowen, D F; Silva, A H Cruz; Daughhetee, J; Davis, J C; Day, M; de André, J P A M; De Clercq, C; Dembinski, H; De Ridder, S; Desiati, P; de Vries, K D; de Wasseige, G; de With, M; DeYoung, T; Díaz-Vélez, J C; Dumm, J P; Dunkman, M; Eagan, R; Eberhardt, B; Ehrhardt, T; Eichmann, B; Euler, S; Evenson, P A; Fadiran, O; Fahey, S; Fazely, A R; Fedynitch, A; Feintzeig, J; Felde, J; Filimonov, K; Finley, C; Fischer-Wasels, T; Flis, S; Fuchs, T; Glagla, M; Gaisser, T K; Gaior, R; Gallagher, J; Gerhardt, L; Ghorbani, K; Gier, D; Gladstone, L; Glüsenkamp, T; Goldschmidt, A; Golup, G; Gonzalez, J G; Goodman, J A; Góra, D; Grant, D; Gretskov, P; Groh, J C; Groß, A; Ha, C; Haack, C; Ismail, A Haj; Hallgren, A; Halzen, F; Hansmann, B; Hanson, K; Hebecker, D; Heereman, D; Helbing, K; Hellauer, R; Hellwig, D; Hickford, S; Hignight, J; Hill, G C; Hoffman, K D; Hoffmann, R; Holzapfe, K; Homeier, A; Hoshina, K; Huang, F; Huber, M; Huelsnitz, W; Hulth, P O; Hultqvist, K; In, S; Ishihara, A; Jacobi, E; Japaridze, G S; Jero, K; Jurkovic, M; Kaminsky, B; Kappes, A; Karg, T; Karle, A; Kauer, M; Keivani, A; Kelley, J L; Kemp, J; Kheirandish, A; Kiryluk, J; Kläs, J; Klein, S R; Kohnen, G; Kolanoski, H; Konietz, R; Koob, A; Köpke, L; Kopper, C; Kopper, S; Koskinen, D J; Kowalski, M; Krings, K; Kroll, G; Kroll, M; Kunnen, J; Kurahashi, N; Kuwabara, T; Labare, M; Lanfranchi, J L; Larson, M J; Lesiak-Bzdak, M; Leuermann, M; Leuner, J; Lünemann, J; Madsen, J; Maggi, G; Mahn, K B M; Maruyama, R; Mase, K; Matis, H S; Maunu, R; McNally, F; Meagher, K; Medici, M; Meli, A; Menne, T; Merino, G; Meures, T; Miarecki, S; Middell, E; Middlemas, E; Miller, J; Mohrmann, L; Montaruli, T; Morse, R; Nahnhauer, R; Naumann, U; Niederhausen, H; Nowicki, S C; Nygren, D R; Obertacke, A; Olivas, A; Omairat, A; O'Murchadha, A; Palczewski, T; Paul, L; Pepper, J A; de Los Heros, C Pérez; Pfendner, C; Pieloth, D; Pinat, E; Posselt, J; Price, P B; Przybylski, G T; Pütz, J; Quinnan, M; Rädel, L; Rameez, M; Rawlins, K; Redl, P; Reimann, R; Relich, M; Resconi, E; Rhode, W; Richman, M; Richter, S; Riedel, B; Robertson, S; Rongen, M; Rott, C; Ruhe, T; Ruzybayev, B; Ryckbosch, D; Saba, S M; Sabbatini, L; Sander, H-G; Sandrock, A; Sandroos, J; Sarkar, S; Schatto, K; Scheriau, F; Schimp, M; Schmidt, T; Schmitz, M; Schoenen, S; Schöneberg, S; Schönwald, A; Schukraft, A; Schulte, L; Seckel, D; Seunarine, S; Shanidze, R; Smith, M W E; Soldin, D; Spiczak, G M; Spiering, C; Stahlberg, M; Stamatikos, M; Stanev, T; Stanisha, N A; Stasik, A; Stezelberger, T; Stokstad, R G; Stößl, A; Strahler, E A; Ström, R; Strotjohann, N L; Sullivan, G W; Sutherland, M; Taavola, H; Taboada, I; Ter-Antonyan, S; Terliuk, A; Tešić, G; Tilav, S; Toale, P A; Tobin, M N; Tosi, D; Tselengidou, M; Unger, E; Usner, M; Vallecorsa, S; van Eijndhoven, N; Vandenbroucke, J; van Santen, J; Vanheule, S; Veenkamp, J; Vehring, M; Voge, M; Vraeghe, M; Walck, C; Wallraff, M; Wandkowsky, N; Weaver, C; Wendt, C; Westerhoff, S; Whelan, B J; Whitehorn, N; Wichary, C; Wiebe, K; Wiebusch, C H; Wille, L; Williams, D R; Wissing, H; Wolf, M; Wood, T R; Woschnagg, K; Xu, D L; Xu, X W; Xu, Y; Yanez, J P; Yodh, G; Yoshida, S; Zarzhitsky, P; Zoll, M

    2015-08-21

    Results from the IceCube Neutrino Observatory have recently provided compelling evidence for the existence of a high energy astrophysical neutrino flux utilizing a dominantly Southern Hemisphere data set consisting primarily of ν(e) and ν(τ) charged-current and neutral-current (cascade) neutrino interactions. In the analysis presented here, a data sample of approximately 35,000 muon neutrinos from the Northern sky is extracted from data taken during 659.5 days of live time recorded between May 2010 and May 2012. While this sample is composed primarily of neutrinos produced by cosmic ray interactions in Earth's atmosphere, the highest energy events are inconsistent with a hypothesis of solely terrestrial origin at 3.7σ significance. These neutrinos can, however, be explained by an astrophysical flux per neutrino flavor at a level of Φ(E(ν))=9.9(-3.4)(+3.9)×10(-19)  GeV(-1) cm(-2) sr(-1) s(-1)(E(ν)/100  TeV(-2), consistent with IceCube's Southern-Hemisphere-dominated result. Additionally, a fit for an astrophysical flux with an arbitrary spectral index is performed. We find a spectral index of 2.2(-0.2)(+0.2), which is also in good agreement with the Southern Hemisphere result.

  7. Evidence for Astrophysical Muon Neutrinos from the Northern Sky with IceCube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aartsen, M. G.; Abraham, K.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Ahrens, M.; Altmann, D.; Anderson, T.; Archinger, M.; Arguelles, C.; Arlen, T. C.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Bay, R.; Beatty, J. J.; Tjus, J. Becker; Becker, K.-H.; Beiser, E.; BenZvi, S.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bernhard, A.; Besson, D. Z.; Binder, G.; Bindig, D.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Blumenthal, J.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Börner, M.; Bos, F.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Braun, J.; Brayeur, L.; Bretz, H.-P.; Brown, A. M.; Buzinsky, N.; Casey, J.; Casier, M.; Cheung, E.; Chirkin, D.; Christov, A.; Christy, B.; Clark, K.; Classen, L.; Coenders, S.; Cowen, D. F.; Silva, A. H. Cruz; Daughhetee, J.; Davis, J. C.; Day, M.; de André, J. P. A. M.; De Clercq, C.; Dembinski, H.; De Ridder, S.; Desiati, P.; de Vries, K. D.; de Wasseige, G.; de With, M.; DeYoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; Dumm, J. P.; Dunkman, M.; Eagan, R.; Eberhardt, B.; Ehrhardt, T.; Eichmann, B.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fadiran, O.; Fahey, S.; Fazely, A. R.; Fedynitch, A.; Feintzeig, J.; Felde, J.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Fischer-Wasels, T.; Flis, S.; Fuchs, T.; Glagla, M.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gaior, R.; Gallagher, J.; Gerhardt, L.; Ghorbani, K.; Gier, D.; Gladstone, L.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Golup, G.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Goodman, J. A.; Góra, D.; Grant, D.; Gretskov, P.; Groh, J. C.; Groß, A.; Ha, C.; Haack, C.; Ismail, A. Haj; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hansmann, B.; Hanson, K.; Hebecker, D.; Heereman, D.; Helbing, K.; Hellauer, R.; Hellwig, D.; Hickford, S.; Hignight, J.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoffmann, R.; Holzapfe, K.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Huang, F.; Huber, M.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; In, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobi, E.; Japaridze, G. S.; Jero, K.; Jurkovic, M.; Kaminsky, B.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kauer, M.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, J.; Kheirandish, A.; Kiryluk, J.; Kläs, J.; Klein, S. R.; Kohnen, G.; Kolanoski, H.; Konietz, R.; Koob, A.; Köpke, L.; Kopper, C.; Kopper, S.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Krings, K.; Kroll, G.; Kroll, M.; Kunnen, J.; Kurahashi, N.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Lanfranchi, J. L.; Larson, M. J.; Lesiak-Bzdak, M.; Leuermann, M.; Leuner, J.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Maggi, G.; Mahn, K. B. M.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; Maunu, R.; McNally, F.; Meagher, K.; Medici, M.; Meli, A.; Menne, T.; Merino, G.; Meures, T.; Miarecki, S.; Middell, E.; Middlemas, E.; Miller, J.; Mohrmann, L.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naumann, U.; Niederhausen, H.; Nowicki, S. C.; Nygren, D. R.; Obertacke, A.; Olivas, A.; Omairat, A.; O'Murchadha, A.; Palczewski, T.; Paul, L.; Pepper, J. A.; de los Heros, C. Pérez; Pfendner, C.; Pieloth, D.; Pinat, E.; Posselt, J.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Pütz, J.; Quinnan, M.; Rädel, L.; Rameez, M.; Rawlins, K.; Redl, P.; Reimann, R.; Relich, M.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Richman, M.; Richter, S.; Riedel, B.; Robertson, S.; Rongen, M.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Ruzybayev, B.; Ryckbosch, D.; Saba, S. M.; Sabbatini, L.; Sander, H.-G.; Sandrock, A.; Sandroos, J.; Sarkar, S.; Schatto, K.; Scheriau, F.; Schimp, M.; Schmidt, T.; Schmitz, M.; Schoenen, S.; Schöneberg, S.; Schönwald, A.; Schukraft, A.; Schulte, L.; Seckel, D.; Seunarine, S.; Shanidze, R.; Smith, M. W. E.; Soldin, D.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stahlberg, M.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stanisha, N. A.; Stasik, A.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stößl, A.; Strahler, E. A.; Ström, R.; Strotjohann, N. L.; Sullivan, G. W.; Sutherland, M.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Terliuk, A.; Tešić, G.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Tobin, M. N.; Tosi, D.; Tselengidou, M.; Unger, E.; Usner, M.; Vallecorsa, S.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vandenbroucke, J.; van Santen, J.; Vanheule, S.; Veenkamp, J.; Vehring, M.; Voge, M.; Vraeghe, M.; Walck, C.; Wallraff, M.; Wandkowsky, N.; Weaver, C.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Whitehorn, N.; Wichary, C.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Wille, L.; Williams, D. R.; Wissing, H.; Wolf, M.; Wood, T. R.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, D. L.; Xu, X. W.; Xu, Y.; Yanez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Zoll, M.; IceCube Collaboration

    2015-08-01

    Results from the IceCube Neutrino Observatory have recently provided compelling evidence for the existence of a high energy astrophysical neutrino flux utilizing a dominantly Southern Hemisphere data set consisting primarily of νe and ντ charged-current and neutral-current (cascade) neutrino interactions. In the analysis presented here, a data sample of approximately 35 000 muon neutrinos from the Northern sky is extracted from data taken during 659.5 days of live time recorded between May 2010 and May 2012. While this sample is composed primarily of neutrinos produced by cosmic ray interactions in Earth's atmosphere, the highest energy events are inconsistent with a hypothesis of solely terrestrial origin at 3.7 σ significance. These neutrinos can, however, be explained by an astrophysical flux per neutrino flavor at a level of Φ (Eν)=9.9-3.4+3.9×10-19 GeV-1 cm-2 sr-1 s-1(Eν/1 00 TeV ) -2 , consistent with IceCube's Southern-Hemisphere-dominated result. Additionally, a fit for an astrophysical flux with an arbitrary spectral index is performed. We find a spectral index of 2.2-0.2+0.2 , which is also in good agreement with the Southern Hemisphere result.

  8. Neutrino physics with multi-ton scale liquid xenon detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Baudis, L.; Ferella, A.; Kish, A.; Manalaysay, A.; Undagoitia, T. Marrodán; Schumann, M. E-mail: alfredo.ferella@lngs.infn.it E-mail: aaronm@ucdavis.edu E-mail: marc.schumann@lhep.unibe.ch

    2014-01-01

    We study the sensitivity of large-scale xenon detectors to low-energy solar neutrinos, to coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering and to neutrinoless double beta decay. As a concrete example, we consider the xenon part of the proposed DARWIN (Dark Matter WIMP Search with Noble Liquids) experiment. We perform detailed Monte Carlo simulations of the expected backgrounds, considering realistic energy resolutions and thresholds in the detector. In a low-energy window of 2–30 keV, where the sensitivity to solar pp and {sup 7}Be-neutrinos is highest, an integrated pp-neutrino rate of 5900 events can be reached in a fiducial mass of 14 tons of natural xenon, after 5 years of data. The pp-neutrino flux could thus be measured with a statistical uncertainty around 1%, reaching the precision of solar model predictions. These low-energy solar neutrinos will be the limiting background to the dark matter search channel for WIMP-nucleon cross sections below ∼ 2 × 10{sup −48} cm{sup 2} and WIMP masses around 50 GeV⋅c{sup −2}, for an assumed 99.5% rejection of electronic recoils due to elastic neutrino-electron scatters. Nuclear recoils from coherent scattering of solar neutrinos will limit the sensitivity to WIMP masses below ∼ 6 GeV⋅c{sup −2} to cross sections above ∼ 4 × 10{sup −45}cm{sup 2}. DARWIN could reach a competitive half-life sensitivity of 5.6 × 10{sup 26} y to the neutrinoless double beta decay of {sup 136}Xe after 5 years of data, using 6 tons of natural xenon in the central detector region.

  9. Theory for Neutrino Mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiao-Gang

    2016-07-01

    Since the discovery of neutrino oscillations, for which Takaaki Kajita and Arthur B. McDonald were awarded the 2015 Nobel prize in physics, tremendous progresses have been made in measuring the mixing angles which determine the oscillation pattern. A lot of theoretical efforts have been made to understand how neutrinos mix with each other. Present data show that in the standard parameterization of the mixing matrix, θ23 is close to π/4 and the CP violating phase is close to - π/2. In this talk I report results obtained in arXiv:1505.01932 (Phys. Lett. B750(2015)620) and arXive:1404.01560 (Chin. J. Phys.53(2015)100101) and discuss some implications for theoretical model buildings for such mixing pattern. Specific examples for neutrino mixing based on A4 family symmetry are given.

  10. Theory for Neutrino Mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiao-Gang

    2016-07-01

    Since the discovery of neutrino oscillations, for which Takaaki Kajita and Arthur B. McDonald were awarded the 2015 Nobel prize in physics, tremendous progresses have been made in measuring the mixing angles which determine the oscillation pattern. A lot of theoretical efforts have been made to understand how neutrinos mix with each other. Present data show that in the standard parameterization of the mixing matrix, θ23 is close to π/4 and the CP violating phase is close to ‑ π/2. In this talk I report results obtained in arXiv:1505.01932 (Phys. Lett. B750(2015)620) and arXive:1404.01560 (Chin. J. Phys.53(2015)100101) and discuss some implications for theoretical model buildings for such mixing pattern. Specific examples for neutrino mixing based on A4 family symmetry are given.

  11. Cosmology and neutrino physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steigman, Gary

    1982-05-01

    Constraints on cosmology and on neutrino physics are provided by the abundances of the light elements produced during the early evolution of the universe. The predictions of primordial nucleosynthesis depend on the nucleon to photon ratio ɛ and on the number of types of two component neutrinos Nν. A comparison between the big bang predictions and the observed abundances of D, 3He, 4He and 7Li shows that ɛ is constrained to a narrow range around 4×10-10 and Nν<~4. An important consequence of the derived value of ɛ is that the universal density of nucleon is small, raising the possibility that our Universe may be dominated by massive relic neutrinos. The constraint on Nn suggests that (almost) all lepton species are now known.

  12. The Neutrino Telescope ANTARES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, Juan José

    Neutrinos can reveal a brand new Universe at high energies. The ANTARES collaboration [1] , formed in 1996, works towards the building and deployment of a neutrino telescope. This detector could observe and study high energy astrophysical sources such as X-ray binary systems, young supernova remnants or Active Galactic Nuclei and help to discover or set exclusion limits on some of the elementary particles and objects that have been put forward as candidates to fill the Universe (WIMPS, neutralinos, topological deffects, Q-balls, etc). A neutrino telescope will certainly open a new observational window and can shed light on the most energetic phenomena of the Universe. A review of the progress made by the ANTARES collaboration to achieve this goal is presented

  13. Neutrino physics: Summary talk

    SciTech Connect

    Marciano, W.J.

    1989-04-01

    This paper is organized as follows: First, I describe the state of neutrino phenomenology. Emphasis is placed on sin/sup 2/ /theta//sub W/, its present status and future prospects. In addition, some signatures of ''new physics'' are described. Then, kaon physics at Fermilab is briefly discussed. I concentrate on the interesting rare decay K/sub L/ /yields/ /pi//sup 0/e/sup +/e/sup /minus// which may be a clean probe direct CP violation. Neutrino mass, mixing, and electromagnetic moments are surveyed. There, I describe the present state and future direction of accelerator based experiments. Finally, I conclude with an outlook on the future. Throughout this summary, I have drawn from and incorporated ideas discussed by other speakers at this workshop. However, I have tried to combine their ideas with my own perspective on neutrino physics and where it is headed. 49 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. The NuMI Neutrino Beam at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Kopp, Sacha E.

    2005-06-08

    The Neutrinos at the Main Injector (NuMI) facility at Fermilab is due to begin operations in late 2004. NuMI will deliver an intense v{mu} beam of variable energy 2-20 GeV directed into the Earth at 58 mrad for short ({approx}1 km) and long ({approx}700-900 km) baseline experiments. Several aspects of the design are reviewed, as are potential upgrade requirements to the facility in the event a Proton Driver is built at Fermilab to enhance the neutrino flux.

  15. Charge exchange reactions and solar neutrino detection in 81Br

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, K. F.; Gabbard, F.

    1983-01-01

    The feasibility of 81Br as the detector of the solar neutrino flux hinges upon the knowledge of the Gamow-Teller matrix element from the ground state of 81Br to the 52- state at 0.457 MeV in 81Kr. The possibility of obtaining this matrix element is discussed in terms of the (p, n) and (3He, t) charge exchange reactions. NUCLEAR REACTIONS 81Br(p, n)81Kr and 81Br(3He, t)81Kr Gamow-Teller transitions; solar neutrino detection.

  16. Neutrino detection with CLEAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinsey, D. N.; Coakley, K. J.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes CLEAN, an approach to the detection of low-energy solar neutrinos and neutrinos released from supernovae. The CLEAN concept is based on the detection of elastic scattering events (neutrino-electron scattering and neutrino-nuclear scattering) in liquified noble gases such as liquid helium, liquid neon, and liquid xenon, all of which scintillate brightly in the ultraviolet. Key to the CLEAN technique is the use of a thin film of wavelength-shifting fluor to convert the ultraviolet scintillation light to the visible, thereby allowing detection by conventional photomultipliers. Liquid neon is a particularly promising medium for CLEAN. Because liquid neon has a high scintillation yield, has no long-lived radioactive isotopes, and can be easily purified by use of cold traps, it is an ideal medium for the detection of rare nuclear events. In addition, neon is inexpensive, dense, and transparent to its own scintillation light, making it practical for use in a large self-shielding apparatus. The central region of a full-sized detector would be a stainless steel tank holding approximately 135 metric tons of liquid neon. Inside the tank and suspended in the liquid neon would be several thousand photomultipliers. Monte Carlo simulations of gamma ray backgrounds have been performed assuming liquid neon as both shielding and detection medium. Gamma ray events occur with high probability in the outer parts of the detector. In contrast, neutrino scattering events occur uniformly throughout the detector. We discriminate background gamma ray events from events of interest based on a spatial maximum likelihood method estimate of event location. Background estimates for CLEAN are presented, as well as an evaluation of the sensitivity of the detector for p-p neutrinos. Given these simulations, the physics potential of the CLEAN approach is evaluated.

  17. High energy neutrino emission and neutrino background from gamma-ray bursts in the internal shock model

    SciTech Connect

    Murase, Kohta; Nagataki, Shigehiro

    2006-03-15

    High energy neutrino emission from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is discussed. In this paper, by using the simulation kit GEANT4, we calculate proton cooling efficiency including pion-multiplicity and proton-inelasticity in photomeson production. First, we estimate the maximum energy of accelerated protons in GRBs. Using the obtained results, neutrino flux from one burst and a diffuse neutrino background are evaluated quantitatively. We also take account of cooling processes of pion and muon, which are crucial for resulting neutrino spectra. We confirm the validity of analytic approximate treatments on GRB fiducial parameter sets, but also find that the effects of multiplicity and high-inelasticity can be important on both proton cooling and resulting spectra in some cases. Finally, assuming that the GRB rate traces the star formation rate, we obtain a diffuse neutrino background spectrum from GRBs for specific parameter sets. We introduce the nonthermal baryon-loading factor, rather than assume that GRBs are main sources of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs). We find that the obtained neutrino background can be comparable with the prediction of Waxman and Bahcall, although our ground in estimation is different from theirs. In this paper, we study on various parameters since there are many parameters in the model. The detection of high energy neutrinos from GRBs will be one of the strong evidences that protons are accelerated to very high energy in GRBs. Furthermore, the observations of a neutrino background has a possibility not only to test the internal shock model of GRBs but also to give us information about parameters in the model and whether GRBs are sources of UHECRs or not.

  18. NOνA Neutrino Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jediny, Filip

    2015-06-01

    The NOνA experiment is a long-baseline accelerator-based neutrino oscillation experiment. It uses the upgraded NuMI beam from Fermilab and measures electron-neutrino appearance and muon-neutrino disappearance at its far detector in Ash River, Minnesota. Goals of the experiment include measurements of θ13, mass hierarchy and the CP violating phase. NOνA has begun to take neutrino data and first neutrino candidates are observed in its detectors. This document provides an overview of the scientific reach of the experiment, the status of detector operation and physics analysis, as well as the first data.

  19. Atmospheric neutrinos: Status and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choubey, Sandhya

    2016-07-01

    We present an overview of the current status of neutrino oscillation studies at atmospheric neutrino experiments. While the current data gives some tantalising hints regarding the neutrino mass hierarchy, octant of θ23 and δCP, the hints are not statistically significant. We summarise the sensitivity to these sub-dominant three-generation effects from the next-generation proposed atmospheric neutrino experiments. We next present the prospects of new physics searches such as non-standard interactions, sterile neutrinos and CPT violation studies at these experiments.

  20. Are neutrinos their own antiparticles?

    SciTech Connect

    Kayser, Boris; /Fermilab

    2009-03-01

    We explain the relationship between Majorana neutrinos, which are their own antiparticles, and Majorana neutrino masses. We point out that Majorana masses would make the neutrinos very distinctive particles, and explain why many theorists strongly suspect that neutrinos do have Majorana masses. The promising approach to confirming this suspicion is to seek neutrinoless double beta decay. We introduce a toy model that illustrates why this decay requires nonzero neutrino masses, even when there are both right-handed and left-handed weak currents.

  1. Neutrino Analysis of the September 2010 Crab Nebula Flare and Time-integrated Constraints on Neutrino Emission From the Crab Using IceCube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stamatikos, M.; Abbasi, R.; Abdou, Y.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Adams, J.; Aguliar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Altmann, D.; Andeen, K.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Baker, M.; Barwick, S. W.; Bay, R.; Alba, J. L. Bazo; Beattie, K.; Beatty, J. J.; Bechet, S.; Becker, J. K.; Becker, K. -H.; Benabderrahmane, M. L.; BenZvi, SW.; Berdermann, J.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results for a search of high-energy muon neutrinos with the IceCube detector in coincidence with the Crab nebula flare reported on September 2010 by various experiments. Due to the unusual flaring state of the otherwise steady source we performed a prompt analysis of the 79-string configuration data to search for neutrinos that might be emitted along with the observed gamma-rays. We performed two different and complementary data selections of neutrino events in the time window of 10 days around the flare. One event selection is optimized for discovery of E(sub nu)(sup -2) neutrino spectrum typical of 1st order Fermi acceleration. A similar event selection has also been applied to the 40-string data to derive the time-integrated limits to the neutrino emission from the Crab [35]. The other event selection was optimized for discovery of neutrino spectra with softer spectral index and TeV energy cut-offs as observed for various galactic sources in gamma-rays. The 90% CL best upper limits on the Crab flux during the 10 day flare are 4.73 x 10(exp -11) per square centimeter per second TeV (sup -1) for an E(sub nu) (sup -2) neutrino spectrum and 2.50 x 10(exp -10) per square centimeter per second TeV(sup -1) for a softer neutrino spectra of E(sub nu)(sup -2.7), as indicated by Fermi measurements during the flare. IceCube has also set a time-integrated limit on the neutrino emission of the Crab using 375.5 days of livetime of the 40-string configuration data. This limit is compared to existing models of neutrino production from the Crab and its impact on astrophysical parameters is discussed. The most optimistic predictions of some models are already rejected by the IceCube neutrino telescope with more than 90% CL.

  2. Solar Neutrinos. II. Experimental

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Davis, Raymond Jr.

    1964-01-01

    A method is described for observing solar neutrinos from the reaction Cl{sup 37}(nu,e{sup -})Ar{sup 37} in C{sub 2}Cl{sub 4}. Two 5 00-gal tanks of C{sub 2}Cl{sub 4} were placed in a limestone mine (1800 m.w.e.) and the resulting Ar{sup 37} activity induced by cosmic mesons( mu ) was measured to determine the necessary conditions for solar neutrino observations. (R.E.U.)

  3. Probing new physics with long-lived charged particles produced by atmospheric and astrophysical neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Ando, Shin'ichiro; Profumo, Stefano; Beacom, John F; Rainwater, David E-mail: beacom@mps.ohio-state.edu E-mail: rain@pas.rochester.edu

    2008-04-15

    As suggested by some extensions of the standard model of particle physics, dark matter may be a super-weakly-interacting lightest stable particle, while the next-to-lightest particle (NLP) is charged and metastable. One could test such a possibility with neutrino telescopes, by detecting the charged NLPs produced in high-energy neutrino collisions with Earth matter. We study the production of charged NLPs by both atmospheric and astrophysical neutrinos; only the latter, which is largely uncertain and has not been detected yet, was the focus of previous studies. We compute the resulting fluxes of the charged NLPs, compare those of different origins and analyze the dependence on the underlying particle physics set-up. We point out that, even if the astrophysical neutrino flux is very small, atmospheric neutrinos, especially those from the prompt decay of charmed mesons, may provide a detectable flux of NLP pairs at neutrino telescopes such as IceCube. We also comment on the flux of charged NLPs expected from proton-nucleon collisions and show that, for theoretically motivated and phenomenologically viable models, it is typically subdominant and below detectable rates.

  4. Probing new physics with long-lived charged particles produced by atmospheric and astrophysical neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Shin'ichiro; Beacom, John F.; Profumo, Stefano; Rainwater, David

    2008-04-01

    As suggested by some extensions of the standard model of particle physics, dark matter may be a super-weakly-interacting lightest stable particle, while the next-to-lightest particle (NLP) is charged and metastable. One could test such a possibility with neutrino telescopes, by detecting the charged NLPs produced in high-energy neutrino collisions with Earth matter. We study the production of charged NLPs by both atmospheric and astrophysical neutrinos; only the latter, which is largely uncertain and has not been detected yet, was the focus of previous studies. We compute the resulting fluxes of the charged NLPs, compare those of different origins and analyze the dependence on the underlying particle physics set-up. We point out that, even if the astrophysical neutrino flux is very small, atmospheric neutrinos, especially those from the prompt decay of charmed mesons, may provide a detectable flux of NLP pairs at neutrino telescopes such as IceCube. We also comment on the flux of charged NLPs expected from proton-nucleon collisions and show that, for theoretically motivated and phenomenologically viable models, it is typically subdominant and below detectable rates.

  5. Sterile Neutrino Search with MINOS

    SciTech Connect

    Devan, Alena V.

    2015-08-01

    MINOS, Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search, is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment in the NuMI muon neutrino beam at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Batavia, IL. It consists of two detectors, a near detector positioned 1 km from the source of the beam and a far detector 734 km away in Minnesota. MINOS is primarily designed to observe muon neutrino disappearance resulting from three flavor oscillations. The Standard Model of Particle Physics predicts that neutrinos oscillate between three active flavors as they propagate through space. This means that a muon-type neutrino has a certain probability to later interact as a different type of neutrino. In the standard picture, the neutrino oscillation probabilities depend only on three neutrino flavors and two mass splittings, Δm2. An anomaly was observed by the LSND and MiniBooNE experiments that suggests the existence of a fourth, sterile neutrino flavor that does not interact through any of the known Standard Model interactions. Oscillations into a theoretical sterile flavor may be observed by a deficit in neutral current interactions in the MINOS detectors. A distortion in the charged current energy spectrum might also be visible if oscillations into the sterile flavor are driven by a large mass-squared difference, ms2 ~ 1 eV2. The results of the 2013 sterile neutrino search are presented here.

  6. Experimental data on solar neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludhova, Livia

    2016-04-01

    Neutrino physics continues to be a very active research field, full of opened fundamental questions reaching even beyond the Standard Model of elementary particles and towards a possible new physics. Solar neutrinos have played a fundamental historical role in the discovery of the phenomenon of neutrino oscillations and thus non-zero neutrino mass. Even today, the study of solar neutrinos provides an important insight both into the neutrino as well as into the stellar and solar physics. In this section we give an overview of the most important solar-neutrino measurements from the historical ones up to the most recent ones. We cover the results from the experiments using radio-chemic (Homestake, SAGE, GNO, GALLEX), water Cherenkov (Kamiokande, Super-Kamiokande, SNO), and the liquid-scintillator (Borexino, KamLAND) detection techniques.

  7. Experimental study of neutrino absorption on carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Krakauer, D.A.; Talaga, R.L. ); Allen, R.C.; Chen, H.H.; Hausammann, R.; Lee, W.P.; Mahler, H.J.; Lu, X.Q.; Wang, K.C. ); Bowles, T.J.; Burman, R.L.; Carlini, R.D.; Cochran, D.R.F.; Doe, P.J.; Frank, J.S.; Piasetzky, E.; Potter, M.E.; Sandberg, V.D. )

    1992-05-01

    The process of electron emission from {similar to}30 MeV neutrino absorption on carbon, {sup 12}C({nu}{sub {ital e}},{ital e}{sup {minus}}){sup 12}N, has been observed. The flux-weighted total cross section for the exclusive neutrino-induced nuclear transition {sup 12}C({nu}{sub {ital e}},{ital e}{sup {minus}}){sup 12}N(g.s.) is (1.05{plus minus}0.10(stat){plus minus}0.10(syst)){times}10{sup {minus}41} cm{sup 2}. The measured cross section and angular distribution {ital d}{sigma}/{ital d}{Omega} are in agreement with theoretical estimates. The inclusive {nu}{sub {ital e}} {sup 12}C reaction rate, which accounted for the majority of all neutrino interactions observed in this experiment, was determined from a detailed fit of energy and angular distributions for the observed electrons. The inclusive {sup 12}C({nu}{sub {ital e}},{ital e}{sup {minus}}){ital X} cross section is measured to be (1.41{plus minus}0.23(tot)){times}10{sup {minus}41} cm{sup 2}. An upper limit for the sum of the {sup 13}C({nu}{sub {ital e}},{ital e}{sup {minus}}){ital X}+{sup 27}Al({nu}{sub {ital e}},{ital e}{sup {minus}}){ital X} inclusive absorption cross sections is presented.

  8. Neutrino flavor pendulum in both mass hierarchies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raffelt, Georg; Seixas, David de Sousa

    2013-08-01

    We construct a simple example for self-induced flavor conversion in dense neutrino gases, showing new solutions that violate the symmetries of initial conditions. Our system consists of two opposite momentum modes 1 and 2, each initially occupied with equal densities of νe and ν¯e. Restricting solutions to symmetry under 1↔2 allows for the usual bimodal instability (“flavor pendulum”) in the inverted neutrino mass hierarchy and stability (no self-induced flavor conversion) in the normal hierarchy (NH). Lifting this symmetry restriction allows for a second pendulumlike solution that occurs in NH, where the modes 1 and 2 swing in opposite directions in flavor space. Any small deviation from 1-2 symmetry in the initial condition triggers the new instability in NH. This effect corresponds to the recently identified multi-azimuth angle instability of supernova neutrino fluxes. Both cases show explicitly that solutions of the equations of collective flavor oscillations need not inherit the symmetries of initial conditions, although this has been universally assumed.

  9. A Study of Solar Neutrinos Using the Super-Kamiokande Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conner, Zoa

    The first solar neutrino flux results from the Super-Kamiokande detector are described. This independent analysis is based on a data set from June 1996 through February 1997. A total neutrino flux of 2.61 ± 0.12 (stat) ±0.13 (syst) ×106/ [ν over cm2s] is implied from the data above a 7 MeV energy threshold. When the measurement is compared with the most recent Standard Solar Model flux prediction (BP95), the ratio of data/SSM is 0.394 ± 0.018 (stat) ± 0.019 (syst). The measured fluxes during day and night yield a fractional difference of +0.019 ± 0.046 (stat). Interpretations are given in the context of vacuum and MSW enhanced neutrino flavor oscillations.

  10. Global analyses of neutrino oscillation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, M. C.; Maltoni, Michele; Schwetz, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    We summarize the determination of some neutrino properties from the global analysis of solar, atmospheric, reactor, and accelerator neutrino data in the framework of three-neutrino mixing as well as in some extended scenarios such as the mixing with eV-scale sterile neutrinos invoked for the interpretation of the short baseline anomalies, and the presence of non-standard neutrino interactions.

  11. Limits on dark matter annihilation in the sun using the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; Albert, A.; André, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Aubert, J.-J.; Avgitas, T.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Martí, J.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bormuth, R.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Carr, J.; Celli, S.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coleiro, A.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Deschamps, A.; De Bonis, G.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; El Bojaddaini, I.; Elsässer, D.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Fehn, K.; Felis, I.; Fusco, L. A.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Geißelsöder, S.; Geyer, K.; Giordano, V.; Gleixner, A.; Glotin, H.; Gracia-Ruiz, R.; Graf, K.; Hallmann, S.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Hößl, J.; Hofestädt, J.; Hugon, C.; Illuminati, G.; James, C. W.; de Jong, M.; Jongen, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.; Kießling, D.; Kouchner, A.; Kreter, M.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lachaud, C.; Lahmann, R.; Lefèvre, D.; Leonora, E.; Loucatos, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Marinelli, A.; Martínez-Mora, J. A.; Mathieu, A.; Melis, K.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Moussa, A.; Mueller, C.; Nezri, E.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Pellegrino, C.; Perrina, C.; Piattelli, P.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Racca, C.; Riccobene, G.; Roensch, K.; Saldaña, M.; Samtleben, D. F. E.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Sanguineti, M.; Sapienza, P.; Schnabel, J.; Schüssler, F.; Seitz, T.; Sieger, C.; Spurio, M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Taiuti, M.; Tönnis, C.; Trovato, A.; Tselengidou, M.; Turpin, D.; Vallage, B.; Vallée, C.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vivolo, D.; Wagner, S.; Wilms, J.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2016-08-01

    A search for muon neutrinos originating from dark matter annihilations in the Sun is performed using the data recorded by the ANTARES neutrino telescope from 2007 to 2012. In order to obtain the best possible sensitivities to dark matter signals, an optimisation of the event selection criteria is performed taking into account the background of atmospheric muons, atmospheric neutrinos and the energy spectra of the expected neutrino signals. No significant excess over the background is observed and 90% C.L. upper limits on the neutrino flux, the spin-dependent and spin-independent WIMP-nucleon cross-sections are derived for WIMP masses ranging from 50 GeV to 5 TeV for the annihilation channels WIMP + WIMP → b b bar ,W+W- and τ+τ-.

  12. Neutrino-Induced Neutral-Current Reaction Cross Sections for r-PROCESS Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langanke, K.; Kolbe, E.

    2002-11-01

    Neutrino-induced reactions play an important role during and after the r-process, if the latter occurs in an environment with extreme neutrino fluxes such as the neutrino-driven wind model or neutron star mergers. Recently we have evaluated the charged-current neutrino-nucleus cross sections relevant for r-process simulations. We extend our approach here to the neutral-current cross sections. Our tabulation considers neutron-rich nuclei with neutron numbers N=41-135 and charge numbers Z=21-82 and lists total as well as partial neutron spallation cross sections. The calculations have been performed within the random phase approximation considering multipole transitions with J<=3 and both parities. The supernova neutrino spectrum is described by a Fermi-Dirac distribution with various temperature parameters between T=2.8 MeV and T=10 MeV and with the degeneracy parameters α=0 and α=3.

  13. Long Baseline Neutrino Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezzetto, Mauro

    2016-05-01

    Following the discovery of neutrino oscillations by the Super-Kamiokande collaboration, recently awarded with the Nobel Prize, two generations of long baseline experiments had been setup to further study neutrino oscillations. The first generation experiments, K2K in Japan, Minos in the States and Opera in Europe, focused in confirming the Super-Kamiokande result, improving the precision with which oscillation parameters had been measured and demonstrating the ντ appearance process. Second generation experiments, T2K in Japan and very recently NOνA in the States, went further, being optimized to look for genuine three neutrino phenomena like non-zero values of θ13 and first glimpses to leptonic CP violation (LCPV) and neutrino mass ordering (NMO). The discovery of leptonic CP violation will require third generation setups, at the moment two strong proposals are ongoing, Dune in the States and Hyper-Kamiokande in Japan. This review will focus a little more in these future initiatives.

  14. Neutrino-nucleus interactions at the LBNF near detector

    SciTech Connect

    Mosel, Ulrich

    2015-10-15

    The reaction mechanisms for neutrino interactions with an {sup 40}Ar nucleus with the LBNF flux are calculated with the Giessen-Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (GiBUU) transport-theoretical implementation of these interactions. Quasielastic scattering, many-body effects, pion production and absorption and Deep Inelastic Scattering are discussed; they all play a role at the LBNF energies and are experimentally entangled with each other. Quasielastic scattering makes up for only about 1/3 of the total cross section whereas pion production channels make up about 2/3 of the total. This underlines the need for a consistent description of the neutrino-nucleus reaction that treats all channels on an equal, consistent footing. The results discussed here can also serve as useful guideposts for the Intermediate Neutrino Program.

  15. Extragalactic plus Galactic Model for IceCube Neutrino Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palladino, Andrea; Vissani, Francesco

    2016-08-01

    The hypothesis that high-energy cosmic neutrinos are power law distributed is critically analyzed. We propose a model with two components that better explains the observations. The extragalactic component of the high-energy neutrino flux has a canonical {E}ν -2 spectrum while the galactic component has a {E}ν -2.7 spectrum; both of them are significant. This model has several implications, which can be tested by IceCube and ANTARES over the next several years. Moreover, the existence of a diffuse component, close to the Galactic plane and that yields (20–30)% of IceCube’s events, is interesting for the future km3 neutrino telescopes located in the Northern Hemisphere and for gamma-ray telescopes aiming to measure events up to a few 100 TeV from the southern sky.

  16. Search for relativistic magnetic monopoles with the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; Aguilar, J. A.; Al Samarai, I.; Albert, A.; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Assis Jesus, A. C.; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J.-J.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bigongiari, C.; Bogazzi, C.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Bouhou, B.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Camarena, F.; Capone, A.; Cârloganu, C.; Carminati, G.; Carr, J.; Cecchini, S.; Charif, Z.; Charvis, Ph.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Curtil, C.; Decowski, M. P.; Dekeyser, I.; Deschamps, A.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti, Q.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, U.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Escoffier, S.; Fermani, P.; Ferri, M.; Flaminio, V.; Folger, F.; Fritsch, U.; Fuda, J.-L.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Giacomelli, G.; Giordano, V.; Gómez-González, J. P.; Graf, K.; Guillard, G.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G.; van Haren, H.; Hartman, J.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Herold, B.; Hößl, J.; Hsu, C. C.; de Jong, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.; Kavatsyuk, O.; Kooijman, P.; Kopper, C.; Kouchner, A.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lamare, P.; Larosa, G.; Lattuada, D.; Lefèvre, D.; Lim, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Mangano, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martínez-Mora, J. A.; Meli, A.; Montaruli, T.; Morganti, M.; Moscoso, L.; Motz, H.; Neff, M.; Nezri, E.; Palioselitis, D.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Payet, K.; Payre, P.; Petrovic, J.; Piattelli, P.; Picot-Clemente, N.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Presani, E.; Racca, C.; Reed, C.; Riccobene, G.; Richardt, C.; Richter, R.; Rivière, C.; Robert, A.; Roensch, K.; Rostovtsev, A.; Ruiz-Rivas, J.; Rujoiu, M.; Russo, G. V.; Salesa, F.; Sapienza, P.; Schöck, F.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schüssler, F.; Seitz, T.; Shanidze, R.; Simeone, F.; Spies, A.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Toscano, S.; Vallage, B.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vannoni, G.; Vecchi, M.; Vernin, P.; Wagner, S.; Wijnker, G.; Wilms, J.; de Wolf, E.; Yepes, H.; Zaborov, D.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2012-05-01

    Magnetic monopoles are predicted in various unified gauge models and could be produced at intermediate mass scales. Their detection in a neutrino telescope is facilitated by the large amount of light emitted compared to that from muons. This paper reports on a search for upgoing relativistic magnetic monopoles with the ANTARES neutrino telescope using a data set of 116 days of live time taken from December 2007 to December 2008. The one observed event is consistent with the expected atmospheric neutrino and muon background, leading to a 90% C.L. upper limit on the monopole flux between 1.3 × 10-17 and 8.9 × 10-17 cm-2 s-1 sr-1 for monopoles with velocity β ⩾ 0.625.

  17. An absence of neutrinos associated with cosmic-ray acceleration in γ-ray bursts.

    PubMed

    2012-04-19

    Very energetic astrophysical events are required to accelerate cosmic rays to above 10(18) electronvolts. GRBs (γ-ray bursts) have been proposed as possible candidate sources. In the GRB 'fireball' model, cosmic-ray acceleration should be accompanied by neutrinos produced in the decay of charged pions created in interactions between the high-energy cosmic-ray protons and γ-rays. Previous searches for such neutrinos found none, but the constraints were weak because the sensitivity was at best approximately equal to the predicted flux. Here we report an upper limit on the flux of energetic neutrinos associated with GRBs that is at least a factor of 3.7 below the predictions. This implies either that GRBs are not the only sources of cosmic rays with energies exceeding 10(18) electronvolts or that the efficiency of neutrino production is much lower than has been predicted. PMID:22517161

  18. Study of neutrino interactions at the T2K near detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillairet, A.; T2K Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    The Tokai-To-Kamioka (T2K) experiment was designed to measure the oscillation of muon neutrinos produced at the J-PARC accelerator in Japan. The Super-Kamiokande detector acts as the far detector and a near detector is installed in the path of the neutrino beam to reduce uncertainties on the flux and cross sections. This near detector, called ND280, is located 280 m from the production target of the T2K neutrino beamline in order to measure the characteristics of the beam prior to any oscillation. The first ND280 analysis of the momentum-angle distribution of the muon produced by muon neutrino charged current interactions has been performed. These results have also been used to determine a flux-averaged cross section.

  19. An absence of neutrinos associated with cosmic-ray acceleration in γ-ray bursts.

    PubMed

    2012-04-18

    Very energetic astrophysical events are required to accelerate cosmic rays to above 10(18) electronvolts. GRBs (γ-ray bursts) have been proposed as possible candidate sources. In the GRB 'fireball' model, cosmic-ray acceleration should be accompanied by neutrinos produced in the decay of charged pions created in interactions between the high-energy cosmic-ray protons and γ-rays. Previous searches for such neutrinos found none, but the constraints were weak because the sensitivity was at best approximately equal to the predicted flux. Here we report an upper limit on the flux of energetic neutrinos associated with GRBs that is at least a factor of 3.7 below the predictions. This implies either that GRBs are not the only sources of cosmic rays with energies exceeding 10(18) electronvolts or that the efficiency of neutrino production is much lower than has been predicted.

  20. Measurement of electron neutrino quasielastic and quasielasticlike scattering on hydrocarbon at $$\\langle E_{\

    DOE PAGES

    Wolcott, J.

    2016-02-25

    The first direct measurement of electron neutrino quasielastic and quasielasticlike scattering on hydrocarbon in the few-GeV region of incident neutrino energy has been carried out using the MINERvA detector in the NuMI beam at Fermilab. The flux-integrated differential cross sections in the electron production angle, electron energy, and Q2 are presented. The ratio of the quasielastic, flux-integrated differential cross section in Q2 for νe with that of similarly selected νμ-induced events from the same exposure is used to probe assumptions that underpin conventional treatments of charged-current νe interactions used by long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments. Furthermore, the data are found tomore » be consistent with lepton universality and are well described by the predictions of the neutrino event generator GENIE.« less

  1. MULTI-DIMENSIONAL FEATURES OF NEUTRINO TRANSFER IN CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Sumiyoshi, K.; Takiwaki, T.; Matsufuru, H.; Yamada, S. E-mail: takiwaki.tomoya@nao.ac.jp E-mail: shoichi@heap.phys.waseda.ac.jp

    2015-01-01

    We study the multi-dimensional properties of neutrino transfer inside supernova cores by solving the Boltzmann equations for neutrino distribution functions in genuinely six-dimensional phase space. Adopting representative snapshots of the post-bounce core from other supernova simulations in three dimensions, we solve the temporal evolution to stationary states of neutrino distribution functions using our Boltzmann solver. Taking advantage of the multi-angle and multi-energy feature realized by the S {sub n} method in our code, we reveal the genuine characteristics of spatially three-dimensional neutrino transfer, such as nonradial fluxes and nondiagonal Eddington tensors. In addition, we assess the ray-by-ray approximation, turning off the lateral-transport terms in our code. We demonstrate that the ray-by-ray approximation tends to propagate fluctuations in thermodynamical states around the neutrino sphere along each radial ray and overestimate the variations between the neutrino distributions on different radial rays. We find that the difference in the densities and fluxes of neutrinos between the ray-by-ray approximation and the full Boltzmann transport becomes ∼20%, which is also the case for the local heating rate, whereas the volume-integrated heating rate in the Boltzmann transport is found to be only slightly larger (∼2%) than the counterpart in the ray-by-ray approximation due to cancellation among different rays. These results suggest that we should carefully assess the possible influences of various approximations in the neutrino transfer employed in current simulations of supernova dynamics. Detailed information on the angle and energy moments of neutrino distribution functions will be profitable for the future development of numerical methods in neutrino-radiation hydrodynamics.

  2. Limits on neutrino emission from gamma-ray bursts with the 40 string IceCube detector.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, R; Abdou, Y; Abu-Zayyad, T; Adams, J; Aguilar, J A; Ahlers, M; Andeen, K; Auffenberg, J; Bai, X; Baker, M; Barwick, S W; Bay, R; Bazo Alba, J L; Beattie, K; Beatty, J J; Bechet, S; Becker, J K; Becker, K-H; Benabderrahmane, M L; BenZvi, S; Berdermann, J; Berghaus, P; Berley, D; Bernardini, E; Bertrand, D; Besson, D Z; Bindig, D; Bissok, M; Blaufuss, E; Blumenthal, J; Boersma, D J; Bohm, C; Bose, D; Böser, S; Botner, O; Braun, J; Brown, A M; Buitink, S; Carson, M; Chirkin, D; Christy, B; Clem, J; Clevermann, F; Cohen, S; Colnard, C; Cowen, D F; D'Agostino, M V; Danninger, M; Daughhetee, J; Davis, J C; De Clercq, C; Demirörs, L; Depaepe, O; Descamps, F; Desiati, P; de Vries-Uiterweerd, G; DeYoung, T; Díaz-Vélez, J C; Dierckxsens, M; Dreyer, J; Dumm, J P; Ehrlich, R; Eisch, J; Ellsworth, R W; Engdegård, O; Euler, S; Evenson, P A; Fadiran, O; Fazely, A R; Fedynitch, A; Feusels, T; Filimonov, K; Finley, C; Fischer-Wasels, T; Foerster, M M; Fox, B D; Franckowiak, A; Franke, R; Gaisser, T K; Gallagher, J; Geisler, M; Gerhardt, L; Gladstone, L; Glüsenkamp, T; Goldschmidt, A; Goodman, J A; Grant, D; Griesel, T; Gross, A; Grullon, S; Gurtner, M; Ha, C; Hallgren, A; Halzen, F; Han, K; Hanson, K; Heinen, D; Helbing, K; Herquet, P; Hickford, S; Hill, G C; Hoffman, K D; Homeier, A; Hoshina, K; Hubert, D; Huelsnitz, W; Hülss, J-P; Hulth, P O; Hultqvist, K; Hussain, S; Ishihara, A; Jacobsen, J; Japaridze, G S; Johansson, H; Joseph, J M; Kampert, K-H; Kappes, A; Karg, T; Karle, A; Kelley, J L; Kemming, N; Kenny, P; Kiryluk, J; Kislat, F; Klein, S R; Köhne, J-H; Kohnen, G; Kolanoski, H; Köpke, L; Kopper, S; Koskinen, D J; Kowalski, M; Kowarik, T; Krasberg, M; Krings, T; Kroll, G; Kuehn, K; Kuwabara, T; Labare, M; Lafebre, S; Laihem, K; Landsman, H; Larson, M J; Lauer, R; Lehmann, R; Lünemann, J; Madsen, J; Majumdar, P; Marotta, A; Maruyama, R; Mase, K; Matis, H S; Meagher, K; Merck, M; Mészáros, P; Meures, T; Middell, E; Milke, N; Miller, J; Montaruli, T; Morse, R; Movit, S M; Nahnhauer, R; Nam, J W; Naumann, U; Niessen, P; Nygren, D R; Odrowski, S; Olivas, A; Olivo, M; O'Murchadha, A; Ono, M; Panknin, S; Paul, L; Pérez de los Heros, C; Petrovic, J; Piegsa, A; Pieloth, D; Porrata, R; Posselt, J; Price, P B; Prikockis, M; Przybylski, G T; Rawlins, K; Redl, P; Resconi, E; Rhode, W; Ribordy, M; Rizzo, A; Rodrigues, J P; Roth, P; Rothmaier, F; Rott, C; Ruhe, T; Rutledge, D; Ruzybayev, B; Ryckbosch, D; Sander, H-G; Santander, M; Sarkar, S; Schatto, K; Schmidt, T; Schoenwald, A; Schukraft, A; Schultes, A; Schulz, O; Schunck, M; Seckel, D; Semburg, B; Seo, S H; Sestayo, Y; Seunarine, S; Silvestri, A; Slipak, A; Spiczak, G M; Spiering, C; Stamatikos, M; Stanev, T; Stephens, G; Stezelberger, T; Stokstad, R G; Stoyanov, S; Strahler, E A; Straszheim, T; Sullivan, G W; Swillens, Q; Taavola, H; Taboada, I; Tamburro, A; Tarasova, O; Tepe, A; Ter-Antonyan, S; Tilav, S; Toale, P A; Toscano, S; Tosi, D; Turčan, D; van Eijndhoven, N; Vandenbroucke, J; Van Overloop, A; van Santen, J; Vehring, M; Voge, M; Voigt, B; Walck, C; Waldenmaier, T; Wallraff, M; Walter, M; Weaver, C; Wendt, C; Westerhoff, S; Whitehorn, N; Wiebe, K; Wiebusch, C H; Williams, D R; Wischnewski, R; Wissing, H; Wolf, M; Woschnagg, K; Xu, C; Xu, X W; Yodh, G; Yoshida, S; Zarzhitsky, P

    2011-04-01

    IceCube has become the first neutrino telescope with a sensitivity below the TeV neutrino flux predicted from gamma-ray bursts if gamma-ray bursts are responsible for the observed cosmic-ray flux above 10(18)  eV. Two separate analyses using the half-complete IceCube detector, one a dedicated search for neutrinos from pγ interactions in the prompt phase of the gamma-ray burst fireball and the other a generic search for any neutrino emission from these sources over a wide range of energies and emission times, produced no evidence for neutrino emission, excluding prevailing models at 90% confidence. PMID:21561178

  3. Pseudo-dirac neutrinos: a challenge for neutrino telescopes.

    PubMed

    Beacom, John F; Bell, Nicole F; Hooper, Dan; Learned, John G; Pakvasa, Sandip; Weiler, Thomas J

    2004-01-01

    Neutrinos may be pseudo-Dirac states, such that each generation is actually composed of two maximally mixed Majorana neutrinos separated by a tiny mass difference. The usual active neutrino oscillation phenomenology would be unaltered if the pseudo-Dirac splittings are deltam(2) less, similar 10(-12) eV(2); in addition, neutrinoless double beta decay would be highly suppressed. However, it may be possible to distinguish pseudo-Dirac from Dirac neutrinos using high-energy astrophysical neutrinos. By measuring flavor ratios as a function of L/E, mass-squared differences down to deltam(2) approximately 10(-18) eV(2) can be reached. We comment on the possibility of probing cosmological parameters with neutrinos. PMID:14753977

  4. Measurement of atmospheric neutrino oscillations with the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; Al Samarai, I.; Albert, A.; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J.-J.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bigongiari, C.; Bogazzi, C.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Bouhou, B.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Capone, A.; Cârloganu, C.; Carr, J.; Cecchini, S.; Charif, Z.; Charvis, Ph.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coniglione, R.; Core, L.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Curtil, C.; de Bonis, G.; Decowski, M. P.; Dekeyser, I.; Deschamps, A.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti, Q.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, U.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Escoffier, S.; Fehn, K.; Fermani, P.; Ferri, M.; Ferry, S.; Flaminio, V.; Folger, F.; Fritsch, U.; Fuda, J.-L.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Geyer, K.; Giacomelli, G.; Giordano, V.; Gleixner, A.; Gómez-González, J. P.; Graf, K.; Guillard, G.; Hallewell, G.; Hamal, M.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Herold, B.; Hößl, J.; Hsu, C. C.; de Jong, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.; Kavatsyuk, O.; Kooijman, P.; Kopper, C.; Kouchner, A.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lambard, G.; Larosa, G.; Lattuada, D.; Lefèvre, D.; Lim, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Louis, F.; Mangano, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martínez-Mora, J. A.; Meli, A.; Montaruli, T.; Morganti, M.; Moscoso, L.; Motz, H.; Neff, M.; Nezri, E.; Palioselitis, D.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Payet, K.; Petrovic, J.; Piattelli, P.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Presani, E.; Racca, C.; Reed, C.; Riccobene, G.; Richardt, C.; Richter, R.; Rivière, C.; Robert, A.; Roensch, K.; Rostovtsev, A.; Ruiz-Rivas, J.; Rujoiu, M.; Russo, G. V.; Samtleben, D. F. E.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Sapienza, P.; Schmid, J.; Schnabel, J.; Schöck, F.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schüssler, F.; Seitz, T.; Shanidze, R.; Simeone, F.; Spies, A.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Trovato, A.; Vallage, B.; Vallée, C.; van Elewyck, V.; Vecchi, M.; Vernin, P.; Visser, E.; Wagner, S.; Wijnker, G.; Wilms, J.; de Wolf, E.; Yepes, H.; Zaborov, D.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.; ANTARES Collaboration

    2012-08-01

    The data taken with the ANTARES neutrino telescope from 2007 to 2010, a total live time of 863 days, are used to measure the oscillation parameters of atmospheric neutrinos. Muon tracks are reconstructed with energies as low as 20 GeV. Neutrino oscillations will cause a suppression of vertical upgoing muon neutrinos of such energies crossing the Earth. The parameters determining the oscillation of atmospheric neutrinos are extracted by fitting the event rate as a function of the ratio of the estimated neutrino energy and reconstructed flight path through the Earth. Measurement contours of the oscillation parameters in a two-flavour approximation are derived. Assuming maximal mixing, a mass difference of Δ m322 = (3.1 ± 0.9) ṡ10-3eV2 is obtained, in good agreement with the world average value.

  5. Neutrino magnetic moment effects in neutrino nucleus reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, S.K.; Athar, M.S.

    1995-10-01

    Some low energy neutrino nucleus reactions induced by neutrinos (antineutrinos) having a magnetic moment of the order of 10{sup {minus}9}{minus}10{sup {minus}10} Bohr magneton are studied. It is found that in the case of {sup 4}He, {sup 12}C, and {sup 16}O, the detection of very low energy scalar and isoscalar elastic and inelastic reactions induced by the isoscalar vector currents can provide a better limit on the neutrino magnetic moment.

  6. On the Detection of the Free Neutrino

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Reines, F.; Cowan, C. L., Jr.

    1953-08-06

    The experiment previously proposed [to Detect the Free Neutrino] has been initiated, with a Hanford pile as a neutrino source. It appears probable that neutrino detection has been accomplished, and confirmatory work is in progress. (K.S.)

  7. Brief introduction of the neutrino event generators

    SciTech Connect

    Hayato, Yoshinari

    2015-05-15

    The neutrino interaction simulation programs (event generators) play an important role in the neutrino experiments. This article briefly explains what is the neutrino event generator and how it works.

  8. A new paradigm for modeling the neutrino-nucleus cross section?

    SciTech Connect

    Benhar, Omar

    2011-11-23

    There is increasing evidence that the scheme, or paradigm, successfully applied to explain the wealth of electron-nucleus scattering data fails to describe the measured quasi elastic neutrino-nucleus cross sections. I argue that, before advocating modifications of the nucleon properties in the nuclear medium, the available data should be analyzed within a new paradigm, allowing for a consistent treatment of the reaction mechanisms, other than single nucleon knockout, contributing to the flux averaged neutrino cross section.

  9. Prospects for Lunar Satellite Detection of Radio Pulses from Ultrahigh Energy Neutrinos Interacting with the Moon

    SciTech Connect

    Staal, O.; Bergman, J. E. S.; Thide, B.; Daldorff, L. K. S.; Ingelman, G.

    2007-02-16

    The Moon provides a huge effective detector volume for ultrahigh energy cosmic neutrinos, which generate coherent radio pulses in the lunar surface layer due to the Askaryan effect. In light of presently considered lunar missions, we propose radio measurements from a Moon-orbiting satellite. First systematic Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate the detectability of Askaryan pulses from neutrinos with energies above 10{sup 20} eV at the very low fluxes predicted in different scenarios.

  10. Solar neutrinos and 1-3 leptonic mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Goswami, Srubabati; Smirnov, Alexei Yu.

    2005-09-01

    Effects of the 1-3 leptonic mixing on the solar neutrino observables are studied and the signatures of nonzero {theta}{sub 13} are identified. For this we have rederived the formula for 3{nu}-survival probability including all relevant corrections and constructed the isocontours of observables in the sin{sup 2}{theta}{sub 12}-sin{sup 2}{theta}{sub 13} plane. Analysis of the solar neutrino data gives sin{sup 2}{theta}{sub 13}=0.007{sub -0.007}{sup +0.080} (90% C.L.) for {delta}m{sup 2}=8x10{sup -5} eV{sup 2}. The combination of the ratio CC/NC at Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) and gallium production rate selects sin{sup 2}{theta}{sub 13}=0.017{+-}0.026 (1{sigma}). The global fit of all oscillation data leads to zero best value of sin{sup 2}{theta}{sub 13}. The sensitivity (1{sigma} error) of future solar neutrino studies to sin{sup 2}{theta}{sub 13} can be improved down to 0.01-0.02 by precise measurements of the pp-neutrino flux and the CC/NC ratio as well as spectrum distortion at high (E>4 MeV) energies. Combination of experimental results sensitive to the low and high energy parts of the solar neutrino spectrum resolves the degeneracy of angles {theta}{sub 13} and {theta}{sub 12}. Comparison of sin{sup 2}{theta}{sub 13} as well as sin{sup 2}{theta}{sub 12} measured in the solar neutrinos and in the reactor/accelerator experiments may reveal new effects which can not be seen otherwise.

  11. Neutrino oscillations and the seesaw origin of neutrino mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, O. G.; Valle, J. W. F.

    2016-07-01

    The historical discovery of neutrino oscillations using solar and atmospheric neutrinos, and subsequent accelerator and reactor studies, has brought neutrino physics to the precision era. We note that CP effects in oscillation phenomena could be difficult to extract in the presence of unitarity violation. As a result upcoming dedicated leptonic CP violation studies should take into account the non-unitarity of the lepton mixing matrix. Restricting non-unitarity will shed light on the seesaw scale, and thereby guide us towards the new physics responsible for neutrino mass generation.

  12. Measurement of Geo-neutrinos with KamLAND

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, Satoru

    2011-11-23

    Radioactive isotopes inside the Earth produce geo-neutrinos through beta decays. Geo-neutrinos could be direct probes to investigate the interior of the Earth as a supplement to the current geophysical survey that mainly relies on an indirect seismic approach. After the Kamioka liquid scintillator antineutrino detector (KamLAND) reported the first indication of geo-neutrinos in 2005, we have accumulated data for a total of 2,135 days of live-time and achieved a lower background level by purifying liquid scintillator. The number of obtained geo-neutrino events is 106{sub -28}{sup +29} corresponding to an electron antineutrino flux of 4.3{sub -1.1}{sup +1.2}x10{sup 6} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} from {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th series at the Earth's surface. The null hypothesis for the existence of geo-neutrinos is excluded at the 99.997% confidence level. We combined this precise result with that of the Borexino experiment to obtain 20.0{sub -8.6}{sup +8.8} TW as a contribution of {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th to the Earth heat flow.

  13. Ultrahigh Energy Neutrinos at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    DOE PAGES

    Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; et al

    2013-01-01

    The observation of ultrahigh energy neutrinos (UHE ν s) has become a priority in experimental astroparticle physics. UHE ν s can be detected with a variety of techniques. In particular, neutrinos can interact in the atmosphere (downward-going ν ) or in the Earth crust (Earth-skimming ν ), producing air showers that can be observed with arrays of detectors at the ground. With the surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory we can detect these types of cascades. The distinguishing signature for neutrino events is the presence of very inclined showers produced close to the ground (i.e., after havingmore » traversed a large amount of atmosphere). In this work we review the procedure and criteria established to search for UHE ν s in the data collected with the ground array of the Pierre Auger Observatory. This includes Earth-skimming as well as downward-going neutrinos. No neutrino candidates have been found, which allows us to place competitive limits to the diffuse flux of UHE ν s in the EeV range and above.« less

  14. Solar neutrino measurements in Super-Kamiokande-IV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, K.; Haga, Y.; Hayato, Y.; Ikeda, M.; Iyogi, K.; Kameda, J.; Kishimoto, Y.; Marti, Ll.; Miura, M.; Moriyama, S.; Nakahata, M.; Nakajima, T.; Nakayama, S.; Orii, A.; Sekiya, H.; Shiozawa, M.; Sonoda, Y.; Takeda, A.; Tanaka, H.; Takenaga, Y.; Tasaka, S.; Tomura, T.; Ueno, K.; Yokozawa, T.; Akutsu, R.; Irvine, T.; Kaji, H.; Kajita, T.; Kametani, I.; Kaneyuki, K.; Lee, K. P.; Nishimura, Y.; McLachlan, T.; Okumura, K.; Richard, E.; Labarga, L.; Fernandez, P.; Blaszczyk, F. d. M.; Gustafson, J.; Kachulis, C.; Kearns, E.; Raaf, J. L.; Stone, J. L.; Sulak, L. R.; Berkman, S.; Tobayama, S.; Goldhaber, M.; Bays, K.; Carminati, G.; Griskevich, N. J.; Kropp, W. R.; Mine, S.; Renshaw, A.; Smy, M. B.; Sobel, H. W.; Takhistov, V.; Weatherly, P.; Ganezer, K. S.; Hartfiel, B. L.; Hill, J.; Keig, W. E.; Hong, N.; Kim, J. Y.; Lim, I. T.; Park, R. G.; Akiri, T.; Albert, J. B.; Himmel, A.; Li, Z.; O'Sullivan, E.; Scholberg, K.; Walter, C. W.; Wongjirad, T.; Ishizuka, T.; Nakamura, T.; Jang, J. S.; Choi, K.; Learned, J. G.; Matsuno, S.; Smith, S. N.; Friend, M.; Hasegawa, T.; Ishida, T.; Ishii, T.; Kobayashi, T.; Nakadaira, T.; Nakamura, K.; Nishikawa, K.; Oyama, Y.; Sakashita, K.; Sekiguchi, T.; Tsukamoto, T.; Nakano, Y.; Suzuki, A. T.; Takeuchi, Y.; Yano, T.; Cao, S. V.; Hayashino, T.; Hiraki, T.; Hirota, S.; Huang, K.; Ieki, K.; Jiang, M.; Kikawa, T.; Minamino, A.; Murakami, A.; Nakaya, T.; Patel, N. D.; Suzuki, K.; Takahashi, S.; Wendell, R. A.; Fukuda, Y.; Itow, Y.; Mitsuka, G.; Muto, F.; Suzuki, T.; Mijakowski, P.; Frankiewicz, K.; Hignight, J.; Imber, J.; Jung, C. K.; Li, X.; Palomino, J. L.; Santucci, G.; Taylor, I.; Vilela, C.; Wilking, M. J.; Yanagisawa, C.; Fukuda, D.; Ishino, H.; Kayano, T.; Kibayashi, A.; Koshio, Y.; Mori, T.; Sakuda, M.; Takeuchi, J.; Yamaguchi, R.; Kuno, Y.; Tacik, R.; Kim, S. B.; Okazawa, H.; Choi, Y.; Ito, K.; Nishijima, K.; Koshiba, M.; Totsuka, Y.; Suda, Y.; Yokoyama, M.; Bronner, C.; Calland, R. G.; Hartz, M.; Martens, K.; Obayashi, Y.; Suzuki, Y.; Vagins, M. R.; Nantais, C. M.; Martin, J. F.; de Perio, P.; Tanaka, H. A.; Konaka, A.; Chen, S.; Sui, H.; Wan, L.; Yang, Z.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, Y.; Connolly, K.; Dziomba, M.; Wilkes, R. J.; Super-Kamiokande Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    Upgraded electronics, improved water system dynamics, better calibration and analysis techniques allowed Super-Kamiokande-IV to clearly observe very low-energy 8B solar neutrino interactions, with recoil electron kinetic energies as low as ˜3.5 MeV . Super-Kamiokande-IV data-taking began in September of 2008; this paper includes data until February 2014, a total livetime of 1664 days. The measured solar neutrino flux is (2.308 ±0.020 (stat)-0.040 +0.039(syst ))×1 06/(cm2 sec ) assuming no oscillations. The observed recoil electron energy spectrum is consistent with no distortions due to neutrino oscillations. An extended maximum likelihood fit to the amplitude of the expected solar zenith angle variation of the neutrino-electron elastic scattering rate in SK-IV results in a day/night asymmetry of (-3.6 ±1.6 (stat )±0.6 (syst ))% . The SK-IV solar neutrino data determine the solar mixing angle as sin2θ12=0.327-0.031+0.026 , all SK solar data (SK-I, SK-II, SK III and SK-IV) measures this angle to be sin2θ12=0.334-0.023+0.027 , the determined mass-squared splitting is Δ m212=4.8-0.8+1.5×10-5 eV2 .

  15. Unparticle physics and neutrino phenomenology

    SciTech Connect

    Barranco, J.; Bolanos, A.; Miranda, O. G.; Moura, C. A.; Rashba, T. I.

    2009-04-01

    We have constrained unparticle interactions with neutrinos and electrons using available data on neutrino-electron elastic scattering and the four CERN LEP experiments data on mono photon production. We have found that, for neutrino-electron elastic scattering, the MUNU experiment gives better constraints than previous reported limits in the region d>1.5. The results are compared with the current astrophysical limits, pointing out the cases where these limits may or may not apply. We also discuss the sensitivity of future experiments to unparticle physics. In particular, we show that the measurement of coherent reactor neutrino scattering off nuclei could provide a good sensitivity to the couplings of unparticle interaction with neutrinos and quarks. We also discuss the case of future neutrino-electron experiments as well as the International Linear Collider.

  16. Decisive disappearance search at high Δ m2 with monoenergetic muon neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Axani, S.; Collin, G.; Conrad, J. M.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Spitz, J.; Wongjirad, T.

    2015-11-01

    "KPipe" is a proposed experiment which will study muon neutrino disappearance for a sensitive test of the Δ m2˜1 eV2 anomalies, possibly indicative of one or more sterile neutrinos. The experiment is to be located at the J-PARC Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility's spallation neutron source, which represents the world's most intense source of charged kaon decay-at-rest monoenergetic (236 MeV) muon neutrinos. The detector vessel, designed to measure the charged-current interactions of these neutrinos, will be 3 m in diameter and 120 m long, extending radially at a distance of 32 to 152 m from the source. This design allows a sensitive search for νμ disappearance associated with currently favored light sterile neutrino models and features the ability to reconstruct the neutrino oscillation wave within a single, extended detector. The required detector design, technology, and costs are modest. The KPipe measurements will be robust since they depend on a known energy neutrino source with low expected backgrounds. Further, since the measurements rely only on the measured rate of detected events as a function of distance, with no required knowledge of the initial flux and neutrino interaction cross section, the results will be largely free of systematic errors. The experimental sensitivity to oscillations, based on a shape-only analysis of the L /E distribution, will extend an order of magnitude beyond present experimental limits in the relevant high-Δ m2 parameter space.

  17. Searches for Time-dependent Neutrino Sources with IceCube Data from 2008 to 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aartsen, M. G.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Ahrens, M.; Altmann, D.; Anderson, T.; Archinger, M.; Arguelles, C.; Arlen, T. C.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Bay, R.; Baker, M.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker Tjus, J.; Becker, K.-H.; BenZvi, S.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bernhard, A.; Besson, D. Z.; Binder, G.; Bindig, D.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Blumenthal, J.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Bos, F.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Brayeur, L.; Bretz, H.-P.; Brown, A. M.; Buzinsky, N.; Casey, J.; Casier, M.; Cheung, E.; Chirkin, D.; Christov, A.; Christy, B.; Clark, K.; Classen, L.; Clevermann, F.; Coenders, S.; Cowen, D. F.; Cruz Silva, A. H.; Daughhetee, J.; Davis, J. C.; Day, M.; de André, J. P. A. M.; De Clercq, C.; Dembinski, H.; De Ridder, S.; Desiati, P.; de Vries, K. D.; de Wasseige, G.; de With, M.; DeYoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; Dumm, J. P.; Dunkman, M.; Eagan, R.; Eberhardt, B.; Ehrhardt, T.; Eichmann, B.; Eisch, J.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fadiran, O.; Fazely, A. R.; Fedynitch, A.; Feintzeig, J.; Felde, J.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Fischer-Wasels, T.; Flis, S.; Frantzen, K.; Fuchs, T.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gaior, R.; Gallagher, J.; Gerhardt, L.; Gier, D.; Gladstone, L.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Golup, G.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Goodman, J. A.; Góra, D.; Grant, D.; Gretskov, P.; Groh, J. C.; Groß, A.; Ha, C.; Haack, C.; Haj Ismail, A.; Hallen, P.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hanson, K.; Hebecker, D.; Heereman, D.; Heinen, D.; Helbing, K.; Hellauer, R.; Hellwig, D.; Hickford, S.; Hignight, J.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoffmann, R.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Huang, F.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; In, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobi, E.; Jacobsen, J.; Japaridze, G. S.; Jero, K.; Jurkovic, M.; Kaminsky, B.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kauer, M.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kheirandish, A.; Kiryluk, J.; Kläs, J.; Klein, S. R.; Köhne, J.-H.; Kohnen, G.; Kolanoski, H.; Koob, A.; Köpke, L.; Kopper, C.; Kopper, S.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Krings, K.; Kroll, G.; Kroll, M.; Kunnen, J.; Kurahashi, N.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Lanfranchi, J. L.; Larsen, D. T.; Larson, M. J.; Lesiak-Bzdak, M.; Leuermann, M.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Maggi, G.; Mahn, K. B. M.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; Maunu, R.; McNally, F.; Meagher, K.; Medici, M.; Meli, A.; Meures, T.; Miarecki, S.; Middell, E.; Middlemas, E.; Milke, N.; Miller, J.; Mohrmann, L.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naumann, U.; Niederhausen, H.; Nowicki, S. C.; Nygren, D. R.; Obertacke, A.; Olivas, A.; Omairat, A.; O'Murchadha, A.; Palczewski, T.; Paul, L.; Pepper, J. A.; Pérez de los Heros, C.; Pfendner, C.; Pieloth, D.; Pinat, E.; Posselt, J.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Pütz, J.; Quinnan, M.; Rädel, L.; Rameez, M.; Rawlins, K.; Redl, P.; Rees, I.; Reimann, R.; Relich, M.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Richman, M.; Riedel, B.; Robertson, S.; Rodrigues, J. P.; Rongen, M.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Ruzybayev, B.; Ryckbosch, D.; Saba, S. M.; Sander, H.-G.; Sandroos, J.; Santander, M.; Sarkar, S.; Schatto, K.; Scheriau, F.; Schmidt, T.; Schmitz, M.; Schoenen, S.; Schöneberg, S.; Schönwald, A.; Schukraft, A.; Schulte, L.; Schulz, O.; Seckel, D.; Sestayo, Y.; Seunarine, S.; Shanidze, R.; Smith, M. W. E.; Soldin, D.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stanisha, N. A.; Stasik, A.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stößl, A.; Strahler, E. A.; Ström, R.; Strotjohann, N. L.; Sullivan, G. W.; Sutherland, M.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Tamburro, A.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Terliuk, A.; Tešić, G.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Tobin, M. N.; Tosi, D.; Tselengidou, M.; Unger, E.; Usner, M.; Vallecorsa, S.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vandenbroucke, J.; van Santen, J.; Vanheule, S.; Vehring, M.; Voge, M.; Vraeghe, M.; Walck, C.; Wallraff, M.; Weaver, Ch.; Wellons, M.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Whitehorn, N.; Wichary, C.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Williams, D. R.; Wissing, H.; Wolf, M.; Wood, T. R.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, D. L.; Xu, X. W.; Xu, Y.; Yanez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Ziemann, J.; Zoll, M.; IceCube Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    In this paper searches for flaring astrophysical neutrino sources and sources with periodic emission with the IceCube neutrino telescope are presented. In contrast to time-integrated searches, where steady emission is assumed, the analyses presented here look for a time-dependent signal of neutrinos using the information from the neutrino arrival times to enhance the discovery potential. A search was performed for correlations between neutrino arrival times and directions, as well as neutrino emission following time-dependent light curves, sporadic emission, or periodicities of candidate sources. These include active galactic nuclei, soft γ-ray repeaters, supernova remnants hosting pulsars, microquasars, and X-ray binaries. The work presented here updates and extends previously published results to a longer period that covers 4 years of data from 2008 April 5 to 2012 May 16, including the first year of operation of the completed 86 string detector. The analyses did not find any significant time-dependent point sources of neutrinos, and the results were used to set upper limits on the neutrino flux from source candidates.

  18. Enhanced sensitivity to dark matter self-annihilations in the Sun using neutrino spectral information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rott, C.; Tanaka, T.; Itow, Y.

    2011-09-01

    Self-annihilating dark matter gravitationally captured by the Sun could yield observable neutrino signals at current and next generation neutrino detectors. By exploiting such signals, neutrino detectors can probe the spin-dependent scattering of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) with nucleons in the Sun. We describe a method how to convert constraints on neutrino fluxes to a limit on the WIMP-nucleon scattering cross section. In this method all neutrino flavors can be treated in a very similar way. We study the sensitivity of neutrino telescopes for Solar WIMP signals using vertex contained events and find that this detection channel is of particular importance in the search for low mass WIMPs. We obtain highly competitive sensitivities with all neutrino flavor channels for a Megaton sized detector through the application of basic spectral selection criteria. Best results are obtained with the electron neutrino channel. We discuss associated uncertainties and provide a procedure how to treat them for analyses in a consistent way.

  19. Nuclear responses of 64,66Zn isotopes to supernova neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsakstara, V.; Kosmas, T. S.

    2012-10-01

    Nuclear responses to energy spectra of supernova (SN) neutrinos are studied by folding original ν-nucleus cross sections calculated in the context of the quasiparticle random-phase approximation using realistic two-body forces. To this purpose, we employ two-parameter neutrino-energy distributions of Fermi-Dirac and power-law shapes for various SN neutrino scenarios. As concrete examples of promising neutrino detectors we have chosen the 64,66Zn isotopes, contents of (i) the semiconductor CdZnTe (COBRA experiment) and (ii) the crystal scintillators ZnMoO4 and ZnWO4. These materials are quite advantageous for measuring double-β-decay events and for potential use in studying current neutrino physics issues. We concentrate on the evaluation of folded differential cross sections, [dσ(ω)/dω]fold, and flux-averaged cumulative cross sections, [dσ(ω)/dω]foldcum, as well as total cross sections, <σtot>, of the above Zn isotopes by adopting several realistic SN neutrino models parametrized by the neutrino temperature or the mean neutrino energy and the width of the aforementioned distributions.

  20. A Measurement of Neutrino-Induced Charged-Current Neutral Pion Production

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Robert H.

    2010-01-01

    This work presents the first comprehensive measurement of neutrino-induced charged-current neutral pion production (CCπ0) off a nuclear target. The Mini Booster Neutrino Experiment (MiniBooNE) and Booster Neutrino Beam (BNB) are discussed in detail. MiniBooNE is a high-statistics (~ 1, 000, 000 interactions) low-energy (Evϵ 2 0.5 - 2.0 GeV) neutrino experiment located at Fermilab. The method for selecting and reconstructing CCπ0 events is presented. The π0 and μ- are fully reconstructed in the final state allowing for the measurement of, among other things, the neutrino energy. The total observable CCπ0 cross-section is presented as a function of neutrino energy, along with five differential cross-sections in terms of the final state kinematics and Q2. The results are combined to yield a flux-averaged total cross-section of <σ>Φ = (9.2 ± 0.3stat. ± 1.5syst.) × 10-39 cm2/CH2 at energy 965 MeV. These measurements will aid future neutrino experiments with the prediction of their neutrino interaction rates.