Science.gov

Sample records for neutron-proton elliptic flow

  1. Skewness of elliptic flow fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacalone, Giuliano; Yan, Li; Noronha-Hostler, Jacquelyn; Ollitrault, Jean-Yves

    2017-01-01

    Using event-by-event hydrodynamic calculations, we find that the fluctuations of the elliptic flow (v2) in the reaction plane have a negative skew. We compare the skewness of v2 fluctuations to that of initial eccentricity fluctuations. We show that skewness is the main effect lifting the degeneracy between higher-order cumulants, with negative skew corresponding to the hierarchy v2{4 } >v2{6 } observed in Pb+Pb collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. We describe how the skewness can be measured experimentally and show that hydrodynamics naturally reproduces its magnitude and centrality dependence.

  2. Elliptical Particle Clustering in Cellular Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atis, Severine; Sapsis, Themistoklis; Peacock, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    The transport of finite-sized objects by fluid flows is relevant to a wide variety of phenomena, such as debris transport on the ocean surface or bacteria advection in fluid environment. The shape of the advected objects can strongly alter their coupling with the surrounding flow field, and hence, greatly affecting their dispersion by the flow. We present the results of investigations of the behavior of neutrally buoyant, elliptical particles in two-dimensional cellular flows. We find that their trajectories, and overall organization, are markedly different than for spherical particles, with clear clustering for the elliptical particles associated with vortices.

  3. ELLIPTIC FLOW, INITIAL ECCENTRICITY AND ELLIPTIC FLOW FLUCTUATIONS IN HEAVY ION COLLISIONS AT RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    NOUICER,R.; ALVER, B.; BACK, B.B.; BAKER, M.D.; BALLINTIJN, M.; BARTON, D.S.; ET AL.

    2007-02-19

    We present measurements of elliptic flow and event-by-event fluctuations established by the PHOBOS experiment. Elliptic flow scaled by participant eccentricity is found to be similar for both systems when collisions with the same number of participants or the same particle area density are compared. The agreement of elliptic flow between Au+Au and Cu+Cu collisions provides evidence that the matter is created in the initial stage of relativistic heavy ion collisions with transverse granularity similar to that of the participant nucleons. The event-by-event fluctuation results reveal that the initial collision geometry is translated into the final state azimuthal particle distribution, leading to an event-by-event proportionality between the observed elliptic flow and initial eccentricity.

  4. Elliptic Length Scales in Laminar, Two-Dimensional Supersonic Flows

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    AFRL-RQ-WP-TP-2015-0109 ELLIPTIC LENGTH SCALES IN LAMINAR, TWO- DIMENSIONAL SUPERSONIC FLOWS James H. Miller Vehicle Technology Branch...SUBTITLE ELLIPTIC LENGTH SCALES IN LAMINAR, TWO-DIMENSIONAL SUPERSONIC FLOWS 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-house 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...ANSI Std. Z39-18 1 Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. Elliptic Length Scales in Laminar, Two-Dimensional Supersonic Flows

  5. Prospects of Elliptic Flow Studies at NICA/MPD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geraksiev, Nikolay

    2016-01-01

    As a key observable, anisotropic flow presents a unique insight into heavy ion collision physics. The presented poster reveals the prospects of studying elliptic flow at the NICA/MPD facility through the UrQMD model. Here, results for the elliptic flow of simulated and reconstructed hadrons at the planned NICA energy range are presented.

  6. Event-by-event elliptic flow fluctuations from PHOBOS.

    SciTech Connect

    Alver, B.; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Physics; BNL; Inst. of Nuclear Physics; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech.; National Central Univ.; Univ. of Maryland; Univ. of Rochester

    2009-04-01

    Recently PHOBOS has focused on the study of fluctuations and correlations in particle production in heavy-ion collisions at the highest energies delivered by the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). In this report, we present results on event-by-event elliptic flow fluctuations in Au + Au collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 200 GeV. A data-driven method was used to estimate the dominant contribution from non-flow correlations. Over the broad range of collision centralities, the observed large elliptic flow fluctuations are in agreement with the fluctuations in the initial source eccentricity.

  7. Supersonic flow calculations for a cone with an elliptic flare

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehrhaupt, H.

    1970-01-01

    A three-dimensional supersonic flow program is presented for calculating the flow field about a cone at zero angle of attack with an elliptical flare. The program is irrotational, and results remain valid in the region ahead of the first relected characteristic from the points of shock where the shock is no longer axisymmetric.

  8. System Size, Energy, Pseudorapidity, and Centrality Dependence of Elliptic Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Alver, B.; Ballintijn, M.; Busza, W.; Decowski, M. P.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Henderson, C.; Kane, J. L.; Kulinich, P.; Li, W.; Loizides, C.; Reed, C.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Vale, C.; Nieuwenhuizen, G. J. van; Vaurynovich, S. S.; Verdier, R.; Veres, G. I.; Wenger, E.

    2007-06-15

    This Letter presents measurements of the elliptic flow of charged particles as a function of pseudorapidity and centrality from Cu-Cu collisions at 62.4 and 200 GeV using the PHOBOS detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. The elliptic flow in Cu-Cu collisions is found to be significant even for the most central events. For comparison with the Au-Au results, it is found that the detailed way in which the collision geometry (eccentricity) is estimated is of critical importance when scaling out system-size effects. A new form of eccentricity, called the participant eccentricity, is introduced which yields a scaled elliptic flow in the Cu-Cu system that has the same relative magnitude and qualitative features as that in the Au-Au system.

  9. Elliptic flow in Au+Au collisions at RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; George, N.; Wuosmaa, A.; Physics; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech.; BNL; Univ. of Illinois at Chicago

    2005-01-01

    Elliptic flow is an interesting probe of the dynamical evolution of the dense system formed in the ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions at the relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC). The elliptic flow dependences on transverse momentum, centrality and pseudorapidity were measured using data collected by the PHOBOS detector, which offers a unique opportunity to study the azimuthal anisotropies of charged particles over a wide range of pseudorapidity. These measurements are presented, together with an overview of the analysis methods and a discussion of the results.

  10. Two-dimensional subsonic compressible flow past elliptic cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, Carl

    1938-01-01

    The method of Poggi is used to calculate, for perfect fluids, the effect of compressibility upon the flow on the surface of an elliptic cylinder at zero angle of attack and with no circulation. The result is expressed in a closed form and represents a rigorous determination of the velocity of the fluid at the surface of the obstacle insofar as the second approximation is concerned. Comparison is made with Hooker's treatment of the same problem according to the method of Janzen and Rayleight and it is found that, for thick elliptic cylinders, the two methods agree very well. The labor of computation is considerably reduced by the present solution.

  11. Pressure algorithm for elliptic flow calculations with the PDF method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anand, M. S.; Pope, S. B.; Mongia, H. C.

    1991-01-01

    An algorithm to determine the mean pressure field for elliptic flow calculations with the probability density function (PDF) method is developed and applied. The PDF method is a most promising approach for the computation of turbulent reacting flows. Previous computations of elliptic flows with the method were in conjunction with conventional finite volume based calculations that provided the mean pressure field. The algorithm developed and described here permits the mean pressure field to be determined within the PDF calculations. The PDF method incorporating the pressure algorithm is applied to the flow past a backward-facing step. The results are in good agreement with data for the reattachment length, mean velocities, and turbulence quantities including triple correlations.

  12. Elliptic Flow in Au+Au Collisions at √sNN = 130 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackermann, K. H.; Adams, N.; Adler, C.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahmad, S.; Allgower, C.; Amsbaugh, J.; Anderson, M.; Anderssen, E.; Arnesen, H.; Arnold, L.; Averichev, G. S.; Baldwin, A.; Balewski, J.; Barannikova, O.; Barnby, L. S.; Baudot, J.; Beddo, M.; Bekele, S.; Belaga, V. V.; Bellwied, R.; Bennett, S.; Bercovitz, J.; Berger, J.; Betts, W.; Bichsel, H.; Bieser, F.; Bland, L. C.; Bloomer, M.; Blyth, C. O.; Boehm, J.; Bonner, B. E.; Bonnet, D.; Bossingham, R.; Botlo, M.; Boucham, A.; Bouillo, N.; Bouvier, S.; Bradley, K.; Brady, F. P.; Braithwaite, E. S.; Braithwaite, W.; Brandin, A.; Brown, R. L.; Brugalette, G.; Byrd, C.; Caines, H.; Calderón de La Barca Sánchez, M.; Cardenas, A.; Carr, L.; Carroll, J.; Castillo, J.; Caylor, B.; Cebra, D.; Chatopadhyay, S.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, W.; Chen, Y.; Chernenko, S. P.; Cherney, M.; Chikanian, A.; Choi, B.; Chrin, J.; Christie, W.; Coffin, J. P.; Conin, L.; Consiglio, C.; Cormier, T. M.; Cramer, J. G.; Crawford, H. J.; Danilov, V. I.; Dayton, D.; Demello, M.; Deng, W. S.; Derevschikov, A. A.; Dialinas, M.; Diaz, H.; Deyoung, P. A.; Didenko, L.; Dimassimo, D.; Dioguardi, J.; Dominik, W.; Drancourt, C.; Draper, J. E.; Dunin, V. B.; Dunlop, J. C.; Eckardt, V.; Edwards, W. R.; Efimov, L. G.; Eggert, T.; Emelianov, V.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Erazmus, B.; Etkin, A.; Fachini, P.; Feliciano, C.; Ferenc, D.; Ferguson, M. I.; Fessler, H.; Finch, E.; Fine, V.; Fisyak, Y.; Flierl, D.; Flores, I.; Foley, K. J.; Fritz, D.; Gagunashvili, N.; Gans, J.; Gazdzicki, M.; Germain, M.; Geurts, F.; Ghazikhanian, V.; Gojak, C.; Grabski, J.; Grachov, O.; Grau, M.; Greiner, D.; Greiner, L.; Grigoriev, V.; Grosnick, D.; Gross, J.; Guilloux, G.; Gushin, E.; Hall, J.; Hallman, T. J.; Hardtke, D.; Harper, G.; Harris, J. W.; He, P.; Heffner, M.; Heppelmann, S.; Herston, T.; Hill, D.; Hippolyte, B.; Hirsch, A.; Hjort, E.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Horsley, M.; Howe, M.; Huang, H. Z.; Humanic, T. J.; Hümmler, H.; Hunt, W.; Hunter, J.; Igo, G. J.; Ishihara, A.; Ivanshin, Yu. I.; Jacobs, P.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jacobson, S.; Jared, R.; Jensen, P.; Johnson, I.; Jones, P. G.; Judd, E.; Kaneta, M.; Kaplan, M.; Keane, D.; Kenney, V. P.; Khodinov, A.; Klay, J.; Klein, S. R.; Klyachko, A.; Koehler, G.; Konstantinov, A. S.; Kormilitsyne, V.; Kotchenda, L.; Kotov, I.; Kovalenko, A. D.; Kramer, M.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Krupien, T.; Kuczewski, P.; Kuhn, C.; Kunde, G. J.; Kunz, C. L.; Kutuev, R. Kh.; Kuznetsov, A. A.; Lakehal-Ayat, L.; Lamas-Valverde, J.; Lamont, M. A.; Landgraf, J. M.; Lange, S.; Lansdell, C. P.; Lasiuk, B.; Laue, F.; Lebedev, A.; Lecompte, T.; Leonhardt, W. J.; Leontiev, V. M.; Leszczynski, P.; Levine, M. J.; Li, Q.; Li, Q.; Li, Z.; Liaw, C.-J.; Lin, J.; Lindenbaum, S. J.; Lindenstruth, V.; Lindstrom, P. J.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, H.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Locurto, G.; Long, H.; Longacre, R. S.; Lopez-Noriega, M.; Lopiano, D.; Love, W. A.; Lutz, J. R.; Lynn, D.; Madansky, L.; Maier, R.; Majka, R.; Maliszewski, A.; Margetis, S.; Marks, K.; Marstaller, R.; Martin, L.; Marx, J.; Matis, H. S.; Matulenko, Yu. A.; Matyushevski, E. A.; McParland, C.; McShane, T. S.; Meier, J.; Melnick, Yu.; Meschanin, A.; Middlekamp, P.; Mikhalin, N.; Miller, B.; Milosevich, Z.; Minaev, N. G.; Minor, B.; Mitchell, J.; Mogavero, E.; Moiseenko, V. A.; Moltz, D.; Moore, C. F.; Morozov, V.; Morse, R.; de Moura, M. M.; Munhoz, M. G.; Mutchler, G. S.; Nelson, J. M.; Nevski, P.; Ngo, T.; Nguyen, M.; Nguyen, T.; Nikitin, V. A.; Nogach, L. V.; Noggle, T.; Norman, B.; Nurushev, S. B.; Nussbaum, T.; Nystrand, J.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Ogilvie, C. A.; Olchanski, K.; Oldenburg, M.; Olson, D.; Ososkov, G. A.; Ott, G.; Padrazo, D.; Paic, G.; Pandey, S. U.; Panebratsev, Y.; Panitkin, S. Y.; Pavlinov, A. I.; Pawlak, T.; Pentia, M.; Perevotchikov, V.; Peryt, W.; Petrov, V. A.; Pinganaud, W.; Pirogov, S.; Platner, E.; Pluta, J.; Polk, I.; Porile, N.; Porter, J.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Potrebenikova, E.; Prindle, D.; Pruneau, C.; Puskar-Pasewicz, J.; Rai, G.; Rasson, J.; Ravel, O.; Ray, R. L.; Razin, S. V.; Reichhold, D.; Reid, J.; Renfordt, R. E.; Retiere, F.; Ridiger, A.; Riso, J.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Roehrich, D.; Rogachevski, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Roy, C.; Russ, D.; Rykov, V.; Sakrejda, I.; Sanchez, R.; Sandler, Z.; Sandweiss, J.; Sappenfield, P.; Saulys, A. C.; Savin, I.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Scheblien, J.; Scheetz, R.; Schlueter, R.; Schmitz, N.; Schroeder, L. S.; Schulz, M.; Schüttauf, A.; Sedlmeir, J.; Seger, J.; Seliverstov, D.; Seyboth, J.; Seyboth, P.; Seymour, R.; Shakaliev, E. I.; Shestermanov, K. E.; Shi, Y.; Shimanskii, S. S.; Shuman, D.; Shvetcov, V. S.; Skoro, G.; Smirnov, N.; Smykov, L. P.; Snellings, R.; Solberg, K.; Sowinski, J.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stephenson, E. J.; Stock, R.; Stolpovsky, A.; Stone, N.; Stone, R.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Stroebele, H.; Struck, C.; Suaide, A. A.; Sugarbaker, E.; Suire, C.; Symons, T. J.; Takahashi, J.; Tang, A. H.; Tarchini, A.; Tarzian, J.; Thomas, J. H.; Tikhomirov, V.; Szanto de Toledo, A.; Tonse, S.; Trainor, T.; Trentalange, S.; Tokarev, M.; Tonjes, M. B.; Trofimov, V.; Tsai, O.; Turner, K.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Vakula, I.; van Buren, G.; Vandermolen, A. M.; Vanyashin, A.; Vasilevski, I. M.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Vigdor, S. E.; Visser, G.; Voloshin, S. A.; Vu, C.; Wang, F.; Ward, H.; Weerasundara, D.; Weidenbach, R.; Wells, R.; Wells, R.; Wenaus, T.; Westfall, G. D.; Whitfield, J. P.; Whitten, C.; Wieman, H.; Willson, R.; Wilson, K.; Wirth, J.; Wisdom, J.; Wissink, S. W.; Witt, R.; Wolf, J.; Wood, L.; Xu, N.; Xu, Z.; Yakutin, A. E.; Yamamoto, E.; Yang, J.; Yepes, P.; Yokosawa, A.; Yurevich, V. I.; Zanevski, Y. V.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, W. M.; Zhu, J.; Zimmerman, D.; Zoulkarneev, R.; Zubarev, A. N.

    2001-01-01

    Elliptic flow from nuclear collisions is a hadronic observable sensitive to the early stages of system evolution. We report first results on elliptic flow of charged particles at midrapidity in Au+Au collisions at sNN = 130 GeV using the STAR Time Projection Chamber at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. The elliptic flow signal, v2, averaged over transverse momentum, reaches values of about 6% for relatively peripheral collisions and decreases for the more central collisions. This can be interpreted as the observation of a higher degree of thermalization than at lower collision energies. Pseudorapidity and transverse momentum dependence of elliptic flow are also presented.

  13. The development of a three-dimensional partially elliptic flow computer program for combustor research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pan, Y. S.

    1978-01-01

    A three dimensional, partially elliptic, computer program was developed. Without requiring three dimensional computer storage locations for all flow variables, the partially elliptic program is capable of predicting three dimensional combustor flow fields with large downstream effects. The program requires only slight increase of computer storage over the parabolic flow program from which it was developed. A finite difference formulation for a three dimensional, fully elliptic, turbulent, reacting, flow field was derived. Because of the negligible diffusion effects in the main flow direction in a supersonic combustor, the set of finite-difference equations can be reduced to a partially elliptic form. Only the pressure field was governed by an elliptic equation and requires three dimensional storage; all other dependent variables are governed by parabolic equations. A numerical procedure which combines a marching integration scheme with an iterative scheme for solving the elliptic pressure was adopted.

  14. Elliptic flow in heavy-ion collisions at NICA energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    B. Ivanov, Yu.; Soldatov, A. A.

    2016-08-01

    The transverse-momentum-integrated elliptic flow of charged particles at midrapidity, v2 (charged), and that of identified hadrons from Au+Au collisions are analyzed in the range of incident energies relevant to the Nuclotron-based Ion Collider Facility (NICA). Simulations are performed within a three-fluid model employing three different equations of state (EoSs): a purely hadronic EoS and two versions of the EoS involving the deconfinement transition-a first-order phase transition and a smooth crossover one. The present simulations demonstrate low sensitivity of v2 (charged) to the EoS. All considered scenarios equally well reproduce recent STAR data on v2 (charged) for mid-central Au+Au collisions and properly describe its change of sign at the incident energy decrease below √{s_{NN}} ≈ 3.5 GeV. The predicted integrated elliptic flow of various species exhibits a stronger dependence on the EoS. A noticeable sensitivity to the EoS is found for anti-protons and, to a lesser extent, for K- mesons. Presently there are no experimental data that could verify these predictions. Future experiments at NICA could corroborate these findings.

  15. Models of steady state cooling flows in elliptical galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vedder, Peter W.; Trester, Jeffrey J.; Canizares, Claude R.

    1988-01-01

    A comprehensive set of steady state models for spherically symmetric cooling flows in early-type galaxies is presented. It is found that a reduction of the supernova (SN) rate in ellipticals produces a decrease in the X-ray luminosity of galactic cooling flows and a steepening of the surface brightness profile. The mean X-ray temperature of the cooling flow is not affected noticeably by a change in the SN rate. The external pressure around a galaxy does not markedly change the luminosity of the gas within the galaxy but does change the mean temperature of the gas. The presence of a dark matter halo in a galaxy only changes the mean X-ray temperature slightly. The addition of a distribution of mass sinks which remove material from the general accretion flow reduces L(X) very slightly, flattens the surface brightness profile, and reduces the central surface brightness level to values close to those actually observed. A reduction in the stellar mass-loss rate only slightly reduces the X-ray luminosity of the cooling flow and flattens the surface brightness by a small amount.

  16. Computational analysis of hypersonic flows past elliptic-cone waveriders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoon, Bok-Hyun; Rasmussen, Maurice L.

    1991-01-01

    A comprehensive study for the inviscid numerical calculation of the hypersonic flow past a class of elliptic-cone derived waveriders is presented. The theoretical background associated with hypersonic small-disturbance theory (HSDT) is reviewed. Several approximation formulas for the waverider compression surface are established. A CFD algorithm is used to calculate flow fields for the on-design case and a variety of off-design cases. The results are compared with HSDT, experiment, and other available CFD results. For the waverider shape used in previous investigations, the bow shock for the on-design condition stands off from the leading-edge tip of the waverider. It was found that this occurs because the tip was too thick according to the approximating shape formula that was used to describe the compression surface. When this was corrected, the bow shock became closer to attached as it should be. At Mach numbers greater than the design condition, a lambda-shock configuration develops near the tip of the compression surface. At negative angles of attack, other complicated shock patterns occur near the leading-edge tip. These heretofore unknown flow patterns show the power and utility of CFD for investigating novel hypersonic configurations such as waveriders.

  17. Lateral Migration and Rotational Motion of Elliptic Particles in Planar Poiseuille Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qi, Dewei; Luo, Li-Shi; Aravamuthan, Raja; Strieder, William; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Simulations of elliptic particulate suspensions in the planar Poiseuille flow are performed by using the lattice Boltzmann equation. Effects of the multi-particle on the lateral migration and rotational motion of both neutrally and non-neutrally buoyant elliptic particles are investigated. Low and intermediate total particle volume fraction f(sub a) = 13%, 15%, and 40% are considered in this work.

  18. Effect of free surface on near-wake flow of elliptic cylinders with different aspect ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang Joon; Daichin, -

    2003-04-01

    The flow fields behind elliptic cylinders with different aspect ratios adjacent to a free surface were investigated experimentally in a circulating water channel. The elliptic cylinders tested in this study have same cross section area. For each elliptic cylinder, the experiments were carried out under different conditions by varying the submergence depth of the cylinder beneath the free surface. The flow fields were measured using a single-frame double-exposure PIV system. For each experimental condition, 350 instantaneous velocity fields were captured and ensemble-averaged to obtain the mean flow field information and spatial distribution of turbulent statistics. The near-wakes can be basically classified into three typical patterns, which are formation of Coanda effect, generation of substantial jet-like flow, and attachment of jet flow to the free surface. The general flow structures behind the elliptic cylinder are similar to previous results for a circular submerged near to a free surface. However, the wake width and the angle of downward deflection of the shear layer developed from the lower surface of the elliptic cylinder are smaller than those for the circular cylinder. These trends are enhance with increasing of the cylinder aspect ratios.

  19. Elliptic flow in Au+Au collisions at square root(S)NN = 130 GeV.

    PubMed

    Ackermann, K H; Adams, N; Adler, C; Ahammed, Z; Ahmad, S; Allgower, C; Amsbaugh, J; Anderson, M; Anderssen, E; Arnesen, H; Arnold, L; Averichev, G S; Baldwin, A; Balewski, J; Barannikova, O; Barnby, L S; Baudot, J; Beddo, M; Bekele, S; Belaga, V V; Bellwied, R; Bennett, S; Bercovitz, J; Berger, J; Betts, W; Bichsel, H; Bieser, F; Bland, L C; Bloomer, M; Blyth, C O; Boehm, J; Bonner, B E; Bonnet, D; Bossingham, R; Botlo, M; Boucham, A; Bouillo, N; Bouvier, S; Bradley, K; Brady, F P; Braithwaite, E S; Braithwaite, W; Brandin, A; Brown, R L; Brugalette, G; Byrd, C; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M; Cardenas, A; Carr, L; Carroll, J; Castillo, J; Caylor, B; Cebra, D; Chatopadhyay, S; Chen, M L; Chen, W; Chen, Y; Chernenko, S P; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Choi, B; Chrin, J; Christie, W; Coffin, J P; Conin, L; Consiglio, C; Cormier, T M; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Danilov, V I; Dayton, D; DeMello, M; Deng, W S; Derevschikov, A A; Dialinas, M; Diaz, H; DeYoung, P A; Didenko, L; Dimassimo, D; Dioguardi, J; Dominik, W; Drancourt, C; Draper, J E; Dunin, V B; Dunlop, J C; Eckardt, V; Edwards, W R; Efimov, L G; Eggert, T; Emelianov, V; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Erazmus, B; Etkin, A; Fachini, P; Feliciano, C; Ferenc, D; Ferguson, M I; Fessler, H; Finch, E; Fine, V; Fisyak, Y; Flierl, D; Flores, I; Foley, K J; Fritz, D; Gagunashvili, N; Gans, J; Gazdzicki, M; Germain, M; Geurts, F; Ghazikhanian, V; Gojak, C; Grabski, J; Grachov, O; Grau, M; Greiner, D; Greiner, L; Grigoriev, V; Grosnick, D; Gross, J; Guilloux, G; Gushin, E; Hall, J; Hallman, T J; Hardtke, D; Harper, G; Harris, J W; He, P; Heffner, M; Heppelmann, S; Herston, T; Hill, D; Hippolyte, B; Hirsch, A; Hjort, E; Hoffmann, G W; Horsley, M; Howe, M; Huang, H Z; Humanic, T J; Hümmler, H; Hunt, W; Hunter, J; Igo, G J; Ishihara, A; Ivanshin, Y I; Jacobs, P; Jacobs, W W; Jacobson, S; Jared, R; Jensen, P; Johnson, I; Jones, P G; Judd, E; Kaneta, M; Kaplan, M; Keane, D; Kenney, V P; Khodinov, A; Klay, J; Klein, S R; Klyachko, A; Koehler, G; Konstantinov, A S; Kormilitsyne, V; Kotchenda, L; Kotov, I; Kovalenko, A D; Kramer, M; Kravtsov, P; Krueger, K; Krupien, T; Kuczewski, P; Kuhn, C; Kunde, G J; Kunz, C L; Kutuev, R K; Kuznetsov, A A; Lakehal-Ayat, L; Lamas-Valverde, J; Lamont, M A; Landgraf, J M; Lange, S; Lansdell, C P; Lasiuk, B; Laue, F; Lebedev, A; LeCompte, T; Leonhardt, W J; Leontiev, V M; Leszczynski, P; LeVine, M J; Li, Q; Li, Q; Li, Z; Liaw, C J; Lin, J; Lindenbaum, S J; Lindenstruth, V; Lindstrom, P J; Lisa, M A; Liu, H; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; LoCurto, G; Long, H; Longacre, R S; Lopez-Noriega, M; Lopiano, D; Love, W A; Lutz, J R; Lynn, D; Madansky, L; Maier, R; Majka, R; Maliszewski, A; Margetis, S; Marks, K; Marstaller, R; Martin, L; Marx, J; Matis, H S; Matulenko, Y A; Matyushevski, E A; McParland, C; McShane, T S; Meier, J; Melnick, Y; Meschanin, A; Middlekamp, P; Mikhalin, N; Miller, B; Milosevich, Z; Minaev, N G; Minor, B; Mitchell, J; Mogavero, E; Moiseenko, V A; Moltz, D; Moore, C F; Morozov, V; Morse, R; de Moura, M M; Munhoz, M G; Mutchler, G S; Nelson, J M; Nevski, P; Ngo, T; Nguyen, M; Nguyen, T; Nikitin, V A; Nogach, L V; Noggle, T; Norman, B; Nurushev, S B; Nussbaum, T; Nystrand, J; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Ogilvie, C A; Olchanski, K; Oldenburg, M; Olson, D; Ososkov, G A; Ott, G; Padrazo, D; Paic, G; Pandey, S U; Panebratsev, Y; Panitkin, S Y; Pavlinov, A I; Pawlak, T; Pentia, M; Perevotchikov, V; Peryt, W; Petrov, V A; Pinganaud, W; Pirogov, S; Platner, E; Pluta, J; Polk, I; Porile, N; Porter, J; Poskanzer, A M; Potrebenikova, E; Prindle, D; Pruneau, C; Puskar-Pasewicz, J; Rai, G; Rasson, J; Ravel, O; Ray, R L; Razin, S V; Reichhold, D; Reid, J; Renfordt, R E; Retiere, F; Ridiger, A; Riso, J; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Roehrich, D; Rogachevski, O V; Romero, J L; Roy, C; Russ, D; Rykov, V; Sakrejda, I; Sanchez, R; Sandler, Z; Sandweiss, J; Sappenfield, P; Saulys, A C; Savin, I; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Scheblien, J; Scheetz, R; Schlueter, R; Schmitz, N; Schroeder, L S; Schulz, M; Schüttauf, A; Sedlmeir, J; Seger, J; Seliverstov, D; Seyboth, J; Seyboth, P; Seymour, R; Shakaliev, E I; Shestermanov, K E; Shi, Y; Shimanskii, S S; Shuman, D; Shvetcov, V S; Skoro, G; Smirnov, N; Smykov, L P; Snellings, R; Solberg, K; Sowinski, J; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stephenson, E J; Stock, R; Stolpovsky, A; Stone, N; Stone, R; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Stroebele, H; Struck, C; Suaide, A A; Sugarbaker, E; Suire, C; Symons, T J; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Tarchini, A; Tarzian, J; Thomas, J H; Tikhomirov, V; Szanto De Toledo, A; Tonse, S; Trainor, T; Trentalange, S; Tokarev, M; Tonjes, M B; Trofimov, V; Tsai, O; Turner, K; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Vakula, I; Van Buren, G; VanderMolen, A M; Vanyashin, A; Vasilevski, I M; Vasiliev, A N; Vigdor, S E; Visser, G; Voloshin, S A; Vu, C; Wang, F; Ward, H; Weerasundara, D; Weidenbach, R; Wells, R; Wells, R; Wenaus, T; Westfall, G D; Whitfield, J P; Whitten, C; Wieman, H; Willson, R; Wilson, K; Wirth, J; Wisdom, J; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wolf, J; Wood, L; Xu, N; Xu, Z; Yakutin, A E; Yamamoto, E; Yang, J; Yepes, P; Yokosawa, A; Yurevich, V I; Zanevski, Y V; Zhang, J; Zhang, W M; Zhu, J; Zimmerman, D; Zoulkarneev, R; Zubarev, A N

    2001-01-15

    Elliptic flow from nuclear collisions is a hadronic observable sensitive to the early stages of system evolution. We report first results on elliptic flow of charged particles at midrapidity in Au+Au collisions at square root(S)NN = 130 GeV using the STAR Time Projection Chamber at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. The elliptic flow signal, v2, averaged over transverse momentum, reaches values of about 6% for relatively peripheral collisions and decreases for the more central collisions. This can be interpreted as the observation of a higher degree of thermalization than at lower collision energies. Pseudorapidity and transverse momentum dependence of elliptic flow are also presented.

  20. Neutron-proton pairing correlations in odd mass systems

    SciTech Connect

    Fellah, M. Allal, N. H.; Oudih, M. R.

    2015-03-30

    An expression of the ground-state which describes odd mass systems within the BCS approach in the isovector neutron-proton pairing case is proposed using the blocked level technique. The gap equations as well as the energy expression are then derived. It is shown that they exactly generalize the expressions obtained in the pairing between like-particles case. The various gap parameters and the energy are then numerically studied as a function of the pairing-strength within the schematic one-level model.

  1. Neutron-proton correlations in an exactly solvable model

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, J.; Pittel, S.; Stoitsov, M.; Vogel, P.; Dukelsky, J.

    1997-04-01

    We examine isovector and isoscalar neutron-proton correlations in an exactly solvable model based on the algebra SO(8). We look particularly closely at Gamow-Teller strength and double {beta} decay, both to isolate the effects of the two kinds of pairing and to test two approximation schemes: the renormalized neutron-proton quasiparticle random phase approximation (QRPA) and generalized BCS theory. When isoscalar pairing correlations become strong enough a phase transition occurs and the dependence of the Gamow-Teller {beta}{sup +} strength on isospin changes in a dramatic and unfamiliar way, actually increasing as neutrons are added to an N=Z core. Renormalization eliminates the well-known instabilities that plague the QRPA as the phase transition is approached, but only by unnaturally suppressing the isoscalar correlations. Generalized BCS theory, on the other hand, reproduces the Gamow-Teller strength more accurately in the isoscalar phase than in the usual isovector phase, even though its predictions for energies are equally good everywhere. It also mixes T=0 and T=1 pairing, but only on the isoscalar side of the phase transition. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  2. Spatiotemporal cascades of the Poiseuille-Hagen flow in invariant elliptic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miroshnikov, Victor

    2011-11-01

    Spatiotemporal cascades of the transitional Poiseuille-Hagen flow are considered in elliptic structures, which are invariant with respect to differential and nonlinear algebraic operations. Differentiation and algebra of the invariant structures and decomposition of smooth velocity profiles in the invariant structures are treated both theoretically and symbolically. Reduction of the invariant elliptic structures to invariant trigonometric structures and invariant hyperbolic structures is also considered. By using the invariant structures, the displayed and hidden perturbations of the basic Poiseuille-Hagen flow are represented as dual perturbations, while the series solution for the perturbed flow converges uniformly. The cascade solution for the Poiseuille-Hagen flow is constructed in a multiscale form, which explicitly shows the effect of various factors at multiple scales.

  3. Influence of shear viscosity of quark-gluon plasma on elliptic flow in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions.

    PubMed

    Niemi, H; Denicol, G S; Huovinen, P; Molnár, E; Rischke, D H

    2011-05-27

    We investigate the influence of a temperature-dependent shear viscosity over entropy density ratio η/s on the transverse momentum spectra and elliptic flow of hadrons in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions. We find that the elliptic flow in √S(NN)=200  GeV Au+Au collisions at RHIC is dominated by the viscosity in the hadronic phase and in the phase transition region, but largely insensitive to the viscosity of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP). At the highest LHC energy, the elliptic flow becomes sensitive to the QGP viscosity and insensitive to the hadronic viscosity.

  4. Blood Flow and Oxygen Transport Past an Elliptical Fiber in an Artificial Lung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zierenberg, Jennifer; Fujioka, Hideki; Hirschl, Ronald; Bartlett, Robert; Grotberg, James

    2007-11-01

    Artificial lungs are currently being developed to serve as bridges to lung transplantation with circular fibers, which are permeable to oxygen, used as the transport surface. Blood flows across the fibers while oxygen flows through the fiber lumen. The present work investigates the novel approach of using elliptical fibers as the transport medium. Steady blood flow, modeled as a Casson fluid, and oxygen transport over a single fiber are investigated for varying elliptic aspect ratios (Ar=minor radius/major radius) and orientations to flow (φ). The parameters investigated are Re = 1, 5, 10; Ar = 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1; φ= 0^o, 15^o, 30^o, 45^o, 60^o, 75^o, 90^o; and Sc = 1000. The Casson properties of blood decrease the size and strength of recirculation(s) which when present are attached to the downstream side of the fiber. A maximum decrease of 24% in drag and an increase of 10% in transport are observed for Re = 5, Ar = 0.25 and φ= 0^o as compared to the circular fiber. The elliptic properties can thus aid in the design of artificial lungs.

  5. On the rapidity distribution of nucleons participating in elliptical flow at intermediate energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Kamaldeep; Kumar, Suneel

    2017-01-01

    The distribution of nucleons participating in elliptical flow is studied for the reactions of 79197Au + 79197Au, 60150Nd + 60150Nd, 50124Sn + 50124Sn, 4496Ru + 4496Ru, 3678Kr + 3678Kr, 2048Ca + 2048Ca and 2040Ca + 2040Ca using isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics (IQMD) model for various centrality ranges and over the wide range of intermediate energy. Our findings reveal that the sigma (width) of rapidity distribution obtained varies with mass of colliding system at a given energy. The peak of rapidity distribution decreases with decrease in the mass of colliding nuclei. Transition energy as well as width of rapidity distribution depends on the mass of fragment for a given centrality. Influence of isospin dependent symmetry energy and nucleon-nucleon cross-section can be studied using rapidity distribution. Second transition energy depends on the mass of the fragment. Rotational phenomenon of nucleons can be observed for nucleons participating in elliptical flow.

  6. Understanding pseudorapidity dependence of elliptic flow in heavy-ion collisions using a transport model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasim, Md.; Esha, Roli; Huang, Huan Zhong

    2016-04-01

    A systematic study of the pseudorapidity dependence of elliptic flow parameter using transport models (e.g., a multiphase transport model, AMPT, and ultrarelativistic quantum molecular dynamics, UrQMD) has been presented. We have observed that while at mid-pseudorapidity the elliptic flow measured using the event-plane method differs significantly from that measured by actual reaction plane method, both the event-plane and reaction-plane methods give the same elliptic flow for far forward and backward pseudorapidity. This indicates that the magnitude of measured v2 around midrapidity strongly depends on the analysis method. Therefore, one should use the same procedure (as used in data analysis) in model calculations while comparing model results and experimental data. We find the shape of v2(η ) measured by the PHOBOS experiment is not reproduced by using actual v2 (i.e., measured with respect to the reaction plane) from AMPT and UrQMD models. The shape and magnitude of measured v2(η ) can be explained by the AMPT model with string-melting mode only if one uses the same procedure as used in data analysis. Magnitude of elliptic flow can be reproduced for all pseudorapidity range by taking the parton-parton interaction cross section to be 3 mb at √{sN N}=62.4 and 200 GeV. This implies that the partonic interactions are necessary to reproduce data at √{sN N}=62.4 and 200 GeV and the strength of partonic interactions at far forward and backward rapidity is as strong as at midrapidity. Both UrQMD and AMPT with default mode fail to explain the data.

  7. A new approach to flow through a region bounded by two ellipses of the same ellipticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lal, K.; Chorlton, F.

    1981-05-01

    A new approach is presented to calculate steady flow of a laminar viscous incompressible fluid through a channel whose cross section is bounded by two ellipses with the same ellipticity. The Milne-Thomas approach avoids the stream function and is similar to the Rayleigh-Ritz approximation process of the calculus of variations in its first satisfying boundary conditions and then adjusting constants or multiplying functions to fit the differential equation.

  8. Hamiltonian bifurcation theory for a rotating flow subject to elliptic straining field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukumoto, Y.; Mie, Y.

    2013-07-01

    A weakly nonlinear stability theory is developed for a rotating flow confined in a cylinder of elliptic cross-section. The straining field associated with elliptic deformation of the cross-section breaks the SO(2)-symmetry of the basic flow and amplifies a pair of Kelvin waves whose azimuthal wavenumbers are separated by 2, being referred to as the Moore-Saffman-Tsai-Widnall (MSTW) instability. The Eulerian approach is unable to fully determine the mean flow induced by nonlinear interaction of the Kelvin waves. We establish a general framework for deriving the mean flow by a restriction to isovortical disturbances with use of the Lagrangian variables and put it on the ground of the generalized Lagrangian-mean theory. The resulting formula reveals enhancement of mass transport in regions dominated by the vorticity of the basic flow. With the mean flow at hand, we derive unambiguously the weakly nonlinear amplitude equations to third order for a nonstationary mode. By an appropriate normalization of the amplitude, the resulting equations are made Hamiltonian systems of four degrees of freedom, possibly with three first integrals identifiable as the wave energy and the mean flow.

  9. Insight from elliptic flow of open charm mesons using quark coalescence model at RHIC and LHC energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esha, Roli; Nasim, Md.; Huang, Huan Zhong

    2017-01-01

    A study of elliptic flow of open charm mesons, D 0 and using quark coalescence as the mechanism of hadronization of heavy quarks will be presented. The coalescing partons are taken from a multi-phase transport model. The transverse momentum dependence of the elliptic flow parameter at mid-rapidity (|y| < 1.0) for minimum bias Au+Au collisions at > = 200 GeV (RHIC) and Pb+Pb collisions = 2.76 TeV (LHC) for different values of partonic interaction cross-section and QCD coupling constant will be discussed. We have compared our calculations with the experimentally measured data at the LHC energy. We will also present the effect of specific viscosity on elliptic flow of open charm mesons within the transport model approach. Our study indicates that the elliptic flow of open charmed mesons is more sensitive to viscous properties of QGP medium compared to light hadrons.

  10. Neutron-Proton equilibration in dynamically deformed nuclear systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez Manso, Alis; McIntosh, A. B.; Jedele, A.; Yennello, S. J.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the nuclear Equation of State (nEoS) is fundamental for describing nuclear reaction dynamics, understanding the origin of the elements and characterizing the structure of neutron stars. The density dependence of the asymmetry energy still represents the largest uncertainty in the nEoS. We demonstrate a new time-sensitive method for studying reaction dynamics that may allow new types of constraints on the asymmetry energy. We study neutron-proton equilibration in dynamically deformed nuclear systems by investigating the correlations between the largest fragments produced in collisions of 70Zn +70Zn, 64Zn +64Zn, 64Ni +64Ni and 70Zn +64Zn at 35 MeV per nucleon measured at the Cyclotron Institute at Texas A&M University. The extent of equilibration is investigated using the rotation angle as a clock. The equilibration follows an exponential trend with consistent rate constants across a wide variety of reaction partners and systems, indicating the equilibration follows first order kinetics. The statistical and dynamical components are separated on average; the equilibration curve for the purely dynamical is consistent with the overall equilibration curve, indicating the robustness of the method to statistical contamination.

  11. Local parametric instability near elliptic points in vortex flows under shear deformation.

    PubMed

    Koshel, Konstantin V; Ryzhov, Eugene A

    2016-08-01

    The dynamics of two point vortices embedded in an oscillatory external flow consisted of shear and rotational components is addressed. The region associated with steady-state elliptic points of the vortex motion is established to experience local parametric instability. The instability forces the point vortices with initial positions corresponding to the steady-state elliptic points to move in spiral-like divergent trajectories. This divergent motion continues until the nonlinear effects suppress their motion near the region associated with the steady-state separatrices. The local parametric instability is then demonstrated not to contribute considerably to enhancing the size of the chaotic motion regions. Instead, the size of the chaotic motion region mostly depends on overlaps of the nonlinear resonances emerging in the perturbed system.

  12. Elliptic flow as a probe for the ψ (2 S ) production mechanism in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Baoyi

    2017-03-01

    I discuss the elliptic flows of ψ (2 S ) with different production mechanisms in √{sN N}=2.76 TeV Pb-Pb collisions. If the final ψ (2 S )s are mainly from the recombination of uncorrelated charm and anticharm quarks at T ≈Tc , charm and anticharm quarks will carry large collective flows of the bulk medium, which will be inherited by the regenerated ψ (2 S )s . This indicates a larger elliptic flow of ψ (2 S ) than that of J /ψ which can be regenerated at T ≥Tc , v2ψ (2 S )>v2J /ψ . However, if the final ψ (2 S )s are mainly from the transitions of J /ψ →ψ (2 S ) caused by the color screening of quark-gluon plasma its elliptic flow should be close to the elliptic flow of J /ψ , v2ψ (2 S )˜v2J /ψ . Therefore, ψ (2 S ) elliptic flow is a sensitive probe for its production mechanisms in relativistic heavy ion collisions.

  13. Understanding the Rapidity Dependence of the Elliptic Flow and the HBT Radii at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Csanad, M.; Loerstad, B.

    2006-04-11

    The pseudo-rapidity dependence of the elliptic flow at various excitation energies measured by the PHOBOS Collaboration in Au+Au collisions at RHIC is one of the surprising results that has not been explained before in terms of hydrodynamical models. Here we show that these data are in agreement with theoretical predictions and satisfy the universal scaling relation predicted by the Buda-Lund hydrodynamical model, based on exact solutions of perfect fluid hydrodynamics. We also show a theoretical prediction on the rapidity and transverse momentum scaling of the HBT radii measured in heavy ion collisions, based on the Buda-Lund model.

  14. Energy loss as the origin of a universal scaling law of the elliptic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrés, Carlota; Braun, Mikhail; Pajares, Carlos

    2017-03-01

    It is shown that the excellent scaling of the elliptic flow found for all centralities, species and energies from RHIC to the LHC for pT less than the saturation momentum is a consequence of the energy lost by a parton interacting with the color field produced in a nucleus-nucleus collision. In particular, the deduced shape of the scaling curve describes correctly all the data. We discuss the possible extensions to higher pT, proton-nucleus and proton-proton collisions as well as higher harmonics.

  15. A Simple Model of Vortex Flow Past a Slender Elliptic Cone at Incidence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    procedure used by Moore2 for the circular cone. The first step is to rotate the axis system in the transformed plane, 7- , so that the starboard separation...result. Define v as the component of the velocity in the cross-flow plane and tangen -t tial to the body cross-section, positive in the direction of...sin s In this section we discuss the dependence of a on r and s . The elliptic cones include the circular cone, 7 = I , and the flat-plate delta wing

  16. Flow and Thermal Performance of a Water-Cooled Periodic Transversal Elliptical Microchannel Heat Sink for Chip Cooling.

    PubMed

    Wei, Bo; Yang, Mo; Wang, Zhiyun; Xu, Hongtao; Zhang, Yuwen

    2015-04-01

    Flow and thermal performance of transversal elliptical microchannels were investigated as a passive scheme to enhance the heat transfer performance of laminar fluid flow. The periodic transversal elliptical micro-channel is designed and its pressure drop and heat transfer characteristics in laminar flow are numerically investigated. Based on the comparison with a conventional straight micro- channel having rectangular cross section, it is found that periodic transversal elliptical microchannel not only has great potential to reduce pressure drop but also dramatically enhances heat transfer performance. In addition, when the Reynolds number equals to 192, the pressure drop of the transversal elliptical channel is 36.5% lower than that of the straight channel, while the average Nusselt number is 72.8% higher; this indicates that the overall thermal performance of the periodic transversal elliptical microchannel is superior to the conventional straight microchannel. It is suggested that such transversal elliptical microchannel are attractive candidates for cooling future electronic chips effectively with much lower pressure drop.

  17. Near-wake flow structure of elliptic cylinders close to a free surface: effect of cylinder aspect ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daichin, K. V.; Lee, Sang Joon

    The flow fields behind elliptic cylinders adjacent to a free surface were investigated experimentally in a circulating water channel. A range of cylinder aspect ratios (AR=2, 3, 4) were considered, while the cross-sectional area of the elliptical cylinder was kept constant. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of cylinder aspect ratio and a free surface on the flow structure in the near-wake behind elliptic cylinders. For each elliptic cylinder, the flow structure was analyzed for various values of the submergence depth of the cylinder beneath the free surface. The flow fields were measured using a single-frame double-exposure PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) system. For each experimental condition, 350 instantaneous velocity fields were obtained and ensemble-averaged to obtain the mean velocity field and spatial distribution of the mean vorticity statistics. The results show that near-wake can be classified into three typical flow patterns: formation of a Coanda flow, generation of substantial jet-like flow, and attachment of this jet flow to the free surface. The general flow structure observed behind the elliptic cylinders resembles the structure previously reported for a circular cylinder submerged near a free surface. However, the wake width and the angle of downward deflection of the shear layer developed from the lower surface of the elliptic cylinder differ from those observed for a circular cylinder. These trends are enhanced as cylinder aspect ratio is increased. In addition, the free surface distortion is also discussed in the paper.

  18. Numerical analysis of blood flow through an elliptic stenosis using large eddy simulation.

    PubMed

    Jabir, E; Lal, S Anil

    2016-08-01

    The presence of a stenosis caused by the abnormal narrowing of the lumen in the artery tree can cause significant variations in flow parameters of blood. The original flow, which is believed to be laminar in most situations, may turn out to turbulent by the geometric perturbation created by the stenosis. Flow may evolve to fully turbulent or it may relaminarise back according to the intensity of the perturbation. This article reports the numerical simulation of flow through an eccentrically located asymmetric stenosis having elliptical cross section using computational fluid dynamics. Large eddy simulation technique using dynamic Smagorinsky sub-grid scale model is applied to capture the turbulent features of flow. Analysis is carried out for two situations: steady inflow as ideal condition and pulsatile inflow corresponding to the actual physiological condition in common carotid artery. The spatially varying pulsatile inflow waveforms are mathematically derived from instantaneous mass flow measurements available in the literature. Carreau viscosity model is used to estimate the effect of non-Newtonian nature of blood. The present simulations for steady and pulsatile conditions show that post-stenotic flow field undergoes transition to turbulence in all cases. The characteristics of mean and turbulent flow fields have been presented and discussed in detail.

  19. Optimization of an inclined elliptic impinging jet with cross flow for enhancing heat transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heo, Man-Woong; Lee, Ki-Don; Kim, Kwang-Yong

    2011-06-01

    This work presents a parametric study and optimization of a single impinging jet with cross flow to enhance heat transfer with two design variables. The fluid flow and heat transfer have been analyzed using three-dimensional compressible Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations with a uniform heat flux condition being applied to the impingement plate. The aspect ratio of the elliptic jet hole and the angle of inclination of the jet nozzle are chosen as the two design variables, and the area-averaged Nusselt number on a limited target plate is set as the objective function. The effects of the design variables on the heat transfer performance have been evaluated, and the objective function has been found to be more sensitive to the angle of inclination of the jet nozzle than to the aspect ratio of the elliptic jet hole. The optimization has been performed by using the radial basis neural network model. Through the optimization, the area-averaged Nusselt number increased by 7.89% compared to that under the reference geometry.

  20. Elliptic flow of identified hadrons in Pb-Pb collisions at TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abelev, B.; Adam, J.; Adamová, D.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Agnello, M.; Agostinelli, A.; Agrawal, N.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahmad, N.; Ahmed, I.; Ahn, S. U.; Ahn, S. A.; Aimo, I.; Aiola, S.; Ajaz, M.; Akindinov, A.; Alam, S. N.; Aleksandrov, D.; Alessandro, B.; Alexandre, D.; Alici, A.; Alkin, A.; Alme, J.; Alt, T.; Altinpinar, S.; Altsybeev, I.; Alves Garcia Prado, C.; Andrei, C.; Andronic, A.; Anguelov, V.; Anielski, J.; Antičić, T.; Antinori, F.; Antonioli, P.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelshäuser, H.; Arcelli, S.; Armesto, N.; Arnaldi, R.; Aronsson, T.; Arsene, I. C.; Arslandok, M.; Augustinus, A.; Averbeck, R.; Awes, T. C.; Azmi, M. D.; Bach, M.; Badalà, A.; Baek, Y. W.; Bagnasco, S.; Bailhache, R.; Bala, R.; Baldisseri, A.; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F.; Baral, R. C.; Barbera, R.; Barile, F.; Barnaföldi, G. G.; Barnby, L. S.; Barret, V.; Bartke, J.; Basile, M.; Bastid, N.; Basu, S.; Bathen, B.; Batigne, G.; Batista Camejo, A.; Batyunya, B.; Batzing, P. C.; Baumann, C.; Bearden, I. G.; Beck, H.; Bedda, C.; Behera, N. K.; Belikov, I.; Bellini, F.; Bellwied, R.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; Belmont, R.; Belyaev, V.; Bencedi, G.; Beole, S.; Berceanu, I.; Bercuci, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Berenyi, D.; Berger, M. E.; Bertens, R. A.; Berzano, D.; Betev, L.; Bhasin, A.; Bhat, I. R.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattacharjee, B.; Bhom, J.; Bianchi, L.; Bianchi, N.; Bianchin, C.; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, J.; Bilandzic, A.; Bjelogrlic, S.; Blanco, F.; Blau, D.; Blume, C.; Bock, F.; Bogdanov, A.; Bøggild, H.; Bogolyubsky, M.; Böhmer, F. V.; Boldizsár, L.; Bombara, M.; Book, J.; Borel, H.; Borissov, A.; Bossú, F.; Botje, M.; Botta, E.; Böttger, S.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Bregant, M.; Breitner, T.; Broker, T. A.; Browning, T. A.; Broz, M.; Bruna, E.; Bruno, G. E.; Budnikov, D.; Buesching, H.; Bufalino, S.; Buncic, P.; Busch, O.; Buthelezi, Z.; Caffarri, D.; Cai, X.; Caines, H.; Calero Diaz, L.; Caliva, A.; Calvo Villar, E.; Camerini, P.; Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Castillo Castellanos, J.; Casula, E. A. R.; Catanescu, V.; Cavicchioli, C.; Ceballos Sanchez, C.; Cepila, J.; Cerello, P.; Chang, B.; Chapeland, S.; Charvet, J. L.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chelnokov, V.; Cherney, M.; Cheshkov, C.; Cheynis, B.; Chibante Barroso, V.; Chinellato, D. D.; Chochula, P.; Chojnacki, M.; Choudhury, S.; Christakoglou, P.; Christensen, C. H.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, S. U.; Cicalo, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Cleymans, J.; Colamaria, F.; Colella, D.; Collu, A.; Colocci, M.; Conesa Balbastre, G.; Conesa del Valle, Z.; Connors, M. E.; Contreras, J. G.; Cormier, T. M.; Corrales Morales, Y.; Cortese, P.; Cortés Maldonado, I.; Cosentino, M. R.; Costa, F.; Crochet, P.; Cruz Albino, R.; Cuautle, E.; Cunqueiro, L.; Dainese, A.; Dang, R.; Danu, A.; Das, D.; Das, I.; Das, K.; Das, S.; Dash, A.; Dash, S.; De, S.; Delagrange, H.; Deloff, A.; Dénes, E.; D'Erasmo, G.; De Caro, A.; de Cataldo, G.; de Cuveland, J.; De Falco, A.; De Gruttola, D.; De Marco, N.; De Pasquale, S.; de Rooij, R.; Diaz Corchero, M. A.; Dietel, T.; Dillenseger, P.; Divià, R.; Di Bari, D.; Di Liberto, S.; Di Mauro, A.; Di Nezza, P.; Djuvsland, Ø.; Dobrin, A.; Dobrowolski, T.; Domenicis Gimenez, D.; Dönigus, B.; Dordic, O.; Dørheim, S.; Dubey, A. K.; Dubla, A.; Ducroux, L.; Dupieux, P.; Dutta Majumdar, A. K.; Hilden, T. E.; Ehlers, R. J.; Elia, D.; Engel, H.; Erazmus, B.; Erdal, H. A.; Eschweiler, D.; Espagnon, B.; Esposito, M.; Estienne, M.; Esumi, S.; Evans, D.; Evdokimov, S.; Fabris, D.; Faivre, J.; Falchieri, D.; Fantoni, A.; Fasel, M.; Fehlker, D.; Feldkamp, L.; Felea, D.; Feliciello, A.; Feofilov, G.; Ferencei, J.; Fernández Téllez, A.; Ferreiro, E. G.; Ferretti, A.; Festanti, A.; Figiel, J.; Figueredo, M. A. S.; Filchagin, S.; Finogeev, D.; Fionda, F. M.; Fiore, E. M.; Floratos, E.; Floris, M.; Foertsch, S.; Foka, P.; Fokin, S.; Fragiacomo, E.; Francescon, A.; Frankenfeld, U.; Fuchs, U.; Furget, C.; Fusco Girard, M.; Gaardhøje, J. J.; Gagliardi, M.; Gago, A. M.; Gallio, M.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Ganoti, P.; Garabatos, C.; Garcia-Solis, E.; Gargiulo, C.; Garishvili, I.; Gerhard, J.; Germain, M.; Gheata, A.; Gheata, M.; Ghidini, B.; Ghosh, P.; Ghosh, S. K.; Gianotti, P.; Giubellino, P.; Gladysz-Dziadus, E.; Glässel, P.; Gomez Ramirez, A.; González-Zamora, P.; Gorbunov, S.; Görlich, L.; Gotovac, S.; Graczykowski, L. K.; Grelli, A.; Grigoras, A.; Grigoras, C.; Grigoriev, V.; Grigoryan, A.; Grigoryan, S.; Grinyov, B.; Grion, N.; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J. F.; Grossiord, J.-Y.; Grosso, R.; Guber, F.; Guernane, R.; Guerzoni, B.; Guilbaud, M.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gulkanyan, H.; Gumbo, M.; Gunji, T.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, R.; Khan, K. H.; Haake, R.; Haaland, Ø.; Hadjidakis, C.; Haiduc, M.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamar, G.; Hanratty, L. D.; Hansen, A.; Harris, J. W.; Hartmann, H.; Harton, A.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hayashi, S.; Heckel, S. T.; Heide, M.; Helstrup, H.; Herghelegiu, A.; Herrera Corral, G.; Hess, B. A.; Hetland, K. F.; Hippolyte, B.; Hladky, J.; Hristov, P.; Huang, M.; Humanic, T. J.; Hussain, N.; Hutter, D.; Hwang, D. S.; Ilkaev, R.; Ilkiv, I.; Inaba, M.; Innocenti, G. M.; Ionita, C.; Ippolitov, M.; Irfan, M.; Ivanov, M.; Ivanov, V.; Jacholkowski, A.; Jacobs, P. M.; Jahnke, C.; Jang, H. J.; Janik, M. A.; Jayarathna, P. H. S. Y.; Jena, C.; Jena, S.; Jimenez Bustamante, R. T.; Jones, P. G.; Jung, H.; Jusko, A.; Kadyshevskiy, V.; Kalcher, S.; Kalinak, P.; Kalweit, A.; Kamin, J.; Kang, J. H.; Kaplin, V.; Kar, S.; Karasu Uysal, A.; Karavichev, O.; Karavicheva, T.; Karpechev, E.; Kebschull, U.; Keidel, R.; Keijdener, D. L. D.; Keil SVN, M.; Khan, M. M.; Khan, P.; Khan, S. A.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kharlov, Y.; Kileng, B.; Kim, B.; Kim, D. W.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, M.; Kim, M.; Kim, S.; Kim, T.; Kirsch, S.; Kisel, I.; Kiselev, S.; Kisiel, A.; Kiss, G.; Klay, J. L.; Klein, J.; Klein-Bösing, C.; Kluge, A.; Knichel, M. L.; Knospe, A. G.; Kobdaj, C.; Kofarago, M.; Köhler, M. K.; Kollegger, T.; Kolojvari, A.; Kondratiev, V.; Kondratyeva, N.; Konevskikh, A.; Kovalenko, V.; Kowalski, M.; Kox, S.; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, G.; Kral, J.; Králik, I.; Kramer, F.; Kravčáková, A.; Krelina, M.; Kretz, M.; Krivda, M.; Krizek, F.; Kryshen, E.; Krzewicki, M.; Kučera, V.; Kucheriaev, Y.; Kugathasan, T.; Kuhn, C.; Kuijer, P. G.; Kulakov, I.; Kumar, J.; Kurashvili, P.; Kurepin, A.; Kurepin, A. B.; Kuryakin, A.; Kushpil, S.; Kweon, M. J.; Kwon, Y.; Ladron de Guevara, P.; Lagana Fernandes, C.; Lakomov, I.; Langoy, R.; Lara, C.; Lardeux, A.; Lattuca, A.; La Pointe, S. L.; La Rocca, P.; Lea, R.; Leardini, L.; Lee, G. R.; Legrand, I.; Lehnert, J.; Lemmon, R. C.; Lenti, V.; Leogrande, E.; Leoncino, M.; León Monzón, I.; Lévai, P.; Li, S.; Lien, J.; Lietava, R.; Lindal, S.; Lindenstruth, V.; Lippmann, C.; Lisa, M. A.; Ljunggren, H. M.; Lodato, D. F.; Loenne, P. I.; Loggins, V. R.; Loginov, V.; Lohner, D.; Loizides, C.; Lopez, X.; López Torres, E.; Lu, X.-G.; Luettig, P.; Lunardon, M.; Luparello, G.; Ma, R.; Maevskaya, A.; Mager, M.; Mahapatra, D. P.; Mahmood, S. M.; Maire, A.; Majka, R. D.; Malaev, M.; Maldonado Cervantes, I.; Malinina, L.; Mal'Kevich, D.; Malzacher, P.; Mamonov, A.; Manceau, L.; Manko, V.; Manso, F.; Manzari, V.; Marchisone, M.; Mareš, J.; Margagliotti, G. V.; Margotti, A.; Marín, A.; Markert, C.; Marquard, M.; Martashvili, I.; Martin, N. A.; Martinengo, P.; Martínez, M. I.; Martínez García, G.; Martin Blanco, J.; Martynov, Y.; Mas, A.; Masciocchi, S.; Masera, M.; Masoni, A.; Massacrier, L.; Mastroserio, A.; Matyja, A.; Mayer, C.; Mazer, J.; Mazzoni, M. A.; Meddi, F.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Mercado Pérez, J.; Meres, M.; Miake, Y.; Mikhaylov, K.; Milano, L.; Milosevic, J.; Mischke, A.; Mishra, A. N.; Miskowiec, D.; Mitra, J.; Mitu, C. M.; Mlynarz, J.; Mohammadi, N.; Mohanty, B.; Molnar, L.; Montaño Zetina, L.; Montes, E.; Morando, M.; Moreira De Godoy, D. A.; Moretto, S.; Morsch, A.; Muccifora, V.; Mudnic, E.; Mühlheim, D.; Muhuri, S.; Mukherjee, M.; Müller, H.; Munhoz, M. G.; Murray, S.; Musa, L.; Musinsky, J.; Nandi, B. K.; Nania, R.; Nappi, E.; Nattrass, C.; Nayak, K.; Nayak, T. K.; Nazarenko, S.; Nedosekin, A.; Nicassio, M.; Niculescu, M.; Nielsen, B. S.; Nikolaev, S.; Nikulin, S.; Nikulin, V.; Nilsen, B. S.; Noferini, F.; Nomokonov, P.; Nooren, G.; Norman, J.; Nyanin, A.; Nystrand, J.; Oeschler, H.; Oh, S.; Oh, S. K.; Okatan, A.; Olah, L.; Oleniacz, J.; Oliveira Da Silva, A. C.; Onderwaater, J.; Oppedisano, C.; Ortiz Velasquez, A.; Oskarsson, A.; Otwinowski, J.; Oyama, K.; Sahoo, P.; Pachmayer, Y.; Pachr, M.; Pagano, P.; Paić, G.; Painke, F.; Pajares, C.; Pal, S. K.; Palmeri, A.; Pant, D.; Papikyan, V.; Pappalardo, G. S.; Pareek, P.; Park, W. J.; Parmar, S.; Passfeld, A.; Patalakha, D. I.; Paticchio, V.; Paul, B.; Pawlak, T.; Peitzmann, T.; Pereira Da Costa, H.; Pereira De Oliveira Filho, E.; Peresunko, D.; Pérez Lara, C. E.; Pesci, A.; Peskov, V.; Pestov, Y.; Petráček, V.; Petran, M.; Petris, M.; Petrovici, M.; Petta, C.; Piano, S.; Pikna, M.; Pillot, P.; Pinazza, O.; Pinsky, L.; Piyarathna, D. B.; Ploskon, M.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Pochybova, S.; Podesta-Lerma, P. L. M.; Poghosyan, M. G.; Pohjoisaho, E. H. O.; Polichtchouk, B.; Poljak, N.; Pop, A.; Porteboeuf-Houssais, S.; Porter, J.; Potukuchi, B.; Prasad, S. K.; Preghenella, R.; Prino, F.; Pruneau, C. A.; Pshenichnov, I.; Puddu, G.; Pujahari, P.; Punin, V.; Putschke, J.; Qvigstad, H.; Rachevski, A.; Raha, S.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ramello, L.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Räsänen, S. S.; Rascanu, B. T.; Rathee, D.; Rauf, A. W.; Razazi, V.; Read, K. F.; Real, J. S.; Redlich, K.; Reed, R. J.; Rehman, A.; Reichelt, P.; Reicher, M.; Reidt, F.; Renfordt, R.; Reolon, A. R.; Reshetin, A.; Rettig, F.; Revol, J.-P.; Reygers, K.; Riabov, V.; Ricci, R. A.; Richert, T.; Richter, M.; Riedler, P.; Riegler, W.; Riggi, F.; Rivetti, A.; Rocco, E.; Rodríguez Cahuantzi, M.; Rodriguez Manso, A.; Røed, K.; Rogochaya, E.; Rohni, S.; Rohr, D.; Röhrich, D.; Romita, R.; Ronchetti, F.; Ronflette, L.; Rosnet, P.; Rossi, A.; Roukoutakis, F.; Roy, A.; Roy, C.; Roy, P.; Rubio Montero, A. J.; Rui, R.; Russo, R.; Ryabinkin, E.; Ryabov, Y.; Rybicki, A.; Sadovsky, S.; Šafařík, K.; Sahlmuller, B.; Sahoo, R.; Sahu, P. K.; Saini, J.; Sakai, S.; Salgado, C. A.; Salzwedel, J.; Sambyal, S.; Samsonov, V.; Sanchez Castro, X.; Sánchez Rodríguez, F. J.; Šándor, L.; Sandoval, A.; Sano, M.; Santagati, G.; Sarkar, D.; Scapparone, E.; Scarlassara, F.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schiaua, C.; Schicker, R.; Schmidt, C.; Schmidt, H. R.; Schuchmann, S.; Schukraft, J.; Schulc, M.; Schuster, T.; Schutz, Y.; Schwarz, K.; Schweda, K.; Scioli, G.; Scomparin, E.; Scott, R.; Segato, G.; Seger, J. E.; Sekiguchi, Y.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Seo, J.; Serradilla, E.; Sevcenco, A.; Shabetai, A.; Shabratova, G.; Shahoyan, R.; Shangaraev, A.; Sharma, N.; Sharma, S.; Shigaki, K.; Shtejer, K.; Sibiriak, Y.; Siddhanta, S.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Simatovic, G.; Singaraju, R.; Singh, R.; Singha, S.; Singhal, V.; Sinha, B. C.; Sinha, T.; Sitar, B.; Sitta, M.; Skaali, T. B.; Skjerdal, K.; Slupecki, M.; Smirnov, N.; Snellings, R. J. M.; Søgaard, C.; Soltz, R.; Song, J.; Song, M.; Soramel, F.; Sorensen, S.; Spacek, M.; Spiriti, E.; Sputowska, I.; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, M.; Srivastava, B. K.; Stachel, J.; Stan, I.; Stefanek, G.; Steinpreis, M.; Stenlund, E.; Steyn, G.; Stiller, J. H.; Stocco, D.; Stolpovskiy, M.; Strmen, P.; Suaide, A. A. P.; Sugitate, T.; Suire, C.; Suleymanov, M.; Sultanov, R.; Šumbera, M.; Susa, T.; Symons, T. J. M.; Szabo, A.; Szanto de Toledo, A.; Szarka, I.; Szczepankiewicz, A.; Szymanski, M.; Takahashi, J.; Tangaro, M. A.; Tapia Takaki, J. D.; Tarantola Peloni, A.; Tarazona Martinez, A.; Tarzila, M. G.; Tauro, A.; Tejeda Muñoz, G.; Telesca, A.; Terrevoli, C.; Thäder, J.; Thomas, D.; Tieulent, R.; Timmins, A. R.; Toia, A.; Trubnikov, V.; Trzaska, W. H.; Tsuji, T.; Tumkin, A.; Turrisi, R.; Tveter, T. S.; Ullaland, K.; Uras, A.; Usai, G. L.; Vajzer, M.; Vala, M.; Valencia Palomo, L.; Vallero, S.; Vande Vyvre, P.; Van Der Maarel, J.; Van Hoorne, J. W.; van Leeuwen, M.; Vargas, A.; Vargyas, M.; Varma, R.; Vasileiou, M.; Vasiliev, A.; Vechernin, V.; Veldhoen, M.; Velure, A.; Venaruzzo, M.; Vercellin, E.; Vergara Limón, S.; Vernet, R.; Verweij, M.; Vickovic, L.; Viesti, G.; Viinikainen, J.; Vilakazi, Z.; Villalobos Baillie, O.; Vinogradov, A.; Vinogradov, L.; Vinogradov, Y.; Virgili, T.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vodopyanov, A.; Völkl, M. A.; Voloshin, K.; Voloshin, S. A.; Volpe, G.; von Haller, B.; Vorobyev, I.; Vranic, D.; Vrláková, J.; Vulpescu, B.; Vyushin, A.; Wagner, B.; Wagner, J.; Wagner, V.; Wang, M.; Wang, Y.; Watanabe, D.; Weber, M.; Wessels, J. P.; Westerhoff, U.; Wiechula, J.; Wikne, J.; Wilde, M.; Wilk, G.; Wilkinson, J.; Williams, M. C. S.; Windelband, B.; Winn, M.; Yaldo, C. G.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yang, H.; Yang, P.; Yang, S.; Yano, S.; Yasnopolskiy, S.; Yi, J.; Yin, Z.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yushmanov, I.; Zaccolo, V.; Zach, C.; Zaman, A.; Zampolli, C.; Zaporozhets, S.; Zarochentsev, A.; Závada, P.; Zaviyalov, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zgura, I. S.; Zhalov, M.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhigareva, N.; Zhou, D.; Zhou, F.; Zhou, Y.; Zhou, Zhuo; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, X.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, A.; Zimmermann, M. B.; Zinovjev, G.; Zoccarato, Y.; Zyzak, M.

    2015-06-01

    The elliptic flow coefficient ( v 2) of identified particles in Pb-Pb collisions at TeV was measured with the ALICE detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The results were obtained with the Scalar Product method, a two-particle correlation technique, using a pseudo-rapidity gap of |Δ η| > 0 .9 between the identified hadron under study and the reference particles. The v 2 is reported for π ±, K±, K{S/0}, , ϕ, , and in several collision centralities. In the low transverse momentum ( p T) region, p T < 3 GeV/ c, v 2( p T) exhibits a particle mass dependence consistent with elliptic flow accompanied by the transverse radial expansion of the system with a common velocity field. The experimental data for π ± and the combined K± and K{S/0} results, are described fairly well by hydrodynamic calculations coupled to a hadronic cascade model (VISHNU) for central collisions. However, the same calculations fail to reproduce the v 2( p T) for , ϕ, and . For transverse momentum values larger than about 3 GeV/ c, particles tend to group according to their type, i.e. mesons and baryons. The present measurements exhibit deviations from the number of constituent quark (NCQ) scaling at the level of ±20% for p T > 3 GeV/ c. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  1. In-cylinder tumble flows and performance of a motorcycle engine with circular and elliptic intake ports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, R. F.; Lin, K. H.; Yeh, C.-N.; Lan, J.

    2009-01-01

    The temporal and spatial evolution processes of the flows in the cylinder of a four-valve, four-stroke, single cylinder, reciprocating motorcycle engine installed with the elliptic and circular intake ports were experimentally studied by using the particle image velocimetry (PIV). The engine was modified to fit the requirements of PIV measurement. The velocity fields measured by the PIV were analyzed and quantitatively presented as the tumble ratio and turbulence intensity. In the symmetry plane, both the circular and elliptic intake ports could initiate a vortex around the central region during the intake stroke. During the compression stroke, the central vortex created in the cylinder of the engine with the circular intake port disappeared, while that in the engine cylinder with the elliptic intake port further developed into the tumble motion. In the offset plane, weak vortical structures were initiated by the bluff-body effect of the intake valves during the intake stroke. The vortical structures induced by the elliptic intake port were more coherent than those generated by the circular intake port; besides, this feature extends to the compression stroke. The cycle-averaged tumble ratio and the turbulence intensity of the engine with the elliptic intake port were dramatically larger than those of the engine with the circular intake port. The measured engine performance was improved a lot by installing the elliptic intake port. The correlation between the flow features and the enhancement of the engine performance were argued and discussed.

  2. Impact Parameter Dependence of Elliptic Flow: A new Constraint for the Determination of the Equation of State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacey, Roy

    2000-10-01

    The delimitation of the parameters of the nuclear equation of state (EOS) has been, and continues to be, a major impetus for continued interest in proton elliptic flow measurements. In recent work we have shown that the elliptic flow of protons in relativistic heavy ion collisions can serve as an important probe for the EOS and QGP formation(P. Danielewicz, et al.), Phys. Rev. Let. 81, 2438, (1998),( C. Pinkenburg et al.) (E895 Collaboration), Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1295, (1999). Subsequently, we have studied the utility of the impact parameter dependence of elliptic flow as a source for important additional constraints for the determination of the EOS. Results for several beam energies will be presented and compared to model calculations.

  3. Impact Parmeter Dependence of Elliptic Flow: A new Constraint for the Determination of the Equation of State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacey, Roy A.

    2000-04-01

    The delimitation of the parameters of the nuclear equation of state (EOS) has been, and continues to be, a major impetus for continued interest in proton elliptic flow measurements. In recent work it has been shown that the elliptic flow of protons in relativistic heavy ion collisions can serve as an important probe for the EOS and QGP formation.(P. Danielewicz, et al.), Phys. Rev. Let. 81, 2438, (1998) (C. Pinkenburg et al.) (E895 Collaboration), Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1295, (1999) Subsequently, the E895 collaboration has investigated the utility of the impact parameter dependence of elliptic flow as an additional constraint for the EOS. Results for several beam energies will be presented and compared to model calculations.

  4. Viscous flow computations for elliptical two-duct version of the SSME hot gas manifold

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roger, R. P.

    1986-01-01

    The objective of the effort was to numerically simulate viscous subsonic flow in a proposed elliptical two-duct version of the fuel side Hot Gas Manifold (HGM) for the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). The numerical results were to complement both water flow and air flow experiments in the two-duct geometry performed at NASA-MSFC and Rocketdyne. The three-dimensional character of the HGM consists of two essentially different geometries. The first part of the construction is a concentric shell duct structure which channels the gases from a turbine exit into the second part comprised of two cylindrically shaped transfer ducts. The initial concentric shell portion can be further subdivided into a turnaround section and a bowl section. The turnaround duct (TAD) changes the direction of the mean flow by 180 degress from a smaller radius to a larger radius duct which discharges into the bowl. The cylindrical transfer ducts are attached to the bowl on one side thus providing a plane of symmetry midway between the two. Centerline flow distance from the TAD inlet to the transfer duct exit is approximately two feet. Details of the approach used to numerically simulate laminar or turbulent flow in the HGM geometry are presented. Computational results are presented and discussed.

  5. Self-regulated cooling flows in elliptical galaxies and in cluster cores - Is exclusively low mass star formation really necessary?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silk, J.; Djorgovski, S.; Wyse, R. F. G.; Bruzual A., G.

    1986-01-01

    A self-consistent treatment of the heating by supernovae associated with star formation in a spherically symmetric cooling flow in a cluster core or elliptical galaxy is presented. An initial stellar mass function similar to that in the solar neighborhood is adopted. Inferred star-formation rates, within the cooling region - typically the inner 100 kpc around dominant galaxies at the centers of cooling flows in XD clusters - are reduced by about a factor of 2, relative to rates inferred when the heat input from star formation is ignored. Truncated initial mass functions (IMFs) are also considered, in which massive star formation is suppressed in accordance with previous treatments, and colors are predicted for star formation in cooling flows associated with central dominant elliptical galaxies and with isolated elliptical galaxies surrounded by gaseous coronae. The low inferred cooling-flow rates around isolated elliptical galaxies are found to be insensitive to the upper mass cutoff in the IMF, provided that the upper mass cutoff exceeds 2 M solar mass. Comparison with observed colors favors a cutoff in the IMF above 1 M solar mass in at least two well-studied cluster cooling flows, but a normal IMF cannot be excluded definitively. Models for NGC 1275 support a young (less than about 3 Gyr) cooling flow. As for the isolated elliptical galaxies, the spread in colors is consistent with a normal IMF. A definitive test of the IMF arising via star formation in cooling flows requires either UV spectral data or supernova searches in the cooling-flow-centered galaxies.

  6. Rotational properties of N {approx} Z nuclei in the presence of neutron-proton correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Sitdikov, A. S. Nikitin, A. S.; Khamzin, A. A.

    2008-02-15

    In the Hartree-Fock-Bogolyubov approximation, the cranking model is formulated with allowance for residual neutron-proton correlations whose interaction has a Gaussian form. The behavior of quasiparticle levels versus the frequency of rotation of the even-even isotopes {sup 72-76}Kr is investigated within this approach.

  7. Neutron-proton effective mass splitting in terms of symmetry energy and its density slope

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, S.; Sahoo, B.; Sahoo, S.

    2015-01-15

    Using a simple density-dependent finite-range effective interaction having Yukawa form, the density dependence of isoscalar and isovector effective masses is studied. The isovector effective mass is found to be different for different pairs of like and unlike nucleons. Using HVH theorem, the neutron-proton effective mass splitting is represented in terms of symmetry energy and its density slope. It is again observed that the neutron-proton effective mass splitting has got a positive value when isoscalar effective mass is greater than the isovector effective mass and has a negative value for the opposite case. Furthermore, the neutron-proton effective mass splitting is found to have a linear dependence on asymmetry β. The second-order symmetry potential has a vital role in the determination of density slope of symmetry energy but it does not have any contribution on neutron-proton effective mass splitting. The finite-range effective interaction is compared with the SLy2, SKM, f{sub −}, f{sub 0}, and f{sub +} forms of interactions.

  8. Heavy quark diffusion in strong magnetic fields at weak coupling and implications for elliptic flow

    DOE PAGES

    Fukushima, Kenji; Hattori, Koichi; Yee, Ho -Ung; ...

    2016-04-20

    In this paper, we compute the momentum diffusion coefficients of heavy quarks, κ∥ and κ⊥, in a strong magnetic field B along the directions parallel and perpendicular to B, respectively, at the leading order in QCD coupling constant αs. We consider a regime relevant for the relativistic heavy ion collisions, αseB << T2 << eB, so that thermal excitations of light quarks are restricted to the lowest Landau level (LLL) states. In the vanishing light-quark mass limit, we find κLO⊥ ∝ α2sTeB in the leading order that arises from screened Coulomb scatterings with (1+1)-dimensional LLL quarks, while κ∥ gets nomore » contribution from the scatterings with LLL quarks due to kinematic restrictions. We show that the first nonzero leading order contributions to κLO∥ come from the two separate effects: 1) the screened Coulomb scatterings with thermal gluons, and 2) a finite light-quark mass mq. The former leads to κLO,gluon∥ ∝ α2sT3 and the latter to κLO,massive∥ ∝ αs(αseB)1/2m2q. Based on our results, we propose a new scenario for the large value of heavy-quark elliptic flow observed in RHIC and LHC. Namely, when κ⊥ >> κ∥, an anisotropy in drag forces gives rise to a sizable amount of the heavy-quark elliptic flow even if heavy quarks do not fully belong to an ellipsoidally expanding background fluid.« less

  9. Insight from elliptic flow of open charm mesons using quark coalescence model at RHIC and LHC energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esha, Roli; Nasim, Md; Huang, Huan Zhong

    2017-04-01

    A study of elliptic flow of open charm mesons, D 0 and {D}S+/- , using quark coalescence as a mechanism of hadronization of heavy quarks implemented in conjunction with A Multi-Phase Transport model has been presented. We have studied the transverse momentum dependence of the elliptic flow parameter at mid-rapidity (| y| < 1.0) for Au+Au collisions at \\sqrt{{s}{{NN}}}=200 {GeV} (RHIC) and Pb+Pb collisions at \\sqrt{{s}{{NN}}}=2.76 TeV (LHC) for different values of partonic interaction cross-section and QCD coupling constant. We have compared our calculations with the experimentally measured data at the LHC energy. We have also studied the effect of shear viscosity on elliptic flow of open charm mesons within the transport model approach. Our study indicates that the elliptic flow of open charmed mesons is more sensitive to the viscous properties of the quark–gluon plasma medium as compared to light charged hadrons.

  10. Elliptic flow of ϕ mesons at intermediate pT: Influence of mass versus quark number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhury, Subikash; Sarkar, Debojit; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis

    2017-02-01

    We have studied elliptic flow (v2) of ϕ mesons in the framework of a multiphase transport (AMPT) model at CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) energy. In the realms of AMPT model we observe that ϕ mesons at intermediate transverse momentum (pT) deviate from the previously observed [at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)] particle type grouping of v2 according to the number of quark content, i.e, baryons and mesons. Recent results from the ALICE Collaboration have shown that ϕ meson and proton v2 has a similar trend, possibly indicating that particle type grouping might be due to the mass of the particles and not the quark content. A stronger radial boost at LHC compared to RHIC seems to offer a consistent explanation to such observation. However, recalling that ϕ mesons decouple from the hadronic medium before additional radial flow is built up in the hadronic phase, a similar pattern in ϕ meson and proton v2 may not be due to radial flow alone. Our study reveals that models incorporating ϕ -meson production from K K ¯ fusion in the hadronic rescattering phase also predict a comparable magnitude of ϕ meson and proton v2 particularly in the intermediate region of pT. Whereas, v2 of ϕ mesons created in the partonic phase is in agreement with quark-coalescence motivated baryon-meson grouping of hadron v2. This observation seems to provide a plausible alternative interpretation for the apparent mass-like behavior of ϕ -meson v2. We have also observed a violation of hydrodynamical mass ordering between proton and ϕ meson v2 further supporting that ϕ mesons are negligibly affected by the collective radial flow in the hadronic phase due to the small in-medium hadronic interaction cross sections.

  11. Heavy quark diffusion in strong magnetic fields at weak coupling and implications for elliptic flow

    SciTech Connect

    Fukushima, Kenji; Hattori, Koichi; Yee, Ho -Ung; Yin, Yi

    2016-04-20

    In this paper, we compute the momentum diffusion coefficients of heavy quarks, κ and κ, in a strong magnetic field B along the directions parallel and perpendicular to B, respectively, at the leading order in QCD coupling constant αs. We consider a regime relevant for the relativistic heavy ion collisions, αseB << T2 << eB, so that thermal excitations of light quarks are restricted to the lowest Landau level (LLL) states. In the vanishing light-quark mass limit, we find κLO ∝ α2sTeB in the leading order that arises from screened Coulomb scatterings with (1+1)-dimensional LLL quarks, while κ gets no contribution from the scatterings with LLL quarks due to kinematic restrictions. We show that the first nonzero leading order contributions to κLO come from the two separate effects: 1) the screened Coulomb scatterings with thermal gluons, and 2) a finite light-quark mass mq. The former leads to κLO,gluon ∝ α2sT3 and the latter to κLO,massive ∝ αsseB)1/2m2q. Based on our results, we propose a new scenario for the large value of heavy-quark elliptic flow observed in RHIC and LHC. Namely, when κ >> κ, an anisotropy in drag forces gives rise to a sizable amount of the heavy-quark elliptic flow even if heavy quarks do not fully belong to an ellipsoidally expanding background fluid.

  12. Neutron, proton, and photonuclear cross-sections for radiation therapy and radiation protection.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, M B

    1998-12-01

    I review recent work at Los Alamos undertaken to evaluate neutron, proton, and photonuclear cross-sections up to 150 MeV (to 250 MeV for protons), based on experimental data and nuclear model calculations. These data are represented in the ENDF format and can be used in computer codes to simulate radiation transport. They permit calculations of absorbed dose in the body from therapy beams, and through use of kerma coefficients allow absorbed dose to be estimated for a given neutron energy distribution. In radiation protection, these data can be used to determine shielding requirements in accelerator environments and to calculate neutron, proton, gamma-ray, and radionuclide production. Illustrative comparisons of the evaluated cross-section and kerma coefficient data with measurements are given.

  13. Elliptic flow for phi mesons and (anti)deuterons in Au+Au collisions at square root of sNN=200 GeV.

    PubMed

    Afanasiev, S; Aidala, C; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Alexander, J; Al-Jamel, A; Aoki, K; Aphecetche, L; Armendariz, R; Aronson, S H; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Azmoun, B; Babintsev, V; Baldisseri, A; Barish, K N; Barnes, P D; Bassalleck, B; Bathe, S; Batsouli, S; Baublis, V; Bauer, F; Bazilevsky, A; Belikov, S; Bennett, R; Berdnikov, Y; Bjorndal, M T; Boissevain, J G; Borel, H; Boyle, K; Brooks, M L; Brown, D S; Bucher, D; Buesching, H; Bumazhnov, V; Bunce, G; Burward-Hoy, J M; Butsyk, S; Campbell, S; Chai, J-S; Chernichenko, S; Chiba, J; Chi, C Y; Chiu, M; Choi, I J; Chujo, T; Cianciolo, V; Cleven, C R; Cobigo, Y; Cole, B A; Comets, M P; Constantin, P; Csanád, M; Csörgo, T; Dahms, T; Das, K; David, G; Delagrange, H; Denisov, A; d'Enterria, D; Deshpande, A; Desmond, E J; Dietzsch, O; Dion, A; Drachenberg, J L; Drapier, O; Drees, A; Dubey, A K; Durum, A; Dzhordzhadze, V; Efremenko, Y V; Egdemir, J; Enokizono, A; En'yo, H; Espagnon, B; Esumi, S; Fields, D E; Fleuret, F; Fokin, S L; Forestier, B; Fraenkel, Z; Frantz, J E; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fukao, Y; Fung, S-Y; Gadrat, S; Gastineau, F; Germain, M; Glenn, A; Gonin, M; Gosset, J; Goto, Y; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Grau, N; Greene, S V; Grosse Perdekamp, M; Gunji, T; Gustafsson, H-A; Hachiya, T; Hadj Henni, A; Haggerty, J S; Hagiwara, M N; Hamagaki, H; Harada, H; Hartouni, E P; Haruna, K; Harvey, M; Haslum, E; Hasuko, K; Hayano, R; Heffner, M; Hemmick, T K; Heuser, J M; He, X; Hiejima, H; Hill, J C; Hobbs, R; Holmes, M; Holzmann, W; Homma, K; Hong, B; Horaguchi, T; Hur, M G; Ichihara, T; Imai, K; Inaba, M; Isenhower, D; Isenhower, L; Ishihara, M; Isobe, T; Issah, M; Isupov, A; Jacak, B V; Jia, J; Jin, J; Jinnouchi, O; Johnson, B M; Joo, K S; Jouan, D; Kajihara, F; Kametani, S; Kamihara, N; Kaneta, M; Kang, J H; Kawagishi, T; Kazantsev, A V; Kelly, S; Khanzadeev, A; Kim, D J; Kim, E; Kim, Y-S; Kinney, E; Kiss, A; Kistenev, E; Kiyomichi, A; Klein-Boesing, C; Kochenda, L; Kochetkov, V; Komkov, B; Konno, M; Kotchetkov, D; Kozlov, A; Kroon, P J; Kunde, G J; Kurihara, N; Kurita, K; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; Kyle, G S; Lacey, R; Lajoie, J G; Lebedev, A; Le Bornec, Y; Leckey, S; Lee, D M; Lee, M K; Leitch, M J; Leite, M A L; Lim, H; Litvinenko, A; Liu, M X; Li, X H; Maguire, C F; Makdisi, Y I; Malakhov, A; Malik, M D; Manko, V I; Masui, H; Matathias, F; McCain, M C; McGaughey, P L; Miake, Y; Miller, T E; Milov, A; Mioduszewski, S; Mishra, G C; Mitchell, J T; Morrison, D P; Moss, J M; Moukhanova, T V; Mukhopadhyay, D; Murata, J; Nagamiya, S; Nagata, Y; Nagle, J L; Naglis, M; Nakamura, T; Newby, J; Nguyen, M; Norman, B E; Nyanin, A S; Nystrand, J; O'Brien, E; Ogilvie, C A; Ohnishi, H; Ojha, I D; Okada, H; Okada, K; Omiwade, O O; Oskarsson, A; Otterlund, I; Ozawa, K; Pal, D; Palounek, A P T; Pantuev, V; Papavassiliou, V; Park, J; Park, W J; Pate, S F; Pei, H; Peng, J-C; Pereira, H; Peresedov, V; Peressounko, D Yu; Pinkenburg, C; Pisani, R P; Purschke, M L; Purwar, A K; Qu, H; Rak, J; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Reuter, M; Reygers, K; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Roche, G; Romana, A; Rosati, M; Rosendahl, S S E; Rosnet, P; Rukoyatkin, P; Rykov, V L; Ryu, S S; Sahlmueller, B; Saito, N; Sakaguchi, T; Sakai, S; Samsonov, V; Sato, H D; Sato, S; Sawada, S; Semenov, V; Seto, R; Sharma, D; Shea, T K; Shein, I; Shibata, T-A; Shigaki, K; Shimomura, M; Shohjoh, T; Shoji, K; Sickles, A; Silva, C L; Silvermyr, D; Sim, K S; Singh, C P; Singh, V; Skutnik, S; Smith, W C; Soldatov, A; Soltz, R A; Sondheim, W E; Sorensen, S P; Sourikova, I V; Staley, F; Stankus, P W; Stenlund, E; Stepanov, M; Ster, A; Stoll, S P; Sugitate, T; Suire, C; Sullivan, J P; Sziklai, J; Tabaru, T; Takagi, S; Takagui, E M; Taketani, A; Tanaka, K H; Tanaka, Y; Tanida, K; Tannenbaum, M J; Taranenko, A; Tarján, P; Thomas, T L; Togawa, M; Tojo, J; Torii, H; Towell, R S; Tram, V-N; Tserruya, I; Tsuchimoto, Y; Tuli, S K; Tydesjö, H; Tyurin, N; Vale, C; Valle, H; vanHecke, H W; Velkovska, J; Vertesi, R; Vinogradov, A A; Vznuzdaev, E; Wagner, M; Wang, X R; Watanabe, Y; Wessels, J; White, S N; Willis, N; Winter, D; Woody, C L; Wysocki, M; Xie, W; Yanovich, A; Yokkaichi, S; Young, G R; Younus, I; Yushmanov, I E; Zajc, W A; Zaudtke, O; Zhang, C; Zimányi, J; Zolin, L

    2007-08-03

    Differential elliptic flow (v(2)) for phi mesons and (anti)deuterons (d)d is measured for Au+Au collisions at square root of sNN=200 GeV. The v(2) for phi mesons follows the trend of lighter pi+/- and K+/- mesons, suggesting that ordinary hadrons interacting with standard hadronic cross sections are not the primary driver for elliptic flow development. The v(2) values for (d)d suggest that elliptic flow is additive for composite particles. This further validation of the universal scaling of v(2) per constituent quark for baryons and mesons suggests that partonic collectivity dominates the transverse expansion dynamics.

  14. Emission of neutron-proton and proton-proton pairs in neutrino scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz Simo, I.; Amaro, J. E.; Barbaro, M. B.; De Pace, A.; Caballero, J. A.; Megias, G. D.; Donnelly, T. W.

    2016-11-01

    We use a recently developed model of relativistic meson-exchange currents to compute the neutron-proton and proton-proton yields in (νμ ,μ-) scattering from 12C in the 2p-2h channel. We compute the response functions and cross sections with the relativistic Fermi gas model for different kinematics from intermediate to high momentum transfers. We find a large contribution of neutron-proton configurations in the initial state, as compared to proton-proton pairs. In the case of charge-changing neutrino scattering the 2p-2h cross section of proton-proton emission (i.e., np in the initial state) is much larger than for neutron-proton emission (i.e., two neutrons in the initial state) by a (ω , q)-dependent factor. The different emission probabilities of distinct species of nucleon pairs are produced in our model only by meson-exchange currents, mainly by the Δ isobar current. We also analyze other effects including exchange contributions and the effect of the axial and vector currents.

  15. Systematic study of the elliptic flow parameter using a transport approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasim, Md.; Mohanty, Bedangadas

    2015-04-01

    Elliptic flow parameter, v2 is considered as a sensitive probe for early dynamics of the heavy-ion collision. In this work, we have discussed the effect of detector efficiency, procedure of centrality determination, effect of resonance decay and the procedure to correct event plane resolution on the measured v2 by standard event plane method within the framework of a transport model. The measured value of v2 depends on the efficiency in particle number counting by the detector. The effect of centrality determination is found to be negligible. The new method of event plane resolution correction for wide centrality bin yields results in v2 values closer to the true value of the v2. The contributions from the resonance decay seems to decrease the value of v2 of π and K within the Ultra relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics (UrQMD) model based calculation. We also propose a procedure to correct for an event bias effect on v2 arising while comparing the minimum bias collision centrality v2 values for different multi-strange hadrons. Finally, we have presented a model based confirmation of the recently proposed relation between v2 obtained using event plane method and scalar product method to the true value of v2.

  16. Observation of Charge Asymmetry Dependence of Pion Elliptic Flow and the Possible Chiral Magnetic Wave in Heavy-Ion Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Alekseev, I.; Alford, J.; Aparin, A.; Arkhipkin, D.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Averichev, G. S.; Banerjee, A.; Bellwied, R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattarai, P.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L. C.; Bordyuzhin, I. G.; Bouchet, J.; Brandin, A. V.; Bunzarov, I.; Burton, T. P.; Butterworth, J.; Caines, H.; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M.; Campbell, J. M.; Cebra, D.; Cervantes, M. C.; Chakaberia, I.; Chaloupka, P.; Chang, Z.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, J. H.; Chen, X.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Christie, W.; Contin, G.; Crawford, H. J.; Das, S.; De Silva, L. C.; Debbe, R. R.; Dedovich, T. G.; Deng, J.; Derevschikov, A. A.; di Ruzza, B.; Didenko, L.; Dilks, C.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Du, C. M.; Dunkelberger, L. E.; Dunlop, J. C.; Efimov, L. G.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Esha, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Eyser, O.; Fatemi, R.; Fazio, S.; Federic, P.; Fedorisin, J.; Feng, Z.; Filip, P.; Fisyak, Y.; Flores, C. E.; Fulek, L.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Garand, D.; Geurts, F.; Gibson, A.; Girard, M.; Greiner, L.; Grosnick, D.; Gunarathne, D. S.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, S.; Gupta, A.; Guryn, W.; Hamad, A.; Hamed, A.; Haque, R.; Harris, J. W.; He, L.; Heppelmann, S.; Heppelmann, S.; Hirsch, A.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Hofman, D. J.; Horvat, S.; Huang, H. Z.; Huang, B.; Huang, X.; Huck, P.; Humanic, T. J.; Igo, G.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jang, H.; Jiang, K.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kalinkin, D.; Kang, K.; Kauder, K.; Ke, H. W.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Khan, Z. H.; Kikola, D. P.; Kisel, I.; Kisiel, A.; Koetke, D. D.; Kollegger, T.; Kosarzewski, L. K.; Kotchenda, L.; Kraishan, A. F.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Kulakov, I.; Kumar, L.; Kycia, R. A.; Lamont, M. A. C.; Landgraf, J. M.; Landry, K. D.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, J. H.; Li, W.; Li, Y.; Li, C.; Li, N.; Li, Z. M.; Li, X.; Li, X.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, F.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Lomnitz, M.; Longacre, R. S.; Luo, X.; Ma, L.; Ma, R.; Ma, Y. G.; Ma, G. L.; Magdy, N.; Majka, R.; Manion, A.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Masui, H.; Matis, H. S.; McDonald, D.; Meehan, K.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mohanty, B.; Mondal, M. M.; Morozov, D. A.; Mustafa, M. K.; Nandi, B. K.; Nasim, Md.; Nayak, T. K.; Nigmatkulov, G.; Nogach, L. V.; Noh, S. Y.; Novak, J.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Oh, K.; Okorokov, V.; Olvitt, D. L.; Page, B. S.; Pak, R.; Pan, Y. X.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pawlik, B.; Pei, H.; Perkins, C.; Peterson, A.; Pile, P.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Poljak, N.; Poniatowska, K.; Porter, J.; Posik, M.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Pruthi, N. K.; Putschke, J.; Qiu, H.; Quintero, A.; Ramachandran, S.; Raniwala, S.; Raniwala, R.; Ray, R. L.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Roy, A.; Ruan, L.; Rusnak, J.; Rusnakova, O.; Sahoo, N. R.; Sahu, P. K.; Sakrejda, I.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Sarkar, A.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schmah, A. M.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schmitz, N.; Seger, J.; Seyboth, P.; Shah, N.; Shahaliev, E.; Shanmuganathan, P. V.; Shao, M.; Sharma, B.; Sharma, M. K.; Shen, W. Q.; Shi, S. S.; Shou, Q. Y.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Sikora, R.; Simko, M.; Skoby, M. J.; Smirnov, D.; Smirnov, N.; Song, L.; Sorensen, P.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Stepanov, M.; Stock, R.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Sumbera, M.; Summa, B. J.; Sun, X.; Sun, X. M.; Sun, Z.; Sun, Y.; Surrow, B.; Svirida, D. N.; Szelezniak, M. A.; Tang, Z.; Tang, A. H.; Tarnowsky, T.; Tawfik, A. N.; Thomas, J. H.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Tokarev, M.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tribedy, P.; Tripathy, S. K.; Trzeciak, B. A.; Tsai, O. D.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Upsal, I.; Van Buren, G.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Varma, R.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Vertesi, R.; Videbaek, F.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vokal, S.; Voloshin, S. A.; Vossen, A.; Wang, F.; Wang, Y.; Wang, H.; Wang, J. S.; Wang, Y.; Wang, G.; Webb, G.; Webb, J. C.; Wen, L.; Westfall, G. D.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S. W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y. F.; Xiao, Z.; Xie, W.; Xin, K.; Xu, Y. F.; Xu, N.; Xu, Z.; Xu, Q. H.; Xu, H.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y.; Yang, C.; Yang, S.; Yang, Q.; Ye, Z.; Yepes, P.; Yi, L.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yu, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zha, W.; Zhang, X. P.; Zhang, J. B.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhao, F.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhu, X.; Zoulkarneeva, Y.; Zyzak, M.; STAR Collaboration

    2015-06-01

    We present measurements of π- and π+ elliptic flow, v2, at midrapidity in Au +Au collisions at √{sNN }=200 , 62.4, 39, 27, 19.6, 11.5, and 7.7 GeV, as a function of event-by-event charge asymmetry, Ach, based on data from the STAR experiment at RHIC. We find that π- (π+) elliptic flow linearly increases (decreases) with charge asymmetry for most centrality bins at √{sNN }=27 GeV and higher. At √{sNN }=200 GeV , the slope of the difference of v2 between π- and π+ as a function of Ach exhibits a centrality dependence, which is qualitatively similar to calculations that incorporate a chiral magnetic wave effect. Similar centrality dependence is also observed at lower energies.

  17. Observation of Charge Asymmetry Dependence of Pion Elliptic Flow and the Possible Chiral Magnetic Wave in Heavy-Ion Collisions.

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, L; Adkins, J K; Agakishiev, G; Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Alekseev, I; Alford, J; Aparin, A; Arkhipkin, D; Aschenauer, E C; Averichev, G S; Banerjee, A; Bellwied, R; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bhattarai, P; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Bland, L C; Bordyuzhin, I G; Bouchet, J; Brandin, A V; Bunzarov, I; Burton, T P; Butterworth, J; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M; Campbell, J M; Cebra, D; Cervantes, M C; Chakaberia, I; Chaloupka, P; Chang, Z; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, J H; Chen, X; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Christie, W; Contin, G; Crawford, H J; Das, S; De Silva, L C; Debbe, R R; Dedovich, T G; Deng, J; Derevschikov, A A; di Ruzza, B; Didenko, L; Dilks, C; Dong, X; Drachenberg, J L; Draper, J E; Du, C M; Dunkelberger, L E; Dunlop, J C; Efimov, L G; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Esha, R; Evdokimov, O; Eyser, O; Fatemi, R; Fazio, S; Federic, P; Fedorisin, J; Feng, Z; Filip, P; Fisyak, Y; Flores, C E; Fulek, L; Gagliardi, C A; Garand, D; Geurts, F; Gibson, A; Girard, M; Greiner, L; Grosnick, D; Gunarathne, D S; Guo, Y; Gupta, S; Gupta, A; Guryn, W; Hamad, A; Hamed, A; Haque, R; Harris, J W; He, L; Heppelmann, S; Heppelmann, S; Hirsch, A; Hoffmann, G W; Hofman, D J; Horvat, S; Huang, H Z; Huang, B; Huang, X; Huck, P; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Jacobs, W W; Jang, H; Jiang, K; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kalinkin, D; Kang, K; Kauder, K; Ke, H W; Keane, D; Kechechyan, A; Khan, Z H; Kikola, D P; Kisel, I; Kisiel, A; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Kosarzewski, L K; Kotchenda, L; Kraishan, A F; Kravtsov, P; Krueger, K; Kulakov, I; Kumar, L; Kycia, R A; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Landry, K D; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lee, J H; Li, W; Li, Y; Li, C; Li, N; Li, Z M; Li, X; Li, X; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Lomnitz, M; Longacre, R S; Luo, X; Ma, L; Ma, R; Ma, Y G; Ma, G L; Magdy, N; Majka, R; Manion, A; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Masui, H; Matis, H S; McDonald, D; Meehan, K; Minaev, N G; Mioduszewski, S; Mohanty, B; Mondal, M M; Morozov, D A; Mustafa, M K; Nandi, B K; Nasim, Md; Nayak, T K; Nigmatkulov, G; Nogach, L V; Noh, S Y; Novak, J; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Oh, K; Okorokov, V; Olvitt, D L; Page, B S; Pak, R; Pan, Y X; Pandit, Y; Panebratsev, Y; Pawlik, B; Pei, H; Perkins, C; Peterson, A; Pile, P; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Poljak, N; Poniatowska, K; Porter, J; Posik, M; Poskanzer, A M; Pruthi, N K; Putschke, J; Qiu, H; Quintero, A; Ramachandran, S; Raniwala, S; Raniwala, R; Ray, R L; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevskiy, O V; Romero, J L; Roy, A; Ruan, L; Rusnak, J; Rusnakova, O; Sahoo, N R; Sahu, P K; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Sarkar, A; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmah, A M; Schmidke, W B; Schmitz, N; Seger, J; Seyboth, P; Shah, N; Shahaliev, E; Shanmuganathan, P V; Shao, M; Sharma, B; Sharma, M K; Shen, W Q; Shi, S S; Shou, Q Y; Sichtermann, E P; Sikora, R; Simko, M; Skoby, M J; Smirnov, D; Smirnov, N; Song, L; Sorensen, P; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stanislaus, T D S; Stepanov, M; Stock, R; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Sumbera, M; Summa, B J; Sun, X; Sun, X M; Sun, Z; Sun, Y; Surrow, B; Svirida, D N; Szelezniak, M A; Tang, Z; Tang, A H; Tarnowsky, T; Tawfik, A N; Thomas, J H; Timmins, A R; Tlusty, D; Tokarev, M; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tribedy, P; Tripathy, S K; Trzeciak, B A; Tsai, O D; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Upsal, I; Van Buren, G; van Nieuwenhuizen, G; Vandenbroucke, M; Varma, R; Vasiliev, A N; Vertesi, R; Videbaek, F; Viyogi, Y P; Vokal, S; Voloshin, S A; Vossen, A; Wang, F; Wang, Y; Wang, H; Wang, J S; Wang, Y; Wang, G; Webb, G; Webb, J C; Wen, L; Westfall, G D; Wieman, H; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wu, Y F; Xiao, Z; Xie, W; Xin, K; Xu, Y F; Xu, N; Xu, Z; Xu, Q H; Xu, H; Yang, Y; Yang, Y; Yang, C; Yang, S; Yang, Q; Ye, Z; Yepes, P; Yi, L; Yip, K; Yoo, I-K; Yu, N; Zbroszczyk, H; Zha, W; Zhang, X P; Zhang, J B; Zhang, J; Zhang, Z; Zhang, S; Zhang, Y; Zhang, J L; Zhao, F; Zhao, J; Zhong, C; Zhou, L; Zhu, X; Zoulkarneeva, Y; Zyzak, M

    2015-06-26

    We present measurements of π(-) and π(+) elliptic flow, v(2), at midrapidity in Au+Au collisions at √[s(NN)]=200, 62.4, 39, 27, 19.6, 11.5, and 7.7 GeV, as a function of event-by-event charge asymmetry, A(ch), based on data from the STAR experiment at RHIC. We find that π(-) (π(+)) elliptic flow linearly increases (decreases) with charge asymmetry for most centrality bins at √[s(NN)]=27  GeV and higher. At √[s(NN)]=200  GeV, the slope of the difference of v(2) between π(-) and π(+) as a function of A(ch) exhibits a centrality dependence, which is qualitatively similar to calculations that incorporate a chiral magnetic wave effect. Similar centrality dependence is also observed at lower energies.

  18. The Numerical Calculation of Flow Past Conical Bodies Supporting Elliptic Conical Shock Waves at Finite Angles of Incidence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, Benjamin R.

    1960-01-01

    The inverse method, with the shock wave prescribed to be an elliptic cone at a finite angle of incidence, is applied to calculate numerically the supersonic perfect-gas flow past conical bodies not having axial symmetry. Two formulations of the problem are employed, one using a pair of stream functions and the other involving entropy and components of velocity. A number of solutions are presented, illustrating the numerical methods employed, and showing the effects of moderate variation of the initial parameters.

  19. Neutron-proton effective mass splitting in neutron-rich matter and its impacts on nuclear reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bao-An; Chen, Lie-Wen

    2015-04-01

    The neutron-proton effective mass splitting in neutron-rich nucleonic matter reflects the spacetime nonlocality of the isovector nuclear interaction. It affects the neutron/proton ratio during the earlier evolution of the Universe, cooling of proto-neutron stars, structure of rare isotopes and dynamics of heavy-ion collisions. While there is still no consensus on whether the neutron-proton effective mass splitting is negative, zero or positive and how it depends on the density as well as the isospin-asymmetry of the medium, significant progress has been made in recent years in addressing these issues. There are different kinds of nucleon effective masses. In this mini-review, we focus on the total effective masses often used in the non-relativistic description of nuclear dynamics. We first recall the connections among the neutron-proton effective mass splitting, the momentum dependence of the isovector potential and the density dependence of the symmetry energy. We then make a few observations about the progress in calculating the neutron-proton effective mass splitting using various nuclear many-body theories and its effects on the isospin-dependence of in-medium nucleon-nucleon cross-sections. Perhaps, our most reliable knowledge so far about the neutron-proton effective mass splitting at saturation density of nuclear matter comes from optical model analyses of huge sets of nucleon-nucleus scattering data accumulated over the last five decades. The momentum dependence of the symmetry potential from these analyses provide a useful boundary condition at saturation density for calibrating nuclear many-body calculations. Several observables in heavy-ion collisions have been identified as sensitive probes of the neutron-proton effective mass splitting in dense neutron-rich matter based on transport model simulations. We review these observables and comment on the latest experimental findings.

  20. Behaviour of a rimmed elliptical inclusion in 2D slow incompressible viscous flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancktelow, N. S.

    2012-04-01

    The shape preferred orientation of natural populations of inclusions (or "porphyroclasts") is often inconsistent with predictions from established analytical theory for inclusions with coherent boundaries (e.g., Pennacchioni et al. 2001). A totally incoherent or slipping interface can explain observed stable back-rotated (or antithetic) orientations but not the observed cut-off axial ratio, below which inclusions still rotate. However, this behaviour is reproduced by a rimmed inclusion with a rim viscosity that is not infinitely weak but still weaker than the matrix (e.g., Schmid and Podladchikov 2005; Johnson et al. 2009). In this study, finite-element numerical modelling (FEM) is employed to investigate this system in 2D over a very wide parameter space, from a viscosity ratio (relative to the matrix) of the inclusion from 106 to 1, the rim from 10-6 to 1, the axial ratio from 1.00025 to 20, and the rim thickness from 5% to 20%. Theoretical consideration of a concentric elliptical inclusion and ellipse reduces the number of scalar values to be determined to fully characterize the system to two: one for the rate of stretch of the inclusion and one for the rate of rotation. From these two values, the rotation and stretching rate can be calculated for any orientation and 2D background flow field. For effectively rigid particles, the cut-off axial ratio between rotation and stabilization is determined by the remaining two parameters, namely the rim viscosity and the thickness, with low rim viscosity or thick rims promoting stabilization. The shape fabric of a population of particles in a high strain shear zone, presented as a typical Rf/φ plot, can be forward modelled using an initial value Ordinary Differential Equation (ODE) approach. Because the rim does not remain elliptical to high strain, this method cannot accurately model the behaviour of individual inclusions. However, a statistical approach, allowing variation in rim viscosity, which is also a proxy for

  1. The Compressible Potential Flow Past Elliptic Symmetrical Cylinders at Zero Angle of Attack and with No Circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hantzsche, W.; Wendt, H.

    1942-01-01

    For the tunnel corrections of compressible flows those profiles are of interest for which at least the second approximation of the Janzen-Rayleigh method can be applied in closed form. One such case is presented by certain elliptical symmetrical cylinders located in the center of a tunnel with fixed walls and whose maximum velocity, incompressible, is twice the velocity of flow. In the numerical solution the maximum velocity at the profile and the tunnel wall as well as the entry of sonic velocity is computed. The velocity distribution past the contour and in the minimum cross section at various Mach numbers is illustrated on a worked out-example.

  2. Supersonic Elliptical Ramp Inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamson, Eric E. (Inventor); Fink, Lawrence E. (Inventor); Fugal, Spencer R. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A supersonic inlet includes a supersonic section including a cowl which is at least partially elliptical, a ramp disposed within the cowl, and a flow inlet disposed between the cowl and the ramp. The ramp may also be at least partially elliptical.

  3. Neutron-Proton Asymmetry Dependence of Spectroscopic Factors in Ar Isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jenny; Tsang, Betty; Shapira, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Spectroscopic factors have been extracted for proton-rich 34Ar and neutron-rich 46Ar using the (p, d) neutron transfer reaction. The experimental results show little reduction of the ground state neutron spectroscopic factor of the proton-rich nucleus 34Ar compared to that of 46Ar. The results suggest that correlations, which generally reduce such spectroscopic factors, do not depend strongly on the neutron-proton asymmetry of the nucleus in this isotopic region as was reported in knockout reactions. The present results are consistent with results from systematic studies of transfer reactions but inconsistent with the trends observed in knockout reaction measurements.

  4. Neutron-proton spin-correlation parameter A sub z z at 68 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Hammans, M.; Brogli-Gysin, C.; Burzynski, S.; Campbell, J.; Haffter, P.; Henneck, R.; Lorenzon, W.; Pickar, M.A.; Sick, I. ); Konter, J.A.; Mango, S.; van den Brandt, B. )

    1991-05-06

    We report a first measurement of the spin-correlation parameter {ital A}{sub {ital z}{ital z}} in neutron-proton scattering at 67.5 MeV. The results, obtained in the angular range 105{degree}{le}{theta}{sub c.m.}{le}170{degree} with typical accuracies of 0.008, are highly sensitive to the {sup 3}{ital S}{sub 1}-{sup 3}{ital D}{sub 1} mixing parameter {epsilon}{sub 1}. A phase-shift analysis based on the current world data yields a value of {epsilon}{sub 1} significantly higher than predicted by modern potential models.

  5. Characterizing Neutron-Proton Equilibration in Nuclear Reactions with Subzeptosecond Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedele, A.; McIntosh, A. B.; Hagel, K.; Huang, M.; Heilborn, L.; Kohley, Z.; May, L. W.; McCleskey, E.; Youngs, M.; Zarrella, A.; Yennello, S. J.

    2017-02-01

    We study neutron-proton equilibration in dynamically deformed atomic nuclei created in nuclear collisions. The two ends of the elongated nucleus are initially dissimilar in composition and equilibrate on a subzeptosecond time scale following first-order kinetics. We use angular momentum to relate the breakup orientation to the time scale of the breakup. The extracted rate constant is 3 zs-1 , which corresponds to a mean equilibration time of 0.3 zs. This technique enables new insight into the nuclear equation of state that governs many nuclear and astrophysical phenomena leading to the origin of the chemical elements.

  6. Eigenfrequencies of vortex-pair equilibria near an elliptic cylinder or a flat plate in uniform flow.

    PubMed

    de Laat, T W G

    2007-03-01

    The eigenfrequencies of the potential-flow equilibria of a symmetric vortex pair behind an elliptic cylinder in uniform flow are calculated through the use of conformal mapping. These frequencies are shown to have values in agreement with measured Strouhal numbers reported in various papers. The special cases of the potential-flow equilibrium of a symmetric vortex pair behind a circular cylinder and the equilibrium behind a flat plate perpendicular to the uniform flow, are related to the measured Strouhal numbers of about 0.21 and 0.15, respectively. It is suggested that in the range of subcritical Reynolds numbers, 3x10(2) to 5x10(5) for the circular cylinder, a part of the drag is the result of the presence of a mean recirculation region in the near wake, which sheds vortices in the far wake and which is fed by vorticity from the cylinder wall.

  7. Event-shape engineering for inclusive spectra and elliptic flow in Pb-Pb collisions at √{sNN}=2.76 TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, J.; Adamová, D.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Agnello, M.; Agrawal, N.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahn, S. U.; Aimo, I.; Aiola, S.; Ajaz, M.; Akindinov, A.; Alam, S. N.; Aleksandrov, D.; Alessandro, B.; Alexandre, D.; Alfaro Molina, R.; Alici, A.; Alkin, A.; Almaraz, J. R. M.; Alme, J.; Alt, T.; Altinpinar, S.; Altsybeev, I.; Alves Garcia Prado, C.; Andrei, C.; Andronic, A.; Anguelov, V.; Anielski, J.; Antičić, T.; Antinori, F.; Antonioli, P.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelshäuser, H.; Arcelli, S.; Armesto, N.; Arnaldi, R.; Arsene, I. C.; Arslandok, M.; Audurier, B.; Augustinus, A.; Averbeck, R.; Azmi, M. D.; Bach, M.; Badalà, A.; Baek, Y. W.; Bagnasco, S.; Bailhache, R.; Bala, R.; Baldisseri, A.; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F.; Baral, R. C.; Barbano, A. M.; Barbera, R.; Barile, F.; Barnaföldi, G. G.; Barnby, L. S.; Barret, V.; Bartalini, P.; Barth, K.; Bartke, J.; Bartsch, E.; Basile, M.; Bastid, N.; Basu, S.; Bathen, B.; Batigne, G.; Batista Camejo, A.; Batyunya, B.; Batzing, P. C.; Bearden, I. G.; Beck, H.; Bedda, C.; Behera, N. K.; Belikov, I.; Bellini, F.; Bello Martinez, H.; Bellwied, R.; Belmont, R.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; Belyaev, V.; Bencedi, G.; Beole, S.; Berceanu, I.; Bercuci, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Berenyi, D.; Bertens, R. A.; Berzano, D.; Betev, L.; Bhasin, A.; Bhat, I. R.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattacharjee, B.; Bhom, J.; Bianchi, L.; Bianchi, N.; Bianchin, C.; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, J.; Bilandzic, A.; Biswas, R.; Biswas, S.; Bjelogrlic, S.; Blair, J. T.; Blanco, F.; Blau, D.; Blume, C.; Bock, F.; Bogdanov, A.; Bøggild, H.; Boldizsár, L.; Bombara, M.; Book, J.; Borel, H.; Borissov, A.; Borri, M.; Bossú, F.; Botta, E.; Böttger, S.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Bregant, M.; Breitner, T.; Broker, T. A.; Browning, T. A.; Broz, M.; Brucken, E. J.; Bruna, E.; Bruno, G. E.; Budnikov, D.; Buesching, H.; Bufalino, S.; Buncic, P.; Busch, O.; Buthelezi, Z.; Butt, J. B.; Buxton, J. T.; Caffarri, D.; Cai, X.; Caines, H.; Calero Diaz, L.; Caliva, A.; Calvo Villar, E.; Camerini, P.; Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Carnesecchi, F.; Castillo Castellanos, J.; Castro, A. J.; Casula, E. A. R.; Cavicchioli, C.; Ceballos Sanchez, C.; Cepila, J.; Cerello, P.; Cerkala, J.; Chang, B.; Chapeland, S.; Chartier, M.; Charvet, J. L.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chelnokov, V.; Cherney, M.; Cheshkov, C.; Cheynis, B.; Chibante Barroso, V.; Chinellato, D. D.; Chochula, P.; Choi, K.; Chojnacki, M.; Choudhury, S.; Christakoglou, P.; Christensen, C. H.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, S. U.; Chunhui, Z.; Cicalo, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Cleymans, J.; Colamaria, F.; Colella, D.; Collu, A.; Colocci, M.; Conesa Balbastre, G.; Conesa Del Valle, Z.; Connors, M. E.; Contreras, J. G.; Cormier, T. M.; Corrales Morales, Y.; Cortés Maldonado, I.; Cortese, P.; Cosentino, M. R.; Costa, F.; Crochet, P.; Cruz Albino, R.; Cuautle, E.; Cunqueiro, L.; Dahms, T.; Dainese, A.; Danu, A.; Das, D.; Das, I.; Das, S.; Dash, A.; Dash, S.; de, S.; de Caro, A.; de Cataldo, G.; de Cuveland, J.; de Falco, A.; de Gruttola, D.; De Marco, N.; de Pasquale, S.; Deisting, A.; Deloff, A.; Dénes, E.; D'Erasmo, G.; di Bari, D.; di Mauro, A.; di Nezza, P.; Diaz Corchero, M. A.; Dietel, T.; Dillenseger, P.; Divià, R.; Djuvsland, Ø.; Dobrin, A.; Dobrowolski, T.; Domenicis Gimenez, D.; Dönigus, B.; Dordic, O.; Drozhzhova, T.; Dubey, A. K.; Dubla, A.; Ducroux, L.; Dupieux, P.; Ehlers, R. J.; Elia, D.; Engel, H.; Erazmus, B.; Erdemir, I.; Erhardt, F.; Eschweiler, D.; Espagnon, B.; Estienne, M.; Esumi, S.; Eum, J.; Evans, D.; Evdokimov, S.; Eyyubova, G.; Fabbietti, L.; Fabris, D.; Faivre, J.; Fantoni, A.; Fasel, M.; Feldkamp, L.; Felea, D.; Feliciello, A.; Feofilov, G.; Ferencei, J.; Fernández Téllez, A.; Ferreiro, E. G.; Ferretti, A.; Festanti, A.; Feuillard, V. J. G.; Figiel, J.; Figueredo, M. A. S.; Filchagin, S.; Finogeev, D.; Fionda, F. M.; Fiore, E. M.; Fleck, M. G.; Floris, M.; Foertsch, S.; Foka, P.; Fokin, S.; Fragiacomo, E.; Francescon, A.; Frankenfeld, U.; Fuchs, U.; Furget, C.; Furs, A.; Fusco Girard, M.; Gaardhøje, J. J.; Gagliardi, M.; Gago, A. M.; Gallio, M.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Ganoti, P.; Gao, C.; Garabatos, C.; Garcia-Solis, E.; Gargiulo, C.; Gasik, P.; Germain, M.; Gheata, A.; Gheata, M.; Ghosh, P.; Ghosh, S. K.; Gianotti, P.; Giubellino, P.; Giubilato, P.; Gladysz-Dziadus, E.; Glässel, P.; Goméz Coral, D. M.; Gomez Ramirez, A.; González-Zamora, P.; Gorbunov, S.; Görlich, L.; Gotovac, S.; Grabski, V.; Graczykowski, L. K.; Graham, K. L.; Grelli, A.; Grigoras, A.; Grigoras, C.; Grigoriev, V.; Grigoryan, A.; Grigoryan, S.; Grinyov, B.; Grion, N.; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J. F.; Grossiord, J.-Y.; Grosso, R.; Guber, F.; Guernane, R.; Guerzoni, B.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gulkanyan, H.; Gunji, T.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, R.; Haake, R.; Haaland, Ø.; Hadjidakis, C.; Haiduc, M.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamar, G.; Hansen, A.; Harris, J. W.; Hartmann, H.; Harton, A.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hayashi, S.; Heckel, S. T.; Heide, M.; Helstrup, H.; Herghelegiu, A.; Herrera Corral, G.; Hess, B. A.; Hetland, K. F.; Hilden, T. E.; Hillemanns, H.; Hippolyte, B.; Hosokawa, R.; Hristov, P.; Huang, M.; Humanic, T. J.; Hussain, N.; Hussain, T.; Hutter, D.; Hwang, D. S.; Ilkaev, R.; Ilkiv, I.; Inaba, M.; Ippolitov, M.; Irfan, M.; Ivanov, M.; Ivanov, V.; Izucheev, V.; Jacobs, P. M.; Jadlovska, S.; Jahnke, C.; Jang, H. J.; Janik, M. A.; Jayarathna, P. H. S. Y.; Jena, C.; Jena, S.; Jimenez Bustamante, R. T.; Jones, P. G.; Jung, H.; Jusko, A.; Kalinak, P.; Kalweit, A.; Kamin, J.; Kang, J. H.; Kaplin, V.; Kar, S.; Karasu Uysal, A.; Karavichev, O.; Karavicheva, T.; Karayan, L.; Karpechev, E.; Kebschull, U.; Keidel, R.; Keijdener, D. L. D.; Keil, M.; Khan, K. H.; Mohisin Khan, M.; Khan, P.; Khan, S. A.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kharlov, Y.; Kileng, B.; Kim, B.; Kim, D. W.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, H.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, M.; Kim, M.; Kim, S.; Kim, T.; Kirsch, S.; Kisel, I.; Kiselev, S.; Kisiel, A.; Kiss, G.; Klay, J. L.; Klein, C.; Klein, J.; Klein-Bösing, C.; Kluge, A.; Knichel, M. L.; Knospe, A. G.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobdaj, C.; Kofarago, M.; Kollegger, T.; Kolojvari, A.; Kondratiev, V.; Kondratyeva, N.; Kondratyuk, E.; Konevskikh, A.; Kopcik, M.; Kour, M.; Kouzinopoulos, C.; Kovalenko, O.; Kovalenko, V.; Kowalski, M.; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, G.; Kral, J.; Králik, I.; Kravčáková, A.; Kretz, M.; Krivda, M.; Krizek, F.; Kryshen, E.; Krzewicki, M.; Kubera, A. M.; Kučera, V.; Kugathasan, T.; Kuhn, C.; Kuijer, P. G.; Kumar, A.; Kumar, J.; Kumar, L.; Kurashvili, P.; Kurepin, A.; Kurepin, A. B.; Kuryakin, A.; Kushpil, S.; Kweon, M. J.; Kwon, Y.; La Pointe, S. L.; La Rocca, P.; Lagana Fernandes, C.; Lakomov, I.; Langoy, R.; Lara, C.; Lardeux, A.; Lattuca, A.; Laudi, E.; Lea, R.; Leardini, L.; Lee, G. R.; Lee, S.; Legrand, I.; Lehas, F.; Lemmon, R. C.; Lenti, V.; Leogrande, E.; León Monzón, I.; Leoncino, M.; Lévai, P.; Li, S.; Li, X.; Lien, J.; Lietava, R.; Lindal, S.; Lindenstruth, V.; Lippmann, C.; Lisa, M. A.; Ljunggren, H. M.; Lodato, D. F.; Loenne, P. I.; Loginov, V.; Loizides, C.; Lopez, X.; López Torres, E.; Lowe, A.; Luettig, P.; Lunardon, M.; Luparello, G.; Luz, P. H. F. N. D.; Maevskaya, A.; Mager, M.; Mahajan, S.; Mahmood, S. M.; Maire, A.; Majka, R. D.; Malaev, M.; Maldonado Cervantes, I.; Malinina, L.; Mal'Kevich, D.; Malzacher, P.; Mamonov, A.; Manko, V.; Manso, F.; Manzari, V.; Marchisone, M.; Mareš, J.; Margagliotti, G. V.; Margotti, A.; Margutti, J.; Marín, A.; Markert, C.; Marquard, M.; Martin, N. A.; Martin Blanco, J.; Martinengo, P.; Martínez, M. I.; Martínez García, G.; Martinez Pedreira, M.; Martynov, Y.; Mas, A.; Masciocchi, S.; Masera, M.; Masoni, A.; Massacrier, L.; Mastroserio, A.; Masui, H.; Matyja, A.; Mayer, C.; Mazer, J.; Mazzoni, M. A.; McDonald, D.; Meddi, F.; Melikyan, Y.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Meninno, E.; Mercado Pérez, J.; Meres, M.; Miake, Y.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Mikhaylov, K.; Milano, L.; Milosevic, J.; Minervini, L. M.; Mischke, A.; Mishra, A. N.; Miśkowiec, D.; Mitra, J.; Mitu, C. M.; Mohammadi, N.; Mohanty, B.; Molnar, L.; Montaño Zetina, L.; Montes, E.; Morando, M.; Moreira de Godoy, D. A.; Moretto, S.; Morreale, A.; Morsch, A.; Muccifora, V.; Mudnic, E.; Mühlheim, D.; Muhuri, S.; Mukherjee, M.; Mulligan, J. D.; Munhoz, M. G.; Murray, S.; Musa, L.; Musinsky, J.; Nandi, B. K.; Nania, R.; Nappi, E.; Naru, M. U.; Nattrass, C.; Nayak, K.; Nayak, T. K.; Nazarenko, S.; Nedosekin, A.; Nellen, L.; Ng, F.; Nicassio, M.; Niculescu, M.; Niedziela, J.; Nielsen, B. S.; Nikolaev, S.; Nikulin, S.; Nikulin, V.; Noferini, F.; Nomokonov, P.; Nooren, G.; Noris, J. C. C.; Norman, J.; Nyanin, A.; Nystrand, J.; Oeschler, H.; Oh, S.; Oh, S. K.; Ohlson, A.; Okatan, A.; Okubo, T.; Olah, L.; Oleniacz, J.; Oliveira da Silva, A. C.; Oliver, M. H.; Onderwaater, J.; Oppedisano, C.; Orava, R.; Ortiz Velasquez, A.; Oskarsson, A.; Otwinowski, J.; Oyama, K.; Ozdemir, M.; Pachmayer, Y.; Pagano, P.; Paić, G.; Pajares, C.; Pal, S. K.; Pan, J.; Pandey, A. K.; Pant, D.; Papcun, P.; Papikyan, V.; Pappalardo, G. S.; Pareek, P.; Park, W. J.; Parmar, S.; Passfeld, A.; Paticchio, V.; Patra, R. N.; Paul, B.; Peitzmann, T.; Pereira da Costa, H.; Pereira de Oliveira Filho, E.; Peresunko, D.; Pérez Lara, C. E.; Perez Lezama, E.; Peskov, V.; Pestov, Y.; Petráček, V.; Petrov, V.; Petrovici, M.; Petta, C.; Piano, S.; Pikna, M.; Pillot, P.; Pinazza, O.; Pinsky, L.; Piyarathna, D. B.; Płoskoń, M.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Pochybova, S.; Podesta-Lerma, P. L. M.; Poghosyan, M. G.; Polichtchouk, B.; Poljak, N.; Poonsawat, W.; Pop, A.; Porteboeuf-Houssais, S.; Porter, J.; Pospisil, J.; Prasad, S. K.; Preghenella, R.; Prino, F.; Pruneau, C. A.; Pshenichnov, I.; Puccio, M.; Puddu, G.; Pujahari, P.; Punin, V.; Putschke, J.; Qvigstad, H.; Rachevski, A.; Raha, S.; Rajput, S.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ramello, L.; Rami, F.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Räsänen, S. S.; Rascanu, B. T.; Rathee, D.; Read, K. F.; Real, J. S.; Redlich, K.; Reed, R. J.; Rehman, A.; Reichelt, P.; Reidt, F.; Ren, X.; Renfordt, R.; Reolon, A. R.; Reshetin, A.; Rettig, F.; Revol, J.-P.; Reygers, K.; Riabov, V.; Ricci, R. A.; Richert, T.; Richter, M.; Riedler, P.; Riegler, W.; Riggi, F.; Ristea, C.; Rivetti, A.; Rocco, E.; Rodríguez Cahuantzi, M.; Rodriguez Manso, A.; Røed, K.; Rogochaya, E.; Rohr, D.; Röhrich, D.; Romita, R.; Ronchetti, F.; Ronflette, L.; Rosnet, P.; Rossi, A.; Roukoutakis, F.; Roy, A.; Roy, C.; Roy, P.; Rubio Montero, A. J.; Rui, R.; Russo, R.; Ryabinkin, E.; Ryabov, Y.; Rybicki, A.; Sadovsky, S.; Šafařík, K.; Sahlmuller, B.; Sahoo, P.; Sahoo, R.; Sahoo, S.; Sahu, P. K.; Saini, J.; Sakai, S.; Saleh, M. A.; Salgado, C. A.; Salzwedel, J.; Sambyal, S.; Samsonov, V.; Sanchez Castro, X.; Šándor, L.; Sandoval, A.; Sano, M.; Sarkar, D.; Scapparone, E.; Scarlassara, F.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schiaua, C.; Schicker, R.; Schmidt, C.; Schmidt, H. R.; Schuchmann, S.; Schukraft, J.; Schulc, M.; Schuster, T.; Schutz, Y.; Schwarz, K.; Schweda, K.; Scioli, G.; Scomparin, E.; Scott, R.; Seger, J. E.; Sekiguchi, Y.; Sekihata, D.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Senosi, K.; Seo, J.; Serradilla, E.; Sevcenco, A.; Shabanov, A.; Shabetai, A.; Shadura, O.; Shahoyan, R.; Shangaraev, A.; Sharma, A.; Sharma, M.; Sharma, M.; Sharma, N.; Shigaki, K.; Shtejer, K.; Sibiriak, Y.; Siddhanta, S.; Sielewicz, K. M.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Simatovic, G.; Simonetti, G.; Singaraju, R.; Singh, R.; Singha, S.; Singhal, V.; Sinha, B. C.; Sinha, T.; Sitar, B.; Sitta, M.; Skaali, T. B.; Slupecki, M.; Smirnov, N.; Snellings, R. J. M.; Snellman, T. W.; Søgaard, C.; Soltz, R.; Song, J.; Song, M.; Song, Z.; Soramel, F.; Sorensen, S.; Spacek, M.; Spiriti, E.; Sputowska, I.; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, M.; Srivastava, B. K.; Stachel, J.; Stan, I.; Stefanek, G.; Steinpreis, M.; Stenlund, E.; Steyn, G.; Stiller, J. H.; Stocco, D.; Strmen, P.; Suaide, A. A. P.; Sugitate, T.; Suire, C.; Suleymanov, M.; Sultanov, R.; Šumbera, M.; Symons, T. J. M.; Szabo, A.; Szanto de Toledo, A.; Szarka, I.; Szczepankiewicz, A.; Szymanski, M.; Tabassam, U.; Takahashi, J.; Tambave, G. J.; Tanaka, N.; Tangaro, M. A.; Tapia Takaki, J. D.; Tarantola Peloni, A.; Tarhini, M.; Tariq, M.; Tarzila, M. G.; Tauro, A.; Tejeda Muñoz, G.; Telesca, A.; Terasaki, K.; Terrevoli, C.; Teyssier, B.; Thäder, J.; Thomas, D.; Tieulent, R.; Timmins, A. R.; Toia, A.; Trogolo, S.; Trubnikov, V.; Trzaska, W. H.; Tsuji, T.; Tumkin, A.; Turrisi, R.; Tveter, T. S.; Ullaland, K.; Uras, A.; Usai, G. L.; Utrobicic, A.; Vajzer, M.; Vala, M.; Valencia Palomo, L.; Vallero, S.; van der Maarel, J.; van Hoorne, J. W.; van Leeuwen, M.; Vanat, T.; Vande Vyvre, P.; Varga, D.; Vargas, A.; Vargyas, M.; Varma, R.; Vasileiou, M.; Vasiliev, A.; Vauthier, A.; Vechernin, V.; Veen, A. M.; Veldhoen, M.; Velure, A.; Venaruzzo, M.; Vercellin, E.; Vergara Limón, S.; Vernet, R.; Verweij, M.; Vickovic, L.; Viesti, G.; Viinikainen, J.; Vilakazi, Z.; Villalobos Baillie, O.; Vinogradov, A.; Vinogradov, L.; Vinogradov, Y.; Virgili, T.; Vislavicius, V.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vodopyanov, A.; Völkl, M. A.; Voloshin, K.; Voloshin, S. A.; Volpe, G.; von Haller, B.; Vorobyev, I.; Vranic, D.; Vrláková, J.; Vulpescu, B.; Vyushin, A.; Wagner, B.; Wagner, J.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, Y.; Watanabe, D.; Watanabe, Y.; Weber, M.; Weber, S. G.; Wessels, J. P.; Westerhoff, U.; Wiechula, J.; Wikne, J.; Wilde, M.; Wilk, G.; Wilkinson, J.; Williams, M. C. S.; Windelband, B.; Winn, M.; Yaldo, C. G.; Yang, H.; Yang, P.; Yano, S.; Yin, Z.; Yokoyama, H.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yurchenko, V.; Yushmanov, I.; Zaborowska, A.; Zaccolo, V.; Zaman, A.; Zampolli, C.; Zanoli, H. J. C.; Zaporozhets, S.; Zardoshti, N.; Zarochentsev, A.; Závada, P.; Zaviyalov, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zgura, I. S.; Zhalov, M.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhigareva, N.; Zhou, D.; Zhou, Y.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, X.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, A.; Zimmermann, M. B.; Zinovjev, G.; Zyzak, M.; Alice Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    We report on results obtained with the event-shape engineering technique applied to Pb-Pb collisions at √{sNN}=2.76 TeV. By selecting events in the same centrality interval, but with very different average flow, different initial-state conditions can be studied. We find the effect of the event-shape selection on the elliptic flow coefficient v2 to be almost independent of transverse momentum pT, which is as expected if this effect is attributable to fluctuations in the initial geometry of the system. Charged-hadron, -pion, -kaon, and -proton transverse momentum distributions are found to be harder in events with higher-than-average elliptic flow, indicating an interplay between radial and elliptic flow.

  8. Centrality and pseudorapidity dependence of elliptic flow for charged hadrons in Au+Au collisions at {radical}(s{sub NN})=200 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Back, B.B.; Wuosmaa, A.H.; Baker, M.D.; Barton, D.S.; Carroll, A.; Gushue, S.; Heintzelman, G.A.; Holzman, B.; Nguyen, M.; Pak, R.; Remsberg, L.P.; Steinberg, P.; Sukhanov, A.; Ballintijn, M.; Busza, W.; Decowski, M.P.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Henderson, C.; Kane, J.L.; Kulinich, P.

    2005-11-01

    This Rapid Communication describes the measurement of elliptic flow for charged particles in Au+Au collisions at {radical}(s{sub NN})=200 GeV using the PHOBOS detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. The measured azimuthal anisotropy is presented over a wide range of pseudorapidity for three broad collision centrality classes for the first time at this energy. Two distinct methods of extracting the flow signal were used to reduce systematic uncertainties. The elliptic flow falls sharply with increasing |{eta}| at 200 GeV for all the centralities studied, as observed for minimum-bias collisions at {radical}(s{sub NN})=130 GeV.

  9. Observation of charge asymmetry dependence of pion elliptic flow and the possible chiral magnetic wave in heavy-ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Adamczyk, L.

    2015-06-26

    We present measurements of π⁻ and π⁺ elliptic flow, v₂, at midrapidity in Au+Au collisions at √sNN = 200, 62.4, 39, 27, 19.6, 11.5, and 7.7 GeV, as a function of event-by-event charge asymmetry, Ach, based on data from the STAR experiment at RHIC. We find that π⁻ (π⁺) elliptic flow linearly increases (decreases) with charge asymmetry for most centrality bins at √sNN = 27 GeV and higher. At √sNN = 200 GeV, the slope of the difference of v₂ between π⁻ and π⁺ as a function of Ach exhibits a centrality dependence, which is qualitatively similar to calculations that incorporate a chiral magnetic wave effect. In addition, similar centrality dependence is also observed at lower energies.

  10. Observation of charge asymmetry dependence of pion elliptic flow and the possible chiral magnetic wave in heavy-ion collisions

    DOE PAGES

    Adamczyk, L.

    2015-06-26

    We present measurements of π⁻ and π⁺ elliptic flow, v₂, at midrapidity in Au+Au collisions at √sNN = 200, 62.4, 39, 27, 19.6, 11.5, and 7.7 GeV, as a function of event-by-event charge asymmetry, Ach, based on data from the STAR experiment at RHIC. We find that π⁻ (π⁺) elliptic flow linearly increases (decreases) with charge asymmetry for most centrality bins at √sNN = 27 GeV and higher. At √sNN = 200 GeV, the slope of the difference of v₂ between π⁻ and π⁺ as a function of Ach exhibits a centrality dependence, which is qualitatively similar to calculations thatmore » incorporate a chiral magnetic wave effect. In addition, similar centrality dependence is also observed at lower energies.« less

  11. Calculation of the flow through a single-sided sudden expansion with the Computer Program for Parabolic and Elliptic Flows (COPPEF) computer program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veraar, R. G.

    1987-06-01

    The implementation of the single-sided sudden expansion configuration in the Computer Program for Parabolic and Elliptic Flows (COPPEF) is described. Modifications of the computer program were tested and calculations describing the cold flow through a single-sided sudden expansion were carried out. The calculations show that the flow structure and the reattachment length in particular are very sensitive to the inlet flow conditions. Reattachment length is found to vary linearly with the expansion ratio. At high Reynolds numbers, the calculated reattachment length is hardly affected by changing the Reynolds number. Varying the length of the solution domain has no significant effect on the calculated reattachment length. Comparison of the results with experimental data show that COPPEF can calculate the flow through a single-sided sudden expansion in reasonable agreement with experiment. The calculated reattachment length is in close agreement to the reattachment lengths obtained with computer proframs which use the same turbulence closure model as COPPEF.

  12. Surface Waves and Flow-Induced Oscillations along an Underground Elliptic Cylinder Filled with a Viscous Fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakuraba, A.

    2015-12-01

    I made a linear analysis of flow-induced oscillations along an underground cylindrical conduit with an elliptical cross section on the basis of the hypothesis that volcanic tremor is a result of magma movement through a conduit. As a first step to understand how the self oscillation occurs because of magma flow, I investigated surface wave propagation and attenuation along an infinitely long fluid-filled elliptic cylinder in an elastic medium. The boundary element method is used to obtain the two-dimensional wave field around the ellipse in the frequency-wavenumber domain. When the major axis is much greater than the minor axis of the ellipse, we obtain the analytic form of the dispersion relation of both the crack-wave mode (Korneev 2008, Lipovsky & Dunham 2015) and the Rayleigh-wave mode with flexural deformation. The crack-wave mode generally has a slower phase speed and a higher attenuation than the Rayleigh-wave mode. In the long-wavelength limit, the crack-wave mode disappears because of fluid viscosity, but the Rayleigh-wave mode exists with a constant Q-value that depends on viscosity. When the aspect ratio of the ellipse is finite, the surface waves can basically be understood as those propagating along a fluid pipe. The flexural mode does exist even when the wavelength is much longer than the major axis, but its phase speed coincides with that of the surrounding S-wave (Randall 1991). As its attenuation is zero in the long-wavelength limit, the flexural mode differs in nature from surface wave. I also obtain a result on linear stability of viscous flow through an elliptic cylinder. In this analysis, I made an assumption that the fluid inertia is so small that the Stokes equation can be used. As suggested by the author's previous study (Sakuraba & Yamauchi 2014), the flexural (Rayleigh-wave) mode is destabilized at a critical flow speed that decreases with the wavelength. However, when the wavelength is much greater than the major axis of the ellipse, the

  13. Production and elliptic flow of dileptons and photons in a matrix model of the quark-gluon plasma.

    PubMed

    Gale, Charles; Hidaka, Yoshimasa; Jeon, Sangyong; Lin, Shu; Paquet, Jean-François; Pisarski, Robert D; Satow, Daisuke; Skokov, Vladimir V; Vujanovic, Gojko

    2015-02-20

    We consider a nonperturbative approach to the thermal production of dileptons and photons at temperatures near the critical temperature in QCD. The suppression of colored excitations at low temperature is modeled by including a small value of the Polyakov loop, in a "semi"-quark-gluon plasma (QGP). Comparing the semi-QGP to the perturbative QGP, we find a mild enhancement of thermal dileptons. In contrast, to leading logarithmic order in weak coupling there are far fewer hard photons from the semi-QGP than the usual QGP. To illustrate the possible effects on photon and dilepton production in heavy-ion collisions, we integrate the rate with a simulation using ideal hydrodynamics. Dileptons uniformly exhibit a small flow, but the strong suppression of photons in the semi-QGP tends to weight the elliptical flow of photons to that generated in the hadronic phase.

  14. Unsteady flow field, lift and drag measurements of impulsively started elliptic cylinder and circular-arc airfoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izumi, K.; Kuwahara, K.

    1983-07-01

    Developments of flow fields around and forces acting on an elliptic cylinder and a circular-arc airfoil with high angle of attack after impulsive start were experimentally investigated using a water tank. Special attention is called to elucidate the correlation between the unsteady forces acting on the body and the corresponding flow patterns. Except the initial instant, the peaks of the lift are observed when the large, separated vortex from the leading edge is traped on the leeward surface of the body, while the troughs of it coincide to the period when these vortex is shed from the trailing edge. The variations of the drag are found to be very small compared with those of the lift. These results are succesfully compared with the corresponding computation by discrete-vortex approximation.

  15. Rotational properties of N Almost-Equal-To Z nuclei in the presence of neutron-proton correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Sitdikov, A. S. Nikitin, A. S.; Khamzin, A. A.

    2008-02-15

    In the Hartree-Fock-Bogolyubov approximation, the cranking model is formulated with allowance for residual neutron-proton correlations whose interaction has a Gaussian form. The behavior of quasiparticle levels versus the frequency of rotation of the even-even isotopes {sup 72-76}Kr is investigated within this approach.

  16. Exact canonically conjugate momenta approach to a one-dimensional neutron-proton system, I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, Seiya; da Providência, João

    2015-06-01

    Introducing collective variables, a collective description of nuclear surface oscillations has been developed with the first-quantized language, contrary to the second-quantized one in Sunakawa's approach for a Bose system. It overcomes difficulties remaining in the traditional theories of nuclear collective motions: Collective momenta are not exact canonically conjugate to collective coordinates and are not independent. On the contrary to such a description, Tomonaga first gave the basic idea to approach elementary excitations in a one-dimensional Fermi system. The Sunakawa's approach for a Fermi system is also expected to work well for such a problem. In this paper, on the isospin space, we define a density operator and further following Tomonaga, introduce a collective momentum. We propose an exact canonically momenta approach to a one-dimensional neutron-proton (N-P) system under the use of the Grassmann variables.

  17. D meson elliptic flow in noncentral Pb-Pb collisions at sqrt[sNN]=2.76 Tev.

    PubMed

    Abelev, B; Adam, J; Adamová, D; Adare, A M; Aggarwal, M M; Aglieri Rinella, G; Agnello, M; Agocs, A G; Agostinelli, A; Ahammed, Z; Ahmad, N; Ahmad Masoodi, A; Ahmed, I; Ahn, S U; Ahn, S A; Aimo, I; Ajaz, M; Akindinov, A; Aleksandrov, D; Alessandro, B; Alexandre, D; Alici, A; Alkin, A; Alme, J; Alt, T; Altini, V; Altinpinar, S; Altsybeev, I; Andrei, C; Andronic, A; Anguelov, V; Anielski, J; Anson, C; Antičić, T; Antinori, F; Antonioli, P; Aphecetche, L; Appelshäuser, H; Arbor, N; Arcelli, S; Arend, A; Armesto, N; Arnaldi, R; Aronsson, T; Arsene, I C; Arslandok, M; Asryan, A; Augustinus, A; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Äystö, J; Azmi, M D; Bach, M; Badalà, A; Baek, Y W; Bailhache, R; Bala, R; Baldisseri, A; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F; Bán, J; Baral, R C; Barbera, R; Barile, F; Barnaföldi, G G; Barnby, L S; Barret, V; Bartke, J; Basile, M; Bastid, N; Basu, S; Bathen, B; Batigne, G; Batyunya, B; Batzing, P C; Baumann, C; Bearden, I G; Beck, H; Behera, N K; Belikov, I; Bellini, F; Bellwied, R; Belmont-Moreno, E; Bencedi, G; Beole, S; Berceanu, I; Bercuci, A; Berdnikov, Y; Berenyi, D; Bergognon, A A E; Bertens, R A; Berzano, D; Betev, L; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bhom, J; Bianchi, N; Bianchi, L; Bianchin, C; Bielčík, J; Bielčíková, J; Bilandzic, A; Bjelogrlic, S; Blanco, F; Blanco, F; Blau, D; Blume, C; Boccioli, M; Böttger, S; Bogdanov, A; Bøggild, H; Bogolyubsky, M; Boldizsár, L; Bombara, M; Book, J; Borel, H; Borissov, A; Bossú, F; Botje, M; Botta, E; Braidot, E; Braun-Munzinger, P; Bregant, M; Breitner, T; Broker, T A; Browning, T A; Broz, M; Brun, R; Bruna, E; Bruno, G E; Budnikov, D; Buesching, H; Bufalino, S; Buncic, P; Busch, O; Buthelezi, Z; Caffarri, D; Cai, X; Caines, H; Caliva, A; Calvo Villar, E; Camerini, P; Canoa Roman, V; Cara Romeo, G; Carena, F; Carena, W; Carlin Filho, N; Carminati, F; Casanova Díaz, A; Castillo Castellanos, J; Castillo Hernandez, J F; Casula, E A R; Catanescu, V; Cavicchioli, C; Ceballos Sanchez, C; Cepila, J; Cerello, P; Chang, B; Chapeland, S; Charvet, J L; Chattopadhyay, S; Chattopadhyay, S; Cherney, M; Cheshkov, C; Cheynis, B; Chibante Barroso, V; Chinellato, D D; Chochula, P; Chojnacki, M; Choudhury, S; Christakoglou, P; Christensen, C H; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Chung, S U; Cicalo, C; Cifarelli, L; Cindolo, F; Cleymans, J; Colamaria, F; Colella, D; Collu, A; Conesa Balbastre, G; Conesa del Valle, Z; Connors, M E; Contin, G; Contreras, J G; Cormier, T M; Corrales Morales, Y; Cortese, P; Cortés Maldonado, I; Cosentino, M R; Costa, F; Cotallo, M E; Crescio, E; Crochet, P; Cruz Alaniz, E; Cruz Albino, R; Cuautle, E; Cunqueiro, L; Dainese, A; Dang, R; Danu, A; Das, S; Das, K; Das, I; Das, D; Dash, S; Dash, A; De, S; de Barros, G O V; De Caro, A; de Cataldo, G; de Cuveland, J; De Falco, A; De Gruttola, D; Delagrange, H; Deloff, A; De Marco, N; Dénes, E; De Pasquale, S; Deppman, A; D'Erasmo, G; de Rooij, R; Diaz Corchero, M A; Di Bari, D; Dietel, T; Di Giglio, C; Di Liberto, S; Di Mauro, A; Di Nezza, P; Divià, R; Djuvsland, Ø; Dobrin, A; Dobrowolski, T; Dönigus, B; Dordic, O; Dubey, A K; Dubla, A; Ducroux, L; Dupieux, P; Dutta Majumdar, A K; Elia, D; Elwood, B G; Emschermann, D; Engel, H; Erazmus, B; Erdal, H A; Eschweiler, D; Espagnon, B; Estienne, M; Esumi, S; Evans, D; Evdokimov, S; Eyyubova, G; Fabris, D; Faivre, J; Falchieri, D; Fantoni, A; Fasel, M; Fehlker, D; Feldkamp, L; Felea, D; Feliciello, A; Fenton-Olsen, B; Feofilov, G; Fernández Téllez, A; Ferretti, A; Festanti, A; Figiel, J; Figueredo, M A S; Filchagin, S; Finogeev, D; Fionda, F M; Fiore, E M; Floratos, E; Floris, M; Foertsch, S; Foka, P; Fokin, S; Fragiacomo, E; Francescon, A; Frankenfeld, U; Fuchs, U; Furget, C; Fusco Girard, M; Gaardhøje, J J; Gagliardi, M; Gago, A; Gallio, M; Gangadharan, D R; Ganoti, P; Garabatos, C; Garcia-Solis, E; Gargiulo, C; Garishvili, I; Gerhard, J; Germain, M; Geuna, C; Gheata, A; Gheata, M; Ghidini, B; Ghosh, P; Gianotti, P; Giubellino, P; Gladysz-Dziadus, E; Glässel, P; Goerlich, L; Gomez, R; Ferreiro, E G; González-Zamora, P; Gorbunov, S; Goswami, A; Gotovac, S; Graczykowski, L K; Grajcarek, R; Grelli, A; Grigoras, C; Grigoras, A; Grigoriev, V; Grigoryan, S; Grigoryan, A; Grinyov, B; Grion, N; Gros, P; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J F; Grossiord, J-Y; Grosso, R; Guber, F; Guernane, R; Guerzoni, B; Guilbaud, M; Gulbrandsen, K; Gulkanyan, H; Gunji, T; Gupta, A; Gupta, R; Haake, R; Haaland, Ø; Hadjidakis, C; Haiduc, M; Hamagaki, H; Hamar, G; Han, B H; Hanratty, L D; Hansen, A; Harris, J W; Harton, A; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hayashi, S; Hayrapetyan, A; Heckel, S T; Heide, M; Helstrup, H; Herghelegiu, A; Herrera Corral, G; Herrmann, N; Hess, B A; Hetland, K F; Hicks, B; Hippolyte, B; Hori, Y; Hristov, P; Hřivnáčová, I; Huang, M; Humanic, T J; Hwang, D S; Ichou, R; Ilkaev, R; Ilkiv, I; Inaba, M; Incani, E; Innocenti, P G; Innocenti, G M; Ionita, C; Ippolitov, M; Irfan, M; Ivan, C; Ivanov, A; Ivanov, M; Ivanov, V; Ivanytskyi, O; Jachołkowski, A; Jacobs, P M; Jahnke, C; Jang, H J; Janik, M A; Jayarathna, P H S Y; Jena, S; Jha, D M; Jimenez Bustamante, R T; Jones, P G; Jung, H; Jusko, A; Kaidalov, A B; Kalcher, S; Kaliňák, P; Kalliokoski, T; Kalweit, A; Kang, J H; Kaplin, V; Kar, S; Karasu Uysal, A; Karavichev, O; Karavicheva, T; Karpechev, E; Kazantsev, A; Kebschull, U; Keidel, R; Ketzer, B; Khan, S A; Khan, M M; Khan, K H; Khan, P; Khanzadeev, A; Kharlov, Y; Kileng, B; Kim, J H; Kim, D W; Kim, T; Kim, S; Kim, B; Kim, M; Kim, M; Kim, J S; Kim, D J; Kirsch, S; Kisel, I; Kiselev, S; Kisiel, A; Klay, J L; Klein, J; Klein-Bösing, C; Kliemant, M; Kluge, A; Knichel, M L; Knospe, A G; Köhler, M K; Kollegger, T; Kolojvari, A; Kompaniets, M; Kondratiev, V; Kondratyeva, N; Konevskikh, A; Kovalenko, V; Kowalski, M; Kox, S; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, G; Kral, J; Králik, I; Kramer, F; Kravčáková, A; Krelina, M; Kretz, M; Krivda, M; Krizek, F; Krus, M; Kryshen, E; Krzewicki, M; Kucera, V; Kucheriaev, Y; Kugathasan, T; Kuhn, C; Kuijer, P G; Kulakov, I; Kumar, J; Kurashvili, P; Kurepin, A B; Kurepin, A; Kuryakin, A; Kushpil, S; Kushpil, V; Kvaerno, H; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Lagana Fernandes, C; Lakomov, I; Langoy, R; La Pointe, S L; Lara, C; Lardeux, A; La Rocca, P; Lea, R; Lechman, M; Lee, S C; Lee, G R; Legrand, I; Lehnert, J; Lemmon, R C; Lenhardt, M; Lenti, V; León, H; Leoncino, M; León Monzón, I; Lévai, P; Li, S; Lien, J; Lietava, R; Lindal, S; Lindenstruth, V; Lippmann, C; Lisa, M A; Ljunggren, H M; Lodato, D F; Loenne, P I; Loggins, V R; Loginov, V; Lohner, D; Loizides, C; Loo, K K; Lopez, X; López Torres, E; Løvhøiden, G; Lu, X-G; Luettig, P; Lunardon, M; Luo, J; Luparello, G; Luzzi, C; Ma, R; Ma, K; Madagodahettige-Don, D M; Maevskaya, A; Mager, M; Mahapatra, D P; Maire, A; Malaev, M; Maldonado Cervantes, I; Malinina, L; Mal'Kevich, D; Malzacher, P; Mamonov, A; Manceau, L; Mangotra, L; Manko, V; Manso, F; Manzari, V; Marchisone, M; Mareš, J; Margagliotti, G V; Margotti, A; Marín, A; Markert, C; Marquard, M; Martashvili, I; Martin, N A; Martin Blanco, J; Martinengo, P; Martínez, M I; Martínez García, G; Martynov, Y; Mas, A; Masciocchi, S; Masera, M; Masoni, A; Massacrier, L; Mastroserio, A; Matyja, A; Mayer, C; Mazer, J; Mazumder, R; Mazzoni, M A; Meddi, F; Menchaca-Rocha, A; Mercado Pérez, J; Meres, M; Miake, Y; Mikhaylov, K; Milano, L; Milosevic, J; Mischke, A; Mishra, A N; Miśkowiec, D; Mitu, C; Mizuno, S; Mlynarz, J; Mohanty, B; Molnar, L; Montaño Zetina, L; Monteno, M; Montes, E; Moon, T; Morando, M; Moreira De Godoy, D A; Moretto, S; Morreale, A; Morsch, A; Muccifora, V; Mudnic, E; Muhuri, S; Mukherjee, M; Müller, H; Munhoz, M G; Murray, S; Musa, L; Musinsky, J; Nandi, B K; Nania, R; Nappi, E; Nattrass, C; Nayak, T K; Nazarenko, S; Nedosekin, A; Nicassio, M; Niculescu, M; Nielsen, B S; Niida, T; Nikolaev, S; Nikolic, V; Nikulin, S; Nikulin, V; Nilsen, B S; Nilsson, M S; Noferini, F; Nomokonov, P; Nooren, G; Nyanin, A; Nyatha, A; Nygaard, C; Nystrand, J; Ochirov, A; Oeschler, H; Oh, S K; Oh, S; Oleniacz, J; Oliveira Da Silva, A C; Onderwaater, J; Oppedisano, C; Ortiz Velasquez, A; Ortona, G; Oskarsson, A; Ostrowski, P; Otwinowski, J; Oyama, K; Ozawa, K; Pachmayer, Y; Pachr, M; Padilla, F; Pagano, P; Paić, G; Painke, F; Pajares, C; Pal, S K; Palaha, A; Palmeri, A; Papikyan, V; Pappalardo, G S; Park, W J; Passfeld, A; Patalakha, D I; Paticchio, V; Paul, B; Pavlinov, A; Pawlak, T; Peitzmann, T; Pereira Da Costa, H; Pereira De Oliveira Filho, E; Peresunko, D; Pérez Lara, C E; Perrino, D; Peryt, W; Pesci, A; Pestov, Y; Petráček, V; Petran, M; Petris, M; Petrov, P; Petrovici, M; Petta, C; Piano, S; Pikna, M; Pillot, P; Pinazza, O; Pinsky, L; Pitz, N; Piyarathna, D B; Planinic, M; Płoskoń, M; Pluta, J; Pocheptsov, T; Pochybova, S; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Poghosyan, M G; Polák, K; Polichtchouk, B; Poljak, N; Pop, A; Porteboeuf-Houssais, S; Pospíšil, V; Potukuchi, B; Prasad, S K; Preghenella, R; Prino, F; Pruneau, C A; Pshenichnov, I; Puddu, G; Punin, V; Putschke, J; Qvigstad, H; Rachevski, A; Rademakers, A; Rak, J; Rakotozafindrabe, A; Ramello, L; Raniwala, S; Raniwala, R; Räsänen, S S; Rascanu, B T; Rathee, D; Rauch, W; Rauf, A W; Razazi, V; Read, K F; Real, J S; Redlich, K; Reed, R J; Rehman, A; Reichelt, P; Reicher, M; Reidt, F; Renfordt, R; Reolon, A R; Reshetin, A; Rettig, F; Revol, J-P; Reygers, K; Riccati, L; Ricci, R A; Richert, T; Richter, M; Riedler, P; Riegler, W; Riggi, F; Rivetti, A; Rodríguez Cahuantzi, M; Rodriguez Manso, A; Røed, K; Rogochaya, E; Rohr, D; Röhrich, D; Romita, R; Ronchetti, F; Rosnet, P; Rossegger, S; Rossi, A; Roy, C; Roy, P; Rubio Montero, A J; Rui, R; Russo, R; Ryabinkin, E; Rybicki, A; Sadovsky, S; Šafařík, K; Sahoo, R; Sahu, P K; Saini, J; Sakaguchi, H; Sakai, S; Sakata, D; Salgado, C A; Salzwedel, J; Sambyal, S; Samsonov, V; Sanchez Castro, X; Šándor, L; Sandoval, A; Sano, M; Santagati, G; Santoro, R; Sarkar, D; Scapparone, E; Scarlassara, F; Scharenberg, R P; Schiaua, C; Schicker, R; Schmidt, C; Schmidt, H R; Schuchmann, S; Schukraft, J; Schuster, T; Schutz, Y; Schwarz, K; Schweda, K; Scioli, G; Scomparin, E; Scott, R; Scott, P A; Segato, G; Selyuzhenkov, I; Senyukov, S; Seo, J; Serci, S; Serradilla, E; Sevcenco, A; Shabetai, A; Shabratova, G; Shahoyan, R; Sharma, S; Sharma, N; Rohni, S; Shigaki, K; Shtejer, K; Sibiriak, Y; Siddhanta, S; Siemiarczuk, T; Silvermyr, D; Silvestre, C; Simatovic, G; Simonetti, G; Singaraju, R; Singh, R; Singha, S; Singhal, V; Sinha, T; Sinha, B C; Sitar, B; Sitta, M; Skaali, T B; Skjerdal, K; Smakal, R; Smirnov, N; Snellings, R J M; Søgaard, C; Soltz, R; Song, M; Song, J; Soos, C; Soramel, F; Sputowska, I; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, M; Srivastava, B K; Stachel, J; Stan, I; Stefanek, G; Steinpreis, M; Stenlund, E; Steyn, G; Stiller, J H; Stocco, D; Stolpovskiy, M; Strmen, P; Suaide, A A P; Subieta Vásquez, M A; Sugitate, T; Suire, C; Suleymanov, M; Sultanov, R; Šumbera, M; Susa, T; Symons, T J M; Szanto de Toledo, A; Szarka, I; Szczepankiewicz, A; Szymański, M; Takahashi, J; Tangaro, M A; Tapia Takaki, J D; Tarantola Peloni, A; Tarazona Martinez, A; Tauro, A; Tejeda Muñoz, G; Telesca, A; Ter Minasyan, A; Terrevoli, C; Thäder, J; Thomas, D; Tieulent, R; Timmins, A R; Tlusty, D; Toia, A; Torii, H; Toscano, L; Trubnikov, V; Truesdale, D; Trzaska, W H; Tsuji, T; Tumkin, A; Turrisi, R; Tveter, T S; Ulery, J; Ullaland, K; Ulrich, J; Uras, A; Urciuoli, G M; Usai, G L; Vajzer, M; Vala, M; Valencia Palomo, L; Vallero, S; Vande Vyvre, P; Van Hoorne, J W; van Leeuwen, M; Vannucci, L; Vargas, A; Varma, R; Vasileiou, M; Vasiliev, A; Vechernin, V; Veldhoen, M; Venaruzzo, M; Vercellin, E; Vergara, S; Vernet, R; Verweij, M; Vickovic, L; Viesti, G; Viinikainen, J; Vilakazi, Z; Villalobos Baillie, O; Vinogradov, A; Vinogradov, Y; Vinogradov, L; Virgili, T; Viyogi, Y P; Vodopyanov, A; Völkl, M A; Voloshin, S; Voloshin, K; Volpe, G; von Haller, B; Vorobyev, I; Vranic, D; Vrláková, J; Vulpescu, B; Vyushin, A; Wagner, B; Wagner, V; Wang, Y; Wang, M; Wang, Y; Watanabe, K; Weber, M; Wessels, J P; Westerhoff, U; Wiechula, J; Wikne, J; Wilde, M; Wilk, G; Williams, M C S; Windelband, B; Winn, M; Yaldo, C G; Yamaguchi, Y; Yang, S; Yang, H; Yang, P; Yasnopolskiy, S; Yi, J; Yin, Z; Yoo, I-K; Yoon, J; Yuan, X; Yushmanov, I; Zaccolo, V; Zach, C; Zampolli, C; Zaporozhets, S; Zarochentsev, A; Závada, P; Zaviyalov, N; Zbroszczyk, H; Zelnicek, P; Zgura, I S; Zhalov, M; Zhang, Y; Zhang, H; Zhang, X; Zhou, D; Zhou, Y; Zhou, F; Zhu, H; Zhu, J; Zhu, X; Zhu, J; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, A; Zinovjev, G; Zoccarato, Y; Zynovyev, M; Zyzak, M

    2013-09-06

    Azimuthally anisotropic distributions of D0, D+, and D*+ mesons were studied in the central rapidity region (|y|<0.8) in Pb-Pb collisions at a center-of-mass energy sqrt[sNN]=2.76  TeV per nucleon-nucleon collision, with the ALICE detector at the LHC. The second Fourier coefficient v2 (commonly denoted elliptic flow) was measured in the centrality class 30%-50% as a function of the D meson transverse momentum pT, in the range 2-16  GeV/c. The measured v2 of D mesons is comparable in magnitude to that of light-flavor hadrons. It is positive in the range 2

  18. Elliptic flow of charged particles in Pb-Pb collisions at sqrt[S(NN)] = 2.76 TeV.

    PubMed

    Aamodt, K; Abelev, B; Quintana, A Abrahantes; Adamová, D; Adare, A M; Aggarwal, M M; Rinella, G Aglieri; Agocs, A G; Salazar, S Aguilar; Ahammed, Z; Masoodi, A Ahmad; Ahmad, N; Ahn, S U; Akindinov, A; Aleksandrov, D; Alessandro, B; Molina, R Alfaro; Alici, A; Alkin, A; Aviña, E Almaráz; Alt, T; Altini, V; Altinpinar, S; Altsybeev, I; Andrei, C; Andronic, A; Anguelov, V; Anson, C; Antičić, T; Antinori, F; Antonioli, P; Aphecetche, L; Appelshäuser, H; Arbor, N; Arcelli, S; Arend, A; Armesto, N; Arnaldi, R; Aronsson, T; Arsene, I C; Asryan, A; Augustinus, A; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Aystö, J; Azmi, M D; Bach, M; Badalà, A; Baek, Y W; Bagnasco, S; Bailhache, R; Bala, R; Ferroli, R Baldini; Baldisseri, A; Baldit, A; Pedrosa, F Baltasar Dos Santos; Bán, J; Barbera, R; Barile, F; Barnaföldi, G G; Barnby, L S; Barret, V; Bartke, J; Basile, M; Bastid, N; Bathen, B; Batigne, G; Batyunya, B; Baumann, C; Bearden, I G; Beck, H; Belikov, I; Bellini, F; Bellwied, R; Belmont-Moreno, E; Beole, S; Berceanu, I; Bercuci, A; Berdermann, E; Berdnikov, Y; Bergmann, C; Betev, L; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bianchi, L; Bianchi, N; Bianchin, C; Bielčík, J; Bielčíková, J; Bilandzic, A; Biolcati, E; Blanc, A; Blanco, F; Blanco, F; Blau, D; Blume, C; Boccioli, M; Bock, N; Bogdanov, A; Bøggild, H; Bogolyubsky, M; Boldizsár, L; Bombara, M; Bombonati, C; Book, J; Borel, H; Borissov, A; Bortolin, C; Bose, S; Bossú, F; Botje, M; Böttger, S; Boyer, B; Braun-Munzinger, P; Bravina, L; Bregant, M; Breitner, T; Broz, M; Brun, R; Bruna, E; Bruno, G E; Budnikov, D; Buesching, H; Bugaiev, K; Busch, O; Buthelezi, Z; Caffarri, D; Cai, X; Caines, H; Villar, E Calvo; Camerini, P; Canoa Roman, V; Romeo, G Cara; Carena, F; Carena, W; Carminati, F; Díaz, A Casanova; Caselle, M; Castellanos, J Castillo; Catanescu, V; Cavicchioli, C; Cepila, J; Cerello, P; Chang, B; Chapeland, S; Charvet, J L; Chattopadhyay, S; Chattopadhyay, S; Cherney, M; Cheshkov, C; Cheynis, B; Chiavassa, E; Barroso, V Chibante; Chinellato, D D; Chochula, P; Chojnacki, M; Christakoglou, P; Christensen, C H; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Cicalo, C; Cifarelli, L; Cindolo, F; Cleymans, J; Coccetti, F; Coffin, J-P; Coli, S; Balbastre, G Conesa; del Valle, Z Conesa; Constantin, P; Contin, G; Contreras, J G; Cormier, T M; Morales, Y Corrales; Maldonado, I Cortés; Cortese, P; Cosentino, M R; Costa, F; Cotallo, M E; Crescio, E; Crochet, P; Cuautle, E; Cunqueiro, L; Erasmo, G D; Dainese, A; Dalsgaard, H H; Danu, A; Das, D; Das, I; Das, K; Dash, A; Dash, S; De, S; Moregula, A De Azevedo; de Barros, G O V; De Caro, A; de Cataldo, G; de Cuveland, J; De Falco, A; De Gruttola, D; De Marco, N; De Pasquale, S; De Remigis, R; de Rooij, R; Debski, P R; Sanchez, E Del Castillo; Delagrange, H; Mercado, Y Delgado; Dellacasa, G; Deloff, A; Demanov, V; Dénes, E; Deppman, A; Di Bari, D; Di Giglio, C; Di Liberto, S; Di Mauro, A; Di Nezza, P; Dietel, T; Divià, R; Djuvsland, Ø; Dobrin, A; Dobrowolski, T; Domínguez, I; Dönigus, B; Dordic, O; Driga, O; Dubey, A K; Dubuisson, J; Ducroux, L; Dupieux, P; Majumdar, A K Dutta; Majumdar, M R Dutta; Elia, D; Emschermann, D; Engel, H; Erdal, H A; Espagnon, B; Estienne, M; Esumi, S; Evans, D; Evrard, S; Eyyubova, G; Fabjan, C W; Fabris, D; Faivre, J; Falchieri, D; Fantoni, A; Fasel, M; Fearick, R; Fedunov, A; Fehlker, D; Fekete, V; Felea, D; Feofilov, G; Téllez, A Fernández; Ferretti, A; Ferretti, R; Figiel, J; Figueredo, M A S; Filchagin, S; Fini, R; Finogeev, D; Fionda, F M; Fiore, E M; Floris, M; Foertsch, S; Foka, P; Fokin, S; Fragiacomo, E; Fragkiadakis, M; Frankenfeld, U; Fuchs, U; Furano, F; Furget, C; Girard, M Fusco; Gaardhøje, J J; Gadrat, S; Gagliardi, M; Gago, A; Gallio, M; Gangadharan, D R; Ganoti, P; Ganti, M S; Garabatos, C; Garcia-Solis, E; Garishvili, I; Gemme, R; Gerhard, J; Germain, M; Geuna, C; Gheata, A; Gheata, M; Ghidini, B; Ghosh, P; Gianotti, P; Girard, M R; Giraudo, G; Giubellino, P; Gladysz-Dziadus, E; Glässel, P; Gomez, R; Ferreiro, E G; Santos, H González; González-Trueba, L H; González-Zamora, P; Gorbunov, S; Gotovac, S; Grabski, V; Grajcarek, R; Grelli, A; Grigoras, A; Grigoras, C; Grigoriev, V; Grigoryan, A; Grigoryan, S; Grinyov, B; Grion, N; Gros, P; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J F; Grossiord, J-Y; Grosso, R; Guber, F; Guernane, R; Gutierrez, C Guerra; Guerzoni, B; Gulbrandsen, K; Gunji, T; Gupta, A; Gupta, R; Gutbrod, H; Haaland, Ø; Hadjidakis, C; Haiduc, M; Hamagaki, H; Hamar, G; Harris, J W; Hartig, M; Hasch, D; Hasegan, D; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hayrapetyan, A; Heide, M; Heinz, M; Helstrup, H; Herghelegiu, A; Hernández, C; Corral, G Herrera; Herrmann, N; Hetland, K F; Hicks, B; Hille, P T; Hippolyte, B; Horaguchi, T; Hori, Y; Hristov, P; Hřivnáčová, I; Huang, M; Huber, S; Humanic, T J; Hwang, D S; Ichou, R; Ilkaev, R; Ilkiv, I; Inaba, M; Incani, E; Innocenti, G M; Innocenti, P G; Ippolitov, M; Irfan, M; Ivan, C; Ivanov, A; Ivanov, M; Ivanov, V; Jachołkowski, A; Jacobs, P M; Jancurová, L; Jangal, S; Janik, R; Jena, S; Jirden, L; Jones, G T; Jones, P G; Jovanović, P; Jung, H; Jung, W; Jusko, A; Kalcher, S; Kaliňák, P; Kalisky, M; Kalliokoski, T; Kalweit, A; Kamermans, R; Kanaki, K; Kang, E; Kang, J H; Kaplin, V; Karavichev, O; Karavicheva, T; Karpechev, E; Kazantsev, A; Kebschull, U; Keidel, R; Khan, M M; Khan, S A; Khanzadeev, A; Kharlov, Y; Kileng, B; Kim, D J; Kim, D S; Kim, D W; Kim, H N; Kim, J H; Kim, J S; Kim, M; Kim, M; Kim, S; Kim, S H; Kirsch, S; Kisel, I; Kiselev, S; Kisiel, A; Klay, J L; Klein, J; Klein-Bösing, C; Kliemant, M; Klovning, A; Kluge, A; Knichel, M L; Koch, K; Köhler, M K; Kolevatov, R; Kolojvari, A; Kondratiev, V; Kondratyeva, N; Konevskih, A; Kornaś, E; Don, C Kottachchi Kankanamge; Kour, R; Kowalski, M; Kox, S; Meethaleveedu, G Koyithatta; Kozlov, K; Kral, J; Králik, I; Kramer, F; Kraus, I; Krawutschke, T; Kretz, M; Krivda, M; Krizek, F; Krumbhorn, D; Krus, M; Kryshen, E; Krzewicki, M; Kucheriaev, Y; Kuhn, C; Kuijer, P G; Kurashvili, P; Kurepin, A; Kurepin, A B; Kuryakin, A; Kushpil, S; Kushpil, V; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; La Rocca, P; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Lafage, V; Lara, C; Lardeux, A; Larsen, D T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Bornec, Y; Lea, R; Lee, K S; Lee, S C; Lefèvre, F; Lehnert, J; Leistam, L; Lenhardt, M; Lenti, V; Monzón, I León; Vargas, H León; Lévai, P; Li, X; Lien, J; Lietava, R; Lindal, S; Lindenstruth, V; Lippmann, C; Lisa, M A; Liu, L; Loenne, P I; Loggins, V R; Loginov, V; Lohn, S; Loizides, C; Loo, K K; Lopez, X; Noriega, M López; Torres, E López; Løvhøiden, G; Lu, X-G; Luettig, P; Lunardon, M; Luparello, G; Luquin, L; Luzzi, C; Ma, K; Ma, R; Madagodahettige-Don, D M; Maevskaya, A; Mager, M; Mahapatra, D P; Maire, A; Mal'Kevich, D; Malaev, M; Cervantes, I Maldonado; Malinina, L; Malzacher, P; Mamonov, A; Manceau, L; Mangotra, L; Manko, V; Manso, F; Manzari, V; Mao, Y; Mareš, J; Margagliotti, G V; Margotti, A; Marín, A; Markert, C; Martashvili, I; Martinengo, P; Martínez, M I; Davalos, A Martínez; García, G Martínez; Martynov, Y; Masciocchi, S; Masera, M; Masoni, A; Massacrier, L; Mastromarco, M; Mastroserio, A; Matthews, Z L; Matyja, A; Mayani, D; Mayer, C; Mazza, G; Mazzoni, M A; Meddi, F; Menchaca-Rocha, A; Lorenzo, P Mendez; Menis, I; Pérez, J Mercado; Meres, M; Mereu, P; Miake, Y; Midori, J; Milano, L; Milosevic, J; Mischke, A; Miśkowiec, D; Mitu, C; Mlynarz, J; Mohanty, A K; Mohanty, B; Molnar, L; Zetina, L Montaño; Monteno, M; Montes, E; Morando, M; De Godoy, D A Moreira; Moretto, S; Morsch, A; Muccifora, V; Mudnic, E; Muhuri, S; Müller, H; Munhoz, M G; Munoz, J; Musa, L; Musso, A; Nandi, B K; Nania, R; Nappi, E; Nattrass, C; Navach, F; Navin, S; Nayak, T K; Nazarenko, S; Nazarov, G; Nedosekin, A; Nendaz, F; Newby, J; Nicassio, M; Nielsen, B S; Niida, T; Nikolaev, S; Nikolic, V; Nikulin, S; Nikulin, V; Nilsen, B S; Nilsson, M S; Noferini, F; Nooren, G; Novitzky, N; Nyanin, A; Nyatha, A; Nygaard, C; Nystrand, J; Obayashi, H; Ochirov, A; Oeschler, H; Oh, S K; Oleniacz, J; Oppedisano, C; Velasquez, A Ortiz; Ortona, G; Oskarsson, A; Ostrowski, P; Otterlund, I; Otwinowski, J; Oyama, K; Ozawa, K; Pachmayer, Y; Pachr, M; Padilla, F; Pagano, P; Jayarathna, S P; Paić, G; Painke, F; Pajares, C; Pal, S; Pal, S K; Palaha, A; Palmeri, A; Pappalardo, G S; Park, W J; Patalakha, D I; Paticchio, V; Pavlinov, A; Pawlak, T; Peitzmann, T; Peresunko, D; Lara, C E Pérez; Perini, D; Perrino, D; Peryt, W; Pesci, A; Peskov, V; Pestov, Y; Peters, A J; Petráček, V; Petran, M; Petris, M; Petrov, P; Petrovici, M; Petta, C; Piano, S; Piccotti, A; Pikna, M; Pillot, P; Pinazza, O; Pinsky, L; Pitz, N; Piuz, F; Piyarathna, D B; Platt, R; Płoskoń, M; Pluta, J; Pocheptsov, T; Pochybova, S; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Poghosyan, M G; Polák, K; Polichtchouk, B; Pop, A; Porteboeuf, S; Pospíšil, V; Potukuchi, B; Prasad, S K; Preghenella, R; Prino, F; Pruneau, C A; Pshenichnov, I; Puddu, G; Pulvirenti, A; Punin, V; Putiš, M; Putschke, J; Quercigh, E; Qvigstad, H; Rachevski, A; Rademakers, A; Rademakers, O; Radomski, S; Räihä, T S; Rak, J; Rakotozafindrabe, A; Ramello, L; Reyes, A Ramírez; Rammler, M; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Räsänen, S S; Read, K F; Real, J; Redlich, K; Renfordt, R; Reolon, A R; Reshetin, A; Rettig, F; Revol, J-P; Reygers, K; Ricaud, H; Riccati, L; Ricci, R A; Richter, M; Riedler, P; Riegler, W; Riggi, F; Cahuantzi, M Rodríguez; Rohr, D; Röhrich, D; Romita, R; Ronchetti, F; Rosinský, P; Rosnet, P; Rossegger, S; Rossi, A; Roukoutakis, F; Rousseau, S; Roy, C; Roy, P; Montero, A J Rubio; Rui, R; Rivetti, A; Rusanov, I; Ryabinkin, E; Rybicki, A; Sadovsky, S; Safařík, K; Sahoo, R; Sahu, P K; Saini, J; Saiz, P; Sakai, S; Sakata, D; Salgado, C A; Samanta, T; Sambyal, S; Samsonov, V; Castro, X Sanchez; Sándor, L; Sandoval, A; Sano, M; Sano, S; Santo, R; Santoro, R; Sarkamo, J; Saturnini, P; Scapparone, E; Scarlassara, F; Scharenberg, R P; Schiaua, C; Schicker, R; Schmidt, C; Schmidt, H R; Schreiner, S; Schuchmann, S; Schukraft, J; Schutz, Y; Schwarz, K; Schweda, K; Scioli, G; Scomparin, E; Scott, P A; Scott, R; Segato, G; Selyuzhenkov, I; Senyukov, S; Seo, J; Serci, S; Serradilla, E; Sevcenco, A; Sgura, I; Shabratova, G; Shahoyan, R; Sharma, N; Sharma, S; Shigaki, K; Shimomura, M; Shtejer, K; Sibiriak, Y; Siciliano, M; Sicking, E; Siemiarczuk, T; Silenzi, A; Silvermyr, D; Simonetti, G; Singaraju, R; Singh, R; Singhal, V; Sinha, B C; Sinha, T; Sitar, B; Sitta, M; Skaali, T B; Skjerdal, K; Smakal, R; Smirnov, N; Snellings, R; Søgaard, C; Soloviev, A; Soltz, R; Son, H; Song, J; Song, M; Soos, C; Soramel, F; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, M; Srivastava, B K; Stachel, J; Stan, I; Stefanek, G; Stefanini, G; Steinbeck, T; Steinpreis, M; Stenlund, E; Steyn, G; Stocco, D; Stock, R; Stokkevag, C H; Stolpovskiy, M; Strmen, P; Suaide, A A P; Vásquez, M A Subieta; Sugitate, T; Suire, C; Sukhorukov, M; Sumbera, M; Susa, T; Swoboda, D; Symons, T J M; de Toledo, A Szanto; Szarka, I; Szostak, A; Tagridis, C; Takahashi, J; Takaki, J D Tapia; Tauro, A; Tavlet, M; Muñoz, G Tejeda; Telesca, A; Terrevoli, C; Thäder, J; Thomas, D; Thomas, J H; Tieulent, R; Timmins, A R; Tlusty, D; Toia, A; Torii, H; Toscano, L; Tosello, F; Traczyk, T; Truesdale, D; Trzaska, W H; Tsuji, T; Tumkin, A; Turrisi, R; Turvey, A J; Tveter, T S; Ulery, J; Ullaland, K; Uras, A; Urbán, J; Urciuoli, G M; Usai, G L; Vacchi, A; Vajzer, M; Vala, M; Palomo, L Valencia; Vallero, S; van der Kolk, N; van Leeuwen, M; Vande Vyvre, P; Vannucci, L; Vargas, A; Varma, R; Vasileiou, M; Vasiliev, A; Vechernin, V; Veldhoen, M; Venaruzzo, M; Vercellin, E; Vergara, S; Vernekohl, D C; Vernet, R; Verweij, M; Vickovic, L; Viesti, G; Vikhlyantsev, O; Vilakazi, Z; Baillie, O Villalobos; Vinogradov, A; Vinogradov, L; Vinogradov, Y; Virgili, T; Viyogi, Y P; Vodopyanov, A; Voloshin, K; Voloshin, S; Volpe, G; von Haller, B; Vranic, D; Øvrebekk, G; Vrláková, J; Vulpescu, B; Vyushin, A; Wagner, B; Wagner, V; Wan, R; Wang, D; Wang, Y; Wang, Y; Watanabe, K; Wessels, J P; Westerhoff, U; Wiechula, J; Wikne, J; Wilde, M; Wilk, A; Wilk, G; Williams, M C S; Windelband, B; Karampatsos, L Xaplanteris; Yang, H; Yang, S; Yasnopolskiy, S; Yi, J; Yin, Z; Yokoyama, H; Yoo, I-K; Yu, W; Yuan, X; Yushmanov, I; Zabrodin, E; Zach, C; Zampolli, C; Zaporozhets, S; Zarochentsev, A; Závada, P; Zaviyalov, N; Zbroszczyk, H; Zelnicek, P; Zenin, A; Zgura, I; Zhalov, M; Zhang, X; Zhou, D; Zichichi, A; Zinovjev, G; Zoccarato, Y; Zynovyev, M

    2010-12-17

    We report the first measurement of charged particle elliptic flow in Pb-Pb collisions at sqrt[S(NN)] =2.76 TeV with the ALICE detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The measurement is performed in the central pseudorapidity region (|η|<0.8) and transverse momentum range 0.2

    elliptic flow signal v₂, measured using the 4-particle correlation method, averaged over transverse momentum and pseudorapidity is 0.087 ± 0.002(stat) ± 0.003(syst) in the 40%-50% centrality class. The differential elliptic flow v₂ p t reaches a maximum of 0.2 near p t =3 GeV/c. Compared to RHIC Au-Au collisions at sqrt[S(NN)] 200 GeV, the elliptic flow increases by about 30%. Some hydrodynamic model predictions which include viscous corrections are in agreement with the observed increase.

  19. Simulation of 2-dimensional viscous flow through cascades using a semi-elliptic analysis and hybrid C-H grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramamurti, R.; Ghia, U.; Ghia, K. N.

    1988-01-01

    A semi-elliptic formulation, termed the interacting parabolized Navier-Stokes (IPNS) formulation, is developed for the analysis of a class of subsonic viscous flows for which streamwise diffusion is neglible but which are significantly influenced by upstream interactions. The IPNS equations are obtained from the Navier-Stokes equations by dropping the streamwise viscous-diffusion terms but retaining upstream influence via the streamwise pressure-gradient. A two-step alternating-direction-explicit numerical scheme is developed to solve these equations. The quasi-linearization and discretization of the equations are carefully examined so that no artificial viscosity is added externally to the scheme. Also, solutions to compressible as well as nearly compressible flows are obtained without any modification either in the analysis or in the solution process. The procedure is applied to constricted channels and cascade passages formed by airfoils of various shapes. These geometries are represented using numerically generated curilinear boundary-oriented coordinates forming an H-grid. A hybrid C-H grid, more appropriate for cascade of airfoils with rounded leading edges, was also developed. Satisfactory results are obtained for flows through cascades of Joukowski airfoils.

  20. Determination of the modular elliptic function in problems of free-flow filtration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anakhaev, K. N.

    2016-09-01

    The calculated dependences in elementary functions for determining the modular elliptic function λ(τ) =λ1 + iλ2 obtained on the basis of consecutive (six) conformal mappings of a curvilinear triangle to a complex half-plane are presented. Comparison of the values of λ(τ) from the proposed dependences with the results of the Hamel-Gunter exact analytical solution for the boundary contour of the curvilinear triangle, i.e., the real axis of the complex half-plane, gives a very close coincidence (with the largest error of ≤1%). The use of the complex values of the function λ(τ) for the entire internal region of the curvilinear triangle makes it possible to solve one of the most difficult problems of the theory of filtration (filtration through a rectangular dam) in the direct formulation and, for the first time, to construct the pattern of an equal filtration-rate field (the family of isotaches) over the entire internal region of the dam. In this case, the boundary values of filtration rates for special cases (along the sides and along the base of the dam) completely coincide with the results of the Masket exact analytical calculations.

  1. Analysis of a parallelized nonlinear elliptic boundary value problem solver with application to reacting flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keyes, David E.; Smooke, Mitchell D.

    1987-01-01

    A parallelized finite difference code based on the Newton method for systems of nonlinear elliptic boundary value problems in two dimensions is analyzed in terms of computational complexity and parallel efficiency. An approximate cost function depending on 15 dimensionless parameters is derived for algorithms based on stripwise and boxwise decompositions of the domain and a one-to-one assignment of the strip or box subdomains to processors. The sensitivity of the cost functions to the parameters is explored in regions of parameter space corresponding to model small-order systems with inexpensive function evaluations and also a coupled system of nineteen equations with very expensive function evaluations. The algorithm was implemented on the Intel Hypercube, and some experimental results for the model problems with stripwise decompositions are presented and compared with the theory. In the context of computational combustion problems, multiprocessors of either message-passing or shared-memory type may be employed with stripwise decompositions to realize speedup of O(n), where n is mesh resolution in one direction, for reasonable n.

  2. PSE-3D Instability Analysis and Application to Flow Over an Elliptic Cone

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    important to understand transition in this flow regime since the process can be slower than in incompressible flow and is critical to prediction of...solver by Gosse et al. [2010]. The stability analysis results reveal that the leading unstable modes peak on the mushroom -like structure formed near the...behavior of a laminar flow field upon the introduction of small- amplitude perturbations, in order to improve the understanding of the processes

  3. Evidence for a spin-aligned neutron-proton paired phase from the level structure of (92)Pd.

    PubMed

    Cederwall, B; Moradi, F Ghazi; Bäck, T; Johnson, A; Blomqvist, J; Clément, E; de France, G; Wadsworth, R; Andgren, K; Lagergren, K; Dijon, A; Jaworski, G; Liotta, R; Qi, C; Nyakó, B M; Nyberg, J; Palacz, M; Al-Azri, H; Algora, A; de Angelis, G; Ataç, A; Bhattacharyya, S; Brock, T; Brown, J R; Davies, P; Di Nitto, A; Dombrádi, Zs; Gadea, A; Gál, J; Hadinia, B; Johnston-Theasby, F; Joshi, P; Juhász, K; Julin, R; Jungclaus, A; Kalinka, G; Kara, S O; Khaplanov, A; Kownacki, J; La Rana, G; Lenzi, S M; Molnár, J; Moro, R; Napoli, D R; Singh, B S Nara; Persson, A; Recchia, F; Sandzelius, M; Scheurer, J-N; Sletten, G; Sohler, D; Söderström, P-A; Taylor, M J; Timár, J; Valiente-Dobón, J J; Vardaci, E; Williams, S

    2011-01-06

    Shell structure and magic numbers in atomic nuclei were generally explained by pioneering work that introduced a strong spin-orbit interaction to the nuclear shell model potential. However, knowledge of nuclear forces and the mechanisms governing the structure of nuclei, in particular far from stability, is still incomplete. In nuclei with equal neutron and proton numbers (N = Z), enhanced correlations arise between neutrons and protons (two distinct types of fermions) that occupy orbitals with the same quantum numbers. Such correlations have been predicted to favour an unusual type of nuclear superfluidity, termed isoscalar neutron-proton pairing, in addition to normal isovector pairing. Despite many experimental efforts, these predictions have not been confirmed. Here we report the experimental observation of excited states in the N = Z = 46 nucleus (92)Pd. Gamma rays emitted following the (58)Ni((36)Ar,2n)(92)Pd fusion-evaporation reaction were identified using a combination of state-of-the-art high-resolution γ-ray, charged-particle and neutron detector systems. Our results reveal evidence for a spin-aligned, isoscalar neutron-proton coupling scheme, different from the previous prediction. We suggest that this coupling scheme replaces normal superfluidity (characterized by seniority coupling) in the ground and low-lying excited states of the heaviest N = Z nuclei. Such strong, isoscalar neutron-proton correlations would have a considerable impact on the nuclear level structure and possibly influence the dynamics of rapid proton capture in stellar nucleosynthesis.

  4. Elliptic flow computation by low Reynolds number two-equation turbulence models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michelassi, V.; Shih, T.-H.

    1991-01-01

    A detailed comparison of ten low-Reynolds-number k-epsilon models is carried out. The flow solver, based on an implicit approximate factorization method, is designed for incompressible, steady two-dimensional flows. The conservation of mass is enforced by the artificial compressibility approach and the computational domain is discretized using centered finite differences. The turbulence model predictions of the flow past a hill are compared with experiments at Re = 10 exp 6. The effects of the grid spacing together with the numerical efficiency of the various formulations are investigated. The results show that the models provide a satisfactory prediction of the flow field in the presence of a favorable pressure gradient, while the accuracy rapidly deteriorates when a strong adverse pressure gradient is encountered. A newly proposed model form that does not explicitly depend on the wall distance seems promising for application to complex geometries.

  5. Fully elliptic incompressible flow calculations on regular grid by a new pressure substitution method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobson, G. V.; Lakshminarayana, B.

    1990-01-01

    A new method is presented for the solution of incompressible flow in generalized coordinates. This method is based on the substitution of the pressure weighted form of the momentum equations into the continuity equation. The algorithm is rigorously derived and a Fourier analysis is used to assess its suitability to act as an error smoother. Linear stability analysis results indicate that the performance of the new pressure substitution method (PSM) and the pressure correction method (PCM) is about the same at low Reynolds numbers, with no significant pressure gradient. At high Reynolds numbers the PSM shows much faster convergence. Likewise prediction of various flows indicate that the PSM has better accuracy for high Reynolds number flows with significant pressure gradients. Since most practical aerodynamic flows have significant pressure gradients, the PSM seems to be attractive for such flows. Solutions for both laminar and turbulent flow are compared with the experimental data. A two-equation low Reynolds number turbulence model is used to resolve the turbulent flowfield.

  6. N = Z nuclei: a laboratory for neutron-proton collective mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Chong; Wyss, Ramon

    2016-01-01

    The neutron-neutron and proton-proton pairing correlations have long been recognized to be the dominant many-body correlation beyond the nuclear mean field since the introduction of pairing mechanism by Bohr, Mottelson and Pines nearly 60 years ago. Nevertheless, few conclusions have been reached concerning the existence of analogous neutron-proton (np) pair correlated state. One can see a renaissance in np correlation studies in relation to the significant progress in radioactive ion beam facilities and detection techniques. The np pairs can couple isospin T = 1 (isovector) or 0 (isoscalar). In the isovector channel, the angular momentum zero component is expected to be the most important one. On the other hand, as one may infer from the general properties of the np two-body interaction, in the isoscalar channel, both the np pairs with minimum (J = 1) and maximum (J = 2j) spin values can be important. In this contribution, we will discuss the possible evidence for np pair coupling from a different perspective and analyze its influence on interesting phenomena including the Wigner effect and mass correlations in odd-odd nuclei. In particular, we will explain the spin-aligned pair coupling scheme and quartet coupling involving pairs with maximum (J = 2j) spin values.

  7. Measuring Neutron-Proton Radiative Capture Cross-section at Low Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, To Chin; Kovash, Michael; Matthews, June; Yang, Hongwei; Yang, Yunjie

    2015-10-01

    The experiment aims to fill in a gap in our data for the cross-section of neutron-proton radiative capture (p(n,d γ)) at energies below 500 keV. Current measurements in this energy range are scarce and inconsistent with theoretical predictions and with each other. A well-determined cross-section of the capture reaction in the low energy range is useful in nuclear physics due to its fundamental nature. The measurement is also of interest in cosmology. Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN), the process by which light elements are formed in early universe, is very sensitive to the p(n,d γ) cross-section in the low energy range. The measurement enables us to put tighter constraints on the theoretical predictions of BBN. We have conducted preliminary measurements in the van de Graaff accelerator facility at the University of Kentucky. Our array of detectors consists of three plastic scintillators to serve as proton targets and deuteron detectors, and five BGO scintillators to detect γ-rays. The combination results in an over-determination of reaction kinematics that discriminates against scattering processes and other backgrounds. We have obtained some early results which show promise for the precise measurement of the p(n,d γ) cross-section.

  8. Odd-even staggering in the neutron-proton interaction and nuclear mass models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Y. Y.; Zhao, Y. M.; Arima, A.

    2015-02-01

    In this paper we study odd-even staggering of the empirical neutron-proton interaction between the last neutron and the last proton, denoted as δ V1 n -1 p , and its consequence in the Garvey-Kelson mass relations (GKs) and nuclear mass models. The root-mean-squared deviations of predicted masses respectively for even-A and odd-A nuclei by using two combinatorial GKs suggest a large odd-even staggering of δ V1 n -1 p between even-odd and odd-even nuclei, while the odd-even difference of δ V1 n -1 p between even-even and odd-odd nuclei is much smaller. The contribution of the odd-even staggering of δ V1 n -1 p between even-A and odd-A nuclei in deviations of theoretical δ V1 n -1 p values of the Duflo-Zuker model and the improved Weizs a ̈cker -Skyrme model are well represented by an isospin-dependent term. The consideration of this odd-even staggering improves our description of binding energies and one-neutron separation energies in both the Duflo-Zuker model and the improved Weizs a ̈cker -Skyrme model.

  9. Strong isospin breaking contribution to the neutron-proton mass difference

    SciTech Connect

    Martin J. Savage; Silas R. Beane; Kostas Orginos

    2006-07-01

    We determine the strong-isospin violating component of the neutron-proton mass difference from fully-dynamical lattice QCD and partially-quenched QCD calculations of the nucleon mass, constrained by partially-quenched chiral perturbation theory at one-loop level. The lattice calculations were performed with domain-wall valence quarks on MILC lattices with rooted staggered sea-quarks at a lattice spacing of b ~ 0.125 fm, lattice spatial size of L ~ 2.5 fm and pion masses ranging from m_pi ~ 290 MeV to ~ 350 MeV. At the physical value of the pion mass, we predict Mn-M_p|^(d-u) = 2.26 ± 0.57 ± 0.42 ± 0.10 MeV where the first error is statistical, the second error is due to the uncertainty in the ratio of light-quark masses, eta = m_u/m_d, determined by MILC [1], and the third error is an estimate of the systematic due to chiral extrapolation.

  10. Particle-number conservation in quasiparticle representation in the isovector neutron-proton pairing case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellah, M.; Allal, N. H.; Hammache, Faiza; Oudih, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    Until now, the Sharp-Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (SBCS) particle-number projection method, in the isovector neutron-proton pairing case, has been developed in the particle representation. However, this formalism is sometimes complicated and cumbersome. In this work, the formalism is developed in the quasiparticle representation. An expression of the projected ground state wave function is proposed. Expressions of the energy as well as the expectation values of the total particle-number operator and its square are deduced. It is shown that these expressions are formally similar to their homologues in the pairing between like-particles case. They are easier to handle than the ones obtained using the particle representation and are more adapted to numerical calculations. The method is then numerically tested within the schematic one-level model, which allows comparisons with exact results, as well as in the case of even-even nuclei within the Woods-Saxon model. In each case, it is shown that the particle-number fluctuations that are inherent to the BCS method are completely eliminated by the projection. In the framework of the one-level model, the values of the projected energy are clearly closer to the exact values than the BCS ones. In realistic cases, the relative discrepancies between projected and unprojected values of the energy are small. However, the absolute deviations may reach several MeV.

  11. Elliptic Anisotropy ν2 May Be Dominated by Particle Escape instead of Hydrodynamic Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zi-Wei; He, Liang; Edmonds, Terrence; Liu, Feng; Molnar, Denes; Wang, Fuqiang

    2016-12-01

    It is commonly believed that azimuthal anisotropies in relativistic heavy ion collisions are generated by hydrodynamic evolution of the strongly interacting quark-gluon plasma. Here we use transport models to study how azimuthal anisotropies depend on the number of collisions that each parton suffers. We find that the majority of ν2 comes from the anisotropic escape of partons, not from the parton collective flow, for semi-central Au+Au collisions at 200A GeV. As expected, the fraction of ν2 from the anisotropic particle escape is even higher for smaller systems such as d+Au. Our transport model results also confirm that azimuthal anisotropies would be dominated by hydrodynamic flow at unrealistically-high parton cross sections. Our finding thus naturally explains the similarity of azimuthal anisotropies in small and large systems; however, it presents a challenge to the paradigm of anisotropic flow.

  12. A Fourier-based elliptic solver for vortical flows with periodic and unbounded directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatelain, Philippe; Koumoutsakos, Petros

    2010-04-01

    We present a computationally efficient, adaptive solver for the solution of the Poisson and Helmholtz equation used in flow simulations in domains with combinations of unbounded and periodic directions. The method relies on using FFTs on an extended domain and it is based on the method proposed by Hockney and Eastwood for plasma simulations. The method is well-suited to problems with dynamically growing domains and in particular flow simulations using vortex particle methods. The efficiency of the method is demonstrated in simulations of trailing vortices.

  13. Elliptic and Hexadecapole Flow of Charged Hadrons in Au+Au Collisions at s_NN = 200 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Adare, A.; Awes, Terry C; Cianciolo, Vince; Efremenko, Yuri; Enokizono, Akitomo; Read Jr, Kenneth F; Silvermyr, David O; Sorensen, Soren P; Stankus, Paul W; PHENIX, Collaboration

    2010-01-01

    Differential measurements of the elliptic (v{sub 2}) and hexadecapole (v{sub 4}) Fourier flow coefficients are reported for charged hadrons as a function of transverse momentum (p{sub T}) and collision centrality or number of participant nucleons (N{sub part}) for Au+Au collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 200 GeV. The v{sub 2,4} measurements at pseudorapidity |{eta}| {le} 0.35, obtained with four separate reaction-plane detectors positioned in the range 1.0 < |{eta}| < 3.9, show good agreement, indicating the absence of significant {Delta}{eta}-dependent nonflow correlations. Sizable values for v{sub 4}(p{sub T}) are observed with a ratio v{sub 4}(p{sub T},N{sub part})/v{sub 2}{sup 2}(p{sub T},N{sub part}) {approx} 0.8 for 50 {le} N{sub part} {le} 200, which is compatible with the combined effects of a finite viscosity and initial eccentricity fluctuations. For N{sub part} {ge} 200 this ratio increases up to 1.7 in the most central collisions.

  14. Predictions of Elliptic flow and nuclear modification factor from 200 GeV U+U collisions at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Masui, Hiroshi; Mohanty, Bedangadas; Xu, Nu

    2010-07-07

    Predictions of elliptic flow (v{sub 2}) and nuclear modification factor (R{sub AA}) are provided as a function of centrality in U + U collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 200 GeV. Since the {sup 238}U nucleus is naturally deformed, one could adjust the properties of the fireball, density and duration of the hot and dense system, for example, in high energy nuclear collisions by carefully selecting the colliding geometry. Within our Monte Carlo Glauber based approach, the v{sub 2} with respect to the reaction plane v{sub 2}{sup RP} in U + U collisions is consistent with that in Au + Au collisions, while the v{sub 2} with respect to the participant plane v{sub 2}{sup PP} increases {approx}30-60% at top 10% centrality which is attributed to the larger participant eccentricity at most central U + U collisions. The suppression of R{sub AA} increases and reaches {approx}0.1 at most central U + U collisions that is by a factor of 2 more suppression compared to the central Au + Au collisions due to large size and deformation of Uranium nucleus.

  15. Measurement of D 0 elliptic and triangular flow in Au+Au collisions at = 200 GeV at RHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomnitz, Michael R.; STAR collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Due to their large masses, heavy quarks are predominantly produced through initial hard scatterings in heavy-ion collisions. As such, they experience the entire evolution of the hot and dense medium created in such collisions and are expected to thermalize much more slowly than light flavor quarks. For instance, the azimuthal anisotropy of charm quarks with respect to the reaction plane over a broad momentum range can provide insights into the degree of thermalization and the bulk properties of the system. Specifically at low transverse momenta we can examine the bulk properties in the strongly coupled regime. In this talk we present the STAR measurement of elliptic (v 2) and triangular flow (v 3) of D 0 mesons in Au+Au collisions at = 200 GeV obtained from the first year of physics running with the new STAR Heavy Flavor Tracker. Comparison with the azimuthal anisotropy of other particle species and a series of model calculations will be shown, and the charm quark dynamics in the sQGP medium will be discussed.

  16. STAR measurements of elliptic flow in U+U collisions at √sNN = 193 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callister, Thomas

    2012-10-01

    The hot, dense nuclear medium created in Au+Au collisions at RHIC has exhibited strong, anisotropic collective motion, characterized by the elliptic flow v2. v2has been extensively studied, and is thought to be related to the initial eccentricity of the colliding system and the parton density, quantified by 1/S*dN/dy. Collisions of heavier, deformed uranium nuclei will introduce different eccentricities, and will increase the achievable value of 1/S*dN/dy by 13% [1]. Simulations therefore predict central U+U collisions to yield a significant increase in v2over central Au+Au collisions [2], and also predict a cusp structure in v2vs. multiplicity due to the deformation of uranium [3]. STAR has taken data of U+U collisions at √sNN = 193 GeV in RHIC run2012. In this poster we present preliminary STAR measurements of v2from these collisions. Physics implications of our measurements will also be discussed.[4pt] [1] C. Nepali, G. Fai, and D. Keane, Phys. Rev. C73 (2006) 034911.[0pt] [2] H. Masui, B. Mohanty, N. Xu, Phys. Lett. B679 (2009) 440.[0pt] [3] S. Voloshin, Phys. Rev. Lett.105 (2010) 172301.

  17. a Technique to Calibrate Neutron-Proton Elastic Scattering Spin Observables Near 183 Mev

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowyer, Theodore William

    Free neutron-proton scattering is one of the most fundamental reactions we can study in the field of nuclear physics, yet the n-p scattering data base is quite sparse. The data that does exist is often plagued by systematic uncertainties associated with the determination of beam and/or target polarizations. In contrast, there is an abundance of high quality, high statistics p-p elastic scattering data. We report on a technique which we have developed which exploits the high quality of the p-p data to calibrate n-p elastic scattering spin observables by simultaneous measurement of vec n-vec p and p-vec p elastic scattering by bombarding a polarized proton target with a mixed beam of polarized neutrons and protons. This technique has allowed us to calibrate the n-p elastic spin observables at 183 MeV: the beam and target analyzing powers A _{n}(theta_{p}),A _{p}(theta p), and the spin correlation coefficient, C_{NN}( theta_{p}). The mixed secondary beam was produced by bombarding a liquid deuterium target with a 200 MeV beam of polarized protons. The experiment was preformed in the Polarized Neutron Facility at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility utilizing a left-right symmetric detection system, sensitive to both scattered protons and neutrons, and spanned the laboratory angular range of 24^circ to 62^circ. We identified free scattering events through a number of kinematic correlations. We compare our results to various phase shift calculations and potential models and examine the sensitivity of magnitude of various phase shifts results to the inclusion of our data into the n-p data base.

  18. High-beta analytic equilibria in circular, elliptical, and D-shaped large aspect ratio axisymmetric configurations with poloidal and toroidal flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, O. E.; Guazzotto, L.

    2017-03-01

    The Grad-Shafranov-Bernoulli system of equations is a single fluid magnetohydrodynamical description of axisymmetric equilibria with mass flows. Using a variational perturbative approach [E. Hameiri, Phys. Plasmas 20, 024504 (2013)], analytic approximations for high-beta equilibria in circular, elliptical, and D-shaped cross sections in the high aspect ratio approximation are found, which include finite toroidal and poloidal flows. Assuming a polynomial dependence of the free functions on the poloidal flux, the equilibrium problem is reduced to an inhomogeneous Helmholtz partial differential equation (PDE) subject to homogeneous Dirichlet conditions. An application of the Green's function method leads to a closed form for the circular solution and to a series solution in terms of Mathieu functions for the elliptical case, which is valid for arbitrary elongations. To extend the elliptical solution to a D-shaped domain, a boundary perturbation in terms of the triangularity is used. A comparison with the code FLOW [L. Guazzotto et al., Phys. Plasmas 11(2), 604-614 (2004)] is presented for relevant scenarios.

  19. Neutron-Proton Pairing Correlation for the Rotational Motion of N = Z 72Kr, 76Sr, and 80Zr Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Prianka; Dhiman, Shashi K.

    The high-spin state properties of the neutron-proton (np) residual effective interaction are analyzed in N = Z 72Kr, 76Sr, and 80Zr nuclei. The self-consistent microscopic Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) equations have been solved by employing monopole corrected two-body effective interaction. A band crossing is observed in 72Kr nucleus at J = 14ℏ state with monopole corrected "HPU1" and "HPU2" effective interactions. The VAP-HFB theory suggests that the "4p-4h" excitations by np residual interaction are the essential ingredients of the mean-field description of the occurence of backbending in 72Kr nucleus.

  20. A Gas-Kinetic Method for Hyperbolic-Elliptic Equations and Its Application in Two-Phase Fluid Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Kun

    1999-01-01

    A gas-kinetic method for the hyperbolic-elliptic equations is presented in this paper. In the mixed type system, the co-existence and the phase transition between liquid and gas are described by the van der Waals-type equation of state (EOS). Due to the unstable mechanism for a fluid in the elliptic region, interface between the liquid and gas can be kept sharp through the condensation and evaporation process to remove the "averaged" numerical fluid away from the elliptic region, and the interface thickness depends on the numerical diffusion and stiffness of the phase change. A few examples are presented in this paper for both phase transition and multifluid interface problems.

  1. Particle-number fluctuations and neutron-proton pairing effects on proton and neutron radii of even-even N Almost-Equal-To Z nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Douici, M.; Allal, N. H.; Fellah, M.; Benhamouda, N.; Oudih, M. R.

    2012-10-20

    The particle-number fluctuation effect on the root-mean-square (rms) proton and neutron radii of even-even N Almost-Equal-To Z nuclei is studied in the isovector neutron-proton (np) pairing case using an exact particle-number projection method and the Woods-Saxon model.

  2. Charged and strange hadron elliptic flow in Cu+Cu collisions at sqrt sNN = 62.4 and 200 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    STAR Collaboration; Abelev, Betty

    2010-07-05

    We present the results of an elliptic flow, v{sub 2}, analysis of Cu+Cu collisions recorded with the STAR detector at RHIC at {radical}s{sub NN} = 62.4 and 200 GeV. Elliptic flow as a function of transverse momentum, v{sub 2}(p{sub T}), is reported for different collision centralities for charged hadrons h{sup {+-}}, and strangeness containing hadrons K{sub S}{sup 0}, {Lambda}, {Xi}, {phi} in the midrapidity region |{eta}| < 1.0. Significant reduction in systematic uncertainty of the measurement due to non-flow effects has been achieved by correlating particles at midrapidity, |{eta}| < 1.0, with those at forward rapidity, 2.5 < |{eta}| < 4.0. We also present azimuthal correlations in p+p collisions at {radical}s = 200 GeV to help estimating non-flow effects. To study the system-size dependence of elliptic flow, we present a detailed comparison with previously published results from Au+Au collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 200 GeV. We observe that v{sub 2}(p{sub T}) of strange hadrons has similar scaling properties as were first observed in Au+Au collisions, i.e.: (i) at low transverse momenta, p{sub T} < 2 GeV/c, v{sub 2} scales with transverse kinetic energy, m{sub T} - m, and (ii) at intermediate p{sub T}, 2 < p{sub T} < 4 GeV/c, it scales with the number of constituent quarks, n{sub q}. We have found that ideal hydrodynamic calculations fail to reproduce the centrality dependence of v{sub 2}(p{sub T}) for K{sub S}{sup 0} and {Lambda}. Eccentricity scaled v{sub 2} values, v{sub 2}/{var_epsilon}, are larger in more central collisions, suggesting stronger collective flow develops in more central collisions. The comparison with Au+Au collisions which go further in density shows v{sub 2}/{var_epsilon} depend on the system size, number of participants N{sub part}. This indicates that the ideal hydrodynamic limit is not reached in Cu+Cu collisions, presumably because the assumption of thermalization is not attained.

  3. J/ψ elliptic flow in Pb-Pb collisions at √(s(NN))=2.76 TeV.

    PubMed

    Abbas, E; Abelev, B; Adam, J; Adamová, D; Adare, A M; Aggarwal, M M; Aglieri Rinella, G; Agnello, M; Agocs, A G; Agostinelli, A; Ahammed, Z; Ahmad, N; Ahmad Masoodi, A; Ahn, S A; Ahn, S U; Aimo, I; Ajaz, M; Akindinov, A; Aleksandrov, D; Alessandro, B; Alici, A; Alkin, A; Almaráz Aviña, E; Alme, J; Alt, T; Altini, V; Altinpinar, S; Altsybeev, I; Andrei, C; Andronic, A; Anguelov, V; Anielski, J; Anson, C; Antičić, T; Antinori, F; Antonioli, P; Aphecetche, L; Appelshäuser, H; Arbor, N; Arcelli, S; Arend, A; Armesto, N; Arnaldi, R; Aronsson, T; Arsene, I C; Arslandok, M; Asryan, A; Augustinus, A; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Äystö, J; Azmi, M D; Bach, M; Badalà, A; Baek, Y W; Bailhache, R; Bala, R; Baldisseri, A; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F; Bán, J; Baral, R C; Barbera, R; Barile, F; Barnaföldi, G G; Barnby, L S; Barret, V; Bartke, J; Basile, M; Bastid, N; Basu, S; Bathen, B; Batigne, G; Batyunya, B; Batzing, P C; Baumann, C; Bearden, I G; Beck, H; Behera, N K; Belikov, I; Bellini, F; Bellwied, R; Belmont-Moreno, E; Bencedi, G; Beole, S; Berceanu, I; Bercuci, A; Berdnikov, Y; Berenyi, D; Bergognon, A A E; Bertens, R A; Berzano, D; Betev, L; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bhom, J; Bianchi, N; Bianchi, L; Bianchin, C; Bielčík, J; Bielčíková, J; Bilandzic, A; Bjelogrlic, S; Blanco, F; Blanco, F; Blau, D; Blume, C; Boccioli, M; Böttger, S; Bogdanov, A; Bøggild, H; Bogolyubsky, M; Boldizsár, L; Bombara, M; Book, J; Borel, H; Borissov, A; Bossú, F; Botje, M; Botta, E; Braidot, E; Braun-Munzinger, P; Bregant, M; Breitner, T; Broker, T A; Browning, T A; Broz, M; Brun, R; Bruna, E; Bruno, G E; Budnikov, D; Buesching, H; Bufalino, S; Buncic, P; Busch, O; Buthelezi, Z; Caffarri, D; Cai, X; Caines, H; Calvo Villar, E; Camerini, P; Canoa Roman, V; Cara Romeo, G; Carena, W; Carena, F; Carlin Filho, N; Carminati, F; Casanova Díaz, A; Castillo Castellanos, J; Castillo Hernandez, J F; Casula, E A R; Catanescu, V; Cavicchioli, C; Ceballos Sanchez, C; Cepila, J; Cerello, P; Chang, B; Chapeland, S; Charvet, J L; Chattopadhyay, S; Chattopadhyay, S; Cherney, M; Cheshkov, C; Cheynis, B; Chibante Barroso, V; Chinellato, D D; Chochula, P; Chojnacki, M; Choudhury, S; Christakoglou, P; Christensen, C H; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Chung, S U; Cicalo, C; Cifarelli, L; Cindolo, F; Cleymans, J; Colamaria, F; Colella, D; Collu, A; Conesa Balbastre, G; Conesa del Valle, Z; Connors, M E; Contin, G; Contreras, J G; Cormier, T M; Corrales Morales, Y; Cortese, P; Cortés Maldonado, I; Cosentino, M R; Costa, F; Cotallo, M E; Crescio, E; Crochet, P; Cruz Alaniz, E; Cruz Albino, R; Cuautle, E; Cunqueiro, L; Dainese, A; Dang, R; Danu, A; Das, D; Das, K; Das, S; Das, I; Dash, A; Dash, S; De, S; de Barros, G O V; De Caro, A; de Cataldo, G; de Cuveland, J; De Falco, A; De Gruttola, D; Delagrange, H; Deloff, A; De Marco, N; Dénes, E; De Pasquale, S; Deppman, A; D'Erasmo, G; de Rooij, R; Diaz Corchero, M A; Di Bari, D; Dietel, T; Di Giglio, C; Di Liberto, S; Di Mauro, A; Di Nezza, P; Divià, R; Djuvsland, Ø; Dobrin, A; Dobrowolski, T; Dönigus, B; Dordic, O; Driga, O; Dubey, A K; Dubla, A; Ducroux, L; Dupieux, P; Dutta Majumdar, A K; Elia, D; Emschermann, D; Engel, H; Erazmus, B; Erdal, H A; Eschweiler, D; Espagnon, B; Estienne, M; Esumi, S; Evans, D; Evdokimov, S; Eyyubova, G; Fabris, D; Faivre, J; Falchieri, D; Fantoni, A; Fasel, M; Fehlker, D; Feldkamp, L; Felea, D; Feliciello, A; Fenton-Olsen, B; Feofilov, G; Fernández Téllez, A; Ferretti, A; Festanti, A; Figiel, J; Figueredo, M A S; Filchagin, S; Finogeev, D; Fionda, F M; Fiore, E M; Floratos, E; Floris, M; Foertsch, S; Foka, P; Fokin, S; Fragiacomo, E; Francescon, A; Frankenfeld, U; Fuchs, U; Furget, C; Fusco Girard, M; Gaardhøje, J J; Gagliardi, M; Gago, A; Gallio, M; Gangadharan, D R; Ganoti, P; Garabatos, C; Garcia-Solis, E; Gargiulo, C; Garishvili, I; Gerhard, J; Germain, M; Geuna, C; Gheata, A; Gheata, M; Ghidini, B; Ghosh, P; Gianotti, P; Girard, M R; Giubellino, P; Gladysz-Dziadus, E; Glässel, P; Gomez, R; Ferreiro, E G; González-Trueba, L H; González-Zamora, P; Gorbunov, S; Goswami, A; Gotovac, S; Graczykowski, L K; Grajcarek, R; Grelli, A; Grigoras, A; Grigoras, C; Grigoriev, V; Grigoryan, A; Grigoryan, S; Grinyov, B; Grion, N; Gros, P; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J F; Grossiord, J-Y; Grosso, R; Guber, F; Guernane, R; Guerzoni, B; Guilbaud, M; Gulbrandsen, K; Gulkanyan, H; Gunji, T; Gupta, A; Gupta, R; Haake, R; Haaland, Ø; Hadjidakis, C; Haiduc, M; Hamagaki, H; Hamar, G; Han, B H; Hanratty, L D; Hansen, A; Harmanová-Tóthová, Z; Harris, J W; Hartig, M; Harton, A; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hayashi, S; Hayrapetyan, A; Heckel, S T; Heide, M; Helstrup, H; Herghelegiu, A; Herrera Corral, G; Herrmann, N; Hess, B A; Hetland, K F; Hicks, B; Hippolyte, B; Hori, Y; Hristov, P; Hřivnáčová, I; Huang, M; Humanic, T J; Hwang, D S; Ichou, R; Ilkaev, R; Ilkiv, I; Inaba, M; Incani, E; Innocenti, P G; Innocenti, G M; Ippolitov, M; Irfan, M; Ivan, C; Ivanov, M; Ivanov, V; Ivanov, A; Ivanytskyi, O; Jachołkowski, A; Jacobs, P M; Jahnke, C; Jang, H J; Janik, M A; Jayarathna, P H S Y; Jena, S; Jha, D M; Jimenez Bustamante, R T; Jones, P G; Jung, H; Jusko, A; Kaidalov, A B; Kalcher, S; Kaliňák, P; Kalliokoski, T; Kalweit, A; Kang, J H; Kaplin, V; Kar, S; Karasu Uysal, A; Karavichev, O; Karavicheva, T; Karpechev, E; Kazantsev, A; Kebschull, U; Keidel, R; Ketzer, B; Khan, S A; Khan, M M; Khan, P; Khan, K H; Khanzadeev, A; Kharlov, Y; Kileng, B; Kim, M; Kim, S; Kim, M; Kim, J S; Kim, J H; Kim, T; Kim, B; Kim, D J; Kim, D W; Kirsch, S; Kisel, I; Kiselev, S; Kisiel, A; Klay, J L; Klein, J; Klein-Bösing, C; Kliemant, M; Kluge, A; Knichel, M L; Knospe, A G; Köhler, M K; Kollegger, T; Kolojvari, A; Kompaniets, M; Kondratiev, V; Kondratyeva, N; Konevskikh, A; Kovalenko, V; Kowalski, M; Kox, S; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, G; Kral, J; Králik, I; Kramer, F; Kravčáková, A; Krelina, M; Kretz, M; Krivda, M; Krizek, F; Krus, M; Kryshen, E; Krzewicki, M; Kucera, V; Kucheriaev, Y; Kugathasan, T; Kuhn, C; Kuijer, P G; Kulakov, I; Kumar, J; Kurashvili, P; Kurepin, A; Kurepin, A B; Kuryakin, A; Kushpil, S; Kushpil, V; Kvaerno, H; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Lakomov, I; Langoy, R; La Pointe, S L; Lara, C; Lardeux, A; La Rocca, P; Lea, R; Lechman, M; Lee, S C; Lee, G R; Legrand, I; Lehnert, J; Lemmon, R C; Lenhardt, M; Lenti, V; León, H; Leoncino, M; León Monzón, I; Lévai, P; Li, S; Lien, J; Lietava, R; Lindal, S; Lindenstruth, V; Lippmann, C; Lisa, M A; Ljunggren, H M; Lodato, D F; Loenne, P I; Loggins, V R; Loginov, V; Lohner, D; Loizides, C; Loo, K K; Lopez, X; López Torres, E; Løvhøiden, G; Lu, X-G; Luettig, P; Lunardon, M; Luo, J; Luparello, G; Luzzi, C; Ma, R; Ma, K; Madagodahettige-Don, D M; Maevskaya, A; Mager, M; Mahapatra, D P; Maire, A; Malaev, M; Maldonado Cervantes, I; Malinina, L; Mal'Kevich, D; Malzacher, P; Mamonov, A; Manceau, L; Mangotra, L; Manko, V; Manso, F; Manukyan, N; Manzari, V; Mao, Y; Marchisone, M; Mareš, J; Margagliotti, G V; Margotti, A; Marín, A; Markert, C; Marquard, M; Martashvili, I; Martin, N A; Martinengo, P; Martínez, M I; Martínez Davalos, A; Martínez García, G; Martynov, Y; Mas, A; Masciocchi, S; Masera, M; Masoni, A; Massacrier, L; Mastroserio, A; Matyja, A; Mayer, C; Mazer, J; Mazzoni, M A; Meddi, F; Menchaca-Rocha, A; Mercado Pérez, J; Meres, M; Miake, Y; Mikhaylov, K; Milano, L; Milosevic, J; Mischke, A; Mishra, A N; Miśkowiec, D; Mitu, C; Mizuno, S; Mlynarz, J; Mohanty, B; Molnar, L; Montaño Zetina, L; Monteno, M; Montes, E; Moon, T; Morando, M; Moreira De Godoy, D A; Moretto, S; Morreale, A; Morsch, A; Muccifora, V; Mudnic, E; Muhuri, S; Mukherjee, M; Müller, H; Munhoz, M G; Murray, S; Musa, L; Musinsky, J; Nandi, B K; Nania, R; Nappi, E; Nattrass, C; Nayak, T K; Nazarenko, S; Nedosekin, A; Nicassio, M; Niculescu, M; Nielsen, B S; Niida, T; Nikolaev, S; Nikolic, V; Nikulin, S; Nikulin, V; Nilsen, B S; Nilsson, M S; Noferini, F; Nomokonov, P; Nooren, G; Nyanin, A; Nyatha, A; Nygaard, C; Nystrand, J; Ochirov, A; Oeschler, H; Oh, S; Oh, S K; Oleniacz, J; Oliveira Da Silva, A C; Oppedisano, C; Ortiz Velasquez, A; Oskarsson, A; Ostrowski, P; Otwinowski, J; Oyama, K; Ozawa, K; Pachmayer, Y; Pachr, M; Padilla, F; Pagano, P; Paić, G; Painke, F; Pajares, C; Pal, S K; Palaha, A; Palmeri, A; Papikyan, V; Pappalardo, G S; Park, W J; Passfeld, A; Patalakha, D I; Paticchio, V; Paul, B; Pavlinov, A; Pawlak, T; Peitzmann, T; Pereira Da Costa, H; Pereira De Oliveira Filho, E; Peresunko, D; Pérez Lara, C E; Perrino, D; Peryt, W; Pesci, A; Pestov, Y; Petráček, V; Petran, M; Petris, M; Petrov, P; Petrovici, M; Petta, C; Piano, S; Pikna, M; Pillot, P; Pinazza, O; Pinsky, L; Pitz, N; Piyarathna, D B; Planinic, M; Płoskoń, M; Pluta, J; Pocheptsov, T; Pochybova, S; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Poghosyan, M G; Polák, K; Polichtchouk, B; Poljak, N; Pop, A; Porteboeuf-Houssais, S; Pospíšil, V; Potukuchi, B; Prasad, S K; Preghenella, R; Prino, F; Pruneau, C A; Pshenichnov, I; Puddu, G; Punin, V; Putiš, M; Putschke, J; Qvigstad, H; Rachevski, A; Rademakers, A; Räihä, T S; Rak, J; Rakotozafindrabe, A; Ramello, L; Raniwala, S; Raniwala, R; Räsänen, S S; Rascanu, B T; Rathee, D; Rauch, W; Read, K F; Real, J S; Redlich, K; Reed, R J; Rehman, A; Reichelt, P; Reicher, M; Renfordt, R; Reolon, A R; Reshetin, A; Rettig, F; Revol, J-P; Reygers, K; Riccati, L; Ricci, R A; Richert, T; Richter, M; Riedler, P; Riegler, W; Riggi, F; Rodríguez Cahuantzi, M; Rodriguez Manso, A; Røed, K; Rogochaya, E; Rohr, D; Röhrich, D; Romita, R; Ronchetti, F; Rosnet, P; Rossegger, S; Rossi, A; Roy, P; Roy, C; Rubio Montero, A J; Rui, R; Russo, R; Ryabinkin, E; Rybicki, A; Sadovsky, S; Šafařík, K; Sahoo, R; Sahu, P K; Saini, J; Sakaguchi, H; Sakai, S; Sakata, D; Salgado, C A; Salzwedel, J; Sambyal, S; Samsonov, V; Sanchez Castro, X; Šándor, L; Sandoval, A; Sano, M; Santagati, G; Santoro, R; Sarkamo, J; Sarkar, D; Scapparone, E; Scarlassara, F; Scharenberg, R P; Schiaua, C; Schicker, R; Schmidt, H R; Schmidt, C; Schuchmann, S; Schukraft, J; Schuster, T; Schutz, Y; Schwarz, K; Schweda, K; Scioli, G; Scomparin, E; Scott, R; Scott, P A; Segato, G; Selyuzhenkov, I; Senyukov, S; Seo, J; Serci, S; Serradilla, E; Sevcenco, A; Shabetai, A; Shabratova, G; Shahoyan, R; Sharma, N; Sharma, S; Rohni, S; Shigaki, K; Shtejer, K; Sibiriak, Y; Sicking, E; Siddhanta, S; Siemiarczuk, T; Silvermyr, D; Silvestre, C; Simatovic, G; Simonetti, G; Singaraju, R; Singh, R; Singha, S; Singhal, V; Sinha, B C; Sinha, T; Sitar, B; Sitta, M; Skaali, T B; Skjerdal, K; Smakal, R; Smirnov, N; Snellings, R J M; Søgaard, C; Soltz, R; Song, M; Song, J; Soos, C; Soramel, F; Sputowska, I; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, M; Srivastava, B K; Stachel, J; Stan, I; Stefanek, G; Steinpreis, M; Stenlund, E; Steyn, G; Stiller, J H; Stocco, D; Stolpovskiy, M; Strmen, P; Suaide, A A P; Subieta Vásquez, M A; Sugitate, T; Suire, C; Sultanov, R; Šumbera, M; Susa, T; Symons, T J M; Szanto de Toledo, A; Szarka, I; Szczepankiewicz, A; Szymański, M; Takahashi, J; Tangaro, M A; Tapia Takaki, J D; Tarantola Peloni, A; Tarazona Martinez, A; Tauro, A; Tejeda Muñoz, G; Telesca, A; Ter Minasyan, A; Terrevoli, C; Thäder, J; Thomas, D; Tieulent, R; Timmins, A R; Tlusty, D; Toia, A; Torii, H; Toscano, L; Trubnikov, V; Truesdale, D; Trzaska, W H; Tsuji, T; Tumkin, A; Turrisi, R; Tveter, T S; Ulery, J; Ullaland, K; Ulrich, J; Uras, A; Urciuoli, G M; Usai, G L; Vajzer, M; Vala, M; Valencia Palomo, L; Vande Vyvre, P; Van Hoorne, J W; van Leeuwen, M; Vannucci, L; Vargas, A; Varma, R; Vasileiou, M; Vasiliev, A; Vechernin, V; Veldhoen, M; Venaruzzo, M; Vercellin, E; Vergara, S; Vernet, R; Verweij, M; Vickovic, L; Viesti, G; Viinikainen, J; Vilakazi, Z; Villalobos Baillie, O; Vinogradov, Y; Vinogradov, L; Vinogradov, A; Virgili, T; Viyogi, Y P; Vodopyanov, A; Völkl, M A; Voloshin, S; Voloshin, K; Volpe, G; von Haller, B; Vorobyev, I; Vranic, D; Vrláková, J; Vulpescu, B; Vyushin, A; Wagner, B; Wagner, V; Wan, R; Wang, Y; Wang, M; Wang, Y; Watanabe, K; Weber, M; Wessels, J P; Westerhoff, U; Wiechula, J; Wikne, J; Wilde, M; Wilk, G; Williams, M C S; Windelband, B; Xaplanteris Karampatsos, L; Yaldo, C G; Yamaguchi, Y; Yang, S; Yang, P; Yang, H; Yasnopolskiy, S; Yi, J; Yin, Z; Yoo, I-K; Yoon, J; Yu, W; Yuan, X; Yushmanov, I; Zaccolo, V; Zach, C; Zampolli, C; Zaporozhets, S; Zarochentsev, A; Závada, P; Zaviyalov, N; Zbroszczyk, H; Zelnicek, P; Zgura, I S; Zhalov, M; Zhang, H; Zhang, X; Zhang, Y; Zhou, D; Zhou, F; Zhou, Y; Zhu, H; Zhu, J; Zhu, X; Zhu, J; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, A; Zinovjev, G; Zoccarato, Y; Zynovyev, M; Zyzak, M

    2013-10-18

    We report on the first measurement of inclusive J/ψ elliptic flow v2 in heavy-ion collisions at the LHC. The measurement is performed with the ALICE detector in Pb-Pb collisions at √(s(NN))=2.76 TeV in the rapidity range 2.5elliptic flow measurement complements the previously reported ALICE results on the inclusive J/ψ nuclear modification factor and favors the scenario of a significant fraction of J/ψ production from charm quarks in a deconfined partonic phase.

  4. Measurements of elliptic and triangular flow in high-multiplicity 3He+Au collisions at √sNN=200 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Adare, A.

    2015-09-28

    We present the first measurement of elliptic (v2) and triangular (v3) flow in high-multiplicity 3He+Aucollisions at √sNN=200 GeV. Two-particle correlations, where the particles have a large separation in pseudorapidity, are compared in 3He+Au and in p+p collisions and indicate that collective effects dominate the second and third Fourier components for the correlations observed in the 3He+Ausystem. The collective behavior is quantified in terms of elliptic v2 and triangular v3 anisotropy coefficients measured with respect to their corresponding event planes. The v2 values are comparable to those previously measured in d+Au collisions at the same nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy. Comparisons with various theoretical predictions are made, including to models where the hot spots created by the impact of the three 3He nucleons on the Au nucleus expand hydrodynamically to generate the triangular flow. The agreement of these models with data may indicate the formation of low-viscosity quark-gluon plasma even in these small collision systems.

  5. Measurements of elliptic and triangular flow in high-multiplicity 3He+Au collisions at √sNN=200 GeV

    DOE PAGES

    Adare, A.

    2015-09-28

    We present the first measurement of elliptic (v2) and triangular (v3) flow in high-multiplicity 3He+Aucollisions at √sNN=200 GeV. Two-particle correlations, where the particles have a large separation in pseudorapidity, are compared in 3He+Au and in p+p collisions and indicate that collective effects dominate the second and third Fourier components for the correlations observed in the 3He+Ausystem. The collective behavior is quantified in terms of elliptic v2 and triangular v3 anisotropy coefficients measured with respect to their corresponding event planes. The v2 values are comparable to those previously measured in d+Au collisions at the same nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy. Comparisons with variousmore » theoretical predictions are made, including to models where the hot spots created by the impact of the three 3He nucleons on the Au nucleus expand hydrodynamically to generate the triangular flow. The agreement of these models with data may indicate the formation of low-viscosity quark-gluon plasma even in these small collision systems.« less

  6. Odd-even {sup 147-153}Pm isotopes within the neutron-proton interacting boson-fermion model

    SciTech Connect

    Barea, J.; Alonso, C. E.; Arias, J. M.

    2011-02-15

    Low-lying energy states of the {sup 147-153}Pm isotopic chain are studied within the framework of the neutron-proton interacting boson-fermion model (IBFM-2). The spectra of these isotopes show a transition from a particle coupled to a vibrational core to a particle coupled to a deformed one. The calculation reproduces this behavior. In addition, reduced transition probabilities B(E2) and B(M1) and quadrupole and magnetic moments, as well as spectroscopic factors corresponding to stripping and pickup transfer reactions, are calculated. Obtained results compare well with the available experimental data, which reinforces the reliability of the wave functions obtained within the IBFM-2 model.

  7. Enhancement of high-spin collectivity in N = Z nuclei by the isoscalar neutron-proton pairing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, K.; Sun, Y.; de Angelis, G.

    2017-01-01

    Pairing from different fermions, neutrons and protons, is unique in nuclear physics. The fingerprint for the isoscalar T = 0 neutron-proton (np) pairing has however remained a question. We study this exotic pairing mode in excited states of rotating N ≈ Z nuclei by applying the state-of-the-art shell-model calculations for 88Ru and the neighboring 90,92Ru isotopes. We show that the T = 0 np pairing is responsible for the distinct rotational behavior between the N = Z and N > Z nuclei. Our calculation suggests a gradual crossover from states with mixed T = 1 and T = 0 pairing near the ground state to those dominated by the T = 0 np pairing at high spins. It is found that the T = 0 np pairing plays an important role in enhancing the high-spin collectivity, thereby reducing shape variations along the N = Z line.

  8. Emission of neutron-proton and proton-proton pairs in electron scattering induced by meson-exchange currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simo, I. Ruiz; Amaro, J. E.; Barbaro, M. B.; De Pace, A.; Caballero, J. A.; Megias, G. D.; Donnelly, T. W.

    2016-11-01

    We use a relativistic model of meson-exchange currents to compute the proton-neutron and proton-proton yields in (e ,e') scattering from 12C in the 2p-2h channel. We compute the response functions and cross section with the relativistic Fermi gas model for a range of kinematics from intermediate- to high-momentum transfers. We find a large contribution of neutron-proton configurations in the initial state, as compared to proton-proton pairs. The different emission probabilities of distinct species of nucleon pairs are produced in our model only by meson-exchange currents, mainly by the Δ isobar current. We also analyze the effect of the exchange contribution and show that the direct-exchange interference strongly affects the determination of the n p /p p ratio.

  9. Elliptic and triangular flow in p-Pb and peripheral Pb-Pb collisions from parton scatterings

    SciTech Connect

    Bzdak, Adam; Ma, Guo-Liang

    2014-12-15

    Using a multiphase transport model (AMPT) we calculate the elliptic v₂ and triangular v₃ Fourier coefficients of the two-particle azimuthal correlation function in proton-nucleus (p-Pb) and peripheral nucleus-nucleus (Pb-Pb) collisions. Our results for v₃ are in a good agreement with the CMS data collected at the Large Hadron Collider. The v₂ coefficient is very well described in p-Pb collisions and is underestimated for higher transverse momenta in Pb-Pb interactions. The characteristic mass ordering of v₂ in p-Pb is reproduced, whereas for v₃, this effect is not observed. We further predict the pseudorapidity dependence of v₂ and v₃ in p-Pb and observe that both are increasing when going from a proton side to a Pb-nucleus side. Predictions for the higher-order Fourier coefficients, v₄ and v₅, in p-Pb are also presented.

  10. Elliptic and triangular flow in p-Pb and peripheral Pb-Pb collisions from parton scatterings

    DOE PAGES

    Bzdak, Adam; Ma, Guo-Liang

    2014-12-15

    Using a multiphase transport model (AMPT) we calculate the elliptic v₂ and triangular v₃ Fourier coefficients of the two-particle azimuthal correlation function in proton-nucleus (p-Pb) and peripheral nucleus-nucleus (Pb-Pb) collisions. Our results for v₃ are in a good agreement with the CMS data collected at the Large Hadron Collider. The v₂ coefficient is very well described in p-Pb collisions and is underestimated for higher transverse momenta in Pb-Pb interactions. The characteristic mass ordering of v₂ in p-Pb is reproduced, whereas for v₃, this effect is not observed. We further predict the pseudorapidity dependence of v₂ and v₃ in p-Pb andmore » observe that both are increasing when going from a proton side to a Pb-nucleus side. Predictions for the higher-order Fourier coefficients, v₄ and v₅, in p-Pb are also presented.« less

  11. Heavy-flavour elliptic flow measured in Pb-Pb collisions at √{sNN} = 2.76 TeV with ALICE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailhache, Raphaelle

    2014-11-01

    The ALICE Collaboration has measured the production of open heavy-flavour hadrons relative to the reaction plane in Pb-Pb collisions at √{sNN} = 2.76 TeV. The anisotropy is quantified in terms of the second harmonic, the elliptic flow v2, in the Fourier expansion of the particle azimuthal distribution. The v2 measurements are presented for prompt charm mesons, i.e. D0, D+, D*+, and heavy-flavour decay electrons at mid-rapidity, as well as for heavy-flavour decay muons at forward rapidity for various centrality intervals. The results are compared with the ones for charged particles and with model calculations of charm and beauty quark transport and energy loss in high-density strongly-interacting matter at high temperature.

  12. Centrality dependence of identified particle elliptic flow in relativistic heavy ion collisions at sNN=7.7–62.4 GeV

    DOE PAGES

    Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; ...

    2016-01-19

    Here, elliptic flow (v2) values for identified particles at midrapidity in Au + Au collisions measured by the STAR experiment in the Beam Energy Scan at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at √sNN = 7.7–62.4 GeV are presented for three centrality classes. The centrality dependence and the data at √sNN = 14.5 GeV are new. Except at the lowest beam energies, we observe a similar relative v2 baryon-meson splitting for all centrality classes which is in agreement within 15% with the number-of-constituent quark scaling. The larger v2 for most particles relative to antiparticles, already observed for minimum bias collisions, showsmore » a clear centrality dependence, with the largest difference for the most central collisions. Also, the results are compared with a multiphase transport (AMPT) model and fit with a blast wave model.« less

  13. Centrality dependence of identified particle elliptic flow in relativistic heavy ion collisions at √{sN N}=7.7 -62.4 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Alekseev, I.; Aparin, A.; Arkhipkin, D.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Averichev, G. S.; Bai, X.; Bairathi, V.; Banerjee, A.; Bellwied, R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattarai, P.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L. C.; Bordyuzhin, I. G.; Bouchet, J.; Brandenburg, D.; Brandin, A. V.; Bunzarov, I.; Butterworth, J.; Caines, H.; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M.; Campbell, J. M.; Cebra, D.; Cervantes, M. C.; Chakaberia, I.; Chaloupka, P.; Chang, Z.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, X.; Chen, J. H.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Chisman, O.; Christie, W.; Contin, G.; Crawford, H. J.; Das, S.; De Silva, L. C.; Debbe, R. R.; Dedovich, T. G.; Deng, J.; Derevschikov, A. A.; di Ruzza, B.; Didenko, L.; Dilks, C.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Du, C. M.; Dunkelberger, L. E.; Dunlop, J. C.; Efimov, L. G.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Esha, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Eyser, O.; Fatemi, R.; Fazio, S.; Federic, P.; Fedorisin, J.; Feng, Z.; Filip, P.; Fisyak, Y.; Flores, C. E.; Fulek, L.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Garand, D.; Geurts, F.; Gibson, A.; Girard, M.; Greiner, L.; Grosnick, D.; Gunarathne, D. S.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, S.; Guryn, W.; Hamad, A.; Hamed, A.; Haque, R.; Harris, J. W.; He, L.; Heppelmann, S.; Heppelmann, S.; Hirsch, A.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Hofman, D. J.; Horvat, S.; Huang, H. Z.; Huang, B.; Huang, X.; Huck, P.; Humanic, T. J.; Igo, G.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jang, H.; Jiang, K.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kalinkin, D.; Kang, K.; Kauder, K.; Ke, H. W.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Khan, Z. H.; Kikoła, D. P.; Kisel, I.; Kisiel, A.; Kochenda, L.; Koetke, D. D.; Kollegger, T.; Kosarzewski, L. K.; Kraishan, A. F.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Kulakov, I.; Kumar, L.; Kycia, R. A.; Lamont, M. A. C.; Landgraf, J. M.; Landry, K. D.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, J. H.; Li, X.; Li, Y.; Li, W.; Li, C.; Li, X.; Li, Z. M.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, F.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Lomnitz, M.; Longacre, R. S.; Luo, X.; Ma, L.; Ma, Y. G.; Ma, G. L.; Ma, R.; Magdy, N.; Majka, R.; Manion, A.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Masui, H.; Matis, H. S.; McDonald, D.; Meehan, K.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mishra, D.; Mohanty, B.; Mondal, M. M.; Morozov, D. A.; Mustafa, M. K.; Nandi, B. K.; Nasim, Md.; Nayak, T. K.; Nigmatkulov, G.; Niida, T.; Nogach, L. V.; Noh, S. Y.; Novak, J.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Oh, K.; Okorokov, V.; Olvitt, D.; Page, B. S.; Pak, R.; Pan, Y. X.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pawlik, B.; Pei, H.; Perkins, C.; Peterson, A.; Pile, P.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Poljak, N.; Poniatowska, K.; Porter, J.; Posik, M.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Pruthi, N. K.; Putschke, J.; Qiu, H.; Quintero, A.; Ramachandran, S.; Raniwala, S.; Raniwala, R.; Ray, R. L.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Roy, A.; Ruan, L.; Rusnak, J.; Rusnakova, O.; Sahoo, N. R.; Sahu, P. K.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Sarkar, A.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schmah, A. M.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schmitz, N.; Seger, J.; Seyboth, P.; Shah, N.; Shahaliev, E.; Shanmuganathan, P. V.; Shao, M.; Sharma, B.; Sharma, M. K.; Shen, W. Q.; Shi, S. S.; Shou, Q. Y.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Sikora, R.; Simko, M.; Singha, S.; Skoby, M. J.; Smirnov, N.; Smirnov, D.; Song, L.; Sorensen, P.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Stepanov, M.; Stock, R.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Sumbera, M.; Summa, B.; Sun, X.; Sun, Z.; Sun, Y.; Sun, X. M.; Surrow, B.; Svirida, N.; Szelezniak, M. A.; Tang, Z.; Tang, A. H.; Tarnowsky, T.; Tawfik, A.; Thäder, J.; Thomas, J. H.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Tokarev, M.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tribedy, P.; Tripathy, S. K.; Trzeciak, B. A.; Tsai, O. D.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Upsal, I.; Van Buren, G.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Varma, R.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Vertesi, R.; Videbæk, F.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vokal, S.; Voloshin, S. A.; Vossen, A.; Wang, F.; Wang, Y.; Wang, G.; Wang, Y.; Wang, J. S.; Wang, H.; Webb, J. C.; Webb, G.; Wen, L.; Westfall, G. D.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S. W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y. F.; Wu, Y.; Xiao, Z. G.; Xie, W.; Xin, K.; Xu, Z.; Xu, H.; Xu, Y. F.; Xu, Q. H.; Xu, N.; Yang, Y.; Yang, C.; Yang, S.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Q.; Ye, Z.; Ye, Z.; Yepes, P.; Yi, L.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yu, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zha, W.; Zhang, J. B.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhang, X. P.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhu, X.; Zoulkarneeva, Y.; Zyzak, M.; STAR Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Elliptic flow (v2) values for identified particles at midrapidity in Au + Au collisions measured by the STAR experiment in the Beam Energy Scan at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at √{sN N}= 7.7 -62.4 GeV are presented for three centrality classes. The centrality dependence and the data at √{sN N}= 14.5 GeV are new. Except at the lowest beam energies, we observe a similar relative v2 baryon-meson splitting for all centrality classes which is in agreement within 15% with the number-of-constituent quark scaling. The larger v2 for most particles relative to antiparticles, already observed for minimum bias collisions, shows a clear centrality dependence, with the largest difference for the most central collisions. Also, the results are compared with a multiphase transport (AMPT) model and fit with a blast wave model.

  14. Elliptic flow of identified hadrons in Pb-Pb collisions at $ \\sqrt{s_{\\mathrm{NN}}}=2.76 $ TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Abelev, B.; Adam, J.; Adamová, D.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Agnello, M.; Agostinelli, A.; Agrawal, N.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahmad, N.; Ahmed, I.; Ahn, S. U.; Ahn, S. A.; Aimo, I.; Aiola, S.; Ajaz, M.; Akindinov, A.; Alam, S. N.; Aleksandrov, D.; Alessandro, B.; Alexandre, D.; Alici, A.; Alkin, A.; Alme, J.; Alt, T.; Altinpinar, S.; Altsybeev, I.; Alves Garcia Prado, C.; Andrei, C.; Andronic, A.; Anguelov, V.; Anielski, J.; Antičić, T.; Antinori, F.; Antonioli, P.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelshäuser, H.; Arcelli, S.; Armesto, N.; Arnaldi, R.; Aronsson, T.; Arsene, I. C.; Arslandok, M.; Augustinus, A.; Averbeck, R.; Awes, T. C.; Azmi, M. D.; Bach, M.; Badalà, A.; Baek, Y. W.; Bagnasco, S.; Bailhache, R.; Bala, R.; Baldisseri, A.; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F.; Baral, R. C.; Barbera, R.; Barile, F.; Barnaföldi, G. G.; Barnby, L. S.; Barret, V.; Bartke, J.; Basile, M.; Bastid, N.; Basu, S.; Bathen, B.; Batigne, G.; Batista Camejo, A.; Batyunya, B.; Batzing, P. C.; Baumann, C.; Bearden, I. G.; Beck, H.; Bedda, C.; Behera, N. K.; Belikov, I.; Bellini, F.; Bellwied, R.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; Belmont, R.; Belyaev, V.; Bencedi, G.; Beole, S.; Berceanu, I.; Bercuci, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Berenyi, D.; Berger, M. E.; Bertens, R. A.; Berzano, D.; Betev, L.; Bhasin, A.; Bhat, I. R.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattacharjee, B.; Bhom, J.; Bianchi, L.; Bianchi, N.; Bianchin, C.; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, J.; Bilandzic, A.; Bjelogrlic, S.; Blanco, F.; Blau, D.; Blume, C.; Bock, F.; Bogdanov, A.; Bøggild, H.; Bogolyubsky, M.; Böhmer, F. V.; Boldizsár, L.; Bombara, M.; Book, J.; Borel, H.; Borissov, A.; Bossú, F.; Botje, M.; Botta, E.; Böttger, S.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Bregant, M.; Breitner, T.; Broker, T. A.; Browning, T. A.; Broz, M.; Bruna, E.; Bruno, G. E.; Budnikov, D.; Buesching, H.; Bufalino, S.; Buncic, P.; Busch, O.; Buthelezi, Z.; Caffarri, D.; Cai, X.; Caines, H.; Calero Diaz, L.; Caliva, A.; Calvo Villar, E.; Camerini, P.; Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Castillo Castellanos, J.; Casula, E. A. R.; Catanescu, V.; Cavicchioli, C.; Ceballos Sanchez, C.; Cepila, J.; Cerello, P.; Chang, B.; Chapeland, S.; Charvet, J. L.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chelnokov, V.; Cherney, M.; Cheshkov, C.; Cheynis, B.; Chibante Barroso, V.; Chinellato, D. D.; Chochula, P.; Chojnacki, M.; Choudhury, S.; Christakoglou, P.; Christensen, C. H.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, S. U.; Cicalo, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Cleymans, J.; Colamaria, F.; Colella, D.; Collu, A.; Colocci, M.; Conesa Balbastre, G.; Conesa del Valle, Z.; Connors, M. E.; Contreras, J. G.; Cormier, T. M.; Corrales Morales, Y.; Cortese, P.; Cortés Maldonado, I.; Cosentino, M. R.; Costa, F.; Crochet, P.; Cruz Albino, R.; Cuautle, E.; Cunqueiro, L.; Dainese, A.; Dang, R.; Danu, A.; Das, D.; Das, I.; Das, K.; Das, S.; Dash, A.; Dash, S.; De, S.; Delagrange, H.; Deloff, A.; Dénes, E.; D’Erasmo, G.; De Caro, A.; de Cataldo, G.; de Cuveland, J.; De Falco, A.; De Gruttola, D.; De Marco, N.; De Pasquale, S.; de Rooij, R.; Diaz Corchero, M. A.; Dietel, T.; Dillenseger, P.; Divià, R.; Di Bari, D.; Di Liberto, S.; Di Mauro, A.; Di Nezza, P.; Djuvsland, Ø.; Dobrin, A.; Dobrowolski, T.; Domenicis Gimenez, D.; Dönigus, B.; Dordic, O.; Dørheim, S.; Dubey, A. K.; Dubla, A.; Ducroux, L.; Dupieux, P.; Dutta Majumdar, A. K.; Hilden, T. E.; Ehlers, R. J.; Elia, D.; Engel, H.; Erazmus, B.; Erdal, H. A.; Eschweiler, D.; Espagnon, B.; Esposito, M.; Estienne, M.; Esumi, S.; Evans, D.; Evdokimov, S.; Fabris, D.; Faivre, J.; Falchieri, D.; Fantoni, A.; Fasel, M.; Fehlker, D.; Feldkamp, L.; Felea, D.; Feliciello, A.; Feofilov, G.; Ferencei, J.; Fernández Téllez, A.; Ferreiro, E. G.; Ferretti, A.; Festanti, A.; Figiel, J.; Figueredo, M. A. S.; Filchagin, S.; Finogeev, D.; Fionda, F. M.; Fiore, E. M.; Floratos, E.; Floris, M.; Foertsch, S.; Foka, P.; Fokin, S.; Fragiacomo, E.; Francescon, A.; Frankenfeld, U.; Fuchs, U.; Furget, C.; Fusco Girard, M.; Gaardhøje, J. J.; Gagliardi, M.; Gago, A. M.; Gallio, M.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Ganoti, P.; Garabatos, C.; Garcia-Solis, E.; Gargiulo, C.; Garishvili, I.; Gerhard, J.; Germain, M.; Gheata, A.; Gheata, M.; Ghidini, B.; Ghosh, P.; Ghosh, S. K.; Gianotti, P.; Giubellino, P.; Gladysz-Dziadus, E.; Glässel, P.; Gomez Ramirez, A.; González-Zamora, P.; Gorbunov, S.; Görlich, L.; Gotovac, S.; Graczykowski, L. K.; Grelli, A.; Grigoras, A.; Grigoras, C.; Grigoriev, V.; Grigoryan, A.; Grigoryan, S.; Grinyov, B.; Grion, N.; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J. F.; Grossiord, J. -Y.; Grosso, R.; Guber, F.; Guernane, R.; Guerzoni, B.; Guilbaud, M.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gulkanyan, H.; Gumbo, M.; Gunji, T.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, R.; Khan, K. H.; Haake, R.; Haaland, Ø.; Hadjidakis, C.; Haiduc, M.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamar, G.; Hanratty, L. D.; Hansen, A.; Harris, J. W.; Hartmann, H.; Harton, A.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hayashi, S.; Heckel, S. T.; Heide, M.; Helstrup, H.; Herghelegiu, A.; Herrera Corral, G.; Hess, B. A.; Hetland, K. F.; Hippolyte, B.; Hladky, J.; Hristov, P.; Huang, M.; Humanic, T. J.; Hussain, N.; Hutter, D.; Hwang, D. S.; Ilkaev, R.; Ilkiv, I.; Inaba, M.; Innocenti, G. M.; Ionita, C.; Ippolitov, M.; Irfan, M.; Ivanov, M.; Ivanov, V.; Jacholkowski, A.; Jacobs, P. M.; Jahnke, C.; Jang, H. J.; Janik, M. A.; Jayarathna, P. H. S. Y.; Jena, C.; Jena, S.; Jimenez Bustamante, R. T.; Jones, P. G.; Jung, H.; Jusko, A.; Kadyshevskiy, V.; Kalcher, S.; Kalinak, P.; Kalweit, A.; Kamin, J.; Kang, J. H.; Kaplin, V.; Kar, S.; Karasu Uysal, A.; Karavichev, O.; Karavicheva, T.; Karpechev, E.; Kebschull, U.; Keidel, R.; Keijdener, D. L. D.; Keil SVN, M.; Khan, M. M.; Khan, P.; Khan, S. A.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kharlov, Y.; Kileng, B.; Kim, B.; Kim, D. W.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, M.; Kim, M.; Kim, S.; Kim, T.; Kirsch, S.; Kisel, I.; Kiselev, S.; Kisiel, A.; Kiss, G.; Klay, J. L.; Klein, J.; Klein-Bösing, C.; Kluge, A.; Knichel, M. L.; Knospe, A. G.; Kobdaj, C.; Kofarago, M.; Köhler, M. K.; Kollegger, T.; Kolojvari, A.; Kondratiev, V.; Kondratyeva, N.; Konevskikh, A.; Kovalenko, V.; Kowalski, M.; Kox, S.; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, G.; Kral, J.; Králik, I.; Kramer, F.; Kravčáková, A.; Krelina, M.; Kretz, M.; Krivda, M.; Krizek, F.; Kryshen, E.; Krzewicki, M.; Kučera, V.; Kucheriaev, Y.; Kugathasan, T.; Kuhn, C.; Kuijer, P. G.; Kulakov, I.; Kumar, J.; Kurashvili, P.; Kurepin, A.; Kurepin, A. B.; Kuryakin, A.; Kushpil, S.; Kweon, M. J.; Kwon, Y.; Ladron de Guevara, P.; Lagana Fernandes, C.; Lakomov, I.; Langoy, R.; Lara, C.; Lardeux, A.; Lattuca, A.; La Pointe, S. L.; La Rocca, P.; Lea, R.; Leardini, L.; Lee, G. R.; Legrand, I.; Lehnert, J.; Lemmon, R. C.; Lenti, V.; Leogrande, E.; Leoncino, M.; León Monzón, I.; Lévai, P.; Li, S.; Lien, J.; Lietava, R.; Lindal, S.; Lindenstruth, V.; Lippmann, C.; Lisa, M. A.; Ljunggren, H. M.; Lodato, D. F.; Loenne, P. I.; Loggins, V. R.; Loginov, V.; Lohner, D.; Loizides, C.; Lopez, X.; López Torres, E.; Lu, X. -G.; Luettig, P.; Lunardon, M.; Luparello, G.; Ma, R.; Maevskaya, A.; Mager, M.; Mahapatra, D. P.; Mahmood, S. M.; Maire, A.; Majka, R. D.; Malaev, M.; Maldonado Cervantes, I.; Malinina, L.; Mal’Kevich, D.; Malzacher, P.; Mamonov, A.; Manceau, L.; Manko, V.; Manso, F.; Manzari, V.; Marchisone, M.; Mareš, J.; Margagliotti, G. V.; Margotti, A.; Marín, A.; Markert, C.; Marquard, M.; Martashvili, I.; Martin, N. A.; Martinengo, P.; Martínez, M. I.; Martínez García, G.; Martin Blanco, J.; Martynov, Y.; Mas, A.; Masciocchi, S.; Masera, M.; Masoni, A.; Massacrier, L.; Mastroserio, A.; Matyja, A.; Mayer, C.; Mazer, J.; Mazzoni, M. A.; Meddi, F.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Mercado Pérez, J.; Meres, M.; Miake, Y.; Mikhaylov, K.; Milano, L.; Milosevic, J.; Mischke, A.; Mishra, A. N.; Miskowiec, D.; Mitra, J.; Mitu, C. M.; Mlynarz, J.; Mohammadi, N.; Mohanty, B.; Molnar, L.; Montaño Zetina, L.; Montes, E.; Morando, M.; Moreira De Godoy, D. A.; Moretto, S.; Morsch, A.; Muccifora, V.; Mudnic, E.; Mühlheim, D.; Muhuri, S.; Mukherjee, M.; Müller, H.; Munhoz, M. G.; Murray, S.; Musa, L.; Musinsky, J.; Nandi, B. K.; Nania, R.; Nappi, E.; Nattrass, C.; Nayak, K.; Nayak, T. K.; Nazarenko, S.; Nedosekin, A.; Nicassio, M.; Niculescu, M.; Nielsen, B. S.; Nikolaev, S.; Nikulin, S.; Nikulin, V.; Nilsen, B. S.; Noferini, F.; Nomokonov, P.; Nooren, G.; Norman, J.; Nyanin, A.; Nystrand, J.; Oeschler, H.; Oh, S.; Oh, S. K.; Okatan, A.; Olah, L.; Oleniacz, J.; Oliveira Da Silva, A. C.; Onderwaater, J.; Oppedisano, C.; Ortiz Velasquez, A.; Oskarsson, A.; Otwinowski, J.; Oyama, K.; Sahoo, P.; Pachmayer, Y.; Pachr, M.; Pagano, P.; Paić, G.; Painke, F.; Pajares, C.; Pal, S. K.; Palmeri, A.; Pant, D.; Papikyan, V.; Pappalardo, G. S.; Pareek, P.; Park, W. J.; Parmar, S.; Passfeld, A.; Patalakha, D. I.; Paticchio, V.; Paul, B.; Pawlak, T.; Peitzmann, T.; Pereira Da Costa, H.; Pereira De Oliveira Filho, E.; Peresunko, D.; Pérez Lara, C. E.; Pesci, A.; Peskov, V.; Pestov, Y.; Petráček, V.; Petran, M.; Petris, M.; Petrovici, M.; Petta, C.; Piano, S.; Pikna, M.; Pillot, P.; Pinazza, O.; Pinsky, L.; Piyarathna, D. B.; Ploskon, M.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Pochybova, S.; Podesta-Lerma, P. L. M.; Poghosyan, M. G.; Pohjoisaho, E. H. O.; Polichtchouk, B.; Poljak, N.; Pop, A.; Porteboeuf-Houssais, S.; Porter, J.; Potukuchi, B.; Prasad, S. K.; Preghenella, R.; Prino, F.; Pruneau, C. A.; Pshenichnov, I.; Puddu, G.; Pujahari, P.; Punin, V.; Putschke, J.; Qvigstad, H.; Rachevski, A.; Raha, S.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ramello, L.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Räsänen, S. S.; Rascanu, B. T.; Rathee, D.; Rauf, A. W.; Razazi, V.; Read, K. F.; Real, J. S.; Redlich, K.; Reed, R. J.; Rehman, A.; Reichelt, P.; Reicher, M.; Reidt, F.; Renfordt, R.; Reolon, A. R.; Reshetin, A.; Rettig, F.; Revol, J. -P.; Reygers, K.; Riabov, V.; Ricci, R. A.; Richert, T.; Richter, M.; Riedler, P.; Riegler, W.; Riggi, F.; Rivetti, A.; Rocco, E.; Rodríguez Cahuantzi, M.; Rodriguez Manso, A.; Røed, K.; Rogochaya, E.; Rohni, S.; Rohr, D.; Röhrich, D.; Romita, R.; Ronchetti, F.; Ronflette, L.; Rosnet, P.; Rossi, A.; Roukoutakis, F.; Roy, A.; Roy, C.; Roy, P.; Rubio Montero, A. J.; Rui, R.; Russo, R.; Ryabinkin, E.; Ryabov, Y.; Rybicki, A.; Sadovsky, S.; Šafařík, K.; Sahlmuller, B.; Sahoo, R.; Sahu, P. K.; Saini, J.; Sakai, S.; Salgado, C. A.; Salzwedel, J.; Sambyal, S.; Samsonov, V.; Sanchez Castro, X.; Sánchez Rodríguez, F. J.; Šándor, L.; Sandoval, A.; Sano, M.; Santagati, G.; Sarkar, D.; Scapparone, E.; Scarlassara, F.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schiaua, C.; Schicker, R.; Schmidt, C.; Schmidt, H. R.; Schuchmann, S.; Schukraft, J.; Schulc, M.; Schuster, T.; Schutz, Y.; Schwarz, K.; Schweda, K.; Scioli, G.; Scomparin, E.; Scott, R.; Segato, G.; Seger, J. E.; Sekiguchi, Y.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Seo, J.; Serradilla, E.; Sevcenco, A.; Shabetai, A.; Shabratova, G.; Shahoyan, R.; Shangaraev, A.; Sharma, N.; Sharma, S.; Shigaki, K.; Shtejer, K.; Sibiriak, Y.; Siddhanta, S.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Simatovic, G.; Singaraju, R.; Singh, R.; Singha, S.; Singhal, V.; Sinha, B. C.; Sinha, T.; Sitar, B.; Sitta, M.; Skaali, T. B.; Skjerdal, K.; Slupecki, M.; Smirnov, N.; Snellings, R. J. M.; Søgaard, C.; Soltz, R.; Song, J.; Song, M.; Soramel, F.; Sorensen, S.; Spacek, M.; Spiriti, E.; Sputowska, I.; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, M.; Srivastava, B. K.; Stachel, J.; Stan, I.; Stefanek, G.; Steinpreis, M.; Stenlund, E.; Steyn, G.; Stiller, J. H.; Stocco, D.; Stolpovskiy, M.; Strmen, P.; Suaide, A. A. P.; Sugitate, T.; Suire, C.; Suleymanov, M.; Sultanov, R.; Šumbera, M.; Susa, T.; Symons, T. J. M.; Szabo, A.; Szanto de Toledo, A.; Szarka, I.; Szczepankiewicz, A.; Szymanski, M.; Takahashi, J.; Tangaro, M. A.; Tapia Takaki, J. D.; Tarantola Peloni, A.; Tarazona Martinez, A.; Tarzila, M. G.; Tauro, A.; Tejeda Muñoz, G.; Telesca, A.; Terrevoli, C.; Thäder, J.; Thomas, D.; Tieulent, R.; Timmins, A. R.; Toia, A.; Trubnikov, V.; Trzaska, W. H.; Tsuji, T.; Tumkin, A.; Turrisi, R.; Tveter, T. S.; Ullaland, K.; Uras, A.; Usai, G. L.; Vajzer, M.; Vala, M.; Valencia Palomo, L.; Vallero, S.; Vande Vyvre, P.; Van Der Maarel, J.; Van Hoorne, J. W.; van Leeuwen, M.; Vargas, A.; Vargyas, M.; Varma, R.; Vasileiou, M.; Vasiliev, A.; Vechernin, V.; Veldhoen, M.; Velure, A.; Venaruzzo, M.; Vercellin, E.; Vergara Limón, S.; Vernet, R.; Verweij, M.; Vickovic, L.; Viesti, G.; Viinikainen, J.; Vilakazi, Z.; Villalobos Baillie, O.; Vinogradov, A.; Vinogradov, L.; Vinogradov, Y.; Virgili, T.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vodopyanov, A.; Völkl, M. A.; Voloshin, K.; Voloshin, S. A.; Volpe, G.; von Haller, B.; Vorobyev, I.; Vranic, D.; Vrláková, J.; Vulpescu, B.; Vyushin, A.; Wagner, B.; Wagner, J.; Wagner, V.; Wang, M.; Wang, Y.; Watanabe, D.; Weber, M.; Wessels, J. P.; Westerhoff, U.; Wiechula, J.; Wikne, J.; Wilde, M.; Wilk, G.; Wilkinson, J.; Williams, M. C. S.; Windelband, B.; Winn, M.; Yaldo, C. G.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yang, H.; Yang, P.; Yang, S.; Yano, S.; Yasnopolskiy, S.; Yi, J.; Yin, Z.; Yoo, I. -K.; Yushmanov, I.; Zaccolo, V.; Zach, C.; Zaman, A.; Zampolli, C.; Zaporozhets, S.; Zarochentsev, A.; Závada, P.; Zaviyalov, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zgura, I. S.; Zhalov, M.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhigareva, N.; Zhou, D.; Zhou, F.; Zhou, Y.; Zhou, Zhuo; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, X.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, A.; Zimmermann, M. B.; Zinovjev, G.; Zoccarato, Y.; Zyzak, M.

    2015-06-29

    Here, the elliptic flow coefficient (v2) of identified particles in Pb-Pb collisions at √sNN =2.76 TeV was measured with the ALICE detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The results were obtained with the Scalar Product method, a two-particle correlation technique, using a pseudo-rapidity gap of |Δη| > 0.9 between the identified hadron under study and the reference particles. The v2 is reported for π±, K±, KS0, p+p¯, Φ, Λ+Λ¯, Ξ–+Ξ¯+ and Ω¯+ in several collision centralities. In the low transverse momentum (pT) region, pT < 3 GeV/c, v2(pT) exhibits a particle mass dependence consistent with elliptic flow accompanied by the transverse radial expansion of the system with a common velocity field. The experimental data for π± and the combined K± and KS0 results, are described fairly well by hydrodynamic calculations coupled to a hadronic cascade model (VISHNU) for central collisions. However, the same calculations fail to reproduce the v2(pT) for p+p¯, Φ, Λ+Λ¯ and Ξ¯+. For transverse momentum values larger than about 3 GeV/c, particles tend to group according to their type, i.e. mesons and baryons. The present measurements exhibit deviations from the number of constituent quark (NCQ) scaling at the level of ±20% for pT > 3 GeV/c.

  15. Elliptic flow of identified hadrons in Pb-Pb collisions at $$ \\sqrt{s_{\\mathrm{NN}}}=2.76 $$ TeV

    DOE PAGES

    Abelev, B.; Adam, J.; Adamová, D.; ...

    2015-06-29

    Here, the elliptic flow coefficient (v2) of identified particles in Pb-Pb collisions at √sNN =2.76 TeV was measured with the ALICE detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The results were obtained with the Scalar Product method, a two-particle correlation technique, using a pseudo-rapidity gap of |Δη| > 0.9 between the identified hadron under study and the reference particles. The v2 is reported for π±, K±, KS0, p+p¯, Φ, Λ+Λ¯, Ξ–+Ξ¯+ and Ω–+Ω¯+ in several collision centralities. In the low transverse momentum (pT) region, pT < 3 GeV/c, v2(pT) exhibits a particle mass dependence consistent with elliptic flow accompanied bymore » the transverse radial expansion of the system with a common velocity field. The experimental data for π± and the combined K± and KS0 results, are described fairly well by hydrodynamic calculations coupled to a hadronic cascade model (VISHNU) for central collisions. However, the same calculations fail to reproduce the v2(pT) for p+p¯, Φ, Λ+Λ¯ and Ξ–+Ξ¯+. For transverse momentum values larger than about 3 GeV/c, particles tend to group according to their type, i.e. mesons and baryons. The present measurements exhibit deviations from the number of constituent quark (NCQ) scaling at the level of ±20% for pT > 3 GeV/c.« less

  16. Research on edge ionization and star mode discharge physics in inertial electrostatic confinement neutron/proton sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurczyk, Brian Edward

    2001-05-01

    Small portable gaseous discharge plasma neutron/proton sources have been recently commercialized based on the Star Mode Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) nuclear fusion concept. This represents the first commercial application of a fusion confinement system with a developmental path that could ultimately lead to high-flux neutron/proton delivery systems, commercial power generation and space propulsion. Thus, there is considerable interest in expanding the knowledge base of the underlying glow discharge physics and properties of the Star Mode IEC device, specifically related to enhancing fusion reactivity and efficiency. This combined computational and experimental work focused on developing the foundation for a new discharge model to examine fundamental physical plasma processes, and to evaluate a new device enhancement to the basic Star Mode of operation to increase the system efficiency. The proposed Passive/Active Ion Generator System (PAIGS) maintains the focusing benefits of the Star Mode of operation, while increasing the amount of high-energy ions generated within the discharge plasma system, and hence increasing fusion yield. This is achieved through manipulation of the edge-region potential shape and collisional processes. Substantive improvements over existing IEC discharge models were made, yielding key insight into the effects of collisional discharge processes, specifically the combined effect of electrons, ions and fast neutrals in maintaining the Star Mode discharge. The SPIFFY steady- state computational code was able to predict with certainty the Paschen relations for Star Mode discharges, generating a scaling law for all transparent geometries of V[ kV] = 1.06 (P[Torr] d[cm])-1.44, predict fusion reactivity trends that correlate with experiments, and solve several physics dilemmas, including the neutron-yield vs. cathode-radius minima and ion-recirculation paradox. The PAIGS-enbanced SPIFFY steady-state code was able to show that the

  17. Strong-Isospin Violation in the Neutron-Proton Mass Difference from Fully-Dynamical Lattice QCD and PQQCD

    SciTech Connect

    Silas Beane; Konstantinos Orginos; Martin Savage

    2007-04-01

    We determine the strong-isospin violating component of the neutron-proton mass difference from fully-dynamical lattice QCD and partially-quenched QCD calculations of the nucleon mass, constrained by partially-quenched chiral perturbation theory at one-loop level. The lattice calculations were performed with domain-wall valence quarks on MILC lattices with rooted staggered sea-quarks at a lattice spacing of b = 0.125 fm, lattice spatial size of L = 2.5 fm and pion masses ranging from m{sub {pi}} {approx} 290 MeV to {approx} 350 MeV. At the physical value of the pion mass, we predict M{sub n}-M{sub p}|{sup d-u} = 2.26 {+-} 0.57 {+-} 0.42 {+-} 0.10 MeV where the first error is statistical, the second error is due to the uncertainty in the ratio of light-quark masses, {eta} = m{sub u}/m{sub d}, determined by MILC, and the third error is an estimate of the systematic due to chiral extrapolation.

  18. PASSIVE CONTROL OF PARTICLE DISPERSION IN A PARTICLE-LADEN CIRCULAR JET USING ELLIPTIC CO-ANNULAR FLOW: A MEANS FOR IMPROVING UTILIZATION AND EMISSION REDUCTIONS IN PULVERIZED COAL BURNER

    SciTech Connect

    Ahsan R. Choudhuri

    2003-06-01

    A passive control technology utilizing elliptic co-flow to control the particle flinging and particle dispersion in a particle (coal)-laden flow was investigated using experimental and numerical techniques. Preferential concentration of particles occurs in particle-laden jets used in pulverized coal burner and causes uncontrollable NO{sub x} formation due to inhomogeneous local stoichiometry. This particular project was aimed at characterizing the near-field flow behavior of elliptic coaxial jets. The knowledge gained from the project will serve as the basis of further investigation on fluid-particle interactions in an asymmetric coaxial jet flow-field and thus is important to improve the design of pulverized coal burners where non-homogeneity of particle concentration causes increased NO{sub x} formation.

  19. Ellipticities of Elliptical Galaxies in Different Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Cheng-Yu; Hwang, Chorng-Yuan; Ko, Chung-Ming

    2016-10-01

    We studied the ellipticity distributions of elliptical galaxies in different environments. From the ninth data release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we selected galaxies with absolute {r}\\prime -band magnitudes between -21 and -22. We used the volume number densities of galaxies as the criterion for selecting the environments of the galaxies. Our samples were divided into three groups with different volume number densities. The ellipticity distributions of the elliptical galaxies differed considerably in these three groups of different density regions. We deprojected the observed 2D ellipticity distributions into intrinsic 3D shape distributions, and the result showed that the shapes of the elliptical galaxies were relatively spherically symmetric in the high density region (HDR) and that relatively more flat galaxies were present in the low density region (LDR). This suggests that the ellipticals in the HDRs and LDRs have different origins or that different mechanisms might be involved. The elliptical galaxies in the LDR are likely to have evolved from mergers in relatively anisotropic structures, such as filaments and webs, and might contain information on the anisotropic spatial distribution of their parent mergers. By contrast, elliptical galaxies in the HDR might be formed in more isotropic structures, such as galaxy clusters, or they might encounter more torqueing effects compared with galaxies in LDRs, thereby becoming rounder.

  20. Centrality and Transverse Momentum Dependence of Elliptic Flow of Multistrange Hadrons and ϕ Meson in Au +Au Collisions at √{sN N}=200 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Alekseev, I.; Aparin, A.; Arkhipkin, D.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Averichev, G. S.; Bairathi, V.; Banerjee, A.; Bellwied, R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattarai, P.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L. C.; Bordyuzhin, I. G.; Bouchet, J.; Brandin, A. V.; Bunzarov, I.; Butterworth, J.; Caines, H.; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M.; Campbell, J. M.; Cebra, D.; Cervantes, M. C.; Chakaberia, I.; Chaloupka, P.; Chang, Z.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, J. H.; Chen, X.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Christie, W.; Contin, G.; Crawford, H. J.; Das, S.; De Silva, L. C.; Debbe, R. R.; Dedovich, T. G.; Deng, J.; Derevschikov, A. A.; di Ruzza, B.; Didenko, L.; Dilks, C.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Du, C. M.; Dunkelberger, L. E.; Dunlop, J. C.; Efimov, L. G.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Esha, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Eyser, O.; Fatemi, R.; Fazio, S.; Federic, P.; Fedorisin, J.; Feng, Z.; Filip, P.; Fisyak, Y.; Flores, C. E.; Fulek, L.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Garand, D.; Geurts, F.; Gibson, A.; Girard, M.; Greiner, L.; Grosnick, D.; Gunarathne, D. S.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, S.; Gupta, A.; Guryn, W.; Hamad, A.; Hamed, A.; Haque, R.; Harris, J. W.; He, L.; Heppelmann, S.; Heppelmann, S.; Hirsch, A.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Hofman, D. J.; Horvat, S.; Huang, X.; Huang, B.; Huang, H. Z.; Huck, P.; Humanic, T. J.; Igo, G.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jang, H.; Jiang, K.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kalinkin, D.; Kang, K.; Kauder, K.; Ke, H. W.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Khan, Z. H.; Kikoła, D. P.; Kisel, I.; Kisiel, A.; Kochenda, L.; Koetke, D. D.; Kollegger, T.; Kosarzewski, L. K.; Kraishan, A. F.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Kulakov, I.; Kumar, L.; Kycia, R. A.; Lamont, M. A. C.; Landgraf, J. M.; Landry, K. D.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, J. H.; Li, Z. M.; Li, W.; Li, X.; Li, X.; Li, C.; Li, Y.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, F.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Lomnitz, M.; Longacre, R. S.; Luo, X.; Ma, Y. G.; Ma, G. L.; Ma, L.; Ma, R.; Magdy, N.; Majka, R.; Manion, A.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Masui, H.; Matis, H. S.; McDonald, D.; Meehan, K.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mishra, D.; Mohanty, B.; Mondal, M. M.; Morozov, D. A.; Mustafa, M. K.; Nandi, B. K.; Nasim, Md.; Nayak, T. K.; Nigmatkulov, G.; Nogach, L. V.; Noh, S. Y.; Novak, J.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Oh, K.; Okorokov, V.; Olvitt, D.; Page, B. S.; Pak, R.; Pan, Y. X.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pawlik, B.; Pei, H.; Perkins, C.; Peterson, A.; Pile, P.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Poljak, N.; Poniatowska, K.; Porter, J.; Posik, M.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Putschke, J.; Qiu, H.; Quintero, A.; Ramachandran, S.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Ray, R. L.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Roy, A.; Ruan, L.; Rusnak, J.; Rusnakova, O.; Sahoo, N. R.; Sahu, P. K.; Sakrejda, I.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Sarkar, A.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schmah, A. M.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schmitz, N.; Seger, J.; Seyboth, P.; Shah, N.; Shahaliev, E.; Shanmuganathan, P. V.; Shao, M.; Sharma, B.; Sharma, M. K.; Shen, W. Q.; Shi, S. S.; Shou, Q. Y.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Sikora, R.; Simko, M.; Singha, S.; Skoby, M. J.; Smirnov, D.; Smirnov, N.; Song, L.; Sorensen, P.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Stepanov, M.; Stock, R.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Sumbera, M.; Summa, B.; Sun, X.; Sun, X. M.; Sun, Y.; Sun, Z.; Surrow, B.; Svirida, N.; Szelezniak, M. A.; Tang, A. H.; Tang, Z.; Tarnowsky, T.; Tawfik, A.; Thomas, J. H.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Tokarev, M.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tribedy, P.; Tripathy, S. K.; Trzeciak, B. A.; Tsai, O. D.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Upsal, I.; Van Buren, G.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Varma, R.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Vertesi, R.; Videbæk, F.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vokal, S.; Voloshin, S. A.; Vossen, A.; Wang, Y.; Wang, G.; Wang, J. S.; Wang, H.; Wang, Y.; Wang, F.; Webb, J. C.; Webb, G.; Wen, L.; Westfall, G. D.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S. W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y. F.; Wu, Y.; Xiao, Z. G.; Xie, W.; Xin, K.; Xu, N.; Xu, Z.; Xu, Q. H.; Xu, Y. F.; Xu, H.; Yang, Q.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y.; Yang, S.; Yang, C.; Ye, Z.; Yepes, P.; Yi, L.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yu, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zha, W.; Zhang, Z.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, J. B.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, X. P.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhu, X.; Zoulkarneeva, Y.; Zyzak, M.; STAR Collaboration

    2016-02-01

    We present high precision measurements of elliptic flow near midrapidity (|y |<1.0 ) for multistrange hadrons and ϕ meson as a function of centrality and transverse momentum in Au +Au collisions at center of mass energy √{sN N}=200 GeV . We observe that the transverse momentum dependence of ϕ and Ω v2 is similar to that of π and p , respectively, which may indicate that the heavier strange quark flows as strongly as the lighter up and down quarks. This observation constitutes a clear piece of evidence for the development of partonic collectivity in heavy-ion collisions at the top RHIC energy. Number of constituent quark scaling is found to hold within statistical uncertainty for both 0%-30% and 30%-80% collision centrality. There is an indication of the breakdown of previously observed mass ordering between ϕ and proton v2 at low transverse momentum in the 0%-30% centrality range, possibly indicating late hadronic interactions affecting the proton v2.

  1. Simulation study of elliptic flow of charged hadrons produced in Au + Au collisions at energies available at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, S.; Mali, P.; Mukhopadhyay, A.

    2017-01-01

    Centrality and system geometry dependence of azimuthal anisotropy of charged hadrons measured in terms of the elliptic flow parameter are investigated using Au+Au event samples at incident beam energy 20 A and 40 A GeV generated by ultrarelativistic quantum molecular dynamics (UrQMD) and a multiphase transport (AMPT) models. The Monte Carlo-Glauber model is employed to estimate the eccentricity of the overlapping zone at an early stage of the collisions. Anisotropies present both in the particle multiplicity distribution and in the kinetic radial expansion are examined by using standard statistical and phenomenological methods. In the context of the upcoming Compressed Baryonic Matter experiment to be held at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR), the present set of simulated results provide us not only with an opportunity to examine the expected collective behavior of hadronic matter at high baryon density and moderate temperature, but when compared with similar results obtained from Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments, they also allow us to investigate how anisotropy of hadronic matter may differ or agree with its low-baryon-density and high-temperature counterpart.

  2. Enhanced Elliptic Grid Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaul, Upender K.

    2007-01-01

    An enhanced method of elliptic grid generation has been invented. Whereas prior methods require user input of certain grid parameters, this method provides for these parameters to be determined automatically. "Elliptic grid generation" signifies generation of generalized curvilinear coordinate grids through solution of elliptic partial differential equations (PDEs). Usually, such grids are fitted to bounding bodies and used in numerical solution of other PDEs like those of fluid flow, heat flow, and electromagnetics. Such a grid is smooth and has continuous first and second derivatives (and possibly also continuous higher-order derivatives), grid lines are appropriately stretched or clustered, and grid lines are orthogonal or nearly so over most of the grid domain. The source terms in the grid-generating PDEs (hereafter called "defining" PDEs) make it possible for the grid to satisfy requirements for clustering and orthogonality properties in the vicinity of specific surfaces in three dimensions or in the vicinity of specific lines in two dimensions. The grid parameters in question are decay parameters that appear in the source terms of the inhomogeneous defining PDEs. The decay parameters are characteristic lengths in exponential- decay factors that express how the influences of the boundaries decrease with distance from the boundaries. These terms govern the rates at which distance between adjacent grid lines change with distance from nearby boundaries. Heretofore, users have arbitrarily specified decay parameters. However, the characteristic lengths are coupled with the strengths of the source terms, such that arbitrary specification could lead to conflicts among parameter values. Moreover, the manual insertion of decay parameters is cumbersome for static grids and infeasible for dynamically changing grids. In the present method, manual insertion and user specification of decay parameters are neither required nor allowed. Instead, the decay parameters are

  3. Measurements of heavy-flavour nuclear modification factor and elliptic flow in Pb-Pb collisions at √{sNN} = 2.76 TeV with ALICE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubla, Andrea

    2016-12-01

    Heavy quarks, i.e. charm and beauty (bottom), are sensitive probes of the medium produced in high-energy heavy-ion collisions. They are produced in the early stage of the collisions and are expected to experience the whole collision evolution interacting with the medium constituents via both elastic and inelastic processes. The nuclear modification factor (RAA) and the elliptic flow (v2) are two of the main experimental observables that allow us to investigate the interaction strength of heavy quarks with the medium. The ALICE collaboration measured the production and elliptic flow of open heavy-flavour hadrons via their hadronic and semi-leptonic decays to electrons at mid-rapidity and to muons at forward rapidity in Pb-Pb collisions. Recent results will be discussed, and model calculations including the interaction of heavy quarks with the hot, dense, and deconfined medium will be confronted with the data.

  4. Measurement of the centrality and pseudorapidity dependence of the integrated elliptic flow in lead-lead collisions at [Formula: see text] TeV with the ATLAS detector.

    PubMed

    Aad, G; Abbott, B; Abdallah, J; Abdel Khalek, S; Abdinov, O; Aben, R; Abi, B; Abolins, M; AbouZeid, O S; Abramowicz, H; Abreu, H; Abreu, R; Abulaiti, Y; Acharya, B S; Adamczyk, L; Adams, D L; Adelman, J; Adomeit, S; Adye, T; Agatonovic-Jovin, T; Aguilar-Saavedra, J A; Agustoni, M; Ahlen, S P; Ahmadov, F; Aielli, G; Åkesson, T P A; Akimoto, G; Akimov, A V; Alberghi, G L; Albert, J; Albrand, S; Alconada Verzini, M J; Aleksa, M; Aleksandrov, I N; Alexa, C; Alexander, G; Alexandre, G; Alexopoulos, T; Alhroob, M; Alimonti, G; Alio, L; Alison, J; Allbrooke, B M M; Allison, L J; Allport, P P; Allwood-Spiers, S E; Almond, J; Aloisio, A; Alonso, A; Alonso, F; Alpigiani, C; Altheimer, A; Alvarez Gonzalez, B; Alviggi, M G; Amako, K; Amaral Coutinho, Y; Amelung, C; Amidei, D; Amor Dos Santos, S P; Amorim, A; Amoroso, S; Amram, N; Amundsen, G; Anastopoulos, C; Ancu, L S; Andari, N; Andeen, T; Anders, C F; Anders, G; Anderson, K J; Andreazza, A; Andrei, V; Anduaga, X S; Angelidakis, S; Angelozzi, I; Anger, P; Angerami, A; Anghinolfi, F; Anisenkov, A V; Anjos, N; Annovi, A; Antonaki, A; Antonelli, M; Antonov, A; Antos, J; Anulli, F; Aoki, M; Aperio Bella, L; Apolle, R; Arabidze, G; Aracena, I; Arai, Y; Araque, J P; Arce, A T H; Arguin, J-F; Argyropoulos, S; Arik, M; Armbruster, A J; Arnaez, O; Arnal, V; Arnold, H; Arslan, O; Artamonov, A; Artoni, G; Asai, S; Asbah, N; Ashkenazi, A; Ask, S; Åsman, B; Asquith, L; Assamagan, K; Astalos, R; Atkinson, M; Atlay, N B; Auerbach, B; Augsten, K; Aurousseau, M; Avolio, G; Azuelos, G; Azuma, Y; Baak, M A; Bacci, C; Bachacou, H; Bachas, K; Backes, M; Backhaus, M; Backus Mayes, J; Badescu, E; Bagiacchi, P; Bagnaia, P; Bai, Y; Bain, T; Baines, J T; Baker, O K; Baker, S; Balek, P; Balli, F; Banas, E; Banerjee, Sw; Bangert, A; Bannoura, A A E; Bansal, V; Bansil, H S; Barak, L; Baranov, S P; Barberio, E L; Barberis, D; Barbero, M; Barillari, T; Barisonzi, M; Barklow, T; Barlow, N; Barnett, B M; Barnett, R M; Barnovska, Z; Baroncelli, A; Barone, G; Barr, A J; Barreiro, F; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J; Bartoldus, R; Barton, A E; Bartos, P; Bartsch, V; Bassalat, A; Basye, A; Bates, R L; Batkova, L; Batley, J R; Battistin, M; Bauer, F; Bawa, H S; Beau, T; Beauchemin, P H; Beccherle, R; Bechtle, P; Beck, H P; Becker, K; Becker, S; Beckingham, M; Becot, C; Beddall, A J; Beddall, A; Bedikian, S; Bednyakov, V A; Bee, C P; Beemster, L J; Beermann, T A; Begel, M; Behr, K; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bell, P J; Bell, W H; Bella, G; Bellagamba, L; Bellerive, A; Bellomo, M; Belloni, A; Belotskiy, K; Beltramello, O; Benary, O; Benchekroun, D; Bendtz, K; Benekos, N; Benhammou, Y; Benhar Noccioli, E; Benitez Garcia, J A; Benjamin, D P; Bensinger, J R; Benslama, K; Bentvelsen, S; Berge, D; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E; Berger, N; Berghaus, F; Berglund, E; Beringer, J; Bernard, C; Bernat, P; Bernius, C; Bernlochner, F U; Berry, T; Berta, P; Bertella, C; Bertolucci, F; Besana, M I; Besjes, G J; Bessidskaia, O; Besson, N; Betancourt, C; Bethke, S; Bhimji, W; Bianchi, R M; Bianchini, L; Bianco, M; Biebel, O; Bieniek, S P; Bierwagen, K; Biesiada, J; Biglietti, M; Bilbao De Mendizabal, J; Bilokon, H; Bindi, M; Binet, S; Bingul, A; Bini, C; Black, C W; Black, J E; Black, K M; Blackburn, D; Blair, R E; Blanchard, J-B; Blazek, T; Bloch, I; Blocker, C; Blum, W; Blumenschein, U; Bobbink, G J; Bobrovnikov, V S; Bocchetta, S S; Bocci, A; Boddy, C R; Boehler, M; Boek, J; Boek, T T; Bogaerts, J A; Bogdanchikov, A G; Bogouch, A; Bohm, C; Bohm, J; Boisvert, V; Bold, T; Boldea, V; Boldyrev, A S; Bomben, M; Bona, M; Boonekamp, M; Borisov, A; Borissov, G; Borri, M; Borroni, S; Bortfeldt, J; Bortolotto, V; Bos, K; Boscherini, D; Bosman, M; Boterenbrood, H; Boudreau, J; Bouffard, J; Bouhova-Thacker, E V; Boumediene, D; Bourdarios, C; Bousson, N; Boutouil, S; Boveia, A; Boyd, J; Boyko, I R; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I; Bracinik, J; Branchini, P; Brandt, A; Brandt, G; Brandt, O; Bratzler, U; Brau, B; Brau, J E; Braun, H M; Brazzale, S F; Brelier, B; Brendlinger, K; Brennan, A J; Brenner, R; Bressler, S; Bristow, K; Bristow, T M; Britton, D; Brochu, F M; Brock, I; Brock, R; Bromberg, C; Bronner, J; Brooijmans, G; Brooks, T; Brooks, W K; Brosamer, J; Brost, E; Brown, G; Brown, J; Bruckman de Renstrom, P A; Bruncko, D; Bruneliere, R; Brunet, S; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Bruschi, M; Bryngemark, L; Buanes, T; Buat, Q; Bucci, F; Buchholz, P; Buckingham, R M; Buckley, A G; Buda, S I; Budagov, I A; Buehrer, F; Bugge, L; Bugge, M K; Bulekov, O; Bundock, A C; Burckhart, H; Burdin, S; Burghgrave, B; Burke, S; Burmeister, I; Busato, E; Büscher, D; Büscher, V; Bussey, P; Buszello, C P; Butler, B; Butler, J M; Butt, A I; Buttar, C M; Butterworth, J M; Butti, P; Buttinger, W; Buzatu, A; Byszewski, M; Cabrera Urbán, S; Caforio, D; Cakir, O; Calafiura, P; Calandri, A; Calderini, G; Calfayan, P; Calkins, R; Caloba, L P; Calvet, D; Calvet, S; Camacho Toro, R; Camarda, S; Cameron, D; Caminada, L M; Caminal Armadans, R; Campana, S; Campanelli, M; Campoverde, A; Canale, V; Canepa, A; Cantero, J; Cantrill, R; Cao, T; Capeans Garrido, M D M; Caprini, I; Caprini, M; Capua, M; Caputo, R; Cardarelli, R; Carli, T; Carlino, G; Carminati, L; Caron, S; Carquin, E; Carrillo-Montoya, G D; Carter, J R; Carvalho, J; Casadei, D; Casado, M P; Casolino, M; Castaneda-Miranda, E; Castelli, A; Castillo Gimenez, V; Castro, N F; Catastini, P; Catinaccio, A; Catmore, J R; Cattai, A; Cattani, G; Caughron, S; Cavaliere, V; Cavalli, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cavasinni, V; Ceradini, F; Cerio, B; Cerny, K; Cerqueira, A S; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Cerutti, F; Cerv, M; Cervelli, A; Cetin, S A; Chafaq, A; Chakraborty, D; Chalupkova, I; Chan, K; Chang, P; Chapleau, B; Chapman, J D; Charfeddine, D; Charlton, D G; Chau, C C; Chavez Barajas, C A; Cheatham, S; Chegwidden, A; Chekanov, S; Chekulaev, S V; Chelkov, G A; Chelstowska, M A; Chen, C; Chen, H; Chen, K; Chen, L; Chen, S; Chen, X; Chen, Y; Cheng, H C; Cheng, Y; Cheplakov, A; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R; Chernyatin, V; Cheu, E; Chevalier, L; Chiarella, V; Chiefari, G; Childers, J T; Chilingarov, A; Chiodini, G; Chisholm, A S; Chislett, R T; Chitan, A; Chizhov, M V; Chouridou, S; Chow, B K B; Christidi, I A; Chromek-Burckhart, D; Chu, M L; Chudoba, J; Chwastowski, J J; Chytka, L; Ciapetti, G; Ciftci, A K; Ciftci, R; Cinca, D; Cindro, V; Ciocio, A; Cirkovic, P; Citron, Z H; Citterio, M; Ciubancan, M; Clark, A; Clark, P J; Clarke, R N; Cleland, W; Clemens, J C; Clement, C; Coadou, Y; Cobal, M; Coccaro, A; Cochran, J; Coffey, L; Cogan, J G; Coggeshall, J; Cole, B; Cole, S; Colijn, A P; Collins-Tooth, C; Collot, J; Colombo, T; Colon, G; Compostella, G; Conde Muiño, P; Coniavitis, E; Conidi, M C; Connell, S H; Connelly, I A; Consonni, S M; Consorti, V; Constantinescu, S; Conta, C; Conti, G; Conventi, F; Cooke, M; Cooper, B D; Cooper-Sarkar, A M; Cooper-Smith, N J; Copic, K; Cornelissen, T; Corradi, M; Corriveau, F; Corso-Radu, A; Cortes-Gonzalez, A; Cortiana, G; Costa, G; Costa, M J; Costanzo, D; Côté, D; Cottin, G; Cowan, G; Cox, B E; Cranmer, K; Cree, G; Crépé-Renaudin, S; Crescioli, F; Crispin Ortuzar, M; Cristinziani, M; Croft, V; Crosetti, G; Cuciuc, C-M; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T; Cummings, J; Curatolo, M; Cuthbert, C; Czirr, H; Czodrowski, P; Czyczula, Z; D'Auria, S; D'Onofrio, M; Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, M J Da; Via, C Da; Dabrowski, W; Dafinca, A; Dai, T; Dale, O; Dallaire, F; Dallapiccola, C; Dam, M; Daniells, A C; Dano Hoffmann, M; Dao, V; Darbo, G; Darlea, G L; Darmora, S; Dassoulas, J A; Dattagupta, A; Davey, W; David, C; Davidek, T; Davies, E; Davies, M; Davignon, O; Davison, A R; Davison, P; Davygora, Y; Dawe, E; Dawson, I; Daya-Ishmukhametova, R K; De, K; de Asmundis, R; De Castro, S; De Cecco, S; de Graat, J; De Groot, N; de Jong, P; De la Torre, H; De Lorenzi, F; De Nooij, L; De Pedis, D; De Salvo, A; De Sanctis, U; De Santo, A; De Vivie De Regie, J B; De Zorzi, G; Dearnaley, W J; Debbe, R; Debenedetti, C; Dechenaux, B; Dedovich, D V; Degenhardt, J; Deigaard, I; Del Peso, J; Del Prete, T; Deliot, F; Delitzsch, C M; Deliyergiyev, M; Dell'Acqua, A; Dell'Asta, L; Dell'Orso, M; Della Pietra, M; Della Volpe, D; Delmastro, M; Delsart, P A; Deluca, C; Demers, S; Demichev, M; Demilly, A; Denisov, S P; Derendarz, D; Derkaoui, J E; Derue, F; Dervan, P; Desch, K; Deterre, C; Deviveiros, P O; Dewhurst, A; Dhaliwal, S; Di Ciaccio, A; Di Ciaccio, L; Di Domenico, A; Di Donato, C; Di Girolamo, A; Di Girolamo, B; Di Mattia, A; Di Micco, B; Di Nardo, R; Di Simone, A; Di Sipio, R; Di Valentino, D; Diaz, M A; Diehl, E B; Dietrich, J; Dietzsch, T A; Diglio, S; Dimitrievska, A; Dingfelder, J; Dionisi, C; Dita, P; Dita, S; Dittus, F; Djama, F; Djobava, T; do Vale, M A B; Do Valle Wemans, A; Doan, T K O; Dobos, D; Dobson, E; Doglioni, C; Doherty, T; Dohmae, T; Dolejsi, J; Dolezal, Z; Dolgoshein, B A; Donadelli, M; Donati, S; Dondero, P; Donini, J; Dopke, J; Doria, A; Dova, M T; Doyle, A T; Dris, M; Dubbert, J; Dube, S; Dubreuil, E; Duchovni, E; Duckeck, G; Ducu, O A; Duda, D; Dudarev, A; Dudziak, F; Duflot, L; Duguid, L; Dührssen, M; Dunford, M; Duran Yildiz, H; Düren, M; Durglishvili, A; Dwuznik, M; Dyndal, M; Ebke, J; Edson, W; Edwards, N C; Ehrenfeld, W; Eifert, T; Eigen, G; Einsweiler, K; Ekelof, T; El Kacimi, M; Ellert, M; Elles, S; Ellinghaus, F; Ellis, N; Elmsheuser, J; Elsing, M; Emeliyanov, D; Enari, Y; Endner, O C; Endo, M; Engelmann, R; Erdmann, J; Ereditato, A; Eriksson, D; Ernis, G; Ernst, J; Ernst, M; Ernwein, J; Errede, D; Errede, S; Ertel, E; Escalier, M; Esch, H; Escobar, C; Esposito, B; Etienvre, A I; Etzion, E; Evans, H; Fabbri, L; Facini, G; Fakhrutdinov, R M; Falciano, S; Faltova, J; Fang, Y; Fanti, M; Farbin, A; Farilla, A; Farooque, T; Farrell, S; Farrington, S M; Farthouat, P; Fassi, F; Fassnacht, P; Fassouliotis, D; Favareto, A; Fayard, L; Federic, P; Fedin, O L; Fedorko, W; Fehling-Kaschek, M; Feigl, S; Feligioni, L; Feng, C; Feng, E J; Feng, H; Fenyuk, A B; Fernandez Perez, S; Ferrag, S; Ferrando, J; Ferrari, A; Ferrari, P; Ferrari, R; Ferreira de Lima, D E; Ferrer, A; Ferrere, D; Ferretti, C; Ferretto Parodi, A; Fiascaris, M; Fiedler, F; Filipčič, A; Filipuzzi, M; Filthaut, F; Fincke-Keeler, M; Finelli, K D; Fiolhais, M C N; Fiorini, L; Firan, A; Fischer, J; Fisher, W C; Fitzgerald, E A; Flechl, M; Fleck, I; Fleischmann, P; Fleischmann, S; Fletcher, G T; Fletcher, G; Flick, T; Floderus, A; Flores Castillo, L R; Florez Bustos, A C; Flowerdew, M J; Formica, A; Forti, A; Fortin, D; Fournier, D; Fox, H; Fracchia, S; Francavilla, P; Franchini, M; Franchino, S; Francis, D; Franklin, M; Franz, S; Fraternali, M; French, S T; Friedrich, C; Friedrich, F; Froidevaux, D; Frost, J A; Fukunaga, C; Fullana Torregrosa, E; Fulsom, B G; Fuster, J; Gabaldon, C; Gabizon, O; Gabrielli, A; Gabrielli, A; Gadatsch, S; Gadomski, S; Gagliardi, G; Gagnon, P; Galea, C; Galhardo, B; Gallas, E J; Gallo, V; Gallop, B J; Gallus, P; Galster, G; Gan, K K; Gandrajula, R P; Gao, J; Gao, Y S; Garay Walls, F M; Garberson, F; García, C; García Navarro, J E; Garcia-Sciveres, M; Gardner, R W; Garelli, N; Garonne, V; Gatti, C; Gaudio, G; Gaur, B; Gauthier, L; Gauzzi, P; Gavrilenko, I L; Gay, C; Gaycken, G; Gazis, E N; Ge, P; Gecse, Z; Gee, C N P; Geerts, D A A; Geich-Gimbel, Ch; Gellerstedt, K; Gemme, C; Gemmell, A; Genest, M H; Gentile, S; George, M; George, S; Gerbaudo, D; Gershon, A; Ghazlane, H; Ghodbane, N; Giacobbe, B; Giagu, S; Giangiobbe, V; Giannetti, P; Gianotti, F; Gibbard, B; Gibson, S M; Gilchriese, M; Gillam, T P S; Gillberg, D; Gilles, G; Gingrich, D M; Giokaris, N; Giordani, M P; Giordano, R; Giorgi, F M; Giraud, P F; Giugni, D; Giuliani, C; Giulini, M; Gjelsten, B K; Gkialas, I; Gladilin, L K; Glasman, C; Glatzer, J; Glaysher, P C F; Glazov, A; Glonti, G L; Goblirsch-Kolb, M; Goddard, J R; Godfrey, J; Godlewski, J; Goeringer, C; Goldfarb, S; Golling, T; Golubkov, D; Gomes, A; Gomez Fajardo, L S; Gonçalo, R; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, J; Gonella, L; González de la Hoz, S; Gonzalez Parra, G; Gonzalez Silva, M L; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S; Goossens, L; Gorbounov, P A; Gordon, H A; Gorelov, I; Gorini, B; Gorini, E; Gorišek, A; Gornicki, E; Goshaw, A T; Gössling, C; Gostkin, M I; Gouighri, M; Goujdami, D; Goulette, M P; Goussiou, A G; Goy, C; Gozpinar, S; Grabas, H M X; Graber, L; Grabowska-Bold, I; Grafström, P; Grahn, K-J; Gramling, J; Gramstad, E; Grancagnolo, S; Grassi, V; Gratchev, V; Gray, H M; Graziani, E; Grebenyuk, O G; Greenwood, Z D; Gregersen, K; Gregor, I M; Grenier, P; Griffiths, J; Grillo, A A; Grimm, K; Grinstein, S; Gris, Ph; Grishkevich, Y V; Grivaz, J-F; Grohs, J P; Grohsjean, A; Gross, E; Grosse-Knetter, J; Grossi, G C; Groth-Jensen, J; Grout, Z J; Grybel, K; Guan, L; Guescini, F; Guest, D; Gueta, O; Guicheney, C; Guido, E; Guillemin, T; Guindon, S; Gul, U; Gumpert, C; Gunther, J; Guo, J; Gupta, S; Gutierrez, P; Gutierrez Ortiz, N G; Gutschow, C; Guttman, N; Guyot, C; Gwenlan, C; Gwilliam, C B; Haas, A; Haber, C; Hadavand, H K; Haddad, N; Haefner, P; Hageboeck, S; Hajduk, Z; Hakobyan, H; Haleem, M; Hall, D; Halladjian, G; Hamacher, K; Hamal, P; Hamano, K; Hamer, M; Hamilton, A; Hamilton, S; Hamnett, P G; Han, L; Hanagaki, K; Hanawa, K; Hance, M; Hanke, P; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, P H; Hara, K; Hard, A S; Harenberg, T; Harkusha, S; Harper, D; Harrington, R D; Harris, O M; Harrison, P F; Hartjes, F; Hasegawa, S; Hasegawa, Y; Hasib, A; Hassani, S; Haug, S; Hauschild, M; Hauser, R; Havranek, M; Hawkes, C M; Hawkings, R J; Hawkins, A D; Hayashi, T; Hayden, D; Hays, C P; Hayward, H S; Haywood, S J; Head, S J; Heck, T; Hedberg, V; Heelan, L; Heim, S; Heim, T; Heinemann, B; Heinrich, L; Heisterkamp, S; Hejbal, J; Helary, L; Heller, C; Heller, M; Hellman, S; Hellmich, D; Helsens, C; Henderson, J; Henderson, R C W; Hengler, C; Henrichs, A; Henriques Correia, A M; Henrot-Versille, S; Hensel, C; Herbert, G H; Hernández Jiménez, Y; Herrberg-Schubert, R; Herten, G; Hertenberger, R; Hervas, L; Hesketh, G G; Hessey, N P; Hickling, R; Higón-Rodriguez, E; Hill, E; Hill, J C; Hiller, K H; Hillert, S; Hillier, S J; Hinchliffe, I; Hines, E; Hirose, M; Hirschbuehl, D; Hobbs, J; Hod, N; Hodgkinson, M C; Hodgson, P; Hoecker, A; Hoeferkamp, M R; Hoffman, J; Hoffmann, D; Hofmann, J I; Hohlfeld, M; Holmes, T R; Hong, T M; Hooft van Huysduynen, L; Hostachy, J-Y; Hou, S; Hoummada, A; Howard, J; Howarth, J; Hrabovsky, M; Hristova, I; Hrivnac, J; Hryn'ova, T; Hsu, P J; Hsu, S-C; Hu, D; Hu, X; Huang, Y; Hubacek, Z; Hubaut, F; Huegging, F; Huffman, T B; Hughes, E W; Hughes, G; Huhtinen, M; Hülsing, T A; Hurwitz, M; Huseynov, N; Huston, J; Huth, J; Iacobucci, G; Iakovidis, G; Ibragimov, I; Iconomidou-Fayard, L; Ideal, E; Iengo, P; Igonkina, O; Iizawa, T; Ikegami, Y; Ikematsu, K; Ikeno, M; Iliadis, D; Ilic, N; Inamaru, Y; Ince, T; Ioannou, P; Iodice, M; Iordanidou, K; Ippolito, V; Irles Quiles, A; Isaksson, C; Ishino, M; Ishitsuka, M; Ishmukhametov, R; Issever, C; Istin, S; Iturbe Ponce, J M; Ivarsson, J; Ivashin, A V; Iwanski, W; Iwasaki, H; Izen, J M; Izzo, V; Jackson, B; Jackson, M; Jackson, P; Jaekel, M R; Jain, V; Jakobs, K; Jakobsen, S; Jakoubek, T; Jakubek, J; Jamin, D O; Jana, D K; Jansen, E; Jansen, H; Janssen, J; Janus, M; Jarlskog, G; Javadov, N; Javůrek, T; Jeanty, L; Jeng, G-Y; Jennens, D; Jenni, P; Jentzsch, J; Jeske, C; Jézéquel, S; Ji, H; Ji, W; Jia, J; Jiang, Y; Jimenez Belenguer, M; Jin, S; Jinaru, A; Jinnouchi, O; Joergensen, M D; Johansson, K E; Johansson, P; Johns, K A; Jon-And, K; Jones, G; Jones, R W L; Jones, T J; Jongmanns, J; Jorge, P M; Joshi, K D; Jovicevic, J; Ju, X; Jung, C A; Jungst, R M; Jussel, P; Juste Rozas, A; Kaci, M; Kaczmarska, A; Kado, M; Kagan, H; Kagan, M; Kajomovitz, E; Kama, S; Kanaya, N; Kaneda, M; Kaneti, S; Kanno, T; Kantserov, V A; Kanzaki, J; Kaplan, B; Kapliy, A; Kar, D; Karakostas, K; Karastathis, N; Karnevskiy, M; Karpov, S N; Karthik, K; Kartvelishvili, V; Karyukhin, A N; Kashif, L; Kasieczka, G; Kass, R D; Kastanas, A; Kataoka, Y; Katre, A; Katzy, J; Kaushik, V; Kawagoe, K; Kawamoto, T; Kawamura, G; Kazama, S; Kazanin, V F; Kazarinov, M Y; Keeler, R; Kehoe, R; Keil, M; Keller, J S; Keoshkerian, H; Kepka, O; Kerševan, B P; Kersten, S; Kessoku, K; Keung, J; Khalil-Zada, F; Khandanyan, H; Khanov, A; Khodinov, A; Khomich, A; Khoo, T J; Khoriauli, G; Khoroshilov, A; Khovanskiy, V; Khramov, E; Khubua, J; Kim, H Y; Kim, H; Kim, S H; Kimura, N; Kind, O; King, B T; King, M; King, R S B; King, S B; Kirk, J; Kiryunin, A E; Kishimoto, T; Kisielewska, D; Kiss, F; Kitamura, T; Kittelmann, T; Kiuchi, K; Kladiva, E; Klein, M; Klein, U; Kleinknecht, K; Klimek, P; Klimentov, A; Klingenberg, R; Klinger, J A; Klioutchnikova, T; Klok, P F; Kluge, E-E; Kluit, P; Kluth, S; Kneringer, E; Knoops, E B F G; Knue, A; Kobayashi, T; Kobel, M; Kocian, M; Kodys, P; Koevesarki, P; Koffas, T; Koffeman, E; Kogan, L A; Kohlmann, S; Kohout, Z; Kohriki, T; Koi, T; Kolanoski, H; Koletsou, I; Koll, J; Komar, A A; Komori, Y; Kondo, T; Kondrashova, N; Köneke, K; König, A C; König, S; Kono, T; Konoplich, R; Konstantinidis, N; Kopeliansky, R; Koperny, S; Köpke, L; Kopp, A K; Korcyl, K; Kordas, K; Korn, A; Korol, A A; Korolkov, I; Korolkova, E V; Korotkov, V A; Kortner, O; Kortner, S; Kostyukhin, V V; Kotov, V M; Kotwal, A; Kourkoumelis, C; Kouskoura, V; Koutsman, A; Kowalewski, R; Kowalski, T Z; Kozanecki, W; Kozhin, A S; Kral, V; Kramarenko, V A; Kramberger, G; Krasnopevtsev, D; Krasny, M W; Krasznahorkay, A; Kraus, J K; Kravchenko, A; Kreiss, S; Kretz, M; Kretzschmar, J; Kreutzfeldt, K; Krieger, P; Kroeninger, K; Kroha, H; Kroll, J; Kroseberg, J; Krstic, J; Kruchonak, U; Krüger, H; Kruker, T; Krumnack, N; Krumshteyn, Z V; Kruse, A; Kruse, M C; Kruskal, M; Kubota, T; Kuday, S; Kuehn, S; Kugel, A; Kuhl, A; Kuhl, T; Kukhtin, V; Kulchitsky, Y; Kuleshov, S; Kuna, M; Kunkle, J; Kupco, A; Kurashige, H; Kurochkin, Y A; Kurumida, R; Kus, V; Kuwertz, E S; Kuze, M; Kvita, J; La Rosa, A; La Rotonda, L; Lacasta, C; Lacava, F; Lacey, J; Lacker, H; Lacour, D; Lacuesta, V R; Ladygin, E; Lafaye, R; Laforge, B; Lagouri, T; Lai, S; Laier, H; Lambourne, L; Lammers, S; Lampen, C L; Lampl, W; Lançon, E; Landgraf, U; Landon, M P J; Lang, V S; Lange, C; Lankford, A J; Lanni, F; Lantzsch, K; Laplace, S; Lapoire, C; Laporte, J F; Lari, T; Lassnig, M; Laurelli, P; Lavrijsen, W; Law, A T; Laycock, P; Le, B T; Le Dortz, O; Le Guirriec, E; Le Menedeu, E; LeCompte, T; Ledroit-Guillon, F; Lee, C A; Lee, H; Lee, J S H; Lee, S C; Lee, L; Lefebvre, G; Lefebvre, M; Legger, F; Leggett, C; Lehan, A; Lehmacher, M; Lehmann Miotto, G; Lei, X; Leister, A G; Leite, M A L; Leitner, R; Lellouch, D; Lemmer, B; Leney, K J C; Lenz, T; Lenzen, G; Lenzi, B; Leone, R; Leonhardt, K; Leontsinis, S; Leroy, C; Lester, C G; Lester, C M; Levchenko, M; Levêque, J; Levin, D; Levinson, L J; Levy, M; Lewis, A; Lewis, G H; Leyko, A M; Leyton, M; Li, B; Li, B; Li, H; Li, H L; Li, L; Li, S; Li, Y; Liang, Z; Liao, H; Liberti, B; Lichard, P; Lie, K; Liebal, J; Liebig, W; Limbach, C; Limosani, A; Limper, M; Lin, S C; Linde, F; Lindquist, B E; Linnemann, J T; Lipeles, E; Lipniacka, A; Lisovyi, M; Liss, T M; Lissauer, D; Lister, A; Litke, A M; Liu, B; Liu, D; Liu, J B; Liu, K; Liu, L; Liu, M; Liu, M; Liu, Y; Livan, M; Livermore, S S A; Lleres, A; Llorente Merino, J; Lloyd, S L; Lo Sterzo, F; Lobodzinska, E; Loch, P; Lockman, W S; Loddenkoetter, T; Loebinger, F K; Loevschall-Jensen, A E; Loginov, A; Loh, C W; Lohse, T; Lohwasser, K; Lokajicek, M; Lombardo, V P; Long, B A; Long, J D; Long, R E; Lopes, L; Lopez Mateos, D; Lopez Paredes, B; Lorenz, J; Lorenzo Martinez, N; Losada, M; Loscutoff, P; Lou, X; Lounis, A; Love, J; Love, P A; Lowe, A J; Lu, F; Lubatti, H J; Luci, C; Lucotte, A; Luehring, F; Lukas, W; Luminari, L; Lundberg, O; Lund-Jensen, B; Lungwitz, M; Lynn, D; Lysak, R; Lytken, E; Ma, H; Ma, L L; Maccarrone, G; Macchiolo, A; Machado Miguens, J; Macina, D; Madaffari, D; Madar, R; Maddocks, H J; Mader, W F; Madsen, A; Maeno, M; Maeno, T; Magradze, E; Mahboubi, K; Mahlstedt, J; Mahmoud, S; Maiani, C; Maidantchik, C; Maio, A; Majewski, S; Makida, Y; Makovec, N; Mal, P; Malaescu, B; Malecki, Pa; Maleev, V P; Malek, F; Mallik, U; Malon, D; Malone, C; Maltezos, S; Malyshev, V M; Malyukov, S; Mamuzic, J; Mandelli, B; Mandelli, L; Mandić, I; Mandrysch, R; Maneira, J; Manfredini, A; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, L; Manjarres Ramos, J A; Mann, A; Manning, P M; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A; Mansoulie, B; Mantifel, R; Mapelli, L; March, L; Marchand, J F; Marchiori, G; Marcisovsky, M; Marino, C P; Marques, C N; Marroquim, F; Marsden, S P; Marshall, Z; Marti, L F; Marti-Garcia, S; Martin, B; Martin, B; Martin, T A; Martin, V J; Martin Dit Latour, B; Martinez, H; Martinez, M; Martin-Haugh, S; Martyniuk, A C; Marx, M; Marzano, F; Marzin, A; Masetti, L; Mashimo, T; Mashinistov, R; Masik, J; Maslennikov, A L; Massa, I; Massol, N; Mastrandrea, P; Mastroberardino, A; Masubuchi, T; Matsunaga, H; Matsushita, T; Mättig, P; Mättig, S; Mattmann, J; Maurer, J; Maxfield, S J; Maximov, D A; Mazini, R; Mazzaferro, L; Mc Goldrick, G; Mc Kee, S P; McCarn, A; McCarthy, R L; McCarthy, T G; McCubbin, N A; McFarlane, K W; Mcfayden, J A; Mchedlidze, G; Mclaughlan, T; McMahon, S J; McPherson, R A; Meade, A; Mechnich, J; Medinnis, M; Meehan, S; Mehlhase, S; Mehta, A; Meier, K; Meineck, C; Meirose, B; Melachrinos, C; Mellado Garcia, B R; Meloni, F; Mengarelli, A; Menke, S; Meoni, E; Mercurio, K M; Mergelmeyer, S; Meric, N; Mermod, P; Merola, L; Meroni, C; Merritt, F S; Merritt, H; Messina, A; Metcalfe, J; Mete, A S; Meyer, C; Meyer, C; Meyer, J-P; Meyer, J; Middleton, R P; Migas, S; Mijović, L; Mikenberg, G; Mikestikova, M; Mikuž, M; Miller, D W; Mills, C; Milov, A; Milstead, D A; Milstein, D; Minaenko, A A; Minashvili, I A; Mincer, A I; Mindur, B; Mineev, M; Ming, Y; Mir, L M; Mirabelli, G; Mitani, T; Mitrevski, J; Mitsou, V A; Mitsui, S; Miucci, A; Miyagawa, P S; Mjörnmark, J U; Moa, T; Mochizuki, K; Moeller, V; Mohapatra, S; Mohr, W; Molander, S; Moles-Valls, R; Mönig, K; Monini, C; Monk, J; Monnier, E; Montejo Berlingen, J; Monticelli, F; Monzani, S; Moore, R W; Moraes, A; Morange, N; Morel, J; Moreno, D; Moreno Llácer, M; Morettini, P; Morgenstern, M; Morii, M; Moritz, S; Morley, A K; Mornacchi, G; Morris, J D; Morvaj, L; Moser, H G; Mosidze, M; Moss, J; Mount, R; Mountricha, E; Mouraviev, S V; Moyse, E J W; Muanza, S; Mudd, R D; Mueller, F; Mueller, J; Mueller, K; Mueller, T; Mueller, T; Muenstermann, D; Munwes, Y; Murillo Quijada, J A; Murray, W J; Musheghyan, H; Musto, E; Myagkov, A G; Myska, M; Nackenhorst, O; Nadal, J; Nagai, K; Nagai, R; Nagai, Y; Nagano, K; Nagarkar, A; Nagasaka, Y; Nagel, M; Nairz, A M; Nakahama, Y; Nakamura, K; Nakamura, T; Nakano, I; Namasivayam, H; Nanava, G; Narayan, R; Nattermann, T; Naumann, T; Navarro, G; Nayyar, R; Neal, H A; Nechaeva, P Yu; Neep, T J; Negri, A; Negri, G; Negrini, M; Nektarijevic, S; Nelson, A; Nelson, T K; Nemecek, S; Nemethy, P; Nepomuceno, A A; Nessi, M; Neubauer, M S; Neumann, M; Neves, R M; Nevski, P; Newman, P R; Nguyen, D H; Nickerson, R B; Nicolaidou, R; Nicquevert, B; Nielsen, J; Nikiforou, N; Nikiforov, A; Nikolaenko, V; Nikolic-Audit, I; Nikolics, K; Nikolopoulos, K; Nilsson, P; Ninomiya, Y; Nisati, A; Nisius, R; Nobe, T; Nodulman, L; Nomachi, M; Nomidis, I; Norberg, S; Nordberg, M; Nowak, S; Nozaki, M; Nozka, L; Ntekas, K; Nunes Hanninger, G; Nunnemann, T; Nurse, E; Nuti, F; O'Brien, B J; O'grady, F; O'Neil, D C; O'Shea, V; Oakham, F G; Oberlack, H; Obermann, T; Ocariz, J; Ochi, A; Ochoa, M I; Oda, S; Odaka, S; Ogren, H; Oh, A; Oh, S H; Ohm, C C; Ohman, H; Ohshima, T; Okamura, W; Okawa, H; Okumura, Y; Okuyama, T; Olariu, A; Olchevski, A G; Olivares Pino, S A; Oliveira Damazio, D; Oliver Garcia, E; Olszewski, A; Olszowska, J; Onofre, A; Onyisi, P U E; Oram, C J; Oreglia, M J; Oren, Y; Orestano, D; Orlando, N; Oropeza Barrera, C; Orr, R S; Osculati, B; Ospanov, R; Otero Y Garzon, G; Otono, H; Ouchrif, M; Ouellette, E A; Ould-Saada, F; Ouraou, A; Oussoren, K P; Ouyang, Q; Ovcharova, A; Owen, M; Ozcan, V E; Ozturk, N; Pachal, K; Pacheco Pages, A; Padilla Aranda, C; Pagáčová, M; Pagan Griso, S; Paganis, E; Pahl, C; Paige, F; Pais, P; Pajchel, K; Palacino, G; Palestini, S; Pallin, D; Palma, A; Palmer, J D; Pan, Y B; Panagiotopoulou, E; Panduro Vazquez, J G; Pani, P; Panikashvili, N; Panitkin, S; Pantea, D; Paolozzi, L; Papadopoulou, Th D; Papageorgiou, K; Paramonov, A; Paredes Hernandez, D; Parker, M A; Parodi, F; Parsons, J A; Parzefall, U; Pasqualucci, E; Passaggio, S; Passeri, A; Pastore, F; Pastore, Fr; Pásztor, G; Pataraia, S; Patel, N D; Pater, J R; Patricelli, S; Pauly, T; Pearce, J; Pedersen, M; Pedraza Lopez, S; Pedro, R; Peleganchuk, S V; Pelikan, D; Peng, H; Penning, B; Penwell, J; Perepelitsa, D V; Perez Codina, E; Pérez García-Estañ, M T; Perez Reale, V; Perini, L; Pernegger, H; Perrino, R; Peschke, R; Peshekhonov, V D; Peters, K; Peters, R F Y; Petersen, B A; Petersen, J; Petersen, T C; Petit, E; Petridis, A; Petridou, C; Petrolo, E; Petrucci, F; Petteni, M; Pettersson, N E; Pezoa, R; Phillips, P W; Piacquadio, G; Pianori, E; Picazio, A; Piccaro, E; Piccinini, M; Piegaia, R; Pignotti, D T; Pilcher, J E; Pilkington, A D; Pina, J; Pinamonti, M; Pinder, A; Pinfold, J L; Pingel, A; Pinto, B; Pires, S; Pitt, M; Pizio, C; Pleier, M-A; Pleskot, V; Plotnikova, E; Plucinski, P; Poddar, S; Podlyski, F; Poettgen, R; Poggioli, L; Pohl, D; Pohl, M; Polesello, G; Policicchio, A; Polifka, R; Polini, A; Pollard, C S; Polychronakos, V; Pommès, K; Pontecorvo, L; Pope, B G; Popeneciu, G A; Popovic, D S; Poppleton, A; Portell Bueso, X; Pospelov, G E; Pospisil, S; Potamianos, K; Potrap, I N; Potter, C J; Potter, C T; Poulard, G; Poveda, J; Pozdnyakov, V; Pralavorio, P; Pranko, A; Prasad, S; Pravahan, R; Prell, S; Price, D; Price, J; Price, L E; Prieur, D; Primavera, M; Proissl, M; Prokofiev, K; Prokoshin, F; Protopapadaki, E; Protopopescu, S; Proudfoot, J; Przybycien, M; Przysiezniak, H; Ptacek, E; Pueschel, E; Puldon, D; Purohit, M; Puzo, P; Qian, J; Qin, G; Qin, Y; Quadt, A; Quarrie, D R; Quayle, W B; Quilty, D; Qureshi, A; Radeka, V; Radescu, V; Radhakrishnan, S K; Radloff, P; Rados, P; Ragusa, F; Rahal, G; Rajagopalan, S; Rammensee, M; Randle-Conde, A S; Rangel-Smith, C; Rao, K; Rauscher, F; Rave, T C; Ravenscroft, T; Raymond, M; Read, A L; Rebuzzi, D M; Redelbach, A; Redlinger, G; Reece, R; Reeves, K; Rehnisch, L; Reinsch, A; Reisin, H; Relich, M; Rembser, C; Ren, Z L; Renaud, A; Rescigno, M; Resconi, S; Rezanova, O L; Reznicek, P; Rezvani, R; Richter, R; Ridel, M; Rieck, P; Rijssenbeek, M; Rimoldi, A; Rinaldi, L; Ritsch, E; Riu, I; Rizatdinova, F; Rizvi, E; Robertson, S H; Robichaud-Veronneau, A; Robinson, D; Robinson, J E M; Robson, A; Roda, C; Rodrigues, L; Roe, S; Røhne, O; Rolli, S; Romaniouk, A; Romano, M; Romeo, G; Romero Adam, E; Rompotis, N; Roos, L; Ros, E; Rosati, S; Rosbach, K; Rose, M; Rosendahl, P L; Rosenthal, O; Rossetti, V; Rossi, E; Rossi, L P; Rosten, R; Rotaru, M; Roth, I; Rothberg, J; Rousseau, D; Royon, C R; Rozanov, A; Rozen, Y; Ruan, X; Rubbo, F; Rubinskiy, I; Rud, V I; Rudolph, C; Rudolph, M S; Rühr, F; Ruiz-Martinez, A; Rurikova, Z; Rusakovich, N A; Ruschke, A; Rutherfoord, J P; Ruthmann, N; Ryabov, Y F; Rybar, M; Rybkin, G; Ryder, N C; Saavedra, A F; Sacerdoti, S; Saddique, A; Sadeh, I; Sadrozinski, H F-W; Sadykov, R; Safai Tehrani, F; Sakamoto, H; Sakurai, Y; Salamanna, G; Salamon, A; Saleem, M; Salek, D; Sales De Bruin, P H; Salihagic, D; Salnikov, A; Salt, J; Salvachua Ferrando, B M; Salvatore, D; Salvatore, F; Salvucci, A; Salzburger, A; Sampsonidis, D; Sanchez, A; Sánchez, J; Sanchez Martinez, V; Sandaker, H; Sandbach, R L; Sander, H G; Sanders, M P; Sandhoff, M; Sandoval, T; Sandoval, C; Sandstroem, R; Sankey, D P C; Sansoni, A; Santoni, C; Santonico, R; Santos, H; Santoyo Castillo, I; Sapp, K; Sapronov, A; Saraiva, J G; Sarrazin, B; Sartisohn, G; Sasaki, O; Sasaki, Y; Sauvage, G; Sauvan, E; Savard, P; Savu, D O; Sawyer, C; Sawyer, L; Saxon, D H; Saxon, J; Sbarra, C; Sbrizzi, A; Scanlon, T; Scannicchio, D A; Scarcella, M; Schaarschmidt, J; Schacht, P; Schaefer, D; Schaefer, R; Schaepe, S; Schaetzel, S; Schäfer, U; Schaffer, A C; Schaile, D; Schamberger, R D; Scharf, V; Schegelsky, V A; Scheirich, D; Schernau, M; Scherzer, M I; Schiavi, C; Schieck, J; Schillo, C; Schioppa, M; Schlenker, S; Schmidt, E; Schmieden, K; Schmitt, C; Schmitt, C; Schmitt, S; Schneider, B; Schnellbach, Y J; Schnoor, U; Schoeffel, L; Schoening, A; Schoenrock, B D; Schorlemmer, A L S; Schott, M; Schouten, D; Schovancova, J; Schramm, S; Schreyer, M; Schroeder, C; Schuh, N; Schultens, M J; Schultz-Coulon, H-C; Schulz, H; Schumacher, M; Schumm, B A; Schune, Ph; Schwartzman, A; Schwegler, Ph; Schwemling, Ph; Schwienhorst, R; Schwindling, J; Schwindt, T; Schwoerer, M; Sciacca, F G; Scifo, E; Sciolla, G; Scott, W G; Scuri, F; Scutti, F; Searcy, J; Sedov, G; Sedykh, E; Seidel, S C; Seiden, A; Seifert, F; Seixas, J M; Sekhniaidze, G; Sekula, S J; Selbach, K E; Seliverstov, D M; Sellers, G; Semprini-Cesari, N; Serfon, C; Serin, L; Serkin, L; Serre, T; Seuster, R; Severini, H; Sforza, F; Sfyrla, A; Shabalina, E; Shamim, M; Shan, L Y; Shank, J T; Shao, Q T; Shapiro, M; Shatalov, P B; Shaw, K; Sherwood, P; Shimizu, S; Shimmin, C O; Shimojima, M; Shiyakova, M; Shmeleva, A; Shochet, M J; Short, D; Shrestha, S; Shulga, E; Shupe, M A; Shushkevich, S; Sicho, P; Sidorov, D; Sidoti, A; Siegert, F; Sijacki, Dj; Silbert, O; Silva, J; Silver, Y; Silverstein, D; Silverstein, S B; Simak, V; Simard, O; Simic, Lj; Simion, S; Simioni, E; Simmons, B; Simoniello, R; Simonyan, M; Sinervo, P; Sinev, N B; Sipica, V; Siragusa, G; Sircar, A; Sisakyan, A N; Sivoklokov, S Yu; Sjölin, J; Sjursen, T B; Skottowe, H P; Skovpen, K Yu; Skubic, P; Slater, M; Slavicek, T; Sliwa, K; Smakhtin, V; Smart, B H; Smestad, L; Smirnov, S Yu; Smirnov, Y; Smirnova, L N; Smirnova, O; Smith, K M; Smizanska, M; Smolek, K; Snesarev, A A; Snidero, G; Snyder, S; Sobie, R; Socher, F; Soffer, A; Soh, D A; Solans, C A; Solar, M; Solc, J; Soldatov, E Yu; Soldevila, U; Solfaroli Camillocci, E; Solodkov, A A; Solovyanov, O V; Solovyev, V; Sommer, P; Song, H Y; Soni, N; Sood, A; Sopczak, A; Sopko, V; Sopko, B; Sorin, V; Sosebee, M; Soualah, R; Soueid, P; Soukharev, A M; South, D; Spagnolo, S; Spanò, F; Spearman, W R; Spighi, R; Spigo, G; Spousta, M; Spreitzer, T; Spurlock, B; Denis, R D St; Staerz, S; Stahlman, J; Stamen, R; Stanecka, E; Stanek, R W; Stanescu, C; Stanescu-Bellu, M; Stanitzki, M M; Stapnes, S; Starchenko, E A; Stark, J; Staroba, P; Starovoitov, P; Staszewski, R; Stavina, P; Steele, G; Steinberg, P; Stelzer, B; Stelzer, H J; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stenzel, H; Stern, S; Stewart, G A; Stillings, J A; Stockton, M C; Stoebe, M; Stoicea, G; Stolte, P; Stonjek, S; Stradling, A R; Straessner, A; Stramaglia, M E; Strandberg, J; Strandberg, S; Strandlie, A; Strauss, E; Strauss, M; Strizenec, P; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D M; Stroynowski, R; Stucci, S A; Stugu, B; Styles, N A; Su, D; Su, J; Subramania, Hs; Subramaniam, R; Succurro, A; Sugaya, Y; Suhr, C; Suk, M; Sulin, V V; Sultansoy, S; Sumida, T; Sun, X; Sundermann, J E; Suruliz, K; Susinno, G; Sutton, M R; Suzuki, Y; Svatos, M; Swedish, S; Swiatlowski, M; Sykora, I; Sykora, T; Ta, D; Tackmann, K; Taenzer, J; Taffard, A; Tafirout, R; Taiblum, N; Takahashi, Y; Takai, H; Takashima, R; Takeda, H; Takeshita, T; Takubo, Y; Talby, M; Talyshev, A A; Tam, J Y C; Tamsett, M C; Tan, K G; Tanaka, J; Tanaka, R; Tanaka, S; Tanaka, S; Tanasijczuk, A J; Tani, K; Tannoury, N; Tapprogge, S; Tarem, S; Tarrade, F; Tartarelli, G F; Tas, P; Tasevsky, M; Tashiro, T; Tassi, E; Tavares Delgado, A; Tayalati, Y; Taylor, F E; Taylor, G N; Taylor, W; Teischinger, F A; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, M; Teixeira-Dias, P; Temming, K K; Ten Kate, H; Teng, P K; Terada, S; Terashi, K; Terron, J; Terzo, S; Testa, M; Teuscher, R J; Therhaag, J; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T; Thoma, S; Thomas, J P; Thomas-Wilsker, J; Thompson, E N; Thompson, P D; Thompson, P D; Thompson, A S; Thomsen, L A; Thomson, E; Thomson, M; Thong, W M; Thun, R P; Tian, F; Tibbetts, M J; Tikhomirov, V O; Tikhonov, Yu A; Timoshenko, S; Tiouchichine, E; Tipton, P; Tisserant, S; Todorov, T; Todorova-Nova, S; Toggerson, B; Tojo, J; Tokár, S; Tokushuku, K; Tollefson, K; Tomlinson, L; Tomoto, M; Tompkins, L; Toms, K; Topilin, N D; Torrence, E; Torres, H; Torró Pastor, E; Toth, J; Touchard, F; Tovey, D R; Tran, H L; Trefzger, T; Tremblet, L; Tricoli, A; Trigger, I M; Trincaz-Duvoid, S; Tripiana, M F; Triplett, N; Trischuk, W; Trocmé, B; Troncon, C; Trottier-McDonald, M; Trovatelli, M; True, P; Trzebinski, M; Trzupek, A; Tsarouchas, C; Tseng, J C-L; Tsiareshka, P V; Tsionou, D; Tsipolitis, G; Tsirintanis, N; Tsiskaridze, S; Tsiskaridze, V; Tskhadadze, E G; Tsukerman, I I; Tsulaia, V; Tsuno, S; Tsybychev, D; Tudorache, A; Tudorache, V; Tuna, A N; Tupputi, S A; Turchikhin, S; Turecek, D; Turk Cakir, I; Turra, R; Tuts, P M; Tykhonov, A; Tylmad, M; Tyndel, M; Uchida, K; Ueda, I; Ueno, R; Ughetto, M; Ugland, M; Uhlenbrock, M; Ukegawa, F; Unal, G; Undrus, A; Unel, G; Ungaro, F C; Unno, Y; Urbaniec, D; Urquijo, P; Usai, G; Usanova, A; Vacavant, L; Vacek, V; Vachon, B; Valencic, N; Valentinetti, S; Valero, A; Valery, L; Valkar, S; Valladolid Gallego, E; Vallecorsa, S; Valls Ferrer, J A; Van Der Deijl, P C; van der Geer, R; van der Graaf, H; Van Der Leeuw, R; van der Ster, D; van Eldik, N; van Gemmeren, P; Van Nieuwkoop, J; van Vulpen, I; van Woerden, M C; Vanadia, M; Vandelli, W; Vanguri, R; Vaniachine, A; Vankov, P; Vannucci, F; Vardanyan, G; Vari, R; Varnes, E W; Varol, T; Varouchas, D; Vartapetian, A; Varvell, K E; Vazeille, F; Vazquez Schroeder, T; Veatch, J; Veloso, F; Veneziano, S; Ventura, A; Ventura, D; Venturi, M; Venturi, N; Venturini, A; Vercesi, V; Verducci, M; Verkerke, W; Vermeulen, J C; Vest, A; Vetterli, M C; Viazlo, O; Vichou, I; Vickey, T; Vickey Boeriu, O E; Viehhauser, G H A; Viel, S; Vigne, R; Villa, M; Villaplana Perez, M; Vilucchi, E; Vincter, M G; Vinogradov, V B; Virzi, J; Vivarelli, I; Vives Vaque, F; Vlachos, S; Vladoiu, D; Vlasak, M; Vogel, A; Vokac, P; Volpi, G; Volpi, M; von der Schmitt, H; von Radziewski, H; von Toerne, E; Vorobel, V; Vorobev, K; Vos, M; Voss, R; Vossebeld, J H; Vranjes, N; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M; Vrba, V; Vreeswijk, M; Vu Anh, T; Vuillermet, R; Vukotic, I; Vykydal, Z; Wagner, W; Wagner, P; Wahrmund, S; Wakabayashi, J; Walder, J; Walker, R; Walkowiak, W; Wall, R; Waller, P; Walsh, B; Wang, C; Wang, C; Wang, F; Wang, H; Wang, H; Wang, J; Wang, J; Wang, K; Wang, R; Wang, S M; Wang, T; Wang, X; Wanotayaroj, C; Warburton, A; Ward, C P; Wardrope, D R; Warsinsky, M; Washbrook, A; Wasicki, C; Watanabe, I; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, I J; Watson, M F; Watts, G; Watts, S; Waugh, B M; Webb, S; Weber, M S; Weber, S W; Webster, J S; Weidberg, A R; Weigell, P; Weinert, B; Weingarten, J; Weiser, C; Weits, H; Wells, P S; Wenaus, T; Wendland, D; Weng, Z; Wengler, T; Wenig, S; Wermes, N; Werner, M; Werner, P; Wessels, M; Wetter, J; Whalen, K; White, A; White, M J; White, R; White, S; Whiteson, D; Wicke, D; Wickens, F J; Wiedenmann, W; Wielers, M; Wienemann, P; Wiglesworth, C; Wiik-Fuchs, L A M; Wijeratne, P A; Wildauer, A; Wildt, M A; Wilkens, H G; Will, J Z; Williams, H H; Williams, S; Willis, C; Willocq, S; Wilson, J A; Wilson, A; Wingerter-Seez, I; Winklmeier, F; Wittgen, M; Wittig, T; Wittkowski, J; Wollstadt, S J; Wolter, M W; Wolters, H; Wosiek, B K; Wotschack, J; Woudstra, M J; Wozniak, K W; Wright, M; Wu, M; Wu, S L; Wu, X; Wu, Y; Wulf, E; Wyatt, T R; Wynne, B M; Xella, S; Xiao, M; Xu, D; Xu, L; Yabsley, B; Yacoob, S; Yamada, M; Yamaguchi, H; Yamaguchi, Y; Yamamoto, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamamoto, S; Yamamura, T; Yamanaka, T; Yamauchi, K; Yamazaki, Y; Yan, Z; Yang, H; Yang, H; Yang, U K; Yang, Y; Yanush, S; Yao, L; Yao, W-M; Yasu, Y; Yatsenko, E; Yau Wong, K H; Ye, J; Ye, S; Yen, A L; Yildirim, E; Yilmaz, M; Yoosoofmiya, R; Yorita, K; Yoshida, R; Yoshihara, K; Young, C; Young, C J S; Youssef, S; Yu, D R; Yu, J; Yu, J M; Yu, J; Yuan, L; Yurkewicz, A; Zabinski, B; Zaidan, R; Zaitsev, A M; Zaman, A; Zambito, S; Zanello, L; Zanzi, D; Zaytsev, A; Zeitnitz, C; Zeman, M; Zemla, A; Zengel, K; Zenin, O; Ženiš, T; Zerwas, D; Zevi Della Porta, G; Zhang, D; Zhang, F; Zhang, H; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhang, X; Zhang, Z; Zhao, Z; Zhemchugov, A; Zhong, J; Zhou, B; Zhou, L; Zhou, N; Zhu, C G; Zhu, H; Zhu, J; Zhu, Y; Zhuang, X; Zibell, A; Zieminska, D; Zimine, N I; Zimmermann, C; Zimmermann, R; Zimmermann, S; Zimmermann, S; Zinonos, Z; Ziolkowski, M; Zobernig, G; Zoccoli, A; Zur Nedden, M; Zurzolo, G; Zutshi, V; Zwalinski, L

    The integrated elliptic flow of charged particles produced in Pb+Pb collisions at [Formula: see text] TeV has been measured with the ATLAS detector using data collected at the Large Hadron Collider. The anisotropy parameter, [Formula: see text], was measured in the pseudorapidity range [Formula: see text] with the event-plane method. In order to include tracks with very low transverse momentum [Formula: see text], thus reducing the uncertainty in [Formula: see text] integrated over [Formula: see text], a [Formula: see text] data sample recorded without a magnetic field in the tracking detectors is used. The centrality dependence of the integrated [Formula: see text] is compared to other measurements obtained with higher [Formula: see text] thresholds. The integrated elliptic flow is weakly decreasing with [Formula: see text]. The integrated [Formula: see text] transformed to the rest frame of one of the colliding nuclei is compared to the lower-energy RHIC data.

  5. Hot versus cold: The dichotomy in spherical accretion of cooling flows onto supermassive black holes in elliptical galaxies, galaxy groups, and clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Fulai; Mathews, William G.

    2014-01-10

    Feedback heating from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) has been commonly invoked to suppress cooling flows predicted in hot gas in elliptical galaxies, galaxy groups, and clusters. Previous studies have focused on if and how AGN feedback heats the gas but have little paid attention to its triggering mechanism. Using spherically symmetric simulations, we investigate how large-scale cooling flows are accreted by central supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in eight well-observed systems and find an interesting dichotomy. In massive clusters, the gas develops a central cooling catastrophe within about the cooling time (typically ∼100-300 Myr), resulting in cold-mode accretion onto SMBHs. However, in our four simulated systems on group and galaxy scales at a low metallicity Z = 0.3 Z {sub ☉}, the gas quickly settles into a long-term state that has a cuspy central temperature profile extending to several tens to about 100 pc. At the more realistic solar metallicity, two groups (with R {sub e} ∼ 4 kpc) still host the long-term, hot-mode accretion. Both accretion modes naturally appear in our idealized calculations where only cooling, gas inflow, and compressional heating are considered. The long-term, hot-mode accretion is maintained by the quickly established closeness between the timescales of these processes, preferably in systems with low gas densities, low gas metallicities, and importantly, compact central galaxies, which result in strong gravitational acceleration and compressional heating at the intermediate radii. Our calculations predict that central cuspy temperature profiles appear more often in smaller systems than galaxy clusters, which instead often host significant cold gas and star formation.

  6. Measurements of directed, elliptic, and triangular flow in Cu + Au collisions at √{sNN}=200 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adare, A.; Aidala, C.; Ajitanand, N. N.; Akiba, Y.; Akimoto, R.; Alexander, J.; Alfred, M.; Aoki, K.; Apadula, N.; Asano, H.; Atomssa, E. T.; Awes, T. C.; Azmoun, B.; Babintsev, V.; Bai, M.; Bai, X.; Bandara, N. S.; Bannier, B.; Barish, K. N.; Bathe, S.; Baublis, V.; Baumann, C.; Baumgart, S.; Bazilevsky, A.; Beaumier, M.; Beckman, S.; Belmont, R.; Berdnikov, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Black, D.; Blau, D. S.; Bok, J. S.; Boyle, K.; Brooks, M. L.; Bryslawskyj, J.; Buesching, H.; Bumazhnov, V.; Butsyk, S.; Campbell, S.; Chen, C.-H.; Chi, C. Y.; Chiu, M.; Choi, I. J.; Choi, J. B.; Choi, S.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Cianciolo, V.; Citron, Z.; Cole, B. A.; Cronin, N.; Crossette, N.; Csanád, M.; Csörgő, T.; Danley, T. W.; Datta, A.; Daugherity, M. S.; David, G.; Deblasio, K.; Dehmelt, K.; Denisov, A.; Deshpande, A.; Desmond, E. J.; Ding, L.; Dion, A.; Diss, P. B.; Do, J. H.; D'Orazio, L.; Drapier, O.; Drees, A.; Drees, K. A.; Durham, J. M.; Durum, A.; Engelmore, T.; Enokizono, A.; Esumi, S.; Eyser, K. O.; Fadem, B.; Feege, N.; Fields, D. E.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Fleuret, F.; Fokin, S. L.; Frantz, J. E.; Franz, A.; Frawley, A. D.; Fukao, Y.; Fusayasu, T.; Gainey, K.; Gal, C.; Gallus, P.; Garg, P.; Garishvili, A.; Garishvili, I.; Ge, H.; Giordano, F.; Glenn, A.; Gong, X.; Gonin, M.; Goto, Y.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Grau, N.; Greene, S. V.; Grosse Perdekamp, M.; Gu, Y.; Gunji, T.; Guragain, H.; Hachiya, T.; Haggerty, J. S.; Hahn, K. I.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamilton, H. F.; Han, S. Y.; Hanks, J.; Hasegawa, S.; Haseler, T. O. S.; Hashimoto, K.; Hayano, R.; He, X.; Hemmick, T. K.; Hester, T.; Hill, J. C.; Hollis, R. S.; Homma, K.; Hong, B.; Hoshino, T.; Hotvedt, N.; Huang, J.; Huang, S.; Ichihara, T.; Ikeda, Y.; Imai, K.; Imazu, Y.; Inaba, M.; Iordanova, A.; Isenhower, D.; Isinhue, A.; Ivanishchev, D.; Jacak, B. V.; Jeon, S. J.; Jezghani, M.; Jia, J.; Jiang, X.; Johnson, B. M.; Joo, K. S.; Jouan, D.; Jumper, D. S.; Kamin, J.; Kanda, S.; Kang, B. H.; Kang, J. H.; Kang, J. S.; Kapustinsky, J.; Kawall, D.; Kazantsev, A. V.; Key, J. A.; Khachatryan, V.; Khandai, P. K.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kijima, K. M.; Kim, C.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, E.-J.; Kim, G. W.; Kim, M.; Kim, Y.-J.; Kim, Y. K.; Kimelman, B.; Kistenev, E.; Kitamura, R.; Klatsky, J.; Kleinjan, D.; Kline, P.; Koblesky, T.; Kofarago, M.; Komkov, B.; Koster, J.; Kotchetkov, D.; Kotov, D.; Krizek, F.; Kurita, K.; Kurosawa, M.; Kwon, Y.; Lacey, R.; Lai, Y. S.; Lajoie, J. G.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, D. M.; Lee, G. H.; Lee, J.; Lee, K. B.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, S.; Lee, S. H.; Leitch, M. J.; Leitgab, M.; Lewis, B.; Li, X.; Lim, S. H.; Liu, M. X.; Lynch, D.; Maguire, C. F.; Makdisi, Y. I.; Makek, M.; Manion, A.; Manko, V. I.; Mannel, E.; Maruyama, T.; McCumber, M.; McGaughey, P. L.; McGlinchey, D.; McKinney, C.; Meles, A.; Mendoza, M.; Meredith, B.; Miake, Y.; Mibe, T.; Mignerey, A. C.; Milov, A.; Mishra, D. K.; Mitchell, J. T.; Miyasaka, S.; Mizuno, S.; Mohanty, A. K.; Mohapatra, S.; Montuenga, P.; Moon, T.; Morrison, D. P.; Moskowitz, M.; Moukhanova, T. V.; Murakami, T.; Murata, J.; Mwai, A.; Nagae, T.; Nagamiya, S.; Nagashima, K.; Nagle, J. L.; Nagy, M. I.; Nakagawa, I.; Nakagomi, H.; Nakamiya, Y.; Nakamura, K. R.; Nakamura, T.; Nakano, K.; Nattrass, C.; Netrakanti, P. K.; Nihashi, M.; Niida, T.; Nishimura, S.; Nouicer, R.; Novák, T.; Novitzky, N.; Nyanin, A. S.; O'Brien, E.; Ogilvie, C. A.; Oide, H.; Okada, K.; Orjuela Koop, J. D.; Osborn, J. D.; Oskarsson, A.; Ozawa, K.; Pak, R.; Pantuev, V.; Papavassiliou, V.; Park, I. H.; Park, J. S.; Park, S.; Park, S. K.; Pate, S. F.; Patel, L.; Patel, M.; Peng, J.-C.; Perepelitsa, D. V.; Perera, G. D. N.; Peressounko, D. Yu.; Perry, J.; Petti, R.; Pinkenburg, C.; Pinson, R.; Pisani, R. P.; Purschke, M. L.; Qu, H.; Rak, J.; Ramson, B. J.; Ravinovich, I.; Read, K. F.; Reynolds, D.; Riabov, V.; Riabov, Y.; Richardson, E.; Rinn, T.; Riveli, N.; Roach, D.; Rolnick, S. D.; Rosati, M.; Rowan, Z.; Rubin, J. G.; Ryu, M. S.; Sahlmueller, B.; Saito, N.; Sakaguchi, T.; Sako, H.; Samsonov, V.; Sarsour, M.; Sato, S.; Sawada, S.; Schaefer, B.; Schmoll, B. K.; Sedgwick, K.; Seele, J.; Seidl, R.; Sekiguchi, Y.; Sen, A.; Seto, R.; Sett, P.; Sexton, A.; Sharma, D.; Shaver, A.; Shein, I.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shigaki, K.; Shimomura, M.; Shoji, K.; Shukla, P.; Sickles, A.; Silva, C. L.; Silvermyr, D.; Singh, B. K.; Singh, C. P.; Singh, V.; Skolnik, M.; Slunečka, M.; Snowball, M.; Solano, S.; Soltz, R. A.; Sondheim, W. E.; Sorensen, S. P.; Sourikova, I. V.; Stankus, P. W.; Steinberg, P.; Stenlund, E.; Stepanov, M.; Ster, A.; Stoll, S. P.; Stone, M. R.; Sugitate, T.; Sukhanov, A.; Sumita, T.; Sun, J.; Sziklai, J.; Takahara, A.; Taketani, A.; Tanaka, Y.; Tanida, K.; Tannenbaum, M. J.; Tarafdar, S.; Taranenko, A.; Tennant, E.; Tieulent, R.; Timilsina, A.; Todoroki, T.; Tomášek, M.; Torii, H.; Towell, C. L.; Towell, R.; Towell, R. S.; Tserruya, I.; van Hecke, H. W.; Vargyas, M.; Vazquez-Zambrano, E.; Veicht, A.; Velkovska, J.; Vértesi, R.; Virius, M.; Vrba, V.; Vznuzdaev, E.; Wang, X. R.; Watanabe, D.; Watanabe, K.; Watanabe, Y.; Watanabe, Y. S.; Wei, F.; Whitaker, S.; White, A. S.; Wolin, S.; Woody, C. L.; Wysocki, M.; Xia, B.; Xue, L.; Yalcin, S.; Yamaguchi, Y. L.; Yanovich, A.; Yokkaichi, S.; Yoo, J. H.; Yoon, I.; You, Z.; Younus, I.; Yu, H.; Yushmanov, I. E.; Zajc, W. A.; Zelenski, A.; Zhou, S.; Zou, L.; Phenix Collaboration

    2016-11-01

    Measurements of anisotropic flow Fourier coefficients (vn) for inclusive charged particles and identified hadrons π±, K±, p , and p ¯ produced at midrapidity in Cu +Au collisions at √{s NN}=200 GeV are presented. The data were collected in 2012 by the PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC). The particle azimuthal distributions with respect to different-order symmetry planes Ψn, for n =1 , 2, and 3 are studied as a function of transverse momentum pT over a broad range of collision centralities. Mass ordering, as expected from hydrodynamic flow, is observed for all three harmonics. The charged-particle results are compared with hydrodynamical and transport model calculations. We also compare these Cu +Au results with those in Cu +Cu and Au +Au collisions at the same √{sNN} and find that the v2 and v3, as a function of transverse momentum, follow a common scaling with 1 /(ɛnNpart1 /3) .

  7. Evaluation of the β+-decay log ft value with inclusion of the neutron-proton pairing and particle-number projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerrouchi, S.; Allal, N. H.; Fellah, M.; Oudih, M. R.

    2016-01-01

    The neutron-proton isovector pairing effect on the beta-plus decay log ft values is studied in typical mirror N≃Z nuclei. The log ft values are calculated by including or not the isovector pairing before and after a particle-number projection using the Sharp-Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (SBCS) method. It is shown that the values obtained after projection in the isovector pairing case are the closest ones to experimental data. The effect of the deformation of the mother and daughter nuclei on the log ft is also studied.

  8. Measurement of the pseudorapidity and transverse momentum dependence of the elliptic flow of charged particles in lead-lead collisions at √{sNN} = 2.76 TeV with the ATLAS detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A. A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Acerbi, E.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, D. L.; Addy, T. N.; Adelman, J.; Aderholz, M.; Adomeit, S.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahsan, M.; Aielli, G.; Akdogan, T.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Akiyama, A.; Alam, M. S.; Alam, M. A.; Albrand, S.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alessandria, F.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Aliyev, M.; Allport, P. P.; Allwood-Spiers, S. E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amako, K.; Amaral, P.; Amelung, C.; Ammosov, V. V.; Amorim, A.; Amorós, G.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Andrieux, M.-L.; Anduaga, X. S.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoun, S.; Aperio Bella, L.; Apolle, R.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A. T. H.; Archambault, J. P.; Arfaoui, S.; Arguin, J.-F.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnault, C.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Arutinov, D.; Asai, S.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Ask, S.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astbury, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Atoian, G.; Aubert, B.; Auerbach, B.; Auge, E.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Austin, N.; Avramidou, R.; Axen, D.; Ay, C.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M. A.; Baccaglioni, G.; Bacci, C.; Bach, A. M.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Bachy, G.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagnaia, P.; Bahinipati, S.; Bai, Y.; Bailey, D. C.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baker, M. D.; Baker, S.; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, Sw.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Bansil, H. S.; Barak, L.; Baranov, S. P.; Barashkou, A.; Barbaro Galtieri, A.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Bardin, D. Y.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Baroncelli, A.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Barrillon, P.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartsch, D.; Bartsch, V.; Bates, R. L.; Batkova, L.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, A.; Battistin, M.; Battistoni, G.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beare, B.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Beckingham, M.; Becks, K. H.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bedikian, S.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Begel, M.; Behar Harpaz, S.; Behera, P. K.; Beimforde, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P. J.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellina, F.; Bellomo, M.; Belloni, A.; Beloborodova, O.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Ben Ami, S.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Benchouk, C.; Bendel, M.; Benedict, B. H.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benjamin, D. P.; Benoit, M.; Bensinger, J. R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernardet, K.; Bernat, P.; Bernhard, R.; Bernius, C.; Berry, T.; Bertin, A.; Bertinelli, F.; Bertolucci, F.; Besana, M. I.; Besson, N.; Bethke, S.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Bieniek, S. P.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biscarat, C.; Bitenc, U.; Black, K. M.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blanchot, G.; Blazek, T.; Blocker, C.; Blocki, J.; Blondel, A.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. B.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Boddy, C. R.; Boehler, M.; Boek, J.; Boelaert, N.; Böser, S.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogdanchikov, A.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Bolnet, N. M.; Bona, M.; Bondarenko, V. G.; Boonekamp, M.; Boorman, G.; Booth, C. N.; Bordoni, S.; Borer, C.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borjanovic, I.; Borroni, S.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Botterill, D.; Bouchami, J.; Boudreau, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boulahouache, C.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozhko, N. I.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Braem, A.; Branchini, P.; Brandenburg, G. W.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Brelier, B.; Bremer, J.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Breton, D.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brodbeck, T. J.; Brodet, E.; Broggi, F.; Bromberg, C.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, W. K.; Brown, G.; Brown, H.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Brunet, S.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Buanes, T.; Bucci, F.; Buchanan, J.; Buchanan, N. J.; Buchholz, P.; Buckingham, R. M.; Buckley, A. G.; Buda, S. I.; Budagov, I. A.; Budick, B.; Büscher, V.; Bugge, L.; Buira-Clark, D.; Bulekov, O.; Bunse, M.; Buran, T.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burgess, T.; Burke, S.; Busato, E.; Bussey, P.; Buszello, C. P.; Butin, F.; Butler, B.; Butler, J. M.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Buttinger, W.; Byatt, T.; Cabrera Urbán, S.; Caforio, D.; Cakir, O.; Calafiura, P.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Calkins, R.; Caloba, L. P.; Caloi, R.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Camacho Toro, R.; Camarri, P.; Cambiaghi, M.; Cameron, D.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Canale, V.; Canelli, F.; Canepa, A.; Cantero, J.; Capasso, L.; Capeans Garrido, M. D. M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capriotti, D.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Caramarcu, C.; Cardarelli, R.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, B.; Caron, S.; Carrillo Montoya, G. D.; Carter, A. A.; Carter, J. R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M. P.; Cascella, M.; Caso, C.; Castaneda Hernandez, A. M.; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N. F.; Cataldi, G.; Cataneo, F.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J. R.; Cattai, A.; Cattani, G.; Caughron, S.; Cauz, D.; Cavalleri, P.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Ceradini, F.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cetin, S. A.; Cevenini, F.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K.; Chapleau, B.; Chapman, J. D.; Chapman, J. W.; Chareyre, E.; Charlton, D. G.; Chavda, V.; Chavez Barajas, C. A.; Cheatham, S.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chelkov, G. A.; Chelstowska, M. A.; Chen, C.; Chen, H.; Chen, S.; Chen, T.; Chen, X.; Cheng, S.; Cheplakov, A.; Chepurnov, V. F.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Chernyatin, V.; Cheu, E.; Cheung, S. L.; Chevalier, L.; Chiefari, G.; Chikovani, L.; Childers, J. T.; Chilingarov, A.; Chiodini, G.; Chizhov, M. V.; Choudalakis, G.; Chouridou, S.; Christidi, I. A.; Christov, A.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chu, M. L.; Chudoba, J.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciba, K.; Ciftci, A. K.; Ciftci, R.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Ciobotaru, M. D.; Ciocca, C.; Ciocio, A.; Cirilli, M.; Ciubancan, M.; Clark, A.; Clark, P. J.; Cleland, W.; Clemens, J. C.; Clement, B.; Clement, C.; Clifft, R. W.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Coe, P.; Cogan, J. G.; Coggeshall, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cojocaru, C. D.; Colas, J.; Colijn, A. P.; Collard, C.; Collins, N. J.; Collins-Tooth, C.; Collot, J.; Colon, G.; Conde Muiño, P.; Coniavitis, E.; Conidi, M. C.; Consonni, M.; Consorti, V.; Constantinescu, S.; Conta, C.; Conventi, F.; Cook, J.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, B. D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Cooper-Smith, N. J.; Copic, K.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Cortiana, G.; Costa, G.; Costa, M. J.; Costanzo, D.; Costin, T.; Côté, D.; Coura Torres, R.; Courneyea, L.; Cowan, G.; Cowden, C.; Cox, B. E.; Cranmer, K.; Crescioli, F.; Cristinziani, M.; Crosetti, G.; Crupi, R.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Cuciuc, C.-M.; Cuenca Almenar, C.; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T.; Cuneo, S.; Curatolo, M.; Curtis, C. J.; Cwetanski, P.; Czirr, H.; Czyczula, Z.; D'Auria, S.; D'Onofrio, M.; D'Orazio, A.; da Silva, P. V. M.; da Via, C.; Dabrowski, W.; Dai, T.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dam, M.; Dameri, M.; Damiani, D. S.; Danielsson, H. O.; Dannheim, D.; Dao, V.; Darbo, G.; Darlea, G. L.; Daum, C.; Dauvergne, J. P.; Davey, W.; Davidek, T.; Davidson, N.; Davidson, R.; Davies, E.; Davies, M.; Davison, A. R.; Davygora, Y.; Dawe, E.; Dawson, I.; Dawson, J. W.; Daya, R. K.; de, K.; de Asmundis, R.; de Castro, S.; de Castro Faria Salgado, P. E.; de Cecco, S.; de Graat, J.; de Groot, N.; de Jong, P.; de La Taille, C.; de la Torre, H.; de Lotto, B.; de Mora, L.; de Nooij, L.; de Oliveira Branco, M.; de Pedis, D.; de Saintignon, P.; de Salvo, A.; de Sanctis, U.; de Santo, A.; de Vivie de Regie, J. B.; Dean, S.; Dedovich, D. V.; Degenhardt, J.; Dehchar, M.; Deile, M.; Del Papa, C.; Del Peso, J.; Del Prete, T.; Deliyergiyev, M.; Dell'Acqua, A.; Dell'Asta, L.; Della Pietra, M.; Della Volpe, D.; Delmastro, M.; Delpierre, P.; Delruelle, N.; Delsart, P. A.; Deluca, C.; Demers, S.; Demichev, M.; Demirkoz, B.; Deng, J.; Denisov, S. P.; Derendarz, D.; Derkaoui, J. E.; Derue, F.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Devetak, E.; Deviveiros, P. O.; Dewhurst, A.; Dewilde, B.; Dhaliwal, S.; Dhullipudi, R.; di Ciaccio, A.; di Ciaccio, L.; di Girolamo, A.; di Girolamo, B.; di Luise, S.; di Mattia, A.; di Micco, B.; di Nardo, R.; di Simone, A.; di Sipio, R.; Diaz, M. A.; Diblen, F.; Diehl, E. B.; Dietrich, J.; Dietzsch, T. A.; Diglio, S.; Dindar Yagci, K.; Dingfelder, J.; Dionisi, C.; Dita, P.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djobava, T.; Do Vale, M. A. B.; Do Valle Wemans, A.; Doan, T. K. O.; Dobbs, M.; Dobinson, R.; Dobos, D.; Dobson, E.; Dobson, M.; Dodd, J.; Doglioni, C.; Doherty, T.; Doi, Y.; Dolejsi, J.; Dolenc, I.; Dolezal, Z.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Dohmae, T.; Donadelli, M.; Donega, M.; Donini, J.; Dopke, J.; Doria, A.; Dos Anjos, A.; Dosil, M.; Dotti, A.; Dova, M. T.; Dowell, J. D.; Doxiadis, A. D.; Doyle, A. T.; Drasal, Z.; Drees, J.; Dressnandt, N.; Drevermann, H.; Driouichi, C.; Dris, M.; Dubbert, J.; Dubbs, T.; Dube, S.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Dudarev, A.; Dudziak, F.; Dührssen, M.; Duerdoth, I. P.; Duflot, L.; Dufour, M.-A.; Dunford, M.; Duran Yildiz, H.; Duxfield, R.; Dwuznik, M.; Dydak, F.; Dzahini, D.; Düren, M.; Ebenstein, W. L.; Ebke, J.; Eckert, S.; Eckweiler, S.; Edmonds, K.; Edwards, C. A.; Edwards, N. C.; Ehrenfeld, W.; Ehrich, T.; Eifert, T.; Eigen, G.; Einsweiler, K.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ekelof, T.; El Kacimi, M.; Ellert, M.; Elles, S.; Ellinghaus, F.; Ellis, K.; Ellis, N.; Elmsheuser, J.; Elsing, M.; Ely, R.; Emeliyanov, D.; Engelmann, R.; Engl, A.; Epp, B.; Eppig, A.; Erdmann, J.; Ereditato, A.; Eriksson, D.; Ernst, J.; Ernst, M.; Ernwein, J.; Errede, D.; Errede, S.; Ertel, E.; Escalier, M.; Escobar, C.; Espinal Curull, X.; Esposito, B.; Etienne, F.; Etienvre, A. I.; Etzion, E.; Evangelakou, D.; Evans, H.; Fabbri, L.; Fabre, C.; Fakhrutdinov, R. M.; Falciano, S.; Falou, A. C.; Fang, Y.; Fanti, M.; Farbin, A.; Farilla, A.; Farley, J.; Farooque, T.; Farrington, S. M.; Farthouat, P.; Fassnacht, P.; Fassouliotis, D.; Fatholahzadeh, B.; Favareto, A.; Fayard, L.; Fazio, S.; Febbraro, R.; Federic, P.; Fedin, O. L.; Fedorko, W.; Fehling-Kaschek, M.; Feligioni, L.; Fellmann, D.; Felzmann, C. U.; Feng, C.; Feng, E. J.; Fenyuk, A. B.; Ferencei, J.; Ferland, J.; Fernando, W.; Ferrag, S.; Ferrando, J.; Ferrara, V.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrari, P.; Ferrari, R.; Ferrer, A.; Ferrer, M. L.; Ferrere, D.; Ferretti, C.; Ferretto Parodi, A.; Fiascaris, M.; Fiedler, F.; Filipčič, A.; Filippas, A.; Filthaut, F.; Fincke-Keeler, M.; Fiolhais, M. C. N.; Fiorini, L.; Firan, A.; Fischer, G.; Fischer, P.; Fisher, M. J.; Fisher, S. M.; Flechl, M.; Fleck, I.; Fleckner, J.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleischmann, S.; Flick, T.; Flores Castillo, L. R.; Flowerdew, M. J.; Föhlisch, F.; Fokitis, M.; Fonseca Martin, T.; Forbush, D. A.; Formica, A.; Forti, A.; Fortin, D.; Foster, J. M.; Fournier, D.; Foussat, A.; Fowler, A. J.; Fowler, K.; Fox, H.; Francavilla, P.; Franchino, S.; Francis, D.; Frank, T.; Franklin, M.; Franz, S.; Fraternali, M.; Fratina, S.; French, S. T.; Froeschl, R.; Froidevaux, D.; Frost, J. A.; Fukunaga, C.; Fullana Torregrosa, E.; Fuster, J.; Gabaldon, C.; Gabizon, O.; Gadfort, T.; Gadomski, S.; Gagliardi, G.; Gagnon, P.; Galea, C.; Gallas, E. J.; Gallas, M. V.; Gallo, V.; Gallop, B. J.; Gallus, P.; Galyaev, E.; Gan, K. K.; Gao, Y. S.; Gapienko, V. A.; Gaponenko, A.; Garberson, F.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; García, C.; García Navarro, J. E.; Gardner, R. W.; Garelli, N.; Garitaonandia, H.; Garonne, V.; Garvey, J.; Gatti, C.; Gaudio, G.; Gaumer, O.; Gaur, B.; Gauthier, L.; Gavrilenko, I. L.; Gay, C.; Gaycken, G.; Gayde, J.-C.; Gazis, E. N.; Ge, P.; Gee, C. N. P.; Geerts, D. A. A.; Geich-Gimbel, Ch.; Gellerstedt, K.; Gemme, C.; Gemmell, A.; Genest, M. H.; Gentile, S.; George, M.; George, S.; Gerlach, P.; Gershon, A.; Geweniger, C.; Ghazlane, H.; Ghez, P.; Ghodbane, N.; Giacobbe, B.; Giagu, S.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Giangiobbe, V.; Gianotti, F.; Gibbard, B.; Gibson, A.; Gibson, S. M.; Gilbert, L. M.; Gilchriese, M.; Gilewsky, V.; Gillberg, D.; Gillman, A. R.; Gingrich, D. M.; Ginzburg, J.; Giokaris, N.; Giordano, R.; Giorgi, F. M.; Giovannini, P.; Giraud, P. F.; Giugni, D.; Giusti, P.; Gjelsten, B. K.; Gladilin, L. K.; Glasman, C.; Glatzer, J.; Glazov, A.; Glitza, K. W.; Glonti, G. L.; Godfrey, J.; Godlewski, J.; Goebel, M.; Göpfert, T.; Goeringer, C.; Gössling, C.; Göttfert, T.; Goldfarb, S.; Goldin, D.; Golling, T.; Golovnia, S. N.; Gomes, A.; Gomez Fajardo, L. S.; Gonçalo, R.; Goncalves Pinto Firmino da Costa, J.; Gonella, L.; Gonidec, A.; Gonzalez, S.; González de La Hoz, S.; Gonzalez Silva, M. L.; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Goodson, J. J.; Goossens, L.; Gorbounov, P. A.; Gordon, H. A.; Gorelov, I.; Gorfine, G.; Gorini, B.; Gorini, E.; Gorišek, A.; Gornicki, E.; Gorokhov, S. A.; Goryachev, V. N.; Gosdzik, B.; Gosselink, M.; Gostkin, M. I.; Gouanère, M.; Gough Eschrich, I.; Gouighri, M.; Goujdami, D.; Goulette, M. P.; Goussiou, A. G.; Goy, C.; Grabowska-Bold, I.; Grabski, V.; Grafström, P.; Grah, C.; Grahn, K.-J.; Grancagnolo, F.; Grancagnolo, S.; Grassi, V.; Gratchev, V.; Grau, N.; Gray, H. M.; Gray, J. A.; Graziani, E.; Grebenyuk, O. G.; Greenfield, D.; Greenshaw, T.; Greenwood, Z. D.; Gregor, I. M.; Grenier, P.; Griesmayer, E.; Griffiths, J.; Grigalashvili, N.; Grillo, A. A.; Grinstein, S.; Grishkevich, Y. V.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Grognuz, J.; Groh, M.; Gross, E.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Groth-Jensen, J.; Grybel, K.; Guarino, V. J.; Guest, D.; Guicheney, C.; Guida, A.; Guillemin, T.; Guindon, S.; Guler, H.; Gunther, J.; Guo, B.; Guo, J.; Gupta, A.; Gusakov, Y.; Gushchin, V. N.; Gutierrez, A.; Gutierrez, P.; Guttman, N.; Gutzwiller, O.; Guyot, C.; Gwenlan, C.; Gwilliam, C. B.; Haas, A.; Haas, S.; Haber, C.; Hackenburg, R.; Hadavand, H. K.; Hadley, D. R.; Haefner, P.; Hahn, F.; Haider, S.; Hajduk, Z.; Hakobyan, H.; Haller, J.; Hamacher, K.; Hamal, P.; Hamilton, A.; Hamilton, S.; Han, H.; Han, L.; Hanagaki, K.; Hance, M.; Handel, C.; Hanke, P.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, P. H.; Hansson, P.; Hara, K.; Hare, G. A.; Harenberg, T.; Harkusha, S.; Harper, D.; Harrington, R. D.; Harris, O. M.; Harrison, K.; Hartert, J.; Hartjes, F.; Haruyama, T.; Harvey, A.; Hasegawa, S.; Hasegawa, Y.; Hassani, S.; Hatch, M.; Hauff, D.; Haug, S.; Hauschild, M.; Hauser, R.; Havranek, M.; Hawes, B. M.; Hawkes, C. M.; Hawkings, R. J.; Hawkins, D.; Hayakawa, T.; Hayden, D.; Hayward, H. S.; Haywood, S. J.; Hazen, E.; He, M.; Head, S. J.; Hedberg, V.; Heelan, L.; Heim, S.; Heinemann, B.; Heisterkamp, S.; Helary, L.; Heller, M.; Hellman, S.; Helsens, C.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Henke, M.; Henrichs, A.; Henriques Correia, A. M.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Henry-Couannier, F.; Hensel, C.; Henß, T.; Hernandez, C. M.; Hernández Jiménez, Y.; Herrberg, R.; Hershenhorn, A. D.; Herten, G.; Hertenberger, R.; Hervas, L.; Hessey, N. P.; Hidvegi, A.; Higón-Rodriguez, E.; Hill, D.; Hill, J. C.; Hill, N.; Hiller, K. H.; Hillert, S.; Hillier, S. J.; Hinchliffe, I.; Hines, E.; Hirose, M.; Hirsch, F.; Hirschbuehl, D.; Hobbs, J.; Hod, N.; Hodgkinson, M. C.; Hodgson, P.; Hoecker, A.; Hoeferkamp, M. R.; Hoffman, J.; Hoffmann, D.; Hohlfeld, M.; Holder, M.; Holmes, A.; Holmgren, S. O.; Holy, T.; Holzbauer, J. L.; Homma, Y.; Hong, T. M.; Hooft van Huysduynen, L.; Horazdovsky, T.; Horn, C.; Horner, S.; Horton, K.; Hostachy, J.-Y.; Hou, S.; Houlden, M. A.; Hoummada, A.; Howarth, J.; Howell, D. F.; Hristova, I.; Hrivnac, J.; Hruska, I.; Hryn'ova, T.; Hsu, P. J.; Hsu, S.-C.; Huang, G. S.; Hubacek, Z.; Hubaut, F.; Huegging, F.; Huffman, T. B.; Hughes, E. W.; Hughes, G.; Hughes-Jones, R. E.; Huhtinen, M.; Hurst, P.; Hurwitz, M.; Husemann, U.; Huseynov, N.; Huston, J.; Huth, J.; Iacobucci, G.; Iakovidis, G.; Ibbotson, M.; Ibragimov, I.; Ichimiya, R.; Iconomidou-Fayard, L.; Idarraga, J.; Idzik, M.; Iengo, P.; Igonkina, O.; Ikegami, Y.; Ikeno, M.; Ilchenko, Y.; Iliadis, D.; Imbault, D.; Imhaeuser, M.; Imori, M.; Ince, T.; Inigo-Golfin, J.; Ioannou, P.; Iodice, M.; Ionescu, G.; Irles Quiles, A.; Ishii, K.; Ishikawa, A.; Ishino, M.; Ishmukhametov, R.; Issever, C.; Istin, S.; Itoh, Y.; Ivashin, A. V.; Iwanski, W.; Iwasaki, H.; Izen, J. M.; Izzo, V.; Jackson, B.; Jackson, J. N.; Jackson, P.; Jaekel, M. R.; Jain, V.; Jakobs, K.; Jakobsen, S.; Jakubek, J.; Jana, D. K.; Jankowski, E.; Jansen, E.; Jantsch, A.; Janus, M.; Jarlskog, G.; Jeanty, L.; Jelen, K.; Jen-La Plante, I.; Jenni, P.; Jeremie, A.; Jež, P.; Jézéquel, S.; Jha, M. K.; Ji, H.; Ji, W.; Jia, J.; Jiang, Y.; Jimenez Belenguer, M.; Jin, G.; Jin, S.; Jinnouchi, O.; Joergensen, M. D.; Joffe, D.; Johansen, L. G.; Johansen, M.; Johansson, K. E.; Johansson, P.; Johnert, S.; Johns, K. A.; Jon-And, K.; Jones, G.; Jones, R. W. L.; Jones, T. W.; Jones, T. J.; Jonsson, O.; Joram, C.; Jorge, P. M.; Joseph, J.; Ju, X.; Juranek, V.; Jussel, P.; Kabachenko, V. V.; Kabana, S.; Kaci, M.; Kaczmarska, A.; Kadlecik, P.; Kado, M.; Kagan, H.; Kagan, M.; Kaiser, S.; Kajomovitz, E.; Kalinin, S.; Kalinovskaya, L. V.; Kama, S.; Kanaya, N.; Kaneda, M.; Kanno, T.; Kantserov, V. A.; Kanzaki, J.; Kaplan, B.; Kapliy, A.; Kaplon, J.; Kar, D.; Karagoz, M.; Karnevskiy, M.; Karr, K.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Karyukhin, A. N.; Kashif, L.; Kasmi, A.; Kass, R. D.; Kastanas, A.; Kataoka, M.; Kataoka, Y.; Katsoufis, E.; Katzy, J.; Kaushik, V.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Kawamura, G.; Kayl, M. S.; Kazanin, V. A.; Kazarinov, M. Y.; Keates, J. R.; Keeler, R.; Kehoe, R.; Keil, M.; Kekelidze, G. D.; Kelly, M.; Kennedy, J.; Kenney, C. J.; Kenyon, M.; Kepka, O.; Kerschen, N.; Kerševan, B. P.; Kersten, S.; Kessoku, K.; Ketterer, C.; Keung, J.; Khakzad, M.; Khalil-Zada, F.; Khandanyan, H.; Khanov, A.; Kharchenko, D.; Kholodenko, A. G.; Khomich, A.; Khoo, T. J.; Khoriauli, G.; Khoroshilov, A.; Khovanskiy, N.; Khovanskiy, V.; Khramov, E.; Khubua, J.; Kim, H.; Kim, M. S.; Kim, P. C.; Kim, S. H.; Kimura, N.; Kind, O.; King, B. T.; King, M.; King, R. S. B.; Kirk, J.; Kirsch, G. P.; Kirsch, L. E.; Kiryunin, A. E.; Kisielewska, D.; Kittelmann, T.; Kiver, A. M.; Kiyamura, H.; Kladiva, E.; Klaiber-Lodewigs, J.; Klein, M.; Klein, U.; Kleinknecht, K.; Klemetti, M.; Klier, A.; Klimentov, A.; Klingenberg, R.; Klinkby, E. B.; Klioutchnikova, T.; Klok, P. F.; Klous, S.; Kluge, E.-E.; Kluge, T.; Kluit, P.; Kluth, S.; Kneringer, E.; Knobloch, J.; Knoops, E. B. F. G.; Knue, A.; Ko, B. R.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Kocian, M.; Kocnar, A.; Kodys, P.; Köneke, K.; König, A. C.; Koenig, S.; Köpke, L.; Koetsveld, F.; Koevesarki, P.; Koffas, T.; Koffeman, E.; Kohn, F.; Kohout, Z.; Kohriki, T.; Koi, T.; Kokott, T.; Kolachev, G. M.; Kolanoski, H.; Kolesnikov, V.; Koletsou, I.; Koll, J.; Kollar, D.; Kollefrath, M.; Kolya, S. D.; Komar, A. A.; Komaragiri, J. R.; Kondo, T.; Kono, T.; Kononov, A. I.; Konoplich, R.; Konstantinidis, N.; Kootz, A.; Koperny, S.; Kopikov, S. V.; Korcyl, K.; Kordas, K.; Koreshev, V.; Korn, A.; Korol, A.; Korolkov, I.; Korolkova, E. V.; Korotkov, V. A.; Kortner, O.; Kortner, S.; Kostyukhin, V. V.; Kotamäki, M. J.; Kotov, S.; Kotov, V. M.; Kotwal, A.; Kourkoumelis, C.; Kouskoura, V.; Koutsman, A.; Kowalewski, R.; Kowalski, T. Z.; Kozanecki, W.; Kozhin, A. S.; Kral, V.; Kramarenko, V. A.; Kramberger, G.; Krasel, O.; Krasny, M. W.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Kraus, J.; Kreisel, A.; Krejci, F.; Kretzschmar, J.; Krieger, N.; Krieger, P.; Kroeninger, K.; Kroha, H.; Kroll, J.; Kroseberg, J.; Krstic, J.; Kruchonak, U.; Krüger, H.; Kruker, T.; Krumshteyn, Z. V.; Kruth, A.; Kubota, T.; Kuehn, S.; Kugel, A.; Kuhl, T.; Kuhn, D.; Kukhtin, V.; Kulchitsky, Y.; Kuleshov, S.; Kummer, C.; Kuna, M.; Kundu, N.; Kunkle, J.; Kupco, A.; Kurashige, H.; Kurata, M.; Kurochkin, Y. A.; Kus, V.; Kuykendall, W.; Kuze, M.; Kuzhir, P.; Kvasnicka, O.; Kvita, J.; Kwee, R.; La Rosa, A.; La Rotonda, L.; Labarga, L.; Labbe, J.; Lablak, S.; Lacasta, C.; Lacava, F.; Lacker, H.; Lacour, D.; Lacuesta, V. R.; Ladygin, E.; Lafaye, R.; Laforge, B.; Lagouri, T.; Lai, S.; Laisne, E.; Lamanna, M.; Lampen, C. L.; Lampl, W.; Lancon, E.; Landgraf, U.; Landon, M. P. J.; Landsman, H.; Lane, J. L.; Lange, C.; Lankford, A. J.; Lanni, F.; Lantzsch, K.; Laplace, S.; Lapoire, C.; Laporte, J. F.; Lari, T.; Larionov, A. V.; Larner, A.; Lasseur, C.; Lassnig, M.; Lau, W.; Laurelli, P.; Lavorato, A.; Lavrijsen, W.; Laycock, P.; Lazarev, A. B.; Lazzaro, A.; Le Dortz, O.; Le Guirriec, E.; Le Maner, C.; Le Menedeu, E.; Lebel, C.; Lecompte, T.; Ledroit-Guillon, F.; Lee, H.; Lee, J. S. H.; Lee, S. C.; Lee, L.; Lefebvre, M.; Legendre, M.; Leger, A.; Legeyt, B. C.; Legger, F.; Leggett, C.; Lehmacher, M.; Lehmann Miotto, G.; Lei, X.; Leite, M. A. L.; Leitner, R.; Lellouch, D.; Lellouch, J.; Leltchouk, M.; Lendermann, V.; Leney, K. J. C.; Lenz, T.; Lenzen, G.; Lenzi, B.; Leonhardt, K.; Leontsinis, S.; Leroy, C.; Lessard, J.-R.; Lesser, J.; Lester, C. G.; Leung Fook Cheong, A.; Levêque, J.; Levin, D.; Levinson, L. J.; Levitski, M. S.; Lewandowska, M.; Lewis, A.; Lewis, G. H.; Leyko, A. M.; Leyton, M.; Li, B.; Li, H.; Li, S.; Li, X.; Liang, Z.; Liang, Z.; Liberti, B.; Lichard, P.; Lichtnecker, M.; Lie, K.; Liebig, W.; Lifshitz, R.; Lilley, J. N.; Limbach, C.; Limosani, A.; Limper, M.; Lin, S. C.; Linde, F.; Linnemann, J. T.; Lipeles, E.; Lipinsky, L.; Lipniacka, A.; Liss, T. M.; Lissauer, D.; Lister, A.; Litke, A. M.; Liu, C.; Liu, D.; Liu, H.; Liu, J. B.; Liu, M.; Liu, S.; Liu, Y.; Livan, M.; Livermore, S. S. A.; Lleres, A.; Llorente Merino, J.; Lloyd, S. L.; Lobodzinska, E.; Loch, P.; Lockman, W. S.; Lockwitz, S.; Loddenkoetter, T.; Loebinger, F. K.; Loginov, A.; Loh, C. W.; Lohse, T.; Lohwasser, K.; Lokajicek, M.; Loken, J.; Lombardo, V. P.; Long, R. E.; Lopes, L.; Lopez Mateos, D.; Losada, M.; Loscutoff, P.; Lo Sterzo, F.; Losty, M. J.; Lou, X.; Lounis, A.; Loureiro, K. F.; Love, J.; Love, P. A.; Lowe, A. J.; Lu, F.; Lubatti, H. J.; Luci, C.; Lucotte, A.; Ludwig, A.; Ludwig, D.; Ludwig, I.; Ludwig, J.; Luehring, F.; Luijckx, G.; Lumb, D.; Luminari, L.; Lund, E.; Lund-Jensen, B.; Lundberg, B.; Lundberg, J.; Lundquist, J.; Lungwitz, M.; Lupi, A.; Lutz, G.; Lynn, D.; Lys, J.; Lytken, E.; Ma, H.; Ma, L. L.; Macana Goia, J. A.; Maccarrone, G.; Macchiolo, A.; Maček, B.; Machado Miguens, J.; Macina, D.; Mackeprang, R.; Madaras, R. J.; Mader, W. F.; Maenner, R.; Maeno, T.; Mättig, P.; Mättig, S.; Magalhaes Martins, P. J.; Magnoni, L.; Magradze, E.; Mahalalel, Y.; Mahboubi, K.; Mahout, G.; Maiani, C.; Maidantchik, C.; Maio, A.; Majewski, S.; Makida, Y.; Makovec, N.; Mal, P.; Malecki, Pa.; Malecki, P.; Maleev, V. P.; Malek, F.; Mallik, U.; Malon, D.; Maltezos, S.; Malyshev, V.; Malyukov, S.; Mameghani, R.; Mamuzic, J.; Manabe, A.; Mandelli, L.; Mandić, I.; Mandrysch, R.; Maneira, J.; Mangeard, P. S.; Manjavidze, I. D.; Mann, A.; Manning, P. M.; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A.; Mansoulie, B.; Manz, A.; Mapelli, A.; Mapelli, L.; March, L.; Marchand, J. F.; Marchese, F.; Marchiori, G.; Marcisovsky, M.; Marin, A.; Marino, C. P.; Marroquim, F.; Marshall, R.; Marshall, Z.; Martens, F. K.; Marti-Garcia, S.; Martin, A. J.; Martin, B.; Martin, B.; Martin, F. F.; Martin, J. P.; Martin, Ph.; Martin, T. A.; Martin Dit Latour, B.; Martinez, M.; Martinez Outschoorn, V.; Martyniuk, A. C.; Marx, M.; Marzano, F.; Marzin, A.; Masetti, L.; Mashimo, T.; Mashinistov, R.; Masik, J.; Maslennikov, A. L.; Maß, M.; Massa, I.; Massaro, G.; Massol, N.; Mastrandrea, P.; Mastroberardino, A.; Masubuchi, T.; Mathes, M.; Matricon, P.; Matsumoto, H.; Matsunaga, H.; Matsushita, T.; Mattravers, C.; Maugain, J. M.; Maxfield, S. J.; Maximov, D. A.; May, E. N.; Mayne, A.; Mazini, R.; Mazur, M.; Mazzanti, M.; Mazzoni, E.; Mc Kee, S. P.; McCarn, A.; McCarthy, R. L.; McCarthy, T. G.; McCubbin, N. A.; McFarlane, K. W.; McFayden, J. A.; McGlone, H.; McHedlidze, G.; McLaren, R. A.; McLaughlan, T.; McMahon, S. J.; McPherson, R. A.; Meade, A.; Mechnich, J.; Mechtel, M.; Medinnis, M.; Meera-Lebbai, R.; Meguro, T.; Mehdiyev, R.; Mehlhase, S.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meinhardt, J.; Meirose, B.; Melachrinos, C.; Mellado Garcia, B. R.; Mendoza Navas, L.; Meng, Z.; Mengarelli, A.; Menke, S.; Menot, C.; Meoni, E.; Mercurio, K. M.; Mermod, P.; Merola, L.; Meroni, C.; Merritt, F. S.; Messina, A.; Metcalfe, J.; Mete, A. S.; Meuser, S.; Meyer, C.; Meyer, J.-P.; Meyer, J.; Meyer, J.; Meyer, T. C.; Meyer, W. T.; Miao, J.; Michal, S.; Micu, L.; Middleton, R. P.; Miele, P.; Migas, S.; Mijović, L.; Mikenberg, G.; Mikestikova, M.; Mikuž, M.; Miller, D. W.; Miller, R. J.; Mills, W. J.; Mills, C.; Milov, A.; Milstead, D. A.; Milstein, D.; Minaenko, A. A.; Miñano, M.; Minashvili, I. A.; Mincer, A. I.; Mindur, B.; Mineev, M.; Ming, Y.; Mir, L. M.; Mirabelli, G.; Miralles Verge, L.; Misiejuk, A.; Mitrevski, J.; Mitrofanov, G. Y.; Mitsou, V. A.; Mitsui, S.; Miyagawa, P. S.; Miyazaki, K.; Mjörnmark, J. U.; Moa, T.; Mockett, P.; Moed, S.; Moeller, V.; Mönig, K.; Möser, N.; Mohapatra, S.; Mohn, B.; Mohr, W.; Mohrdieck-Möck, S.; Moisseev, A. M.; Moles-Valls, R.; Molina-Perez, J.; Monk, J.; Monnier, E.; Montesano, S.; Monticelli, F.; Monzani, S.; Moore, R. W.; Moorhead, G. F.; Mora Herrera, C.; Moraes, A.; Morais, A.; Morange, N.; Morel, J.; Morello, G.; Moreno, D.; Moreno Llácer, M.; Morettini, P.; Morii, M.; Morin, J.; Morita, Y.; Morley, A. K.; Mornacchi, G.; Morone, M.-C.; Morozov, S. V.; Morris, J. D.; Morvaj, L.; Moser, H. G.; Mosidze, M.; Moss, J.; Mount, R.; Mountricha, E.; Mouraviev, S. V.; Moyse, E. J. W.; Mudrinic, M.; Mueller, F.; Mueller, J.; Mueller, K.; Müller, T. A.; Muenstermann, D.; Muijs, A.; Muir, A.; Munwes, Y.; Murakami, K.; Murray, W. J.; Mussche, I.; Musto, E.; Myagkov, A. G.; Myska, M.; Nadal, J.; Nagai, K.; Nagano, K.; Nagasaka, Y.; Nairz, A. M.; Nakahama, Y.; Nakamura, K.; Nakano, I.; Nanava, G.; Napier, A.; Nash, M.; Nation, N. R.; Nattermann, T.; Naumann, T.; Navarro, G.; Neal, H. A.; Nebot, E.; Nechaeva, P. Yu.; Negri, A.; Negri, G.; Nektarijevic, S.; Nelson, A.; Nelson, S.; Nelson, T. K.; Nemecek, S.; Nemethy, P.; Nepomuceno, A. A.; Nessi, M.; Nesterov, S. Y.; Neubauer, M. S.; Neusiedl, A.; Neves, R. M.; Nevski, P.; Newman, P. R.; Nickerson, R. B.; Nicolaidou, R.; Nicolas, L.; Nicquevert, B.; Niedercorn, F.; Nielsen, J.; Niinikoski, T.; Nikiforov, A.; Nikolaenko, V.; Nikolaev, K.; Nikolic-Audit, I.; Nikolopoulos, K.; Nilsen, H.; Nilsson, P.; Ninomiya, Y.; Nisati, A.; Nishiyama, T.; Nisius, R.; Nodulman, L.; Nomachi, M.; Nomidis, I.; Nordberg, M.; Nordkvist, B.; Norton, P. R.; Novakova, J.; Nozaki, M.; Nožička, M.; Nozka, L.; Nugent, I. M.; Nuncio-Quiroz, A.-E.; Nunes Hanninger, G.; Nunnemann, T.; Nurse, E.; Nyman, T.; O'Brien, B. J.; O'Neale, S. W.; O'Neil, D. C.; O'Shea, V.; Oakham, F. G.; Oberlack, H.; Ocariz, J.; Ochi, A.; Oda, S.; Odaka, S.; Odier, J.; Ogren, H.; Oh, A.; Oh, S. H.; Ohm, C. C.; Ohshima, T.; Ohshita, H.; Ohska, T. K.; Ohsugi, T.; Okada, S.; Okawa, H.; Okumura, Y.; Okuyama, T.; Olcese, M.; Olchevski, A. G.; Oliveira, M.; Oliveira Damazio, D.; Oliver Garcia, E.; Olivito, D.; Olszewski, A.; Olszowska, J.; Omachi, C.; Onofre, A.; Onyisi, P. U. E.; Oram, C. J.; Oreglia, M. J.; Oren, Y.; Orestano, D.; Orlov, I.; Oropeza Barrera, C.; Orr, R. S.; Osculati, B.; Ospanov, R.; Osuna, C.; Otero Y Garzon, G.; Ottersbach, J. P.; Ouchrif, M.; Ould-Saada, F.; Ouraou, A.; Ouyang, Q.; Owen, M.; Owen, S.; Øye, O. K.; Ozcan, V. E.; Ozturk, N.; Pacheco Pages, A.; Padilla Aranda, C.; Paganis, E.; Paige, F.; Pajchel, K.; Palestini, S.; Pallin, D.; Palma, A.; Palmer, J. D.; Pan, Y. B.; Panagiotopoulou, E.; Panes, B.; Panikashvili, N.; Panitkin, S.; Pantea, D.; Panuskova, M.; Paolone, V.; Papadelis, A.; Papadopoulou, Th. D.; Paramonov, A.; Park, W.; Parker, M. A.; Parodi, F.; Parsons, J. A.; Parzefall, U.; Pasqualucci, E.; Passeri, A.; Pastore, F.; Pastore, Fr.; Pásztor, G.; Pataraia, S.; Patel, N.; Pater, J. R.; Patricelli, S.; Pauly, T.; Pecsy, M.; Pedraza Morales, M. I.; Peleganchuk, S. V.; Peng, H.; Pengo, R.; Penson, A.; Penwell, J.; Perantoni, M.; Perez, K.; Perez Cavalcanti, T.; Perez Codina, E.; Pérez García-Estañ, M. T.; Perez Reale, V.; Perini, L.; Pernegger, H.; Perrino, R.; Perrodo, P.; Persembe, S.; Peshekhonov, V. D.; Peters, O.; Petersen, B. A.; Petersen, J.; Petersen, T. C.; Petit, E.; Petridis, A.; Petridou, C.; Petrolo, E.; Petrucci, F.; Petschull, D.; Petteni, M.; Pezoa, R.; Phan, A.; Phillips, A. W.; Phillips, P. W.; Piacquadio, G.; Piccaro, E.; Piccinini, M.; Pickford, A.; Piec, S. M.; Piegaia, R.; Pilcher, J. E.; Pilkington, A. D.; Pina, J.; Pinamonti, M.; Pinder, A.; Pinfold, J. L.; Ping, J.; Pinto, B.; Pirotte, O.; Pizio, C.; Placakyte, R.; Plamondon, M.; Plano, W. G.; Pleier, M.-A.; Pleskach, A. V.; Poblaguev, A.; Poddar, S.; Podlyski, F.; Poggioli, L.; Poghosyan, T.; Pohl, M.; Polci, F.; Polesello, G.; Policicchio, A.; Polini, A.; Poll, J.; Polychronakos, V.; Pomarede, D. M.; Pomeroy, D.; Pommès, K.; Pontecorvo, L.; Pope, B. G.; Popeneciu, G. A.; Popovic, D. S.; Poppleton, A.; Portell Bueso, X.; Porter, R.; Posch, C.; Pospelov, G. E.; Pospisil, S.; Potrap, I. N.; Potter, C. J.; Potter, C. T.; Poulard, G.; Poveda, J.; Prabhu, R.; Pralavorio, P.; Prasad, S.; Pravahan, R.; Prell, S.; Pretzl, K.; Pribyl, L.; Price, D.; Price, L. E.; Price, M. J.; Prichard, P. M.; Prieur, D.; Primavera, M.; Prokofiev, K.; Prokoshin, F.; Protopopescu, S.; Proudfoot, J.; Prudent, X.; Przysiezniak, H.; Psoroulas, S.; Ptacek, E.; Purdham, J.; Purohit, M.; Puzo, P.; Pylypchenko, Y.; Qian, J.; Qian, Z.; Qin, Z.; Quadt, A.; Quarrie, D. R.; Quayle, W. B.; Quinonez, F.; Raas, M.; Radescu, V.; Radics, B.; Rador, T.; Ragusa, F.; Rahal, G.; Rahimi, A. M.; Rahm, D.; Rajagopalan, S.; Rammensee, M.; Rammes, M.; Ramstedt, M.; Randrianarivony, K.; Ratoff, P. N.; Rauscher, F.; Rauter, E.; Raymond, M.; Read, A. L.; Rebuzzi, D. M.; Redelbach, A.; Redlinger, G.; Reece, R.; Reeves, K.; Reichold, A.; Reinherz-Aronis, E.; Reinsch, A.; Reisinger, I.; Reljic, D.; Rembser, C.; Ren, Z. L.; Renaud, A.; Renkel, P.; Rescigno, M.; Resconi, S.; Resende, B.; Reznicek, P.; Rezvani, R.; Richards, A.; Richter, R.; Richter-Was, E.; Ridel, M.; Rieke, S.; Rijpstra, M.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rimoldi, A.; Rinaldi, L.; Rios, R. R.; Riu, I.; Rivoltella, G.; Rizatdinova, F.; Rizvi, E.; Robertson, S. H.; Robichaud-Veronneau, A.; Robinson, D.; Robinson, J. E. M.; Robinson, M.; Robson, A.; Rocha de Lima, J. G.; Roda, C.; Roda Dos Santos, D.; Rodier, S.; Rodriguez, D.; Rodriguez Garcia, Y.; Roe, A.; Roe, S.; Røhne, O.; Rojo, V.; Rolli, S.; Romaniouk, A.; Romanov, V. M.; Romeo, G.; Romero Maltrana, D.; Roos, L.; Ros, E.; Rosati, S.; Rosbach, K.; Rose, M.; Rosenbaum, G. A.; Rosenberg, E. I.; Rosendahl, P. L.; Rosselet, L.; Rossetti, V.; Rossi, E.; Rossi, L. P.; Rossi, L.; Rotaru, M.; Roth, I.; Rothberg, J.; Rousseau, D.; Royon, C. R.; Rozanov, A.; Rozen, Y.; Ruan, X.; Rubinskiy, I.; Ruckert, B.; Ruckstuhl, N.; Rud, V. I.; Rudolph, G.; Rühr, F.; Ruggieri, F.; Ruiz-Martinez, A.; Rulikowska-Zarebska, E.; Rumiantsev, V.; Rumyantsev, L.; Runge, K.; Runolfsson, O.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakovich, N. A.; Rust, D. R.; Rutherfoord, J. P.; Ruwiedel, C.; Ruzicka, P.; Ryabov, Y. F.; Ryadovikov, V.; Ryan, P.; Rybar, M.; Rybkin, G.; Ryder, N. C.; Rzaeva, S.; Saavedra, A. F.; Sadeh, I.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Sadykov, R.; Safai Tehrani, F.; Sakamoto, H.; Salamanna, G.; Salamon, A.; Saleem, M.; Salihagic, D.; Salnikov, A.; Salt, J.; Salvachua Ferrando, B. M.; Salvatore, D.; Salvatore, F.; Salvucci, A.; Salzburger, A.; Sampsonidis, D.; Samset, B. H.; Sanchez, A.; Sandaker, H.; Sander, H. G.; Sanders, M. P.; Sandhoff, M.; Sandoval, T.; Sandstroem, R.; Sandvoss, S.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sansoni, A.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santoni, C.; Santonico, R.; Santos, H.; Saraiva, J. G.; Sarangi, T.; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E.; Sarri, F.; Sartisohn, G.; Sasaki, O.; Sasaki, T.; Sasao, N.; Satsounkevitch, I.; Sauvage, G.; Sauvan, J. B.; Savard, P.; Savinov, V.; Savu, D. O.; Savva, P.; Sawyer, L.; Saxon, D. H.; Says, L. P.; Sbarra, C.; Sbrizzi, A.; Scallon, O.; Scannicchio, D. A.; Schaarschmidt, J.; Schacht, P.; Schäfer, U.; Schaepe, S.; Schaetzel, S.; Schaffer, A. C.; Schaile, D.; Schamberger, R. D.; Schamov, A. G.; Scharf, V.; Schegelsky, V. A.; Scheirich, D.; Scherzer, M. I.; Schiavi, C.; Schieck, J.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenker, S.; Schlereth, J. L.; Schmidt, E.; Schmieden, K.; Schmitt, C.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, M.; Schöning, A.; Schott, M.; Schouten, D.; Schovancova, J.; Schram, M.; Schroeder, C.; Schroer, N.; Schuh, S.; Schuler, G.; Schultes, J.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Schulz, H.; Schumacher, J. W.; Schumacher, M.; Schumm, B. A.; Schune, Ph.; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwartzman, A.; Schwemling, Ph.; Schwienhorst, R.; Schwierz, R.; Schwindling, J.; Scott, W. G.; Searcy, J.; Sedykh, E.; Segura, E.; Seidel, S. C.; Seiden, A.; Seifert, F.; Seixas, J. M.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Seliverstov, D. M.; Sellden, B.; Sellers, G.; Seman, M.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Serfon, C.; Serin, L.; Seuster, R.; Severini, H.; Sevior, M. E.; Sfyrla, A.; Shabalina, E.; Shamim, M.; Shan, L. Y.; Shank, J. T.; Shapiro, M.; Shatalov, P. B.; Shaver, L.; Shaw, C.; Shaw, K.; Sherman, D.; Sherwood, P.; Shibata, A.; Shichi, H.; Shimizu, S.; Shimojima, M.; Shin, T.; Shmeleva, A.; Shochet, M. J.; Short, D.; Shupe, M. A.; Sicho, P.; Sidoti, A.; Siebel, A.; Siegert, F.; Siegrist, J.; Sijacki, Dj.; Silbert, O.; Silva, J.; Silver, Y.; Silverstein, D.; Silverstein, S. B.; Simak, V.; Simard, O.; Simic, Lj.; Simion, S.; Simmons, B.; Simonyan, M.; Sinervo, P.; Sinev, N. B.; Sipica, V.; Siragusa, G.; Sisakyan, A. N.; Sivoklokov, S. Yu.; Sjölin, J.; Sjursen, T. B.; Skinnari, L. A.; Skovpen, K.; Skubic, P.; Skvorodnev, N.; Slater, M.; Slavicek, T.; Sliwa, K.; Sloan, T. J.; Sloper, J.; Smakhtin, V.; Smirnov, S. Yu.; Smirnova, L. N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, B. C.; Smith, D.; Smith, K. M.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A. A.; Snow, S. W.; Snow, J.; Snuverink, J.; Snyder, S.; Soares, M.; Sobie, R.; Sodomka, J.; Soffer, A.; Solans, C. A.; Solar, M.; Solc, J.; Soldatov, E.; Soldevila, U.; Solfaroli Camillocci, E.; Solodkov, A. A.; Solovyanov, O. V.; Sondericker, J.; Soni, N.; Sopko, V.; Sopko, B.; Sorbi, M.; Sosebee, M.; Soukharev, A.; Spagnolo, S.; Spanò, F.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spila, F.; Spiriti, E.; Spiwoks, R.; Spousta, M.; Spreitzer, T.; Spurlock, B.; St. Denis, R. D.; Stahl, T.; Stahlman, J.; Stamen, R.; Stanecka, E.; Stanek, R. W.; Stanescu, C.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E. A.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Staude, A.; Stavina, P.; Stavropoulos, G.; Steele, G.; Steinbach, P.; Steinberg, P.; Stekl, I.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H. J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stevenson, K.; Stewart, G. A.; Stillings, J. A.; Stockmanns, T.; Stockton, M. C.; Stoerig, K.; Stoicea, G.; Stonjek, S.; Strachota, P.; Stradling, A. R.; Straessner, A.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strang, M.; Strauss, E.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D. M.; Strong, J. A.; Stroynowski, R.; Strube, J.; Stugu, B.; Stumer, I.; Stupak, J.; Sturm, P.; Soh, D. A.; Su, D.; Subramania, H. S.; Succurro, A.; Sugaya, Y.; Sugimoto, T.; Suhr, C.; Suita, K.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V. V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, X.; Sundermann, J. E.; Suruliz, K.; Sushkov, S.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M. R.; Suzuki, Y.; Svatos, M.; Sviridov, Yu. M.; Swedish, S.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Szeless, B.; Sánchez, J.; Ta, D.; Tackmann, K.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taga, A.; Taiblum, N.; Takahashi, Y.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A.; Tamsett, M. C.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, Y.; Tani, K.; Tannoury, N.; Tappern, G. P.; Tapprogge, S.; Tardif, D.; Tarem, S.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, G. F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tassi, E.; Tatarkhanov, M.; Taylor, C.; Taylor, F. E.; Taylor, G. N.; Taylor, W.; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, M.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Temming, K. K.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P. K.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terwort, M.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R. J.; Thadome, J.; Therhaag, J.; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T.; Thioye, M.; Thoma, S.; Thomas, J. P.; Thompson, E. N.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomson, E.; Thomson, M.; Thun, R. P.; Tic, T.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tikhonov, Y. A.; Timmermans, C. J. W. P.; Tipton, P.; Tique Aires Viegas, F. J.; Tisserant, S.; Tobias, J.; Toczek, B.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Toggerson, B.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokunaga, K.; Tokushuku, K.; Tollefson, K.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Tong, G.; Tonoyan, A.; Topfel, C.; Topilin, N. D.; Torchiani, I.; Torrence, E.; Torró Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D. R.; Traynor, D.; Trefzger, T.; Tremblet, L.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I. M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Trinh, T. N.; Tripiana, M. F.; Trischuk, W.; Trivedi, A.; Trocmé, B.; Troncon, C.; Trottier-McDonald, M.; Trzupek, A.; Tsarouchas, C.; Tseng, J. C.-L.; Tsiakiris, M.; Tsiareshka, P. V.; Tsionou, D.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E. G.; Tsukerman, I. I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsung, J.-W.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tua, A.; Tuggle, J. M.; Turala, M.; Turecek, D.; Turk Cakir, I.; Turlay, E.; Turra, R.; Tuts, P. M.; Tykhonov, A.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Tyrvainen, H.; Tzanakos, G.; Uchida, K.; Ueda, I.; Ueno, R.; Ugland, M.; Uhlenbrock, M.; Uhrmacher, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Underwood, D. G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Unno, Y.; Urbaniec, D.; Urkovsky, E.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Uslenghi, M.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Vahsen, S.; Valenta, J.; Valente, P.; Valentinetti, S.; Valkar, S.; Valladolid Gallego, E.; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; van der Graaf, H.; van der Kraaij, E.; van der Leeuw, R.; van der Poel, E.; van der Ster, D.; van Eijk, B.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; van Kesteren, Z.; van Vulpen, I.; Vandelli, W.; Vandoni, G.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vannucci, F.; Varela Rodriguez, F.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vassilakopoulos, V. I.; Vazeille, F.; Vegni, G.; Veillet, J. J.; Vellidis, C.; Veloso, F.; Veness, R.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vest, A.; Vetterli, M. C.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Viel, S.; Villa, M.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinek, E.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Virchaux, M.; Virzi, J.; Vitells, O.; Viti, M.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaque, F.; Vlachos, S.; Vlasak, M.; Vlasov, N.; Vogel, A.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Volpi, M.; Volpini, G.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Loeben, J.; von Radziewski, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobiev, A. P.; Vorwerk, V.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Voss, T. T.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vu Anh, T.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Wagner, W.; Wagner, P.; Wahlen, H.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walbersloh, J.; Walch, S.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wall, R.; Waller, P.; Wang, C.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, J. C.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Warsinsky, M.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, A. T.; Waugh, B. M.; Weber, J.; Weber, M.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, P.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weigell, P.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Wellenstein, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wen, M.; Wenaus, T.; Wendler, S.; Weng, Z.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Werth, M.; Wessels, M.; Weydert, C.; Whalen, K.; Wheeler-Ellis, S. J.; Whitaker, S. P.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, S.; Whitehead, S. R.; Whiteson, D.; Whittington, D.; Wicek, F.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik, L. A. M.; Wijeratne, P. A.; Wildauer, A.; Wildt, M. A.; Wilhelm, I.; Wilkens, H. G.; Will, J. Z.; Williams, E.; Williams, H. H.; Willis, W.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J. A.; Wilson, M. G.; Wilson, A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winkelmann, S.; Winklmeier, F.; Wittgen, M.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Wooden, G.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wraight, K.; Wright, C.; Wrona, B.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wulf, E.; Wunstorf, R.; Wynne, B. M.; Xaplanteris, L.; Xella, S.; Xie, S.; Xie, Y.; Xu, C.; Xu, D.; Xu, G.; Yabsley, B.; Yamada, M.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamamura, T.; Yamaoka, J.; Yamazaki, T.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, U. K.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yanush, S.; Yao, W.-M.; Yao, Y.; Yasu, Y.; Ybeles Smit, G. V.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yilmaz, M.; Yoosoofmiya, R.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Young, C.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D.; Yu, J.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Zaets, V. G.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zajacova, Z.; Zalite, Yo. K.; Zanello, L.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Zaytsev, A.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeller, M.; Zemla, A.; Zendler, C.; Zenin, A. V.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zenonos, Z.; Zenz, S.; Zerwas, D.; Zevi Della Porta, G.; Zhan, Z.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, L.; Zhao, T.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, S.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, N.; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhuravlov, V.; Zieminska, D.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Zimmermann, S.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zitoun, R.; Živković, L.; Zmouchko, V. V.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; Zolnierowski, Y.; Zsenei, A.; Zur Nedden, M.; Zutshi, V.; Zwalinski, L.; Atlas Collaboration

    2012-02-01

    This Letter describes the measurement of elliptic flow of charged particles in lead-lead collisions at √{sNN} = 2.76 TeV using the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The results are based on an integrated luminosity of approximately 7 μb-1. Elliptic flow is measured over a wide region in pseudorapidity, | η | < 2.5, and over a broad range in transverse momentum, 0.5 elliptic flow parameter v2 is obtained by correlating individual tracks with the event plane measured using energy deposited in the forward calorimeters. As a function of transverse momentum, v2 (pT) reaches a maximum at pT of about 3 GeV, then decreases and becomes weakly dependent on pT above 7-8 GeV. Over the measured pseudorapidity region, v2 is found to be only weakly dependent on η, with less variation than observed at lower beam energies. The results are discussed in the context of previous measurements at lower collision energies, as well as recent results from the LHC.

  9. The noise from supersonic elliptic jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Philip J.; Bhat, Thonse R. S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents calculations of the noise radiated by a supersonic elliptic jet. The large scale structures in the jet, that are the predominant source of noise in the downstream direction, are modeled as instability waves. The evolution of the instability waves is determined by a local, linear, inviscid analysis. An expression is derived for the acoustic field outside the jet and the far field directivity associated with each instability wave. Calculations are performed for a Mach 1.5 elliptic jet with aspect ratio 2:1 and a Mach 2.0 elliptic jet with aspect ratio 2:1 and a Mach 2.0 elliptic jet with aspect ratio 3:1. The mean flow development is taken from experimental results. Comparisons are made with far field acoustic measurements.

  10. Analysis of the Dynamic Characteristics of Elliptical Gears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xing; Nagamura, Kazuteru; Ikejo, Kiyotaka

    To date, elliptical gear has been commonly used in automobile, automatic machinery, pumps, flow meters and printing presses for its particular non-uniform rotation. However, the dynamic characteristics of elliptical gears have not been clarified yet. In this study, The calculation as well as the experiment of two elliptical gears, which are a single elliptical gear and a double elliptical gear, is carried out to analyze the dynamic characteristics of elliptical gears. General factors including the torque, the rotation speed and the tooth root stress of the test gears are investigated. According to the analysis conducted in this study, the dynamic input torque variation of elliptical gear becomes larger along with the increase of operating gear rotation speed and the experimental one increases much faster than the calculated one over the Critical Rotation Speed of Tooth Separation (CRSTS) of elliptical gear. The experimental input rotation speed varies according to the variation of input torque, leading to the difference between the experimental output rotation speed and the desired one. The calculation results of the CRSTS of elliptical gears are almost equal to the experimental ones. The dynamic load variation ratios of elliptical gear at different angular position as well as their changing trends with operating gear rotation speed are quite different from each other. And the experimental dynamic load variation ratios of elliptical gear show difference from the calculated ones because of tooth separation and tooth impact. The agreement of the calculation and experimental results proves the validity of this study.

  11. Planar elliptic growth

    SciTech Connect

    Mineev, Mark

    2008-01-01

    The planar elliptic extension of the Laplacian growth is, after a proper parametrization, given in a form of a solution to the equation for areapreserving diffeomorphisms. The infinite set of conservation laws associated with such elliptic growth is interpreted in terms of potential theory, and the relations between two major forms of the elliptic growth are analyzed. The constants of integration for closed form solutions are identified as the singularities of the Schwarz function, which are located both inside and outside the moving contour. Well-posedness of the recovery of the elliptic operator governing the process from the continuum of interfaces parametrized by time is addressed and two examples of exact solutions of elliptic growth are presented.

  12. Disks in elliptical galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Rix, H.; White, S.D.M. )

    1990-10-01

    The abundance and strength of disk components in elliptical galaxies are investigated by studying the photometric properties of models containing a spheroidal r exp 1/4-law bulge and a weak exponential disk. Pointed isophotes are observed in a substantial fraction of elliptical galaxies. If these isophote distortions are interpreted in the framework of the present models, then the statistics of observed samples suggest that almost all radio-weak ellipticals could have disks containing roughly 20 percent of the light. It is shown that the E5 galaxy NGC 4660 has the photometric signatures of a disk containing a third of the light. 30 refs.

  13. Neutron-Proton Pairing Effects on the Gamow-Teller Transitions in 24,26Mg by Using the Deformed QRPA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Eunja; Cheoun, Myung-Ki

    We investigated the effects of the neutron-proton (np) pairing correlations on the Gamow-Teller (GT) transition of 24,26Mg by taking into account the deformation. Our calculations is performed within the deformed quasi-particle random phase approximation (DQRPA) which explicitly includes the deformation at the BCS and RPA stage. In this work, we include the np pairing as well as the nn and pp paring correlations to the DQRPA. Our new formalism is applied to the GT transition of the well known deformed Mg isotopes. The np pairing effect is found to affect the GT distribution of 24Mg and 26Mg. Correlations between the deformation and the np pairing are also discussed with the comparison to the experimental GT transition data by triton and 3He beams.

  14. Measurement of the free neutron-proton analyzing power and spin transfer parameters in the charge exchange region at 790 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Ransome, R.D.

    1981-07-01

    The free neutron-proton analyzing power and the spin transfer parameters (K/sub NN/, K/sub SS/, K/sub SL/, and K/sub LL/) were measured at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility at 790 MeV between 165/sup 0/ and 180/sup 0/ center of mass. A 40% polarized neutron beam incident on a liquid hydrogen target was used. The recoil protons were momentum analyzed with a magnetic spectrometer to isolate elastic scatters. A large solid angle carbon polarimeter was used to measure the proton polarization. The measurements are the first at this energy and are in basic agreement with pre-existing phase shift solutions. The proton-carbon analyzing power was measured between 500 and 750 MeV. An empirical fit to the proton-carbon analyzing power between 100 and 750 MeV was done.

  15. Neutron-proton effective mass splitting in neutron-rich matter at normal density from analyzing nucleon-nucleus scattering data within an isospin dependent optical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao-Hua; Guo, Wen-Jun; Li, Bao-An; Chen, Lie-Wen; Fattoyev, Farrukh J.; Newton, William G.

    2015-04-01

    The neutron-proton effective mass splitting in asymmetric nucleonic matter of isospin asymmetry δ and normal density is found to be mn-p* ≡ (mn* - mp*) / m = (0.41 ± 0.15) δ from analyzing globally 1088 sets of reaction and angular differential cross sections of proton elastic scattering on 130 targets with beam energies from 0.783 MeV to 200 MeV, and 1161 sets of data of neutron elastic scattering on 104 targets with beam energies from 0.05 MeV to 200 MeV within an isospin dependent non-relativistic optical potential model. It sets a useful reference for testing model predictions on the momentum dependence of the nucleon isovector potential necessary for understanding novel structures and reactions of rare isotopes.

  16. Elliptic Functions and Integrals with Real Modulus in Fluid Mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Legendre, Robert

    1958-01-01

    Advantage of the elliptic functions and of the more general functions of Schwarz for fluid mechanics. Flows outside and inside polygons. Application to the calculation of an elbow diffuser for a wind tunnel. Properties of the elliptic integrals of the first kind and of the elliptic functions. Properties of the theta functions and decomposition of the elliptic functions into products of theta functions. Properties of the zeta functions. Decomposition of the elliptic functions into sums of zeta functions and calculations of the elliptic integrals. Applications to the calculation of wing profiles, of compressor profiles, and to the study of the vibrations of airplane wings and of compressor vanes. The manuscript of the present paper was checked by Mr. Eichelbrenner who corrected several imperfections and suggested numerous improvements to make reading of the paper easier. However, the limited subject does not permit filling in more than an incomplete knowledge of the properties of analytic functions.

  17. The elliptic anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janin, G.; Bond, V. R.

    1980-01-01

    An independent variable different from the time for elliptic orbit integration is used. Such a time transformation provides an analytical step-size regulation along the orbit. An intermediate anomaly (an anomaly intermediate between the eccentric and the true anomaly) is suggested for optimum performances. A particular case of an intermediate anomaly (the elliptic anomaly) is defined, and its relation with the other anomalies is developed.

  18. Multilevel filtering elliptic preconditioners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuo, C. C. Jay; Chan, Tony F.; Tong, Charles

    1989-01-01

    A class of preconditioners is presented for elliptic problems built on ideas borrowed from the digital filtering theory and implemented on a multilevel grid structure. They are designed to be both rapidly convergent and highly parallelizable. The digital filtering viewpoint allows the use of filter design techniques for constructing elliptic preconditioners and also provides an alternative framework for understanding several other recently proposed multilevel preconditioners. Numerical results are presented to assess the convergence behavior of the new methods and to compare them with other preconditioners of multilevel type, including the usual multigrid method as preconditioner, the hierarchical basis method and a recent method proposed by Bramble-Pasciak-Xu.

  19. Modeling roughness effects in turbulent boundary layers using elliptic relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Jacob; de Simone, Alejandro; Iaccarino, Gianluca; Jimenez, Javier

    2010-11-01

    We present results from the efforts towards modeling roughness in turbulent boundary layers using elliptic relaxation. This scheme, included in the v^2-f model and first formulated by Durbin (1993, JFM, vol. 249, p.465) for smooth-walls, uses an elliptic partial differential equation to incorporate near-wall turbulence anisotropy and non-local pressure-strain effects. The use of the elliptic PDE is extended to model roughness effects in various transitionally-rough and fully-rough boundary layers consisting of a uniform and sparse distribution of cylinders for which experimental data is available. The roughness effects are incorporated through the elliptic PDE by including the length and time scales that the roughness imposes upon the flow, which the experiment has shown to be constant within the rough-walls. Further modeling of roughness effects is considered by altering the source terms in the elliptic PDE.

  20. Effects of deformation and neutron-proton pairing on the Gamow-Teller transitions for Mg,2624 in a deformed quasiparticle random-phase approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Eunja; Cheoun, Myung-Ki

    2016-11-01

    We investigate effects of neutron-proton (n p ) pairing correlations on the Gamow-Teller (GT) transition of Mg,2624 by explicitly taking into account deformation effects. Our calculation is performed by a deformed quasiparticle random phase approximation (DQRPA) which includes the deformation at the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer and RPA stage. In this paper, we include the n p pairing as well as neutron-neutron (n n ) and proton-proton (p p ) paring correlations to the DQRPA. Our new formalism is applied to the GT transition of well-known deformed Mg isotopes. The n p pairing effect is found to affect more or less the GT distribution of 24Mg and 26Mg. But the deformation effect turns out to be much larger than the n p paring effect because the Fermi surfaces smear more widely by the deformation rather than the n p pairing correlations. Correlations between the deformation and the n p pairing effects and their ambiguities are also discussed with the comparison to experimental GT strength data by triton and 3He beams.

  1. Moment of inertia of even-even proton-rich nuclei using a particle-number conserving approach in the isovector neutron-proton pairing case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammache, Faiza; Allal, N. H.; Fellah, M.; Oudih, M. R.

    2016-05-01

    An expression of the particle-number projected nuclear moment of inertia (MOI) has been established in the neutron-proton (np) isovector pairing case within the cranking model. It generalizes the one obtained in the like-particles pairing case. The formalism has been, as a first step, applied to the picket-fence model. As a second step, it has been applied to deformed even-even nuclei such as (N - Z) = 0, 2, 4, and of which the experimentally deduced values of the pairing gap parameters Δtt‧, t,t‧ = n,p, are known. The single-particle energies and eigenstates used are those of a deformed Woods-Saxon mean-field. It was shown, in both models, that the np pairing effect and the projection one are non-negligible. In realistic cases, it also appears that the np pairing effect strongly depends on (N - Z), whereas the projection effect is practically independent from the same quantity.

  2. Elliptic flow of electrons from heavy-flavour hadron decays at mid-rapidity in Pb-Pb collisions at √{{s}_{NN}}=2.76 TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, J.; Adamová, D.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Agnello, M.; Agrawal, N.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahmad, S.; Ahn, S. U.; Aiola, S.; Akindinov, A.; Alam, S. N.; Albuquerque, D. S. D.; Aleksandrov, D.; Alessandro, B.; Alexandre, D.; Alfaro Molina, R.; Alici, A.; Alkin, A.; Alme, J.; Alt, T.; Altinpinar, S.; Altsybeev, I.; Alves Garcia Prado, C.; Andrei, C.; Andronic, A.; Anguelov, V.; Antičić, T.; Antinori, F.; Antonioli, P.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelshäuser, H.; Arcelli, S.; Arnaldi, R.; Arnold, O. W.; Arsene, I. C.; Arslandok, M.; Audurier, B.; Augustinus, A.; Averbeck, R.; Azmi, M. D.; Badalà, A.; Baek, Y. W.; Bagnasco, S.; Bailhache, R.; Bala, R.; Balasubramanian, S.; Baldisseri, A.; Baral, R. C.; Barbano, A. M.; Barbera, R.; Barile, F.; Barnaföldi, G. G.; Barnby, L. S.; Barret, V.; Bartalini, P.; Barth, K.; Bartke, J.; Bartsch, E.; Basile, M.; Bastid, N.; Basu, S.; Bathen, B.; Batigne, G.; Batista Camejo, A.; Batyunya, B.; Batzing, P. C.; Bearden, I. G.; Beck, H.; Bedda, C.; Behera, N. K.; Belikov, I.; Bellini, F.; Bello Martinez, H.; Bellwied, R.; Belmont, R.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; Beltran, L. G. E.; Belyaev, V.; Bencedi, G.; Beole, S.; Berceanu, I.; Bercuci, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Berenyi, D.; Bertens, R. A.; Berzano, D.; Betev, L.; Bhasin, A.; Bhat, I. R.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattacharjee, B.; Bhom, J.; Bianchi, L.; Bianchi, N.; Bianchin, C.; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, J.; Bilandzic, A.; Biro, G.; Biswas, R.; Biswas, S.; Bjelogrlic, S.; Blair, J. T.; Blau, D.; Blume, C.; Bock, F.; Bogdanov, A.; Bøggild, H.; Boldizsár, L.; Bombara, M.; Bonora, M.; Book, J.; Borel, H.; Borissov, A.; Borri, M.; Bossú, F.; Botta, E.; Bourjau, C.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Bregant, M.; Breitner, T.; Broker, T. A.; Browning, T. A.; Broz, M.; Brucken, E. J.; Bruna, E.; Bruno, G. E.; Budnikov, D.; Buesching, H.; Bufalino, S.; Buncic, P.; Busch, O.; Buthelezi, Z.; Butt, J. B.; Buxton, J. T.; Cabala, J.; Caffarri, D.; Cai, X.; Caines, H.; Calero Diaz, L.; Caliva, A.; Calvo Villar, E.; Camerini, P.; Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Carnesecchi, F.; Castillo Castellanos, J.; Castro, A. J.; Casula, E. A. R.; Ceballos Sanchez, C.; Cepila, J.; Cerello, P.; Cerkala, J.; Chang, B.; Chapeland, S.; Chartier, M.; Charvet, J. L.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chauvin, A.; Chelnokov, V.; Cherney, M.; Cheshkov, C.; Cheynis, B.; Chibante Barroso, V.; Chinellato, D. D.; Cho, S.; Chochula, P.; Choi, K.; Chojnacki, M.; Choudhury, S.; Christakoglou, P.; Christensen, C. H.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, S. U.; Cicalo, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Cleymans, J.; Colamaria, F.; Colella, D.; Collu, A.; Colocci, M.; Conesa Balbastre, G.; Conesa del Valle, Z.; Connors, M. E.; Contreras, J. G.; Cormier, T. M.; Corrales Morales, Y.; Cortés Maldonado, I.; Cortese, P.; Cosentino, M. R.; Costa, F.; Crkovska, J.; Crochet, P.; Cruz Albino, R.; Cuautle, E.; Cunqueiro, L.; Dahms, T.; Dainese, A.; Danisch, M. C.; Danu, A.; Das, D.; Das, I.; Das, S.; Dash, A.; Dash, S.; De, S.; De Caro, A.; de Cataldo, G.; de Conti, C.; de Cuveland, J.; De Falco, A.; De Gruttola, D.; De Marco, N.; De Pasquale, S.; De Souza, R. D.; Deisting, A.; Deloff, A.; Dénes, E.; Deplano, C.; Dhankher, P.; Di Bari, D.; Di Mauro, A.; Di Nezza, P.; Di Ruzza, B.; Diaz Corchero, M. A.; Dietel, T.; Dillenseger, P.; Divià, R.; Djuvsland, Ø.; Dobrin, A.; Domenicis Gimenez, D.; Dönigus, B.; Dordic, O.; Drozhzhova, T.; Dubey, A. K.; Dubla, A.; Ducroux, L.; Dupieux, P.; Ehlers, R. J.; Elia, D.; Endress, E.; Engel, H.; Epple, E.; Erazmus, B.; Erdemir, I.; Erhardt, F.; Espagnon, B.; Estienne, M.; Esumi, S.; Eum, J.; Evans, D.; Evdokimov, S.; Eyyubova, G.; Fabbietti, L.; Fabris, D.; Faivre, J.; Fantoni, A.; Fasel, M.; Feldkamp, L.; Feliciello, A.; Feofilov, G.; Ferencei, J.; Fernández Téllez, A.; Ferreiro, E. G.; Ferretti, A.; Festanti, A.; Feuillard, V. J. G.; Figiel, J.; Figueredo, M. A. S.; Filchagin, S.; Finogeev, D.; Fionda, F. M.; Fiore, E. M.; Fleck, M. G.; Floris, M.; Foertsch, S.; Foka, P.; Fokin, S.; Fragiacomo, E.; Francescon, A.; Francisco, A.; Frankenfeld, U.; Fronze, G. G.; Fuchs, U.; Furget, C.; Furs, A.; Fusco Girard, M.; Gaardhøje, J. J.; Gagliardi, M.; Gago, A. M.; Gajdosova, K.; Gallio, M.; Galvan, C. D.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Ganoti, P.; Gao, C.; Garabatos, C.; Garcia-Solis, E.; Gargiulo, C.; Gasik, P.; Gauger, E. F.; Germain, M.; Gheata, M.; Ghosh, P.; Ghosh, S. K.; Gianotti, P.; Giubellino, P.; Giubilato, P.; Gladysz-Dziadus, E.; Glässel, P.; Goméz Coral, D. M.; Gomez Ramirez, A.; Gonzalez, A. S.; Gonzalez, V.; González-Zamora, P.; Gorbunov, S.; Görlich, L.; Gotovac, S.; Grabski, V.; Grachov, O. A.; Graczykowski, L. K.; Graham, K. L.; Grelli, A.; Grigoras, A.; Grigoras, C.; Grigoriev, V.; Grigoryan, A.; Grigoryan, S.; Grinyov, B.; Grion, N.; Gronefeld, J. M.; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J. F.; Grosso, R.; Gruber, L.; Guber, F.; Guernane, R.; Guerzoni, B.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gunji, T.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, R.; Haake, R.; Hadjidakis, C.; Haiduc, M.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamar, G.; Hamon, J. C.; Harris, J. W.; Harton, A.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hayashi, S.; Heckel, S. T.; Hellbär, E.; Helstrup, H.; Herghelegiu, A.; Herrera Corral, G.; Hess, B. A.; Hetland, K. F.; Hillemanns, H.; Hippolyte, B.; Horak, D.; Hosokawa, R.; Hristov, P.; Hughes, C.; Humanic, T. J.; Hussain, N.; Hussain, T.; Hutter, D.; Hwang, D. S.; Ilkaev, R.; Inaba, M.; Incani, E.; Ippolitov, M.; Irfan, M.; Isakov, V.; Ivanov, M.; Ivanov, V.; Izucheev, V.; Jacak, B.; Jacazio, N.; Jacobs, P. M.; Jadhav, M. B.; Jadlovska, S.; Jadlovsky, J.; Jahnke, C.; Jakubowska, M. J.; Janik, M. A.; Jayarathna, P. H. S. Y.; Jena, C.; Jena, S.; Jimenez Bustamante, R. T.; Jones, P. G.; Jusko, A.; Kalinak, P.; Kalweit, A.; Kang, J. H.; Kaplin, V.; Kar, S.; Karasu Uysal, A.; Karavichev, O.; Karavicheva, T.; Karayan, L.; Karpechev, E.; Kebschull, U.; Keidel, R.; Keijdener, D. L. D.; Keil, M.; Mohisin Khan, M.; Khan, P.; Khan, S. A.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kharlov, Y.; Kileng, B.; Kim, D. W.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, D.; Kim, H.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, J.; Kim, M.; Kim, S.; Kim, T.; Kirsch, S.; Kisel, I.; Kiselev, S.; Kisiel, A.; Kiss, G.; Klay, J. L.; Klein, C.; Klein, J.; Klein-Bösing, C.; Klewin, S.; Kluge, A.; Knichel, M. L.; Knospe, A. G.; Kobdaj, C.; Kofarago, M.; Kollegger, T.; Kolojvari, A.; Kondratiev, V.; Kondratyeva, N.; Kondratyuk, E.; Konevskikh, A.; Kopcik, M.; Kour, M.; Kouzinopoulos, C.; Kovalenko, O.; Kovalenko, V.; Kowalski, M.; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, G.; Králik, I.; Kravčáková, A.; Krivda, M.; Krizek, F.; Kryshen, E.; Krzewicki, M.; Kubera, A. M.; Kučera, V.; Kuhn, C.; Kuijer, P. G.; Kumar, A.; Kumar, J.; Kumar, L.; Kumar, S.; Kurashvili, P.; Kurepin, A.; Kurepin, A. B.; Kuryakin, A.; Kweon, M. J.; Kwon, Y.; La Pointe, S. L.; La Rocca, P.; Ladron de Guevara, P.; Lagana Fernandes, C.; Lakomov, I.; Langoy, R.; Lapidus, K.; Lara, C.; Lardeux, A.; Lattuca, A.; Laudi, E.; Lea, R.; Leardini, L.; Lee, S.; Lehas, F.; Lehner, S.; Lemmon, R. C.; Lenti, V.; Leogrande, E.; León Monzón, I.; León Vargas, H.; Leoncino, M.; Lévai, P.; Li, S.; Li, X.; Lien, J.; Lietava, R.; Lindal, S.; Lindenstruth, V.; Lippmann, C.; Lisa, M. A.; Ljunggren, H. M.; Lodato, D. F.; Loenne, P. I.; Loginov, V.; Loizides, C.; Lopez, X.; López Torres, E.; Lowe, A.; Luettig, P.; Lunardon, M.; Luparello, G.; Lupi, M.; Lutz, T. H.; Maevskaya, A.; Mager, M.; Mahajan, S.; Mahmood, S. M.; Maire, A.; Majka, R. D.; Malaev, M.; Maldonado Cervantes, I.; Malinina, L.; Mal'Kevich, D.; Malzacher, P.; Mamonov, A.; Manko, V.; Manso, F.; Manzari, V.; Mao, Y.; Marchisone, M.; Mareš, J.; Margagliotti, G. V.; Margotti, A.; Margutti, J.; Marín, A.; Markert, C.; Marquard, M.; Martin, N. A.; Martinengo, P.; Martínez, M. I.; Martínez García, G.; Martinez Pedreira, M.; Mas, A.; Masciocchi, S.; Masera, M.; Masoni, A.; Mastroserio, A.; Matyja, A.; Mayer, C.; Mazer, J.; Mazzoni, M. A.; Mcdonald, D.; Meddi, F.; Melikyan, Y.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Meninno, E.; Mercado Pérez, J.; Meres, M.; Mhlanga, S.; Miake, Y.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Mikhaylov, K.; Milano, L.; Milosevic, J.; Mischke, A.; Mishra, A. N.; Miskowiec, D.; Mitra, J.; Mitu, C. M.; Mohammadi, N.; Mohanty, B.; Molnar, L.; Montaño Zetina, L.; Montes, E.; Moreira De Godoy, D. A.; Moreno, L. A. P.; Moretto, S.; Morreale, A.; Morsch, A.; Muccifora, V.; Mudnic, E.; Mühlheim, D.; Muhuri, S.; Mukherjee, M.; Mulligan, J. D.; Munhoz, M. G.; Münning, K.; Munzer, R. H.; Murakami, H.; Murray, S.; Musa, L.; Musinsky, J.; Naik, B.; Nair, R.; Nandi, B. K.; Nania, R.; Nappi, E.; Naru, M. U.; Natal da Luz, H.; Nattrass, C.; Navarro, S. R.; Nayak, K.; Nayak, R.; Nayak, T. K.; Nazarenko, S.; Nedosekin, A.; Negrao De Oliveira, R. A.; Nellen, L.; Ng, F.; Nicassio, M.; Niculescu, M.; Niedziela, J.; Nielsen, B. S.; Nikolaev, S.; Nikulin, S.; Nikulin, V.; Noferini, F.; Nomokonov, P.; Nooren, G.; Noris, J. C. C.; Norman, J.; Nyanin, A.; Nystrand, J.; Oeschler, H.; Oh, S.; Oh, S. K.; Ohlson, A.; Okatan, A.; Okubo, T.; Oleniacz, J.; Oliveira Da Silva, A. C.; Oliver, M. H.; Onderwaater, J.; Oppedisano, C.; Orava, R.; Oravec, M.; Ortiz Velasquez, A.; Oskarsson, A.; Otwinowski, J.; Oyama, K.; Ozdemir, M.; Pachmayer, Y.; Pagano, D.; Pagano, P.; Paić, G.; Pal, S. K.; Palni, P.; Pan, J.; Pandey, A. K.; Papikyan, V.; Pappalardo, G. S.; Pareek, P.; Park, W. J.; Parmar, S.; Passfeld, A.; Paticchio, V.; Patra, R. N.; Paul, B.; Pei, H.; Peitzmann, T.; Peng, X.; Pereira Da Costa, H.; Peresunko, D.; Perez Lezama, E.; Peskov, V.; Pestov, Y.; Petráček, V.; Petrov, V.; Petrovici, M.; Petta, C.; Piano, S.; Pikna, M.; Pillot, P.; Pimentel, L. O. D. L.; Pinazza, O.; Pinsky, L.; Piyarathna, D. B.; Ploskon, M.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Pochybova, S.; Podesta-Lerma, P. L. M.; Poghosyan, M. G.; Polichtchouk, B.; Poljak, N.; Poonsawat, W.; Pop, A.; Poppenborg, H.; Porteboeuf-Houssais, S.; Porter, J.; Pospisil, J.; Prasad, S. K.; Preghenella, R.; Prino, F.; Pruneau, C. A.; Pshenichnov, I.; Puccio, M.; Puddu, G.; Pujahari, P.; Punin, V.; Putschke, J.; Qvigstad, H.; Rachevski, A.; Raha, S.; Rajput, S.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ramello, L.; Rami, F.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Räsänen, S. S.; Rascanu, B. T.; Rathee, D.; Ravasenga, I.; Read, K. F.; Redlich, K.; Reed, R. J.; Rehman, A.; Reichelt, P.; Reidt, F.; Ren, X.; Renfordt, R.; Reolon, A. R.; Reshetin, A.; Reygers, K.; Riabov, V.; Ricci, R. A.; Richert, T.; Richter, M.; Riedler, P.; Riegler, W.; Riggi, F.; Ristea, C.; Rodríguez Cahuantzi, M.; Rodriguez Manso, A.; Røed, K.; Rogochaya, E.; Rohr, D.; Röhrich, D.; Ronchetti, F.; Ronflette, L.; Rosnet, P.; Rossi, A.; Roukoutakis, F.; Roy, A.; Roy, C.; Roy, P.; Rubio Montero, A. J.; Rui, R.; Russo, R.; Ryabinkin, E.; Ryabov, Y.; Rybicki, A.; Saarinen, S.; Sadhu, S.; Sadovsky, S.; Šafařík, K.; Sahlmuller, B.; Sahoo, P.; Sahoo, R.; Sahoo, S.; Sahu, P. K.; Saini, J.; Sakai, S.; Saleh, M. A.; Salzwedel, J.; Sambyal, S.; Samsonov, V.; Šándor, L.; Sandoval, A.; Sano, M.; Sarkar, D.; Sarkar, N.; Sarma, P.; Scapparone, E.; Scarlassara, F.; Schiaua, C.; Schicker, R.; Schmidt, C.; Schmidt, H. R.; Schmidt, M.; Schuchmann, S.; Schukraft, J.; Schutz, Y.; Schwarz, K.; Schweda, K.; Scioli, G.; Scomparin, E.; Scott, R.; Šefčík, M.; Seger, J. E.; Sekiguchi, Y.; Sekihata, D.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Senosi, K.; Senyukov, S.; Serradilla, E.; Sevcenco, A.; Shabanov, A.; Shabetai, A.; Shadura, O.; Shahoyan, R.; Shangaraev, A.; Sharma, A.; Sharma, M.; Sharma, M.; Sharma, N.; Sheikh, A. I.; Shigaki, K.; Shou, Q.; Shtejer, K.; Sibiriak, Y.; Siddhanta, S.; Sielewicz, K. M.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Simatovic, G.; Simonetti, G.; Singaraju, R.; Singh, R.; Singhal, V.; Sinha, T.; Sitar, B.; Sitta, M.; Skaali, T. B.; Slupecki, M.; Smirnov, N.; Snellings, R. J. M.; Snellman, T. W.; Song, J.; Song, M.; Song, Z.; Soramel, F.; Sorensen, S.; Sozzi, F.; Spiriti, E.; Sputowska, I.; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, M.; Stachel, J.; Stan, I.; Stankus, P.; Stenlund, E.; Steyn, G.; Stiller, J. H.; Stocco, D.; Strmen, P.; Suaide, A. A. P.; Sugitate, T.; Suire, C.; Suleymanov, M.; Suljic, M.; Sultanov, R.; Šumbera, M.; Sumowidagdo, S.; Szabo, A.; Szarka, I.; Szczepankiewicz, A.; Szymanski, M.; Tabassam, U.; Takahashi, J.; Tambave, G. J.; Tanaka, N.; Tarhini, M.; Tariq, M.; Tarzila, M. G.; Tauro, A.; Tejeda Muñoz, G.; Telesca, A.; Terasaki, K.; Terrevoli, C.; Teyssier, B.; Thäder, J.; Thakur, D.; Thomas, D.; Tieulent, R.; Tikhonov, A.; Timmins, A. R.; Toia, A.; Trogolo, S.; Trombetta, G.; Trubnikov, V.; Trzaska, W. H.; Tsuji, T.; Tumkin, A.; Turrisi, R.; Tveter, T. S.; Ullaland, K.; Uras, A.; Usai, G. L.; Utrobicic, A.; Vala, M.; Valencia Palomo, L.; Van Der Maarel, J.; Van Hoorne, J. W.; van Leeuwen, M.; Vanat, T.; Vande Vyvre, P.; Varga, D.; Vargas, A.; Vargyas, M.; Varma, R.; Vasileiou, M.; Vasiliev, A.; Vauthier, A.; Vázquez Doce, O.; Vechernin, V.; Veen, A. M.; Veldhoen, M.; Velure, A.; Vercellin, E.; Vergara Limón, S.; Vernet, R.; Vickovic, L.; Viinikainen, J.; Vilakazi, Z.; Villalobos Baillie, O.; Villatoro Tello, A.; Vinogradov, A.; Vinogradov, L.; Virgili, T.; Vislavicius, V.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vodopyanov, A.; Völkl, M. A.; Voloshin, K.; Voloshin, S. A.; Volpe, G.; von Haller, B.; Vorobyev, I.; Vranic, D.; Vrláková, J.; Vulpescu, B.; Wagner, B.; Wagner, J.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Watanabe, D.; Watanabe, Y.; Weber, M.; Weber, S. G.; Weiser, D. F.; Wessels, J. P.; Westerhoff, U.; Whitehead, A. M.; Wiechula, J.; Wikne, J.; Wilk, G.; Wilkinson, J.; Willems, G. A.; Williams, M. C. S.; Windelband, B.; Winn, M.; Yalcin, S.; Yang, P.; Yano, S.; Yin, Z.; Yokoyama, H.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yoon, J. H.; Yurchenko, V.; Zaborowska, A.; Zaccolo, V.; Zaman, A.; Zampolli, C.; Zanoli, H. J. C.; Zaporozhets, S.; Zardoshti, N.; Zarochentsev, A.; Závada, P.; Zaviyalov, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zgura, I. S.; Zhalov, M.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, C.; Zhigareva, N.; Zhou, D.; Zhou, Y.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, A.; Zimmermann, M. B.; Zinovjev, G.; Zyzak, M.

    2016-09-01

    The elliptic flow of electrons from heavy-flavour hadron decays at mid-rapidity (| y| < 0.7) is measured in Pb-Pb collisions at √{s_{NN}}=2.76 TeV with ALICE at the LHC. The particle azimuthal distribution with respect to the reaction plane can be parametrized with a Fourier expansion, where the second coefficient ( v 2) represents the elliptic flow. The v 2 coefficient of inclusive electrons is measured in three centrality classes (0-10%, 10-20% and 20-40%) with the event plane and the scalar product methods in the transverse momentum ( p T) intervals 0.5-13 GeV/ c and 0.5-8 GeV/ c, respectively. After subtracting the background, mainly from photon conversions and Dalitz decays of neutral mesons, a positive v 2 of electrons from heavy-flavour hadron decays is observed in all centrality classes, with a maximum significance of 5.9 σ in the interval 2 < p T < 2.5 GeV/ c in semi-central collisions (20-40%). The value of v 2 decreases towards more central collisions at low and intermediate p T (0.5 < p T < 3 GeV/ c). The v 2 of electrons from heavy-flavour hadron decays at mid-rapidity is found to be similar to the one of muons from heavy-flavour hadron decays at forward rapidity (2.5 < y < 4). The results are described within uncertainties by model calculations including substantial elastic interactions of heavy quarks with an expanding strongly-interacting medium. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  3. Elliptical instability in terrestrial planets and moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cebron, D.; Le Bars, M.; Moutou, C.; Le Gal, P.

    2012-03-01

    Context. The presence of celestial companions means that any planet may be subject to three kinds of harmonic mechanical forcing: tides, precession/nutation, and libration. These forcings can generate flows in internal fluid layers, such as fluid cores and subsurface oceans, whose dynamics then significantly differ from solid body rotation. In particular, tides in non-synchronized bodies and libration in synchronized ones are known to be capable of exciting the so-called elliptical instability, i.e. a generic instability corresponding to the destabilization of two-dimensional flows with elliptical streamlines, leading to three-dimensional turbulence. Aims: We aim here at confirming the relevance of such an elliptical instability in terrestrial bodies by determining its growth rate, as well as its consequences on energy dissipation, on magnetic field induction, and on heat flux fluctuations on planetary scales. Methods: Previous studies and theoretical results for the elliptical instability are re-evaluated and extended to cope with an astrophysical context. In particular, generic analytical expressions of the elliptical instability growth rate are obtained using a local WKB approach, simultaneously considering for the first time (i) a local temperature gradient due to an imposed temperature contrast across the considered layer or to the presence of a volumic heat source and (ii) an imposed magnetic field along the rotation axis, coming from an external source. Results: The theoretical results are applied to the telluric planets and moons of the solar system as well as to three Super-Earths: 55 CnC e, CoRoT-7b, and GJ 1214b. For the tide-driven elliptical instability in non-synchronized bodies, only the early Earth core is shown to be clearly unstable. For the libration-driven elliptical instability in synchronized bodies, the core of Io is shown to be stable, contrary to previously thoughts, whereas Europa, 55 CnC e, CoRoT-7b, and GJ 1214b cores can be unstable

  4. Circular and Elliptic Submerged Impinging Water Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claudey, Eric; Benedicto, Olivier; Ravier, Emmanuel; Gutmark, Ephraim

    1999-11-01

    Experiments and CFD have been performed to study circular and elliptic jets in a submerged water jet facility. The tests included discharge coefficient measurement to evaluate pressure losses encountered in noncircular nozzles compared to circular ones. Three-dimensional pressure mappings on the impingement surface and PIV measurement of the jet mean and turbulent velocity have been performed at different compound impingement angles relative to the impingement surface and at different stand-off distances. The objective was to investigate the effect of the non-circular geometry on the flow field and on the impact region. The tests were performed in a close loop system in which the water was pumped through the nozzles into a clear Plexiglas tank. The Reynolds numbers were typically in the range of 250000. Discharge coefficients of the elliptic nozzle was somewhat lower than that of the circular jet but spreading rate and turbulence level were higher. Pressure mapping showed that the nozzle exit geometry had an effect on the pressure distribution in the impact region and that high-pressure zones were generated at specific impact points. PIV measurements showed that for a same total exit area, the elliptic jets affected a surface area that is 8the equivalent circular. The turbulence level in the elliptic jet tripled due to the nozzle design. Results of the CFD model were in good agreement with the experimental data.

  5. The properties of radio ellipticals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, W. B.; Disney, M. J.; Wall, J. V.; Rodgers, A. W.

    1984-03-01

    The authors present optical and additional radio data for the bright galaxies of the Disney & Wall survey. These data form the basis of a statistical comparison of the properties of radio elliptical galaxies to radio-quiet ellipticals. The correlations may be explained by the depth of the gravitational potential well in which the galaxy resides governing the circumstances under which an elliptical galaxy rids itself of internally produced gas.

  6. Centrality and Transverse Momentum Dependence of Elliptic Flow of Multistrange Hadrons and ϕ Meson in Au+Au Collisions at √[sNN]=200  GeV.

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, L; Adkins, J K; Agakishiev, G; Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Alekseev, I; Aparin, A; Arkhipkin, D; Aschenauer, E C; Averichev, G S; Bairathi, V; Banerjee, A; Bellwied, R; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bhattarai, P; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Bland, L C; Bordyuzhin, I G; Bouchet, J; Brandin, A V; Bunzarov, I; Butterworth, J; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M; Campbell, J M; Cebra, D; Cervantes, M C; Chakaberia, I; Chaloupka, P; Chang, Z; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, J H; Chen, X; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Christie, W; Contin, G; Crawford, H J; Das, S; De Silva, L C; Debbe, R R; Dedovich, T G; Deng, J; Derevschikov, A A; di Ruzza, B; Didenko, L; Dilks, C; Dong, X; Drachenberg, J L; Draper, J E; Du, C M; Dunkelberger, L E; Dunlop, J C; Efimov, L G; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Esha, R; Evdokimov, O; Eyser, O; Fatemi, R; Fazio, S; Federic, P; Fedorisin, J; Feng, Z; Filip, P; Fisyak, Y; Flores, C E; Fulek, L; Gagliardi, C A; Garand, D; Geurts, F; Gibson, A; Girard, M; Greiner, L; Grosnick, D; Gunarathne, D S; Guo, Y; Gupta, S; Gupta, A; Guryn, W; Hamad, A; Hamed, A; Haque, R; Harris, J W; He, L; Heppelmann, S; Heppelmann, S; Hirsch, A; Hoffmann, G W; Hofman, D J; Horvat, S; Huang, X; Huang, B; Huang, H Z; Huck, P; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Jacobs, W W; Jang, H; Jiang, K; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kalinkin, D; Kang, K; Kauder, K; Ke, H W; Keane, D; Kechechyan, A; Khan, Z H; Kikoła, D P; Kisel, I; Kisiel, A; Kochenda, L; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Kosarzewski, L K; Kraishan, A F; Kravtsov, P; Krueger, K; Kulakov, I; Kumar, L; Kycia, R A; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Landry, K D; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lee, J H; Li, Z M; Li, W; Li, X; Li, X; Li, C; Li, Y; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Lomnitz, M; Longacre, R S; Luo, X; Ma, Y G; Ma, G L; Ma, L; Ma, R; Magdy, N; Majka, R; Manion, A; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Masui, H; Matis, H S; McDonald, D; Meehan, K; Minaev, N G; Mioduszewski, S; Mishra, D; Mohanty, B; Mondal, M M; Morozov, D A; Mustafa, M K; Nandi, B K; Nasim, Md; Nayak, T K; Nigmatkulov, G; Nogach, L V; Noh, S Y; Novak, J; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Oh, K; Okorokov, V; Olvitt, D; Page, B S; Pak, R; Pan, Y X; Pandit, Y; Panebratsev, Y; Pawlik, B; Pei, H; Perkins, C; Peterson, A; Pile, P; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Poljak, N; Poniatowska, K; Porter, J; Posik, M; Poskanzer, A M; Putschke, J; Qiu, H; Quintero, A; Ramachandran, S; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ray, R L; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevskiy, O V; Romero, J L; Roy, A; Ruan, L; Rusnak, J; Rusnakova, O; Sahoo, N R; Sahu, P K; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Sarkar, A; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmah, A M; Schmidke, W B; Schmitz, N; Seger, J; Seyboth, P; Shah, N; Shahaliev, E; Shanmuganathan, P V; Shao, M; Sharma, B; Sharma, M K; Shen, W Q; Shi, S S; Shou, Q Y; Sichtermann, E P; Sikora, R; Simko, M; Singha, S; Skoby, M J; Smirnov, D; Smirnov, N; Song, L; Sorensen, P; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stanislaus, T D S; Stepanov, M; Stock, R; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Sumbera, M; Summa, B; Sun, X; Sun, X M; Sun, Y; Sun, Z; Surrow, B; Svirida, N; Szelezniak, M A; Tang, A H; Tang, Z; Tarnowsky, T; Tawfik, A; Thomas, J H; Timmins, A R; Tlusty, D; Tokarev, M; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tribedy, P; Tripathy, S K; Trzeciak, B A; Tsai, O D; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Upsal, I; Van Buren, G; van Nieuwenhuizen, G; Vandenbroucke, M; Varma, R; Vasiliev, A N; Vertesi, R; Videbæk, F; Viyogi, Y P; Vokal, S; Voloshin, S A; Vossen, A; Wang, Y; Wang, G; Wang, J S; Wang, H; Wang, Y; Wang, F; Webb, J C; Webb, G; Wen, L; Westfall, G D; Wieman, H; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wu, Y F; Wu, Y; Xiao, Z G; Xie, W; Xin, K; Xu, N; Xu, Z; Xu, Q H; Xu, Y F; Xu, H; Yang, Q; Yang, Y; Yang, Y; Yang, S; Yang, C; Ye, Z; Yepes, P; Yi, L; Yip, K; Yoo, I-K; Yu, N; Zbroszczyk, H; Zha, W; Zhang, Z; Zhang, Y; Zhang, J B; Zhang, J; Zhang, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, X P; Zhao, J; Zhong, C; Zhou, L; Zhu, X; Zoulkarneeva, Y; Zyzak, M

    2016-02-12

    We present high precision measurements of elliptic flow near midrapidity (|y|<1.0) for multistrange hadrons and ϕ meson as a function of centrality and transverse momentum in Au+Au collisions at center of mass energy √[sNN]=200  GeV. We observe that the transverse momentum dependence of ϕ and Ω v2 is similar to that of π and p, respectively, which may indicate that the heavier strange quark flows as strongly as the lighter up and down quarks. This observation constitutes a clear piece of evidence for the development of partonic collectivity in heavy-ion collisions at the top RHIC energy. Number of constituent quark scaling is found to hold within statistical uncertainty for both 0%-30% and 30%-80% collision centrality. There is an indication of the breakdown of previously observed mass ordering between ϕ and proton v2 at low transverse momentum in the 0%-30% centrality range, possibly indicating late hadronic interactions affecting the proton v2.

  7. Electro-magnetic physics studies at RHIC: Neutral pion production, direct photon HBT, photon elliptic flow in gold-gold collisions at sqrt(s_NN) = 200 GeV and the Muon Telescope Detector simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Guoji

    Electro-magnetic (E&M) probes such as direct photons and muons (mu) are important tools to study the properties of the extremely hot and dense matter created in heavy ion collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). In this thesis, several topics of E&M physics will be addressed, including neutral pion (pi0) production, direct photon HBT, and photon elliptic flow (v2) in Au+Au collisions at sNN = 200 GeV. A discussion on the simulation study of the new Muon Telescope Detector (MTD) will also be presented. The pi0 production is a fundamental measurement of hadron production and prerequisite for the background study of direct photons. Neutral pions are reconstructed using the photons detected by the STAR Barrel Electro-magnetic Calorimeter (BEMC) and the Time Projection Chamber (TPC). Spectra of pi 0 are measured at transverse momentum 1 < pT < 12 GeV/c near mid-rapidity (0 < eta < 0.8) in 200 GeV Au+Au collisions. The spectra and nuclear modification factors RCP and RAA are compared to earlier pi+/- and pi0 results. Direct photon Hanbury-Brown and Twiss (HBT) correlations can reveal information of the system size throughout the whole collision. A first attempt of direct photon HBT study at RHIC in 200 GeV Au+Au collisions is done using photons detected by the STAR BEMC and TPC. All unknown correlation at small Qinv is observed, whose magnitude is much larger than the expected HBT signal, and possible causes of the correlation will be discussed. Direct photon elliptic flow (v2) at intermediate to high pT is sensitive to the source of direct photon production. Results of inclusive photon v2 in 200 GeV Au+Au collisions are presented. The v2 of pi0 decay photons is calculated from the previously published pi results. The comparison between inclusive and decay photon v 2 indicates that direct photon v2 is small. A new large-area Muon Telescope Detector at mid-rapidity at RHIC is proposed and under investigation, using the Long-strip Multi-Gap Resistive Plate

  8. A measurement of. Delta. sigma. sub L (np), the difference between neutron-proton total cross sections in pure longitudinal spin states

    SciTech Connect

    Beddo, M.E.

    1990-10-01

    A measurement off {Delta}{sigma}{sub L}(np), the difference between neutron-proton total cross sections in pure longitudinal spin states, is described. The results will help determine the isospin-zero (I = 0) scattering amplitudes, which are not well known above laboratory energies of 500 MeV, whereas the isospin-one (I = 1) amplitudes are fairly well-determined to 1 GeV. Data points were taken at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) at Los Alamos, New Mexico, for five neutron beam energies: 484, 568, 634,720 and 788 MeV; they are the first in this energy range. Polarized neutrons were produced by charge-exchange of polarized protons on a liquid deuterium target (LD{sub 2}). Large-volume neutron counters detected the neutrons that passed through a polarized proton target. The counters subtended a range of solid angles large enough to allow extrapolation of the scattered neutrons to 0{degree}. Two modifications to the LAMPF accelerator system which were made for this work are described. They included a beam buncher,'' which modified the normal rf-time structure of the proton beam and allowed for the selection of peak-energy neutrons by time-of-flight means, and a computerized beam steering program, which reduced systematic effects due to beam motion at the LD{sub 2} target. The experimental values of {Delta}{sigma}{sub L}(np) are found to be consistent with other np data, including preliminary data from SIN and Saclay, but not with some results from Argonne which used a polarized proton beam and a polarized deuteron target. The I = 0 component was extracted from {Delta}{sigma}{sub L}(np) using existing pp data (I = 1), with the unexpected result that {Delta}{sigma}{sub L}(I = 0) was found to be essentially identical in shape to {Delta}{sigma}{sub L}(I = 1). The significance of this is not yet understood.

  9. Elliptic flow of electrons from heavy-flavor hadron decays in Au + Au collisions at √{sN N}=200 , 62.4, and 39 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Ajitanand, N. N.; Alekseev, I.; Anderson, D. M.; Aoyama, R.; Aparin, A.; Arkhipkin, D.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Ashraf, M. U.; Attri, A.; Averichev, G. S.; Bai, X.; Bairathi, V.; Behera, A.; Bellwied, R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattarai, P.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L. C.; Bordyuzhin, I. G.; Bouchet, J.; Brandenburg, J. D.; Brandin, A. V.; Brown, D.; Bunzarov, I.; Butterworth, J.; Caines, H.; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M.; Campbell, J. M.; Cebra, D.; Chakaberia, I.; Chaloupka, P.; Chang, Z.; Chankova-Bunzarova, N.; Chatterjee, A.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, X.; Chen, J. H.; Chen, X.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Christie, W.; Contin, G.; Crawford, H. J.; Das, S.; De Silva, L. C.; Debbe, R. R.; Dedovich, T. G.; Deng, J.; Derevschikov, A. A.; Didenko, L.; Dilks, C.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Dunkelberger, L. E.; Dunlop, J. C.; Efimov, L. G.; Elsey, N.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Esha, R.; Esumi, S.; Evdokimov, O.; Ewigleben, J.; Eyser, O.; Fatemi, R.; Fazio, S.; Federic, P.; Federicova, P.; Fedorisin, J.; Feng, Z.; Filip, P.; Finch, E.; Fisyak, Y.; Flores, C. E.; Fulek, L.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Garand, D.; Geurts, F.; Gibson, A.; Girard, M.; Grosnick, D.; Gunarathne, D. S.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, S.; Gupta, A.; Guryn, W.; Hamad, A. I.; Hamed, A.; Harlenderova, A.; Harris, J. W.; He, L.; Heppelmann, S.; Heppelmann, S.; Hirsch, A.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Horvat, S.; Huang, H. Z.; Huang, X.; Huang, B.; Huang, T.; Humanic, T. J.; Huo, P.; Igo, G.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jentsch, A.; Jia, J.; Jiang, K.; Jowzaee, S.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kalinkin, D.; Kang, K.; Kauder, K.; Ke, H. W.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Khan, Z.; Kikoła, D. P.; Kisel, I.; Kisiel, A.; Kochenda, L.; Kocmanek, M.; Kollegger, T.; Kosarzewski, L. K.; Kraishan, A. F.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Kulathunga, N.; Kumar, L.; Kvapil, J.; Kwasizur, J. H.; Lacey, R.; Landgraf, J. M.; Landry, K. D.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, J. H.; Li, X.; Li, C.; Li, Y.; Li, W.; Lidrych, J.; Lin, T.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, P.; Liu, Y.; Liu, F.; Liu, H.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Lomnitz, M.; Longacre, R. S.; Luo, X.; Luo, S.; Ma, Y. G.; Ma, L.; Ma, R.; Ma, G. L.; Magdy, N.; Majka, R.; Mallick, D.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Matis, H. S.; Meehan, K.; Mei, J. C.; Miller, Z. W.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mishra, D.; Mizuno, S.; Mohanty, B.; Mondal, M. M.; Morozov, D. A.; Mustafa, M. K.; Nasim, Md.; Nayak, T. K.; Nelson, J. M.; Nie, M.; Nigmatkulov, G.; Niida, T.; Nogach, L. V.; Nonaka, T.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Oh, K.; Okorokov, V. A.; Olvitt, D.; Page, B. S.; Pak, R.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pawlik, B.; Pei, H.; Perkins, C.; Pile, P.; Pluta, J.; Poniatowska, K.; Porter, J.; Posik, M.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Pruthi, N. K.; Przybycien, M.; Putschke, J.; Qiu, H.; Quintero, A.; Ramachandran, S.; Ray, R. L.; Reed, R.; Rehbein, M. J.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Roth, J. D.; Ruan, L.; Rusnak, J.; Rusnakova, O.; Sahoo, N. R.; Sahu, P. K.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Saur, M.; Schambach, J.; Schmah, A. M.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schmitz, N.; Schweid, B. R.; Seger, J.; Sergeeva, M.; Seyboth, P.; Shah, N.; Shahaliev, E.; Shanmuganathan, P. V.; Shao, M.; Sharma, M. K.; Sharma, A.; Shen, W. Q.; Shi, Z.; Shi, S. S.; Shou, Q. Y.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Sikora, R.; Simko, M.; Singha, S.; Skoby, M. J.; Smirnov, N.; Smirnov, D.; Solyst, W.; Song, L.; Sorensen, P.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Stock, R.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Sugiura, T.; Sumbera, M.; Summa, B.; Sun, Y.; Sun, X. M.; Sun, X.; Surrow, B.; Svirida, D. N.; Tang, A. H.; Tang, Z.; Taranenko, A.; Tarnowsky, T.; Tawfik, A.; Thäder, J.; Thomas, J. H.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Todoroki, T.; Tokarev, M.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tribedy, P.; Tripathy, S. K.; Trzeciak, B. A.; Tsai, O. D.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Upsal, I.; Van Buren, G.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Videbæk, F.; Vokal, S.; Voloshin, S. A.; Vossen, A.; Wang, G.; Wang, Y.; Wang, F.; Wang, Y.; Webb, J. C.; Webb, G.; Wen, L.; Westfall, G. D.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S. W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y.; Xiao, Z. G.; Xie, W.; Xie, G.; Xu, J.; Xu, N.; Xu, Q. H.; Xu, W.; Xu, Y. F.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Q.; Yang, C.; Yang, S.; Ye, Z.; Ye, Z.; Yi, L.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yu, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zha, W.; Zhang, Z.; Zhang, X. P.; Zhang, J. B.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, S.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, C.; Zhu, X.; Zhu, Z.; Zyzak, M.; STAR Collaboration

    2017-03-01

    We present measurements of elliptic flow (v2) of electrons from the decays of heavy-flavor hadrons (eHF) by the STAR experiment. For Au+Au collisions at √{sN N}=200 GeV we report v2, for transverse momentum (pT) between 0.2 and 7 GeV /c , using three methods: the event plane method (v2{EP } ), two-particle correlations (v2{2 } ), and four-particle correlations (v2{4 } ). For Au+Au collisions at √{sN N}=62.4 and 39 GeV we report v2{2 } for pT<2 GeV /c . v2{2 } and v2{4 } are nonzero at low and intermediate pT at 200 GeV, and v2{2 } is consistent with zero at low pT at other energies. The v2{2 } at the two lower beam energies is systematically lower than at √{sN N}=200 GeV for pT<1 GeV /c . This difference may suggest that charm quarks interact less strongly with the surrounding nuclear matter at those two lower energies compared to √{sN N}=200 GeV.

  10. Elliptic flow of muons from heavy-flavour hadron decays at forward rapidity in Pb-Pb collisions at √{sNN} = 2.76 TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, J.; Adamová, D.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Agnello, M.; Agrawal, N.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahn, S. U.; Aiola, S.; Akindinov, A.; Alam, S. N.; Aleksandrov, D.; Alessandro, B.; Alexandre, D.; Alfaro Molina, R.; Alici, A.; Alkin, A.; Almaraz, J. R. M.; Alme, J.; Alt, T.; Altinpinar, S.; Altsybeev, I.; Alves Garcia Prado, C.; Andrei, C.; Andronic, A.; Anguelov, V.; Anielski, J.; Antičić, T.; Antinori, F.; Antonioli, P.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelshäuser, H.; Arcelli, S.; Armesto, N.; Arnaldi, R.; Arsene, I. C.; Arslandok, M.; Audurier, B.; Augustinus, A.; Averbeck, R.; Azmi, M. D.; Bach, M.; Badalà, A.; Baek, Y. W.; Bagnasco, S.; Bailhache, R.; Bala, R.; Baldisseri, A.; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F.; Baral, R. C.; Barbano, A. M.; Barbera, R.; Barile, F.; Barnaföldi, G. G.; Barnby, L. S.; Barret, V.; Bartalini, P.; Barth, K.; Bartke, J.; Bartsch, E.; Basile, M.; Bastid, N.; Basu, S.; Bathen, B.; Batigne, G.; Batista Camejo, A.; Batyunya, B.; Batzing, P. C.; Bearden, I. G.; Beck, H.; Bedda, C.; Behera, N. K.; Belikov, I.; Bellini, F.; Bello Martinez, H.; Bellwied, R.; Belmont, R.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; Belyaev, V.; Bencedi, G.; Beole, S.; Berceanu, I.; Bercuci, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Berenyi, D.; Bertens, R. A.; Berzano, D.; Betev, L.; Bhasin, A.; Bhat, I. R.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattacharjee, B.; Bhom, J.; Bianchi, L.; Bianchi, N.; Bianchin, C.; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, J.; Bilandzic, A.; Biswas, R.; Biswas, S.; Bjelogrlic, S.; Blair, J. T.; Blanco, F.; Blau, D.; Blume, C.; Bock, F.; Bogdanov, A.; Bøggild, H.; Boldizsár, L.; Bombara, M.; Book, J.; Borel, H.; Borissov, A.; Borri, M.; Bossú, F.; Botta, E.; Böttger, S.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Bregant, M.; Breitner, T.; Broker, T. A.; Browning, T. A.; Broz, M.; Brucken, E. J.; Bruna, E.; Bruno, G. E.; Budnikov, D.; Buesching, H.; Bufalino, S.; Buncic, P.; Busch, O.; Buthelezi, Z.; Butt, J. B.; Buxton, J. T.; Caffarri, D.; Cai, X.; Caines, H.; Calero Diaz, L.; Caliva, A.; Calvo Villar, E.; Camerini, P.; Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Carnesecchi, F.; Castillo Castellanos, J.; Castro, A. J.; Casula, E. A. R.; Cavicchioli, C.; Ceballos Sanchez, C.; Cepila, J.; Cerello, P.; Cerkala, J.; Chang, B.; Chapeland, S.; Chartier, M.; Charvet, J. L.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chelnokov, V.; Cherney, M.; Cheshkov, C.; Cheynis, B.; Chibante Barroso, V.; Chinellato, D. D.; Chochula, P.; Choi, K.; Chojnacki, M.; Choudhury, S.; Christakoglou, P.; Christensen, C. H.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, S. U.; Chunhui, Z.; Cicalo, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Cleymans, J.; Colamaria, F.; Colella, D.; Collu, A.; Colocci, M.; Conesa Balbastre, G.; Conesa del Valle, Z.; Connors, M. E.; Contreras, J. G.; Cormier, T. M.; Corrales Morales, Y.; Cortés Maldonado, I.; Cortese, P.; Cosentino, M. R.; Costa, F.; Crochet, P.; Cruz Albino, R.; Cuautle, E.; Cunqueiro, L.; Dahms, T.; Dainese, A.; Danu, A.; Das, D.; Das, I.; Das, S.; Dash, A.; Dash, S.; De, S.; De Caro, A.; de Cataldo, G.; de Cuveland, J.; De Falco, A.; De Gruttola, D.; De Marco, N.; De Pasquale, S.; Deisting, A.; Deloff, A.; Dénes, E.; D'Erasmo, G.; Di Bari, D.; Di Mauro, A.; Di Nezza, P.; Diaz Corchero, M. A.; Dietel, T.; Dillenseger, P.; Divià, R.; Djuvsland, Ø.; Dobrin, A.; Dobrowolski, T.; Domenicis Gimenez, D.; Dönigus, B.; Dordic, O.; Drozhzhova, T.; Dubey, A. K.; Dubla, A.; Ducroux, L.; Dupieux, P.; Ehlers, R. J.; Elia, D.; Engel, H.; Epple, E.; Erazmus, B.; Erdemir, I.; Erhardt, F.; Espagnon, B.; Estienne, M.; Esumi, S.; Eum, J.; Evans, D.; Evdokimov, S.; Eyyubova, G.; Fabbietti, L.; Fabris, D.; Faivre, J.; Fantoni, A.; Fasel, M.; Feldkamp, L.; Felea, D.; Feliciello, A.; Feofilov, G.; Ferencei, J.; Fernández Téllez, A.; Ferreiro, E. G.; Ferretti, A.; Festanti, A.; Feuillard, V. J. G.; Figiel, J.; Figueredo, M. A. S.; Filchagin, S.; Finogeev, D.; Fionda, F. M.; Fiore, E. M.; Fleck, M. G.; Floris, M.; Foertsch, S.; Foka, P.; Fokin, S.; Fragiacomo, E.; Francescon, A.; Frankenfeld, U.; Fuchs, U.; Furget, C.; Furs, A.; Fusco Girard, M.; Gaardhøje, J. J.; Gagliardi, M.; Gago, A. M.; Gallio, M.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Ganoti, P.; Gao, C.; Garabatos, C.; Garcia-Solis, E.; Gargiulo, C.; Gasik, P.; Germain, M.; Gheata, A.; Gheata, M.; Ghosh, P.; Ghosh, S. K.; Gianotti, P.; Giubellino, P.; Giubilato, P.; Gladysz-Dziadus, E.; Glässel, P.; Goméz Coral, D. M.; Gomez Ramirez, A.; González-Zamora, P.; Gorbunov, S.; Görlich, L.; Gotovac, S.; Grabski, V.; Graczykowski, L. K.; Graham, K. L.; Grelli, A.; Grigoras, A.; Grigoras, C.; Grigoriev, V.; Grigoryan, A.; Grigoryan, S.; Grinyov, B.; Grion, N.; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J. F.; Grossiord, J.-Y.; Grosso, R.; Guber, F.; Guernane, R.; Guerzoni, B.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gulkanyan, H.; Gunji, T.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, R.; Haake, R.; Haaland, Ø.; Hadjidakis, C.; Haiduc, M.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamar, G.; Harris, J. W.; Harton, A.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hayashi, S.; Heckel, S. T.; Heide, M.; Helstrup, H.; Herghelegiu, A.; Herrera Corral, G.; Hess, B. A.; Hetland, K. F.; Hilden, T. E.; Hillemanns, H.; Hippolyte, B.; Hosokawa, R.; Hristov, P.; Huang, M.; Humanic, T. J.; Hussain, N.; Hussain, T.; Hutter, D.; Hwang, D. S.; Ilkaev, R.; Ilkiv, I.; Inaba, M.; Ippolitov, M.; Irfan, M.; Ivanov, M.; Ivanov, V.; Izucheev, V.; Jacobs, P. M.; Jadlovska, S.; Jahnke, C.; Jang, H. J.; Janik, M. A.; Jayarathna, P. H. S. Y.; Jena, C.; Jena, S.; Jimenez Bustamante, R. T.; Jones, P. G.; Jung, H.; Jusko, A.; Kalinak, P.; Kalweit, A.; Kamin, J.; Kang, J. H.; Kaplin, V.; Kar, S.; Karasu Uysal, A.; Karavichev, O.; Karavicheva, T.; Karayan, L.; Karpechev, E.; Kebschull, U.; Keidel, R.; Keijdener, D. L. D.; Keil, M.; Mohisin Khan, M.; Khan, P.; Khan, S. A.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kharlov, Y.; Kileng, B.; Kim, B.; Kim, D. W.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, H.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, M.; Kim, M.; Kim, S.; Kim, T.; Kirsch, S.; Kisel, I.; Kiselev, S.; Kisiel, A.; Kiss, G.; Klay, J. L.; Klein, C.; Klein, J.; Klein-Bösing, C.; Kluge, A.; Knichel, M. L.; Knospe, A. G.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobdaj, C.; Kofarago, M.; Kollegger, T.; Kolojvari, A.; Kondratiev, V.; Kondratyeva, N.; Kondratyuk, E.; Konevskikh, A.; Kopcik, M.; Kour, M.; Kouzinopoulos, C.; Kovalenko, O.; Kovalenko, V.; Kowalski, M.; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, G.; Kral, J.; Králik, I.; Kravčáková, A.; Kretz, M.; Krivda, M.; Krizek, F.; Kryshen, E.; Krzewicki, M.; Kubera, A. M.; Kučera, V.; Kugathasan, T.; Kuhn, C.; Kuijer, P. G.; Kumar, A.; Kumar, J.; Kumar, L.; Kurashvili, P.; Kurepin, A.; Kurepin, A. B.; Kuryakin, A.; Kushpil, S.; Kweon, M. J.; Kwon, Y.; La Pointe, S. L.; La Rocca, P.; Lagana Fernandes, C.; Lakomov, I.; Langoy, R.; Lara, C.; Lardeux, A.; Lattuca, A.; Laudi, E.; Lea, R.; Leardini, L.; Lee, G. R.; Lee, S.; Legrand, I.; Lehas, F.; Lemmon, R. C.; Lenti, V.; Leogrande, E.; León Monzón, I.; Leoncino, M.; Lévai, P.; Li, S.; Li, X.; Lien, J.; Lietava, R.; Lindal, S.; Lindenstruth, V.; Lippmann, C.; Lisa, M. A.; Ljunggren, H. M.; Lodato, D. F.; Loenne, P. I.; Loginov, V.; Loizides, C.; Lopez, X.; López Torres, E.; Lowe, A.; Luettig, P.; Lunardon, M.; Luparello, G.; Luz, P. H. F. N. D.; Maevskaya, A.; Mager, M.; Mahajan, S.; Mahmood, S. M.; Maire, A.; Majka, R. D.; Malaev, M.; Maldonado Cervantes, I.; Malinina, L.; Mal'Kevich, D.; Malzacher, P.; Mamonov, A.; Manko, V.; Manso, F.; Manzari, V.; Marchisone, M.; Mareš, J.; Margagliotti, G. V.; Margotti, A.; Margutti, J.; Marín, A.; Markert, C.; Marquard, M.; Martin, N. A.; Martin Blanco, J.; Martinengo, P.; Martínez, M. I.; Martínez García, G.; Martinez Pedreira, M.; Martynov, Y.; Mas, A.; Masciocchi, S.; Masera, M.; Masoni, A.; Massacrier, L.; Mastroserio, A.; Masui, H.; Matyja, A.; Mayer, C.; Mazer, J.; Mazzoni, M. A.; Mcdonald, D.; Meddi, F.; Melikyan, Y.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Meninno, E.; Mercado Pérez, J.; Meres, M.; Miake, Y.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Mikhaylov, K.; Milano, L.; Milosevic, J.; Minervini, L. M.; Mischke, A.; Mishra, A. N.; Miśkowiec, D.; Mitra, J.; Mitu, C. M.; Mohammadi, N.; Mohanty, B.; Molnar, L.; Montaño Zetina, L.; Montes, E.; Morando, M.; Moreira De Godoy, D. A.; Moreno, L. A. P.; Moretto, S.; Morreale, A.; Morsch, A.; Muccifora, V.; Mudnic, E.; Mühlheim, D.; Muhuri, S.; Mukherjee, M.; Mulligan, J. D.; Munhoz, M. G.; Munzer, R. H.; Murray, S.; Musa, L.; Musinsky, J.; Nandi, B. K.; Nania, R.; Nappi, E.; Naru, M. U.; Nattrass, C.; Nayak, K.; Nayak, T. K.; Nazarenko, S.; Nedosekin, A.; Nellen, L.; Ng, F.; Nicassio, M.; Niculescu, M.; Niedziela, J.; Nielsen, B. S.; Nikolaev, S.; Nikulin, S.; Nikulin, V.; Noferini, F.; Nomokonov, P.; Nooren, G.; Noris, J. C. C.; Norman, J.; Nyanin, A.; Nystrand, J.; Oeschler, H.; Oh, S.; Oh, S. K.; Ohlson, A.; Okatan, A.; Okubo, T.; Olah, L.; Oleniacz, J.; Oliveira Da Silva, A. C.; Oliver, M. H.; Onderwaater, J.; Oppedisano, C.; Orava, R.; Ortiz Velasquez, A.; Oskarsson, A.; Otwinowski, J.; Oyama, K.; Ozdemir, M.; Pachmayer, Y.; Pagano, P.; Paić, G.; Pajares, C.; Pal, S. K.; Pan, J.; Pandey, A. K.; Pant, D.; Papcun, P.; Papikyan, V.; Pappalardo, G. S.; Pareek, P.; Park, W. J.; Parmar, S.; Passfeld, A.; Paticchio, V.; Patra, R. N.; Paul, B.; Peitzmann, T.; Pereira Da Costa, H.; Pereira De Oliveira Filho, E.; Peresunko, D.; Pérez Lara, C. E.; Perez Lezama, E.; Peskov, V.; Pestov, Y.; Petráček, V.; Petrov, V.; Petrovici, M.; Petta, C.; Piano, S.; Pikna, M.; Pillot, P.; Pinazza, O.; Pinsky, L.; Piyarathna, D. B.; Płoskoń, M.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Pochybova, S.; Podesta-Lerma, P. L. M.; Poghosyan, M. G.; Polichtchouk, B.; Poljak, N.; Poonsawat, W.; Pop, A.; Porteboeuf-Houssais, S.; Porter, J.; Pospisil, J.; Prasad, S. K.; Preghenella, R.; Prino, F.; Pruneau, C. A.; Pshenichnov, I.; Puccio, M.; Puddu, G.; Pujahari, P.; Punin, V.; Putschke, J.; Qvigstad, H.; Rachevski, A.; Raha, S.; Rajput, S.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ramello, L.; Rami, F.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Räsänen, S. S.; Rascanu, B. T.; Rathee, D.; Read, K. F.; Real, J. S.; Redlich, K.; Reed, R. J.; Rehman, A.; Reichelt, P.; Reidt, F.; Ren, X.; Renfordt, R.; Reolon, A. R.; Reshetin, A.; Rettig, F.; Revol, J.-P.; Reygers, K.; Riabov, V.; Ricci, R. A.; Richert, T.; Richter, M.; Riedler, P.; Riegler, W.; Riggi, F.; Ristea, C.; Rivetti, A.; Rocco, E.; Rodríguez Cahuantzi, M.; Rodriguez Manso, A.; Røed, K.; Rogochaya, E.; Rohr, D.; Röhrich, D.; Romita, R.; Ronchetti, F.; Ronflette, L.; Rosnet, P.; Rossi, A.; Roukoutakis, F.; Roy, A.; Roy, C.; Roy, P.; Rubio Montero, A. J.; Rui, R.; Russo, R.; Ryabinkin, E.; Ryabov, Y.; Rybicki, A.; Sadovsky, S.; Šafařík, K.; Sahlmuller, B.; Sahoo, P.; Sahoo, R.; Sahoo, S.; Sahu, P. K.; Saini, J.; Sakai, S.; Saleh, M. A.; Salgado, C. A.; Salzwedel, J.; Sambyal, S.; Samsonov, V.; Šándor, L.; Sandoval, A.; Sano, M.; Sarkar, D.; Scapparone, E.; Scarlassara, F.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schiaua, C.; Schicker, R.; Schmidt, C.; Schmidt, H. R.; Schuchmann, S.; Schukraft, J.; Schulc, M.; Schuster, T.; Schutz, Y.; Schwarz, K.; Schweda, K.; Scioli, G.; Scomparin, E.; Scott, R.; Seger, J. E.; Sekiguchi, Y.; Sekihata, D.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Senosi, K.; Seo, J.; Serradilla, E.; Sevcenco, A.; Shabanov, A.; Shabetai, A.; Shadura, O.; Shahoyan, R.; Shangaraev, A.; Sharma, A.; Sharma, M.; Sharma, M.; Sharma, N.; Shigaki, K.; Shtejer, K.; Sibiriak, Y.; Siddhanta, S.; Sielewicz, K. M.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Simatovic, G.; Simonetti, G.; Singaraju, R.; Singh, R.; Singha, S.; Singhal, V.; Sinha, B. C.; Sinha, T.; Sitar, B.; Sitta, M.; Skaali, T. B.; Slupecki, M.; Smirnov, N.; Snellings, R. J. M.; Snellman, T. W.; Søgaard, C.; Soltz, R.; Song, J.; Song, M.; Song, Z.; Soramel, F.; Sorensen, S.; Spacek, M.; Spiriti, E.; Sputowska, I.; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, M.; Srivastava, B. K.; Stachel, J.; Stan, I.; Stefanek, G.; Stenlund, E.; Steyn, G.; Stiller, J. H.; Stocco, D.; Strmen, P.; Suaide, A. A. P.; Sugitate, T.; Suire, C.; Suleymanov, M.; Suljic, M.; Sultanov, R.; Šumbera, M.; Symons, T. J. M.; Szabo, A.; Szanto de Toledo, A.; Szarka, I.; Szczepankiewicz, A.; Szymanski, M.; Tabassam, U.; Takahashi, J.; Tambave, G. J.; Tanaka, N.; Tangaro, M. A.; Tapia Takaki, J. D.; Tarantola Peloni, A.; Tarhini, M.; Tariq, M.; Tarzila, M. G.; Tauro, A.; Tejeda Muñoz, G.; Telesca, A.; Terasaki, K.; Terrevoli, C.; Teyssier, B.; Thäder, J.; Thomas, D.; Tieulent, R.; Timmins, A. R.; Toia, A.; Trogolo, S.; Trubnikov, V.; Trzaska, W. H.; Tsuji, T.; Tumkin, A.; Turrisi, R.; Tveter, T. S.; Ullaland, K.; Uras, A.; Usai, G. L.; Utrobicic, A.; Vajzer, M.; Valencia Palomo, L.; Vallero, S.; Van Der Maarel, J.; Van Hoorne, J. W.; van Leeuwen, M.; Vanat, T.; Vande Vyvre, P.; Varga, D.; Vargas, A.; Vargyas, M.; Varma, R.; Vasileiou, M.; Vasiliev, A.; Vauthier, A.; Vechernin, V.; Veen, A. M.; Veldhoen, M.; Velure, A.; Venaruzzo, M.; Vercellin, E.; Vergara Limón, S.; Vernet, R.; Verweij, M.; Vickovic, L.; Viesti, G.; Viinikainen, J.; Vilakazi, Z.; Villalobos Baillie, O.; Villatoro Tello, A.; Vinogradov, A.; Vinogradov, L.; Vinogradov, Y.; Virgili, T.; Vislavicius, V.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vodopyanov, A.; Völkl, M. A.; Voloshin, K.; Voloshin, S. A.; Volpe, G.; von Haller, B.; Vorobyev, I.; Vranic, D.; Vrláková, J.; Vulpescu, B.; Vyushin, A.; Wagner, B.; Wagner, J.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Watanabe, D.; Watanabe, Y.; Weber, M.; Weber, S. G.; Wessels, J. P.; Westerhoff, U.; Wiechula, J.; Wikne, J.; Wilde, M.; Wilk, G.; Wilkinson, J.; Williams, M. C. S.; Windelband, B.; Winn, M.; Yaldo, C. G.; Yang, H.; Yang, P.; Yano, S.; Yin, Z.; Yokoyama, H.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yurchenko, V.; Yushmanov, I.; Zaborowska, A.; Zaccolo, V.; Zaman, A.; Zampolli, C.; Zanoli, H. J. C.; Zaporozhets, S.; Zardoshti, N.; Zarochentsev, A.; Závada, P.; Zaviyalov, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zgura, I. S.; Zhalov, M.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, C.; Zhigareva, N.; Zhou, D.; Zhou, Y.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, A.; Zimmermann, M. B.; Zinovjev, G.; Zyzak, M.

    2016-02-01

    The elliptic flow, v2, of muons from heavy-flavour hadron decays at forward rapidity (2.5 < y < 4) is measured in Pb-Pb collisions at √{sNN} = 2.76 TeV with the ALICE detector at the LHC. The scalar product, two- and four-particle Q cumulants and Lee-Yang zeros methods are used. The dependence of the v2 of muons from heavy-flavour hadron decays on the collision centrality, in the range 0-40%, and on transverse momentum, pT, is studied in the interval 3

  11. Modulated Elliptical Slot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abou-Khousa, M. A.

    2009-01-01

    A novel modulated slot design has been proposed and tested. The proposed slot is aimed to replace the inefficient small dipoles used in conventional MST-based imaging systems. The developed slot is very attractive as MST array element due to its small size and high efficiency/modulation depth. In fact, the developed slot has been successfully used to implement the first prototype of a microwave camera operating at 24 GHZ. It is also being used in the design of the second generation of the camera. Finally, the designed elliptical slot can be used as an electronically controlled waveguide iris for many other purposes (for instance in constructing waveguide reflective phase shifters and multiplexers/switches).

  12. Neutron proton crystallography station (PCS)

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Zoe; Kovalevsky, Andrey; Johnson, Hannah; Mustyakimov, Marat

    2009-01-01

    The PCS (Protein Crystallography Station) at Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is a unique facility in the USA that is designed and optimized for detecting and collecting neutron diffraction data from macromolecular crystals. PCS utilizes the 20 Hz spallation neutron source at LANSCE to enable time-of-flight measurements using 0.6-7.0 {angstrom} neutrons. This increases the neutron flux on the sample by using a wavelength range that is optimal for studying macromolecular crystal structures. The diagram below show a schematic of PCS and photos of the detector and instrument cave.

  13. Polar rotation angle identifies elliptic islands in unsteady dynamical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farazmand, Mohammad; Haller, George

    2016-02-01

    We propose rotation inferred from the polar decomposition of the flow gradient as a diagnostic for elliptic (or vortex-type) invariant regions in non-autonomous dynamical systems. We consider here two- and three-dimensional systems, in which polar rotation can be characterized by a single angle. For this polar rotation angle (PRA), we derive explicit formulas using the singular values and vectors of the flow gradient. We find that closed level sets of the PRA reveal elliptic islands in great detail, and singular level sets of the PRA uncover centers of such islands. Both features turn out to be objective (frame-invariant) for two-dimensional systems. We illustrate the diagnostic power of PRA for elliptic structures on several examples.

  14. Dwarf elliptical galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Henry C.; Binggeli, Bruno

    1994-01-01

    Dwarf elliptical (dE) galaxies, with blue absolute magnitudes typically fainter than M(sub B) = -16, are the most numerous type of galaxy in the nearby universe. Tremendous advances have been made over the past several years in delineating the properties of both Local Group satellite dE's and the large dE populations of nearby clusters. We review some of these advances, with particular attention to how well currently availiable data can constrain (a) models for the formation of dE's, (b) the physical and evolutionary connections between different types of galaxies that overlap in the same portion of the mass-spectrum of galaxies, (c) the contribution of dE's to the galaxy luminosity functions in clusters and the field, (d) the star-forming histories of dE's and their possible contribution to faint galaxy counts, and (e) the clustering properties of dE's. In addressing these issues, we highlight the extent to which selection effects temper these constraints, and outline areas where new data would be particularly valuable.

  15. Numerical calculations of flow fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D.; Vogel, J. M.

    1973-01-01

    Numerical calculations were made of flow fields generated by various aerodynamic configurations. Data cover flow fields generated by a finitely thick lifting three dimensional wing with subsonic tips moving at supersonic speeds, cross flow instability associated with lifting delta wing configurations such as space shuttles, and flow fields produced by a lifting elliptic cone. Finite difference techniques were used to determine elliptic cone flow.

  16. Heavy-quark production and elliptic flow in Au+Au collisions at √sNN=62.4 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Adare, A.

    2015-04-28

    In this study, we present measurements of electrons and positrons from the semileptonic decays of heavy-flavor hadrons at midrapidity (|y|< 0.35) in Au+Au collisions at √sNN = 62.4 GeV. The data were collected in 2010 by the PHENIX experiment that included the new hadron-blind detector. The invariant yield of electrons from heavy-flavor decays is measured as a function of transverse momentum in the range 1 < peT < 5 GeV/c. The invariant yield per binary collision is slightly enhanced above the p+p reference in Au+Au 0%–20%, 20%–40%, and 40%–60% centralities at a comparable level. At this low beam energy this may be a result of the interplay between initial-state Cronin effects, final-state flow, and energy loss in medium. The v₂ of electrons from heavy-flavor decays is nonzero when averaged between 1.3 < peT < 2.5 GeV/c for 0%–40% centrality collisions at √sNN = 62.4 GeV. For 20%–40% centrality collisions, the v₂ at √sNN = 62.4 GeV is smaller than that for heavy-flavor decays at √sNN = 200 GeV. The v₂ of the electrons from heavy-flavor decay at the lower beam energy is also smaller than v₂ for pions. Both results indicate that the heavy-quarks interact with the medium formed in these collisions, but they may not be at the same level of thermalization with the medium as observed at √sNN = 200 GeV.

  17. Heavy-quark production and elliptic flow in Au+Au collisions at √sNN=62.4 GeV

    DOE PAGES

    Adare, A.

    2015-04-28

    In this study, we present measurements of electrons and positrons from the semileptonic decays of heavy-flavor hadrons at midrapidity (|y|< 0.35) in Au+Au collisions at √sNN = 62.4 GeV. The data were collected in 2010 by the PHENIX experiment that included the new hadron-blind detector. The invariant yield of electrons from heavy-flavor decays is measured as a function of transverse momentum in the range 1 < peT < 5 GeV/c. The invariant yield per binary collision is slightly enhanced above the p+p reference in Au+Au 0%–20%, 20%–40%, and 40%–60% centralities at a comparable level. At this low beam energy thismore » may be a result of the interplay between initial-state Cronin effects, final-state flow, and energy loss in medium. The v₂ of electrons from heavy-flavor decays is nonzero when averaged between 1.3 < peT < 2.5 GeV/c for 0%–40% centrality collisions at √sNN = 62.4 GeV. For 20%–40% centrality collisions, the v₂ at √sNN = 62.4 GeV is smaller than that for heavy-flavor decays at √sNN = 200 GeV. The v₂ of the electrons from heavy-flavor decay at the lower beam energy is also smaller than v₂ for pions. Both results indicate that the heavy-quarks interact with the medium formed in these collisions, but they may not be at the same level of thermalization with the medium as observed at √sNN = 200 GeV.« less

  18. Heavy-quark production and elliptic flow in Au + Au collisions at √{sN N}=62.4 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adare, A.; Aidala, C.; Ajitanand, N. N.; Akiba, Y.; Akimoto, R.; Al-Ta'Ani, H.; Alexander, J.; Angerami, A.; Aoki, K.; Apadula, N.; Aramaki, Y.; Asano, H.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Atomssa, E. T.; Awes, T. C.; Azmoun, B.; Babintsev, V.; Bai, M.; Bannier, B.; Barish, K. N.; Bassalleck, B.; Bathe, S.; Baublis, V.; Baumgart, S.; Bazilevsky, A.; Belmont, R.; Berdnikov, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Bing, X.; Blau, D. S.; Bok, J. S.; Boyle, K.; Brooks, M. L.; Buesching, H.; Bumazhnov, V.; Butsyk, S.; Campbell, S.; Castera, P.; Chen, C.-H.; Chi, C. Y.; Chiu, M.; Choi, I. J.; Choi, J. B.; Choi, S.; Choudhury, R. K.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chvala, O.; Cianciolo, V.; Citron, Z.; Cole, B. A.; Connors, M.; Csanád, M.; Csörgő, T.; Dairaku, S.; Datta, A.; Daugherity, M. S.; David, G.; Denisov, A.; Deshpande, A.; Desmond, E. J.; Dharmawardane, K. V.; Dietzsch, O.; Ding, L.; Dion, A.; Donadelli, M.; Drapier, O.; Drees, A.; Drees, K. A.; Durham, J. M.; Durum, A.; D'Orazio, L.; Edwards, S.; Efremenko, Y. V.; Engelmore, T.; Enokizono, A.; Esumi, S.; Eyser, K. O.; Fadem, B.; Fields, D. E.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Fleuret, F.; Fokin, S. L.; Frantz, J. E.; Franz, A.; Frawley, A. D.; Fukao, Y.; Fusayasu, T.; Gainey, K.; Gal, C.; Garishvili, A.; Garishvili, I.; Glenn, A.; Gong, X.; Gonin, M.; Goto, Y.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Grau, N.; Greene, S. V.; Grosse Perdekamp, M.; Gunji, T.; Guo, L.; Gustafsson, H.-Å.; Hachiya, T.; Haggerty, J. S.; Hahn, K. I.; Hamagaki, H.; Hanks, J.; Hashimoto, K.; Haslum, E.; Hayano, R.; He, X.; Hemmick, T. K.; Hester, T.; Hill, J. C.; Hollis, R. S.; Homma, K.; Hong, B.; Horaguchi, T.; Hori, Y.; Huang, S.; Ichihara, T.; Iinuma, H.; Ikeda, Y.; Imrek, J.; Inaba, M.; Iordanova, A.; Isenhower, D.; Issah, M.; Ivanishchev, D.; Jacak, B. V.; Javani, M.; Jia, J.; Jiang, X.; Johnson, B. M.; Joo, K. S.; Jouan, D.; Jumper, D. S.; Kamin, J.; Kaneti, S.; Kang, B. H.; Kang, J. H.; Kang, J. S.; Kapustinsky, J.; Karatsu, K.; Kasai, M.; Kawall, D.; Kazantsev, A. V.; Kempel, T.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kijima, K. M.; Kim, B. I.; Kim, C.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, E.-J.; Kim, H. J.; Kim, K.-B.; Kim, Y.-J.; Kim, Y. K.; Kinney, E.; Kiss, Á.; Kistenev, E.; Klatsky, J.; Kleinjan, D.; Kline, P.; Komatsu, Y.; Komkov, B.; Koster, J.; Kotchetkov, D.; Kotov, D.; Král, A.; Krizek, F.; Kunde, G. J.; Kurita, K.; Kurosawa, M.; Kwon, Y.; Kyle, G. S.; Lacey, R.; Lai, Y. S.; Lajoie, J. G.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, B.; Lee, D. M.; Lee, J.; Lee, K. B.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, S. H.; Lee, S. R.; Leitch, M. J.; Leite, M. A. L.; Leitgab, M.; Lewis, B.; Lim, S. H.; Linden Levy, L. A.; Liu, M. X.; Love, B.; Maguire, C. F.; Makdisi, Y. I.; Makek, M.; Manion, A.; Manko, V. I.; Mannel, E.; Masumoto, S.; McCumber, M.; McGaughey, P. L.; McGlinchey, D.; McKinney, C.; Mendoza, M.; Meredith, B.; Miake, Y.; Mibe, T.; Mignerey, A. C.; Milov, A.; Mishra, D. K.; Mitchell, J. T.; Miyachi, Y.; Miyasaka, S.; Mohanty, A. K.; Moon, H. J.; Morrison, D. P.; Motschwiller, S.; Moukhanova, T. V.; Murakami, T.; Murata, J.; Nagae, T.; Nagamiya, S.; Nagle, J. L.; Nagy, M. I.; Nakagawa, I.; Nakamiya, Y.; Nakamura, K. R.; Nakamura, T.; Nakano, K.; Nattrass, C.; Nederlof, A.; Nihashi, M.; Nouicer, R.; Novitzky, N.; Nyanin, A. S.; O'Brien, E.; Ogilvie, C. A.; Okada, K.; Oskarsson, A.; Ouchida, M.; Ozawa, K.; Pak, R.; Pantuev, V.; Papavassiliou, V.; Park, B. H.; Park, I. H.; Park, S. K.; Pate, S. F.; Patel, L.; Pei, H.; Peng, J.-C.; Pereira, H.; Peressounko, D. Yu.; Petti, R.; Pinkenburg, C.; Pisani, R. P.; Proissl, M.; Purschke, M. L.; Qu, H.; Rak, J.; Ravinovich, I.; Read, K. F.; Reynolds, D.; Riabov, V.; Riabov, Y.; Richardson, E.; Riveli, N.; Roach, D.; Roche, G.; Rolnick, S. D.; Rosati, M.; Sahlmueller, B.; Saito, N.; Sakaguchi, T.; Samsonov, V.; Sano, M.; Sarsour, M.; Sawada, S.; Sedgwick, K.; Seidl, R.; Sen, A.; Seto, R.; Sharma, D.; Shein, I.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shigaki, K.; Shimomura, M.; Shoji, K.; Shukla, P.; Sickles, A.; Silva, C. L.; Silvermyr, D.; Sim, K. S.; Singh, B. K.; Singh, C. P.; Singh, V.; Slunečka, M.; Soltz, R. A.; Sondheim, W. E.; Sorensen, S. P.; Soumya, M.; Sourikova, I. V.; Stankus, P. W.; Stenlund, E.; Stepanov, M.; Ster, A.; Stoll, S. P.; Sugitate, T.; Sukhanov, A.; Sun, J.; Sziklai, J.; Takagui, E. M.; Takahara, A.; Taketani, A.; Tanaka, Y.; Taneja, S.; Tanida, K.; Tannenbaum, M. J.; Tarafdar, S.; Taranenko, A.; Tennant, E.; Themann, H.; Todoroki, T.; Tomášek, L.; Tomášek, M.; Torii, H.; Towell, R. S.; Tserruya, I.; Tsuchimoto, Y.; Tsuji, T.; Vale, C.; van Hecke, H. W.; Vargyas, M.; Vazquez-Zambrano, E.; Veicht, A.; Velkovska, J.; Vértesi, R.; Virius, M.; Vossen, A.; Vrba, V.; Vznuzdaev, E.; Wang, X. R.; Watanabe, D.; Watanabe, K.; Watanabe, Y.; Watanabe, Y. S.; Wei, F.; Wei, R.; Whitaker, S.; White, S. N.; Winter, D.; Wolin, S.; Woody, C. L.; Wysocki, M.; Yamaguchi, Y. L.; Yang, R.

    2015-04-01

    We present measurements of electrons and positrons from the semileptonic decays of heavy-flavor hadrons at midrapidity (|y |< 0.35) in Au +Au collisions at √{sN N}=62.4 GeV. The data were collected in 2010 by the PHENIX experiment that included the new hadron-blind detector. The invariant yield of electrons from heavy-flavor decays is measured as a function of transverse momentum in the range 1 flow, and energy loss in medium. The v2 of electrons from heavy-flavor decays is nonzero when averaged between 1.3

  19. Image Ellipticity from Atmospheric Aberrations

    SciTech Connect

    de Vries, W H; Olivier, S S; Asztalos, S J; Rosenberg, L J; Baker, K L

    2007-03-06

    We investigate the ellipticity of the point-spread function (PSF) produced by imaging an unresolved source with a telescope, subject to the effects of atmospheric turbulence. It is important to quantify these effects in order to understand the errors in shape measurements of astronomical objects, such as those used to study weak gravitational lensing of field galaxies. The PSF modeling involves either a Fourier transform of the phase information in the pupil plane or a ray-tracing approach, which has the advantage of requiring fewer computations than the Fourier transform. Using a standard method, involving the Gaussian weighted second moments of intensity, we then calculate the ellipticity of the PSF patterns. We find significant ellipticity for the instantaneous patterns (up to more than 10%). Longer exposures, which we approximate by combining multiple (N) images from uncorrelated atmospheric realizations, yield progressively lower ellipticity (as 1/{radical}N). We also verify that the measured ellipticity does not depend on the sampling interval in the pupil plane using the Fourier method. However, we find that the results using the ray-tracing technique do depend on the pupil sampling interval, representing a gradual breakdown of the geometric approximation at high spatial frequencies. Therefore, ray tracing is generally not an accurate method of modeling PSF ellipticity induced by atmospheric turbulence unless some additional procedure is implemented to correctly account for the effects of high spatial frequency aberrations. The Fourier method, however, can be used directly to accurately model PSF ellipticity, which can give insights into errors in the statistics of field galaxy shapes used in studies of weak gravitational lensing.

  20. Dust and Ionized Gas in Elliptical Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goudfrooij, Paul

    1995-05-01

    stellar component in the centre (assuming trailing spiral arms). These findings are clear signatures of an acquisition of a companion galaxy. The radial emission-line intensity profile peaks much more strongly towards the centre than the stellar light profile does, suggesting a powerful nuclear ionization source. In Chapter 2 we present deep surface photometry of NGC 1275, the central dominant galaxy of the Perseus cluster. This peculiar galaxy features two distinct filamentary systems, 3000 km s^-1 apart in velocity space. The "host"-galaxy NGC 1275 is associated with the low-velocity system, whereas the nature of the high-velocity system is still controversial. We find that prominent dust absorption features of NGC 1275 have the same distribution on the sky as the high-velocity system of ionized gas. Hence, the dust patches are most probably associated with the high-velocity system. However, our analysis of the extinction properties of the dust patches shows that the dust is well within NGC 1275, implying that the high-velocity system has moved approximately halfway through NGC 1275. We have also found many blue star clusters in our images of NGC 1275, for which we discuss the origin and nature by comparing colour-magnitude diagrams with theoretical population models. We suggest that the blue star clusters have been formed in a cooling flow in the central part of the X-ray-emitting gas of the Perseus cluster of galaxies. Chapter 3 presents the CCD broad-band photometry of the sample ellipticals. Radial profiles of the surface brightness, colours, and characteristics of the detailed isophotal shape are derived. In addition, we show that fitting power-laws to the outer radial intensity profiles of elliptical galaxies is an excellent tool for determining the sky background for CCD photometry. Chapter 4 presents colour-index images and narrow-band images of the H-alpha+[N II]-emitting gas to derive the distribution and amount of dust and ionized gas for the sample

  1. Triton-{sup 3}He relative and differential flows as probes of the nuclear symmetry energy at supra-saturation densities

    SciTech Connect

    Yong Gaochan; Li Baoan; Chen Liewen; Zhang Xunchao

    2009-10-15

    Using a transport model coupled with a phase-space coalescence afterburner, we study the triton-{sup 3}He (t-{sup 3}He) ratio with both relative and differential transverse flows in semicentral {sup 132}Sn+{sup 124}Sn reactions at a beam energy of 400 MeV/nucleon. The neutron-proton ratios with relative and differential flows are also discussed as a reference. We find that similar to the neutron-proton pairs, the t-{sup 3}He pairs also carry interesting information regarding the density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy. Moreover, the nuclear symmetry energy affects more strongly the t-{sup 3}He relative and differential flows than the {pi}{sup -}/{pi}{sup +} ratio in the same reaction. The t-{sup 3}He relative flow can be used as a particularly powerful probe of the high-density behavior of the nuclear symmetry energy.

  2. Elliptical flux vortices in YBa2Cu3O7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickman, H.; Dekker, A. J.; Chen, T. M.

    1991-01-01

    The most energetically favorable vortex in YBa2Cu3O7 forms perpendicular to an anisotropic plane. This vortex is elliptical in shape and is distinguished by an effective interchange of London penetration depths from one axis of the ellipse to another. By generalizing qualitatively from the isotropic to the anisotropic case, we suggest that the flux flow resistivity for the vortex that forms perpendicular to an anistropic plane should have a preferred direction. Similar reasoning indicates that the Kosterlitz-Thouless transition temperature for a vortex mediated transition should be lower if the vortex is elliptical in shape.

  3. Evolution of a barotropic shear layer into elliptical vortices.

    PubMed

    Guha, Anirban; Rahmani, Mona; Lawrence, Gregory A

    2013-01-01

    When a barotropic shear layer becomes unstable, it produces the well-known Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI). The nonlinear manifestation of the KHI is usually in the form of spiral billows. However, a piecewise linear shear layer produces a different type of KHI characterized by elliptical vortices of constant vorticity connected via thin braids. Using direct numerical simulation and contour dynamics, we show that the interaction between two counterpropagating vorticity waves is solely responsible for this KHI formation. We investigate the oscillation of the vorticity wave amplitude, the rotation and nutation of the elliptical vortex, and straining of the braids. Our analysis also provides a possible explanation for the formation and evolution of elliptical vortices appearing in geophysical and astrophysical flows, e.g., meddies, stratospheric polar vortices, Jovian vortices, Neptune's Great Dark Spot, and coherent vortices in the wind belts of Uranus.

  4. Elliptic jets, part 2. Dynamics of coherent structures: Pairing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Husain, Hyder S.; Hussain, Fazle

    1992-01-01

    The dynamics of the jet column mode of vortex pairing in the near field of an elliptic jet was investigated. Hot-wire measurements and flow visualization were used to examine the details of the pairing mechanism of nonplanar vortical elliptic structures and its effect on such turbulence measures as coherent velocities, incoherent turbulence intensities, incoherent and coherent Reynolds, stresses, turbulence production, and mass entrainment. It was found that pairing of elliptic vortices in the jet column does not occur uniformly around the entire perimeter, unlike in a circular jet. Merger occurs only in the initial major-axis plane. In the initial minor-axis plane, the trailing vortex rushes through the leading vortex without pairing and then breaks down violently, producing considerably greater entrainment and mixing than in circular or plane jets.

  5. Magnetic field induced by elliptical instability in a rotating spheroid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacaze, L.; Herreman, W.; Le Bars, M.; Le Dizès, S.; Le Gal, P.

    2006-10-01

    The tidal or the elliptical instability of the rotating fluid flows is generated by the resonant interaction of the inertial waves. In a slightly elliptically deformed rotating sphere, the most unstable linear mode is called the spin-over mode, and is a solid body rotation versus an axis aligned with the maximum strain direction. In the non-viscous case, this instability corresponds to the median moment of the inertial instability of the solid rotating bodies. This analogy is furthermore illustrated by an elliptical top experiment, which shows the expected inviscid heteroclinic behaviour. In geophysics, the elliptical instability may appear in the molten liquid cores of the rotating planets, which are slightly deformed by the tidal gravitational effects of the close bodies. It may then participate in the general outer core dynamics and possibly the geodynamo process. In this context, Kerswell and Malkus (Kerswell, R.R. and Malkus, W.V.R., Tidal instability as the source for Io's magnetic signature. Geophys. Res. Lett., 1998, 25, 603 606) showed that the puzzling magnetic field of the Jovian satellite Io may indeed be induced by the elliptically unstable motions of its liquid core that deflect the Jupiter's magnetic field. Our magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) experiment is a toy-experiment of this geophysical situation and demonstrates for the first time the possibility of an induction of a magnetic field by the flow motions due to the elliptical instability. A full analytical calculation of the magnetic dipole induced by the spin-over is presented. Finally, exponential growths of this induced magnetic field in a slightly deformed rotating sphere filled with galinstan liquid metal are measured for different rotating rates. Their growth rates compare well with the theoretical predictions in the limit of a vanishing Lorentz force.

  6. Energy and the Elliptical Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nettles, Bill

    2009-03-01

    In the January 2007 issue of The Physics Teacher, Prentis, Fulton, Hesse, and Mazzino describe a laboratory exercise in which students use a geometrical analysis inspired by Newton to show that an elliptical orbit and an inverse-square law force go hand in hand. The historical, geometrical, and teamwork aspects of the exercise are useful and important. This paper presents an exercise which uses an energy/angular momentum conservation model for elliptical orbits. This exercise can be done easily by an individual student and on regular notebook-sized paper.

  7. Fourier Series and Elliptic Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, Temple H.

    2003-01-01

    Non-linear second-order differential equations whose solutions are the elliptic functions "sn"("t, k"), "cn"("t, k") and "dn"("t, k") are investigated. Using "Mathematica", high precision numerical solutions are generated. From these data, Fourier coefficients are determined yielding approximate formulas for these non-elementary functions that are…

  8. The ESS elliptical cavity cryomodules

    SciTech Connect

    Darve, Christine; Bosland, Pierre; Devanz, Guillaume; Renard, Bertrand; Olivier, Gilles; Thermeau, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-29

    The European Spallation Source (ESS) is a multi-disciplinary research centre under design and construction in Lund, Sweden. This new facility is funded by a collaboration of 17 European countries and is expected to be up to 30 times brighter than today’s leading facilities and neutron sources. The ESS will enable new opportunities for researchers in the fields of life sciences, energy, environmental technology, cultural heritage and fundamental physics. A 5 MW long pulse proton accelerator is used to reach this goal. The pulsed length is 2.86 ms, the repetition frequency is 14 Hz (4 % duty cycle), and the beam current is 62.5 mA. The superconducting section of the Linac accelerates the beam from 80 MeV to 2.0 GeV. It is composed of one string of spoke cavity cryomodule and two strings of elliptical cavity cryomodules. These cryomodules contain four elliptical Niobium cavities operating at 2 K and at a frequency of 704.42 MHz. This paper introduces the thermo-mechanical design, the prototyping and the expected operation of the ESS elliptical cavity cryomodules. An Elliptical Cavity Cryomodule Technology Demonstrator (ECCTD) will be built and tested in order to validate the ESS series production.

  9. Energy and the Elliptical Orbit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nettles, Bill

    2009-01-01

    In the January 2007 issue of "The Physics Teacher," Prentis, Fulton, Hesse, and Mazzino describe a laboratory exercise in which students use a geometrical analysis inspired by Newton to show that an elliptical orbit and an inverse-square law force go hand in hand. The historical, geometrical, and teamwork aspects of the exercise are useful and…

  10. Wavelength meter having elliptical wedge

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, R.P.; Feldman, M.

    1992-12-01

    A wavelength meter is disclosed which can determine the wavelength of a laser beam from a laser source within an accuracy range of two parts in 10[sup 8]. The wavelength meter has wedge having an elliptically shaped face to the optical path of the laser source and includes interferometer plates which form a vacuum housing. 7 figs.

  11. Wavelength meter having elliptical wedge

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, Richard P.; Feldman, Mark

    1992-01-01

    A wavelength meter is disclosed which can determine the wavelength of a laser beam from a laser source within an accuracy range of two parts in 10.sup.8. The wavelength meter has wedge having an elliptically shaped face to the optical path of the laser source and includes interferometer plates which form a vacuum housing.

  12. Deep convection in elliptical and polygonal eyewalls of tropical cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Hung-Chi; Cheng, Wei-Yi; Yang, Yi-Ting; Hendricks, Eric A.; Peng, Melinda S.

    2016-12-01

    In observations, tropical cyclones with cyclonically rotating elliptical eyewalls are often characterized by wave number 2 (WN2) deep convection located at the edge of the major axis. A simple modeling framework is used to understand this phenomenon, where a nondivergent barotropic model (NBM) is employed to represent the elliptical vortex in the free atmosphere, and an asymmetric slab boundary layer (SBL) model is used to simulate the frictional boundary layer (BL) underneath the free atmosphere. The interaction is one way in that the overlying cyclonic flow drives the BL, but the BL pumping does not feed back to the overlying flow. The nonlinear-balanced pressure field from the NBM drives the winds in the SBL model, which then causes BL convergence and pumping near the eyewall. The strong updrafts at the edge of the major axis for the elliptic vortex in the BL are induced by the larger convergent radial wind from the asymmetric distribution of the pressure fields of the free atmosphere with noncircular vortex. The large radial inflow maintains the supergradient wind at the edge of the elliptical vortex. The results emphasize the cyclonic rotation of the WN2 feature of strong updrafts at the top of the BL from the local shock-like BL radial wind structure. Similar radial profiles and strong BL top updrafts occur at the edges of higher-order polygonal eyewalls with the magnitude of the peak updraft decreasing as the wave number structure of the vortex increases.

  13. Splitting of Forced Elliptic Jets and Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hertzberg, J.; Carlton, J.; Schwieterman, M.; Davis, E.; Bradley, E.; Linne, M.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this work is to understand the fluid dynamics in the interaction of large scale, three-dimensional vortex structures and transitional diffusion flames in a microgravity environment. The vortex structures are used to provide a known perturbation of the type used in passive and active shear layer control techniques. 'Passive techniques' refers to manipulation of the system geometry to influence the three dimensional dynamics of vortex structures, and 'active' refers to any technique which adds energy (acoustic or kinetic) to the flow to influence the shear layer vortex dynamics. In this work the passive forcing is provided by an elliptic jet cross-section, and the active forcing is incorporated by perturbing the jet velocity using a loudspeaker in the plenum section.

  14. Hydroforming of elliptical cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, W.; Singer, X.; Jelezov, I.; Kneisel, P.

    2015-02-01

    Activities of the past several years in developing the technique of forming seamless (weldless) cavity cells by hydroforming are summarized. An overview of the technique developed at DESY for the fabrication of single cells and multicells of the TESLA cavity shape is given and the major rf results are presented. The forming is performed by expanding a seamless tube with internal water pressure while simultaneously swaging it axially. Prior to the expansion the tube is necked at the iris area and at the ends. Tube radii and axial displacements are computer controlled during the forming process in accordance with results of finite element method simulations for necking and expansion using the experimentally obtained strain-stress relationship of tube material. In cooperation with industry different methods of niobium seamless tube production have been explored. The most appropriate and successful method is a combination of spinning or deep drawing with flow forming. Several single-cell niobium cavities of the 1.3 GHz TESLA shape were produced by hydroforming. They reached accelerating gradients Eacc up to 35 MV /m after buffered chemical polishing (BCP) and up to 42 MV /m after electropolishing (EP). More recent work concentrated on fabrication and testing of multicell and nine-cell cavities. Several seamless two- and three-cell units were explored. Accelerating gradients Eacc of 30 - 35 MV /m were measured after BCP and Eacc up to 40 MV /m were reached after EP. Nine-cell niobium cavities combining three three-cell units were completed at the company E. Zanon. These cavities reached accelerating gradients of Eacc=30 - 35 MV /m . One cavity is successfully integrated in an XFEL cryomodule and is used in the operation of the FLASH linear accelerator at DESY. Additionally the fabrication of bimetallic single-cell and multicell NbCu cavities by hydroforming was successfully developed. Several NbCu clad single-cell and double-cell cavities of the TESLA shape have been

  15. Hydroforming of elliptical cavities

    DOE PAGES

    Singer, W.; Singer, X.; Jelezov, I.; ...

    2015-02-27

    Activities of the past several years in developing the technique of forming seamless (weldless) cavity cells by hydroforming are summarized. An overview of the technique developed at DESY for the fabrication of single cells and multicells of the TESLA cavity shape is given and the major rf results are presented. The forming is performed by expanding a seamless tube with internal water pressure while simultaneously swaging it axially. Prior to the expansion the tube is necked at the iris area and at the ends. Tube radii and axial displacements are computer controlled during the forming process in accordance with resultsmore » of finite element method simulations for necking and expansion using the experimentally obtained strain-stress relationship of tube material. In cooperation with industry different methods of niobium seamless tube production have been explored. The most appropriate and successful method is a combination of spinning or deep drawing with flow forming. Several single-cell niobium cavities of the 1.3 GHz TESLA shape were produced by hydroforming. They reached accelerating gradients Eacc up to 35 MV/m after buffered chemical polishing (BCP) and up to 42 MV/m after electropolishing (EP). More recent work concentrated on fabrication and testing of multicell and nine-cell cavities. Several seamless two- and three-cell units were explored. Accelerating gradients Eacc of 30–35 MV/m were measured after BCP and Eacc up to 40 MV/m were reached after EP. Nine-cell niobium cavities combining three three-cell units were completed at the company E. Zanon. These cavities reached accelerating gradients of Eacc = 30–35 MV/m. One cavity is successfully integrated in an XFEL cryomodule and is used in the operation of the FLASH linear accelerator at DESY. Additionally the fabrication of bimetallic single-cell and multicell NbCu cavities by hydroforming was successfully developed. Several NbCu clad single-cell and double-cell cavities of the TESLA shape have

  16. Hydroforming of elliptical cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, W.; Singer, X.; Jelezov, I.; Kneisel, Peter

    2015-02-27

    Activities of the past several years in developing the technique of forming seamless (weldless) cavity cells by hydroforming are summarized. An overview of the technique developed at DESY for the fabrication of single cells and multicells of the TESLA cavity shape is given and the major rf results are presented. The forming is performed by expanding a seamless tube with internal water pressure while simultaneously swaging it axially. Prior to the expansion the tube is necked at the iris area and at the ends. Tube radii and axial displacements are computer controlled during the forming process in accordance with results of finite element method simulations for necking and expansion using the experimentally obtained strain-stress relationship of tube material. In cooperation with industry different methods of niobium seamless tube production have been explored. The most appropriate and successful method is a combination of spinning or deep drawing with flow forming. Several single-cell niobium cavities of the 1.3 GHz TESLA shape were produced by hydroforming. They reached accelerating gradients Eacc up to 35 MV/m after buffered chemical polishing (BCP) and up to 42 MV/m after electropolishing (EP). More recent work concentrated on fabrication and testing of multicell and nine-cell cavities. Several seamless two- and three-cell units were explored. Accelerating gradients Eacc of 30–35 MV/m were measured after BCP and Eacc up to 40 MV/m were reached after EP. Nine-cell niobium cavities combining three three-cell units were completed at the company E. Zanon. These cavities reached accelerating gradients of Eacc = 30–35 MV/m. One cavity is successfully integrated in an XFEL cryomodule and is used in the operation of the FLASH linear accelerator at DESY. Additionally the fabrication of bimetallic single-cell and multicell NbCu cavities by hydroforming was successfully developed. Several NbCu clad single-cell and double

  17. Cold dust in elliptical galaxies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiklind, T.; Henkel, C.

    1995-05-01

    We have observed the λ1250 µm flux in 8 elliptical galaxies using the MPIfR 7-channel bolometer system attachet to the IRAM 30-m telescope. Five of the galaxies are detected at more than 3σ, two are tentatively detected and for one we obtained an upper limit. For two of the detected galaxies, the CO(2-1) line makes a significant contribution to the measured λ1250 µm flux. A comparison of the λ1250 µm fluxes, corrected for the CO(2-1) line contribution, with IRAS 60 and 100µm data shows that there is a colt dust component (Td~<20K) in two of the ellipticals. The other galaxies have λ1250 µm fluxes consistent with a one-temperature component, with Td typically between 20-30K.

  18. Counterrotating cores in elliptical galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcella, Marc Comas

    The dynamics of the merger between a high- and a low-elliptical galaxy was studied to understand how kinematically peculiar cores in elliptical galaxies might form. Numerical simulations of mergers provide rotation curves, surface density profiles, surface density contour plots and velocity maps of the merger remnants, as well as diagnostics on the dynamics such as phase-space diagrams. This type of merger can create counterrotating cores. The core of the smaller galaxy, of higher density, is not disrupted by the primary tidal field and sinks to the center of the primary as an independent dynamical subsystem. Core counterrotation occurs only when the initial merger orbit is retrograde with respect to the pin of the primary. The remnant has higher effective radius and lower mean central surface density than the primary galaxy, but a smaller core radius. The adsorption of orbital energy and angular momentum by the primary particles greatly modifies the kinematic structure of the larger galaxy. Twisted rotation axes and isophote twists appear over the whole body of the remnant. These diagnostics may be used to determine whether observed peculiar cores might have formed via an elliptical-elliptical merger. Galaxies with counterrotating cores should show a complex velocity field, isophotal irregularities, and, in general, a slow rotation in the main body of the galaxy. The present experiments are the first galaxy-satellite merger experiments involving an active, rotating secondary. They show that part of the orbital angular momentum is absorbed by the secondary, thus the secondary contributes to its own sinking: the sinking rate depends on the orientation of the secondary spin. Long-slit spectroscopic observations of NGC 3656 are reported.

  19. Fast methods incorporating direct elliptic solvers for nonlinear applications in fluid dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, E. D.

    1977-01-01

    Semidirect methods are discussed, their present role, as well as some developments for their application in computational fluid dynamics. A semidirect method is a computational scheme that uses a fast, direct, elliptic solver as the driving algorithm for the iterative solution of finite difference equations. Specific subtopics include: (1) direct Cauchy Riemann solvers for first order elliptic equations; (2) application of the semidirect method to the mixed elliptic hyperbolic problem of steady, inviscid transonic flow; and (3) the treatment of interior conditions, such as those on an airfoil or wing, in semidirect methods.

  20. Commutative Families of the Elliptic Macdonald Operator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Yosuke

    2014-03-01

    In the paper [J. Math. Phys. 50 (2009), 095215, 42 pages], Feigin, Hashizume, Hoshino, Shiraishi, and Yanagida constructed two families of commuting operators which contain the Macdonald operator (commutative families of the Macdonald operator). They used the Ding-Iohara-Miki algebra and the trigonometric Feigin-Odesskii algebra. In the previous paper [arXiv:1301.4912], the present author constructed the elliptic Ding-Iohara-Miki algebra and the free field realization of the elliptic Macdonald operator. In this paper, we show that by using the elliptic Ding-Iohara-Miki algebra and the elliptic Feigin-Odesskii algebra, we can construct commutative families of the elliptic Macdonald operator. In Appendix, we will show a relation between the elliptic Macdonald operator and its kernel function by the free field realization.

  1. Dark matter in elliptical galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carollo, C. M.; Zeeuw, P. T. DE; Marel, R. P. Van Der; Danziger, I. J.; Qian, E. E.

    1995-01-01

    We present measurements of the shape of the stellar line-of-sight velocity distribution out to two effective radii along the major axes of the four elliptical galaxies NGC 2434, 2663, 3706, and 5018. The velocity dispersion profiles are flat or decline gently with radius. We compare the data to the predictions of f = f(E, L(sub z)) axisymmetric models with and without dark matter. Strong tangential anisotropy is ruled out at large radii. We conclude from our measurements that massive dark halos must be present in three of the four galaxies, while for the fourth galaxy (NGC 2663) the case is inconclusive.

  2. Counterrotating Cores in Elliptical Galaxies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcells, Marc Comas

    The dynamics of the merger between a high- and a low-luminosity elliptical galaxy has been studied to understand how kinematically peculiar cores in elliptical galaxies might form. Numerical simulations of mergers provide rotation curves, surface density profiles, surface density contour plots and velocity maps of the merger remnants, as well as diagnostics on the dynamics such as phase-space diagrams. This type of merger can create counterrotating cores. The core of the smaller galaxy, of higher density, is not disrupted by the primary tidal field and sinks to the center of the primary as an independent dynamical subsystem. Core counterrotation occurs only when the initial merger orbit is retrograde with respect to the spin of the primary. The remnant has higher effective radius and lower mean central surface density than the primary galaxy, but a smaller core radius. The adsorption of orbital energy and angular momentum by the primary particles greatly modifies the kinematic structure of the larger galaxy. Twisted rotation axes and isophote twists appear over the whole body of the remnant. These diagnostics may be used to determine whether observed peculiar cores might have formed via an elliptical-elliptical merger. Galaxies with counterrotating cores should show a complex velocity field, isophotal irregularities, and, in general, a slow rotation in the main body of the galaxy. The present experiments are the first galaxy-satellite merger experiments involving an active, rotating secondary. They show that part of the orbital angular momentum is absorbed by the secondary, thus the secondary contributes to its own sinking: the sinking rate depends on the orientation of the secondary spin. Long-slit spectroscopic observations of NGC 3656 are reported. Rotation curves indicate that NGC 3656 contains a core spinning in a direction perpendicular to the rotation in the main body of the galaxy. Velocity reversals at intermediate radii are also observed. These features

  3. Advanced Light Source elliptical wiggler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyer, E.; Akre, J.; Humphries, D.; Marks, S.; Minamihara, Y.; Pipersky, P.; Plate, D.; Schlueter, R.

    1995-02-01

    A 3.5-m-long elliptical wiggler, optimized to produce elliptically polarized light in the 50 eV to 10 keV range, is currently under design and construction at the Advanced Light Source at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Calculations of spectral performance show that the flux of circularly polarized photons exceeds 1013 photons/s over the 50 eV to 10 keV operating range for current of 0.4 A and 1.5 GeV electron energy. This device features vertical and horizontal magnetic structures of 14 and 141/2 periods, respectively. The period length is 20.0 cm. The vertical structure is a hybrid permanent magnet design with tapered pole tips that produce a peak field of 2.0 T. The horizontal structure is an iron core electromagnetic design, shifted longitudinally 1/4 period, that is tucked between the upper and lower vertical magnetic structure sections. A maximum peak oscillating field of 0.095 T at a frequency up to 1 Hz will be achieved by excitation of the horizontal poles with a trapezoidal current waveform. The vacuum chamber is an unconventional design that is removable from the magnetic structure, after magnetic measurements, for UHV processing. The chamber is fabricated from non-magnetic stainless steel to minimize the effects of eddy currents. Device design is presented.

  4. Elliptic constructions of hyperkahler metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionas, Radu Aurelian

    In this dissertation we develop a twistor-theoretic method of constructing hyperkahler metrics from holomorphic functions and elliptic curves. We obtain, among other things, new results concerning the Atiyah-Hitchin manifold, asymptotically locally Euclidean spaces of type Dn and certain Swann bundles. For example, in the Atiyah-Hitchin case we derive in an explicit holomorphic coordinate basis closed-form formulas for the metric, the holomorphic symplectic form and all three Kahler potentials. The equation describing an asymptotically locally Euclidean space of type Dn is found to admit an algebraic formulation in terms of the group law on a Weierstrass cubic. This curve has the structure of a Cayley cubic for a pencil generated by two transversal plane conics, that is, it takes the form Y2 = det( A+XB ), where A and B are the defining 3 x 3 matrices of the conics. In this light, the equation can be interpreted as the closure condition for an elliptic billiard trajectory tangent to the conic B and bouncing into various conics of the pencil determined by the positions of the monopoles.

  5. Matrix factorizations and elliptic fibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omer, Harun

    2016-09-01

    I use matrix factorizations to describe branes at simple singularities of elliptic fibrations. Each node of the corresponding Dynkin diagrams of the ADE-type singularities is associated with one indecomposable matrix factorization which can be deformed into one or more factorizations of lower rank. Branes with internal fluxes arise naturally as bound states of the indecomposable factorizations. Describing branes in such a way avoids the need to resolve singularities. This paper looks at gauge group breaking from E8 fibers down to SU (5) fibers due to the relevance of such fibrations for local F-theory GUT models. A purpose of this paper is to understand how the deformations of the singularity are understood in terms of its matrix factorizations. By systematically factorizing the elliptic fiber equation, this paper discusses geometries which are relevant for building semi-realistic local models. In the process it becomes evident that breaking patterns which are identical at the level of the Kodaira type of the fibers can be inequivalent at the level of matrix factorizations. Therefore the matrix factorization picture supplements information which the conventional less detailed descriptions lack.

  6. Thermopile detector of light ellipticity

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Feng; Lee, Jongwon; Jiang, Aiting; Jung, Seungyong; Belkin, Mikhail A.

    2016-01-01

    Polarimetric imaging is widely used in applications from material analysis to biomedical diagnostics, vision and astronomy. The degree of circular polarization, or light ellipticity, is associated with the S3 Stokes parameter which is defined as the difference in the intensities of the left- and right-circularly polarized components of light. Traditional way of determining this parameter relies on using several external optical elements, such as polarizers and wave plates, along with conventional photodetectors, and performing at least two measurements to distinguish left- and right-circularly polarized light components. Here we theoretically propose and experimentally demonstrate a thermopile photodetector element that provides bipolar voltage output directly proportional to the S3 Stokes parameter of the incident light. PMID:27703152

  7. Elliptical orbit performance computer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myler, T. R.

    1981-01-01

    A FORTRAN coded computer program which generates and plots elliptical orbit performance capability of space boosters for presentation purposes is described. Orbital performance capability of space boosters is typically presented as payload weight as a function of perigee and apogee altitudes. The parameters are derived from a parametric computer simulation of the booster flight which yields the payload weight as a function of velocity and altitude at insertion. The process of converting from velocity and altitude to apogee and perigee altitude and plotting the results as a function of payload weight is mechanized with the ELOPE program. The program theory, user instruction, input/output definitions, subroutine descriptions and detailed FORTRAN coding information are included.

  8. Elliptic Functions with Disconnected Julia Sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koss, Lorelei

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we investigate elliptic functions of the form fΛ = 1/(1 + (℘Λ)2), where ℘Λ is the Weierstrass elliptic function on a real rhombic lattice. We show that a typical function in this family has a superattracting fixed point at the origin and five other equivalence classes of critical points. We investigate conditions on the lattice which guarantee that fΛ has a double toral band, and we show that this family contains the first known examples of elliptic functions for which the Julia set is disconnected but not Cantor.

  9. Stresses and deformations in elliptical contacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, B. J.

    1980-01-01

    Topics presented deal with defining conformal and nonconformal surfaces, curvature sum and difference, and surface and subsurface stresses in elliptical contacts. Load-deflection relationships for nonconformal contacts are developed. The deformation within the contact is, among other things, a function of the ellipticity parameter and elliptic integrals of the first and second kinds. Simplified expressions that allow quick calculations of the deformation to be made simply from a knowledge of the applied load, the material properties, and the geometry of the contacting elements are presented.

  10. Theory of the quadrature elliptic birdcage coil.

    PubMed

    Leifer, M C

    1997-11-01

    This paper presents the theory of the quadrature birdcage coil wound on an elliptic cylindrical former. A conformal transformation of the ellipse to a circular geometry is used to derive the optimal sampling of the continuous surface current distribution to produce uniform magnetic fields within an elliptic cylinder. The analysis is rigorous for ellipses of any aspect ratio and shows how to produce quadrature operation of the elliptic birdcage with a conventional hybrid combiner. Insight gained from the transformation is also used to analyze field homogeneity, find the optimal RF shield shape, and specify component values to produce the correct current distribution in practice. Measurements and images from a 16-leg elliptic birdcage coil at both low and high frequencies show good quadrature performance, homogeneity, and sensitivity.

  11. Elastohydrodynamic lubrication of elliptical contacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, B. J.

    1981-01-01

    The determination of the minimum film thickness within contact is considered for both fully flooded and starved conditions. A fully flooded conjunction is one in which the film thickness is not significantly changed when the amount of lubricant is increased. The fully flooded results presented show the influence of contact geometry on minimum film thickness as expressed by the ellipticity parameter and the dimensionless speed, load, and materials parameters. These results are applied to materials of high elastic modulus (hard EHL), such as metal, and to materials of low elastic modulus(soft EHL), such as rubber. In addition to the film thickness equations that are developed, contour plots of pressure and film thickness are given which show the essential features of elastohydrodynamically lubricated conjunctions. The crescent shaped region of minimum film thickness, with its side lobes in which the separation between the solids is a minimum, clearly emerges in the numerical solutions. In addition to the 3 presented for the fully flooded results, 15 more cases are used for hard EHL contacts and 18 cases are used for soft EHL contacts in a theoretical study of the influence of lubricant starvation on film thickness and pressure. From the starved results for both hard and soft EHL contacts, a simple and important dimensionless inlet boundary distance is specified. This inlet boundary distance defines whether a fully flooded or a starved condition exists in the contact. Contour plots of pressure and film thickness in and around the contact are shown for conditions.

  12. Elliptical billiards and hyperelliptic functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crespi, Bruno; Chang, Shau-Jin; Shi, Kang-Jie

    1993-06-01

    The geometrical properties of the elliptical billiard system are related to Poncelet's theorem. This theorem states that if a polygon is inscribed in a conic and circumscribed about a second conic, every point of the former conic is a vertex of a polygon with the same number of sides and the same perimeter. Chang and Friedberg have extended this theorem to three and higher dimensions. They have shown that the geometrical properties of the hyperelliptic billiard system are related to the algebraic character of a Poincaré map in the phase space. The geometrical and algebraic properties of the system can be understood in terms of the analytical structure of the equations of motion. These equations form a complete system of Abelian integrals. The integrability of the physical system is reflected by the topology of the Riemann surfaces associated to these integrals. The algebraic properties are connected with the existence of addition formulas for hyperelliptic functions. The main purpose of this study is to establish such a connection, and to provide an algebraic proof of Poncelet's theorem in three and higher dimensions.

  13. Pendulum, elliptic functions, and relative cohomology classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Françoise, J.-P.; Garrido, P. L.; Gallavotti, G.

    2010-03-01

    Revisiting canonical integration of the classical pendulum around its unstable equilibrium, normal hyperbolic canonical coordinates are constructed and an identity between elliptic functions is found whose proof can be based on symplectic geometry and global relative cohomology. Alternatively it can be reduced to a well known identity between elliptic functions. Normal canonical action-angle variables are also constructed around the stable equilibrium and a corresponding identity is exhibited.

  14. Kinematical and Dynamical Modeling of Elliptical Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamon, G. A.; Łokas, E.; Dekel, A.; Stoehr, F.; Cox, T. J.

    Elements of kinematical and dynamical modeling of elliptical galaxies are presented. In projection, NFW models resemble Sérsic models, but with a very narrow range of shapes (m=3±1). The total density profile of ellipticals cannot be NFW-like because the predicted local M/L and aperture velocity dispersion within an effective radius (R_e) are much lower than observed. Stars must then dominate ellipticals out to a few R_e. Fitting an NFW model to the total density profile of Sérsic+NFW (stars+dark matter [DM]) ellipticals results in very high concentration parameters, as found by X-ray observers. Kinematical modeling of ellipticals assuming an isotropic NFW DM model underestimates M/L at the virial radius by a factor of 1.6 to 2.4, because dissipationless ΛCDM halos have slightly different density profiles and slightly radial velocity anisotropy. In N-body+gas simulations of ellipticals as merger remnants of spirals embedded in DM halos, the slope of the DM density profile is steeper when the initial spiral galaxies are gas-rich. The Hansen & Moore (2006) relation between anisotropy and the slope of the density profile breaks down for gas and DM, but the stars follow an analogous relation with slightly less radial anisotropies for a given density slope. Using kurtosis (h_4) to infer anisotropy in ellipticals is dangerous, as h4 is also sensitive to small levels of rotation. The stationary Jeans equation provides accurate masses out to 8 R_e. The discrepancy between the modeling of Romanowsky et al. (2003), indicating a dearth of DM in ellipticals, and the simulations analyzed by Dekel et al. (2005), which match the spectroscopic observations of ellipticals, is partly due to radial anisotropy and to observing oblate ellipticals face-on. However, one of the 15 solutions to the orbit modeling of Romanowsky et al. is found to have an amount and concentration of DM consistent with ΛCDM predictions.

  15. Fabrication of elliptical SRF cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, W.

    2017-03-01

    The technological and metallurgical requirements of material for high-gradient superconducting cavities are described. High-purity niobium, as the preferred metal for the fabrication of superconducting accelerating cavities, should meet exact specifications. The content of interstitial impurities such as oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon must be below 10 μg g-1. The hydrogen content should be kept below 2 μg g-1 to prevent degradation of the quality factor (Q-value) under certain cool-down conditions. The material should be free of flaws (foreign material inclusions or cracks and laminations) that can initiate a thermal breakdown. Traditional and alternative cavity mechanical fabrication methods are reviewed. Conventionally, niobium cavities are fabricated from sheet niobium by the formation of half-cells by deep drawing, followed by trim machining and electron beam welding. The welding of half-cells is a delicate procedure, requiring intermediate cleaning steps and a careful choice of weld parameters to achieve full penetration of the joints. A challenge for a welded construction is the tight mechanical and electrical tolerances. These can be maintained by a combination of mechanical and radio-frequency measurements on half-cells and by careful tracking of weld shrinkage. The main aspects of quality assurance and quality management are mentioned. The experiences of 800 cavities produced for the European XFEL are presented. Another cavity fabrication approach is slicing discs from the ingot and producing cavities by deep drawing and electron beam welding. Accelerating gradients at the level of 35-45 MV m-1 can be achieved by applying electrochemical polishing treatment. The single-crystal option (grain boundary free) is discussed. It seems that in this case, high performance can be achieved by a simplified treatment procedure. Fabrication of the elliptical resonators from a seamless pipe as an alternative is briefly described. This technology has yielded good

  16. Ultraluminous Infrared Mergers: Elliptical Galaxies in Formation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genzel, R.; Tacconi, L. J.; Rigopoulou, D.; Lutz, D.; Tecza, M.

    2001-12-01

    We report high-quality near-IR spectroscopy of 12 ultraluminous infrared galaxy mergers (ULIRGs). Our new VLT and Keck data provide ~0.5" resolution, stellar and gas kinematics of these galaxies, most of which are compact systems in the last merger stages. We confirm that ULIRG mergers are ``ellipticals in formation.'' Random motions dominate their stellar dynamics, but significant rotation is common. Gasdynamics and stellar dynamics are decoupled in most systems. ULIRGs fall on or near the fundamental plane of hot stellar systems, and especially on its less evolution-sensitive, reff-σ projection. The ULIRG velocity dispersion distribution, their location in the fundamental plane, and their distribution of vrotsini/σ closely resemble those of intermediate-mass (~L*), elliptical galaxies with moderate rotation. As a group ULIRGs do not resemble giant ellipticals with large cores and little rotation. Our results are in good agreement with other recent studies indicating that disky ellipticals with compact cores or cusps can form through dissipative mergers of gas-rich disk galaxies while giant ellipticals with large cores have a different formation history. Based on observations at the European Southern Observatory, Chile (ESO 65.N-0266, 65.N-0289), and on observations at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, The University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Keck Observatory was made possible by the general financial support by the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  17. About the ellipticity of the Chebyshev-Gauss-Radau discrete Laplacian with Neumann condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trouette, B.; Delcarte, C.; Labrosse, G.

    2010-09-01

    The Chebyshev-Gauss-Radau discrete version of the polar-diffusion operator, {1}/{r}{∂}/{∂r}r{∂}/{∂r}-{k2}/{r2}, k being the azimuthal wave number, presents complex conjugate eigenvalues, with negative real parts, when it is associated with a Neumann boundary condition imposed at r = 1. It is shown that this ellipticity marginal violation of the original continuous problem is genuine and not due to some round-off error amplification. This situation, which does not lead per se to any particular computational difficulty, is taken here as an opportunity to numerically check the sensitivity of the quoted ellipticity to slight changes in the mesh. A particular mapping is chosen for that purpose. The impact of this option on the ellipticity and on the numerical accuracy of a computed flow is evaluated.

  18. Magnetic flux studies in horizontally cooled elliptical superconducting cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Martinello, M. Checchin, M.; Grassellino, A. Crawford, A. C.; Melnychuk, O.; Romanenko, A.; Sergatskov, D. A.

    2015-07-28

    Previous studies on magnetic flux expulsion as a function of cooldown procedures for elliptical superconducting radio frequency (SRF) niobium cavities showed that when the cavity beam axis is placed parallel to the helium cooling flow and sufficiently large thermal gradients are achieved, all magnetic flux could be expelled and very low residual resistance could be achieved. In this paper, we investigate flux trapping for the case of resonators positioned perpendicularly to the helium cooling flow, which is more representative of how SRF cavities are cooled in accelerators and for different directions of the applied magnetic field surrounding the resonator. We show that different field components have a different impact on the surface resistance, and several parameters have to be considered to fully understand the flux dynamics. A newly discovered phenomenon of concentration of flux lines at the cavity top leading to temperature rise at the cavity equator is presented.

  19. Elliptic blending model: A new near-wall Reynolds-stress turbulence closure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manceau, Rémi; Hanjalić, Kemal

    2002-02-01

    A new approach to modeling the effects of a solid wall in one-point second-moment (Reynolds-stress) turbulence closures is presented. The model is based on the relaxation of an inhomogeneous (near-wall) formulation of the pressure-strain tensor towards the chosen conventional homogeneous (far-from-a-wall) form using the blending function α, for which an elliptic equation is solved. The approach preserves the main features of Durbin's Reynolds-stress model, but instead of six elliptic equations (for each stress component), it involves only one, scalar elliptic equation. The model, called "the elliptic blending model," offers significant simplification, while still complying with the basic physical rationale for the elliptic relaxation concept. In addition to model validation against direct numerical simulation in a plane channel for Reτ=590, the model was applied in the computation of the channel flow at a "real-life" Reynolds number of 106, showing a good prediction of the logarithmic profile of the mean velocity.

  20. Multigrid solutions to quasi-elliptic schemes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandt, A.; Taasan, S.

    1985-01-01

    Quasi-elliptic schemes arise from central differencing or finite element discretization of elliptic systems with odd order derivatives on non-staggered grids. They are somewhat unstable and less accurate then corresponding staggered-grid schemes. When usual multigrid solvers are applied to them, the asymptotic algebraic convergence is necessarily slow. Nevertheless, it is shown by mode analyses and numerical experiments that the usual FMG algorithm is very efficient in solving quasi-elliptic equations to the level of truncation errors. Also, a new type of multigrid algorithm is presented, mode analyzed and tested, for which even the asymptotic algebraic convergence is fast. The essence of that algorithm is applicable to other kinds of problems, including highly indefinite ones.

  1. Highly confined photonic nanojet from elliptical particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalali, T.; Erni, D.

    2014-07-01

    Elliptically shaped particles with different size and refractive indices have been studied under plane wave illumination using simulation tools such as 2D-FDTD, 2D-MMP, and 3D-MMP. Owing to careful manipulation, the power distribution in the vicinity of the particles opposite boundary resulted in a tightly focused photonic nanojet. Their waists are significantly smaller than the diffraction limit while propagating over several optical wavelengths without significant divergence. In this paper, we report on the manipulation of the particles elliptical shapes and the underlying refractive indices with respect to a maximally confined power distribution in the resulting nanojet which has been parameterized according to both, the beam waist and the beam divergence. The result that elliptical particles (i.e. oblate spheroids) turned out to be superior to spherical ones was underpinned within a highly accurate and fast 3D-MMP simulation using ring multipoles.

  2. A New Differential Pressure Flow Meter for Measurement of Human Breath Flow: Simulation and Experimental Investigation.

    PubMed

    Bridgeman, Devon; Tsow, Francis; Xian, Xiaojun; Forzani, Erica

    2016-03-01

    The development and performance characterization of a new differential pressure-based flow meter for human breath measurements is presented in this article. The device, called a "Confined Pitot Tube," is comprised of a pipe with an elliptically shaped expansion cavity located in the pipe center, and an elliptical disk inside the expansion cavity. The elliptical disk, named Pitot Tube, is exchangeable, and has different diameters, which are smaller than the diameter of the elliptical cavity. The gap between the disk and the cavity allows the flow of human breath to pass through. The disk causes an obstruction in the flow inside the pipe, but the elliptical cavity provides an expansion for the flow to circulate around the disk, decreasing the overall flow resistance. We characterize the new sensor flow experimentally and theoretically, using Comsol Multiphysics(®) software with laminar and turbulent models. We also validate the sensor, using inhalation and exhalation tests and a reference method.

  3. Far-infrared emission from dusty ellipticals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, Duncan; Knapp, Jill

    1990-01-01

    The incidence of dust lanes in elliptical galaxies has been estimated at approx. 40 percent by Sadler and Gerhard (1985), although the observed fraction is lower because of inclination effects. A similar percentage of ellipticals has been detected by the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) at 100 microns (Knapp et al. 1989); these have far-infrared colors expected for emission from cool dust (S sub 60 micron/S sub 100 micron approx. 1/3). For the far-infrared detected galaxies, neither L sub 100 microns/L sub B nor L sub 60 microns/L sub 100 microns are very dependent on dust content, suggesting that the source of the infrared luminosity is the same in both cases; and hence that dust is responsible even when not detected optically. Despite this indication, L sub 100 microns does not prove to be a good indicator of the quantity of cool interstellar matter in elliptical galaxies, as measured by the mass of neutral hydrogen. There even exist several examples of ellipticals with dust, strong 100 micron flux density and sensitive limits on HI mass (Walsh et al. in preparation). Chief reasons for the lack of correlation include the existence of other important sources of far-IR power in ellipticals, such as nonthermal continuum emission extending from longer wavelengths in flat spectrum radio sources (Golombek, Miley and Neugebauer 1988); and the fact that far-infrared luminosity per unit dust mass is extremely sensitive to the temperature of the ambient radiation field, which is not accurately known. In addition to having their appearance distorted by dust, several ellipticals also show such features as shells, box-shaped isophotes or inner disks. These may be signatures of past mergers, which could also add to the ISM content of the system.

  4. Centrality dependence of identified particle elliptic flow in relativistic heavy ion collisions at sNN=7.762.4 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Alekseev, I.; Aparin, A.; Arkhipkin, D.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Averichev, G. S.; Bai, X.; Bairathi, V.; Banerjee, A.; Bellwied, R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattarai, P.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L. C.; Bordyuzhin, I. G.; Bouchet, J.; Brandenburg, D.; Brandin, A. V.; Bunzarov, I.; Butterworth, J.; Caines, H.; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M.; Campbell, J. M.; Cebra, D.; Cervantes, M. C.; Chakaberia, I.; Chaloupka, P.; Chang, Z.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, X.; Chen, J. H.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Chisman, O.; Christie, W.; Contin, G.; Crawford, H. J.; Das, S.; De Silva, L. C.; Debbe, R. R.; Dedovich, T. G.; Deng, J.; Derevschikov, A. A.; di Ruzza, B.; Didenko, L.; Dilks, C.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Du, C. M.; Dunkelberger, L. E.; Dunlop, J. C.; Efimov, L. G.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Esha, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Eyser, O.; Fatemi, R.; Fazio, S.; Federic, P.; Fedorisin, J.; Feng, Z.; Filip, P.; Fisyak, Y.; Flores, C. E.; Fulek, L.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Garand, D.; Geurts, F.; Gibson, A.; Girard, M.; Greiner, L.; Grosnick, D.; Gunarathne, D. S.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, S.; Guryn, W.; Hamad, A.; Hamed, A.; Haque, R.; Harris, J. W.; He, L.; Heppelmann, S.; Heppelmann, S.; Hirsch, A.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Hofman, D. J.; Horvat, S.; Huang, H. Z.; Huang, B.; Huang, X.; Huck, P.; Humanic, T. J.; Igo, G.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jang, H.; Jiang, K.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kalinkin, D.; Kang, K.; Kauder, K.; Ke, H. W.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Khan, Z. H.; Kikoła, D. P.; Kisel, I.; Kisiel, A.; Kochenda, L.; Koetke, D. D.; Kollegger, T.; Kosarzewski, L. K.; Kraishan, A. F.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Kulakov, I.; Kumar, L.; Kycia, R. A.; Lamont, M. A. C.; Landgraf, J. M.; Landry, K. D.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, J. H.; Li, X.; Li, Y.; Li, W.; Li, C.; Li, X.; Li, Z. M.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, F.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Lomnitz, M.; Longacre, R. S.; Luo, X.; Ma, L.; Ma, Y. G.; Ma, G. L.; Ma, R.; Magdy, N.; Majka, R.; Manion, A.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Masui, H.; Matis, H. S.; McDonald, D.; Meehan, K.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mishra, D.; Mohanty, B.; Mondal, M. M.; Morozov, D. A.; Mustafa, M. K.; Nandi, B. K.; Nasim, Md.; Nayak, T. K.; Nigmatkulov, G.; Niida, T.; Nogach, L. V.; Noh, S. Y.; Novak, J.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Oh, K.; Okorokov, V.; Olvitt, D.; Page, B. S.; Pak, R.; Pan, Y. X.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pawlik, B.; Pei, H.; Perkins, C.; Peterson, A.; Pile, P.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Poljak, N.; Poniatowska, K.; Porter, J.; Posik, M.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Pruthi, N. K.; Putschke, J.; Qiu, H.; Quintero, A.; Ramachandran, S.; Raniwala, S.; Raniwala, R.; Ray, R. L.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Roy, A.; Ruan, L.; Rusnak, J.; Rusnakova, O.; Sahoo, N. R.; Sahu, P. K.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Sarkar, A.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schmah, A. M.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schmitz, N.; Seger, J.; Seyboth, P.; Shah, N.; Shahaliev, E.; Shanmuganathan, P. V.; Shao, M.; Sharma, B.; Sharma, M. K.; Shen, W. Q.; Shi, S. S.; Shou, Q. Y.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Sikora, R.; Simko, M.; Singha, S.; Skoby, M. J.; Smirnov, N.; Smirnov, D.; Song, L.; Sorensen, P.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Stepanov, M.; Stock, R.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Sumbera, M.; Summa, B.; Sun, X.; Sun, Z.; Sun, Y.; Sun, X. M.; Surrow, B.; Svirida, N.; Szelezniak, M. A.; Tang, Z.; Tang, A. H.; Tarnowsky, T.; Tawfik, A.; Thäder, J.; Thomas, J. H.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Tokarev, M.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tribedy, P.; Tripathy, S. K.; Trzeciak, B. A.; Tsai, O. D.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Upsal, I.; Van Buren, G.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Varma, R.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Vertesi, R.; Videbæk, F.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vokal, S.; Voloshin, S. A.; Vossen, A.; Wang, F.; Wang, Y.; Wang, G.; Wang, Y.; Wang, J. S.; Wang, H.; Webb, J. C.; Webb, G.; Wen, L.; Westfall, G. D.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S. W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y. F.; Wu, Y.; Xiao, Z. G.; Xie, W.; Xin, K.; Xu, Z.; Xu, H.; Xu, Y. F.; Xu, Q. H.; Xu, N.; Yang, Y.; Yang, C.; Yang, S.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Q.; Ye, Z.; Ye, Z.; Yepes, P.; Yi, L.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I. -K.; Yu, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zha, W.; Zhang, J. B.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhang, X. P.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhu, X.; Zoulkarneeva, Y.; Zyzak, M.

    2016-01-19

    Here, elliptic flow (v2) values for identified particles at midrapidity in Au + Au collisions measured by the STAR experiment in the Beam Energy Scan at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at √sNN = 7.7–62.4 GeV are presented for three centrality classes. The centrality dependence and the data at √sNN = 14.5 GeV are new. Except at the lowest beam energies, we observe a similar relative v2 baryon-meson splitting for all centrality classes which is in agreement within 15% with the number-of-constituent quark scaling. The larger v2 for most particles relative to antiparticles, already observed for minimum bias collisions, shows a clear centrality dependence, with the largest difference for the most central collisions. Also, the results are compared with a multiphase transport (AMPT) model and fit with a blast wave model.

  5. Elliptic pfaffians and solvable lattice models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosengren, Hjalmar

    2016-08-01

    We introduce and study twelve multivariable theta functions defined by pfaffians with elliptic function entries. We show that, when the crossing parameter is a cubic root of unity, the domain wall partition function for the eight-vertex-solid-on-solid model can be written as a sum of two of these pfaffians. As a limit case, we express the domain wall partition function for the three-colour model as a sum of two Hankel determinants. We also show that certain solutions of the TQ-equation for the supersymmetric eight-vertex model can be expressed in terms of elliptic pfaffians.

  6. Applicability of elliptic-relaxation method to free-surface turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokojima, Satoshi; Shima, Nobuyuki

    2010-06-01

    The elliptic-relaxation method of Durbin (1993 J. Fluid Mech. 249 465-98), which has had remarkable success in predicting benchmark flows of many different types, is applied to prediction of free-surface turbulence for the first time. An appropriate free-surface boundary condition for the elliptic-relaxation equation is derived by taking account of the balance of dominant terms in the Reynolds-stress transport equation in the vicinity of a free surface. Test calculations for a fully developed turbulent open-channel flow are conducted. The flow consists of two kinds of impermeable boundaries, a solid wall and a free surface, and hence is quite suitable as a new benchmark flow. It is demonstrated that the proposed boundary condition does enable the elliptic-relaxation method to reproduce the correct surface-induced stress anisotropy and that the model properly describes the differences in features between wall-bounded flows and free-surface flows by its main quality in reproducing the non-local blocking effect, a kind of an elementary process of boundary-turbulence interaction. It is also found that the turbulent-transport term plays a central role in characterizing free-surface turbulence, which is therefore quite suitable for critical evaluation of the model performance.

  7. Buckling of elliptical rings under uniform external pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Y.

    1991-04-03

    A thin, elastic elliptical ring is subjected to uniform external pressure. The lowest critical pressure is computed and presented for various ratio of the major axis to the minor axis of the elliptical ring. It is found that the critical pressure for an elliptical ring is higher than that for the circular ring whose diameter is equal to the major axis of the elliptical ring. It can be shown that under the same external pressure, the axial force developed in the elliptical ring is less than that developed in the corresponding circular ring. Thus, a higher pressure is required to buckle the elliptical rings. Therefore, by changing the shape of the ring from circular to elliptical, the capability of the ring to sustain the external pressure can be increased substantially. The results of this study can be useful in the design of elliptical reinforcing rings and thin-walled tubes subjected to external pressure.

  8. Differential spectral synthesis with a library of elliptical galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Gregg, M.

    1995-12-07

    Spectrophotometry of elliptical galaxies spanning a large rang in luminosity is analyzed for cosmic variations in color and line strength. The results are used to construct a base sequence spectral energy distribution as a function line strength, color, and velocity dispersion, representing old, red, uniform elliptical galaxy stellar populations. The sequence can be used as the starting point for investigating and modeling the stellar populations of other systems such as dwarf ellipticals, merger remnants, and, eventually, high redshift ellipticals.

  9. Analysis and Numerical Treatment of Elliptic Equations with Stochastic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Shi

    Many science and engineering applications are impacted by a significant amount of uncertainty in the model. Examples include groundwater flow, microscopic biological system, material science and chemical engineering systems. Common mathematical problems in these applications are elliptic equations with stochastic data. In this dissertation, we examine two types of stochastic elliptic partial differential equations(SPDEs), namely nonlinear stochastic diffusion reaction equations and general linearized elastostatic problems in random media. We begin with the construction of an analysis framework for this class of SPDEs, extending prior work of Babuska in 2010. We then use the framework both for establishing well-posedness of the continuous problems and for posing Galerkintype numerical methods. In order to solve these two types of problems, single integral weak formulations and stochastic collocation methods are applied. Moreover, a priori error estimates for stochastic collocation methods are derived, which imply that the rate of convergence is exponential, along with the order of polynomial increasing in the space of random variables. As expected, numerical experiments show the exponential rate of convergence, verified by a posterior error analysis. Finally, an adaptive strategy driven by a posterior error indicators is designed.

  10. On Fibonacci Numbers Which Are Elliptic Carmichael

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-27

    On Fibonacci numbers which are elliptic Carmichael Florian Luca School of Mathematics University of the Witwatersrand P. O. Box Wits 2050, South...was written during a visit of P. S. to the School of Mathematics of the University of the Witwatersrand in 2014. This author thanks the institution for

  11. Elliptic genera from multi-centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaddam, Nava

    2016-05-01

    I show how elliptic genera for various Calabi-Yau threefolds may be understood from supergravity localization using the quantization of the phase space of certain multi-center configurations. I present a simple procedure that allows for the enumeration of all multi-center configurations contributing to the polar sector of the elliptic genera — explicitly verifying this in the cases of the quintic in {P} 4, the sextic in {W}{P} (2,1,1,1,1), the octic in {W}{P} (4,1,1,1,1) and the dectic in {W}{P} (5,2,1,1,1). With an input of the corresponding `single-center' indices (Donaldson-Thomas invariants), the polar terms have been known to determine the elliptic genera completely. I argue that this multi-center approach to the low-lying spectrum of the elliptic genera is a stepping stone towards an understanding of the exact microscopic states that contribute to supersymmetric single center black hole entropy in {N} = 2 supergravity.

  12. Nomenclature of polarized light - Elliptical polarization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, D.

    1974-01-01

    Alternative handedness and sign conventions for relating the orientation of elliptical polarization are discussed. The discussion proceeds under two headings: (1) snapshot picture, where the emphasis for the convention is contained in the concept of handedness; and (2) angular momentum consideration, where the emphasis for the convention is strongly associated with mathematical convention and the sign of the fourth Stokes parameter.

  13. Relative elliptic theory and the Sobolev problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sternin, B. Yu; Shatalov, V. E.

    1996-12-01

    An operator algebra associated with a smooth embedding i \\colon X\\hookrightarrow M is constructed. For elliptic elements of this algebra a finiteness theorem (the Fredholm property) is established, and the index is computed. A connection with Sobolev problems is shown.

  14. Transverse Mercator Projection Via Elliptic Integrals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallis, David E.

    1992-01-01

    Improved method of construction of U.S. Army's universal transverse Mercator grid system based on Gauss-Kruger transverse Mercator projection and on use of elliptic integrals of second kind. Method can be used to map entire northern or southern hemisphere with respect to single principal meridian.

  15. Aspect ratio effect on shock-accelerated elliptic gas cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Liyong; Liao, Shenfei; Liu, Cangli; Wang, Yanping; Zhai, Zhigang

    2016-03-01

    The evolution of an elliptic heavy-gas (SF6) cylinder accelerated by a planar weak shock wave is investigated experimentally using particle image velocimetry (PIV) diagnostics, and the emphasis is on the aspect ratio effect on shock-elliptic cylinder interaction. Experiments are conducted at five different aspect ratios (the ratio of length in streamwise and spanwise directions) varied from 0.25 to 4.0. PIV raw images and quantitative flow field data are obtained at t = 0.6 ms after the shock impact. As the aspect ratio increases, the interface morphology develops faster owing to more vorticity produced along the interface and smaller vortex spacing between the two vortex cores. For each case in this study, the maximal fluctuating velocity locates at the middle point of the two counter-vortices. The histograms of fluctuating velocity reveal that a distinct double-peak structure appears in the largest aspect ratio case in comparison with a single-peak structure in the smallest aspect ratio case. The vortex velocities predicted by the theoretical model [G. Rudinger and L. M. Somers, "Behaviour of small regions of different gases carried in accelerated gas flows," J. Fluid Mech. 7, 161-176 (1960)] agree well with the experimental ones. With the increase of aspect ratio, the maximal value of vorticity increases as well as the circulation, and more low-magnitude quantities are generated, which indicates the formation of multi-scale flow structure in the late mixing process. It is found that the experimental circulation of the vortex motion is reasonably estimated by the ideal point vortex-pair model.

  16. Performances study of UWB monopole antennas using half-elliptic radiator conformed on elliptical surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djidel, S.; Bouamar, M.; Khedrouche, D.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a performances study of UWB monopole antenna using half-elliptic radiator conformed on elliptical surface. The proposed antenna, simulated using microwave studio computer CST and High frequency simulator structure HFSS, is designed to operate in frequency interval over 3.1 to 40 GHz. Good return loss and radiation pattern characteristics are obtained in the frequency band of interest. The proposed antenna structure is suitable for ultra-wideband applications, which is, required for many wearable electronics applications.

  17. The Ellipticity Distribution of Ambiguously Blended Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, William A.; Schneider, Michael D.; Tyson, J. Anthony; Jee, M. James

    2016-01-01

    Using overlapping fields with space-based Hubble Space Telescope and ground-based Subaru Telescope imaging we identify a population of blended galaxies that are blended to such a large degree that they are detected as single objects in the ground-based monochromatic imaging, which we label “ambiguous blends.” For deep imaging data, such as the depth targeted with the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), the ambiguous blend population is both large (∼14%) and has a distribution of ellipticities that is different from that of unblended objects in a way that will likely be important for weak lensing measurements. Most notably, for a limiting magnitude of i ∼ 27 we find that ambiguous blending results in a ∼14% increase in shear noise (or an ∼12% decrease in the effective projected number density of lensed galaxies; neff) due to (1) larger intrinsic ellipticity dispersion, and (2) a scaling with the galaxy number density Ngal that is shallower than 1/&sqrt;{{N}{gal}}. For the LSST Gold Sample (i < 25.3) there is a ∼7% increase in shear noise (or ∼7% decrease in neff). More importantly than these increases in the shear noise, we find that the ellipticity distribution of ambiguous blends has an rms that is 13% larger than that of non-blended galaxies. Given the need of future weak lensing surveys to constrain the ellipticity distribution of galaxies to better than a percent in order to mitigate cosmic shear multiplicative biases, if it is unaccounted for, the different ellipticity distribution of ambiguous blends could be a dominant systematic.

  18. Elliptical instability excited by tides and libration in terrestrial planets and moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cebron, D.; Le Bars, M.; Moutou, C.; Le Gal, P.

    2012-12-01

    The presence of celestial companions means that any planet may be subject to three kinds of harmonic mechanical forcing: tides, precession/nutation, and libration. These forcings can generate flows in internal fluid layers, such as fluid cores and subsurface oceans, whose dynamics then significantly differ from solid body rotation. In particular, tides in non-synchronized bodies and libration in synchronized ones are known to be capable of exciting the so-called elliptical instability, i.e. a generic instability corresponding to the destabilization of two-dimensional flows with elliptical streamlines, leading to three-dimensional turbulence. We aim here at confirming the relevance of such an elliptical instability in terrestrial bodies by determining its growth rate, as well as its consequences on energy dissipation, on magnetic field induction, and on heat flux fluctuations on planetary scales. Previous studies and theoretical results for the elliptical instability are re-evaluated and extended to cope with an astrophysical context. In particular, generic analytical expressions of the elliptical instability growth rate are obtained using a local WKB approach, simultaneously considering for the first time (i) a local temperature gradient due to an imposed temperature contrast across the considered layer or to the presence of a volumic heat source and (ii) an imposed magnetic field along the rotation axis, coming from an external source. The theoretical results are applied to the telluric planets and moons of the solar system as well as to three Super-Earths: 55CnCe, CoRoT-7b, and GJ1214b. For the tide-driven elliptical instability in non-synchronized bodies, only the Early Earth core is shown to be clearly unstable. For the libration-driven elliptical instability in synchronized bodies, the core of Io is shown to be stable, contrary to previously thoughts, whereas Europa, 55CnCe, CoRoT-7b and GJ1214b cores can be unstable. The subsurface ocean of Europa is slightly

  19. Atmospheric braking to circularize an elliptical Venus orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcronald, A. D.; Nock, K. T.

    1977-01-01

    The use of atmospheric drag to circularize an elliptical spacecraft orbit at Venus is analyzed parametrically for the Venus Orbital Imaging Radar Mission (VOIR) in 1983. Navigation, maneuver, and guidance requirements are discussed for the decay of a 24-hr orbit to a close circular orbit in about 30-60 days. A prototype 'Aerobrake' is described which is approximately 5 m in diameter and 25 kg in mass and which replaces a chemical retroengine of about 1300 kg in mass (delta V = 2.5 km/s) by a 700 kg in-orbit mass. The aerobrake, a light deployable Inconel sheet, shields the spacecraft from the flow and radiates the aerodynamic heating.

  20. Elliptical Laguerre-Gaussian correlated Schell-model beam.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yahong; Liu, Lin; Wang, Fei; Zhao, Chengliang; Cai, Yangjian

    2014-06-02

    A new kind of partially coherent beam with non-conventional correlation function named elliptical Laguerre-Gaussian correlated Schell-model (LGCSM) beam is introduced. Analytical propagation formula for an elliptical LGCSM beam passing through a stigmatic ABCD optical system is derived. The elliptical LGCSM beam exhibits unique features on propagation, e.g., its intensity in the far field (or in the focal plane) displays an elliptical ring-shaped beam profile, being qualitatively different from the circular ring-shaped beam profile of the circular LGCSM beam. Furthermore, we carry out experimental generation of an elliptical LGCSM beam with controllable ellipticity, and measure its focusing properties. Our experimental results are consistent with the theoretical predictions. The elliptical LGCSM beam will be useful in atomic optics.

  1. Convergence results for elliptic quasivariational inequalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofonea, Mircea; Benraouda, Ahlem

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we state and prove various convergence results for a general class of elliptic quasivariational inequalities with constraints. Thus, we prove the convergence of the solution of a class of penalized problems to the solution of the original inequality, as the penalty parameter converges to zero. We also prove a continuous dependence result of the solution with respect the convex set of constraints. Then, we consider a mathematical model which describes the equilibrium of an elastic rod attached to a nonlinear spring. We derive the variational formulation of the model which is in a form of an elliptic quasivariational inequality for the displacement field. We prove the unique weak solvability of the model, and then we state and prove two convergence results and provide their corresponding mechanical interpretation.

  2. Performance Characteristics of a Preformed Elliptical Parachute

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    Performance Characteristics of a Preformed Elliptical Parachute at Altitudes between 200,000 and 100,000 Thousand Feet Obtained by In-Flight Photography. The performance characteristics of a pre-formed elliptical parachute at altitudes between 200,000 and 100,000 feet were obtained by means of in-flight photography. The tests demonstrate that this type of parachute will open at altitudes of about 200,000 feet if conditions such as twisting of the suspension lines or draping of the suspension lines over the canopy do not occur. Drag-coefficient values between 0.6 and 0.8 were found to be reasonable for this type of parachute system in the altitude range between 200,000 and 100,000 feet. [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070030980. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov

  3. Performance of the ALS elliptical wiggler

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.X.; Schlueter, R.; Hoyer, E.; Heimann, P.

    1993-08-01

    The elliptical wiggler is a circularly polarized light source capable of providing very broad spectral coverage and high degree of circular polarization. The main features of an elliptical wiggler can be understood through analogy to bending magnet radiation. However, some aspects, such as the end structure`s influence on the degree of circular polarization, require more elaborate methods to characterize. We present an algorithm based on the stationary phase method, which allows calculation of radiation properties from an arbitrary electron trajectory; so a non-sinusoidal magnetic field`s influence on the radiation performance can be taken into account. We show general radiation properties of an ellilptical wiggler and discuss factors affecting radiation performance. Practice issues encountered during the conceptual design of an ellilptical wiggler at the Advanced Light Source are addressed.

  4. Performance of an elliptically tapered neutron guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mühlbauer, Sebastian; Stadlbauer, Martin; Böni, Peter; Schanzer, Christan; Stahn, Jochen; Filges, Uwe

    2006-11-01

    Supermirror coated neutron guides are used at all modern neutron sources for transporting neutrons over large distances. In order to reduce the transmission losses due to multiple internal reflection of neutrons, ballistic neutron guides with linear tapering have been proposed and realized. However, these systems suffer from an inhomogeneous illumination of the sample. Moreover, the flux decreases significantly with increasing distance from the exit of the neutron guide. We propose using elliptically tapered guides that provide a more homogeneous phase space at the sample position as well as a focusing at the sample. Moreover, the design of the guide system is simplified because ellipses are simply defined by their long and short axes. In order to prove the concept we have manufactured a doubly focusing guide and investigated its properties with neutrons. The experiments show that the predicted gains using the program package McStas are realized. We discuss several applications of elliptic guides in various fields of neutron physics.

  5. An elliptical wiggler beamline for the ALS

    SciTech Connect

    Martynov, V.V. |; McKinney, W.R.; Padmore, H.A.

    1995-10-01

    A beamline for circularly polarized radiation produced by an elliptical wiggler has been designed at the ALS covering the broad energy range from 50 eV to 2000 eV. The rigorous theory of grating diffraction efficiency has been used to maximize transmitted flux. The nature of the elliptical wiggler insertion device creates a challenging optical problem due to the large source size in the vertical and horizontal directions. The requirement of high resolving power, combined with the broad tuning range and high heat loads complicate the design. These problems have been solved by using a variable included angle monochromator of the ``constant length`` type with high demagnification onto its entrance slit, and cooled optics.

  6. Elliptic Genera and 3d Gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, Nathan; Cheng, Miranda C. N.; Kachru, Shamit; Moore, Gregory W.; Paquette, Natalie M.

    2016-03-30

    We describe general constraints on the elliptic genus of a 2d supersymmetric conformal field theory which has a gravity dual with large radius in Planck units. We give examples of theories which do and do not satisfy the bounds we derive, by describing the elliptic genera of symmetric product orbifolds of K3, product manifolds, certain simple families of Calabi–Yau hypersurfaces, and symmetric products of the “Monster CFT”. We discuss the distinction between theories with supergravity duals and those whose duals have strings at the scale set by the AdS curvature. Under natural assumptions, we attempt to quantify the fraction of (2,2) supersymmetric conformal theories which admit a weakly curved gravity description, at large central charge.

  7. Elliptic genera and 3d gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, Nathan; Cheng, Miranda C. N.; Kachru, Shamit; Moore, Gregory W.; Paquette, Natalie M.

    2016-03-30

    Here, we describe general constraints on the elliptic genus of a 2d supersymmetric conformal field theory which has a gravity dual with large radius in Planck units. We give examples of theories which do and do not satisfy the bounds we derive, by describing the elliptic genera of symmetric product orbifolds of K3, product manifolds, certain simple families of Calabi–Yau hypersurfaces, and symmetric products of the “Monster CFT”. We discuss the distinction between theories with supergravity duals and those whose duals have strings at the scale set by the AdS curvature. Under natural assumptions, we attempt to quantify the fraction of (2,2) supersymmetric conformal theories which admit a weakly curved gravity description, at large central charge.

  8. Elliptic genera and 3d gravity

    DOE PAGES

    Benjamin, Nathan; Cheng, Miranda C. N.; Kachru, Shamit; ...

    2016-03-30

    Here, we describe general constraints on the elliptic genus of a 2d supersymmetric conformal field theory which has a gravity dual with large radius in Planck units. We give examples of theories which do and do not satisfy the bounds we derive, by describing the elliptic genera of symmetric product orbifolds of K3, product manifolds, certain simple families of Calabi–Yau hypersurfaces, and symmetric products of the “Monster CFT”. We discuss the distinction between theories with supergravity duals and those whose duals have strings at the scale set by the AdS curvature. Under natural assumptions, we attempt to quantify the fractionmore » of (2,2) supersymmetric conformal theories which admit a weakly curved gravity description, at large central charge.« less

  9. Crack Path Prediction Near an Elliptical Inhomogeneity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    Prediction Near an Elliptical Inhomogeneity 1L162618AH80 6. AUTHOR(S) Edward M. Patton 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8 . PERFORMING...oriented crack. Erdogan and Gupta [ 8 ] later solved the problem in which the crack crosses the interface. These solutions are based on the Green’s...the crack propagation direction 8 is greatest. This criterion implies that the stress parallel to that direction would be a minimum, or that the

  10. Photoacoustic cell using elliptical acoustic focusing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heritier, J.-M.; Fouquet, J. E.; Siegman, A. E.

    1982-01-01

    A photoacoustic cell has been developed in the form of an elliptical cylinder in which essentially all the acoustic energy generated by a laser beam passing down one axis is focused onto a cylindrical acoustic tranducer located along the other axis. Preliminary measurements on a liquid-filled cell of this design show high sensitivity and a notably clean impulse response. A similar design may be useful for photoacoustic measurements in vapors as well.

  11. Spectral methods for exterior elliptic problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canuto, C.; Hariharan, S. I.; Lustman, L.

    1984-01-01

    Spectral approximations for exterior elliptic problems in two dimensions are discussed. As in the conventional finite difference or finite element methods, the accuracy of the numerical solutions is limited by the order of the numerical farfield conditions. A spectral boundary treatment is introduced at infinity which is compatible with the infinite order interior spectral scheme. Computational results are presented to demonstrate the spectral accuracy attainable. Although a simple Laplace problem is examined, the analysis covers more complex and general cases.

  12. Integrable mappings via rational elliptic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuda, Teruhisa

    2004-02-01

    We present a geometric description of the QRT map (which is an integrable mapping introduced by Quispel, Roberts and Thompson) in terms of the addition formula of a rational elliptic surface. By this formulation, we classify all the cases when the QRT map is periodic; and show that its period is 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6. A generalization of the QRT map which acts birationally on a pencil of K3 surfaces, or Calabi-Yau manifolds, is also presented.

  13. THE STELLAR HALOS OF MASSIVE ELLIPTICAL GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, Jenny E.; Murphy, Jeremy D.; Comerford, Julia M.; Gebhardt, Karl; Adams, Joshua J.

    2012-05-01

    We use the Mitchell Spectrograph (formerly VIRUS-P) on the McDonald Observatory 2.7 m Harlan J. Smith Telescope to search for the chemical signatures of massive elliptical galaxy assembly. The Mitchell Spectrograph is an integral-field spectrograph with a uniquely wide field of view (107'' Multiplication-Sign 107''), allowing us to achieve remarkably high signal-to-noise ratios of {approx}20-70 pixel{sup -1} in radial bins of 2-2.5 times the effective radii of the eight galaxies in our sample. Focusing on a sample of massive elliptical galaxies with stellar velocity dispersions {sigma}{sub *} > 150 km s{sup -1}, we study the radial dependence in the equivalent widths (EW) of key metal absorption lines. By twice the effective radius, the Mgb EWs have dropped by {approx}50%, and only a weak correlation between {sigma}{sub *} and Mgb EW remains. The Mgb EWs at large radii are comparable to those seen in the centers of elliptical galaxies that are {approx} an order of magnitude less massive. We find that the well-known metallicity gradients often observed within an effective radius continue smoothly to 2.5 R{sub e} , while the abundance ratio gradients remain flat. Much like the halo of the Milky Way, the stellar halos of our galaxies have low metallicities and high {alpha}-abundance ratios, as expected for very old stars formed in small stellar systems. Our observations support a picture in which the outer parts of massive elliptical galaxies are built by the accretion of much smaller systems whose star formation history was truncated at early times.

  14. Elliptical Acoustic Particle Motion in Underwater Waveguides

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-27

    approximation to the degree of circularity. This approximation, applied to acoustic pressure measurements from two closely spaced hydrophones made in...elliptical motion in the vertical plane can be approximated by vertical line array of closely spaced pressure sensors. We demonstrate in this paper how the...an approximate measure of circular- ity. Most importantly, Θ̃ can be formed from two closely spaced (< λ/4) hydrophones, extending this analysis of

  15. Do elliptical galaxies suffer from warp?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamaleldin, A. I.

    1990-06-01

    Detailed surface isophotometry of NGC 1700 was performed. Luminosity profiles, ellipticity curve, reduced luminosity profiles, and the galaxy parameters are illustrated; the study also includes the variation of position angle with the distance from the center of the galaxy. An interesting feature of this object is the twisted shape of the outer isophote which does not appear as an ellipse but as an integral-sign shape, which is attributed to some kind of warp in the galaxy under investigation.

  16. Molecular Gas in Elliptical Galaxies: Erratum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lees, Joanna F.; Knapp, G. R.; Rupen, Michael P.; Phillips, T. G.

    1992-09-01

    In the paper "Molecular Gas in Elliptical Galaxies" by Joanna F. Lees, G. R. Knapp, Michael P. Rupen, and T. G. Phillips (ApJ, 379,177 [1991]), an error appeared on page 208. Two numbers which were quoted from Young and Knezek (1989) were inadvertently not converted from their CO-H_2_ conversion factor to ours (a difference of 40%). Page 208, column (1), lines 6-7 should read:

  17. MIB Galerkin method for elliptic interface problems

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Kelin; Zhan, Meng; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Summary Material interfaces are omnipresent in the real-world structures and devices. Mathematical modeling of material interfaces often leads to elliptic partial differential equations (PDEs) with discontinuous coefficients and singular sources, which are commonly called elliptic interface problems. The development of high-order numerical schemes for elliptic interface problems has become a well defined field in applied and computational mathematics and attracted much attention in the past decades. Despite of significant advances, challenges remain in the construction of high-order schemes for nonsmooth interfaces, i.e., interfaces with geometric singularities, such as tips, cusps and sharp edges. The challenge of geometric singularities is amplified when they are associated with low solution regularities, e.g., tip-geometry effects in many fields. The present work introduces a matched interface and boundary (MIB) Galerkin method for solving two-dimensional (2D) elliptic PDEs with complex interfaces, geometric singularities and low solution regularities. The Cartesian grid based triangular elements are employed to avoid the time consuming mesh generation procedure. Consequently, the interface cuts through elements. To ensure the continuity of classic basis functions across the interface, two sets of overlapping elements, called MIB elements, are defined near the interface. As a result, differentiation can be computed near the interface as if there is no interface. Interpolation functions are constructed on MIB element spaces to smoothly extend function values across the interface. A set of lowest order interface jump conditions is enforced on the interface, which in turn, determines the interpolation functions. The performance of the proposed MIB Galerkin finite element method is validated by numerical experiments with a wide range of interface geometries, geometric singularities, low regularity solutions and grid resolutions. Extensive numerical studies confirm

  18. The Stellar Halos of Massive Elliptical Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, Jenny E.; Murphy, Jeremy D.; Comerford, Julia M.; Gebhardt, Karl; Adams, Joshua J.

    2012-05-01

    We use the Mitchell Spectrograph (formerly VIRUS-P) on the McDonald Observatory 2.7 m Harlan J. Smith Telescope to search for the chemical signatures of massive elliptical galaxy assembly. The Mitchell Spectrograph is an integral-field spectrograph with a uniquely wide field of view (107'' × 107''), allowing us to achieve remarkably high signal-to-noise ratios of ~20-70 pixel-1 in radial bins of 2-2.5 times the effective radii of the eight galaxies in our sample. Focusing on a sample of massive elliptical galaxies with stellar velocity dispersions σ* > 150 km s-1, we study the radial dependence in the equivalent widths (EW) of key metal absorption lines. By twice the effective radius, the Mgb EWs have dropped by ~50%, and only a weak correlation between σ* and Mgb EW remains. The Mgb EWs at large radii are comparable to those seen in the centers of elliptical galaxies that are ~ an order of magnitude less massive. We find that the well-known metallicity gradients often observed within an effective radius continue smoothly to 2.5 Re , while the abundance ratio gradients remain flat. Much like the halo of the Milky Way, the stellar halos of our galaxies have low metallicities and high α-abundance ratios, as expected for very old stars formed in small stellar systems. Our observations support a picture in which the outer parts of massive elliptical galaxies are built by the accretion of much smaller systems whose star formation history was truncated at early times.

  19. Random Matrix Theory and Elliptic Curves

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-24

    related to the intervals of prime numbers. 15. SUBJECT TERMS EOARD, Random Matrix theory, Riemann Hypothesis, Elliptic Curves 16. SECURITY...range of quantities of fundamental importance in number theory. In the cases of the Riemann zeta function and Dirichlet L-functions, this information...investigation using analytic techniques. As an indication of their significance, two of the Clay Millennium Prize Problems, the Riemann Hypothesis and the

  20. MIB Galerkin method for elliptic interface problems.

    PubMed

    Xia, Kelin; Zhan, Meng; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2014-12-15

    Material interfaces are omnipresent in the real-world structures and devices. Mathematical modeling of material interfaces often leads to elliptic partial differential equations (PDEs) with discontinuous coefficients and singular sources, which are commonly called elliptic interface problems. The development of high-order numerical schemes for elliptic interface problems has become a well defined field in applied and computational mathematics and attracted much attention in the past decades. Despite of significant advances, challenges remain in the construction of high-order schemes for nonsmooth interfaces, i.e., interfaces with geometric singularities, such as tips, cusps and sharp edges. The challenge of geometric singularities is amplified when they are associated with low solution regularities, e.g., tip-geometry effects in many fields. The present work introduces a matched interface and boundary (MIB) Galerkin method for solving two-dimensional (2D) elliptic PDEs with complex interfaces, geometric singularities and low solution regularities. The Cartesian grid based triangular elements are employed to avoid the time consuming mesh generation procedure. Consequently, the interface cuts through elements. To ensure the continuity of classic basis functions across the interface, two sets of overlapping elements, called MIB elements, are defined near the interface. As a result, differentiation can be computed near the interface as if there is no interface. Interpolation functions are constructed on MIB element spaces to smoothly extend function values across the interface. A set of lowest order interface jump conditions is enforced on the interface, which in turn, determines the interpolation functions. The performance of the proposed MIB Galerkin finite element method is validated by numerical experiments with a wide range of interface geometries, geometric singularities, low regularity solutions and grid resolutions. Extensive numerical studies confirm the

  1. Analytical study on the SGS force around an elliptic Burgers vortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Hiromichi

    2016-11-01

    The subgrid-scale (SGS) force around an elliptic Burgers vortex is analytically examined. In turbulence, there are a lot of vortex-tubes whose cross sections are known to be approximated as the ellipse. In this study, the biaxial elliptic Burgers vortex is produced by adding the compressive and extensional background straining flow to the conventional Burgers vortex. By using a filtering operation, we revealed that the energy transfer by the Reynolds stress term applying the Bardina model exhibits negative correlation to that by the true SGS stress term. However, it has been recently reported that a combination of the Bardina Reynolds term and the eddy viscosity model gives good performance even for the coarse LES of turbulent channel flows. In order to understand that, we discuss some SGS forces: by the true SGS stress tensor, by the eddy viscosity model, by the modified Leonard term and by the Bardina Reynolds term. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 26420122.

  2. Elliptic Solvers for Adaptive Mesh Refinement Grids

    SciTech Connect

    Quinlan, D.J.; Dendy, J.E., Jr.; Shapira, Y.

    1999-06-03

    We are developing multigrid methods that will efficiently solve elliptic problems with anisotropic and discontinuous coefficients on adaptive grids. The final product will be a library that provides for the simplified solution of such problems. This library will directly benefit the efforts of other Laboratory groups. The focus of this work is research on serial and parallel elliptic algorithms and the inclusion of our black-box multigrid techniques into this new setting. The approach applies the Los Alamos object-oriented class libraries that greatly simplify the development of serial and parallel adaptive mesh refinement applications. In the final year of this LDRD, we focused on putting the software together; in particular we completed the final AMR++ library, we wrote tutorials and manuals, and we built example applications. We implemented the Fast Adaptive Composite Grid method as the principal elliptic solver. We presented results at the Overset Grid Conference and other more AMR specific conferences. We worked on optimization of serial and parallel performance and published several papers on the details of this work. Performance remains an important issue and is the subject of continuing research work.

  3. Modeling near wall effects in second moment closures by elliptic relaxation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laurence, D.; Durbin, P.

    1994-01-01

    The elliptic relaxation model of Durbin (1993) for modeling near-wall turbulence using second moment closures (SMC) is compared to DNS data for a channel flow at Re(sub t) = 395. The agreement for second order statistics and even the terms in their balance equation is quite satisfactory, confirming that very little viscous effects (via Kolmogoroff scales) need to be added to the high Reynolds versions of SMC for near-wall-turbulence. The essential near-wall feature is thus the kinematic blocking effect that a solid wall exerts on the turbulence through the fluctuating pressure, which is best modeled by an elliptic operator. Above the transition layer, the effect of the original elliptic operator decays rapidly, and it is suggested that the log-layer is better reproduced by adding a non-homogeneous reduction of the return to isotropy, the gradient of the turbulent length scale being used as a measure of the inhomogeneity of the log-layer. The elliptic operator was quite easily applied to the non-linear Craft & Launder pressure-strain model yielding an improved distinction between the spanwise and wall normal stresses, although at higher Reynolds number (Re) and away from the wall, the streamwise component is severely underpredicted, as well as the transition in the mean velocity from the log to the wake profiles. In this area a significant change of behavior was observed in the DNS pressure-strain term, entirely ignored in the models.

  4. The Structure of Galaxies. III. Two Structural Families of Ellipticals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schombert, James M.

    2015-11-01

    Using isophotal radius correlations for a sample of Two Micron All Sky Survey ellipticals, we have constructed a series of template surface brightness profiles to describe the profile shapes of ellipticals as a function of luminosity. The templates are a smooth function of luminosity, yet are not adequately matched to any fitting function supporting the view that ellipticals are weakly nonhomologous with respect to structure. Through comparison to the templates, it is discovered that ellipticals are divided into two families: those well matched to the templates, and a second class of ellipticals with distinctly shallower profile slopes. We refer to this second type of ellipticals as D class, an old morphological designation acknowledging diffuse appearance on photographic material. D ellipticals cover the same range of luminosity, size, and kinematics as normal ellipticals, but maintain a signature of recent equal-mass dry mergers. We propose that normal ellipticals grow after an initial dissipation formation era by accretion of low-mass companions as outlined in hierarchical formation scenarios, while D ellipticals are the result of later equal-mass mergers producing shallow luminosity profiles.

  5. X-RAY ISOPHOTES IN A RAPIDLY ROTATING ELLIPTICAL GALAXY: EVIDENCE OF INFLOWING GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Brighenti, Fabrizio; Mathews, William G.

    2009-11-10

    We describe two-dimensional gasdynamical computations of the X-ray emitting gas in the rotating elliptical galaxy NGC 4649 that indicate an inflow of approx1 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1} at every radius. Such a large instantaneous inflow cannot have persisted over a Hubble time. The central constant-entropy temperature peak recently observed in the innermost 150 pc is explained by compressive heating as gas flows toward the central massive black hole. Since the cooling time of this gas is only a few million years, NGC 4649 provides the most acutely concentrated known example of the cooling flow problem in which the time-integrated apparent mass that has flowed into the galactic core exceeds the total mass observed there. This paradox can be resolved by intermittent outflows of energy or mass driven by accretion energy released near the black hole. Inflowing gas is also required at intermediate kpc radii to explain the ellipticity of X-ray isophotes due to spin-up by mass ejected by stars that rotate with the galaxy and to explain local density and temperature profiles. We provide evidence that many luminous elliptical galaxies undergo similar inflow spin-up. A small turbulent viscosity is required in NGC 4649 to avoid forming large X-ray luminous disks that are not observed, but the turbulent pressure is small and does not interfere with mass determinations that assume hydrostatic equilibrium.

  6. Adaptive Grid Techniques for Elliptic Fluid-Flow Problems,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    J . F . (1984), "Grid Generation Techniques in Computational Fluid Dynamics," AIAA Jnl., Vol. 22, No. 11, pp. 1505-1523. Thompson , J . F . (1983...Procedure," Ph.D. Thesis, Dept. of Computer Science, Stanford University, Calif. Tang, W. P., W. Skamarock, and J. Oliger (1985). To appear. Thompson

  7. Systematic Study of Elliptic Flow at RHIC-PHENIX

    SciTech Connect

    Shimomura, Maya

    2009-03-23

    In non-central high energy heavy ion collisions, the initial spatial anisotropy is transferred to the final momentum anisotropy due to a pressure gradient in the collision participants, p{sub T} and centrality dependences of the azimuthal anisotropy ({nu}{sub 2}) are measured for charged hadrons in different energies and collision systems by the PHENIX experiment at RHIC. It was newly found that {nu}{sub 2} divided by the geometrical participant eccentricity is exponentially increasing with the number of the participants to the 1/3, and there is the universal scaling for {nu}{sub 2} with different energies and collision sizes with eccentricity and number of quark scalings. The results indicate that {nu}{sub 2} is not only determinated by the geometrical eccentricity, but {sub 2} is evolving during the finite time which could be related to the size of collisions.

  8. Numerical calculations of flow fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. M.; Vogel, J. M.

    1972-01-01

    The solutions to the equations of motion for inviscid fluid flow around a pointed elliptic cone at incidence are presented. The numerical method used, MacCormack's second order preferential predictor-corrector finite difference approximation, is applied to the fluid flow equations derived in conservation-law form. The entropy boundary condition, hitherto unused for elliptic cone problems, is investigated and compared to reflection boundary condition solutions. The stagnation streamline movement of the inclined elliptic cone is noted and surface pressure coefficients are plotted. Also presented are solutions for an elliptic cone and a circular cone at zero incidence and a circular cone at a small angle of attack. Comparisons are made between these present solutions and previously published theory.

  9. Elliptic multiple zeta values and one-loop superstring amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broedel, Johannes; Mafra, Carlos R.; Matthes, Nils; Schlotterer, Oliver

    2015-07-01

    We investigate iterated integrals on an elliptic curve, which are a natural genus-one generalization of multiple polylogarithms. These iterated integrals coincide with the multiple elliptic polylogarithms introduced by Brown and Levin when constrained to the real line. At unit argument they reduce to an elliptic analogue of multiple zeta values, whose network of relations we start to explore. A simple and natural application of this framework are one-loop scattering amplitudes in open superstring theory. In particular, elliptic multiple zeta values are a suitable language to express their low energy limit. Similar to the techniques available at tree-level, our formalism allows to completely automatize the calculation.

  10. Two-dimensional elliptical electromagnetic superscatterer and superabsorber.

    PubMed

    Zang, Xiaofei; Jiang, Chun

    2010-03-29

    Using coordinate transformation stated earlier by Pendry et al. [Science 312, 1780 (2006)], we investigate the two-dimensional elliptical electromagnetic superscatterer and superabsorber, based on the concept of complementary media. Such an elliptical electromagnetic superscatterer (or superabsorber) is realized by coating an elliptical negative refractive material shell. The effectiveness of the elliptical electromagnetic superscatterer and superabsorber designs is verified by finite element simulations. The proposed design provides a more practical superscatterer (or superabsorber) geometry when compared to previous designs with axial and radial symmetries. Our results can be extended to an arbitrarily shaped electromagnetic superscatterer and superabsorber.

  11. Mixing characteristics of a ducted, elliptical jet with dump

    SciTech Connect

    Schadow, K.C.; Wilson, K.J.; Parr, D.M.; Gutmark, E.

    1986-01-01

    Mixing between elliptical ducted air-jets with dump and nitrogen radially injected through the duct walls was experimentally studied using hot-wire anemometry and gas-sampling techniques. Mixing was considerably increased when the air-jet was issued from elliptical relative to circular jet-exit cross-sections. Elliptical jets issued from orifices provided better mixing than issued from pipes. Additional mixing enhancement was achieved when the elliptical jets were acoustically forced by excited resonant pressure waves of the duct. The mean and turbulence velocity measurements provided insight into the mechanism of the observed mixing enhancement.

  12. Colors of Ellipticals from GALEX to Spitzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schombert, James M.

    2016-12-01

    Multi-color photometry is presented for a large sample of local ellipticals selected by morphology and isolation. The sample uses data from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX), Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), Two Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS), and Spitzer to cover the filters NUV, ugri, JHK and 3.6 μm. Various two-color diagrams, using the half-light aperture defined in the 2MASS J filter, are very coherent from color to color, meaning that galaxies defined to be red in one color are always red in other colors. Comparison to globular cluster colors demonstrates that ellipticals are not composed of a single age, single metallicity (e.g., [Fe/H]) stellar population, but require a multi-metallicity model using a chemical enrichment scenario. Such a model is sufficient to explain two-color diagrams and the color-magnitude relations for all colors using only metallicity as a variable on a solely 12 Gyr stellar population with no evidence of stars younger than 10 Gyr. The [Fe/H] values that match galaxy colors range from -0.5 to +0.4, much higher (and older) than population characteristics deduced from Lick/IDS line-strength system studies, indicating an inconsistency between galaxy colors and line indices values for reasons unknown. The NUV colors have unusual behavior, signaling the rise and fall of the UV upturn with elliptical luminosity. Models with blue horizontal branch tracks can reproduce this behavior, indicating the UV upturn is strictly a metallicity effect.

  13. Young circumnuclear disks in elliptical galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sil'Chenko, Olga K.

    2009-04-01

    By means of integral-field spectroscopy with the Multi-Pupil Field/Fiber Spectrograph of the Russian 6-m telescope we have studied the central parts of NGC 759 and NGC 83— regular (non-interacting, without strong nuclear activity) round red luminous ( M B =-20.8--21.6) elliptical galaxies which are however known to possess molecular gas. In both galaxies we have found central stellar disks with the extension of 1-2 kpc along the radius which are evidently being formed just now.

  14. Elliptic Rydberg states as direction indicators

    SciTech Connect

    Lindner, Netanel H.; Peres, Asher; Terno, Daniel R.

    2003-10-01

    The orientation in space of a Cartesian coordinate system can be indicated by the two vectorial constants of motion of a classical Keplerian orbit: the angular momentum and the Laplace-Runge-Lenz vector. In quantum mechanics, the states of a hydrogen atom that mimic classical elliptic orbits are the coherent states of the SO(4) rotation group. It is known how to produce these states experimentally. They have minimal dispersions of the two conserved vectors and can be used as direction indicators. We compare the fidelity of this transmission method with that of the idealized optimal method.

  15. Evolution of Hot Gas in Elliptical Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathews, William G.

    2004-01-01

    This theory grant was awarded to study the curious nature, origin and evolution of hot gas in elliptical galaxies and their surrounding groups. Understanding the properties of this X-ray emitting gas has profound implications over the broad landscape of modern astrophysics: cosmology, galaxy formation, star formation, cosmic metal enrichment, galactic structure and dynamics, and the physics of hot gases containing dust and magnetic fields. One of our principal specific objectives was to interpret the marvelous new observations from the XMM and Chandru satellite X-ray telescopes.

  16. Guided modes of elliptical metamaterial waveguides

    SciTech Connect

    Halterman, Klaus; Feng, Simin; Overfelt, P. L.

    2007-07-15

    The propagation of guided electromagnetic waves in open elliptical metamaterial waveguide structures is investigated. The waveguide contains a negative-index media core, where the permittivity {epsilon} and permeability {mu} are negative over a given bandwidth. The allowed mode spectrum for these structures is numerically calculated by solving a dispersion relation that is expressed in terms of Mathieu functions. By probing certain regions of parameter space, we find the possibility exists to have extremely localized waves that transmit along the surface of the waveguide.

  17. Elliptic waveforms for inspiralling compact binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikóczi, Balázs

    2010-03-01

    The inspiral of supermassive black hole binary systems with high orbital eccentricity are the most promising sources for the gravitational wave observatories. The importance of elliptic gravitational waveforms in various physical scenarios has been emphasized by several authors (Wahlquist 1987, Moreno-Garrido, Buitrago and Mediavilla 1994, Martel and Poisson 1999). Taking into account the eccentricity of the orbit in the total waveform improves the parameter estimation for these sources, as it is shown by the construction and analyzation of the Fisher information matrix. In our work we use the Fourier-Bessel analysis of the Kepler motion and the stationary phase approximation of time-depend waveforms.

  18. Energy flows in rock mass under tidal deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klishin, SV; Revuzhenko, AF

    2017-02-01

    Under analysis is the stress state of an elliptical domain under varying loading conditions. The energy flow lines are plotted. The paper demonstrates the effect of the boundary conditions on the shape of the flow lines.

  19. Parametric resonance in the dynamics of an elliptic vortex in a periodically strained environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshel, Konstantin V.; Ryzhov, Eugene A.

    2017-01-01

    The model of an elliptic vortex evolving in a periodically strained background flow is studied in order to establish the possible unbounded regimes. Depending on the parameters of the exterior flow, there are three classical regimes of the elliptic vortex motion under constant linear deformation: (i) rotation, (ii) nutation, and (iii) infinite elongation. The phase portrait for the vortex dynamics features critical points which correspond to the stationary vortex not changing its form and orientation. We demonstrate that, given superimposed periodic oscillations to the exterior deformation, the phase space region corresponding to the elliptic critical point experiences parametric instability leading to locally unbounded dynamics of the vortex. This dynamics manifests itself as the vortex nutates along the strain axis while continuously elongating. This motion continues until nonlinear effects intervene near the region associated with the steady-state separatrix. Next, we show that, for specific values of the perturbation parameters, the parametric instability is effectively suppressed by nonlinearity in the primal parametric instability zone. The secondary zone of the parametric instability, on the contrary, produces an effective growth of the vortex's aspect ratio.

  20. Bäcklund transformations for the elliptic Gaudin model and a Clebsch system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zullo, Federico

    2011-07-01

    A two-parameters family of Bäcklund transformations for the classical elliptic Gaudin model is constructed. The maps are explicit, symplectic, preserve the same integrals as for the continuous flows, and are a time discretization of each of these flows. The transformations can map real variables into real variables, sending physical solutions of the equations of motion into physical solutions. The starting point of the analysis is the integrability structure of the model. It is shown how the analogue transformations for the rational and trigonometric Gaudin model are a limiting case of this one. An application to a particular case of the Clebsch system is given.

  1. Thermodynamics of Inozemtsev's elliptic spin chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klabbers, Rob

    2016-06-01

    We study the thermodynamic behaviour of Inozemtsev's long-range elliptic spin chain using the Bethe ansatz equations describing the spectrum of the model in the infinite-length limit. We classify all solutions of these equations in that limit and argue which of these solutions determine the spectrum in the thermodynamic limit. Interestingly, some of the solutions are not selfconjugate, which puts the model in sharp contrast to one of the model's limiting cases, the Heisenberg XXX spin chain. Invoking the string hypothesis we derive the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz equations (TBA-equations) from which we determine the Helmholtz free energy in thermodynamic equilibrium and derive the associated Y-system. We corroborate our results by comparing numerical solutions of the TBA-equations to a direct computation of the free energy for the finite-length hamiltonian. In addition we confirm numerically the interesting conjecture put forward by Finkel and González-López that the original and supersymmetric versions of Inozemtsev's elliptic spin chain are equivalent in the thermodynamic limit.

  2. A study of thin liquid sheet flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, Donald L.; Calfo, Frederick D.; Mcconley, Marc W.; Mcmaster, Matthew S.; Afjeh, Abdollah A.

    1993-01-01

    This study was a theoretical and experimental investigation of thin liquid sheet flows in vacuum. A sheet flow created by a narrow slit of width, W, coalesces to a point at a distance, L, as a result of surface tension forces acting at the sheet edges. As the flow coalesces, the fluid accumulates in the sheet edges. The observed triangular shape of the sheet agrees with the calculated triangular result. Experimental results for L/W as a function of Weber number, We, agree with the calculated result, L/W = the sq. root of 8We. The edge cross sectional shape is found to oscillate from elliptic to 'cigar' like to 'peanut' like and then back to elliptic in the flow direction. A theoretical one-dimensional model was developed that yielded only elliptic solutions for the edge cross section. At the points where the elliptic shapes occur, there is agreement between theory and experiment.

  3. A new form of the elliptic relaxation equation to account for wall effects in RANS modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manceau, Rémi; Hanjalić, Kemal

    2000-09-01

    Different methods for improving the behavior in the logarithmic layer of the elliptic relaxation equation, which enable the extension of Reynolds stress models or eddy viscosity models down to the wall, are tested in a channel flow at Reτ=590 and compared with direct numerical simulation (DNS) data. First, a priori tests are performed in order to confirm the improvement predicted by the theory, either with the Rotta+IP (isotropization of production) model or the Speziale-Sarkar-Gatski (SSG) model as the source term of the elliptic relaxation equation. The best form of the model is then used for full simulations, in Durbin second moment closure or in the frame of the v2¯-f model. It is shown that the results can be significantly improved, in particular by using a formulation based on the refinement of the modeling of the two-point correlations involved in the redistribution term.

  4. Craik-Criminale solutions and elliptic instability in nonlinear-reactive closure models for turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabijonas, Bruce R.; Holm, Darryl D.

    2004-04-01

    The Craik-Criminale class of exact solutions is examined for a nonlinear-reactive fluids theory that includes a family of turbulence closure models. These may be formally regarded as either large eddy simulation or Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes models of turbulence. All of the turbulence closure models in the class under investigation preserve the existence of elliptic instability, although they shift its angle of critical stability as a function of the rotation rate Ω of the coordinate system, the wave number β of the Kelvin wave, and the model parameter α, the turbulence correlation length. Elliptic instability allows a comparison among the properties of these models. It is emphasized that the physical mechanism for this instability is not wave-wave interaction, but rather wave, mean-flow interaction as governed by the choice of a model's nonlinearity.

  5. Elliptical Orbit [arrow right] 1/r[superscript 2] Force

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prentis, Jeffrey; Fulton, Bryan; Hesse, Carol; Mazzino, Laura

    2007-01-01

    Newton's proof of the connection between elliptical orbits and inverse-square forces ranks among the "top ten" calculations in the history of science. This time-honored calculation is a highlight in an upper-level mechanics course. It would be worthwhile if students in introductory physics could prove the relation "elliptical orbit" [arrow right]…

  6. Numerical computations of swirling recirculating flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, R.; Mongia, H. C.

    1980-01-01

    Swirling, recirculating, nonreacting flows were computed using a 2D elliptic program consisting of three tasks. The computations in Task 1 and 2 were made using an independent analysis for the two coaxial swirling flows. The Task 2 computations were made using the measured profiles of the mixing region. In Task 3, a modified 2D elliptic program was employed to include the effects of interaction between the inner and outer streams.

  7. Dynamic susceptibility of onion in ferromagnetic elliptical nanoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Congpu; Song, Jiefang; Xu, Jianghong; Wen, Fusheng

    2016-06-01

    Micromagnetic simulation was performed to investigate the equilibrium state and dynamic susceptibility spectra of magnetic elliptical nanoring. There are two equilibrium states (onion and vortex) obtained in elliptical nanoring. The onion state can be used to record information in MRAM. And it is important to investigate the dynamic susceptibility spectra of onion state, which is closely related to writing and reading speed of magnetic memory devices. Those results show that two or three resonance peaks are found under different thickness of elliptical nanoring with onion state, respectively. The low resonance frequency of two resonance peaks is increasing with the arm width of the elliptical ring, but is decreasing with the thickness. However, the high frequency of two resonance peaks is decreasing with the arm width of the elliptical ring.

  8. Far-infrared mapping of dusty elliptical galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lees, Joanna F.; Harper, D. A.; Rupen, Michael P.; Knapp, G. R.

    1994-01-01

    Preliminary results from a program to map the thermal far-infrared emission from cool dust in elliptical galaxies using the Yerkes 60-Channel Camera on the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO) are presented. The 160 micron emission from the elliptical NGC 6542 is apparently extended over the optical galaxy whereas the 100 micron emission is unresolved. This implies a dust temperature gradient consistent with that expected for dust with Galactic properties exposed to the general interstellar radiation field of the elliptical galaxy. Observations of the elliptical NGC 5666 and the NGC 7463/4/5 compact group (consisting of the elliptical NGC 7464, the S0 NGC 7465, and the spiral NGC 7463) are also discussed.

  9. Cotton-type and joint invariants for linear elliptic systems.

    PubMed

    Aslam, A; Mahomed, F M

    2013-01-01

    Cotton-type invariants for a subclass of a system of two linear elliptic equations, obtainable from a complex base linear elliptic equation, are derived both by spliting of the corresponding complex Cotton invariants of the base complex equation and from the Laplace-type invariants of the system of linear hyperbolic equations equivalent to the system of linear elliptic equations via linear complex transformations of the independent variables. It is shown that Cotton-type invariants derived from these two approaches are identical. Furthermore, Cotton-type and joint invariants for a general system of two linear elliptic equations are also obtained from the Laplace-type and joint invariants for a system of two linear hyperbolic equations equivalent to the system of linear elliptic equations by complex changes of the independent variables. Examples are presented to illustrate the results.

  10. Investigating the Density of Isolated Field Elliptical Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulgen, E. Kaan

    2016-02-01

    In this thesis, 215.590 elliptical galaxies with M(r) ≤ -21 in the CFHTLS-W1 field which is covering 72 sq. deg on the sky are examined . Criterion given by Smith et al. (2004) has been used to determine isolated elliptical galaxies. 118 isolated elliptical galaxies have been determined in total. By using g, r and i photometric bands, the true-colour images of candidates are produced and visually inspected. In order to have a clean list of IfEs some candidates are excluded from the final sample after visual inspection. The final sample consists of 60 IfEs which corresponds to the 0.027 per cent of the whole sample. In other words, IfE density in the W1 is 0.8 IfE / sq.deg. Since the formation of the ellipticals in the isolated regions is not known clearly, it is crucial to determine IfEs and compare their photometric and morphological properties to the normal or cluster ellipticals. When the (g-i) distributions of three different elliptical galaxy class are compared, it is found that they have almost the same colours. When the redshift distributions of the galaxies are considered, it can be seen that IfEs formed later than the cluster and normal ellipticals. The average redshift of IfEs is determined as zphot=0.284, while for normal and cluster ellipticals, it is, respectively, 0.410 and 0.732. In addition, when the effective radii of the three elliptical systems are considered, it is found that the IfEs are bigger than the other two elliptical classes.

  11. Subregions of Motion and Elliptic Halo Orbits in the Elliptic Restricted Three-Body Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campagnola, Stefano; Lo, Martin; Newton, Paul

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present regions of motion and periodic orbits in the spatial elliptic restricted three body problem (ER3BP). Periodic orbits and regions of motion are fundamental keys to understand any dynamical system; for this reason the Hill's surfaces or the families of halo orbits have been extensively studied in the frame of the circular restricted three body problem. It is our opinion that their natural extensions to the ER3BP have not been studied enough. We divide the position space into forbidden subregions, subregions of motion and low-velocity subregions.We use these notions to define necessary condition for a transfer trajectory in the ER3BP. Also we compute branches of elliptic halo orbits bifurcating from halo orbits in the circular restricted three body problem. The new periodic orbits have principal periods and stability properties different from those of the originating halo orbit.

  12. Crack-face displacements for embedded elliptic and semi-elliptical surface cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raju, I. S.

    1989-01-01

    Analytical expressions for the crack-face displacements of an embedded elliptic crack in infinite solid subjected to arbitrary tractions are obtained. The tractions on the crack faces are assumed to be expressed in a polynomial form. These displacements expressions complete the exact solution of Vijayakumar and Atluri, and Nishioki and Atluri. For the special case of an embedded crack in an infinite solid subjected to uniform pressure loading, the present displacements agree with those by Green and Sneddon. The displacement equations derived were used with the finite-element alternating method (FEAM) for the analysis of a semi-elliptic surface crack in a finite solid subjected to remote tensile loading. The maximum opening displacements obtained with FEAM are compared to those with the finite-element method with singularity elements. The maximum crack opening displacements by the two methods showed good agreement.

  13. Rotating cooloing flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kley, Wilhelm; Mathews, William G.

    1995-01-01

    We describe the evolution of the hot interstellar medium in a large, slowly rotating elliptical galaxy. Although the rotation assumed is a small fraction of the circular velocity, in accordance with recent observations, it is sufficient to have a profound influence on the X-ray emission and cooling geometry of the interstellar gas. The hot gas cools into a disk that extends out to approximately 10 kpc. The cool, dusty disks observed in the majority of elliptical galaxies may arise naturally from internal cooling rather than from mergers with gas-rich companions. As a result of angular momentum conservation in the cooling flow, the soft X-ray isophotes are quite noticeably flatter than those of the stellar image. The gas temperature is higer along the rotation axis. The rotational velocity of the gas several kiloparcsecs above the central disk far exceeds the local stellar rotation and approaches the local circular velocity as it flows toward the galactic core. The detailed appearance of the X-ray image and velocity field of the X-ray gas provide information about the global rotational properties of giant ellipticals at radii too distant for optical observations. The overall pattern of rotation in these galaxies retains information about the origin of ellipticals, particularly of their merging history. In ellipticals having radio jets, if the jets are aligned with the rotation axis of the inner cooling flow, rotation within the jet could be sustained by the rotating environment. Since most large ellipticals have modest rotation, the X-ray observations at low spatial resolution, when interpreted with spherical theoretical models, give the impression that hot gas undergoes localized cooling to very low temperatures many kiloparcsecs from the galactic core. We suggest that such apparent cooling can result in a natural way as gas cools onto a rotating disk.

  14. Elliptical Muon Helical Cooling Channel Coils

    SciTech Connect

    Kahn, S. A.; Flanagan, G.; Lopes, M. L.; Yonehara, K.

    2013-09-01

    A helical cooling channel (HCC) consisting of a pressurized gas absorber imbedded in a magnetic channel that provides solenoid, helical dipole and helical quadrupole fields has shown considerable promise in providing six-dimensional phase space reduction for muon beams. The most effective approach to implementing the desired magnetic field is a helical solenoid (HS) channel composed of short solenoid coils arranged in a helical pattern. The HS channel along with an external solenoid allows the B$_z$ and B$_{\\phi}$ components along the reference orbit to be set to any desired values. To set dB$_{\\phi}$/dr to the desired value for optimum focusing requires an additional variable to tune. We shall show that using elliptical shaped coils in the HS channel allows the flexibility to achieve the desired dB$_{\\phi}$/dr on the reference orbit without significant change to B$_z$ and B$_{\\phi}$.

  15. Magnetic elliptical polarization of Schumann resonances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sentman, D. D.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements of orthogonal, horizontal components of the magnetic field in the ELF range obtained during September 1985 show that the Schumann resonance eigenfrequencies determined separately for the north-south and east-west magnetic components differ by as much as 0.5 Hz, suggesting that the underlying magnetic signal is not linearly polarized at such times. The high degree of magnetic ellipticity found suggests that the side multiplets of the Schumann resonances corresponding to azimuthally inhomogeneous normal modes are strongly excited in the highly asymmetric earth-ionosphere cavity. The dominant sense of polarization over the measurement passband is found to be right-handed during local daylight hours, and to be left-handed during local nighttime hours.

  16. Horizon complementarity in elliptic de Sitter space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackl, Lucas; Neiman, Yasha

    2015-02-01

    We study a quantum field in elliptic de Sitter space dS4/Z2—the spacetime obtained from identifying antipodal points in dS4. We find that the operator algebra and Hilbert space cannot be defined for the entire space, but only for observable causal patches. This makes the system into an explicit realization of the horizon complementarity principle. In the absence of a global quantum theory, we propose a recipe for translating operators and states between observers. This translation involves information loss, in accordance with the fact that two observers see different patches of the spacetime. As a check, we recover the thermal state at the de Sitter temperature as a state that appears the same to all observers. This thermal state arises from the same functional that, in ordinary dS4, describes the Bunch-Davies vacuum.

  17. Theoretical results for starved elliptical contacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, B. J.; Dowson, D.

    1983-01-01

    Eighteen cases were used in the theoretical study of the influence of lubricant starvation on film thickness and pressure in elliptical elastohydrodynamic conjunctions. From the results a simple and important critical dimensionless inlet boundary distance at which lubricant starvation becomes significant was specified. This inlet boundary distance defines whether a fully flooded or a starved condition exists in the contact. Furthermore, it was found that the film thickness for a starved condition is written in dimensionless terms as a function of the inlet distance parameter and the film thickness for a fully flooded condition. Contour plots of pressure and film thickness in and around the contact are shown for fully flooded and starved conditions.

  18. Applications of Elliptic Integral and Elliptic Function to Electric Power Cable Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Kazuo

    The paper proposes an application of elliptic function to a new measuring method of electric resistivity of outer-semiconductive layer of XLPE cable. The new measuring method may substitute the conventional method. The resistivity can be obtained easily by measuring resistance between two electrodes which are attached to a circumferential edge on one side of the outer-semiconductive layer of a cable core sample. The solution process is applicable to heat conduction as well as hydromechanics.

  19. Quantum-orbit analysis for yield and ellipticity of high order harmonic generation with elliptically polarized laser field.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Zhu, Xiaosong; Zhang, Qingbin; Qin, Meiyan; Lu, Peixiang

    2013-02-25

    We perform a quantum-orbit analysis for the dependence of high-order-harmonic yield on the driving field ellipticity and the polarization properties of the generated high harmonics. The electron trajectories responsible for the emission of particular harmonics are identified. It is found that, in elliptically polarized driving field, the electrons have ellipticity-dependent initial velocities, which lead to the decrease of the ionization rate. Thus the harmonic yield steeply decreases with laser ellipticity. Besides, we show that the polarization properties of the harmonics are related to the complex momenta of the electron. The physical origin of the harmonic ellipticity is interpreted as the consequence of quantum-mechanical uncertainty of the electron momentum. Our results are verified with the experimental results as well as the numerical solutions of the time dependent Schrödinger equation from the literature.

  20. Elliptic Fourier analysis of mandibular shape.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, V F; Sforza, C; Guazzi, M; Serrao, G

    1996-01-01

    Craniofacial growth and development involve both size and shape variations. Shape variations can be assessed independently from size using mathematical methods such as the elliptic Fourier analysis, which allows a global evaluation of the shape of organs identified by their outlines independently from size, spatial orientation, and relation to reference planes. The mandibular outlines were digitized from the tracings of the Bolton standards (lateral view) from 1 to 18 years of age, and the age differences in shape independently from size were quantified using the elliptic Fourier series. A "morphologic distance" MD (i.e., a measurement of differences in shape) between each younger mandible and the oldest one was computed using the relevant Fourier coefficients like the cartesian coordinates in standard metric measurements. MD equals 0 when the profiles are identical. MD (Y) between the Bolton standard at 18 years of age and all the other Bolton tracings were significantly correlated (correlation coefficient r = 0.987, P < or = 0.001) with age (X) (semi-logarithmic interpolation Y = -3.87.log(e) X + 13.593). Differences between the size-independent shape of the Bolton standard at 18 years and the relevant plot at 1 year were located at the chin, gonion, coronoid process, anterior border of the ramus. Size differences were measured from the areas enclosed by the mandibular outlines. Mandibular area (Y) increased about 2.58 times from 1 to 18 years of age (X) (Y = -0.071.X2 + 4.917.X + 35.904, r = 0.997, P < or = 0.001). The shape effect was largely overwhelmed by the very evident size increments, and it could be measured only using the proper mathematical methods. The method developed could also be applied to the comparison between healthy and diseased individuals.

  1. Elliptical Undulators HU256 for Synchrotron SOLEIL

    SciTech Connect

    Batrakov, A.; Churkin, I.; Ilyin, I.; Kolokolnikov, Yu.; Rouvinski, E.; Semenov, E.; Steshov, A.; Vobly, P.; Briquez, F.; Chubar, O.; Dael, A.; Marcouile, O.; Marteau, F.; Roux, G.; Valleau, M.

    2007-01-19

    Three elliptical undulators HU256 of electromagnetic type were produced, tested and magnetically measured by the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russia) for Synchrotron Soleil (France). The undulators have a new design of a Bx and Bz closed structure for insertion vacuum chamber. In the elliptical undulator HU256 with period of the magnetic fields of 256 mm, the vertical magnetic field (Bzmax=0.44 T) formed by 27 Bz laminated dipole magnets is symmetric, and the horizontal magnetic field (Bxmax=0.33 T) formed by 28 Bx laminated dipole magnets is asymmetric. The undulator can work in standard mode as well as in a quasi-periodical mode. The vertical magnetic field may be modulated by switching on the modulation coils placed on the Bz dipoles. Two power supply systems allow us to modulate the horizontal magnetic field, and change the radiation spectrum. The magnetic calculations of the individual dipoles and dipoles in ''undulator'' environment were executed by means of Mermaid 3D Code. The magnetic measurements of the individual dipoles had confirmed the magnetic calculations. On basis of semiempirical dependences from the mechanical characteristics the estimates of the magnetic parameters for all dipoles were calculated. Sorting of dipoles in the undulators have been done, and it has improved the magnetic parameters of the assembled undulators in comparison with the statistical estimations. The magnetic measurements of the undulators HU256 were carried out at Budker INP by Hall probes and at Soleil by Hall probes and Stretched Wire. Now the 1st undulator HU256 is installed at Soleil Storage Ring.

  2. Ellipticals: core-Sérsic vs Nuker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, D. F.

    2004-12-01

    HST has given the first look at elliptical galaxies on scales <1". Lauer et al (1995) used the Wide Field Planetary Camera (WFPC -1) to map the intensity of light I(r) in the inner 10" of 45 type E and S0 galaxies. They discovered that about 40% of the 39 ellipticals could not be described by a single power law. These galaxies have a core region where the power law I ∝ r-γ is less steep than the outer region I ∝ r-β . The resulting Nuker law allows for a smooth transition between these regions at a break radius rb. The physical rb varies widely: 30 pc < rb < 1200 pc. Rest et al (2001) used WFPC -2 to confirm the original WFPC -1 results with additional galaxies. Using the full WFPC -2 mosaic, Trujillo, Erwin, Ramos, and Graham (2004) have extended the angular range of Rest et al by a factor between 3 and 8. They find that the extended outer region is incompatible with a Nuker law. Rather the power law for the outer region must be replaced by the Sérsic law, I(r) ∝ e-bn r1/n. They also find that the break radius is generally much reduced. Their published study of 9 core-Sérsic galaxies has 20 pc< rb <150 pc. The new range of rb fits well within 1 wavelength λ of the non-Newtonian sinusoidal gravity. Here the potential of a point mass is GM cos(2 π r/λ )/r and λ =425 pc. (Bartlett 2001, 2004). With this gravity, the potential towards the center of any spherical mass distribution varies as ± sin(2 π r/λ )/r. I identify the + sign with the core-Sérsic galaxies and the - sign with the pure Sérsic galaxies. I will relate Sérsic's n to cosmological time t.

  3. Canonical Nonlinear Viscous Core Solution in pipe and elliptical geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozcakir, Ozge

    2016-11-01

    In an earlier paper (Ozcakir et al. (2016)), two new nonlinear traveling wave solutions were found with collapsing structure towards the center of the pipe as Reynolds number R -> ∞ , which were called Nonlinear Viscous Core (NVC) states. Asymptotic scaling arguments suggested that the NVC state collapse rate scales as R - 1 / 4 where axial, radial and azimuthal velocity perturbations from Hagen-Poiseuille flow scale as R - 1 / 2, R - 3 / 4 and R - 3 / 4 respectively, while (1 - c) = O (R - 1 / 2) where c is the traveling wave speed. The theoretical scaling results were roughly consistent with full Navier-Stokes numerical computations in the range 105 < R <106 . In the present paper, through numerical solutions, we show that the scaled parameter free canonical differential equations derived in Ozcakir et al. (2016) indeed has solution that satisfies requisite far-field conditions. We also show that these are in good agreement with full Navier-Stokes calculations in a larger R range than previously calculated (R upto 106). Further, we extend our study to NVC states for pipes with elliptical cross-section and identify similar canonical structure in these cases. National Science Foundation NSF-DMS-1515755, EPSRC Grant EP/1037948/1.

  4. Dusty Feedback from Massive Black Holes in Two Elliptical Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Temi, P.; Brighenti, F.; Mathews, W. G.; Amblard, A.; Riguccini, L.

    2013-01-01

    Far-infrared dust emission from elliptical galaxies informs us about galaxy mergers, feedback energy outbursts from supermassive black holes and the age of galactic stars. We report on the role of AGN feedback observationally by looking for its signatures in elliptical galaxies at recent epochs in the nearby universe. We present Herschel observations of two elliptical galaxies with strong and spatially extended FIR emission from colder grains 5-10 kpc distant from the galaxy cores. Extended excess cold dust emission is interpreted as evidence of recent feedback-generated AGN energy outbursts in these galaxies, visible only in the FIR, from buoyant gaseous outflows from the galaxy cores.

  5. Galerkin Methods for Nonlinear Elliptic Equations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdoch, Thomas

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. This thesis exploits in the nonlinear situation the optimal approximation property of the finite element method for linear, elliptic problems. Of particular interest are the steady state semiconductor equations in one and two dimensions. Instead of discretising the differential equations by the finite element method and solving the nonlinear algebraic equations by Newton's method, a Newton linearisation of the continuous problem is preferred and a sequence of linear problems solved until some convergence criterion is achieved. For nonlinear Poisson equations, this approach reduces to solving a sequence of linear, elliptic, self -adjoint problems, their approximation by the finite element being optimal in a suitably defined energy norm. Consequently, there is the potential to recover a smoother representation of the underlying solution at each step of the Newton iteration. When this approach is applied to the continuity equations for semiconductor devices, a sequence of linear problems of the form -_{nabla }(anabla u - bu) = f must be solved. The Galerkin method in its crude form does not adequately represent the true solution: however, generalising the framework to permit Petrov-Galerkin approximations remedies the situation. For one dimensional problems, the work of Barrett and Morton allows an optimal test space to be chosen at each step of the Newton iteration so that the resulting approximation is near optimal in a norm closely related to the standard L^2 norm. More detailed information about the underlying solution can then be obtained by recovering a solution of an appropriate form. For two-dimensional problems, since the optimal test functions are difficult to find in practice, an upwinding method due to Heinrich et.al. is used at each step of the Newton iteration. Also, a framework is presented in which various upwind methods may be compared. The thesis also addresses the

  6. Non-linear tides in a homogeneous rotating planet or star: global simulations of the elliptical instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, Adrian J.

    2016-06-01

    I present results from the first global hydrodynamical simulations of the elliptical instability in a tidally deformed gaseous planet (or star) with a free surface. The elliptical instability is potentially important for tidal evolution of the shortest-period hot Jupiters. I model the planet as a spin-orbit aligned or anti-aligned, and non-synchronously rotating, tidally deformed, homogeneous fluid body. A companion paper presented an analysis of the global modes and instabilities of such a planet. Here I focus on the non-linear evolution of the elliptical instability. This is observed to produce bursts of turbulence that drive the planet towards synchronism with its orbit in an erratic manner. If the planetary spin is initially anti-aligned, the elliptical instability also drives spin-orbit alignment on a similar time-scale as the spin synchronization. The instability generates differential rotation inside the planet in the form of zonal flows, which play an important role in the saturation of the instability, and in producing the observed burstiness. These results are broadly consistent with the picture obtained using a local Cartesian model (where columnar vortices played the role of zonal flows). I also simulate the instability in a container that is rigid (but stress-free) rather than free, finding broad quantitative agreement. The dissipation resulting from the elliptical instability could explain why the shortest-period hot Jupiters tend to have circular orbits inside about 2-3 d, and predicts spin synchronization (and spin-orbit alignment) out to about 10-15 d. However, other mechanisms must be invoked to explain tidal circularization for longer orbital periods.

  7. Elliptic Relaxation of a Tensor Representation for the Redistribution Terms in a Reynolds Stress Turbulence Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, J. R.; Gatski, T. B.

    2002-01-01

    A formulation to include the effects of wall proximity in a second-moment closure model that utilizes a tensor representation for the redistribution terms in the Reynolds stress equations is presented. The wall-proximity effects are modeled through an elliptic relaxation process of the tensor expansion coefficients that properly accounts for both correlation length and time scales as the wall is approached. Direct numerical simulation data and Reynolds stress solutions using a full differential approach are compared for the case of fully developed channel flow.

  8. Elliptic Hermite-Gaussian soliton in anisotropic strong nonlocal media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qing; Li, JingZhen

    2016-01-01

    The propagation of elliptic Hermite-Gaussian (HG) beam in strong nonlocal media with elliptic Gaussian-shaped response function was studied by variational approach as well as numerical simulate. The evolution equations of the beam widths in x- and y-directions are obtained and the elliptic HG soliton is found. For forming such a soliton, the ratio of the square of the beam width must be proportional to the ratio of the characteristic length of the material, and the initial power should be equal to the two critical powers in x- and y-directions. For the anisotropic nonlinearity of the media, the instability of the high-order elliptic HG beam is increase as the increase of the order.

  9. Boxy isophotes, discs and dust lanes in elliptical galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauer, T. R.

    1985-01-01

    CCD images of 42 elliptical and S0 galaxies are examined for low-contrast structures or subtle distortions of the isophotes from perfect ellipses. 75 percent of the galaxies have isophotes completely describable as concentric ellipses to within the photometry errors. 'Boxy' isophotes, stellar discs, and dust lanes are detected in the remaining 25 percent of the sample. The boxy elliptical galaxies appear dynamically indistinguishable from normal ellipticals and are therefore different from boxy bulges, which rotate rapidly. Most of the galaxies with faint discs, however, appear dynamically similar to S0 galaxies. Nearly edge-on dust lanes are found in four galaxies, which suggests that dust lanes may commonly occur in elliptical galaxies.

  10. Rigorous theory on elliptical mirror focusing for point scanning microscopy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian; Tan, Jiubin; Wilson, Tony; Zhong, Cien

    2012-03-12

    A rigorous elliptical mirror focusing formula based on spherical wave transformation is derived as a kind of imaging technique with high NA for potential applications in molecule imaging, spectroscopy and industrial artifact microscopy. An apodization factor is given and used to compare the energy conversation rules in lens transmission and parabolic and elliptical mirror reflections. Simulation results indicate that the axial HFWHM of elliptical and parabolic mirrors is about 80% of the corresponding HFWHM of lens in case of NA = 1 and φs = 0, and the side lobe noise is also slightly lower than that of lens, but the transverse HFWHM of mirrors is comparatively wider despite the width of main lobe is still smaller. In comparison with parabolic mirror based system, an elliptical mirror based system is potentially promising in aberration control of incident beam when the aperture of mirror is enlarged to adapt a large stage or specimen container at a small beam shading ratio.

  11. Elliptic Solvers with Adaptive Mesh Refinement on Complex Geometries

    SciTech Connect

    Phillip, B.

    2000-07-24

    Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) is a numerical technique for locally tailoring the resolution computational grids. Multilevel algorithms for solving elliptic problems on adaptive grids include the Fast Adaptive Composite grid method (FAC) and its parallel variants (AFAC and AFACx). Theory that confirms the independence of the convergence rates of FAC and AFAC on the number of refinement levels exists under certain ellipticity and approximation property conditions. Similar theory needs to be developed for AFACx. The effectiveness of multigrid-based elliptic solvers such as FAC, AFAC, and AFACx on adaptively refined overlapping grids is not clearly understood. Finally, a non-trivial eye model problem will be solved by combining the power of using overlapping grids for complex moving geometries, AMR, and multilevel elliptic solvers.

  12. C1,1 regularity for degenerate elliptic obstacle problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daskalopoulos, Panagiota; Feehan, Paul M. N.

    2016-03-01

    The Heston stochastic volatility process is a degenerate diffusion process where the degeneracy in the diffusion coefficient is proportional to the square root of the distance to the boundary of the half-plane. The generator of this process with killing, called the elliptic Heston operator, is a second-order, degenerate-elliptic partial differential operator, where the degeneracy in the operator symbol is proportional to the distance to the boundary of the half-plane. In mathematical finance, solutions to the obstacle problem for the elliptic Heston operator correspond to value functions for perpetual American-style options on the underlying asset. With the aid of weighted Sobolev spaces and weighted Hölder spaces, we establish the optimal C 1 , 1 regularity (up to the boundary of the half-plane) for solutions to obstacle problems for the elliptic Heston operator when the obstacle functions are sufficiently smooth.

  13. High angle-of-attack aerodynamic characteristics of crescent and elliptic wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandam, C. P.

    1989-01-01

    Static longitudinal and lateral-directional forces and moments were measured for elliptic- and crescent-wing models at high angles-of-attack in the NASA Langley 14 by 22-Ft Subsonic Tunnel. The forces and moments were obtained for an angle-of-attack range including stall and post-stall conditions at a Reynolds number based on the average wing chord of about 1.8 million. Flow-visualization photographs using a mixture of oil and titanium-dioxide were also taken for several incidence angles. The force and moment data and the flow-visualization results indicated that the crescent wing model with its highly swept tips produced much better high angle-of-attack aerodynamic characteristics than the elliptic model. Leading-edge separation-induced vortex flow over the highly swept tips of the crescent wing is thought to produce this improved behavior at high angles-of-attack. The unique planform design could result in safer and more efficient low-speed airplanes.

  14. Numerical study of hydrogen-air supersonic combustion by using elliptic and parabolized equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chitsomboon, T.; Tiwari, S. N.

    1986-01-01

    The two-dimensional Navier-Stokes and species continuity equations are used to investigate supersonic chemically reacting flow problems which are related to scramjet-engine configurations. A global two-step finite-rate chemistry model is employed to represent the hydrogen-air combustion in the flow. An algebraic turbulent model is adopted for turbulent flow calculations. The explicit unsplit MacCormack finite-difference algorithm is used to develop a computer program suitable for a vector processing computer. The computer program developed is then used to integrate the system of the governing equations in time until convergence is attained. The chemistry source terms in the species continuity equations are evaluated implicitly to alleviate stiffness associated with fast chemical reactions. The problems solved by the elliptic code are re-investigated by using a set of two-dimensional parabolized Navier-Stokes and species equations. A linearized fully-coupled fully-implicit finite difference algorithm is used to develop a second computer code which solves the governing equations by marching in spce rather than time, resulting in a considerable saving in computer resources. Results obtained by using the parabolized formulation are compared with the results obtained by using the fully-elliptic equations. The comparisons indicate fairly good agreement of the results of the two formulations.

  15. Bifurcations in elliptical, asymmetric non-neutral plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fajans, Joel; Gilson, Erik

    1999-11-01

    When subjected to a stationary, l=2 potential perturbation on the wall, a pure electron plasma will deform into an elliptical shape. At first, the plasma's ellipticity is proportional to the strength of the potential perturbation. Once the perturbation is increased beyond a critical value, the plasma equilibrium bifurcates into two off-axis states. This bifurcation has been observed experimentally and will be described in this poster. (see http://socrates.berkeley.edu/ fajans/EquilStab/EllipseBifurcation.avi)

  16. A class of variational-hemivariational inequalities of elliptic type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhenhai; Motreanu, Dumitru

    2010-07-01

    This paper is devoted to the existence of solutions for variational-hemivariational inequalities of elliptic type, with a higher order quasilinear principal part, at resonance as well as at nonresonance. The approach relies on the use of pseudomonotone operators. By means of the notion of Clarke's generalized gradient and the properties of the first eigenfunction of the quasilinear principal part, we also build a Landesman-Lazer theory in the nonsmooth framework of variational-hemivariational inequalities of elliptic type.

  17. On the explicit solutions of the elliptic Calogero system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrilov, L.; Perelomov, A. M.

    1999-12-01

    Let q1,q2,…,qN be the coordinates of N particles on the circle, interacting with the integrable potential ∑jelliptic function. We show that every symmetric elliptic function in q1,q2,…,qN is a meromorphic function in time. We give explicit formulas for these functions in terms of genus N-1 theta functions.

  18. Remarks of Elliptic Curves Derived from Ant Colony Routing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Sangsu; Kim, Daeyeoul; Singh, Dhananjay

    2011-09-01

    We deal with an ant colony based routing model for wireless multi-hop networks. Our model adopts an elliptic curve equation, which is beneficial to design pheromone dynamics for load balancing and packet delivery robustness. Due to the attribute of an elliptic curve equation, our model prevents the over-utilization of a specific node, distinctively from conventional ant colony based schemes. Numerical simulations exhibit the characteristics of our model with respect to various parameters.

  19. Depth-resolved measurements with elliptically polarized reflectance spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Maria J.; Sokolov, Konstantin

    2016-01-01

    The ability of elliptical polarized reflectance spectroscopy (EPRS) to detect spectroscopic alterations in tissue mimicking phantoms and in biological tissue in situ is demonstrated. It is shown that there is a linear relationship between light penetration depth and ellipticity. This dependence is used to demonstrate the feasibility of a depth-resolved spectroscopic imaging using EPRS. The advantages and drawbacks of EPRS in evaluation of biological tissue are analyzed and discussed. PMID:27446712

  20. Do massive black holes reside in elliptical galaxies?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fabian, A. C.; Canizares, C. R.

    1988-01-01

    The accretion by a central black hole of the hot interstellar medium in an elliptical galaxy is investigated, and the minimum expected luminosity and manner of its emission is estimated. It is not obviously detected at any wavelength. The problem of 'starving the monster', if indeed there is a monster, is raised. The simplest conclusion from the evidence is that most bright elliptical galaxies do not contain massive black holes.

  1. Beam-beam deflection and signature curves for elliptic beams

    SciTech Connect

    Ziemann, V.

    1990-10-22

    In this note we will present closed expressions for the beam-beam deflection angle for arbitrary elliptic beams including tilt. From these expressions signature curves, i.e., systematic deviations from the round beam deflection curve due to ellipticity or tilt are derived. In the course of the presentation we will prove that it is generally impossible to infer individual beam sizes from beam-beam deflection scans. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  2. Production decline analysis for a multi-fractured horizontal well considering elliptical reservoir stimulated volumes in shale gas reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Mingqiang; Duan, Yonggang; Fang, Quantang; Zhang, Tiantian

    2016-06-01

    Multi-fractured horizontal wells (MFHWs) are an effective technique for developing shale gas reservoirs. After fracturing, stimulated reservoir volumes (SRVs) invariably exist around the wellbore. In this paper, a composite elliptical SRV model for each hydraulic fracturing stage is established, based on micro-seismic events. Both the SRV and the outer regions are assumed as single-porosity media with different formation physical parameters. Based on unstructured perpendicular bisection (PEBI) grids, a mathematical model considering Darcy flow, diffusion and adsorption/desorption in shale gas reservoirs is presented. The numerical solution is obtained by combining the control volume finite element method with the fully implicit method. The model is verified by a simplified model solution. The MFHW Blasingame production decline curves, which consider elliptical SRVs in shale gas reservoirs, are plotted by computer programming. The flow regions can be divided into five flow regimes: early formation linear flow, radial flow in the SRV region, transient flow, pseudo radial flow and boundary dominated flow. Finally, the effect of six related parameters, including the SRV area size, outer region permeability, SRV region permeability, Langmuir pressure, Langmuir volume and diffusion coefficient, are analyzed on type curves. The model presented in this paper can expand our understanding of MFHW production decline behaviors in shale gas reservoirs and can be applied to estimate reservoir properties, the SRV area, and reserves in these types of reservoirs by type curve matching.

  3. Focusing of an elliptical mirror based system with aberrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jian; Ai, Min; Zhang, He; Wang, Chao; Tan, Jiubin

    2013-10-01

    The effect of primary aberrations on the focusing of an elliptical mirror based system is studied by using the Debye integral. Specifically, the apodization function for elliptical mirror is derived and expressed by the eccentricity of the elliptical mirror. For the elliptical mirror with low aperture, intensity distributions in the presence of aberrations near focus are presented based on the derived scalar theory, while for the high-aperture condition, vectorial theory is used to describe the electric field in the focal region. In particular, the effect of aberrations is studied under radially polarized illumination. Moreover, tolerance conditions are given based on the knowledge of focusing with aberrations. It is found that the elliptical mirror based system shares a similar level of tolerance conditions with that of the single lens, while both of them are more sensitive to the presence of astigmatism than other aberrations. It is believed that the results will theoretically support the application of the high-aperture elliptical mirror in scanning microscopy.

  4. ELLIPT2D: A Flexible Finite Element Code Written Python

    SciTech Connect

    Pletzer, A.; Mollis, J.C.

    2001-03-22

    The use of the Python scripting language for scientific applications and in particular to solve partial differential equations is explored. It is shown that Python's rich data structure and object-oriented features can be exploited to write programs that are not only significantly more concise than their counter parts written in Fortran, C or C++, but are also numerically efficient. To illustrate this, a two-dimensional finite element code (ELLIPT2D) has been written. ELLIPT2D provides a flexible and easy-to-use framework for solving a large class of second-order elliptic problems. The program allows for structured or unstructured meshes. All functions defining the elliptic operator are user supplied and so are the boundary conditions, which can be of Dirichlet, Neumann or Robbins type. ELLIPT2D makes extensive use of dictionaries (hash tables) as a way to represent sparse matrices.Other key features of the Python language that have been widely used include: operator over loading, error handling, array slicing, and the Tkinter module for building graphical use interfaces. As an example of the utility of ELLIPT2D, a nonlinear solution of the Grad-Shafranov equation is computed using a Newton iterative scheme. A second application focuses on a solution of the toroidal Laplace equation coupled to a magnetohydrodynamic stability code, a problem arising in the context of magnetic fusion research.

  5. Grid generation by elliptic partial differential equations for a tri-element Augmentor-Wing airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorenson, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    Two efforts to numerically simulate the flow about the Augmentor-Wing airfoil in the cruise configuration using the GRAPE elliptic partial differential equation grid generator algorithm are discussed. The Augmentor-Wing consists of a main airfoil with a slotted trailing edge for blowing and two smaller airfoils shrouding the blowing jet. The airfoil and the algorithm are described, and the application of GRAPE to an unsteady viscous flow simulation and a transonic full-potential approach is considered. The procedure involves dividing a complicated flow region into an arbitrary number of zones and ensuring continuity of grid lines, their slopes, and their point distributions across the zonal boundaries. The method for distributing the body-surface grid points is discussed.

  6. STRUCTURE AND FORMATION OF ELLIPTICAL AND SPHEROIDAL GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Kormendy, John; Fisher, David B.; Cornell, Mark E.; Bender, Ralf E-mail: dbfisher@astro.as.utexas.edu E-mail: bender@usm.uni-muenchen.de

    2009-05-15

    New surface photometry of all known elliptical galaxies in the Virgo cluster is combined with published data to derive composite profiles of brightness, ellipticity, position angle, isophote shape, and color over large radius ranges. These provide enough leverage to show that Sersic log I {proportional_to} r {sup 1/n} functions fit the brightness profiles I(r) of nearly all ellipticals remarkably well over large dynamic ranges. Therefore, we can confidently identify departures from these profiles that are diagnostic of galaxy formation. Two kinds of departures are seen at small radii. All 10 of our ellipticals with total absolute magnitudes M{sub VT} {<=} -21.66 have cuspy cores-'missing light'-at small radii. Cores are well known and naturally scoured by binary black holes (BHs) formed in dissipationless ('dry') mergers. All 17 ellipticals with -21.54 {<=} M{sub VT} {<=} -15.53 do not have cores. We find a new distinct component in these galaxies: all coreless ellipticals in our sample have extra light at the center above the inward extrapolation of the outer Sersic profile. In large ellipticals, the excess light is spatially resolved and resembles the central components predicted in numerical simulations of mergers of galaxies that contain gas. In the simulations, the gas dissipates, falls toward the center, undergoes a starburst, and builds a compact stellar component that, as in our observations, is distinct from the Sersic-function main body of the elliptical. But ellipticals with extra light also contain supermassive BHs. We suggest that the starburst has swamped core scouring by binary BHs. That is, we interpret extra light components as a signature of formation in dissipative ('wet') mergers. Besides extra light, we find three new aspects to the ('E-E') dichotomy into two types of elliptical galaxies. Core galaxies are known to be slowly rotating, to have relatively anisotropic velocity distributions, and to have boxy isophotes. We show that they have

  7. Elliptic Bessel processes and elliptic Dyson models realized as temporally inhomogeneous processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katori, Makoto

    2016-10-01

    The Bessel process with parameter D > 1 and the Dyson model of interacting Brownian motions with coupling constant β > 0 are extended to the processes in which the drift term and the interaction terms are given by the logarithmic derivatives of Jacobi's theta functions. They are called the elliptic Bessel process, eBES(D), and the elliptic Dyson model, eDYS(β), respectively. Both are realized on the circumference of a circle [0, 2πr) with radius r > 0 as temporally inhomogeneous processes defined in a finite time interval [0, t∗), t∗ < ∞. Transformations of them to Schrödinger-type equations with time-dependent potentials lead us to proving that eBES(D) and eDYS(β) can be constructed as the time-dependent Girsanov transformations of Brownian motions. In the special cases where D = 3 and β = 2, observables of the processes are defined and the processes are represented for them using the Brownian paths winding round a circle and pinned at time t∗. We show that eDYS(2) has the determinantal martingale representation for any observable. Then it is proved that eDYS(2) is determinantal for all observables for any finite initial configuration without multiple points. Determinantal processes are stochastic integrable systems in the sense that all spatio-temporal correlation functions are given by determinants controlled by a single continuous function called the spatio-temporal correlation kernel.

  8. Retrieval of Rayleigh Wave Ellipticity from Ambient Vibration Recordings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maranò, Stefano; Hobiger, Manuel; Fäh, Donat

    2017-01-01

    The analysis of ambient vibrations is a useful tool in microzonation and geotechnical investigations. Ambient vibrations are composed to a large part of surface waves, both Love and Rayleigh waves. One reason to analyse surface waves is that they carry information about the subsurface. The dispersion curve of Rayleigh waves and Love waves can be retrieved using array processing techniques. The Rayleigh wave ellipticity, including the sense of rotation of the particle motion, can also be retrieved using array techniques. These quantities are used in an inversion procedure aimed at obtaining a structural model of the subsurface. The focus of this work is the retrieval of Rayleigh wave ellipticity. We show applications of the (ML) method presented in Maranó et al. (2012) to a number of sites in Switzerland. The sites examined are chosen to reflect a wide range of soil conditions that are of interest in microzonation studies. Using a synthetic wavefield with known structural model, we compare our results with theoretical ellipticity curves and we show the accuracy of the considered algorithm. The sense of rotation of the particle motion (prograde vs. retrograde) is also estimated. In addition, we show that by modelling the presence of both Love and Rayleigh waves it is possible to mitigate the disruptive influence of Love waves on the estimation of Rayleigh wave ellipticity. Using recordings from several real sites, we show that it is possible to retrieve the ellipticity curve over a broad range of frequencies. Fundamental modes and higher modes are retrieved. Singularities of the ellipticity, corresponding to a change of the sense of rotation from prograde to retrograde (or vice versa), are detected with great accuracy. Knowledge of Rayleigh wave ellipticity, including the sense of rotation, is useful in several ways. The ellipticity angle allows us to pinpoint accurately the frequency of singularities (i.e., peaks and zeros of the H/V representation of the

  9. An elliptic parameterisation of the Zamolodchikov model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazhanov, Vladimir V.; Mangazeev, Vladimir V.; Okada, Yuichiro; Sergeev, Sergey M.

    2013-06-01

    The Zamolodchikov model describes an exact relativistic factorized scattering theory of straight strings in (2+1)-dimensional space-time. It also defines an integrable 3D lattice model of statistical mechanics and quantum field theory. The three-string S-matrix satisfies the tetrahedron equation which is a 3D analog of the Yang-Baxter equation. Each S-matrix depends on three dihedral angles formed by three intersecting planes, whereas the tetrahedron equation contains five independent spectral parameters, associated with angles of an Euclidean tetrahedron. The vertex weights are given by rather complicated expressions involving square roots of trigonometric function of the spectral parameters, which is quite unusual from the point of view of 2D solvable lattice models. In this paper we consider a particular four-parameter specialisation of the tetrahedron equation when one of its vertices goes to infinity and the tetrahedron itself degenerates into an infinite prism. We show that in this limit all the vertex weights in the tetrahedron equation can be represented as meromorphic functions on an elliptic curve. Moreover we show that a special reduction of the tetrahedron equation in this case leads precisely to an example of the tetrahedral Zamolodchikov algebra, previously constructed by Korepanov. This algebra plays important role for a "layered" construction of the Shastry's R-matrix and the 2D S-matrix appearing in the problem of the ADS/CFT correspondence for N=4 SUSY Yang-Mills theory in four dimensions. Possible applications of our results in this field are briefly discussed.

  10. Jacobi elliptic functions: A review of nonlinear oscillatory application problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovacic, Ivana; Cveticanin, Livija; Zukovic, Miodrag; Rakaric, Zvonko

    2016-10-01

    This review paper is concerned with the applications of Jacobi elliptic functions to nonlinear oscillators whose restoring force has a monomial or binomial form that involves cubic and/or quadratic nonlinearity. First, geometric interpretations of three basic Jacobi elliptic functions are given and their characteristics are discussed. It is shown then how their different forms can be utilized to express exact solutions for the response of certain free conservative oscillators. These forms are subsequently used as a starting point for a presentation of different quantitative techniques for obtaining an approximate response for free perturbed nonlinear oscillators. An illustrative example is provided. Further, two types of externally forced nonlinear oscillators are reviewed: (i) those that are excited by elliptic-type excitations with different exact and approximate solutions; (ii) those that are damped and excited by harmonic excitations, but their approximate response is expressed in terms of Jacobi elliptic functions. Characteristics of the steady-state response are discussed and certain qualitative differences with respect to the classical Duffing oscillator excited harmonically are pointed out. Parametric oscillations of the oscillators excited by an elliptic-type forcing are considered as well, and the differences with respect to the stability chart of the classical Mathieu equation are emphasized. The adjustment of the Melnikov method to derive the general condition for the onset of homoclinic bifurcations in a system parametrically excited by an elliptic-type forcing is provided and compared with those corresponding to harmonic excitations. Advantages and disadvantages of the use of Jacobi elliptic functions in nonlinear oscillatory application problems are discussed and some suggestions for future work are given.

  11. Sessile Nanodroplets on Elliptical Patches of Enhanced Lyophilicity

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the shape of a nanodroplet on a lyophilic elliptical patch in lyophobic surroundings on a flat substrate. To compute the droplet equilibrium shape, we minimize its interfacial free energy using both Surface Evolver and Monte Carlo calculations, finding good agreement between the two methods. We observe different droplet shapes, which are controlled by the droplet volume and the aspect ratio of the ellipse. In particular, we study the behavior of the nanodroplet contact angle along the three-phase contact line, explaining the different droplet shapes. Although the nanodroplet contact angle is constant and fixed by Young’s law inside and outside the elliptical patch, its value varies along the rim of the elliptical patch. We find that because of the pinning of the nanodroplet contact line at the rim of the elliptical patch, which has a nonconstant curvature, there is a regime of aspect ratios of the elliptical patch in which the nanodroplet starts expanding to the lyophobic part of the substrate, although there is still a finite area of the lyophilic patch free to be wetted. PMID:28248114

  12. Elliptic Cones Alone and with Wings at Supersonic Speed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorgensen, Leland H

    1958-01-01

    To help fill the gap in the knowledge of aerodynamics of shapes intermediate between bodies of revolution and flat triangular wings, force and moment characteristics for elliptic cones have been experimentally determined for Mach numbers of 1.97 and 2.94. Elliptic cones having cross-sectional axis ratios from 1 through 6 and with lengths and base areas equal to circular cones of fineness ratios 3.67 and 5 have been studied for angles of bank of 0 degree and 90 degrees. Elliptic and circular cones in combination with triangular wings of aspect ratios 1 and 1.5 also have been considered. The angle-of-attack range was from 0 degree to about 16 degrees, and the Reynolds number was 8 x 10(6), based on model length. In addition to the forces and moments at angle of attack, pressure distributions for elliptic cones at zero angle of attack have been determined. The results of this investigation indicate that there are distinct aerodynamic advantages to the use of elliptic cones.

  13. Observations On The Stability Of Elliptical Liquid Bridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uguz, A.

    A liquid bridge is a region of liquid suspended between two solids. These bridges occur within natural and technological contexts. For long enough cylinders in zero gravity, the bridge collapses at what is known as the Plateau limit, i.e. the bridge becomes unstable when its length exceeds its circumference. This limit is reached when there is a balance between the stabilization effect of longitudinal curvature and the destabilization effect caused by transverse curvature. In this presentation, the effect of distortion of the circular end plates to the nearby elliptical ones is studied. The circular disks can be distorted to an ellipse by many ways: usually by either keeping the area of the circle constant, or by keeping the perimeter constant, which determines the shape of the elliptical liquid bridge. Our aim is to find out the critical length of a static elliptical liquid bridge where the bridge collapses and compare it with the critical length of a cylindrical bridge by requiring that the volume of the elliptical bridge suspended between the plates 'L' apart be equal to the volume of the nearby right circular. An analytical expression is given that will let us conclude that an elliptical liquid bridge is more stable than a circular one. In addition different results will be obtained for different operating conditions and these will be discussed.

  14. Elliptic Boundary Value Problems On Non-Smooth Domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Jun

    2011-07-01

    In this dissertation we study the Lp Neumann boundary problem for Laplace's equation in convex domains and the W1,p estimates for the second order elliptic equations with Neumann boundary data in Lipschitz domains. We also study the uniform W1, p estimates for homogenization of elliptic systems. In the case of convex domains we are able to show that the Lp Neumann problem for Laplace's equation is uniquely solvable for 1 < p < infinity. In the case of second order elliptic equations in Lipschitz domains, for any fixed p > 2, we prove that a weak reverse Holder inequality implies the W1, p estimates for solutions with Neumann boundary conditions. As a result, we are able to show that if the coefficient matrix for elliptic equation is symmetric and in VMO( Rn ), the W1,p estimates hold for 32 -- epsilon < p < 3 + epsilon if n ≥ 3, and for 43 -- epsilon < p < 4 + epsilon if n = 2. Finally, we show that the uniform W 1,p estimates for homogenization of elliptic systems hold when | 1p -- 1/2| < 12n + delta. KEYWORDS: Lipschitz domains; convex domains; Neumann problem; Dirichlet problem; Homogenization problem

  15. On the Aleksandrov-Bakel'man-Pucci Estimate for Some Elliptic and Parabolic Nonlinear Operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argiolas, Roberto; Charro, Fernando; Peral, Ireneo

    2011-12-01

    In this work we prove the Aleksandrov-Bakel'man-Pucci estimate for (possibly degenerate) nonlinear elliptic and parabolic equations of the form -div left( Fleft( nabla u(x)right) right) =fleft(xright) quad in Ω subset mathbb{R}n and ut(x,t)-div left( Fleft( nabla u(x,t)right) right) =fleft( x,tright) quad in Qsubset mathbb{R}^{n+1} for F a {fancyscript{C}^1} monotone field under some suitable conditions. Examples of applications such as the p-Laplacian and the Mean Curvature Flow are considered, as well as extensions of the general results to equations that are not in divergence form, such as the m-curvature flow.

  16. Precession and circularization of elliptical space-tether motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapel, Jim D.; Grosserode, Patrick

    1993-01-01

    In this paper, we present a simplified analytic model for predicting motion of long space tethers. The perturbation model developed here addresses skip rope motion, where each end of the tether is held in place and the middle of the tether swings with a motion similar to that of a child's skip rope. If the motion of the tether midpoint is elliptical rather than circular, precession of the ellipse complicates the procedures required to damp this motion. The simplified analytic model developed in this paper parametrically predicts the precession of elliptical skip rope motion. Furthermore, the model shows that elliptic skip rope motion will circularize when damping is present in the longitudinal direction. Compared with high-fidelity simulation results, this simplified model provides excellent predictions of these phenomena.

  17. Mass distributions in elliptical galaxies at large radii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarazin, Craig L.

    1987-01-01

    Recently, X-ray observations have shown that elliptical galaxies generally contain large quantities of hot gas. Central dominant cluster ellipticals have even more gas, which they have accreted from the surrounding clusters. The mass distributions in these galaxies can be derived from the condition of hydrostatic equilibrium. M87, the best studied central dominant galaxy, has a massive, dark halo with a total mass of about 4 x 10 to the 12th solar masses within a radius of 300 kpc. The total mass-to-light ratio within this radius is at least 150 solar mass/solar luminosity. The X-ray observations of normal ellipticals also strongly suggest that they have heavy halos, although the distribution of the mass is much less certain than in M87.

  18. Ball bearing lubrication: The elastohydrodynamics of elliptical contacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, B. J.; Dowson, D.

    1981-01-01

    The history of ball bearings is examined, taking into account rollers and the wheel in the early civilizations, the development of early forms of rolling-element bearings in the classical civilizations, the Middle Ages, the Industrial Revolution, the emergence of the precision ball bearing, scientific studies of contact mechanics and rolling friction, and the past fifty years. An introduction to ball bearings is presented, and aspects of ball bearing mechanics are explored. Basic characteristics of lubrication are considered along with lubrication equations, the lubrication of rigid ellipsoidal solids, and elastohydrodynamic lubrication theory. Attention is given to the theoretical results for fully flooded elliptical hydrodynamic contacts, the theoretical results for starved elliptical contacts, experimental investigations, the elastohydrodynamics of elliptical contacts for materials of low elastic modulus, the film thickness for different regimes of fluid-film lubrication, and applications.

  19. Elliptic surface grid generation on minimal and parametrized surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spekreijse, S. P.; Nijhuis, G. H.; Boerstoel, J. W.

    1995-01-01

    An elliptic grid generation method, which generates boundary conforming grids in a two dimensional physical space, is presented. The method is based on the composition of an algebraic and elliptic transformation. The composite mapping obeys the Poisson grid generation system with control functions specified by the algebraic transformation. It is shown that the grid generation on a minimal surface in a three dimensional space is equivalent to the grid generation in a two dimensional domain in physical space. A second elliptic grid generation method, which generates boundary conforming grids on smooth surfaces, is presented. Concerning surface modeling, it is shown that bicubic Hermit interpolation is an excellent method to generate a smooth surface crossing a discrete set of control points.

  20. The correlation function of galaxy ellipticities produced by gravitational lensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miralda-Escude, Jordi

    1991-01-01

    The correlation of galaxy ellipticities produced by gravitational lensing is calculated as a function of the power spectrum of density fluctuations in the universe by generalizing an analytical method developed by Gunn (1967). The method is applied to a model where identical objects with spherically symmetric density profiles are randomly laid down in space, and to the cold dark matter model. The possibility of detecting this correlation is discussed. Although an ellipticity correlation can also be caused by an intrinsic alignment of the axes of galaxies belonging to a cluster or a supercluster, a method is suggested by which one type of correlation can be distinguished from another. The advantage of this ellipticity correlation is that it is one of the few astronomical observations that can directly probe large-scale mass fluctuations in the universe.

  1. Systematic differences between the field and cluster elliptical galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Carvalho, R. R.; Djorgovski, S.

    1992-01-01

    Multivariate statistical techniques and fundamental plane fits are used here to study possible systematic differences between field ellipticals (FEs) and cluster ellipticals (CEs). The FEs show more intrinsic scatter in their properties, especially when stellar population variables are included. Pairwise correlations for the two samples are different; the correlations are systematically better for the cluster sample, meaning that ellipticals in the two samples populate their fundamental planes in different ways. Bivariate correlations are different for the two samples, implying that they have different fundamental planes. This is especially true for the correlations which include the population variables Mg2 and (B-V), which are sensitive both to the enrichment history and the storm formation history.

  2. Nonclassical properties of odd and even elliptical states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yueyuan; Liao, Qinghong; Liu, Zhengjun; Wang, Jicheng; Liu, Shutian

    2011-01-01

    As a generalization of the optical circular states, elliptical states which are quantum superposition of coherent states on an ellipse in the α plane are constructed. The statistical properties of the states are investigated by using sub-Poissonian photon statistics, quadrature squeezing, Wigner function and phase distribution. It is shown that the elliptical states exhibit stronger quadrature squeezing. The interference fringes between the coherent states form the elliptic annuli of Fock states in the Wigner function picture. The phase distribution is no longer uniform as the circular states. An experimental scheme is proposed for generating equidistant coherent-state superpositions on an ellipse for the motion of the center of mass of a trapped ion.

  3. Dynamical properties of the soft-wall elliptical billiard.

    PubMed

    Kroetz, Tiago; Oliveira, Hércules A; Portela, Jefferson S E; Viana, Ricardo L

    2016-08-01

    Physical systems such as optical traps and microwave cavities are realistically modeled by billiards with soft walls. In order to investigate the influence of the wall softness on the billiard dynamics, we study numerically a smooth two-dimensional potential well that has the elliptical (hard-wall) billiard as a limiting case. Considering two parameters, the eccentricity of the elliptical equipotential curves and the wall hardness, which defines the steepness of the well, we show that (1) whereas the hard-wall limit is integrable and thus completely regular, the soft wall elliptical billiard exhibits chaos, (2) the chaotic fraction of the phase space depends nonmonotonically on the hardness of the wall, and (3) the effect of the hardness on the dynamics depends strongly on the eccentricity of the billiard. We further show that the limaçon billiard can exhibit enhanced chaos induced by wall softness, which suggests that our findings generalize to quasi-integrable systems.

  4. Cluster flight control for fractionated spacecraft on an elliptic orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ming; Liang, Yuying; Tan, Tian; Wei, Lixin

    2016-08-01

    This paper deals with the stabilization of cluster flight on an elliptic reference orbit by the Hamiltonian structure-preserving control using the relative position measurement only. The linearized Melton's relative equation is utilized to derive the controller and then the full nonlinear relative dynamics are employed to numerically evaluate the controller's performance. In this paper, the hyperbolic and elliptic eigenvalues and their manifolds are treated without distinction notations. This new treatment not only contributes to solving the difficulty in feedback of the unfixed-dimensional manifolds, but also allows more opportunities to set the controlled frequencies of foundational motions or to optimize control gains. Any initial condition can be stabilized on a Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser torus near a controlled elliptic equilibrium. The motions are stabilized around the natural relative trajectories rather than track a reference relative configuration. In addition, the bounded quasi-periodic trajectories generated by the controller have advantages in rapid reconfiguration and unpredictable evolution.

  5. Plastic Deformation in Profile-Coated Elliptical KB Mirrors

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Chian; Conley, R.; Qian, J.; ...

    2012-01-01

    Profile coating has been successfully applied to produce elliptical Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) mirrors using both cylindrical and flat Si substrates. Previously, focusing widths of 70 nm with 15-keV monochromatic and 80 nm with white beam were achieved using a flat Si substrate. Now, precision elliptical KB mirrors with sub-nm figure errors are produced with both Au and Pt coatings on flat substrates. Recent studies of bare Si-, Au-, and Pt-coated KB mirrors under prolonged synchrotron X-ray radiation and low-temperature vacuum annealing will be discussed in terms of film stress relaxation and Si plastic deformation.

  6. Mean Effects of Turbulence on Elliptic Instability in Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabijonas, Bruce R.; Holm, Darryl D.

    2003-03-01

    Elliptic instability in fluids is discussed in the context of the Lagrangian-averaged Navier-Stokes-alpha (LANS-α) turbulence model. This model preserves the Craik-Criminale (CC) family of solutions consisting of a columnar eddy and a Kelvin wave. The LANS-α model is shown to preserve elliptic instability. However, the model shifts the critical stability angle. This shift increases (decreases) the maximum growth rate for long (short) waves. It also introduces a band of stable CC solutions for short waves.

  7. A New Differential Pressure Flow Meter for Measurement of Human Breath Flow: Simulation and Experimental Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Bridgeman, Devon; Tsow, Francis; Xian, Xiaojun; Forzani, Erica

    2016-01-01

    The development and performance characterization of a new differential pressure-based flow meter for human breath measurements is presented in this article. The device, called a “Confined Pitot Tube,” is comprised of a pipe with an elliptically shaped expansion cavity located in the pipe center, and an elliptical disk inside the expansion cavity. The elliptical disk, named Pitot Tube, is exchangeable, and has different diameters, which are smaller than the diameter of the elliptical cavity. The gap between the disk and the cavity allows the flow of human breath to pass through. The disk causes an obstruction in the flow inside the pipe, but the elliptical cavity provides an expansion for the flow to circulate around the disk, decreasing the overall flow resistance. We characterize the new sensor flow experimentally and theoretically, using Comsol Multiphysics® software with laminar and turbulent models. We also validate the sensor, using inhalation and exhalation tests and a reference method. PMID:27818521

  8. Optics ellipticity performance of an unobscured off-axis space telescope.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Fei; Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Jianping; Shi, Guangwei; Wu, Hongbo

    2014-10-20

    With the development of astronomy, more and more attention is paid to the survey of dark matter. Dark matter cannot be seen directly but can be detected by weak gravitational lensing measurement. Ellipticity is an important parameter used to define the shape of a galaxy. Galaxy ellipticity changes with weak gravitational lensing and nonideal optics. With our design of an unobscured off-axis telescope, we implement the simulation and calculation of optics ellipticity. With an accurate model of optics PSF, the characteristic of ellipticity is modeled and analyzed. It is shown that with good optical design, the full field ellipticity can be quite small. The spatial ellipticity change can be modeled by cubic interpolation with very high accuracy. We also modeled the ellipticity variance with time and analyzed the tolerance. It is shown that the unobscured off-axis telescope has good ellipticity performance and fulfills the requirement of dark matter survey.

  9. Heat transfer enhancement of PCM melting in 2D horizontal elliptical tube using metallic porous matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jourabian, Mahmoud; Farhadi, Mousa; Rabienataj Darzi, Ahmad Ali

    2016-12-01

    In this study, the melting process of ice as a phase-change material (PCM) saturated with a nickel-steel porous matrix inside a horizontal elliptical tube is investigated. Due to the low thermal conductivity of the PCM, it is motivated to augment the heat transfer performance of the system simultaneously by finding an optimum value of the aspect ratio and impregnating a metallic porous matrix into the base PCM. The lattice Boltzmann method with a double distribution function formulated based on the enthalpy method, is applied at the representative elementary volume scale under the local thermal equilibrium assumption between the PCM and porous matrix in the composite. While reducing or increasing the aspect ratio of the circular tubes leads to the expedited melting, the 90° inclination of each elliptical tube in the case of the pure PCM melting does not affect the melting rate. With the reduction in the porosity, the effective thermal conductivity and melting rate in all tubes promoted. Although the natural convection is fully suppressed due to the significant flow blockage in the porous structure, the melting rates are generally increased in all cases.

  10. Heterogeneous mixtures of elliptical particles: Directly resolving local and global properties and responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qianlong; Reifsnider, Kenneth L.

    2013-02-01

    In our earlier papers, Prosperetti’s seminal Physalis method for fluid flows was extended to directly resolve electric fields in finite-sized particles and to investigate accurately the mutual fluid-particle, particle-particle, and particle-boundary interactions for circular/spherical particles. For the first time, the method makes the accurate prediction of the local charge distribution, force and torque on finite-sized particles possible. In the present work, the method is extended to heterogeneous mixtures of elliptical particles to further investigate the effects of the orientation and anisotropy. The direct resolution of the effect of fields in heterogeneous mixtures of elliptical particles to determine local and global properties and responses has many applications in engineering, mechanics, physics, chemistry, and biology. The method can be applied to heterogeneous materials, heterogeneous functional materials, microfluidics, and devices such as electric double layer capacitors. In the present paper, the accuracy of the method is extensively investigated even for very challenging problems, for example, for elongated rod-like particles with very high aspect ratios. The accuracy and efficiency of the method suggests that it can be used for many important applications of broad interest.

  11. On an algorithm for solving parabolic and elliptic equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Ascenzo, N.; Saveliev, V. I.; Chetverushkin, B. N.

    2015-08-01

    The present-day rapid growth of computer power, in particular, parallel computing systems of ultrahigh performance requires a new approach to the creation of models and solution algorithms for major problems. An algorithm for solving parabolic and elliptic equations is proposed. The capabilities of the method are demonstrated by solving astrophysical problems on high-performance computer systems with massive parallelism.

  12. Spectroscopic ellipsometer based on direct measurement of polarization ellipticity

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, Lionel R.

    2011-06-20

    A polarizer-sample-Wollaston prism analyzer ellipsometer is described in which the ellipsometric angles {psi} and {Delta} are determined by direct measurement of the elliptically polarized light reflected from the sample. With the Wollaston prism initially set to transmit p- and s-polarized light, the azimuthal angle P of the polarizer is adjusted until the two beams have equal intensity. This condition yields {psi}={+-}P and ensures that the reflected elliptically polarized light has an azimuthal angle of {+-}45 deg. and maximum ellipticity. Rotating the Wollaston prism through 45 deg. and adjusting the analyzer azimuth until the two beams again have equal intensity yields the ellipticity that allows {Delta} to be determined via a simple linear relationship. The errors produced by nonideal components are analyzed. We show that the polarizer dominates these errors but that for most practical purposes, the error in {psi} is negligible and the error in {Delta} may be corrected exactly. A native oxide layer on a silicon substrate was measured at a single wavelength and multiple angles of incidence and spectroscopically at a single angle of incidence. The best fit film thicknesses obtained were in excellent agreement with those determined using a traditional null ellipsometer.

  13. The infrared emission from the elliptical galaxy NGC 1052

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becklin, E. E.; Tokunaga, A. T.; Wynn-Williams, C. G.

    1982-01-01

    Multi-aperture IR photometry of the elliptical galaxy NGC 1052 shows that its IR excess is confined to a region smaller than 2 arc sec (300 pc) in diameter coincident with the visible nucleus. It is suggested that the emission in the 5-20 micron range arises from dust heated by the nonthermal source seen at other wavelengths.

  14. An elliptic singularly perturbed problem with two parameters I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teofanov, Lj.; Roos, H. G.

    2007-09-01

    In this paper we consider a singularly perturbed elliptic problem with two small parameters posed on the unit square. Its solution may have exponential, parabolic and corner layers. We give a decomposition of the solution into regular and layer components and derive pointwise bounds on the components and their derivatives. The estimates are obtained by the analysis of appropriate problems on unbounded domains.

  15. A Primer on Elliptic Functions with Applications in Classical Mechanics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brizard, Alain J.

    2009-01-01

    The Jacobi and Weierstrass elliptic functions used to be part of the standard mathematical arsenal of physics students. They appear as solutions of many important problems in classical mechanics: the motion of a planar pendulum (Jacobi), the motion of a force-free asymmetric top (Jacobi), the motion of a spherical pendulum (Weierstrass) and the…

  16. On Fibonacci Numbers Which Are Elliptic Korselt Numbers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-17

    On Fibonacci numbers which are elliptic Korselt numbers Florian Luca School of Mathematics University of the Witwatersrand P. O. Box Wits 2050, South... Witwatersrand . This author thanks this institution for hospitality. 6 References [1] W. R. Alford, A. Granville and C. Pomerance, “There are infinitely

  17. Micromagnetic simulation of hysteresis loop of elliptic permalloy nanorings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Amaresh Chandra

    2016-09-01

    Magnetic hysteresis behavior of isotropic permalloy elliptic nanorings of outer semi-major axis length (aout) 100 nm and thickness (t) 20 nm were studied with respect to the variation of two parameters: outer semiminor axis length (bout) and the difference between outer and inner dimensions (r). The outer semiminor axis length (bout) varied from 90 nm to 20 nm which covers from nearly circular nanoring to elliptic nanoring of high aspect ratio. The value of r varied in steps of 10 nm. Micromagnetic simulation of in-plane hysteresis curve of these nanorings revealed that the remanent state of all of these elliptic rings are onion states if the magnetic field is applied along the longer side of the elliptic rings. If the magnetic field is applied along the shorter side, then the remanent states turn out to be vortex state. The hysteresis loss indicated by area of the hysteresis loop was found to be decreasing gradually with the increment of either r or bout. On the other hand, the remanent magnetization increased with increment of r but decreased with the increment of bout. The changes were attributed to three parameters mainly: inner curvature, exchange energy and demagnetization energy. The changes in loop area were discussed in light of variation of these three parameters.

  18. Elastohydrodynamics of elliptical contacts for materials of low elastic modulus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, B. J.; Dowson, D.

    1983-01-01

    The influence of the ellipticity parameter k and the dimensionless speed U, load W, and materials G parameters on minimum film thickness for materials of low elastic modulus was investigated. The ellipticity parameter was varied from 1 (a ball-on-plane configuration) to 12 (a configuration approaching a line contact); U and W were each varied by one order of magnitude. Seventeen cases were used to generate the minimum- and central-film-thickness relations. The influence of lubricant starvation on minimum film thickness in starved elliptical, elastohydrodynamic configurations was also investigated for materials of low elastic modulus. Lubricant starvation was studied simply by moving the inlet boundary closer to the center of the conjunction in the numerical solutions. Contour plots of pressure and film thickness in and around the contact were presented for both fully flooded and starved lubrication conditions. It is evident from these figures that the inlet pressure contours become less circular and closer to the edge of the Hertzian contact zone and that the film thickness decreases substantially as the serverity of starvation increases. The results presented reveal the essential features of both fully flooded and starved, elliptical, elastohydrodynamic conjunctions for materials of low elastic modulus.

  19. Effect of curvature on domain wall motion in elliptical nanorings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaya, Fikriye Idil; Bickel, Jessica; Aidala, Katherine

    2014-03-01

    Understanding domain wall (DW) motion in ferromagnetic nanostructures is important to realize proposed magnetic data storage and logic devices. We investigate the effect of curvature on DW pinning and motion by studying elliptical rings using micromagnetic simulations. Elliptical rings with constant width have varying curvature, with the lowest curvature at the minor axis, and the greatest curvature at the major axis. DWs can be created at any angular position within the ellipse by the application of an appropriate uniform magnetic field. However, only some of these positions are stable when the field is removed. We study the stability and depinning of the DWs by applying a slowly increasing elliptical magnetic field to determine the magnitude of the field at which the DWs begin to move. By varying the major to minor axis ratio, we examine the effect of curvature on DW pinning. A larger field is required to move DWs in regions of higher curvature (near the major axis) than lower curvature (near the minor axis). Overall, we see that increasing the major to minor axis ratio of elliptical nanorings requires increasing field strength to depin the DWs along the major axis. Work supported in part by NSF DMR-1207924 and NSF CMMI-1025020. Simulations performed at the CNS computational facilities at Harvard University, a member of the NNIN supported by NSF Award No. ECS-0335765.

  20. Buckling characteristic of multi-laminated composite elliptical cylindrical shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassegne, Samuel Kinde; Chun, Kyoung-Sik

    2015-03-01

    Fiber-reinforced composite materials continue to experience increased adoption in aerospace, marine, automobile, and civil structures due to their high specific strength, high stiffness, and light weight. This increased use has been accompanied by applications involving non-traditional configurations such as compression members with elliptical cross-sections. To model such shapes, we develop and report an improved generalized shell element called 4EAS-FS through a combination of enhanced assumed strain and the substitute shear strain fields. A flat shell element has been developed by combining a membrane element with drilling degree-of-freedom and a plate bending element. We use the element developed to determine specifically buckling loads and mode shapes of composite laminates with elliptical cross-section including transverse shear deformations. The combined influence of shell geometry and elliptical cross-sectional parameters, fiber angle, and lay-up on the buckling loads of an elliptical cylinder is examined. It is hoped that the critical buckling loads and mode shapes presented here will serve as a benchmark for future investigations.

  1. Exploring Strange Nonchaotic Attractors through Jacobian Elliptic Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Hoz, A. Martinez; Chacon, R.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate the effectiveness of Jacobian elliptic functions (JEFs) for inquiring into the reshaping effect of quasiperiodic forces in nonlinear nonautonomous systems exhibiting strange nonchaotic attractors (SNAs). Specifically, we characterize analytically and numerically some reshaping-induced transitions starting from SNAs in the context of…

  2. The dynamical fingerprint of core scouring in massive elliptical galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, J.; Saglia, R. P.; Bender, R.; Erwin, P.; Fabricius, M.

    2014-02-10

    The most massive elliptical galaxies have low-density centers or cores that differ dramatically from the high-density centers of less massive ellipticals and bulges of disk galaxies. These cores have been interpreted as the result of mergers of supermassive black hole binaries, which depopulate galaxy centers by gravitationally slingshotting central stars toward large radii. Such binaries naturally form in mergers of luminous galaxies. Here, we analyze the population of central stellar orbits in 11 massive elliptical galaxies that we observed with the integral field spectrograph SINFONI at the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope. Our dynamical analysis is orbit-based and includes the effects of a central black hole, the mass distribution of the stars, and a dark matter halo. We show that the use of integral field kinematics and the inclusion of dark matter is important to conclude on the distribution of stellar orbits in galaxy centers. Six of our galaxies are core galaxies. In these six galaxies, but not in the galaxies without cores, we detect a coherent lack of stars on radial orbits in the core region and a uniform excess of radial orbits outside of it: when scaled by the core radius r{sub b} , the radial profiles of the classical anisotropy parameter β(r) are nearly identical in core galaxies. Moreover, they quantitatively match the predictions of black hole binary simulations, providing the first convincing dynamical evidence for core scouring in the most massive elliptical galaxies.

  3. Elliptical polarization effects in a chromatically addressed Faraday current sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, G. D.; Aspey, R. A.; Kong, M. G.; Gibson, J. R.; Jones, G. R.

    1999-01-01

    Optical polarization processes in a parallel-sided glass element used in a Faraday rotation current sensor have been considered. In such sensors the path length necessary to produce sufficient rotation of the plane of polarization is produced by a multiplicity of reflections within the glass element. It is shown that such reflections induce ellipticity of polarization and that this affects the current-sensing performance of the sensor. Two reflection cases, corresponding to total internal reflections at a glass-air interface and reflections by aluminium-coated surfaces, are considered. The latter are shown to produce higher optical attenuation but a lower degree of elliptical polarization. The implications of the induced elliptical polarization in relation to chromatically modulated polychromatic light are considered. It is shown that the resolution of the Faraday sensing is improved by minimizing the ellipticity of the polarization with the aluminium-coated reflections. However a greater dynamic range and signal strength may be achievable with the total internal reflection element.

  4. Elliptical galaxies kinematics within general relativity with renormalization group effects

    SciTech Connect

    Rodrigues, Davi C.

    2012-09-01

    The renormalization group framework can be applied to Quantum Field Theory on curved space-time, but there is no proof whether the beta-function of the gravitational coupling indeed goes to zero in the far infrared or not. In a recent paper [1] we have shown that the amount of dark matter inside spiral galaxies may be negligible if a small running of the General Relativity coupling G is present (δG/G{sub 0}∼<10{sup −7} across a galaxy). Here we extend the proposed model to elliptical galaxies and present a detailed analysis on the modeling of NGC 4494 (an ordinary elliptical) and NGC 4374 (a giant elliptical). In order to compare our results to a well known alternative model to the standard dark matter picture, we also evaluate NGC 4374 with MOND. In this galaxy MOND leads to a significative discrepancy with the observed velocity dispersion curve and has a significative tendency towards tangential anisotropy. On the other hand, the approach based on the renormalization group and general relativity (RGGR) could be applied with good results to these elliptical galaxies and is compatible with lower mass-to-light ratios (of about the Kroupa IMF type)

  5. Shielding of elliptic guides with direct sight to the moderator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böni, P.; Grünauer, F.; Schanzer, C.

    2010-12-01

    With the invention of elliptic guides, the neutron flux at instruments can be increased significantly even without sacrificing resolution. In addition, the phase space homogeneity of the delivered neutrons is improved. Using superpolished metal substrates that are coated with supermirror, it is now possible to install neutron guides close to the moderator thus decreasing the illumination losses of the guide and reducing the background because the entrance window of the elliptic guide can be decreased significantly. We have performed Monte Carlo simulations using the program package MCNP5 to calculate the shielding requirements for an elliptic guide geometry assuming that the initial guide section elements are composed of Al substrates. We show that shielding made from heavy concrete shields the neutron and γ-radiation effectively to levels below 1 μSv/h. It is shown that the elliptic geometry allows to match the phase space of the transported neutrons easily to the needs of the instruments to be installed. In particular it is possible to maintain a compact phase space during the transport of the neutrons because the reflection losses are strongly reduced.

  6. Towards a cladistics of double Yangians and elliptic algebras*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnaudon, D.; Avan, J.; Frappat, L.; Ragoucy, E.; Rossi, M.

    2000-09-01

    A self-contained description of algebraic structures, obtained by combinations of various limit procedures applied to vertex and face sl(2) elliptic quantum affine algebras, is given. New double Yangian structures of dynamical type are defined. Connections between these structures are established. A number of them take the form of twist-like actions. These are conjectured to be evaluations of universal twists.

  7. Elliptic Capture Orbits for Missions to the Near Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casal, Federico G.; Swenson, Byron L.; Mascy, Alfred C.

    1968-01-01

    Elliptic capture orbits around Mars and Venus have often been considered as means for reducing arrival and departure energy requirements for two-way missions. It had also generally been feared that the energy savings obtained by capturing a spacecraft into a highly elliptical orbit (rather than a near circular orbit of the same periapsis) would largely be offset by the penalties incurred in aligning the semi-major axis of the ellipse in such a way as to obtain the proper orientation of the departure hyperbola. This paper, presents the results of an analysis which takes into consideration the penalties arising from the requirement to match the orientation of the elliptical orbit with the asymptote of the departure hyperbola. The scientific aspects of elliptical orbits around the target planet are discussed, and it is shown that such orbits exhibit characteristics which may be considered advantageous or disadvantageous depending on the purpose of the mission. Alignment of ' the semi-major axis of the capture, ellipse relative to the, asymptote of the escape hyperbola was found not to be a critical requirement since the kinetic energy remains high over a substantial portion of the elliptical capture orbit. This 'means that the escape stage can operate efficiently even when ignited at some angle from the true periapsis point. Considerable freedom in choosing this angle is available at little propulsive cost. The resulting latitude in the choice of angles between arrival and escape asymptotes makes it possible to consider a wide variety of interplanetary transfers and planetary staytimes without the need for separate propulsive maneuvers to realign the capture ellipse before departure., Special consideration has also been g1ven to plane change maneuvers around the planet. These may be required for reasons of orbit dynamics or scientific experimentation and are not uniquely tied to elliptical captures. The sensitivity of the mass of the excursion module to the

  8. Experimental study on elliptical vibration cutting for optical microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guo; Che, Lin; Wang, Bo; Ding, Fei; Zhang, Chen Feng

    2014-08-01

    In the processing technology of optical microstructure, mechanical processing with high efficiency and quality is still dominating. However, with microstructure surface quality higher and higher, the precision and ultra precision cutting technology has been difficult to meet the needs of reality, and it still remains a big issue in production efficiency and cost. In this case, the elliptical vibration cutting method is created. At present, research on the effect of elliptical vibration cutting on surface quality of microstructures with special optical properties such as V-groove, micro pyramid and sinusoidal grid surface is rarely seen. This paper focuses on the elliptical vibration cutting process of arc groove and V-groove, aiming at finding the discipline of various parameters (frequency, amplitude, feed rate) and analyzing the surface quality through experiments. Firstly, the principle of elliptical vibration cutting is introduced, the cutting mechanism and the theoretical error are analyzed, and a vibration cutting system is designed for precision machining. Because the surface quality and burr play have a huge impact on optical microstructure, effects of the vibration frequency (0-2kHz), amplitude (0.5-2.5μm) as well as feed rate (6-30mm/min) on surface quality and burr suppression are analyzed. The experimental results show that compared to normal cutting, elliptical vibration cutting has obvious advantages. With the increases of the frequency and amplitude, the surface quality improves significantly, the surface roughness is changed from 61.5nm to 25.3nm, and burr has been suppressed to some extent.

  9. MIB method for elliptic equations with multi-material interfaces.

    PubMed

    Xia, Kelin; Zhan, Meng; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2011-06-01

    Elliptic partial differential equations (PDEs) are widely used to model real-world problems. Due to the heterogeneous characteristics of many naturally occurring materials and man-made structures, devices, and equipments, one frequently needs to solve elliptic PDEs with discontinuous coefficients and singular sources. The development of high-order elliptic interface schemes has been an active research field for decades. However, challenges remain in the construction of high-order schemes and particularly, for nonsmooth interfaces, i.e., interfaces with geometric singularities. The challenge of geometric singularities is amplified when they are originated from two or more material interfaces joining together or crossing each other. High-order methods for elliptic equations with multi-material interfaces have not been reported in the literature to our knowledge. The present work develops matched interface and boundary (MIB) method based schemes for solving two-dimensional (2D) elliptic PDEs with geometric singularities of multi-material interfaces. A number of new MIB schemes are constructed to account for all possible topological variations due to two-material interfaces. The geometric singularities of three-material interfaces are significantly more difficult to handle. Three new MIB schemes are designed to handle a variety of geometric situations and topological variations, although not all of them. The performance of the proposed new MIB schemes is validated by numerical experiments with a wide range of coefficient contrasts, geometric singularities, and solution types. Extensive numerical studies confirm the designed second order accuracy of the MIB method for multi-material interfaces, including a case where the derivative of the solution diverges.

  10. From Flat Substrate to Elliptical KB Mirror by Profile Coating

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Chian; Conley, R.; Assoufid, L.; Cai, Z.; Qian, J.; Macrander, A.T.

    2004-05-12

    For microfocusing x-ray mirrors, an elliptical shape is essential for aberration-free optics. However, it is difficult to polish elliptical mirrors to x-ray-quality smoothness. Profile coatings have been applied on both cylindrical and flat Si substrates to make the desired elliptical shape. In a profile-coating process, the sputter source power is kept constant, while the substrate is passed over a contoured mask at a constant speed to obtain a desired profile along the direction perpendicular to the substrate-moving direction. The shape of the contour was derived from a desired profile and the thickness distribution of the coating material at the substrate level. The thickness distribution was measured on films coated on Si wafers using a spectroscopic ellipsometer with computer-controlled X-Y translation stages. The mirror coating profile is determined from the difference between the ideal surface figure of a focusing ellipse and the surface figure obtained from a long trace profiler measurement on the substrate. The number of passes and the moving speed of the substrate are determined according to the required thickness and the growth-rate calibration of a test run. A KB mirror pair was made using Au as a coating material and cylindrically polished mirrors as substrates. Synchrotron x-ray results using this KB mirror pair showed a focused spot size of 0.4 x 0.4 {mu}m2. This technique has also been applied for making elliptical KB mirrors from flat Si substrates. The challenges and solutions associated with elliptical profile coating on flat substrates will be discussed.

  11. From Flat Substrate to Elliptical KB Mirror by Profile Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chian; Conley, R.; Assoufid, L.; Cai, Z.; Qian, J.; Macrander, A. T.

    2004-05-01

    For microfocusing x-ray mirrors, an elliptical shape is essential for aberration-free optics. However, it is difficult to polish elliptical mirrors to x-ray-quality smoothness. Profile coatings have been applied on both cylindrical and flat Si substrates to make the desired elliptical shape. In a profile-coating process, the sputter source power is kept constant, while the substrate is passed over a contoured mask at a constant speed to obtain a desired profile along the direction perpendicular to the substrate-moving direction. The shape of the contour was derived from a desired profile and the thickness distribution of the coating material at the substrate level. The thickness distribution was measured on films coated on Si wafers using a spectroscopic ellipsometer with computer-controlled X-Y translation stages. The mirror coating profile is determined from the difference between the ideal surface figure of a focusing ellipse and the surface figure obtained from a long trace profiler measurement on the substrate. The number of passes and the moving speed of the substrate are determined according to the required thickness and the growth-rate calibration of a test run. A KB mirror pair was made using Au as a coating material and cylindrically polished mirrors as substrates. Synchrotron x-ray results using this KB mirror pair showed a focused spot size of 0.4 × 0.4 μm2. This technique has also been applied for making elliptical KB mirrors from flat Si substrates. The challenges and solutions associated with elliptical profile coating on flat substrates will be discussed.

  12. MIB method for elliptic equations with multi-material interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Kelin; Zhan, Meng; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2011-01-01

    Elliptic partial differential equations (PDEs) are widely used to model real-world problems. Due to the heterogeneous characteristics of many naturally occurring materials and man-made structures, devices, and equipments, one frequently needs to solve elliptic PDEs with discontinuous coefficients and singular sources. The development of high-order elliptic interface schemes has been an active research field for decades. However, challenges remain in the construction of high-order schemes and particularly, for nonsmooth interfaces, i.e., interfaces with geometric singularities. The challenge of geometric singularities is amplified when they are originated from two or more material interfaces joining together or crossing each other. High-order methods for elliptic equations with multi-material interfaces have not been reported in the literature to our knowledge. The present work develops matched interface and boundary (MIB) method based schemes for solving two-dimensional (2D) elliptic PDEs with geometric singularities of multi-material interfaces. A number of new MIB schemes are constructed to account for all possible topological variations due to two-material interfaces. The geometric singularities of three-material interfaces are significantly more difficult to handle. Three new MIB schemes are designed to handle a variety of geometric situations and topological variations, although not all of them. The performance of the proposed new MIB schemes is validated by numerical experiments with a wide range of coefficient contrasts, geometric singularities, and solution types. Extensive numerical studies confirm the designed second order accuracy of the MIB method for multi-material interfaces, including a case where the derivative of the solution diverges. PMID:21691433

  13. On Steady Laminar Basic Flows and Their Global Eigenmodes: An Elliptic Cone in Compressible Flow

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    The geometry of interest is schematically depicted in gure 1. In this gure the angles of attack and bank are also shown. Interestingly, an e...expected to carry weight in the three-dimensional geometry in question on which it is neither straightforward nor practical to perform a large number of...numerical validation experiments. The solutions of two one-dimensional Riemann problems are presented in gure 5. The initial conditions for the rst

  14. Wind-tunnel investigation of aerodynamic efficiency of three planar elliptical wings with curvature of quarter-chord line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mineck, Raymond E.; Vijgen, Paul M. H. W.

    1993-01-01

    Three planar, untwisted wings with the same elliptical chord distribution but with different curvatures of the quarter-chord line were tested in the Langley 8-Foot Transonic Pressure Tunnel (8-ft TPT) and the Langley 7- by 10-Foot High-Speed Tunnel (7 x 10 HST). A fourth wing with a rectangular planform and the same projected area and span was also tested. Force and moment measurements from the 8-ft TPT tests are presented for Mach numbers from 0.3 to 0.5 and angles of attack from -4 degrees to 7 degrees. Sketches of the oil-flow patterns on the upper surfaces of the wings and some force and moment measurements from the 7 x 10 HST tests are presented at a Mach number of 0.5. Increasing the curvature of the quarter-chord line makes the angle of zero lift more negative but has little effect on the drag coefficient at zero lift. The changes in lift-curve slope and in the Oswald efficiency factor with the change in curvature of the quarter-chord line (wingtip location) indicate that the elliptical wing with the unswept quarter-chord line has the lowest lifting efficiency and the elliptical wing with the unswept trailing edge has the highest lifting efficiency; the crescent-shaped planform wing has an efficiency in between.

  15. Spin observables in neutron-proton elastic scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmidouch, A.; Arnold, J.; van den Brandt, B.; Daum, M.; Demierre, P.; Drevenak, R.; Finger, M. |; Finger, M. Jr.; Franz, J.; Goujon, N.; Hautle, P.; Janout, Z. Jr.; Hajdas, W.; Heer, E.; Hess, R.; Koger, R.; Konter, J.A.; Lacker, H.; Lechanoine-LeLuc, C.; Lehar, F.; Mango, S.; Mascarini, C.; Rapin, D.; Roessle, E.; Schmelzbach, P.A.; Schmitt, H.; Sereni, P.; Slunecka, M.

    1995-07-15

    We describe here two experiments presently running at PSI using the NA2 polarized neutron beam. They are devoted to the measurement of 2- and 3-spin observables in {ital np} elastic scattering for kinetic energies from 230 to 590 MeV with a center of mass angular range from 60 to 180 degrees. The goal is to determine the five {ital NN} scattering amplitudes for isospin 0 in a model independent way. Preliminary results for {ital K}{sub {ital OSKO}} and {ital K}{sub {ital OSSO}} spin-transfers are presented.

  16. Imprints of the molecular-orbital geometry on the high-harmonic ellipticity.

    PubMed

    Qin, Meiyan; Zhu, Xiaosong; Liu, Kunlong; Zhang, Qingbin; Lu, Peixiang

    2012-08-27

    The influence of the orbital symmetry on the ellipticity of the high-order harmonics is investigated. It is found that the ellipticity maps have distinct shapes for the molecular orbitals with different symmetry. Our analysis shows that the feature of the harmonic ellipticity map is essentially determined by the nodal structure of the nonsymmetric orbital. The results indicate that the molecular-orbital geometry is imprinted on the ellipticity of the high-order harmonics, which invites the use of ellipticity measurements as a probe of the orbital structure for polar molecules.

  17. Vibration and Noise Characteristics of Elliptical Gears due to Non-Uniform Rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xing; Nagamura, Kazuteru; Ikejo, Kiyotaka

    Elliptical gear is a typical non-circular gear, which transmits a variable-ratio rotation and power simultaneously. Due to the non-uniform rotation, the vibration and noise of elliptical gears demonstrate particular characteristics which should be paid attention to in practical application. In this paper, two elliptical gears, which are a single elliptical gear and a double elliptical gear, have been investigated to analyze the vibration and noise characteristics of elliptical gears. The corresponding circular gears for comparison are also investigated. General factors including the torque, the rotation speed, the gear vibration acceleration and the gear noise of the four test gears are measured by running test. The root mean square of the Circumferential Vibration Acceleration (CVA) and the sound pressure level of the noise of elliptical gears are obtained from the measured results and compared with those of circular gears to clarify the vibration and noise characteristics of elliptical gears. Furthermore, the frequency analysis of the CVA of elliptical gears is conducted by Fast Fourier Transform Algorithm (FFT) and compared with that of circular gears. The main vibration component of elliptical gear is uncovered according to the obtained frequency spectra. In addition, the Critical Rotation Speeds of Tooth Separation (CRSTS) of elliptical gear is obtained and its relation with load torque is unveiled.

  18. Random source generating far field with elliptical flat-topped beam profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yongtao; Cai, Yangjian

    2014-07-01

    Circular and rectangular multi-Gaussian Schell-model (MGSM) sources which generate far fields with circular and rectangular flat-topped beam profiles were introduced just recently (Sahin and Korotkova 2012 Opt. Lett. 37 2970; Korotkova 2014 Opt. Lett. 39 64). In this paper, a random source named an elliptical MGSM source is introduced. An analytical expression for the propagation factor of an elliptical MGSM beam is derived. Furthermore, an analytical propagation formula for an elliptical MGSM beam passing through a stigmatic ABCD optical system is derived, and its propagation properties in free space are studied. It is interesting to find that an elliptical MGSM source generates a far field with an elliptical flat-topped beam profile, being qualitatively different from that of circular and rectangular MGSM sources. The ellipticity and the flatness of the elliptical flat-topped beam profile in the far field are determined by the initial coherence widths and the beam index, respectively.

  19. The Observability of Abundance Ratio Effects in Elliptical Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serven, J. L.; Worthey, G.; Briley, M. M.

    2004-12-01

    Using synthetic spectra we construct a simple model of an elliptical galaxy, with a velocity dispersion σ = 200 km s-1. Absorption feature indices are defined for C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Ba, and Eu as a first step in determining the abundances of these elements in stellar populations, such as elliptical galaxies, for which integrated light spectra are available. Then using these indices and assuming a photon error such that S/N = 100 around 5000 Å , the feasibility of measuring individual elements in real galaxies is assessed. Of the elements studied only S, K, Cu, Zn, and Eu appear to be difficult to determine; the rest appear to be at least feasible.

  20. Decoupling antennas in printed technology using elliptical metasurface cloaks

    SciTech Connect

    Bernety, Hossein M. E-mail: yakovlev@olemiss.edu; Yakovlev, Alexander B. E-mail: yakovlev@olemiss.edu

    2016-01-07

    In this paper, we extend the idea of reducing the electromagnetic interactions between transmitting radiators to the case of widely used planar antennas in printed technology based on the concept of mantle cloaking. Here, we show that how lightweight elliptical metasurface cloaks can be engineered to restore the intrinsic properties of printed antennas with strip inclusions. In order to present the novel approach, we consider two microstrip-fed monopole antennas resonating at slightly different frequencies cloaked by confocal elliptical metasurfaces formed by arrays of sub-wavelength periodic elements, partially embedded in the substrate. The presence of the metasurfaces leads to the drastic suppression of mutual near-field and far-field couplings between the antennas, and thus, their radiation patterns are restored as if they were isolated. Moreover, it is worth noting that this approach is not limited to printed radiators and can be applied to other planar structures as well.

  1. Propagation of light in a circular array of elliptical fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexeyev, C. N.; Milione, G.; Pogrebnaya, A. O.; Yavorsky, M. A.

    2016-02-01

    We have studied transformation of discrete light beams in circular arrays of elliptical fibres, in which the orientation of ellipses' axes linearly depends on the angular position of the fibre in the array and makes an half-integer number p of full rotations while tracing along its contour. We have derived analytical expressions for the spectra and supermodes that allow for evanescent coupling between the fibres in the next-neighbour approximation. We have studied the transformative properties of such an array and shown that it can generate cylindrical vector beams (CVBs) of TE and TM types. We have shown that the type of generated beam depends on the orientation of linear polarization of the incident beam. In this way, the circular array of strongly elliptical fibres enables polarization control over the type of the generated CVB. We have also shown that such arrays can change the topological charge of an incoming discrete optical vortex by the doubled array's index p.

  2. Tailoring the magnetization reversal of elliptical dots using exchange bias.

    SciTech Connect

    Sort, J.; Buchanan, K. S.; Pearson, J. E.; Hoffmann, A.; Menendez, E.; Salazar-Alvarez, G.; Baro, M. D.; Miron, M.; Rodamcq, B.; Dieny, B.; ICREA; Univ. Autonoma of Barcelona; Insti. Catala de Nanotecnologia; SPINTEC

    2008-01-01

    Exchange bias effects have been studied in elliptical dots composed of ferromagnetic Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20}-antiferromagnetic Ir{sub 20}Mn{sub 80} bilayers. The magnetization reversal mechanisms and magnetic configurations have been investigated by magneto-optic Kerr effect and magnetic force microscopy. Although the obtained bias fields in these dots are relatively small, the magnetization reversal is found to be influenced by the ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic coupling. Namely, for some off-axis angles of measurement, the magnetization reversal mechanism of the Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20}-Ir{sub 20}Mn{sub 80} ellipses depends on whether exchange bias is induced along the minor or major axis of the ellipses. Hence, exchange bias is shown to be an effective means for tailoring the magnetization reversal of elliptical dots after sample fabrication.

  3. Is the Capsular Bag Perimeter Round or Elliptical?

    PubMed Central

    Amigó, Alfredo; Bonaque-González, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To report findings that could suggest an elliptical shape of the capsular bag. Methods: Five eyes of three patients with axial length greater than 24 mm underwent phacoemulsification cataract surgery with plate-haptic multifocal toric intraocular lens (IOL) implantation oriented in the vertical meridian. Results: In all cases, correct orientation of the IOLs was verified 30 minutes after surgery. After 24 hours, all eyes demonstrated unwanted rotation of the IOLs ranging from 15 to 45 degrees. The IOLs remained stable in the new position in all cases until adhesion of the capsular bag took place. Conclusion: These observations could suggest that the perimeter of the capsular bag has an elliptical shape. Therefore, the IOL tends to become fixated in a meridian of the capsular bag that best fits the diagonal diameter of the IOL. PMID:27413495

  4. Design of elliptic cylindrical thermal cloak with layered structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xuebo; Lin, Guochang; Wang, Youshan

    2017-01-01

    Thermal cloak has potential applications in thermal protection and sensing. Based on the theories of spatial transformation and effective medium, layered structure of elliptic cylindrical thermal cloak was designed. According to theoretical analysis and numerical simulation, the layered structure has typical characteristics of perfect thermal cloak. The external temperature field remains unchanged, while the internal temperature gradient decreases obviously. Meanwhile, the cloaking effect is stable in any direction. The cloaking effect can be improved by increasing the number of discretization layers or reducing the cloak thickness. The elliptic cylindrical cloak can be considered as cylindrical cloak when the focal distance is close to zero. This study has provided an effective way for realizing thermal cloak with more complex shapes.

  5. MegaLUT: Correcting ellipticity measurements of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tewes, Malte; Cantale, Nicolas; Courbin, Frédéric; Kitching, Thomas; Meylan, Georges

    2012-03-01

    MegaLUT is a simple and fast method to correct ellipticity measurements of galaxies from the distortion by the instrumental and atmospheric point spread function (PSF), in view of weak lensing shear measurements. The method performs a classification of galaxies and associated PSFs according to measured shape parameters, and builds a lookup table of ellipticity corrections by supervised learning. This new method has been applied to the GREAT10 image analysis challenge, and demonstrates a refined solution that obtains the highly competitive quality factor of Q = 142, without any power spectrum denoising or training. Of particular interest is the efficiency of the method, with a processing time below 3 ms per galaxy on an ordinary CPU.

  6. A New Elliptical Model for Device-Free Localization

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Qian; Zhang, Haijian; Sun, Hong; Tang, Linling

    2016-01-01

    Device-free localization (DFL) based on wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is expected to detect and locate a person without the need for any wireless devices. Radio tomographic imaging (RTI) has attracted wide attention from researchers as an emerging important technology in WSNs. However, there is much room for improvement in localization estimation accuracy. In this paper, we propose a geometry-based elliptical model and adopt the orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP) algorithm. The new elliptical model uses not only line-of-sight information, but also non-line-of-sight information, which divides one ellipse into several areas with different weights. Meanwhile the OMP, which can eliminate extra bright spots in image reconstruction, is used to derive an image estimator. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm could improve the accuracy of positioning by up to 23.8% for one person and 33.3% for two persons over some state-of-the-art RTI methods. PMID:27110788

  7. Power loss in electrical steel under elliptically rotating flux conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Salz, W.; Hempel, K.A.

    1996-03-01

    The power loss of electrical steel sheet given in the data sheets of the steel manufacturers is related to linearly alternating flux conditions, measured with an Epstein frame or a single sheet tester, respectively. In the application of the material in electrical machines, the authors find large areas with rotational flux conditions, i.e., in the T-joint region of three-phase power transformers or above the stator teeth of three-phase motors and generators. The most general description of the magnetization process in this case is an elliptically rotating flux. The paper outlines the magnetic behavior of steel sheet under these flux conditions, and finally defines a simple method to predict the total power loss under elliptically rotating flux from data measured under linearly alternating and circularly rotating flux conditions only.

  8. Analysis of multigrid algorithms for nonsymmetric and indefinite elliptic problems

    SciTech Connect

    Bramble, J.H.; Pasciak, J.E.; Xu, J.

    1988-10-01

    We prove some new estimates for the convergence of multigrid algorithms applied to nonsymmetric and indefinite elliptic boundary value problems. We provide results for the so-called 'symmetric' multigrid schemes. We show that for the variable V-script-cycle and the W-script-cycle schemes, multigrid algorithms with any amount of smoothing on the finest grid converge at a rate that is independent of the number of levels or unknowns, provided that the initial grid is sufficiently fine. We show that the V-script-cycle algorithm also converges (under appropriate assumptions on the coarsest grid) but at a rate which may deteriorate as the number of levels increases. This deterioration for the V-script-cycle may occur even in the case of full elliptic regularity. Finally, the results of numerical experiments are given which illustrate the convergence behavior suggested by the theory.

  9. Void ellipticity distribution as a probe of cosmology.

    PubMed

    Park, Daeseong; Lee, Jounghun

    2007-02-23

    Cosmic voids refer to the large empty regions in the Universe with a very low number density of galaxies. Voids are likely to be severely disturbed by the tidal effect from the surrounding dark matter. We derive a completely analytic model for the void ellipticity distribution from physical principles. We use the spatial distribution of galaxies in a void as a measure of its shape, tracking the trajectory of the void galaxies under the influence of the tidal field using Lagrangian perturbation theory. Our model implies that the void ellipticity distribution depends sensitively on the cosmological parameters. Testing our model against the high-resolution Millennium Run simulation, we find excellent quantitative agreements of the analytic predictions with the numerical results.

  10. Sole Inversion Precomputation for Elliptic Curve Scalar Multiplications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahmen, Erik; Okeya, Katsuyuki

    This paper presents a new approach to precompute points [3]P, [5]P, ..., [2k-1]P, for some k ≥ 2 on an elliptic curve over \\mathbb{F}_p. Those points are required for the efficient evaluation of a scalar multiplication, the most important operation in elliptic curve cryptography. The proposed method precomputes the points in affine coordinates and needs only one single field inversion for the computation. The new method is superior to all known methods that also use one field inversion, if the required memory is taken into consideration. Compared to methods that require several field inversions for the precomputation, the proposed method is faster for a broad range of ratios of field inversions and field multiplications. The proposed method benefits especially from ratios as they occur on smart cards.

  11. Contribution of minor mergers to the growth of elliptical galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peralta de Arriba, L.; Balcells, M.; Trujillo, I.; Falcón-Barroso, J.

    2013-05-01

    Size evolution studies have shown that the structural properties of the elliptical galaxies dramatically changed with cosmic time (e. g. Trujillo et al. 2007). This result challenges the ideas developed from the detailed analyses of the stellar populations of these galaxies in the nearby universe. The study of the local elliptical galaxies has revealed their stars are old, and formed over short-timescales (see the review by Renzini 2006). In order to resolve this discrepancy, it has been hypothesized that new material continuously accretes in minor merger events (Naab et al. 2007). Index-index diagrams are a promising way to probe the minor merger scenario. However, a large sample of galaxies is required for this goal. In this poster we present our preliminary index measurements of a subsample of galaxies studied by Trujillo et al. (2007) using the spectra published by the DEEP2 DR4 survey (Newman et al. 2012).

  12. Remarks on strongly elliptic systems in Lipschitz domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agranovich, M. S.

    2012-10-01

    We present some remarks to the general theory of strongly elliptic second-order systems in bounded Lipschitz domains. The most important remarks are related to the use of the "Weyl decomposition" of the solution space. In particular, we suggest a simplified approach to the unique choice of the right-hand side of the system and the conormal derivative in the Neumann problem and obtain two-sided a priori estimates for the solutions. We consider the transmission problem for two systems in domains with a common Lipschitz boundary without the assumption that the coefficients do not have jumps on that boundary. We construct examples of strongly elliptic second-order systems for which the Neumann problem is not Fredholm.

  13. Multiple solutions for resonant semilinear elliptic problems in

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López Garza, Gabriel; Rumbos, Adolfo J.

    2005-05-01

    We prove the existence of multiple nontrivial solutions for the semilinear elliptic problem -[Delta]u=h([lambda]u+g(u)) in , , where h[set membership, variant]L1[intersection]L[alpha] for [alpha]>N/2, N[greater-or-equal, slanted]3, g is a function that has at most linear growth at infinity, g(0)=0, and [lambda] is an eigenvalue of the corresponding linear problem -[Delta]u=[lambda]hu in , . Existence of multiple solutions, for certain values of g'(0), is obtained by imposing a generalized Landesman-Lazer type condition. We use the saddle point theorem of Ambrosetti and Rabinowitz and the mountain pass theorem, as well as a Morse-index result of Ambrosetti [A. Ambrosetti, Differential Equations with Multiple Solutions and Nonlinear Functional Analysis, Equadiff 82, Lecture Notes in Math., vol. 1017, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1983] and a Leray-Schauder index theorem for mountain pass type critical points due to Hofer [H. Hofer, A note on the Topological Degree at a critical Point of Mountain Pass Type, Proc. Amer. Math. Soc. 90 (1984) 309-315]. The results of this paper are based upon multiplicity results for resonant problems on bounded domains in [E. Landesman, S. Robinson, A. Rumbos, Multiple solutions of semilinear elliptic problems at resonance, Nonlinear Anal. 24 (1995) 1049-1059] and [S. Robinson, Multiple solutions for semilinear elliptic boundary value problems at resonance, Electron. J. Differential Equations 1995 (1995) 1-14], and complement a previous existence result by the authors in [G. López Garza, A. Rumbos, Resonance and strong resonance for semilinear elliptic equations in , Electron. J. Differential Equations 2003 (2003) 1-22] for resonant problems in in which g was assumed to be bounded.

  14. Mott scattering in an elliptically polarized laser field

    SciTech Connect

    Attaourti, Y.; Manaut, B.; Taj, S.

    2004-08-01

    We study Mott scattering in the presence of a strong elliptically polarized field. Using the first Born approximation and the Dirac-Volkov states for the electron, we obtain an analytic formula for the unpolarized differential cross section. This generalizes the results found for the linearly polarized field by Li et al. [ 67, 063409 (2003)] and for the circularly polarized field by Attaourti and Manaut [ 68, 067401 (2003)].

  15. Towards a theory of automated elliptic mesh generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cordova, J. Q.

    1992-01-01

    The theory of elliptic mesh generation is reviewed and the fundamental problem of constructing computational space is discussed. It is argued that the construction of computational space is an NP-Complete problem and therefore requires a nonstandard approach for its solution. This leads to the development of graph-theoretic, combinatorial optimization and integer programming algorithms. Methods for the construction of two dimensional computational space are presented.

  16. Elliptic Curve Cryptography on Smart Cards Without Coprocessors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-09-20

    ELLIPTIC CURVE CRYPTOGRAPHY ON SMART CARDS WITHOUT COPROCESSORS Adam D. Woodbury Electrical and Computer Engineering Department adw@ece.wpi.edu...christof@ece.wpi.edu Worcester Polytechnic Institute Worcester, MA 01609 USA The Fourth Smart Card Research and Advanced Applications (CARDIS 2000...cost microprocessors with reasonable performance. We focus in this paper on the Intel 8051 family of microcontrollers popular in smart cards and other

  17. Particle Deposition in Human Lungs due to Varying Cross-Sectional Ellipticity of Left and Right Main Bronchi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Steven; Oakes, Jessica; Shadden, Shawn

    2015-11-01

    Particle deposition in the human lungs can occur with every breathe. Airbourne particles can range from toxic constituents (e.g. tobacco smoke and air pollution) to aerosolized particles designed for drug treatment (e.g. insulin to treat diabetes). The effect of various realistic airway geometries on complex flow structures, and thus particle deposition sites, has yet to be extensively investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). In this work, we created an image-based geometric airway model of the human lung and performed CFD simulations by employing multi-domain methods. Following the flow simulations, Lagrangian particle tracking was used to study the effect of cross-sectional shape on deposition sites in the conducting airways. From a single human lung model, the cross-sectional ellipticity (the ratio of major and minor diameters) of the left and right main bronchi was varied systematically from 2:1 to 1:1. The influence of the airway ellipticity on the surrounding flow field and particle deposition was determined.

  18. Instability of a supersonic shock free elliptic jet

    SciTech Connect

    Baty, R.S. ); Seiner, J.M.; Ponton, M.K. . Langley Research Center)

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison of the measured and the computed spatial stability properties of an aspect ratio 2 supersonic shock free elliptic jet. The shock free nature of the elliptic jet provides an ideal test of validity of modeling the large scale coherent structures in the initial mixing region of noncircular supersonic jets with linear hydrodynamic stability theory. Both aerodynamic and acoustic data were measured. The data are used to compute the mean velocity profiles and to provide a description of the spatial composition of pressure waves in the elliptic jet. A hybrid numerical scheme is applied to solve the Rayleigh problem governing the inviscid linear spatial stability of the jet. The measured mean velocity profiles are used to provide a qualitative model for the cross sectional geometry and the smooth velocity profiles used in the stability analysis. Computational results are presented for several modes of instability at two jet cross sections. The acoustic measurements show that a varicose instability is the jet's perferred mode of motion. The stability analysis predicts that the Strouhal number varies linearly as a function of axial distance in the jet's initial mixing region, which is in good qualitative agreement with previous measurements. 18 refs., 18 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Elliptic surface grid generation on minimal and parmetrized surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spekreijse, S. P.; Nijhuis, G. H.; Boerstoel, J. W.

    1995-01-01

    An elliptic grid generation method is presented which generates excellent boundary conforming grids in domains in 2D physical space. The method is based on the composition of an algebraic and elliptic transformation. The composite mapping obeys the familiar Poisson grid generation system with control functions specified by the algebraic transformation. New expressions are given for the control functions. Grid orthogonality at the boundary is achieved by modification of the algebraic transformation. It is shown that grid generation on a minimal surface in 3D physical space is in fact equivalent to grid generation in a domain in 2D physical space. A second elliptic grid generation method is presented which generates excellent boundary conforming grids on smooth surfaces. It is assumed that the surfaces are parametrized and that the grid only depends on the shape of the surface and is independent of the parametrization. Concerning surface modeling, it is shown that bicubic Hermite interpolation is an excellent method to generate a smooth surface which is passing through a given discrete set of control points. In contrast to bicubic spline interpolation, there is extra freedom to model the tangent and twist vectors such that spurious oscillations are prevented.

  20. Elliptic nozzle aspect ratio effect on controlled jet propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aravindh Kumar, S. M.; Rathakrishnan, Ethirajan

    2017-04-01

    The present study deals with the control of a Mach 2 elliptic jet from a convergent–divergent elliptic nozzle of aspect ratio 4 using tabs at the nozzle exit. The experiments were carried out for rectangular and triangular tabs of the same blockage, placed along the major and minor axes of the nozzle exit, at different levels of nozzle expansion. The triangular tabs along the minor axis promoted superior mixing compared to the other controlled jets and caused substantial core length reduction at all the nozzle pressure ratios studied. The rectangular tabs along the minor axis caused core length reduction at all pressure ratios, but the values were minimal compared to that of triangular tabs along the minor axis. For all the test conditions, the mixing promotion caused by tabs along the major axis was inferior to that of tabs along the minor axis. The waves present in the core of controlled jets were visualized using a shadowgraph. Comparison of the present results with the results of a controlled Mach 2 elliptic jet of aspect ratio 2 (Aravindh Kumar and Sathakrishnan 2016 J. Propulsion Power 32 121–33, Aravindh Kumar and Rathakrishnan 2016 J. Aerospace Eng. at press (doi:10.1177/0954410016652921)) show that for all levels of expansion, the mixing effectiveness of triangular tabs along the minor axis of an aspect ratio 4 nozzle is better than rectangular or triangular tabs along the minor axis of an aspect ratio 2 nozzle.

  1. Elliptical Fourier analysis: fundamentals, applications, and value for forensic anthropology.

    PubMed

    Caple, Jodi; Byrd, John; Stephan, Carl N

    2017-02-17

    The numerical description of skeletal morphology enables forensic anthropologists to conduct objective, reproducible, and structured tests, with the added capability of verifying morphoscopic-based analyses. One technique that permits comprehensive quantification of outline shape is elliptical Fourier analysis. This curve fitting technique allows a form's outline to be approximated via the sum of multiple sine and cosine waves, permitting the profile perimeter of an object to be described in a dense (continuous) manner at a user-defined level of precision. A large amount of shape information (the entire perimeter) can thereby be collected in contrast to other methods relying on sparsely located landmarks where information falling in between the landmarks fails to be acquired. First published in 1982, elliptical Fourier analysis employment in forensic anthropology from 2000 onwards reflects a slow uptake despite large computing power that makes its calculations easy to conduct. Without hurdles arising from calculation speed or quantity, the slow uptake may partly reside with the underlying mathematics that on first glance is extensive and potentially intimidating. In this paper, we aim to bridge this gap by pictorially illustrating how elliptical Fourier harmonics work in a simple step-by-step visual fashion to facilitate universal understanding and as geared towards increased use in forensic anthropology. We additionally provide a short review of the method's utility for osteology, a summary of past uses in forensic anthropology, and software options for calculations that largely save the user the trouble of coding customized routines.

  2. Casimir force between a microfabricated elliptic cylinder and a plate

    SciTech Connect

    Decca, R. S.; Fischbach, E.; Klimchitskaya, G. L.; Krause, D. E.; Lopez, D.; Mostepanenko, V. M.

    2011-10-15

    We investigate the Casimir force between a microfabricated elliptic cylinder (cylindrical lens) and a plate made of real materials. After a brief discussion of the fabrication procedure, which typically results in elliptic rather than circular cylinders, the Lifshitz-type formulas for the Casimir force and for its gradient are derived. In the specific case of equal semiaxes, the resulting formulas coincide with those derived previously for circular cylinders. The nanofabrication procedure may also result in asymmetric cylindrical lenses obtained from parts of two different cylinders, or rotated through some angle about the axis of the cylinder. In these cases, the Lifshitz-type formulas for the Casimir force between a lens and a plate and for its gradient are also derived, and the influence of lens asymmetry is determined. Additionally, we obtain an expression for the shift of the natural frequency of a micromachined oscillator with an attached elliptic cylindrical lens interacting with a plate via the Casimir force in a nonlinear regime.

  3. Properties of Ellipticity Correlation with Atmospheric Structure from Gemini South

    SciTech Connect

    Asztalos, S J; Treadway, T; de Vries, W H; Rosenberg, L J; Burke, D; Claver, C; Saha, A; Puxley, P

    2006-12-21

    Cosmic shear holds great promise for a precision independent measurement of {Omega}{sub m}, the mass density of the universe relative to the critical density. The signal is expected to be weak, so a thorough understanding of systematic effects is crucial. An important systematic effect is the atmosphere: shear power introduced by the atmosphere is larger than the expected signal. Algorithms exist to extract the cosmic shear from the atmospheric component, though a measure of their success applied to a range of seeing conditions is lacking. To gain insight into atmospheric shear, Gemini South imaging in conjunction with ground condition and satellite wind data were obtained. We find that under good seeing conditions Point-Spread-Function (PSF) correlations persist well beyond the separation typical of high-latitude stars. Under these conditions, ellipticity residuals based on a simple PSF interpolation can be reduced to within a factor of a few of the shot-noise induced ellipticity floor. We also find that the ellipticity residuals are highly correlated with wind direction. Finally, we correct stellar shapes using a more sophisticated procedure and generate shear statistics from stars. Under all seeing conditions in our data set the residual correlations lie everywhere below the target signal level. For good seeing we find that the systematic error attributable to atmospheric turbulence is comparable in magnitude to the statistical error (shape noise) over angular scales relevant to present lensing surveys.

  4. Properties of Ellipticity Correlation with Atmospheric Structure From Gemini South

    SciTech Connect

    Asztalos, Stephen J.; de Vries, W.H.; Rosenberg, L.J; Treadway, T.; Burke, D.; Claver, C.; Saha, A.; Puxley, P.; /Gemini Observ., La Serena

    2007-01-17

    Cosmic shear holds great promise for a precision independent measurement of {Omega}{sub m}, the mass density of the universe relative to the critical density. The signal is expected to be weak, so a thorough understanding of systematic effects is crucial. An important systematic effect is the atmosphere: shear power introduced by the atmosphere is larger than the expected signal. Algorithms exist to extract the cosmic shear from the atmospheric component, though a measure of their success applied to a range of seeing conditions is lacking. To gain insight into atmospheric shear, Gemini South imaging in conjunction with ground condition and satellite wind data were obtained. We find that under good seeing conditions Point-Spread-Function (PSF) correlations persist well beyond the separation typical of high-latitude stars. Under these conditions, ellipticity residuals based on a simple PSF interpolation can be reduced to within a factor of a few of the shot-noise induced ellipticity floor. We also find that the ellipticity residuals are highly correlated with wind direction. Finally, we correct stellar shapes using a more sophisticated procedure and generate shear statistics from stars. Under all seeing conditions in our data set the residual correlations lie everywhere below the target signal level. For good seeing we find that the systematic error attributable to atmospheric turbulence is comparable in magnitude to the statistical error (shape noise) over angular scales relevant to present lensing surveys.

  5. Shape measurement biases from underfitting and ellipticity gradients

    DOE PAGES

    Bernstein, Gary M.

    2010-08-21

    With this study, precision weak gravitational lensing experiments require measurements of galaxy shapes accurate to <1 part in 1000. We investigate measurement biases, noted by Voigt and Bridle (2009) and Melchior et al. (2009), that are common to shape measurement methodologies that rely upon fitting elliptical-isophote galaxy models to observed data. The first bias arises when the true galaxy shapes do not match the models being fit. We show that this "underfitting bias" is due, at root, to these methods' attempts to use information at high spatial frequencies that has been destroyed by the convolution with the point-spread function (PSF)more » and/or by sampling. We propose a new shape-measurement technique that is explicitly confined to observable regions of k-space. A second bias arises for galaxies whose ellipticity varies with radius. For most shape-measurement methods, such galaxies are subject to "ellipticity gradient bias". We show how to reduce such biases by factors of 20–100 within the new shape-measurement method. The resulting shear estimator has multiplicative errors < 1 part in 103 for high-S/N images, even for highly asymmetric galaxies. Without any training or recalibration, the new method obtains Q = 3000 in the GREAT08 Challenge of blind shear reconstruction on low-noise galaxies, several times better than any previous method.« less

  6. Instability of a supersonic shock free elliptic jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baty, Roy S.; Seiner, John M.; Ponton, Michael K.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison of the measured and the computed spatial stability properties of an aspect ratio 2 supersonic shock free elliptic jet. The shock free nature of the elliptic jet provides an ideal test of validity of modeling the large scale coherent structures in the initial mixing region of noncircular supersonic jets with linear hydrodynamic stability theory. Both aerodynamic and acoustic data were measured. The data are used to compute the mean velocity profiles and to provide a description of the spatial composition of pressure waves in the elliptic jet. A hybrid numerical scheme is applied to solve the Rayleigh problem governing the inviscid linear spatial stability of the jet. The measured mean velocity profiles are used to provide a qualitative model for the cross sectional geometry and the smooth velocity profiles used in the stability analysis. Computational results are presented for several modes of instability at two jet cross sections. The acoustic measurements show that a varicose instability is the jet's perferred mode of motion. The stability analysis predicts that the Strouhal number varies linearly as a function of axial distance in the jet's initial mixing region, which is in good qualitative agreement with previous measurements.

  7. Anisotropic elliptic optical fibers. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kang, Soon Ahm

    1991-01-01

    The exact characteristic equation for an anisotropic elliptic optical fiber is obtained for odd and even hybrid modes in terms of infinite determinants utilizing Mathieu and modified Mathieu functions. A simplified characteristic equation is obtained by applying the weakly guiding approximation such that the difference in the refractive indices of the core and the cladding is small. The simplified characteristic equation is used to compute the normalized guide wavelength for an elliptical fiber. When the anisotropic parameter is equal to unity, the results are compared with the previous research and they are in close agreement. For a fixed value normalized cross-section area or major axis, the normalized guide wavelength lambda/lambda(sub 0) for an anisotropic elliptic fiber is small for the larger value of anisotropy. This condition indicates that more energy is carried inside of the fiber. However, the geometry and anisotropy of the fiber have a smaller effect when the normalized cross-section area is very small or very large.

  8. Theoretical results for fully flooded, elliptical hydrodynamic contacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, B. J.; Dowson, D.

    1982-01-01

    The influence of the ellipticity parameter and the dimensionless speed, load, and materials parameters on minimum film thickness was investigated. The ellipticity parameter was varied from 1 (a ball-on-plate configuration) to 8 (a configuration approaching a line contact). The dimensionless speed parameter was varied over a range of nearly two orders of magnitude. Conditions corresponding to the use of solid materials of bronze, steel, and silicon nitride and lubricants of praffinic and naphthemic mineral oils were considered in obtaining the exponent in the dimensionless materials parameter. Thirty-four different cases were used in obtaining the minimum film thickness formula H min = 3.63U to the 0.68 power G to the 0.49 power W to the -0.073 power 1-e to the 0.68K power). A simplified expression for the ellipticity parameter was found where k = 1.03 (r(y)/r(x)) to the 0.64 power. Contour plots were also shown which indicate in detail the pressure spike and two side lobes in which the minimum film thickness occurs. These theoretical solutions of film thickness have all the essential features of the previously reported experimental observations based upon optical interferometry.

  9. Shape measurement biases from underfitting and ellipticity gradients

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, Gary M.

    2010-08-21

    With this study, precision weak gravitational lensing experiments require measurements of galaxy shapes accurate to <1 part in 1000. We investigate measurement biases, noted by Voigt and Bridle (2009) and Melchior et al. (2009), that are common to shape measurement methodologies that rely upon fitting elliptical-isophote galaxy models to observed data. The first bias arises when the true galaxy shapes do not match the models being fit. We show that this "underfitting bias" is due, at root, to these methods' attempts to use information at high spatial frequencies that has been destroyed by the convolution with the point-spread function (PSF) and/or by sampling. We propose a new shape-measurement technique that is explicitly confined to observable regions of k-space. A second bias arises for galaxies whose ellipticity varies with radius. For most shape-measurement methods, such galaxies are subject to "ellipticity gradient bias". We show how to reduce such biases by factors of 20–100 within the new shape-measurement method. The resulting shear estimator has multiplicative errors < 1 part in 103 for high-S/N images, even for highly asymmetric galaxies. Without any training or recalibration, the new method obtains Q = 3000 in the GREAT08 Challenge of blind shear reconstruction on low-noise galaxies, several times better than any previous method.

  10. Lost and found dark matter in elliptical galaxies.

    PubMed

    Dekel, A; Stoehr, F; Mamon, G A; Cox, T J; Novak, G S; Primack, J R

    2005-09-29

    There is strong evidence that the mass of the Universe is dominated by dark matter, which exerts gravitational attraction but whose exact nature is unknown. In particular, all galaxies are believed to be embedded in massive haloes of dark matter. This view has recently been challenged by the observation of surprisingly low random stellar velocities in the outskirts of ordinary elliptical galaxies, which has been interpreted as indicating a lack of dark matter. Here we show that the low velocities are in fact compatible with galaxy formation in dark-matter haloes. Using numerical simulations of disk-galaxy mergers, we find that the stellar orbits in the outer regions of the resulting ellipticals are very elongated. These stars were torn by tidal forces from their original galaxies during the first close passage and put on outgoing trajectories. The elongated orbits, combined with the steeply falling density profile of the observed tracers, explain the observed low velocities even in the presence of large amounts of dark matter. Projection effects when viewing a triaxial elliptical can lead to even lower observed velocities along certain lines of sight.

  11. Ellipticity and triangularity effects in tokamak Alfven spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puerta, Julio; Martin, Pablo; Castro, Enrique; Valdeblanquez, Eder

    2006-10-01

    Plasma configurations with ellipticity and triangularity are usual in tokamak experiments. These plasmas can be studied using a new system of coordinates of recent publications. Here this method has been applied to study Alfven spectrum in axisymmetric tokamaks with different values of ellipticity and triangularity [1-3]. Previous authors have developed numerical methods to obtain the Alfven spectrum using the Shafranov-Solove'v equilibrium flux function where the parameter ellipticity is also included [3]. Here more general configurations are treated and compared with the results of these authors, as well as those derived for the geometric optics or WKBJ approximation. The Alfven wave dispersion relation is obtained by the linearization of the MHD equations around a stationary equilibrium and the results are obtained by numerical calculations. [1] P. Martin, M. G. Haines and E. Castro, Phys. Plasma 12, 082506 (2005) [2] L. L. Lao, S. P. Hishman and R. M. Wieland, Phys. Fluids 24, 1431 (1981); H. Weitzner's Appendix. [3] G. O. Ludwig, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 37, 633 (1995) [4] S. Novo, M. N'uñez and J. Rojo, Phys. Fluids B 3, 2967 (1991)

  12. Flow at the SPS and RHIC as a quark-gluon plasma signature.

    PubMed

    Teaney, D; Lauret, J; Shuryak, E V

    2001-05-21

    Radial and elliptic flow in noncentral heavy-ion collisions can constrain the effective equation of state (EOS) of the excited nuclear matter. To this end, a model combining relativistic hydrodynamics and a hadronic transport code [Sorge, Phys. Rev. C 52, 3291 (1995)] is developed. For an EOS with a first-order phase transition, the model reproduces both the radial and elliptic flow data at the SPS. With the EOS fixed from SPS data, we quantify predictions at RHIC where the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) pressure is expected to drive additional radial and elliptic flows. Currently, the strong elliptic flow observed in the first RHIC measurements does not conclusively signal this nascent QGP pressure.

  13. Flow at the SPS and RHIC as a Quark-Gluon Plasma Signature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teaney, D.; Lauret, J.; Shuryak, E. V.

    2001-05-01

    Radial and elliptic flow in noncentral heavy-ion collisions can constrain the effective equation of state (EOS) of the excited nuclear matter. To this end, a model combining relativistic hydrodynamics and a hadronic transport code [Sorge, Phys. Rev. C 52, 3291 (1995)] is developed. For an EOS with a first-order phase transition, the model reproduces both the radial and elliptic flow data at the SPS. With the EOS fixed from SPS data, we quantify predictions at RHIC where the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) pressure is expected to drive additional radial and elliptic flows. Currently, the strong elliptic flow observed in the first RHIC measurements does not conclusively signal this nascent QGP pressure.

  14. The stability of unbounded two- and three-dimensional flows subject to body forces - Some exact solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craik, A. D. D.

    1989-01-01

    An account is given of those flows influenced by body forces that admit exact solutions similar to those identified by Craik and Criminale (1986) when body forces are absent. Bayly's (1986) inviscid Floquet stability analysis of elliptical flows is extended to incorporate a Coriolis force. With the exception of a narrow band of rotation speeds, it is found that elliptical-vortex flows are inviscidly unstable to three-dimensional plane-wave disturbances.

  15. Passive control of a falling sphere by elliptic-shaped appendages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lācis, Uǧis; Olivieri, Stefano; Mazzino, Andrea; Bagheri, Shervin

    2017-03-01

    The majority of investigations characterizing the motion of single or multiple particles in fluid flows consider canonical body shapes, such as spheres, cylinders, discs, etc. However, protrusions on bodies—either surface imperfections or appendages that serve a function—are ubiquitous in both nature and applications. In this work, we characterize how the dynamics of a sphere with an axis-symmetric wake is modified in the presence of thin three-dimensional elliptic-shaped protrusions. By investigating a wide range of three-dimensional appendages with different aspect ratios and lengths, we clearly show that the sphere with an appendage may robustly undergo an inverted-pendulum-like (IPL) instability. This means that the position of the appendage placed behind the sphere and aligned with the free-stream direction is unstable, similar to how an inverted pendulum is unstable under gravity. Due to this instability, nontrivial forces are generated on the body, leading to turn and drift, if the body is free to fall under gravity. Moreover, we identify the aspect ratio and length of the appendage that induces the largest side force on the sphere, and therefore also the largest drift for a freely falling body. Finally, we explain the physical mechanisms behind these observations in the context of the IPL instability, i.e., the balance between surface area of the appendage exposed to reversed flow in the wake and the surface area of the appendage exposed to fast free-stream flow.

  16. An upper bound solution for the spread extrusion of elliptical sections

    SciTech Connect

    Abrinia, K.; Makaremi, M.

    2007-04-07

    The three dimensional problem of extrusion of elliptical sections with side material flow or spread has been formulated using the upper bound theory. The shape of the die for such a process is such that it could allow the material to flow sideways as well as in the forward direction. When flat faced dies are used a deforming region is developed with dead metal zones. Therefore this deforming region has been represented in the formulation based on the definitions of streamlines and stream surfaces. A generalized kinematically admissible velocity field was then derived for this formulation and strain rate components obtained for the upper bound solution. The general formulation for the deforming region and the velocity and strain rate fields allow for the optimization of the upper bound solution so that the nearest geometry of the deforming region and dead metal zone to the actual one was obtained.Using this geometry a die with similar surfaces to those of the dead metal zone is designed having converging and diverging surfaces to lead the material flow. The analysis was also carried out for this die and results were obtained showing a reduction in the extrusion pressure compared to the flat faced die. Effects of reduction of area, shape complexity, spread ratio and friction on the extrusion process were also investigated.

  17. An elliptical-pore model for late-stage planar viscous sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowdy, Darren G.

    2004-02-01

    A simple ‘elliptical-pore model’ of the shrinkage of compressible pores in late-stage planar viscous sintering is proposed. The model is in the spirit of matched asymptotics and relies on splitting the flow into an ‘inner’ and ‘outer’ problem. The inner problem in the vicinity of any given pore involves solving for its free-surface evolution exactly using complex-variable methods. The outer flow due to all other pores is assumed to be given by an assembly of point sinks/sources. As a test of the model, the evolution of a singly infinite periodic row of compressible pores is considered in detail. The effectiveness of the simple model is tested by comparison with a full numerical simulation. A novel boundary integral method based on Cauchy potentials and conformal mapping is used. In the case of pores with constant pressure, it is found that pores shrink faster than if in isolation. Compressible pores obeying the ideal gas law are also studied and are found to tend to a quasi-steady non-circular state. A higher-order model is also presented and compared with numerical simulations of the viscous sintering of a doubly periodic array of pores in Stokes flow.

  18. Increased heat transfer to elliptical leading edges due to spanwise variations in the freestream momentum: Numerical and experimental results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rigby, D. L.; Vanfossen, G. J.

    1992-01-01

    A study of the effect of spanwise variation in momentum on leading edge heat transfer is discussed. Numerical and experimental results are presented for both a circular leading edge and a 3:1 elliptical leading edge. Reynolds numbers in the range of 10,000 to 240,000 based on leading edge diameter are investigated. The surface of the body is held at a constant uniform temperature. Numerical and experimental results with and without spanwise variations are presented. Direct comparison of the two-dimensional results, that is, with no spanwise variations, to the analytical results of Frossling is very good. The numerical calculation, which uses the PARC3D code, solves the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations, assuming steady laminar flow on the leading edge region. Experimentally, increases in the spanwise-averaged heat transfer coefficient as high as 50 percent above the two-dimensional value were observed. Numerically, the heat transfer coefficient was seen to increase by as much as 25 percent. In general, under the same flow conditions, the circular leading edge produced a higher heat transfer rate than the elliptical leading edge. As a percentage of the respective two-dimensional values, the circular and elliptical leading edges showed similar sensitivity to span wise variations in momentum. By equating the root mean square of the amplitude of the spanwise variation in momentum to the turbulence intensity, a qualitative comparison between the present work and turbulent results was possible. It is shown that increases in leading edge heat transfer due to spanwise variations in freestream momentum are comparable to those due to freestream turbulence.

  19. The demagnetizing energies of a uniformly magnetized cylinder with an elliptic cross-section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goode, D. A.; Rowlands, G.

    2003-12-01

    Analytic expressions for the demagnetizing energies are obtained in the form of partial series, for long elliptic cylinders and for squat ones where the ellipticity of the cross-section is unrestrained. This leaves just a small range where the demagnetizing energies are not well defined. It is found that by replacing the elliptic cylinders with rectangular blocks, a good approximation to the demagnetizing energy may be made in this small range.

  20. Current State and Future Prospect of Applications of Elliptic Function to Electric Power Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinoshita, Haruka; Watanabe, Kazuo

    The paper deals with the current state and future prospect of applications of elliptic function to the electric power and energy field. In particular, practical use of conformal mapping technology by elliptic function are introduced for electric power cables. Returning to Riemann's basic principle “thinking instead of calculation”, against the main current of numerical calculation, we have a new understanding of elliptic function analysis for the usefulness and the beautiful with simplicity and elegance.

  1. Excess ellipticity of hot and cold spots in the WMAP data?

    SciTech Connect

    Berntsen, Eirik; Hansen, Frode K. E-mail: frodekh@astro.uio.no

    2013-12-10

    We investigate claims of excess ellipticity of hot and cold spots in the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) data. Using the cosmic microwave background (CMB) data from 7 yr of observations by the WMAP satellite, we find, contrary to previous claims of a 10σ detection of excess ellipticity in the 3 yr data, that the ellipticity of hot and cold spots is perfectly consistent with simulated CMB maps based on the concordance cosmology. We further test for excess obliquity and excess skewness/kurtosis of ellipticity and obliquity and find the WMAP7 data consistent with Gaussian simulated maps.

  2. Interpreting the Elliptical Crater Populations on Mars, Venus, and the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottke, William F.; Love, Stanley G.; Tytell, David; Glotch, Timothy

    2000-05-01

    Asteroids or comets striking a planetary surface at very shallow angles produce elliptical-shaped craters. According to laboratory impact experiments (D. E. Gault and J. A. Wedekind 1978, Proc. Lunar Planet. Sci. Conf. 9th, 3843-3875), elliptical craters result from impact angles within ˜5° of horizontal and less than 1% of projectiles with isotropic impact trajectories create elliptical craters. This result disagrees with survey results which suggest that approximately 5% of all kilometer-sized craters formed on Mars, Venus, and the Moon have elliptical shapes. To explain this discrepancy, we examined the threshold incidence angle necessary to produce elliptical craters in laboratory impact experiments. Recent experiments show that aluminum targets produce elongated craters at much steeper impact angles than sand targets. This suggests that target properties are as important as the projectile's impact angle in determining the eventual ellipticity of the crater. Creating a model which interpolates between impact data produced using sand and aluminum targets, we derive a new elliptical crater threshold angle of 12° from horizontal for Mars, Venus, and the Moon. This leads to a predicted proportion of elliptical craters that matches observations within uncertainty given a random projectile population. We conclude that the observed proportion of elliptical craters on these bodies is a natural by-product of projectiles striking at random angles, and that no additional formation mechanisms are needed.

  3. DIRECT DETECTIONS OF YOUNG STARS IN NEARBY ELLIPTICAL GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, H. Alyson; Bregman, Joel N.

    2013-06-20

    Small amounts of star formation in elliptical galaxies are suggested by several results: surprisingly young ages from optical line indices, cooling X-ray gas, and mid-infrared dust emission. Such star formation has previously been difficult to directly detect, but using ultraviolet Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 imaging, we have identified individual young stars and star clusters in four nearby ellipticals. Ongoing star formation is detected in all galaxies, including three ellipticals that have previously exhibited potential signposts of star-forming conditions (NGC 4636, NGC 4697, and NGC 4374), as well as the typical ''red and dead'' NGC 3379. The current star formation in our closest targets, where we are most complete, is between 2.0 and 9.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. The star formation history was roughly constant from 0.5 to 1.5 Gyr (at (3-5) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}), but decreased by a factor of several in the past 0.3 Gyr. Most star clusters have a mass between 10{sup 2} and 10{sup 4} M{sub Sun }. The specific star formation rates of {approx}10{sup -16} yr{sup -1} (at the present day) or {approx}10{sup -14} yr{sup -1} (when averaging over the past Gyr) imply that a fraction 10{sup -8} of the stellar mass is younger than 100 Myr and 10{sup -5} is younger than 1 Gyr, quantifying the level of frosting of recent star formation over the otherwise passive stellar population. There is no obvious correlation between either the presence or spatial distribution of postulated star formation indicators and the star formation we detect.

  4. AGB Connection and Ultraviolet Luminosity Excess in Elliptical Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzzoni, Alberto; González-Lópezlira, Rosa A.

    2008-10-01

    Relying on infrared surface brightness fluctuactions to trace AGB properties in a sample of elliptical galaxies in the Virgo and Fornax Clusters, we assess the puzzling origin of the ``UV upturn'' phenomenon, recently traced to the presence of a hot horizontal branch (HB) stellar component. The UV upturn actually signals a profound change in the galaxy stellar populations, involving both the hot stellar component and red giant evolution. In particular, the strengthening of the UV rising branch is always seen to correspond to a shortening in AGB deployment; this trend can be readily interpreted as an age effect, perhaps mildly modulated by metal abundance. Brightest stars in ellipticals are all found to be genuine AGB members, all the way, and with the AGB tip exceeding the RGB tip by some 0.5-1.5 mag. The inferred core mass of these stars is found to be lesssim0.57 M⊙ among giant ellipticals. This value accounts for the recognized deficiency of planetary nebulae in these galaxies, as a result of a lengthy transition time for the post-AGB stellar core to become a hard UV emitter and eventually ``fire up'' the nebula. The combined study of galaxy (1550 - V)0 color and integrated Hβ index points to a a bimodal temperature distribution for the HB with both a red clump and an extremely blue component, in a relative proportion [N(RHB) : N(BHB)] ~ [80 : 20]. For the BHB stellar population, [Fe/H] values of either simeq-0.7 or gtrsim+0.5 dex may provide the optimum ranges to feed the needed low-mass stars (M*ll 0.58 M⊙) that at some stage begin to join the standard red clump stars.

  5. Hydrostatic equilibrium profiles for gas in elliptical galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capelo, Pedro R.; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Coppi, Paolo S.

    2010-09-01

    We present an analytic formulation for the equilibrium gas density profile of early-type galaxies that explicitly includes the contribution of stars in the gravitational potential. We build a realistic model for an isolated elliptical galaxy and explore the equilibrium gas configurations as a function of multiple parameters. For an assumed central gas temperature kBT0 = 0.6 keV, we find that neglecting the gravitational effects of stars, which can contribute substantially in the innermost regions, leads to an underestimate of the enclosed baryonic gas mass by up to ~65 per cent at the effective radius and by up to ~15 per cent at the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) scale radius, depending on the stellar baryon fraction. This formula is therefore important for estimating the baryon fraction in an unbiased fashion. These new hydrostatic equilibrium solutions, derived for the isothermal and polytropic cases, can also be used to generate more realistic initial conditions for simulations of elliptical galaxies. Moreover, the new formulation is relevant when interpreting X-ray data. We compare our composite isothermal model to the standard β-model used to fit X-ray observations of early-type galaxies, to determine the value of the NFW scale radius rs. Assuming a 10 per cent stellar baryon fraction, we find that the exclusion of stars from the gravitational potential leads to (i) an underestimate of rs by ~80 per cent and (ii) an overestimate of the enclosed dark matter at rs by a factor of ~2, compared to the equivalent β-model fit results when stars are not taken into account. For higher stellar mass fractions, a β-model is unable to accurately reproduce our solution, indicating that when the observed surface brightness profile of an isolated elliptical galaxy is found to be well fitted by a β-model, the stellar mass fraction cannot be much greater than ~10 per cent.

  6. On the elliptic genera of manifolds of Spin(7) holonomy

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, Nathan; Harrison, Sarah M.; Kachru, Shamit; Paquette, Natalie M.; Whalen, Daniel

    2015-12-16

    Superstring compactification on a manifold of Spin(7) holonomy gives rise to a 2d worldsheet conformal field theory with an extended supersymmetry algebra. The N=1 superconformal algebra is extended by additional generators of spins 2 and 5/2, and instead of just superconformal symmetry one has a c = 12 realization of the symmetry group SW(3/2,2). In this paper, we compute the characters of this supergroup and decompose the elliptic genus of a general Spin(7) compactification in terms of these characters. Here, we find suggestive relations to various sporadic groups, which are made more precise in a companion paper.

  7. On the Elliptic Genera of Manifolds of Spin(7) Holonomy

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, Nathan; Harrison, Sarah M.; Kachru, Shamit; Paquette, Natalie M.; Whalen, Daniel

    2015-12-16

    Superstring compactification on a manifold of Spin(7) holonomy gives rise to a 2d worldsheet conformal field theory with an extended supersymmetry algebra. The N=1N=1 superconformal algebra is extended by additional generators of spins 2 and 5/2, and instead of just superconformal symmetry one has a c = 12 realization of the symmetry group SW(3/2,2)SW(3/2,2) . In this paper, we compute the characters of this supergroup and decompose the elliptic genus of a general Spin(7) compactification in terms of these characters. We find suggestive relations to various sporadic groups, which are made more precise in a companion paper.

  8. Optimization design of a 20-in. elliptical MCP-PMT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ping; Tian, Jinshou; Wei, Yonglin; Liu, Hulin; Sai, Xiaofeng; He, Jianping; Chen, Lin; Wang, Xing; Lu, Yu

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the simulation work for optimizing the newly developed 20-in. elliptical MCP-PMT by enlarging the outside diameters of the two focusing electrodes and the open area of the glass bulb. Effects of biasing voltages applied to the two focusing electrodes and the MCP input facet are studied. With the new design of the 20 in. MCP-PMT, the transit time spread of the prototype can be less than 3 ns and the collection efficiency is as much as the present prototype.

  9. Chopper z-scan technique for elliptic Gaussian beams.

    PubMed

    Dávila-Pintle, J A; Reynoso-Lara, E; Bravo-García, Y E

    2016-09-05

    This paper reports an improvement to the chopper z-scan technique for elliptic Gaussian beams. This improvement results in a higher sensitivity by measuring the ratio of eclipsing time to rotating period (duty cycle) of a chopper that eclipses the beam along the main axis. It is shown that the z-scan curve of the major axis is compressed along the z-axis. This compression factor is equal to the ratio between the minor and major axes. It was found that the normalized peak-valley difference with respect to the linear value does not depend on the axis along which eclipsing occurs.

  10. Incomplete block factorization preconditioning for indefinite elliptic problems

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Chun-Hua

    1996-12-31

    The application of the finite difference method to approximate the solution of an indefinite elliptic problem produces a linear system whose coefficient matrix is block tridiagonal and symmetric indefinite. Such a linear system can be solved efficiently by a conjugate residual method, particularly when combined with a good preconditioner. We show that specific incomplete block factorization exists for the indefinite matrix if the mesh size is reasonably small. And this factorization can serve as an efficient preconditioner. Some efforts are made to estimate the eigenvalues of the preconditioned matrix. Numerical results are also given.

  11. Exact revision of the elliptically bent mirror theory

    SciTech Connect

    Mao Chengwen; Yu Xiaohan; Xiao Tiqiao; Li Aiguo; Yang Ke; Wang Hua; Yan Fen; Deng Biao

    2011-06-01

    One of the main hurdles for nanometer focusing by a bending mirror lies in the theoretical surface errors by its approximations used for the traditional theory. The impacts of approximations and analytical corrections have been discussed, and the elliptically bent mirror theory has been described during exact mathematical analysis without any approximations. These approximations are harmful for the focusing system with bigger grazing angle, bigger mirror length, and bigger numerical aperture. The properties of equal-moment and single-moment bent mirrors have been described and discussed. Because of its obvious advantages, a single-moment bending mirror has high potential ability for nanometer focusing.

  12. Generators for the elliptic curve y2 = x3-nx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Yasutsugu; Terai, Nobuhiro

    2010-07-01

    Let E:y2 = x3-nx be an elliptic curve over the rationals with a positive integer n. Mordell's theorem asserts that the group of rational points on E is finitely generated. Our interest is in the generators for its free part. Duquesne (2007) showed that if n = (2k2-2k+1)(18k2+30k+17) is square-free, then certain two points of infinite order can always be in a system of generators. We generalize this result and show that the same is true for "infinitely many" infinite families n = n(k,l) with two variables.

  13. Some fast elliptic solvers on parallel architectures and their complexities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallopoulos, E.; Saad, Youcef

    1989-01-01

    The discretization of separable elliptic partial differential equations leads to linear systems with special block triangular matrices. Several methods are known to solve these systems, the most general of which is the Block Cyclic Reduction (BCR) algorithm which handles equations with nonconsistant coefficients. A method was recently proposed to parallelize and vectorize BCR. Here, the mapping of BCR on distributed memory architectures is discussed, and its complexity is compared with that of other approaches, including the Alternating-Direction method. A fast parallel solver is also described, based on an explicit formula for the solution, which has parallel computational complexity lower than that of parallel BCR.

  14. Some fast elliptic solvers on parallel architectures and their complexities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallopoulos, E.; Saad, Y.

    1989-01-01

    The discretization of separable elliptic partial differential equations leads to linear systems with special block tridiagonal matrices. Several methods are known to solve these systems, the most general of which is the Block Cyclic Reduction (BCR) algorithm which handles equations with nonconstant coefficients. A method was recently proposed to parallelize and vectorize BCR. In this paper, the mapping of BCR on distributed memory architectures is discussed, and its complexity is compared with that of other approaches including the Alternating-Direction method. A fast parallel solver is also described, based on an explicit formula for the solution, which has parallel computational compelxity lower than that of parallel BCR.

  15. Irreducible vector bundles on some elliptic non-Kahler threefolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brînzănescu, Vasile; Vuletescu, Victor

    2015-05-01

    We study rank-2 vector bundles on non-Kähler threefolds π : X → B, which are elliptic principal bundles with at least one non-zero Chern class over a complex surface B with no curves. In this case, we prove that every rank-2 irreducible vector bundle on X is a pull-back from B up to a twist by a line bundle. These 2-vector bundles are, via the Kobayashi-Hitchin correspondence, solutions of the Yang-Mills equations on the threefold X.

  16. Existence of solution for a generalized quasilinear elliptic problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furtado, Marcelo F.; Silva, Edcarlos D.; Silva, Maxwell L.

    2017-03-01

    It establishes existence and multiplicity of solutions to the elliptic quasilinear Schrödinger equation -div(g2(u ) ∇u ) +g (u ) g'(u ) |∇u| 2 +V (x ) u =h (x ,u ) ,x ∈ℝN ,where g, h, V are suitable smooth functions. The function g is asymptotically linear at infinity and, for each fixed x ∈ℝN , the function h(x, s) behaves like s at the origin and s3 at infinity. In the proofs, we apply variational methods.

  17. Wave functions of elliptical quantum dots in a magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Daming; Lorke, Axel

    2015-03-01

    We use the variational principle to obtain the wave functions of elliptical quantum dots under the influence of an external magnetic field. For the first excited states, whose wave functions have recently been mapped experimentally, we find a simple expression, based on a linear combination of the wave functions in the absence of a magnetic field. The results illustrate how a magnetic field breaks the x-y symmetry and mixes the corresponding eigenstates. The obtained eigenenergies agree well with those obtained by more involved analytical and numerical methods.

  18. Construction of preconditioners for elliptic problems by substructuring. II

    SciTech Connect

    Bramble, J.H.; Pasciak, J.E.; Schatz, A.H.

    1987-07-01

    We give a method for constructing preconditioners for the discrete systems arising in the approximation of solutions of elliptic boundary value problems. These preconditioners are based on domain decomposition techniques and lead to algorithms which are well suited for parallel computing environments. The method presented in this paper leads to a preconditioned system with condition number proportional to d/h where d is the subdomain size and h is the mesh size. These techniques are applied to singularly perturbed problems and problems in the three dimensions. The results of numerical experiments illustrating the performance of the method on problems in two and three dimensions are given.

  19. The construction of preconditioners for elliptic problems by substructuring, IV

    SciTech Connect

    Bramble, J.H.; Pasciak, J.E.; Schatz, A.H.

    1989-07-01

    We consider the problem of solving the algebraic system of equations which result from the discretization of elliptic boundary value problems defined on three-dimensional Euclidean space. We develop preconditioners for such systems based on substructuring (also known as domain decomposition). The resulting algorithms are well suited to emerging parallel computing architectures. We describe two techniques for developing these preconditioners. A theory for the analysis of the condition number for the resulting preconditioned system is given and the results of supporting numerical experiments are presented.

  20. Iterative schemes for nonsymmetric and indefinite elliptic boundary value problems

    SciTech Connect

    Bramble, J.H.; Leyk, Z.; Pasciak, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is twofold. The first is to describe some simple and robust iterative schemes for nonsymmetric and indefinite elliptic boundary value problems. The schemes are based in the Sobolev space H ([Omega]) and require minimal hypotheses. The second is to develop algorithms utilizing a coarse-grid approximation. This leads to iteration matrices whose eigenvalues lie in the right half of the complex plane. In fact, for symmetric indefinite problems, the iteration is reduced to a well-conditioned symmetric positive definite system which can be solved by conjugate gradient interation. Applications of the general theory as well as numerical examples are given. 20 refs., 8 tabs.

  1. The construction of preconditioners for elliptic problems by substructuring, IV

    SciTech Connect

    Bramble, J.H.; Pasciak, J.E.; Schatz, A.H.

    1987-06-01

    We consider the problem of solving the algebraic system of equations which result from the discretization of elliptic boundary value problems defined on three dimensional Euclidean space. We develop preconditioners for such systems based on substructuring (also known as domain decomposition). The resulting algorithms are well suited to emerging parallel computing architectures. We describe two techniques for developing these precondictioners. A theory for the analysis of the condition number for the resulting preconditioned system is given and the results of supporting numerical experiments are presented. 16 refs., 2 tabs.

  2. Iterative method for elliptic problems on regions partitioned into substructures

    SciTech Connect

    Bramble, J.H.; Pasciak, J.E.; Schatz, A.H.

    1986-04-01

    Some new preconditioners for discretizations of elliptic boundary problems are studied. With these preconditioners, the domain under consideration is broken into subdomains and preconditioners are defined which only require the solution of matrix problems on the subdomains. Analytic estimates are given which guarantee that under appropriate hypotheses, the preconditioned iterative procedure converges to the solution of the discrete equations with a rate per iteration that is independent of the number of unknowns. Numerical examples are presented which illustrate the theoretically predicted iterative convergence rates.

  3. Optimal Control of the Obstacle for an Elliptic Variational Inequality

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D. R.; Lenhart, S. M.; Yong, J.

    1998-09-15

    An optimal control problem for an elliptic obstacle variational inequality is considered. The obstacle is taken to be the control and the solution to the obstacle problem is taken to be the state. The goal is to find the optimal obstacle from H{sup 1}{sub 0} ({omega}) so that the state is close to the desired profile while the H{sup 1}({omega}) norm of the obstacle is not too large. Existence, uniqueness, and regularity as well as some characterizations of the optimal pairs are established.

  4. Orientation and resonance locks for satellites in the elliptic orbit.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, H.-S.

    1972-01-01

    In order to achieve the maximum strength of higher resonance locks for satellites in the elliptic orbit, the condition of satellite orientation during the process of deployment is established. It is shown that for maximum strength locks the axis of the minimum moment of inertia of satellites should point toward the attracting body at plus or minus (5/8) pi and 0 values of the true anomaly f. This condition of deployment is applicable to all cases of resonance rotation regardless of the value of lock number k and orbit eccentricity e.

  5. Some new addition formulae for Weierstrass elliptic functions

    PubMed Central

    Eilbeck, J. Chris; England, Matthew; Ônishi, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    We present new addition formulae for the Weierstrass functions associated with a general elliptic curve. We prove the structure of the formulae in n-variables and give the explicit addition formulae for the 2- and 3-variable cases. These new results were inspired by new addition formulae found in the case of an equianharmonic curve, which we can now observe as a specialization of the results here. The new formulae, and the techniques used to find them, also follow the recent work for the generalization of Weierstrass functions to curves of higher genus. PMID:25383018

  6. Lipschitz Regularity for Elliptic Equations with Random Coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Scott N.; Mourrat, Jean-Christophe

    2016-01-01

    We develop a higher regularity theory for general quasilinear elliptic equations and systems in divergence form with random coefficients. The main result is a large-scale L ∞-type estimate for the gradient of a solution. The estimate is proved with optimal stochastic integrability under a one-parameter family of mixing assumptions, allowing for very weak mixing with non-integrable correlations to very strong mixing (for example finite range of dependence). We also prove a quenched L 2 estimate for the error in homogenization of Dirichlet problems. The approach is based on subadditive arguments which rely on a variational formulation of general quasilinear divergence-form equations.

  7. Characterization of the shape stability for nonlinear elliptic problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucur, Dorin

    We characterize all geometric perturbations of an open set, for which the solution of a nonlinear elliptic PDE of p-Laplacian type with Dirichlet boundary condition is stable in the L-norm. The necessary and sufficient conditions are jointly expressed by a geometric property associated to the γ-convergence. If the dimension N of the space satisfies N-1

  8. Singular Solutions of Fully Nonlinear Elliptic Equations and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Scott N.; Sirakov, Boyan; Smart, Charles K.

    2012-08-01

    We study the properties of solutions of fully nonlinear, positively homogeneous elliptic equations near boundary points of Lipschitz domains at which the solution may be singular. We show that these equations have two positive solutions in each cone of {R^n} , and the solutions are unique in an appropriate sense. We introduce a new method for analyzing the behavior of solutions near certain Lipschitz boundary points, which permits us to classify isolated boundary singularities of solutions which are bounded from either above or below. We also obtain a sharp Phragmén-Lindelöf result as well as a principle of positive singularities in certain Lipschitz domains.

  9. Conforming and nonconforming virtual element methods for elliptic problems

    SciTech Connect

    Cangiani, Andrea; Manzini, Gianmarco; Sutton, Oliver J.

    2016-08-03

    Here we present, in a unified framework, new conforming and nonconforming virtual element methods for general second-order elliptic problems in two and three dimensions. The differential operator is split into its symmetric and nonsymmetric parts and conditions for stability and accuracy on their discrete counterparts are established. These conditions are shown to lead to optimal H1- and L2-error estimates, confirmed by numerical experiments on a set of polygonal meshes. The accuracy of the numerical approximation provided by the two methods is shown to be comparable.

  10. Conforming and nonconforming virtual element methods for elliptic problems

    DOE PAGES

    Cangiani, Andrea; Manzini, Gianmarco; Sutton, Oliver J.

    2016-08-03

    Here we present, in a unified framework, new conforming and nonconforming virtual element methods for general second-order elliptic problems in two and three dimensions. The differential operator is split into its symmetric and nonsymmetric parts and conditions for stability and accuracy on their discrete counterparts are established. These conditions are shown to lead to optimal H1- and L2-error estimates, confirmed by numerical experiments on a set of polygonal meshes. The accuracy of the numerical approximation provided by the two methods is shown to be comparable.

  11. Duct flow nonuniformities for Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Analytical capabilities for modeling hot gas flow on the fuel side of the Space Shuttle Main Engines are developed. Emphasis is placed on construction and documentation of a computational grid code for modeling an elliptical two-duct version of the fuel side hot gas manifold. Computational results for flow past a support strut in an annular channel are also presented.

  12. The Radial Flow Speed of the Neutral Hydrogen in the Oval Distortion of NGC 4736

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speights, Jason; Benton, Allen; Reimer, Rebecca; Lemaire, Robert; Godwin, Caleb

    2017-01-01

    Radial flows are difficult to measure in the presence of elliptical flows. This is because the model describing the observed velocity field when both kinds of flows are present is degenerate in the unknown parameters. In this poster we show that the degeneracy can be overcome if the pattern speed and position angle of the elliptical flows are known. The method is demonstrated for NGC 4736 using 3.6 micrometer and neutral hydrogen data. We find a mean inward radial flow speed of 5.6 +/- 1.7 km/s in the region of the oval distortion.

  13. Elliptic grid generation with orthogonality and spacing control on an arbitrary number of boundaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, J. A.

    1990-01-01

    A procedure for the generation of two and quasi-three-dimensional grids with control of orthogonality and spacing with respect to any and/or all boundaries of the domain is described. The elliptic grid generation equations of Thompson are solved implicitly. Control of the grid behavior is achieved through the introduction of forcing functions terms in the manner of Steger and Sorenson or in a modification of the method of Hilgenstock. The forcing function terms are constructed on the boundaries and propagated into the domain using transfinite Lagrangian bivariate interpolation. An anisotropic transfinite stencil is introduced and is shown to produce excellent grid behavior particularly in the vicinity of corner singularities. Emphasis is placed on the generation of viscous grids and the method is shown to be suited for use in the generation of grids for internal as well as external flow geometries. A FORTRAN program named PISCES has been written to implement the algorithm. Examples of grids for internal and external flows are given that highlight the characteristics and behavior of the algorithm.

  14. Effects of momentum conservation on the analysis of anisotropic flow

    SciTech Connect

    Borghini, N.; Dinh, P.M.; Ollitrault, J.-Y.; Poskanzer, A.M.; Voloshin, S.A.

    2002-02-05

    We present a general method for taking into account correlations due to momentum conservation in the analysis of anisotropic flow. Momentum conservation mostly affects the first harmonic in azimuthal distributions, i.e., directed flow. It also modifies higher harmonics, for instance elliptic flow, when they are measured with respect to a first harmonic event plane such as one determined with the standard transverse momentum method. Our method is illustrated by application to NA49 data on pion directed flow.

  15. Feasibility of using a compact elliptical device to increase energy expenditure during sedentary activities

    PubMed Central

    Rovniak, Liza S.; Denlinger, LeAnn; Duveneck, Ellen; Sciamanna, Christopher N.; Kong, Lan; Freivalds, Andris; Ray, Chester A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of using a compact elliptical device to increase energy expenditure during sedentary activities. A secondary aim was to evaluate if two accelerometers attached to the elliptical device could provide reliable and valid assessments of participants’ frequency and duration of elliptical device use. Design Physically inactive adults (n = 32, age range = 25–65) were recruited through local advertisements and selected using stratified random sampling based on sex, body mass index (BMI), and age. Methods Indirect calorimetry was used to assess participants’ energy expenditure while seated and while using the elliptical device at a self-selected intensity level. Participants also self-reported their interest in using the elliptical device during sedentary activities. Two Actigraph GT3X accelerometers were attached to the elliptical device to record time-use patterns. Results Participants expended a median of 179.1 kilocalories per hour while using the elliptical device (range = 108.2–269.0), or a median of 87.9 more kilocalories (range = 19.7–178.6) than they would expend per hour of sedentary sitting. Participants reported high interest in using the elliptical device during TV watching and computer work, but relatively low interest in using the device during office meetings. Women reported greater interest in using the elliptical device than men. The two accelerometers recorded identical time-use patterns on the elliptical device and demonstrated concurrent validity with time-stamped computer records. Conclusions Compact elliptical devices could increase energy expenditure during sedentary activities, and may provide proximal environmental cues for increasing energy expenditure across multiple life domains. PMID:24035273

  16. Development of an innovative device for ultrasonic elliptical vibration cutting.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ming; Hu, Linhua

    2015-07-01

    An innovative ultrasonic elliptical vibration cutting (UEVC) device with 1st resonant mode of longitudinal vibration and 3rd resonant mode of bending vibration was proposed in this paper, which can deliver higher output power compared to previous UEVC devices. Using finite element method (FEM), resonance frequencies of the longitudinal and bending vibrations were tuned to be as close as possible in order to excite these two vibrations using two-phase driving voltages at a single frequency, while wave nodes of the longitudinal and bending vibrations were also adjusted to be as coincident as possible for mounting the device at a single fixed point. Based on the simulation analysis results a prototype device was fabricated, then its vibration characteristics were evaluated by an impedance analyzer and a laser displacement sensor. With two-phase sinusoidal driving voltages both of 480 V(p-p) at an ultrasonic frequency of 20.1 kHz, the developed prototype device achieved an elliptical vibration with a longitudinal amplitude of 8.9 μm and a bending amplitude of 11.3 μm. The performance of the developed UEVC device is assessed by the cutting tests of hardened steel using single crystal diamond tools. Experimental results indicate that compared to ordinary cutting process, the tool wear is reduced significantly by using the proposed device.

  17. Two high-velocity encounters of elliptical galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balcells, Marc; Borne, Kirk D.; Hoessel, John G.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes results obtained on a simulation of two high-velocity encounters of NGC 4782/4783 and NGC 2672/2673 binary elliptical galaxies which differ substantially in mass ratio (about 1 for the first pair, and about 10 for the second). CCD images and velocities obtained from digital spectra were used to constrain simulations of the galaxy collisions. The binary orbital elements, the orientation of the orbit in the sky, the time since pericenter, and the dynamical mass of the pair were derived. Results suggested that the dumb-bell galaxy NGC 4782/4783 is not a supermassive galaxy, as was claimed earlier on the basis of the high relative velocity and high central dispersion, but has a moderate mass to luminosity ratio M/L(B) of about 10. It was concluded that its trajectory changed from hyperbolic to elliptical as a result of energy lost during the collision. It was found that the NGC 2672/2673 also has a moderate M/L(B) of about 7.

  18. Vibration of in-vacuo elliptic cylindrical shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boisvert, Jeffrey E.; Hayek, Sabih I.

    2003-10-01

    The equations of motion for the vibration of elliptic cylindrical shells of constant thickness were derived using a Galerkin approach. The elastic strain energy density used in this derivation has seven independent kinematic variables: three displacements, two thickness-shear, and two thickness-stretch. The resulting seven coupled algebraic equations are symmetric and positive definite. The shell has a constant thickness, h, finite length, L, and is simply supported at its ends, (z=0,L), where z is the axial coordinate. The elliptic cross-section is defined by the shape parameter, a, and the half-length of the major axis, l. The modal solutions are expanded in a doubly infinite series of comparison functions in terms of circular functions in the angular and axial coordinates. The natural frequencies and the mode shapes were obtained by the Galerkin method. Numerical results were obtained for several h/l and L/l ratios, and various shape parameters, including the limiting case of a simply supported cylindrical shell (a=100). [Work supported by ONR and the Navy/ASEE Summer Faculty Program.

  19. The geometry of finite difference discretizations of semilinear elliptic operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teles, Eduardo; Tomei, Carlos

    2012-04-01

    Discretizations by finite differences of some semilinear elliptic equations lead to maps F(u) = Au - f(u), u \\in {{R}}^n , given by nonlinear convex diagonal perturbations of symmetric matrices A. For natural nonlinearity classes, we consider the equation F(u) = y - tp, where t is a large positive number and p is a vector with negative coordinates. As the range of the derivative f'i of the coordinates of f encloses more eigenvalues of A, the number of solutions increases geometrically, eventually reaching 2n. This phenomenon, somewhat in contrast with behaviour associated with the Lazer-McKenna conjecture, has a very simple geometric explanation: a perturbation of a multiple fold gives rise to a function which sends connected components of its critical set to hypersurfaces with large rotation numbers with respect to vectors with very negative coordinates. Strictly speaking, the results have nothing to do with elliptic equations: they are properties of the interaction of a (self-adjoint) linear map with increasingly stronger nonlinear convex diagonal interactions.

  20. The distribution of Infrared point sources in nearby elliptical galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogoi, Rupjyoti; Misra, Ranjeev; Puthiyaveettil, Shalima

    Infra-red point sources in nearby early-type galaxies are often counterparts of sources in other wavebands such as optical and X-rays. In particular, the IR counterpart of X-ray sources may be due to a globular cluster hosting the X-ray source or could be associated directly with the binary, providing crucial information regarding their environment. In general, the IR sources would be from globular clusters and their IR colors would provide insight into their stellar composition. However, many of the IR sources maybe background objects and it is important to identify them or at least quantify the level of background contamination. Archival Spitzer IRAC images provide a unique opportunity to study these sources in nearby Ellipticals and in particular to estimate the distributions of their IR luminosity, color and distance from the center. We will present the results of such an analysis for three nearby galaxies. We have also estimated the background contamination using several blank fields. Our preliminary results suggest that IR colors can be effectively used to differentiate between the background and sources in the galaxy, and that the distribution of sources are markedly different for different Elliptical galaxies.

  1. Experimental study of elliptical jet from sub to supercritical conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Muthukumaran, C. K.; Vaidyanathan, Aravind

    2014-04-15

    The jet