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Sample records for newborn screening linkage

  1. Newborn Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Laboratory Sciences Office of Public Health Genomics Publications & Articles Newborn Screening Lab Bulletin Laboratory Partners Multimedia Tools Newborn Screening Program – Role of Laboratories Meet the Scientist Newborn Screening: Family Stories Newborn Screening: Public Health ...

  2. Newborn screening: current status.

    PubMed

    Arn, Pamela H

    2007-01-01

    Newborn screening, which represents one of the major advances in child health of the past century, has been carried out in all fifty U.S. states since the 1970s. Newborn screening programs are state-run, and decisions are left to the individual states regarding the conditions to be screened for, the mechanism for confirmatory testing, follow-up care, and financing of the programs. Laboratory advances in tandem mass spectrometry make it possible to screen newborns for many rare inborn errors of metabolism. This raises many policy issues including screening's cost-effectiveness, ethics, quality, and oversight.

  3. Newborn Screening Tests Approved

    MedlinePlus

    ... The screens are used to detect four rare metabolic disorders To use the sharing features on this page, ... of screening tests designed to detect four rare metabolic disorders in newborns has been approved by the U.S. ...

  4. Newborn screening fact sheets.

    PubMed

    Kaye, Celia I; Accurso, Frank; La Franchi, Stephen; Lane, Peter A; Hope, Northrup; Sonya, Pang; G Bradley, Schaefer; Michele A, Lloyd-Puryear

    2006-09-01

    Newborn screening fact sheets were last revised in 1996 by the American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Genetics. This revision was prompted by advances in the field since 1996, including technologic innovations, as well as greater appreciation of ethical issues such as those surrounding informed consent. The following disorders are discussed in this revision of the newborn screening fact sheets: biotinidase deficiency, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, congenital hearing loss, congenital hypothyroidism, cystic fibrosis, galactosemia, homocystinuria, maple syrup urine disease, medium-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency, phenylketonuria, sickle cell disease and other hemoglobinopathies, and tyrosinemia. A series of topics related to newborn screening is discussed in a companion publication to this electronic publication of the fact sheets (available at: www.pediatrics.org/cgi/content/full/118/3/1304). These topics are newborn screening as a public health system; factors contributing to the need for review of the newborn screening system; informed consent; tandem mass spectrometry; DNA analysis in newborn screening; status of newborn screening in the United States; and the effect of sample timing, preterm birth, diet, transfusion, and total parenteral nutrition on newborn screening results.

  5. Newborn Screening in Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    ŠMON, Andraž; GROŠELJ, Urh; ŽERJAV TANŠEK, Mojca; BIČEK, Ajda; OBLAK, Adrijana; ZUPANČIČ, Mirjana; KRŽIŠNIK, Ciril; REPIČ LAMPR ET, Barbka; MURKO, Simona; HOJKER, Sergej; BATTELINO, Tadej

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Newborn screening in whole Slovenia started in 1979 with screening for phenylketonuria (PKU). Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) was added into the programme in 1981. The aim of this study was to analyse the data of neonatal screening in Slovenia from 1993 to 2012 for PKU, and from 1991 to 2012 for CH. Methods Blood samples were collected from the heels of newborns between the third and the fifth day after birth. Fluorometric method was used for screening for PKU, CH screening was done by dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluorescent immunoassay (DELFIA). Results From 1993 to 2012, from 385,831 newborns 57 were identified with PKU. 184 newborns out of 427,396 screened from 1991 to 2012, were confirmed for CH. Incidences of PKU and CH in the periods stated are 1:6769 and 1:2323, respectively. Conclusions Successful implementation of newborn screening for PKU and CH has helped in preventing serious disabilities of the affected children. Adding screening for new metabolic diseases in the future would be beneficial. PMID:27646913

  6. What's New with Newborn Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Newborn screening is the process of testing and screening newborns shortly after birth for certain, potentially dangerous, conditions and/or impairments--conditions that include everything from inborn errors of metabolism and other genetic disorders to hearing impairment. Early detection through newborn screening is paramount, often allowing the…

  7. What's New with Newborn Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Newborn screening is the process of testing and screening newborns shortly after birth for certain, potentially dangerous, conditions and/or impairments--conditions that include everything from inborn errors of metabolism and other genetic disorders to hearing impairment. Early detection through newborn screening is paramount, often allowing the…

  8. Newborn screening in India.

    PubMed

    Rama Devi, A Radha; Naushad, S M

    2004-02-01

    Expanded newborn screening (NBS) is aimed for early detection and intervention of treatable inborn errors of metabolism and also to establish incidence of these disorders in this part of the globe. The first expanded NBS programme initiated in the capital city of Andhra Pradesh to screen all the newborns born in four major Government Maternity Hospitals in Hyderabad by heel prick capillary blood collected on S&S 903 filter paper. Chromatographic (TLC and HPLC), electrophoretic (cellulose acetate and agarose) and ELISA based assays have been employed for screening of common inborn errors of metabolism. This study has shown a high prevalence of treatable Inborn errors of metabolism. Congenital hypothyroidsm is the most common disorder (1 in 1700) followed by congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (1 in 2575) and Hyperhomocystenemia (1 in 100). Interestingly, a very high prevalence of inborn errors of metabolism to the extent of 1 in every thousand newborns was observed. The study reveals the importance of screening in India, necessitating nation wide large-scale screening.

  9. Newborn screening for homocystinuria.

    PubMed

    Walter, John H; Jahnke, Nikki; Remmington, Tracey

    2013-08-01

    Homocystinuria is a rare inherited disorder due to a deficiency in cystathionine beta synthase. Individuals with this condition appear normal at birth but develop serious complications in childhood. Diagnosis and treatment started sufficiently early in life can effectively prevent or reduce the severity of these complications. To determine if newborn population screening for the diagnosis of homocystinuria due to cystathionine beta synthase deficiency leads to clinical benefit compared to later clinical diagnosis. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group's Inborn Errors of Metabolism Trials Register.Date of the most recent search of the Inborn Errors of Metabolism Register: 15 May 2013. Randomised controlled trials and controlled clinical trials assessing the use of any neonatal screening test to diagnose infants with homocystinuria before the condition becomes clinically evident. Eligible studies compare a screened population versus a non-screened population. No studies were identified for inclusion in the review. No studies were identified for inclusion in the review. We were unable to identify eligible studies for inclusion in this review and hence it is not possible to draw any conclusions based on controlled studies; however, we are aware of uncontrolled case-series which support the efficacy of newborn screening for homocystinuria and its early treatment. Any future randomised controlled trial would need to be both multicentre and long term in order to provide robust evidence for or against screening and to allow a cost effectiveness analysis to be undertaken.

  10. Newborn screening for homocystinuria.

    PubMed

    Walter, John H; Jahnke, Nikki; Remmington, Tracey

    2015-10-01

    Homocystinuria is a rare inherited disorder due to a deficiency in cystathionine beta synthase. Individuals with this condition appear normal at birth but develop serious complications in childhood. Diagnosis and treatment started sufficiently early in life can effectively prevent or reduce the severity of these complications. This is an update of a previously published review. To determine if newborn population screening for the diagnosis of homocystinuria due to cystathionine beta synthase deficiency leads to clinical benefit compared to later clinical diagnosis. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group's Inborn Errors of Metabolism Trials Register.Date of the most recent search of the Inborn Errors of Metabolism Register: 08 June 2015. Randomised controlled trials and controlled clinical trials assessing the use of any neonatal screening test to diagnose infants with homocystinuria before the condition becomes clinically evident. Eligible studies compare a screened population versus a non-screened population. No studies were identified for inclusion in the review. No studies were identified for inclusion in the review. We were unable to identify eligible studies for inclusion in this review and hence it is not possible to draw any conclusions based on controlled studies; however, we are aware of uncontrolled case-series which support the efficacy of newborn screening for homocystinuria and its early treatment. Any future randomised controlled trial would need to be both multicentre and long term in order to provide robust evidence for or against screening and to allow a cost effectiveness analysis to be undertaken.

  11. Newborn Screening Information System (NBSIS)

    PubMed Central

    Dayhoff, R. E.; Ledley, R. S.; Rotolo, L. S.

    1984-01-01

    A Newborn Screening Information System (NBSIS) has been developed to handle the information processing needs of State Newborn Screening Laboratories. Systems have been customized for use by the States of Maryland and Florida. These systems track clients (babies) from their first contact with the Screening Center through their last follow-up test, producing worksheets, result reports, letters, and summaries for archival storage.

  12. Diagnostic guidelines for newborns who screen positive in newborn screening.

    PubMed

    Kronn, David; Mofidi, Shideh; Braverman, Nancy; Harris, Katharine

    2010-12-01

    Recent expansion of the newborn screening panels has presented an interesting challenge to specialty care centers, especially the clinical genetics community. Some of the conditions in the core and secondary newborn screening panels have extremely variable clinical presentations; others are so rare that only a handful of newborns have been diagnosed with them to date (Region 4 Collaborative MS/MS project-http://region4genetics.org/msms_data_project/data_project_home.aspx). Definition of some disorders is problematic-does continued abnormality of the screening analyte constitute diagnosis or is further testing necessary? A work group of the New York Mid-Atlantic Consortium for Genetic and Newborn Screening Services (region 2), one of seven regional collaboratives funded by the Federal Health Resources and Services Administration and administered by the Maternal and Child Health Bureau (U22MC03956), has developed guidelines for the confirmation of diagnosis of the conditions in the newborn screening panels for use by the specialty care centers. The diagnostic guidelines are a work in progress and are being reviewed and revised regularly as our understanding of the newborn screened disorders improves. The aim is to make it a relevant guide for specialty care physicians and other healthcare professionals in the diagnostic workup of these patients.

  13. Newborn Screening and the Obstetrician

    PubMed Central

    Dolan, Siobhan M

    2012-01-01

    Newborn screening is the largest genetic screening program in the United States, with approximately four million infants screened yearly. It has been available and in continuous development for over 50 years. Each state manages, funds, and maintains its own individual program, which encompasses newborn screening as well as the diagnosis and coordination of care for affected infants and children. The ideal disorder for screening is one in which newborn intervention prevents later disabilities or death for infants who may appear normal at birth. There are 31 core conditions that are currently recommended for incorporation into state screening programs. To obtain a sample, several drops of blood are collected from the newborn’s heel and applied to filter paper. Although testing for core disorders is fairly standardized, more extensive screening varies by state and the rigorous evaluation of new disorders for inclusion in state screening panels is ongoing. As genomic medicine becomes more accessible, screening newborns for chronic diseases that may affect their long-term health will need to be addressed, as well the use of the residual blood spots for research. Obstetric providers should, at some time during pregnancy, review the basic process of newborn screening with parents to prepare them for this testing in the neonatal period. This information can be reviewed as it best suits incorporation in an individual’s practice; verbal discussion and the distribution of written materials with resources for further information is encouraged. PMID:22996108

  14. Purpose of Newborn Hearing Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep Teething & Tooth Care Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Baby > Purpose of Newborn Hearing Screening Ages & Stages ...

  15. Screening Newborns' Hearing Now Standard

    MedlinePlus

    ... Javascript on. Feature: Taste, Smell, Hearing, Language, Voice, Balance Screening Newborns' Hearing Now Standard Past Issues / Fall ... gov . Read More "Taste, Smell, Hearing, Language, Voice, Balance" Articles At Last: A National Test of Taste ...

  16. Newborn screening in North America.

    PubMed

    Therrell, Bradford L; Adams, John

    2007-08-01

    Newborn screening in North America dates to the early work of Bob Guthrie in the USA. Screening programmes in both the USA and Canada began in the early 1960s, with documented programmes in both countries as early as 1962. Throughout the 1960s and 1970s, many of the screening tests that later became part of routine screening around the world were developed in US and Canadian laboratories, including tests for phenylketonuria, other inborn errors of metabolism, congenital hypothyroidism, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, and haemoglobinopathies. An automated punching machine developed in the USA facilitated screening expansion by significantly reducing sample preparation time and effort. US and Canadian programmes were leaders in applying computerized data management to newborn screening in the 1980s. In the 1990s, DNA and tandem mass spectrometry testing protocols were developed in the USA and applied to newborn screening. US programmes have continually expanded over time, while most Canadian programmes have not. With impetus from private laboratories and professional and consumer groups, many US programmes now screen for more than 50 conditions and there is increased expansion activity in Canada. NBS research in the USA is focused on improving system efficiency and translating other genetic testing to NBS, particularly where new technologies and treatment therapies exist. Although national newborn screening policies do not exist in either Canada or the USA, there are intense efforts to provide uniform access to screening nationwide in both countries. New partnerships between health professionals, consumers and politicians are benefiting the overall screening systems in both countries.

  17. Newborn metabolic screening and related pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Eddy, Mark; Gottesman, Gary S

    2009-01-01

    Newborn screening has recently been transformed by our enhanced knowledge of medical disorders and our ability to detect and manage them. The Missouri State Newborn Screening Laboratory incorporated tandem mass spectrometry into the newborn screening protocol in 2005. This review will highlight the new capabilities of the newborn screening laboratory and the pitfalls of screening related to preterm birth, blood transfusion and intravenous fluid administration that complicate the interpretation of screening results.

  18. Newborn Screening: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    MedlinePlus

    ... away. NIH: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Start Here How Are Newborn Screening Tests Done? (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development) Also in Spanish Newborn Screening (Centers for Disease ...

  19. Pilot Programs in Newborn Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pass, Kenneth; Green, Nancy S.; Lorey, Fred; Sherwin, John; Comeau, Anne Marie

    2006-01-01

    The term "pilot study" has been used over the years to describe the evaluation of the many elements involved in deciding whether a proposed condition should be added to a newborn screening (NBS) panel, and until recently, was unilaterally used to describe the evaluation of the assay to be used before the condition was officially adopted by a state…

  20. Newborn screening tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... at least 26 disorders on an expanded and standardized uniform panel. The most thorough screening panel checks ... diagnose illnesses. They show which babies need more testing to confirm or rule out illnesses. If follow- ...

  1. Newborn Screening for Biliary Atresia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kasper S

    2015-12-01

    Biliary atresia is the most common cause of pediatric end-stage liver disease and the leading indication for pediatric liver transplantation. Affected infants exhibit evidence of biliary obstruction within the first few weeks after birth. Early diagnosis and successful surgical drainage of bile are associated with greater survival with the child's native liver. Unfortunately, because noncholestatic jaundice is extremely common in early infancy, it is difficult to identify the rare infant with cholestatic jaundice who has biliary atresia. Hence, the need for timely diagnosis of this disease warrants a discussion of the feasibility of screening for biliary atresia to improve outcomes. Herein, newborn screening for biliary atresia in the United States is assessed by using criteria established by the Discretionary Advisory Committee on Heritable Disorders in Newborns and Children. Published analyses indicate that newborn screening for biliary atresia by using serum bilirubin concentrations or stool color cards is potentially life-saving and cost-effective. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the feasibility, effectiveness, and costs of potential screening strategies for early identification of biliary atresia in the United States.

  2. Metabolic screening for the newborn.

    PubMed

    Parini, Rossella; Corbetta, Carlo

    2011-10-01

    The advent of tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) around 10 years ago allowed to enlarge consistently the spectrum of metabolic diseases that might be easily and quickly detected. MS/MS was applied to newborn screening in many developed countries, with a wide use, to detect as many as 55 abnormal biochemical conditions (USA), or a restricted one detecting only few diseases (Germany, UK, and Switzerland). Many factors were probably contributing to these very different health organization policies. Although neonatal screening is widely considered extremely useful and efficacious to improve prognosis of many metabolic disorders, the statistically significant demonstration of benefit is quite hard to reach for reasons mainly incidental to the characteristics of these disorders. The expanded newborn screening, in its wide application, includes at present severe diseases presenting in the first days of life, diseases for which treatment is not available, conditions with uncertain significance which are probably not diseases, detection of metabolic disturbances of the mother and all the mildest forms of organic acidurias, urea cycle disorders, fatty acid beta-oxidation defects that may have the possibility to remain asymptomatic for the whole life or may have an acute life-threatening onset of the disease many years later. Which could be the better approach to newborn screening is not clear at present, and probably, it will not be the same for each country. Results of regional screening programs need to be carefully collected and analyzed in future years, with the aim to optimize screening practice in the different countries. Efforts should also be addressed to improve screening programs in the developing countries.

  3. Newborn Screening: Characteristics of State Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toiv, Helene F.; Austin, Janina; Gardiner, Emily Gamble; Tynan, Ann; Hill, Ariel; Milne, Kevin; Moon, Cindy; Lawes, Susan

    Each year, state newborn screening programs test 4 million newborns for disorders that require early detection and treatment to prevent serious illness or death. The U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO) was asked to provide Congress with information on variations among state newborn screening programs. Based on surveys of such programs in all 50…

  4. Newborn Screening for Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Donald B., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Newborn screening for fragile X syndrome (FXS) is technically possible, and in the relatively near future accurate and inexpensive screening technologies are likely to be available. When that happens, will America's public health system adopt newborn screening for fragile X syndrome? This article addresses this issue by first placing screening for…

  5. National Newborn Screening and Genetics Resource Center

    MedlinePlus

    ... GENERAL INFORMATION Conditions Screened by US Programs General Resources Genetics Birth Defects Hearing Screening FOR PROFESSIONALS ACT Sheets(ACMG) General Resources Newborn Screening Genetics Birth Defects FOR FAMILIES FAQs ...

  6. Data integration and warehousing: coordination between newborn screening and related public health programs.

    PubMed

    Therrell, Bradford L

    2003-01-01

    At birth, patient demographic and health information begin to accumulate in varied databases. There are often multiple sources of the same or similar data. New public health programs are often created without considering data linkages. Recently, newborn hearing screening (NHS) programs and immunization programs have virtually ignored the existence of newborn dried blood spot (DBS) newborn screening databases containing similar demographic data, creating data duplication in their 'new' systems. Some progressive public health departments are developing data warehouses of basic, recurrent patient information, and linking these databases to other health program databases where programs and services can benefit from such linkages. Demographic data warehousing saves time (and money) by eliminating duplicative data entry and reducing the chances of data errors. While newborn screening data are usually the first data available, they should not be the only data source considered for early data linkage or for populating a data warehouse. Birth certificate information should also be considered along with other data sources for infants that may not have received newborn screening or who may have been born outside of the jurisdiction and not have birth certificate information locally available. This newborn screening serial number provides a convenient identification number for use in the DBS program and for linking with other systems. As a minimum, data linkages should exist between newborn dried blood spot screening, newborn hearing screening, immunizations, birth certificates and birth defect registries.

  7. Newborn screening for cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Castellani, Carlo; Massie, John; Sontag, Marci; Southern, Kevin W

    2016-08-01

    Since the late 1970s when the potential of the immunoreactive trypsinogen assay for early identification of infants with cystic fibrosis was first recognised, the performance of newborn blood spot screening (NBS) has been continually assessed and its use has gradually expanded. NBS for cystic fibrosis is a cost-effective strategy and, if standards of care are fully implemented and robust management pathways are in place, has a positive effect on clinical outcomes. In the past decade, NBS has undergone rapid expansion and an unprecedented number of infants with cystic fibrosis have access to early diagnosis and care. Cystic fibrosis NBS has now moved on from the development phase and is entering an era of consolidation. In the future, research should focus on the rationalisation and optimisation of existing programmes, with particular attention to bioethical implications such as unwanted detection of carriers and inconclusive diagnoses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. How Are My Newborn's Screening Results Used?

    MedlinePlus

    ... newborn screening device Selected NICHD Research Advances of 2016 All related news Home Contact Accessibility Web Policies and Notices FOIA Facebook Twitter Pinterest YouTube RSS NIH...Turning Discovery Into Health ® Printed from the NICHD Web Site

  9. How Are Newborn Screening Tests Done?

    MedlinePlus

    ... researchers Health Education Programs Safe to Sleep, Media-Smart Youth, Maternal/Child Health Education Program NICHD Publications ... First, hospital staff fill out a newborn screening card with the infant’s vital information—name, sex, weight, ...

  10. Newborn genetic screening: blessing or curse?

    PubMed

    Kenner, C; Amlung, S

    1999-10-01

    Newly discovered genes and advances in genetic screening programs prompt many questions reflecting the kinds of ethical dilemmas that go hand in hand with life-changing discoveries. Neonatal genetic screening has been a standard of care for some time, but as our knowledge in the field of genetics expands, should we continue with the same approach? What newborn genetic screening tests should be mandatory, and what are the long-range consequences associated with testing? This article reviews genetic modes of inheritance, outlines and explains the most common newborn screening tests, and enumerates the ethical issues associated with these screening procedures. The role of the neonatal nurse in the newborn genetic screening process is discussed.

  11. Introduction to the newborn screening fact sheets.

    PubMed

    Kaye, Celia I; Accurso, Frank; La Franchi, Stephen; Lane, Peter A; Northrup, Hope; Pang, Sonya; Schaefer, G Bradley

    2006-09-01

    Newborn screening fact sheets were last revised in 1996 by the Committee on Genetics of the American Academy of Pediatrics. These fact sheets have been revised again because of advances in the field, including technologic innovations such as tandem mass spectrometry, as well as greater appreciation of ethical issues such as informed consent. The fact sheets provide information to assist pediatricians and other professionals who care for children in performing their essential role within the newborn screening public health system. The newborn screening system consists of 5 parts: (1) newborn testing; (2) follow-up of abnormal screening results to facilitate timely diagnostic testing and management; (3) diagnostic testing; (4) disease management, which requires coordination with the medical home and genetic counseling; and (5) continuous evaluation and improvement of the newborn screening system. The following disorders are reviewed in the newborn screening fact sheets (which are available at www.pediatrics.org/cgi/content/full/118/3/e934): biotinidase deficiency, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, congenital hearing loss, congenital hypothyroidism, cystic fibrosis, galactosemia,homocystinuria, maple syrup urine disease, medium-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency, phenylketonuria, sickle cell disease and other hemoglobinopathies,and tyrosinemia.

  12. The Clinical Aspects of Newborn Screening: Importance of Newborn Screening Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Philip M.; Levy, Harvey L.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of newborn screening is to identify presymptomatic healthy infants that will develop significant metabolic or endocrine derangements if left undiagnosed and untreated. The goal of ultimately reducing or eliminating irreversible sequelae is reached by maximizing test sensitivity of the primary newborn screening that measures specific…

  13. The Clinical Aspects of Newborn Screening: Importance of Newborn Screening Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Philip M.; Levy, Harvey L.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of newborn screening is to identify presymptomatic healthy infants that will develop significant metabolic or endocrine derangements if left undiagnosed and untreated. The goal of ultimately reducing or eliminating irreversible sequelae is reached by maximizing test sensitivity of the primary newborn screening that measures specific…

  14. [Hearing screening of newborns. Preliminary results].

    PubMed

    Courtmans, I; Mancilla, V; Ligny, C; Belhadi, B; Damis, E; Mahillon, P

    2005-02-01

    Since 1976, an hearing screening is organized at the Clinic Edith Cavell. The testing was based on a behavioral technique of Veit-Bizaguet and, since 2001, the otoacoustic emissions are realised. The National Institutes of Health (1993) recommends universal newborn hearing screening of all newborns before 3 months of age and identification and treatment before 6 months of age. Indeed, detection of hearing loss and early intervention allow a better access to the language and consequently an easier schooling and social integration. This article shows the results of the screening from february at the end of December 2002. These data are compared with those of the literature.

  15. Primary care role in expanded newborn screening

    PubMed Central

    Hayeems, Robin Z.; Miller, Fiona A.; Carroll, June C.; Little, Julian; Allanson, Judith; Bytautas, Jessica P.; Chakraborty, Pranesh; Wilson, Brenda J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To examine the role of primary care providers in informing and supporting families who receive positive screening results. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting Ontario. Participants Family physicians, pediatricians, and midwives involved in newborn care. Main outcome measures Beliefs, practices, and barriers related to providing information to families who receive positive screening results for their newborns. Results A total of 819 providers participated (adjusted response rate of 60.9%). Of the respondents, 67.4% to 81.0% agreed that it was their responsibility to provide care to families of newborns who received positive screening results, and 64.2% to 84.8% agreed they should provide brochures or engage in general discussions about the identified conditions. Of the pediatricians, 67.3% endorsed having detailed discussions with families, but only 24.1% of family physicians and 27.6% of midwives endorsed this practice. All provider groups reported less involvement in information provision than they believed they should have. This discrepancy was most evident for family physicians: most stated that they should provide brochures (64.2%) or engage in general discussions (73.5%), but only a minority did so (15.3% and 27.7%, respectively). Family physicians reported insufficient time (42.2%), compensation (52.2%), and training (72.3%) to play this role, and only a minority agreed they were up to date (18.5%) or confident (16.5%) regarding newborn screening. Conclusion Providers of primary newborn care see an information-provision role for themselves in caring for families who receive positive newborn screening results. Efforts to further define the scope of this role combined with efforts to mitigate existing barriers are warranted. PMID:23946032

  16. Newborn screening for non-sickling hemoglobinopathies.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, Carolyn C

    2009-01-01

    The hemoglobinopathies encompass a heterogeneous group of disorders associated with mutations in both the alpha-globin and beta-globin genes. Non-sickling disorders are found primarily in individuals of Mediterranean, Asian and Southeast Asian ancestry. With rapid growth in the Asian and Hispanic segments of the US population, the geographic distribution of hemoglobinopathies is expected to become significantly different from what it is today. The epidemiologic changes in the prevalence of non-sickling hemoglobin disorders have important implications for future public health programs, including newborn screening. The purpose of newborn screening for hemoglobinopathies is to identify clinically significant disorders and provide early education and specialized care prior to the onset of clinical symptoms. Although newborn screening for sickle cell disease is mandated in all states, screening for non-sickling hemoglobinopathies is directed in only one state and limited to reporting of a presumptive diagnosis in most other states. Early delivery of comprehensive care, as well as new and potentially curative therapies, has significantly improved the prognosis for affected patients. This review will consider the increasing prevalence of once uncommon hemoglobinopathies in the US, highlighting the rationale for expanding newborn screening beyond sickle cell disorders.

  17. Screening Newborns | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... began in 1999, when President Clinton signed the Newborn and Infant Hearing Screening and Intervention Act, authorizing the coordination and funding of statewide newborn and infant hearing screening programs. In December 2010, President Obama ...

  18. Evaluation of newborn screening bloodspot-based genetic testing as second tier screen for bedside newborn hearing screening.

    PubMed

    Schimmenti, Lisa A; Warman, Berta; Schleiss, Mark R; Daly, Kathleen A; Ross, Julie A; McCann, Mark; Jurek, Anne M; Berry, Susan A

    2011-12-01

    : Bedside newborn hearing screening is highly successful in identifying deaf or hard-of-hearing infants. However, newborn hearing screening protocols have high loss to follow-up rates. We propose that bloodspot-based genetic testing for GJB2 alleles can provide a means for rapid confirmation in a subset of infants who fail bedside newborn hearing screening. : We performed a case-control study comparing the prevalence of common GJB2 mutations from deidentified bloodspots designated as "refer" by newborn hearing screening and contemporaneously selected randomly chosen controls designated as "pass." Between March 2006 and December 2007, 2354 spots were analyzed for common alleles, c.35delG, c.167delT, c.235delC, and p.V37I in GJB2 with a subset reanalyzed by conventional Sanger sequencing to search for additional alleles. : The prevalence of biallelic GJB2 mutations in bloodspots from infants who referred by newborn hearing screening is approximately 1 in 50 (23/1177). In contrast, one bloodspot from an infant who passed newborn hearing screening was identified to harbor biallelic GJB2 mutations. : These findings show that when a newborn refers by newborn hearing screening, there is a significant chance that GJB2-related hearing loss is present. Bloodspot-based genetic testing for common GJB2 alleles should be considered as second tier testing for bedside newborn hearing screening.

  19. Newborn screening in the Asia Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Padilla, Carmencita D; Therrell, Bradford L

    2007-08-01

    The success of blood spot newborn screening in the USA led to early screening efforts in parts of the Asia Pacific Region in the mid-1960s. While there were early screening leaders in the region, many of the countries with depressed and developing economies are only now beginning organized screening efforts. Four periods of screening growth in the Asia Pacific region were identified. Beginning in the 1960s, blood spot screening began in New Zealand and Australia, followed by Japan and a cord blood screening programme for G6PD deficiency in Singapore. In the 1980s, established programmes added congenital hypothyroidism and new programmes developed in Taiwan, Hong Kong, China (Shanghai), India and Malaysia. Programmes developing in the 1990s built on the experience of others developing more rapidly in Korea, Thailand and the Philippines. In the 2000s, with limited funding support from the International Atomic Energy Agency, there has been screening programme development around detection of congenital hypothyroidism in Indonesia, Mongolia, Sri Lanka, Myanmar and Pakistan. Palau has recently contracted with the Philippine newborn screening programme. There is little information available on newborn screening activities in Nepal, Cambodia, Laos and the other Pacific Island nations, with no organized screening efforts apparent. Since approximately half of the births in the world occur in the Asia Pacific Region, it is important to continue the ongoing implementation and expansion efforts so that these children can attain the same health status as children in more developed parts of the world and their full potential can be realized.

  20. Prenatal and newborn screening for hemoglobinopathies.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, C C

    2013-06-01

    The hemoglobinopathies encompass a heterogeneous group of disorders associated with mutations in both the alpha-globin and beta-globin genes. Increased immigration of high-risk populations has prompted the implementation of prenatal and newborn screening programs for hemoglobinopathies across Europe and North America. In Canada, the UK, and other European countries, prenatal screening to identify hemoglobinopathy carriers and offer prenatal diagnostic testing to couples at risk is linked to newborn screening, while in the United States, it is still not universally performed. The structure of screening programs, whether prenatal or postnatal, universal or selective, varies greatly among these countries and within the United States. The laboratory methods used to identify hemoglobinopathies are based on the prevalence of hemoglobinopathies within the population and the type of screening performed. Advances in molecular testing have facilitated the diagnosis of complex thalassemias and sickling disorders observed in ethnically diverse populations. This review summarizes the current approaches and methods used for carrier detection, prenatal diagnosis, and newborn screening.

  1. National Evaluation of US Newborn Screening System Components

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Therrell, Bradford L.; Hannon, W. Harry

    2006-01-01

    Newborn screening has existed as a state-based public health service since the early 1960s. Every state and most territorial jurisdictions have comprehensive newborn screening programs in place, but in the United States a national newborn screening policy does not exist. This results in different administrative infrastructures, screening…

  2. National Evaluation of US Newborn Screening System Components

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Therrell, Bradford L.; Hannon, W. Harry

    2006-01-01

    Newborn screening has existed as a state-based public health service since the early 1960s. Every state and most territorial jurisdictions have comprehensive newborn screening programs in place, but in the United States a national newborn screening policy does not exist. This results in different administrative infrastructures, screening…

  3. Newborn Screening for Lysosomal Storage Disorders and Other Neuronopathic Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matern, Dietrich; Oglesbee, Devin; Tortorelli, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Newborn screening (NBS) is a public health program aimed at identifying treatable conditions in presymptomatic newborns to avoid premature mortality, morbidity, and disabilities. Currently, every newborn in the Unites States is screened for at least 29 conditions where evidence suggests that early detection is possible and beneficial. With new or…

  4. Newborn Screening for Lysosomal Storage Disorders and Other Neuronopathic Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matern, Dietrich; Oglesbee, Devin; Tortorelli, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Newborn screening (NBS) is a public health program aimed at identifying treatable conditions in presymptomatic newborns to avoid premature mortality, morbidity, and disabilities. Currently, every newborn in the Unites States is screened for at least 29 conditions where evidence suggests that early detection is possible and beneficial. With new or…

  5. Different Viewpoints: International Perspectives on Newborn Screening

    PubMed Central

    Pollitt, Rodney J

    2015-01-01

    Summary Newborn blood-spot screening to detect potentially treatable disorders is widely practiced across the globe. However, there are great variations in practice, both in terms of disorders covered, screening technologies, disease definition, information provision, parental informed consent, and storage and disposal of residual specimens, partly reflecting the degree to which screening is the subject of explicit legislation (and thus public and media pressure) or is embedded in a general health care system and managed at an executive level. It is generally accepted that disorders to be screened for should comply with the ten Wilson and Jungner criteria, but the way that compliance is assessed ranges from broadly-based opinion surveys to detailed analysis of quantitative data. Consequently, even countries with comparable levels of economic development and health care show large differences in the number of disorders screened for. There are several areas on which there are no generally accepted guidelines: how should parents be informed about screening and to what extent should they be encouraged to regard screening as an option to choose to refuse? Is DNA mutation analysis acceptable as part of a screening protocol? How soon should the blood samples be destroyed once screening has been completed? As technology advances and the potential scope of screening expands at both the metabolite and genome level, challenging policy issues will have to be faced. PMID:28356819

  6. Newborn Screening To Prevent Mental Retardation. The Arc Q & A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arc, Arlington, TX.

    This information fact sheet on screening newborns to prevent mental retardation defines newborn screening and outlines how screening is performed. It discusses the six most common disorders resulting in mental retardation for which states most commonly screen. These include phenylketonuria, congenital hypothyroidism, galactosemia, maple syrup…

  7. Newborn Screening To Prevent Mental Retardation. The Arc Q & A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arc, Arlington, TX.

    This information fact sheet on screening newborns to prevent mental retardation defines newborn screening and outlines how screening is performed. It discusses the six most common disorders resulting in mental retardation for which states most commonly screen. These include phenylketonuria, congenital hypothyroidism, galactosemia, maple syrup…

  8. Universal Newborn Hearing Screening in Midwifery Education: A Survey.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Shannon B; Bednarz, Sydney E; Dilaj, Kristin A; McDonald, Amanda M

    2016-07-01

    Universal newborn hearing screening has been adopted by all 50 states in the United States. However, there is currently a lack of knowledge about how health care providers learn about universal newborn hearing screening during their education programs. The purpose of this study was to identify whether midwifery education programs in the United States currently include information regarding universal newborn hearing screening in the standard curricula and, if so, what specific information is covered. A survey that assessed whether specific topics related to universal newborn hearing screening are presented during midwifery education was sent to directors of midwifery education programs. Seventy-one midwifery education program directors were contacted, and the response rate was 38% (27 surveys). Most respondents reported that universal newborn hearing screening is discussed in the program, with the amount of time spent covering these topics varying considerably. Programs provide information about the midwife's role in universal newborn hearing screening, legal obligation to provide hearing screening information, and tests used to complete universal newborn hearing screening. How to complete the hearing screening, counseling for parents about results, and follow-up after a newborn does not pass the screening are topics that were not often discussed. There was no influence of program type or program length on the universal newborn hearing screening content discussed. The majority of midwifery education program directors that responded indicated that their programs include information about universal newborn hearing screening to midwifery students. There is a need for further information and resources specific to universal newborn hearing screening. Providing additional information to midwifery students about newborn hearing screening may result in increased awareness and education for families. © 2016 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  9. The current revolution in newborn screening: new technology, old controversies.

    PubMed

    Tarini, Beth A

    2007-08-01

    Newborn screening has provided a model of a successful public health screening program for the past 40 years. However, the history of newborn screening is not without controversy. Many of these controversies have been rekindled with the introduction of tandem mass spectrometry, a technology that has greatly increased our ability to detect potential disease in asymptomatic newborns. This review highlights the challenges raised by this and future technological advances as we strive to maintain the success of newborn screening in the 21st century.

  10. Emergency preparedness for newborn screening and genetic services.

    PubMed

    Pass, Kenneth A; Thoene, Jess; Watson, Michael S

    2009-06-01

    Patients identified in newborn screening programs can be among the most vulnerable during a disaster due to their need to have prompt diagnosis and medical management. Recent disasters have challenged the ability of newborn screening programs to maintain the needed continuity during emergency situations. This has significant implications for the newborn screening laboratories, the diagnostic confirmation providers, and the patients who either require diagnosis or maintenance of their therapeutic interventions. In 2007, the National Coordinating Center (NCC) for the Regional Genetics and Newborn Screening Collaboratives (RCs) sponsored a meeting involving representatives of the Regional Genetics and Newborn Screening Collaborative Groups, state newborn screening programs, providers of diagnosis and confirmation services, manufacturers of equipment, medical foods, and other treatments used in patients identified in newborn screening programs, and individuals from agencies involved in disaster response including the National Disaster Medical Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Emergency Management Assistance Compact, the Federal Emergency Management Agency, and others. In addition to developing contingency plans for newborn screening, we have considered other uses of genetics as it is used in DNA-based kinship identification of mass casualties. The meeting resulted in the description of a wide range of issues facing newborn screening programs, provider groups, and patients for which emergency preparedness development is needed in order that appropriate response is enabled.

  11. Newborn Screening for Lysosomal Storage Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Gelb, Michael H.; Scott, C. Ronald; Turecek, Frantisek

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND There is worldwide interest in newborn screening for lysosomal storage diseases because of the development of treatment options that give better results when carried out early in life. Screens with high differentiation between affected and nonaffected individuals are critical because of the large number of potential false positives. CONTENT This review summarizes 3 screening methods: (a) direct assay of enzymatic activities using tandem mass spectrometry or fluorometry, (b) immunocapture-based measurement of lysosomal enzyme abundance, and (c) measurement of biomarkers. Assay performance is compared on the basis of small-scale studies as well as on large-scale pilot studies of mass spectrometric and fluorometric screens. SUMMARY Tandem mass spectrometry and fluorometry techniques for direct assay of lysosomal enzymatic activity in dried blood spots have emerged as the most studied approaches. Comparative mass spectrometry vs fluorometry studies show that the former better differentiates between nonaffected vs affected individuals. This in turn leads to a manageable number of screen positives that can be further evaluated with second-tier methods. PMID:25477536

  12. Newborn Screening for Krabbe’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Orsini, Joseph J.; Saavedra-Matiz, Carlos A.; Gelb, Michael H.; Caggana, Michele

    2017-01-01

    Live newborn screening for Krabbe’s disease (KD) was initiated in New York on August 7, 2006, and started in Missouri in August, 2012. As of August 7, 2015, nearly 2.5 million infants had been screened, and 443 (0.018%) infants had been referred for followup clinical evaluation; only five infants had been determined to have KD. As of August, 2015, the combined incidence of infantile KD in New York and Missouri is ~1 per 500,000; however, patients who develop later-onset forms of KD may still emerge. This Review provides an overview of the processes used to develop the screening and followup algorithms. It also includes updated results from screening and discussion of observations, lessons learned, and suggested areas for improvement that will reduce referral rates and the number of infants defined as at risk for later-onset forms of KD. Although current treatment options for infants with early-infantile Krabbe’s disease are not curative, over time treatment options should improve; in the meantime, it is essential to evaluate the lessons learned and to ensure that screening is completed in the best possible manner until these improvements can be realized. PMID:27638592

  13. Challenges of newborn severe combined immunodeficiency screening among premature infants.

    PubMed

    Ward, Claire E; Baptist, Alan P

    2013-04-01

    Newborn screening for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is currently being performed in many states. It is important to address diagnostic challenges while outcomes are emerging from the first several years of screening. We present the case of a premature infant whose initial newborn screen was strongly positive for SCID. Subsequent lymphocyte subset analysis by flow cytometry was difficult to interpret due to the lack of age-matched reference values, a history of prenatal corticosteroid administration, and the possibility of maternal or posttransfusion engraftment. A repeat newborn screen for SCID ultimately revealed a normal result, confirming the initial newborn screen as a false positive. This case report reveals several of the diagnostic challenges unique to newborn SCID screening in premature infants and highlights the potential for states to address the feasibility of a standard protocol in this population.

  14. What Disorders Are Newborns Screened for in the United States?

    MedlinePlus

    ... the most appropriate application of universal newborn screening tests, technologies, policies, guidelines, and standards. A complete list of the conditions screened for in each state can be found at Baby's First Test . What are some examples of the benefits of ...

  15. Universal Newborn Screening and Adverse Medical Outcomes: A Historical Note

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brosco, Jeffrey P.; Seider, Michael I.; Dunn, Angela C.

    2006-01-01

    Universal newborn screening programs for metabolic disorders are typically described as a triumph of medicine and public policy in the US over the last 50 years. Advances in science and technology, including the Human Genome Project, offer the opportunity to expand universal newborn screening programs to include many additional metabolic and…

  16. Universal Newborn Screening and Adverse Medical Outcomes: A Historical Note

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brosco, Jeffrey P.; Seider, Michael I.; Dunn, Angela C.

    2006-01-01

    Universal newborn screening programs for metabolic disorders are typically described as a triumph of medicine and public policy in the US over the last 50 years. Advances in science and technology, including the Human Genome Project, offer the opportunity to expand universal newborn screening programs to include many additional metabolic and…

  17. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia and the second newborn screen.

    PubMed

    Chan, Christine L; McFann, Kim; Taylor, Laura; Wright, Daniel; Zeitler, Philip S; Barker, Jennifer M

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a second newborn screen for congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) in the state of Colorado and report characteristics associated with cases identified on the first versus second screen. Colorado implemented newborn screening for CAH with 17-hydroxyprogesterone beginning August 2000. The first screening is performed within 72 hours of life and the second between 8 and 14 days of life. We compared infants diagnosed on the basis of the first versus second newborn screen. The first screen identified 29 cases of which 28 represented classical CAH. The incidence of classical CAH on the first screen was 1:24,766. The second screen identified 17 additional cases, of which 11 represented classical CAH. Combined, the incidence of classical CAH was 1:17,789. The sensitivity of the first screen was 71.79%. The false negative rate of the first screen was 28.2%. In the absence of a second screen, 1:47,824 infants would have been missed. Infants diagnosed on the first screen had higher 17-hydroxyprogesterone values compared with those diagnosed on the second screen (P = .0008). The use of a single newborn screen for CAH missed nearly 30% of classical CAH cases in Colorado. Addition of a second screen, therefore, can improve the operating characteristics of the newborn screening program. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Mandatory versus voluntary consent for newborn screening?

    PubMed

    Ross, Lainie Friedman

    2010-12-01

    Virtually every infant in the United States undergoes a heel stick within the first week of life to test for a variety of metabolic, endocrine, and hematological conditions as part of state-run universal newborn screening (NBS) programs. The history of this mandatory public health program is examined, as well as whether the policy was morally justifiable. Three changes in NBS practice necessitate a re-evaluation of the mandatory nature of NBS. First is the adoption of NBS for hemoglobinopathies in the 1980s that led to the identification of many sickle cell carriers and carriers of other hemoglobin variants. In all other contexts, carrier testing requires consent, and there is no moral rationale why NBS ought to be exceptional. Second is the application of tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) to NBS in the 1990s that led to the identification of many metabolic conditions and variants, some of which were not treatable and others of which had unknown clinical relevance. To the extent that the conditions do not need emergent diagnosis and treatment, there is less justification for mandatory screening. Third, there is great interest in using residual blood spots for research, and the cornerstone of research ethics is the voluntary consent of the participant (or his or her proxy). These three changes support revising mandatory NBS with a tiered consent process to best balance respect for parental autonomy and the promotion of children's health.

  19. Newborn Screening: What Does the Emergency Physician Need to Know?

    PubMed

    Lavin, Lindsay Roofe; Higby, Nicholas; Abramo, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    Newborn screening programs were established in the United States in the early 1960s. Newborn screening programs were then developed by states and have continued to be the responsibility of the state. All states require a newborn screening, but what is required of these programs and screening panels has differed greatly by state. Historically, the most commonly screened disorders are the following: congenital hypothyroidism, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, sickle cell disease and associated hemoglobinopathies, biotinidase deficiency, galactosemia, cystic fibrosis and phenylketonuria, maple syrup urine disease, and homocystinuria. However, under new guidelines in 2006 and with new advances in technology, the scope of newborn screening programs has expanded to include at a minimum 9 organic acidurias, 5 fatty acid oxidation disorders, 3 hemoglobinopathies, and 6 other conditions. This CME article reviews the logistics of newborn screening and explores the effect of new technology and recent policy on state screens and what that means for providers. This article also highlights several of the disorders most relevant to emergency room physicians and discusses future considerations of newborn screening.

  20. Parental attitudes on expanded newborn screening in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Mak, C M; Lam, C W; Law, C Y; Siu, W K; Kwong, L L T; Chan, K L; Chan, W T; Chow, K M; Lee, K W; Chan, W P; Chan, A Y W

    2012-11-01

    Classical inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) affect about 1 in 4000 in Hong Kong. Despite the widespread implementation of expanded newborn screening in most countries, Hong Kong only screen for three conditions and the awareness of public has not been evaluated. This is the first study to examine the parental knowledge and attitudes towards expanded newborn screening in Hong Kong. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in the Princess Margaret Hospital. Parents with babies born from 1st July to 31st October 2010 were randomly recruited. Fifteen questions relating to the knowledge of newborn screening and biochemical genetic disorders, preferences about the features of newborn screening, the economic values, and attitudes toward false positive results were asked. In total, 172 subjects were interviewed by phone (overall response rate 97.2%). There were 87.8% parents who had never heard of expanded newborn screening; 99.4% demanded more parental education; 83.5% thought the programme should be implemented immediately; 97.7% supported population screening, even though the diseases are incurable; 93.9% accepted the possibility of false positive and false negative results; 70.4% preferred a voluntary basis; 83.2% believed that the programme should be fully government funded as basic primary care; 98.8% agreed that Hong Kong should follow mainland China's policy on expanded newborn screening; 98.2% required pre-test counseling; and 96.4% required an explicit parental consent before blood sampling. The response from parents overwhelmingly favoured having expanded newborn screening in Hong Kong. Parental tolerance was high. Parents valued the parental autonomy with informed consent and pre-test counseling the most. The success of any screening programme requires the public participation and this study is the first to prove the parental call for an expanded newborn screening in Hong Kong. Copyright © 2012 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All

  1. Conference on Newborn Hearing Screening; Proceedings Summary and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Presented in the conference proceedings are schedule and list of participants, seven major papers, and the newborn hearing screening recommendations of the interdisciplinary conference on newborn hearing and early identification of hearing impairment. Neonatal auditory testing is reviewed by Sanford E. Gerber, and Sheldon B. Korones gives a…

  2. Single newborn screen or routine second screening for primary congenital hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Shapira, Stuart K; Hinton, Cynthia F; Held, Patrice K; Jones, Elizabeth; Harry Hannon, W; Ojodu, Jelili

    2015-11-01

    Routine second screening of most newborns at 8-14 days of life for a panel of newborn conditions occurs in 12 U.S. states, while newborns in the other states typically undergo only a single routine newborn screen. The study objective was to evaluate screening consequences for primary congenital hypothyroidism (CH) in one- and two-screen states according to laboratory practices and medical or biochemical characteristics of screen-positive cases. Individual-level medical and biochemical data were retrospectively collected and analyzed for 2251 primary CH cases in one-screen (CA, WI) and two-screen (AL, DE, MD, OR, TX) states. Aggregate data were collected and analyzed for medical and biochemical characteristics of all screened newborns in the states. Among the states evaluated in this study, the detection rate of primary CH was higher in the one-screen states. In the two-screen states, 11.5% of cases were detected on the second screen. In multivariate analyses, only race/ethnicity was a significant predictor of cases identified on the first versus second screen, which likely reflects a physiologic difference in primary CH presentation. Newborn screening programs must heed the potential for newborns with CH not being detected by a single screen, particularly newborns of certain races/ethnicities. If the two-screen states converted to a single screen using their current algorithms, newborns currently identified on the routine second screen would presumably not be detected, resulting in probable delayed diagnosis and treatment. However, based on the one-screen state experiences, with appropriate modifications in screening method and algorithm, the two-screen states might convert to single screen operation for CH without loss in performance. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Single newborn screen or routine second screening for primary congenital hypothyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Shapira, Stuart K.; Hinton, Cynthia F.; Held, Patrice K.; Jones, Elizabeth; Hannon, W. Harry; Ojodu, Jelili

    2015-01-01

    Routine second screening of most newborns at 8–14 days of life for a panel of newborn conditions occurs in 12 U.S. states, while newborns in the other states typically undergo only a single routine newborn screen. The study objective was to evaluate screening consequences for primary congenital hypothyroidism (CH) in one- and two-screen states according to laboratory practices and medical or biochemical characteristics of screen-positive cases. Individual-level medical and biochemical data were retrospectively collected and analyzed for 2,251 primary CH cases in one-screen (CA, WI) and two-screen (AL, DE, MD, OR, TX) states. Aggregate data were collected and analyzed for medical and biochemical characteristics of all screened newborns in the states. Among the states evaluated in this study, the detection rate of primary CH was higher in the one-screen states. In the two-screen states, 11.5% of cases were detected on the second screen. In multivariate analyses, only race/ethnicity was a significant predictor of cases identified on the first versus second screen, which likely reflects a physiologic difference in primary CH presentation. Newborn screening programs must heed the potential for newborns with CH not being detected by a single screen, particularly newborns of certain races/ethnicities. If the two-screen states converted to a single screen using their current algorithms, newborns currently identified on the routine second screen would presumably not be detected, resulting in probable delayed diagnosis and treatment. However, based on the one-screen state experiences, with appropriate modifications in screening method and algorithm, the two-screen states might convert to single screen operation for CH without loss in performance. PMID:26293295

  4. Newborn screening cards: a legal quagmire.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Diana M; Studdert, David M

    2011-03-21

    Newborn screening (NBS) programs are a well established and cost-effective method for early identification of genetic disorders. However, a raft of legal questions surrounds the collection, storage, ownership and secondary use of NBS cards. The absence of clear legal rules governing NBS programs in Australia means that there are few straightforward answers to these questions. A series of controversial incidents have exposed this uncertainty in Australia, and remarkably similar controversies have occurred in the United States and European Union. We review the situation, using Victoria as a case study. We also make the case for a dedicated regulatory regime for NBS programs, arguing that the lack of such a regime threatens public trust and the robust operation of NBS programs in Australia. New rules would likely introduce stricter requirements for informed consent at the point of blood collection than has been the norm to date. However, the scope for use of cards in research could expand rather than contract, and it may be possible to reduce the risk that vast card archives will need to be destroyed in response to future public outcries.

  5. Disorders of vitamin B12 metabolism presenting through newborn screening.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Janice

    2008-12-01

    Elevated propionyl C3 carnitine is the most common abnormality seen in tandem mass spectrometry newborn screening profiles, with an incidence of 0.15% seen in our South Australian newborn screening programme. The most common cause for this result in our population is vitamin B12 deficiency but differential diagnoses include the inherited disorders of propionic and methylmalonic acid metabolism and cobalamin deficiencies. An approach to confirmatory testing and subsequent management of infants with elevated propionic carnitine is presented.

  6. Whole-Genome Screening of Newborns? The Constitutional Boundaries of State Newborn Screening Programs

    PubMed Central

    King, Jaime S.; Smith, Monica E.

    2016-01-01

    State newborn screening (NBS) programs routinely screen nearly all of the 4 million newborns in the United States each year for ~30 primary conditions and a number of secondary conditions. NBS could be on the cusp of an unprecedented expansion as a result of advances in whole-genome sequencing (WGS). As WGS becomes cheaper and easier and as our knowledge and understanding of human genetics expand, the question of whether WGS has a role to play in state NBS programs becomes increasingly relevant and complex. As geneticists and state public health officials begin to contemplate the technical and procedural details of whether WGS could benefit existing NBS programs, this is an opportune time to revisit the legal framework of state NBS programs. In this article, we examine the constitutional underpinnings of state-mandated NBS and explore the range of current state statutes and regulations that govern the programs. We consider the legal refinements that will be needed to keep state NBS programs within constitutional bounds, focusing on 2 areas of concern: consent procedures and the criteria used to select new conditions for NBS panels. We conclude by providing options for states to consider when contemplating the use of WGS for NBS. PMID:26729704

  7. Whole-Genome Screening of Newborns? The Constitutional Boundaries of State Newborn Screening Programs.

    PubMed

    King, Jaime S; Smith, Monica E

    2016-01-01

    State newborn screening (NBS) programs routinely screen nearly all of the 4 million newborns in the United States each year for ∼30 primary conditions and a number of secondary conditions. NBS could be on the cusp of an unprecedented expansion as a result of advances in whole-genome sequencing (WGS). As WGS becomes cheaper and easier and as our knowledge and understanding of human genetics expand, the question of whether WGS has a role to play in state NBS programs becomes increasingly relevant and complex. As geneticists and state public health officials begin to contemplate the technical and procedural details of whether WGS could benefit existing NBS programs, this is an opportune time to revisit the legal framework of state NBS programs. In this article, we examine the constitutional underpinnings of state-mandated NBS and explore the range of current state statutes and regulations that govern the programs. We consider the legal refinements that will be needed to keep state NBS programs within constitutional bounds, focusing on 2 areas of concern: consent procedures and the criteria used to select new conditions for NBS panels. We conclude by providing options for states to consider when contemplating the use of WGS for NBS.

  8. Evolution of Italian Universal Newborn Hearing Screening Programs.

    PubMed

    Bubbico, L; Tognola, G; Grandori, F

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the state of implementation of the Universal Newborn Hearing Screening Programs in Italy and to determine the effect that an ad hoc legislation may have on the percentage of infants screened for detection of hearing impairment in nurseries. Italian Newborn Hearing Screening data were obtained during four national surveys (years 2003, 2006, 2008, and 2011). The screening rates obtained by the Regions which adopted or did not adopt a legislation to increase the newborns' coverage were compared. In 2011, the average coverage rate was 78.3%, but in 12 out of 20 Regions it exceeded 95%. Coverage rate was greater in Regions that implemented an ad hoc legislation compared to Regions that did not. As a matter of fact, Regions which passed the legislation screened more than 95% of infants, whereas Regions without legislation reported a mean screening rate of nearly 67% of newborns. Current results seem to confirm that a specific legislation might have a decisive effect on the increase of rate of coverage of newborn hearing screenings.

  9. Lessons Learned From Newborn Screening for Critical Congenital Heart Defects.

    PubMed

    Oster, Matthew E; Aucott, Susan W; Glidewell, Jill; Hackell, Jesse; Kochilas, Lazaros; Martin, Gerard R; Phillippi, Julia; Pinto, Nelangi M; Saarinen, Annamarie; Sontag, Marci; Kemper, Alex R

    2016-05-01

    Newborn screening for critical congenital heart defects (CCHD) was added to the US Recommended Uniform Screening Panel in 2011. Within 4 years, 46 states and the District of Columbia had adopted it into their newborn screening program, leading to CCHD screening being nearly universal in the United States. This rapid adoption occurred while there were still questions about the effectiveness of the recommended screening protocol and barriers to follow-up for infants with a positive screen. In response, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention partnered with the American Academy of Pediatrics to convene an expert panel between January and September 2015 representing a broad array of primary care, neonatology, pediatric cardiology, nursing, midwifery, public health, and advocacy communities. The panel's goal was to review current practices in newborn screening for CCHD and to identify opportunities for improvement. In this article, we describe the experience of CCHD screening in the United States with regard to: (1) identifying the target lesions for CCHD screening; (2) optimizing the algorithm for screening; (3) determining state-level challenges to implementation and surveillance of CCHD; (4) educating all stakeholders; (5) performing screening using the proper equipment and in a cost-effective manner; and (6) implementing screening in special settings such as the NICU, out-of-hospital settings, and areas of high altitude.

  10. Lessons Learned From Newborn Screening for Critical Congenital Heart Defects

    PubMed Central

    Oster, Matthew E.; Aucott, Susan W.; Glidewell, Jill; Hackell, Jesse; Kochilas, Lazaros; Martin, Gerard R.; Phillippi, Julia; Pinto, Nelangi M.; Saarinen, Annamarie; Sontag, Marci; Kemper, Alex R.

    2016-01-01

    Newborn screening for critical congenital heart defects (CCHD) was added to the US Recommended Uniform Screening Panel in 2011. Within 4 years, 46 states and the District of Columbia had adopted it into their newborn screening program, leading to CCHD screening being nearly universal in the United States. This rapid adoption occurred while there were still questions about the effectiveness of the recommended screening protocol and barriers to follow-up for infants with a positive screen. In response, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention partnered with the American Academy of Pediatrics to convene an expert panel between January and September 2015 representing a broad array of primary care, neonatology, pediatric cardiology, nursing, midwifery, public health, and advocacy communities. The panel’s goal was to review current practices in newborn screening for CCHD and to identify opportunities for improvement. In this article, we describe the experience of CCHD screening in the United States with regard to: (1) identifying the target lesions for CCHD screening; (2) optimizing the algorithm for screening; (3) determining state-level challenges to implementation and surveillance of CCHD; (4) educating all stakeholders; (5) performing screening using the proper equipment and in a cost-effective manner; and (6) implementing screening in special settings such as the NICU, out-of-hospital settings, and areas of high altitude. PMID:27244826

  11. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia cases identified by newborn screening in one- and two-screen states

    PubMed Central

    Held, Patrice K.; Shapira, Stuart K.; Hinton, Cynthia F.; Jones, Elizabeth; Hannon, W. Harry; Ojodu, Jelili

    2015-01-01

    There is no clear consensus among state newborn screening programs on whether routine second screening of newborns identifies clinically relevant cases of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. This retrospective study evaluated laboratory practices, along with biochemical and medical characteristics of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) cases (1) detected on the first newborn screen in one-screen compared to two-screen states, and (2) detected on the first versus the second screen in the two-screen states, to determine the effectiveness of a second screen. A total of 374 confirmed cases of CAH from 2 one-screen states and 5 two-screen states were included in this study. Demographic data and diagnostic information on each reported case were collected and analyzed. Additionally, laboratory data, including screening methodologies and algorithms, were evaluated. The one-screen states reported 99 cases of CAH out of 1,740,586 (1 in 17,500) newborns screened: 88 (89%) identified on first screen and 5 (5%) identified on targeted second screen. The two-screen states reported 275 cases of CAH out of 2,629,627 (1 in 9,500) newborns screened: 165 (60%) identified on first screen and 99 (36%) identified on second screen. Using a multivariate model, the only significant predictor of whether a case was identified on the first or second screen in the two-screen states was the type of CAH. Compared with classical salt-wasting CAH, classical simple virilizing and non-classical CAH cases were less likely to be detected on the first versus the second screen. The routine second newborn screen is important for identifying children with CAH, particularly simple virilizing and non-classical forms, which might otherwise not be captured through a single screen. PMID:26296712

  12. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia cases identified by newborn screening in one- and two-screen states.

    PubMed

    Held, Patrice K; Shapira, Stuart K; Hinton, Cynthia F; Jones, Elizabeth; Hannon, W Harry; Ojodu, Jelili

    2015-11-01

    There is no clear consensus among state newborn screening programs on whether routine second screening of newborns identifies clinically relevant cases of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. This retrospective study evaluated laboratory practices, along with biochemical and medical characteristics of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) cases (1) detected on the first newborn screen in one-screen compared to two-screen states, and (2) detected on the first versus the second screen in the two-screen states, to determine the effectiveness of a second screen. A total of 374 confirmed cases of CAH from 2 one-screen states and 5 two-screen states were included in this study. Demographic data and diagnostic information on each reported case were collected and analyzed. Additionally, laboratory data, including screening methodologies and algorithms, were evaluated. The one-screen states reported 99 cases of CAH out of 1,740,586 (1 in 17,500) newborns screened: 88 (89%) identified on the first screen and 5 (5%) identified on the targeted second screen. The two-screen states reported 275 cases of CAH out of 2,629,627 (1 in 9500) newborns screened: 165 (60%) identified on the first screen and 99 (36%) identified on the second screen. Using a multivariate model, the only significant predictor of whether a case was identified on the first or the second screen in the two-screen states was the type of CAH. Compared with classical salt-wasting CAH, classical simple virilizing and non-classical CAH cases were less likely to be detected on the first versus the second screen. The routine second newborn screen is important for identifying children with CAH, particularly simple virilizing and non-classical forms, which might otherwise not be captured through a single screen. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Digital Microfluidics: A Future Technology in the Newborn Screening Laboratory?

    PubMed Central

    Millington, David S.; Sista, Ramakrishna; Eckhardt, Allen; Rouse, Jeremy; Bali, Deeksha; Goldberg, Ronald; Cotten, Michael; Buckley, Rebecca; Pamula, Vamsee

    2010-01-01

    Expansion of newborn screening for inherited metabolic disorders using tandem mass spectrometry has generated interest in screening for other treatable conditions, including lysosomal storage diseases. Limitations to expansion include labor and equipment costs. We describe a cost-effective new platform that reduces the time to result reporting and can perform multiplexing assays requiring different platforms. Immunoassays and enzyme activity assays currently used in newborn screening have been translated to a disposable microchip programmed to dispense, transport, mix, wash, and incubate individual microdroplets from specimens, including dried blood spot extracts, and reagents all under software control. The specimen and reagents consumed are approximately 1% of those required by equivalent bench assays. In addition to immunologic and enzymatic assays, DNA amplification, amplicon detection, and sequencing have been demonstrated using the same microchips and control equipment. Recently, the multiplexing of 4 different enzyme activities has also been demonstrated with negligible cross-contamination. We review assays relevant to newborn screening. PMID:20207266

  14. Newborn Sickle Cell Screening: Benefits and Burdens Realized.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowley, Peter T.; Huntzinger, Donna J.

    1983-01-01

    Follow-up data on a program that screened 17 newborns for sickle cell anemia suggests that in order to derive maximum benefit from such screening physicians need to better understand the differential diagnosis, treatment, and inheritance of sickle cell disease, and individual guidance must be provided to families. (GC)

  15. Newborn Sickle Cell Screening: Benefits and Burdens Realized.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowley, Peter T.; Huntzinger, Donna J.

    1983-01-01

    Follow-up data on a program that screened 17 newborns for sickle cell anemia suggests that in order to derive maximum benefit from such screening physicians need to better understand the differential diagnosis, treatment, and inheritance of sickle cell disease, and individual guidance must be provided to families. (GC)

  16. [Simultaneous screening program for newborns hearing and ocular diseases].

    PubMed

    Nie, Wen-Ying; Wu, Han-Rong; Qi, Yi-Sheng; Lin, Qian; Zhang, Min; Hou, Qian; Gong, Lu-Xia; Li, Hui; Li, Ying-Hui; Dong, Yan-Ru; Guo, Yu-Luan; Shi, Jin-Na; Yin, Su-Ying; Li, Ping-Yu; Zhang, Wen-Hua

    2007-02-01

    To explore the model and the feasibility of newborn hearing and ocular disease simultaneous screening program and to study the birth prevalence of newborn hearing loss and newborn ocular diseases. The universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS) was performed using transient otoacoustic emission (TEOAE) in well baby nursery and by a two-stage TEOAE and auto auditory brainstem response (AABR) protocol in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The UNHS was simultaneous done with newborn ocular disease screening program. The examination technical method was following: the response to light, external inspection of the eyes and lids, pupil examination, red reflex examination, funduscope examination after pupil dilation for referral (for all newborn in NICU). The infants who were referred by two-stage hearing screening and/or had high-risk factors of hearing loss received following-up and routine audiological evaluation and personalized intervention from 6 months to 3 years of age. The cases had positive sign and (or) abnormal results of the ocular disease screening were referred for further examination by pediatric ophthalmologists. A total of 16 800 children born in Jinan Maternal and Child Hospital from October 1, 2002 to April 30, 2005. Of these infants, 15 398 cases (91.7%) had access to the simultaneous screening program for hearing and ocular diseases. The incidence of congenital sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) among infants who did UNHS was 0.312% (48/15 398) in bilateral and 0.227% (35/15 398) in unilateral; Of the 4 cases of congenital SNHL complicated with newborn ocular diseases: 1 profound SNHL (bilateral), auditory neuropathy with congenital cataract (bilateral), 1 mild SNHL (bilateral) with membrana papillaris perseverance (left) and 1 mild SNHL (bilateral) with retina vein dilatation (bilateral), 1 mild SNHL (right) with persistent hyaloid artery (bilateral). In all 15 398 newborns, 15 neonates with congenital cataract were detected (22 eyes, 0.10%). Twenty

  17. The development and organization of newborn screening programs in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Tezel, Başak; Dilli, Dilek; Bolat, Hilal; Sahman, Hatice; Ozbaş, Sema; Acıcan, Deniz; Ertek, Mustafa; Köse, Mehmet Rıfat; Dilmen, Uğur

    2014-01-01

    Newborn screening tests have been designed to identify infants with severe disorders that are relatively prevalent and treatable or controllable. Comparing to other countries, the incidence of these diseases are very high in Turkey where the rate of consanguineous marriage is high. In this article, it is aimed to evaluate the development and organization of newborn screening programs in Turkey which include phenylketonuria, congenital hypothyroidism and biotinidase deficiency screenings. The point reached today, limitations of the program, expectations and projects for the future are discussed. Today, the point reached in screening programs of the country is appreciable. While the screening rate of the live born babies was 4,7% in 1987, this rate reached to 95% by 2008. Predicted target for newborn screening program at the strategic plan of Ministry of Health for 2010-2014 was to enhance this rate above 95% by the end of 2012. It seems that the envisaged goal has been reached. National newborn screening program appears to be conducted successfully and extensively as a result of political determination and performance of health care workers who are in charge of this program. Nevertheless, limited numbers of the nutrition and metabolism clinics and specialists on these branches have caused some access difficulties, waste of time, and financial loss. Therefore, special planning to improve quality and the number of the clinics would be useful. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Newborn screening program for hemoglobinopathies in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Clarisse Lopes de Castro; Ballas, Samir K; Domingos, Ana Carolina Bonini; Moura, Patricia G; do Nascimento, Emilia Matos; Cardoso, Gilberto Perez; de Carvalho, Silvia Maia Farias

    2014-01-01

    Newborn screening for hemoglobinopathy in Brazil has been decentralized until 2001 when the Health Ministry of Brazil established the National Newborn Hemoglobinopathy Screening Program. The State of Rio de Janeiro started a program in collaboration with the State Health Department and the Institute of Hematology in Rio (HEMORIO). The goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the first 10 years of the Newborn Hemoglobinopathy Screening Program in identifying and managing infants with Sickle cell disease (SCD) in the State of Rio de Janeiro. Blood samples from 1,217,833 neonates were analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Infants with SCD were enrolled in comprehensive treatment programs. Data showed that 4.87% of the newborns were heterozygous for a hemoglobin variant, 0.08% were homozygous or doubly heterozygous for abnormal hemoglobins and 95.02% had normal hemoglobin. All the 912 newborns with SCD were referred for treatment at HEMORIO, 34 (3.7%) of these died due to acute chest syndrome, sepsis or splenic sequestration. Four more children died of unknown causes. The implementation of the Rio de Janeiro Newborn Screening Program gradually increased the area of the State covered by the program. Data collected during the 10 years of the program showed reduction in mortality of patients with SCD in comparison to available historical statistical data before the implementation of the national screening program. This 10-year study showed that early diagnosis and treatment of newborns was associated with improved survival and quality of life of Brazilian children with SCD. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Maternal vitamin B12 deficiency detected in expanded newborn screening.

    PubMed

    Scolamiero, Emanuela; Villani, Guglielmo Rosario Domenico; Ingenito, Laura; Pecce, Rita; Albano, Lucia; Caterino, Marianna; di Girolamo, Maria Grazia; Di Stefano, Cristina; Franzese, Ignazio; Gallo, Giovanna; Ruoppolo, Margherita

    2014-12-01

    Besides the inherited form, vitamin B(12) deficiency may be due to diet restrictions or abnormal absorption. The spread of newborn screening programs worldwide has pointed out that non-inherited conditions are mainly secondary to a maternal deficiency. The aim of our work was to study seven cases of acquired vitamin B12 deficiency detected during our newborn screening project. Moreover, we aimed to evaluate vitamin B(12) and related biochemical parameters status on delivering female to verify the consequences on newborns of eventually altered parameters. 35,000 newborns were screened; those showing altered propionyl carnitine (C3) underwent second-tier test for methylmalonic acid (MMA) on dried blood spot (DBS). Subsequently, newborns positive to the presence of MMA on DBS and their respective mothers underwent further tests: serum vitamin B(12), holo-transcobalamin (Holo-TC), folate and homocysteine; newborns were also tested for urinary MMA content. A control study was conducted on 203 females that were tested for the same parameters when admitted to hospital for delivery. Approximately 10% of the examined newborns showed altered C3. Among these, seven cases of acquired vitamin B(12) deficiency were identified (70% of the MMA-positive cases). Moreover, our data show a high frequency of vitamin B(12) deficiency in delivering female (approximately 48% of examined pregnants). We suggest to monitor vitamin B(12) and Holo-TC until delivery and to reconsider the reference interval of vitamin B(12) for a better identification of cases at risk. Finally, newborns from mothers with low or borderline levels of vitamin B(12) should undergo second-tier test for MMA; in the presence of MMA they should be supplemented with vitamin B(12) to prevent adverse effects related to vitamin B(12) deficiency. Copyright © 2014 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Newborn Screening and Cascade Testing for FMR1 Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Sorensen, Page L.; Gane, Louise W.; Yarborough, Mark; Hagerman, Randi; Tassone, Flora

    2014-01-01

    We describe an ongoing pilot project in which newborn screening (NBS) for FMR1 mutations and subsequent cascade testing are performed by the MIND Institute at the University of California, Davis Medical Center (UCDMC). To date, out of 3042 newborns initially screened, 44 extended family members have been screened by cascade testing of extended family members once a newborn is identified. 14 newborns (7 males and 7 females) and 27 extended family members (5 males and 22 females) have been identified with FMR1 mutations. Three family histories are discussed in detail, each demonstrating some benefits and risks of NBS and cascade testing for FMR1 mutations in extended family members. While we acknowledge inherent risks, we propose that with genetic counseling, clinical follow-up of identified individuals and cascade testing, newborn screening (NBS) has significant benefits. Treatment for individuals in the extended family who would otherwise not have received treatment can be beneficial. In addition, knowledge of carrier status can lead to lifestyle changes and prophylactic interventions that are likely to reduce the risk of late onset neurological or psychiatric problems in carriers. Also with identification of carrier family members through NBS, reproductive choices become available to those who would not have known that they were at risk to have offspring with fragile X syndrome. PMID:23239591

  1. Newborn screening for SCID identifies patients with ataxia telangiectasia.

    PubMed

    Mallott, Jacob; Kwan, Antonia; Church, Joseph; Gonzalez-Espinosa, Diana; Lorey, Fred; Tang, Ling Fung; Sunderam, Uma; Rana, Sadhna; Srinivasan, Rajgopal; Brenner, Steven E; Puck, Jennifer

    2013-04-01

    Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is characterized by failure of T lymphocyte development and absent or very low T cell receptor excision circles (TRECs), DNA byproducts of T cell maturation. Newborn screening for TRECs to identify SCID is now performed in several states using PCR of DNA from universally collected dried blood spots (DBS). In addition to infants with typical SCID, TREC screening identifies infants with T lymphocytopenia who appear healthy and in whom a SCID diagnosis cannot be confirmed. Deep sequencing was employed to find causes of T lymphocytopenia in such infants. Whole exome sequencing and analysis were performed in infants and their parents. Upon finding deleterious mutations in the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene, we confirmed the diagnosis of ataxia telangiectasia (AT) in two infants and then tested archival newborn DBS of additional AT patients for TREC copy number. Exome sequencing and analysis led to 2 unsuspected gene diagnoses of AT. Of 13 older AT patients for whom newborn DBS had been stored, 7 samples tested positive for SCID under the criteria of California's newborn screening program. AT children with low neonatal TRECs had low CD4 T cell counts subsequently detected (R = 0.64). T lymphocytopenia in newborns can be a feature of AT, as revealed by TREC screening and exome sequencing. Although there is no current cure for the progressive neurological impairment of AT, early detection permits avoidance of infectious complications, while providing information for families regarding reproductive recurrence risks and increased cancer risks in patients and carriers.

  2. Maternal attitudes to newborn screening for fragile X syndrome.

    PubMed

    Christie, Louise; Wotton, Tiffany; Bennetts, Bruce; Wiley, Veronica; Wilcken, Bridget; Rogers, Carolyn; Boyle, Jackie; Turner, Catherine; Hansen, Jessica; Hunter, Matthew; Goel, Himanshu; Field, Michael

    2013-02-01

    Although fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the commonest cause of inherited intellectual disability the mean age of diagnosis in Australia is 5.5 years. Newborn screening for FXS can provide an early diagnosis, preventing the "diagnostic odyssey", allowing access to early interventions, and providing reproductive information for parents. Parents of affected children support newborn screening, but few clinical studies have evaluated community attitudes. A pilot study in 2009-2010 was performed in a tertiary hospital to explore feasibility and maternal attitudes. FXS testing of male and female newborns was offered to mothers in addition to routine newborn screening. Mothers were provided with information about FXS, inheritance pattern, carrier status, and associated adult-onset disorders. One thousand nine hundred seventy-one of 2,094 mothers (94%) consented to testing of 2,000 newborns. 86% completed the attitudinal survey and 10% provided written comments. Almost all parents (99%) elected to be informed of both premutation and full mutation status and there was little concern about identification of carrier status or associated adult-onset disorders. Most mothers (96%) were comfortable being approached in the postnatal period and supported testing because no extra blood test was required. Mothers considered an early diagnosis beneficial to help prepare for a child with additional needs (93%) and for reproductive planning (64%). Some were anxious about the potential test results (10%) and others felt their feelings towards their newborn may change if diagnosed with FXS (16%). High participation rates and maternal attitudes indicate a high level of maternal acceptance and voluntary support for newborn screening for FXS.

  3. Neonatal/newborn haemoglobinopathy screening in Europe and Africa.

    PubMed

    Bain, B J

    2009-01-01

    Neonatal/newborn haemoglobinopathy screening is being performed in an increasing number of European countries since changing patterns of immigration have led to significant numbers of neonates at risk of sickle cell disease. The purpose of screening is to improve management of sickle cell disease through early parental education and the institution of prophylaxis against infection. Some haemoglobinopathy screening programmes are stand-alone, while others are integrated into a neonatal screening programme for metabolic disorders. Despite the logistic problems and economic constraints, neonatal haemoglobinopathy screening is also being gradually introduced in a number of African countries.

  4. Newborn Hearing Screening: An Analysis of Current Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston, K. Todd; Bradham, Tamala S.; Munoz, Karen F.; Guignard, Gayla Hutsell

    2011-01-01

    State coordinators of early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI) programs completed a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, or SWOT, analysis that consisted of 12 evaluative areas of EHDI programs. For the newborn hearing screening area, a total of 293 items were listed by 49 EHDI coordinators, and themes were identified within…

  5. Newborn Hearing Screening: An Analysis of Current Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston, K. Todd; Bradham, Tamala S.; Munoz, Karen F.; Guignard, Gayla Hutsell

    2011-01-01

    State coordinators of early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI) programs completed a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, or SWOT, analysis that consisted of 12 evaluative areas of EHDI programs. For the newborn hearing screening area, a total of 293 items were listed by 49 EHDI coordinators, and themes were identified within…

  6. Changing Perspectives on the Benefits of Newborn Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Donald B., Jr.; Beskow, Laura M.; Davis, Arlene M.; Skinner, Debra

    2006-01-01

    The likelihood of benefit is fundamental to decision making about newborn screening. But benefit is construed in different ways by different stakeholders. This article begins with a review of benefit as considered historically by various expert panels and organizations. We then show how 78 conditions fared when experts recently rated them on…

  7. Students as Technicians: Screening Newborns for Cystic Fibrosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gusky, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    In this activity, freshman college students learn biotechnology techniques while playing the role of a laboratory technician. They perform simulations of three diagnostic tests used to screen newborns for cystic fibrosis. By performing an ELISA, a PCR analysis, and a conductivity test, students learn how biotechnology techniques can be used to…

  8. Students as Technicians: Screening Newborns for Cystic Fibrosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gusky, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    In this activity, freshman college students learn biotechnology techniques while playing the role of a laboratory technician. They perform simulations of three diagnostic tests used to screen newborns for cystic fibrosis. By performing an ELISA, a PCR analysis, and a conductivity test, students learn how biotechnology techniques can be used to…

  9. Expanding Newborn Screening for Lysosomal Disorders: Opportunities and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waggoner, Darrel J.; Tan, Christopher A.

    2011-01-01

    Newborn screening (NBS), since its implementation in the 1960s, has traditionally been successful in reducing mortality and disability in children with a range of different conditions. Lysosomal storage disorders (LSD) are a heterogeneous group of inherited metabolic diseases that result from lysosomal dysfunction. Based on available treatment and…

  10. Cost Analysis of TEOAE-Based Universal Newborn Hearing Screening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weirather, Yusnita; Korth, Nancy; White, Karl R.; Woods-Kershner, Nancy; Downs, Diane

    1997-01-01

    After reviewing the extant literature, this article describes a cost analysis of the transient evoked otoaoustic emissions (TEOAE)-based universal newborn hearing screening program. Reasons why the cost per baby ($7.42) is lower than in previous reports are explained and the benefits of having accurate cost analysis data are summarized. (Author/CR)

  11. Expanding Newborn Screening for Lysosomal Disorders: Opportunities and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waggoner, Darrel J.; Tan, Christopher A.

    2011-01-01

    Newborn screening (NBS), since its implementation in the 1960s, has traditionally been successful in reducing mortality and disability in children with a range of different conditions. Lysosomal storage disorders (LSD) are a heterogeneous group of inherited metabolic diseases that result from lysosomal dysfunction. Based on available treatment and…

  12. Newborn screening: experiences in the Middle East and North Africa.

    PubMed

    Saadallah, A A; Rashed, M S

    2007-08-01

    This review presents the current experiences with newborn screening in the Middle East and North Africa region. The population in the region is about 400 million, with high birth rate and an estimated 10 million newborns per year. The majority of the population is of the Islamic faith and mostly Arab. The population is characterized by a high consanguinity (25-70%) and a high percentage of first-cousin marriages. Haemoglobin disorders, inherited metabolic disorders, neurogenetic disorders and birth defects are relatively common among the population. There is a rather slow progress in developing and implementing preventive genetic programmes owing to legal, cultural, political and financial issues. Although research spending is rather soft in the region, there are numerous pilot studies that highlighted the high incidence of genetic defects and the need for newborn screening programmes. Currently, there are only four countries that are executing national newborn screening but they vary from one disease to 23 and coverage is not complete. The region needs to take big steps towards developing national strategies for prevention and should learn from experiences of regional and international screening programmes.

  13. Newborn screening for galactosemia: a 30-year single center experience.

    PubMed

    Porta, Francesco; Pagliardini, Severo; Pagliardini, Veronica; Ponzone, Alberto; Spada, Marco

    2015-05-01

    Galactosemia due to complete or near-complete galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) deficiency was the first disorder added to the pioneering newborn screening panel besides phenylketonuria. In the last 50 years, many criticisms have been focused on the opportunity of its inclusion. Consequently, long-term single center experiences with this issue are generally lacking. We reviewed the outcome of newborn screening for hypergalactosemia performed at our department since 1982 and the correspondent long-term clinical outcome. Among 1 123 909 newborns screened for hypergalactosemia, 33 showed abnormal results confirmed at second tier test. Thirteen patients were affected with classic galactosemia, 8 partial GALT deficiency, 3 severe galactokinase deficiency, 7 transient galactosemia, one congenital porto-systemic shunt, and one glucose transporter 2 deficiency. Acute neonatal liver failure in the late first week of life (5.8±1.1 days) unavoidably complicated the clinical course of classic galactosemia, unless in three second-born siblings treated on the basis of presumptive diagnosis immediately after newborn screening sample collection on day 3. Despite early treatment and long-term steadily normal peripheral blood galactose, 77% of patients with severe GALT deficiency present mild to severe intellectual disabilities. All patients with partial GALT deficiency showed normal intellectual development on a regular diet, as well as patients with galactokinase deficiency under treatment. Availability of screening results within the fifth day after birth would allow the prevention of acute decompensation in classic galactosemia. A systematic diagnostic work-up in all positive newborns is essential to unravel the etiology of hypergalactosemia.

  14. [Universal hearing screening in newborns -- recommendations for organizing and conducting universal hearing screening for congenital hearing loss in Germany].

    PubMed

    Gross, M

    2005-11-01

    The Interdisciplinary Consensus Conference for Newborn Hearing Screening (IKKNHS) has worked out joint recommendations for universal hearing screening of newborns. In the consensus paper, 11 professional associations and scientific societies in the fields of gynecology and obstetrics, ENT, pediatrics, and phoniatrics and pedaudiology came to an agreement how to implement newborn hearing screening in Germany. The paper deals with the following topics: goals of universal newborn hearing screening, target group of hearing screening, schedule for screening, personnel involved in the screening program, technologies and framework conditions of hearing screening, documentation, continuous quality control of screening, confirmation diagnostics for conspicuous test subjects, motivation to take part in screening, information on newborn hearing screening, tracking, various infrastructural situations in urban and rural regions, follow-up care, in-patient vs. out-patient screening, cost factors of screening, reporting children with permanent hearing loss to the German Central Registry for hearing loss in children.

  15. Accurate prediction of gestational age using newborn screening analyte data.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Kumanan; Hawken, Steven; Potter, Beth K; Chakraborty, Pranesh; Walker, Mark; Ducharme, Robin; Little, Julian

    2016-04-01

    Identification of preterm births and accurate estimates of gestational age for newborn infants is vital to guide care. Unfortunately, in developing countries, it can be challenging to obtain estimates of gestational age. Routinely collected newborn infant screening metabolic analytes vary by gestational age and may be useful to estimate gestational age. We sought to develop an algorithm that could estimate gestational age at birth that is based on the analytes that are obtained from newborn infant screening. We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study of all live births in the province of Ontario that included 249,700 infants who were born between April 2007 and March 2009 and who underwent newborn infant screening. We used multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses to build a model to predict gestational age using newborn infant screening metabolite measurements and readily available physical characteristics data (birthweight and sex). The final model of our metabolic gestational dating algorithm had an average deviation between observed and expected gestational age of approximately 1 week, which suggests excellent predictive ability (adjusted R-square of 0.65; root mean square error, 1.06 weeks). Two-thirds of the gestational ages that were predicted by our model were accurate within ±1 week of the actual gestational age. Our logistic regression model was able to discriminate extremely well between term and increasingly premature categories of infants (c-statistic, >0.99). Metabolic gestational dating is accurate for the prediction of gestational age and could have value in low resource settings. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Expanded newborn screening in Greece: 30 months of experience.

    PubMed

    Loukas, Yannis L; Soumelas, Georgios-Stefanos; Dotsikas, Yannis; Georgiou, Vassiliki; Molou, Elina; Thodi, Georgia; Boutsini, Maria; Biti, Sofia; Papadopoulos, Konstantinos

    2010-12-01

    In Greece, the National Newborn Screening Program was initiated in 1974 and is performed by the Institute of Child Health (ICH). However, there is a complete absence of conditions that have high rates of mortality and a relatively high prevalence listed in the Catalogue of Disorders screened by the ICH. Our laboratory has expanded the existing NBS program to include newborn screening for inborn errors of metabolism, screening for cystic fibrosis (the most common congenital disorder in the Greek population), congenital adrenal hyperplasia, and for biotinidase deficiency. From July 2007 to December 2009, 45,000 dried blood spots (DBS) were collected from infants born in Athens, Greece, and were analyzed. We present a report of our 30-month experience in the newborn screening area. The samples were tested for amino acidopathies, fatty acid oxidation disorders (FAOD), and organic acid metabolic disorders by applying flow injection analysis-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (FIA-ESI-MS/MS); for cystic fibrosis by immunoreactive trypsinogen (IRT) measurement (time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay); for congenital adrenal hyperplasia by fluoroimmunoassay to measure the 17 hydroxy-progesterone level; and for biotinidase deficiency using a colorimetric method and a semiquantitative fluoroimmunoassay to determine biotinidase activity. Sample analysis resulted in establishing cutoff values for the respective disease markers for the first time in the Greek population. Four infants were identified with cystic fibrosis, two with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, two with phenylketonuria (PKU), one with medium-chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD), and one with biotinidase deficiency. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first article reporting the status of expanded newborn screening in Greece.

  17. Appropriateness of Newborn Screening for α1-Antitrypsin Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Teckman, Jeffrey; Pardee, Erin; Howell, R. Rodney; Mannino, David; Sharp, Richard R.; Brantly, Mark; Wanner, Adam; Lamson, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: The Alpha-1 Foundation convened a workshop to consider the appropriateness of newborn screening for α-1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency. Methods: A review of natural history and technical data was conducted. Results: Homozygous ZZ AAT deficiency is a common genetic disease occurring in 1 in 2000 to 3500 births; however, it is underrecognized and most patients are undiagnosed. AAT deficiency can cause chronic liver disease, cirrhosis, and liver failure in children and adults, and lung disease in adults. The clinical course is highly variable. Some neonates present with cholestatic hepatitis and some children require liver transplantation, but many patients remain well into adulthood. Some adults develop emphysema. There is no treatment for AAT liver disease, other than supportive care and liver transplant. There are no data on the effect of early diagnosis on liver disease. Avoidance of smoking is of proven benefit to reduce future lung disease, as is protein replacement therapy. Justifying newborn screening with the aim of reducing smoking and reducing adult lung disease-years in the future would be a significant paradigm shift for the screening field. Recent passage of the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act (GINA) and the Affordable Care Act may have a major effect on reducing the psychosocial and financial risks of newborn screening because many asymptomatic children would be identified. Data on the risk–benefit ratio of screening in the new legal climate are lacking. Conclusions: Workshop participants recommended a series of pilot studies focused on generating new data on the risks and benefits of newborn screening. PMID:24121147

  18. Newborn screening and diagnosis of mucopolysaccharidoses

    PubMed Central

    Tomatsu, Shunji; Fujii, Tadashi; Fukushi, Masaru; Oguma, Toshihiro; Shimada, Tsutomu; Maeda, Miho; Kida, Kazuhiro; Shibata, Yuniko; Futatsumori, Hideyuki; Montaño, Adriana M.; Mason, Robert W.; Yamaguchi, Seiji; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Orii, Tadao

    2013-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are caused by deficiency of lysosomal enzyme activities needed to degrade glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), which are long unbranched polysaccharides consisting of repeating disaccharides. GAGs include: chondroitin sulfate (CS), dermatan sulfate (DS), heparan sulfate (HS), keratan sulfate (KS), and hyaluronan. Their catabolism may be blocked singly or in combination depending on the specific enzyme deficiency. There are 11 known enzyme deficiencies, resulting in seven distinct forms of MPS with a collective incidence of higher than 1 in 25,000 live births. Accumulation of undegraded metabolites in lysosomes gives rise to distinct clinical syndromes. Generally, the clinical conditions progress if untreated, leading to developmental delay, systemic skeletal deformities, and early death. MPS disorders are potentially treatable with enzyme replacement therapy or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. For maximum benefit of available therapies, early detection and intervention are critical. We recently developed a novel high-throughput multiplex method to assay DS, HS, and KS simultaneously in blood samples by using high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry for MPS. The overall performance metrics of HS and DS values on MPS I, II, and VII patients vs. healthy controls at newborns were as follows using a given set of cut-off values: sensitivity, 100%; specificity, 98.5–99.4%; positive predictive value, 54.5–75%; false positive rate, 0.62–1.54%; and false negative rate, 0%. These findings show that the combined measurements of these three GAGs are sensitive and specific for detecting all types of MPS with acceptable false negative/positive rates. In addition, this method will also be used for monitoring therapeutic efficacy. We review the history of GAG assay and application to diagnosis for MPS. PMID:23860310

  19. Newborn screening for spinal muscular atrophy: Anticipating an imminent need.

    PubMed

    Phan, Han C; Taylor, Jennifer L; Hannon, Harry; Howell, Rodney

    2015-04-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is the most common genetic cause of infant mortality. Children with type I SMA typically die by the age of 2 years. Recent progress in gene modification and other innovative therapies suggest that improved outcomes may soon be forthcoming. In animal models, therapeutic intervention initiated before the loss of motor neurons alters SMA phenotype and increases lifespan. Presently, supportive care including respiratory, nutritional, physiatry, and orthopedic management can ameliorate clinical symptoms and improve survival rates if SMA is diagnosed early in life. Newborn screening could help optimize these potential benefits. A recent report demonstrated that SMA detection can be multiplexed at minimal additional cost with the assay for severe combined immunodeficiency, already implemented by many newborn screening programs. The public health community should remain alert to the rapidly changing developments in early detection and treatment of SMA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Implications of carrier identification in newborn screening for cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Parsons, E P; Clarke, A J; Bradley, D M

    2003-11-01

    To investigate the psychosocial implications for families whose infant was identified as a cystic fibrosis carrier by newborn screening. Prospective psychosocial assessment. Primary care. (a) families of an affected infant identified by screening (n = 9); (b) families of a carrier infant identified by screening (n = 10). group of mothers from the general population (n = 82). Questionnaires and semistructured interviews. Attitude to screening, assessments of the mother/baby relationship, anxiety, wellbeing. All families were in favour of screening, with no evidence that the mother/baby relationship, anxiety or wellbeing had been adversely affected. Parents, however, did identify problems in terms of the service delivery protocol and genetic counselling practice. Six months after disclosure, carrier identification was not perceived by parents to be problematic.

  1. The complexity of newborn screening follow-up in phenylketonuria.

    PubMed

    Hecht, Leah E; Wessel, Ann E; Levy, Harvey L; Berry, Gerard T

    2014-01-01

    In the United States, and most developed nations, the newborn screening (NBS) panel covers many primary disorders of metabolism, including phenylketonuria (PKU). When an elevated phenylalanine level is identified, the infant is evaluated for PKU and should also be tested for tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) deficiency. A neonate presented with a phenylalanine level of 254 μmol/L (reference range <138 μmol/L) on newborn screening. The infant's confirmatory phenylalanine was 118 μmol/L (reference range <77 μmol/L). Her urine pterin profile was normal, and initially she had no measurable activity of red blood cell (RBC) dihydropteridine reductase (DHPR). Subsequent study revealed normal levels of CSF tetrahydrobiopterin and neurotransmitter metabolites, and by 18 months of age, her RBC DHPR activity was detectable at 0.5 nmol/min/mgHgb (reference range 0.8-3.9). Sequencing of the QDPR gene for DHPR revealed c.1A>T nucleotide substitution in exon 3 expressed as "p.MET1?" Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene sequencing revealed compound heterozygosity for L249F and A300S. Although initial testing suggested the child was affected with DHPR deficiency, further analysis, finding increasing levels of DHPR activity and PAH compound mutant heterozygosity, indicated that the primary disorder is mild hyperphenylalaninemia with carrier status for DHPR deficiency. This is an example of newborn screening results leading to confusing findings requiring extensive biochemical studies and genotyping in order to arrive at the appropriate diagnosis.

  2. [Hearing screening of high risk newborn infants].

    PubMed

    Finckh-Krämer, U; Gross, M; Bartsch, M; Kewitz, G; Versmold, H; Hess, M

    2000-03-01

    This prospective study reports on the prevalence of hearing impairment in an at-risk neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) population. From 1990 to 1998, 1062 neonates were screened with the use of transitory evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE) and brainstem evoked response audiometry (BERA). 934 infants passed the primary screen for both ears, 75 for one ear, adding up to 95%. 17 infants (1.6%) were lost to follow-up. In fourteen infants (1.3%), bilateral hearing impairment above 30 dB was confirmed. While all children with hearing impairment belonged to the group of 862 children receiving aminoglycosides, only one of them presented no other risk factors. In twelve of the hearing impaired children other anamnestic factors, i.e. dysmorphism, prenatal rubella or cytomegaly, family history of hearing loss or severe peri- and postnatal complications seem to be more probable causes of the identified hearing loss. In one of these children, delayed onset or progression of hearing loss is suspected. From our data, aminoglycosides are not an important risk factor for hearing impairment, when serum levels are continuously monitored, as in our cohort. After adjustment for other risk factors, birth weight between 1000 gr and 1500 gr and a gestational age between 29 and 31 weeks were no predictive markers for hearing impairment. It might be speculated that the improved medical treatment in a NICU reduces the probability of hearing impairment for those two groups. Conductive hearing loss as a possible additional cause for hearing impairment was not studied in detail, but the high percentage of malformations detected (four out of fourteen hearing impaired infants) demands further monitoring, close follow-up, adequate treatment and counselling.

  3. Current Status of Newborn Screening: Decision-Making about the Conditions to Include in Screening Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Michael S.

    2006-01-01

    Newborn screening is considered a highly successful public health program that has resulted in the reduction of mortality, mental retardation, and other serious disabilities in thousands of children since the introduction of screening for phenylketonuria (PKU) in the 1960s. Programs are based in state public health departments such that each state…

  4. Current Status of Newborn Screening: Decision-Making about the Conditions to Include in Screening Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Michael S.

    2006-01-01

    Newborn screening is considered a highly successful public health program that has resulted in the reduction of mortality, mental retardation, and other serious disabilities in thousands of children since the introduction of screening for phenylketonuria (PKU) in the 1960s. Programs are based in state public health departments such that each state…

  5. [Newborn hearing screening in Rio de Janeiro's municipal network, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Lima, Priscila Tavares; Goldbach, Márcia Goldfeld; Monteiro, Márcia Cavadas; Ribeiro, Márcia Gonçalves

    2015-01-01

    Hearing deficiencies are a prevalent disease and justify the need for regulation of the Laws and their execution through Hearing Health Care Ordinances. In line with public policies, maternity hospitals that were part of the network began to implement the Newborn Hearing Screening (NHS) service, as had occurred in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The otoacoustic emissions test is used for NHS as it is a rapid and highly reliable method that is easy to perform and gives objective results. The scope of this article is to get fully acquainted with the assistance and care for the hearing health of newborns in maternity wards of the Municipal Health Grid. It is an observational, descriptive, cross-sectional analysis with frequency distribution, and was conducted at SMS-RJ Maternity hospitals that perform NHS. Three maternity hospitals with NHS (A, B and C) were identified, in which 1,865 live newborns were recorded. Of this total, 40.5% performed the NHS exam. In maternity hospitals A and B, the NHS exam was applied to 54.6%, of which 97.3% passed and only 1.8% failed and needed to be referred to the high complexity unit. The NHS is the initial stage of the Hearing Health Care Program for the newborn. It is important that the NHS services should be fully integrated into the network through the Hearing Health Care Program.

  6. The Wisconsin approach to newborn screening for severe combined immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Verbsky, James; Thakar, Monica; Routes, John

    2012-03-01

    Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is a life-threatening disease of infants that is curable with hematopoietic cell transplantation if detected early. Population-based screening for SCID using the T-cell receptor excision circle (TREC) assay began in Wisconsin in 2008; 5 infants with SCID or other forms of severe T-cell lymphopenia (TCL) have been detected, and no infants with SCID have been missed. This review will provide an overview of the TREC screening assay and an update of the findings from Wisconsin on all infants screened from January 1, 2008, until December 31, 2010. Importantly, we give practical recommendations regarding newborn population-based screening using the TREC assay, including the evaluation and care of infants detected.

  7. [Newborn screening for galactosemia: a health economics evaluation].

    PubMed

    Camelo Junior, José Simon; Fernandes, Maria Inez Machado; Jorge, Salim Moysés; Maciel, Lea Maria Zanini; Santos, Jair Lício Ferreira; Camargo, Alceu Salles; Passador, Cláudia Souza; Camelo, Sílvia Helena Henriques

    2011-04-01

    This study assesses the efficiency of the galactosemia add-on test in neonatal screening performed on regular Guthrie card blood spots. Based on estimated average incidence of galactosemia (1:19,984 newborns) in São Paulo State, Brazil, the study develops a cost-benefit analysis model, using a B/C ratio and a 9.25% annual interest rate in order to decapitalize the results. Sensitivity analysis is also performed, varying (as a function of the interest or discount rate) from 0 and 20% and according to the 95% confidence interval (1:7,494-1:59,953 newborns). The results show that the savings obtained by improved health of galactosemic patients detected early by add-on neonatal screening is superior to the costs (B/C=1.33), characterizing galactosemia add-on testing in neonatal screening as an efficient policy. The lower the prevailing interest rate in the economy, the more efficient the neonatal screening policy.

  8. Newborn screening for severe combined immunodeficiency in 11 screening programs in the United States.

    PubMed

    Kwan, Antonia; Abraham, Roshini S; Currier, Robert; Brower, Amy; Andruszewski, Karen; Abbott, Jordan K; Baker, Mei; Ballow, Mark; Bartoshesky, Louis E; Bonilla, Francisco A; Brokopp, Charles; Brooks, Edward; Caggana, Michele; Celestin, Jocelyn; Church, Joseph A; Comeau, Anne Marie; Connelly, James A; Cowan, Morton J; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte; Dasu, Trivikram; Dave, Nina; De La Morena, Maria T; Duffner, Ulrich; Fong, Chin-To; Forbes, Lisa; Freedenberg, Debra; Gelfand, Erwin W; Hale, Jaime E; Hanson, I Celine; Hay, Beverly N; Hu, Diana; Infante, Anthony; Johnson, Daisy; Kapoor, Neena; Kay, Denise M; Kohn, Donald B; Lee, Rachel; Lehman, Heather; Lin, Zhili; Lorey, Fred; Abdel-Mageed, Aly; Manning, Adrienne; McGhee, Sean; Moore, Theodore B; Naides, Stanley J; Notarangelo, Luigi D; Orange, Jordan S; Pai, Sung-Yun; Porteus, Matthew; Rodriguez, Ray; Romberg, Neil; Routes, John; Ruehle, Mary; Rubenstein, Arye; Saavedra-Matiz, Carlos A; Scott, Ginger; Scott, Patricia M; Secord, Elizabeth; Seroogy, Christine; Shearer, William T; Siegel, Subhadra; Silvers, Stacy K; Stiehm, E Richard; Sugerman, Robert W; Sullivan, John L; Tanksley, Susan; Tierce, Millard L; Verbsky, James; Vogel, Beth; Walker, Rosalyn; Walkovich, Kelly; Walter, Jolan E; Wasserman, Richard L; Watson, Michael S; Weinberg, Geoffrey A; Weiner, Leonard B; Wood, Heather; Yates, Anne B; Puck, Jennifer M; Bonagura, Vincent R

    2014-08-20

    Newborn screening for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) using assays to detect T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) began in Wisconsin in 2008, and SCID was added to the national recommended uniform panel for newborn screened disorders in 2010. Currently 23 states, the District of Columbia, and the Navajo Nation conduct population-wide newborn screening for SCID. The incidence of SCID is estimated at 1 in 100,000 births. To present data from a spectrum of SCID newborn screening programs, establish population-based incidence for SCID and other conditions with T-cell lymphopenia, and document early institution of effective treatments. Epidemiological and retrospective observational study. Representatives in states conducting SCID newborn screening were invited to submit their SCID screening algorithms, test performance data, and deidentified clinical and laboratory information regarding infants screened and cases with nonnormal results. Infants born from the start of each participating program from January 2008 through the most recent evaluable date prior to July 2013 were included. Representatives from 10 states plus the Navajo Area Indian Health Service contributed data from 3,030,083 newborns screened with a TREC test. Infants with SCID and other diagnoses of T-cell lymphopenia were classified. Incidence and, where possible, etiologies were determined. Interventions and survival were tracked. Screening detected 52 cases of typical SCID, leaky SCID, and Omenn syndrome, affecting 1 in 58,000 infants (95% CI, 1/46,000-1/80,000). Survival of SCID-affected infants through their diagnosis and immune reconstitution was 87% (45/52), 92% (45/49) for infants who received transplantation, enzyme replacement, and/or gene therapy. Additional interventions for SCID and non-SCID T-cell lymphopenia included immunoglobulin infusions, preventive antibiotics, and avoidance of live vaccines. Variations in definitions and follow-up practices influenced the rates of detection

  9. Newborn Screening for Severe Combined Immunodeficiency in 11 Screening Programs in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Kwan, Antonia; Abraham, Roshini S.; Currier, Robert; Brower, Amy; Andruszewski, Karen; Abbott, Jordan K.; Baker, Mei; Ballow, Mark; Bartoshesky, Louis E.; Bonagura, Vincent R.; Bonilla, Francisco A.; Brokopp, Charles; Brooks, Edward; Caggana, Michele; Celestin, Jocelyn; Church, Joseph A.; Comeau, Anne Marie; Connelly, James A.; Cowan, Morton J.; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte; Dasu, Trivikram; Dave, Nina; De La Morena, Maria T.; Duffner, Ulrich; Fong, Chin-To; Forbes, Lisa; Freedenberg, Debra; Gelfand, Erwin W.; Hale, Jaime E.; Celine Hanson, I.; Hay, Beverly N.; Hu, Diana; Infante, Anthony; Johnson, Daisy; Kapoor, Neena; Kay, Denise M.; Kohn, Donald B.; Lee, Rachel; Lehman, Heather; Lin, Zhili; Lorey, Fred; Abdel-Mageed, Aly; Manning, Adrienne; McGhee, Sean; Moore, Theodore B.; Naides, Stanley J.; Notarangelo, Luigi D.; Orange, Jordan S.; Pai, Sung-Yun; Porteus, Matthew; Rodriguez, Ray; Romberg, Neil; Routes, John; Ruehle, Mary; Rubenstein, Arye; Saavedra-Matiz, Carlos A.; Scott, Ginger; Scott, Patricia M.; Secord, Elizabeth; Seroogy, Christine; Shearer, William T.; Siegel, Subhadra; Silvers, Stacy K.; Stiehm, E. Richard; Sugerman, Robert W.; Sullivan, John L.; Tanksley, Susan; Tierce, Millard L.; Verbsky, James; Vogel, Beth; Walker, Rosalyn; Walkovich, Kelly; Walter, Jolan E.; Wasserman, Richard L.; Watson, Michael S.; Weinberg, Geoffrey A.; Weiner, Leonard B.; Wood, Heather; Yates, Anne B.; Puck, Jennifer M.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Newborn screening for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) using assays to detect T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) began in Wisconsin in 2008, and SCID was added to the national recommended uniform panel for newborn screened disorders in 2010. Currently 23 states, the District of Columbia, and the Navajo Nation conduct population-wide newborn screening for SCID. The incidence of SCID is estimated at 1 in 100 000 births. OBJECTIVES To present data from a spectrum of SCID newborn screening programs, establish population-based incidence for SCID and other conditions with T-cell lymphopenia, and document early institution of effective treatments. DESIGN Epidemiological and retrospective observational study. SETTING Representatives in states conducting SCID newborn screening were invited to submit their SCID screening algorithms, test performance data, and deidentified clinical and laboratory information regarding infants screened and cases with nonnormal results. Infants born from the start of each participating program from January 2008 through the most recent evaluable date prior to July 2013 were included. Representatives from 10 states plus the Navajo Area Indian Health Service contributed data from 3 030 083 newborns screened with a TREC test. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Infants with SCID and other diagnoses of T-cell lymphopenia were classified. Incidence and, where possible, etiologies were determined. Interventions and survival were tracked. RESULTS Screening detected 52 cases of typical SCID, leaky SCID, and Omenn syndrome, affecting 1 in 58 000 infants (95%CI, 1/46 000-1/80 000). Survival of SCID-affected infants through their diagnosis and immune reconstitution was 87%(45/52), 92%(45/49) for infants who received transplantation, enzyme replacement, and/or gene therapy. Additional interventions for SCID and non-SCID T-cell lymphopenia included immunoglobulin infusions, preventive antibiotics, and avoidance of live vaccines. Variations in

  10. The Milan Project: a newborn hearing screening programme.

    PubMed

    Pastorino, Giancarlo; Sergi, Paola; Mastrangelo, Massimo; Ravazzani, Paolo; Tognola, Gabriella; Parazzini, Marta; Mosca, Fabio; Pugni, Lorenza; Grandori, Ferdinando

    2005-04-01

    Since 1997 a newborn hearing screening programme has been implemented by the U.O. Neurologia-Neurofisiopatologia and Dipartimento di Neonatologia of the Istituti Clinici di Perfezionamento ICP in Milan for both babies with no risk and those at risk of hearing impairment. This programme was named the Milan Project. The protocol for no-risk babies consisted of three stages: in the first two stages, newborns were tested with transient click-evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE), in the third one with conventional auditory brainstem responses (ABR). The first TEOAE test was performed by 36 h of age, before discharge, the second one after 15-30 d in case of referral, and the third one, by ABR, for those babies who failed the second TEOAE stage. Newborns at audiological risk were submitted to conventional ABR before the third month of corrected age. Some of this latter population was also submitted to the TEOAE test. The entire tested population (no-risk babies and newborns at audiological risk) consisted of 19 777 babies: 19 290 without risk ("no risk") and 487 at risk ("at risk"). During the course of the Milan Project, hearing impairment (ABR threshold equal to or greater than 40 dB nHL) was identified in 63 newborns (19 from the no-risk and 44 from the at-risk population), with a prevalence of 0.32%. Bilateral hearing impairment (BHI) was found in 33 newborns (10 from the no-risk and 23 from the at-risk population), corresponding to 0.17%. Among infants with bilateral hearing impairment, 30.3% had no risk factors. The prevalence of hearing impairment was determined on days 15-30 after birth. The results show that the implementation of a hospital-based, universal neonatal hearing screening programme for babies with and without audiological risk is feasible and effective. The effectiveness of the programme has increased as a function of the years since its inception, with a strong decrease in the referral rate. Further improvement is obtained if the TEOAE measurements

  11. Newborn Screening in the Era of Precision Medicine.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lan; Chen, Jiajia; Shen, Bairong

    2017-01-01

    As newborn screening success stories gained general confirmation during the past 50 years, scientists quickly discovered diagnostic tests for a host of genetic disorders that could be treated at birth. Outstanding progress in sequencing technologies over the last two decades has made it possible to comprehensively profile newborn screening (NBS) and identify clinically relevant genomic alterations. With the rapid developments in whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and whole-exome sequencing (WES) recently, we can detect newborns at the genomic level and be able to direct the appropriate diagnosis to the different individuals at the appropriate time, which is also encompassed in the concept of precision medicine. Besides, we can develop novel interventions directed at the molecular characteristics of genetic diseases in newborns. The implementation of genomics in NBS programs would provide an effective premise for the identification of the majority of genetic aberrations and primarily help in accurate guidance in treatment and better prediction. However, there are some debate correlated with the widespread application of genome sequencing in NBS due to some major concerns such as clinical analysis, result interpretation, storage of sequencing data, and communication of clinically relevant mutations to pediatricians and parents, along with the ethical, legal, and social implications (so-called ELSI). This review is focused on these critical issues and concerns about the expanding role of genomics in NBS for precision medicine. If WGS or WES is to be incorporated into NBS practice, considerations about these challenges should be carefully regarded and tackled properly to adapt the requirement of genome sequencing in the era of precision medicine.

  12. Newborn screening of inherited metabolic disorders: the Italian situation.

    PubMed

    Focardi, M; Pinchi, V; Defraia, B; Gualco, B; Varvara, G; Norelli, G A

    2016-01-01

    Starting from an international overview of the current status of screening programs, the present paper focuses on the legal situation in Italy and the great differences among Italian regions. Since the introduction of tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) in the ‘90s the paradigm “one spot-one disease” changed. Only recently, some regions issued legislative acts to promote expanded newborn screening with MS/MS. This approach raises medico-legal and ethical issues because a fast neonatal diagnosis of an inborn error of metabolism (IEM) could increase chances of an early treatment and reduce disabilities, therefore citizens ought to have the same access to care countrywide. Enacting a mandatory standard for a disease screening panel using MS/MS and a few centers specialized in diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of patients affected by IEM (inborn errors of metabolism) can reduce legal and ethical issues.

  13. Austrian Newborn Screening Program: a perspective of five decades.

    PubMed

    Pollak, Arnold; Kasper, David C

    2014-03-01

    In 1966, the National Austrian Newborn Screening Program for inherited metabolic and endocrine disorders was initiated. In the last five decades, around four million babies were screened and in more than 2600 babies, various inborn errors of metabolism and endocrine disorders were detected. This health-preventive program was continuously expanded from phenylketonuria and galactosemia to congenital hypothyroidism, biotinidase deficiency, cystic fibrosis, and congenital adrenal hyperplasia. In 2002, the introduction of tandem mass spectrometry substantially increased the number of detectable rare diseases, and now includes disorders of fatty acid oxidation, organic acidurias, and various disorders of amino acid metabolism. In this review, we highlight the development of the Austrian screening program, and pinpoint future disorders and challenges.

  14. A Paper-Based Test for Screening Newborns for Sickle Cell Disease

    PubMed Central

    Piety, Nathaniel Z.; George, Alex; Serrano, Sonia; Lanzi, Maria R.; Patel, Palka R.; Noli, Maria P.; Kahan, Silvina; Nirenberg, Damian; Camanda, João F.; Airewele, Gladstone; Shevkoplyas, Sergey S.

    2017-01-01

    The high cost, complexity and reliance on electricity, specialized equipment and supplies associated with conventional diagnostic methods limit the scope and sustainability of newborn screening for sickle cell disease (SCD) in sub-Saharan Africa and other resource-limited areas worldwide. Here we describe the development of a simple, low-cost, rapid, equipment- and electricity-free paper-based test capable of detecting sickle hemoglobin (HbS) in newborn blood samples with a limit of detection of 2% HbS. We validated this newborn paper-based test in a cohort of 159 newborns at an obstetric hospital in Cabinda, Angola. Newborn screening results using the paper-based test were compared to conventional isoelectric focusing (IEF). The test detected the presence of HbS with 81.8% sensitivity and 83.3% specificity, and identified SCD newborns with 100.0% sensitivity and 70.7% specificity. The use of the paper-based test in a two-stage newborn screening process could have excluded about 70% of all newborns from expensive confirmatory testing by IEF, without missing any of the SCD newborns in the studied cohort. This study demonstrates the potential utility of the newborn paper-based test for reducing the overall cost of screening newborns for SCD and thus increasing the practicality of universal newborn SCD screening programs in resource-limited settings. PMID:28367971

  15. A Paper-Based Test for Screening Newborns for Sickle Cell Disease.

    PubMed

    Piety, Nathaniel Z; George, Alex; Serrano, Sonia; Lanzi, Maria R; Patel, Palka R; Noli, Maria P; Kahan, Silvina; Nirenberg, Damian; Camanda, João F; Airewele, Gladstone; Shevkoplyas, Sergey S

    2017-04-03

    The high cost, complexity and reliance on electricity, specialized equipment and supplies associated with conventional diagnostic methods limit the scope and sustainability of newborn screening for sickle cell disease (SCD) in sub-Saharan Africa and other resource-limited areas worldwide. Here we describe the development of a simple, low-cost, rapid, equipment- and electricity-free paper-based test capable of detecting sickle hemoglobin (HbS) in newborn blood samples with a limit of detection of 2% HbS. We validated this newborn paper-based test in a cohort of 159 newborns at an obstetric hospital in Cabinda, Angola. Newborn screening results using the paper-based test were compared to conventional isoelectric focusing (IEF). The test detected the presence of HbS with 81.8% sensitivity and 83.3% specificity, and identified SCD newborns with 100.0% sensitivity and 70.7% specificity. The use of the paper-based test in a two-stage newborn screening process could have excluded about 70% of all newborns from expensive confirmatory testing by IEF, without missing any of the SCD newborns in the studied cohort. This study demonstrates the potential utility of the newborn paper-based test for reducing the overall cost of screening newborns for SCD and thus increasing the practicality of universal newborn SCD screening programs in resource-limited settings.

  16. Two newborns with nutritional vitamin B12 deficiency: challenges in newborn screening for vitamin B12 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Campbell, C D; Ganesh, J; Ficicioglu, C

    2005-12-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency causes decreased Methionine Synthase and L-Methylmalonyl-CoA Mutase activity and results in accumulation of Homocysteine, Methylmalonic acid and Propionylcarnitine. Propionylcarnitine is included in tandem mass spectrometry-based newborn screening programs for detection of certain inborn errors of metabolism. We report two asymptomatic newborns with Vitamin B12 deficiency due to maternal deficiencies. One was detected incidentally at 3 weeks of age; the second on supplemental newborn screening based on elevated Propionylcarnitine at 2 days of age. This illustrates the potential for false negative results for Vitamin B12 deficiency screening by acylcarnitine profiling in newborn screening. Homocysteine and Methylmalonic acid may be better markers of Vitamin B12 deficiency. In conclusion, we suggest measuring Methylmalonic acid, Propionylcarnitine and Homocysteine levels in blood spots in expanded newborn screening in order to detect asymptomatic newborns with Vitamin B12 deficiency. Further studies are needed to establish the sensitivity of these three markers in screening for Vitamin B12 deficiency.

  17. Cross-Sectional Survey on Newborn Screening in Wisconsin Amish and Mennonite Communities

    PubMed Central

    Sieren, Shelby; Grow, Meghan; GoodSmith, Matthew; Spicer, Gretchen; Deline, James; Zhao, Qianqian; Lindstrom, Mary J.; Harris, Anne Bradford; Rohan, Angela M.; Seroogy, Christine M.

    2015-01-01

    Old order Amish and Mennonites, or Plain populations, are a growing minority in North America with unique health care delivery and access challenges coupled with higher frequencies of genetic disorders. The objective of this study was to determine newborn screening use and attitudes from western Wisconsin Plain communities. A cross-sectional survey, with an overall response rate of 25%, provided data representing 2,010 children. In households with children (n=297), the rate of newborn screening was 74% and all children were screened in 40% of these households. Lack of access to testing was the most common reason for not screening all children and parental age was inversely associated with testing. The majority of respondents reported some or more knowledge of screening, viewed screening as important, and had access to screening in their communities. Households with children who had never received newborn screening (26%) reported lower frequencies of favorable responses in all categories compared to households that had at least one child screened. The difference in access to newborn screening was less marked between the groups compared to differences on knowledge and consideration of its importance. Moreover, 55% of households who had never screened any of their children reported being unlikely or unsure of screening any future children. A focus on improving access to newborn screening alongside establishing approaches to change parental perceptions on the importance of newborn screening is necessary for increasing newborn screening in these Plain communities. PMID:26433724

  18. Cross-Sectional Survey on Newborn Screening in Wisconsin Amish and Mennonite Communities.

    PubMed

    Sieren, Shelby; Grow, Meghan; GoodSmith, Matthew; Spicer, Gretchen; Deline, James; Zhao, Qianqian; Lindstrom, Mary J; Harris, Anne Bradford; Rohan, Angela M; Seroogy, Christine M

    2016-04-01

    Old Order Amish and Mennonites, or Plain populations, are a growing minority in North America with unique health care delivery and access challenges coupled with higher frequencies of genetic disorders. The objective of this study was to determine newborn screening use and attitudes from western Wisconsin Plain communities. A cross-sectional survey, with an overall response rate of 25 %, provided data representing 2010 children. In households with children (n = 297), the rate of newborn screening was 74 % and all children were screened in 40 % of these households. Lack of access to testing was the most common reason for not screening all children and parental age was inversely associated with testing. The majority of respondents reported some or more knowledge of screening, viewed screening as important, and had access to screening in their communities. Households with children who had never received newborn screening (26 %) reported lower frequencies of favorable responses in all categories compared to households that had at least one child screened. The difference in access to newborn screening was less marked between the groups compared to differences on knowledge and consideration of its importance. Moreover, 55 % of households who had never screened any of their children reported being unlikely or unsure of screening any future children. A focus on improving access to newborn screening alongside establishing approaches to change parental perceptions on the importance of newborn screening is necessary for increasing newborn screening in these Plain communities.

  19. Implementation of written consent for newborn screening in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Charles, Taryn; Pitt, James; Halliday, Jane; Amor, David J

    2014-05-01

    There has been increasing evidence of a lack of public awareness of newborn screening and concern about inadequate consent being obtained from parents. Apprehension also exists in relation to storage and secondary use of screening samples. Our objective was to introduce a written consent process across Victoria as a means of strengthening programme transparency, quality and supporting parental choice. In addition, more comprehensive information covering all aspects of the programme was developed. A 'two-stage' written consent protocol allowed parents to give separate consent for (i) their baby to be screened and (ii) secondary use of the sample in de-identified health research. At the time of sample collection, parents were asked to complete the consent form, included as part of the screening card. The protocol was piloted in four public hospitals and subsequently implemented statewide. Twelve months of laboratory data showed that although refusals for screening increased, overall participation remained above 99%. The percentage of parents opting out of research use was 6.5%. Provider compliance with the new protocol was high, with only 1.4% of cards received without a completed consent form. This quality improvement project has demonstrated that parents can participate more fully in newborn screening without jeopardising high uptake. As a secondary benefit, the public health resource of stored cards can be maintained with parental support. Future work needs to examine the quality of consent being given by parents and investigation of the reasons why some choose to decline. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2013 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  20. Detection of critical congenital heart defects: Review of contributions from prenatal and newborn screening.

    PubMed

    Olney, Richard S; Ailes, Elizabeth C; Sontag, Marci K

    2015-04-01

    In 2011, statewide newborn screening programs for critical congenital heart defects began in the United States, and subsequently screening has been implemented widely. In this review, we focus on data reports and collection efforts related to both prenatal diagnosis and newborn screening. Defect-specific, maternal, and geographic factors are associated with variations in prenatal detection, so newborn screening provides a population-wide safety net for early diagnosis. A new web-based repository is collecting information on newborn screening program policies, quality indicators related to screening programs, and specific case-level data on infants with these defects. Birth defects surveillance programs also collect data about critical congenital heart defects, particularly related to diagnostic timing, mortality, and services. Individuals from state programs, federal agencies, and national organizations will be interested in these data to further refine algorithms for screening in normal newborn nurseries, neonatal intensive care settings, and other special populations; and ultimately to evaluate the impact of screening on outcomes.

  1. Maintaining Acceptably Low Referral Rates in TEOAE-Based Newborn Hearing Screening Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxon, Antonia Brancia; White, Karl R.; Culpepper, Brandt; Vohr, Betty R.

    1997-01-01

    Describes factors that can affect the referral rate for otoacoustic emission-based newborn hearing screening and discusses the screening results of 1,328 newborns screened with transient evoked otoaoustic emissions prior to hospital discharge. The youngest infants were as likely to pass as infants who were 24-27 hours old. (Author/CR)

  2. Newborn screening for congenital hypothyroidism in Henan province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, De-Hua; Shen, Yong; Gong, Jiao-Mei; Meng, Yun; Su, Li; Zhang, Xia

    2016-01-15

    Congenital hypothyroidism is the most common congenital endocrine disorder. The study aimed to determine the congenital hypothyroidism incidence by newborn screening programs in Henan Province, China. The screening programs for congenital hypothyroidism are based on the measurement of TSH in dried blood spots. The TSH concentration was measured in the dry blood spot specimen using a DELFIA fluoroimmunoassay. The TSH cutoff concentration was 8mU/l. The total coverage and the incidence of congenital hypothyroidism were 24.85% (5,142,148/20,694,441) and 0.37‰ (1992/5,142,148), respectively. The coverage and the incidence of CH were only 0.58% (4526/784,580) and 0.22‰ (1/4526) in 1997, respectively. However, the coverage and the incidence of CH were increased to 74.67% (1,203,278/1,611,582) and 0.32‰ (389/1,203,278). There were no significant differences in the number of congenital hypothyroidism between males and females (P>0.05). The number of congenital hypothyroidism was increased year after year. The newborn screening program for CH is successful and quite effective. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. "Collodion baby": A unique challenge for newborn hearing screening.

    PubMed

    Jasper, Kayla M; Gaudreau, Philip; Cartee, Todd V; Reilly, Brian K

    2016-01-01

    We present an infant with collodion membrane who had an obstructed external auditory canal, causing the infant to fail her newborn hearing screen (otoacoustic emissions) bilaterally. An auditory brainstem response (ABR) test was deferred due to the reported increased risk of infections in these babies. Meticulous but gentle debridement of the membranes on the external auditory canal, using a combination of otic drops (ofloxacin), emollients (baby oil/mineral oil), and suctioning, permitted the infant to ultimately pass otoacoustic emissions bilaterally and subsequent serial audiograms.

  4. Appropriateness of newborn screening for classic galactosaemia: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Varela-Lema, L; Paz-Valinas, L; Atienza-Merino, G; Zubizarreta-Alberdi, R; Villares, R Vizoso; López-García, M

    2016-09-01

    Currently, there is no universal agreement on galactosaemia screening, fundamentally because of the risk-benefit uncertainties. We conducted two exhaustive systematic searches in the main electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, etc.) to recover relevant information about the disease and screening test/s in order to support decision making in Spain. All of the 45 studies identified that covered disease issues were retrospective case series or cross-sectional analysis (level-4 evidence). Studies consistently found that the majority of patients presented characteristic symptomatology before diagnosis. Long term disabilities were not significantly correlated with age of diagnosis, onset of dietary restriction or strict diet compliance. The five studies that provided accuracy data used different cut-off points and verification tests, and thus differed in their definitions of a positive case (level-3b evidence). The estimated sensitivity was 100 % and the specificity 99.9 %. The false-positive rate ranged from 0.0005 % to 0.25 %, and the PPV from 0 % to 64.3 %. The comparative clinical effectiveness in relation to not screening or implementation of other programs is unknown. In summary, existing evidence remains insufficient to establish the appropriateness of newborn screening for galactosaemia screening, although health benefits could be expected if early diagnosis and treatment is achieved. If screening is implemented in Spain, it would be important that a pilot programme be implemented to assess false positive rate and ensure that early diagnosis is not delayed.

  5. Standardizing Newborn Screening Results for Health Information Exchange

    PubMed Central

    Abhyankar, Swapna; Lloyd-Puryear, Michele A.; Goodwin, Rebecca; Copeland, Sara; Eichwald, John; Therrell, Bradford L.; Zuckerman, Alan; Downing, Greg; McDonald, Clement J.

    2010-01-01

    Newborn screening (NBS) is a complex process that has high-stakes health implications and requires rapid and effective communication between many people and organizations. Currently, each NBS laboratory has its own method of reporting results to state programs, hospitals and individual providers, with wide variation in content and format. Pediatric care providers receive reports by mail, email, fax or telephone, depending on whether the results are normal or abnormal. This process is slow and prone to errors, which can lead to delays in treatment. Multiple agencies worked together to create national guidance for reporting newborn screening results with HL7 messages that contain a prescribed set of LOINC and SNOMED CT codes, report quantitative test results, and use standardized units of measure. Several states are already implementing this guidance. If the guidance is used nationally, office EHRs could capture NBS results more efficiently, and regional and national registries could better analyze aggregate results to facilitate improvements in NBS and further research for these rare conditions. PMID:21346929

  6. Health Vulnerability Index and newborn hearing screening: urban inequality.

    PubMed

    Januário, Gabriela Cintra; Alves, Claudia Regina Lindgren; Lemos, Stela Maris Aguiar; Almeida, Maria Cristina de Mattos; Cruz, Ramon Costa; Friche, Amélia Augusta de Lima

    To analyze the intra-urban differentials related to the outcome of the Newborn Hearing Screening (NHS) of children living in Belo Horizonte tested in a reference service using the Health Vulnerability Index (HVI). cross-sectional study with children living in Belo Horizonte evaluated by a Newborn Hearing Screening Reference Service (NHSRS) between 2010 and 2011. The HVI of the census tract of each child was obtained by the georeferencing of their respective addresses. Multivariate analysis was conducted using the decision tree technique, considering a statistical model for each response. A thematic map of points representing the geographic distribution of the children evaluated by the NHS program was also developed. The NHS failure rate for children living in areas with very high HVI, or without HVI data, was 1.5 times higher than that for children living in other census tracts. For children living in areas of low, medium, and high HVI, who underwent NHS after 30 days of life, the NHS failure rate was 2.1 times higher in children that presented Risk Indicator for Hearing Loss (RIHL) (17.2%) than in those who did not (8.1%). Uneven distribution was observed between areas for children that underwent the NHS and those who failed it. Significant intra-urban differentials were found in Belo Horizonte, indicating correlation between health vulnerability and NHS outcomes.

  7. Psychosocial Response to Uncertain Newborn Screening Results for Cystic Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Hayeems, Robin Z; Miller, Fiona A; Barg, Carolyn J; Bombard, Yvonne; Carroll, June C; Tam, Karen; Kerr, Elizabeth; Chakraborty, Pranesh; Potter, Beth K; Patton, Sarah; Bytautas, Jessica P; Taylor, Louise; Davies, Christine; Milburn, Jennifer; Price, April; Gonska, Tanja; Keenan, Katherine; Ratjen, Felix; Guttmann, Astrid

    2017-05-01

    To explore the psychosocial implications of diagnostic uncertainty that result from inconclusive results generated by newborn bloodspot screening (NBS) for cystic fibrosis (CF). Using a mixed methods prospective cohort study of children who received NBS for CF, we compared psychosocial outcomes of parents whose children who received persistently inconclusive results with those whose children received true positive or screen-negative results. Mothers of infants who received inconclusive results (n = 17), diagnoses of CF (n = 15), and screen-negative results (n = 411) were surveyed; 23 parent interviews were completed. Compared with mothers of infants with true positive/screen-negative results, mothers of infants with inconclusive results reported greater perceived uncertainty (P < .006) but no differences in anxiety or vulnerability (P > .05). Qualitatively, parents valued being connected to experts but struggled with the meaning of an uncertain diagnosis, worried about their infant's health-related vulnerability, and had mixed views about surveillance. Inconclusive CF NBS results were not associated with anxiety or vulnerability but led to health-related uncertainty and qualitative concerns. Findings should be considered alongside efforts to optimize protocols for CF screening and surveillance. Educational and psychosocial supports are warranted for these families. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Newborn screening: need of the hour in India.

    PubMed

    Verma, Ishwar C; Bijarnia-Mahay, Sunita; Jhingan, Geetu; Verma, Jyotsna

    2015-01-01

    After a review of the current health scene in India, the authors suggest that the Government of India should consider seriously, the introduction of new born screening. As a first step, a central advisory committee should be constituted to recommend what is required to be done to strengthen the infrastructure and the manpower to carry out new born screening, and the disorders to be screened. In the urban hospitals newborn screening (NBS) for three disorders can be easily introduced (congenital hypothyroidism, congenital adrenal hyperplasia and G-6-PD deficiency), while in the rural areas this should begin with congenital hypothyroidism, especially in the sub Himalayan areas. Concurrently, logistic issues regarding diets and special therapies for inborn errors of metabolism should be sorted out, laboratories to confirm the diagnosis should be set up, and a cadre of metabolic physicians should be build up to treat those identified to have inborn errors of metabolism. Once these are established on a firm footing, tandem mass spectrometry should be introduced as it allows the identification of a number of disorders in an affordable manner. The recent improvements and current trends in health care in India have created the necessary infrastructure for adopting NBS for the benefit of infants in India.

  9. Public accountability of newborn screening: collective knowing and deciding.

    PubMed

    Wieser, Bernhard

    2010-03-01

    A number of European countries have expanded their screening programme considerably during the last decade. Other countries have, however, not expanded their programme substantially. In this paper, I will compare UK and Austria, two countries representing two ends of the European spectrum. Focussing on the decision-making processes behind the design and expansion of newborn screening, I draw on Sheila Jasanoff's concept of "civic epistemology" (Jasanoff, S. (2005). Designs on Nature. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press.) to investigate how the chosen countries provide information in order to give account for their respective screening policies. In particular, I analyse how key institutions in the UK and Austria use scientific expertise to explain and justify national screening programmes. For this purpose, I compare the material that is made available to the public, including policy documents, scientific studies, medical guidelines, legal regulation, advisory committee reports and public engagement exercises. It was found that the observed differences in the accountability practices are rooted in nationally traditional forms of policy making. However, whether or not these repertoires become indeed realised is a more contingent matter and is often triggered by events which evoke a response from the medical and policy-making actors. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Neonatal vitamin B12 deficiency secondary to maternal subclinical pernicious anemia: identification by expanded newborn screening.

    PubMed

    Marble, Michael; Copeland, Sara; Khanfar, Nashat; Rosenblatt, David S

    2008-05-01

    A neonate with elevated propionylcarnitine on the newborn screen was found to have methylmalonic acidemia due to vitamin B(12) deficiency. The mother was also vitamin B(12)-deficient. This case illustrates the utility of expanded newborn screening for detection of vitamin B(12) deficiency, allowing prompt treatment and prevention of potential sequelae.

  11. Biochemical screening of 504,049 newborns in Denmark, the Faroe Islands and Greenland--experience and development of a routine program for expanded newborn screening.

    PubMed

    Lund, Allan Meldgaard; Hougaard, David Michael; Simonsen, Henrik; Andresen, Brage Storstein; Christensen, Mette; Dunø, Morten; Skogstrand, Kristin; Olsen, Rikke K J; Jensen, Ulrich Glümer; Cohen, Arieh; Larsen, Nanna; Saugmann-Jensen, Peter; Gregersen, Niels; Brandt, Niels Jacob; Christensen, Ernst; Skovby, Flemming; Nørgaard-Pedersen, Bent

    2012-11-01

    Expanded newborn screening for selected inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) in Denmark, the Faroe Islands and Greenland was introduced in 2002. We now present clinical, biochemical, and statistical results of expanded screening (excluding PKU) of 504,049 newborns during nine years as well as diagnoses and clinical findings in 82,930 unscreened newborns born in the same period. The frequencies of diagnoses made within the panel of disorders screened for are compared with the frequencies of the disorders in the decade preceding expanded newborn screening. The expanded screening was performed as a pilot study during the first seven years, and the experience obtained during these years was used in the development of the routine neonatal screening program introduced in 2009. Methods for screening included tandem mass spectrometry and an assay for determination of biotinidase activity. A total of 310 samples from 504,049 newborns gave positive screening results. Of the 310 results, 114 were true positive, including results from 12 newborns in which the disease in question was subsequently diagnosed in their mothers. Thus, the overall frequency of an IEM in the screening panel was 1:4942 (mothers excluded) or 1:4421 (mothers included). The false positive rate was 0.038% and positive predictive value 37%. Overall specificity was 99.99%. All patients with true positive results were followed in The Center for Inherited Metabolic Disorders in Copenhagen, and the mean follow-up period was 45 months (range 2109 months). There were no deaths among the 102 children, and 94% had no clinically significant sequelae at last follow-up. Our study confirms the higher frequency of selected IEM after implementation of expanded newborn screening and suggests an improved outcome for several disorders. We argue that newborn screening for these disorders should be standard of care, though unresolved issues remain, e.g. about newborns with a potential for remaining asymptomatic throughout life

  12. Retention and Research Use of Residual Newborn Screening Bloodspots

    PubMed Central

    Goldenberg, Aaron J.; Rothwell, Erin; Anderson, Rebecca A.; Lewis, Michelle Huckaby

    2013-01-01

    The storage and use of residual newborn screening dried blood specimens has generated significant controversy in the past 5 years, primarily because of public concerns over the lack of parental knowledge and consent for these activities. State policies addressing the management of these specimens vary widely, and there is currently little guidance to aid new state policy development to address the concerns of program professionals, investigators, and the general public. This article offers guidance for state policy based on multiple sources of data, including public attitudes, professional statements, state experience, and an analysis of the ethical, social, legal, and biomedical issues from a multidisciplinary group of scholars. This guidance will be useful for state programs that seek to develop policies that are informed by a contemporary analysis of the key ethical, legal, and social aspects of this practice. This article represents the work of the authors and does not represent American Academy of Pediatrics policy. PMID:23209103

  13. Improving regional universal newborn hearing screening programmes in Italy.

    PubMed

    Molini, E; Cristi, M C; Lapenna, R; Calzolaro, L; Muzzi, E; Ciciriello, E; Della Volpe, A; Orzan, E; Ricci, G

    2016-02-01

    The Universal Newborn Hearing Screening (UNHS) programme aims at achieving early detection of hearing impairment. Subsequent diagnosis and intervention should follow promptly. Within the framework of the Ministry of Health project CCM 2013 "Preventing Communication Disorders: a Regional Program for early Identification, Intervention and Care of Hearing Impaired Children", the limitations and strengths of current UNHS programs in Italy have been analysed by a group of professionals working in tertiary centres involved in regional UNHS programmes, using SWOT analysis and a subsequent TOWS matrix. Coverage and lost-to-follow up rates are issues related to UNHS programmes. Recommendations to improve the effectiveness of the UNHS programme have been identified. The need for homogeneous policies, high-quality information and dissemination of knowledge for operators and families of hearing-impaired children emerged from the discussion. © Copyright by Società Italiana di Otorinolaringologia e Chirurgia Cervico-Facciale.

  14. Parent educational materials regarding the newborn hearing screening process.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Lata A; Lawler, Breanne; Van Hyfte, Shannon

    2017-04-01

    Newborn hearing screening (NHS) procedures and implementation vary from state to state in the US. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the content and nature of information provided to parents about their infant's NHS across states to answer two questions: 1) what information is included in each state's parent information brochure? and 2) do the brochures include educational information requested by parents that may help reduce parental anxiety, improve satisfaction, and decrease the potential for misunderstandings? Each state's parent brochures and educational resources provided to parents were accessed via the National Center for Hearing Assessment and Management (NCHAM) website, categorized, and reviewed for content. Results indicate that the information provided to parents varies considerably across states and many brochures do not contain important information that is desired by parents. NHS procedures may be improved by providing standardized information regarding the process to parents in all states. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Newborn, carrier, and early childhood screening recommendations for fragile X.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Liane; Cronister, Amy; Brown, William T; Tassone, Flora; Sherman, Stephanie L; Finucane, Brenda; McConkie-Rosell, Allyn; Hagerman, Randi; Kaufmann, Walter E; Picker, Jonathan; Coffey, Sarah; Skinner, Debra; Johnson, Vanessa; Miller, Robert; Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth

    2012-12-01

    Fragile X syndrome, diagnosed by Fragile X Mental Retardation 1 (FMR1) DNA testing, is the most common single-gene cause of inherited intellectual disability. The expanded CGG mutation in the FMR1 gene, once thought to have clinical significance limited to fragile X syndrome, is now well established as the cause for other fragile X-associated disorders including fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency and fragile X-associated tremor ataxia syndrome in individuals with the premutation (carriers). The importance of early diagnostic and management issues, in conjunction with the identification of family members at risk for or affected by FMR1 mutations, has led to intense discussion about the appropriate timing for early identification of FMR1 mutations. This review includes an overview of the fragile X-associated disorders and screening efforts to date, and discussion of the advantages and barriers to FMR1 screening in newborns, during childhood, and in women of reproductive age. Comparison with screening programs for other common genetic conditions is discussed to arrive at action steps to increase the identification of families affected by FMR1 mutations.

  16. Newborn hearing screening may predict Eustachian tube dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Judy L

    2015-12-01

    There is evidence for temporary hearing loss in neonates immediately after birth because of residual liquid derived from amniotic fluid in the ME cavity. This study examines whether a referred newborn hearing screen (NBHS) with subsequent testing confirming normal hearing can be attributed to persistence of middle ear effusion and predict poor Eustachian tube function manifested as recurrent otitis media or otitis media with effusion in the first year of life. The aims of the present study are to investigate the following: (1) whether infants who fail a neonatal hearing screen and subsequently pass are more likely to experience recurrent otitis media or otitis media with effusion, (2) whether these infants are more likely to obtain tympanostomy tubes. This retrospective cohort study examined newborns who referred their NBHS and were subsequently noted to have normal hearing and a control group comprised of newborns who passed their NBHS. Univariate and multivariate analysis was performed on the data collected as well as generation mean cumulative function plots. The baseline characteristics of the case and control groups are not statistically significant with regards to gender, number of otitis media (OM), delivery mode, or the need for tubes in the follow up period. Within the refer group, those with bilateral refers were twice as likely to have otitis media than those with a unilateral refer (p=0.012). The logistic regression model for odds of subsequent otitis media was not statistically significant for bilateral or unilateral refer though the logistic regression model for odds of tubes demonstrated a statistically significant increased risk in bilateral refer patients. With time to event analysis, it was seen that bilateral refer patients are more likely to have OM than control and unilateral refer patients. There is no difference in the incidence of subsequent OM between those infants who passed the NBHS versus those who initially referred and then passed

  17. Whole-genome sequencing in newborn screening? A statement on the continued importance of targeted approaches in newborn screening programmes

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Heidi Carmen; Knoppers, Bartha Maria; Cornel, Martina C; Wright Clayton, Ellen; Sénécal, Karine; Borry, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    The advent and refinement of sequencing technologies has resulted in a decrease in both the cost and time needed to generate data on the entire sequence of the human genome. This has increased the accessibility of using whole-genome sequencing and whole-exome sequencing approaches for analysis in both the research and clinical contexts. The expectation is that more services based on these and other high-throughput technologies will become available to patients and the wider population. Some authors predict that sequencing will be performed once in a lifetime, namely, shortly after birth. The Public and Professional Policy Committee of the European Society of Human Genetics, the Human Genome Organisation Committee on Ethics, Law and Society, the PHG Foundation and the P3G International Paediatric Platform address herein the important issues and challenges surrounding the potential use of sequencing technologies in publicly funded newborn screening (NBS) programmes. This statement presents the relevant issues and culminates in a set of recommendations to help inform and guide scientists and clinicians, as well as policy makers regarding the necessary considerations for the use of genome sequencing technologies and approaches in NBS programmes. The primary objective of NBS should be the targeted analysis and identification of gene variants conferring a high risk of preventable or treatable conditions, for which treatment has to start in the newborn period or in early childhood. PMID:25626707

  18. Newborn Screening for X-linked Adrenoleukodystrophy: Further evidence high throughput screening is feasible

    PubMed Central

    Theda, Christiane; Gibbons, Katy; DeFor, Todd E.; Donohue, Pamela K.; Golden, W. Christopher; Kline, Antonie D.; Gulamali-Majid, Fizza; Panny, Susan R.; Hubbard, Walter C.; Jones, Richard O.; Liu, Anita K.; Moser, Ann B.; Raymond, Gerald V.

    2014-01-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) is characterized by adrenal insufficiency and neurologic involvement with onset at variable ages. Plasma very long chain fatty acids are elevated in ALD; even in asymptomatic patients. We demonstrated previously that liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry measuring C26:0 lysophosphatidylcholine reliably identifies affected males. We prospectively applied this method to 4689 newborn blood spot samples; no false positives were observed. We show that high throughput neonatal screening for ALD is methodologically feasible. PMID:24268529

  19. A Targeted Approach for Congenital Cytomegalovirus Screening Within Newborn Hearing Screening.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Karen B; McCollister, Faye P; Sabo, Diane L; Shoup, Angela G; Owen, Kris E; Woodruff, Julie L; Cox, Edith; Mohamed, Lisa S; Choo, Daniel I; Boppana, Suresh B

    2017-02-01

    Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection remains a leading cause of childhood hearing loss. Currently universal CMV screening at birth does not exist in the United States. An alternative approach could be testing infants who do not pass their newborn hearing screening (NHS) for cCMV. This study was undertaken to evaluate whether a targeted approach will identify infants with CMV-related sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). Infants born at 7 US medical centers received NHS and were also screened for cCMV while in the newborn nursery. Infants who tested positive for CMV received further diagnostic audiologic evaluations to identify or confirm hearing loss. Between 2007 and 2012, 99 945 newborns were screened for both hearing impairment and cCMV. Overall, 7.0% of CMV-positive infants did not pass NHS compared with 0.9% of CMV-negative infants (P < .0001). Among the cCMV infants who failed NHS, diagnostic testing confirmed that 65% had SNHL. In addition, 3.6% of CMV-infected infants who passed their NHS had SNHL confirmed by further evaluation during early infancy. NHS in this cohort identified 57% of all CMV-related SNHL that occurred in the neonatal period. A targeted CMV approach that tests newborns who fail their NHS identified the majority of infants with CMV-related SNHL at birth. However, 43% of the infants with CMV-related SNHL in the neonatal period and cCMV infants who are at risk for late onset SNHL were not identified by NHS. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  20. A framework for key considerations regarding point-of-care screening of newborns.

    PubMed

    Kemper, Alex R; Kus, Christopher A; Ostrander, Robert J; Comeau, Anne Marie; Boyle, Coleen A; Dougherty, Denise; Mann, Marie Y; Botkin, Jeffrey R; Green, Nancy S

    2012-12-01

    Newborn screening is performed under public health authority, with analysis carried out primarily by public health laboratories or other centralized laboratories. Increasingly, opportunities to improve infant health will arise from including screening tests that are completed at the birth centers instead of in centralized laboratories, constituting a significant shift for newborn screening. This report summarizes a framework developed by the US Secretary of Health and Human Services Advisory Committee on Heritable Disorders in Newborns and Children based on a series of meetings held during 2011 and 2012. These meetings were for the purpose of evaluating whether conditions identifiable through point-of-care screening should be added to the recommended universal screening panel, and to identify key considerations for birth hospitals, public health agencies, and clinicians when point-of-care newborn screening is implemented.

  1. A framework for key considerations regarding point-of-care screening of newborns

    PubMed Central

    Kemper, Alex R.; Kus, Christopher A.; Ostrander, Robert J.; Comeau, Anne Marie; Boyle, Coleen A.; Dougherty, Denise; Mann, Marie Y.; Botkin, Jeffrey R.; Green, Nancy S.

    2015-01-01

    Newborn screening is performed under public health authority, with analysis carried out primarily by public health laboratories or other centralized laboratories. Increasingly, opportunities to improve infant health will arise from including screening tests that are completed at the birth centers instead of in centralized laboratories, constituting a significant shift for newborn screening. This report summarizes a framework developed by the US Secretary of Health and Human Services Advisory Committee on Heritable Disorders in Newborns and Children based on a series of meetings held during 2011 and 2012. These meetings were for the purpose of evaluating whether conditions identifiable through point-of-care screening should be added to the recommended universal screening panel, and to identify key considerations for birth hospitals, public health agencies, and clinicians when point-of-care newborn screening is implemented. PMID:22899090

  2. [Pregnant women's expectations concerning universal newborn hearing screening].

    PubMed

    Freund, L; Hintermair, M

    2012-04-01

    To implement universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS) for maximum effectiveness, it is necessary - in addition to implementing a reliable screening procedure when testing the child - to consider psycho-social factors relevant in this context. In this respect parental estimations and expectancies play an important role. In a questionnaire survey 187 expectant mothers were asked about their knowledge and attitudes concerning UNHS, and their expectations concerning the availability of concrete support if their child were to have positive test results at the primary postnatal screening. A self-developed scale was conducted asking the mothers to make statements regarding their attitude about UNHS, possible risks (parent-child relationship, stress experiences) as well as concrete expectations concerning support (counseling, contacts with other persons concerned, informative literature). The results show that the expectant mothers in this study expressed high approval for conducting UNHS. This is comparable with results from former studies. In addition, as many as a quarter of the expectant mothers expressed worries relating to the effects on the parent-child relationship and higher parental stress levels. In nearly all areas investigated, at least half of the expectant mothers said that providing targeted support if necessary is important to help them cope sufficiently with the challenges associated with the consequences of UNHS. The results of this study demonstrate the importance of a reliable tracking system as required by the guidelines for using UNHS to detect children's hearing loss at an early stage. The data suggest that in order to use UNHS responsible, consultations should be offered immediately to affected families. This would allow parents to have psycho-social support available as the need arises to cope with the primary screening results; further, this support should help parents learn about other family-centered support services such as case management.

  3. The Newborn Screening Quality Assurance Program at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Thirty-five Year Experience Assuring Newborn Screening Laboratory Quality.

    PubMed

    De Jesús, Víctor R; Mei, Joanne V; Cordovado, Suzanne K; Cuthbert, Carla D

    Newborn screening is the largest genetic testing effort in the United States and is considered one of the ten great public health achievements during the first 10 years of the 21(st) century. For over 35 years, the Newborn Screening Quality Assurance Program (NSQAP) at the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has helped NBS laboratories ensure that their testing does not delay diagnosis, minimizes false-positive reports, and sustains high-quality testing performance. It is a multi-component program that provides comprehensive quality assurance services for dried blood spot testing. The NSQAP, the Biochemical Mass Spectrometry Laboratory (BMSL), the Molecular Quality Improvement Program (MQIP) and the Newborn Screening Translation Research Initiative (NSTRI), aid screening laboratories achieve technical proficiency and maintain confidence in their performance while processing large volumes of specimens daily. The accuracy of screening tests could be the difference between life and death for many babies; in other instances, identifying newborns with a disorder means that they can be treated and thus avoid life-long disability or severe cognitive impairment. Thousands of newborns and their families have benefited from reliable and accurate testing that has been accomplished by a network of screening laboratories and the NSQAP, BMSL, MQIP and NSTRI.

  4. Cost-effectiveness of Universal and Targeted Newborn Screening for Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection.

    PubMed

    Gantt, Soren; Dionne, Francois; Kozak, Fred K; Goshen, Oran; Goldfarb, David M; Park, Albert H; Boppana, Suresh B; Fowler, Karen

    2016-12-01

    Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection is a major cause of childhood deafness. Most cCMV infections are not diagnosed without newborn screening, resulting in missed opportunities for directed care. To estimate the cost-effectiveness of universal and targeted newborn cCMV screening programs compared with no cCMV screening. Models were constructed using rates and outcomes from prospective cohort studies of newborn cCMV screening in US postpartum care and early hearing programs. Costs of laboratory testing, treatment, and hearing loss were drawn from Medicaid data and published estimates. The benefits of cCMV screening were assumed to come from antiviral therapy for affected newborns to reduce hearing loss and from earlier identification of hearing loss with postnatal onset. Analyses were performed from July 2014 to March 2016. Models compared universal or targeted cCMV screening of newborns with a failed hearing screen, with standard care for cCMV infection. The incremental costs of identifying 1 cCMV infection, identifying 1 case of cCMV-related hearing loss, and preventing 1 cochlear implant; the incremental reduction in cases of severe to profound hearing loss; and the differences in costs per infant screened by universal or targeted strategies under different assumptions about the effectiveness of antiviral treatment. Among all infants born in the United States, identification of 1 case of cCMV infection by universal screening was estimated to cost $2000 to $10 000; by targeted screening, $566 to $2832. The cost of identifying 1 case of hearing loss due to cCMV was as little as $27 460 by universal screening or $975 by targeted screening. Assuming a modest benefit of antiviral treatment, screening programs were estimated to reduce severe to profound hearing loss by 4.2% to 13% and result in direct costs of $10.86 per newborn screened. However, savings of up to $37.97 per newborn screened were estimated when costs related to functionality were included

  5. Improving Communication between Doctors and Parents after Newborn Screening

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, Michael H.; Christopher, Stephanie A.; Tluczek, Audrey; Kennedy-Parker, Karen; La Pean, Alison; Eskra, Kerry; Collins, Jenelle; Hoffman, Gary; Panepinto, Julie; Farrell, Philip M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Newborn screening (NBS) enables early treatment and some consider it a natural vehicle for genetic screening. Bioethicists argue for caution since families of carrier infants can develop psychosocial complications. This paper describes methods and feasibility of our statewide project for quality improvement of communication and psychosocial outcomes after NBS. Methods When NBS identifies carrier status for cystic fibrosis or sickle cell, we contact primary care providers (PCPs), answer questions, and invite them to rehearse informing the parents. Three months later we telephone parents, assess knowledge and psychosocial outcomes, provide counseling, and assist with self-referral to further resources. Afterwards, anonymous evaluation surveys are provided. Results Birthing facilities provided accurate PCP names for 73% of 817 infants meeting inclusion criteria; we identified PCPs for 21% more. We reached 47.3% of PCPs in time to invite a rehearsal; 60% of these accepted. We successfully called 50.2% of eligible parents; 61% recalled a PCP explanation and 48.5% evaluated the explanation favorably. Evaluations by parents with limited health literacy were less favorable. Conclusion It is feasible to follow parents for psychosocial outcomes after NBS. Preliminary data about communication is mixed, but further data will soon describe psychosocial outcomes, and investigate outcomes’ associations with communication. PMID:22164579

  6. Expanded newborn screening by mass spectrometry: New tests, future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ombrone, Daniela; Giocaliere, Elisa; Forni, Giulia; Malvagia, Sabrina; la Marca, Giancarlo

    2016-01-01

    Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) has become a leading technology used in clinical chemistry and has shown to be particularly sensitive and specific when used in newborn screening (NBS) tests. The success of tandem mass spectrometry is due to important advances in hardware, software and clinical applications during the last 25 years. MS/MS permits a very rapid measurement of many metabolites in different biological specimens by using filter paper spots or directly on biological fluids. Its use in NBS give us the chance to identify possible treatable metabolic disorders even when asymptomatic and the benefits gained by this type of screening is now recognized worldwide. Today the use of MS/MS for second-tier tests and confirmatory testing is promising especially in the early detection of new disorders such as some lysosomal storage disorders, ADA and PNP SCIDs, X-adrenoleucodistrophy (X-ALD), Wilson disease, guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiency (GAMT), and Duchenne muscular dystrophy. The new challenge for the future will be reducing the false positive rate by using second-tier tests, avoiding false negative results by using new specific biomarkers and introducing new treatable disorders in NBS programs.

  7. Overview of newborn hearing screening activities in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Gerner de Garcia, Barbara; Gaffney, Claudia; Chacon, Susan; Gaffney, Marcus

    2011-03-01

    Ascertain the status of early hearing detection and intervention services in Latin America. Between June and November 2007, Gallaudet University, in collaboration with the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Early Hearing Detection and Intervention Diversity Committee, disseminated a survey to 11 Latin American countries. It included questions about newborn hearing screening (NHS) procedures, the availability of intervention services for infants with hearing loss, and challenges in identifying infants with hearing loss. In addition, a literature review was conducted to help identify the status of NHS efforts in Latin America. Six countries (Chile, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Mexico, Panama, and Uruguay) and one U.S. territory (Puerto Rico) responded to the survey. Responses indicated that efforts to identify infants with hearing loss vary within and across countries in Latin America. In some countries, activities have been implemented at a national level; in others, activities have been implemented at a single hospital or region within a country. Common barriers to implementation of NHS programs include a lack of funding, screening and diagnostic equipment, public awareness, and personnel qualified to work with infants and young children. In spite of several barriers, NHS programs have been implemented in at least some facilities and regions in Latin America. Additional efforts are needed to expand NHS activities in Latin America.

  8. A retrospective review of newborn screening for congenital hypothyroidism and newborn thyroid disease at a major medical center

    PubMed Central

    Cameo, Tamara; Gumer, Lindsey Barst; Williams, Kristen M; Gomez, Jackie; McMahon, Donald J; Oberfield, Sharon E

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the frequency of congenital hypothyroidism (CH)/ thyroid disorders at a major, urban medical center. Methods We conducted a retrospective review of a preexisting database for 2007 to 2011. Infants were classified as having CH, secondary/ tertiary hypothyroidism, thyroid-binding globulin (TBG) deficiency, and other types of newborn thyroid dysfunctions. Results 353 (50%) abnormal newborn screens were found to be normal and 42% were abnormal upon repeat. Of the latter, 14% had true CH, 1% had TBG deficiency, and 27% had other causes of thyroid dysfunction. The five year incidence of CH at NYP Morgan Stanley Children's Hospital (CHONY) was significantly greater than in New York City, New York State, and Upstate-NY. Conclusion The incidence of CH and other thyroid dysfunctions were greater in our population for 2007 to 2010, after which there was an unexplained decline. The study underlines the importance of continued newborn screening for thyroid dysfunction. PMID:23785061

  9. State-of-the-art for DNA technology in newborn screening.

    PubMed

    McCabe, E R; McCabe, L L

    1999-12-01

    Just as metabolites, hormones and proteins are measured in newborn screening tests, DNA has become an analyte that is important in the screens for certain disorders. DNA confirmatory testing on the original dried blood specimen reduces the age at diagnostic confirmation and antibiotic prophylaxis initiation for neonates with sickle cell disease. Molecular genetic analysis of the initial specimens from newborns with elevated immunoreactive trypsinogen (IRT) for cystic fibrosis (CF) screening permits reduction of the IRT threshold value, improving specificity without compromising sensitivity. Because of this cost reduction, CF neonatal screening programs routinely incorporate DNA confirmatory testing into their initial CF screening algorithm. DNA analysis is also a valuable adjunct in screening programs for congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), improving sensitivity and specificity. Incorporation of DNA into newborn screening programs will continue to be stimulated by development of robust, high throughput technologies for evaluation of this analyte. New paradigms for neonatal screening are evolving, including hearing screening in the newborn nursery. DNA testing, such as for mutations in the connexin 26 gene, may have a role in the evaluation of those screened positive. Newborn screening dried blood specimens are DNA databases. Therefore, there are significant ethical, legal and social issues that must be considered in the storage and utilization of neonatal screening specimens.

  10. Cystic fibrosis carrier screening effects on birth prevalence and newborn screening.

    PubMed

    Castellani, Carlo; Picci, Luigi; Tridello, Gloria; Casati, Elia; Tamanini, Anna; Bartoloni, Lucia; Scarpa, Maurizio; Assael, Baroukh M

    2016-02-01

    We evaluated the effects of cystic fibrosis (CF) carrier screening on birth prevalence trends and newborn screening (NBS) efficiency by comparing two Italian regions; carrier screening was performed in one region (eastern region (ER)) and not in the other (western region (WR)). Annual births of infants with CF, NBS false-positive results, NBS uncertain diagnoses (borderline sweat chloride (BSC)), carrier tests performed, and carriers detected were monitored during the 1993-2013 period. A total of 259 newborns with CF were detected. In the ER, 150 carrier couples were found. Mean annual percentage of birth prevalence decrease was 9% per 10,000 (P = 0.002) and was greater in the ER (15%, P = 0.0008; WR 1%, P = ns). The WR estimated birth prevalence was 1/3,589 in 1993 and 1/3,870 in 2013; in the ER it was 1/2,730 in 1993 and 1/14,200 in 2013. The ER birth prevalence correlated inversely with the number of carrier couples (P = 0.0032). The ratio between CF cases and NBS-positive results significantly decreased in the ER (1.6%, P = 0.0001) but not in the WR. The ratio between prevalence of BSC and of CF cases increased in the ER (P = 0.008) but not in the WR (P = 0.1). Carrier screening was connected with a decrease in birth prevalence of CF. Poorer NBS performance was observed in the carrier screening area.

  11. Consolidating newborn screening efforts in the Asia Pacific region : Networking and shared education.

    PubMed

    Padilla, Carmencita David; Therrell, Bradford L

    2012-01-01

    Many of the countries in the Asia Pacific Region, particularly those with depressed and developing economies, are just initiating newborn screening programs for selected metabolic and other congenital disorders. The cultural, geographic, language, and economic differences that exist throughout the region add to the challenges of developing sustainable newborn screening systems. There are currently more developing programs than developed programs within the region. Newborn screening activities in the Asia Pacific Region are particularly important since births there account for approximately half of the world's births. To date, there have been two workshops to facilitate formation of the Asia Pacific Newborn Screening Collaboratives. The 1st Workshop on Consolidating Newborn Screening Efforts in the Asia Pacific Region occurred in Cebu, Philippines, on March 30-April 1, 2008, as a satellite meeting to the 7th Asia Pacific Conference on Human Genetics. The second workshop was held on June 4-5, 2010, in Manila, Philippines. Workshop participants included key policy-makers, service providers, researchers, and consumer advocates from 11 countries with 50% or less newborn screening coverage. Expert lectures included experiences in the United States and the Netherlands, international quality assurance activities and ongoing and potential research activities. Additional meeting support was provided by the U.S. National Institutes of Health, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the U.S. National Newborn Screening and Genetics Resource Center, the International Society for Neonatal Screening, and the March of Dimes. As part of both meeting activities, participants shared individual experiences in program implementation with formal updates of screening information for each country. This report reviews the activities and country reports from two Workshops on Consolidating Newborn Screening Efforts in the Asia Pacific Region with emphasis on the second workshop. It

  12. The Dried Bloodspot: Newborn Screening Research Saving the Lives of Babies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy-Fisch, Jill; Gartzke, Micki; Leight, Kelly

    2010-01-01

    Newborn screening is a test done on every child born in the US shortly after birth to detect diseases where, if not diagnosed and treated in the newborn period, the child will suffer significant trauma, disability or die. A few drops of blood from each baby's heel is put on a card and sent to the state's public health lab for testing. Most states…

  13. The Dried Bloodspot: Newborn Screening Research Saving the Lives of Babies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy-Fisch, Jill; Gartzke, Micki; Leight, Kelly

    2010-01-01

    Newborn screening is a test done on every child born in the US shortly after birth to detect diseases where, if not diagnosed and treated in the newborn period, the child will suffer significant trauma, disability or die. A few drops of blood from each baby's heel is put on a card and sent to the state's public health lab for testing. Most states…

  14. Legal and Ethical Considerations in Allowing Parental Exemptions From Newborn Critical Congenital Heart Disease (CCHD) Screening.

    PubMed

    Hom, Lisa A; Silber, Tomas J; Ennis-Durstine, Kathleen; Hilliard, Mary Anne; Martin, Gerard R

    2016-01-01

    Critical congenital heart disease (CCHD) screening is rapidly becoming the standard of care in the United States after being added to the Recommended Uniform Screening Panel (RUSP) in 2011. Newborn screens typically do not require affirmative parental consent. In fact, most states allow parents to exempt their baby from receiving the required screen on the basis of religious or personally held beliefs. There are many ethical considerations implicated with allowing parents to exempt their child from newborn screening for CCHD. Considerations include the treatment of religious exemptions in our current legal system, as well as medical and ethical principles in relation to the rights of infants. Although there are significant benefits to screening newborns for CCHD, when a parent refuses for religious or personal beliefs, in the case of CCHD screening, the parental decision should stand.

  15. Centralized Newborn Hearing Screening in Ernakulam, Kerala , Experience Over a Decade.

    PubMed

    Paul, Abraham K

    2016-01-01

    A two-stage centralized newborn screening program was initiated in Cochin in January 2003. Infants are screened first with otoacoustic emission (OAE). Infants who fail OAE on two occasions are screened with auditory brainstem response (ABR). All Neonatal intensive care unit babies undergo ABR. This successful model subsequently got expanded to the whole district of Ernakulam, and some hospitals in Kottayam and Thrissur districts. Over the past 11 years, 1,01,688 babies were screened. Permanent hearing loss was confirmed in 162 infants (1.6 per 1000). This practical model of centralized newborn hearing screening may be replicated in other districts of our country or in other developing countries.

  16. What colour are newborns' eyes? Prevalence of iris colour in the Newborn Eye Screening Test (NEST) study.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Cassie A; Callaway, Natalia F; Fredrick, Douglas R; Blumenkranz, Mark S; Moshfeghi, Darius M

    2016-08-01

    This study aims to assess the birth prevalence of iris colour among newborns in a prospective, healthy, full-term newborn cohort. The Newborn Eye Screening Test (NEST) study is a prospective cohort study conducted at Lucile Packard Children's Hospital at Stanford University School of Medicine. A paediatric vitreoretinal specialist (DMM) reviewed images sent to the Byers Eye Institute telemedicine reading centre and recorded eye colour for every infant screened. Variables were graphed to assess for normality, and frequencies per subject were reported for eye colour, sex, ethnicity and race. Among 192 subjects screened in the first year of the NEST study with external images of appropriate quality for visualization of the irides, the birth prevalence of iris colour was 63.0% brown, 20.8% blue, 5.7% green/hazel, 9.9% indeterminate and 0.5% partial heterochromia. The study population was derived from a quaternary care children's hospital. We report the birth prevalence of iris colour among full-term newborns in a diverse prospective cohort. The study demonstrates a broad range of iris colour prevalence at birth with a predominance of brown iris coloration. Future studies with the NEST cohort will assess the change in iris colour over time and whether the frequencies of eye colour change as the child ages. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Factors Accounting for a Missed Diagnosis of Cystic Fibrosis After Newborn Screening

    PubMed Central

    Rock, Michael J.; Levy, Hara; Zaleski, Christina; Farrell, Philip M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Newborn screening is a public health policy program involving the centralized testing laboratory, infant and their family, primary care provider, and subspecialist for confirmatory testing and follow-up of abnormal results. Cystic fibrosis (CF) newborn screening has now been enacted in all 50 states and the District of Columbia and throughout many countries in the world. Although CF neonatal screening will identify the vast majority of infants with CF, there are many factors in the newborn screening system that can lead to a missed diagnosis of CF. To inform clinicians, this article summarizes the CF newborn screening system and highlights 14 factors that can account for a missed diagnosis of CF. Care providers should maintain a high suspicion for CF if there are compatible symptoms, regardless of the results of the newborn screening test. These factors in newborn screening programs leading to a missed diagnosis of CF present opportunities for quality improvement in specimen collection, laboratory analysis of immunoreactive tryspinogen (IRT) and CF mutation testing, communication, and sweat testing. PMID:22081556

  18. Two faces of patient advocacy: the current controversy in newborn screening.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Cosby G

    2014-08-01

    Newborn screening programmes began in the 1960s, have traditionally been conducted without parental permission and have grown dramatically in the last decade. Whether these programmes serve patients' best interests has recently become a point of controversy. Privacy advocates, concerned that newborn screening infringes upon individual liberties, are demanding fundamental changes to these programmes. These include parental permission and limiting the research on the blood samples obtained, an agenda at odds with the viewpoints of newborn screening advocates. This essay presents the history of newborn screening in the USA, with attention to factors that have contributed to concerns about these programmes. The essay suggests that the rapid increase in the number of disorders screened for and the addition of research without either public knowledge or informed consent were critical to the development of resistance to mandatory newborn screening and research. Future newborn screening initiatives should include public education and comment to ensure continued support. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Successful outcomes of older adolescents and adults with profound biotinidase deficiency identified by newborn screening.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Barry

    2017-04-01

    We began screening newborns for biotinidase deficiency disorder in 1984, and now all states in the United States and many countries perform this screening. The purpose of this study was to determine the outcomes of older adolescent and adult individuals with the disorder identified by newborn screening. We located and surveyed, by questionnaire and telephone interviews, 44 individuals with profound biotinidase deficiency identified by newborn screening with a mean age of 23.1 years. All individuals had successfully completed high school, and many were attending or had completed college or graduate school. Compliance in using biotin has been excellent. Several individuals developed a variety of symptoms when they discontinued biotin for days or weeks. These features readily resolved when biotin was resumed. In addition, five treated women had nine uneventful pregnancies and deliveries. Newborn screening for profound biotinidase deficiency and early treatment with biotin result in excellent outcomes for older adolescents and adults with the disorder. In addition, mothers with profound biotinidase deficiency who were treated with biotin had pregnancies with good outcomes. These outcome results indicate that newborn screening for biotinidase deficiency is one of the most successful newborn screening programs.Genet Med 19 4, 396-402.

  20. Mass spectrometry in clinical chemistry: the case of newborn screening.

    PubMed

    la Marca, Giancarlo

    2014-12-01

    Newborn screening (NBS) program is a complex and organized system consisting of family and personnel education, biochemical tests, confirmatory biochemical and genetic tests, diagnosis, therapy, and patient follow up. The program identifies treatable metabolic disorders possibly when asymptomatic by using dried blood spot (DBS). During the last 20 years tandem mass spectrometry (TMS) has become the leading technology in NBS programs demonstrating to be versatile, sensitive and specific. There is consistent evidence of benefits from NBS for many disorders detected by TMS as well as for congenital hypothyroidism, cystic fibrosis, congenital adrenal hyperplasia by immune-enzymatic methods. Real time PCR tests have more recently been proposed for the detection of some severe combined immunodeficiences (SCID) along with the use of TMS for ADA and PNP SCID; a first evaluation of their cost-benefit ratio is still ongoing. Avoiding false negative results by using specific biomarkers and reducing the false positive rate by using second tier tests, is fundamental for a successful NBS program. The fully integration of NBS and diagnostic laboratories with clinical service is crucial to have the best effectiveness in a comprehensive NBS system.

  1. Public views on participating in newborn screening using genome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Bombard, Yvonne; Miller, Fiona A; Hayeems, Robin Z; Barg, Carolyn; Cressman, Celine; Carroll, June C; Wilson, Brenda J; Little, Julian; Avard, Denise; Painter-Main, Michael; Allanson, Judith; Giguere, Yves; Chakraborty, Pranesh

    2014-11-01

    Growing discussion on the use of whole-genome or exome sequencing (WG/ES) in newborn screening (NBS) has raised concerns regarding the generation of incidental information on millions of infants annually. It is unknown whether integrating WG/ES would alter public expectations regarding participation in universal NBS. We assessed public willingness to participate in NBS using WG/ES compared with current NBS. Our secondary objective was to assess the public's beliefs regarding a parental responsibility to participate in WG/ES-based NBS compared with current NBS. We examined self-reported attitudes regarding willingness to participate in NBS using a cross-sectional national survey of Canadian residents recruited through an internet panel, reflective of the Canadian population by age, gender and region. Our results showed that fewer respondents would be willing to participate in NBS using WG/ES compared with NBS using current technologies (80 vs 94%, P<0.001), or perceived a parental responsibility to participate in WG/ES-based NBS vs current NBS (30 vs 48%, P<0.001). Our findings suggest that integrating WG/ES into NBS might reduce participation, and challenge the moral authority that NBS programmes rely upon to ensure population benefits. These findings point to the need for caution in the untargeted use of WG/ES in public health contexts.

  2. Opportunities for Quality Improvement in Cystic Fibrosis Newborn Screening

    PubMed Central

    Groose, Molly K.; Reynolds, Richard; Li, Zhanhai; M.Farrell, Philip

    2010-01-01

    Background With the rapid implementation of cystic fibrosis (CF) newborn screening (NBS), quality improvement (QI) has become essential to identify and prevent errors. Using Process Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (PFMEA), we adapted this method to determine if it could be applied to discover and rank high priority QI opportunities. Methods Site visits to three programmes were conducted, and PFMEA exercises were accomplished in Colorado, Massachusetts and Wisconsin with 23 experienced professionals. During each of these comprehensive sessions, participants identified and ranked potential failures based on severity, occurrence and detection to calculate risk priority number (RPN) values. Results A total of 96 failure modes were generated and ranked in a list of the 20 riskiest problems that show no significant discordances by site, although there were differences by profession of the rater, particularly nurses. Conclusions Our results illustrate that the PFMEA method applies well to CF NBS and that steps requiring communication and information transfer are perceived to be the highest risks. The number of identified failure makes and their potential impact demonstrate considerable overall risk and a need for ongoing QI. PMID:20471332

  3. Financing newborn screening: sources, issues, and future considerations.

    PubMed

    Therrell, Bradford L; Williams, Donna; Johnson, Kay; Lloyd-Puryear, Michele A; Mann, Marie Y; Ramos, Lauren Raskin

    2007-01-01

    Newborn screening (NBS) programs are population-based public health programs and are uniquely financed footline compared with many other public health programs. Since they began more than 45 years ago, the financing issues have become more complex for NBS programs. Today, almost all programs have a portion of their costs paid by fees. The fee amounts vary from program to program, with little standardization in the way they are formulated, collected, or used. We previously surveyed 37 of the 51 dried blood spot screening programs throughout the United States, and confirmed an increasing dependence on NBS fees. In this study, we have collected responses from all 51 programs (100%), including updated responses from the original 37, and updated our fee listings. Comments from those surveyed indicated that the lack of a national standardized procedural coding system for NBS contributes to billing complexities. We suggest one coding possibility for discussion and debate for such a system. Differences in Medicaid interpretations may also contribute to financing inequities across NBS programs and there may be benefit from certain clarifications at the national level. Completed survey responses accounted for few changes in the conclusions of our original survey. We confirmed that 90 percent of all NBS programs have a fee paid by parents or a third party payer. Sixty-one percent reported receiving some funds from the Maternal and Child Health Services Title V block grant, 33 percent reported some funding from state general revenue/general public health appropriations; and 24 percent reported obtaining direct reimbursement from Medicaid (without passing through a third party). A majority of programs (63%) reported budget increases between 2002 and 2005, with increases primarily from fees (72%) and to a lesser extent from Medicaid, the Title V block grant, and state general revenues.

  4. History and Current Status of Newborn Screening for Severe Combined Immunodeficiency

    PubMed Central

    Kwan, Antonia; Puck, Jennifer M.

    2015-01-01

    The development of a T cell receptor excision circle (TREC) assay utilizing dried blood spots in universal newborn screening has allowed the early detection of T cell lymphopenia in newborns. Diagnosis of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) in affected infants in the neonatal period while asymptomatic permits early treatment and restoration of a functional immune system. SCID was the first immunodeficiency disease to be added to the Recommended Uniform Screening Panel of Core Conditions in the United States in 2010, and is now implemented in 26 states in the U.S. This review covers the development of newborn screening for SCID, the biology of the TREC test, its current implementation in the U.S., new findings for SCID in the newborn screening era, and future directions. PMID:25937517

  5. History and current status of newborn screening for severe combined immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Kwan, Antonia; Puck, Jennifer M

    2015-04-01

    The development of a T-cell receptor excision circle (TREC) assay utilizing dried blood spots in universal newborn screening has allowed the early detection of T-cell lymphopenia in newborns. Diagnosis of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) in affected infants in the neonatal period, while asymptomatic, permits early treatment and restoration of a functional immune system. SCID was the first immunodeficiency disease to be added to the Recommended Uniform Screening Panel of Core Conditions in the United States in 2010, and it is now implemented in 26 states in the U.S. This review covers the development of newborn screening for SCID, the biology of the TREC test, its current implementation in the U.S., new findings for SCID in the newborn screening era, and future directions.

  6. Newborn screening for citrin deficiency and carnitine uptake defect using second-tier molecular tests.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Yun; Chen, Nien-I; Chen, Pin-Wen; Chiang, Shu-Chuan; Hwu, Wuh-Liang; Lee, Ni-Chung; Chien, Yin-Hsiu

    2013-02-10

    Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analysis is a powerful tool for newborn screening, and many rare inborn errors of metabolism are currently screened using MS/MS. However, the sensitivity of MS/MS screening for several inborn errors, including citrin deficiency (screened by citrulline level) and carnitine uptake defect (CUD, screened by free carnitine level), is not satisfactory. This study was conducted to determine whether a second-tier molecular test could improve the sensitivity of citrin deficiency and CUD detection without increasing the false-positive rate. Three mutations in the SLC25A13 gene (for citrin deficiency) and one mutation in the SLC22A5 gene (for CUD) were analyzed in newborns who demonstrated an inconclusive primary screening result (with levels between the screening and diagnostic cutoffs). The results revealed that 314 of 46 699 newborns received a second-tier test for citrin deficiency, and two patients were identified; 206 of 30 237 newborns received a second-tier testing for CUD, and one patient was identified. No patients were identified using the diagnostic cutoffs. Although the incidences for citrin deficiency (1:23 350) and CUD (1:30 000) detected by screening are still lower than the incidences calculated from the mutation carrier rates, the second-tier molecular test increases the sensitivity of newborn screening for citrin deficiency and CUD without increasing the false-positive rate. Utilizing a molecular second-tier test for citrin deficiency and carnitine transporter deficiency is feasible.

  7. Galactosemia: when is it a newborn screening emergency?

    PubMed

    Berry, Gerard T

    2012-05-01

    Classic galactosemia is an autosomal recessive disorder of carbohydrate metabolism, due to a severe deficiency of the enzyme, galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT), that catalyzes the conversion of galactose-1-phosphate and uridine diphosphate glucose (UDPglucose) to uridine diphosphate galactose (UDPgalactose) and glucose-1-phosphate. Upon consumption of lactose in the neonatal period, the affected infants develop a potentially lethal disease process with multiorgan involvement. Since the advent of newborn screening (NBS) for galactosemia, we rarely encounter such overwhelmingly ill newborns. After ascertainment that the positive NBS indicates the possibility of galactosemia due to GALT deficiency, the critical question for the physician is whether the infant has the classic or a variant form of GALT deficiency, as classic galactosemia is a medical emergency. However, there are over 230 GALT gene mutations that have been detected around the world. Yet, most positive NBS tests are due to the Duarte biochemical variant condition or a simple false positive. In order to make the correct decision as well as provide informative counseling to parents of infants with a positive NBS, I utilize a relatively simple classification scheme for GALT deficiency. There are three basic forms of GALT deficiency: 1) classic galactosemia; 2) clinical variant galactosemia; and 3) biochemical variant galactosemia. The classic genotype is typified by Q188R/Q188R, the clinical variant by S135L/S135L and the biochemical variant by N314D/Q188R. In classic galactosemia, the erythrocyte GALT enzyme activity is absent or markedly reduced, the blood galactose and erythrocyte galactose-1-phosphate levels are markedly elevated, and the patient is at risk to develop potentially lethal E. coli sepsis, as well as the long-term diet-independent complications of galactosemia. Patients with the clinical variant form require treatment but do not die from E. coli sepsis in the neonatal period

  8. Expanded newborn metabolic screening programme in Hong Kong: a three-year journey.

    PubMed

    Chong, S C; Law, L K; Hui, J; Lai, C Y; Leung, T Y; Yuen, Y P

    2017-09-01

    No universal expanded newborn screening service for inborn errors of metabolism is available in Hong Kong despite its long history in developed western countries and rapid development in neighbouring Asian countries. To increase the local awareness and preparedness, the Centre of Inborn Errors of Metabolism of the Chinese University of Hong Kong started a private inborn errors of metabolism screening programme in July 2013. This study aimed to describe the results and implementation of this screening programme. We retrieved the demographics of the screened newborns and the screening results from July 2013 to July 2016. These data were used to calculate quality metrics such as call-back rate and false-positive rate. Clinical details of true-positive and false-negative cases and their outcomes were described. Finally, the call-back logistics for newborns with positive screening results were reviewed. During the study period, 30 448 newborns referred from 13 private and public units were screened. Of the samples, 98.3% were collected within 7 days of life. The overall call-back rate was 0.128% (39/30 448) and the false-positive rate was 0.105% (32/30 448). Six neonates were confirmed to have inborn errors of metabolism, including two cases of medium-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency, one case of carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase deficiency, and three milder conditions. One case of maternal carnitine uptake defect was diagnosed. All patients remained asymptomatic at their last follow-up. The Centre of Inborn Errors of Metabolism has established a comprehensive expanded newborn screening programme for selected inborn errors of metabolism. It sets a standard against which the performance of other private newborn screening tests can be compared. Our experience can also serve as a reference for policymakers when they contemplate establishing a government-funded universal expanded newborn screening programme in the future.

  9. Newborn screening for X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy: further evidence high throughput screening is feasible.

    PubMed

    Theda, Christiane; Gibbons, Katy; Defor, Todd E; Donohue, Pamela K; Golden, W Christopher; Kline, Antonie D; Gulamali-Majid, Fizza; Panny, Susan R; Hubbard, Walter C; Jones, Richard O; Liu, Anita K; Moser, Ann B; Raymond, Gerald V

    2014-01-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) is characterized by adrenal insufficiency and neurologic involvement with onset at variable ages. Plasma very long chain fatty acids are elevated in ALD; even in asymptomatic patients. We demonstrated previously that liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry measuring C26:0 lysophosphatidylcholine reliably identifies affected males. We prospectively applied this method to 4689 newborn blood spot samples; no false positives were observed. We show that high throughput neonatal screening for ALD is methodologically feasible. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of a Newborn Screening Program for Critical Congenital Heart Disease (CCHD) in Taipei

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Szu-Hui; Ho, Hui-Chen; Liu, Yu-Ling; Chung, Yuan-Fang; Lin, Li-Ju; Chen, Ming-Ren; Chang, Jia-Kan; Soong, Wen-Jue; Lin, Hsiu-Lian; Hwang, Betau; Hsiao, Kwang-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Background Early detection of critical congenital heart disease (CCHD) can significantly reduce morbidity and mortality among newborns. We investigate the feasibility of implementing a community-based newborn CCHD screening program in Taipei. Methods Twelve birthing facilities in Taipei participated in a trial screening program between October 1, 2013, and March 31, 2014. Newborns underwent pulse oximetry at 24–36 h old, with probes attached to the right hand and one lower limb. Any screening saturation ≥95% in either extremity, with an absolute difference of ≤3% between the right hand and foot, was accepted as a screening pass. A screening result was considered as a fail if the oxygen saturation was <95% at either probe site, on 3 separate occasions, each separated by 30 min or the first result was <95% at either probe site, and any subsequent oxygen saturation measurement was <90%. Public health nurses would follow up all missed or refused cases. Results Of the 6,387 live births, 6,296 newborns (coverage rate: 6,296/6,387 = 98.6%) underwent appropriate pulse oximetry screening. Sixteen newborns (0.25%) were reported to have a failed screening result. Five of these screen positive newborns were confirmed with CCHD; two of them were diagnosed solely attributed to the failed screening results. The false-positive rate was 0.18%. Implementing a 6-month screening program for CCHD produced good case detection rate, while using efficient screening and referral systems. Conclusion This program was successful in integrating screening, referral and public health tracking systems. The protocol outlined in this report could provide a community-based model for worldwide implementation. PMID:27073996

  11. Specific guidelines for assessing and improving the methodological quality of economic evaluations of newborn screening

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Economic evaluation of newborn screening poses specific methodological challenges. Amongst others, these challenges refer to the use of quality adjusted life years (QALYs) in newborns, and which costs and outcomes need to be considered in a full evaluation of newborn screening programmes. Because of the increasing scale and scope of such programmes, a better understanding of the methods of high-quality economic evaluations may be crucial for both producers/authors and consumers/reviewers of newborn screening-related economic evaluations. The aim of this study was therefore to develop specific guidelines designed to assess and improve the methodological quality of economic evaluations in newborn screening. Methods To develop the guidelines, existing guidelines for assessing the quality of economic evaluations were identified through a literature search, and were reviewed and consolidated using a deductive iterative approach. In a subsequent test phase, these guidelines were applied to various economic evaluations which acted as case studies. Results The guidelines for assessing and improving the methodological quality of economic evaluations in newborn screening are organized into 11 categories: “bibliographic details”, “study question and design”, “modelling”, “health outcomes”, “costs”, “discounting”, “presentation of results”, “sensitivity analyses”, “discussion”, “conclusions”, and “commentary”. Conclusions The application of the guidelines highlights important issues regarding newborn screening-related economic evaluations, and underscores the need for such issues to be afforded greater consideration in future economic evaluations. The variety in methodological quality detected by this study reveals the need for specific guidelines on the appropriate methods for conducting sound economic evaluations in newborn screening. PMID:22947299

  12. Should we screen newborns for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in the United States?

    PubMed

    Watchko, J F; Kaplan, M; Stark, A R; Stevenson, D K; Bhutani, V K

    2013-07-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, a common X-linked enzymopathy can lead to severe hyperbilirubinemia, acute bilirubin encephalopathy and kernicterus in the United States. Neonatal testing for G6PD deficiency is not yet routine and the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends testing only in jaundiced newborns who are receiving phototherapy whose family history, ethnicity, or geographic origin suggest risk for the condition, or for infants whose response to phototherapy is poor. Screening tests for G6PD deficiency are available, are suitable for use in newborns and have been used in birth hospitals. However, US birth hospitals experience is limited and no national consensus has emerged regarding the need for newborn G6PD testing, its effectiveness or the best approach. Our review of current state of G6PD deficiency screening highlights research gaps and informs specific operational challenges to implement universal newborn G6PD testing concurrent to bilirubin screening in the United States.

  13. Evaluation of 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency detected by tandem mass spectrometry newborn screening.

    PubMed

    Koeberl, D D; Millington, D S; Smith, W E; Weavil, S D; Muenzer, J; McCandless, S E; Kishnani, P S; McDonald, M T; Chaing, S; Boney, A; Moore, E; Frazier, D M

    2003-01-01

    Since the addition of tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) to the North Carolina Newborn Screening Program, 20 infants with two consecutive elevated 3-hydroxyisovalerylcarnitine (C5OH) levels have been evaluated for evidence of inborn errors of metabolism associated with this metabolite. Ten of these 20 infants had significant concentrations of both 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid and 3-methylcrotonylglycine in their urine, suggestive of 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase (3-MCC) deficiency. Four of these 10 were infants whose abnormal metabolites were found to be of maternal origin. Of 8 patients with probable 3-MCC deficiency, 7 have been tested and found to have the enzyme deficiency confirmed in lymphoblasts or cultured fibroblasts; one of these 7 infants had only marginally decreased 3-MCC activity in lymphocytes but deficient 3-MCC in fibroblasts. We estimate the incidence of 3-MCC deficiency at 1:64000 live births in North Carolina. We conclude that MS/MS newborn screening will detect additional inborn errors of metabolism, such as 3-MCC deficiency, not traditionally associated with newborn screening. The evaluation of newborns with two abnormally elevated C5OH levels on MS/MS newborn screening should include, at least, urine organic acid analysis by capillary GC-MS and a plasma acylcarnitine profile by MS/MS. Long-term follow-up is needed to determine the outcome of presymptomatically diagnosed patients with 3-MCC deficiency by MS/MS newborn screening.

  14. Improving newborn screening laboratory test ordering and result reporting using health information exchange.

    PubMed

    Downs, Stephen M; van Dyck, Peter C; Rinaldo, Piero; McDonald, Clement; Howell, R Rodrey; Zuckerman, Alan; Downing, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    Capture, coding and communication of newborn screening (NBS) information represent a challenge for public health laboratories, health departments, hospitals, and ambulatory care practices. An increasing number of conditions targeted for screening and the complexity of interpretation contribute to a growing need for integrated information-management strategies. This makes NBS an important test of tools and architecture for electronic health information exchange (HIE) in this convergence of individual patient care and population health activities. For this reason, the American Health Information Community undertook three tasks described in this paper. First, a newborn screening use case was established to facilitate standards harmonization for common terminology and interoperability specifications guiding HIE. Second, newborn screening coding and terminology were developed for integration into electronic HIE activities. Finally, clarification of privacy, security, and clinical laboratory regulatory requirements governing information exchange was provided, serving as a framework to establish pathways for improving screening program timeliness, effectiveness, and efficiency of quality patient care services.

  15. Improving newborn screening laboratory test ordering and result reporting using health information exchange

    PubMed Central

    van Dyck, Peter C; Rinaldo, Piero; McDonald, Clement; Howell, R Rodrey; Zuckerman, Alan; Downing, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    Capture, coding and communication of newborn screening (NBS) information represent a challenge for public health laboratories, health departments, hospitals, and ambulatory care practices. An increasing number of conditions targeted for screening and the complexity of interpretation contribute to a growing need for integrated information-management strategies. This makes NBS an important test of tools and architecture for electronic health information exchange (HIE) in this convergence of individual patient care and population health activities. For this reason, the American Health Information Community undertook three tasks described in this paper. First, a newborn screening use case was established to facilitate standards harmonization for common terminology and interoperability specifications guiding HIE. Second, newborn screening coding and terminology were developed for integration into electronic HIE activities. Finally, clarification of privacy, security, and clinical laboratory regulatory requirements governing information exchange was provided, serving as a framework to establish pathways for improving screening program timeliness, effectiveness, and efficiency of quality patient care services. PMID:20064796

  16. Newborn Screening (NBS): Answers to Frequently Asked Questions

    MedlinePlus

    ... states consider the NBS recommendations made by the Secretary’s Advisory Committee on Heritable Disorders in Newborns and Children, a federal panel that reports to the Secretary of Health and Human Services. Some states may ...

  17. Genome-wide Linkage Screen in Familial Parkinson Disease Identifies Loci on Chromosomes 3 and 18

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiaoyi; Martin, Eden R.; Liu, Yutao; Mayhew, Gregory; Vance, Jeffery M.; Scott, William K.

    2009-01-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is a complex, multifactorial neurodegenerative disease with substantial evidence for genetic risk factors. We conducted a genome-wide linkage screen of 5824 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 278 families of European, non-Hispanic descent to localize regions that harbor susceptibility loci for PD. By using parametric and nonparametric linkage analyses and allowing for genetic heterogeneity among families, we found two loci for PD. Significant evidence for linkage was detected on chromosome 18q11 (maximum lod score [MLOD] = 4.1) and suggestive evidence for linkage was obtained on chromosome 3q25 (MLOD = 2.5). These results were strongest in families not previously screened for linkage, and simulation studies suggest that these findings are likely due to locus heterogeneity rather than random statistical error. The finding of two loci (one highly statistically significant) suggests that additional PD susceptibility genes might be identified through targeted candidate gene studies in these regions. PMID:19327735

  18. Estimation of the false-negative rate in newborn screening for congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Votava, Felix; Török, Dóra; Kovács, József; Möslinger, Dorothea; Baumgartner-Parzer, Sabina M; Sólyom, János; Pribilincová, Zuzana; Battelino, Tadej; Lebl, Jan; Frisch, Herwig; Waldhauser, Franz

    2005-06-01

    Newborn screening based on measurement of 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) in a dried blood spot on filter paper is an effective tool for early diagnosis of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Its most important rationale is prevention of a life-threatening salt-wasting (SW) crisis; in moderate forms of CAH, early diagnosis and treatment may prevent permanent negative effects of androgen overproduction. Our target was to analyse if all CAH patients who had been identified clinically before puberty would have been detected by the newborn screening. Newborn screening cards of 110 CAH patients born between 1988 and 2000 in five Middle-European countries and diagnosed prior to puberty (77 SW and 33 moderate) and cards from 920 random, healthy newborn controls were analysed. CAH screening had not yet been introduced during this time. The diagnosis was based on clinical and laboratory signs and, in most cases, on CYP21 gene mutation analysis. All 17-OHP measurements in dried blood spots were carried out using a time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay kit. In the newborn screening blood spots, the median of 17-OHP levels was 561 nmol/l (range 91-1404 nmol/l) in subjects with the SW form and 40 nmol/l (4-247 nmol/l) in the moderate form. All 77 SW patients would have been detected by newborn screening using the recommended cut-off limits (30 nmol/l). However, 10 of 33 patients with moderate CAH would have been missed. 17-OHP levels of all controls were below the cut-off. Newborn screening is efficient for diagnosing the SW form of CAH, but is inappropriate for identifying all patients with a moderate form of CAH. It appears that the false-negative rate is at least one-third in children with the moderate form of CAH.

  19. Declining prevalence of cystic fibrosis since the introduction of newborn screening.

    PubMed

    Massie, John; Curnow, Lisette; Gaffney, Lydia; Carlin, John; Francis, Ivan

    2010-07-01

    Newborn screening for cystic fibrosis (CF) facilitates early diagnosis and genetic counselling for parents of affected infants. Many parents elect to use prenatal testing for subsequent pregnancies, and this may affect the prevalence of CF. The aim of this study was to assess the evidence for changes in the live-birth prevalence of CF since the introduction of newborn screening for CF. The authors reviewed the records of the Victorian newborn screening programme and the clinical records of the three centres caring for patients with CF in Victoria, Australia, in order to determine the live-birth prevalence of patients with CF; before (1979-1988) and after (1989-2006) the introduction of newborn screening. The authors reviewed the records of the Victorian Clinical Genetics Service to ascertain the number and outcome of prenatal tests for CF (1979-2006). Live births in Victoria were obtained from the state birth register. Between 1979 and 1988, the live-birth prevalence of CF was 3.96 (95% CI 3.48 to 4.49) per 10 000 live births. Following the introduction of newborn screening (1989-2006) the live-birth prevalence of CF was 3.28 (95% CI 2.97 to 3.63) per 10 000 live births, representing a reduction of 17% (95% CI 2% to 29%, p=0.025). In the prescreening period, there were 10 prenatal tests, which identified three affected pregnancies, all of which were terminated. In the later period, there were 304 prenatal tests (mean 17/year), of which 76 were affected, and 70 of these pregnancies were terminated. The authors observed a modest reduction in the live-birth prevalence of CF since the introduction of newborn screening. This is principally due to at-risk couples detected by newborn screening electing to use prenatal testing on subsequent pregnancies.

  20. Altered metabolism and newborn screening using tandem mass spectrometry: lessons learned from the bench to bedside.

    PubMed

    Chace, Donald H; Spitzer, Alan R

    2011-07-01

    The use of tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) for screening of inherited metabolic disease in newborns has afforded many unique opportunities in the understanding of the benefits early their early detection, diagnosis and treatment. From the standpoint of the laboratory and modern analytical methods, the use of MS based analysis demonstrated that a multiple metabolite-multiple disease screen-one method approach expanded screening significantly. MS/MS and newborn screening has served as a model of one type of approach in preventative health care that has shown proven benefits. It has been nearly 20 years since the introduction of MS/MS analysis of dried blood spots from newborns. There have been many lessons learned in both the analytical approach as well as follow-up at the bedside. These lessons can be applied to future applications of MS/MS in newborn screening as well as other areas of metabolism and metabolic profiles such as that from acquired disease, environmental disease and other factors such as nutrition and age. The use of a highly specific, sensitive and multiplex platform such as MS/MS will continue to grow and experience in the newborn screening application will insure this outcome.

  1. Newborn bloodspot results: predictive value of screen positive test for thalassaemia major.

    PubMed

    Streetly, Allison; Latinovic, Radoslav; Henthorn, Joan; Daniel, Yvonne; Dormandy, Elizabeth; Darbyshire, Phil; Mantio, Debbie; Fraser, Laura; Farrar, Lisa; Will, Andrew; Tetlow, Lesley

    2013-12-01

    There are limited published data on the performance of the percentage of haemoglobin A (Hb A) as a screening test for beta thalassaemia major in the newborn period. This paper aims to analyse data derived from a national newborn bloodspot screening programme for sickle cell disease on the performance of haemoglobin A (Hb A) as a screening test for beta thalassaemia major in the newborn period. Newborn bloodspot sickle cell screening data from 2,288,008 babies were analysed. Data reported to the NHS Sickle Cell and Thalassaemia Screening Programme in England for the period 2005 to 2012 were also reviewed to identify any missed cases (4,599,849 babies). Within the cohort of 2,288,008 births, 170 babies were identified as screen positive for beta thalassaemia major using a cut-point of 1.5% HbA. There were 51 identified through look-back methods and 119 prospectively identified from 4 screening laboratories. Among 119 babies with prospective data, 7 were lost to follow up and 15 were false positive results. Using a cut-off value of 1.5% Hb A as a percentage of the total haemoglobin as a screening test for beta thalassaemia major in the newborn provides an estimated sensitivity of 99% (from the look back arm of the study) with a positive predictive value of 87% (from the prospective arm of the study). Excluding infants born before 32 weeks gestation, the positive predictive value rose to 95%. A haemoglobin A value of less than 1.5% is a reliable screening test for beta thalassaemia major in the newborn period.

  2. 21 CFR 862.1055 - Newborn screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Newborn screening test system for amino acids... screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem mass spectrometry. (a) Identification. A newborn screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem...

  3. 21 CFR 862.1055 - Newborn screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Newborn screening test system for amino acids... screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem mass spectrometry. (a) Identification. A newborn screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem...

  4. 21 CFR 862.1055 - Newborn screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Newborn screening test system for amino acids... screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem mass spectrometry. (a) Identification. A newborn screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem...

  5. 21 CFR 862.1055 - Newborn screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Newborn screening test system for amino acids... screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem mass spectrometry. (a) Identification. A newborn screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem...

  6. Biotinidase deficiency: the importance of adequate follow-up for an inconclusive newborn screening result.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Trevor L; Simon, Erin M; Ficicioglu, Can

    2005-05-01

    Biotinidase deficiency is an inherited metabolic disorder characterized by inability to recycle protein-bound biotin. It usually presents with ataxia and seizures, though atypical presentations have also been described. We report a 15-month-old boy with profound biotinidase deficiency who presented with laryngeal stridor and subsequently developed severe ataxia and lactic acidosis. Subsequently, it was discovered that the patient's newborn screening test for biotinidase activity had been inconclusive, but confirmatory testing had not been done. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed multiple white matter non-enhancing T2 hyperintensities, which largely resolved following 6 months of biotin therapy; however, there was residual deafness and mental retardation. An argument is made for universal newborn screening in biotinidase deficiency and improved mechanisms for follow-up of positive screens, because delay in diagnosis results in irreversible morbidity, newborn screening is cost effective, and early therapy prevents the neurologic sequelae.

  7. Parents' Decisions to Screen Their Newborn for Fragile X Syndrome. FPG Snapshot #63

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FPG Child Development Institute, 2011

    2011-01-01

    State newborn screening (NBS) programs have expanded in recent years, and more tests may be added in the future. The expansion of neonatal screening raises ethical, legal, and social questions. The questions surrounding NBS for fragile X syndrome (FXS) typify these concerns. FXS is an X-linked genetic condition that is the most common inherited…

  8. Newborn Screening for Genetic-Metabolic Diseases: Progress, Principles and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holtzman, Neil A.

    This monograph, designed for persons involved in the organization and regulation of screening of newborns infants for Phenylketonuria (PKU) and other genetic-metabolic diseases reviews new developments in the field, makes recommendations, and provides information about specific conditions other than PKU that are detectable by screening. Discussed…

  9. Current Sickle Cell Screening Program for Newborns in New York City, 1979-1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grover, Ranjeet; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Screening tests indicated that 141 out of 106,565 infants examined in New York City during 1979-80, had various forms of sickle cell anemia. Follow-up of 131 patients confirmed the original diagnoses, suggesting that the New York City Follow-up Program for Sickle Cell Screening of newborns was successful. (Author/MJL)

  10. Abnormal newborn screens and acylcarnitines in HIV-exposed and ARV-exposed infants.

    PubMed

    Kirmse, Brian; Hobbs, Charlotte V; Peter, Inga; Laplante, Bryan; Caggana, Michele; Kloke, Karen; Raymond, Kimiyo; Summar, Marshall; Borkowsky, William

    2013-02-01

    Antiretroviral drugs (ARV), specifically nucleoside analogs, are toxic to mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Other metabolic pathways, such as fatty acid oxidation, organic acid metabolism and amino acid metabolism, are dependent on normal oxidative phosphorylation but remain unexamined as potential points of ARV toxicity. We analyzed newborn screening data from New York and compared proportions of abnormal newborn metabolic screens in HIV antibody screen-positive and HIV screen-negative neonates. Subsequently, we compared acylcarnitine levels in ARV-exposed (n = 16) and ARV-unexposed (n = 14) HIV-exposed infants to assess for dysfunctional fatty and organic acid metabolism. : The rate of abnormal newborn metabolic screens in HIV screen-positive infants was higher than that in the general population (2.2% versus 1.2%; P = 0.00025), most of which were for disorders of mitochondria-related metabolism. Abnormal acylcarnitine levels occurred more frequently in ARV-exposed compared with ARV-unexposed infants (43% versus 0%; P = 0.02). A higher proportion of positive metabolic screens in HIV screen-positive neonates suggests that HIV or ARV exposure is associated with dysfunctional intermediary metabolism in newborns. Abnormal acylcarnitine levels were more frequent in ARV-exposed infants, suggesting that ARV may perturb normal fatty acid oxidation in some infants. Studies designed to validate and determine the clinical significance of these findings are warranted.

  11. Current Sickle Cell Screening Program for Newborns in New York City, 1979-1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grover, Ranjeet; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Screening tests indicated that 141 out of 106,565 infants examined in New York City during 1979-80, had various forms of sickle cell anemia. Follow-up of 131 patients confirmed the original diagnoses, suggesting that the New York City Follow-up Program for Sickle Cell Screening of newborns was successful. (Author/MJL)

  12. Factors which influence the rate of receiving a routine second newborn screening test in Washington State.

    PubMed

    Doyle, D L; Sanderson, M; Bentvelzen, J; Fineman, R M

    1995-12-04

    This study was conducted to determine whether newborns from different ethnic and socioeconomic groups in Washington State are equally likely to have a routine second newborn screening (NBS) test and if there are identifiable factors associated with not having a second test. For many years, the standard of care for NBS in Washington has been that newborns should receive a routine second screening test at age 7-10 days. However, data collected by State Department of Health (DOH) staff for the past several years indicated that only about 80% of newborns receive a routine second NBS test. The data presented here suggest that identifiable factors (i.e., barriers) exist in accessing a routine second NBS test in Washington. Increased educational efforts targeting certain high-risk infants, their parent/caretakers, and primary care providers are apparently needed to ensure equal access to a routine second test.

  13. Willingness to Pay for a Newborn Screening Test for Spinal Muscular Atrophy.

    PubMed

    Lin, Pei-Jung; Yeh, Wei-Shi; Neumann, Peter J

    2017-01-01

    The current US mandatory newborn screening panel does not include spinal muscular atrophy, the most common fatal genetic disease among children. We assessed population preferences for newborn screening for spinal muscular atrophy, and how test preferences varied depending on immediate treatment implications. We conducted an online willingness-to-pay survey of US adults (n = 982). Respondents were asked to imagine being parents of a newborn. Each respondent was presented with two hypothetical scenarios following the spinal muscular atrophy screening test: current standard of care (no treatment available) and one of three randomly assigned scenarios (new treatment available to improve functioning, survival, or both). We used a bidding game to elicit willingness to pay for the spinal muscular atrophy test, and performed a two-part model to estimate median and mean willingness-to-pay values. Most respondents (79% to 87%) would prefer screening their newborns for spinal muscular atrophy. People expressed a willingness to pay for spinal muscular atrophy screening even without an available therapy (median: $142; mean: $253). Willingness to pay increased with treatment availability (median: $161 to $182; mean: $270 to $297) and respondent income. Most respondents considered test accuracy, treatment availability, and treatment effectiveness very important or important factors in deciding willingness to pay. Most people would prefer and would be willing to pay for testing their newborn for spinal muscular atrophy, even in the absence of direct treatment. People perceive the spinal muscular atrophy test more valuable if treatment were available to improve the newborn's functioning and survival. Despite preferences for the test information, adding spinal muscular atrophy to newborn screening programs remains controversial. Future studies are needed to determine how early detection may impact long-term patient outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Newborn screening for critical congenital heart disease: essential public health roles for birth defects monitoring programs.

    PubMed

    Olney, Richard S; Botto, Lorenzo D

    2012-12-01

    Newborn screening for critical congenital heart defects, added in September 2011 to the Recommended Uniform Screening Panel in the United States, is a new public health priority and has particular relevance for state birth defects surveillance programs. In this commentary, we review the background to potential involvement by birth defects programs with screening, and detail key questions that these programs can evaluate: (1) health outcomes after newborn screening among affected children; (2) missed primary targets of screening (i.e., affected children who were not screened or had false-negative screens); (3) burden and screening accuracy for secondary targets; (4) the role of altitude, sociodemographic characteristics, and other special circumstances; (5) the contribution of prenatal and clinical diagnoses before newborn screening; and (6) costs and service utilization. To address these issues, monitoring programs will need to pay particular attention to: (1) data sources and quality; (2) timeliness; (3) long-term follow-up for comprehensive outcomes; (4) reporting standards; and (5) state and national program coordination. Although some aspects of involvement with these screening programs will require new partnerships and paradigm shifts in birth defects program operations, the visibility of these screening programs among stakeholders will also provide birth defects programs with new opportunities to demonstrate their usefulness. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. [Combined hearing and deafness gene mutation screening of 11,046 Chinese newborns].

    PubMed

    Sun, Xuejing; Xi, Zuoming; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Baoyan; Xing, Xinli; Huang, Xin; Zhao, Qing

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of combined newborn hearing screening and deafness-related mutation screening. Eleven thousand and forty-six newborn babies were screened with otoacoustic emission, automatic auditory brainstem response and genetic testing using a standard protocol. Common mutations of three deafness-related genes have included GJB2 (c.235delC, c.299-300delAT), mtDNA 12srRNA (c.1494C>T, c.1555A>G) and SLC26A4 (c.2168A>G, c.IVS7-2A>G). The detection rate for hearing loss in the first-step screening was 0.81% (90/11,046). 513 individuals were found to carry one or two mutant alleles, which gave a carrier rate of 4.64% (513/11,046). Five hundred and eighty-four newborns were positive for hearing screening and genetic screening. Among these, 19 have failed both tests, 71 have failed hearing screening, and 494 have failed genetic screening. The combined hearing and genetic screening has given a positive rate of 5.29%. Neither hearing screening nor genetic screening is sufficient to identify individuals susceptible to auditory disorders. Combined used of these methods can improve the rate of detection.

  16. A framework for assessing outcomes from newborn screening: on the road to measuring its promise.

    PubMed

    Hinton, Cynthia F; Homer, Charles J; Thompson, Alexis A; Williams, Andrea; Hassell, Kathryn L; Feuchtbaum, Lisa; Berry, Susan A; Comeau, Anne Marie; Therrell, Bradford L; Brower, Amy; Harris, Katharine B; Brown, Christine; Monaco, Jana; Ostrander, Robert J; Zuckerman, Alan E; Kaye, Celia; Dougherty, Denise; Greene, Carol; Green, Nancy S

    2016-08-01

    Newborn screening (NBS) is intended to identify congenital conditions prior to the onset of symptoms in order to provide early intervention that leads to improved outcomes. NBS is a public health success, providing reduction in mortality and improved developmental outcomes for screened conditions. However, it is less clear to what extent newborn screening achieves the long-term goals relating to improved health, growth, development and function. We propose a framework for assessing outcomes for the health and well-being of children identified through NBS programs. The framework proposed here, and this manuscript, were approved for publication by the Secretary of Health and Human Services' Advisory Committee on Heritable Disorders in Newborns and Children (ACHDNC). This framework can be applied to each screened condition within the Recommended Uniform Screening Panel (RUSP), recognizing that the data elements and measures will vary by condition. As an example, we applied the framework to sickle cell disease and phenylketonuria (PKU), two diverse conditions with different outcome measures and potential sources of data. Widespread and consistent application of this framework across state NBS and child health systems is envisioned as useful to standardize approaches to assessment of outcomes and for continuous improvement of the NBS and child health systems. Successful interventions for newborn screening conditions have been a driving force for public health newborn screening for over fifty years. Organizing interventions and outcome measures into a standard framework to systematically assess outcomes has not yet come into practice. This paper presents a customizable outcomes framework for organizing measures for newborn screening condition-specific health outcomes, and an approach to identifying sources and challenges to populating those measures. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Capillary electrophoresis and mass spectrometry for screening of metabolic disorders in newborns.

    PubMed

    Senk, Petr; Kozák, Libor; Foret, Frantisek

    2004-06-01

    Clinical analyses always represent a challenge for the sensitivity and selectivity of the analytical techniques. Of the most critical are the techniques required for the quick determination of the disease state and application of the proper treatment in newborns. This short critical review overviews the present state of the art of the use of mass spectrometry and capillary electrophoresis for screening of metabolic disorders in newborns.

  18. Retrospective determination of ceruloplasmin in newborn screening blood spots of patients with Wilson disease.

    PubMed

    Kroll, Charles A; Ferber, Matt J; Dawson, Brian D; Jacobson, Robert M; Mensink, Kara A; Lorey, Fred; Sherwin, John; Cunningham, George; Rinaldo, Piero; Matern, Dietrich; Hahn, Si Houn

    2006-01-01

    Wilson disease is an autosomal recessive disorder of copper transport, caused by the reduced or absent function of the Wilson disease gene ATP7B on chromosome 13. The disease is characterized by reduced incorporation of copper into the ceruloplasmin protein and reduced excretion of copper into the bile. Wilson disease is effectively treated if detected early. Our study goals were to determine the feasibility of a population screening for Wilson disease using dried blood spots and to characterize the base-line ceruloplasmin concentration in newborn blood spots of patients with Wilson disease. Ceruloplasmin was analyzed in dried blood spots obtained from 353 Mayo Clinic pediatric volunteers aged from 3 months to 18 years and from 1045 anonymous newborn screening specimens using a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The original newborn screening blood spots were retrieved from two patients with Wilson disease along with age-matched controls for ceruloplasmin determination. The mean (+/-SD) concentration of ceruloplasmin in the pediatric blood spots was 40.0+/-14.4 mg/dL (range 13.1 to >60 mg/dL) and newborn blood spots was 47.2+/-15.5mg/dL (range 6.5 to >60 mg/dL). Ceruloplasmin in the newborn blood spots from two Wilson disease patients were 2.6 and 2.8 mg/dL, respectively. The newborns affected with Wilson disease had significantly lower ceruloplasmin levels in blood spots than unaffected newborns. These findings support that presymptomatic screening for Wilson disease using dried blood spots could be possible, even in the newborn period.

  19. Expanded newborn screening in Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands: education and barriers assessment.

    PubMed

    Morales, Ana; Wierenga, Andrea; Cuthbert, Carla; Sacharow, Stephanie; Jayakar, Parul; Velazquez, Darcy; Loring, Jessica; Barbouth, Deborah

    2009-03-01

    The implementation of the expanded newborn screening panel of 29 disorders recommended by the American College of Medical Genetics in Puerto Rico and United States Virgin Islands is still in development or in early stages. Efforts in the territories are complicated by educational and resource barriers that generate a wide gap between the islands and the US mainland. To meet immediate educational needs, we conducted in-services for local newborn screening professionals. The efficacy of the educational intervention was measured by pre and posttest scores and a seminar evaluation. An assessment was obtained to document local newborn screening needs and barriers, with focus on human resources, intervention, language, social issues, education, and communication. Statistical significance was found (P value < or =0.05) between pre and posttest scores of the educational intervention. Needs and barriers associated with expanded newborn screening were also documented. Puerto Rico and United States Virgin Islands face different challenges in their implementation of expanded newborn screening. The data obtained in the present study serves as foundation for the development of public policy and long-term educational programs.

  20. Newborn screening 50 years later: access issues faced by adults with PKU

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Susan A.; Brown, Christine; Grant, Mitzie; Greene, Carol L.; Jurecki, Elaina; Koch, Jean; Moseley, Kathryn; Suter, Ruth; van Calcar, Sandra C.; Wiles, Judy; Cederbaum, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Fifty years after the implementation of universal newborn screening programs for phenylketonuria, the first disease identified through newborn screening and considered a success story of newborn screening, a cohort of adults with phenylketonuria treated from birth provides valuable information about effects of long-term treatment for inborn errors of metabolism in general, and phenylketonuria specifically. For phenylketonuria, newborn screening allows early implementation of the phenylalanine-restricted diet, eliminating the severe neurocognitive and neuromotor impairment associated with untreated phenylketonuria. However, executive function impairments and psychiatric problems are frequently reported even for those treated early and continuously with the phenylalanine-restricted diet alone. Moreover, a large percentage of adults with phenylketonuria are reported as lost to follow-up by metabolic clinics. While a group of experts identified by the National Institutes of Health convenes to update treatment guidelines for phenylketonuria, we explore individual patient, social, and economic factors preventing >70% of adult phenylketonuria patients in the United States from accessing treatment. As more conditions are identified through newborn screening, factors affecting access to treatment grow in importance, and we must continue to be vigilant in assessing and addressing factors that affect patient treatment outcomes and not just celebrate amelioration of the most severe manifestations of disease. Genet Med 2013:15(8):591–599 PMID:23470838

  1. Newborn screening for X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy: evidence summary and advisory committee recommendation.

    PubMed

    Kemper, Alex R; Brosco, Jeffrey; Comeau, Anne Marie; Green, Nancy S; Grosse, Scott D; Jones, Elizabeth; Kwon, Jennifer M; Lam, Wendy K K; Ojodu, Jelili; Prosser, Lisa A; Tanksley, Susan

    2017-01-01

    The secretary of the US Department of Health and Human Services in February 2016 recommended that X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) be added to the recommended uniform screening panel for state newborn screening programs. This decision was informed by data presented on the accuracy of screening from New York, the only state that currently offers X-ALD newborn screening, and published and unpublished data showing health benefits of earlier treatment (hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and adrenal hormone replacement therapy) for the childhood cerebral form of X-ALD. X-ALD newborn screening also identifies individuals with later-onset disease, but poor genotype-phenotype correlation makes predicting health outcomes difficult and might increase the risk of unnecessary treatment. Few data are available regarding the harms of screening and presymptomatic identification. Significant challenges exist for implementing comprehensive X-ALD newborn screening, including incorporation of the test, coordinating follow-up diagnostic and treatment care, and coordination of extended family testing after case identification.Genet Med 19 1, 121-126.

  2. The Use of Economic Evaluation to Inform Newborn Screening Policy Decisions: The Washington State Experience

    PubMed Central

    THOMPSON, JOHN D.; DING, YAO; GLASS, MICHAEL

    2016-01-01

    Policy Points: Newborn screening not only saves lives but can also yield net societal economic benefit, in addition to benefits such as improved quality of life to affected individuals and families.Calculations of net economic benefit from newborn screening include the monetary equivalent of avoided deaths and reductions in costs of care for complications associated with late‐diagnosed individuals minus the additional costs of screening, diagnosis, and treatment associated with prompt diagnosis.Since 2001 the Washington State Department of Health has successfully implemented an approach to conducting evidence‐based economic evaluations of disorders proposed for addition to the state‐mandated newborn screening panel. Context Economic evaluations can inform policy decisions on the expansion of newborn screening panels. This article documents the use of cost‐benefit models in Washington State as part of the rule‐making process that resulted in the implementation of screening for medium‐chain acyl‐CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency and 4 other metabolic disorders in 2004, cystic fibrosis (CF) in 2006, 15 other metabolic disorders in 2008, and severe combined immune deficiency (SCID) in 2014. Methods We reviewed Washington State Department of Health internal reports and spreadsheet models of expected net societal benefit of adding disorders to the state newborn screening panel. We summarize the assumptions and findings for 2 models (MCAD and CF) and discuss them in relation to findings in the peer‐reviewed literature. Findings The MCAD model projected a benefit‐cost ratio of 3.4 to 1 based on assumptions of a 20.0 percentage point reduction in infant mortality and a 13.9 percentage point reduction in serious developmental disability. The CF model projected a benefit‐cost ratio of 4.0‐5.4 to 1 for a discount rate of 3%‐4% and a plausible range of 1‐2 percentage point reductions in deaths up to age 10 years. Conclusions The Washington State

  3. The Use of Economic Evaluation to Inform Newborn Screening Policy Decisions: The Washington State Experience.

    PubMed

    Grosse, Scott D; Thompson, John D; Ding, Yao; Glass, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Newborn screening not only saves lives but can also yield net societal economic benefit, in addition to benefits such as improved quality of life to affected individuals and families. Calculations of net economic benefit from newborn screening include the monetary equivalent of avoided deaths and reductions in costs of care for complications associated with late-diagnosed individuals minus the additional costs of screening, diagnosis, and treatment associated with prompt diagnosis. Since 2001 the Washington State Department of Health has successfully implemented an approach to conducting evidence-based economic evaluations of disorders proposed for addition to the state-mandated newborn screening panel. Economic evaluations can inform policy decisions on the expansion of newborn screening panels. This article documents the use of cost-benefit models in Washington State as part of the rule-making process that resulted in the implementation of screening for medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency and 4 other metabolic disorders in 2004, cystic fibrosis (CF) in 2006, 15 other metabolic disorders in 2008, and severe combined immune deficiency (SCID) in 2014. We reviewed Washington State Department of Health internal reports and spreadsheet models of expected net societal benefit of adding disorders to the state newborn screening panel. We summarize the assumptions and findings for 2 models (MCAD and CF) and discuss them in relation to findings in the peer-reviewed literature. The MCAD model projected a benefit-cost ratio of 3.4 to 1 based on assumptions of a 20.0 percentage point reduction in infant mortality and a 13.9 percentage point reduction in serious developmental disability. The CF model projected a benefit-cost ratio of 4.0-5.4 to 1 for a discount rate of 3%-4% and a plausible range of 1-2 percentage point reductions in deaths up to age 10 years. The Washington State cost-benefit models of newborn screening were broadly consistent with peer

  4. Newborn screening for citrin deficiency and carnitine uptake defect using second-tier molecular tests

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analysis is a powerful tool for newborn screening, and many rare inborn errors of metabolism are currently screened using MS/MS. However, the sensitivity of MS/MS screening for several inborn errors, including citrin deficiency (screened by citrulline level) and carnitine uptake defect (CUD, screened by free carnitine level), is not satisfactory. This study was conducted to determine whether a second-tier molecular test could improve the sensitivity of citrin deficiency and CUD detection without increasing the false-positive rate. Methods Three mutations in the SLC25A13 gene (for citrin deficiency) and one mutation in the SLC22A5 gene (for CUD) were analyzed in newborns who demonstrated an inconclusive primary screening result (with levels between the screening and diagnostic cutoffs). Results The results revealed that 314 of 46 699 newborns received a second-tier test for citrin deficiency, and two patients were identified; 206 of 30 237 newborns received a second-tier testing for CUD, and one patient was identified. No patients were identified using the diagnostic cutoffs. Although the incidences for citrin deficiency (1:23 350) and CUD (1:30 000) detected by screening are still lower than the incidences calculated from the mutation carrier rates, the second-tier molecular test increases the sensitivity of newborn screening for citrin deficiency and CUD without increasing the false-positive rate. Conclusions Utilizing a molecular second-tier test for citrin deficiency and carnitine transporter deficiency is feasible. PMID:23394329

  5. Efficient linking of birth certificate and newborn screening databases for laboratory investigation of congenital cytomegalovirus infection and preterm birth: Florida, 2008.

    PubMed

    DePasquale, John M; Freeman, Karen; Amin, Minal M; Park, Sohyun; Rivers, Samantha; Hopkins, Richard; Cannon, Michael J; Dy, Bonifacio; Dollard, Sheila C

    2012-02-01

    The objectives of this study are (1) to design an accurate method for linking newborn screening (NBS) and state birth certificate databases to create a de-identified study database; (2) To assess maternal cytomegalovirus (CMV) seroprevalence by measuring CMV IgG in newborn dried blood spots; (3) To assess congenital CMV infection among newborns and possible association with preterm birth. NBS and birth databases were linked and patient records were de-identified. A stratified random sample of records based on gestational age was selected and used to retrieve blood spots from the state NBS laboratory. Serum containing maternal antibodies was eluted from blood spots and tested for the presence of CMV IgG. DNA was extracted from blood spots and tested for the presence of CMV DNA. Analyses were performed with bivariable and multivariable logistic regression models. Linkage rates and specimen collection exceeded 98% of the total possible yielding a final database with 3,101 newborn blood spots. CMV seroprevalence was 91% among Black mothers, 83% among Hispanic mothers, 59% among White mothers, and decreased with increasing amounts of education. The prevalence of CMV infection in newborns was 0.45% and did not vary significantly by gestational age. Successful methods for database linkage, newborn blood spots collection, and de-identification of records can serve as a model for future congenital exposure surveillance projects. Maternal CMV seroprevalence was strongly associated with race/ethnicity and educational level. Congenital CMV infection rates were lower than those reported by other studies and lacked statistical power to examine associations with preterm birth.

  6. Two-Way Radio Modem Data Transfer for Newborn Hearing Screening Devices.

    PubMed

    Matulat, Peter; Lepper, Ingo; Böttcher, Peter; Parfitt, Ross; Oswald, Hans; Am Zehnhoff-Dinnesen, Antoinette; Deuster, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    The success of a newborn hearing screening program depends on successful tracking and follow-up to ensure that children who have had positive screening results in the first few days of life receive appropriate and timely diagnostic and intervention services. The easy availability, through a suitable infrastructure, of the data necessary for the tracking, diagnosis, and care of children concerned is a major key to enhancing the quality and efficiency of newborn hearing screening programs. Two systems for the automated two-way transmission of newborn hearing screening and configuration data, based on mobile communication technology, for the screening devices MADSEN AccuScreen(®) and Natus Echo-Screen(®) were developed and tested in a field study. Radio modem connections were compared with conventional analogue modem transmissions from Natus Echo-Screen devices for duration, transmission rate, number of lost connections, and frequency of use. The average session duration was significantly lower with the MADSEN AccuScreen (12 s) and Natus Echo-Screen both with radio modem (15 s) than the Natus Echo-Screen with analogue modem (108 s). The transmission rate was significantly higher (898 and 1,758 vs. 181 bytes/s) for the devices with radio modems. Both radio modem devices had significantly lower rates of broken connections after initial connection (2.1 and 0.9 vs. 5.5%). An increase in the frequency of data transmission from the clinics with mobile radio devices was found. The use of mobile communication technology in newborn hearing screening devices offers improvements in the average session duration, transmission rate, and reliability of the connection over analogue solutions. We observed a behavioral change in clinical staff using the new technology: the data exchange with the tracking center is more often used. The requirements for on-site support were reduced. These savings outweigh the small increase in costs for the Internet service provider.

  7. Rapid implementation of pulse oximetry newborn screening to detect critical congenital heart defects - New Jersey, 2011.

    PubMed

    2013-04-19

    In August 2011, New Jersey implemented a statewide newborn screening protocol for critical congenital heart defects (CCHD) using pulse oximetry. In January 2012, CDC responded to a request from the New Jersey Department of Health (NJDOH) to assist with an assessment of the implementation. Out of the 52 birthing facilities in New Jersey, a sample of 11 was selected. Staff interviews were conducted to assess screening and data collection processes, data flow and tracking procedures, electronic medical record (EMR) capabilities, and capacity to report data to NJDOH. Feedback also was obtained about the questionnaire being used to follow-up on positive screening results. All 11 facilities were screening for CCHD. Among the 11 facilities, three were electronically entering and maintaining data into an EMR, five were manually entering and maintaining data into paper charts and logs, and three were both electronically and manually entering and maintaining data. Facilities reported that implementation of newly mandated CCHD screening posed a low burden to hospital staff members. NJDOH receives aggregate pulse oximetry screening data from all New Jersey birthing facilities. During the first 3 months of screening, preliminary data indicated that 98.2% of 25,214 newborns were screened. Hospitals reported data on 12 newborns with positive screening results; two newborns were newly diagnosed with CCHD as a result of pulse oximetry screening. Because of state-specific factors, such as out-of-state referral patterns, these findings might underestimate the anticipated number of positive screens in states with varying referral patterns and use of prenatal diagnosis. Rapid implementation of universal CCHD screening posed a relatively low burden to hospitals in New Jersey.

  8. Proceduralisation, choice and parental reflections on decisions to accept newborn bloodspot screening.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, Stuart G

    2012-05-01

    Newborn screening is the programme through which newborn babies are screened for a variety of conditions shortly after birth. Programmes such as this are individually oriented but resemble traditional public health programmes because they are targeted at large groups of the population and they are offered as preventive interventions to a population considered healthy. As such, an ethical tension exists between the goals of promoting the high uptake of supposedly 'effective' population-oriented programmes and the goal of promoting genuinely informed decision-making. There is, however, a lack of understanding with regard to how parents experience the tension between promoting uptake and facilitating informed choice. This paper addresses this issue, and data are presented to show how aspects of the timing, presentation of information and procedural routinisation of newborn screening serves to impact on the decisions made by parents.

  9. Call for calibration standard for newborn screening using auditory brainstem responses.

    PubMed

    Durrant, John D; Sabo, Diane L; Delgado, Rafael E

    2007-11-01

    The mode of stimulation employed in newborn screening of the auditory brainstem response has evolved from the clinically standardized supraaural earphone to the tubal insert earphone, to most recently a circumaural earphone developed for this test. Considered here is the need to develop a standard for calibration of such devices for newborn screening applications, in particular. At risk is the prospect of missing the milder degrees of hearing loss, assuming a goal of detecting all clinically-significant congenital hearing losses. Two commercially manufactured test instruments for automated newborn screening were scrutinized via bench testing of sound output from their respective transducers, using a variety of measurements. By convention or design, none of the measurement approaches involved a model of the newborn ear, per se. While it was concluded that the manufacturers' method shows promise, namely as a relatively simple and potentially reliable method of calibration, concerns arose regarding output levels when measured according to both the manufacturers' and the authors' methods. Further work is needed to critically assess calibration methods and to establish, to the extent possible, appropriate norms and validation studies in newborns to provide a better understanding of the actual sound pressure level of the screening stimulus.

  10. Ethical, legal and social issues in newborn screening in the United States.

    PubMed

    Therrell, Bradford L

    2003-01-01

    Four million babies are born annually in the US. There are 51 separate laws mandating universal screening and each has its own restrictions. Forty-nine programs allow the parents to "opt out" of testing (dissent), and 2 programs allow the parents to "opt in" (consent). The extent to which these decisions are "informed" varies and in most cases, no information exists as to whether the parents knew or understood what the newborn screening program entailed. Most programs have educational material available describing the state program but whether this information is the information needed (in terms of literacy level and content) to provide a sufficient understanding of the program is not generally known. In most programs, testing is automatic and the program information is contained in the hospital materials given to the mother upon entry or exit from the birthing facility. All newborn screening programs are administered by the state public health agency and ultimately the state legislatures are responsible for creating the laws governing newborn screening. Financing mechanisms are complex with fees varying from $0 - $60 and not directly related to the number of disorders screened, although system components such as education, methods of sample collection, sample submission, laboratory testing, follow-up, confirmation, diagnosis, treatment, outcome and quality assurance are considered in most fee setting processes. The standards for programs have developed over the years at least partly as a result of medical-legal confrontations. During the past several years there has been a notable increase in program expansions including expanded biochemical testing and screening for hearing loss. In 1999, the Maternal and Child Health Bureau funded a newborn screening task force to review the issues facing state newborn screening systems and to make recommendations for improvements and/or changes in these systems. Two primary issues of ethical, legal and social consequence were

  11. Cost-benefit analysis: newborn screening for inborn errors of metabolism in Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Khneisser, I; Adib, S; Assaad, S; Megarbane, A; Karam, P

    2015-12-01

    Few countries in the Middle East-North Africa region have adopted national newborn screening for inborn errors of metabolism by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). We aimed to evaluate the cost-benefit of newborn screening for such disorders in Lebanon, as a model for other developing countries in the region. Average costs of expected care for inborn errors of metabolism cases as a group, between ages 0 and 18, early and late diagnosed, were calculated from 2007 to 2013. The monetary value of early detection using MS/MS was compared with that of clinical "late detection", including cost of diagnosis and hospitalizations. During this period, 126000 newborns were screened. Incidence of detected cases was 1/1482, which can be explained by high consanguinity rates in Lebanon. A reduction by half of direct cost of care, reaching on average 31,631 USD per detected case was shown. This difference more than covers the expense of starting a newborn screening programme. Although this model does not take into consideration the indirect benefits of the better quality of life of those screened early, it can be argued that direct and indirect costs saved through early detection of these disorders are important enough to justify universal publicly-funded screening, especially in developing countries with high consanguinity rates, as shown through this data from Lebanon. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. A Population-Based Genomic Study of Inherited Metabolic Diseases Detected Through Newborn Screening.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyoung Jin; Park, Seungman; Lee, Eunhee; Park, Jong Ho; Park, June Hee; Park, Hyung Doo; Lee, Soo Youn; Kim, Jong Won

    2016-11-01

    A newborn screening (NBS) program has been utilized to detect asymptomatic newborns with inherited metabolic diseases (IMDs). There have been some bottlenecks such as false-positives and imprecision in the current NBS tests. To overcome these issues, we developed a multigene panel for IMD testing and investigated the utility of our integrated screening model in a routine NBS environment. We also evaluated the genetic epidemiologic characteristics of IMDs in a Korean population. In total, 269 dried blood spots with positive results from current NBS tests were collected from 120,700 consecutive newborns. We screened 97 genes related to NBS in Korea and detected IMDs, using an integrated screening model based on biochemical tests and next-generation sequencing (NGS) called NewbornSeq. Haplotype analysis was conducted to detect founder effects. The overall positive rate of IMDs was 20%. We identified 10 additional newborns with preventable IMDs that would not have been detected prior to the implementation of our NGS-based platform NewbornSeq. The incidence of IMDs was approximately 1 in 2,235 births. Haplotype analysis demonstrated founder effects in p.Y138X in DUOXA2, p.R885Q in DUOX2, p.Y439C in PCCB, p.R285Pfs*2 in SLC25A13, and p.R224Q in GALT. Through a population-based study in the NBS environment, we highlight the screening and epidemiological implications of NGS. The integrated screening model will effectively contribute to public health by enabling faster and more accurate IMD detection through NBS. This study suggested founder mutations as an explanation for recurrent IMD-causing mutations in the Korean population.

  13. A Population-Based Genomic Study of Inherited Metabolic Diseases Detected Through Newborn Screening

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyoung-Jin; Park, Seungman; Lee, Eunhee; Park, Jong-Ho; Park, June-Hee; Park, Hyung-Doo; Lee, Soo-Youn

    2016-01-01

    Background A newborn screening (NBS) program has been utilized to detect asymptomatic newborns with inherited metabolic diseases (IMDs). There have been some bottlenecks such as false-positives and imprecision in the current NBS tests. To overcome these issues, we developed a multigene panel for IMD testing and investigated the utility of our integrated screening model in a routine NBS environment. We also evaluated the genetic epidemiologic characteristics of IMDs in a Korean population. Methods In total, 269 dried blood spots with positive results from current NBS tests were collected from 120,700 consecutive newborns. We screened 97 genes related to NBS in Korea and detected IMDs, using an integrated screening model based on biochemical tests and next-generation sequencing (NGS) called NewbornSeq. Haplotype analysis was conducted to detect founder effects. Results The overall positive rate of IMDs was 20%. We identified 10 additional newborns with preventable IMDs that would not have been detected prior to the implementation of our NGS-based platform NewbornSeq. The incidence of IMDs was approximately 1 in 2,235 births. Haplotype analysis demonstrated founder effects in p.Y138X in DUOXA2, p.R885Q in DUOX2, p.Y439C in PCCB, p.R285Pfs*2 in SLC25A13, and p.R224Q in GALT. Conclusions Through a population-based study in the NBS environment, we highlight the screening and epidemiological implications of NGS. The integrated screening model will effectively contribute to public health by enabling faster and more accurate IMD detection through NBS. This study suggested founder mutations as an explanation for recurrent IMD-causing mutations in the Korean population. PMID:27578510

  14. [Justification for the study screening newborn hearing screening in terms of regionalization of perinatal care in Ukraine].

    PubMed

    Shcherbyna, A V; Bychkov, V V

    2014-01-01

    Conducting research screening newborn hearing screening in terms of regional perinatal centers in Ukraine and further rehabilitation of children with hearing impairment is a key step in their integration into society. Universal newborn hearing screening should be mandatory, especially in perinatal centers, because it has significant medical, social and economic effects. It is also necessary to reorganize the existing regional offices surdologichesky and create on their bases and methodological Regional Medical Center hearing and speech problems, which will provide high-quality diagnosis, epidemiological data form, will hold the register of children diagnosed with hearing defects, organize them continuously active surveillance, hearing aids and effective rehabilitation, to ensure the quality of screening. Creating a distributed database for these patients, by far. Will achieve success in the integration of children with special needs in society.

  15. [Results from ten years newborn hearing screening in a secondary hospital].

    PubMed

    Sequi Canet, José Miguel; Sala Langa, Maria José; Collar Del Castillo, José Ignacio

    2016-10-01

    A critical analysis is performed on the results of a newborn hearing screening program in a regional hospital. Screening results from 14,247 newborns in our maternity ward from 2002 to 2013. Two step recordings of bilateral otoacoustic emissions (initial and repeat, if failed, at about one month of life). Assessment by clinical brainstem responses. The first step was performed on 14,015 newborns (98.3% of the total) reaching the screening objective. The first step pass figures were 93.7%, which implies a good pass rate with a few patients to repeat. The second step is also good because it has a pass rate of 88.9% of newborns examined (only 0.63% of initial group needed brainstem responses assessment), but 10.6% were lost to follow up, and that is a major problem. In newborns, scheduled for brainstem responses, the loss to follow-up is worse, with a figure of 29.5%, despite the high accuracy of this test given that 69.4% of those assessed showed hearing loss. This figure represents a 0.31% of the initial group, and is a similar to that published for congenital hearing loss. Including patients that were lost to follow up this figure could be greater. Newborn hearing screening is useful but needs stronger control to avoid the follow up loss. In order to achieve this, it is crucial to have a good database and a screening coordinator. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Newborn Screening Quality Assurance Program for CFTR Mutation Detection and Gene Sequencing to Identify Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Hendrix, Miyono M.; Foster, Stephanie L.; Cordovado, Suzanne K.

    2016-01-01

    All newborn screening laboratories in the United States and many worldwide screen for cystic fibrosis. Most laboratories use a second-tier genotyping assay to identify a panel of mutations in the CF transmembrane regulator (CFTR) gene. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Newborn Screening Quality Assurance Program houses a dried blood spot repository of samples containing CFTR mutations to assist newborn screening laboratories and ensure high-quality mutation detection in a high-throughput environment. Recently, CFTR mutation detection has increased in complexity with expanded genotyping panels and gene sequencing. To accommodate the growing quality assurance needs, the repository samples were characterized with several multiplex genotyping methods, Sanger sequencing, and 3 next-generation sequencing assays using a high-throughput, low-concentration DNA extraction method. The samples performed well in all of the assays, providing newborn screening laboratories with a resource for complex CFTR mutation detection and next-generation sequencing as they transition to new methods. PMID:28261631

  17. Evaluating Harms in the Assessment of Net Benefit: A Framework for Newborn Screening Condition Review

    PubMed Central

    Goldenberg, Aaron J.; Comeau, Anne Marie; Grosse, Scott D.; Tanksley, Susan; Prosser, Lisa A.; Ojodu, Jelili; Botkin, Jeffrey R.; Kemper, Alex R.; Green, Nancy S.

    2016-01-01

    Background The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) Advisory Committee on Heritable Disorders in Newborns and Children (“Advisory Committee”) makes recommendations to the HHS Secretary regarding addition of new conditions to the national Recommended Uniform Screening Panel for newborns. The Advisory Committee’s decision-making process includes assessing the net benefit of screening for nominated conditions, informed by systematic evidence reviews generated by an independent Condition Review Workgroup. The evidence base regarding harms associated with screening for specific conditions is often more limited than that for benefits. Procedures The process for defining potential harms from newborn screening reviewed the frameworks from other public health evidence-based review processes, adapted to newborn screening by experts in systematic review, newborn screening programs and bioethics, with input from and approval by the Advisory Committee. Main findings To support the Advisory Committee’s review of nominated conditions, the Workgroup has developed a standardized approach to evaluation of harms and relevant gaps in the evidence. Types of harms include the physical burden to infants; psychosocial and logistic burdens to families from screening or diagnostic evaluation; increased risk of medical treatment for infants diagnosed earlier than children with clinical presentation; delayed diagnosis from false negative results; psychosocial harm from false positive results; uncertainty of clinical diagnosis, age of onset or clinical spectrum; and disparities in access to diagnosis or therapy. Conclusions Estimating the numbers of children at risk, the magnitude, timing and likelihood of harms will be integrated into Workgroup reports to the Advisory Committee. PMID:26833040

  18. Newborn Genetic Screening for Hearing Impairment: A Preliminary Study at a Tertiary Center

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chen-Chi; Hung, Chia-Cheng; Lin, Shin-Yu; Hsieh, Wu-Shiun; Tsao, Po-Nien; Lee, Chien-Nan; Su, Yi-Ning; Hsu, Chuan-Jen

    2011-01-01

    Universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS) is of paramount importance for early identification and management of hearing impairment in children. However, infants with slight/mild, progressive, or late-onset hearing impairment might be missed in conventional UNHS. To investigate whether genetic screening for common deafness-associated mutations could assist in identifying these infants, 1017 consecutive newborns in a tertiary hospital were subjected to both newborn hearing screening using a two-step distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) screening and newborn genetic screening (NGS) for deafness. The NGS targeted 4 deafness-associated mutations commonly found in the Taiwanese population, including p.V37I (c.109G>A) and c.235delC of the GJB2 gene, c.919-2A>G of the SLC26A4 gene, and mitochondrial m.1555A>G of the 12S rRNA gene. The results of the NGS were then correlated to the results of the NHS. Of the 1017 newborns, 16 (1.6%) had unilateral DPOAE screening failure, and 22 (2.2%) had bilateral DPOAE screening failure. A total of 199 (19.6%) babies were found to have at least 1 mutated allele on the NGS for deafness, 11 (1.1%) of whom were homozygous for GJB2 p.V37I, 6 (0.6%) compound heterozygous for GJB2 p.V37I and c.235delC, and 1 (0.1%) homoplasmic for m.1555A>G, who may potentially have hearing loss. Among them, 3 babies, 5 babies, and 1 baby, respectively, passed the NHS at birth. Comprehensive audiological assessments in the 9 babies at 3 months identified 1 with slight hearing loss and 2 with mild hearing loss. NGS for common deafness-associated mutations may identify infants with slight/mild or potentially progressive hearing impairment, thus compensating for the inherent limitations of the conventional UNHS. PMID:21811586

  19. Web-based newborn screening system for metabolic diseases: machine learning versus clinicians.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Hsin; Hsieh, Sheau-Ling; Hsu, Kai-Ping; Chen, Han-Ping; Su, Xing-Yu; Tseng, Yi-Ju; Chien, Yin-Hsiu; Hwu, Wuh-Liang; Lai, Feipei

    2013-05-23

    A hospital information system (HIS) that integrates screening data and interpretation of the data is routinely requested by hospitals and parents. However, the accuracy of disease classification may be low because of the disease characteristics and the analytes used for classification. The objective of this study is to describe a system that enhanced the neonatal screening system of the Newborn Screening Center at the National Taiwan University Hospital. The system was designed and deployed according to a service-oriented architecture (SOA) framework under the Web services .NET environment. The system consists of sample collection, testing, diagnosis, evaluation, treatment, and follow-up services among collaborating hospitals. To improve the accuracy of newborn screening, machine learning and optimal feature selection mechanisms were investigated for screening newborns for inborn errors of metabolism. The framework of the Newborn Screening Hospital Information System (NSHIS) used the embedded Health Level Seven (HL7) standards for data exchanges among heterogeneous platforms integrated by Web services in the C# language. In this study, machine learning classification was used to predict phenylketonuria (PKU), hypermethioninemia, and 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA-carboxylase (3-MCC) deficiency. The classification methods used 347,312 newborn dried blood samples collected at the Center between 2006 and 2011. Of these, 220 newborns had values over the diagnostic cutoffs (positive cases) and 1557 had values that were over the screening cutoffs but did not meet the diagnostic cutoffs (suspected cases). The original 35 analytes and the manifested features were ranked based on F score, then combinations of the top 20 ranked features were selected as input features to support vector machine (SVM) classifiers to obtain optimal feature sets. These feature sets were tested using 5-fold cross-validation and optimal models were generated. The datasets collected in year 2011 were used as

  20. Web-Based Newborn Screening System for Metabolic Diseases: Machine Learning Versus Clinicians

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei-Hsin; Hsu, Kai-Ping; Chen, Han-Ping; Su, Xing-Yu; Tseng, Yi-Ju; Chien, Yin-Hsiu; Hwu, Wuh-Liang; Lai, Feipei

    2013-01-01

    Background A hospital information system (HIS) that integrates screening data and interpretation of the data is routinely requested by hospitals and parents. However, the accuracy of disease classification may be low because of the disease characteristics and the analytes used for classification. Objective The objective of this study is to describe a system that enhanced the neonatal screening system of the Newborn Screening Center at the National Taiwan University Hospital. The system was designed and deployed according to a service-oriented architecture (SOA) framework under the Web services .NET environment. The system consists of sample collection, testing, diagnosis, evaluation, treatment, and follow-up services among collaborating hospitals. To improve the accuracy of newborn screening, machine learning and optimal feature selection mechanisms were investigated for screening newborns for inborn errors of metabolism. Methods The framework of the Newborn Screening Hospital Information System (NSHIS) used the embedded Health Level Seven (HL7) standards for data exchanges among heterogeneous platforms integrated by Web services in the C# language. In this study, machine learning classification was used to predict phenylketonuria (PKU), hypermethioninemia, and 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA-carboxylase (3-MCC) deficiency. The classification methods used 347,312 newborn dried blood samples collected at the Center between 2006 and 2011. Of these, 220 newborns had values over the diagnostic cutoffs (positive cases) and 1557 had values that were over the screening cutoffs but did not meet the diagnostic cutoffs (suspected cases). The original 35 analytes and the manifested features were ranked based on F score, then combinations of the top 20 ranked features were selected as input features to support vector machine (SVM) classifiers to obtain optimal feature sets. These feature sets were tested using 5-fold cross-validation and optimal models were generated. The datasets

  1. Timing of Newborn Pulse Oximetry Screenings for Critical Congenital Heart Defects Before Discharge.

    PubMed

    Crouch, Lynn; Speroni, Karen Gabel; Jones, Ruth Ann; MacDougall, Eileen P; Daniel, Marlon G

    2016-01-01

    To determine if there would be positive results from a second pulse oximetry screening (POS) completed for newborns at discharge at 28 to 48 hours of age in addition to the newborn POS completed at 24 to 25 hours of age. Prospective descriptive research study. Rural, mid-Atlantic, 13-bed, level I hospital. Newborns (N = 1,002) at 35 weeks' gestation or older discharged from the newborn nursery. Registered nurses (RNs) performed POS at 24 to 25 hours of age (POS 1) and at discharge but less than 48 hours of age (POS 2). Data related to critical congenital heart defects were collected. There were no positive POS results (O2 saturation ≤ 90%) at POS 1 or POS 2, and no additional diagnostic tests were ordered as a result of POS. Although one full-term newborn had negative results at POS 1 and POS 2, the RN identified a murmur, and a subsequent echocardiogram was used to detect tetralogy of Fallot and pulmonary atresia. The RNs detected concerning conditions in 14 newborns that resulted in 28 additional tests, including echocardiograms (9), chest x-ray imaging (8), laboratory testing (7), electrocardiograms (3), and ultrasound imaging (1). The POS-positive result rate was 0 for newborns at POS 1 and POS 2. Therefore, our study findings supported Maryland's mandate of one POS completed within 24 to 48 hours of birth. Nurses must continue to be vigilant about assessing newborns, including screening for critical congenital heart defects and congenital heart defects. Copyright © 2016 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Retinal and Optic Nerve Hemorrhages in the Newborn Infant: One-Year Results of the Newborn Eye Screen Test Study.

    PubMed

    Callaway, Natalia F; Ludwig, Cassie A; Blumenkranz, Mark S; Jones, Jennifer Michelle; Fredrick, Douglas R; Moshfeghi, Darius M

    2016-05-01

    To report the birth prevalence, risk factors, characteristics, and location of fundus hemorrhages (FHs) of the retina and optic nerve present in newborns at birth. Prospective cohort study at Stanford University School of Medicine. All infants who were 37 weeks postmenstrual age or older and stable were eligible for screening. Infants with known or suspected infectious conjunctivitis were excluded. Infants born at Lucile Packard Children's Hospital (LPCH) from July 25, 2013, through July 25, 2014, were offered universal newborn screening via wide-angle digital retinal photography in the Newborn Eye Screen Test study. Maternal, obstetric, and neonatal factors were obtained from hospital records. The location, retinal layer, and laterality of FH were recorded by 1 pediatric vitreoretinal specialist. Birth prevalence of FH. Secondary outcomes included rate of adverse events, risk factors for FH, hemorrhage characteristics, and adverse events. The birth prevalence of FH in this study was 20.3% (41/202 infants). Ninety-five percent of FHs involved the periphery, 83% involved the macula, and 71% involved multiple layers of the retina. The fovea was involved in 15% of FH cases (birth prevalence, 3.0%). No cases of bilateral foveal hemorrhage were found. Fundus hemorrhages were more common in the left eye than the right. Fundus hemorrhages were most commonly optic nerve flame hemorrhages (48%) and white-centered retinal hemorrhages (30%). Retinal hemorrhages were found most frequently in all 4 quadrants (35%) and more often were multiple than solitary. Macular hemorrhages most often were intraretinal (40%). Among the risk factors examined in this study, vaginal delivery compared with cesarean section (odds ratio [OR], 9.34; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.57-33.97) showed the greatest level of association with FH. Self-identified ethnicity as Hispanic or Latino showed a protective effect (OR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.20-0.94). Other study factors were not significant. Fundus

  3. Newborn screening for spinal muscular atrophy: The views of affected families and adults

    PubMed Central

    Young, Philip J.; Griffiths, Frances E.

    2017-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is one of the leading genetic causes of infant death worldwide. However, due to a lack of treatments, SMA has historically fallen short of Wilson‐Jungner criteria. While studies have explored the acceptability of expanded newborn screening to the general public, the views of affected families have been largely overlooked. This is in spite of the potential for direct impacts on them and their unique positioning to consider the value of early diagnosis. We have previously reported data on attitudes toward pre‐conception and prenatal genetic screening for SMA among affected families (adults with SMA [n = 82] and family members [n = 255]). Here, using qualitative interview [n = 36] and survey data [n = 337], we report the views of this same cohort toward newborn screening. The majority (70%) of participants were in favor, however, all subgroups (except adults with type II) preferred pre‐conception and/or prenatal screening to newborn screening. Key reasons for newborn screening support were: (1) the potential for improved support; (2) the possibility of enrolling pre‐symptomatic children on clinical trials. Key reasons for non‐support were: (1) concerns about impact on the early experiences of the family; (2) inability to treat. Importantly, participants did not view the potential for inaccurate typing as a significant obstacle to the launch of a population‐wide screening program. This study underscores the need to include families affected by genetic diseases within consultations on screening. This is particularly important for conditions such as SMA which challenge traditional screening criteria, and for which new therapeutics are emerging. PMID:28374951

  4. The case for newborn screening for severe combined immunodeficiency and related disorders

    PubMed Central

    Puck, Jennifer M.

    2015-01-01

    Early detection of primary immunodeficiency is recognized as important for avoiding infectious complications that compromise outcomes. In particular, severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is fatal in infancy unless affected infants can be diagnosed before the onset of devastating infections and provided with an immune system through allogenic hematopoietic cell transplantation, enzyme replacement, or gene therapy. A biomarker of normal T cell development, T cell receptor excision circles (TRECs), can be measured in DNA isolated from the dried blood spots routinely obtained for newborn screening; infants identified as lacking TRECs can thus receive confirmatory testing and prompt intervention. Early results of TREC testing of newborns in five states indicate that this addition to the newborn screening panel can be successfully integrated into state public health programs. A variety of cases with typical SCID genotypes and other T lymphocytopenic conditions have been detected in a timely manner and referred for appropriate early treatment. PMID:22236435

  5. The case for newborn screening for severe combined immunodeficiency and related disorders.

    PubMed

    Puck, Jennifer M

    2011-12-01

    Early detection of primary immunodeficiency is recognized as important for avoiding infectious complications that compromise outcomes. In particular, severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is fatal in infancy unless affected infants can be diagnosed before the onset of devastating infections and provided with an immune system through allogenic hematopoietic cell transplantation, enzyme replacement, or gene therapy. A biomarker of normal T cell development, T cell receptor excision circles (TRECs), can be measured in DNA isolated from the dried blood spots routinely obtained for newborn screening; infants identified as lacking TRECs can thus receive confirmatory testing and prompt intervention. Early results of TREC testing of newborns in five states indicate that this addition to the newborn screening panel can be successfully integrated into state public health programs. A variety of cases with typical SCID genotypes and other T lymphocytopenic conditions have been detected in a timely manner and referred for appropriate early treatment.

  6. Cost-effectiveness of newborn screening for cystic fibrosis determined with real-life data.

    PubMed

    van der Ploeg, C P B; van den Akker-van Marle, M E; Vernooij-van Langen, A M M; Elvers, L H; Gille, J J P; Verkerk, P H; Dankert-Roelse, J E

    2015-03-01

    Previous cost-effectiveness studies using data from the literature showed that newborn screening for cystic fibrosis (NBSCF) is a good economic option with positive health effects and longer survival. We used primary data to compare cost-effectiveness of four screening strategies for NBSCF, i.e. immunoreactive trypsinogen-testing followed by pancreatitis-associated protein-testing (IRT-PAP), IRT-DNA, IRT-DNA-sequencing, and IRT-PAP-DNA-sequencing, each compared to no-screening. A previously developed decision analysis model for NBSCF was fed with model parameters mainly based on a study evaluating two novel screening strategies among 145,499 newborns in The Netherlands. The four screening strategies had cost-effectiveness ratios varying from €23,600 to €29,200 per life-year gained. IRT-PAP had the most favourable cost-effectiveness ratio. Additional life-years can be gained by IRT-DNA but against higher costs. When treatment costs reduce with 5% due to early diagnosis, screening will lead to financial savings. NBSCF is as an economically justifiable public health initiative. Of the four strategies tested IRT-PAP is the most economic and this finding should be included in any decision making model, when considering implementation of newborn screening for CF. Copyright © 2014 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Newborn Hearing Screenings in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Exposed Uninfected Infants

    PubMed Central

    Torre, P; Zeldow, B; Yao, TJ; Hoffman, HJ; Siberry, GK; Purswani, MU; Frederick, T; Spector, SA; Williams, PL

    2017-01-01

    Perinatal HIV infection and congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection may increase the risk for hearing loss. We examined 1,435 infants enrolled in the Surveillance Monitoring of ART Toxicities (SMARTT) study of the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study (PHACS) network, a prospective study of the safety of in utero antiretroviral (ARV) exposures. We determined the proportion of perinatally HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) newborns who were referred for additional hearing testing, and evaluated the association between in utero ARV exposures and newborn hearing screening results. Using a nested case-control design, we also examined congenital CMV infection in infants with and without screening referral. Congenital CMV infection was determined based on CMV DNA detection using a nested PCR assay in peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained within 14 days of birth. Among the 1,435 infants (70% black, 31% Hispanic, 51% male), 45 (3.1%) did not pass the hearing screen and were referred for further hearing testing. Based on exact logistic regression models controlling for maternal use of tobacco and ototoxic medications, first trimester exposure to Tenofovir was associated with lower odds of a newborn hearing screening referral [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 0.41, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.14-1.00]. Exposure to Atazanavir was linked to higher odds of newborn screening referral, although not attaining significance [aOR = 1.84, 95% CI: 0.92-3.56]. Maternal ARV use may have varying effects on newborn hearing screenings. These results highlight the importance for audiologists to be knowledgeable of in utero ARV exposures in HEU children because of the possibility of higher referrals in these children. PMID:28459118

  8. Neuropsychological Outcomes in Fatty Acid Oxidation Disorders: 85 Cases Detected by Newborn Screening

    PubMed Central

    Waisbren, Susan E.; Landau, Yuval; Wilson, Jenna; Vockley, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation disorders include conditions in which the transport of activated acyl-Coenzyme A (CoA) into the mitochondria or utilization of these substrates is disrupted or blocked. This results in a deficit in the conversion of fat into energy. Most patients with fatty acid oxidation defects are now identified through newborn screening by tandem mass spectrometry. With earlier identification and preventative treatments, mortality and morbidity rates have improved. However, in the absence of severe health and neurological effects from these disorders, subtle developmental delays or neuropsychological deficits have been noted. Medical records were reviewed to identify outcomes in 85 children with FAOD’s diagnosed through newborn screening and followed at one metabolic center. Overall, 54% of these children identified through newborn screening experienced developmental challenges. Speech delay or relative weakness in language was noted in 26 children (31%) and motor delays were noted in 24 children (29%). The majority of the 46 children receiving psychological evaluations performed well within the average range, with only 11% scoring <85 on developmental or intelligence tests. These results highlight the importance of screening children with fatty acid oxidation disorders to identify those with language, motor, or cognitive delay. Although expanded newborn screening dramatically changes the health and developmental outcomes in many children with fatty acid oxidation disorders, it also complicates the interpretation of biochemical and molecular findings and raises questions about the effectiveness or necessity of treatment in a large number of cases. Only by systematically evaluating developmental and neuropsychological outcomes using standardized methods will the true implications of newborn screening, laboratory results, and treatments for neurocognitive outcome in these disorders become clear. PMID:23798014

  9. Outcome in patients with profound biotinidase deficiency: relevance of newborn screening.

    PubMed

    Weber, Peter; Scholl, Sabine; Baumgartner, E Regula

    2004-07-01

    Profound biotinidase deficiency (PBD) is an autosomal recessively inherited disorder of biotin metabolism, which can be detected by newborn screening and treated with biotin supplementation. Children were investigated in whom PBD was detected by newborn screening and who were treated presymptomatically, or who were not screened but were diagnosed and treated after experiencing initial clinical symptoms (symptomatic children). In a follow-up of our study group, differences in development, social and behavioural adaptation, and signs of residual impairment were examined. Parents and physicians of children with PBD completed questionnaires which included the Child Behavior Checklist and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. Information was obtained for 37 children (24 males, 13 females; median age at recruitment 6 years 8 months, range to 6 months-20 years; median length of follow-up 6 years 6 months, range 5 months to 18 years 3 months). All 11 symptomatic children had residual enzyme activity of <1%, or variants of the Michaelis-Menten constant which were not detected by newborn screening. Some symptomatic children showed residual impairments: hearing impairment (n=2), optic atrophy (n=2), both hearing impairment and optic atrophy (n=2). In addition, symptomatic children had a higher risk of delayed motor and speech development. No child with PBD detected by newborn screening (n=25) had auditory or visual loss; and milestones of speech development and motor skills were reached at an appropriate age. There was no significant difference in social adaptation or behavioural problems between symptomatic and asymptomatic children. Symptomatic children often have developmental delay and are at risk of irreversible damage to auditory, visual, or central nervous functions; whereas children with PBD (established presymptomatically following newborn screening) treated with biotin supplementation, do not experience these effects.

  10. The inclusion of ADA-SCID in expanded newborn screening by tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    la Marca, Giancarlo; Giocaliere, Elisa; Malvagia, Sabrina; Funghini, Silvia; Ombrone, Daniela; Della Bona, Maria Luisa; Canessa, Clementina; Lippi, Francesca; Romano, Francesca; Guerrini, Renzo; Resti, Massimo; Azzari, Chiara

    2014-01-01

    Severe combined immunodeficiency due to adenosine-deaminase defect (ADA-SCID) is usually deadly in childhood because of severe recurrent infections. When clinical diagnosis is done, permanent damages due to infections or metabolite accumulation are often present. Gene therapy, bone marrow transplantation or enzyme replacement therapy may be effective if started early. The aim of this study was to set-up a robust method suitable for screening with a minimized preparation process and with inexpensive running costs, for diagnosing ADA-SCID by tandem mass spectrometry. ADA-SCID satisfies all the criteria for inclusion in a newborn screening program. We describe a protocol revised to incorporate adenosine and 2-deoxyadenosine testing into an expanded newborn screening program. We assessed the effectiveness of this approach testing dried blood spots from 4 genetically confirmed early-onset and 5 delayed-onset ADA-SCID patients. Reference values were established on 50,000 healthy newborns (deoxyadenosine <0.09μmol/L, adenosine <1.61μmol/L). We also developed a second tier test to distinguish true positives from false positives and improve the positive predictive value of an initial abnormal result. In the first 18 months, the pilot project has identified a newborn with a genetically confirmed defect in adenosine deaminase (ADA) gene. The results show that the method having great simplicity, low cost and low process preparations can be fully applicable to a mass screening program.

  11. Making the Case for Objective Performance Metrics in Newborn Screening by Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinaldo, Piero; Zafari, Saba; Tortorelli, Silvia; Matern, Dietrich

    2006-01-01

    The expansion of newborn screening programs to include multiplex testing by tandem mass spectrometry requires understanding and close monitoring of performance metrics. This is not done consistently because of lack of defined targets, and interlaboratory comparison is almost nonexistent. Between July 2004 and April 2006 (N = 176,185 cases), the…

  12. The Regional Genetic and Newborn Screening Service Collaboratives: The First Two Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puryear, Michele; Weissman, Gloria; Watson, Michael; Mann, Marie; Strickland, Bonnie; van Dyck, Peter C.

    2006-01-01

    Newborn screening and genetic technologies are expanding and changing rapidly, increasing the demand for genetic specialty services. Because of the scarcity and geographic maldistribution of genetic specialty services, access to these services is a critical issue. This article discusses some of the efforts initiated by the Maternal and Child…

  13. A conceptual framework for rationalized and standardized Universal Newborn Hearing Screening (UNHS) programs.

    PubMed

    Leo, Carlo Giacomo; Mincarone, Pierpaolo; Sabina, Saverio; Latini, Giuseppe; Wong, John B

    2016-02-12

    Congenital hearing loss is the most frequent birth defect. The American Academy of Pediatrics and the Joint Committee on Infant Hearing established quality of care process indicators for Universal Newborn Hearing Screening starting from 1999. In a previous systematic review of Universal Newborn Hearing Screening studies we highlighted substantial variability in program design and in reported performance data. In order to overcome these heterogeneous findings we think it is necessary to optimize the implementation of Universal Newborn Hearing Screening programs with an appropriate application of the planning, executing, and monitoring, verifications and reporting phases. For this reason we propose a conceptual framework that logically integrates these three phases and, consequently, a tool (a check-list) for their rationalization and standardization.Our paper intends to stimulate debate on how to ameliorate the routine application of high quality Universal Newborn Hearing Screening programs. The conceptual framework is proposed to optimize, rationalise and standardise their implementation. The checklist is intended to allow an inter-program comparison by removing heterogeneity in processes description and assessment.

  14. [Reproductive decisions and newborn screening: the perspective of female caregivers of children with sickle cell disease].

    PubMed

    Guedes, Cristiano

    2012-09-01

    One of the goals of the Brazilian Newborn Screening Program created in 2001 was to inform couples with the possibility of having children with sickle cell diseases regarding reproductive decision-making. This article presents the reproductive choices and analyzes the notion of biomedical reproductive risk of female caregivers of children with sickle cell disease participating in a newborn screening program. Qualitative data collected between 2006 and 2008 was based on interviews with 50 female caregivers of children with sickle cell disease participating on the Federal District Newborn Screening Program. The research revealed the following perceptions underlying reproductive decisions: women who want to have other children even with the risk of recurrence of the disease; women who do not want to have any more children; and women whose reproductive plans are still being considered on the basis of the information provided by the newborn screening program. The study revealed that women's reproductive choices are based on the experience of child care and self care. The notion of reproductive risk is built in order to strengthen women's decisions together with their family and other social groups to which they belong.

  15. The Role of National Library of Medicine[R] Web Sites in Newborn Screening Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fomous, Cathy; Miller, Naomi

    2006-01-01

    Expanded newborn screening programs and subsequent detection of rare genetic disorders challenge parents and their medical providers to learn about the treatment and management of these disorders. Many people seek medical information on the Internet but may encounter requests for registration or fees, or find that resources are out of date,…

  16. Newborn screening and prenatal diagnosis for Rett syndrome: implications for therapy.

    PubMed

    Amir, Ruthie E; Sutton, V Reid; Van den Veyver, Ignatia B

    2005-09-01

    Most girls with Rett syndrome develop normally prior to the appearance of the typical symptoms. A presymptomatic phase is also observed in many inborn errors of metabolism that are included in newborn screening programs. Diagnostic testing for mutations or large genomic rearrangements involving methyl-CpG binding protein 2 gene (MECP2) is highly sensitive and identifies mutations in up to 95% of female individuals with classic Rett syndrome. This has prompted some to ask whether MECP2 testing should be included in newborn and prenatal screening programs. We review current and evolving practices in these programs, emphasizing their relevance to Rett syndrome. The availability of a reliable test and the characteristic early latent phase, which creates a window of opportunity for early treatment, favor universal newborn screening for Rett syndrome. However, the high cost and the lack of an effective presymptomatic treatment make universal newborn screening for Rett syndrome impractical at present. In contrast, prenatal diagnosis should be offered to the parents of an affected child if the responsible mutation has been identified in the index case.

  17. Making the Case for Objective Performance Metrics in Newborn Screening by Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinaldo, Piero; Zafari, Saba; Tortorelli, Silvia; Matern, Dietrich

    2006-01-01

    The expansion of newborn screening programs to include multiplex testing by tandem mass spectrometry requires understanding and close monitoring of performance metrics. This is not done consistently because of lack of defined targets, and interlaboratory comparison is almost nonexistent. Between July 2004 and April 2006 (N = 176,185 cases), the…

  18. Newborn screening for cystic fibrosis in Alberta: Two years of experience

    PubMed Central

    Lilley, Margaret; Christian, Susan; Hume, Stacey; Scott, Patrick; Montgomery, Mark; Semple, Lisa; Zuberbuhler, Peter; Tabak, Joan; Bamforth, Fiona; Somerville, Martin J

    2010-01-01

    On April 1, 2007, Alberta became the first province in Canada to introduce cystic fibrosis (CF) to its newborn screening program. The Alberta protocol involves a two-tier algorithm involving an immunoreactive trypsinogen measurement followed by molecular analysis using a CF panel for 39 mutations. Positive screens are followed up with sweat chloride testing and an assessment by a CF specialist. Of the 99,408 newborns screened in Alberta during the first two years of the program, 221 had a positive CF newborn screen. The program subsequently identified and initiated treatment in 31 newborns with CF. A relatively high frequency of the R117H mutation and the M1101K mutation was noted. The M1101K mutation is common in the Hutterite population. The presence of the R117H mutation has created both counselling and management dilemmas. The ability to offer CF transmembrane regulator full sequencing may help resolve diagnostic dilemmas. Counselling and management challenges are created when mutations are mild or of unknown clinical significance. PMID:22043142

  19. The Challenges of Applying Massively Parallel Sequencing to Newborn Screening for Cystic Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Lawrence M

    2016-03-01

    This Commentary highlights the article by Lefterova et al that describes newborn screening of cystic fibrosis using massively parallel sequencing. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Investigative Pathology and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Role of National Library of Medicine[R] Web Sites in Newborn Screening Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fomous, Cathy; Miller, Naomi

    2006-01-01

    Expanded newborn screening programs and subsequent detection of rare genetic disorders challenge parents and their medical providers to learn about the treatment and management of these disorders. Many people seek medical information on the Internet but may encounter requests for registration or fees, or find that resources are out of date,…

  1. Service Providers? Perceptions of Universal Newborn Hearing Screening and Intervention Training Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Delia G.; Easterbrooks, Susan; Gallagher, Peggy A.

    2005-01-01

    Following the initial implementation of universal newborn hearing screening initiatives currently required by law in most states, there is a need to move beyond the hospital follow-up to the delivery of services and support for children identified with hearing loss. A cadre of trained providers is needed to deliver these services. In order to…

  2. Levels of Evidence: Universal Newborn Hearing Screening (UNHS) and Early Hearing Detection and Intervention Systems (EHDI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshinaga-Itano, Christine

    2004-01-01

    Levels of evidence differ according to the audience addressed. Implementation of universal newborn hearing screening requires responses to a complex myriad of diverse groups: the general public, families with children who are deaf or hard of hearing, the deaf and hard of hearing communities, hospital administrators, physicians (pediatricians,…

  3. Levels of Evidence: Universal Newborn Hearing Screening (UNHS) and Early Hearing Detection and Intervention Systems (EHDI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshinaga-Itano, Christine

    2004-01-01

    Levels of evidence differ according to the audience addressed. Implementation of universal newborn hearing screening requires responses to a complex myriad of diverse groups: the general public, families with children who are deaf or hard of hearing, the deaf and hard of hearing communities, hospital administrators, physicians (pediatricians,…

  4. The Impact of the National Newborn Hearing Screening Programme on Educational Services in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCracken, Wendy; Young, Alys; Tattersall, Helen; Uus, Kai; Bamford, John

    2005-01-01

    This article presents results related to the impact on educational support services of the introduction of the first phase of the national Newborn Hearing Screening Programme (NHSP) in England. This study was funded by the Department of Health and undertaken as one element of a national evaluation of NHSP across a range of domains. It presents…

  5. Mutations causing biotinidase deficiency in children ascertained by newborn screening in Western Hungary.

    PubMed

    Milánkovics, Ilona; Kámory, Eniko; Csókay, Béla; Fodor, Flóra; Somogyi, Csilla; Schuler, Agnes

    2007-03-01

    In Hungary the national newborn screening programme for the detection of biotinidase deficiency was launched in 1989. In this study, we determined the genotypes of all patients identified at the Budapest Screening Centre that covers half of the country. The incidence of the disorder in Western Hungary is about three times the worldwide incidence. Overall, 21 different mutations were identified in 49 patients, including four novel mutations. Ten mutations proved to be unique to the Hungarian population.

  6. Medical swab touch spray-mass spectrometry for newborn screening of nicotine and cotinine in meconium.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bi-Cheng; Wang, Feng; Yang, Xiao; Zou, Wei; Wang, Jia-Chun; Zou, Yang; Liu, Fa-Ying; Liu, Huai; Huang, Ou-Ping

    2016-12-01

    Newborn screening is one of public health concerns designed to screen infants shortly after birth. Prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke such as nicotine has been reported to affect babies. Levels of nicotine and cotinine in meconium were widely used to evaluate the tobacco exposure of foetuses during pregnancy in a polluted environment. In this study, medical swabs were applied by using touch spray-mass spectrometry (TS-MS) to collect meconium from newborn infants for detection of nicotine and cotinine. Parameters such as choice of spray solvents, solvent volume and collision energy for screening of nicotine and cotinine were optimized. The limits of detection, reproducibility and matrix effect for analysis of meconium were also investigated. In this study, the levels of nicotine and cotinine in 54 puerpera volunteers were screened by TS-MS and were validated by using traditional liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. These results showed that medical swab TS-MS would be useful for newborn screening of nicotine and cotinine in meconium with high reproducibility, speed, sensitivity and specificity. The use of disposable medical swabs involves no sample preparation and no chromatographic separation, significantly reducing the cost and time required for screening a large number of clinical sample. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Positive newborn screen in the biochemically normal infant of a mother with treated holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Nyhan, W L; Willis, M; Barshop, B A; Gangoiti, J

    2009-12-01

    Expanded programmes of newborn screening permit early diagnosis in time to prevent serious complications. These programmes have begun to detect patients who might otherwise remain asymptomatic. An additional confounding variable is the positive screen that results from maternal rather than neonatal disease. This was the case in an infant in whom elevated hydroxyisovalerylcarnitine (C(5)OH) in his newborn screen was the result of placental transfer from his mother, whose holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency was being successfully treated with biotin. The mother had been diagnosed and treated with biotin prenatally. She had no phenotypic feature of holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency, most importantly no episodes ever of acute metabolic acidosis. In the infant a repeat screen was also positive. On day 28 the infant's plasma C(5)OH carnitine was 0.05 mumol/L (normal) and urinary organic acids on day 39 were normal. The mother's excretion of 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid was 109 mmol/mol creatinine. These observations indicate that holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency is one more maternal metabolic disease which may lead to a positive screen in her unaffected newborn infant. They also make the point that holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency in an infant should be detectable in programmes of neonatal screening, which was not clear previously.

  8. Screening for seemingly healthy newborns with congenital cytomegalovirus infection by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction using newborn urine: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Akira; Oh-ishi, Tsutomu; Arai, Takashi; Sakata, Hideaki; Adachi, Nodoka; Asanuma, Satoshi; Oguma, Eiji; Kimoto, Hirofumi; Matsumoto, Jiro; Fujita, Hidetoshi; Uesato, Tadashi; Fujita, Jutaro; Shirato, Ken; Ohno, Hideki; Kizaki, Takako

    2017-01-01

    Objective Approximately 8–10% of newborns with asymptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection develop sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). However, the relationship between CMV load, SNHL and central nervous system (CNS) damage in cCMV infection remains unclear. This study aimed to examine the relationship between urinary CMV load, SNHL and CNS damage in newborns with cCMV infection. Study design The study included 23 368 newborns from two maternity hospitals in Saitama Prefecture, Japan. Urine screening for cCMV infection (quantitative real-time PCR) and newborn hearing screening (automated auditory brainstem response (AABR) testing) were conducted within 5 days of birth to examine the incidence of cCMV infection and SNHL, respectively. CNS damage was assessed by MRI of cCMV-infected newborns. Results The incidence of cCMV infection was 60/23 368 (0.257%; 95% CI 0.192% to 0.322%). The geometric mean urinary CMV DNA copy number in newborns with cCMV was 1.79×106 copies/mL (95% CI 7.97×105 to 4.02×106). AABR testing revealed abnormalities in 171 of the 22 229 (0.769%) newborns whose parents approved hearing screening. Of these 171 newborns, 22 had SNHL (12.9%), and 5 of these 22 were infected with cCMV (22.7%). Newborns with both cCMV and SNHL had a higher urinary CMV DNA copy number than newborns with cCMV without SNHL (p=0.036). MRI revealed CNS damage, including white matter abnormalities, in 83.0% of newborns with cCMV. Moreover, newborns with CNS damage had a significantly greater urinary CMV load than newborns without CNS damage (p=0.013). Conclusions We determined the incidence of cCMV infection and urinary CMV DNA copy number in seemingly healthy newborns from two hospitals in Saitama Prefecture. SNHL and CNS damage were associated with urinary CMV DNA copy number. Quantification of urinary CMV load may effectively predict the incidence of late-onset SNHL and neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:28110288

  9. Parents' experiences of newborn screening for genetic susceptibility to type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Kerruish, Nikki J

    2011-06-01

    Advances in genomic medicine have lead to debate about the potential inclusion of genetic tests for susceptibility to common complex disorders in newborn screening programmes. Empirical evidence concerning psychosocial reactions to genetic testing is a crucial component of both ethical debate and policy development, but while there has been much speculation concerning the possible psychosocial impact of screening newborns for genetic susceptibilities, there remains a paucity of data. The aim of the study reported here is to provide some of this missing empirical evidence, using type 1 diabetes as an example of a common disorder with multiple significant genetic contributors to its aetiology. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 parents of babies who had received increased risk results in a study that involved newborn screening for genetic susceptibility to type 1 diabetes. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to evaluate the data. The interview data suggest that the probabilistic nature of results of genetic susceptibility tests impacts upon all aspects of parents' psychosocial reactions, resulting in a complex and dynamic process quite different to that described in relation to current newborn screening programmes. While parents generally reported fairly minor levels of concern in response to news of their child's increased genetic risk, these worries frequently recurred, and perception of risk also varied and fluctuated over time. Both individual and contextual factors appeared to interact with the inherent uncertainty of the test result to contribute to the dynamic nature of parental reactions, and their behavioural responses. The implications of these findings for future research and for the debate concerning potential expansion of newborn screening are discussed.

  10. High Incidence of Biotinidase Deficiency from a Pilot Newborn Screening Study in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lara, Marilis T; Gurgel-Giannetti, Juliana; Aguiar, Marcos J B; Ladeira, Roberto V P; Carvalho, Nara O; Del Castillo, Dora M; Viana, Marcos B; Januario, José N

    2015-01-01

    To assess the incidence of biotinidase deficiency among newborns and their clinical outcome up to one year of age in a large pilot screening study in Minas Gerais, Brazil. A prospective cohort study was conducted from September 2007 to June 2008 with heel-prick blood samples collected on filter paper for the purpose of newborn screening. A qualitative colorimetric test was used as the primary screening method. Colorimetric-positive cases were further tested with a serum confirmatory assay. Gene sequencing was performed for eight children suspected with biotinidase deficiency and for some of their parents. Positive cases were daily supplemented with oral biotin and were followed up for approximately six years. Out of 182,891 newborns screened, 129 were suspected of having biotinidase deficiency. Partial deficiency was confirmed in seven children (one was homozygous for p.D543E) and profound deficiency in one child (homozygous p.H485Q). Thus the incidence was one in 22,861 live births (95% confidence interval 1:13,503 to 1:74,454) for profound and partial biotinidase deficiency combined. Two novel mutations were detected: p.A281V and p.E177K. In silico analysis and estimation of the enzyme activity in the children and their parents showed that p.A281V is pathogenic and p.E177K behaves like p.D444H. The incidence of biotinidase deficiency in newborn screening in Minas Gerais was higher than several international studies. The sample size should be larger for final conclusions. Oral daily biotin apparently precluded clinical symptoms, but it may have been unnecessary in some newborns.

  11. Performance and characteristics of the Newborn Hearing Screening Programme in England: The first seven years

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Sally A; Sutton, Graham J; Davis, Adrian C

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To assess the performance of the universal newborn hearing screen in England. Design: Retrospective analysis of population screening records. Study sample: A total of 4 645 823 children born 1 April 2004 to 31 March 2013. Results: 97.5% of the eligible population complete screening by 4/5 weeks of age and 98.9% complete screening by three months of age. The refer rate for the 12/13 birth cohort is 2.6%. The percentage of screen positive (i.e. referred) babies commencing follow up by four weeks of age and six months of age is 82.5% and 95.8% respectively. The yield of bilateral PCHL from the screen is around 1/1000. For bilateral PCHL in the 12/13 birth cohort the median age is nine days at screen completion, 30 days at entry into follow up, 49 days at confirmation, 50 days at referral to early intervention, and 82 days at hearing-aid fitting. Conclusion: The performance of the newborn hearing screening programme has improved continuously. The yield of bilateral PCHL from the screen is about 1/1000 as expected. The age of identification and management is well within the first six months of life, although there remains scope for further improvement with respect to timely entry into follow up. PMID:25766652

  12. Performance and characteristics of the Newborn Hearing Screening Programme in England: The first seven years.

    PubMed

    Wood, Sally A; Sutton, Graham J; Davis, Adrian C

    2015-06-01

    To assess the performance of the universal newborn hearing screen in England. Retrospective analysis of population screening records. A total of 4 645 823 children born 1 April 2004 to 31 March 2013. 97.5% of the eligible population complete screening by 4/5 weeks of age and 98.9% complete screening by three months of age. The refer rate for the 12/13 birth cohort is 2.6%. The percentage of screen positive (i.e. referred) babies commencing follow up by four weeks of age and six months of age is 82.5% and 95.8% respectively. The yield of bilateral PCHL from the screen is around 1/1000. For bilateral PCHL in the 12/13 birth cohort the median age is nine days at screen completion, 30 days at entry into follow up, 49 days at confirmation, 50 days at referral to early intervention, and 82 days at hearing-aid fitting. The performance of the newborn hearing screening programme has improved continuously. The yield of bilateral PCHL from the screen is about 1/1000 as expected. The age of identification and management is well within the first six months of life, although there remains scope for further improvement with respect to timely entry into follow up.

  13. A three-tier algorithm for guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT) deficiency newborn screening.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Graham B; van Karnebeek, Clara D M; Ester, Manuel; Boyd, Frances; Nelson, Tanya; Stockler-Ipsiroglu, Sylvia; Vallance, Hilary

    2016-07-01

    Guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT) deficiency is a rare disorder of creatine biosynthesis presenting with epilepsy and developmental delay in infancy. Excellent developmental outcomes have been reported for infants treated from birth due to a family history. The BC Newborn Screening Program initiated a 3year pilot screening study for GAMT deficiency to evaluate the performance of a novel three-tiered screening approach. Over 36months all bloodspots submitted for routine newborn screening were included in the pilot study (de-identified). Initial GAA measurement was integrated into the standard acylcarnitine/amino acid first-tier assay. All samples with elevated GAA were subjected to second-tier GAA analysis by LC-MS/MS integrated into an existing branched-chain amino acid (MSUD) method. GAMT gene sequencing was completed on the original bloodspot for all specimens with elevated GAA on the second-tier test. The protocol allowed for re-identification for treatment of any specimen with one or two likely pathogenic GAMT mutations. Over the study period 135,372 specimens were tested with 259 (0.19%) over the first-tier GAA cut-off. The second-tier assay removed an interference falsely elevating GAA levels, and only 3 samples required genotyping. No mutations were identified in any samples, all were deemed negative screens and no follow-up was initiated. A three-tier algorithm for GAMT newborn screening showed excellent test performance with zero false positives. No cases were detected, supporting a low incidence for this disorder. Given the low incremental costs and evidence of positive outcomes with early intervention, GAMT deficiency remains an excellent candidate for newborn screening. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Newborn Thyroid Screening: Influence of Pre-Analytic Variables on Dried Blood Spot Thyrotropin Measurement.

    PubMed

    Butler, Allison M; Charoensiriwatana, Wiyada; Krasao, Piamnukul; Pankanjanato, Rotjanapan; Thong-Ngao, Penpan; Polson, Randall C; Snow, Gregory; Ehrenkranz, Joel

    2017-09-01

    Measuring thyrotropin (TSH) eluted from a dried blood spot (DBS) is used to screen an estimated 30 million newborns annually for congenital hypothyroidism (CH). Newborn thyroid screening has eliminated cretinism from the industrialized world and decreased the adverse effects of unrecognized CH on neurocognitive development. Hematocrit, a pre-analytic variable that affects the measurement of TSH from a DBS, contributes to the imprecision of DBS TSH measurement and could account for false-negative and false-positive DBS newborn screening test results. To assess whether variations in hematocrit found in newborns have a clinical effect in DBS-based newborn thyroid screening, the effects of hematocrit variability on the measurement of DBS TSH were studied. U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention procedures for manufacturing DBS performance testing standards were used to generate DBSs from blood samples, with hematocrits of 35%, 40%, 45%, 50%, 55%, 60%, and 65% and serum TSH concentrations of 6.3 ± 0.4 and 26.6 ± 8.0 mIU/L. TSH was measured in the eluates of four replicate DBS 3 mm punches at each hematocrit using the Thailand Ministry of Public Health Newborn Screening Operation Center enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Data were analyzed using a linear mixed-effects model. Based on the mixed-effects model, hematocrit significantly affected DBS TSH measurement (p < 0.001). A 1% increase in hematocrit resulted in a 0.06 mIU/L decrease in eluate TSH when TSH was 6.3 + 0.4 mIU/L, and a 0.21 mIU/L decrease in eluate TSH when TSH was 26.6 + 8.0 mIU/L. DBS TSH is significantly affected by the blood sample hematocrit. The pre-analytic variability due to hematocrit is independent of TSH assay sensitivity, specificity, precision, repeatability, and reference intervals. The effect of hematocrit on DBS TSH measurement is clinically relevant, could account for geographic and ethnic variation in the incidence of CH, and may result in both false

  15. Newborn screening for congenital adrenal hyperplasia in Cuba: six years of experience.

    PubMed

    González, Ernesto Carlos; Carvajal, Frank; Frómeta, Amarilys; Arteaga, Ana Luisa; Castells, Elisa María; Espinosa, Tania; Coto, Remigio; Pérez, Pedro Lucio; Tejeda, Yileidis; Del Río, Lesley; Segura, Mary Triny; Almenares, Pedro; Robaina, René; Fernández, José Luis

    2013-06-05

    Since 2005, a newborn screening program for congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) by measuring 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (17OHP) in dried blood spots was introduced in Cuba. The hormone was measured by the 17OHP Neonatal UMELISA method, in samples collected on the 5th day as average. Confirmatory test was performed to those neonates with 17OHP values above 55 nmol/l. Some perinatal factors that can influence on 17OHP levels were studied. From January 2005 to December 2010, 621,303 newborns were screened and 39 CAH cases were detected. Coverage of the program reached 98%. The incidence of CAH in Cuba was 1:15,931, similar to that reported by other programs. A recall for suspected CAH was performed in 10,799 cases (1.74%). Therapy in classical CAH patients was started at the mean age of 22 days. 17OHP levels were significantly higher in newborns with lower birth-weight (BW) and/or gestational age (GA). In addition, 17OHP values were affected by the gender, twin status or mode of delivery. In Cuba, the nationwide newborn screening program has allowed the early detection of CAH. The use of an optimized cut-off level for BW or GA could lead to a reduction in the percentage of recalled babies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Newborn screening for cystic fibrosis: Polish 4 years' experience with CFTR sequencing strategy.

    PubMed

    Sobczyńska-Tomaszewska, Agnieszka; Ołtarzewski, Mariusz; Czerska, Kamila; Wertheim-Tysarowska, Katarzyna; Sands, Dorota; Walkowiak, Jarosław; Bal, Jerzy; Mazurczak, Tadeusz

    2013-04-01

    Newborn screening for cystic fibrosis (NBS CF) in Poland was started in September 2006. Summary from 4 years' experience is presented in this study. The immunoreactive trypsin/DNA sequencing strategy was implemented. The group of 1,212,487 newborns were screened for cystic fibrosis during the programme. We identified a total of 221 CF cases during this period, including, 4 CF cases were reported to be omitted by NBS CF. Disease incidence in Poland based on the programme results was estimated as 1/4394 and carrier frequency as 1/33. The frequency of the F508del was similar (62%) to population data previously reported. This strategy allowed us to identify 29 affected infants with rare genotypes. The frequency of some mutations (eg, 2184insA, K710X) was assessed in Poland for the first time. Thus, sequencing assay seems to be accurate method for screening programme using blood spots in the Polish population.

  17. A framework for assessing outcomes from newborn screening: on the road to measuring its promise

    PubMed Central

    Hinton, Cynthia F.; Homer, Charles J.; Thompson, Alexis A.; Williams, Andrea; Hassell, Kathryn L.; Feuchtbaum, Lisa; Berry, Susan A.; Comeau, Anne Marie; Therrell, Bradford L.; Brower, Amy; Harris, Katharine B.; Brown, Christine; Monaco, Jana; Ostrander, Robert J.; Zuckerman, Alan E.; Kaye, Celia; Dougherty, Denise; Greene, Carol; Green, Nancy S.

    2016-01-01

    Newborn screening (NBS) is intended to identify congenital conditions prior to the onset of symptoms in order to provide early intervention that leads to improved outcomes. NBS is a public health success, providing reduction in mortality and improved developmental outcomes for screened conditions.. However, it is less clear to what extent newborn screening achieves the long-term goals relating to improved health, growth, development and function. We propose a framework for assessing outcomes for the health and well-being of children identified through NBS programs. The framework proposed here, and this manuscript, were approved for publication by the Secretary of Health and Human Services’ Advisory Committee on Heritable Disorders in Newborns and Children (ACHDNC). This framework can be applied to each screened condition within the Recommended Uniform Screening Panel (RUSP), recognizing that the data elements and measures will vary by condition. As an example, we applied the framework to sickle cell disease and phenylketonuria (PKU), two diverse conditions with different outcome measures and potential sources of data. Widespread and consistent application of this framework across state NBS and child health systems is envisioned as useful to standardize approaches to assessment of outcomes and for continuous improvement of the NBS and child health systems. PMID:27268406

  18. Newborn screening for sickle cell disease in Jamaica: logistics and experience with umbilical cord samples.

    PubMed

    Serjeant, G R; Serjeant, B E; Mason, K P; Gardner, R; Warren, L; Gibson, F; Coombs, M

    2017-01-01

    The study aims to describe the logistics and results of a programme for newborn screening for sickle cell disease based on samples from the umbilical cord. Samples were dried on Guthrie cards and analysed by high pressure liquid chromatography. All suspected clinically significant abnormal genotypes were confirmed by age 4-6 weeks with family studies and then recruited to local sickle cell clinics. The programme has screened 66,833 samples with the sickle cell trait in 9.8 % and the HbC trait in 3.8 %. Sickle cell syndromes occurred in 407 babies (204 SS, 148 SC, 35 Sbeta(+) thalassaemia, 6 Sbeta(o) thalassaemia, 6 sickle cell-variants, 8 sickle cell-hereditary persistence of fetal haemoglobin) and HbC syndromes in 42 (22 CC, 14 Cbeta(+) thalassaemia, 1 Cbeta(o) thalassaemia, 5 HbC- hereditary persistence of fetal haemoglobin). Focusing on the year 2015, screening was performed in 15,408, compliance with sample collection was 98.1 %, and maternal contamination occurred in 335 (2.6 %) but in only 0.05 % did diagnostic confusion require patient recall and further tests. This model of newborn screening for sickle cell disease is accurate, robust and economic. It is hoped that it may be helpful for other societies with high prevalence of abnormal haemoglobins and limited resources, who are planning to embark on newborn screening for sickle cell disease.

  19. Identifying the Optimal Age to Perform Newborn Screening for Hearing Loss in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, M; Redshaw, E; Crossley, E; Phillips, C

    2015-01-01

    Background: Permanent congenital hearing loss affects up to 6/1000 births in developing countries. Currently, in Uganda there is no newborn screening for hearing loss (NSHL) program and no published work on this topic. Within the existing healthcare system there are two opportunities to deliver screening, at birth or 6 weeks of age when infants receive their immunizations. Aim: This study explored the outcomes of otoacoustic emission (OAE) testing in infants at birth and 6 weeks of age, to identify the optimal age for screening. Subjects and Methods: This cross-sectional pilot study recruited 60 consecutive infants from two health centres in Kampala, Uganda. Thirty infants were newborns recruited from the postnatal ward and 30 were aged 4–8 weeks from the immunization clinic, we performed OAE testing on all infants. Results: The results showed 56.7% (17/30) of newborn infants passed OAE testing compared with 90.0% (27/30) of the immunization infants, P < 0.01. Furthermore, of the 11 newborn infants aged ≥24 h of age 90.9% (10/11) passed, compared with the 19 infants <24 h of age where 37% (7/19) passed, P < 0.01. Conclusions: This study demonstrates a higher pass rate for OAE testing for infants ≥24 h of age compared to those <24 h of age. The overall lower pass rate of the newborn infants could be due to external ear debris and middle ear fluid compromising the OAE testing. These findings would support a NSHL programme in Uganda that offers screening to infants ≥24 h of age, to maximize the cost-effectiveness of the program. PMID:27057378

  20. The effects of gestational age and birth weight on false-positive newborn-screening rates.

    PubMed

    Slaughter, Jonathan L; Meinzen-Derr, Jareen; Rose, Susan R; Leslie, Nancy D; Chandrasekar, Ram; Linard, Sharon M; Akinbi, Henry T

    2010-11-01

    Newborn-screening false-positive rates (FPRs) are disproportionately increased in preterm infants. The objective of this study was to determine variation in newborn screening FPRs according to birth weight and gestational age. Our secondary objective was to examine the effect of postnatal age on FPRs in preterm infants. The Ohio State Newborn Screening Program Database was analyzed to determine the overall and birth weight-specific FPRs for 18 analytes. Data were stratified into birth weight categories (<1000 g, 1000-1499 g, 1500-2499 g, 2500-3999 g, and >4000 g). In addition, to examine the effect of postnatal age on FPRs, we examined the 2 analytes with the highest FPRs, thyrotropin with back-up thyroxine and 17-hydroxyprogesterone, in infants whose gestational age was <32 weeks, determined on the basis of postnatal age at screening. Data from 448 766 neonates were reviewed. Infants with very low birth weight (VLBW) comprised 1.9% of the study cohort, but accounted for 18% of false-positive results. For 14 of 18 analytes studied, FPRs increased with decreasing birth weight/gestational age and were significantly increased in infants with VLBW compared with infants who weighed 2500 to 3999 g (P < .001). Thyrotropin/back-up thyroxine and 17-hydroxyprogesterone accounted for 62% of total false-positive results in VLBW infants. When blood specimens were collected at a postnatal age of ≥ 48 hours in infants born at <32 weeks, a 44% relative reduction in 17-hydroxyprogesterone false-positive results was detected. False-positive newborn-screening rates are disproportionately increased in VLBW infants. FPRs may be reduced by delaying screening of <32 weeks' gestation, preterm infants until 24 to 48 hours' postnatal age.

  1. Indicators of newborn screening for congenital hypothyroidism in Sri Lanka: program challenges and way forward.

    PubMed

    Hettiarachchi, Manjula; Amarasena, Sujeewa

    2014-09-12

    Many of the countries in the Asia Pacific Region are just initiating newborn screening programs for selected metabolic and other congenital disorders. The present study is aimed at evaluating the congenital hypothyroidism screening program in the Southern region of Sri Lanka in terms of coverage, effectiveness of detecting and managing the cases. The Newborn Screening System Database of Sri Lanka was reviewed from January 2011 to December 2012. The data of 47 babies who tested positive for hypothyroidism were analyzed. Total of 78,167 babies (99.0% of live births) were screened. Of them, 5.8% (n = 4,472) were discharged within 12 hrs of delivery where as 58.1% (n = 44969) were discharged afterwards but within next 12 hrs (i.e., day 1). The positive predictive value for congenital hypothyroidism (CH) was 9.0%. The incidences of primary CH among screened infants were 1:1682. False positive rate among screened infants was maintained below 0.70%. Mean age of serum confirmation was 23.8 (±8) days. In the light of the present findings, we would suggest direct communication systems, linking newborn screening program to the family unit. This would enhance timely follow-up for screen-positive infants and facilitate information sharing. Establishing a program with, public-private sector partnership should be considered. Costs could be contained if the specimen collection, its transportation and communication are carried out by this partnership and the laboratory tests are conducted by a non-profit organization such as a University in order to achieve the goal of universal coverage.

  2. Clinical examination and pulse oximetry as screening for congenital heart disease in low-risk newborn.

    PubMed

    Zuppa, Antonio Alberto; Riccardi, Riccardo; Catenazzi, Piero; D'Andrea, Vito; Cavani, Maria; D'Antuono, Annamaria; Iafisco, Alma; Romagnoli, Costantino

    2015-01-01

    To assess sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of the cardiovascular physical examination (CPE) and of pulse oximetry in screening for congenital heart diseases (CHD) in asymptomatic newborn when prenatal ultrasound evaluation is negative for structural cardiac abnormalities. In this observational cohort study, 5750 asymptomatic newborns, admitted to nursery in a period of 2 years, underwent to CPE and determination of arterial oxygen saturation by pulse oxymetry between 48th and 72nd h of life. Two hundred and ninty-eight newborns presented a suspected CPE; in 70% of cases, we found a transitional alteration and in only 17% of cases, the echocardiography examination performed for suspected CPE were completely negative. Three newborns were positive to pulse oximetry screening test but negative at CPE. After discharge, one case of critical CHD was diagnosed. An accurate CPE performed by trained and experienced pediatricians is indicative of important cardiac structural alteration in more than 25%. The association of CPE and pulse oximetry allows to further improve the diagnostic accuracy.

  3. First Colombian Multicentric Newborn Screening for Congenital Toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Marin, Jorge Enrique; de-la-Torre, Alejandra; Angel-Muller, Edith; Rubio, Jorge; Arenas, Jaime; Osorio, Elkin; Nuñez, Lilian; Pinzon, Lyda; Mendez-Cordoba, Luis Carlos; Bustos, Agustin; de-la-Hoz, Isabel; Silva, Pedro; Beltran, Monica; Chacon, Leonor; Marrugo, Martha; Manjarres, Cristina; Baquero, Hernando; Lora, Fabiana; Torres, Elizabeth; Zuluaga, Oscar Elias; Estrada, Monica; Moscote, Lacides; Silva, Myriam Teresa; Rivera, Raul; Molina, Angie; Najera, Shirley; Sanabria, Antonio; Ramirez, Maria Luisa; Alarcon, Claudia; Restrepo, Natalia; Falla, Alejandra; Rodriguez, Tailandia; Castaño, Giovanny

    2011-01-01

    Aims To determine the incidence of congenital toxoplasmosis in Colombian newborns from 19 hospital or maternal child health services from seven different cities of five natural geographic regions (Caribbean, Central, Andean, Amazonia and Eastern). Materials and Methods We collected 15,333 samples from umbilical cord blood between the period of March 2009 to May 2010 in 19 different hospitals and maternal-child health services from seven different cities. We applied an IgM ELISA assay (Vircell, Spain) to determine the frequency of IgM anti Toxoplasma. The results in blood cord samples were confirmed either by western blot and repeated ELISA IgM assay. In a sub-sample of 1,613 children that were negative by the anti-Toxoplasma IgM assay, the frequency of specific anti-Toxoplasma IgA by the ISAGA assay was determined. All children with positive samples by IgM, IgA, clinical diagnosis or treatment during pregnancy were recalled for confirmatory tests after day 10 of life. Results 61 positive samples for specific IgM (0.39%) and 9 positives for IgA (0.5%) were found. 143 questionnaires were positive for a clinical diagnosis or treatment for toxoplasmosis during pregnancy. 109 out of the 218 children that had some of the criteria for postnatal confirmatory tests were followed. Congenital toxoplasmosis infection was confirmed in 15 children: 7 were symptomatic, and three of them died before the first month of life (20% of lethality). A significant correlation was found between a high incidence of markers for congenital toxoplasmosis and higher mean annual rainfall for the city. Conclusions Incidence for congenital toxoplasmosis is significantly different between hospitals or maternal child health services from different cities in Colombia. Mean annual rainfall was correlated with incidence of congenital toxoplasmosis. PMID:21655304

  4. The Screening of Hereditary Metabolic Defects Among Newborn Infants

    PubMed Central

    Hsia, David Yi-Yung

    1966-01-01

    The present communciation describes the use of four approaches to the detection of hereditary metabolic disorders: (1) the bacterial inhibition assay, (2) the reduction of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP), (3) the use of paper chromatography, and (4) other specific methods. Using small quantities of capillary blood or urine, practical and simple methods have been devised for the diagnosis of 30 inborn errors of metabolism through screening programs. PMID:4380501

  5. Infrastructure and Educational Needs of Newborn Screening Short-Term Follow-Up Programs within the Southeast Regional Newborn Screening & Genetics Collaborative: A Pilot Survey.

    PubMed

    Bellcross, Cecelia A; Harmond, Lokie; Floyd-Browning, Phaidra; Singh, Rani

    2015-10-15

    Newborn screening (NBS) follow-up protocols vary significantly by state, and there is a need to better understand the infrastructure and communication flow of NBS programs. In addition, assessment of the educational needs of families and providers with regard to the implications of NBS results is required to inform the development of appropriate informational resources and training opportunities. To begin to address these issues, we administered a web-based survey to state NBS coordinators within the Southeast Regional Newborn Screening & Genetics Collaborative (SERC). Fourteen coordinators responded to the survey, including at least one from each of the 10 SERC states/territories. Over one-third of respondents had never received formal training regarding the metabolic conditions identified on NBS. Most communicated results via telephone or fax, though two centers indicated use of a web-based platform. Only two programs were involved in directly reporting results to the family. Four programs reported a long-term follow-up protocol. Deficits were noted for primary care provider (PCP) knowledge of metabolic disorders identified on NBS, and how to inform parents of abnormal results. Close to half indicated that the adequacy of the number of genetic counselors, dietitians, and medical/biochemical geneticists was minimal to insufficient. Respondents uniformly recognized the importance of providing additional educational and informational resources in multiple categories to NBS staff, PCPs, and families.

  6. Ethical issues in screening for hearing impairment in newborns in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Olusanya, B O; Luxon, L M; Wirz, S L

    2006-01-01

    Screening of newborns for permanent congenital or early‐onset hearing impairment has emerged as an essential component of neonatal care in developed countries, following favourable outcomes from early intervention in the critical period for optimal speech and language development. Progress towards a similar programme in developing countries, where most of the world's children with hearing impairment reside, may be impeded by reservations about the available level of support services and the possible effect of the prevailing healthcare challenges. Ethical justification for the systematic introduction of screening programmes for hearing in newborns based on the limitations in current primary prevention strategies, lack of credible alternative early‐detection strategies and the incentives for capacity‐building for the requisite support services is examined. PMID:17012500

  7. Good laboratory practices for biochemical genetic testing and newborn screening for inherited metabolic disorders.

    PubMed

    2012-04-06

    Biochemical genetic testing and newborn screening are essential laboratory services for the screening, detection, diagnosis, and monitoring of inborn errors of metabolism or inherited metabolic disorders. Under the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 (CLIA) regulations, laboratory testing is categorized on the basis of the level of testing complexity as either waived (i.e., from routine regulatory oversight) or nonwaived testing (which includes tests of moderate and high complexity). Laboratories that perform biochemical genetic testing are required by CLIA regulations to meet the general quality systems requirements for nonwaived testing and the personnel requirements for high-complexity testing. Laboratories that perform public health newborn screening are subject to the same CLIA regulations and applicable state requirements. As the number of inherited metabolic diseases that are included in state-based newborn screening programs continues to increase, ensuring the quality of performance and delivery of testing services remains a continuous challenge not only for public health laboratories and other newborn screening facilities but also for biochemical genetic testing laboratories. To help ensure the quality of laboratory testing, CDC collaborated with the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, the Food and Drug Administration, the Health Resources and Services Administration, and the National Institutes of Health to develop guidelines for laboratories to meet CLIA requirements and apply additional quality assurance measures for these areas of genetic testing. This report provides recommendations for good laboratory practices that were developed based on recommendations from the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Advisory Committee, with additional input from the Secretary's Advisory Committee on Genetics, Health, and Society; the Secretary's Advisory Committee on Heritable Disorders in Newborns and Children; and representatives of newborn

  8. Fifty years of phenylketonuria newborn screening - A great success for many, but what about the rest?

    PubMed

    Groselj, Urh; Tansek, Mojca Zerjav; Battelino, Tadej

    2014-01-01

    Guthrie's landmark discovery and the subsequent implementation of the first newborn screening programs for phenylketonuria (PKU) and other inherited errors of metabolism (IEM) could be - in a 50 year retrospective - easily considered among the greatest advances in medicine. They have not just improved the quality of hundreds of thousands of lives, but also transformed our understanding and approach to PKU and IEM in general. However, according to the available albeit very scarce data, many countries and regions seem not to share the benefits of the last 50 years of development. Many of them have not yet introduced the newborn screening for PKU or face significant problems in its implementation. In addition, the issue seems to be underrated by the relevant professional forums. Action to improve the current situation should urgently be taken. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Questioning the Consensus: Managing Carrier Status Results Generated by Newborn Screening

    PubMed Central

    Robert, Jason Scott; Hayeems, Robin Z.

    2009-01-01

    An apparent consensus governs the management of carrier status information generated incidentally through newborn screening: results cannot be withheld from parents. This normative stance encodes the focus on autonomy and distaste for paternalism that characterize the principles of clinical bioethics. However, newborn screening is a classic public health intervention in which paternalism may trump autonomy and through which parents are—in effect—required to receive carrier information. In truth, the disposition of carrier results generates competing moral infringements: to withhold information or require its possession. Resolving this dilemma demands consideration of a distinctive body of public health ethics to highlight the moral imperatives associated with the exercise of collective authority in the pursuit of public health benefits. PMID:19059852

  10. 3-Methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency: Mutational spectrum derived from comprehensive newborn screening.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Helena; Azevedo, Luisa; Serrano, Catarina; Sousa, Carmen; Marcão, Ana; Vilarinho, Laura

    2016-12-15

    The deficiency of 3-methycrotonyl-CoA carboxylase (3-MCC; EC 6.4.1.4) is an autosomal recessive organic aciduria that is included in the newborn screening programs of several countries. This study reports data mainly obtained from the Portuguese newborn screening program collected over a ten-year period. Analysis of the MCCC1 and MCCC2 genes yielded 26 previously unreported mutations and a variant of clinically unknown significance. These mutations are discussed in the context of their likely impact on the function of the 3-MCC enzyme, with a view to exploring whether a phenotype-genotype correlation might be discerned. Further, these mutations were analysed in the context of what is known of the MCCC1 and MCCC2 mutational spectra, information that will be useful in both clinical and laboratory practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Questioning the consensus: managing carrier status results generated by newborn screening.

    PubMed

    Miller, Fiona Alice; Robert, Jason Scott; Hayeems, Robin Z

    2009-02-01

    An apparent consensus governs the management of carrier status information generated incidentally through newborn screening: results cannot be withheld from parents. This normative stance encodes the focus on autonomy and distaste for paternalism that characterize the principles of clinical bioethics. However, newborn screening is a classic public health intervention in which paternalism may trump autonomy and through which parents are-in effect-required to receive carrier information. In truth, the disposition of carrier results generates competing moral infringements: to withhold information or require its possession. Resolving this dilemma demands consideration of a distinctive body of public health ethics to highlight the moral imperatives associated with the exercise of collective authority in the pursuit of public health benefits.

  12. Defining the Newborn Blood Spot Screening Reference Interval for TSH: Impact of Ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Brooke, Ivan; Heales, Simon; Ifederu, Adeboye; Langham, Shirley; Hindmarsh, Peter; Cole, Tim J.

    2016-01-01

    Context: There is variability in the congenital hypothyroidism (CH) newborn screening TSH cutoff across the United Kingdom. Objective: To determine the influences of year, gender, and ethnicity on screening variability and examine whether there is an optimal operational TSH cutoff. Design and Setting: Single center, retrospective population study using blood spot TSH cards received by the Great Ormond Street Hospital Screening Laboratory between 2006 and 2012. Patients: A total of 824 588 newborn screening blood spot TSH cards. Intervention: Blood spot TSH results were recorded with demographic data including the Ethnic Category Code. Main Outcome Measures: The proportions of samples exceeding different TSH cutoffs, ranked by ethnicity. Results: The proportion of samples exceeding the TSH cutoff increased over time, with the cutoff at 4 mU/L, but not at 6 mU/L. There was a consistent trend with ethnicity, irrespective of cutoff, with the odds ratio of exceeding the TSH cutoff lowest (∼1.0) in White babies, higher in Pakistani and Bangladeshi (>2.0), and highest in Chinese (>3.5). Conclusions: The blood spot TSH screening data demonstrate a clear ranking according to ethnicity for differences in mean TSH. This suggests that there may be ethnic differences in thyroid physiology. Ethnic diversity within populations needs to be considered when establishing and interpreting screening TSH cutoffs. PMID:27399348

  13. Optimization of the French cystic fibrosis newborn screening programme by a centralized tracking process.

    PubMed

    Munck, Anne; Delmas, Dominique; Audrézet, Marie-Pierre; Lemonnier, Lydie; Cheillan, David; Roussey, Michel

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the French cystic fibrosis newborn screening algorithm, based on data tracked by a centralized monitoring process, from 2002 to 2014. The programme aimed to attain European Standards in terms of positive predictive value, sensitivity, the ratio of screen positive patients diagnosed with cystic fibrosis to infants who screen positive but with inconclusive diagnosis (CFSPID), and time to diagnosis. Methods Retrospective analysis of programme performance, compliance with the algorithm, and changes in screening strategy. Results Modifications in the flow chart protocol improved the positive predictive value to 0.31 while maintaining the sensitivity at 0.95. Among infants diagnosed with cystic fibrosis, or identified as CFSPID, sweat test results were obtained for 94%, and two mutations were identified after exhaustive screening for the gene, when applicable, in 99.6%. The rate of pending diagnosis was very low (0.5%). The ratio of infants with cystic fibrosis:CFSPID was 6.3:1. Age at initial visit at the CF centre was ≤ 35 days, respectively, in 53%/26%. Conclusion Performances were in agreement with European standards, but timeliness of initial visit needed improvement. Our data complement an accumulating body of evidence demonstrating that attention must be paid to such ethical considerations as limiting carrier detection and inconclusive diagnosis. Newborn screening programmes should have a rigorous centralized monitoring process to warrant adjustments for improving performance to attain consensus guidelines.

  14. The case for mandatory newborn screening for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID).

    PubMed

    Gaspar, H B; Hammarström, L; Mahlaoui, N; Borte, M; Borte, S

    2014-05-01

    Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is the most severe form of inherited primary immunodeficiency and is a paediatric emergency. Delay in recognising and detecting SCID can have fatal consequences and also reduces the chances of a successful haematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). Screening for SCID at birth would prevent children from dying before HSCT can be attempted and would increase the success of HSCT. There is strong evidence to show that SCID fulfills the internationally-established criteria for a condition to be screened for at birth. There is also a test (the T-cell receptor excision circle (TREC) assay) that is now being successfully used in an increasing number of US states to screen for SCID in routine newborn Guthrie samples. Concerted lobbying efforts have highlighted the need for newborn screening (NBS) for SCID, and its implementation is being discussed in Europe both at EU and individual country level, but as yet there is no global mandate to screen for this rare and frequently lethal condition. This paper summarizes the current evidence for, and the success of SCID NBS, together with a review of the practical aspects of SCID testing and the arguments in favour of adding SCID to the conditions screened for at birth.

  15. Two new mutations in children affected by partial biotinidase deficiency ascertained by newborn screening.

    PubMed

    Funghini, S; Donati, M A; Pasquini, E; Gasperini, S; Ciani, F; Morrone, A; Zammarchi, E

    2002-08-01

    Mutation analysis performed on DNA from 6 Italian patients with partial biotinidase deficiency ascertained by newborn screening allowed the identification of two new mutations, c1211C > T (T404I) and a single base deletion c594delC. All patients were compound heterozygous for the D444H amino acid substitution showing that this mutation is also common in Italian patients affected by partial biotinidase deficiency.

  16. A prospective newborn screening and treatment program for sickle cell anemia in Luanda, Angola.

    PubMed

    McGann, Patrick T; Ferris, Margaret G; Ramamurthy, Uma; Santos, Brigida; de Oliveira, Vysolela; Bernardino, Luis; Ware, Russell E

    2013-12-01

    Over 300,000 infants are born annually with sickle cell anemia (SCA) in sub-Saharan Africa, and >50% die young from infection or anemia, usually without diagnosis of SCA. Early identification by newborn screening (NBS), followed by simple interventions dramatically reduced the mortality of SCA in the United States, but this strategy is not yet established in Africa. We designed and implemented a proof-of-principle NBS and treatment program for SCA in Angola, with focus on capacity building and local ownership. Dried bloodspots from newborns were collected from five birthing centers. Hemoglobin identification was performed using isoelectric focusing; samples with abnormal hemoglobin patterns were analyzed by capillary electrophoresis. Infants with abnormal FS or FSC patterns were enrolled in a newborn clinic to initiate penicillin prophylaxis and receive education, pneumococcal immunization, and insecticide-treated bed nets. A total of 36,453 infants were screened with 77.31% FA, 21.03% FAS, 1.51% FS, and 0.019% FSC. A majority (54.3%) of affected infants were successfully contacted and brought to clinical care. Compliance in the newborn clinic was excellent (96.6%). Calculated first-year mortality rate for babies with SCA compares favorably to the national infant mortality rate (6.8 vs. 9.8%). The SCA burden is extremely high in Angola, but NBS is feasible. Capacity building and training provide local healthcare workers with skills needed for a functional screening program and clinic. Contact and retrieval of all affected SCA infants remains a challenge, but families are compliant with clinic appointments and treatment. Early mortality data suggest screening and early preventive care saves lives. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Factors influencing follow-up to newborn hearing screening for infants who are hard of hearing.

    PubMed

    Holte, Lenore; Walker, Elizabeth; Oleson, Jacob; Spratford, Meredith; Moeller, Mary Pat; Roush, Patricia; Ou, Hua; Tomblin, J Bruce

    2012-12-01

    To document the epidemiological characteristics of a group of children who are hard of hearing, identify individual predictor variables for timely follow-up after a failed newborn hearing screening, and identify barriers to follow-up encountered by families. The authors used an accelerated longitudinal design to investigate outcomes for children who are hard of hearing in a large, multicenter study. The present study involved a subgroup of 193 children with hearing loss who did not pass the newborn hearing screening. The authors used available records to capture ages of confirmation of hearing loss, hearing aid fitting, and entry into early intervention. Linear regression models were used to investigate relationships among individual predictor variables and age at each follow-up benchmark. Of several predictor variables, only higher levels of maternal education were significantly associated with earlier confirmation of hearing loss and fitting of hearing aids; severity of hearing loss was not. No variables were significantly associated with age of entry into early intervention. Each recommended benchmark was met by a majority of children, but only one third met all of the benchmarks within the recommended time frame. Results suggest that underserved communities need extra support in navigating steps that follow failed newborn hearing screening.

  18. Improved Reagents for Newborn Screening of Mucopolysaccharidosis Types I, II, and VI by Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Tandem mass spectrometry for the multiplex and quantitative analysis of enzyme activities in dried blood spots on newborn screening cards has emerged as a powerful technique for early assessment of lysosomal storage diseases. Here we report the design and process-scale synthesis of substrates for the enzymes α-l-iduronidase, iduronate-2-sulfatase, and N-acetylgalactosamine-4-sulfatase that are used for newborn screening of mucopolysaccharidosis types I, II, and VI. The products contain a bisamide unit that is hypothesized to readily protonate in the gas phase, which improves detection sensitivity by tandem mass spectrometry. The products contain a benzoyl group, which provides a useful site for inexpensive deuteration, thus facilitating the preparation of internal standards for the accurate quantification of enzymatic products. Finally, the reagents are designed with ease of synthesis in mind, thus permitting scale-up preparation to support worldwide newborn screening of lysosomal storage diseases. The new reagents provide the most sensitive assay for the three lysosomal enzymes reported to date as shown by their performance in reactions using dried blood spots as the enzyme source. Also, the ratio of assay signal to that measured in the absence of blood (background) is superior to all previously reported mucopolysaccharidosis types I, II, and VI assays. PMID:24694010

  19. Improved reagents for newborn screening of mucopolysaccharidosis types I, II, and VI by tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chennamaneni, Naveen Kumar; Kumar, Arun Babu; Barcenas, Mariana; Spáčil, Zdeněk; Scott, C Ronald; Tureček, František; Gelb, Michael H

    2014-05-06

    Tandem mass spectrometry for the multiplex and quantitative analysis of enzyme activities in dried blood spots on newborn screening cards has emerged as a powerful technique for early assessment of lysosomal storage diseases. Here we report the design and process-scale synthesis of substrates for the enzymes α-l-iduronidase, iduronate-2-sulfatase, and N-acetylgalactosamine-4-sulfatase that are used for newborn screening of mucopolysaccharidosis types I, II, and VI. The products contain a bisamide unit that is hypothesized to readily protonate in the gas phase, which improves detection sensitivity by tandem mass spectrometry. The products contain a benzoyl group, which provides a useful site for inexpensive deuteration, thus facilitating the preparation of internal standards for the accurate quantification of enzymatic products. Finally, the reagents are designed with ease of synthesis in mind, thus permitting scale-up preparation to support worldwide newborn screening of lysosomal storage diseases. The new reagents provide the most sensitive assay for the three lysosomal enzymes reported to date as shown by their performance in reactions using dried blood spots as the enzyme source. Also, the ratio of assay signal to that measured in the absence of blood (background) is superior to all previously reported mucopolysaccharidosis types I, II, and VI assays.

  20. Feasibility study of an outreach program of newborn screening in Uttar Pradesh.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Meenal; Joshi, Kriti; Bhatia, Vijayalakshmi; Gopalakrishnan, Vignesh; Dabadghao, Preeti; Das, Vinita; Pandey, Amita; Kumar, Mala; Phadke, Shubha R

    2015-05-01

    To create awareness about newborn screening (NBS) in underprivileged population and establish the model of NBS as an outreach program in peripheral hospitals in and around Lucknow. During this project, social workers were trained in taking informed consent, demographic details of newborns, heel prick samples and transporting the filter papers to a central laboratory. These social workers were posted in seven hospitals, in and around Lucknow, catering to families with low socioeconomic strata. Assays were performed in a single laboratory and results were conveyed back to the social workers and the hospitals. A total of 13,426 newborns were screened for the three conditions namely congenital hypothyroidism (CH), biotinidase deficiency and galactosemia. Over all coverage rate was 73.5 % and average time of reporting of results was 8.8 + 2.4 days. More than 85 % (86.7 %) families with positive screening test could be contacted back and out of them, 83.6 % babies could be sampled for confirmatory tests. Eleven babies were diagnosed to have CH. The study has shown positive and enthusiastic responses of the lay persons. Questionnaire based survey among lay persons showed that almost 100 % individuals understood the advantages and method of NBS. This project has been successful in establishing a model of NBS as an outreach program in and around a district.

  1. A newborn screening method for cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis using bile alcohol glucuronides and metabolite ratios.

    PubMed

    Vaz, Frédéric M; Bootsma, Albert H; Kulik, Willem; Verrips, Aad; Wevers, Ron A; Schielen, Peter C; DeBarber, Andrea E; Huidekoper, Hidde H

    2017-03-17

    Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) is a treatable neurodegenerative metabolic disorder of bile acid synthesis where symptoms can be prevented if treatment with chenodeoxycholic acid supplementation is initiated early in life, making CTX an excellent candidate for newborn screening. We developed a new dried blood spot screening assay for this disorder based on different ratios between the accumulating cholestanetetrol glucuronide (tetrol) and specific bile acids/bile acid intermediates, without the need for derivatization. A quarter-inch dried blood spot punch was extracted with methanol, internal standards were added and after concentration the extract was injected into the tandem mass spectrometer using a 2 minute flow injection analysis where specific transitions were measured for cholestanetetrol glucuronide, tauro-chenodeoxycholic acid (t-CDCA) and tauro-trihydroxycholestanoic acid (t-THCA). A proof of principle experiment was performed using 216 Guthrie cards from healthy term/preterm newborns, CTX patients and Zellweger patients. Using two calculated biomarkers, tetrol/t-CDCA and t-THCA/tetrol, this straightforward method achieved an excellent separation between dried blood spots of CTX patients and those of controls, Zellweger patients and newborns with cholestasis. The results of this small pilot study indicate that the tetrol/t-CDCA ratio is an excellent derived biomarker for CTX that has the potential to be used in neonatal screening programs.

  2. Screening newborns for metabolic disorders based on targeted metabolomics using tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hye-Ran

    2015-09-01

    The main purpose of newborn screening is to diagnose genetic, metabolic, and other inherited disorders, at their earliest to start treatment before the clinical manifestations become evident. Understanding and tracing the biochemical data obtained from tandem mass spectrometry is vital for early diagnosis of metabolic diseases associated with such disorders. Accordingly, it is important to focus on the entire diagnostic process, including differential and confirmatory diagnostic options, and the major factors that influence the results of biochemical analysis. Compared to regular biochemical testing, this is a complex process carried out by a medical physician specialist. It is comprised of an integrated program requiring multidisciplinary approach such as, pediatric specialist, expert scientist, clinical laboratory technician, and nutritionist. Tandem mass spectrometry is a powerful tool to improve screening of newborns for diverse metabolic diseases. It is likely to be used to analyze other treatable disorders or significantly improve existing newborn tests to allow broad scale and precise testing. This new era of various screening programs, new treatments, and the availability of detection technology will prove to be beneficial for the future generations.

  3. Targeted metabolomics in the expanded newborn screening for inborn errors of metabolism.

    PubMed

    Scolamiero, Emanuela; Cozzolino, Carla; Albano, Lucia; Ansalone, Antonella; Caterino, Marianna; Corbo, Graziella; di Girolamo, Maria Grazia; Di Stefano, Cristina; Durante, Adriano; Franzese, Giovanni; Franzese, Ignazio; Gallo, Giovanna; Giliberti, Paolo; Ingenito, Laura; Ippolito, Giovanni; Malamisura, Basilio; Mazzeo, Pietro; Norma, Antonella; Ombrone, Daniela; Parenti, Giancarlo; Pellecchia, Silvana; Pecce, Rita; Pierucci, Ippolito; Romanelli, Roberta; Rossi, Anna; Siano, Massimo; Stoduto, Teodoro; Villani, Guglielmo R D; Andria, Generoso; Salvatore, Francesco; Frisso, Giulia; Ruoppolo, Margherita

    2015-06-01

    Inborn errors of metabolism are genetic disorders due to impaired activity of enzymes, transporters, or cofactors resulting in accumulation of abnormal metabolites proximal to the metabolic block, lack of essential products or accumulation of by-products. Many of these disorders have serious clinical consequences for affected neonates, and an early diagnosis allows presymptomatic treatment which can prevent severe permanent sequelae and in some cases death. Expanded newborn screening for these diseases is a promising field of targeted metabolomics. Here we report the application, between 2007 and 2014, of this approach to the identification of newborns in southern Italy at risk of developing a potentially fatal disease. The analysis of amino acids and acylcarnitines in dried blood spots by tandem mass spectrometry revealed 24 affected newborns among 45,466 infants evaluated between 48 and 72 hours of life (overall incidence: 1 : 1894). Diagnoses of newborns with elevated metabolites were confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, biochemical studies, and genetic analysis. Five infants were diagnosed with medium-chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase deficiency, 1 with methylmalonic acidemia with homocystinuria type CblC, 2 with isolated methylmalonic acidemia, 1 with propionic acidemia, 1 with isovaleric academia, 1 with isobutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency, 1 with beta ketothiolase deficiency, 1 with short branched chain amino acid deficiency, 1 with 3-methlycrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency, 1 with formimino-transferase cyclodeaminase deficiency, and 1 with cystathionine-beta-synthase deficiency. Seven cases of maternal vitamin B12 deficiency and 1 case of maternal carnitine uptake deficiency were detected. This study supports the widespread application of metabolomic-based newborn screening for these genetic diseases.

  4. A new mutation found in newborn screening for Fabry disease evaluated by plasma globotriaosylsphingosine levels

    PubMed Central

    Chinen, Yasutsugu; Nakamura, Sadao; Yoshida, Tomohide; Maruyama, Hiroki; Nakamura, Kimitoshi

    2017-01-01

    A pilot study of newborn screening for Fabry disease was performed in Okinawa, Japan. A total of 2,443 neonates were screened using dried blood spot samples over 7 years starting in 2007. Of 13 neonates determined to have low α-galactosidase A (GLA) activity, one boy had a new missense mutation, p.G144D of the GLA gene. This mutation was considered to be a late-onset type, as evaluated based on plasma globotriaosylsphingosine levels and family history. PMID:28224042

  5. A new mutation found in newborn screening for Fabry disease evaluated by plasma globotriaosylsphingosine levels.

    PubMed

    Chinen, Yasutsugu; Nakamura, Sadao; Yoshida, Tomohide; Maruyama, Hiroki; Nakamura, Kimitoshi

    2017-01-01

    A pilot study of newborn screening for Fabry disease was performed in Okinawa, Japan. A total of 2,443 neonates were screened using dried blood spot samples over 7 years starting in 2007. Of 13 neonates determined to have low α-galactosidase A (GLA) activity, one boy had a new missense mutation, p.G144D of the GLA gene. This mutation was considered to be a late-onset type, as evaluated based on plasma globotriaosylsphingosine levels and family history.

  6. Consensus Statement of the Indian Academy of Pediatrics on Newborn Hearing Screening.

    PubMed

    Paul, Abraham; Prasad, Chhaya; Kamath, S S; Dalwai, Samir; C Nair, M K; Pagarkar, Waheeda

    2017-08-15

    Hearing impairment is one of the most critical sensory impairments with significant social and psychological consequences. Evidence-based, standardized national guidelines are needed for professionals to screen for hearing impairment during the neonatal period. The meeting on formulation of national consensus guidelines on developmental disorders was organized by Indian Academy of Pediatrics in Mumbai, on 18th and 19th December, 2015. The invited experts included Pediatricians, Developmental Pediatricians, Pediatric Neurologists and Clinical Psychologists. The participants framed guidelines after extensive discussions. To provide guidelines on newborn hearing screening in India. The first screening should be conducted before the neonate's discharge from the hospital - if it 'fails', then it should be repeated after four weeks, or at first immunization visit. If it 'fails' again, then Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR) audiometry should be conducted. All babies admitted to intensive care unit should be screened via ABR. All babies with abnormal ABR should undergo detailed evaluation, hearing aid fitting and auditory rehabilitation, before six months of age. The goal is to screen newborn babies before one month of age, diagnose hearing loss before three months of age and start intervention before six months of age.

  7. Screening for cystic fibrosis in the newborn by meconium analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Ryley, H C; Neale, L M; Brogan, T D; Bray, P T

    1979-01-01

    During a 4-year routine screening programme for cystic fibrosis (CF) 15 464 specimens were examined for raised meconium albumin levels by a test strip method and by electroimmunoassay. The incidence of false-positive results was about 5 per 1000 specimens in either test. This could be reduced by 90% by determining the ratio of albumin : alpha-1-trypsin inhibitor (a ratio below 2.0 being considered as a negative result), and it could be reduced to zero by determining the ratio in subsequent faecal specimens. Three of 12 meconium specimens from infants with proved CF gave false-negative results in all 3 tests. The other 9 specimens had greater than 100 mg albumin/g dry weight and albumin: alpha-1-trypsin inhibitor ratios of greater than 3.0; in subsequent faecal specimens the ratios were over 4.0. 176 meconium specimens from elsewhere in the UK were examined and these included 23 from infants who were subsequently proved to have CF. Six of these 23 CF specimens gave false-negative results, the other 17 being strongly positive. The origins of meconium serum protein suggest that infants with CF in whom meconium gives false-negative results have normal pancreatic functions at birth. The specificity of current meconium tests therefore cannot be improved as they depend on pancreatic dysfunction. PMID:312055

  8. Ultrasound as a primary screening tool for detecting low birthweight newborns

    PubMed Central

    Goto, Eita

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: As low birthweight (i.e., birthweight < 2500 g) is a major determinant of neonatal mortality and morbidity, the pre-delivery detection of low birthweight is clinically advantageous. This study was performed to determine whether ultrasound is suitable for use in primary screening to detect low birthweight newborns. Methods: The primary outcomes included sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative likelihood ratios of ultrasound detection of low birthweight newborns. Ten databases, including PubMed, were searched. All English language studies that provided true- and false-positive and true- and false-negative results regarding the pre-delivery ultrasound detection of low birthweight newborns were eligible for inclusion in the analysis. Study quality was assessed using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies. Bivariate diagnostic meta-analysis was performed and hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed. Results: Studies of relatively good quality were included in the analysis to evaluate crown–rump length (n = 12); femur length (n = 5); formulas of Campbell, Hadlock, and Shepard (n = 9); and uterine artery blood flow (n = 7). All showed low sensitivity (=0.24–0.58) regardless of specificity (=0.60–0.96). The formulas of Campbell, Hadlock, and Shepard were usable for a confirmation strategy only (positive and negative likelihood ratios = 14.8 and 0.44, respectively), but crown–rump or femur length, and uterine artery blood flow were not usable for an exclusion or confirmation strategy (positive and negative likelihood ratios = 1.4–2.8 and 0.71–0.85, respectively). Conclusions: Primary screening does not have to confirm low birthweight, but should almost always categorize low birthweight as a positive result and exclude normal birthweight. Therefore, ultrasound is not suitable as a primary screening tool to detect low birthweight newborns. PMID

  9. Infants with HIV-infected mothers in a universal newborn hearing screening programme in Lagos, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Olusanya, Bolajoko O; Afe, Abayomi J; Onyia, Ngozi O

    2009-08-01

    To establish the characteristics of infants with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected mothers enrolled under a two-stage universal newborn hearing screening programme in Lagos, Nigeria. A matched case-control study from May 2005 to December 2007 in which factors associated with maternal HIV status were determined by conditional multivariable logistic regression analysis. Some 266 newborns had HIV-infected mothers and were matched with 1330 controls by age and sex. Factors independently associated with increased risk of maternal HIV status were ethnicity, religion, housing sanitation facilities and prematurity while prior or current caesarean section, admission into special care unit and hyperbilirubinaemia were associated with lower risk of maternal HIV. Maternal HIV status was not significantly associated (p = 0.082) with the risk of sensorineural hearing loss although newborns with HIV-infected mothers had more than two-fold risk (p = 0.030) of not completing the hearing tests compared with controls. HIV-infected mothers are likely to live in poor housing conditions but their newborns are not at an increased risk of sensorineural hearing loss in this setting barring the potential effect of significantly increased drop-out rate in this group.

  10. The Impact of the Affordable Care Act on Funding for Newborn Screening Services.

    PubMed

    Costich, Julia F; Durst, Andrea L

    2016-01-01

    The Affordable Care Act requires most health plans to cover the federal Recommended Uniform Screening Panel of newborn screening (NBS) tests with no cost sharing. However, state NBS programs vary widely in both the number of mandated tests and their funding mechanisms, including a combination of state laboratory fees, third-party billing, and other federal and state funding. We assessed the potential impact of the Affordable Care Act coverage mandate on states' NBS funding. We performed an extensive review of the refereed literature, federal and state agency reports, relevant organizations' websites, and applicable state laws and regulations; interviewed 28 state and federal officials from August to December 2014; and then assessed the interview findings manually. Although a majority of states had well-established systems for including laboratory-based NBS tests in bundled charges for newborn care, billing practices for critical congenital heart disease and newborn hearing tests were less uniform. Most commonly, birthing facilities either prepaid the costs of laboratory-based tests when acquiring the filter paper kits, or the facilities paid for the tests when the kits were submitted. Some states had separate arrangements for billing Medicaid, and smaller facilities sometimes contracted with hearing test vendors that billed families separately. Although the Affordable Care Act coverage mandate may offset some state NBS funding for the screenings themselves, federal support is still required to assure access to the full range of NBS program services. Limiting reimbursement to the costs of screening tests alone would undermine the common practice of using screening charges to fund follow-up services counseling, and medical food or formula, particularly for low-income families.

  11. The Impact of the Affordable Care Act on Funding for Newborn Screening Services

    PubMed Central

    Durst, Andrea L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The Affordable Care Act requires most health plans to cover the federal Recommended Uniform Screening Panel of newborn screening (NBS) tests with no cost sharing. However, state NBS programs vary widely in both the number of mandated tests and their funding mechanisms, including a combination of state laboratory fees, third-party billing, and other federal and state funding. We assessed the potential impact of the Affordable Care Act coverage mandate on states' NBS funding. Method We performed an extensive review of the refereed literature, federal and state agency reports, relevant organizations' websites, and applicable state laws and regulations; interviewed 28 state and federal officials from August to December 2014; and then assessed the interview findings manually. Results Although a majority of states had well-established systems for including laboratory-based NBS tests in bundled charges for newborn care, billing practices for critical congenital heart disease and newborn hearing tests were less uniform. Most commonly, birthing facilities either prepaid the costs of laboratory-based tests when acquiring the filter paper kits, or the facilities paid for the tests when the kits were submitted. Some states had separate arrangements for billing Medicaid, and smaller facilities sometimes contracted with hearing test vendors that billed families separately. Conclusion Although the Affordable Care Act coverage mandate may offset some state NBS funding for the screenings themselves, federal support is still required to assure access to the full range of NBS program services. Limiting reimbursement to the costs of screening tests alone would undermine the common practice of using screening charges to fund follow-up services counseling, and medical food or formula, particularly for low-income families. PMID:26843682

  12. Referral rates and cost efficiency in a universal newborn hearing screening program using transient evoked otoacoustic emissions.

    PubMed

    Maxon, A B; White, K R; Behrens, T R; Vohr, B R

    1995-07-01

    Recently, a National Institutes of Health Consensus Statement recommended that all infants be screened for hearing prior leaving the birthing hospital using a two-stage screening process based on transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs). Although the value of identifying hearing loss before 1 year of age is widely recognized, the feasibility of universal newborn hearing screening using TEOAE is sometimes questioned because it is presumed that the technique has a high false positive rate and is not cost efficient. This paper presents new data for 4253 infants from an operational universal newborn hearing screening program using a TEOAE procedure that answers those arguments.

  13. Reverse cascade screening of newborns for hereditary haemochromatosis: a model for other late onset diseases?

    PubMed Central

    Cadet, E; Capron, D; Gallet, M; Omanga-Leke, M; Boutignon, H; Julier, C; Robson, K; Rochette, J

    2005-01-01

    Background: Genetic testing can determine those at risk for hereditary haemochromatosis (HH) caused by HFE mutations before the onset of symptoms. However, there is no optimum screening strategy, mainly owing to the variable penetrance in those who are homozygous for the HFE Cys282Tyr (C282Y) mutation. The objective of this study was to identify the majority of individuals at serious risk of developing HFE haemochromatosis before they developed life threatening complications. Methods: We first estimated the therapeutic penetrance of the C282Y mutation in people living in la Somme, France, using genetic, demographic, biochemical, and follow up data. We examined the benefits of neonatal screening on the basis of increased risk to relatives of newborns carrying one or two copies of the C282Y mutation. Between 1999 and 2002, we screened 7038 newborns from two maternity hospitals in the north of France for the C282Y and His63Asp (H63D) mutations in the HFE gene, using bloodspots collected on Guthrie cards. Family studies and genetic counselling were undertaken, based on the results of the baby's genotype. Findings: In la Somme, we found that 24% of the adults homozygous for the C282Y mutation required at least 5 g iron to be removed to restore normal iron parameters (that is, the therapeutic penetrance). In the reverse cascade screening study, we identified 19 C282Y homozygotes (1/370), 491 heterozygotes (1/14) and 166 compound heterozygotes (1/42) in 7038 newborns tested. The reverse cascade screening strategy resulted in 80 adults being screened for both mutations. We identified 10 previously unknown C282Y homozygotes of whom six (four men and two women) required venesection. Acceptance of neonatal screening was high; parents understood the risks of having HH and the benefits of early detection, but a number of parents were reluctant to take the test themselves. Neonatal screening for HH is straightforward. Reverse cascade screening increased the efficiency of

  14. [Analysis of newborn screening for galactosemia and genotype-phenotype of confirmed galatosemia cases].

    PubMed

    Yang, R L; Tong, F; Hong, F; Qian, G L; Wu, D W; Zhao, Z Y

    2017-02-02

    Objective: To investigate the prevalence of galactosemia(GAL), and the characteristics of genotype and phenotype of newborns who were confirmed with GAL in newborn screening in Zhejiang province. Method: The number of all live births, newborn screened infants and all clinical data of confirmed newborns with GAL from October 2013 to March 2015 were retrospectively analyzed by reviewing the data of Zhejiang Province screening center database. And the characteristics of genes and the clinical data of GAL cases who were confirmed by correlative gene test and enzyme activity measurement were analyzed. Result: The prevalence of GAL in Zhejiang province was 1/189 857. Among them, there was 1 case confirmed with GAL typeⅠ (prevalence, 1/759 428), with mutations of c. 904+ 1G>T and c. 687G>A, the enzyme activity of galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) was 56.4% of controls. And there was 1 case of GAL typeⅡ(prevalence, 1/759 428), with mutations of c. 85G>T and c. 502G>A. There were 2 cases confirmed with GAL type Ⅲ(prevalence, 1/379 714), with mutations of c. 505C>T, c. 452G>A, c. 280G>A and c. 925G>A, the enzyme activity of UDP-galactose-4'-epimerase (GALE) were 42% and 38% of controls, respectively. All cases had different abnormal biochemical marks of liver function, and 1 case had combined hyperlactacidemia or hyperammonemia or increase of multiple kinds of amino acids, respectively. The newborn of GAL type Ⅱ had phacoscotasmus before treatment. All the cases were fed with lactose free milk powder, and all the abnormal parameters were improved during following up. Conclusion: The disease of GAL is rare in Zhejiang province, and its genotype distribution is scattered with comparatively mind clinical manifestations, and the cases with early treatment with lactose free milk powder have good prognosis. All cases needed to be treated and followed up for a life-long time. It is recommended that the high risk cases with GAL should be screened as soon as

  15. Pulse oximetry as a screening tool for detecting major congenital heart defects in Indian newborns.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Anita; Mehta, Anurag; Ramakrishnan, Sivasubramanian; Sharma, Mamta; Salhan, Sudha; Kalaivani, M; Juneja, Rajnish

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the use of pulse oximetry as a screening tool for detecting major congenital heart defects (CHDs) in Indian newborns. Cross-sectional observational study. In a community hospital of north India, babies born during a specific 8 h period of the day were recruited over a period of 3 years. Newborns with incomplete documentation were excluded. Routine clinical examination, pulse oximetry and bedside echocardiography. Any abnormalities in clinical examination and pulse oximetry were recorded. CHDs were diagnosed using bedside echocardiography. Accuracy of pulse oximetry, clinical examination and their combination for detecting major CHDs was calculated. Among the 19 009 newborns screened, 70 had major CHDs at birth (44 serious, 26 critical). Pulse oximetry detected 39 major (sensitivity 55.7%, 95% CI 44.1% to 66.8%; specificity 68.3%, 67.6% to 68.9%) and 22 critical CHDs (sensitivity 84.6%, 66.5% to 93.9%; specificity 68.3%, 67.6% to 68.9%). Addition of pulse oximetry to clinical examination significantly improved sensitivity for major CHDs (35.7% (25.5% to 47.4%) to 75.7% (64.5% to 85.3%), p<0.01) and critical CHDs (11.5% (4.0% to 29.0%) to 84.6% (66.5% to 93.9%), p<0.01). Pulse oximetry is a sensitive screening tool for detecting major CHDs in Indian newborns. It adds significant value to the current practice of using clinical examination as a sole screening tool for detecting major CHDs. However, specificity of pulse oximetry was much lower in our study. Possible reasons for low specificity could be non-repetition of pulse oximetry in newborns with initial lower saturations, high prevalence of infections and respiratory issues in our cohort and use of non-motion tolerant oximeter. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Newborn screening for X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy in New York State: diagnostic protocol, surveillance protocol and treatment guidelines.

    PubMed

    Vogel, B H; Bradley, S E; Adams, D J; D'Aco, K; Erbe, R W; Fong, C; Iglesias, A; Kronn, D; Levy, P; Morrissey, M; Orsini, J; Parton, P; Pellegrino, J; Saavedra-Matiz, C A; Shur, N; Wasserstein, M; Raymond, G V; Caggana, M

    2015-04-01

    To describe a diagnostic protocol, surveillance and treatment guidelines, genetic counseling considerations and long-term follow-up data elements developed in preparation for X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) newborn screening in New York State. A group including the director from each regional NYS inherited metabolic disorder center, personnel from the NYS Newborn Screening Program, and others prepared a follow-up plan for X-ALD NBS. Over the months preceding the start of screening, a series of conference calls took place to develop and refine a complete newborn screening system from initial positive screen results to long-term follow-up. A diagnostic protocol was developed to determine for each newborn with a positive screen whether the final diagnosis is X-ALD, carrier of X-ALD, Zellweger spectrum disorder, acyl CoA oxidase deficiency or D-bifunctional protein deficiency. For asymptomatic males with X-ALD, surveillance protocols were developed for use at the time of diagnosis, during childhood and during adulthood. Considerations for timing of treatment of adrenal and cerebral disease were developed. Because New York was the first newborn screening laboratory to include X-ALD on its panel, and symptoms may not develop for years, long-term follow-up is needed to evaluate the presented guidelines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Elevated phenylalanine on newborn screening: follow-up testing may reveal undiagnosed galactosaemia.

    PubMed

    Shakespeare, Lynette; Downing, Melanie; Allen, Joyce; Casbolt, Ann-Marie; Ellin, Sheila; Maloney, Martin; Race, Gillian; Bonham, Jim

    2010-11-01

    Introduction Newborn screening for phenylketonuria (PKU) can reveal other conditions which lead to an increased blood spot phenylalanine (Phe) concentration. We have investigated the proportion of blood spot samples that gave a positive screen due to clinically significant conditions other than PKU, compared the positive predictive value (PPV) of our referral Phe cut-off with that recommended by the UK Newborn Screening Programme Centre (UKNSPC) (>210 and >240 μmol/L, respectively) and evaluated the effectiveness of reflex testing for galactosaemia using a lower blood spot Phe cut-off concentration of 130 μmol/L. All blood spot samples that screened positive, for an increased Phe concentration, between April 2001 and March 2008, were identified from the records of the Sheffield Newborn Screening Laboratory and the diagnoses noted. In addition, all cases of galactosaemia detected in or notified to our screening laboratory within this time were also examined and the screened Phe concentrations compared. Out of 438,674 babies who were screened, 67 had Phe concentration >210 μmol/L (15 per 100,000). Of these, 40 had PKU or persistent hyperphenylalaninaemia with a Phe concentration identified by screening between 270 and 2350 μmol/L. A further 11 were diagnosed with another clinically significant disorder: galactosaemia (n = 8), biopterin defects (n = 2), tyrosinaemia Type 1 (n = 1). In addition, 16 had transient elevations in Phe. In total, nine cases of galactosaemia were identified, of whom, three had Phe concentrations <240 μmol/L with one asymptomatic individual having a concentration <210 μmol/L. Adoption of the UKNSPC recommended cut-off (>240 μmol/L) will not affect the detection rate of classical PKU, but will improve the PPV from 76% to 80%. The use of a lower cut-off (130 μmol/L) for reflex galactosaemia testing enables the timely identification of asymptomatic cases that benefit particularly from early treatment, without prompting any unnecessary

  18. Interdisciplinary approach to design, performance, and quality management in a multicenter newborn hearing screening project: introduction, methods, and results of the newborn hearing screening in Hamburg (Part I).

    PubMed

    Rohlfs, Anna-Katharina; Wiesner, Thomas; Drews, Holger; Müller, Frank; Breitfuss, Achim; Schiller, Regina; Hess, Markus

    2010-11-01

    From the actual point of view, the "sensitive period" for the effects of hearing impairment on speech and language development is within the first year of life. Early exposure to acoustic or electric stimulation can compensate for the acoustic deficit. A regional-based, specifically designed concept of a universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS) was started in Hamburg in the year 2002. For the first time in Germany, a comprehensive protocol including screening measurement, follow-up procedures, tracking, and early intervention was implemented. An interdisciplinary approach from the very beginning could be realized. Sixty-three thousand, four hundred fifty-nine out of 65,466 births were registered during the period August 2002 to July 2006, 93% were primarily screened. 3.3% failed the test and 31.3% were lost to follow-up. A total of 118 children were diagnosed with hearing loss in the follow-up. The median age at time of diagnosis was 3.5 months. Seventy-four children received hearing aids. Out of these 74 children, 6 were subsequently supplied with cochlear implants. The high lost-to-follow-up rate is the biggest challenge for the tracking. Our results will be discussed in part II.

  19. Tandem mass spectrometry newborn screening for inborn errors of intermediary metabolism: abnormal profile interpretation.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Lainez, C; Aguilar-Lemus, J J; Vela-Amieva, M; Ibarra-González, I

    2012-01-01

    Expanded newborn screening for inherited metabolic disorders using tandem mass spectrometry was introduced in 1990's and is widely used around the world. In contrast to conventional screening methods, tandem mass spectrometry does not measure single analytes but identifies and quantifies metabolite profiles; one single blood spot analyzed provides information of about 60 metabolites including amino acids, acylcarnitines and related ratios that enable the diagnosis of approximately 50 different diseases. However, the interpretation of these profiles can become quite complex. The aim of this work is to present in an easy and practical manner a comprehensive compilation of information needed for tandem mass neonatal screening profile interpretation, and basic actions for immediate follow up of abnormal results, including the tests that are required for confirmatory purposes. Other conditions not attributable to metabolic disorders which can lead to an abnormal profile of these markers are also described as well as a series of general recommendations which would be useful for health professionals who are beginning newborn screening for inborn errors of intermediary metabolism using tandem mass spectrometry.

  20. Expanded newborn screening: articulating the ontology of diseases with bridging work in the clinic.

    PubMed

    Timmermans, Stefan; Buchbinder, Mara

    2012-02-01

    Population screening follows the logic of secondary prevention: a population is screened to detect disease early and to initiate treatment before symptoms emerge. However, not all population screening is justifiable under all circumstances. In this article, we unpack Wilson and Jungner's requirement that knowledge about the natural history of a disease must be 'adequate' for screening to proceed. We argue that any prior understanding of disease is inevitably found to be insufficient once population screening is instituted. Drawing upon ethnographic observations of clinical consultations and staff meetings conducted in a California regional clinical centre for metabolic-genetic disorders, we introduce the notion of bridging work to draw attention to the collective activities of the genetics team to revise the ontological nature of conditions unsettled by population-based newborn screening. Bridging work refers to the many activities required to reconcile the promise of technologies with the realities of their implementation. We illustrate how clinicians bridge the gap between what was known about a disease prior to screening and anomalous screening results, leading to an ontological transformation of disease categories.

  1. Clinical Follow-Up for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Newborn Screening: A Proposal.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jennifer M; Abdel-Hamid, Hoda Z; Al-Zaidy, Samiah A; Mendell, Jerry R; Kennedy, Annie; Kinnett, Kathi; Cwik, Valerie A; Street, Natalie; Bolen, Julie; Day, John W; Connolly, Anne M

    2016-08-01

    New developments in the rapid diagnosis and treatment of boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) have led to growing enthusiasm for instituting DMD newborn screening (NBS) in the United States. Our group has been interested in developing clinical guidance to be implemented consistently in specialty care clinics charged with the care of presymptomatically identified newborns referred after DMD-NBS. We reviewed the existing literature covering patient-centered clinical follow-up after NBS, educational material from public health and advocacy sites, and federal recommendations on effective NBS follow-up. We discussed the review as a group and added our own experience to develop materials suitable for initial parent and primary care provider education. These materials and a series of templates for subspecialist encounters could be used to provide consistent care across centers and serve as the basis for ongoing quality improvement. Muscle Nerve 54: 186-191, 2016.

  2. Newborn screening conditions: What we know, what we do not know, and how we will know it.

    PubMed

    Levy, Harvey L

    2010-12-01

    Expanding newborn screening beyond that for phenylketonuria was always the goal of Guthrie once phenylketonuria screening was on solid ground. He succeeded in this effort to an extent, adding screening for galactosemia, maple syrup urine disease, and homocystinuria. Screening for congenital hypothyroidism, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, biotinidase deficiency, and a few additional disorders was added by others over the years. However, a very large expansion of covered metabolic disorders eluded Guthrie despite his best efforts. This required a new screening technology, tandem mass spectrometry, which was not available until recently. Now, almost all developed newborn screening program use tandem mass spectrometry to cover the 29 metabolic disorders recommended for coverage by the American College of Medical Genetics and additional secondary disorders. The results have in some cases been spectacular in preventing or greatly reducing the burden of disease imposed by many of the screened disorders. However, expanded newborn screening has also brought problems that need to be addressed. These include lack of knowledge about the natural history of some of the disorders, absence of effective preventive therapy for others, identification of seemingly benign disorders or benign variants of severe disorders, and the resulting parental anxiety. To address these and other issues brought by expanded newborn screening, a national effort led by the American College of Medical Genetics has been developed. This effort known as the Newborn Screening Translational Research Network seeks to stimulate research, advocate pilot screening programs for proposed new additions to screening, and develop a protocol-based systematic long-term follow-up of infants identified in expanded screening programs. Upon the outcome, this critical effort will depend on the health and well-being of children throughout the United States.

  3. Pilot study of newborn screening for six lysosomal storage diseases using Tandem Mass Spectrometry☆

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Susan; Buroker, Norman; Cournoyer, Jason J.; Potier, Anna M.; Trometer, Joseph D.; Elbin, Carole; Schermer, Mack J.; Kantola, Jaana; Boyce, Aaron; Turecek, Frantisek; Gelb, Michael H.; Scott, C. Ronald

    2017-01-01

    Background There is current expansion of newborn screening (NBS) programs to include lysosomal storage disorders because of the availability of treatments that produce an optimal clinical outcome when started early in life. Objective To evaluate the performance of a multiplex-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) enzymatic activity assay of 6 lysosomal enzymes in a NBS laboratory for the identification of newborns at risk for developing Pompe, Mucopolysaccharidosis-I (MPS-I), Fabry, Gaucher, Niemann Pick-A/B, and Krabbe diseases. Methods and Results Enzyme activities (acid α-glucosidase (GAA), galactocerebrosidase (GALC), glucocerebrosidase (GBA), α-galactosidase A (GLA), α-iduronidase (IDUA) and sphingomyeline phosphodiesterase-1 (SMPD-1)) were measured on ~43,000 de-identified dried blood spot (DBS) punches, and screen positive samples were submitted for DNA sequencing to obtain genotype confirmation of disease risk. The 6-plex assay was efficiently performed in the Washington state NBS laboratory by a single laboratory technician at the bench using a single MS/MS instrument. The number of screen positive samples per 100,000 newborns were as follows: GAA (4.5), IDUA (13.6), GLA (18.2), SMPD1 (11.4), GBA (6.8), and GALC (25.0). Discussion A 6-plex MS/MS assay for 6 lysosomal enzymes can be successfully performed in a NBS laboratory. The analytical ranges (enzyme-dependent assay response for the quality control HIGH sample divided by that for all enzyme-independent processes) for the 6-enzymes with the MS/MS is 5- to 15-fold higher than comparable fluorimetric assays using 4-methylumbelliferyl substrates. The rate of screen positive detection is consistently lower for the MS/MS assay compared to the fluorimetric assay using a digital microfluidics platform. PMID:27238910

  4. Direct multiplex assay of lysosomal enzymes in dried blood spots for newborn screening.

    PubMed

    Li, Yijun; Scott, C Ronald; Chamoles, Nestor A; Ghavami, Ahmad; Pinto, B Mario; Turecek, Frantisek; Gelb, Michael H

    2004-10-01

    Newborn screening for deficiency in the lysosomal enzymes that cause Fabry, Gaucher, Krabbe, Niemann-Pick A/B, and Pompe diseases is warranted because treatment for these syndromes is now available or anticipated in the near feature. We describe a multiplex screening method for all five lysosomal enzymes that uses newborn-screening cards containing dried blood spots as the enzyme source. We used a cassette of substrates and internal standards to directly quantify the enzymatic activities, and tandem mass spectrometry for enzymatic product detection. Rehydrated dried blood spots were incubated with the enzyme substrates. We used liquid-liquid extraction followed by solid-phase extraction with silica gel to remove buffer components. Acarbose served as inhibitor of an interfering acid alpha-glucosidase present in neutrophils, which allowed the lysosomal enzyme implicated in Pompe disease to be selectively analyzed. We analyzed dried blood spots from 5 patients with Gaucher, 5 with Niemann-Pick A/B, 11 with Pompe, 5 with Fabry, and 12 with Krabbe disease, and in all cases the enzyme activities were below the minimum activities measured in a collection of heterozygous carriers and healthy noncarrier individuals. The enzyme activities measured in 5-9 heterozygous carriers were approximately one-half those measured with 15-32 healthy individuals, but there was partial overlap of each condition between the data sets for carriers and healthy individuals. For all five diseases, the affected individuals were detected. The assay can be readily automated, and the anticipated reagent and supply costs are well within the budget limits of newborn-screening centers.

  5. Direct Multiplex Assay of Lysosomal Enzymes in Dried Blood Spots for Newborn Screening

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yijun; Scott, C. Ronald; Chamoles, Nestor A.; Ghavami, Ahmad; Pinto, B. Mario; Turecek, Frantisek; Gelb, Michael H.

    2012-01-01

    Background Newborn screening for deficiency in the lysosomal enzymes that cause Fabry, Gaucher, Krabbe, Niemann–Pick A/B, and Pompe diseases is warranted because treatment for these syndromes is now available or anticipated in the near feature. We describe a multiplex screening method for all five lysosomal enzymes that uses newborn-screening cards containing dried blood spots as the enzyme source. Methods We used a cassette of substrates and internal standards to directly quantify the enzymatic activities, and tandem mass spectrometry for enzymatic product detection. Rehydrated dried blood spots were incubated with the enzyme substrates. We used liquid-liquid extraction followed by solid-phase extraction with silica gel to remove buffer components. Acarbose served as inhibitor of an interfering acid α-glucosidase present in neutrophils, which allowed the lysosomal enzyme implicated in Pompe disease to be selectively analyzed. Results We analyzed dried blood spots from 5 patients with Gaucher, 5 with Niemann–Pick A/B, 11 with Pompe, 5 with Fabry, and 12 with Krabbe disease, and in all cases the enzyme activities were below the minimum activities measured in a collection of heterozygous carriers and healthy noncarrier individuals. The enzyme activities measured in 5–9 heterozygous carriers were approximately one-half those measured with 15–32 healthy individuals, but there was partial overlap of each condition between the data sets for carriers and healthy individuals. Conclusion For all five diseases, the affected individuals were detected. The assay can be readily automated, and the anticipated reagent and supply costs are well within the budget limits of newborn-screening centers. PMID:15292070

  6. The magnitude and challenge of false-positive newborn screening test results.

    PubMed

    Kwon, C; Farrell, P M

    2000-07-01

    This study examined for the first time to our knowledge the national data available from newborn screening programs in the United States and determined the salient characteristics of various screening tests for 3 hereditary metabolic disorders and 2 congenital endocrinopathies with emphasis on positive predictive values (PPVs) to delineate the magnitude of false-positive results. Reports published by the Council of Regional Networks for Genetic Services for 1990 through 1994 were examined carefully, paying particular attention to phenylketonuria, galactosemia, biotinidase deficiency, congenital hypothyroidism, and congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). Because of recent improvements in data collecting, reporting, and tabulating, we used data from 1993 and 1994 to determine the apparent sensitivity, specificity, relative incidence rates, and PPVs for the 5 disorders. For biotinidase deficiency and CAH, we also calculated relative incidence rates and PPVs for 1991 and 1992. Our analyses revealed the following best estimates for the relative incidence rates of 5 disorders: phenylketonuria, 1:14,000; galactosemia, 1:59,000; biotinidase deficiency, 1:80,000; congenital hypothyroidism, 1:3,300; and CAH, 1:20,000. An apparent sensitivity of 100% has been reported by the various states for most of the disorders, and specificity levels are all above 99%. The PPVs, however, range from 0.5% to 6.0%. Consequently, on average, there are more than 50 false-positive results for every true-positive result identified through newborn screening in the United States. The magnitude of false-positive results generated in newborn screening programs, particularly for congenital endocrinopathies, presents a great challenge for future improvement of this important public health program. Attention must be given to improved laboratory tests, use of more specific markers, and better risk communication for families of patients with false-positive test results.

  7. Newborn Hearing Screening in a Public Maternity Ward in Curitiba, Brazil: Determining Factors for Not Retesting.

    PubMed

    Luz, Idalina; Ribas, Angela; Kozlowski, Lorena; Willig, Mariluci; Berberian, Ana Paula

    2016-10-01

    Introduction Law 12.303/10 requires hearing screening in newborns before hospital discharge to detect possible hearing problems within the first three months after birth. If the newborn fails the test or presents signs of risk for hearing loss, it must undergo a retest and monitoring during the first year of life. In practice, this often does not happen. Objective To identify, in a group of mothers of children with risk factors for hearing loss, the determining reasons for non-compliance with the auditory retest. Method This is a cross-sectional quantitative study. For data collection, we handed a semi-structured questionnaire to 60 mothers of babies at risk for hearing loss who did not attend the hearing retest after hospital discharge. The questionnaire investigated their age, education, marital status, level of knowledge about the hearing screening, and reasons for non-compliance with the retest. We compared and analyzed data using the Chi-square test at a significance level of 0.05%. Results Our study found that 63% of the respondents were unaware of the hearing screening and most did not receive guidance on testing during prenatal care; 30% of participants stated forgetting as the reason for not attending the retest. There was no significant relationship between age, education, and marital status regarding knowledge about the test and the non-compliance with the retest. Conclusion Identified as the most significant determining factors for non-compliance with the newborn hearing screening retest were the surveyed mothers' forgetting the date, and their ignorance as to the importance of retesting.

  8. Newborn Hearing Screening in a Public Maternity Ward in Curitiba, Brazil: Determining Factors for Not Retesting

    PubMed Central

    Luz, Idalina; Ribas, Angela; Kozlowski, Lorena; Willig, Mariluci; Berberian, Ana Paula

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Law 12.303/10 requires hearing screening in newborns before hospital discharge to detect possible hearing problems within the first three months after birth. If the newborn fails the test or presents signs of risk for hearing loss, it must undergo a retest and monitoring during the first year of life. In practice, this often does not happen. Objective To identify, in a group of mothers of children with risk factors for hearing loss, the determining reasons for non-compliance with the auditory retest. Method This is a cross-sectional quantitative study. For data collection, we handed a semi-structured questionnaire to 60 mothers of babies at risk for hearing loss who did not attend the hearing retest after hospital discharge. The questionnaire investigated their age, education, marital status, level of knowledge about the hearing screening, and reasons for non-compliance with the retest. We compared and analyzed data using the Chi-square test at a significance level of 0.05%. Results Our study found that 63% of the respondents were unaware of the hearing screening and most did not receive guidance on testing during prenatal care; 30% of participants stated forgetting as the reason for not attending the retest. There was no significant relationship between age, education, and marital status regarding knowledge about the test and the non-compliance with the retest. Conclusion Identified as the most significant determining factors for non-compliance with the newborn hearing screening retest were the surveyed mothers' forgetting the date, and their ignorance as to the importance of retesting. PMID:27746830

  9. [Evaluation of the audiological characteristics of 3251 cases who failed the newborn hearing screening in Guangzhou].

    PubMed

    Luo, Renzhong; Wen, Ruijin; Gao, Shengli; Zou, Bin; Zhou, Jialin

    2011-07-01

    To analyze the audiological characteristics of the cases who failed the newborn hearing screening under the two hearing screening programs (OAE and AABR) in two different screening population(with or without high-risk of hearing loss). Three thousand two hundred and fifty-one babies (6502 ears) who failed the hearing screening twice or more and then failed in the audiological evaluation are included in the research. The cases were divided into two groups by the time accepting the screening, < 6 (2683 cases) months or > or = 6 months (568 cases), and then analyze the effect of age on the audiological characteristics. Compare the sensitivity and specificity of different hearing screening programs, OAE or AABR. Evaluate the audiological characteristics between the groups with or without the high-risk factors of hearing loss. Total of them were performed detailed audiological evaluation including in ABR, DPOAE, acoustic immittance, and some of them accepted ASSR test and computer tomography. 85.30% to 86.54% infants accepted initial screening in Guangzhou city, and less than 64. 10% infants underwent rescreening. 0.0282% or 0.0220% infants needed immediately early intervention. The group without high-risk factors was less likely to suffer from mild to profound hearing loss than those with high-risk factors. According to different hearing screening programs, more cases passed the OAE hearing screening and more cases were diagnosed profound hearing loss under AABR screening. AABR screening technology is better than OAE screening. The target population is the infants with risk factors, so perinatal history record is very important. The percentage of population who need immediately early intervention is more than 0.0282%-0.0220%.

  10. NEWBORN SCREENING FOR SEVERE COMBINED IMMUNODEFICIENCIES USING TRECS AND KRECS: SECOND PILOT STUDY IN BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Kanegae, Marilia Pyles P.; Barreiros, Lucila Akune; Sousa, Jusley Lira; Brito, Marco Antônio S.; de Oliveira, Edgar Borges; Soares, Lara Pereira; Mazzucchelli, Juliana Themudo L.; Fernandes, Débora Quiorato; Hadachi, Sonia Marchezi; Holanda, Silvia Maia; Guimarães, Flavia Alice T. M.; Boacnin, Maura Aparecida P. V. V.; Pereira, Marley Aparecida L.; Bueno, Joaquina Maria C.; Grumach, Anete Sevciovic; Gesu, Regina Sumiko W. Di; dos Santos, Amélia Miyashiro N.; Bellesi, Newton; Costa-Carvalho, Beatriz T.; Condino-Neto, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To validate the quantification of T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) and kappa-deleting recombination excision circles (KRECs) by real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) for newborn screening of primary immunodeficiencies with defects in T and/or B cells in Brazil. Methods: Blood samples from newborns and controls were collected on filter paper. DNA was extracted and TRECs, and KRECs were quantified by a duplex real-time PCR. The cutoff values were determined by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis using SPSS software (IBM®, Armonk, NY, USA). Results: Around 6,881 samples from newborns were collected and TRECs and KRECs were quantified. The TRECs values ranged between 1 and 1,006 TRECs/µL, with mean and median of 160 and 139 TRECs/µL, respectively. Three samples from patients with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) showed TRECs below 4/µL and a patient with DiGeorge syndrome showed undetectable TRECs. KRECs values ranged from 10 to 1,097 KRECs/µL, with mean and median of 130 and 108 KRECs/µL. Four patients with agammaglobulinemia had results below 4 KRECs/µL. The cutoff values were 15 TRECs/µL and 14 KRECs/µL and were established according to the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, with 100% sensitivity for SCID and agammaglobulinemia detection, respectively. Conclusions: Quantification of TRECs and KRECs was able to diagnose children with T- and/or B-cell lymphopenia in our study, which validated the technique in Brazil and enabled us to implement the newborn screening program for SCID and agammaglobulinemia. PMID:28977313

  11. Application of a second-tier newborn screening assay for c5 isoforms.

    PubMed

    Cloppenborg, T; Janzen, N; Wagner, Hj; Steuerwald, U; Peter, M; Das, Am

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of false-positive metabolic screening for isovaleric acidemia in a newborn due to treatment of the mother with pivalic acid containing antibiotics before delivery. By using a recently established second-tier test based on the tandem-MS technique, we could identify pivalic acid in a dried blood sample taken during routine neonatal screening. Before this second-tier test was initiated, diverse analytical procedures were performed in the baby to rule out isovaleric acidemia and carnitine supplementation was started. This caused additional psychological burden to the family. The direct use of the second-tier test would have avoided these negative consequences of a false-positive screening result.

  12. Parents' Decisions to Screen Newborns for FMR1 Gene Expansions in a Pilot Research Project

    PubMed Central

    Choudhury, Summer; Sideris, John; Guarda, Sonia; Buansi, Allen; Roche, Myra; Powell, Cynthia; Bailey, Donald B.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to document rates of parental consent in a pilot study of newborn screening for FMR1 gene expansions, examine demographic characteristics of mothers who consented or declined, describe the reasons for their decision, and discuss ethical and social aspects of the consent process. METHODS: A brief survey was used to record basic demographic data from mothers and an open-ended question was used to elicit parents' reasons for accepting or declining screening. A descriptive analysis was conducted on the number of mothers who consented to or declined screening, and a logistic regression model predicted mothers' likelihood to agree to screening based on demographic characteristics. Reasons for decisions were analyzed using content analysis. The study was conducted at University of North Carolina Hospitals. A total of 2137 mothers were approached. RESULTS: The uptake rate for couples was 63%. Acceptance rates varied by race/ethnicity, with black respondents being less likely to accept screening. Primary reasons for accepting were “to know,” “belief in research,” and “the test was minimal/no risk.” Reasons for declining included not wanting to know or worry, not being a good time, and issues with testing children or with genetic tests. CONCLUSIONS: Findings demonstrate that a majority of parents accepted newborn screening for FMR1 gene expansions, but decision rates and reasons for accepting or declining varied in part as a function of race/ethnicity and in part as a function of what parents most valued or feared in their assessment of risks and benefits. PMID:21624881

  13. Evidence for a Right-Ear Advantage in Newborn Hearing Screening Results

    PubMed Central

    Hildesheimer, Minka; Roziner, Ilan; Henkin, Yael

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of ear asymmetry, order of testing, and gender on transient-evoked otoacoustic emission (TEOAE) pass rates and response levels in newborn hearing screening. The screening results of 879 newborns, of whom 387 (study group) passed screening successfully in only one ear in the first TEOAE screening, but passed screening successfully in both ears thereafter, and 492 (control group) who passed screening successfully in both ears in the first TEOAE, were retrospectively examined for pass rates and TEOAE characteristics. Results indicated a right-ear advantage, as manifested by significantly higher pass rates in the right ear (61% and 39% for right and left ears, respectively) in the study group, and in 1.75 dB greater TEOAE response amplitudes in the control group. The right-ear advantage was enhanced when the first tested ear was the right ear (76%). When the left ear was tested first, pass rates were comparable in both ears. The right-ear advantage in pass rates was similar in females versus males, but manifested in 1.5 dB higher response amplitudes in females compared with males, regardless of the tested ear and order of testing in both study and control groups. The study provides further evidence for the functional lateralization of the auditory system at the cochlear level already apparent soon after birth in both males and females. While order of testing plays a significant role in the asymmetry in pass rates, the innate right-ear advantage seems to be a more dominant contributor. PMID:27927982

  14. [Newborn hearing screening test with multiple auditory steady-state responses].

    PubMed

    Mijares Nodarse, Eleina; Herrera Alonso, Didiesle; Gaya Vázquez, José; Santos Febles, Elsa; Pérez Abalo, María Cecilia; Mendez Alarcón, Leonel; Robertson Terry, Regla

    2011-01-01

    The techniques most frequently used within a screening context (otoacoustic emissions and click auditory brainstem response) have well-known limitations in hearing loss detection. This study examines the feasibility of a semi-automated multiple auditory steady-state responses (MSSR) system designed for neonatal hearing screening. A sample of 50 newborns without risk factors (well-babies) was tested within two weeks of birth. All had detectable auditory brainstem responses to clicks down to 40dB nHL in both ears. Two amplitude modulated carrier tones of 500 and 2,000Hz were mixed together and presented simultaneously. Each infant (and ear) was screened with the MSSR system; to simulate a hearing loss, a recording without stimulation was also obtained. Mean auditory thresholds were 42.5±7dB HL at 500Hz and 35.5±6dB HL at 2,000Hz. The average duration of the MSSR recording was 2.6±1.6 minutes for each tested ear and the overall duration of the screening procedure (including electrode fitting and infant preparation) was 17.8±3.7 minutes. The diagnostic sensibility and the positive predictive values of the MSSR semi-automatic screening system was 100% and 96% respectively, with specificity of 96% and negative predictive values of 100%. Although the diagnostic efficiency of the semi-automated MSSR system was found adequate, further technological improvements are still necessary to facilitate its use in the context of universal newborn hearing screening program. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  15. Evidence for a Right-Ear Advantage in Newborn Hearing Screening Results.

    PubMed

    Ari-Even Roth, Daphne; Hildesheimer, Minka; Roziner, Ilan; Henkin, Yael

    2016-12-06

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of ear asymmetry, order of testing, and gender on transient-evoked otoacoustic emission (TEOAE) pass rates and response levels in newborn hearing screening. The screening results of 879 newborns, of whom 387 (study group) passed screening successfully in only one ear in the first TEOAE screening, but passed screening successfully in both ears thereafter, and 492 (control group) who passed screening successfully in both ears in the first TEOAE, were retrospectively examined for pass rates and TEOAE characteristics. Results indicated a right-ear advantage, as manifested by significantly higher pass rates in the right ear (61% and 39% for right and left ears, respectively) in the study group, and in 1.75 dB greater TEOAE response amplitudes in the control group. The right-ear advantage was enhanced when the first tested ear was the right ear (76%). When the left ear was tested first, pass rates were comparable in both ears. The right-ear advantage in pass rates was similar in females versus males, but manifested in 1.5 dB higher response amplitudes in females compared with males, regardless of the tested ear and order of testing in both study and control groups. The study provides further evidence for the functional lateralization of the auditory system at the cochlear level already apparent soon after birth in both males and females. While order of testing plays a significant role in the asymmetry in pass rates, the innate right-ear advantage seems to be a more dominant contributor. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. The tandem mass spectrometry newborn screening experience in North Carolina: 1997-2005.

    PubMed

    Frazier, D M; Millington, D S; McCandless, S E; Koeberl, D D; Weavil, S D; Chaing, S H; Muenzer, J

    2006-02-01

    North Carolina (NC) was the first US state to initiate universal tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) newborn screening. This began as a statewide pilot project in 1997 to determine the incidence and feasibility of screening for fatty acid oxidation, organic acid and selected amino acid disorders. The MS/MS analyses were done by a commercial laboratory and all follow-up and confirmatory testing was performed through the NC Newborn Screening (NBS) Program. In April 1999, the NC NBS Laboratory began the MS/MS analyses in-house. Between 28 July 1997 and 28 July 2005, 944,078 infants were screened and 219 diagnoses were confirmed on newborns with elevated screening results, for an overall incidence of 1:4,300. Ninety-nine infants were identified with fatty acid oxidation disorders, 58 with organic acidaemias and 62 with aminoacidopathies. Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency, 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency and disorders of phenylalanine metabolism were the most common disorders detected. Identification of affected infants has allowed retrospective testing of other family members, resulting in an additional 16 diagnoses. Seven neonates died from complications of their metabolic disorders/prematurity despite timely MS/MS screening. In addition, there were six infants who were not identified by elevated NBS results but who presented with symptoms later in infancy. The NC MS/MS NBS Program uses a two-tier system, categorizing results as either 'borderline' or 'diagnostic' elevated, for both the cutoffs and follow-up protocol. Infants with an initial borderline result had only a repeat screen. Infants with a diagnostic or two borderline results were referred for confirmatory testing. The positive predictive value of the NC MS/MS NBS for those infants requiring confirmatory testing was 53% for 2003 and 2004. The success of the NC MS/MS NBS Program in identifying infants with metabolic disorders was dependent on a comprehensive follow-up protocol

  17. Ethics, genetics and public policies in Uruguay: newborn and infant screening as a paradigm.

    PubMed

    Larrandaburu, Mariela; Matte, Ursula; Noble, Ana; Olivera, Zully; Sanseverino, Maria Teresa V; Nacul, Luis; Schuler-Faccini, Lavinia

    2015-07-01

    Uruguay is a middle-income country and the smallest in South America. Its population is under 3.3 million. The demographic and epidemiological characteristics are similar to those of developed countries, with a high burden associated with congenital anomalies. Infant mortality rate (IMR) decreased from 37/1000 live births, in 1980, to 8.8/1000, in 2013. This is largely explained by medical and social policies. IMR related to congenital anomalies, however, remained unchanged for the last 30 years. Therefore, programmes for prevention of congenital disorders were developed, such as the National Newborn Screening Programme. Mandatory, universal, free infant screening was implemented two decades ago. The Ministry of Public Health created the Comprehensive Plan on Birth Defects and Rare Diseases (PIDCER), to develop a strategic public policy tool enabling comprehensive, universal, quality care during their entire lifetime. Recent national legislation created provisions for newborn and infant screening, including for congenital hypothyroidism, phenylketonuria, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, cystic fibrosis and medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, via blood spot test, otoacoustic emissions, systematic physical examination and hip ultrasound. We discuss how this programme was implemented, the current situation of rare diseases, the institution managing disability in Uruguay and the development of new laws based on the MPH's PIDCER. It illustrates how Uruguay is developing public policies in the genomic era, based both on science and bioethics.

  18. Child health providers' precautionary discussion of emotions during communication about results of newborn genetic screening.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Michael H; Speiser, Jodi; Deuster, Lindsay; Christopher, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    To demonstrate a quantitative abstraction method for Communication Quality Assurance projects to assess physicians' communication about hidden emotions after newborn genetic screening. Communication quality indicator analysis. Standardized parent encounters performed in practicing physicians' clinics or during educational workshops for residents. Fifty-nine pediatrics residents, 53 pediatricians, and 31 family physicians. Participants were asked to counsel standardized parents about a screening result; counseling was recorded, transcribed, and parsed into statements (each with 1 subject and 1 predicate). Pairs of abstractors independently compared statements with a data dictionary containing explicit-criteria definitions. Four groups of "precautionary empathy" behaviors (assessment of emotion, anticipation/validation of emotion, instruction about emotion, and caution about future emotion), with definitions developed for both "definite" and "partial" instances. Only 38 of 143 transcripts (26.6%) met definite criteria for at least 1 of the precautionary empathy behaviors. When partial criteria were counted, this number increased to 80 of 143 transcripts (55.9%). The most common type of precautionary empathy was the "instruction about emotion" behavior (eg, "don't be worried"), which may sometimes be leading or premature. Precautionary empathy behaviors were rare in this analysis. Further study is needed, but this study should raise concerns about the quality of communication services after newborn screening.

  19. Medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency detected among Hispanics by New Jersey newborn screening.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Sharon; Botti, Christina; Li, Bo; Millonig, James H; Lyon, Elaine; Millson, Alison; Karabin, Suzanne S M; Brooks, Susan Sklower

    2012-09-01

    In the follow-up of New Jersey newborn screens suggestive of medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD) during a 30-month period, we identified five patients of Hispanic American ethnicity. With information provided by the New Jersey Department of Health and Human Services Newborn Screening program we calculated an overall cumulative incidence of approximately 7.20/100,000 for MCADD; 7.58/100,000 among Hispanic Americans and 7.08/100,000 among non-Hispanic Americans. Among the five Hispanic American infants who screened positive, a common variant (c.443G>A [p.R148K]) was identified which accounted for 30% of the alleles; c.799G>A (p.G267R) and c.985A>G (p.K329E) each accounted for an additional 20%; and a novel variant c.302G>A (p.G101E) was identified in one patient. Although treated prospectively during interim illnesses to prevent unwanted sequelae; till date, none of the patients carrying the c.443G>A variant have been symptomatic.

  20. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of a National Newborn Screening Program for Biotinidase Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Vallejo-Torres, Laura; Castilla, Iván; Couce, María L; Pérez-Cerdá, Celia; Martín-Hernández, Elena; Pineda, Mercé; Campistol, Jaume; Arrospide, Arantzazu; Morris, Stephen; Serrano-Aguilar, Pedro

    2015-08-01

    There are conflicting views as to whether testing for biotinidase deficiency (BD) ought to be incorporated into universal newborn screening (NBS) programs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of adding BD to the panel of conditions currently screened under the national NBS program in Spain. We used information from the regional NBS program for BD that has been in place in the Spanish region of Galicia since 1987. These data, along with other sources, were used to develop a cost-effectiveness decision model that compared lifetime costs and health outcomes of a national birth cohort of newborns with and without an early detection program. The analysis took the perspective of the Spanish National Health Service. Effectiveness was measured in terms of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). We undertook extensive sensitivity analyses around the main model assumptions, including a probabilistic sensitivity analysis. In the base case analysis, NBS for BD led to higher QALYs and higher health care costs, with an estimated incremental cost per QALY gained of $24,677. Lower costs per QALY gained were found when conservative assumptions were relaxed, yielding cost savings in some scenarios. The probability that BD screening was cost-effective was estimated to be >70% in the base case at a standard threshold value. This study indicates that NBS for BD is likely to be a cost-effective use of resources. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  1. Newborn Screening: National Library of Medicine Literature Search, January 1980 through March 1987. No. 87-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrias, Karen

    This bibliography, prepared by the National Library of Medicine through a literature search of its online databases, covers all aspects of newborn screening. It includes references to screening for: inborn errors of metabolism, such as phenylketonuria and galactosemia; hemoglobinopathies, particularly sickle cell disease; congenital hypothyroidism…

  2. Newborn Screening: National Library of Medicine Literature Search, January 1980 through March 1987. No. 87-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrias, Karen

    This bibliography, prepared by the National Library of Medicine through a literature search of its online databases, covers all aspects of newborn screening. It includes references to screening for: inborn errors of metabolism, such as phenylketonuria and galactosemia; hemoglobinopathies, particularly sickle cell disease; congenital hypothyroidism…

  3. Universal newborn screening for congenital CMV infection: what is the evidence of potential benefit?

    PubMed

    Cannon, Michael J; Griffiths, Paul D; Aston, Van; Rawlinson, William D

    2014-09-01

    Congenital CMV infection is a leading cause of childhood disability. Many children born with congenital CMV infection are asymptomatic or have nonspecific symptoms and therefore are typically not diagnosed. A strategy of newborn CMV screening could allow for early detection and intervention to improve clinical outcomes. Interventions might include antiviral drugs or nonpharmaceutical therapies such as speech-language therapy or cochlear implants. Using published data from developed countries, we analyzed existing evidence of potential benefit that could result from newborn CMV screening. We first estimated the numbers of children with the most important CMV-related disabilities (i.e. hearing loss, cognitive deficit, and vision impairment), including the age at which the disabilities occur. Then, for each of the disabilities, we examined the existing evidence for the effectiveness of various interventions. We concluded that there is good evidence of potential benefit from nonpharmaceutical interventions for children with delayed hearing loss that occurs by 9 months of age. Similarly, we concluded that there is fair evidence of potential benefit from antiviral therapy for children with hearing loss at birth and from nonpharmaceutical interventions for children with delayed hearing loss occurring between 9 and 24 months of age and for children with CMV-related cognitive deficits. We found poor evidence of potential benefit for children with delayed hearing loss occurring after 24 months of age and for children with vision impairment. Overall, we estimated that in the United States, several thousand children with congenital CMV could benefit each year from newborn CMV screening, early detection, and interventions.

  4. The Role of Information Provision in Economic Evaluations of Newborn Bloodspot Screening: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Wright, Stuart J; Jones, Cheryl; Payne, Katherine; Dharni, Nimarta; Ulph, Fiona

    2015-12-01

    The extent to which economic evaluations have included the healthcare resource and outcome-related implications of information provision in national newborn bloodspot screening programmes (NBSPs) is not currently known. To identify if, and how, information provision has been incorporated into published economic evaluations of NBSPs. A systematic review of economic evaluations of NBSPs (up to November 2014) was conducted. Three electronic databases were searched (Ovid: Medline, Embase, CINAHL) using an electronic search strategy combining a published economic search filter with terms related to national NBSPs and screening-related technologies. These electronic searches were supplemented by searching the NHS Economic Evaluations Database (NHS EED) and hand-searching identified study reference lists. The results were tabulated and summarised as part of a narrative synthesis. A total of 27 economic evaluations [screening-related technologies (n = 11) and NBSPs (n = 16)] were identified. The majority of economic evaluations did not quantify the impact of information provision in terms of healthcare costs or outcomes. Five studies did include an estimate of the time cost associated with information provision. Four studies included a value to reflect the disutility associated with parental anxiety caused by false-positive results, which was used as a proxy for the impact of imperfect information. A limited evidence base currently quantifies the impact of information provision on the healthcare costs and impact on the users of NBSPs; the parents of newborns. We suggest that economic evaluations of expanded NBSPs need to take account of information provision otherwise the impact on healthcare costs and the outcomes for newborns and their parents may be underestimated.

  5. Universal newborn screening for congenital CMV infection: what is the evidence of potential benefit?†

    PubMed Central

    Cannon, Michael J.; Griffiths, Paul D.; Aston, Van; Rawlinson, William D.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Congenital CMV infection is a leading cause of childhood disability. Many children born with congenital CMV infection are asymptomatic or have nonspecific symptoms and therefore are typically not diagnosed. A strategy of newborn CMV screening could allow for early detection and intervention to improve clinical outcomes. Interventions might include antiviral drugs or nonpharmaceutical therapies such as speech-language therapy or cochlear implants. Using published data from developed countries, we analyzed existing evidence of potential benefit that could result from newborn CMV screening. We first estimated the numbers of children with the most important CMV-related disabilities (i.e. hearing loss, cognitive deficit, and vision impairment), including the age at which the disabilities occur. Then, for each of the disabilities, we examined the existing evidence for the effectiveness of various interventions. We concluded that there is good evidence of potential benefit from nonpharmaceutical interventions for children with delayed hearing loss that occurs by 9 months of age. Similarly, we concluded that there is fair evidence of potential benefit from antiviral therapy for children with hearing loss at birth and from nonpharmaceutical interventions for children with delayed hearing loss occurring between 9 and 24 months of age and for children with CMV-related cognitive deficits. We found poor evidence of potential benefit for children with delayed hearing loss occurring after 24 months of age and for children with vision impairment. Overall, we estimated that in the United States, several thousand children with congenital CMV could benefit each year from newborn CMV screening, early detection, and interventions. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24760655

  6. Newborn screening for congenital hypothyroidism, galactosemia and biotinidase deficiency in Uttar Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnan, Vignesh; Joshi, Kriti; Phadke, Shubha; Dabadghao, Preeti; Agarwal, Meenal; Das, Vinita; Jain, Suruchi; Gambhir, Sanjay; Gupta, Bhaskar; Pandey, Amita; Kapoor, Deepa; Kumar, Mala; Bhatia, Vijayalakshmi

    2014-09-01

    To assess feasibility and recall rates for newborn screening for congenital hypothyroidism, galactosemia and biotinidase deficiency in a predominantly rural and inner city population in and around the City of Lucknow in Uttar Pradesh, India. Prospective observational study. Two tertiary-care and 5 district hospitals in and around Lucknow. All babies born in above hospitals during the study period. Heel prick samples were collected after 24 hours of life. Dried blood spot TSH, total galactose and biotinidase were assayed by immunofluorometry. Age related cut-offs were applied for recall for TSH. For galactosemia and biotinidase deficiency, manufacturer-suggested recall cut-offs used initially were modified after analysis of initial data. Recall rate for hypothyroidism, galactosemia and biotinidase deficiency. Screening was carried out for 13426 newborns, 73% of all deliveries. Eighty-five percent of those recalled for confirmatory sampling responded. Using fixed TSH cut off of 20 mIU/L yielded high recall rate of 1.39%, which decreased to 0.84% with use of age-related cut-offs. Mean TSH was higher in males, and in low birth weight and vaginally delivered babies. Eleven babies had congenital hypothyroidism. Recall rates with modified cut-offs for galactosemia and biotinidase deficiency were 0.32% and 0.16%, respectively. An outreach program for newborn screening can be successfully carried out in similar socio-cultural settings in India. For hypothyroidism, the high recall rate due to early discharge was addressed by age-related cut-offs.

  7. Relationships among health-related quality of life, pulmonary health, and newborn screening for cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Tluczek, Audrey; Becker, Tara; Laxova, Anita; Grieve, Adam; Gilles, Caroline N Racine; Rock, Michael J; Gershan, William M; Green, Christopher G; Farrell, Philip M

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this study was to examine relationships between pulmonary health and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) evaluated longitudinally in the Wisconsin Newborn Screening Project. Patients aged 8 to 18 years (mean ± SD, 13.5 ± 2.8) in early diagnosis (n = 45) and control (n = 50) groups completed Cystic Fibrosis Questionnaires (CFQs) to measure HRQOL at three data points over a 2-year period. Pulmonary health was evaluated concurrently by the Wisconsin chest x-ray scoring system (WCXR) and pulmonary function tests (PFTs). WCXR showed significant group differences (P ≤ .023), with the early diagnosis group showing more-severe lung disease. When adjusted for group differences in mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa status and pancreatic status, however, WCXR differences and PFT data were not significant. Most patients (74%) had FEV(1) values ≥ 80% predicted (within normal range). For patients aged < 14 years, as WCXR scores worsened CFQ respiratory and physical domain scores decreased (both P ≤ .007). FEV(1)/FVC showed a positive relationship with the respiratory and physical domains (both P ≤ .006). WCXR scores for patients aged ≥ 14 years were associated with CFQ weight, respiratory, and health domains (all P ≤ .011). FEV(1) was associated with CFQ weight, respiratory, health, and physical domains (all P ≤ .003). Changes in pulmonary health were not associated with changes in CFQ over time. Significant group differences on the CFQ-Child social functioning domain favored the control group. To our knowledge, this study is the first to compare pulmonary outcomes with HRQOL indicators assessed by serial, standardized, patient-reported outcome measures for patients with CF identified either through newborn screening or diagnosed by use of traditional methods. This study found no benefits of newborn screening for pulmonary health or HRQOL after controlling for risk factors. Using WCXR and PFT data collectively

  8. Relationships Among Health-Related Quality of Life, Pulmonary Health, and Newborn Screening for Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Tara; Laxova, Anita; Grieve, Adam; Racine Gilles, Caroline N.; Rock, Michael J.; Gershan, William M.; Green, Christopher G.; Farrell, Philip M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to examine relationships between pulmonary health and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) evaluated longitudinally in the Wisconsin Newborn Screening Project. Methods: Patients aged 8 to 18 years (mean ± SD, 13.5 ± 2.8) in early diagnosis (n = 45) and control (n = 50) groups completed Cystic Fibrosis Questionnaires (CFQs) to measure HRQOL at three data points over a 2-year period. Pulmonary health was evaluated concurrently by the Wisconsin chest x-ray scoring system (WCXR) and pulmonary function tests (PFTs). Results: WCXR showed significant group differences (P ≤ .023), with the early diagnosis group showing more-severe lung disease. When adjusted for group differences in mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa status and pancreatic status, however, WCXR differences and PFT data were not significant. Most patients (74%) had FEV1 values ≥ 80% predicted (within normal range). For patients aged < 14 years, as WCXR scores worsened CFQ respiratory and physical domain scores decreased (both P ≤ .007). FEV1/FVC showed a positive relationship with the respiratory and physical domains (both P ≤ .006). WCXR scores for patients aged ≥ 14 years were associated with CFQ weight, respiratory, and health domains (all P ≤ .011). FEV1 was associated with CFQ weight, respiratory, health, and physical domains (all P ≤ .003). Changes in pulmonary health were not associated with changes in CFQ over time. Significant group differences on the CFQ-Child social functioning domain favored the control group. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this study is the first to compare pulmonary outcomes with HRQOL indicators assessed by serial, standardized, patient-reported outcome measures for patients with CF identified either through newborn screening or diagnosed by use of traditional methods. This study found no benefits of newborn screening for pulmonary health or HRQOL after controlling for risk factors

  9. Hypocitrullinemia in expanded newborn screening by LC-MS/MS is not a reliable marker for ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Cavicchi, C; Malvagia, S; la Marca, G; Gasperini, S; Donati, M A; Zammarchi, E; Guerrini, R; Morrone, A; Pasquini, E

    2009-07-12

    In an expanded newborn screening program for inborn errors of metabolism by LC-MS/MS in Tuscany, six newborns out of 169,000 showed decreased blood citrulline levels. In one of them, molecular analysis of the OTC gene identified the known p.Trp265Leu mutation, which is correlated with late-onset ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD). Hypocitrullinemia is not a reliable marker for OTCD newborn screening, especially for late-onset forms that may exhibit normal citrulline levels. However, when hypocitrullinemia is detected in a newborn in whom intestinal dysfunction and prematurity have been excluded, OTCD should be investigated first because of the OTCD incidence (1:14,000) and the small size of the OTC gene coding sequence.

  10. The Prevalence of Sickle Cell Disease and Its Implication for Newborn Screening in Germany (Hamburg Metropolitan Area).

    PubMed

    Grosse, Regine; Lukacs, Zoltan; Cobos, Paulina Nieves; Oyen, Florian; Ehmen, Christa; Muntau, Birgit; Timmann, Christian; Noack, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Sickle cell disease is among hereditary diseases with evidence that early diagnoses and treatment improves the clinical outcome. So far sickle cell disease has not been included in the German newborn screening program despite immigration from countries with populations at risk. To determine the birth prevalence we tested 17,018 newborns. High pressure liquid chromatography and subsequent molecular-genetic testing were used for the detection and confirmation of hemoglobin variants. The frequency of sickle cell disease-consistent genotypes was one in 2,385 newborns. Duffy-blood group typing showed evidence that affected children were likely of Sub-Saharan ancestry. An inclusion of sickle cell disease into the German newborn screening seems reasonable.

  11. [Performance of record linkage for cancer registry data linked with mammography screening data].

    PubMed

    Giersiepen, K; Bachteler, T; Gramlich, T; Reiher, J; Schubert, B; Novopashenny, I; Schnell, R

    2010-07-01

    The evaluation of the German Mammography Screening Program requires record linkage with data from cancer registries in order to measure the number of false-negative mammograms and interval cancers. This study aims at evaluating the performance of the established linkage method based on identifiers encrypted by the standard procedure of the German cancer registries. In addition, the results are compared with an alternative method based on plain text identifiers. A total of 16,572 records from the Bremen Mammography Screening Pilot Study were linked with data from the Bremen Cancer Registry. Based on a gold standard set of matching record pairs, homonym and synonym errors were determined. Given the customary threshold value in cancer registries, the plain text method showed a lower rate of synonym errors (2.1-5.1%) and a lower rate of homonym errors (0.01-0.15%). As 10.4 million women are invited to take part biennially in screening, the corresponding figures would be 3,237 homonym errors for the standard procedure and 294 using the plain text method provided equivalent conditions. The 11-fold increase in the homonym error rate documents the trade-off for better data protection using encrypted data.

  12. Outcomes of individuals with profound and partial biotinidase deficiency ascertained by newborn screening in Michigan over 25 years.

    PubMed

    Jay, Allison M; Conway, Robert L; Feldman, Gerald L; Nahhas, Fatimah; Spencer, Linda; Wolf, Barry

    2015-03-01

    Biotinidase deficiency, if untreated, usually results in neurological and cutaneous symptoms. Biotin supplementation markedly improves and likely prevents symptoms in those treated early. All states in the United States and many countries perform newborn screening for biotinidase deficiency. However, there are few studies about the outcomes of the individuals identified by newborn screening. We report the outcomes of 142 children with biotinidase deficiency identified by newborn screening in Michigan over a 25-year period and followed in our clinic; 22 had profound deficiency and 120 had partial deficiency. Individuals with profound biotinidase and partial deficiency identified by newborn screening were started on biotin therapy soon after birth. With good compliance, these children appeared to have normal physical and cognitive development. Although some children exhibited mild clinical problems, these are unlikely attributable to the disorder. Biotin therapy appears to prevent the development of neurological and cutaneous problems in our population. Individuals with biotinidase deficiency ascertained by newborn screening and treated since birth appeared to exhibit normal physical and cognitive development. If an individual does develop symptoms, after compliance and dosage issues are excluded, then other causes must be considered.Genet Med 17 3, 205-209.

  13. The feasibility of hospital-based universal newborn hearing screening in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, W; Kemp, D T

    2001-01-01

    Current hearing screening programmes in the United Kingdom are performing unacceptably poorly. Davies et al. (1997) suggested that universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS) would be more effective and cheaper to run. However, there is concern that hospital-based UNHS would not be feasible because of early postnatal discharge, and thus babies not staying in hospital long enough to be screened. Two studies were designed to determine the viability of hospital-based UNHS in a district general hospital in the United Kingdom. Study 1 retrospectively determined the discharge age and time of discharge of all 3021 well babies born at St Helier hospital, Carshalton, and the number of babies born at home in the area, from 19 October 1997-18 October 1998. Most well babies were found to pass through hospital at a convenient time for predischarge hearing screening, and the optimal protocol was screening from 9 am-2 pm, 7 days a week. The predicted maximal screening coverage was 92.68%. Study 2 tested the calculated optimal protocol over 1 week. It was found that UNHS with otoacoustic emissions on the maternity ward from 9 am-2 pm, 7 days a week, achieved a coverage of 89.06%, with an acceptable false positive rate of 6.2%. It is likely that a similar protocol with slight modifications could be implemented successfully in other hospitals in the United Kingdom.

  14. Sensitivity of ABR based newborn screening with the MB11 BERAphone(®).

    PubMed

    Cebulla, Mario; Hofmann, Sofia; Shehata-Dieler, Wafaa

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the sensitivity of our hearing screening program. The evaluation was done using a questionnaire for parents of children who participated in the NHS for a targeted time frame of two years. A survey was accomplished to identify children who passed our screening protocol in the newborn period, but who were later identified to have hearing loss. For the survey a one-year cohort was established in 2008 which included 500 children who received a hearing screening at our Center with the ABR newborn screener, MB11 BERAphone(®), two years before. Two hearing questionnaires were chosen for the survey. The LittlEARS questionnaire (MED-EL Medical Electronics GmbH) for investigating the hearing behavior of the children during the first two years of life and a second, custom-developed questionnaire (Würzburger questionnaire) investigating some aspects which are not included in the LittlEARS tool, such as speech/language development, general development as well as pathological factors that might eventually lead to a temporary hearing loss. Analysis of the Würzburger questionnaires revealed normal speech development for 92.9% of the children. For 4.7% male and 2.4% female children delayed speech development was reported. Although twice as many males were found, the statistical comparison showed no significant difference according to gender. The results of the LittlEARS questionnaire are identical to those of the Würzburger questionnaire in 98.3% of the investigated cases and in 1.7% of the cases slightly different results but on borderline: The LittlEAR scores showed normal auditory development for the childrens' age but the Würzburger questionnaire results showed delayed speech development. Based on the follow-up analysis and the results from the two questionnaires, no permanent hearing loss was found in any child two years after they passed the newborn hearing screening. Thus, we conclude that the sensitivity of the screening test was

  15. Viral load in children with congenital cytomegalovirus infection identified on newborn hearing screening.

    PubMed

    Kawada, Jun-ichi; Torii, Yuka; Kawano, Yoshihiko; Suzuki, Michio; Kamiya, Yasuko; Kotani, Tomomi; Kikkawa, Fumitaka; Kimura, Hiroshi; Ito, Yoshinori

    2015-04-01

    Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is the most common non-genetic cause of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in children. However, congenital SNHL without other clinical abnormalities is rarely diagnosed as CMV-related in early infancy. The aim of this study was to identify and treat patients with congenital CMV-related SNHL or CMV-related clinical abnormalities other than SNHL. The association between CMV load and SNHL was also evaluated. Newborns who had abnormal hearing screening results or other clinical abnormalities were screened for congenital CMV infection by PCR of saliva or urine specimens, and identified infected patients were treated with valganciclovir (VGCV) for 6 weeks. The CMV load of patients with or without SNHL was compared at regular intervals during as well as after VGCV treatment. Of 127 infants with abnormal hearing screening results, and 31 infants with other clinical abnormalities, CMV infection was identified in 6 and 3 infants, respectively. After VGCV treatment, 1 case had improved hearing but the other 5 SNHL cases had little or no improvement. Among these 9 patients with or without SNHL at 1 year of age, there was no significant difference in CMV blood or urine load at diagnosis, but both were significantly higher in patients with SNHL during VGCV treatment. Selective CMV screening of newborns having an abnormal hearing screening result would be a reasonable strategy for identification of symptomatic congenital CMV infection. Prolonged detection of CMV in blood could be a risk factor for SNHL. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Why parents refuse newborn hearing screening and default on follow-up rescreening--a South African perspective.

    PubMed

    Scheepers, Lucia Jane; Swanepoel, De Wet; Roux, Talita le

    2014-04-01

    This study describes screen refusal and follow-up default characteristics together with caregiver reasons for screen refusal and follow-up default in two South African universal newborn hearing screening programs. A retrospective record review of universal newborn hearing screening conducted at two hospitals (Hospital A n = 954 infants; Hospital B n = 2135) over a 31-33 month period. Otoacoustic emission screening was conducted with rescreen recommended within six weeks for a uni- or bilateral refer. Program efficacy was described according to coverage, referral and follow-up rates. A prospective telephonic interview with caregivers who declined the initial screen (n = 25) and who defaulted on follow-up (n = 25) constituted the next study component. Caregivers were randomly selected from the screening programs for a survey related to reasons for newborn hearing screening refusal and follow-up default. Screening coverage (89.3% Hospital A; 57.4% Hospital B), initial referral rates (11.6% Hospital A; 21.2% Hospital B) and follow-up return rates (56.1% Hospital A; 35.8% Hospital B) differed significantly between hospitals and were below benchmarks. The most frequent reasons for screen refusal were related to costs (72%), caregiver knowledge of newborn hearing screening (64%) and health care professional knowledge and team collaboration (16%). Almost all caregivers (96%) indicated that if costs had been included in the birthing package or covered by medical insurance they would have agreed to newborn hearing screening. Reasons for follow-up default were most commonly related to caregiver knowledge of newborn hearing screening (32%) and costs (28%). One in four caregivers (24%) defaulted on follow-up because they forgot to bring their infant for a rescreen. Only half of caregivers (48%) who defaulted on follow-up reported being aware of initial screen results while 60% reported being aware of the recommended follow-up rescreen. Caregivers most commonly refused screening

  17. [Quality of universal newborn hearing screening results : Multicenter analysis of data recorded between 2009 and 2012 in four German states].

    PubMed

    Matulat, P; Fabian, S; Köhn, A; Spormann-Lagodziski, M; Lang-Roth, R; Rissmann, A; Gross, M; am Zehnhoff-Dinnesen, A

    2014-03-01

    Bearing in mind the impending evaluation of newborn hearing screening in Germany, this study investigated whether multicenter analysis of the screening results from four German states is possible and to what extent the results meet national quality and outcome criteria. The screening data from 170 hospitals and a total of 533,150 newborns (21 % of all German newborns) from 2009 to 2012 were evaluated according to definite rules and analyzed in terms of averages, as well as over time. During the investigated period and averaged over the hospitals, the quality criteria "percentage of screened newborns" (91.4 %) and "percentage requiring further follow-up" (5.0 %), the "day of screening" (day 4), as well as the target parameter "age at diagnosis" (4.8 months) were not met. Steady improvements were observed over time: in the last year of the evaluation, 95.3 % of children were examined; only 4.8 % required follow-up and the age at diagnosis decreased to 4.2 months. On average, 83 % of the babies were screened before day 4. The steady reduction in variance of most of the variables from the participating hospitals indicates continual improvement. A multicenter analysis of screening data is possible and valid in the case of good quality data.

  18. Transient evoked oto-acoustic emission screening in newborns in Bogotá, Colombia: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Jorge A; Bernal, Jaime E; García, Mary A; Zarante, Ignacio; Ramírez, Natalia; Bernal, Constanza; Gelvez, Nancy; Tamayo, Marta L

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics and performance of transient evoked oto-acoustic emission (TEOAE) hearing screening in newborns in Colombia, and analyze all possible variables and factors affecting the results. An observational, descriptive and retrospective study with bivariate analysis was performed. The study population consisted of 56,822 newborns evaluated at the private institution, PREGEN. TEOAE testing was carried out as a pediatric hearing screening test from December 2003 to March 2012. The database from PREGEN was revised, and the protocol for evaluation included the same screening test performed twice. Demographic characteristics were recorded and the newborn's background was evaluated. Basic statistics of the qualitative and quantitative variables, and statistical analysis were obtained using the chi-square test. Of the 56,822 records examined, 0.28% were classed as abnormal, which corresponded to a prevalence of 1 in 350. In the screened newborns, 0.08% had a major abnormality or other clinical condition diagnosed, and 0.29% reported a family history of hearing loss. A prevalence of 6.7 in 10,000 was obtained for microtia, which is similar to the 6.4 in 10,000 previously reported in Colombia (database of the Latin-American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations - ECLAMC). Statistical analysis demonstrated an association between presenting with a major anomaly and a higher frequency of abnormal results on both TEOAE tests. Newborns in Colombia do not currently undergo screening for the early detection of hearing impairment. The results from this study suggest TEOAE screening tests, when performed twice, are able to detect hearing abnormalities in newborns. This highlights the need to improve the long-term evaluation and monitoring of patients in Colombia through diagnostic tests, and to provide tests that are both sensitive and specific. Furthermore, the use of TEOAE screening is justified by the favorable cost

  19. Incidence of Fragile X Syndrome by Newborn Screening for Methylated FMR1 DNA

    PubMed Central

    Coffee, Bradford; Keith, Krayton; Albizua, Igor; Malone, Tamika; Mowrey, Julie; Sherman, Stephanie L.; Warren, Stephen T.

    2009-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) results from a CGG-repeat expansion that triggers hypermethylation and silencing of the FMR1 gene. FXS is referred to as the most common form of inherited intellectual disability, yet its true incidence has never been measured directly by large population screening. Here, we developed an inexpensive and high-throughput assay to quantitatively assess FMR1 methylation in DNA isolated from the dried blood spots of 36,124 deidentified newborn males. This assay displays 100% specificity and 100% sensitivity for detecting FMR1 methylation, successfully distinguishing normal males from males with full-mutation FXS. Furthermore, the assay can detect excess FMR1 methylation in 82% of females with full mutations, although the methylation did not correlate with intellectual disability. With amelogenin PCR used for detecting the presence of a Y chromosome, this assay can also detect males with Klinefelter syndrome (KS) (47, XXY). We identified 64 males with FMR1 methylation and, after confirmatory testing, found seven to have full-mutation FXS and 57 to have KS. Because the precise incidence of KS is known, we used our observed KS incidence as a sentinel to assess ascertainment quality and showed that our KS incidence of 1 in 633 newborn males was not significantly different from the literature incidence of 1 in 576 (p = 0.79). The seven FXS males revealed an FXS incidence in males of 1 in 5161 (95% confidence interval of 1 in 10,653–1 in 2500), consistent with some earlier indirect estimates. Given the trials now underway for possible FXS treatments, this method could be used in newborn or infant screening as a way of ensuring early interventions for FXS. PMID:19804849

  20. Useful second-tier tests in expanded newborn screening of isovaleric acidemia and methylmalonic aciduria.

    PubMed

    Shigematsu, Yosuke; Hata, Ikue; Tajima, Go

    2010-10-01

    Common use of pivalate-generating antibiotics in newborns in Japan and low cutoff value of C5-acylcarnitine (C5) to detect mild forms of isovaleric acidemia (IVA) led to 1,065 positive results from IVA screening among 146,000 newborns tested by tandem mass spectrometry over the last 3 years. Using our method to determine isovalerylglycine (IVG) levels in dried blood spots (DBS) as a second-tier test with IVG cutoff value of 0.5 nmol/ml in DBS, one patient with severe IVA was identified, and no recall of the second DBS was needed. Retrospective analysis revealed that most patients with moderate to severe forms of IVA have decreased free-carnitine levels shortly after birth and higher levels of IVG than those of C5, which suggests that this method is useful in evaluating the severity of IVA. Another second-tier test, to measure methylmalonic acid (MMA) levels in DBS by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), has been developed to overcome difficulties in screening methylmalonic aciduria (MMAU) and propionic acidemia. Methanol extract from DBS was dried and derivatized using N-methyl-N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-trifluoroacetamide. GC/MS was performed using splitless injection, electron-impact ionization, and selected ion monitoring for data recording. MMAU patients had much higher DBS concentrations of MMA (24.2-321.9 nmol/ml) than control newborns (0.34 ± 0.11 nmol/ml). MMA measurement in DBS was thought to provide useful information about the severity of MMAU, as MMAU patients with high levels of MMA had decreased levels of free carnitine and mildly increased levels of propionylcarnitine.

  1. Incidence of fragile X syndrome by newborn screening for methylated FMR1 DNA.

    PubMed

    Coffee, Bradford; Keith, Krayton; Albizua, Igor; Malone, Tamika; Mowrey, Julie; Sherman, Stephanie L; Warren, Stephen T

    2009-10-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) results from a CGG-repeat expansion that triggers hypermethylation and silencing of the FMR1 gene. FXS is referred to as the most common form of inherited intellectual disability, yet its true incidence has never been measured directly by large population screening. Here, we developed an inexpensive and high-throughput assay to quantitatively assess FMR1 methylation in DNA isolated from the dried blood spots of 36,124 deidentified newborn males. This assay displays 100% specificity and 100% sensitivity for detecting FMR1 methylation, successfully distinguishing normal males from males with full-mutation FXS. Furthermore, the assay can detect excess FMR1 methylation in 82% of females with full mutations, although the methylation did not correlate with intellectual disability. With amelogenin PCR used for detecting the presence of a Y chromosome, this assay can also detect males with Klinefelter syndrome (KS) (47, XXY). We identified 64 males with FMR1 methylation and, after confirmatory testing, found seven to have full-mutation FXS and 57 to have KS. Because the precise incidence of KS is known, we used our observed KS incidence as a sentinel to assess ascertainment quality and showed that our KS incidence of 1 in 633 newborn males was not significantly different from the literature incidence of 1 in 576 (p = 0.79). The seven FXS males revealed an FXS incidence in males of 1 in 5161 (95% confidence interval of 1 in 10,653-1 in 2500), consistent with some earlier indirect estimates. Given the trials now underway for possible FXS treatments, this method could be used in newborn or infant screening as a way of ensuring early interventions for FXS.

  2. Depression Screening at a Community Health Fair: Descriptives and Treatment Linkage.

    PubMed

    Opperman, Kiel J; Hanson, Devin M; Toro, Paul A

    2017-08-01

    Health fairs are a cost-efficient platform for dissemination of preventive services to vulnerable populations. Effectiveness of depression screenings and associated treatment linkage via community health fairs warrants investigation. This study offers the first examination of a depression screening at a community health fair in 261 adult men (18-87years). The PHQ-9 was administered via interview by graduate students and on-site psychiatric nurses were available for a brief consultation for those interested. Over a quarter of participants screened positive for at least moderate depressive symptomatology. Of those who screened positive, 35.8% met with an on-site psychiatric nurse for a consultation. At six-month follow-up, none of the participants given a referral made an appointment at the community mental health agency. This suggests the importance of providing on-site clinician consultations at health fairs and the need for a more coordinated system to schedule future appointments while at the event. Community health fairs reach vulnerable populations, such as those who are uninsured and who have not spoken with a professional about mental health concerns. By conducting depression screening and providing onsite access to a mental health consultation at community health fairs, participants are better able to identify their depressive symptoms and are introduced to ways to treat depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessment of the Knowledge and Attitudes of Saudi Mothers towards Newborn Screening

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sulaiman, Ayman; Kondkar, Altaf A.; Saeedi, Mohammad Y.; Saadallah, Amal; Al-Odaib, Ali; Abu-Amero, Khaled K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To assess the attitude and knowledge of the Saudi mothers toward newborn screening (NBS) program. Methods. A total of 425 Saudi women (only mothers who have at least one pregnancy) participated in the study from different regions in Saudi Arabia and completed the structured questionnaire which sought their views on the NBS services. Results. A majority of the participating women (91.1%) supported the NBS program and felt it was very important and useful. However, knowledge of NBS was found to be very limited and only 34.6% knew that NBS was a test to detect genetic disorders. A lack of communication and counseling to NBS clients by health authorities offering screening is implied. Conclusion. In general, there is a positive attitude towards the NBS program among Saudi women. However, they have several concerns to improve the availability of medication and formulas, genetic counseling, medical interventions, communication, education materials, and awareness. PMID:26543864

  4. The role of health technology assessment in coverage decisions on newborn screening.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Katharina E; Grosse, Scott D; Rogowski, Wolf H

    2011-10-01

    The role and impact of health technology assessment (HTA) in health policy has been widely discussed. Researchers have started to analyze how decisions on coverage of new technologies are made. Although the involvement of HTA may be an indicator of a well established decision process, this hypothesis requires validation. Also, it is not known whether HTA involvement is associated with other characteristics of decision making like participation or transparency. The primary objective of this study was to develop and test statements on the association between the publication of an HTA and coverage decision making for newborn screening tests in European Union countries. Five statements were defined on the relative role of HTA during the steps of decision processes: trigger, participation, publication, assessment, and appraisal. For this purpose, data on twenty-two decision processes in the area of newborn screening across Europe were analyzed, defined as a coverage decision for a given disorder in a specific country. Decision processes were compared by whether the decision was accompanied by the publication of an HTA report. To test differences, nonparametric statistical tests were used. The decision steps of trigger, participation and publication differed between the HTA and the non-HTA groups. No clear association between HTA and assessment methods in coverage decision making was identified. It appeared that there is an association between HTA and coverage decision processes that are more explicit, inclusive, and transparent. It is unclear whether HTA is associated with formal evidence reviews and economic evaluations.

  5. VLCAD deficiency: Follow-up and outcome of patients diagnosed through newborn screening in Victoria.

    PubMed

    Evans, Maureen; Andresen, Brage S; Nation, Judy; Boneh, Avihu

    2016-08-01

    Very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency is an inherited metabolic disorder of fatty acid oxidation. Treatment practices of the disorder have changed over the past 10-15years since this disorder was included in newborn screening programs and patients were diagnosed pre-symptomatically. A genotype-phenotype correlation has been suggested but the discovery of novel mutations make this knowledge limited. Herein, we describe our experience in treating patients (n=22) diagnosed through newborn screening and mutational confirmation and followed up over a median period of 104months. We report five novel mutations. In 2013 we formalised our treatment protocol, which essentially follows a European consensus paper from 2009 and our own experience. The prescribed low natural fat diet is relaxed for patients who are asymptomatic when reaching age 5years but medium-chain triglyceride oil is recommended before and after physical activity regardless of age. Metabolic stability, growth, development and cardiac function are satisfactory in all patients. There were no episodes of encephalopathy or hypoglycaemia but three patients had episodes of muscle pain with our without rhabdomyolysis. Body composition studies showed a negative association between dietary protein intake and percent body fat. Larger patient cohort and longer follow up time are required for further elucidation of genotype-phenotype correlations and for establishing the role of dietary protein in metabolic stability and long-term healthier body composition in patients with VLCAD deficiency.

  6. Newborn screening for biotinidase deficiency in Brazil: biochemical and molecular characterizations.

    PubMed

    Neto, E C; Schulte, J; Rubim, R; Lewis, E; DeMari, J; Castilhos, C; Brites, A; Giugliani, R; Jensen, K P; Wolf, B

    2004-03-01

    Biotinidase deficiency is an inherited metabolic disorder characterized by neurological and cutaneous symptoms. Fortunately, it can be treated and the symptoms prevented by oral administration of the vitamin biotin. Using dried blood-soaked filter paper cards, biotinidase activity was determined in the sera of 225,136 newborns in Brazil. Mutation analysis performed on DNA from 21 babies with low serum biotinidase activity confirmed that 3 had profound biotinidase deficiency (less than 10% of mean normal sera biotinidase activity), 10 had partial biotinidase deficiency (10 to 30% of mean normal serum activity), 1 was homozygous for partial biotinidase deficiency, 4 were heterozygous for either profound or partial deficiency, and 3 were normal. Variability in serum enzyme activities and discrepancies with mutation analyses were probably due to inappropriate handling and storage of samples sent to the laboratory. Obtaining an appropriate control serum at the same time as that of the suspected child will undoubtedly decrease the false-positive rate (0.09%). Mutation analysis can be used to confirm the genotype of these children. The estimated incidence of biotinidase deficiency in Brazil is about 1 in 9,000, higher than in most other countries. Screening and treatment of biotinidase deficiency are effective and warranted. These results strongly suggest that biotinidase deficiency should be included in the newborn mass screening program of Brazil.

  7. Phenylketonuria, congenital hypothyroidism and haemoglobinopathies: public health issues for a Brazilian newborn screening program.

    PubMed

    Botler, Judy; Camacho, Luiz Antonio Bastos; Cruz, Marly Marques da

    2012-09-01

    In this study, the frequency of detected congenital hypothyroidism, phenylketonuria and haemoglobinopathies in the State of Rio de Janeiro's (Brazil) Newborn Screening Program (NBSP) was analyzed between the years of 2005 and 2007. There were two Newborn Screening Reference Centers (named NSRC A and B) with programmatic differences. In 2007, overall detection coverage reached 80.7%. The increase in the incidence of congenital hypothyroidism (1:1,030 in 2007) was attributed to the reduction of neonatal TSH value limits over time. The incidence discrepancy of phenylketonuria between NSRC A (1:28,427) and B (1:16,522) might be partially explained by the small number of cases. The incidence of sickle cell disease and its traits were uniformly high (1:1,288 and 1:21, respectively). This was coherent with the ethnic composition of the population. The differences in laboratory methods and critical values, in addition to other programmatic issues, may explain the variances in the results and limited analysis of the role of biological and environmental determinants in the occurrence of these diseases.

  8. Using Formative Research to Develop a Counselor Training Program for Newborn Screening in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Anie, Kofi A.; Grant, Althea M.; Ofori-Acquah, Solomon F.; Ohene-Frempong, Kwaku

    2015-01-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD), sickle cell trait (SCT) and related conditions are highly prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa. Despite the public health implications, there is limited understanding of the unique needs regarding establishing and implementing extensive screening for newborns and appropriate family counseling. We sought to gain understanding of community attitudes and beliefs about SCD/SCT from counselors and potential counselors in Ghana; obtain their input about goals for counseling following newborn screening; and obtain guidance about developing effective counselor education. Five focus groups with 32 health care providers and health educators from 9 of 10 regions in Ghana were conducted by trained facilitators according to a structured protocol. Qualitative data were coded and categorized to reflect common themes. Saturation was achieved in themes related to genetics/inheritance; common complications of SCD; potential for stigmatization; marital strain; and emotional stress. Misconceptions about SCT as a form of SCD were prevalent as were cultural and spiritual beliefs about the causes of SCD/SCT. Potential positive aspects included affected children's academic achievement as compensation for physical limitations, and family cohesion. This data informed recommendations for content and structure of a counselor training program that was provided to the Ministry of Health in Ghana. PMID:25193810

  9. Contamination of dried blood spots - an underestimated risk in newborn screening.

    PubMed

    Winter, Theresa; Lange, Anja; Hannemann, Anke; Nauck, Matthias; Müller, Cornelia

    2017-08-01

    Newborn screening (NBS) is an established screening procedure in many countries worldwide, aiming at the early detection of inborn errors of metabolism. For decades, dried blood spots have been the standard specimen for NBS. The procedure of blood collection is well described and standardized and includes many critical pre-analytical steps. We examined the impact of contamination of some anticipated common substances on NBS results obtained from dry spot samples. This possible pre-analytical source of uncertainty has been poorly examined in the past. Capillary blood was obtained from 15 adult volunteers and applied to 10 screening filter papers per volunteer. Nine filter papers were contaminated without visible trace. The contaminants were baby diaper rash cream, baby wet wipes, disinfectant, liquid infant formula, liquid infant formula hypoallergenic (HA), ultrasonic gel, breast milk, feces, and urine. The differences between control and contaminated samples were evaluated for 45 NBS quantities. We estimated if the contaminations might lead to false-positive NBS results. Eight of nine investigated contaminants significantly altered NBS analyte concentrations and potentially caused false-positive screening outcomes. A contamination with feces was most influential, affecting 24 of 45 tested analytes followed by liquid infant formula (HA) and urine, affecting 19 and 13 of 45 analytes, respectively. A contamination of filter paper samples can have a substantial effect on the NBS results. Our results underline the importance of good pre-analytical training to make the staff aware of the threat and ensure reliable screening results.

  10. Fiscal implications of newborn screening in the diagnosis of severe combined immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Kubiak, Catherine; Jyonouchi, Soma; Kuo, Caroline; Garcia-Lloret, Maria; Dorsey, Morna J; Sleasman, John; Zbrozek, Arthur S; Perez, Elena E

    2014-01-01

    In the United States, newborn screening (NBS) is currently recommended for identification of 31 debilitating and potentially fatal conditions. However, individual states determine which of the recommended conditions are screened. The addition of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) screening to the recommended NBS panel has been fully instituted by 18 states, with another 11 states piloting programs or planning to begin screening in 2014. Untreated, SCID is uniformly fatal by 2 years of age. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation usually is curative, but the success rate depends on the age at which the procedure is performed. Short-term implementation costs may be a barrier to adding SCID to states' NBS panels. A retrospective economic analysis was performed to determine the cost-effectiveness of NBS for early (<3.5 months) versus late (≥3.5 months) treatment of children with SCID at 3 centers over 5 years. The mean total charges at these centers for late treatment were 4 times greater than early treatment ($1.43 million vs $365,785, respectively). Mean charges for intensive care treatments were >5 times higher ($350,252 vs $66,379), and operating room-anesthesia charges were approximately 4 times higher ($57,105 vs $15,885). The cost-effectiveness of early treatment for SCID provides a strong economic rationale for the addition of SCID screening to NBS programs of other states.

  11. Newborn hearing screening: analysis and outcomes after 100,000 births in Upper-Normandy French region.

    PubMed

    Caluraud, Sophie; Marcolla-Bouchetemblé, Aurore; de Barros, Angélique; Moreau-Lenoir, Florence; de Sevin, Emmanuel; Rerolle, Stéphane; Charrière, Elisabeth; Lecler-Scarcella, Véronique; Billet, François; Obstoy, Marie-Françoise; Amstutz-Montadert, Isabelle; Marie, Jean-Paul; Lerosey, Yannick

    2015-06-01

    Neonatal hearing impairment is a common disorder with a prevalence of 1 to 2‰ worldwide, with significant consequences on overall development when rehabilitated too late. New-born hearing screening has been implemented in the 1990s in most European countries and the USA. The Upper-Normandy region of France has been conducting a pilot program since 1999. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate and critically analyse it. The Upper-Normandy universal new-born hearing screening program is performed in two steps. Between 1999 and 2004, first, we administered a Transient Evoked Oto Acoustic Emission (TEOAE) test was administered a few days after birth for healthy newborns without risk factors. For newborns admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) or presenting risk factors, was administered an automated auditory brainstem response (AABR) test prior to discharge. Second, newborns who failed the initial hearing screening were retested as outpatients using TEOAE. Since 2004, infants who failed the initial screen were tested with AABR 3 to 4 weeks later as outpatients, providing an opportunity to compare the two protocols. Overall screening coverage in the Upper-Normandy region is 99.8%. First step coverage is 99.58% in well-infant nurseries and 97.09% in the NICU. The test-retest procedure during the first step and the use of AABR for the second resulted in higher follow-up rates and lower false positive rates. The Upper-Normandy region universal newborn hearing screening program facilitated diagnosis and rehabilitation of infants before age of 9 months, most notably when severe to profound hearing impairment was found. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Genetic counseling following the detection of hemoglobinopathy trait on the newborn screen is well received, improves knowledge, and relieves anxiety.

    PubMed

    Kladny, Beth; Williams, Andrea; Gupta, Ashish; Gettig, Elizabeth A; Krishnamurti, Lakshmanan

    2011-07-01

    The primary purpose of newborn screening for hemoglobinopathies is the presymptomatic diagnosis and early treatment of sickle cell disease. Hemoglobinopathy traits detected on the newborn screening provide an opportunity for genetic counseling of families regarding the trait and information that may impact reproductive decisions of the parents. We describe the results of a study to determine the impact of newborn screening and genetic counseling on the lives of families in which an abnormal hemoglobin trait had been identified. From June 2003 to December 2009, families of children with trait attending a clinic visit and receiving professional genetic counseling were asked to participate in a semistructured follow-up survey regarding their experience and the impact of genetic counseling on their families. Of the 300 patients seen in clinic during the specified time period, 209 consented to be recontacted and 114 have completed the survey. Eighty-five percent of responders reported knowing that the newborn screen had been performed, but only 55% understood the purpose of newborn screening. When asked about the effect of finding out that trait was present in their baby, 19% reported feeling guilty or upset, whereas 4% believed that their partner blamed them for the child's results. That genetic counseling was found to be beneficial was indicated by the fact that 99% reported that their questions were answered, 82% reported feeling less anxious, and 78% discussed the trait with their partner after the appointment. Genetic counseling after newborn screening relieves anxiety, provides knowledge, facilitates dialog within families and between partners about hemoglobinopathy trait, and was seen as a positive experience for the majority of responders.

  13. Stakeholder attitudes towards the role and application of informed consent for newborn bloodspot screening: a study protocol.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, S G; Tessier, L; Etchegary, H; Brehaut, J C; Potter, B K; Hayeems, R Z; Chakraborty, P; Marcadier, J; Milburn, J; Pullman, D; Turner, L; Wilson, B J

    2014-11-24

    Newborn bloodspot screening (NBS) involves testing a small sample of blood taken from the heel of the newborn for a number of serious and life-limiting conditions. In Canada, newborn screening programmes fall under provincial and territorial jurisdiction with no federal coordination. To date, we know very little about the underlying beliefs around different consent practices or how terminology is interpreted by different individuals. Differences in attitudes may have important healthcare consequences. This study will provide empirical data comparing stakeholder opinions on their understanding of consent-related terminology, the perceived applicability of different consent approaches to newborn screening, and the requirements of these different approaches. Parents, healthcare professionals and policymakers will be recruited in the provinces of Ontario and Newfoundland and Labrador. Parents will be identified through records held by each provincial screening programme. Healthcare professionals will be purposively sampled on the basis of engagement with newborn screening. Within each province we will identify policymakers who have policy analysis or advisory responsibilities relating to NBS. Data collection will be by qualitative interviews. We will conduct 20 interviews with parents of young children, 10 interviews with key healthcare professionals across the range of appropriate specialties and 10 with policymakers at each site (40 per site, total, N=80). The examination of the transcripts will follow a thematic analysis approach. Recruitment started in June 2014 and is expected to be complete by June 2015. This study received ethics approval from the Ottawa Health Science Network Research Ethics Board, the Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Research Ethics Board (both Ontario), and the Health Research Ethics Authority (Newfoundland and Labrador). These will be reported in peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations. The results will have specific

  14. International cooperation in neonatal screening: technical training course for newborn and infant screening.

    PubMed

    Fukushi, M; Hanai, J; Yamaguchi, A; Mikami, A; Honma, K; Nomura, Y; Arai, O; Tagami, Y; Oda, H; Fujita, K

    1999-01-01

    We report the outline and results of our experience with a group training course of neonatal screening for health care professionals in developing countries. Sapporo City Institute of Public Health (SCIPH) has been offered a training course on neonatal screening once a year since 1991 under the Technical Training Program of the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). The aims of this training course are to enhance the participants' technical knowledge and skills, and also to deepen their understanding of the principle of neonatal screening as well as the relevant diseases. Lectures and laboratory practice on phenylketonuria (PKU), congenital hypothyroidism (CH), congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) and neuroblastoma are included in the 3-month program. After the completion of the training, participants are expected to play a major role in establishing and expanding neonatal screening system in each of their countries. We have received a total of 67 participants from 25 countries until March 1998: 58 pediatricians; 2 gynecologists; 6 biochemists; 1 administrative officer. After they returned to their countries, 11 engaged in neonatal screening and started PKU and CH screening in their institute, city or province in Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, Peru and Thailand. We believe that these results fulfilled our objectives. Also, for follow-up, SCIPH has been giving information and consultation to the participants on requests. This international cooperation network could also benefit our present network of the International Society Screening in the future.

  15. Pilot study of newborn screening of inborn error of metabolism using tandem mass spectrometry in Malaysia: outcome and challenges.

    PubMed

    Yunus, Zabedah Md; Rahman, Salina Abdul; Choy, Yew Sing; Keng, Wee Teik; Ngu, Lock Hock

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of performing newborn screening (NBS) of inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs) using tandem mass spectrometry (TMS) and the impact on its detection rate in Malaysia. During the study period between June 2006 and December 2008, 30,247 newborns from 11 major public hospitals in Malaysia were screened for 27 inborn errors of amino acid, organic acid and fatty acid metabolism by TMS. Dried blood spot (DBS) samples were collected between 24 h and 7 days with parental consent. Samples with abnormal results were repeated and the babies were recalled to confirm the diagnosis with follow-up testing. Cut-off values for amino acids and acylcarnitines were established. Eight newborns were confirmed to have IEM: two newborns with Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), two with methylmalonic aciduria (MMA) one with ethylmalonic aciduria, two with argininosuccinic aciduria and one with isovaleric aciduria. Diagnosis was missed in two newborns. The detection rate of IEMs in this study was one in 2916 newborns. The sensitivity and specificity of TMS were 80% and 99%, respectively. IEMs are common in Malaysia. NBS of IEMs by TMS is a valuable preventive strategy by enabling the diagnosis and early treatment of IEM before the onset of symptoms aiming at prevention of mental retardation and physical handicap. A number of shortcomings warrant further solution so that in near future NBS for IEMs will become a standard of care for all babies in Malaysia in tandem with the developed world.

  16. Evaluation of universal newborn hearing screening in South African primary care

    PubMed Central

    Harbinson, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    Background: Universal Newborn Hearing Screening (UNHC) is the gold standard toward early hearing detection and intervention, hence the importance of its deliberation within the South African context. Aim: To determine the feasibility of screening in low-risk neonates, using Otoacoustic Emissions (OAEs), within the Midwife Obstetric Unit (MOU) three-day assessment clinic at a Community Health Centre (CHC), at various test times following birth. Method: Within a quantitative, prospective design, 272 neonates were included. Case history interviews, otoscopic examinations and Distortion Product OAEs (DPOAEs) screening were conducted at two sessions (within six hours and approximately three days after birth). Data were analysed via descriptive statistics. Results: Based on current staffing profile and practice, efficient and comprehensive screening is not successful within hours of birth, but is more so at the MOU three-day assessment clinic. Significantly higher numbers of infants were screened at session 2, with significantly less false-positive results. At session 1, only 38.1% of the neonates were screened, as opposed to more than 100% at session 2. Session 1 yielded an 82.1% rate of false positive findings, a rate that not only has important implications for the emotional well-being of the parents; but also for resource-stricken environments where expenditure has to be accounted for carefully. Conclusion: Current findings highlight the importance of studying methodologies to ensure effective reach for hearing screening within the South African context. These findings argue for UNHS initiatives to include the MOU three-day assessment to ensure that a higher number of neonates are reached and confounding variables such as vernix have been eliminated. PMID:26245605

  17. Comparison of one-tier and two-tier newborn screening metrics for congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Sarafoglou, Kyriakie; Banks, Kathryn; Gaviglio, Amy; Hietala, Amy; McCann, Mark; Thomas, William

    2012-11-01

    Newborn screening (NBS) for the classic forms of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is mandated in all states in the United States. Compared with other NBS disorders, the false-positive rate (FPR) of CAH screening remains high and has not been significantly improved by adjusting 17α-hydroxyprogesterone cutoff values for birth weight and/or gestational age. Minnesota was the first state to initiate, and only 1 of 4 states currently performing, second-tier steroid profiling for CAH. False-negative rates (FNRs) for CAH are not well known. This is a population-based study of all Minnesota infants (769,834) born 1999-2009, grouped by screening protocol (one-tier with repeat screen, January 1999 to May 2004; two-tier with second-tier steroid profiling, June 2004 to December 2009). FPR, FNR, and positive predictive value (PPV) were calculated per infant, rather than per sample, and compared between protocols. Overall, 15 false-negatives (4 salt-wasting, 11 simple-virilizing) and 45 true-positives were identified from 1999 to 2009. With two-tier screening, FNR was 32%, FPR increased to 0.065%, and PPV decreased to 8%, but these changes were not statistically significant. Second-tier steroid profiling obviated repeat screens of borderline results (355 per year average). In comparing the 2 screening protocols, the FPR of CAH NBS remains high, the PPV remains low, and false-negatives occur more frequently than has been reported. Physicians should be cautioned that a negative NBS does not necessarily rule out classic CAH; therefore, any patient for whom there is clinical concern for CAH should receive immediate diagnostic testing.

  18. Newborn Screening for Cystic Fibrosis by Use of a Multiplex Immunoassay

    PubMed Central

    Lindau-Shepard, Barbara A.; Pass, Kenneth A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Since its beginnings newborn screening for cystic fibrosis (CF) using an assay for immunoreactive trypsinogen (IRT) has been plagued by a high number of false positive results, i.e., screen-positive / diagnosis negative, despite attempts to reduce them through use of altered cutoffs and 2nd tier DNA testing. IRT exists as two isoforms: IRT1 and IRT2, with IRT2 being more closely aligned with pancreatic disease, including CF. Standardization among programs using current IRT assays recognizing either one or both isoforms is a continuing problem. Here we report the development of a multiplexed assay for both forms of IRT simultaneously. Methods Using two different Luminex bead sets, assays for each IRT isoform were developed separately and then combined. Using the sum of IRT1 and 2 values, comparisons were made with a CF kit currently in use. Results In a sample set consisting of 16 cases confirmed positive for CF, a cut-off was established at >97 ng/mL total IRT. Seven of eight carriers with one CF mutation screen positive by the standard method also were screen positive by the IRT1-IRT2. Of 32 cases screen positive by the standard IRT, 11 were screen negative by the IRT1-IRT2. None of these cases had CF mutations as identified by the screening program. Conclusions This data indicates that the multiplex method with specificity for two isoforms of IRT has comparable performance to a standard IRT method and the advantage of improved standardization by detection of the two isoforms. PMID:20040620

  19. Efficacy of screening immune system function in at-risk newborns.

    PubMed

    Pavlovski, Christopher J

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the introduction of a screening test to highlight impaired immune system status for newborn infants and its efficacy as a preventative clinical measure. Moreover, it is suggested that screening of the infantile immune system has the potential to highlight susceptibility to a range of infant and childhood diseases, bestowing an opportunity to introduce early intervention to reduce the incidence of these diseases. Development of the neonatal immune system is an important health issue, implicated in many childhood problems such as allergies, infection, and autoimmunity. The neonate has a limited immune system and ability to combat bacteria. Depleted levels of the tripeptide reduced glutathione (GSH) have been linked to numerous conditions and its intracellular level is acknowledged as an indicator of immune system function. Introduction of an immune system screening programme for infants is formally reviewed and assessed. Several benefits are reported in the treatment of impaired immune systems, a trial screening programme is proposed for at-risk infants to gather further evidence as to its efficacy. Infants at risk of impaired immune system function include cystic fibrosis, premature infants, and low birth weight infants. The interventions include breastfeeding, milk banks, and appropriate formula to support the immune system.

  20. Improving newborn screening for cystic fibrosis using next-generation sequencing technology: a technical feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Mei W.; Atkins, Anne E.; Cordovado, Suzanne K.; Hendrix, Miyono; Earley, Marie C.; Farrell, Philip M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Many regions have implemented newborn screening (NBS) for cystic fibrosis (CF) using a limited panel of cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) mutations after immunoreactive trypsinogen (IRT) analysis. We sought to assess the feasibility of further improving the screening using next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology. Methods An NGS assay was used to detect 162 CFTR mutations/variants characterized by the CFTR2 project. We used 67 dried blood spots (DBSs) containing 48 distinct CFTR mutations to validate the assay. NGS assay was retrospectively performed on 165 CF screen–positive samples with one CFTR mutation. Results The NGS assay was successfully performed using DNA isolated from DBSs, and it correctly detected all CFTR mutations in the validation. Among 165 screen-positive infants with one CFTR mutation, no additional disease-causing mutation was identified in 151 samples consistent with normal sweat tests. Five infants had a CF-causing mutation that was not included in this panel, and nine with two CF-causing mutations were identified. Conclusion The NGS assay was 100% concordant with traditional methods. Retrospective analysis results indicate an IRT/NGS screening algorithm would enable high sensitivity, better specificity and positive predictive value (PPV). This study lays the foundation for prospective studies and for introducing NGS in NBS laboratories. PMID:25674778

  1. Waiving informed consent in newborn screening research: balancing social value and respect.

    PubMed

    Tarini, Beth A; Burke, Wylie; Scott, C Ronald; Wilfond, Benjamin S

    2008-02-15

    While newborn screening (NBS) programs have historically relied on presumptive benefit in deciding when to implement new tests, experience has demonstrated that this approach can lead to screening tests that lack efficacy or, worse yet, cause harm. Population-based NBS research provides an opportunity to evaluate safety and effectiveness of potential tests prior to widespread implementation. Using the example of Pompe disease, we argue that waiving the requirement for informed consent is appropriate for research evaluating the screening phase of potential NBS tests when data support the potential health benefits of testing and when other research safeguards are present. The regulatory requirement for informed consent can be waived if a research study meets criteria of minimal risk, protecting rights and welfare, and practicability. In population-based NBS research, the main risks are related to false positive results and results with ambiguous implications for treatment-risks that are comparable to those posed by many tests newly added to NBS programs without prior population-based NBS research. Waiving the informed consent requirement facilitates the development of flexible strategies for informing and educating parents about NBS research that reflect the logistics of population-based NBS screening. A strict interpretation of the regulatory requirement of informed consent may create significant logistical and financial barriers to adequate evaluation of NBS tests. Without a broader interpretation of this regulatory requirement in NBS research for which there is evidence of a clinically meaningful benefit from treatment, we may create incentives for the implementation of inadequately evaluated NBS tests.

  2. Why newborn screening for severe combined immunodeficiency is essential: a case report.

    PubMed

    Adeli, Mehdi M; Buckley, Rebecca H

    2010-08-01

    Physicians caring for infants in the first months of life need to know the normal ranges for absolute lymphocyte counts (ALCs) during that age. Any ALC <2500/microL is potentially pathogenic in early infancy and should be evaluated. We report the case of a 4-month-old white girl with a 2-month history of an oral ulcer, intermittent fever, recurrent otitis, decreased appetite, weight loss, and a new respiratory illness with hypoxemia. She had been in an in-home day care since birth. The patient's primary care physician had seen her frequently and obtained blood counts, but her persistent lymphopenia had not been appreciated. The infant was ultimately diagnosed with T(-)B(-)NK(+) (lacking both B and T lymphocytes and having primarily natural killer [NK] cells), recombinase-activating gene 2 (RAG2)-deficient severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). However, because she had already developed 2 difficult-to-treat viral infections (parainfluenza 3 and adenovirus), she did not survive long enough to receive a bone marrow transplant. Newborn screening would not only have made the diagnosis at birth but would have led to measures to protect her from becoming infected before she could receive a transplant. Newborn screening would also reveal the true incidence of SCID and define the range of conditions characterized by severely impaired T-cell development. Until screening for SCID and other T-cell defects becomes available for all neonates (either by quantifying T-cell receptor excision circles in Guthrie spots or using other tests that quantify T cells), all pediatricians should know the normal range for ALCs according to age. Recognition of the characteristic lymphopenia of SCID can facilitate early diagnosis.

  3. Pulse oximetry as a screening tool for critical congenital heart defects in newborns.

    PubMed

    Shahzad, Muhammad; Waqar, Talal; Irfan Waheed, Khawaja Ahmad; Gul, Rafia; Fatima, Syeda Tahseen

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of pulse oximetry as a screening tool for critical congenital heart defects in newborns. This cross-sectional study was conducted at the neonatology department of the Children's Hospital and the Institute of Child Health, Lahore, Pakistan, from January to June 2016, and comprised neonates aged up to 07 days. Babies with a prenatal diagnosis of heart defects and those whose parents refused to give consent were excluded. Oxygen saturation of enrolled patients was measured in right index finger (pre-ductal) and in the left big toe (post-ductal) subsequently. Echocardiography was done on all the enrolled babies to confirm the diagnosis. SPSS 19 was used for data analysis. Of the 145 babies initially enrolled, 138(95.2%) were included. The overall mean age of the babies was 2.17±1.62 days (range: <24 hours-07 days) whereas the mean birth weight was 2.95±0.47kg (range: <2.5->4kg). Babies with pre- and post-ductal oxygen saturation measurement difference of >3% showed a detection rate of 16(45.7%) for critical congenital heart defects. Sensitivity and specificity of this screening test was calculated to be 76.19% and 83.76%, respectively, while positive and negative predictive values were 45.71% and 95.15%, respectively. The measurement of pre- and post-ductal oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry was an effective screening tool for the detection of critical congenital heart defects in newborns.

  4. Newborn Screening for SCID in New York State: Experience from the First Two Years

    PubMed Central

    Bonagura, Vincent; Weinberg, Geoffrey A.; Ballow, Mark; Isabelle, Jason; DiAntonio, Lisa; Parker, April; Young, Allison; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte; Fong, Chin-To; Celestin, Jocelyn; Lehman, Heather; Rubinstein, Arye; Siegel, Subhadra; Weiner, Leonard; Saavedra-Matiz, Carlos; Kay, Denise M.; Caggana, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To describe the process and assess outcomes for the first 2 years of newborn screening for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID NBS) in New York State (NYS). Methods The NYS algorithm utilizes a first-tier molecular screen for TRECs (T-cell receptor excision circles), the absence of which is indicative of increased risk of immunodeficiency. Results During the first 2 years, 485,912 infants were screened for SCID. Repeat specimens were requested from 561 premature and 746 non-premature infants with low or borderline TRECs. A total of 531 infants were referred for diagnostic evaluation leading to identification of 10 infants with SCID and 87 with a clinically significant non-SCID abnormality based on flow cytometry or CBC results (positive predictive value 20.3 %). Nine infants were diagnosed with typical SCID and one with leaky SCID. SCID diagnoses included two patients with adenosine deaminase deficiency, three patients with typical and one with leaky IL2RG-related SCID, one patient with IL7Rα-related SCID, and three cases of typical SCID, etiology unknown. TRECs were undetectable in eight of the nine babies with typical SCID. Infants with other non-SCID conditions included 27 patients with a syndrome that included T-cell impairment, 18 of which had DiGeorge syndrome. Seventeen infants had T-cell impairment secondary to another clinically significant condition, and 13 were classified as ‘other’. Among 30 infants classified as idiopathic T-cell lymphopenia, 11 have since resolved, and the remainder continues to be followed. One infant with undetectable TRECs had normal follow-up studies. Molecular studies revealed the presence of two changes in the infant’s DNA. Conclusions Overall, ten infants with SCID were identified during the first 2 years of screening in NYS, yielding an incidence of approximately 1 in 48,500 live births, which is consistent with the incidence observed by other states screening for SCID. The incidence of any clinically

  5. [Expanded newborn screening in the Region of Murcia, Spain. Three-years experience].

    PubMed

    Juan-Fita, María Jesús; Egea-Mellado, José María; González-Gallego, Inmaculada; Moya-Quiles, María Rosa; Fernández-Sánchez, Asunción

    2012-12-01

    The early detection of inborn errors of metabolism by mass spectrometry allows expanding the traditional neonatal screening of phenylketonuria and congenital hypothyroidism to test for aminoacidopathies, fatty acid oxidation disorders and organic acid metabolic disorders. Cystic fibrosis and biotinidase deficiency screening is implemented in the Region of Murcia. The aim of the study is to describe our experience in the expanded neonatal screening and to define the prevalence of each of the metabolic disorders early detected. Since March 2007 until October 2010, a total of 71,595 neonates were screened with this expanded program by mass spectrometry, fluoroimmunoassay or colorimetric methods. Thirty-eight patients (prevalence 1:1,884) were diagnosed of inborn errors of metabolism by mass spectrometry, 13 patients of cystic fibrosis (prevalence 1:5,507), 38 of congenital hypothyroidism (prevalence 1:1,884) and one of biotinidase deficiency. To date, the global frequency of inborn errors of metabolism is estimated to be 1:804. The positive predictive value for the results obtained by mass spectrometry was 20.25%. Two false negative patients were not identified (cystic fibrosis and methylmalonic aciduria patients) and 6 non neonatal patients were detected through expanded neonatal screening. Our data support the necessity of unifying the set of metabolic diseases to be screened in all Regions of Spain for early detection of a defined panel of inborn errors of metabolism and to provide every newborn the same opportunities to be early diagnosed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  6. Applying public health screening criteria: how does universal newborn screening compare to universal tumor screening for Lynch syndrome in adults with colorectal cancer?

    PubMed

    Cragun, Deborah; DeBate, Rita D; Pal, Tuya

    2015-06-01

    Institutions have increasingly begun to adopt universal tumor screening (UTS) programs whereby tumors from all newly diagnosed patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) are screened to identify who should be offered germline testing for Lynch syndrome (the most common cause of hereditary CRC). Given limited information about the impact of universal screening programs to detect hereditary disease in adults, we apply criteria used to evaluate public health screening programs and compare and contrast UTS with universal newborn screening (NBS) for the purpose of examining ethical implications and anticipating potential outcomes of UTS. Both UTS and a core set of NBS conditions clearly meet most of the Wilson and Jungner screening criteria. However, many state NBS panels include additional conditions that do not meet several of these criteria, and there is currently insufficient data to confirm that UTS meets some of these criteria. Comparing UTS and NBS with regard to newer screening criteria raises additional issues that require attention for both UTS and NBS. Comparisons also highlight the importance of evaluating the implementation of genomic tests to ensure or improve their effectiveness at reducing morbidity and mortality while minimizing potential harms.

  7. Sensitivity and Specificity of Red Reflex Test in Newborn Eye Screening.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ming; Ma, Aihua; Li, Fengjiao; Cheng, Kai; Zhang, Min; Yang, Haixia; Nie, Wenying; Zhao, Bojun

    2016-12-01

    To validate the sensitivity of an isolated red reflex test in detection of ocular abnormalities of the anterior and posterior segments in newborns. Red reflex test and comprehensive eye examinations including external inspection, pupil examination, hand-held slit lamp examination, and RetCam fundus imaging (Clarity Medical Systems, Pleasanton, California) were performed in 7641 newborns. All results were documented as negative or positive. Sensitivity and specificity of red reflex test were calculated by the use of comprehensive eye examinations as the reference standard. Anterior abnormalities were separated from posterior abnormalities, and the sensitivity of red reflex test for each group was calculated. The proportion of abnormalities that were correctly classified by red reflex test was greater in anterior segment group (sensitivity = 99.6%, 95% CI 97.1%-100%) than in the posterior group (sensitivity = 4.1%, 95% CI 3.3%-5.1%, χ(2) = 1521.382, φ = 0.836, P < .001). The red reflex test was a useful universal screening tool in detection of anterior abnormalities; however, the test has limitations in detection of posterior abnormalities. The generalization of these results to infants and children and observers with varying levels of expertise may need to be established further. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Putting newborn hearing screening on the political agenda in Belgium: local initiatives toward a community programme - a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Vos, Bénédicte; Lagasse, Raphaël; Levêque, Alain

    2014-07-01

    The Kingdon model, based on the convergence of three streams (problem, policy, and politics) and the opening of a policy window, analyses the process by which a health issue is placed on the political agenda. We used this model to document the political agenda-setting process of the newborn hearing screening programme in Belgium. A qualitative study based on a document review and on semi-directed interviews was carried out. The interviews were conducted with nine people who had played a role in putting the issue in question on the political agenda, and the documents reviewed included scientific literature and internal reports and publications from the newborn hearing screening programme. The thematic analysis of the data collected was carried out on the basis of the Kingdon model's three streams. The political agenda-setting of this screening programme was based on many factors. The problem stream included factors external to the context under study, such as the technological developments and the contribution of the scientific literature which led to the recommendation to provide newborn hearing screening. The two other streams (policy and politics) covered factors internal to the Belgian context. The fact that it was locally feasible with financial support, the network of doctors convinced of the need for newborn hearing screening, the drafting of various proposals, and the search for financing were all part of the policy stream. The Belgian political context and the policy opportunities concerning preventive medicine were identified as significant factors in the third stream. When these three streams converged, a policy window opened, allowing newborn hearing screening onto the political agenda and enabling the policy decision for its introduction. The advantage of applying the Kingdon model in our approach was the ability to demonstrate the political agenda-setting process, using the three streams. This made it possible to identify the many factors involved in

  9. Present Status and Future Concerns of Expanded Newborn Screening in Malaysia: Sustainability, Challenges and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    LEONG, Yin Hui; GAN, Chee Yuen; TAN, Mohd Adi Firdaus; MAJID, Mohamed Isa Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Newborn screening (NBS) program is an important tool for the early diagnosis and preventive treatment of life-long impairments. NBS is one of the strategies recommended by the World Health Organization to promote the primary prevention of congenital anomalies and the health of children with these conditions. However, NBS initiation and implementation in developing countries, especially South-East Asian and North African regions, are slow and challenging. Expanded NBS is not mandatory and has not yet been incorporated into the public healthcare system in our country. Limited funding, manpower shortages, inadequate support services, low public awareness, and uncertain commitment from healthcare practitioners are the main challenges in establishing this program at the national level. Involvement and support from policy makers are very important to the success of the program and the benefit of the entire population. PMID:24876809

  10. Newborn screening in Victoria: a case study of tissue banking regulation.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Charles

    2008-12-01

    The regulation of human tissue collections is increasingly important in maintaining public trust (and legitimacy) for critical practices and resources directed to public health programs and research. This article examines the governance arrangements applying to VCGS Ltd (under its various incarnations as "Genetic Health Services Victoria", "VCGS Pathology", and so on) and the existing collection of population-wide blood samples maintained on newborn screening cards (or Guthrie cards) in Victoria. The analyses reveal a complex web of regulations (and possibly even no regulation) and the limited role of significant statutory schemes that are generally assumed to apply to human tissue collections and the data and information derived from those materials. The article argues that, without a clear regulatory framework (and in particular meaningful consent), there is likely to be a decline in public trust (and legitimacy) with a consequent decreased participation in what is a public health program with immediate and quantifiable benefits and a valuable research resource for the future.

  11. Factors associated with parental perception of child vulnerability 12 months after abnormal newborn screening results.

    PubMed

    Tluczek, Audrey; McKechnie, Anne Chevalier; Brown, Roger L

    2011-10-01

    We identified factors associated with elevated parental perceptions of child vulnerability (PPCV) 12 months after newborn screening (NBS) of 136 children: healthy, normal results (H, n = 37), cystic fibrosis carriers (CF-C, n = 40), congenital hypothyroidism (CH, n = 36), and cystic fibrosis (CF, n = 23). Controlling for infant and parent characteristics, mixed logit structural equation modeling showed direct paths to elevated PPCV included parent female sex, CF diagnosis, and high documented illness frequency. PPCV was positively associated with maternal parenting stress. Infants with CF and CF carriers had significantly more documented illness frequency than H group infants. The CH group did not differ significantly from the H group and had no paths to PPCV. Unexpectedly high documented illness frequency among infants who are CF carriers warrants further investigation.

  12. Screening of Menkes Disease in Newborns that are likely to Benefit from Copper Treatment | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Cancer.gov

    The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development's (NICHD) Molecular Medicine Program is seeking statements of capability or interest from parties interested in collaborative research to further develop, or evaluate on a large-scale, population-based newborn screening for Menkes disease (also known as kinky hair disease).

  13. 21 CFR 862.1055 - Newborn screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Newborn screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem mass spectrometry. 862.1055 Section 862.1055 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES...

  14. T-Cell Lymphopenia Detected by Newborn Screening in Two Siblings with an Xq13.1 Duplication.

    PubMed

    Rios, Xavier; Chinn, Ivan K; Orange, Jordan S; Hanson, Celine I; Rider, Nicholas L

    2017-01-01

    Newborn screening for severe combined immunodeficiency has proven successful in identifying infants with T-cell deficiencies before they become severely ill. Additionally, the newborn screen can detect subtle early phenotypes that may become severe later in life. We present the case of siblings with features suggestive of T-cell lymphopenia identified as having low T-cell receptor excision circles counts by newborn screening. Expanded immune testing showed robust lymphocyte mitogen and antigen responses with normal vaccine responses and immunoglobulin levels for both boys over time. Genetic analysis revealed an Xq13.1 duplication in each child not found in the mother. The variant is downstream of the IL2RG gene with potential regulatory significance, suggesting a mechanism for the T-cell lymphopenia. The newborn screen provided these patients heightened surveillance and patient-specific management, including delayed live vaccines and Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia prophylaxis. Fortunately, the brothers have not suffered invasive or opportunistic infections and are well at ages 3 and 4 years. In this report, we illustrate the challenges of managing seemingly asymptomatic immunodeficient patients without a definitive genetic diagnosis and show how unbiased genetic analysis can expand understanding about primary immunodeficiency phenotypes.

  15. Tele-health: assessment of websites on newborn hearing screening in Portuguese Language.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Juliana Nogueira; Libardi, Ana Lívia; Agostinho-Pesse, Raquel Sampaio; Morettin, Marina; Alvarenga, Kátia de Freitas

    2015-01-01

    To verify the aspects of technical quality and the content of websites on neonatal hearing screening in Portuguese. Eighteen audiologists, invited to participate according to the inclusion criteria, selected descriptors of websites for research using the Delphi technique. Later, they were fed into Google Trends to get the possible terms to be used by parents in finding information on the Internet about the subject. They were then fed into Google to search the websites. The following assessment instruments were used: list of topics on newborn hearing screening, Flesch Reading Ease Score Formula, Health-Related Web Site Evaluation Emory Form, and PageRank. The most discussed topics in the 19 websites were on the objectives and benefits of neonatal hearing screening, as well as the process of audiological diagnosis. The least discussed were about the false-negative result, development of hearing and language, false-positive results, audiologic, interpretation of results - "Pass"/"Do not pass", retest, and protocol. Difficult reading level was prevalent, with aspects of technical quality considered the best quality-related content, audience, navigation, and structure. The results also showed there is no culture of inserting links on Brazilian national websites, so they had little relevance on Google. The sites differed in the aspects addressed because there is a need to revise the reading level of the content and quality of the technical aspects regarding the accuracy and timeliness of information, authorship, and links.

  16. National study of newborn hearing screening: programme sensitivity and characteristics of undetected children.

    PubMed

    Korver, A M H; Konings, S; Meuwese-Jongejeugd, A; van Straaten, H L M; Uilenburg, N; Dekker, F W; Wever, C C; Frijns, J H M; Oudesluys-Murphy, A M

    2013-01-01

    The success of universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS) programmes is usually evaluated by determining the effect of the early detection of hearing loss on developmental outcome. However, in practice, these programmes do not detect all children with permanent childhood hearing impairment. In this study we determine the sensitivity of the current UNHS programme and analyse the characteristics of the children not detected by UNHS. We performed a nationwide, population-based, retrospective follow-up study in The Netherlands. All children born in 2003-05 and screened in a hearing screening programme (well babies and neonatal intensive care (NICU) graduates) were included for study. The main outcome measure was the sensitivity of the UNHS programme (based on the proportion of children known to have a permanent childhood hearing impairment in 2008 who were identified by UNHS). We also evaluated age at diagnosis, severity, and aetiology of hearing impairment in the children not detected by UNHS. We found that the sensitivity of the current UNHS programme was 0.83 (0.79 for well babies and 0.96 for NICU graduates). Permanent childhood hearing impairment was confirmed before 36 months of age in 96% of the study cohort. Of the children unidentified by the UNHS, > 50% had moderate hearing loss. No predominant cause of hearing impairment was found in these children. Our current UNHS programme identified the majority of children with a permanent hearing impairment of congenital cause.

  17. Parental intentions to enroll children in a voluntary expanded newborn screening program.

    PubMed

    Paquin, Ryan S; Peay, Holly L; Gehtland, Lisa M; Lewis, Megan A; Bailey, Donald B

    2016-10-01

    Nearly all babies in the United States are tested at birth for rare, serious, and treatable disorders through mandatory state newborn screening (NBS). Recently, there have been calls for an expanded, voluntary model to facilitate early diagnosis and treatment of a wider range of disorders. We applied the reasoned action framework to examine parental intentions to participate in voluntary expanded screening. We recruited a national cohort of recent and expectant parents living in the U.S. who completed a self-administered online survey (N = 1001). Using a mixed-level fractional factorial experiment, we studied parental participation intentions and preferences for timing of consent, cost, consent format, and testing options. We conducted a hierarchical regression analysis assessing parental intentions to participate in voluntary expanded NBS. Attitudes, perceived normative influence, and perceived behavioral control explained substantial variance in intention, with perceived normative influence emerging as the strongest predictor. We found no evidence that the manipulated program features altered mean levels of intention, but timing of parental permission, cost, and permission format moderated the relative importance of reasoned action constructs on intention. Program design features may impact the psychological mechanisms underlying parental decision making for voluntary expanded screening. These results have important implications for parent education, outreach, and informed parental permission procedures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Parental Intentions to Enroll Children in a Voluntary Expanded Newborn Screening Program

    PubMed Central

    Paquin, Ryan S.; Peay, Holly L.; Gehtland, Lisa M.; Lewis, Megan A.; Bailey, Donald B.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Nearly all babies in the United States are tested at birth for rare, serious, and treatable disorders through mandatory state newborn screening (NBS). Recently, there have been calls for an expanded, voluntary model to facilitate early diagnosis and treatment of a wider range of disorders. We applied the reasoned action framework to examine parental intentions to participate in voluntary expanded screening. Methods We recruited a national cohort of recent and expectant parents living in the U.S. who completed a self-administered online survey (N = 1,001). Using a mixed-level fractional factorial experiment, we studied parental participation intentions and preferences for timing of consent, cost, consent format, and testing options. Results We conducted a hierarchical regression analysis assessing parental intentions to participate in voluntary expanded NBS. Attitudes, perceived normative influence, and perceived behavioral control explained substantial variance in intention, with perceived normative influence emerging as the strongest predictor. We found no evidence that the manipulated program features altered mean levels of intention, but timing of parental permission, cost, and permission format moderated the relative importance of reasoned action constructs on intention. Conclusion Program design features may impact the psychological mechanisms underlying parental decision making for voluntary expanded screening. These results have important implications for parent education, outreach, and informed parental permission procedures. PMID:27526258

  19. Neonatal newborn hearing screening: four years' experience at Ferrara University Hospital (CHEAP project): part 1.

    PubMed

    Ciorba, A; Hatzopoulos, S; Camurri, L; Negossi, L; Rossi, M; Cosso, D; Petruccelli, J; Martini, A

    2007-02-01

    The Child Hearing Early Assessment Programme (CHEAP) regional project, was a combined departmental approach (Audiology, Neonatology) of the University Hospital of Ferrara, aimed at identifying neonatal hearing impairment and defining early intervention strategies. Aims of this project have been: (i) construction of a neonatal screening programme using evoked otoacoustic emission and auditory brainstem responses; (ii) the calculation of a precise estimate of cost-benefits for every child tested; (iii) the development of an information flow instrument (database) for the storage of data and the statistical analysis of the results. The present report refers only to the results of the project related to the otoacoustic emission data from well-babies and intensive care unit residents. In the period January 2000-December 2004, 4269 full-term newborns and 654 Neonatal Intensive Care Unit babies were tested at the Neonatology Department. The cost of the Universal Neonatal Hearing Screening was estimated at Euro 9.20 per child, considering the use of the ILO-292 apparatus, and Euro 8.28 per child in the case of an automatic screener. In this screening model, the initial hardware costs can be re-iterated into budget in a period of two years, if 1000 children per year are tested.

  20. Lung function in infants with cystic fibrosis diagnosed by newborn screening.

    PubMed

    Linnane, Barry M; Hall, Graham L; Nolan, Gary; Brennan, Siobhan; Stick, Stephen M; Sly, Peter D; Robertson, Colin F; Robinson, Philip J; Franklin, Peter J; Turner, Stephen W; Ranganathan, Sarath C

    2008-12-15

    Progressive lung damage in cystic fibrosis (CF) starts in infancy, and early detection may aid preventative strategies. To measure lung function in infants with CF diagnosed by newborn screening and describe its association with pulmonary infection and inflammation. Infants with CF (n = 68, 6 weeks to 30 months of age) and healthy infants without CF (n = 49) were studied. Forced vital capacity, FEV(0.5), and forced expiratory flows at 75% of exhaled vital capacity (FEF(75)) were measured using the raised-volume rapid thoracoabdominal compression technique. Forty-eight hours later, infants with CF had bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) for assessment of pulmonary infection and inflammation. In the CF group, the deficit in FEV(0.5) z score increased by -0.77 (95% confidence interval, -1.14 to -0.41; P < 0.001) with each year of age. The mean FEV(0.5) z score did not differ between infants with CF and healthy control subjects less than 6 months of age (-0.06 and 0.02, respectively; P = 0.87). However, the mean FEV(0.5) z score was lower by 1.15 in infants with CF who were older than 6 months of age compared with healthy infants (P < 0.001). FVC and FEF(75) followed a similar pattern. Pulmonary infection and inflammation in BAL samples did not explain the lung function results. Lung function, measured by forced expiration, is normal in infants with CF at the time of diagnosis by newborn screening but is diminished in older infants. These findings suggest that in CF the optimal timing of therapeutic interventions aimed at preserving lung function may be within the first 6 months of life.

  1. Heptadecanoylcarnitine (C17) a novel candidate biomarker for propionic and methylmalonic acidemias during expanded newborn screening

    PubMed Central

    Malvagia, Sabrina; Haynes, Christopher A.; Grisotto, Laura; Ombrone, Daniela; Funghini, Silvia; Moretti, Elisa; McGreevy, Kathleen; Buggeri, Annibale; Guerrini, Renzo; Yahyaoui, Raquel; Garg, Uttam; Seeterlin, Mary; Chace, Donald; De Jesus, Victor; la Marca, Giancarlo

    2017-01-01

    Background 3-hydroxypalmitoleoyl-carnitine (C16:1-OH) was recently reported to be elevated in acylcarnitine profile of propionic acidemia (PA) or methylmalonic acidemia (MMA) patients during expanded newborn screening (NBS). High levels of C16:1-OH, combined with other hydroxylated long chain acylcarnitines are related to long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (LCHADD). Methods The acylcarnitine profile of two LCHADD patients was evaluated using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method. A specific retention time was reported for each hydroxylated long chain acylcarnitine. The same method was applied to some neonatal dried blood spots (DBS) from PA and MMA patients presenting abnormal C16:1-OH concentrations. Results The final retention time of the peak corresponding to C16:1-OH in LCHADD patients differed from those in MMA and PA patients. Heptadecanoylcarnitine (C17) has been identified as the novel biomarker specific for PA and MMA patients through high resolution mass spectrometry (Orbitrap) experiments. We found that 21 out of 23 neonates (22 MMA, and 1PA) diagnosed through the Tuscany region NBS program had significantly higher levels of C17 compared to levels detected in controls. Twenty-three maternal deficiencies (21 vitamin B12 deficiency, 1 homocystinuria and 1 gastrin deficiency) and 82 false positive for propionylcarnitine (C3) results were also analyzed. Conclusions This paper reports on the characterization of a novel biomarker able to detect propionate disorders during expanded newborn screening (NBS). The use of this new biomarker may improve the analytical performances of NBS programs especially in laboratories where second tier tests are not performed. PMID:26368264

  2. Heptadecanoylcarnitine (C17) a novel candidate biomarker for newborn screening of propionic and methylmalonic acidemias.

    PubMed

    Malvagia, Sabrina; Haynes, Christopher A; Grisotto, Laura; Ombrone, Daniela; Funghini, Silvia; Moretti, Elisa; McGreevy, Kathleen S; Biggeri, Annibale; Guerrini, Renzo; Yahyaoui, Raquel; Garg, Uttam; Seeterlin, Mary; Chace, Donald; De Jesus, Victor R; la Marca, Giancarlo

    2015-10-23

    3-Hydroxypalmitoleoyl-carnitine (C16:1-OH) has recently been reported to be elevated in acylcarnitine profiles of patients with propionic acidemia (PA) or methylmalonic acidemia (MMA) during expanded newborn screening (NBS). High levels of C16:1-OH, combined with other hydroxylated long chain acylcarnitines are related to long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (LCHADD) and trifunctional protein (TFP) deficiency. The acylcarnitine profile of two LCHADD patients was evaluated using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method. A specific retention time was determined for each hydroxylated long chain acylcarnitine. The same method was applied to some neonatal dried blood spots (DBSs) from PA and MMA patients presenting abnormal C16:1-OH concentrations. The retention time of the peak corresponding to C16:1-OH in LCHADD patients differed from those in MMA and PA patients. Heptadecanoylcarnitine (C17) has been identified as the novel biomarker specific for PA and MMA patients through high resolution mass spectrometry (Orbitrap) experiments. We found that 21 out of 23 neonates (22 MMA, and 1PA) diagnosed through the Tuscany region NBS program exhibited significantly higher levels of C17 compared to controls. Twenty-three maternal deficiency (21 vitamin B12 deficiency, 1 homocystinuria and 1 gastrin deficiency) samples and 82 false positive for elevated propionylcarnitine (C3) were also analyzed. We have characterized a novel biomarker able to detect propionate disorders during expanded newborn screening (NBS). The use of this new biomarker may improve the analytical performances of NBS programs especially in laboratories where second tier tests are not performed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterization of mortality in children with sickle cell disease diagnosed through the Newborn Screening Program.

    PubMed

    Sabarense, Alessandra P; Lima, Gabriella O; Silva, Lívia M L; Viana, Marcos Borato

    2015-01-01

    To characterize the deaths of 193 children with sickle cell disease screened by a neonatal program from 1998 to 2012 and contrast the initial years with the final years. Deaths were identified by active surveillance of children absent to scheduled appointments in Blood Bank Clinical Centers (Hemominas). Clinical and epidemiological data came from death certificates, neonatal screening database, medical records, and family interviews. Between 1998 and 2012, 3,617,919 children were screened and 2,591 had sickle cell disease (1:1,400). There were 193 deaths (7.4%): 153 with SS/Sβ(0)-thalassemia, 34 SC and 6 Sβ(+)thalassemia; 76.7% were younger than five years; 78% died in the hospital and 21% at home or in transit. The main causes of death were infection (45%), indeterminate (28%), and acute splenic sequestration (14%). In 46% of death certificates, the term "sickle cell" was not recorded. Seven-year death rate for children born between 1998 and 2005 was 5.43% versus 5.12% for those born between 2005 and 2012 (p = 0.72). Medical care was provided to 75% of children; 24% were unassisted. Medical care was provided within 6 hours of symptom onset in only half of the interviewed cases. In 40.5% of cases, death occurred within the first 24 hours. Low family income was recorded in 90% of cases, and illiteracy in 5%. Although comprehensive and effective, neonatal screening for sickle cell disease was not sufficient to significantly reduce mortality in a newborn screening program. Economic and social development and increase of the knowledge on sickle cell disease among health professionals and family are needed to overcome excessive mortality. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Cordblood-Based High-Throughput Screening for Deafness Gene of 646 Newborns in Jinan Area of China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shou-Xia; Chen, Ding-Li; Zhao, Su-Bin; Guo, Li-Li; Feng, Hai-Qin; Zhang, Xiao-Fang; Ping, Li-Li; Yang, Zhi-Ming; Sun, Cai-Xia

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Infants with slight/mild or late-onset hearing impairment might be missed in universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS). We identified the mutation hot spot of common deaf gene in the newborns in Jinan area population by screening the mutation spot with neonate cord blood, in order to make clear whether the neonate cord blood for screening is feasible. Methods Six hundred and forty-six newborns were subjected to both UNHS and genetic screening for deafness by using neonate cord blood. The newborn genetic screening targeted four deafness-associated genes, which were commonly found in the Chinese population including gap junction beta-2 protein (GJB2), gap junction beta-3 protein (GJB3), solute carrier family 26 member 4 (SLC26A4), and mtDNA 12S rRNA. The most common 20 spot mutations in 4 deaf genes were detected by MassARRAY iPLEX platform and mitochondrial 12S rRNA A1555G and C1494T mutations were sequenced using Sanger sequencing. Results Among the 646 newborns, 635 cases passed the UNHS and the other 11 cases (1.7%) did not. Of the 11 failures, two cases were found to carry homozygous GJB2 p.R143W pathogenic mutation, one case was found to have heterozygous GJB2 235delC mutation, and another one case carried heterozygous GJB3 p.R180X pathogenic mutation. Six hundred and thirty-five babies passed the newborn hearing screening, in which 25 babies were identified to carry pathogenic mutations, including 12 heterozygotes (1.9%) for GJB2 235delC, eight heterozygotes (1.3%) for SLC26A4 IVS7-2A>G, one heterozygote (0.2%) for p.R409H, two homozygotes (0.3%) for m.1494C>T, and two homozygotes (0.3%) for m.1555A>G. Conclusion Newborn genetic screening through the umbilical cord blood for common deafness-associated mutations may identify carriers sensitive to aminoglycoside antibiotic, and can effectively prevent or delay hearing loss occurs. PMID:26330914

  5. Features of unilateral hearing loss detected by newborn hearing screening programme in different regions of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Genç, Gülsüm Aydan; Konukseven, Ozlem; Muluk, Nuray Bayar; Kirkim, Günay; Başar, Figen Suren; Tuncer, Ulkü; Kayikci, Maviş Kulak; Bolat, Hilal; Topcu, Cigdem; Dizdar, Handan Turan; Kaynar, Feray; Akar, Funda; Ozdek, Ali; Serbetcioglu, Bülent; Belgin, Erol

    2013-06-01

    Newborn hearing screening (NHS) works well for babies with bilateral hearing loss. However, for those with unilateral loss, it has yet to be established some standard rules like age of diagnose, risk factors, hearing loss degree. The aim of this study is to identify the demographic characteristics of newborns with unilateral hearing loss to obtain evidence based data in order to see what to be done for children with unilateral hearing loss (UHL). Newborn hearing screening data of 123 babies with unilateral hearing loss, 71 (57.7%) male and 52 (42.3%) female, were investigated retrospectively. Data provided from the archives of six referral tertiary audiology centers from four regions in Turkey. Data, including type of hearing loss; age of diagnosis; prenatal, natal and postnatal risk factors; familial HL and parental consanguinity was analyzed in all regions and each of the Regions 1-4 separately. The difference between data obtained in terms of gender and type of hearing loss was detected as statistically significant (p<0.05). While UHL was significantly higher in females at Region 1, and in males at other Regions of 2-4; SNHL was the most detected type of UHL in all regions with the rate of 82.9-100.0%. There were not significant differences between regions in terms of the degree of hearing loss, presence of risk factors, family history of hearing loss, age at diagnosis and parental consanguinity (p>0.05). Diagnosis procedure was completed mostly at 3-6 months in Region 4; whereas, in other regions (Regions 1-3), completion of procedure was delayed until 6 months-1 year. This study indicates that the effect of postnatal risk factors, i.e. curable hyperbilirubinemia, congenital infection and intensive care is relatively high on unilateral hearing loss, precautions should be taken regarding their prevention, as well as physicians and other health personnel should be trained in terms of these risks. For early and timely diagnosis, families will be informed about

  6. Cochrane Review: Screening programmes for developmental dysplasia of the hip in newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Shorter, Damon; Hong, Timothy; Osborn, David A

    2013-01-01

    ultrasound resulted in no significant difference in late diagnosed DDH but a significant reduction in treatment. No infants in either group received surgery. There is insufficient evidence to give clear recommendations for practice. There is inconsistent evidence that universal ultrasound results in a significant increase in treatment compared to the use of targeted ultrasound or clinical examination alone. Neither of the ultrasound strategies have been demonstrated to improve clinical outcomes including late diagnosed DDH and surgery. The studies are substantially underpowered to detect significant differences in the uncommon event of late detected DDH or surgery. For infants with unstable hips or mildly dysplastic hips, use of delayed ultrasound and targeted splinting reduces treatment without significantly increasing the rate of late diagnosed DDH or surgery. Screening methods for dislocated or improperly formed hips in newborn infants The hip joint is a ball and socket joint. Newborns may have hips that are not in their socket (dislocated) or hips that are improperly formed (dysplasia). Risk factors for hip dysplasia include a family history of a similar problem and female infants delivered in the breech position. The hips of most newborns will be examined clinically after birth and during infancy to determine whether they are stable, unstable or dislocated. Screening for hip dysplasia may prevent the need for late treatment, which is associated with long term hip deformity, gait disturbance and arthritis. However, early screening leads to increased treatment. Treatment may be complicated by damage to the hip due to impairment of the blood supply (avascular necrosis). This review found no studies that compared the benefits and costs of early screening versus not screening for hip problems. Studies that compared the addition of ultrasound to clinical examination reported that when ultrasound was performed on all infants, the rate of treatment increased with no significant

  7. Targeted Screening of Hip Dysplasia in Newborns: Experience at a District General Hospital in Scotland

    PubMed Central

    Tyagi, Rahul; Zgoda, Marcin R.; Short, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    National Health Service Quality Improvement Scotland (NHS QIS) published a health technology scoping report in 2006 acknowledging that there are serious concerns within Scotland in relation to Developmental Dysplasia of Hip (DDH) as there is no formal screening program in place and there are significant variations between NHS boards leading to confusion for staff and parents. NHS QIS identified need for audit work to improve hip screening in Scotland. The aim of this study is review of current practice of selective screening for DDH. All newborns who had their first hip scan during one year period (2014) were included in this retrospective study and followed up until June 2015 to include any surgical intervention for dysplastic hip. Out of 428 babies (856 hip scans), abnormality was seen in 119 babies/147 hips (134 Graf 2a/2b, 10 hips were 2c and 3 hips were Graf grade 3). Average age when first scan was performed was 5 weeks (range 3 weeks to 22 weeks). Analysis of risk factors in 119 babies with abnormal scan was consistent with literature (83 breech, 12 family history, 12 HBW, 10 instability and 2 twins of breech). Twelve babies (16 hips) required treatment and were successfully treated in Pavlik harness. There was one case of missed/late dislocation, which lived in outside catchment area for 3 years since birth. During this study period there was no case of avascular necrosis or femoral nerve palsy as a result of treatment. In our experience, selective hip screening by ultrasound scan is useful in avoiding overtreatment and minimizing late presentations. PMID:27761220

  8. Beyond Critical Congenital Heart Disease: Newborn Screening Using Pulse Oximetry for Neonatal Sepsis and Respiratory Diseases in a Middle-Income Country

    PubMed Central

    Ang, Hak-Lee; Omar, Asma

    2015-01-01

    Background Studies on pulse oximetry screening for neonatal sepsis and respiratory disease in a middle-income country are lacking. Newborn screening for critical congenital heart disease (CCHD) using pulse oximetry is an effective and life-saving strategy in developed countries. While most studies have reported false-positive results during CCHD screening, they have not elaborated on the detected disease types. We studied the effectiveness and outcomes of pulse oximetry newborn screening for non-cardiac hypoxemic diseases such as neonatal sepsis, respiratory diseases, and CCHD in a middle-income country. Methods and Findings In a pilot study performed at the University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Malaysia, all apparently healthy term newborns, delivered at UMMC were screened pre-discharge using pulse oximetry. Echocardiography was performed for newborns that had positive screening results on two separate occasions, 1-h apart. Newborns with normal echocardiograms were evaluated and treated for other non-cardiac diseases. Fifteen of 5247 term newborns had positive screening results. The median age at screening was 20 h. Thirteen newborns (0.24%) had significant non-cardiac diseases: sepsis (n = 2) and respiratory diseases (n = 11) that required hospitalization and treatment. The remaining two newborns with normal antenatal ultrasonograms had positive screening test and confirmed to have CCHD. Another 18 newborns with negative screening test were later admitted for treatment of sepsis (n = 16) and penumonia (n = 2). All newborns were treated and alive at the end of the study. The sensitivity and specificity of pulse oximetry screening for non-cardiac diseases were 42% and 99.9% respectively, and 100% and 99.7% for CCHD, respectively. Conclusions Routine pulse oximetry screening test was effective in identifying newborns with CCHD and other hypoxemia illnesses, which may led to potential life-threatening condition. This study showed that the expanded use of pulse

  9. Beyond Critical Congenital Heart Disease: Newborn Screening Using Pulse Oximetry for Neonatal Sepsis and Respiratory Diseases in a Middle-Income Country.

    PubMed

    Jawin, Vida; Ang, Hak-Lee; Omar, Asma; Thong, Meow-Keong

    2015-01-01

    Studies on pulse oximetry screening for neonatal sepsis and respiratory disease in a middle-income country are lacking. Newborn screening for critical congenital heart disease (CCHD) using pulse oximetry is an effective and life-saving strategy in developed countries. While most studies have reported false-positive results during CCHD screening, they have not elaborated on the detected disease types. We studied the effectiveness and outcomes of pulse oximetry newborn screening for non-cardiac hypoxemic diseases such as neonatal sepsis, respiratory diseases, and CCHD in a middle-income country. In a pilot study performed at the University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Malaysia, all apparently healthy term newborns, delivered at UMMC were screened pre-discharge using pulse oximetry. Echocardiography was performed for newborns that had positive screening results on two separate occasions, 1-h apart. Newborns with normal echocardiograms were evaluated and treated for other non-cardiac diseases. Fifteen of 5247 term newborns had positive screening results. The median age at screening was 20 h. Thirteen newborns (0.24%) had significant non-cardiac diseases: sepsis (n = 2) and respiratory diseases (n = 11) that required hospitalization and treatment. The remaining two newborns with normal antenatal ultrasonograms had positive screening test and confirmed to have CCHD. Another 18 newborns with negative screening test were later admitted for treatment of sepsis (n = 16) and penumonia (n = 2). All newborns were treated and alive at the end of the study. The sensitivity and specificity of pulse oximetry screening for non-cardiac diseases were 42% and 99.9% respectively, and 100% and 99.7% for CCHD, respectively. Routine pulse oximetry screening test was effective in identifying newborns with CCHD and other hypoxemia illnesses, which may led to potential life-threatening condition. This study showed that the expanded use of pulse oximetry has immediate implications for low

  10. Newborn screening for methylmalonic aciduria by tandem mass spectrometry: 7 years' experience from two centers in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Kang-Hsiang; Liu, Mei-Ying; Kao, Chuan-Hong; Chen, Yann-Jang; Hsiao, Kwang-Jen; Liu, Tze-Tze; Lin, Hsiang-Yu; Huang, Cheng-Hung; Chiang, Chuan-Chi; Ho, Huey-Jane; Lin, Shuan-Pei; Lee, Ni-Chung; Hwu, Wuh-Liang; Lin, Ju-Li; Hung, Ping-Yao; Niu, Dau-Ming

    2010-06-01

    The clinical course of methylmalonic aciduria (MMA) is fulminant in neonates and emergency management is necessary to save lives. It is therefore very important to differentiate affected from unaffected neonates immediately when there are abnormal results regarding MMA in newborn screening. Between January 2002 and December 2008, 598,522 newborns were screened for MMA by 2 neonatal screening centers: the Chinese Foundation of Health and the Taipei Institute of Pathology. A total of 22 newborns were referred to confirmatory medical centers, and 7 were confirmed as having MMA. The initial propionylcarnitine (C3) level, C3/acetylcarnitine (C2) ratio, plasma ammonia, liver function tests, blood pH and bicarbonate were compared between the true-positive and false-positive groups. The C3/C2 ratio and plasma ammonia were markedly higher in the true-positive MMA group (p < 0.0001). Blood gas pH (p = 0.029), bicarbonate (p = 0.019), and aspartate aminotransferase (p = 0.005) also significantly differed between these 2 groups. Referred newborns with elevated plasma C3/C2 ratios > 0.4 or ammonia levels > 200 mg/dL should be highly suspected of having MMA. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Newborn screening for sickle cell diseases in the United States: A review of data spanning 2 decades.

    PubMed

    Therrell, Bradford L; Lloyd-Puryear, Michele A; Eckman, James R; Mann, Marie Y

    2015-04-01

    Sickle cell disease is a group of disorders, the majority of which are detected through state newborn screening programs. There is limited knowledge of disease prevalence in the U.S. We report 20 years of case finding and laboratory data for sickle cell disease and trait to assist in: planning for health services delivery; providing data for researchers; aiding in tracking health outcome trends; and assessing sickle gene prevalence in the newborn population. During the 20-year period, there were 39,422 confirmed cases of sickle cell disease among 76,527,627 newborn births screened (1:1941) and 1,107,875 laboratory reports of probable sickle trait among 73,951,175 newborn births screened (1:67). The highest sickle cell disease incidence during the 20 years was in the District of Columbia (1:437) followed by Mississippi (1:683) and South Carolina (1:771). For sickle cell trait, the highest incidences were in the District of Columbia (1:22), Mississippi (1:26), and South Carolina (1:31). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Identification of a male with fragile X syndrome through newborn screening

    PubMed Central

    Famula, Jessica; Basuta, Kirin; Gane, Louise W.; Hagerman, Randi J.; Tassone, Flora

    2015-01-01

    Summary A pilot newborn screening (NBS) study for fragile X syndrome was recently conducted at the University of California, Davis Medical Center. The screening study identified a case of a male with the full mutation completely methylated and no detectable expression of the fragile X mental retardation-1 (FMR1) gene. The patient was initially seen in clinic at the MIND Institute, for medical follow-up and a genetic counseling session at the chronological age of 3 months. Since then, he has been seen in clinic every six months for follow up, medical examination and developmental assessments. Longitudinally administered developmental testing of the infant has revealed persistent delays in development, consistent with fragile X syndrome. Cascade testing revealed that the patient's mother and two siblings also have the full mutation. The patient has been receiving speech and language therapy, combined with physical and occupational therapies on a weekly basis since the age of one year. He is currently being treated with 2.5 mg of sertraline, which has been demonstrated to be helpful for improving language in young children with the syndrome. PMID:26668780

  13. IgE screening in 1701 newborn infants and the development of atopic disease during infancy.

    PubMed Central

    Croner, S; Kjellman, N I; Eriksson, B; Roth, A

    1982-01-01

    IgE screening was done using the Phadebas IgE PRIST technique on the cord blood of 1701 newborn infants. Of these 8.3% developed obvious or probable atopic disease, predominantly atopic dermatitis and bronchial asthma, during the first 18 months of life. Of infants with a family history of atopic disease 10.5% developed such illness; the corresponding figure for infants with an initially high IgE concentration was 70%. Atopic disease developed in 73% of infants with a high IgE concentration in cord blood and a family history, but in only 3% of infants with a low IgE and no family history. A high IgE concentration in cord blood was associated with a high IgE and a positive radioallergosorbent test at between ages 18 and 24 months more often than was a low initial IgE level, indicating that in man as in animals there are high and low IgE responders already genetically coded at birth. IgE screening in cord blood is recommended if there is obvious atopy in both parents or if severe atopic disease if present in a sibling or in one parent. PMID:7092292

  14. Newborn screening for severe combined immunodeficiency; the Wisconsin experience (2008-2011).

    PubMed

    Verbsky, James W; Baker, Mei W; Grossman, William J; Hintermeyer, Mary; Dasu, Trivikram; Bonacci, Benedetta; Reddy, Sreelatha; Margolis, David; Casper, James; Gries, Miranda; Desantes, Ken; Hoffman, Gary L; Brokopp, Charles D; Seroogy, Christine M; Routes, John M

    2012-02-01

    Severe combined immunodeficiency is a life-threatening primary immune deficiency characterized by low numbers of naïve T cells. Early diagnosis and treatment of this disease decreases mortality. In 2008, Wisconsin began newborn screening of infants for severe combined immunodeficiency and other forms of T-cell lymphopenia by the T-cell receptor excision circle assay. In total, 207,696 infants were screened. Seventy-two infants had an abnormal assay. T-cell numbers were normal in 38 infants, abnormal in 33 infants, and not performed in one infant, giving a positive predictive value for T-cell lymphopenia of any cause of 45.83% and a specificity of 99.98%. Five infants with severe combined immunodeficiency/severe T-cell lymphopenia requiring hematopoietic stem cell transplantation or other therapy were detected. In summary, the T-cell receptor excision circle assay is a sensitive and specific test to identify infants with severe combined immunodeficiency and severe T-cell lymphopenia that leads to life-saving therapies such as hematopoietic stem cell transplantation prior to the acquisition of severe infections.

  15. Funding Decisions for Newborn Screening: A Comparative Review of 22 Decision Processes in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Katharina Elisabeth; Rogowski, Wolf Henning

    2014-01-01

    Decision-makers need to make choices to improve public health. Population-based newborn screening (NBS) is considered as one strategy to prevent adverse health outcomes and address rare disease patients’ needs. The aim of this study was to describe key characteristics of decisions for funding new NBS programmes in Europe. We analysed past decisions using a conceptual framework. It incorporates indicators that capture the steps of decision processes by health care payers. Based on an internet survey, we compared 22 decisions for which answers among two respondents were validated for each observation. The frequencies of indicators were calculated to elicit key characteristics. All decisions resulted in positive, mostly unrestricted funding. Stakeholder participation was diverse focusing on information provision or voting. Often, decisions were not fully transparent. Assessment of NBS technologies concentrated on expert opinion, literature review and rough cost estimates. Most important appraisal criteria were effectiveness (i.e., health gain from testing for the children being screened), disease severity and availability of treatments. Some common and diverging key characteristics were identified. Although no evidence of explicit healthcare rationing was found, processes may be improved in respect of transparency and scientific rigour of assessment. PMID:24852389

  16. Funding decisions for newborn screening: a comparative review of 22 decision processes in Europe.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Katharina Elisabeth; Rogowski, Wolf Henning

    2014-05-19

    Decision-makers need to make choices to improve public health. Population-based newborn screening (NBS) is considered as one strategy to prevent adverse health outcomes and address rare disease patients' needs. The aim of this study was to describe key characteristics of decisions for funding new NBS programmes in Europe. We analysed past decisions using a conceptual framework. It incorporates indicators that capture the steps of decision processes by health care payers. Based on an internet survey, we compared 22 decisions for which answers among two respondents were validated for each observation. The frequencies of indicators were calculated to elicit key characteristics. All decisions resulted in positive, mostly unrestricted funding. Stakeholder participation was diverse focusing on information provision or voting. Often, decisions were not fully transparent. Assessment of NBS technologies concentrated on expert opinion, literature review and rough cost estimates. Most important appraisal criteria were effectiveness (i.e., health gain from testing for the children being screened), disease severity and availability of treatments. Some common and diverging key characteristics were identified. Although no evidence of explicit healthcare rationing was found, processes may be improved in respect of transparency and scientific rigour of assessment.

  17. The future role of genetic screening to detect newborns at risk of childhood-onset hearing loss

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To explore the future potential of genetic screening to detect newborns at risk of childhood-onset hearing loss. Design: An expert led discussion of current and future developments in genetic technology and the knowledge base of genetic hearing loss to determine the viability of genetic screening and the implications for screening policy. Results and Discussion: Despite increasing pressure to adopt genetic technologies, a major barrier for genetic screening in hearing loss is the uncertain clinical significance of the identified mutations and their interactions. Only when a reliable estimate of the future risk of hearing loss can be made at a reasonable cost, will genetic screening become viable. Given the speed of technological advancement this may be within the next 10 years. Decision-makers should start to consider how genetic screening could augment current screening programmes as well as the associated data processing and storage requirements. Conclusion: In the interim, we suggest that decision makers consider the benefits of (1) genetically testing all newborns and children with hearing loss, to determine aetiology and to increase knowledge of the genetic causes of hearing loss, and (2) consider screening pregnant women for the m.1555A> G mutation to reduce the risk of aminoglycoside antibiotic-associated hearing loss. PMID:23131088

  18. A 3.9-Centimorgan-Resolution Human Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism Linkage Map and Screening Set

    PubMed Central

    Matise, Tara C.; Sachidanandam, Ravi; Clark, Andrew G.; Kruglyak, Leonid; Wijsman, Ellen; Kakol, Jerzy; Buyske, Steven; Chui, Buena; Cohen, Patrick; Toma, Claudia de; Ehm, Margaret; Glanowski, Stephen; He, Chunsheng; Heil, Jeremy; Markianos, Kyriacos; McMullen, Ivy; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.; Silbergleit, Arkadiy; Stein, Lincoln; Wagner, Michael; Wilson, Alexander F.; Winick, Jeffrey D.; Winn-Deen, Emily S.; Yamashiro, Carl T.; Cann, Howard M.; Lai, Eric; Holden, Arthur L.

    2003-01-01

    Recent advances in technologies for high-throughout single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)–based genotyping have improved efficiency and cost so that it is now becoming reasonable to consider the use of SNPs for genomewide linkage analysis. However, a suitable screening set of SNPs and a corresponding linkage map have yet to be described. The SNP maps described here fill this void and provide a resource for fast genome scanning for disease genes. We have evaluated 6,297 SNPs in a diversity panel composed of European Americans, African Americans, and Asians. The markers were assessed for assay robustness, suitable allele frequencies, and informativeness of multi-SNP clusters. Individuals from 56 Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain pedigrees, with >770 potentially informative meioses altogether, were genotyped with a subset of 2,988 SNPs, for map construction. Extensive genotyping-error analysis was performed, and the resulting SNP linkage map has an average map resolution of 3.9 cM, with map positions containing either a single SNP or several tightly linked SNPs. The order of markers on this map compares favorably with several other linkage and physical maps. We compared map distances between the SNP linkage map and the interpolated SNP linkage map constructed by the deCode Genetics group. We also evaluated cM/Mb distance ratios in females and males, along each chromosome, showing broadly defined regions of increased and decreased rates of recombination. Evaluations indicate that this SNP screening set is more informative than the Marshfield Clinic’s commonly used microsatellite-based screening set. PMID:12844283

  19. Retinal and Optic Nerve Hemorrhages in the Newborn Infant: One-year Results of the Newborn Eye Screen Test (NEST) Study

    PubMed Central

    Callaway, Natalia F.; Ludwig, Cassie A.; Blumenkranz, Mark S.; Jones, Jennifer Michelle; Fredrick, Douglas R.; Moshfeghi, Darius M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To report the birth prevalence, risk factors, characteristics and location of fundus hemorrhages (FH) of the retina and optic nerve present in newborns at birth. Design Prospective cohort study at Stanford University School of Medicine. Participants All infants who were 37 weeks postmenstrual age or older and were deemed stable by their pediatrician were eligible for screening. Infants who were anophthalmic or had known or suspected infectious conjunctivitis were excluded. Methods Infants born at Lucile Packard Children's Hospital (LPCH) from July 25, 2013 through July 25, 2014 were offered universal newborn screening via wide-angle digital retinal photography in the Newborn Eye Screen Test (NEST) study. Maternal, obstetric, and neonatal factors were obtained by reviewing hospital records prior to discharge. The location, retinal layer, and laterality of FH were recorded by one pediatric vitreoretinal specialist. Main Outcome Measures Birth prevalence of FH. Secondary outcomes included rate of adverse events, risk factors for FH, hemorrhage characteristics and adverse events. Results The birth prevalence of FH in this study was 20.3% (41/202 infants). Ninety-five percent of FHs involved the periphery, 83% involved the macula, and 71% involved multiple layers of the retina. The fovea was involved in 15% of FH cases (birth prevalence, 3.0%). No cases of bilateral foveal hemorrhage were found. Fundus hemorrhages were more common in the left eye than the right. Fundus hemorrhages were most commonly optic nerve flame hemorrhages (48%) and white-centered retinal hemorrhages (30%). Retinal hemorrhages were found most frequently in all 4 quadrants (35%) and more often were multiple than solitary. Macular hemorrhages most often were intraretinal (40%). Among the risk factors examined in this study, vaginal delivery compared with cesarean section (odds ratio [OR], 9.34; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.57-33.97) showed the greatest level of association with FH. Self

  20. Health Disparities in Hepatitis C Screening and Linkage to Care at an Integrated Health System in Southeast Michigan.

    PubMed

    Bourgi, Kassem; Brar, Indira; Baker-Genaw, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    With recommended screening for hepatitis C among the 1945-1965 birth cohort and advent of novel highly effective therapies, little is known about health disparities in the Hepatitis C care cascade. Our objective was to evaluate hepatitis C screening rates and linkage to care, among patients who test positive, at our large integrated health system. We used electronic medical records to retrospectively identify patients, in the birth cohort, who were seen in 21 Internal Medicine clinics from July 2014 to June 2015. Patients previously screened for hepatitis C and those with established disease were excluded. We studied patients' sociodemographic and medical conditions along with provider-specific factors associated with likelihood of screening. Patients who tested positive for HCV antibody were reviewed to assess appropriate linkage to care and treatment. Of 40,561 patients who met inclusion criteria, 21.3% (8657) were screened, 1.3% (109) tested positive, and 30% (30/100) completed treatment. Multivariate logistic regression showed that African American race, male gender, electronic health engagement, residency teaching clinic visit, and having more than one clinic visit were associated with higher odds of screening. Patients had a significant decrease in the likelihood of screening with sequential interval increase in their Charlson comorbidity index. When evaluating hepatitis C treatment in patients who screened positive, electronic health engagement was associated with higher odds of treatment whereas Medicaid insurance was associated with significantly lower odds. This study shows that hepatitis C screening rates and linkage to care continue to be suboptimal with a significant impact of multiple sociodemographic and insurance factors. Electronic health engagement emerges as a tool in linking patients to the hepatitis C care cascade.

  1. Newborn screening for homocystinurias and methylation disorders: systematic review and proposed guidelines.

    PubMed

    Huemer, Martina; Kožich, Viktor; Rinaldo, Piero; Baumgartner, Matthias R; Merinero, Begoña; Pasquini, Elisabetta; Ribes, Antonia; Blom, Henk J

    2015-11-01

    Newborn screening (NBS) is justified if early intervention is effective in a disorder generally not detected early in life on a clinical basis, and if sensitive and specific biochemical markers exist. Experience with NBS for homocystinurias and methylation disorders is limited. However, there is robust evidence for the success of early treatment with diet, betaine and/or pyridoxine for CBS deficiency and good evidence for the success of early betaine treatment in severe MTHFR deficiency. These conditions can be screened in dried blood spots by determining methionine (Met), methionine-to-phenylanine (Met/Phe) ratio, and total homocysteine (tHcy) as a second tier marker. Therefore, we recommend NBS for cystathionine beta-synthase and severe MTHFR deficiency. Weaker evidence is available for the disorders of intracellular cobalamin metabolism. Early treatment is clearly of advantage for patients with the late-onset cblC defect. In the early-onset type, survival and non-neurological symptoms improve but the effect on neurocognitive development is uncertain. The cblC defect can be screened by measuring propionylcarnitine, propionylcarnitine-to-acetylcarnitine ratio combined with the second tier markers methylmalonic acid and tHcy. For the cblE and cblG defects, evidence for the benefit of early treatment is weaker; and data on performance of Met, Met/Phe and tHcy even more limited. Individuals homozygous or compound heterozygous for MAT1A mutations may benefit from detection by NBS using Met, which on the other hand also detects asymptomatic heterozygotes. Clinical and laboratory data is insufficient to develop any recommendation on NBS for the cblD, cblF, cblJ defects, glycineN-methyltransferase-, S-adenosylhomocysteinehydrolase- and adenosine kinase deficiency.

  2. Utility of a very high IRT/No mutation referral category in cystic fibrosis newborn screening.

    PubMed

    Kay, Denise M; Langfelder-Schwind, Elinor; DeCelie-Germana, Joan; Sharp, Jack K; Maloney, Breanne; Tavakoli, Norma P; Saavedra-Matiz, Carlos A; Krein, Lea M; Caggana, Michele; Kier, Catherine

    2015-08-01

    Newborn screening for Cystic Fibrosis (CF) began in New York in October, 2002 using immunoreactive trypsinogen (IRT)/DNA methodology. Infants with at least one CFTR mutation or very high IRT and no mutations (VHIRT) are referred for sweat testing. In a preliminary analysis, we noted a very low positive predictive value (PPV) and preponderance of Hispanic infants in the group of infants with CF referred for VHIRT, which led to a decision to revise, but not eliminate, the VHIRT category. Automatic referral for specimens with VHIRT collected on the day of birth was eliminated, and the VHIRT threshold was raised from 0.2% to 0.1%. In this report, we describe outcomes from VHIRT referrals among 2.4 million infants screened between March 2003 and February 2013. Following the algorithm change, referrals decreased by 37.8% overall (annual mean 1,485 vs. 923), and the VHIRT PPV improved (0.6-1.0%). The number of infants diagnosed has remained consistent at 1 in 4,400 births. The proportion of Black/Hispanic/Asian/Other infants with confirmed CF, CFTR-related metabolic syndrome (CRMS), or possible CF/CRMS was 21.3% in infants with 1-2 mutations, but 75.8% in the VHIRT group. In conclusion, although the PPV among VHIRT referrals remains low, had this category never been implemented, 24 infants with confirmed CF, and 9 infants with CRMS or possible CF/CRMS, most of whom were Hispanic, would have been missed over the 10 years. Information from this study may be helpful in assessing the need for the VHIRT category and algorithm changes in other screening programs.

  3. Policy Making in Newborn Screening Needs a Structured and Transparent Approach.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Marleen E; Lister, Karla J; van Kranen, Henk J; Cornel, Martina C

    2017-01-01

    Newborn bloodspot screening (NBS) programs have expanded significantly in the past years and are expected to expand further with the emergence of genetic technologies. Historically, NBS expansion has often occurred following ad hoc consideration of conditions, instead of a structured and transparent approach. In this review, we explore issues pertinent to NBS policy making, through the lens of the policy cycle: (a) agenda setting, (b) policy advice, (c) policy decision, (d) implementation, and (e) evaluation. A literature search was conducted to gather information on the elements specific to NBS and its policy making process. The review highlighted two approaches to nominate a condition: a structured approach through horizon scanning; and an ad hoc process. For assessment of a condition, there was unanimous support for a robust process based on criteria. While the need to assess harms and benefits was a repeated theme in the articles, there is no agreed-upon threshold for benefit in decision-making. Furthermore, the literature was consistent in its recommendation for an overarching, independent, multidisciplinary group providing recommendations to government. An implementation plan focusing on the different levels on which NBS operates and the information needed on each level is essential for successful implementation. Continuously monitoring, and improving a program is vital, particularly following the implementation of screening for a new condition. An advisory committee could advise on implementation, development, review, modification, and cessation of (parts of) NBS. The results highlight that there are a wave of issues facing NBS programs that policy makers must take into account when developing policy processes. What conditions to screen, and the technologies used in NBS, are both up for debate.

  4. Prenatal Education of Parents About Newborn Screening and Residual Dried Blood Spots: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Botkin, Jeffrey R; Rothwell, Erin; Anderson, Rebecca A; Rose, Nancy C; Dolan, Siobhan M; Kuppermann, Miriam; Stark, Louisa A; Goldenberg, Aaron; Wong, Bob

    2016-06-01

    Research clearly indicates that current approaches to newborn blood spot screening (NBS) education are ineffective. Incorporating NBS education into prenatal care is broadly supported by lay and professional opinion. To determine the efficacy and effect of prenatal education about newborn screening and use of residual dried blood spots (DBS) in research on parental knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. A randomized clinical trial of prenatal educational interventions, with outcomes measured by survey at 2 to 4 weeks postpartum. Participants were recruited from obstetric clinics in Salt Lake City, Utah; San Francisco, California; and the Bronx, New York. Eligible women were English- or Spanish-speaking adults and did not have a high-risk pregnancy. A total of 901 women were enrolled. Participants who completed the follow-up survey included 212 women in the usual care group (70% retention), 231 in the NBS group (77% retention), and 221 women in the NBS + DBS group (75% retention). Those who completed the survey were similar across the 3 groups with respect to age, ethnicity, race, education, marital status, income, obstetric history, and language. Participants were randomized into 1 of 3 groups: usual care (n = 305), those viewing an NBS movie and brochure (n = 300), and those viewing both the NBS and DBS movies and brochures (n = 296). Two to four weeks postpartum, women completed a 91-item survey by telephone, addressing knowledge, attitudes, and behavior with respect to opting out of NBS or DBS for their child. A total of 901 women (mean age, 31 years) were randomized and 664 completed the follow-up survey. The total correct responses on the knowledge instrument in regard to NBS were 69% in the usual care group, 79% in the NBS group, and 75% in the NBS + DBS group, a significant between-group difference (P < .05). Although all groups showed strong support for NBS, the percentage of women who were "very supportive" was highest in the NBS

  5. Incidence and molecular characterization of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase deficiency among neonates for newborn screening in Chaozhou, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, H; Wang, Q; Zheng, L; Zhan, X-F; Lin, M; Lin, F; Tong, X; Luo, Z-Y; Huang, Y; Yang, L-Y

    2015-06-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is highly prevalent in southern China. The aim of this study is to assess the extent of this disease in Chinese neonates and determine its molecular characteristics using a novel molecular screening method. A total of 2500 neonates were routinely screened for G6PD deficiency using a modified fluorescent spot test (FST). PCR-high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis was then used for the molecular assay. The overall incidence of G6PD deficiency was 2.68% in our study cohort. Frequency in male population was 3.22% (44 neonates of 1365 male neonates), and in female population was 2.03% (23 neonates of 1135 female neonates). Of the 67 newborns suspected to be G6PD deficient based on FST (44 males, 23 females), 58 of 67 (87%) were detected with gene alterations. Seven kinds of mutations [c.95A>G, c.392G>T, c.493A>G, c.871G>A, c.1360C>T, c.1376G>T, and c.1388G>A] were identified by HRM analysis. Routine newborn screening in Chaozhou, China with a relatively high prevalence of G6PD deficiency is justified and meets the World Health Organization recommendation. The usage of molecular diagnosis can favor the detection of heterozygotes which can be a supplement to regular newborn screening and useful for premarital and prenatal diagnosis for G6PD deficiency. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Newborn screening for critical congenital heart disease: potential roles of birth defects surveillance programs--United States, 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    2012-10-26

    In September 2011, the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) approved the Secretary's Advisory Committee on Heritable Disorders in Newborns and Children (SACHDNC) 2010 recommendation that all newborns be screened for critical congenital heart disease (CCHD) using pulse oximetry, a noninvasive test of blood oxygenation, to prevent mortality and morbidity. CDC partnered with the National Birth Defects Prevention Network (NBDPN) to conduct a survey designed to assess state birth defect surveillance programs' potential roles, capabilities, and readiness to assist with newborn screening activities for CCHD. States were surveyed in November 2010, after the initial SACHDNC recommendation, and again in November 2011, after the Secretary's approval. From 2010 to 2011, the number of birth defects surveillance programs involved in CCHD screening increased from one to 10. Barriers exist, such as the lack of legislative authority, staffing, funding, and informatics infrastructure. Sixty-seven percent of programs take an average of more than 12 months to collect complete data on birth defect cases, including congenital heart defects. An assessment of state birth defects programs' existing data and capability to lead the evaluation of screening for CCHD is warranted.

  7. Newborn Screening for Vitamin B6 Non-responsive Classical Homocystinuria: Systematical Evaluation of a Two-Tier Strategy.

    PubMed

    Okun, Jürgen G; Gan-Schreier, Hongying; Ben-Omran, Tawfeq; Schmidt, Kathrin V; Fang-Hoffmann, Junmin; Gramer, Gwendolyn; Abdoh, Ghassan; Shahbeck, Noora; Al Rifai, Hilal; Al Khal, Abdul Latif; Haege, Gisela; Chiang, Chuan-Chi; Kasper, David C; Wilcken, Bridget; Burgard, Peter; Hoffmann, Georg F

    2017-01-01

    In classical homocystinuria (HCU, MIM# 236200) due to the deficiency of cystathionine β-synthase (EC 4.2.1.22) there is a clear evidence for the success of early treatment. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a two-tier strategy for HCU newborn screening. We reevaluated data from our newborn screening programme for Qatar in a total number of 125,047 neonates including 30 confirmed HCU patients. Our hitherto existing screening strategy includes homocysteine (Hcy) measurements in every child, resulting in a unique dataset for evaluation of two-tier strategies. Reevaluation included methionine (Met) levels, Met to phenylalanine (Phe) ratio, and Hcy. Four HCU cases identified after database closure were also included in the evaluation. In addition, dried blood spot samples selected by Met values >P97 in the newborn screening programs in Austria, Australia, the Netherlands, and Taiwan were analyzed for Hcy. Met to Phe ratio was found to be more effective for first sieve than Met, sorting out nearly 90% of normal samples. Only 10% of the samples would have to be processed by second-tier measurement of Hcy in dried blood spots. As no patient with HCU was found neither in the samples investigated for HCU, nor by clinical diagnosis in the other countries, the generalization of our two-tier strategy could only be tested indirectly. The finally derived two-tier algorithm using Met to Phe ratio as first- and Hcy as second-tier requires 10% first-tier positives to be transferred to Hcy measurement, resulting in 100% sensitivity and specificity in HCU newborn screening.

  8. The national Austrian newborn screening program - eight years experience with mass spectrometry. past, present, and future goals.

    PubMed

    Kasper, David C; Ratschmann, Rene; Metz, Thomas F; Mechtler, Thomas P; Möslinger, Dorothea; Konstantopoulou, Vassiliki; Item, Chike B; Pollak, Arnold; Herkner, Kurt R

    2010-11-01

    the National Austrian Newborn Screening Program for inherited metabolic and endocrinologic disorders was introduced in 1966. The program continuously evolved by expanding the screening panel from phenylketonuria and galactosemia to congenital hypothyroidism, biotinidase deficiency, cystic fibrosis, and congenital adrenal hyperplasia. In 2002, the introduction of tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) substantially increased the number of detectable inborn errors of metabolism and now includes disorders of fatty acid oxidation, organic acidurias and various disorders of amino acid metabolism. in this study we report our eight years experience with MS/MS in Austria and give an overview of the incidence of diseases, organization, updates on methods and current development and future aspects. a total of 622,489 newborns were screened by MS/MS for more than 20 diseases in Austria between April 2002 and December 2009. Dried blood spot samples were collected and sent to the National Laboratory for Newborn Screening located at the Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria. The resulting overall prevalence of inherited metabolic disorder identified by MS/MS was 1:2855, including 125 newborns with amino acidemias (1:4,980), 46 with organic acidurias (1:13,532), and 47 with fatty acid oxidation disorders (1:13,244). the introduction of MS/MS technology in Austria significantly increased the detection of inherited metabolic disorders that were previously not covered. A primary goal is the continuous effort by developing second-tier strategies with the inclusion of more specific markers in order to minimize the risk of false-negatives and to improve the positive predictive value of screening results. Early recognition of these disorders enables diagnosis and treatment before the onset of symptoms.

  9. Streamlined determination of lysophosphatidylcholines in dried blood spots for newborn screening of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Turgeon, Coleman T; Moser, Ann B; Mørkrid, Lars; Magera, Mark J; Gavrilov, Dimitar K; Oglesbee, Devin; Raymond, Kimiyo; Rinaldo, Piero; Matern, Dietrich; Tortorelli, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Pre-symptomatic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is essential to achieve best possible outcomes for patients with the childhood cerebral form of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD). We describe a high-throughput method for measurement of C20-C26 lysophosphatidylcholines (LPCs) and biochemical diagnosis of X-ALD using the same dried blood spots (DBS) routinely used for newborn screening. LPCs are extracted from 3-mm DBS punch with methanol containing an isotopically labeled LPC as internal standard. This extract is transferred to a 96-well plate, evaporated and then reconstituted in mobile phase for flow injection analysis tandem mass spectrometry (FIA-MS/MS) in selected reaction monitoring mode for measurement of four different LPCs (C20, C22, C24, C26) and the internal standard (d4-C26-LPC). Analysis time is 1.5min per sample. The mean CVs from the intra- and inter-assay experiments for LPCs were 6.3-15.1% for C20-LPC, 4.4-18.6% for C22-LPC and 4.5-14.3% for C24-LPC. Limits of detection were determined for C20-LPC (LOD=0.03μg/mL), C22-LPC (0.03μg/mL), C24-LPC (0.03μg/mL) and C26-LPC (0.01μg/mL). Reference ranges were established from DBS of 130 newborns and 20 adults. Samples of patients with X-ALD (n=16), peroxisomal biogenesis disorders (n=8), and X-ALD carriers (n=12) were analyzed blindly and all were correctly identified. Analysis of LPC species by FIA-MS/MS is a fast, simple and reliable method to screen for X-ALD and other peroxisomal disorders in DBS. To maximize specificity, abnormal results can be verified by a 2nd tier assay using LC-MS/MS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Newborn screening for remethylation disorders and vitamin B12 deficiency-evaluation of new strategies in cohorts from Qatar and Germany.

    PubMed

    Gramer, Gwendolyn; Abdoh, Ghassan; Ben-Omran, Tawfeg; Shahbeck, Noora; Ali, Rehab; Mahmoud, Laila; Fang-Hoffmann, Junmin; Hoffmann, Georg F; Al Rifai, Hilal; Okun, Jürgen G

    2017-04-01

    Newborn screening is a precondition for early diagnosis and successful treatment of remethylation disorders and classical homocystinuria (cystathionine-ß-synthase deficiency). Newborn screening for classical homocystinuria using total homocysteine measurement in dried blood spots has been very successfully performed for many years for newborns from Qatar. A new optimized newborn screening strategy for remethylation disorders and homocystinuria was developed and evaluated for newborns from Qatar using total homocysteine measurement as first-tier and methionine, methionine-phenylalanine-ratio and propionylcarnitine as second-tiers. Proposed cut-offs were also retrospectively evaluated in newborn screening samples of 12 patients with remethylation disorders and vitamin B12 deficiency from Qatar and Germany. Over a 12 months period, the proposed strategy led to a decrease in the recall rate in homocysteine screening for Qatar from 1.09% to 0.68%, while allowing for additional systematic inclusion of remethylation disorders and vitamin B12 deficiency into the screening panel for Qatar. In the evaluated period the applied strategy would have detected all patients with classical homocystinuria identified by the previous strategy and in addition 5 children with maternal nutritional vitamin B12 deficiency and one patient with an isolated remethylation disorder. Additional retrospective evaluation of newborn screening samples of 12 patients from Germany and Qatar with remethlyation disorders or vitamin B12 deficiency showed that all of these patients would have been detected by the cut-offs used in the proposed new strategy. In addition, an adapted strategy for Germany using methionine, methionine-phenylalanine-ratio and propionylcarnitine as first-tier, and homocysteine as a second-tier test was also positively evaluated retrospectively. The proposed strategy for samples from Qatar allows inclusion of remethylation disorders and vitamin B12 deficiency in the screening

  11. High Incidence of Later-Onset Fabry Disease Revealed by Newborn Screening*

    PubMed Central

    Spada, Marco; Pagliardini, Severo; Yasuda, Makiko; Tukel, Turgut; Thiagarajan, Geetha; Sakuraba, Hitoshi; Ponzone, Alberto; Desnick, Robert J.

    2006-01-01

    The classic phenotype of Fabry disease, X-linked α-galactosidase A (α-Gal A) deficiency, has an estimated incidence of ∼1 in 50,000 males. The recent recognition of later-onset variants suggested that this treatable lysosomal disease is more frequent. To determine the disease incidence, we undertook newborn screening by assaying the α-Gal A activity in blood spots from 37,104 consecutive Italian male neonates. Enzyme-deficient infants were retested, and “doubly screened-positive” infants and their relatives were diagnostically confirmed by enzyme and mutation analyses. Twelve (0.03%) neonates had deficient α-Gal A activities and specific mutations, including four novel missense mutations (M51I, E66G, A73V, and R118C), three missense mutations (F113L, A143T, and N215S) identified previously in later-onset patients, and one splicing defect (IVS5+1G→T) reported in a patient with the classic phenotype. Molecular modeling and in vitro overexpression of the missense mutations demonstrated structures and residual activities, which were rescued/enhanced by an α-Gal A–specific pharmacologic chaperone, consistent with mutations that cause the later-onset phenotype. Family studies revealed undiagnosed Fabry disease in affected individuals. In this population, the incidence of α-Gal A deficiency was 1 in ∼3,100, with an 11:1 ratio of patients with the later-onset:classic phenotypes. If only known disease-causing mutations were included, the incidence would be 1 in ∼4,600, with a 7:1 ratio of patients with the later-onset:classic phenotypes. These results suggest that the later-onset phenotype of Fabry disease is underdiagnosed among males with cardiac, cerebrovascular, and/or renal disease. Recognition of these patients would permit family screening and earlier therapeutic intervention. However, the higher incidence of the later-onset phenotype in patients raises ethical issues related to when screening should be performed—in the neonatal period or at

  12. Positive screening and carrier results for the England-wide universal newborn sickle cell screening programme by ethnicity and area for 2005–07

    PubMed Central

    Latinovic, Radoslav; Henthorn, Joan

    2010-01-01

    Aims The overall aim of the new national newborn programme is to identify infants at risk of sickle cell disease to allow early detection and to minimise deaths and complications. Methods Universal screening for sickle cell disease was introduced in England between September 2003 and July 2006. The 13 newborn laboratories each screen between 25 000 and 110 000 babies a year using the existing dried bloodspot cards. The specified conditions to be screened for include sickle cell anaemia (Hb SS), Hb SC disease, Hb S/β thalassaemia, Hb S/DPunjab and Hb S/OArab. Data are reported on screening results by ethnic group and geographical area. Results The prevalence of screen positive results across England is 1:2000. There is a 25-fold variation by geographical area. African babies make up 61% of all screen positive results despite representing only 4% of total births. Combined carrier rates vary widely by ethnicity, from 1.85 per 1000 (1:540) in ‘White British’ to 145 per 1000 (1:7) in ‘African’ babies. Refusal rates for screening show variation by ethnicity. Conclusions These results provide useful information both about the frequency of these conditions and the carrier state and their geographic and ethnic distribution across England. This can be used to refine counselling information and are also useful to target and plan services and public information. PMID:20591912

  13. Linkage approach and direct COL4A5 gene mutation screening in Alport syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Turco, A.E.; Rossetti, S.; Biasi, O.

    1994-09-01

    Alport Syndrome (AS) is transmitted as an X-linked dominant trait in the majority of families, the defective gene being COL4A5 at Xq22. In the remaining cases AS appears to be autosomally inherited. Recently, mutations in COL4A3 and COL4A4 genes at 2q35-q37 were identified in families with autosomal recessive AS. Mutation detection screening is being performed by non-radioactive single stand conformation polymorphism (SSCP), heteroduplex analysis, and automated DNA sequencing in over 170 AS patients enrolled in the ongoing Italian Multicenter Study on AS. So far twenty-five different mutations have been found, including missense, splicing, and frameshifts. Moreover, by using six tightly linked COL4A5 informative makers, we have also typed two larger AS families, and have shown compatible sex-linked transmission in one other, suggesting autosomal recessive inheritance. In this latter three-generation COL4A5-unlinked family we are now looking for linkage and for mutations in the candidate COL4A3 and COL4A4 genes on chromosome 2q.

  14. Influence of Hematocrit and Total-Spot Volume on Performance Characteristics of Dried Blood Spots for Newborn Screening.

    PubMed

    Hall, Elizabeth M; Flores, Sharon R; De Jesús, Víctor R

    2015-01-01

    Dried blood spots (DBS) have been used in newborn screening (NBS) tests for over 50 years. The Newborn Screening Quality Assurance Program (NSQAP) at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) conducted studies to assess the individual impacts of hematocrit and total-spot volume on characteristics of DBS samples. Per-punch serum volumes decreased 27%, RBC volumes more than doubled, absorption times increased over 300%, and spot diameters decreased marginally between the hematocrits of 40% to 65%. Per-punch serum and RBC volumes decreased logarithmically with lowering total-spot volumes. Patient hematocrit is an uncontrollable variable and inevitably affects the resulting punch from a DBS sample. It may be possible, though, to identify samples that fall outside of an acceptable range by noting certain physical characteristics of the DBS.

  15. Influence of Hematocrit and Total-Spot Volume on Performance Characteristics of Dried Blood Spots for Newborn Screening

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Elizabeth M.; Flores, Sharon R.; De Jesús, Víctor R.

    2017-01-01

    Dried blood spots (DBS) have been used in newborn screening (NBS) tests for over 50 years. The Newborn Screening Quality Assurance Program (NSQAP) at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) conducted studies to assess the individual impacts of hematocrit and total-spot volume on characteristics of DBS samples. Per-punch serum volumes decreased 27%, RBC volumes more than doubled, absorption times increased over 300%, and spot diameters decreased marginally between the hematocrits of 40% to 65%. Per-punch serum and RBC volumes decreased logarithmically with lowering total-spot volumes. Patient hematocrit is an uncontrollable variable and inevitably affects the resulting punch from a DBS sample. It may be possible, though, to identify samples that fall outside of an acceptable range by noting certain physical characteristics of the DBS. PMID:28868497

  16. Psychosocial effects in parents and children 12 years after newborn genetic screening for type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Kerruish, Nicola J; Healey, Dione M; Gray, Andrew R

    2017-04-01

    Little is known about the psychosocial consequences of testing newborns for genetic susceptibility to multifactorial diseases. This study reports quantitative psychosocial evaluations of parents and children 12 years after screening for type 1 diabetes (T1D). Two parent-child cohorts participated: children at increased genetic risk of T1D and children at low genetic risk. T1D risk status was determined at birth as part of a prospective study investigating potential environmental triggers of autoimmunity. Parent measures included ratings of children's emotional, behavioural and social functioning (Child Behaviour Checklist) and parenting style (Alabama Parenting Questionnaire). Child self-concept was assessed using the self-description questionnaire (SDQ1). Statistical analyses were conducted to test for differences between the groups. Twelve years after testing there was no evidence that knowledge of a child's increased genetic risk of T1D adversely affected parental ratings of their child's emotional, behavioural or social functioning, or impacted upon parenting style. There was no adverse effect upon the child's assessment of their self-concept. This study provides important preliminary data concerning longer-term psychosocial effects of incorporating tests for genetic risk of complex disorders into NBS panels. While it is reassuring that no significant adverse effects have been detected, more data will be required to adequately inform policy.

  17. Newborn screening for cystic fibrosis: parents' preferences regarding counseling at the time of infants' sweat test.

    PubMed

    Tluczek, Audrey; Koscik, Rebecca L; Modaff, Peggy; Pfeil, Darci; Rock, Michael J; Farrell, Philip M; Lifchez, Caroline; Freeman, Mary Ellen; Gershan, William; Zaleski, Christina; Sullivan, Bradley

    2006-08-01

    Newborn screening (NBS) protocols for cystic fibrosis (CF) are the first regional population-based programs to incorporate DNA analysis into their procedures. Research about these programs can inform policy and practice regarding how best to counsel families with abnormal NBS results. The grounded theory method guided interviews with 33 families whose infants had abnormal CF NBS results. A dimensional analysis of these interviews provided a theoretical framework describing parents' preferences regarding counseling during their infant's sweat test appointment. This framework describes the contexts and characteristics of the two main dimensions of parents' preferences: factual information and emotional support. Factual information included learning about the probability of a CF diagnosis, CF disease facts, sweat test procedure, and CF genetics. Social support consisted of offering parents a choice about the timing and amount of CF information, showing empathy for their distress, instilling hope, personalizing counseling, and providing hospitality. This framework also explains the consequences of counseling that matched versus mismatched parental preferences in these domains. Counseling that matched parents preferences reduced parents' distress while mismatched counseling tended to increase parents' worry about their infant.

  18. Pulmonary Outcome Differences in U.S. and French Cystic Fibrosis Cohorts Diagnosed through Newborn Screening

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Aimee C.; Rault, Gilles; Li, Zhanhai; Scotet, Virginie; Duguépéroux, Ingrid; Férec, Claude; Roussey, Michel; Laxova, Anita; Farrell, Philip M.

    2009-01-01

    Background A comparison of the longitudinal progression of lung disease in cystic fibrosis patients identified through newborn screening (NBS) in cohorts located in two different countries has never been performed and was the primary objective of this study. Methods The study included 56 patients in Brittany diagnosed through NBS between 1989 and 1994 and 69 similar patients in Wisconsin between 1985 and 1994. The onset and progression of lung disease was radiographically quantified using the Wisconsin Chest X-ray (WCXR) scoring system. A single pediatric pulmonologist blinded to all identifiers scored the films. Results Generalized estimating equation analyses adjusted for age, genotype, sex, pancreatic insufficiency, and meconium ileus showed worse WCXR scores in Brittany patients compared to Wisconsin patients (average score difference=4.48; p<0.001). Percent predicted FEV1 was also worse among Brittany patients (p<0.001). Conclusions The finding of milder radiographically-quantified lung disease using the WCXR scoring system, as well as better FEV1 values, may be explained by variations in nutrition, environmental exposures, or healthcare delivery. PMID:19926349

  19. Thyroxine values from newborn screening of 919 infants born before 29 weeks' gestation.

    PubMed Central

    Reuss, M L; Leviton, A; Paneth, N; Susser, M

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Severe transient hypothyroxinemia in premature infants is associated with cerebral palsy and mental retardation: this study assessed its prevalence in very premature infants. METHODS: Congenital hypothyroidism screening programs in three states provided thyroxine values for 919 newborn infants younger than 29 weeks who were enrolled in a multicenter study. RESULTS: Thyroxine values were lower than 4.0 micrograms/dL in 21% of survivors and increased each week by 0.6 microgram/dL (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.4, 0.7). At tests done 1 to 2 days after birth, levels were 2.5 micrograms/dL higher (95% CI = 1.8, 3.3) than at tests done at 8 to 14 days. In New York, levels were 1.0 microgram/dL higher (95% CI = 0.3, 1.6) than elsewhere. The levels of infants who died were 1.3 micrograms/dL lower (95% CI = 0.6, 2.0) than those of survivors. CONCLUSIONS: Severe transient hypothyroxinemia is common in very premature infants and deserves further study. PMID:9357357

  20. A secondary benefit: the reproductive impact of carrier results from newborn screening for cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Bombard, Yvonne; Miller, Fiona A.; Barg, Carolyn J.; Patton, Sarah J.; Carroll, June C.; Chakraborty, Pranesh; Potter, Beth K.; Tam, Karen; Taylor, Louise; Kerr, Elizabeth; Davies, Christine; Milburn, Jennifer; Ratjen, Felix; Guttmann, Astrid; Hayeems, Robin Z.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Newborn screening (NBS) for cystic fibrosis (CF) can identify carriers, which is considered a benefit that enables reproductive planning. We examined the reproductive impact of carrier result disclosure from NBS for CF. Methods We surveyed mothers of carrier infants after NBS (Time-1) and one-year later (Time-2) to ascertain intended and reported communication of their infants’ carrier results to relatives, carrier testing for themselves/other children and reproductive decisions. A sub-sample of mothers was also interviewed at Time-1 and Time-2. Results Response rate was 54%. Just over half (55%) of mothers carrier tested at Time-1; a further 40% of those who intended to test at Time-1 tested at Time-2. Carrier result communication to relatives was high (92%), but a majority of participants did not expect the results to influence family planning (65%). All interviewed mothers valued learning their infants’ carrier results. Some had carrier testing and shared results with family. Others did not use the results or used them in unintended ways. Conclusion While mothers valued learning carrier results from NBS, they reported moderate uptake of carrier testing and limited influence on family planning. Our study highlights the secondary nature of the benefit from disclosing carrier results from NBS. PMID:27608173

  1. An Update on the Use of Health Information Technology in Newborn Screening

    PubMed Central

    Abhyankar, Swapna; Goodwin, Rebecca M.; Sontag, Marci; Yusuf, Careema; Ojodu, Jelili; McDonald, Clement J.

    2015-01-01

    Newborn screening (NBS) has high-stakes health implications and requires rapid and effective communication between many people and organizations. Multiple NBS stakeholders worked together to create national guidance for reporting NBS results with HL7 (Health Level 7) messages that contain LOINC (Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes) and SNOMED CT (Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine--Clinical Terms) codes, report quantitative test results, and use standardized computer-readable UCUM units of measure. This guidance (a LOINC panel and an example annotated HL7 message) enables standard HL7 v2.5.1 laboratory messages to carry the information required for reporting NBS results. Other efforts include HL7 implementation guides for reporting point-of-care (POC) NBS results, as well as standardizing follow-up of patients diagnosed with conditions identified through NBS. If the guidance is used nationally, regional and national registries can aggregate results from state programs to facilitate research and quality assurance, and help ensure continuity of operations following a disaster situation. PMID:25935354

  2. Mutational analysis for biotinidase deficiency of a Greek patients' cohort ascertained through expanded newborn screening.

    PubMed

    Thodi, Georgia; Molou, Elina; Georgiou, Vassiliki; Loukas, Yannis L; Dotsikas, Yannis; Biti, Sofia; Papadopoulos, Konstantinos; Konstantinou, Dimitris; Antoniadi, Marina; Doulgerakis, Emmanuel

    2011-12-01

    Late-onset multiple carboxylase deficiency, also known as biotinidase (BTD) deficiency, is an autosomal recessively inherited disorder of biotin metabolism. Its early diagnosis and treatment seems that it can even fully prevent its various clinical manifestations. Mutations in the BTD gene scattered throughout its coding region have been detected in patients ascertained either through newborn screening or clinically. From March 2010 up to June 2011, 18 954 Greek neonates were subjected to biochemical determination of BTD activity through a semiquantitative fluoroimmunoassay. Subsequently, the first cohort of our 'suspected' samples was further tested for the presence of aberrations associated either with partial or profound BTD deficiency through sequencing of the coding region of the BTD gene, including splice-site junctions. On the basis of the molecular data derived from the study of our first cohort of 'suspected' samples, a panel of four mutations, most frequently encountered in the Greek population, was created, and a rapid, reliable and cost-effective real-time-based genotyping assay for the detection of these mutations was developed. This is the first report about the BTD mutational spectrum in Greece, and it could be a beneficial utility in the differential clinical diagnosis of BTD deficiency.

  3. Error analysis in newborn screening: can quotients support the absolute values?

    PubMed

    Arneth, Borros; Hintz, Martin

    2017-03-01

    Newborn screening is performed using modern tandem mass spectrometry, which can simultaneously detect a variety of analytes, including several amino acids and fatty acids. Tandem mass spectrometry measures the diagnostic parameters as absolute concentrations and produces fragments which are used as markers of specific substances. Several prominent quotients can also be derived, which are quotients of two absolute measured concentrations. In this study, we determined the precision of both the absolute concentrations and the derived quotients. First, the measurement error of the absolute concentrations and the measurement error of the ratios were practically determined. Then, the Gaussian theory of error calculation was used. Finally, these errors were compared with one another. The practical analytical accuracies of the quotients were significantly higher (e.g., coefficient of variation (CV) = 5.1% for the phenylalanine to tyrosine (Phe/Tyr) quotient and CV = 5.6% for the Fisher quotient) than the accuracies of the absolute measured concentrations (mean CVs = 12%). According to our results, the ratios are analytically correct and, from an analytical point of view, can support the absolute values in finding the correct diagnosis.

  4. CLINICAL PRACTICES FOR INTERMEDIATE/EQUIVICAL SWEAT TESTS FOLLOWING ABNORMAL CYSTIC FIBROSIS NEWBORN SCREENS

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Megan R.; Adamski, Craig R.; Tluczek, Audrey

    2013-01-01

    Background Newborn screening (NBS) for cystic fibrosis (CF) has become standard practice in many countries. Consequently, the prevalence of infants with intermediate/equivalent sweat test results has increased. This study examined clinical practices in the United States (US) related to intermediate sweat test results subsequent to NBS. Methods Telephone surveys were conducted with staff from 77 (47% response rate) US CF centers documenting clinical practices related to intermediate/equivalent sweat chloride levels (30–59 mmol/L) following abnormal NBS. Results Thirty percent of centers followed CF Foundation guidelines for classifying intermediate/equivalent results. There was much variability in sweat testing procedures, diagnostic labels, additional diagnostics, addressing prognosis, and services offered to parents. CF center staff identified a need for resources to better address the uncertainty associated with intermediate/equivalent results. Conclusion Findings warrant evaluation of barriers to adherence with existing guidelines and establishment of internationally accepted, evidenced-based, clinical standards for infants with intermediate/equivalent CF NBS results. PMID:21855423

  5. Education and parental involvement in decision-making about newborn screening: understanding goals to clarify content.

    PubMed

    Potter, Beth K; Etchegary, Holly; Nicholls, Stuart G; Wilson, Brenda J; Craigie, Samantha M; Araia, Makda H

    2015-06-01

    A challenge in designing effective education for parents about newborn screening (NBS) has been uncertainty about appropriate content. Arguing that the goals of education may be usefully tied to parental decision-making, we sought to: (1) explore how different ways of implementing NBS differ in their approaches to parental engagement in decision-making; (2) map the potential goals of education onto these "implementation models"; and (3) consider the content that may be needed to support these goals. The resulting conceptual framework supports the availability of comprehensive information about NBS for parents, irrespective of the model of implementation. This is largely because we argue that meeting parental expectations and preferences for communication is an important goal regardless of whether or notparents are actively involved in making a decision. Our analysis supports a flexible approach, in which some educational messages are emphasized as important for all parents to understand while others are made available depending on parents' preferences. We have begun to define the content of NBS education for parents needed to support specific goals. Further research and discussion is important to determine the most appropriate strategies for delivering the tailored approach to education that emerged from our analysis.

  6. Neuropsychological implications of Cobalamin C (CblC) disease in Hispanic children detected through newborn screening.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Ashley M; Thomas, Nina Hattiangadi; Krivitzky, Lauren S; Ficicioglu, Can H

    2017-01-10

    Cobalamin C (CblC) disease is the most common inborn error of cobalamin metabolism and recent data has indicated a higher prevalence among children of Hispanic heritage in particular. The purpose of this study was to (a) describe the neuropsychological characteristics of a pilot sample of Hispanic children with CblC disease and (b) explore potential differences in outcome based on underlying genetic mutation(s) and biochemical levels. Six Hispanic children (ages 2-10) diagnosed with CblC disease through newborn screening (NBS) underwent neuropsychological evaluation with a bilingual examiner. Biochemical levels and underlying mutation(s) were obtained through medical records. The overall sample performed below normative expectations across neuropsychological domains, including general cognition, adaptive functioning, language ability, and visual-motor integration. Underlying mutations and associative clinical phenotypes were found to significantly predict general cognitive abilities, while plasma methionine and Hcy at the time of diagnosis were significantly correlated with language outcomes. Despite limited sample size, results indicate that Hispanic children with CblC disease detected through NBS and treated early experience neuropsychological deficits even when treated with current standard treatments. However, consistent with prior research in non-Hispanic children with CblC disease, underlying mutations and early biochemical levels may predict better outcomes in this population as well.

  7. Abnormal TREC-Based Newborn Screening Test in a Premature Neonate with Massive Perivillous Fibrin Deposition of the Placenta

    PubMed Central

    Kostadinov, Stefan; Robbins, Karen A.; Hayward, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), a primary immunodeficiency arising from variable defects in lymphocyte development and survival, is characterized by significant deficiency of thymus derived (T-) lymphocytes and variable defects in the B-lymphocyte population. Newborn screening for SCID is based on detection of low numbers of T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) by real time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). This screening allows for early identification of individuals with SCID and other disorders characterized by T-lymphopenia. Higher rates of abnormal screens are commonly seen in premature and critically ill neonates, often representing false positives. It is possible that many abnormal screens seen in these populations are result of conditions that are characterized by systemic inflammation or stress, possibly in the context of stress-induced thymic involution. We present a case of a male infant delivered at 27 weeks, 6 days of gestation, with severe intrauterine growth restriction who had an abnormal TREC screen and a massive perivillous fibrin deposition (MPFD) of the placenta. This association has not been reported previously. We are raising the awareness to the fact that conditions, such as MPFD, that can create adverse intrauterine environment are capable of causing severe stress-induced thymic involution of the fetus which can present with abnormal TREC results on newborn screening. PMID:27403355

  8. Three-year follow-up of children with abnormal newborn screening results for congenital hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Kang, Min-Jae; Chung, Hye-Rim; Oh, Yeon-Joung; Shim, Young-Suk; Yang, Seung; Hwang, Il-Tae

    2017-10-01

    To analyze predictive factors suggesting transient congenital hypothyroidism (TCH) compared to permanent congenital hypothyroidism (PCH) or transient thyroid function test (TFT) abnormalities among children who had positive screening results at our centers over the past decade. A retrospective chart review of 105 subjects who presented elevated TSH levels on a newborn screening test (NST) was done. TCH was defined when a trial-off therapy was successful, and PCH was defined when a trial failed or when the subject was kept on medication beyond 3 years of age. A transient TFT abnormality was defined when follow-up TFTs were normalized without levothyroxine (LT4) therapy. Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) was diagnosed in 75.2% (TCH 35.2% and PCH 40.0%) of all subjects; the others (24.8%) showed transient TFT abnormalities. Initial NST-TSH levels (optimal cutoff point, 31.0 μIU/mL), the LT4 dose at 2 years of age (4.1 μg/kg/day), and the maximal LT4 dose (50 μg/day) merged as significant predictive factors discriminating between TCH and PCH. The initial serum level of free T4 (1.06 ng/dL) and not TSH (27.2 μIU/mL) was the only discriminating factor between transient TFT abnormalities and TCH. Earlier re-evaluation might be possible when a patient's initial NST-TSH levels and maximal or 2-year LT4 doses are low, as both are important predictors of successful trial-off therapy in CH patients. When the initial serum level of free T4 is above the average value in neonates with mildly elevated TSH levels, TFTs may be more likely to normalize on their own. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Using Newborn Screening Bloodspots for Research: Public Preferences for Policy Options.

    PubMed

    Hayeems, Robin Z; Miller, Fiona A; Barg, Carolyn J; Bombard, Yvonne; Cressman, Celine; Painter-Main, Michael; Wilson, Brenda; Little, Julian; Allanson, Judith; Avard, Denise; Giguere, Yves; Chakraborty, Pranesh; Carroll, June C

    2016-06-01

    Retaining residual newborn screening (NBS) bloodspots for medical research remains contentious. To inform this debate, we sought to understand public preferences for, and reasons for preferring, alternative policy options. We assessed preferences among 4 policy options for research use of residual bloodspots through a bilingual national Internet survey of a representative sample of Canadians. Fifty percent of respondents were randomly assigned to select reasons supporting these preferences. Understanding of and attitudes toward screening and research concepts, and demographics were assessed. Of 1102 respondents (94% participation rate; 47% completion rate), the overall preference among policy options was ask permission (67%); this option was also the most acceptable choice (80%). Assume permission was acceptable to 46%, no permission required was acceptable to 29%, and no research allowed was acceptable to 26%. The acceptability of the ask permission option was reduced among participants assigned to the reasoning exercise (84% vs 76%; P = .004). Compared with assume/no permission required, ordered logistic regression showed a significant reduction in preference for the ask permission option with greater understanding of concepts (odds ratio, 0.87; P < .001), greater confidence in science (odds ratio, 0.16; P < .001), and a perceived responsibility to contribute to research (odds ratio, 0.39; P < .001). Surveyed Canadians prefer that explicit permission is sought for storage and research use of NBS bloodspots. This preference was diminished when reasons supporting and opposing routine storage, and other policy options, were presented. Findings warrant consideration as NBS communities strategize to respond to shifting legislative contexts. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  10. Factors Influencing Follow-up to Newborn Hearing Screening for Infants who are Hard-of-Hearing

    PubMed Central

    Holte, Lenore; Walker, Elizabeth; Oleson, Jacob; Spratford, Meredith; Moeller, Mary Pat; Roush, Patricia; Tomblin, J. Bruce; Ou, Hua

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To document the epidemiological characteristics of a group of hard-of-hearing children, to identify individual predictor variables for timely follow-up after a failed newborn hearing screen, and to identify barriers to follow-up encountered by families. Method An accelerated longitudinal design was used to investigate outcomes for children who are hard-of-hearing in a large multicenter study. The current study involves a subgroup of 193 of children with hearing loss who did not pass the newborn hearing screen. Available records were used to capture ages of confirmation of hearing loss, hearing aid fitting and entry into early intervention. Linear regression models were used to investigate relationships among individual predictor variables and age at each follow-up benchmark. Results Of several predictor variables, only higher levels of maternal education were significantly associated with earlier confirmation of hearing loss and fitting of hearing aids. Severity of hearing loss was not. No variables were significantly associated with age of entry into early intervention. Each recommended benchmark was met by a majority of children, but only one-third met all of the benchmarks within the recommended time frame. Conclusions Results suggest that underserved communities need extra support in navigating steps that follow failed newborn hearing screening. PMID:22585937

  11. Case of hepatocellular carcinoma in a patient with hereditary tyrosinemia in the post-newborn screening era

    PubMed Central

    Imseis, Essam M; Bynon, John S; Thornhill, Chad

    2017-01-01

    Hereditary tyrosinemia type 1 (HT-1) is a metabolic disorder caused by a defect in tyrosine degradation. Without treatment, symptoms of hepatomegaly, renal tubular dysfunction, growth failure, neurologic crises resembling porphyrias, rickets and possible hepatocellular carcinoma can develop. The use of 2-(2-nitro-4-trifluoromethylbenzoyl)-1,3-cyclohexanedione and early diagnosis through newborn screening initiatives have resulted in a sharp decline in morbidity and mortality associated with this disease. We present a case report of a 7-year-old patient with HT-1 who was born prior to the addition of tyrosinemia to the newborn screening in her birth area. At her time of diagnosis, the patient had developed many of the symptoms associated with her disease, including chronic kidney disease, rickets, and myopathy that left her non-ambulatory. During her initial evaluation, she was also noted to have hepatocellular carcinoma. With cadaveric liver transplantation and nutritional support, her symptoms all either resolved or stabilized. Her case illustrates the severity of the disease if left untreated, the need for vigilance in populations who do not routinely receive newborn screens, and the markedly improved outcomes in patients following transplant.

  12. An approach to family-centered coordinated co-management for individuals with conditions identified through newborn screening.

    PubMed

    Cooley, W Carl; Kemper, Alex R

    2013-03-01

    The care of individuals with rare heritable conditions, such as those detectable through newborn screening, is an important target for quality improvement. Not only is there great opportunity to improve long-term outcomes, but there are lessons that can be generalized to the care of all children with special health-care needs. To identify an approach to quality improvement for individuals with conditions identified through newborn screening, the National Coordinating Center for the Regional Genetic and Newborn Screening Service Collaboratives convened an expert workgroup to develop strategies based on a family-centered, community-based system of care. These recommendations centered on involving families, the primary care medical home, and specialty care providers as equal partners. Key activities to improve care include explicit care coordination, identification of the location of management, and planned co-management. To implement this model of care, the Regional Collaboratives will develop a clearinghouse of tools, engage in activities to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions to improve co-management, and identify strategies to align incentives for health-care providers and families to work together.

  13. Putting newborn hearing screening on the political agenda in Belgium: local initiatives toward a community programme – a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Kingdon model, based on the convergence of three streams (problem, policy, and politics) and the opening of a policy window, analyses the process by which a health issue is placed on the political agenda. We used this model to document the political agenda-setting process of the newborn hearing screening programme in Belgium. Methods A qualitative study based on a document review and on semi-directed interviews was carried out. The interviews were conducted with nine people who had played a role in putting the issue in question on the political agenda, and the documents reviewed included scientific literature and internal reports and publications from the newborn hearing screening programme. The thematic analysis of the data collected was carried out on the basis of the Kingdon model’s three streams. Results The political agenda-setting of this screening programme was based on many factors. The problem stream included factors external to the context under study, such as the technological developments and the contribution of the scientific literature which led to the recommendation to provide newborn hearing screening. The two other streams (policy and politics) covered factors internal to the Belgian context. The fact that it was locally feasible with financial support, the network of doctors convinced of the need for newborn hearing screening, the drafting of various proposals, and the search for financing were all part of the policy stream. The Belgian political context and the policy opportunities concerning preventive medicine were identified as significant factors in the third stream. When these three streams converged, a policy window opened, allowing newborn hearing screening onto the political agenda and enabling the policy decision for its introduction. Conclusions The advantage of applying the Kingdon model in our approach was the ability to demonstrate the political agenda-setting process, using the three streams. This made it possible

  14. Provision of information about newborn screening antenatally: a sequential exploratory mixed-methods project.

    PubMed

    Ulph, Fiona; Wright, Stuart; Dharni, Nimarta; Payne, Katherine; Bennett, Rebecca; Roberts, Stephen; Walshe, Kieran; Lavender, Tina

    2017-10-01

    Participation in the UK Newborn Bloodspot Screening Programme (NBSP) requires parental consent but concerns exist about whether or not this happens in practice and the best methods and timing to obtain consent at reasonable cost. To collate all possible modes of prescreening communication and consent for newborn (neonatal) screening (NBS); examine midwives', screening professionals' and users' views about the feasibility, efficiency and impact on understanding of each; measure midwives' and parents' preferences for information provision; and identify key drivers of cost-effectiveness for alternative modes of information provision. Six study designs were used: (1) realist review - to generate alternative communication and consent models; (2) qualitative interviews with parents and health professionals - to examine the implications of current practice for understanding and views on alternative models; (3) survey and observation of midwives - to establish current costs; (4) stated preference surveys with midwives, parents and potential future parents - to establish preferences for information provision; (5) economic analysis - to identify cost-effectiveness drivers of alternative models; and (6) stakeholder validation focus groups and interviews - to examine the acceptability, views and broader impact of alternative communication and consent models. Providers and users of NBS in England. Study 2: 45 parents and 37 health professionals; study 3: 22 midwives and eight observations; study 4: 705 adults aged 18-45 years and 134 midwives; and study 6: 12 health-care professionals and five parents. The realist review identified low parental knowledge and evidence of coercive consent practices. Interview, focus group and stated preference data suggested a preference for full information, with some valuing this more than choice. Health professionals preferred informed choice models but parents and health professionals queried whether or not current consent was fully informed

  15. Newborn screening for six lysosomal storage disorders in a cohort of Mexican patients: Three-year findings from a screening program in a closed Mexican health system.

    PubMed

    Navarrete-Martínez, Juana Inés; Limón-Rojas, Ana Elena; Gaytán-García, Maria de Jesús; Reyna-Figueroa, Jesús; Wakida-Kusunoki, Guillermo; Delgado-Calvillo, Ma Del Rocío; Cantú-Reyna, Consuelo; Cruz-Camino, Héctor; Cervantes-Barragán, David Eduardo

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the results of a lysosomal newborn screening (NBS) program in a cohort of 20,018 Mexican patients over the course of 3years in a closed Mexican Health System (Petróleos Mexicanos [PEMEX] Health Services). Using dried blood spots (DBS), we performed a multiplex tandem mass spectrometry enzymatic assay for six lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) including Pompe disease, Fabry disease, Gaucher disease, mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS-I), Niemann-Pick type A/B, and Krabbe disease. Screen-positive cases were confirmed using leukocyte enzymatic activity and DNA molecular analysis. From July 2012 to April 2016, 20,018 patients were screened; 20 patients were confirmed to have an LSD phenotype (99.9 in 100,000 newborns). Final distributions include 11 Pompe disease, five Fabry disease, two MPS-I, and two Niemann-Pick type A/B patients. We did not find any Gaucher or Krabbe patients. A final frequency of 1 in 1001 LSD newborn phenotypes was established. NBS is a major public health achievement that has decreased the morbidity and mortality of inborn errors of metabolism. The introduction of NBS for LSD presents new challenges. This is the first multiplex Latin-American study of six LSDs detected through NBS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. DRIED BLOOD SPOT REAL-TIME POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION ASSAYS TO SCREEN NEWBORNS FOR CONGENITAL CYTOMEGALOVIRUS INFECTION

    PubMed Central

    Boppana, Suresh B.; Ross, Shannon A.; Novak, Zdenek; Shimamura, Masako; Tolan, Robert W.; Palmer, April L.; Ahmed, Amina; Michaels, Marian G.; Sánchez, Pablo J.; Bernstein, David I.; Britt, William J.; Fowler, Karen B.

    2010-01-01

    Context Reliable methods to screen newborns for congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection are needed for identification of infants at increased risk for hearing loss. Since dried blood spots (DBS) are routinely collected for metabolic screening from all newborns in the United States, there has been interest in using DBS polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods for newborn CMV screening. Objective To determine the diagnostic accuracy of DBS real-time PCR assays for newborn CMV screening Design, Setting, and Participants Between March 2007 and May 2008, infants born at seven medical centers in the U.S. were enrolled in the CMV and Hearing Multicenter Screening (CHIMES) study. Newborn saliva specimens were tested for the detection of early antigen fluorescent foci (DEAFF). Results of saliva DEAFF were compared with a single-primer (from 03/07 to 12/07) and a two-primer (from 01/08 to 05/08) DBS real-time PCR. Infants positive by screening DEAFF or PCR were enrolled in follow-up to confirm congenital infection by the reference standard method, DEAFF on saliva or urine. Main Outcome Measures Sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative likelihood ratios (LRs) of single-primer and two-primer DBS real-time PCR assays for identifying infants with confirmed congenital CMV infection. Results Congenital CMV infection was confirmed in 92 of 20,448 (0.45%; 95% CI, 0.36–0.55) infants. Ninety-one of 92 infants were saliva DEAFF positive on screening. Of the 11,422 infants screened using the single-primer DBS PCR, 17 of 60 (28%) infants were positive with this assay, whereas, among the 9,026 infants screened using the two-primer DBS PCR, 11 of 32 (34%) infants were positive. The single-primer DBS PCR identified congenital CMV infection with a sensitivity of 28.3% (95% CI, 17.4–41.4%), specificity, 99.9% (95% CI, 99.9–100%), positive LR, 803.7 (95% CI, 278.7–2317.9), and negative LR, 0.7 (95% CI, 0.6–0.8). The positive and negative predictive values of the

  17. Development of filter paper hemoglobin A1c assay applicable to newborn screening.

    PubMed

    Pollock, Allison J; Allen, David B; Wiebe, Donald; Eickhoff, Jens; MacDonald, Michael; Baker, Mei

    2016-06-01

    Gestational diabetes influences risk for future metabolic disease including type 2 diabetes. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) measurement assesses hemoglobin A glycosylation, and could theoretically be used as a test to estimate gestational glucose exposure. HbA1c assay on dried blood spots (DBS) is needed before potential application to statewide newborn screening (NBS) population studies. The study aimed to establish a reliable method to measure HbA1c on NBS DBS specimens. De-identified blood was used to generate trials to evaluate stability of HbA1c in DBS, optimal elution time, and stability of eluted blood. Analysis of DBS stability HbA1c measurements from 3 to 6days after collection overestimated HbA1c values by a bias factor between 0.83 and 0.87. Sixty minutes of elution time produced maximal reproducibility and minimal bias of results. Within assay standard deviation: 0.058; average bias: -0.02%. Stability of eluted blood did not vary significantly between days 0-2 after DBS elution. Measurement of HbA1c levels on DBS from human blood is feasible. Results suggest new method using DBS to measure HbA1c level with the following characteristics: optimal time for sample analysis 3-6days after collection, elution time of 60min and eluted blood analysis within 2days of elution. Measurement of neonatal HbA1c could provide insight regarding the infant's in utero exposure to glucose. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Lung disease at diagnosis in infants with cystic fibrosis detected by newborn screening.

    PubMed

    Sly, Peter D; Brennan, Siobhain; Gangell, Catherine; de Klerk, Nicholas; Murray, Conor; Mott, Lauren; Stick, Stephen M; Robinson, Philip J; Robertson, Colin F; Ranganathan, Sarath C

    2009-07-15

    The promise of newborn screening (NBS) for cystic fibrosis (CF) has not been fully realized, and the extent of improvement in respiratory outcomes is unclear. We hypothesized that significant lung disease was present at diagnosis. To determine the extent of lung disease in a geographically defined population of infants with CF diagnosed after detection by NBS. Fifty-seven infants (median age, 3.6 mo) with CF underwent bronchoalveolar lavage and chest computed tomography (CT) using a three-slice inspiratory and expiratory protocol. Despite the absence of respiratory symptoms in 48 (84.2%) of infants, a substantial proportion had lung disease with bacterial infection detected in 12 (21.1%), including Staphylococcus aureus (n = 4) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 3); neutrophilic inflammation (41. 4 x 10(3) cells/ml representing 18.7% of total cell count); proinflammatory cytokines, with 44 (77.2%) having detectable IL-8; and 17 (29.8%) having detectable free neutrophil elastase activity. Inflammation was increased in those with infection and respiratory symptoms; however, the majority of those infected were asymptomatic. Radiologic evidence of structural lung disease was common, with 46 (80.7%) having an abnormal CT; 11 (18.6%) had bronchial dilatation, 27 (45.0%) had bronchial wall thickening, and 40 (66.7%) had gas trapping. On multivariate analysis, free neutrophil elastase activity was associated with structural lung disease. Most children with structural lung disease had no clinically apparent lung disease. These data support the need for full evaluation in infancy and argue for new treatment strategies, especially those targeting neutrophilic inflammation, if the promise of NBS for CF is to be realized.

  19. Is chest CT useful in newborn screened infants with cystic fibrosis at 1 year of age?

    PubMed

    Thia, Lena P; Calder, Alistair; Stocks, Janet; Bush, Andrew; Owens, Catherine M; Wallis, Colin; Young, Carolyn; Sullivan, Yvonne; Wade, Angie; McEwan, Angus; Brody, Alan S

    2014-04-01

    Sensitive outcome measures applicable in different centres to quantify and track early pulmonary abnormalities in infants with cystic fibrosis (CF) are needed both for clinical care and interventional trials. Chest CT has been advocated as such a measure yet there is no validated scoring system in infants. The objectives of this study were to standardise CT data collection across multiple sites; ascertain the incidence of bronchial dilatation and air trapping in newborn screened (NBS) infants with CF at 1 year; and assess the reproducibility of Brody-II, the most widely used scoring system in children with CF, during infancy. A multicentre observational study of early pulmonary lung disease in NBS infants with CF at age 1 year using volume-controlled chest CT performed under general anaesthetic. 65 infants with NBS-diagnosed CF had chest CT in three centres. Small insignificant variations in lung recruitment manoeuvres but significant centre differences in radiation exposures were found. Despite experienced scorers and prior training, with the exception of air trapping, inter- and intraobserver agreement on Brody-II score was poor to fair (eg, interobserver total score mean (95% CI) κ coefficient: 0.34 (0.20 to 0.49)). Only 7 (11%) infants had a total CT score ≥ 12 (ie, ≥ 5% maximum possible) by either scorer. In NBS infants with CF, CT changes were very mild at 1 year, and assessment of air trapping was the only reproducible outcome. CT is thus of questionable value in infants of this age, unless an improved scoring system for use in mild CF disease can be developed.

  20. Positive parental attitudes to participating in research involving newborn screened infants with CF.

    PubMed

    Chudleigh, Jane; Hoo, Ah-Fong; Ahmed, Deeba; Prasad, Ammani; Sheehan, Denise; Francis, Jackie; Buckingham, Sarah; Cowlard, Jacqui; Thia, Lena; Nguyen, The Thanh Diem; Stocks, Janet

    2013-05-01

    Information regarding recruitment of infants to research studies following the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis (CF) via newborn screening (NBS) is not currently available. This study aimed to assess parental attitudes and the feasibility of recruiting and retaining both NBS infants with CF and healthy control infants to a longitudinal, observational study. All infants underwent pulmonary function tests (PFTs) at ~3 and ~12months of age. Infants with CF had additional combined chest high resolution computed tomography (HRCT), bronchoscopy and broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) at ~12months of age. Parental attitude questionnaires (PAQs) were administered to all parents following the ~3month PFTs and to parents of infants with CF after completion of all tests at ~12months. 86% (92/107) of families whose infant had CF consented to participate, of whom 92% had PFTs at ~3months of age with 99% of these having PFTs at ~12months of age. Recruitment of healthy controls was feasible but more challenging; 29% of those contacted agreed to participate; 73% of these had PFTs at ~3months of age; of whom 83% had repeated PFTs at ~12months of age. Completed PAQs were received from 71% of parents, (both of CF and healthy infants) at ~3months and from 58% parents of infants with CF at ~12months. Responses from the PAQs were generally positive, 95% of parents indicated they would recommend participation in such studies to other families. Discrepancies between responses at 3 and 12months suggested that parental understanding of what the research entailed developed during the course of the study. The high recruitment and retention rates for newly diagnosed CF NBS infants to this observational study are encouraging. These findings will help inform future study design both in the field of CF and other conditions diagnosed by NBS. Copyright © 2012 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. GJB2-associated hearing loss undetected by hearing screening of newborns.

    PubMed

    Minami, Shujiro B; Mutai, Hideki; Nakano, Atsuko; Arimoto, Yukiko; Taiji, Hidenobu; Morimoto, Noriko; Sakata, Hideaki; Adachi, Nodoka; Masuda, Sawako; Sakamoto, Hirokazu; Yoshida, Haruo; Tanaka, Fujinobu; Morita, Noriko; Sugiuchi, Tomoko; Kaga, Kimitaka; Matsunaga, Tatsuo

    2013-12-10

    The hearing loss caused by GJB2 mutations is usually congenital in onset, moderate to profound in degree, and non-progressive. The objective of this study was to study genotype/phenotype correlations and to document 14 children with biallelic GJB2 mutations who passed newborn hearing screening (NHS). Genetic testing for GJB2 mutations by direct sequencing was performed on 924 individuals (810 families) with hearing loss, and 204 patients (175 families) were found to carry biallelic GJB2 mutations. NHS results were obtained through medical records. A total of 18 pathological mutations were identified, which were subclassified as eight inactivating and 10 non-inactivating mutations. p.I128M and p.H73Y were identified as novel missense GJB2 mutations. Of the 14 children with biallelic GJB2 mutations who passed NHS, eight were compound heterozygotes and 3 were homozygous for the c.235delC mutation in GJB2, and the other three combinations of non-c.235delC mutations identified were p.Y136X-p.G45E/p.V37I heterozygous, c.512ins4/p.R143W heterozygous, and p.V37I/p.R143W heterozygous. These 14 cases demonstrate that the current NHS does not identify all infants with biallelic GJB2 mutations. They suggest that the frequency of non-penetrance at birth is approximately 6.9% or higher in DFNB1 patients and provide further evidence that GJB2 hearing loss may not always be congenital in onset.

  2. [A clinical study on 106 infant cases who received detailed hearing tests after newborn hearing screening].

    PubMed

    Okano, Takayuki; Iwai, Noriko; Taniguchi, Mirei; Ito, Juichi

    2014-10-01

    Newborn hearing screening (NHS) has been conducted widely in Japan in the last decade, however, there seems to be some confusion regarding the significance of NHS or management of the results obtained from NHS among clinics and practitioners. The system of NHS in Japan should be improved and refined through continuous evaluation of NHS, in terms of cost effectiveness in particular, so that NHS can be conducted more efficiently and effectively. To achieve this goal, the authors thought it important to clarify the current status and roles of our department as a facility for infants with congenital hearing impairment. In the present study, we studied 106 infant cases who were referred to the Department of Otolaryngology in Kyoto University Hospital after NHS before the age of twelve months in a period of seven years from 2006 to 2012 via retrospective chart reviewing. 79.2% of 96 infants who were qualified as referred either unilaterally or bilaterally following NHS were diagnosed as having hearing impairment in any form, either unilateral or bilateral, or conductive and/or sensorineural. The positive agreement rate was 88.7% in 53 cases who were qualified as referred bilaterally in NHS, demonstrating a high reliability of the NHS system. Twenty-four cases were diagnosed as having the need for hearing aids and were assigned to treatment and education. All the infants who underwent cochlear implantation in our department had severe bilateral hearing impairment of more than 105 dBnHL in both ears at the first examination. Moreover, a number of infants who were qualified as having passed in both ears in NHS or who had failed to receive NHS at birth were revealed as having hearing impairment and needed treatment later in the first year of their life, suggesting that NHS should be conducted in combination with periodical health checkups by family practitioners in order to identify infants with hearing impairment earlier in their life with higher efficacy.

  3. Parental Views on Expanded Newborn Screening Using Whole-Genome Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Galen; Chen, Flavia; Harris-Wai, Julie; Puck, Jennifer M.; Young, Charlotte; Koenig, Barbara A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE The potential application of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) to state-mandated standard newborn screening (NBS) challenges the traditional public health approach to NBS and raises ethical, policy, and clinical practice issues. This article examines the perspectives and values of diverse healthy pregnant women and parents of children diagnosed with a primary immunodeficiency disorder about traditional NBS and expanded NBS with the use of WGS. METHODS We conducted 4 focus groups (3 in English and 1 in Spanish) with socioeconomically and ethnically diverse pregnant women (n = 26), and a comparison group with parents of children diagnosed with a primary immunodeficiency disorder (n = 5). RESULTS Pediatric policy–relevant themes that emerged from our analysis of the focus group data are presented within 4 categories: (1) perspectives on traditional NBS, (2) informed consent, (3) return of results, and (4) storage and retrieval of results. Analyses indicate that study participants desired greater inclusion in the NBS process. Despite an optimistic orientation to the potential benefits and limited harms likely to result from genomic applications of NBS, parents voiced concerns about privacy and control over test results. Limited trust in the medical system and the state-run NBS program informed these concerns. CONCLUSIONS Expanded NBS with WGS for pediatricians may require management of more genetic conditions, including mutations that convey risk to both the child and parents for adult-onset disorders, and an informed-consent process to manage the genomic data and storage of blood spots. Attention to how these technologies are understood in diverse populations is needed for effective implementation. PMID:26729702

  4. Rare disorders of metabolism with elevated butyryl- and isobutyryl-carnitine detected by tandem mass spectrometry newborn screening.

    PubMed

    Koeberl, Dwight D; Young, Sarah P; Gregersen, Niels S; Vockley, Jerry; Smith, Wendy E; Benjamin, Daniel Kelly; An, Yan; Weavil, Susan D; Chaing, Shu H; Bali, Deeksha; McDonald, Marie T; Kishnani, Priya S; Chen, Y-T; Millington, David S

    2003-08-01

    Tandem mass spectrometry was adopted for newborn screening by North Carolina in April 1999. Since then, three infants with short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SCAD) and one with isobutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency were detected on the basis of elevated butyrylcarnitine/isobutyrylcarnitine (C4-carnitine) concentrations in newborn blood spots analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry. For three SCAD-deficient infants, biochemical evaluation included a plasma acylcarnitine profile with markedly elevated C4-carnitine, urine organic acid analysis with markedly elevated ethylmalonic and 2-methylsuccinic acids, and markedly elevated [U-13C]butyrylcarnitine concentrations in medium from fibroblasts incubated with [U-13C]palmitic acid and excess l-carnitine, consistent with classic SCAD deficiency. Two of three infants diagnosed with classic SCAD deficiency remained asymptomatic; however, the third infant presented with seizures and a cerebral infarct at 10 wk of age. All three infants had putatively inactivating mutations in both alleles of the SCAD gene. The highly elevated plasma C4-carnitine levels in the three infants detected by newborn screening tandem mass spectrometry differentiated them from infants and children who were homozygous or compound heterozygous for one of two SCAD gene susceptibility variations; for the latter group the C4-carnitine levels were normal. Isobutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency in a fourth infant was confirmed after isolated elevation of C4-carnitine in the acylcarnitine profile.

  5. Clinical validation of cutoff target ranges in newborn screening of metabolic disorders by tandem mass spectrometry: a worldwide collaborative project.

    PubMed

    McHugh, David M S; Cameron, Cynthia A; Abdenur, Jose E; Abdulrahman, Mahera; Adair, Ona; Al Nuaimi, Shahira Ahmed; Åhlman, Henrik; Allen, Jennifer J; Antonozzi, Italo; Archer, Shaina; Au, Sylvia; Auray-Blais, Christiane; Baker, Mei; Bamforth, Fiona; Beckmann, Kinga; Pino, Gessi Bentz; Berberich, Stanton L; Binard, Robert; Boemer, François; Bonham, Jim; Breen, Nancy N; Bryant, Sandra C; Caggana, Michele; Caldwell, S Graham; Camilot, Marta; Campbell, Carlene; Carducci, Claudia; Bryant, Sandra C; Caggana, Michele; Caldwell, S Graham; Camilot, Marta; Campbell, Carlene; Carducci, Claudia; Cariappa, Rohit; Carlisle, Clover; Caruso, Ubaldo; Cassanello, Michela; Castilla, Ane Miren; Ramos, Daisy E Castiñeiras; Chakraborty, Pranesh; Chandrasekar, Ram; Ramos, Alfredo Chardon; Cheillan, David; Chien, Yin-Hsiu; Childs, Thomas A; Chrastina, Petr; Sica, Yuri Cleverthon; de Juan, Jose Angel Cocho; Colandre, Maria Elena; Espinoza, Veronica Cornejo; Corso, Gaetano; Currier, Robert; Cyr, Denis; Czuczy, Noemi; D'Apolito, Oceania; Davis, Tim; de Sain-Van der Velden, Monique G; Delgado Pecellin, Carmen; Di Gangi, Iole Maria; Di Stefano, Cristina Maria; Dotsikas, Yannis; Downing, Melanie; Downs, Stephen M; Dy, Bonifacio; Dymerski, Mark; Rueda, Inmaculada; Elvers, Bert; Eaton, Roger; Eckerd, Barbara M; El Mougy, Fatma; Eroh, Sarah; Espada, Mercedes; Evans, Catherine; Fawbush, Sandy; Fijolek, Kristel F; Fisher, Lawrence; Franzson, Leifur; Frazier, Dianne M; Garcia, Luciana R C; Bermejo, Maria Sierra García-Valdecasas; Gavrilov, Dimitar; Gerace, Rosemarie; Giordano, Giuseppe; Irazabal, Yolanda González; Greed, Lawrence C; Grier, Robert; Grycki, Elyse; Gu, Xuefan; Gulamali-Majid, Fizza; Hagar, Arthur F; Han, Lianshu; Hannon, W Harry; Haslip, Christa; Hassan, Fayza Abdelhamid; He, Miao; Hietala, Amy; Himstedt, Leslie; Hoffman, Gary L; Hoffman, William; Hoggatt, Philis; Hopkins, Patrick V; Hougaard, David M; Hughes, Kerie; Hunt, Patricia R; Hwu, Wuh-Liang; Hynes, June; Ibarra-González, Isabel; Ingham, Cindy A; Ivanova, Maria; Jacox, Ward B; John, Catharine; Johnson, John P; Jónsson, Jón J; Karg, Eszter; Kasper, David; Klopper, Brenda; Katakouzinos, Dimitris; Khneisser, Issam; Knoll, Detlef; Kobayashi, Hirinori; Koneski, Ronald; Kozich, Viktor; Kouapei, Rasoul; Kohlmueller, Dirk; Kremensky, Ivo; la Marca, Giancarlo; Lavochkin, Marcia; Lee, Soo-Youn; Lehotay, Denis C; Lemes, Aida; Lepage, Joyce; Lesko, Barbara; Lewis, Barry; Lim, Carol; Linard, Sharon; Lindner, Martin; Lloyd-Puryear, Michele A; Lorey, Fred; Loukas, Yannis L; Luedtke, Julie; Maffitt, Neil; Magee, J Fergall; Manning, Adrienne; Manos, Shawn; Marie, Sandrine; Hadachi, Sônia Marchezi; Marquardt, Gregg; Martin, Stephen J; Matern, Dietrich; Mayfield Gibson, Stephanie K; Mayne, Philip; McCallister, Tonya D; McCann, Mark; McClure, Julie; McGill, James J; McKeever, Christine D; McNeilly, Barbara; Morrissey, Mark A; Moutsatsou, Paraskevi; Mulcahy, Eleanor A; Nikoloudis, Dimitris; Norgaard-Pedersen, Bent; Oglesbee, Devin; Oltarzewski, Mariusz; Ombrone, Daniela; Ojodu, Jelili; Papakonstantinou, Vagelis; Reoyo, Sherly Pardo; Park, Hyung-Doo; Pasquali, Marzia; Pasquini, Elisabetta; Patel, Pallavi; Pass, Kenneth A; Peterson, Colleen; Pettersen, Rolf D; Pitt, James J; Poh, Sherry; Pollak, Arnold; Porter, Cory; Poston, Philip A; Price, Ricky W; Queijo, Cecilia; Quesada, Jonessy; Randell, Edward; Ranieri, Enzo; Raymond, Kimiyo; Reddic, John E; Reuben, Alejandra; Ricciardi, Charla; Rinaldo, Piero; Rivera, Jeff D; Roberts, Alicia; Rocha, Hugo; Roche, Geraldine; Greenberg, Cheryl Rochman; Mellado, José María Egea; Juan-Fita, María Jesús; Ruiz, Consuelo; Ruoppolo, Margherita; Rutledge, S Lane; Ryu, Euijung; Saban, Christine; Sahai, Inderneel; García-Blanco, Maria Isabel Salazar; Santiago-Borrero, Pedro; Schenone, Andrea; Schoos, Roland; Schweitzer, Barb; Scott, Patricia; Seashore, Margretta R; Seeterlin, Mary A; Sesser, David E; Sevier, Darrin W; Shone, Scott M; Sinclair, Graham; Skrinska, Victor A; Stanley, Eleanor L; Strovel, Erin T; Jones, April L Studinski; Sunny, Sherlykutty; Takats, Zoltan; Tanyalcin, Tijen; Teofoli, Francesca; Thompson, J Robert; Tomashitis, Kathy; Domingos, Mouseline Torquado; Torres, Jasmin; Torres, Rosario; Tortorelli, Silvia; Turi, Sandor; Turner, Kimberley; Tzanakos, Nick; Valiente, Alf G; Vallance, Hillary; Vela-Amieva, Marcela; Vilarinho, Laura; von Döbeln, Ulrika; Vincent, Marie-Francoise; Vorster, B Chris; Watson, Michael S; Webster, Dianne; Weiss, Sheila; Wilcken, Bridget; Wiley, Veronica; Williams, Sharon K; Willis, Sharon A; Woontner, Michael; Wright, Katherine; Yahyaoui, Raquel; Yamaguchi, Seiji; Yssel, Melissa; Zakowicz, Wendy M

    2011-03-01

    To achieve clinical validation of cutoff values for newborn screening by tandem mass spectrometry through a worldwide collaborative effort. Cumulative percentiles of amino acids and acylcarnitines in dried blood spots of approximately 25–30 million normal newborns and 10,742 deidentified true positive cases are compared to assign clinical significance, which is achieved when the median of a disorder range is, and usually markedly outside, either the 99th or the 1st percentile of the normal population. The cutoff target ranges of analytes and ratios are then defined as the interval between selected percentiles of the two populations. When overlaps occur, adjustments are made to maximize sensitivity and specificity taking all available factors into consideration. As of December 1, 2010, 130 sites in 45 countries have uploaded a total of 25,114 percentile data points, 565,232 analyte results of true positive cases with 64 conditions, and 5,341 cutoff values. The average rate of submission of true positive cases between December 1, 2008, and December 1, 2010, was 5.1 cases/day. This cumulative evidence generated 91 high and 23 low cutoff target ranges. The overall proportion of cutoff values within the respective target range was 42% (2,269/5,341). An unprecedented level of cooperation and collaboration has allowed the objective definition of cutoff target ranges for 114 markers to be applied to newborn screening of rare metabolic disorders.

  6. Canadian Cardiovascular Society/Canadian Pediatric Cardiology Association Position Statement on Pulse Oximetry Screening in Newborns to Enhance Detection of Critical Congenital Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Wong, Kenny K; Fournier, Anne; Fruitman, Deborah S; Graves, Lisa; Human, Derek G; Narvey, Michael; Russell, Jennifer L

    2017-02-01

    Congenital heart disease is the most common congenital malformation and approximately 3 in 1000 newborns have critical congenital heart disease (CCHD). Timely diagnosis affects morbidity, mortality, and disability, and newborn pulse oximetry screening has been studied to enhance detection of CCHD. In this position statement we present an evaluation of the literature for pulse oximetry screening. Current detection strategies including prenatal ultrasound examination and newborn physical examination are limited by low diagnostic sensitivity. Pulse oximetry screening is safe, noninvasive, easy to perform, and widely available with a high specificity (99.9%) and moderately high sensitivity (76.5%). When an abnormal saturation is obtained, the likelihood of having CCHD is 5.5 times greater than when a normal result is obtained. The use of pulse oximetry combined with current strategies has shown sensitivities of up to 92% for detecting CCHD. False positive results can be minimized by screening after 24 hours, and testing the right hand and either foot might further increase sensitivity. Newborns with abnormal screening results should undergo a comprehensive assessment and echocardiography performed if a cardiac cause cannot be excluded. Screening has been studied to be cost neutral to cost effective. We recommend that pulse oximetry screening should be routinely performed in all healthy newborns to enhance the detection of CCHD in Canada. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of changes in click-evoked otoacoustic emission (CEOAE) pass criteria, as used in the English newborn hearing screening program, on screening outcome.

    PubMed

    Stevens, John; Brandreth, Marian; Bacon, Paul

    2014-09-01

    There were two objectives, firstly what effect does a change in the pass criteria of a click-evoked otoacoustic emission (CEOAE) newborn hearing screen have on the number of cases of significant hearing impairment detected by follow up diagnostics, and secondly how does this change affect the screen pass rate? Changes in the pass criteria were: reduction in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR); reduction in the minimum signal level (MSL); inclusion of the 1-kHz half-octave band; reduction from two to a single half-octave band. Data from three screening sites was used within the English newborn hearing screening program from the period 2002 to 2006, with a total number of births of about 40,000. There were 42 bilateral and 43 unilateral cases of significant hearing impairment. No effect on the number of cases detected by follow up diagnostics was observed when: (1) SNR was reduced to a minimum of 5 dB; (2) MSL was reduced to -10 dB SPL; and (3) the 1-kHz band was included. With all these changes the percentage pass rate improved by 0.36%. The current choice of SNR and MSL criteria appears robust. Only a small increase in pass rate is possible without affecting case detection.

  8. [Clinical and genetic findings in patients with biotinidase deficiency detected through newborn screening or selective screening for hearing loss or inherited metabolic disease].

    PubMed

    Couce, María Luz; Pérez-Cerdá, Celia; García Silva, María Teresa; García Cazorla, Angels; Martín-Hernández, Elena; Castiñeiras, Daisy; Pineda, Merçè; Navarrete, Rosa; Campistol, Jaume; Fraga, José María; Pérez, Belén; Ugarte, Magdalena

    2011-10-22

    To evaluate clinical, biochemical and genetic findings of two series of patients with biotinidase deficiency. Fifteen cases detected through newborn screening and six through selective screening for hearing loss or metabolic disease. No patient detected by neonatal screening had symptoms and only one case with partial biotinidase activity developed myoclonic seizures that resolved with biotin. More common mutations found among this group were p.D444H and the double mutation [p.D444H;p.A171T]. However, neurological and hearing manifestations predominated among the six symptomatic cases and mutations p.L32fs, p.G34fs, p.T401I, p.D444H, p.T532M and the novel one p.L466fs were identified. Patients with profound biotinidase deficiency and/or clinical signs were treated with pharmacological doses of biotin (10-30mg daily). Biotinidase deficiency must be included in the newborn screening programmes in order to begin early treatment even in partial forms. Different mutations found in both series of patients suggest that routine genetic procedure of the BTD gene by direct sequencing might be useful to assign patients to the partial or profound form of the disease. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  9. Is my sick child healthy? Is my healthy child sick?: changing parental experiences of cystic fibrosis in the age of expanded newborn screening.

    PubMed

    Grob, Rachel

    2008-10-01

    This paper explores how rapid growth in the USA of mandatory newborn screening (NBS) leading to a diagnosis of cystic fibrosis is changing, for affected families, their experience of illness versus disease. Qualitative research comparing newborn screening and post-symptomatic diagnostic experiences suggests a number of potent consequences associated with affixing a disease diagnosis through newborn screening. The early, unsought diagnosis deeply affects parents' feeling of competence to care for their newborn and their sense of who the child is, and places the disease -- rather than the process of "falling in love with" the new baby -- at centre stage during the child's early weeks and months; and causes health professionals to loom very large in the family's life at this formative time. With newborn genetic screening continuing to expand rapidly in the USA for a range of other conditions that may not be immediately symptomatic, we can expect that the newborn period will be significantly altered in these ways for a growing segment of the population.

  10. Inborn errors of metabolism and expanded newborn screening: review and update.

    PubMed

    Mak, Chloe Miu; Lee, Han-Chih Hencher; Chan, Albert Yan-Wo; Lam, Ching-Wan

    2013-11-01

    Inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) are a phenotypically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders caused by a defect in a metabolic pathway, leading to malfunctioning metabolism and/or the accumulation of toxic intermediate metabolites. To date, more than 1000 different IEM have been identified. While individually rare, the cumulative incidence has been shown to be upwards of 1 in 800. Clinical presentations are protean, complicating diagnostic pathways. IEM are present in all ethnic groups and across every age. Some IEM are amenable to treatment, with promising outcomes. However, high clinical suspicion alone is not sufficient to reduce morbidities and mortalities. In the last decade, due to the advent of tandem mass spectrometry, expanded newborn screening (NBS) has become a mandatory public health strategy in most developed and developing countries. The technology allows inexpensive simultaneous detection of more than 30 different metabolic disorders in one single blood spot specimen at a cost of about USD 10 per baby, with commendable analytical accuracy and precision. The sensitivity and specificity of this method can be up to 99% and 99.995%, respectively, for most amino acid disorders, organic acidemias, and fatty acid oxidation defects. Cost-effectiveness studies have confirmed that the savings achieved through the use of expanded NBS programs are significantly greater than the costs of implementation. The adverse effects of false positive results are negligible in view of the economic health benefits generated by expanded NBS and these could be minimized through increased education, better communication, and improved technologies. Local screening agencies should be given the autonomy to develop their screening programs in order to keep pace with international advancements. The development of biochemical genetics is closely linked with expanded NBS. With ongoing advancements in nanotechnology and molecular genomics, the field of biochemical genetics