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Sample records for newly diagnosed nonmetastatic

  1. Racial disparities in functional disability among older women with newly diagnosed nonmetastatic breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Owusu, Cynthia; Schluchter, Mark; Koroukian, Siran M; Mazhuvanchery, Suzanne; Berger, Nathan A

    2013-11-01

    This study sought to assess racial differences in functional disability among older women with nonmetastatic breast cancer. In this cross-sectional study, between April 2008 and December 2012, women aged ≥ 65 years with newly diagnosed stage I through III breast cancer were recruited from ambulatory oncology clinics at an academic center. Prior to receiving any adjuvant treatment, participants completed a comprehensive geriatric assessment. The primary outcome was functional disability, defined as dependency in any basic or instrumental activity of daily living, categorized as "yes" or "no." Logistic regression analyses were undertaken. The study enrolled 190 women whose mean age was 75.0 years at diagnosis (standard deviation = 7.0, range = 65-93 years). Thirty-two percent were African American (AA), and 39% had functional disability. Controlling for age, participants with functional disability were more likely to be AA (versus non-Hispanic white), odds ratio = 4.19, 95% confidence interval = 2.12-8.27. Fifty-nine percent of the racial difference in functional disability was explained by a higher prevalence of lower income and education among AAs. In addition, the higher prevalence of chronic medical conditions and obesity among AAs, after accounting for socioeconomic factors, further explained 40% of the black-white difference in functional disability. Among older women with newly diagnosed nonmetastatic breast cancer, functional disability is highly prevalent, and AAs are disproportionately affected. Interventions to optimize the functional status of at-risk individuals, particularly AAs, during and after cancer treatment may improve treatment tolerance and overall survival outcomes. © 2013 American Cancer Society.

  2. Failure-Free Survival and Radiotherapy in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Nonmetastatic Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    James, Nicholas D.; Spears, Melissa R.; Clarke, Noel W.; Dearnaley, David P.; Mason, Malcolm D.; Parker, Christopher C.; Ritchie, Alastair W. S.; Russell, J. Martin; Schiavone, Francesca; Attard, Gerhardt; de Bono, Johann S.; Birtle, Alison; Engeler, Daniel S.; Elliott, Tony; Matheson, David; O’Sullivan, Joe; Pudney, Delia; Srihari, Narayanan; Wallace, Jan; Barber, Jim; Syndikus, Isabel; Parmar, Mahesh K. B.; Sydes, Matthew R.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE The natural history of patients with newly diagnosed high-risk nonmetastatic (M0) prostate cancer receiving hormone therapy (HT) either alone or with standard-of-care radiotherapy (RT) is not well documented. Furthermore, no clinical trial has assessed the role of RT in patients with node-positive (N+) M0 disease. The STAMPEDE Trial includes such individuals, allowing an exploratory multivariate analysis of the impact of radical RT. OBJECTIVE To describe survival and the impact on failure-free survival of RT by nodal involvement in these patients. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Cohort study using data collected for patients allocated to the control arm (standard-of-care only) of the STAMPEDE Trial between October 5, 2005, and May 1, 2014. Outcomes are presented as hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% CIs derived from adjusted Cox models; survival estimates are reported at 2 and 5 years. Participants were high-risk, hormone-naive patients with newly diagnosed M0 prostate cancer starting long-term HT for the first time. Radiotherapy is encouraged in this group, but mandated for patients with node-negative (N0) M0 disease only since November 2011. EXPOSURES Long-term HT either alone or with RT, as per local standard. Planned RT use was recorded at entry. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Failure-free survival (FFS) and overall survival. RESULTS A total of 721 men with newly diagnosed M0 disease were included: median age at entry, 66 (interquartile range [IQR], 61-72) years, median (IQR) prostate-specific antigen level of 43 (18-88) ng/mL. There were 40 deaths (31 owing to prostate cancer) with 17 months’ median follow-up. Two-year survival was 96% (95% CI, 93%-97%) and 2-year FFS, 77% (95% CI, 73%-81%). Median (IQR) FFS was 63 (26 to not reached) months. Time to FFS was worse in patients with N+ disease (HR, 2.02 [95% CI, 1.46-2.81]) than in those with N0 disease. Failure-free survival outcomes favored planned use of RT for patients with both N0M0 (HR, 0.33 [95% CI

  3. Intensified Chemotherapy With Dexrazoxane Cardioprotection in Newly Diagnosed Nonmetastatic Osteosarcoma: A Report From the Children's Oncology Group.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Cindy L; Wexler, Leonard H; Krailo, Mark D; Teot, Lisa A; Devidas, Meenakshi; Steinherz, Laurel J; Goorin, Allen M; Gebhardt, Mark C; Healey, John H; Sato, Judith K; Meyers, Paul A; Grier, Holcombe E; Bernstein, Mark L; Lipshultz, Steven E

    2016-01-01

    Although chemotherapy has improved outcome of osteosarcoma, 30-40% of patients succumb to this disease. Survivors experience substantial morbidity and mortality from anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity. We hypothesized that the cardioprotectant dexrazoxane would (i) support escalation of the cumulative doxorubicin dose (600 mg/m(2)) and (ii) not interfere with the cytotoxicity of chemotherapy measured by necrosis grading in comparison to historical control data. Children and adolescents with nonmetastatic osteosarcoma were treated with MAP (methotrexate, doxorubicin, cisplatin) or MAPI (MAP/ifosfamide). Dexrazoxane was administered with all doxorubicin doses. Cardioprotection was assessed by measuring left ventricular fractional shortening. Interference with chemotherapy-induced cytotoxicity was determined by measuring tumor necrosis after induction chemotherapy. Feasibility of intensifying therapy with either high cumulative-dose doxorubicin or high-dose ifosfamide/etoposide was evaluated for "standard responders" (SR, <98% tumor necrosis at definitive surgery). Dexrazoxane did not compromise response to induction chemotherapy. With doxorubicin (450-600 mg/m(2)) and dexrazoxane, grade 1 or 2 left ventricular dysfunction occurred in five patients; 4/5 had transient effects. Left ventricular fractional shortening z-scores (FSZ) showed minimal reductions (0.0170  ±  0.009/week) over 78 weeks. Two patients (<1%) had secondary leukemia, one as a first event, a similar rate to what has been observed in prior trials. Intensification with high-dose ifosfamide/etoposide was also feasible. Dexrazoxane cardioprotection was safely administered. It did not impair tumor response or increase the risk of secondary malignancy. Dexrazoxane allowed for therapeutic intensification increasing the cumulative doxorubicin dose in SR to induction chemotherapy. These findings support the use of dexrazoxane in children and adolescents with osteosarcoma. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals

  4. Intensified Chemotherapy with Dexrazoxane Cardioprotection in Newly Diagnosed Non-Metastatic Osteosarcoma: A Report from the Children’s Oncology Group

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, CL; Wexler, LH; Krailo, MD; Teot, LA; Devidas, M; Steinherz, LJ; Goorin, AM; Gebhardt, MC; Healey, JH; Sato, JK; Meyers, PA; Grier, HE; Bernstein, ML; Lipshultz, SE

    2016-01-01

    Background Although chemotherapy has improved outcome of osteosarcoma, 30–40% of patients succumb to this disease. Survivors experience substantial morbidity and mortality from anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity. We hypothesized that the cardioprotectant dexrazoxane would 1) support escalation of the cumulative doxorubicin dose (600 mg/m2) and 2) not interfere with the cytotoxicity of chemotherapy measured by necrosis grading in comparison to historical control data.9 Procedure Children and adolescents with non-metastatic osteosarcoma were treated with MAP (methotrexate, doxorubicin, cisplatin) or MAPI (MAP/ifosfamide). Dexrazoxane was administered with all doxorubicin doses. Cardioprotection was assessed by measuring left ventricular fractional shortening. Interference with chemotherapy-induced cytotoxicity was determined by measuring tumor necrosis after induction chemotherapy. Feasibility of intensifying therapy with either high cumulative-dose doxorubicin or high-dose ifosfamide/etoposide was evaluated for ‘standard responders’ (SR, <98% tumor necrosis at definitive surgery). Results Dexrazoxane did not compromise response to induction chemotherapy. With doxorubicin (450–600 mg/m2) and dexrazoxane, grade 1 or 2 left ventricular dysfunction occurred in 5 patients; 4/5 had transient effects. Left ventricular fractional shortening z-scores (FSZ) showed minimal reductions (0.0170 ±0.009/week) over 78 weeks. Two patients (<1%) had secondary leukemia, one as a first event, a similar rate to what has been observed in prior trials. Intensification with high-dose ifosfamide/etoposide was also feasible. Conclusions Dexrazoxane cardioprotection was safely administered. It did not impair tumor response or increase the risk of secondary malignancy. Dexrazoxane allowed for therapeutic intensification, increasing the cumulative doxorubicin dose in SR to induction chemotherapy. These findings support the use of dexrazoxane in children and adolescents with

  5. Newly Diagnosed Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Avvisati, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) represents a medical emergency with a high rate of early mortality. As a consequence, as soon as the diagnosis is suspected based upon cytologic criteria, it is necessary to start all- trans retinoic acid (ATRA) treatment without delay. For patients with newly diagnosed APL, induction therapy with ATRA plus anthracycline based chemotherapy is recommended. At present the combination of arsenic trioxide plus ATRA should be considered for patients who are not candidates for anthracycline-based therapy. For pediatric and adult patients with APL aged < 60 years who achieve a CR with induction, I recommend 3 intensive courses of consolidation chemotherapy associated to ATRA, targeted on the basis of the risk group at diagnosis. In patients treated with a very intensive consolidation chemotherapy maintenance treatment can be omitted. However If a maintenance treatment has to be adopted I suggest the use of intermittent ATRA for 15 days every 3 months for a period of 2 years, rather than ATRA associated to chemotherapy. Moreover, taking into account the medical literature, a reduced dosage of ATRA ( 25 mg/m2) in pediatric patients and a consolidation chemotherapy of reduced intensity in elderly patients is recommended. Furthermore, in order to maximize survival, careful attention should be reserved to the coagulopathy and to the appearance of the differentiation syndrome. Finally, PCR for the PML/RARA fusion gene on a bone marrow specimen every three months for two years, and then every six months for additional three years are needed during the follow-up. PMID:22220261

  6. What next for newly diagnosed glioblastoma?

    PubMed Central

    Domingo-Musibay, Evidio; Galanis, Evanthia

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma is the most common primary brain tumor in adults. Despite current multimodality treatment including surgical resection and temozolomide-based chemoradiotherapy, median survival is only 14–16 months. Characterization of molecular alterations in glioblastoma has identified prognostic subgroups and therapeutic opportunities for clinical trials across glioblastoma subsets. Following a number of negative Phase III trials testing temozolomide dose intensification and angiogenesis inhibition, recent interim analysis data indicate survival prolongation with use of a device (Optune™) delivering alternating electrical field therapy in newly diagnosed glioblastoma patients. In this review, we present an overview of the data supporting the current standard of care and discuss novel experimental therapies in early and late phase clinical testing including devices, small molecule drugs, angiogenesis inhibitors, oncolytic virotherapy and immunotherapy. PMID:26558493

  7. Disseminated mucormycosis in an adolescent with newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    McCrory, Michael C; Moore, Blake A; Nakagawa, Thomas A; Givner, Laurence B; Jason, Donald R; Palavecino, Elizabeth L; Ajizian, Samuel J

    2014-10-01

    We report a 16-year-old, previously healthy female who presented with disseminated mucormycosis leading to multiorgan failure and death with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus and ketoacidosis. We review previous reported cases of mucormycosis in children with diabetes to demonstrate that this uncommon invasive infection may cause significant morbidity and mortality in this population.

  8. Death Concerns among Individuals Newly Diagnosed with Lung Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehto, Rebecca; Therrien, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Confronting the reality of death is an important challenge for individuals facing life-threatening illness such as lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer death. Few studies, however, document the nature of death-related concerns in individuals newly diagnosed with lung cancer. The aims of this exploratory study were to examine unsolicited…

  9. Death Concerns among Individuals Newly Diagnosed with Lung Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehto, Rebecca; Therrien, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Confronting the reality of death is an important challenge for individuals facing life-threatening illness such as lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer death. Few studies, however, document the nature of death-related concerns in individuals newly diagnosed with lung cancer. The aims of this exploratory study were to examine unsolicited…

  10. Increased gluconeogenesis in youth with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The role of increased gluconeogenesis as an important contributor to fasting hyperglycaemia at diabetes onset is not known. We evaluated the contribution of gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis to fasting hyperglycaemia in newly diagnosed youths with type 2 diabetes following an overnight fast. Basal ...

  11. Activity of intraarterial carboplatin as a single agent in the treatment of newly diagnosed extremity osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Petrilli, A S; Kechichian, R; Broniscer, A; Garcia, R J; Tanaka, C; Francisco, J; Lederman, H; Odone Filho, V; Camargo, O P; Bruniera, P; Pericles, P; Consentino, E; Ortega, J A

    1999-08-01

    Chemotherapy has dramatically improved the rates of cure and survival of patients with localized and metastatic osteosarcoma. Nonetheless, the number of chemotherapeutic agents active against osteosarcoma is limited to doxorubicin, cisplatin, high-dose methotrexate, and ifosfamide. Carboplatin, a cisplatin analogue, has been tested as a single agent in patients with recurrent osteosarcoma or as part of multiagent chemotherapy in newly diagnosed patients. We tested the activity and toxicity of two cycles of intraarterial carboplatin as a "window therapy" (600 mg/m2 per cycle) in 33 consecutive patients with extremity osteosarcoma before the start of multiagent chemotherapy. Response was based on clinical (tumor diameter, local inflammatory signs, and range of motion) and radiological parameters (plain local films and arteriographic studies prior to drug administration). Patients' age ranged between 8 and 18 years (median age 13 years). Primary tumor originated from the femur (15 patients), tibia (10 patients), fibula (4 patients), humerus (3 patients), and calcaneus (1 patient). Only 7 patients (21%) had metastatic disease at diagnosis (5 in the lung and 2 in other bones). A favorable clinical and radiological response was documented in 81% and 73% of the patients, respectively. Clinical and radiological progression occurred in 12% and 9% of the patients, respectively. Seventeen of the patients remain alive and disease-free. Survival and event-free survival at 3 years for nonmetastatic patients are 71% (SE = 9%) and 65% (SE = 9%), respectively; for metastatic patients, the figures are 17% (SE = 15%) and 14% (SE = 13%), respectively. We conclude that carboplatin is an active agent in the treatment of newly diagnosed extremity osteosarcoma. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Reduced parasympathetic tone in newly diagnosed essential hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Goit, Rajesh Kumar; Ansari, Abdul Haque

    2016-01-01

    Aim The aim of the study was to compare heart rate variability (HRV) of newly diagnosed essential hypertensive subjects with controls. Methods The study was conducted on 120 hypertensive subjects and 120 controls. Results The time-domain measures, standard deviation of all RR intervals (SDNN), the square root of the mean of the sum of the squares of differences between adjacent RR intervals (RMSSD), and percentage of consecutive RR intervals that differ by more than 50 ms (pNN50) which reflect parasympathetic activity were significantly less in hypertensive subjects. In frequency-domain measures, high frequency [HF (ms2)] and [HF (nu)], which reflects parasympathetic activity, was significantly less in hypertensive subjects while LF (nu) and LF/HF (%), which reflect sympathetic activity, were comparable between the groups. Conclusion These findings suggest that HRV is reduced in subjects with newly diagnosed essential hypertension and the parasympathetic dysregulation is present in the early stage of essential hypertension. PMID:27133323

  13. Insulin Oedema in Newly Diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Çetinkaya, Semra; Yılmaz Ağladıoğlu, Sebahat; Peltek Kendirici, Havva Nur; Bilgili, Hatice; Yıldırım, Nurdan; Aycan, Zehra

    2010-01-01

    Despite the essential role of insulin in the management of patients with insulin deficiency, insulin use can lead to adverse effects such as hypoglycaemia and weight gain. Rarely, crucial fluid retention can occur with insulin therapy, resulting in an oedematous condition. Peripheral or generalised oedema is an extremely rare complication of insulin therapy in the absence of heart, liver or renal involvement. It has been reported in newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes, in poorly controlled type 2 diabetes following the initiation of insulin therapy, and in underweight patients on large doses of insulin. The oedema occurs shortly after the initiation of intensive insulin therapy. We describe two adolescent girls with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes, who presented with oedema of the lower extremities approximately one week after the initiation of insulin treatment; other causes of oedema were excluded. Spontaneous recovery was observed in both patients. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:21274337

  14. Hope as experienced in women newly diagnosed with gynaecological cancer.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Kristianna; Mogensen, Ole; Hall, Elisabeth O C

    2009-09-01

    This article presents findings from a hermeneutic-phenomenological study with the aim to investigate the meaning of the lived experience of hope in women newly diagnosed with gynaecological cancer. Fifteen women were interviewed the day they were receiving the diagnosis at a gynaecological department of a Danish university hospital. The women, aged 24-87 (median 52 yrs), were diagnosed with ovarian, endometrial, cervical and vulvar cancer. Hope was found to be connected to both diagnosis, cure, family life and life itself and closely tied to hopelessness. The newly received cancer diagnosis made the women oscillate between hope and hopelessness, between positive expectations of getting cured and frightening feelings of the disease taking over. Five major interrelated themes of hope were identified: hope of being cured, cared for and getting back to normal, hope as being active and feeling well, hope as an internal power to maintain integration, hope as significant relationships and hope as fighting against hopelessness. Thus, hope was woven together with hopelessness in a mysterious way; it took command through inner strength and courage based on a trust in being cured and of being in relationship with significant others. The findings of the close relationship between the shades of hope and hopelessness support the need for nurses to continue to practice hope-inspiring nursing. Nurses need to understand the complexity of hope and its close connection to hopelessness when newly diagnosed with a threatening disease as cancer; and the findings might help nurses assist patients in fighting hopelessness.

  15. A randomized trial of bevacizumab for newly diagnosed glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Mark R; Dignam, James J; Armstrong, Terri S; Wefel, Jeffrey S; Blumenthal, Deborah T; Vogelbaum, Michael A; Colman, Howard; Chakravarti, Arnab; Pugh, Stephanie; Won, Minhee; Jeraj, Robert; Brown, Paul D; Jaeckle, Kurt A; Schiff, David; Stieber, Volker W; Brachman, David G; Werner-Wasik, Maria; Tremont-Lukats, Ivo W; Sulman, Erik P; Aldape, Kenneth D; Curran, Walter J; Mehta, Minesh P

    2014-02-20

    Concurrent treatment with temozolomide and radiotherapy followed by maintenance temozolomide is the standard of care for patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma. Bevacizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor A, is currently approved for recurrent glioblastoma. Whether the addition of bevacizumab would improve survival among patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma is not known. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we treated adults who had centrally confirmed glioblastoma with radiotherapy (60 Gy) and daily temozolomide. Treatment with bevacizumab or placebo began during week 4 of radiotherapy and was continued for up to 12 cycles of maintenance chemotherapy. At disease progression, the assigned treatment was revealed, and bevacizumab therapy could be initiated or continued. The trial was designed to detect a 25% reduction in the risk of death and a 30% reduction in the risk of progression or death, the two coprimary end points, with the addition of bevacizumab. A total of 978 patients were registered, and 637 underwent randomization. There was no significant difference in the duration of overall survival between the bevacizumab group and the placebo group (median, 15.7 and 16.1 months, respectively; hazard ratio for death in the bevacizumab group, 1.13). Progression-free survival was longer in the bevacizumab group (10.7 months vs. 7.3 months; hazard ratio for progression or death, 0.79). There were modest increases in rates of hypertension, thromboembolic events, intestinal perforation, and neutropenia in the bevacizumab group. Over time, an increased symptom burden, a worse quality of life, and a decline in neurocognitive function were more frequent in the bevacizumab group. First-line use of bevacizumab did not improve overall survival in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma. Progression-free survival was prolonged but did not reach the prespecified improvement target. (Funded by the

  16. Coping strategies among patients with newly diagnosed amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Jakobsson Larsson, Birgitta; Nordin, Karin; Askmark, Håkan; Nygren, Ingela

    2014-11-01

    To prospectively identify different coping strategies among newly diagnosed amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients and whether they change over time and to determine whether physical function, psychological well-being, age and gender correlated with the use of different coping strategies. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a fatal disease with impact on both physical function and psychological well-being. Different coping strategies are used to manage symptoms and disease progression, but knowledge about coping in newly diagnosed amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients is scarce. This was a prospective study with a longitudinal and descriptive design. A total of 33 patients were included and evaluation was made at two time points, one to three months and six months after diagnosis. Patients were asked to complete the Motor Neuron Disease Coping Scale and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Physical function was estimated using the revised Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale. The most commonly used strategies were support and independence. Avoidance/venting and information seeking were seldom used at both time points. The use of information seeking decreased between the two time points. Men did not differ from women, but patients ≤64 years used positive action more often than older patients. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale was positively correlated with positive action at time point 1, but not at time point 2. Patients' psychological well-being was correlated with the use of different coping strategies. Support and independence were the most used coping strategies, and the use of different strategies changed over time. Psychological well-being was correlated with different coping strategies in newly diagnosed amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients. The knowledge about coping strategies in early stage of the disease may help the nurses to improve and develop the care and support for these patients. © 2014 John Wiley

  17. Inverse Association of Serum Docosahexaenoic Acid With Newly Diagnosed Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bo; Ding, Fang; Wang, Feng-Lei; Yu, Wei; Li, Duo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Observational studies on circulating fatty acid (FA) and primary prevention of hypertension have yielded inconsistent results, and the association among the Chinese population is not fully clear. The aim of the study was to discern important FAs that can discriminate hypertensive patients from normotensive persons, and investigate associations between the important FAs and risk of hypertension. We conducted a case-control study nested within a community-based cohort of 2447 Chinese participants aged 35 to 79 years who completed a baseline assessment between October 2012 and April 2013. In all, 480 patients with newly diagnosed hypertension were identified at baseline and 480 normotensive individuals were randomly selected as matched normotensive controls. Controls were individually matched to cases by age (±2 y), sex, and recruitment center, with a 1:1 case-to-control ratio. Serum FA profile was compared between cases and controls by orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analyses. Odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for newly diagnosed hypertension was estimated by a conditional logistical analysis. After adjustment for body mass index, education, profession, family history of hypertension, salt intake, heart rate, blood lipids, and fasting glucose levels, serum FA profile in hypertensive patients was typically characterized by higher 16:0 and 16:1n-7, and lower 18:2n-6 and 22:6n-3, compared with normotensive controls. Docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) and palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7) were identified as the important FA contributing most to the intergroup separations. When comparing the highest and lowest quartile of FA composition, newly diagnosed hypertension was negatively associated with 22:6n-3 (OR 0.65; 95% CI, 0.45–0.93; P for trend = 0.02), but positively associated with 16:1n-7 (OR 2.14; 95% CI, 1.46–3.12; P for trend < 0.001). The associations remained pronounced after multiple adjustments and in further stratified

  18. Acute stress in parents of children newly diagnosed with cancer.

    PubMed

    Patiño-Fernández, Anna Maria; Pai, Ahna L H; Alderfer, Melissa; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Reilly, Anne; Kazak, Anne E

    2008-02-01

    Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) and subclinical symptoms of acute stress (SAS) may be a useful framework for understanding the psychological reactions of mothers and fathers of children newly diagnosed with a pediatric malignancy. Mothers (N = 129) and fathers (N = 72) of 138 children newly diagnosed with cancer completed questionnaires assessing acute distress, anxiety, and family functioning. Demographic data were also gathered. Inclusion criteria were: a confirmed diagnosis of a pediatric malignancy in a child under the age of 18 years without prior chronic or life threatening illness and fluency in English or Spanish. Descriptive statistics and multiple linear regressions were used to examine predictors of SAS. Fifty-one percent (N = 66) of mothers and 40% (N = 29) of fathers met DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for ASD. The majority of the sample reported experiencing at least one SAS. General anxiety, but not family functioning, was a strong predictor of SAS in both mothers and fathers even after controlling for demographic characteristics. Immediately following their child's diagnosis of cancer, most mothers and fathers experience SAS, with a subsample meeting criteria for ASD. More anxious parents are at heightened risk of more intense reactions. The findings support the need for evidence-based psychosocial support at diagnosis and throughout treatment for families who are at risk for acute distress reactions. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Acute Stress in Parents of Children Newly Diagnosed With Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Patiño-Fernández, Anna Maria; Pai, Ahna L.H.; Alderfer, Melissa; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Reilly, Anne; Kazak, Anne E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) and subclinical symptoms of acute stress (SAS) may be a useful framework for understanding the psychological reactions of mothers and fathers of children newly diagnosed with a pediatric malignancy. Patients and Methods Mothers (N = 129) and fathers (N = 72) of 138 children newly diagnosed with cancer completed questionnaires assessing acute distress, anxiety, and family functioning. Demographic data were also gathered. Inclusion criteria were: a confirmed diagnosis of a pediatric malignancy in a child under the age of 18 years without prior chronic or life threatening illness and fluency in English or Spanish. Results Descriptive statistics and multiple linear regressions were used to examine predictors of SAS. Fifty-one percent (N = 66) of mothers and 40% (N = 29) of fathers met DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for ASD. The majority of the sample reported experiencing at least one SAS. General anxiety, but not family functioning, was a strong predictor of SAS in both mothers and fathers even after controlling for demographic characteristics. Conclusions Immediately following their child’s diagnosis of cancer, most mothers and fathers experience SAS, with a subsample meeting criteria for ASD. More anxious parents are at heightened risk of more intense reactions. The findings support the need for evidence-based psychosocial support at diagnosis and throughout treatment for families who are at risk for acute distress reactions. PMID:17514742

  20. Chemotherapy in newly diagnosed primary central nervous system lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Hashemi-Sadraei, Nooshin; Peereboom, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) accounts for only 3% of brain tumors. It can involve the brain parenchyma, leptomeninges, eyes and the spinal cord. Unlike systemic lymphoma, durable remissions remain uncommon. Although phase III trials in this rare disease are difficult to perform, many phase II trials have attempted to define standards of care. Treatment modalities for patients with newly diagnosed PCNSL include radiation and/or chemotherapy. While the role of radiation therapy for initial management of PCNSL is controversial, clinical trials will attempt to improve the therapeutic index of this modality. Routes of chemotherapy administration include intravenous, intraocular, intraventricular or intra-arterial. Multiple trials have outlined different methotrexate-based chemotherapy regimens and have used local techniques to improve drug delivery. A major challenge in the management of patients with PCNSL remains the delivery of aggressive treatment with preservation of neurocognitive function. Because PCNSL is rare, it is important to perform multicenter clinical trials and to incorporate detailed measurements of long-term toxicities. In this review we focus on different chemotherapeutic approaches for immunocompetent patients with newly diagnosed PCNSL and discuss the role of local drug delivery in addition to systemic therapy. We also address the neurocognitive toxicity of treatment. PMID:21789140

  1. Nilotinib versus imatinib for newly diagnosed chronic myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Saglio, Giuseppe; Kim, Dong-Wook; Issaragrisil, Surapol; le Coutre, Philipp; Etienne, Gabriel; Lobo, Clarisse; Pasquini, Ricardo; Clark, Richard E; Hochhaus, Andreas; Hughes, Timothy P; Gallagher, Neil; Hoenekopp, Albert; Dong, Mei; Haque, Ariful; Larson, Richard A; Kantarjian, Hagop M

    2010-06-17

    Nilotinib has been shown to be a more potent inhibitor of BCR-ABL than imatinib. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of nilotinib, as compared with imatinib, in patients with newly diagnosed Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in the chronic phase. In this phase 3, randomized, open-label, multicenter study, we assigned 846 patients with chronic-phase Philadelphia chromosome-positive CML in a 1:1:1 ratio to receive nilotinib (at a dose of either 300 mg or 400 mg twice daily) or imatinib (at a dose of 400 mg once daily). The primary end point was the rate of major molecular response at 12 months. At 12 months, the rates of major molecular response for nilotinib (44% for the 300-mg dose and 43% for the 400-mg dose) were nearly twice that for imatinib (22%) (P<0.001 for both comparisons). The rates of complete cytogenetic response by 12 months were significantly higher for nilotinib (80% for the 300-mg dose and 78% for the 400-mg dose) than for imatinib (65%) (P<0.001 for both comparisons). Patients receiving either the 300-mg dose or the 400-mg dose of nilotinib twice daily had a significant improvement in the time to progression to the accelerated phase or blast crisis, as compared with those receiving imatinib (P=0.01 and P=0.004, respectively). No patient with progression to the accelerated phase or blast crisis had a major molecular response. Gastrointestinal and fluid-retention events were more frequent among patients receiving imatinib, whereas dermatologic events and headache were more frequent in those receiving nilotinib. Discontinuations due to aminotransferase and bilirubin elevations were low in all three study groups. Nilotinib at a dose of either 300 mg or 400 mg twice daily was superior to imatinib in patients with newly diagnosed chronic-phase Philadelphia chromosome-positive CML. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00471497.) 2010 Massachusetts Medical Society

  2. Subclassification of Newly Diagnosed Glioblastomas through an Immunohistochemical Approach

    PubMed Central

    Conroy, Siobhan; Kruyt, Frank A. E.; Joseph, Justin V.; Balasubramaniyan, Veerakumar; Bhat, Krishna P.; Wagemakers, Michiel; Enting, Roelien H.; Walenkamp, Annemiek M. E.; den Dunnen, Wilfred F. A.

    2014-01-01

    Molecular signatures in Glioblastoma (GBM) have been described that correlate with clinical outcome and response to therapy. The Proneural (PN) and Mesenchymal (MES) signatures have been identified most consistently, but others including Classical (CLAS) have also been reported. The molecular signatures have been detected by array techniques at RNA and DNA level, but these methods are costly and cannot take into account individual contributions of different cells within a tumor. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether subclasses of newly diagnosed GBMs could be assessed and assigned by application of standard pathology laboratory procedures. 123 newly diagnosed GBMs were analyzed for the tumor cell expression of 23 pre-identified proteins and EGFR amplification, together allowing for the subclassification of 65% of the tumors. Immunohistochemistry (IHC)-based profiling was found to be analogous to transcription-based profiling using a 9-gene transcriptional signature for PN and MES subclasses. Based on these data a novel, minimal IHC-based scheme for subclass assignment for GBMs is proposed. Positive staining for IDH1R132H can be used for PN subclass assignment, high EGFR expression for the CLAS subtype and a combined high expression of PTEN, VIM and/or YKL40 for the MES subclass. The application of the proposed scheme was evaluated in an independent tumor set, which resulted in similar subclass assignment rates as those observed in the training set. The IHC-based subclassification scheme proposed in this study therefore could provide very useful in future studies for stratification of individual patient samples. PMID:25546404

  3. Thyroid function in newly diagnosed HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Noureldeen, Amani Fh; Qusti, Safaa Y; Khoja, Gelan Ms

    2014-11-01

    A variety of HIV-related endocrine dysfunctions including adrenal, gonadal and thyroid disorders have been reported. We aimed to compare between the markers of thyroid function in newly diagnosed HIV-infected patients and healthy volunteers as a control group. The prevalence of the thyroid abnormalities in HIV-infected patients was assessed and the levels of thyroid autoantibodies were also determined. A total of 100 newly diagnosed HIV-infected patients having a CD4 cell count of 180-350 cells/mm(3) were enrolled in the study. Same number of healthy volunteers were also included for comparison. Measurements of thyroid function tests including thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxin and free triiodothyronine levels beside thyroid autoantibodies, including antithyroglobulin (ATBG) and antithyroid peroxidase (ATPO), were carried out for all patients and volunteers. In total, 70% of HIV-infected patients had normal thyroid function tests when compared with control individuals, while 30% of HIV-infected patients had abnormal thyroid function. Of the 30 cases, 11 cases had abnormal TSH values, with increased TSH predominant (7% of HIV cases) than decreased TSH (4% of patients) values. Incidence of thyroid abnormalities ranging from hypothyroidism (subclinical and overt: 6% and 1%, respectively) to hyperthyroidism (2%) and nonthyroidal illness (9%) were estimated in HIV-infected patients. The values of thyroid autoantibodies were almost normal in HIV-infected patients, except the three cases presented with elevated ATBG, indicating that thyroid abnormalities were not due to elevated ATBG and ATPO. Thyroid hormones are of great importance and due to high prevalence of thyroid function abnormality, it is recommended that thyroid function tests should be monitored in all HIV-infected patients before starting the treatment. © The Author(s) 2012.

  4. Bone Disease in Newly Diagnosed Lupus Nephritis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Resende, Aline Lázara; dos Reis, Luciene Machado; Dias, Cristiane Bitencourt; Custódio, Melani Ribeiro; Jorgetti, Vanda; Woronik, Viktoria

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Bone loss in Lupus Nephritis (LN) patients is common and multifactorial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bone status of newly diagnosed LN patients and their correlation with inflammatory factors involved in LN physiopathology. Methods We studied 15 pre-menopausal patients with ≤2 months of diagnosed SLE and LN. Patients with prior kidney or bone disease were excluded. In addition to biochemical evaluation (including 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D] and Monocyte Chemotactic Protein (MCP1) dosage), we performed bone biopsies followed by osteoblast culture, histomorphometric and immunohistochemistry analysis. Results LN patients presented a mean age of 29.5±10 years, a proteinuria of 4.7±2.9 g/day and an estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of 37(31–87) ml/min/1,73 m2. They were on glucocorticoid therapy for 34±12 days. All patients presented vitamin D insufficiency (9.9±4.4 ng/ml, range 4–20). Urinary MCP1 correlated negatively with 25(OH)D (r = −0.53, p = 0.003) and positively with serum deoxypyridinoline (r = 0.53, p = 0.004). Osteoblasts isolated from LN bone biopsies presented a significantly higher expression of MCP-1 when compared to controls (32.0.±9.1 vs. 22.9±5.3 mean fluorescence intensities, p = 0.01). LN patients presented a significantly reduced osteoid volume, osteoid thickness, osteoid surface, mineralization surface and bone formation rate, associated with an increased eroded surface and osteoclast surface. Patient’s bone specimens demonstrated a reduced immunostaining for osteoprotegerin (0.61±0.82 vs. 1.08±0.50%, p = 0.003), and an increased expression of Receptor Activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) (1.76±0.92 vs. 0.41±0.28%, p<0.001) when compared to controls. Discussion Newly diagnosed LN patients presented a significant disturbance in bone metabolism, characterized by an impaired bone formation and mineralization, associated with an increase in resorption parameters

  5. Addition of Muramyl Tripeptide to Chemotherapy for Patients with Newly Diagnosed Metastatic Osteosarcoma: a Report from the Children's Oncology Group

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Alexander J.; Kleinerman, Eugenie S.; Krailo, Mark D.; Chen, Zhengjia; Betcher, Donna L.; Healey, John H.; Conrad, Ernest U.; Nieder, Michael L.; Weiner, Michael A.; Wells, Robert J.; Womer, Richard B.; Meyers, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND The addition of liposomal muramyl tripeptide phosphatidylethanolamine (L-MTPPE) to chemotherapy has been shown to improve overall survival in patients with non-metastatic osteosarcoma (OS). We report the results of L-MTP-PE addition to chemotherapy for patients with metastatic OS. METHODS Intergroup-0133 (INT-0133) was a prospective randomized phase III trial for the treatment of newly diagnosed patients with OS. We compared three drug chemotherapy with cisplatin, doxorubicin, and high-dose methotrexate (Regimen A) to the same three drugs with the addition of ifosfamide (Regimen B). We evaluated the addition of L-MTP-PE to chemotherapy. RESULTS Five-year EFS for patients who received L-MTP-PE (n=46) was 42% versus 26% for those who did not (n=45) (relative risk for L-MTP-PE: 0.72, p=0.23, 95% CI: 0.42-1.2). The 5-year overall survival for patients who received MTP-PE versus no MTP-PE was 53% and 40% respectively (relative risk for L-MTP-PE: 0.72, p=0.27, 95% CI: 0.40-1.3). The comparison of Regimen A with regimen B did not suggest a difference for EFS (35% v. 34% respectively, relative risk for regimen B: 1.07, p=0.79, 95% CI: 0.62-1.8) or overall survival (52% v. 43% respectively, relative risk for regimen B: 1.1, p=0.75, 95% CI: 0.61-2.0). CONCLUSIONS When the metastatic cohort was considered in isolation, the addition of L-MTPPE to chemotherapy did not achieve a statistically significant improvement in outcome. However, the pattern of outcome is similar to the pattern in nonmetastatic patients. PMID:19637348

  6. Prolonged Temozolomide Maintenance Therapy in Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Skardelly, Marco; Dangel, Elena; Gohde, Julia; Noell, Susan; Behling, Felix; Lepski, Guilherme; Borchers, Christian; Koch, Marilin; Schittenhelm, Jens; Bisdas, Sotirios; Naumann, Aline; Paulsen, Frank; Zips, Daniel; von Hehn, Ulrike; Ritz, Rainer; Tatagiba, Marcos Soares; Tabatabai, Ghazaleh

    2017-05-01

    The impact of prolonging temozolomide (TMZ) maintenance beyond six cycles in newly diagnosed glioblastoma (GBM) remains a topic of discussion. We investigated the effects of prolonged TMZ maintenance on progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). In this retrospective single-center cohort study, we included patients with GBM who were treated with radiation therapy with concomitant and adjuvant TMZ. For analysis, patients were considered who either completed six TMZ maintenance cycles (group B), continued with TMZ therapy beyond six cycles (group C), or stopped TMZ maintenance therapy within the first six cycles (group A). Patients with progression during the first six TMZ maintenance cycles were excluded. Clinical data from 107 patients were included for Kaplan-Meier analyses and 102 for Cox regressions. Median PFS times were 8.1 months (95% confidence interval [CI] 6.1-12.4) in group A, 13.7 months (95% CI 10.6-17.5) in group B, and 20.9 months (95% CI 15.2-43.5) in group C. At first progression, response rates of TMZ/lomustine rechallenge were 47% in group B and 13% in group C. Median OS times were 12.7 months (95% CI 10.3-16.8) in group A, 25.2 months (95% CI 17.7-55.5) in group B, and 28.6 months (95% CI 24.4-open) in group C. Nevertheless, multivariate Cox regression for patients in group C compared with group B that accounted for imbalances of other risk factors showed no different relative risk (RR) for OS (RR 0.77, p = .46). Our data do not support a general extension of TMZ maintenance therapy beyond six cycles. The Oncologist 2017;22:570-575 IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Radiation therapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide (TMZ) maintenance therapy is still the standard of care in patients below the age of 65 years in newly diagnosed glioblastoma. However, in clinical practice, many centers continue TMZ maintenance therapy beyond six cycles. The impact of this continuation is controversial and has not yet been addressed in

  7. Focally enhanced gastritis in newly diagnosed pediatric inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Ushiku, Tetsuo; Moran, Christopher J; Lauwers, Gregory Y

    2013-12-01

    Although the significance of focally enhanced gastritis (FEG) as a marker of Crohn disease (CD) in adults has been contested, several studies suggest that it may be more specific of CD in pediatric patients. This study describes the detailed histologic features of FEG in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and clarifies its association with CD. A series of 119 consecutive newly diagnosed IBD patients (62 CD cases, 57 ulcerative colitis [UC] cases) with upper and lower gastrointestinal biopsies were evaluated. The histology of the gastric biopsies was reviewed blinded to final diagnoses and compared with age-matched healthy controls (n=66). FEG was present in 43% of IBD patients (CD 55% vs. UC 30%, P=0.0092) and in 5% of controls. Among CD patients, FEG was more common in younger patients (73% in children aged 10 y and below, 43% in children above 10 y of age, P=0.0358), with the peak in the 5- to 10-year age group (80%). The total number of glands involved in each FEG focus was higher in UC (6.4±5.1 glands) than in CD (4.0±3.0 glands, P=0.0409). Amongst the CD cohort, patients with FEG were more likely than those without FEG to have active ileitis (79% vs. 40%, P=0.0128) and granulomas elsewhere in the gastrointestinal tract (82% vs. 43%, P=0.0016). There was no correlation between FEG and other gastrointestinal findings of UC. We demonstrate that differences in FEG seen in pediatric CD and UC relate to not only their frequencies but also the morphology and relationship with other gastrointestinal lesions. Further, FEG is associated with disease activity and the presence of granulomas in pediatric CD.

  8. Uninvolved immunoglobulins predicting hematological response in newly diagnosed AL amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Muchtar, Eli; Magen, Hila; Itchaki, Gilad; Cohen, Amos; Rosenfeld, Ra'ama; Shochat, Tzippy; Kornowski, Ran; Iakobishvili, Zaza; Raanani, Pia

    2016-02-01

    Immunoparesis serves as a marker for elevated risk for progression in plasma cell proliferative disorders. However, the impact of immunoparesis in AL amyloidosis has not been addressed. Immunoparesis was defined qualitatively as any decrease below the low reference levels of the uninvolved immunoglobulins and quantitatively, as the relative difference between the uninvolved immunoglobulins and the lower reference values. Forty-one newly diagnosed AL amyloidosis patients were included. Sixty-six percent of patients had a suppression of the uninvolved immunoglobulins. The median relative difference of the uninvolved immunoglobulins was 18% above the low reference levels [range (-71%)-210%]. Ninety percent of the patients were treated with novel agents-based regimens, mostly bortezomib-containing regimens. Nineteen percent of the patients did not attain response to first line treatment. Patients with relative difference of uninvolved immunoglobulins below -25% of the low reference levels were less likely to respond to first line treatment compared to patients with a relative difference of -25% and above [odds ratio for no response vs. partial response and better 30 [(95% CI 4.1-222.2), P=0.0004]. Patients who failed first line treatment were successfully salvaged with lenalidomide-based treatment. Immunoparesis, if assessed quantitatively, may serve as a predictor of response in AL amyloidosis patients treated with bortezomib-containing regimens.

  9. Pre-irradiation chemotherapy for newly diagnosed high grade astrocytoma.

    PubMed

    Mathieu, N Tubiana; Genet, D; Labrousse, F; Bouillet, P; Denes, S Lavau; Martin, J; Labourey, J L; Venat, L; Clavere, P; Moreau, J J

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to determine the response rate and toxicity of a combination of Carmustine and Cisplatin administered before radiation in patients with newly diagnosed high grade astrocytoma. A good response rate has been published with this association in primary cerebral high grade tumor. This protocol was administered in a homogeneous population of 37 adult patients with measurable tumor on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or CT scan. After biopsy or subtotal resection, the patients received BCNU 40 mg/m2/d and CODP 40 mg/m2/d, for 3 days every 28 days for 3 cycles. Evaluation was performed before each cycle. Radiation therapy began 4 weeks after completing the chemotherapy or immediately if there was evidence of tumor progression on chemotherapy. Seven out of 37 (19%) demonstrated tumor regression with a median duration to progression of 11 months. Median survival was 6 months. Myelosuppression was the predominant but manageable toxicity. This work indicated that the first chemotherapy protocol gave poor results in a homogeneous group of patients, with bad prognosis.

  10. Newly diagnosed diabetes: a study of parental satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Lessing, D N; Swift, P G; Metcalfe, M A; Baum, J D

    1992-08-01

    A national survey of 509 parents of children with newly diagnosed diabetes elicited a 92% response rate, showing that 96% of children were admitted to hospital, 42% staying in hospital longer than one week and 41% received an intravenous infusion. More than 90% of parents expressed satisfaction with the information given at diagnosis, the preparation they received before discharge home, and the outpatient follow up services. Home visits from a diabetes nurse specialist (DNS) were received by 73% of families and 44% reported that the DNS was the most supportive person in the first year after diagnosis. Readmission during the first 12 months after diagnosis was required by 23% of children, more often in the youngest age group. Poor liaison with schools and the lack of diabetes knowledge in teachers were the sources of greatest dissatisfaction. Children under the care of paediatricians with no specialist interest in diabetes were significantly more likely to be kept in hospital longer at diagnosis and parents were less satisfied with outpatient care and school liaison. The study supports previous recommendations that diabetes nurse specialists are a priority resource in providing support services and that every district should have a paediatrician with a special interest in diabetes and a designated children's diabetic clinic.

  11. Vitamin D Deficiency in Children With Newly Diagnosed Idiopathic Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Sonmez, Fatma Mujgan; Donmez, Ahsen; Namuslu, Mehmet; Canbal, Metin; Orun, Emel

    2015-10-01

    Several studies have shown a link between vitamin D deficiency and epilepsy. This study includes 60 newly diagnosed idiopathic epilepsy patients and 101 healthy controls (between the ages of 5 and 16). Each group was also divided into two subgroups according to seasonal changes in terms of months of longer versus shorter daylight. We retrospectively evaluated the levels of calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, parathyroid hormone, and 25-OH vitamin-D3 in the study participants. Levels below 20 ng/ml were defined as vitamin D deficiency and levels of 20-30 ng/ml as insufficiency. There were no significant differences in age, gender distribution and levels of calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase and parathyroid hormone between the groups. The level of 25-OH vitamin-D3 in the patient group was significantly lower when compared to the control group (p < 0.05) (14.07 ± 8.12 and 23.38 ± 12.80 ng/ml, respectively). This difference also held true when evaluation was made according to seasonal evaluation (12.38 ± 6.53 and 17.64 ± 1.14 in shorter daylight and 18.71 ± 9.87 and 30.82 ± 1.04 in longer daylight). © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Iron deficiency anemia in newly diagnosed celiac disease in children.

    PubMed

    Sanseviero, Maria T; Mazza, Giuseppe A; Pullano, Maria N; Oliveiro, Antonella C; Altomare, Federica; Pedrelli, Luca; Dattilo, Bruno; Miniero, Roberto; Meloni, Gianfranco; Giancotti, Laura; Talarico, Valentina

    2016-02-01

    Celiac disease (CD) in children may occur with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations: anemia is the most frequent extraintestinal manifestation, iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is the common presentation. In our study we aimed to assess IDA condition in a large cohort of pediatric patients with newly diagnosed CD. Our study includes a cohort of 518 children (340 females and 178 males), 6 months-18 years old, joined between January 1990 and January 2013. We have analyzed hematological parameters and iron balance: serum iron, serum ferritin and serum transferrin levels. The diagnosis of IDA was considered on the basis of hemoglobin levels below -2SD, associated with serum iron and ferritin reduction, serum transferrin increase; all compared with the normal reference values for age. Of all patients, 156 patients (30.1%) had anemia, including 103 females (19.8%) and 53 males (10.2%); of these, 112 (21.62%) had IDA (in 18 cases associated with α- or β-thalassemia trait), 22 were thalassemic trait without iron deficiency and the remaining 19 suffered from other forms of anemia. One hundred fifteen patients (22.20%) with low ferritin levels but normal hemoglobin levels were considered as preanemic iron deficient patients. Our data confirm that iron depletion and IDA represent a frequent finding at the diagnosis of CD. This significant relation existing between CD and iron deficiency should be considered by pediatricians at the diagnosis of CD in order to treat the patients.

  13. Laboratory values for children with newly diagnosed inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Mack, David R; Langton, Christine; Markowitz, James; LeLeiko, Neal; Griffiths, Anne; Bousvaros, Athos; Evans, Jonathan; Kugathasan, Subra; Otley, Anthony; Pfefferkorn, Mariann; Rosh, Joel; Mezoff, Adam; Moyer, Susan; Oliva-Hemker, Maria; Rothbaum, Robert; Wyllie, Robert; delRosario, J Fernando; Keljo, David; Lerer, Trudy; Hyams, Jeffrey

    2007-06-01

    The goal was to determine how often common laboratory tests yield normal results at the time of diagnosis for children with inflammatory bowel disease. Data were obtained from a registry of children with newly diagnosed inflammatory bowel disease who were enrolled prospectively in 18 US/Canadian centers. Laboratory values investigated included hemoglobin level, platelet count, albumin level, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Disease severity was categorized by physician global assessment. A total of 526 children (mean age: 11.6 years; 58% male; 392 with Crohn disease and 134 with ulcerative colitis) were studied. All 4 values were normal for 21% of patients with mild Crohn disease and 54% with mild ulcerative colitis. In contrast, only 3.8% of children with moderate/severe Crohn disease and 4.3% with moderate/severe ulcerative colitis had normal results for all 4 tests. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate was least likely to be normal; overall, 26% of patients with inflammatory bowel disease had a normal erythrocyte sedimentation rate, including 18% with moderate/severe disease. Hemoglobin levels were normal for 32%, platelet counts for 50%, and albumin levels for 60%. There was no clear association between Crohn disease location and either severity or number of normal laboratory values. In contrast, there were direct correlations between ulcerative colitis disease severity and both the extent of bowel inflammation and the number of abnormal laboratory tests. The presence of normal screening laboratory studies should not dissuade clinicians from considering a diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease.

  14. Psychosocial problems among newly diagnosed rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    PubMed

    Gåfvels, C; Hägerström, M; Nordmark, B; Wändell, P E

    2012-03-01

    We identified patients with newly diagnosed rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in the ages 18-65 years who needed psychosocial interventions. A total of 123 patients (90 women) were asked to participate, but 19 declined and 4 dropped out early in the study, leaving a total of 100 patients (75 women) in the sample. Questionnaires used were the Epidemiological Investigation on Rheumatoid Arthritis study questionnaire, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Sense of Coherence (SOC) scale, and the General Coping Questionnaire. Interviews showed that 46% of the included 100 patients had psychosocial problems (PSP). One third of them had problems directly related to RA. The rest had problems with their life situation in general, without or reinforced by RA. Compared to patients without psychosocial problems, PSP patients lived in more strained social situations, especially regarding personal finances and social support. More of the PSP patients were anxious, showed lower SOC scores, and also used more emotion-based coping strategies (resignation, protest, isolation and intrusion) and less problem-oriented (minimization). They also had higher scores on depression and more frequently expected that RA would negatively affect their future. PSP patients also experienced a more negative impact of the disease, a finding not confirmed by the sickness activity score judged by the rheumatologist. Thus, early in the course of RA, screening instruments should be used to identify PSP patients. Psychosocial treatment and support by medical social workers skilled in RA care should be offered.

  15. Clinical Features of Newly Diagnosed Cytomegalovirus Retinitis in Northern Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Ausayakhun, Somsanguan; Keenan, Jeremy D; Ausayakhun, Sakarin; Jirawison, Choeng; Khouri, Claire M; Skalet, Alison H; Heiden, David; Holland, Gary N; Margolis, Todd P

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To characterize the clinical manifestations of cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis in northern Thailand. Design Prospective, observational cross-sectional study. Methods We recorded characteristics of 52 consecutive patients newly diagnosed with CMV retinitis at a tertiary university-based medical center in northern Thailand. Indirect ophthalmoscopy by experienced ophthalmologists was supplemented with fundus photography to determine the proportion of eyes with various clinical features of CMV retinitis. Results Of the 52 patients with CMV retinitis, 55.8% were female. All were HIV-positive. The vast majority (90.4%) had started antiretroviral therapy. CMV retinitis was bilateral in 46.2% of patients. Bilateral visual acuity worse than 20/60 was observed in 23.1% of patients. Of 76 eyes with CMV retinitis, 61.8% had zone I disease and 21.6% had lesions involving the fovea. Lesions larger than 25% of the retinal area were observed in 57.5% of affected eyes. CMV retinitis lesions commonly had marked or severe border opacity (47.4% of eyes). Vitreous haze was often present (46.1% of eyes). Visual impairment was more common in eyes with larger retinitis lesions. Retinitis lesion size, used as a proxy for duration of disease, was associated with fulminant appearance (OR 1.24 [1.01 – 1.51]), and marked or severe border opacity (OR 1.36 [1.11 – 1.67]). Based on lesion size, retinitis preceded antiretroviral treatment in each patient. Conclusions Patients presenting to a tertiary medical center in northern Thailand have advanced CMV retinitis, possibly due to delayed diagnosis. Earlier screening and treatment of CMV retinitis may limit progression of disease and prevent visual impairment in this population. PMID:22265148

  16. Pain related factors in newly diagnosed Generalized Anxiety Disorder patients.

    PubMed

    García-Campayo, Javier; Caballero, Fernando; Perez, María; López, Vanessa

    2012-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and factors associated to painful physical symptoms (PPS), pain as presentation, and neuropathic pain in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) at primary care setting. Multicenter, cross-sectional, observational study conducted on 404 Spanish primary care centers with 2,232 patients. Data was collected at once and included demographic data, main reason for visit, psychiatric and medical illnesses, healthcare resource utilization. Validated scales used for GAD diagnosis were the MINI interview and GAD-7 scale. Depression was measured with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, sleep disturbances with the MOS-Sleep Scale, and pain with the Brief Pain Inventory, short version. Most patients reported PPS (93.5%). The main associated factors of PPS were consultation for gastrointestinal disease (OR=3.9) or for depression (OR=2.2), and being women (OR=1.5). PPS were the reason for visiting in 72.4 % of the sample. The main associated factors of PPS as the reason for consultation were clinical discomfort due to anxiety (OR=2.0), being female (OR=1.6), comorbid social anxiety (OR=1.4), and high Body Mass Index (OR=1.04). Neuropathic pain was present in 59.4% of all patients. Patients with diabetes (OR=2.6), social anxiety (OR=1.6), and depression (OR=1,6) suffered more frequently from neuropathic pain. This is the first study to establish the associated factors of PPS, neuropathic pain and pain as main reason for visiting in primary care patients with newly diagnosed GAD. Better knowledge factors associated to GAD could help to reduce its underdiagnosis and undertreatment at the primary care level.

  17. Lamotrigine monotherapy for newly diagnosed typical absence seizures in children☆

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Gregory L.; Frank, L. Matthew; Sheth, Raj D.; Philbrook, Bryan; Wooten, John D.; Vuong, Alain; Kerls, Susan; Hammer, Anne E.; Messenheimer, John

    2008-01-01

    Summary Purpose To evaluate the efficacy, tolerability, and effects on behavior and psychosocial functioning of lamotrigine monotherapy in children with newly diagnosed typical absence seizures. Patients and methods Children meeting enrollment criteria (n = 54) received a confirmatory 24-h ambulatory electroencephalogram (EEG) and then entered a Escalation Phase of up to 20-weeks during which lamotrigine was titrated until seizures were controlled or maximum dose (10.2 mg/kg) was reached. Seizure freedom was assessed by diary review and clinic hyperventilation (clinic HV) and then confirmed by EEG with hyperventilation (HV/EEG). Patients who maintained seizure freedom for two consecutive weekly visits were entered into the Maintenance Phase (n = 30). Diary, clinic HV, and HV/EEG data were supplemented with 24-h ambulatory EEG at baseline and the ends of the Escalation and Maintenance Phases. Health outcome assessments were completed at screening and at the end of the Maintenance Phase. Results By the end of the Escalation Phase, seizure-free rates (responders) were 59% by seizure diary (n = 51), 56% by HV/EEG (n = 54) (primary endpoint), and 49% by 24-h ambulatory EEG (n = 49). During the Maintenance Phase, 89% (week 24) and 86% (week 32) remained seizure free by diary (n = 28), 78% by clinic HV (n = 27), and 81% by 24-h ambulatory EEG (n = 26). Seizure freedom was first observed beginning at the fifth week of the Escalation Phase. The most frequent adverse events were headache and cough. Health outcome scores were either improved or unchanged at the end of the Maintenance Phase. Conclusions Lamotrigine monotherapy results in complete seizure freedom in a substantial number of children with typical absence seizures. Lamotrigine was well tolerated in this study. PMID:18778916

  18. Chemoradiotherapy of Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma With Intensified Temozolomide

    SciTech Connect

    Weiler, Markus; Hartmann, Christian; Wiewrodt, Dorothee; Herrlinger, Ulrich

    2010-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the toxicity and efficacy of chemoradiotherapy with temozolomide (TMZ) administered in an intensified 1-week on/1-week off schedule plus indomethacin in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma. Patients and Methods: A total of 41 adult patients (median Karnofsky performance status, 90%; median age, 56 years) were treated with preirradiation TMZ at 150 mg/m{sup 2} (1 week on/1 week off), involved-field radiotherapy combined with concomitant low-dose TMZ (50 mg/m{sup 2}), maintenance TMZ starting at 150 mg/m{sup 2} using a 1-week on/1-week off schedule, plus maintenance indomethacin (25 mg twice daily). Results: The median follow-up interval was 21.7 months. Grade 4 hematologic toxicity was observed in 15 patients (36.6%). Treatment-related nonhematologic Grade 4-5 toxicity was reported for 2 patients (4.9%). The median progression-free survival was 7.6 months (95% confidence interval, 6.2-10.4). The 1-year survival rate was 73.2% (95% confidence interval, 56.8-84.2%). The presence of O{sup 6}-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) gene promoter methylation in the tumor tissue was associated with significantly superior progression-free survival. Conclusion: The dose-dense regimen of TMZ administered in a 1-week on/1-week off schedule resulted in acceptable nonhematologic toxicity. Compared with data from the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/National Cancer Institute of Canada trial 26981-22981/CE.3, patients with an unmethylated MGMT gene promoter appeared not to benefit from intensifying the TMZ schedule regarding the median progression-free survival and overall survival. In contrast, data are promising for patients with a methylated MGMT promoter.

  19. Patient/Family Education for Newly Diagnosed Pediatric Oncology Patients.

    PubMed

    Landier, Wendy; Ahern, JoAnn; Barakat, Lamia P; Bhatia, Smita; Bingen, Kristin M; Bondurant, Patricia G; Cohn, Susan L; Dobrozsi, Sarah K; Haugen, Maureen; Herring, Ruth Anne; Hooke, Mary C; Martin, Melissa; Murphy, Kathryn; Newman, Amy R; Rodgers, Cheryl C; Ruccione, Kathleen S; Sullivan, Jeneane; Weiss, Marianne; Withycombe, Janice; Yasui, Lise; Hockenberry, Marilyn

    There is a paucity of data to support evidence-based practices in the provision of patient/family education in the context of a new childhood cancer diagnosis. Since the majority of children with cancer are treated on pediatric oncology clinical trials, lack of effective patient/family education has the potential to negatively affect both patient and clinical trial outcomes. The Children's Oncology Group Nursing Discipline convened an interprofessional expert panel from within and beyond pediatric oncology to review available and emerging evidence and develop expert consensus recommendations regarding harmonization of patient/family education practices for newly diagnosed pediatric oncology patients across institutions. Five broad principles, with associated recommendations, were identified by the panel, including recognition that (1) in pediatric oncology, patient/family education is family-centered; (2) a diagnosis of childhood cancer is overwhelming and the family needs time to process the diagnosis and develop a plan for managing ongoing life demands before they can successfully learn to care for the child; (3) patient/family education should be an interprofessional endeavor with 3 key areas of focus: (a) diagnosis/treatment, (b) psychosocial coping, and (c) care of the child; (4) patient/family education should occur across the continuum of care; and (5) a supportive environment is necessary to optimize learning. Dissemination and implementation of these recommendations will set the stage for future studies that aim to develop evidence to inform best practices, and ultimately to establish the standard of care for effective patient/family education in pediatric oncology.

  20. Ageing with HIV: newly diagnosed older adults in Italy.

    PubMed

    Orchi, N; Balzano, R; Scognamiglio, P; Navarra, A; De Carli, G; Elia, P; Grisetti, S; Sampaolesi, A; Giuliani, M; De Filippis, A; Puro, V; Ippolito, G; Girardi, E

    2008-04-01

    The prevalence of HIV/AIDS among people in midlife and late adulthood has been increasing in Western countries over the last decade. We analyzed data from a prospective, observational multi-centre study on individuals newly diagnosed with HIV between January 2004 and March 2007 in 10 public counselling and testing sites in Latium, Italy. At diagnosis, routine demographic, epidemiological, clinical and laboratory data are recorded, and patients are asked to complete a questionnaire investigating socio-demographic and psycho-behavioural aspects. To analyze the association of individual characteristics with age, we compared older adults (> or = 50 years) with their younger counterpart (18-49 years). To adjust for potential confounding effect of the epidemiological, clinical and behavioural characteristics, to identify factors associated with older age at HIV diagnosis, multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed. Overall, 1073 individuals were identified, 125 of whom (11.6%) were aged 50 years or above. The questionnaire was completed by 41% (440/1073). Compared with their younger counterparts, a higher proportion of older patients were males, born in Italy, reported heterosexual or unknown HIV risk exposure, were never tested for HIV before and were in a more advanced stage of HIV infection at diagnosis. In addition, older adults had a lower educational level and were more frequently living with their partners or children. With respect to psycho-behavioural characteristics, older patients were more likely to have paid money for sex and have never used recreational drugs. Interestingly, no differences were found regarding condom use, which was poor in both age groups. These findings may have important implications for the management of older adults with HIV, who should be targeted by appropriate public health actions, such as opportunistic screening and easier access to healthcare. Moreover, strategies including information on HIV and prevention of risk

  1. Treatment for patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma in 2015.

    PubMed

    Mateos, María-Victoria; Ocio, Enrique M; Paiva, Bruno; Rosiñol, Laura; Martínez-López, Joaquín; Bladé, Joan; Lahuerta, Juan-José; García-Sanz, Ramón; San Miguel, Jesús F

    2015-11-01

    Multiple myeloma is the second most frequent haematological disease. The introduction of high-dose melphalan followed by autologous haematopoietic cell transplant (HDT/ASCT) for young patients and the availability of novel agents for young and elderly patients with multiple myeloma have dramatically changed the perspective of treatment. However, further research is necessary if we want to definitively cure the disease. Treatment goals for transplant-eligible and non-transplant-eligible patients should be to prolong survival by achieving the best possible response, while ensuring quality of life. The treatment should be individualized on the basis of host and disease features and better monitoring of the response upon use of high-sensitivity techniques for evaluating residual disease. For young patients, HDT/ASCT is a standard of care for treatment and its efficacy has been enhanced and challenged by the new drugs. For elderly patients, treatment options were limited to alkylators, but new upfront treatment combinations based on novel agents (proteasome inhibitors and immunomodulatory drugs) combined or not with alkylators have significantly improved outcomes.Extended treatment for young and elderly patients improves the quality and duration of clinical responses; however,the optimal scheme, appropriate doses and duration of long-term therapy have not yet been fully determined.This review summarises the progress in the treatment of patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma, addressing critical questions such as the optimal induction, early versus late ASCT, consolidation and/or maintenance for young patients, and how we can choose the best option for non-transplant-eligible patients.

  2. Dry Eye Disease in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Depressive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Tiskaoglu, Nesime Setge; Yazıcı, Alper; Karlıdere, Tunay; Sari, Esin; Oguz, Elif Yilmaz; Musaoglu, Musa; Aslan, Seyda; Samet Ermiş, Sıtkı

    2017-05-01

    Psychiatric conditions and not just the treatments themselves might be involved in the pathophysiology of dry eye disease (DED). The aim of our study was to evaluate the association between depression and DED using objective and subjective tests in patients with newly diagnosed depressive disorder who were not using any medication which may help us to determine the sole effect of depression on dry eye. Thirty-six patients from the psychiatry clinic with a new diagnosis of depressive disorder and 32 controls were included in the study. All met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV criteria for depression. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used to measure depression severity and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (Stai1, Stai2) for concomitant anxiety symptoms. The Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) and Visual Functioning Questionnaires (VFQ25) were completed and used to confirm diagnosis of DED in conjunction with the tear break up time (TBUT), ocular surface vital dye staining, and Schirmer's test. The comparison of depressive and control groups revealed significantly lower Schirmer (20.3 ± 9.9 vs. 25.7 ± 9.3 mm) and TBUT (7.8 ± 5.7 vs. 12.5 ± 7.8 s) scores with a consistently higher Oxford score (1.8 ± 3.2 vs. 0.2 ± 0.4) in the depressive group. Although the parameters were affected in the depressive group, this did not influence OSDI (86.1 ± 13.6 vs. 86.6 ± 13.3) and VFQ25 (30.8 ± 21.6 vs. 38.5 ± 29.1) scores. In both groups, the three psychological test scores (Stai1-2 and BDI) were correlated to each other but none of these tests were correlated to OSDI, VRQL, Schirmer, TBUT, and Oxford staining scores. Our study shows a definite association between depression and DED. We feel that it is important that psychiatrists take this into account especially while prescribing antidepressants which may aggravate dry eye signs.

  3. Lycopene, tomato products and prostate cancer-specific mortality among men diagnosed with nonmetastatic prostate cancer in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Jacobs, Eric J; Newton, Christina C; McCullough, Marjorie L

    2016-06-15

    While dietary lycopene and tomato products have been inversely associated with prostate cancer incidence, there is limited evidence for an association between consumption of lycopene and tomato products and prostate-cancer specific mortality (PCSM). We examined the associations of prediagnosis and postdiagnosis dietary lycopene and tomato product intake with PCSM in a large prospective cohort. This analysis included men diagnosed with nonmetastatic prostate cancer between enrollment in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort in 1992 or 1993 and June 2011. Prediagnosis dietary data, collected at baseline, were available for 8,898 men, of whom 526 died of prostate cancer through 2012. Postdiagnosis dietary data, collected on follow-up surveys in 1999 and/or 2003, were available for 5,643 men, of whom 363 died of prostate cancer through 2012. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for PCSM. Neither prediagnosis nor postdiagnosis dietary lycopene intake was associated with PCSM (fourth vs. first quartile HR = 1.00, 95% CI 0.78-1.28; HR = 1.22, 95% CI 0.91-1.64, respectively). Similarly, neither prediagnosis nor postdiagnosis consumption of tomato products was associated with PCSM. Among men with high-risk cancers (T3-T4 or Gleason score 8-10, or nodal involvement), consistently reporting lycopene intake ≥ median on both postdiagnosis surveys was associated with lower PCSM (HR = 0.41, 95% CI 0.17-0.99, based on ten PCSM cases consistently ≥ median intake) compared to consistently reporting intake < median. Future studies are needed to confirm the potential inverse association of consistently high lycopene intake with PCSM among men with high-risk prostate cancers.

  4. Prospective Study of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Parents of Children with Newly Diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landolt, Markus A.; Vollrath, Margarete; Laimbacher, Joseph; Gnehm, Hanspeter E.; Sennhauser, Felix H.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence, course, and predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in mothers and fathers of children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes. Method: Forty-nine mothers and 48 fathers of 52 children (response rate 65%) with newly diagnosed diabetes (age 6.5-15 years) were assessed at 6 weeks, 6 months, and 12…

  5. Prospective Study of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Parents of Children with Newly Diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landolt, Markus A.; Vollrath, Margarete; Laimbacher, Joseph; Gnehm, Hanspeter E.; Sennhauser, Felix H.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence, course, and predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in mothers and fathers of children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes. Method: Forty-nine mothers and 48 fathers of 52 children (response rate 65%) with newly diagnosed diabetes (age 6.5-15 years) were assessed at 6 weeks, 6 months, and 12…

  6. Seizure in People with Newly Diagnosed Active or Transitional Neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Kelvin, Elizabeth A.; Carpio, Arturo; Bagiella, Emilia; Leslie, Denise; Leon, Pietro; Andrews, Howard; Hauser, W. Allen

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study is to describe seizure as a presenting symptom in individuals with recently diagnosed neurocysticercosis (NCC). Methods Using logistic regression, we examined the probability of having seizures as a presenting symptom among those with active or transitional NCC by host age and gender, and by number of cysts, location of the cysts in the brain, and phase of evolution of the encysted parasite. Results We found that the odds of having seizures as presenting symptom for those in the youngest age group (3–24 years old) were 12.9 times that of the oldest participants (age 55–82 years) (p=0.006). People with cysts in parenchymal locations had a significantly higher odds of seizures compared to those with all their cysts elsewhere (ventricles or subarachnoid) (OR=6.2, p=0.028); and the number of cysts was significantly associated with having seizures (OR=1.1, p=0.026). Host gender and cyst phase were not significantly associated with having seizures after adjusting for confounders and covariates. Conclusion Children, those with cysts in parenchymal locations, and those with a higher number of cysts appear to be more likely to experience seizure when they have NCC cysts in the active or transitional stage. PMID:21145263

  7. Evaluating the Acceptability and Feasibility of Project ACCEPT: An Intervention for Youth Newly Diagnosed with HIV

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosek, Sybil G.; Lemos, Diana; Harper, Gary W.; Telander, Kyle

    2011-01-01

    Given the potential for negative psychosocial and medical outcomes following an HIV diagnosis, Project ACCEPT, a 12-session behavioral intervention, was developed and pilot-tested for youth (aged 16-24) newly diagnosed with HIV. Fifty participants recently diagnosed with HIV were enrolled from 4 sites selected through the Adolescent Medicine…

  8. Evaluating the Acceptability and Feasibility of Project ACCEPT: An Intervention for Youth Newly Diagnosed with HIV

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosek, Sybil G.; Lemos, Diana; Harper, Gary W.; Telander, Kyle

    2011-01-01

    Given the potential for negative psychosocial and medical outcomes following an HIV diagnosis, Project ACCEPT, a 12-session behavioral intervention, was developed and pilot-tested for youth (aged 16-24) newly diagnosed with HIV. Fifty participants recently diagnosed with HIV were enrolled from 4 sites selected through the Adolescent Medicine…

  9. Newly Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and other relaxation exercises are highly recommended. Many cancer patients are ultimately thankful to be brought face to face with their own mortality, because for the first time in their lives they get their priorities straight. The other challenges encountered in life may seem ...

  10. Newly Diagnosed

    MedlinePlus

    ... Video Games Video Sharing Sites Webcasts/ Webinars Widgets Wikis Follow Us on New Media Virtual Office Hours ... is good news: by getting linked to HIV medical care early, starting antiretroviral therapy (ART), adhering to ...

  11. Abdominal obesity validates the association between elevated alanine aminotransferase and newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Yueh, Chen-Yu; Yang, Yao-Hsu; Sung, Yi-Ting; Lee, Li-Wen

    2014-01-01

    To examine how elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) could be associated with newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis on a mass health examination. The odds ratios (ORs) for diabetes mellitus and newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus were compared between people with and without abdominal obesity, together with and without elevated ALT levels. 5499 people were included in this study. Two hundred fifty two (4.6%) fulfilled the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus with 178 (3.2%) undiagnosed before. Metabolic syndrome was vigorously associated with diabetes mellitus and newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus (12.4% vs. 1.4% and 9.0% vs. 0.9%), but elevated ALT alone was not. However, coexisting with obesity, elevated ALTs were robustly associated with diabetes mellitus and newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus. For the incidence of newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus, in comparison to non-obese people with normal ALT (1.7%, OR = 1), obese people especially with elevated ALT levels had significantly higher ORs (obese with ALT ≤ 40 U/L: 4.7%, OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.08-2.77, P 0.023; ALT 41-80 U/L: 6.8%, OR 2.06, 95% CI 1.20-3.55, P 0.009; ALT 81-120 U/L: 8.8%, OR 3.07, 95% CI 1.38-6.84, P 0.006; ALT > 120 U/L: 18.2%, OR 7.44, 95% CI 3.04-18.18, P < 0.001). Abdominal obesity validates the association between elevated alanine aminotransferase and diabetes mellitus and newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus. People with abdominal obesity, especially with coexisting elevated ALT levels should be screened for undiagnosed diabetes mellitus.

  12. Systemic Therapies for Nonmetastatic Breast Cancer: The Role of Neoadjuvant and Adjuvant Chemotherapy and the Use of Endocrine Therapy.

    PubMed

    Bychkovsky, Brittany L; Dizon, Don S; Sikov, William M

    2016-12-01

    Breast cancer is a heterogenous disease, comprised of at least 3 major subtypes: hormone receptor-positive/HER2-(HR+), HER2+, and HR-/HER2-(triple negative) breast cancers. The medical management of each subype is distinct. In this article, we review contemporary data supporting the use of chemotherapy, endocrine therapy and biologic therapies, especially HER2-directed agents, in the adjuvant and neoadjuvant setting in patients with newly diagnosed nonmetastatic (stage I-III) breast cancer.

  13. A Structured Group for Gay Men Newly Diagnosed with HIV/AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smiley, Kristin A.

    2004-01-01

    The author presents a structured group model designed to help gay men newly diagnosed with HIV/AIDS. A facilitator's manual is included to outline the group's progression through eight sessions and to address the psychosocial concerns often ignited by an HIV or AIDS diagnosis. Suggestions for future group work are also provided.

  14. Anti-neutrophil cell antibodies in newly diagnosed patients with type-1-diabetes.

    PubMed

    Parlapiano, C; Marangi, M; Campana, E; Giovanniello, T; Pantone, P; Suraci, C; Sanguigni, S

    1999-01-01

    Both anti neutrophil cell antibodies and anti endothelial cell antibodies were found in 7 out of 30 newly-diagnosed type-1 diabetic patients. This confirms the abnormal activation of the immunological system in the early stage of type-1 diabetes mellitus.

  15. Combination chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, thalidomide and dexamethasone for patients with refractory, newly diagnosed or relapsed myeloma.

    PubMed

    Sidra, Gamal; Williams, Cathy D; Russell, Nigel H; Zaman, Sonya; Myers, Bethan; Byrne, Jennifer L

    2006-06-01

    We evaluated the combination of thalidomide, pulsed dexamethasone and weekly cyclophosphamide (CTD) for the treatment of patients with newly diagnosed, relapsed or VAD-refractory multiple myeloma. We found that this combination was highly effective in inducing responses in all treatment groups with an overall response rate of 83.8%. CTD was well tolerated and did not impair stem cell mobilization.

  16. Impaired β cell function in Chinese newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus with hyperlipidemia.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yuhang; Wang, Yufan; Huang, Qianfang; Ren, Qian; Chen, Su; Zhang, Aifang; Zhao, Li; Zhen, Qin; Peng, Yongde

    2014-01-01

    The objective is to explore the effects of hyperlipidemia on β cell function in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). 208 patients were enrolled in the study and were divided into newly diagnosed T2DM with hyperlipidemia (132 patients) and without hyperlipidemia (76 patients). Demographic data, glucose levels, insulin levels, lipid profiles, homeostasis model assessment for β cell function index (HOMA-β ), homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), and quantitative insulin-sensitivity check index (QUICKI) were compared between the two groups. We found that comparing with those of normal lipid levels, the subjects of newly diagnosed T2DM with hyperlipidemia were younger, and had declined HOMA-β . However, the levels of HOMA-β were comparable regardless of different lipid profiles (combined hyperlipidemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypercholesterolemia). Multiple stepwise linear regression analysis showed that high fasting plasma glucose (FPG), decreased fasting insulin level (FINS), and high triglyceride (TG) were independent risk factors of β cell dysfunction in newly diagnosed T2DM. Therefore, the management of dyslipidemia, together with glucose control, may be beneficial for T2DM with hyperlipidemia.

  17. Inverse association of plasma vanadium levels with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xia; Sun, Taoping; Liu, Jun; Shan, Zhilei; Jin, Yilin; Chen, Sijing; Bao, Wei; Hu, Frank B; Liu, Liegang

    2014-08-15

    Vanadium compounds have been proposed to have beneficial effects on the pathogenesis and complications of type 2 diabetes. Our objective was to evaluate the association between plasma vanadium levels and type 2 diabetes. We performed a case-control study involving 1,598 Chinese subjects with or without newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (December 2004-December 2007). Cases and controls were frequency-matched by age and sex. Plasma vanadium concentrations were measured and compared between groups. Analyses showed that plasma vanadium concentrations were significantly lower in cases with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes than in controls (P = 0.001). Mean plasma vanadium levels in participants with and without diabetes were 1.0 μg/L and 1.2 μg/L, respectively. Participants in the highest quartile of plasma vanadium concentration had a notably lower risk of newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (odds ratio = 0.26, 95% confidence interval: 0.19, 0.35; P < 0.001), compared with persons in the lowest quartile. The trend remained significant after adjustment for known risk factors and in further stratification analyses. Our results suggested that plasma vanadium concentrations were inversely associated with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes in this Chinese population.

  18. [Treatment of the newly diagnosed destructive lung tuberculosis with elimination of bacilli].

    PubMed

    Giller, D B; Bizhanov, A B; Khasanshin, G S; Trishina, L V; Klestova, A A

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to increase the efficacy of the newly diagnosed destructive lung tuberculosis with elimination of bacilli, using the collapsotherapeutic and surgical methods combined with intensive chemotherapy. 334 patients were diagnosed with lung tuberculosis in 2009 in Pensa region. Different methods of collapsotherapeutic and/or surgery were used in 255 (76.4%) patients. The comparative analysis of treatment results with patients, diagnosed with tuberculosis in 2006 and 2007 years, before the introduction of the new treatment modality, showed almost two-fold increase of the efficacy and 3-fold decrease of mortality rate.

  19. Risk factors associated with newly diagnosed high blood pressure in men and women.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Axel C; Wändell, Per E; de Faire, Ulf; Hellénius, Mai-Lis

    2008-07-01

    Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Early diagnosis and prevention of hypertension are of great importance in reducing overall mortality. The objective was to determine which potential risk factors are associated with newly diagnosed high blood pressure in women and men. This study is part of a population-based, cross-sectional study including 4,228 women and men aged 60 years in Stockholm County, Sweden. Newly diagnosed high blood pressure was defined as systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure exceeding 140/90 measured on one occasion. Subjects with known hypertension were excluded, leaving 3,156 individuals. Waist circumference > or =95 cm (quintiles 3-5) in men and > or =88.5 cm (quintiles 4-5) in women was associated with newly diagnosed high blood pressure. Secondary school was a protective factor in men (odds ratio (OR), men = 0.73, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.54-0.99) and university education was protective in both men (OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.52-0.85) and women (OR = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.34-0.59). Regular physical activity was negatively associated in women (OR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.61-0.99), and high alcohol consumption (>30 g/day) was positively associated in men (OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.22-2.09). Women were negatively associated with newly diagnosed high blood pressure (OR = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.41-0.61). An interaction between college/university and gender was found in multivariate analysis (OR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.47-0.97). Gender differences in risk profile for newly diagnosed high blood pressure might explain part of the differences in hypertension found between men and women. These findings should be considered when planning preventive actions against hypertension at the community level.

  20. Second Curettage for Low-Risk Nonmetastatic Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Raymond J; Filiaci, Virginia L; Schink, Julian C; Mannel, Robert S; Behbakht, Kian; Hoffman, James S; Spirtos, Nick M; Chan, John K; Tidy, John A; Miller, David S

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of second uterine curettage in lieu of chemotherapy for patients with low-risk, nonmetastatic gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) and to evaluate whether response to second curettage is independent of patient age, World Health Organization (WHO) risk score, registration human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) level, lesion size, and depth of myometrial invasion measured on ultrasound examination. This was a cooperative group multicenter prospective phase II study. Prestudy testing included quantitative hCG level, pelvic ultrasonography, and chest radiography. Patients were categorized according to WHO risk scoring criteria (low risk with a score of 0-6). Sixty-four women with newly diagnosed low-risk, nonmetastatic GTN were enrolled. Four patients were excluded. Twenty-four patients (40%) (lower 95% confidence limit 27.6%) were cured after second curettage. An additional two patients (3%) achieved a complete response but did not complete follow-up. Overall, 26 of 60 patients were able to avoid chemotherapy. Surgical failure was observed in 34 women (59%) and was more common in women 19 years old or younger or 40 years old or older. One case of grade 1 uterine perforation was successfully managed by observation. Four grade 1 and one grade 3 uterine hemorrhages were reported. New metastatic disease (lung) was identified in one of these women after second curettage. In three patients (surgical failures), the second curettage pathology was placental site trophoblastic tumor, and it was placental nodule in one additional patient. Second uterine curettage as initial treatment for low-risk, nonmetastatic GTN cures 40% of patients without significant morbidity. ClinicalTrials.gov, https://clinicaltrials.gov/, NCT00521118.

  1. [Effects of stepped counseling intervention on quality of life among newly diagnosed HIV-positive patients].

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Ching-Fang; Chao, Shu-Ling; Tsai, Tsui-Ching; Chuang, Peing

    2004-04-01

    The purpose of this research was to understand how stepped counseling intervention affects quality of life in newly diagnosed HIV-positive patients. The study made use of quasi-experimental methodology that included a three-step interview process over 45 days. The theoretical framework supporting interviews with 32 newly diagnosed HIV-positive patients in northern Taiwan included a combination of rational-emotive therapy, cognitive-behavior therapy, and health education. Participants were divided into an experimental and control group of equal size. Data collection also included responses to the WHOQOL-HIV instrument at the beginning and end of each interview session. Responses were analyzed with the SPSS software package. The results showed a 25-point difference between pre- and post-test scores in the experimental group (SD = 3.2) and a 6 point difference in the control group (SD = 4.3). The results indicate that stepped counseling techniques are effective in helping this patient population to adjust to the physical, emotional, social, and environmental stresses associated with their newly diagnosis. The researchers suggest that stepped counseling be used with all newly diagnosed HIV-positive Taiwanese patients in all hospitals and clinics to promote adaptive abilities and to control the further spread of HIV.

  2. Assessment and Management of Symptoms for Outpatients Newly Diagnosed With Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Reinke, Lynn F; Feemster, Laura C; Backhus, Leah M; Gylys-Colwell, Ina; Au, David H

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about symptom assessment around the time of lung cancer diagnosis. The purpose of this pilot study was to assess symptoms within 2 months of diagnosis and the frequency with which clinicians addressed symptoms among a cohort of veterans (n = 20) newly diagnosed with lung cancer. We administered questionnaires and then reviewed medical records to identify symptom assessment and management provided by subspecialty clinics for 6 months following diagnosis. Half (50%) of the patients were diagnosed with early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), stage I or II. At baseline, 45% patients rated their overall symptoms as severe. There were no significant differences in symptoms among patients with early- or late-stage NSCLC or small-cell lung cancer. Of the 212 clinic visits over 6 months, 70.2% occurred in oncology. Clinicians most frequently addressed pain although assessment differed by clinic. Veterans with newly diagnosed lung cancer report significant symptom burden. Despite ample opportunities to address patients' symptoms, variations in assessment exist among subspecialty services. Coordinated approaches to symptom assessment are likely needed among patients newly diagnosed with lung cancer. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Corticosteroids increase protein breakdown and loss in newly diagnosed pediatric Crohn disease.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Steven J; Noe, Joshua D; Denne, Scott C

    2011-11-01

    Children with Crohn disease have altered growth and body composition. Previous studies have demonstrated decreased protein breakdown after either corticosteroid or anti-TNF-α therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate whole body protein metabolism during corticosteroid therapy in children with newly diagnosed Crohn disease. Children with suspected Crohn disease and children with abdominal symptoms not consistent with Crohn disease underwent outpatient metabolic assessment. Patients diagnosed with Crohn disease and prescribed corticosteroid therapy returned in 2 wk for repeat metabolic assessment. Using the stable isotopes [d5] phenylalanine, [1-(13)C] leucine, and [(15)N(2)] urea, protein kinetics were determined in the fasting state. Thirty-one children (18 controls and 13 newly diagnosed with Crohn disease) completed the study. There were no significant differences in protein breakdown or loss between patients with Crohn disease at diagnosis and controls. After corticosteroid therapy in patients with Crohn disease, the rates of appearance of phenylalanine (32%) and leucine (26%) increased significantly, reflecting increased protein breakdown, and the rate of appearance of urea also increased significantly (273%), reflecting increased protein loss. Whole body protein breakdown and loss increased significantly after 2 wk of corticosteroid therapy in children with newly diagnosed Crohn disease, which may have profound effects on body composition.

  4. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Newly Diagnosed at Autopsy in New York City, 2008-2012.

    PubMed

    Ramaswamy, Chitra; Ellman, Tanya M; Myers, Julie; Madsen, Ann; Sepkowitz, Kent; Shepard, Colin

    2015-12-01

    Background.  Studying the most extreme example of late diagnosis, new HIV diagnoses after death, may be instructive to HIV testing efforts. Using the results of routine HIV testing of autopsies performed by the Office of Chief Medical Examiner (OCME), we identified new HIV diagnoses after death in New York City (NYC) from 2008 to 2012. Methods.  Population-based registries for HIV and deaths were linked to identify decedents not known to be HIV-infected before death. Multivariable logistic regression models were constructed to determine correlates of a new HIV diagnosis after death among all persons newly diagnosed with HIV and among all HIV-infected decedents receiving an OCME autopsy. Results.  Of 264 893 deaths, 24 426 (9.2%) were autopsied by the NYC OCME. Of these, 1623 (6.6%) were infected with HIV, including 142 (8.8%) with a new HIV diagnosis at autopsy. This represents 0.8% (142 of 18 542) of all new HIV diagnoses during the 5-year period. Decedents newly diagnosed with HIV at OCME autopsy were predominantly male (73.9%), aged 13-64 years (85.9%), non-white (85.2%), unmarried (81.7%), less than college educated (83.8%), and residents of an impoverished neighborhood (62.0%). Of all HIV-infected OCME decedents aged ≥65 years (n = 71), 22.0% were diagnosed at autopsy. The strongest independent correlate of new HIV diagnosis at autopsy in both multivariable models was age ≥65 years. Conclusions.  Human immunodeficiency virus diagnoses first made after death are rare, but, when observed, these diagnoses are more commonly found among persons ≥65 years, suggesting that despite highly visible efforts to promote HIV testing community-wide, timely diagnosis among older adults living in impoverished, high-prevalence neighborhoods may require additional strategies.

  5. Disseminated Trichosporon inkin and Histoplasma capsulatum in a patient with newly diagnosed AIDS.

    PubMed

    David, Consuelo; Martin, Donna Bilu; Deng, April; Cooper, Jennifer Z

    2008-08-01

    Histoplasma capsulatum and Trichosporon inkin may cause disseminated disease in immunocompromised patients. Disseminated T inkin, the causative agent of white piedra, is rare and difficult to diagnose. We report the case of a 28 year-old man with newly diagnosed HIV infection who developed asymptomatic lesions on his trunk and extremities. Histology demonstrated perivascular and intravascular budding yeasts. Blood cultures revealed fungal organisms that were difficult to culture. Specimens were positive for H capsulatum (confirmed by DNA probe) and T inkin. Compared with disseminated histoplasmosis, disseminated Trichosporon is relatively uncommon. Physicians should be aware of this agent in immunocompromised hosts.

  6. How young people can learn about newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    This article describes a small-scale study of children's experiences of using a tablet computer with pre-installed apps designed to support individuals with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes. A total of 15 children (seven boys and eight girls), aged from 6.5 to 16, chose to use a tablet during their stay in hospital, and were then interviewed by telephone within two weeks after discharge. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis, and subcategories were abstracted to categories. The results consisted of three categories and seven subcategories. The children found it helpful to use a range of different styles of learning about diabetes. A combination of educational tools and learning strategies, including conversations with nurses who are diabetes specialists, and the use of tablet-based apps, helps to support newly diagnosed children's learning about type 1 diabetes and its management.

  7. Molecular evidence for central nervous system involvement in children with newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Januszkiewicz, D A; Nowak, J S

    1995-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) involvement in children with newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) would have profound implication for the prognosis and accurate stratification of CNS prophylactic therapy. Using PCR technique with specific primers for V, D and J segments of TCRD gene, the pattern of TCRD gene rearrangements in bone marrow lymphoblasts and in cells from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) have been investigated. The study involved 21 children at the time of diagnosis with B-lineage ALL. In nine of 21 patients incomplete TCRDVD gene rearrangement has been found in CSF cells, which was identical to that observed in bone marrow of the same children. It can be concluded that at least in 43 per cent of all analysed cases, there were signs of CNS involvement in newly diagnosed ALL patients.

  8. Frequency of hypovitaminosis D and its associated risk factors in newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis patients

    PubMed Central

    Azam, Fahad; Shaheen, Abida; Arshad, Rabia

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To find out the frequency of hypovitaminosis D and its associated risk factors in newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis patients prior to administration of standard anti tuberculosis therapy. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out in Ojha Institute of Chest Diseases-DUHS. After approval from BASR and following written informed consent eighty newly diagnosed, as per WHO criteria, tuberculosis patients were enrolled. Prior to the initiation of anti tuberculosis therapy, the serum vitamin D level was determined by 25-OH Vitamin D kit using the chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA) method. A cut off value of >30 ng/mL of serum vitamin D was taken as normal whereas a range between 10-30 ng/mL and <10 ng/mL were considered insufficient and deficient respectively. Frequency of socio-demographic associated risk factors of hypovitaminosis D was also determined. Results: Out of eighty newly diagnosed tuberculosis patients 33 (41.25%) were males and 47(58.75%) were females with their ages ranging from 18-50 years. 54 patients (26 male and 28 female patients) were smokers. BMI of all the patients was found to be less than the normal ranges. Hypovitaminosis was present in all the cases. Vitamin D insufficiency was found in 49 participants (20 male and 29 female) whereas 31 patients (13 male and 18 female) were found to be vitamin D deficient. Conclusion: Prevalence of serum vitamin D level derangement is very high in newly diagnosed patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in our local setting which necessitates administration of adjuvant vitamin D along with standard anti tuberculosis therapy. PMID:27182266

  9. Time perspective and weight management behaviors in newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes: a mediational analysis.

    PubMed

    Hall, Peter A; Fong, Geoffrey T; Cheng, Alice Y

    2012-12-01

    The primary objective of the current study was to examine the extent to which domain-specific time perspective predicts weight management behaviors (dietary behavior and physical activity) among those newly diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes. A secondary objective was to test potential mediators of the hypothesized effect (behavioral intention, self-efficacy and control beliefs). A total of 204 adults newly diagnosed (≤6 months) with Type 2 diabetes participated in the study, which included a baseline assessment of domain-general and domain-specific time perspective, as well as strength of intention to perform two weight-management behaviors (dietary choice and physical activity); both weight-management behaviors were assessed again at 6 month follow-up. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed a prospective association between domain-specific time perspective and uptake of weight management behaviors. Individuals with newly diagnosed T2DM possessing a future-oriented time perspective reported making less frequent fatty food choices and greater increases in physical activity over the 6-month follow-up interval. These effects were selectively mediated by intention strength, and not competing social cognitive variables. For both behaviors, the total effects and meditational models were robust to adjustments for demographics, body composition and disease variables. A future-oriented time perspective is prospectively associated with superior uptake of weight management behaviors among those with newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes. The facilitating effect of future-oriented thinking appears to occur via enhanced strength of intentions to perform weight management behaviors.

  10. MGMT inactivation and clinical response in newly diagnosed GBM patients treated with Gliadel.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Rachel; Burger, Peter; Soudry, Ethan; Tyler, Betty; Chaichana, Kaisorn L; Weingart, Jon; Olivi, Alessandro; Gallia, Gary L; Sidransky, David; Quiñones-Hinojosa, Alfredo; Ye, Xiaobu; Brem, Henry

    2015-12-01

    We examined the relationship between the O(6)-methylguanine-methyltransferase (MGMT) methylation status and clinical outcomes in newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients who were treated with Gliadel wafers (Eisai, Tokyo, Japan). MGMT promoter methylation has been associated with increased survival among patients with GBM who are treated with various alkylating agents. MGMT promoter methylation, in DNA from 122 of 160 newly diagnosed GBM patients treated with Gliadel, was determined by a quantitative methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction, and was correlated with overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS). The MGMT promoter was methylated in 40 (32.7%) of 122 patients. The median OS was 13.5 months (95% confidence interval [CI] 11.0-14.5) and RFS was 9.4 months (95% CI 7.8-10.2). After adjusting for age, Karnofsky performance score, extent of resection, temozolomide (TMZ) and radiation therapy (RT), the newly diagnosed GBM patients with MGMT methylation had a 15% reduced mortality risk, compared to patients with unmethylated MGMT (hazard ratio 0.85; 95% CI 0.56-1.31; p=0.46). The patients aged over 70 years with MGMT methylation had a significantly longer median OS of 13.5 months, compared to 7.6 months in patients with unmethylated MGMT (p=0.027). A significant difference was also found in older patients, with a median RFS of 13.1 versus 7.6 months for methylated and unmethylated MGMT groups, respectively (p=0.01). Methylation of the MGMT promoter in newly diagnosed GBM patients treated with Gliadel, RT and TMZ, was associated with significantly improved OS compared to the unmethylated population. In elderly patients, methylation of the MGMT promoter was associated with significantly better OS and RFS.

  11. Bayesian network meta-analysis comparing five contemporary treatment strategies for newly diagnosed acute promyelocytic leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fenfang; Wu, Di; Ren, Yong; Duan, Chongyang; Chen, Shangwu; Xu, Anlong

    2016-07-26

    Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a curable subtype of acute myeloid leukemia. The optimum regimen for newly diagnosed APL remains inconclusive. In this Bayesian network meta-analysis, we compared the effectiveness of five regimens-arsenic trioxide (ATO) + all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), realgar-indigo naturalis formula (RIF) which contains arsenic tetrasulfide + ATRA, ATRA + anthracycline-based chemotherapy (CT), ATO alone and ATRA alone, based on fourteen randomized controlled trials (RCTs), which included 1407 newly diagnosed APL patients. According to the results, the ranking efficacy of the treatment, including early death and complete remission in the induction stage, was the following: 1. ATO/RIF + ATRA; 2. ATRA + CT; 3. ATO, and 4. ATRA. For long-term benefit, ATO/RIF + ATRA significantly improved overall survival (OS) (hazard ratio = 0.35, 95%CI 0.15-0.82, p = 0.02) and event-free survival (EFS) (hazard ratio = 0.32, 95%CI 0.16-0.61, p = 0.001) over ATRA + CT regimen for the low-to-intermediate-risk patients. Thus, ATO + ATRA and RIF + ATRA might be considered the optimum treatments for the newly diagnosed APL and should be recommended as the standard care for frontline therapy.

  12. [Correlations between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and cytokines in patients newly diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus].

    PubMed

    Su, Jiang; Zhu, Jing; Dong, Wei; Long, Li; Long, Wubin; Chen, Xixi

    2016-12-01

    Objective To investigate the correlations between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-VitD) and serum cytokines of interferon (IFN)-α2, interleukin(IL)-6, IL-10, and IL-17A in Chinese Han patients newly diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods This study recruited 86 Chinese patients newly diagnosed with SLE and 73 healthy volunteers. The serum 25-OH-VitD was detected using ELISA. The serum levels of IFN-α2, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-17A were detected using Luminex liquichip. The associations between serum 25-OH-VitD and serum cytokines, clinical manifestations and laboratory findings were analyzed using Spearman linear correlation analysis. Results The serum 25-OH-VitD was significantly lower in SLE patients than in healthy controls. The serum 25-OH-VitD was positively correlated with serum C3, negatively correlated with serum IL-17A and 24 hour urine protein excretion, but not obviously correlated with serum IFN-α2, IL-6 and IL-10. Conclusion The serum 25-OH-VitD decreases in Chinese patients newly diagnosed with SLE and it is negatively correlated with serum IL-17A.

  13. Newly Diagnosed Anemia Increases Risk of Parkinson's disease: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Hong, Chien Tai; Huang, Yao Hsien; Liu, Hung Yi; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Chan, Lung; Chien, Li-Nien

    2016-07-14

    Anemia and low hemoglobin have been identified to increase Parkinson's disease (PD) risk. This population-based cohort study investigated PD risk in newly diagnosed anemic patients by using data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. All newly diagnosed anemic patients (n = 86,334) without a history of stroke, neurodegenerative diseases, traumatic brain injury, major operations, or blood loss diseases were enrolled. A cohort of nonanemic controls, 1:1 matched with anemic patients on the basis of the demographics and pre-existing medical conditions, was also included. Competing risk analysis was used to evaluate PD risk in anemic patients compared with that in their matched controls. The adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) of PD risk in the anemic patients was 1.36 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.22-1.52, p < 0.001). Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) patients tended to exhibit a higher PD risk (aHR: 1.49; 95% CI: 1.24-1.79, p < 0.001). Furthermore, Iron supplement did not significantly affect the PD risk: the aHRs for PD risk were 1.32 (95% CI: 1.07-1.63, p < 0.01) and 1.86 (95% CI: 1.46-2.35, p < 0.001) in IDA patients with and without iron supplementation, respectively. The population-based cohort study indicated newly diagnosed anemia increases PD risk.

  14. Rates, types, and psychosocial correlates of legal charges in adolescents with newly diagnosed bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Barzman, Drew H; DelBello, Melissa P; Fleck, David E; Lehmkuhl, Heather; Strakowski, Stephen M

    2007-06-01

    To examine the rates, types, and psychosocial correlates of legal charges in adolescents with newly diagnosed bipolar disorder (BD). Adolescents (n = 80), between the ages of 12 and 21 years (mean = 15.6, standard deviation = 2.3), hospitalized for their initial manic or mixed episode of BD, were evaluated for the incidence of prior juvenile offending (i.e., legal charges). We examined potential psychosocial correlates associated with legal charges using chi-square, t-tests, and discriminant function analyses to determine if there were differences between adolescents who did and did not offend prior to their first manic episode. Juvenile antisocial behaviors were common (55%) for adolescents with newly diagnosed BD. Discriminant function analysis revealed that older age at first treatment (p < 0.01), sexual activity over the previous month (p < 0.05), therapeutic use of stimulants (p < 0.05), and anxiety disorders were the most significant factors to differentiate between bipolar adolescents who offended and those who did not (Wilks' lambda = 0.80, p < 0.005). Our findings indicate that there are identifiable psychosocial correlates associated with antisocial behaviors in adolescents with newly diagnosed BD that may improve our understanding of juvenile antisocial behaviors.

  15. Documentation of Antipsychotic Use and Indications for Newly Diagnosed, Nonaggressive Dementia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Dhawan, Nikhil; Steele, Avila B.; Morgan, Robert O.; Snow, A. Lynn; Davila, Jessica A.; Kunik, Mark E.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of antipsychotic use among nonaggressive patients with newly diagnosed dementia and to examine indications for antipsychotic use. Method: Patients had to be veterans older than 60 years, newly diagnosed with dementia (ICD-9-CM criteria) from 2001 to 2004 at the Michael A. DeBakey Veterans Affairs Medical Center in Houston, Tex. Patients diagnosed more than 1 year before telephone screening, living in a nursing home or having a caregiver less than 8 hours a week, and/or having aggression, determined by caregiver response on the Ryden Aggression Scale, were excluded. Medical records of eligible participants were then evaluated on the basis of 5 questions: (1) Was the patient taking an antipsychotic? (2) Were neuropsychiatric symptoms documented, with or without antipsychotics? (3) Did the patient have comorbid psychiatric diagnoses? (4) Did the physician attempt to decrease or discontinue the antipsychotic? and (5) Did the physician attempt non-pharmacologic interventions? Results: A total of 173 patients were eligible for medical record evaluation. Of these, 29 (17%) had been prescribed antipsychotics. Depression, nighttime disturbance, and irritability were the most often documented neuropsychiatric symptoms; however, 31% of patients had no documented symptoms. Mood disorder was documented in 36% of patient records; however, 94 patients (54%) had no comorbid psychiatric disorder. Twelve nonpharmacologic interventions were documented for dementia symptoms. Only 2 attempts to discontinue or decrease antipsychotics for the 29 patients using them were documented. Conclusion: A sizable minority of newly diagnosed, nonaggressive dementia patients are taking antipsychotics. Physicians need greater education and awareness of the benefits of nonpharmacologic interventions. PMID:18458729

  16. Epidemiological pattern of newly diagnosed children with type 1 diabetes mellitus, Taif, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Kamal Alanani, Naglaa Mohamed; Alsulaimani, Adnan Amin

    2013-01-01

    Type-1-diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is the most commonly diagnosed type of DM in children and adolescents. We aim to identify the epidemiological profile, risk factors, clinical features, and factors related to delayed diagnosis or mismanagement in children with newly diagnosed T1DM in Taif, Saudi Arabia. Ninety-nine newly diagnosed patients were included in the study along with 110 healthy controls. Patients were classified into 3 groups (I: >2 years, II: 2->6 years, and III: 6-12 years). Both patients and controls were tested for C-peptide, TSH, and autoantibodies associated with DM and those attacking the thyroid gland. Diabetic ketoacidosis was present in 79.8%. Delayed and missed diagnoses were recorded in 45.5%, with significant correlation to age and district of origin. Severity at presentation showed significant correlation with age and cow's milk feeding. Group I, those with misdiagnosis or positive DM related autoantibodies, had more severe presentations. The correlation of C-peptide and TSH levels in patients and controls was significant for C-peptide and nonsignificant for TSH. Misdiagnosis and mismanagement are common and account for more severe presentation, especially in young children >2 years. Early introduction of cow's milk appears to be a risk factor for the development of T1DM.

  17. Assessment of Left Ventricular Function in Elderly Medicare Beneficiaries with Newly Diagnosed Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Lesley H.; Greiner, Melissa A.; Shea, Alisa M.; Whellan, David J.; Hammill, Bradley G.; Schulman, Kevin A.; Douglas, Pamela S.

    2011-01-01

    Background Assessment of left ventricular function is a recommended performance measure for the care of patients with newly diagnosed heart failure. Little is known about the extent to which left ventricular function is assessed in real-world settings. Methods and Results We analyzed a 5% national sample of data from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services from 1991 through 2008. Patients were 65 years or older with incident heart failure in 1995, 1999, 2003, or 2007. We searched for evidence of tests of left ventricular function from 30 days before through 60 days after an incident heart failure diagnosis. We used logistic regression to identify patient characteristics associated with assessment of left ventricular function. There were 45 005 patients with incident heart failure in 1995, 38 425 in 1999, 39 529 in 2003, and 32 629 in 2007. Assessment of left ventricular function increased from 46% to 60%, with rest echocardiography being the predominant mode. Patients diagnosed with heart failure during a hospitalization had the highest assessment rates (58% in 1995, 64% in 1999, 69% in 2003, 73% in 2007). After adjustment for other patient characteristics, odds of assessment were 4 times higher among patients diagnosed in inpatient settings. Conclusions Nearly 40% of Medicare beneficiaries do not undergo assessment of left ventricular function when newly diagnosed with heart failure. Quality-improvement strategies are needed to optimize the care of these patients, especially in outpatient settings. PMID:21098783

  18. Multimorbidity and COPD Medication Receipt Among Medicaid Beneficiaries With Newly Diagnosed COPD.

    PubMed

    Ajmera, Mayank; Sambamoorthi, Usha; Metzger, Aaron; Dwibedi, Nilanjana; Rust, George; Tworek, Cindy

    2015-11-01

    Multimorbidity is highly prevalent among patients with COPD. The association between multimorbidity and COPD medication management is not well researched. The aim of this study was to examine the association between multimorbidity and COPD medication receipt among Medicaid beneficiaries with newly diagnosed COPD. A retrospective longitudinal dynamic cohort design was used, and data were extracted from Medicaid Analytic eXtract files from 2005 to 2008. Medicaid beneficiaries with newly diagnosed COPD (N = 19,060) were identified using the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification, for COPD. This code (for commonly co-occurring conditions with COPD) was used to create a multimorbidity variable. These conditions included anxiety, arthritis, bipolar disorder, cardiovascular diseases, depression, diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia osteoporosis, and schizophrenia. Medicaid beneficiaries with newly diagnosed COPD were categorized as: (1) physical multimorbidity only, (2) psychiatric multimorbidity only, (3) both physical and psychiatric multimorbidity, and (4) no multimorbidity. Receipt of COPD medications (short- or long-acting bronchodilators, inhaled corticosteroids) was identified using National Drug Codes. Bivariate relationships between multimorbidity and COPD medication receipt were tested using the chi-square test of independence. The associations between multimorbidity and COPD medication receipt were analyzed with logistic and multinomial logistic regression analyses. Among Medicaid beneficiaries with newly diagnosed COPD, 81.9% had at least one co-occurring chronic condition. After controlling for subject characteristics, adults with multimorbidity were less likely to receive COPD medications compared with those without any inflammation-related multimorbidity. For example, those with physical multimorbidity were less likely to receive short-acting bronchodilators (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.76, 95% CI 0.69-0.83), long

  19. Surveillance of recent HIV infections among newly diagnosed HIV cases in Germany between 2008 and 2014.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Alexandra; Hauser, Andrea; Zimmermann, Ruth; Santos-Hövener, Claudia; Bätzing-Feigenbaum, Jörg; Wildner, Stephan; Kücherer, Claudia; Bannert, Norbert; Hamouda, Osamah; Bremer, Viviane; Bartmeyer, Barbara

    2017-07-11

    The HIV surveillance system in Germany is based on mandatory, anonymous notification of newly diagnosed HIV cases by laboratories. Because the time between HIV infection and the diagnosis of HIV varies widely between persons, it is difficult to determine the number of cases of recent HIV infection among newly diagnosed cases of HIV. In Germany, the BED-capture-enzyme immunoassay (BED-CEIA) has been used to distinguish between recent and long-standing HIV infection. The aim of this analysis is to report the proportion of cases of recent HIV infection among newly diagnosed cases in Germany between 2008 and 2014 and to identify factors associated with recent infections. A sample of voluntary laboratories among all HIV diagnostic laboratories was recruited. Residual blood from HIV diagnostic tests was spotted on filter paper as dried serum or dried plasma spots and was sent along with the notification form of the HIV cases. The BED-CEIA test was performed. A case was defined as recent HIV infection with a BED-CEIA test result of less than 0.8 normalized optical density, with the exclusion of CDC stage C. The proportion of recent newly diagnosed HIV infections among different groups (such as transmission groups, gender or age groups) was calculated. We used logistic regression to identify factors associated with recent HIV infection and to identify subpopulations with high proportions of recent HIV infections. Approximately 10,257 newly diagnosed cases were tested for recency using the BED-CEIA. In total, 3084 (30.4%) of those were recently infected with HIV. The highest proportion of recent HIV infections was found among men who had sex with men (MSM) (35%) and persons between 18 and 25 years of age (43.0%). Logistic regression revealed that female German intravenous drug users with a recent HIV infection had a higher chance of being detected than German MSM (OR 2.27). Surveillance of recent HIV infection is a useful additional tool to monitor the HIV epidemic in

  20. Combination Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Rhabdomyosarcoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-01

    Adult Malignant Mesenchymoma; Adult Rhabdomyosarcoma; Childhood Alveolar Rhabdomyosarcoma; Childhood Botryoid-Type Embryonal Rhabdomyosarcoma; Childhood Embryonal Rhabdomyosarcoma; Childhood Malignant Mesenchymoma; Non-Metastatic Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage I Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage II Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage III Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Untreated Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma

  1. Effectiveness of the diabetes education and self management for ongoing and newly diagnosed (DESMOND) programme for people with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes: cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of a structured group education programme on biomedical, psychosocial, and lifestyle measures in people with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. Design Multicentre cluster randomised controlled trial in primary care with randomisation at practice level. Setting 207 general practices in 13 primary care sites in the United Kingdom. Participants 824 adults (55% men, mean age 59.5 years). Intervention A structured group education programme for six hours delivered in the community by two trained healthcare professional educators compared with usual care. Main outcome measures Haemoglobin A1c levels, blood pressure, weight, blood lipid levels, smoking status, physical activity, quality of life, beliefs about illness, depression, and emotional impact of diabetes at baseline and up to 12 months. Main results Haemoglobin A1c levels at 12 months had decreased by 1.49% in the intervention group compared with 1.21% in the control group. After adjusting for baseline and cluster, the difference was not significant: 0.05% (95% confidence interval −0.10% to 0.20%). The intervention group showed a greater weight loss: −2.98 kg (95% confidence interval −3.54 to −2.41) compared with 1.86 kg (−2.44 to −1.28), P=0.027 at 12 months. The odds of not smoking were 3.56 (95% confidence interval 1.11 to 11.45), P=0.033 higher in the intervention group at 12 months. The intervention group showed significantly greater changes in illness belief scores (P=0.001); directions of change were positive indicating greater understanding of diabetes. The intervention group had a lower depression score at 12 months: mean difference was −0.50 (95% confidence interval −0.96 to −0.04); P=0.032. A positive association was found between change in perceived personal responsibility and weight loss at 12 months (β=0.12; P=0.008). Conclusion A structured group education programme for patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes resulted in greater

  2. Prevalence of reticular pseudodrusen in age-related macular degeneration with newly diagnosed choroidal neovascularisation.

    PubMed

    Cohen, S Y; Dubois, L; Tadayoni, R; Delahaye-Mazza, C; Debibie, C; Quentel, G

    2007-03-01

    To investigate the prevalence of reticular pseudodrusen (RPD) in eyes of patients presenting with newly diagnosed choroidal neovascularisation (CNV) in age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and to analyse the association between RPD, age-related maculopathy (ARM) and AMD. Two observational consecutive prospective series. In series 1, patients with AMD with newly diagnosed CNV were sampled to determine the incidence of RPD. Eyes with and without RPD were compared by the Mann-Whitney non-parametric test and Fisher's exact test for age, sex of patients, the eye involved and type of CNV. Series 2 comprised 100 patients referred for fundus photography, fluorescein and/or indocyanine green angiography, for whom pictures showed RPD. This second cohort was then selected from a larger group of patients. Patients with newly diagnosed CNV in series 1 comprised 67 women and 33 men, aged 57-96 years (mean 79.5). CNV was "classic" (32 eyes), "occult" (41) or exhibited vascularised pigment epithelial detachment (PED, 11), retinal angiomatous proliferation (RAP) with or without PED (13), or haemorrhagic or fibrovascular scarring (3). In all, 24 (24%) eyes had RPD. The prevalence of RAP was significantly higher in eyes with RPD than in those without (p = 0.0128), despite the small number of patients with RAP. In series 2, 100 patients with RPD were enrolled in 3 months, and corresponded to 8% of the overall cases referred to our centre (Centre Ophtalmologique d'Imagerie et de Laser, Paris, France). There were 77 women and 23 men, aged 54-93 years (mean 79.2). Eyes with RPD (n = 155) usually exhibited signs of ARM or AMD, including soft drusen (101 eyes) and/or retinal pigment epithelium abnormalities (70), geographical atrophy (27) and/or CNV (61). In both studies, examination of blue-light fundus pictures was extremely helpful in diagnosing RPD. RPD have a high prevalence among patients with AMD with newly diagnosed CNV (24% of cases). RPD were commonly associated with ARM or

  3. EVALUATING THE ACCEPTABILITY AND FEASIBILITY OF PROJECT ACCEPT: AN INTERVENTION FOR YOUTH NEWLY DIAGNOSED WITH HIV

    PubMed Central

    Hosek, Sybil G.; Lemos, Diana; Harper, Gary W.; Telander, Kyle

    2012-01-01

    Given the potential for negative psychosocial and medical outcomes following an HIV diagnosis, Project ACCEPT, a 12-session behavioral intervention, was developed and pilot-tested for youth (aged 16–24) newly diagnosed with HIV. Fifty participants recently diagnosed with HIV were enrolled from 4 sites selected through the Adolescent Medicine Trials Network (ATN). The majority of participants identified as African American (78%). Feasibility and acceptability data demonstrated high rates of participation and high levels of satisfaction with the intervention program from both participants and staff. Exploratory outcome data demonstrated improved levels of HIV knowledge that were sustained over time (Cohen’s effect [d] d = .52) and improvements in peer (d = .35) and formal (d = .20) social support immediately postintervention. Gender differences emerged over time in the areas of depressive symptoms, family social support, self-efficacy for sexual discussion, and personalized stigma. Project ACCEPT appears to be an acceptable and feasible intervention to implement in clinical settings for youth newly diagnosed with HIV. PMID:21517662

  4. Subjective and objective assessment of physical activity - Influence of newly diagnosed exercise induced bronchoconstriction and gender.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Henrik; Berglund, Marie; Holmbäck, Ulf

    2017-10-01

    To investigate if occurrence of newly diagnosed exercise induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) would affect adolescents' ability to assess their physical activity. 99 selected adolescents with and 47 adolescents without self-reported exercise induced dyspnea were included. All of the 146 adolescents then performed a standardized exercise challenge test on a treadmill with dry-air inhalation to detect EIB. Free living physical activity was assessed during seven days with both accelerometer (objective assessment) and a validated activity diary (subjective assessment). Height, weight and subjective sleep were recorded. Out of the 146 adolescents 49 were diagnosed with EIB. Forty-six of the adolescents with EIB (35 girls and 11 boys) and 84 of the control adolescents (45 girls and 39 boys) had complete 7 day activity diary and accelerometer data. There were no differences in age, BMI and sleep between EIB and control adolescents. Boys with EIB overestimated subjective assessment compared to objective assessment more than girls with EIB. No difference was seen between control boys and girls. Furthermore, boys with EIB reported a much higher frequency of high intensity exercise than girls with EIB, but no difference was observed between control boys and girls. Adolescent boys with newly diagnosed EIB overestimated their physical activity compared to EIB girls. Caution may thus be used when choosing methods measuring level of physical activity in this group and especially when investigating gender differences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Newly diagnosed lung cancer patients' preferences for and beliefs about physical activity prior to chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Karvinen, Kristina H; Vallance, Jeff; Walker, Paul R

    2016-07-01

    Physical activity has been found to have a number of benefits for lung cancer patients yet very little information is available concerning physical activity beliefs and preferences for this population. The purpose of the study was to explore physical activity programming and counseling preferences and beliefs about physical activity in newly diagnosed lung cancer patients scheduled to receive chemotherapy. A total of 43 new diagnosed lung cancer patients completed a researcher-administered survey prior to commencing chemotherapy. Results indicated that only 7 participants (17%) reported meeting public health recommendations for physical activity yet the majority of participants (n = 28) indicated interest or possible interest in physical activity counseling. Many participants also indicated interest or possible interest in an exercise program (n = 29) for lung cancer survivors, preferring it to start during chemotherapy (n = 20), for it to be home based (n = 21), and moderate in intensity (n = 22). The most common behavioral belief (advantage) of physical activity was to build/maintain strength (n = 26) and the most common control belief (barrier) was fatigue (n = 11). These data suggest that physical activity counseling and programming may be well received by newly diagnosed lung cancer patients. Information about physical activity and programming preferences and beliefs from this study may be useful for the design of optimal physical activity interventions for lung cancer patients.

  6. Quality of occupational history assessments in working age adults with newly diagnosed asthma.

    PubMed

    Shofer, Scott; Haus, Brian M; Kuschner, Ware G

    2006-08-01

    Approximately 10 to 15% of new-onset asthma in adults is attributable to occupational exposure. The occupational history is the most important instrument in the diagnosis of occupational asthma (OA). To assess the quality of occupational histories obtained by health-care providers and to measure the prevalence of clinician-diagnosed OA in a population at elevated risk for OA. An academic US Department of Veteran Affairs medical center. One hundred ninety-seven adults (age range, 18 to 55 years) with newly diagnosed asthma who had completed pulmonary function testing (PFT) and a structured respiratory health questionnaire. We conducted a structured retrospective comparison of occupational respiratory health history documented by clinicians with data documented by patients on a structured questionnaire. We analyzed PFT results to assess physiologic impairment. We also conducted a structured examination of the actions taken by health-care providers based on their occupational history assessments. Patient self-reports of respiratory exposures and symptoms were common. A job title was documented by one or more clinicians in 75% of patient medical records. Additional occupational history data were charted much less frequently. A diagnosis of OA was made in only 2% of patients. Clinical action to address OA was documented for only one patient. Clinicians who manage adults with newly diagnosed asthma take incomplete occupational histories. We detected discordance between the occupational exposure histories documented by patients and those charted by clinicians. OA may go unrecognized and possibly undermanaged by clinicians.

  7. Resilience and Associated Factors among Mainland Chinese Women Newly Diagnosed with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zijing; Liu, Ye; Li, Xuelian; Li, Xiaohan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Resilience is the individual’s ability to bounce back from trauma. It has been studied for some time in the U.S., but few studies in China have addressed this important construct. In mainland China, relatively little is known about the resilience of patients in clinical settings, especially among patients with breast cancer. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the level of resilience and identify predictors of resilience among mainland Chinese women newly diagnosed with breast cancer. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted with 213 mainland Chinese women newly diagnosed with breast cancer between November 2014 and June 2015. Participants were assessed with the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC), Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS), Medical Coping Modes Questionnaire (MCMQ, including 3 subscales: confrontation, avoidance, and acceptance-resignation), Herth Hope Index (HHI), and demographic and disease-related information. Descriptive statistics, bivariate analyses and multiple stepwise regression were conducted to explore predictors for resilience. Results The average score for CD-RISC was 60.97, ranging from 37 to 69. Resilience was positively associated with educational level, family income, time span after diagnosis, social support, confrontation, avoidance, and hope. However, resilience was negatively associated with age, body mass index (BMI), and acceptance-resignation. Multiple stepwise regression analysis indicated that hope (β = 0.343, P<0.001), educational level of junior college or above (β = 0.272, P<0.001), educational level of high school (β = 0.235, P<0.001), avoidance (β = 0.220, P<0.001), confrontation (β = 0.187, P = 0.001), and age (β = -0.108, P = 0.037) significantly affected resilience and explained 50.1% of the total variance in resilience. Conclusions Women with newly diagnosed breast cancer from mainland China demonstrated particularly low resilience level, which was predicted by hope educational

  8. High prevalence of cachexia in newly diagnosed head and neck cancer patients: An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Jager-Wittenaar, Harriët; Dijkstra, Pieter U; Dijkstra, Gerard; Bijzet, Johan; Langendijk, Johannes A; van der Laan, Bernard F A M; Roodenburg, Jan L N

    2017-03-01

    In patients with cancer, weight loss can be related to simple starvation, disturbed metabolism, or both. In patients with head and neck cancer (HNC), weight loss often is attributed to simple starvation because the obvious oral symptoms are known to hinder dietary intake. In this population, cachexia remains a relatively unexplored phenomenon. The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of cachexia and precachexia in patients with newly diagnosed HNC. Fifty-nine patients with newly diagnosed HNC were asked to participate in the prospective cohort study, from which only baseline data were used in the analyses. Measurements were performed 1 wk before cancer treatment, that is, cachexia status by Fearon's cancer-specific framework, dietary intake, muscle mass, muscle strength, and biochemical markers (C-reactive protein, albumin, hemoglobin, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α) were assessed. Data of 26 patients were included in the analyses (59% participation rate). Forty-two percent of the patients (n = 12) were classified as cachectic and 15% (n = 4) as precachectic. Muscle mass depletion was significantly more frequent in cachectic patients (67%) than in noncachectic patients (14%; P = 0.014). No differences in inflammatory markers were observed between cachectic and noncachectic patients. This exploratory study suggested a high prevalence of cachexia (42%) in patients with newly diagnosed HNC. Although a large study is needed to further elucidate the role of cachexia in patients with HNC, the data presented here suggest that cachexia is a common problem in this patient population, which has therapeutic and prognostic implications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Visfatin concentrations in obese patients in relation to the presence of newly diagnosed glucose metabolism disorders.

    PubMed

    Kamińska, Anna; Kopczyńska, Ewa; Bieliński, Maciej; Borkowska, Alina; Junik, Roman

    2015-01-01

    Visfatin, protein secreted by visceral adipose tissue, exerts insulin-mimetic actions. Visfatin concentration increases in patients with longer-standing diabetes type 2 with progressive b-cell dysfunction. Data about the role of visfatin in newly diagnosed glucose metabolism abnormalities are limited. Evaluation of visfatin concentration in patients with obesity, in relation to the presence of newly diagnosed glucose metabolism disorders. The study included 68 subjects with obesity, without a previous diagnosis of abnormal glucose metabolism. In all subjects we performed an oral glucose tolerance test, and according to the results the group was divided into the subgroups: A (n = 31), with glucose metabolism disorders (impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes); and B (n = 37), without abnormalities. In all subjects serum lipids, uric acid, C-peptide, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), creatinine, and serum visfatin concentrations were measured. The control group comprised 30 lean, healthy individuals with normal glucose tolerance. We found elevated visfatin levels in obese individuals versus the control group (50.0 ± 48 vs. 26.7 ± 22.1 ng/mL; p = 0.01). Visfatin concentrations in both subgroups, A and B, did not differ (40.86 ± 27.84 vs. 57.7 ± 59.79 ng/mL; p = 0.19). In subgroup A visfatin concentration correlated significantly with triglycerides (r = 0.37, p = 0.038), HbA1c (r = -0.43, p = 0.02), C-peptide (r = -0.38,p = 0.048), and waist-hip ratio (r = -0.41, p = 0.036). The presence of newly diagnosed glucose metabolism abnormalities in obese subjects had no influence on the visfatin level, probably due to preserved endogenous insulin secretion and relatively short exposure to hyperglycaemia in patients with prediabetes or at early stage of type 2 diabetes.

  10. Accuracy of self-reported tobacco use in newly diagnosed cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Nelson A.; Romano, Michelle A.; Cummings, K. Michael; Marshall, James R.; Hyland, Andrew J.; Hutson, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Accurate identification of tobacco use is critical to implement evidence-based cessation treatments in cancer patients. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of self-reported tobacco use in newly diagnosed cancer patients. Methods Tobacco use questionnaires and blood samples were collected from 233 newly diagnosed cancer patients (77 lung, 77 breast, and 79 prostate cancer). Blood was analyzed for cotinine levels using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Patients with cotinine measurements exceeding 10 ng/mL were categorized as current smokers. Smoking status based upon cotinine levels was contrasted with self-report in current smokers, recent quitters (1 or less year since quit), non-recent quitters (>1 year since quit), and never smokers. Multivariate analyses were used to identify potential predictors of discordance between self-reported and biochemically confirmed smoking. Results Cotinine confirmed 100 % accuracy in self-reporting of current and never smokers. Discordance in cotinine and smoking status was observed in 26 patients (15.0 %) reporting former tobacco use. Discordance in self-reported smoking was 12 times higher in recent (35.4 %) as compared with non-recent quitters (2.8 %). Combining disease site, pack-year history, and employment status predicted misrepresentation of tobacco use in 82.4 % of recent quitters. Conclusions Self-reported tobacco use may not accurately assess smoking status in newly diagnosed cancer patients. Patients who claim to have recently stopped smoking within the year prior to a cancer diagnosis and lung cancer patients may have a higher propensity to misrepresent tobacco use and may benefit from biochemical confirmation. PMID:23553611

  11. Identification of recent HIV-1 infection among newly diagnosed cases in Catalonia, Spain (2006-08).

    PubMed

    Romero, Anabel; González, Victoria; Esteve, Anna; Martró, Elisa; Matas, Lurdes; Tural, Cristina; Pumarola, Tomàs; Casanova, Aurora; Ferrer, Elena; Caballero, Estrella; Ribera, Esteve; Margall, Núria; Domingo, Pere; Farré, Joan; Puig, Teresa; Sauca, M Goretti; Barrufet, Pilar; Amengual, M José; Navarro, Gemma; Navarro, Maria; Vilaró, Josep; Ortín, Xavier; Ortí, Amat; Pujol, Ferran; Prat, Josep M; Massabeu, Angels; Simó, Josep M; Villaverde, Carlos Alonso; Benítez, Miguel Ángel; Garcia, Isabel; Díaz, Olga; Becerra, Jasmina; Ros, Rosa; Sala, Roser; Rodrigo, Isabel; Miró, José M; Casabona, Jordi

    2012-12-01

    Quantification and description of patients recently infected by HIV can provide an accurate estimate of the dynamics of HIV transmission. Between 2006 and 2008 in Catalonia, we estimated the prevalence of recent HIV infection among newly diagnosed cases, described the epidemiological characteristics of the infection according to whether it was recent, long-standing or advanced, and identified factors associated with recent infection. A Test for Recent Infection (TRI) was performed in serum samples from patients newly diagnosed with HIV. Two different TRI were used: the Vironostika-LS assay (January 2006-May 2007) and the BED-CEIA CEIA (June 2007 onwards). Samples were obtained within the first 6 months of diagnosis. Patients whose samples tested positive in the TRI were considered recently infected. Of 1125 newly diagnosed patients, 79.9% were men (median age, 35.4 years), 38.7% were born outside Spain, 48.9% were men who have sex with men (MSM) and 10.6% presented other sexually transmitted infections. The overall percentage of recent infection was 23.0%, which increased significantly, from 18.1% in 2006 to 26.2% in 2008. This percentage was higher for patients from South America (27.6%). Factors associated with recent infection were acquiring infection through sexual contact between MSM [odds ratio (OR) 2.0; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.1-3.9], compared with acquiring infection through heterosexual relations and being under 30 years of age (OR 5.9; 95% CI 1.9-17.4), compared with being over 50 years of age. The highest percentage of recent infection was identified in MSM, suggesting either a higher incidence or a greater frequency of HIV testing. Information regarding testing patterns is necessary to correctly interpret data from recently infected individuals. Systems to monitor the HIV epidemic should include both parameters.

  12. Predominance of CXCR4 tropism in HIV-1 CRF14_BG strains from newly diagnosed infections.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Álvarez, Lucía; Delgado, Elena; Vega, Yolanda; Montero, Vanessa; Cuevas, Teresa; Fernández-García, Aurora; García-Riart, Beatriz; Pérez-Castro, Sonia; Rodríguez-Real, Ricardo; López-Álvarez, María José; Fernández-Rodríguez, Ricardo; Lezaun, María Jesús; Ordóñez, Patricia; Ramos, Carmen; Bereciartua, Elena; Calleja, Sara; Sánchez-García, Ana M; Thomson, Michael M

    2014-01-01

    R5-tropic viruses are associated with HIV-1 transmission and predominate during the early stages of infection. X4-tropic populations have been detected in ~50% of patients with late-stage disease infected with subtype B viruses. In this study, we compared the frequency of X4 tropism in individuals infected with HIV-1 CRF14_BG viruses, which have a V3 loop of subtype B, with a control group of individuals infected with subtype B viruses. Sixty-three individuals infected with HIV-1 CRF14_BG (n = 31) or subtype B (n = 32) were studied. Similar proportions of newly diagnosed and chronically infected individuals were included in the subtype B and CRF14_BG groups. V3 sequences were obtained and coreceptor tropism was predicted using the Geno2pheno[coreceptor] algorithm. V3 net charge and 11/25 rules were also used for coreceptor prediction. Overall, X4 tropism was more frequent among individuals infected with CRF14_BG viruses (87.1%) than subtype B viruses (34.3%), a difference that was statistically highly significant (P = 0.00001). Importantly, the frequencies among newly diagnosed individuals were 90% and 13.3%, respectively (P = 0.0007). Characteristic amino acids in the V3 loop (T13, M14, V19 and W20) were identified at higher frequencies in CRF14_BG viruses (54%) than subtype B viruses (0%; P < 0.000001). CRF14_BG is the genetic form with the highest proportion of X4-tropic viruses reported to date in newly diagnosed and chronic infections. This suggests high pathogenicity for CRF14_BG viruses, potentially leading to rapid disease progression. CCR5 antagonists will be ineffective in most CRF14_BG-infected patients, even at early stages of infection.

  13. Prevalence of Anemia among Adults with Newly Diagnosed HIV/AIDS in China

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yinzhong; Wang, Zhenyan; Lu, Hongzhou; Wang, Jiangrong; Chen, Jun; Liu, Li; Zhang, Renfang; Zheng, Yufang

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence of anemia among antiretroviral-naïve HIV-infected patients in China has not been well characterized. We conducted a cross-sectional study to estimate the prevalence of anemia among Chinese adults with newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS. Methods One thousand nine hundred and forty-eight newly diagnosed HIV-infected patients in China were selected during 2009 and 2010. Serum samples obtained from each individual were collected to measure hemoglobin levels. Demographics and medical histories were recorded. Factors associated with the presence of anemia were analysed by logistic regression. Results Among the 1948 patients, 75.8% were male. Median age was 40 years (range: 18–80 years). The overall prevalence of anemia among HIV-infected patients was 51.9% (51.5% among men, 53.2% among women). The prevalences of mild anemia, of moderate anemia, of severe anemia were 32.4%, 17.0%, and 2.5%, respectively. The prevalence of anemia was higher among ethnic minority patients than among the Han patients (70.9% versus 45.9%). The prevalence of anemia increased with increasing age (49.6%, 53.5% and 60.1% among patients who were 18–39, 40–59, and ≥60 years of age respectively) and with decreasing CD4 count (14.0%, 22.4%, 50.7%, and 74.6% among patients with CD4 count of ≥350, 200–349, 50–199, and <50 cells/mm3 respectively). The logistic regression analysis showed that older age, lower CD4 count and minority ethnicity were significantly associated with an increased risk of anemia. Conclusions Anemia is highly prevalent among Chinese adults with newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS, but severe anemia is less prevalent in this population. Older age, lower CD4 count and minority ethnicity are associated with an increased risk of anemia. PMID:24058490

  14. Initial Treatment of Men With Newly Diagnosed Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction in the Veterans Health Administration

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Bradley A.; Lu, Xin; Vaughan-Sarrazin, Mary; Kreder, Karl J.; Breyer, Benjamin N.; Cram, Peter

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine initial treatments given to men with newly diagnosed lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD) within a large integrated health care system in the United States. METHODS We used data from 2003 to 2009 from the Veteran's Health Administration to identify newly diagnosed cases of LUTD using established ICD-9CM codes. Our primary outcome was initial LUTD treatment (3 months), categorized as watchful waiting (WW), medical therapy (MT), or surgical therapy (ST); our secondary outcome was pharmacotherapy class received. We used logistic regression models to examine patient, provider, and health system factors associated with receiving MT or ST when compared with WW. RESULTS There were 393,901 incident cases of LUTD, of which 58.0% initially received WW, 41.8% MT, and 0.2% ST. Of the MT men, 79.8% received an alpha-blocker, 7.7% a 5-alpha reductase inhibitor, 3.3% an anticholinergic, and 7.3% combined therapy (alpha-blocker and 5-alpha reductase inhibitor). In our regression models, we found that age (higher), race (white/black), income (low), region (northeast/south), comorbidities (greater), prostate-specific antigen (lower), and provider (nonurologist) were associated with an increased odds of receiving MT. We found that age (higher), race (white), income (low), region (northeast/south), initial provider (urologist), and prostate-specific antigen (higher) increased the odds of receiving ST. CONCLUSION Most men with newly diagnosed LUTD in the Veteran's Health Administration receive WW, and initial surgical treatment is rare. A large number of men receiving MT were treated with monotherapy, despite evidence that combination therapy is potentially more effective in the long-term, suggesting opportunities for improvement in initial LUTD management within this population. PMID:24286603

  15. Linagliptin plus metformin in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes and marked hyperglycemia.

    PubMed

    Ross, Stuart A; Caballero, A Enrique; Del Prato, Stefano; Gallwitz, Baptist; Lewis-D'Agostino, Diane; Bailes, Zelie; Thiemann, Sandra; Patel, Sanjay; Woerle, Hans-Juergen; von Eynatten, Maximilian

    2016-11-01

    Few studies of oral glucose-lowering drugs exist in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients with marked hyperglycemia, and insulin is often proposed as initial treatment. We evaluated the oral initial combination of metformin and linagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, in this population. We performed a pre-specified subgroup analysis of a randomized study in which newly diagnosed T2D patients with glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) 8.5%-12.0% received linagliptin/metformin or linagliptin monotherapy. Subgroups of baseline HbA1c, age, body-mass index (BMI), renal function, race, and ethnicity were evaluated, with efficacy measured by HbA1c change from baseline after 24 weeks. HbA1c reductions from baseline (mean 9.7%) at week 24 in the overall population were an adjusted mean -2.81% ± 0.12% with linagliptin/metformin (n = 132) and -2.02% ± 0.13% with linagliptin (n = 113); treatment difference -0.79% (95% CI -1.13 to -0.46, P < 0.0001). In patients with baseline HbA1c ≥9.5%, HbA1c reduction was -3.37% with linagliptin/metformin (n = 76) and -2.53% with linagliptin (n = 61); difference -0.84% (95% CI -1.32 to -0.35). In those with baseline HbA1c <9.5%, HbA1c reduction was -2.08% with linagliptin/metformin (n = 56) and -1.39% with linagliptin (n = 52); difference -0.69% (95% CI -1.23 to -0.15). Changes in HbA1c and treatment differences between the linagliptin/metformin and linagliptin groups were of similar magnitudes to the overall population across patient subgroups based on age, BMI, renal function, and race. Drug-related adverse events occurred in 8.8% and 5.7% of linagliptin/metformin and linagliptin patients, respectively; no severe hypoglycemia occurred. Linagliptin/metformin combination in newly diagnosed T2D patients with marked hyperglycemia was well tolerated and elicited substantial improvements in glycemic control regardless of baseline HbA1c, age, BMI, renal function, or race. Thus, newly diagnosed, markedly

  16. Quality of life in Malay and Chinese women newly diagnosed with breast cancer in Kelantan, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, Azlina; Ahmad, Zulkifli; Keng, Soon Lean

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death among women in Malaysia. A diagnosis is very stressful for women, affecting all aspects of their being and quality of life. As such, there is little information on quality of life of women with breast cancer across the different ethnic groups in Malaysia. The purpose of this study was to examine the quality of life in Malay and Chinese women newly diagnosed with breast cancer in Kelantan. A descriptive study involved 58 Malays and 15 Chinese women newly diagnosed with breast cancer prior to treatment. Quality of life was measured using the Malay version of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) and its breast-specific module (QLQ-BR23). Socio-demographic and clinical data were also collected. All the data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. Most of the women were married with at least a secondary education and were in late stages of breast cancer. The Malay women had lower incomes (p=0.046) and more children (p=0.001) when compared to the Chinese women. Generally, both the Malay and Chinese women had good functioning quality-of-life scores [mean score range: 60.3-84.8 (Malays); 65.0-91.1 (Chinese)] and global quality of life [mean score 60.3, SD 22.2 (Malays); mean score 65.0, SD 26.6 (Chinese)]. The Malay women experienced more symptoms such as nausea and vomiting (p=0.002), dyspnoea (p=0.004), constipation (p<0.001) and breast-specific symptoms (p=0.041) when compared to the Chinese. Quality of life was satisfactory in both Malays and Chinese women newly diagnosed with breast cancer in Kelantan. However, Malay women had a lower quality of life due to high general as well as breast-specific symptoms. This study finding underlined the importance of measuring quality of life in the newly diagnosed breast cancer patient, as it will provide a broader picture on how a cancer diagnosis impacts multi-ethnic patients. Once health care

  17. Localized 1H NMR spectroscopy in fifty cases of newly diagnosed intracranial tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Demaerel, P.; Johannik, K.; Van Hecke, P.; Van Ongeval, C.; Verellen, S.; Marchal, G.; Wilms, G.; Plets, C.; Goffin, J.; Van Calenbergh, F. )

    1991-01-01

    Fifty patients with newly diagnosed, untreated intracranial tumors were examined with 1H nuclear magnetic resonance single-volume spectroscopy (MRS) using a 1.5 T whole-body MR system. Prior to the MRS, contrast enhanced MR and/or CT imaging studies were carried out. Histological verification was obtained in all patients except one. All tumor spectra revealed distinct abnormalities as compared with the normal brain spectra. Although most meningiomas showed a rather characteristic spectral pattern, generally features specific for the various tumor types were not observed. For instance, though a strong lactic acid signal was seen in most malignant tumors, this signal was also evident in five benign neoplasms.

  18. Serum apolipoprotein A-I is a novel prognostic indicator for non-metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiao-Lin; Zhong, Guang-Zheng; Hu, Li-Yang; Chen, Jie; Liang, Ying; Chen, Qiu-Yan; Liu, Qing; Rao, Hui-Lan; Chen, Kai-Lin; Cai, Qing-Qing

    2015-12-22

    We investigated the value of pretreatment serum apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) in complementing TNM staging in the prognosis of non-metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). We retrospectively reviewed 1196 newly diagnosed patients with non-metastatic NPC. Disease-specific survival (DSS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), and locoregional recurrence-free survival (LRFS) rates were compared according to serum ApoA-I level. Multivariate analysis was performed to assess the prognostic value of serum ApoA-I. The 5-year DSS, DMFS, and LRFS rates for patients with elevated or decreased serum ApoA-I were 81.3% versus 69.3% (P < 0.001), 83.4% versus 67.4% (P < 0.001), and 80.9% versus 67.3% (P < 0.001), respectively. ApoA-I ≥ 1.025 g/L was an independent prognostic factor for superior DSS, DMFS, and LRFS in multivariate analysis. After stratification by clinical stage, serum ApoA-I remained a clinically and statistically significant predictor of prognosis. Our data suggest that the level of ApoA-I at diagnosis is a novel independent prognostic marker that could complement clinical staging for risk definition in non-metastatic NPC.

  19. Potential years lost and life expectancy in adults with newly diagnosed epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Granbichler, Claudia A; Zimmermann, Georg; Oberaigner, Willi; Kuchukhidze, Giorgi; Ndayisaba, Jean-Pierre; Taylor, Alexandra; Luef, Gerhard; Bathke, Arne C; Trinka, Eugen

    2017-09-28

    Studies using relative measures, such as standardized mortality ratios, have shown that patients with epilepsy have an increased mortality. Reports on more direct and absolute measure such as life expectancy are sparse. We report potential years lost and how life expectancy has changed over 40 years in a cohort of patients with newly diagnosed epilepsy. We analyzed life expectancy in a cohort of adult patients diagnosed with definite epilepsy between 1970 and 2010. Those with brain tumor as cause of epilepsy were excluded. By retrospective probabilistic record linkage, living or death status was derived from the national death registry. We estimated life expectancy by a Weibull regression model using gender, age at diagnosis, epilepsy etiology, and year of diagnosis as covariates at time of epilepsy diagnosis, and 5, 10, 15, and 20 years after diagnosis. Results were compared to the general population, and 95% confidence intervals are given. There were 249 deaths (105 women, age at death 19.0-104.0 years) in 1,112 patients (11,978.4 person-years, 474 women, 638 men). A substantial decrease in life expectancy was observed for only a few subgroups, strongly depending on epilepsy etiology and time of diagnosis: time of life lost was highest in patients with symptomatic epilepsy diagnosed between 1970 and 1980; the impact declined with increasing time from diagnosis. Over half of the analyzed subgroups did not differ significantly from the general population. This effect was reversed in the later decades, and life expectancy was prolonged in some subgroups, reaching a maximum in those with newly diagnosed idiopathic and cryptogenic epilepsy between 2001 and 2010. Life expectancy is reduced in symptomatic epilepsies. However, in other subgroups, a prolonged life expectancy was found, which has not been reported previously. Reasons may be manifold and call for further study. © 2017 The Authors. Epilepsia published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International

  20. Stress, social support and negative affectivity in children with newly diagnosed cancer: a prospective transactional analysis.

    PubMed

    Varni, J W; Katz, E

    1997-12-01

    Conceptually-driven investigations on the potentially modifiable predictors of individual differences among children with newly-diagnosed cancer may facilitate the identification of pediatric cancer patients at risk for maladjustment during the profound adversity associated with this life-threatening disease and aversive biomedical treatment. Within a risk and resistance theoretical framework, perceived stress and social support were investigated concurrently and prospectively within an exploratory design as predictors of negative affectivity (anxiety and depressive symptoms composite construct) in newly-diagnosed pediatric cancer patients at Time 1 (within one month after diagnosis), Time 2 (6 months postdiagnosis), and Time 3 (9 months postdiagnosis). Hierarchical multiple regression analysis findings indicate that perceived stress and social support have direct and independent effects on negative affectivity principally at the 9-month time interval. These findings are discussed in terms of the cognitive-behavioral treatment implications for enhancing child adjustment during the transition from the initial cancer diagnosis and aversive biomedical treatment to subsequent school and social reintegration.

  1. In vitro cellular drug resistance and prognosis in newly diagnosed childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Kaspers, G J; Veerman, A J; Pieters, R; Van Zantwijk, C H; Smets, L A; Van Wering, E R; Van Der Does-Van Den Berg, A

    1997-10-01

    As an important determinant of the response to chemotherapy, measurements of cellular drug resistance may provide prognostically significant information, which could be useful for optimal risk-group stratification. The objective of this report is to determine the relation between in vitro resistance to 12 drugs, measured with the colorimetric methyl-thiazol-tetrazolium (MTT) assay, and long-term clinical response to chemotherapy in 152 children with newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia. At risk-group stratified analyses, in vitro resistance to prednisolone, L-asparaginase, and vincristine were each significantly (P < .01) related to the probability of disease-free survival (pDFS) after combination chemotherapy. The combination of data for prednisolone, L-asparaginase, and vincristine provided a drug-resistance profile with prognostic independent significance superior to that of any single drug or any other factor. The 3-years pDFS was 100% for the group with the most sensitive profile, 20% of all patients, 84% (SE 6%) for the group with an intermediately sensitive profile, 40% of all patients, and 43% (SE 8%) for the remaining group with the most resistant profile (P < .001). In conclusion, the extent of in vitro cellular resistance to prednisolone, L-asparaginase, and vincristine, measured using the MTT assay, was significantly related to the clinical response to combination chemotherapy. Treatment failure in newly diagnosed childhood ALL can be predicted based on cellular drug resistance data.

  2. Current role of short-term intensive insulin strategies in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wen; Weng, Jianping

    2013-09-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a progressive disease characterized by worsening insulin resistance and a decline in β-cell function. Achieving good glycemic control becomes more challenging as β-cell function continues to deteriorate throughout the disease process. The traditional management paradigm emphasizes a stepwise approach, and insulin has generally been reserved as a final armament. However, mounting evidence indicates that short-term intensive insulin therapy used in the early stages of type 2 diabetes could improve β-cell function, resulting in better glucose control and more extended glycemic remission than oral antidiabetic agents. Improvements in insulin sensitivity and lipid profile were also seen after the early initiation of short-term intensive insulin therapy. Thus, administering short-term intensive insulin therapy to patients with newly diagnosed T2DM has the potential to delay the natural process of this disease, and should be considered when clinicians initiate treatment. Although the early use of insulin is advocated by some guidelines, the optimal time to initiate insulin therapy is not clearly defined or easily recognized, and a pragmatic approach is lacking. Herein we summarize the current understanding of early intensive insulin therapy in patients with newly diagnosed T2DM, focusing on its clinical benefit and problems, as well as possible biological mechanisms of action, and discuss our perspective.

  3. Effects of glaucoma medications on the cardiorespiratory and intraocular pressure status of newly diagnosed glaucoma patients.

    PubMed

    Waldock, A; Snape, J; Graham, C M

    2000-07-01

    To evaluate the short term cardiovascular, respiratory, and intraocular pressure (IOP) effects of four glaucoma medications in newly diagnosed glaucoma patients. 141 newly diagnosed glaucoma patients were recruited and underwent a full ocular, cardiovascular, and respiratory examination, including an electrocardiogram (ECG) and spirometry. They were prescribed one of four topical glaucoma medications and reviewed 3 months later. One eye of each patient was randomly chosen for analysis, performed using analysis of variance and the chi(2) test. Latanoprost had the greatest mean IOP lowering effect in both the primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) (p = 0.005) and the "presumed" normal tension glaucoma (NTG) groups (p = 0.33), reducing the IOP by 8.9 mm Hg and 4.1 mm Hg respectively. Timolol was associated with lowered pulse rates and reductions in the spirometry measurements. 41% of patients using brimonidine complained of systemic side effects and over 55% of patients using betaxolol complained of ocular irritation. 28% of patients required an alteration in their glaucoma management. Latanoprost appears to be a useful primary treatment for glaucoma patients, in view of superior IOP control and a low incidence of local and systemic side effects. Timolol causes a reduction in measurements of respiratory function, a concern in view of the potential subclinical reversible airways disease in the elderly glaucoma population. Brimonidine is associated with substantial, unpredictable systemic side effects and betaxolol causes ocular irritation and weak IOP control. Spirometry is advised in all patients receiving topical beta blocker therapy to control their glaucoma.

  4. The Heterogeneity of Early Parkinson’s Disease: A Cluster Analysis on Newly Diagnosed Untreated Patients

    PubMed Central

    Amboni, Marianna; Picillo, Marina; Moccia, Marcello; Longo, Katia; Santangelo, Gabriella; De Rosa, Anna; Allocca, Roberto; Giordano, Flavio; Orefice, Giuseppe; De Michele, Giuseppe; Santoro, Lucio; Pellecchia, Maria Teresa; Barone, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Background The variability in the clinical phenotype of Parkinson’s disease seems to suggest the existence of several subtypes of the disease. To test this hypothesis we performed a cluster analysis using data assessing both motor and non-motor symptoms in a large cohort of newly diagnosed untreated PD patients. Methods We collected data on demographic, motor, and the whole complex of non-motor symptoms from 100 consecutive newly diagnosed untreated outpatients. Statistical cluster analysis allowed the identification of different subgroups, which have been subsequently explored. Results The data driven approach identified four distinct groups of patients, we have labeled: 1) Benign Pure Motor; 2) Benign mixed Motor-Non-Motor; 3) Non-Motor Dominant; and 4) Motor Dominant. Conclusion Our results confirmed the existence of different subgroups of early PD patients. Cluster analysis revealed the presence of distinct subtypes of patients profiled according to the relevance of both motor and non-motor symptoms. Identification of such subtypes may have important implications for generating pathogenetic hypotheses and therapeutic strategies. PMID:23936396

  5. Antipsychotic medications and dental caries in newly diagnosed schizophrenia: A nationwide cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hu, Kai-Fang; Chou, Yu-Hsiang; Wen, Yen-Hsia; Hsieh, Kun-Pin; Tsai, Jui-Hsiu; Yang, Pinchen; Yang, Yi-Hsin; Lin, Chun-Hung Richard

    2016-11-30

    We investigated the association between antipsychotic medications and the risk of dental caries in patients with schizophrenia. We enroled a nationwide cohort of patients with newly diagnosed schizophrenia within 1 year of dental caries development. Exposure to antipsychotics and other medications was categorised according to their type and duration, and the association between exposure and dental caries was assessed through logistic regressions. Of the 3610 patients with newly diagnosed schizophrenia, 2149 (59.5%) exhibited an incidence of treated dental caries. Logistic regression analysis identified a younger age, female sex, high income, a 2-year history of dental caries, and exposure to first-generation antipsychotics, and antihypertensives as independent risk factors for treated dental caries in patients with schizophrenia. Hyposalivation, the adverse effect of first-generation antipsychotics and antihypertensives, was associated with an increased risk of treated dental caries. However, hypersalivation from first-generation antipsychotics for dental caries was associated with a protective factor. These findings suggest that clinicians should pay attention to the aforementioned risk factors for dental caries in patients with schizophrenia, particularly while prescribing first-generation antipsychotics and antihypertensives to such patients.

  6. Morning blood pressure surge and arterial stiffness in newly diagnosed hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Kıvrak, Ali; Özbiçer, Süleyman; Kalkan, Gülhan Yüksel; Gür, Mustafa

    2017-06-01

    We aimed to investigate the relationship between the morning blood pressure (BP) surge and arterial stiffness in patients with newly diagnosed hypertension. Three hundred and twenty four (mean age 51.7 ± 11.4 years) patients who had newly diagnosed hypertension with 24 h ambulatory BP monitoring were enrolled. Parameters of arterial stiffness, pulse wave velocity and augmentation index (Aix) were measured by applanation tonometry and aortic distensibility was calculated by echocardiography. Compared with the other groups, pulse wave velocity, day-night systolic BP (SBP) difference (p < 0.001, for all) and hs-CRP (p = 0.005) were higher in morning BP surge high group. Aortic distensibility values were significantly lower in morning BP surge high group compared to the other groups (p < 0.05, for all). Morning BP surge was found to be independently associated with pulse wave velocity (β = 0.286, p < 0.001), aortic distensibility (β= -0.384, p < 0.001) and day-night SBP difference (β = 0.229, p < 0.001) in multivariate linear regression analysis. We found independent relationship between morning BP surge and arterial stiffness which is a surrogate endpoint for cardiovascular diseases. The inverse relationship between morning BP surge and aortic distensibility and direct relation found in our study is new to the literature.

  7. Patients with newly diagnosed carcinoma of the breast: validation of a claim-based identification algorithm.

    PubMed

    Leung, K M; Hasan, A G; Rees, K S; Parker, R G; Legorreta, A P

    1999-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to validate a claims-based algorithm for identification of patients with newly diagnosed carcinoma of the breast and to optimize the algorithm. Claims data from all females aged 21 years or older who enrolled in a large California health maintenance organization during the study period from October 1, 1994 through March 31, 1996 were analyzed. Medical records of the patients identified through the claims-based algorithm were reviewed to determine whether the patients were correctly identified. The initial algorithm had a positive predictive value of 84% which was similar to the previous study. The percentages of correct identification significantly increased with the patient's age at diagnosis. Other patient demographic characteristics and facility characteristics were not related to the accuracy of the identification. Using a classification tree procedure and additional information from the false-positive cases, the initial algorithm was modified for improvement. The best-modified algorithm had a positive predictive value of 92% while only 0.5% (4/837) of the true-positive cases were excluded. The results once again demonstrated that patients with newly diagnosed carcinomas of the breast can be identified using claims data. These databases provide an efficient and effective tool for performing health services studies on large patient populations.

  8. Do patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes have impaired physical fitness, and energy expenditures?

    PubMed

    Ucok, K; Yalcinkaya, H; Acay, A; Coban, N F; Aslanalp, S; Akkan, G; Aydin, S; Celikagi, C; Ahsen, A

    2015-07-01

    The disease-related components such as physical fitness and daily energy expenditure may change in each progressive period of type 2 diabetes. The purpose of this study was to compare the maximal aerobic capacity (VO2 max), muscle strength, trunk flexibility, total energy expenditure, daily physical activity, resting metabolic rate (RMR), body composition, and body fat distribution in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients with those of healthy controls. Eighty patients (40 male, 40 female) with type 2 diabetes and 80 (40 male, 40 female) controls were included in this study. All participants completed the measurements. It was determined that the VO2 max, muscle strength, daily number of steps, and total energy expenditure were lower, and the body fat percentage, and central obesity were higher in male and female type 2 diabetic patients, when compared with the controls. In addition, the lean body mass was decreased in male diabetic patients, compared with the controls. The fasting plasma glucose showed negative correlations with the maximal aerobic capacity, daily number of steps, and muscle strength in the patients in both genders. RMR and trunk flexibility values were not significantly different between the patients and the controls in either gender. We suggest that using exercise intervention especially comprised of strength training and aerobic activities, including not only daily slow activities but also moderate to vigorous activities, as a lifestyle modification in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients might be helpful for the development of earlier and more successful illness management strategies.

  9. [The low prevalence of Helicobacter pylori gastritis in newly diagnosed inflammatory bowel disease children and adolescent].

    PubMed

    Sładek, Małgorzata; Jedynak-Wasowicz, Urszula; Wedrychowicz, Andrzej; Kowalska-Duplaga, Kinga; Pieczarkowski, Stanisław; Fyderek, Krzysztof

    2007-01-01

    Data concerning prevalence rate of Helicobacter pylori gastritis in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients is conflicting. We had studied the prevalence of Hp gastritis in newly diagnosed inflammatory bowel disease children before any pharmacological treatment was introduced. Ninety four consecutive children with inflammatory bowel diseased were enrolled into study, mean age 12.9 +/- 3.75 years, including 50 with Crohn's Disease (CD) and 44 with ulcerative colitis (UC). One hundred and four patients (mean age 13.6 +/- 4.2 year) referred for diagnostic evaluation because of recurrent abdominal pain, matched for age, sex and socioeconomic status served as a control. The results revealed a highly statistically lower prevalence of Hp gastritis in children with IBD as compared with controls (9.6% vs. 38.4%, p < 0.0001). Significantly more often Hp gastritis occurred in CD than UC patients. There was no statistical difference in mean age of IBD onset between Hp gastritis positive and negative groups (14.3 +/- 3.75 vs. 13.6 +/- 4.3 yr) was found. Our results show that in newly diagnosed IBD children, Hp gastritis is not unusual, but the prevalence rate is significantly lower comparing to the control group. The low Hp gastritis rate is not related to medical treatment, since the patients were studied before any was introduced.

  10. Changes and predictors of unmet supportive care needs in Taiwanese women with newly diagnosed breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Liao, Mei-Nan; Chen, Shu-Ching; Chen, Shin-Cheh; Lin, Yung-Chang; Hsu, Ya-Hui; Hung, Hsueh-Chih; Wang, Chao-Hui; Chen, Miin-Fu; Jane, Sui-Whi

    2012-09-01

    To investigate changes in unmet supportive care needs and factors affecting those needs in Taiwanese women with newly diagnosed breast cancer. Prospective longitudinal survey. Two general surgery outpatient departments at a large medical center in northern Taiwan. 124 women with newly diagnosed breast cancer. Needs were assessed with the Supportive Care Needs Survey-Short Form at diagnosis (T1) and one month (T2), two months (T3), and three months (T4) after diagnosis. Supportive care needs. Women had moderate-to-high levels of unmet needs, with the highest being in the health system and information domain at each time point. Levels in the domains of psychological, health system and information, and sexuality needs were higher (p < 0.001) at T1 than at T2, T3, and T4. However, levels of unmet physical and daily living needs increased significantly over time (p < 0.001). Unmet supportive care needs were significantly predicted by younger age and higher levels of education, symptom distress, trait anxiety, state anxiety, and time since diagnosis. Supportive care needs changed significantly over time and were predicted by personal characteristics, as well as physical and emotional factors. Oncology nurses should assess the needs of patients with breast cancer and provide them with individualized, culturally sensitive informational, social, and emotional support from breast cancer diagnosis through the first four months of treatment.

  11. HYPERTRIGLYCERIDEMIC WAIST (EWET), GLYCIDIC AND LIPID PROFILE IN PATIENTS WITH NEWLY DIAGNOSED HEART ATTACK.

    PubMed

    Guattini, Veronica Lucas de Olivera; Piovesan, Carla Haas; Wittke, Estefânia; Marcadenti, Aline

    2015-09-01

    hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype (EWET) has been poorly tested in patients with established cardiovascular disease. to evaluate a possible association between EWET, glycidic and lipid profile in patients with newly diagnosed heart attack (HA). cross-sectional study among 45 inpatients with myocardial infarction. Lipid profile (total cholesterol, HDL-c, LDL-c, serum triglycerides, TC/HDL-c ratio, non-HDL cholesterol) and glycidic profile (fasting glucose, serum insulin, glycated hemoglobin, HOMA-IR, glucose/insulin ratio) were obtained. Weight, height and waist circumferences (WC) were assessed; BMI and EWET were calculated. Analysis of Covariance Models (ANCOVA) was used to assess the objectives. mean age of participants was 58.75 ± 12.41 years and 55.6% (n = 25) were men. After adjustment for age, gender and BMI, EWET was significantly associated with lower HDL-c (p = 0.02), higher TC/HDL-c ratio (p = 0.003) and a trend toward fasting glucose (p = 0.11). EWET phenotype seems to be associated with a worse lipidic profile in patients with newly diagnosed HA. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  12. Changes in profile of lipids and adipokines in patients with newly diagnosed hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yanyan; Wu, Xiafang; Wu, Ruirui; Sun, Xiance; Yang, Boyi; Wang, Yi; Xu, Yuanyuan

    2016-01-01

    Changes in profile of lipids and adipokines have been reported in patients with thyroid dysfunction. But the evidence is controversial. The present study aimed to explore the relationships between thyroid function and the profile of lipids and adipokines. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 197 newly diagnosed hypothyroid patients, 230 newly diagnosed hyperthyroid patients and 355 control subjects. Hypothyroid patients presented with significantly higher serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC), fasting insulin, resistin and leptin than control (p < 0.05). Hyperthyroid patients presented with significantly lower serum levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDLC and leptin, as well as higher levels of fasting insulin, resistin, adiponectin and homeostasis model insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) than control (p < 0.05). Nonlinear regression and multivariable linear regression models all showed significant associations of resistin or adiponectin with free thyroxine and association of leptin with thyroid-stimulating hormone (p < 0.001). Furthermore, significant correlation between resistin and HOMA-IR was observed in the patients (p < 0.001). Thus, thyroid dysfunction affects the profile of lipids and adipokines. Resistin may serve as a link between thyroid dysfunction and insulin resistance. PMID:27193069

  13. Chromosome 1 abnormalities in elderly patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma treated with novel therapies

    PubMed Central

    Caltagirone, Simona; Ruggeri, Marina; Aschero, Simona; Gilestro, Milena; Oddolo, Daniela; Gay, Francesca; Bringhen, Sara; Musolino, Caterina; Baldini, Luca; Musto, Pellegrino; Petrucci, Maria T.; Gaidano, Gianluca; Passera, Roberto; Bruno, Benedetto; Palumbo, Antonio; Boccadoro, Mario; Omedè, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is a plasma cell disorder characterized by malignant plasma cell infiltration in the bone marrow, serum and/or urine monoclonal protein and organ damage. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of chromosome 1 abnormalities in a group of elderly patients (>65 years) with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma enrolled in the GIMEMA-MM-03-05 trial and treated with bortezomib, melphalan and prednisone or bortezomib, melphalan, prednisone and thalidomide followed by bortezomib and thalidomide maintenance. We also evaluated the link between chromosome 1 abnormalities and other clinical, genetic and immunophenotypic features by a multivariate logistic regression model. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization on immunomagnetically purified plasma cells and bone marrow multiparameter flow cytometry were employed. A multivariate Cox model showed that chromosome 1 abnormalities, age >75 years and a CD19+/CD117− immunophenotype of bone marrow plasma cells were independent risk factors for overall survival in elderly patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. Moreover, a detrimental effect of thalidomide, even when administered in association with bortezomib, was observed in patients with abnormal chromosome 1 as well as in those with 17p deletion, while the benefit of adding thalidomide to the bortezomib-melphalan-prednisone regimen was noted in patients carrying an aggressive CD19+/CD117− bone marrow plasma cell immunophenotype. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltri-als.gov as #NCT01063179. PMID:25015938

  14. The Initial Assessment of Daily Insulin Dose in Chinese Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Huan; Xu, Hua; Chen, Xie; Teng, Xiangyu; Liu, Qianjing; Liu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Background. It has been well accepted that insulin therapy is the ideal treatment for newly diagnosed diabetic patients. However, there was no study about assessment of the initial insulin dosage in new onset Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes. Research Design and Methods. 65 newly diagnosed patients with type 2 diabetes (39 males/26 females; HbA1c ≥ 11.80 ± 0.22%) were investigated. All patients had random hyperglycaemia (at 21.8 ± 3.9 mmol/L) on the first day of admission and received insulin infusion intravenously (5 U/per hour). When the blood glucose level dropped to around 10 mmol/L, patients were then transferred to continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII). The reduction of blood glucose levels in response to per unit of insulin (RBG/RI) was recorded. The target glucose level was achieved in about 3 days. The total daily insulin dose (TDD) and basal insulin dose (TBD) were calculated. Results. TDD was 45.97 ± 1.28 units and TBD was 19.00 ± 0.54 units. TBD was about 40% of the total daily insulin requirement. There was a negative correlation between the ratio of RBG/RI and TDD. Conclusions. TDD was correlated with blood glucose reduction in response to intravenous insulin infusion in Chinese new onset patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:26697503

  15. Satisfaction with antiepileptic drugs in children and adolescents with newly diagnosed and chronic epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Beghi, Ettore; Messina, Paolo; Pupillo, Elisabetta; Crichiutti, Giovanni; Baglietto, Maria Giuseppina; Veggiotti, Pierangelo; Zamponi, Nelia; Casellato, Susanna; Margari, Lucia; Cianchetti, Carlo

    2012-06-01

    To assess incidence, indicators and outcome of satisfaction with antiepileptic drugs in children. Multicenter, observational, open, prospective survey of children and adolescents with epilepsy with three-month follow-up. Included were patients aged 3-17 years with newly diagnosed ("new diagnosis") or chronic epilepsy ("old diagnosis") requiring treatment start or change. Satisfaction was assessed with the Hedonic Visual Scale or direct questions, depending on patient's age. Quality of life of adolescents (QOLIE-48) and of caregivers (SF-36) and predictors of (dis)satisfaction were also assessed. 293 patients completed the study. Most had generalized idiopathic epilepsy, and a disease lasting <12 months. Newly diagnosed patients were 60.8%. Patients declaring satisfaction were 70.6% at one month and 75.8% at three months. Compared to old diagnosis, new diagnosis carried a higher satisfaction rate and improved satisfaction at end of follow-up. Independent predictors of dissatisfaction were an old diagnosis, adverse events and SF-36 score. The latter remained the only independent predictor of persisting dissatisfaction when adjusting for the presence of and the interaction with adverse events. About one-fourth of children and adolescents with epilepsy are dissatisfied with treatment. Chronic epilepsy, adverse events, and parents/caregivers with poor quality of life predict dissatisfaction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Handwriting capacity in children newly diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Brossard-Racine, Marie; Majnemer, Annette; Shevell, Michael; Snider, Laurie; Bélanger, Stacey Ageranioti

    2011-01-01

    Preliminary evidence suggests that children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) may exhibit handwriting difficulties. However, the exact nature of these difficulties and the extent to which they may relate to motor or behavioural difficulties remains unclear. The aim of this study was to describe handwriting capacity in children newly diagnosed with ADHD and identify predictors of performance. Forty medication-naïve children with ADHD (mean age 8.1 years) were evaluated with the Evaluation Tool of Children's Handwriting-Manuscript, the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC), the Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration (VMI) and the Conner Global Index. An important subset (85.0%) exhibited manual dexterity difficulties. Handwriting performance was extremely variable in terms of speed and legibility. VMI was the most important predictor of legibility. Upper extremity coordination, as measured by the M-ABC ball skills subtest, was also a good predictor of word legibility. Poor handwriting legibility and slow writing speed were common in children newly diagnosed with ADHD and were associated with motor abilities. Future studies are needed to determine whether interventions, including stimulant medications, can improve handwriting performance and related motor functioning. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Aberrant expression of splicing factors in newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Huang, Bo; Xiao, Yun; Xiong, Huo-Mei; Li, Jing; Feng, Dan-Qin; Chen, Xi-Min; Zhang, Hai-Bin; Wang, Xiao-Zhong

    2012-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the most common type of blood cancer in adults. Emerging evidence is establishing a connection between AML and aberrant alternative splicing of pre-mRNA, which may result from aberrant expression of splicing factors, the mediators of splicing reactions. Using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, we measured mRNA expression of 7 splicing factors belonging to the serine/arginine-rich (SR) protein family, SRSF1 (SF2/ASF), SRSF2 (SC35), SRSF3 (SRp20), SRSF4 (SRp75), SRSF5 (SRp40), SRSF6 (SRp55), and SRSF7 (9G8), and 1 non-SR factor, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (HNRNPA1), in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 26 patients with newly diagnosed AML and 26 healthy controls. In addition, the relationship between splicing factors and the mRNA splicing patterns of the caspase-8 gene (CASP8) was investigated. Compared to healthy controls, the expression of splicing factors was obviously aberrant in newly diagnosed AML patients. The expression of SRSF1, SRSF3 and SRSF4 mRNAs was significantly decreased. Moreover, a significant correlation was observed between several splicing factors and caspase-8 pre-mRNA splicing in AML patients, but not in control subjects. These data suggest that aberrant expression of splicing factors in AML may potentially connect with abnormal expression of oncogenes and be useful for early diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy of AML. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Conventional risk factors among newly diagnosed coronary heart disease patients in Delhi.

    PubMed

    Bhasin, Sanjiv K; Dwivedi, Shridhar; Dehghani, Ali; Sharma, Rahul

    2011-06-26

    To analyze the conventional risk factors among newly diagnosed cases of coronary heart disease (CHD) admitted to a hospital in Delhi, India. This hospital-based prospective study included 276 consecutive newly diagnosed cases of CHD in the Coronary Care Unit of a tertiary care hospital in Delhi. The mean age of the cases was 49.7 ± 9.5 years, with the youngest case aged 27 years. The two risk factors present most frequently among the cases were inadequate physical activity and abnormal lipid profile. Just about 3.6% of cases in our study had a physical activity level (PAL) that could be termed as "active", with a large proportion (96.4%) having a PAL suggestive of a sedentary lifestyle. A majority of patients were found to be current tobacco smokers (53.3%) and 188 (68.1%) subjects were lifetime ever smokers. There was not a single case who did not have one or more of the risk factors. More than one-quarter (n = 76) had six or more of the studied risk factors. Indians have among the CHD highest mortality rates amongst all ethnic groups studied so far. It is important to study the regional epidemiology of the cardiovascular events to allow for location-specific prevention and control programs.

  19. Conventional risk factors among newly diagnosed coronary heart disease patients in Delhi

    PubMed Central

    Bhasin, Sanjiv K; Dwivedi, Shridhar; Dehghani, Ali; Sharma, Rahul

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the conventional risk factors among newly diagnosed cases of coronary heart disease (CHD) admitted to a hospital in Delhi, India. METHODS: This hospital-based prospective study included 276 consecutive newly diagnosed cases of CHD in the Coronary Care Unit of a tertiary care hospital in Delhi. RESULTS: The mean age of the cases was 49.7 ± 9.5 years, with the youngest case aged 27 years. The two risk factors present most frequently among the cases were inadequate physical activity and abnormal lipid profile. Just about 3.6% of cases in our study had a physical activity level (PAL) that could be termed as “active”, with a large proportion (96.4%) having a PAL suggestive of a sedentary lifestyle. A majority of patients were found to be current tobacco smokers (53.3%) and 188 (68.1%) subjects were lifetime ever smokers. There was not a single case who did not have one or more of the risk factors. More than one-quarter (n = 76) had six or more of the studied risk factors. CONCLUSION: Indians have among the CHD highest mortality rates amongst all ethnic groups studied so far. It is important to study the regional epidemiology of the cardiovascular events to allow for location-specific prevention and control programs. PMID:21772946

  20. Sensitivity and specificity of the Distress Thermometer for depression in newly diagnosed breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Hegel, Mark T; Collins, E Dale; Kearing, Stephen; Gillock, Karen L; Moore, Caroline P; Ahles, Tim A

    2008-06-01

    Receiving a new diagnosis of breast cancer is a distressing experience that may precipitate an episode of major depressive disorder. Efficient screening methods for detecting depression in the oncology setting are needed. This study evaluated the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) of the single-item Distress Thermometer (DT) for detecting depression in women newly diagnosed with Stage I-III breast cancer. We assessed 321 patients (of 345 consecutive patients) at the time of their pre-surgical consultation at a Comprehensive Breast Cancer Program. Patients were administered the DT along with the Patient Health Questionnaire 9-Item Depression Module (PHQ-9) as a gold standard diagnostic assessment of depression status. Mean DT scores (11-point scale, 0-10) were significantly higher for depressed versus non-depressed patients (8.1 versus 4.4). In ROC analyses the DT showed strong discriminatory power relative to the PHQ-9-derived diagnosis of depression, with an area under the curve of 0.87. Patient age, education, marital status and stage of disease resulted in similar operating characteristics. A score of 7 represented the optimal trade-off between sensitivity (0.81) and specificity (0.85) characteristics for detecting depression. The single-item DT performs satisfactorily relative to the PHQ-9 for detecting depression in newly diagnosed breast cancer patients. A cutoff score of 7 on the DT possesses the optimal sensitivity and specificity characteristics. The strength of these findings suggests that a careful psychosocial evaluation should follow a positive screen.

  1. Distress, psychiatric syndromes, and impairment of function in women with newly diagnosed breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Hegel, Mark T; Moore, Caroline P; Collins, E Dale; Kearing, Stephen; Gillock, Karen L; Riggs, Raine L; Clay, Kate F; Ahles, Tim A

    2006-12-15

    Emotional distress and psychiatric syndromes are prevalent in the breast cancer population at large. However, to date there is a paucity of literature specifically concerning presurgical breast cancer patients. The authors assessed 236 newly diagnosed patients at the time of their presurgical consultation at the Comprehensive Breast Cancer Program of Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center in Lebanon, NH. Of patients in this study, 41% rated their distress in the clinically significant range on the Distress Thermometer (ie, >5, 0-10 scale). Nearly one-half (47%) of patients met established thresholds for positivity on 1 or more screens for distress or psychiatric disorders. Prevalence rates were 11% for major depression (60% of these patients were moderately severe to severely depressed) and were 10% for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Emotional symptoms markedly interfered with daily function in both groups. Of depressed patients, 56% were already taking a psychotropic medication, yet they still met screening criteria for major depression. Emotional distress and psychiatric syndromes (major depression and PTSD) were prevalent in this population. Markedly impaired function was evident for both depressed and PTSD patients. Future research should refine current screening procedures and develop interventions to better address emotional distress and psychiatric disorders in newly diagnosed breast cancer patients. Copyright 2006 American Cancer Society.

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging in patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Pilewskie, Melissa; King, Tari A

    2014-07-15

    The use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer remains controversial. Here we review the current use of breast MRI and the impact of MRI on short-term surgical outcomes and rates of local recurrence. In addition, we address the use of MRI in specific patient populations, such as those with ductal carcinoma in situ, invasive lobular carcinoma, and occult primary breast cancer, and discuss the potential role of MRI for assessing response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Although MRI has improved sensitivity compared with conventional imaging, this has not translated into improved short-term surgical outcomes or long-term patient benefit, such as improved local control or survival, in any patient population. MRI is an important diagnostic test in the evaluation of patients presenting with occult primary breast cancer and has shown promise in monitoring response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy; however, the data do not support the routine use of perioperative MRI in patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer. Cancer 2014;120:120:2080-2089. © 2014 American Cancer Society. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  3. A Comprehensive Survey of Institutional Patient/Family Educational Practices for Newly Diagnosed Pediatric Oncology Patients.

    PubMed

    Withycombe, Janice S; Andam-Mejia, Rachel; Dwyer, Annie; Slaven, Abigail; Windt, Katherine; Landier, Wendy

    Patient/family education is an important component of nursing practice and is essential to the care of children newly diagnosed with cancer. Practices regarding patient/family education in Children's Oncology Group (COG) treatment centers have not been well described. We used an Internet-based survey to determine current patient/family educational practices at COG institutions; participation rate was 90.5% (201/222). Patient/family education was delivered primarily by an individual (rather than a team) at 43% of institutions. Advanced practice nurses had primary responsibility for providing education at 32% of institutions. "Fever" was the most frequently reported topic considered mandatory for inclusion in education for newly diagnosed patients. More than half of institutions reported using checklists and/or end-of-shift reports to facilitate health care team communication regarding patient/family education, and 77% reported using the "teach-back" method of assessing readiness for discharge. Thirty-seven percent of institutions reported delays in hospital discharge secondary to the need for additional teaching. An understanding of current practices related to patient/family education is the first step in establishing effective interventions to improve and standardize educational practices in pediatric oncology.

  4. A Pilot Safety Study of Lenalidomide and Radiotherapy for Patients With Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma Multiforme

    SciTech Connect

    Drappatz, Jan Wong, Eric T.; Schiff, David; Kesari, Santosh; Batchelor, Tracy T.; Doherty, Lisa; LaFrankie, Debra Conrad

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To define the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of lenalidomide, an analogue of thalidomide with enhanced immunomodulatory and antiangiogenic properties and a more favorable toxicity profile, in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) when given concurrently with radiotherapy. Patients and Methods: Patients with newly diagnosed GBM received radiotherapy concurrently with lenalidomide given for 3 weeks followed by a 1-week rest period and continued lenalidomide until tumor progression or unacceptable toxicity. Dose escalation occurred in groups of 6. Determination of the MTD was based on toxicities during the first 12 weeks of therapy. The primary endpoint was toxicity. Results: Twenty-three patients were enrolled, of whom 20 were treated and evaluable for both toxicity and tumor response and 2 were evaluable for toxicity only. Common toxicities included venous thromboembolic disease, fatigue, and nausea. Dose-limiting toxicities were eosinophilic pneumonitis and transaminase elevations. The MTD for lenalidomide was determined to be 15 mg/m{sup 2}/d. Conclusion: The recommended dose for lenalidomide with radiotherapy is 15 mg/m{sup 2}/d for 3 weeks followed by a 1-week rest period. Venous thromboembolic complications occurred in 4 patients, and prophylactic anticoagulation should be considered.

  5. Social-Cognitive Processes Associated with Fear of Recurrence Among Women Newly Diagnosed with Gynecological Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Shannon B.; Manne, Sharon L; Kissane, David W.; Ozga, Melissa; Kashy, Deborah A.; Rubin, Stephen; Heckman, Carolyn; Rosenblum, Norman; Morgan, Mark; Graff, John J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective This cross sectional study aimed to characterize fears of recurrence among women newly diagnosed with gynecologic cancer. The study also evaluated models predicting the impact of recurrence fears on psychological distress through social and cognitive variables. Methods Women (N = 150) who participated in a randomized clinical trial comparing a coping and communication intervention to a supportive counseling intervention to usual care completed baseline surveys that were utilized for the study. The survey included the Concerns about Recurrence Scale (CARS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Impact of Event Scale (IES), and measures of social (holding back from sharing concerns and negative responses from family and friends) and cognitive (positive reappraisal, efficacy appraisal, and self-esteem appraisal) variables. Medical data was obtained via medical chart review. Results Moderate-to-high levels of recurrence fears were reported by 47% of the women. Younger age (p < .01) and functional impairment (p < .01) correlated with greater recurrence fears. A social-cognitive model of fear of recurrence and psychological distress was supported. Mediation analyses indicated that as a set, the social and cognitive variables mediated the association between fear of recurrence and both depression and cancer-specific distress. Holding back and self-esteem showed the strongest mediating effects. Conclusion Fears of recurrence are prevalent among women newly diagnosed with gynecologic cancer. Social and cognitive factors play a role in women’s adaptation to fears and impact overall psychological adjustment. These factors may be appropriate targets for intervention. PMID:23088925

  6. Incidence of Retinal Complications in a Cohort of Newly Diagnosed Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Merino, Elisa; Fortuny, Joan; Rivero-Ferrer, Elena; García-Rodríguez, Luis Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We aimed at estimating the incidence of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and maculopathy (DMP) among newly diagnosed type 1 (t1DM) and type 2 diabetic patients (t2DM) in the United Kingdom primary care system. The incidence of DMP among patients with DR was also estimated. Method We conducted a cohort study using The Health Improvement Network database. The cohort included 64,983 incident diabetic patients (97.3% were t2DM) aged 1–84 years diagnosed between 2000 and 2007. This cohort was followed from the date of diabetes diagnosis until recording of DR or DMP in two separate follow-ups. Follow-up was censored at 85 years of age, death, or end of 2008. An additional follow-up was conducted from DR to DMP diagnosis using similar censoring reasons. DR and DMP cumulative incidences were calculated as well as incidence rates (IR; cases per 1,000 person-years) per calendar period (2000–2001 and 2006–2007). Results Follow-up for DR: 9 years after diabetes diagnosis, 28% of t2DM and 24% of t1DM patients had developed DR (7,899 incident DR cases). During the first 2 years with diabetes, the IR was almost 2 times higher in patients diagnosed with diabetes in 2006–2007 (47.7) than among those diagnosed in 2000–2001 (24.5). Follow-up for DMP: 9 years after diabetes diagnosis, 3.6% of t2DM and 4.4% of t2DM patients had developed DMP (912 incident DMP cases). During the first 2 years with diabetes, the IR was three times higher in patients diagnosed with diabetes in 2006–2007 (5.8) than among those diagnosed in 2000–2001 (1.8). Macular oedema occurred in 0.8% of patients. Conclusions In a cohort of incident diabetes, 28% of patients developed retinopathy and 4% maculopathy within the first 9 years. The 2-year IRs of DR and DMP were higher in patients diagnosed with diabetes during the period 2006–2007 than in those diagnosed during the 2000–2001 period. PMID:24963628

  7. Home-based vs inpatient education for children newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Clapin, H; Hop, L; Ritchie, E; Jayabalan, R; Evans, M; Browne-Cooper, K; Peter, S; Vine, J; Jones, T W; Davis, E A

    2016-11-03

    Initial management of children diagnosed with type 1 diabetes (T1D) varies worldwide with sparse high quality evidence regarding the impact of different models of care. To compare the inpatient model of care with a hybrid home-based alternative, examining metabolic and psychosocial outcomes, diabetes knowledge, length of stay, and patient satisfaction. The study design was a randomized-controlled trial. Inclusion criteria were: newly diagnosed T1D, aged 3 to 16 years, living within approximately 1 hour of the hospital, English-speaking, access to transport, absence of significant medical or psychosocial comorbidity. Patients were randomized to standard care with a 5 to 6 day initial inpatient stay or discharge after 2 days for home-based management. All patients received practical skills training in the first 48 hours. The intervention group was visited twice/day by a nurse for 2 days to assist with injections, then a multi-disciplinary team made 3 home visits over 2 weeks to complete education. Patients were followed up for 12 months. Clinical outcomes included HbA1c, hypoglycemia, and diabetes-related readmissions. Surveys measured patient satisfaction, diabetes knowledge, family impact, and quality of life. Fifty patients were recruited, 25 to each group. There were no differences in medical or psychosocial outcomes or diabetes knowledge. Average length of admission was 1.9 days shorter for the intervention group. Families indicated that with hindsight, most would choose home- over hospital-based management. With adequate support, children newly diagnosed with T1D can be safely managed at home following practical skills training. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Older adults newly diagnosed with symptomatic myeloma and treatment decision making.

    PubMed

    Tariman, Joseph D; Doorenbos, Ardith; Schepp, Karen G; Singhal, Seema; Berry, Donna L

    2014-07-01

    To describe the preferences for participation in decision making of older adult patients newly diagnosed with symptomatic myeloma and to explore the association between sociodemographic variables and decisional role preferences. Descriptive, cross-sectional design. Participants' homes and two large academic cancer centers in Seattle, WA, and Chicago, IL. A convenience sample of 20 older adults (60 years of age and older) with symptomatic myeloma diagnosed within the past six months. The Control Preferences Scale was administered followed by an in-person, one-time, semistructured interview. Role preferences for participation in treatment decision making, age, gender, race, work status, personal relationship status, education, and income. Fifty-five percent of the participants preferred a shared role with the physician and 40% preferred to make the decisions after seriously considering the opinion of their physicians. Only one participant preferred to leave the decision to the doctor, as long as the doctor considered the patient's treatment preferences. The study findings indicate that older adults newly diagnosed with myeloma want to participate in treatment decision making. Oncology nurses must respect the patient's desired role preference and oncology clinicians must listen to the patient and allow him or her to be autonomous in making treatment decisions. Nurses and other oncology clinicians can elicit a patient's preferred level of participation in treatment decision making. Oncology nurses can make sure patients receive disease- and treatment-related information, encourage them to express their decisional role preference to the physician, develop a culture of mutual respect and value their desire for autonomy for treatment decision making, acknowledge that the right to make a treatment choice belongs to the patient, and provide support during treatment decision making throughout the care continuum.

  9. Comparative microRNA profiling in relation to urinary albumin excretion in newly diagnosed hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Parthenakis, F I; Marketou, M E; Kontaraki, J E; Maragoudakis, F; Maragkoudakis, S; Nakou, H; Roufas, K; Patrianakos, A; Chlouverakis, G; Malliaraki, N; Vardas, P E

    2016-11-01

    Microalbuminuria is an established early marker of endothelial dysfunction and damage. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are emerging as essential modulators of cardiovascular physiology and disease. In the present study, we sought an association between the differential expression of related miRNAs in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of untreated patients with newly diagnosed essential hypertension and the levels of urinary albumin excretion. We assessed the expression of the miRNAs miRNA-1, miRNA-133a, miRNA-26b, miRNA-208b, miRNA-499 and miRNA-21 in consecutive subjects with untreated newly diagnosed essential hypertension (aged 62.5±9.7 years) and with no indications of other organic heart disease. MiRNA expression levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were quantified by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The prevalence of microalbuminuria was 9.8%. miRNA-208b and miRNA-133a were independently correlated with 24-h urinary albumin excretion. More specifically, a strong association was found between the gene expression levels of miRNA-208b in our patients' peripheral blood cells and urinary albumin (r=0.72, P<0.001). A similar association was found for miRNA-133a (r=0.372, P<0.001). In conclusion, miRNA-208b and miRNA-133a show distinct profiling in peripheral blood cells isolated from untreated patients with recently diagnosed essential hypertension. Their gene expression levels reveal a strong correlation with urinary albumin excretion levels. Our findings provide new perspectives on the development of a new generation of biomarkers for the better monitoring of end-organ damage in hypertension.

  10. Associations of obesity with newly diagnosed and previously known atopic diseases in Chinese adults: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Biao; Wang, Zhiqiang; Wang, Yupeng; Liu, Meina; Wang, Yongchen

    2017-01-01

    To assess the associations of obesity with newly diagnosed and previously known atopic disorders in Chinese adults. 4,629 adults aged 18 years or older were recruited in Harbin, China. Among them, 1,114 were previously diagnosed atopic cases, 1,298 were newly diagnosed cases, and 2,217 non-atopic controls. Obesity and overweight are defined according to the criteria established by the Working Group on Obesity in China. The associations of obesity with known and newly diagnosed atopic disorders were assessed using logistic regressions. Obesity was significantly associated with known atopic disorders (adjusted OR = 2.41 (95% CI: 1.81, 3.22)). The association of obesity with newly diagnosed atopic cases was not as strong as that with known cases, and was not statistically significant (adjusted OR = 1.27 (95% CI: 0.94, 1.72)). The similar pattern was observed in different allergic diseases, gender and age stratifications. The association between overweight and atopic diseases were not significant. Obesity is strongly associated with previously diagnosed atopic cases but not so with newly diagnosed atopic cases in Chinese adults. It is likely that people with atopic disorders have a higher risk of developing obesity. Our findings are important for the management of atopic disorders and chronic disease prevention among atopic disease patients. PMID:28252017

  11. Baseline CD4 Cell Counts of Newly Diagnosed HIV Cases in China: 2006–2012

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Houlin; Mao, Yurong; Shi, Cynthia X.; Han, Jing; Wang, Liyan; Xu, Juan; Qin, Qianqian; Detels, Roger; Wu, Zunyou

    2014-01-01

    Background Late diagnosis of HIV infection is common. We aim to assess the proportion of newly diagnosed HIV cases receiving timely baseline CD4 count testing and the associated factors in China. Methods Data were extracted from the Chinese HIV/AIDS Comprehensive Response Information Management System. Adult patients over 15 years old who had been newly diagnosed with HIV infection in China between 2006 and 2012 were identified. The study cohort comprised individuals who had a measured baseline CD4 count. Results Among 388,496 newly identified HIV cases, the median baseline CD4 count was 294 cells/µl (IQR: 130–454), and over half (N = 130,442, 58.8%) were less than 350 cells/µl. The median baseline CD4 count increased from 221 (IQR: 63–410) in 2006 to 314 (IQR: 159–460) in 2012. A slight majority of patients (N = 221,980, 57.1%) received baseline CD4 count testing within 6 months of diagnosis. The proportion of individuals who received timely baseline CD4 count testing increased significantly from 20.0% in 2006 to 76.9% in 2012. Factors associated with failing to receiving timely CD4 count testing were: being male (OR: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.15–1.19), age 55 years or older (OR:1.03, 95% CI: 1.00–1.06), educational attainment of primary school education or below (OR: 1.30, 95% CI: 1.28–1.32), infection with HIV through injection drug use (OR: 2.07, 95% CI: 2.02–2.12) or sexual contact and injection drug use (OR: 1.87, 95% CI: 1.76–1.99), diagnosis in a hospital (OR: 1.91, 95% CI: 1.88–1.95) or in a detention center (OR: 1.75, 95% CI: 1.70–1.80), and employment as a migrant worker (OR:1.55, 95% CI:1.53–1.58). Conclusion The proportion of newly identified HIV patients receiving timely baseline CD4 testing has increased significantly in China from 2006–2012. Continued effort is needed for further promotion of early HIV diagnosis and timely baseline CD4 cell count testing. PMID:24901790

  12. Contact lenses as the best conservative treatment of newly diagnosed keratoconus--epidemiological retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Mrazovac, Danijela; Barisić Kutija, Marija; Vidas, Sania; Kuzman, Tomislav; Petricek, Igor; Jandroković, Sonja; Kalauz, Miro; Cerovski, Branimir

    2014-12-01

    Keratoconus is a progressive, non-inflammatory corneal ectasia characterized by thinning and weakening of the corneal stroma which results in its' protrusion. The onset is during puberty and progresses until the fourth decade of life. In earlier stages, good visual acuity can be provided with spectacles. With progression, contact lenses are considered to be a better therapy. Aim of this study was to determine if there is statistically significant difference between best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) obtained by spectacles and contact lenses in newly diagnosed keratoconus patients, as well as to determine which type of contact lenses provide better BCVA in keratoconus patients. We conducted a 5-year retrospective study of all 2891 patients attending our Contact Lens Department for the first time, searching for patients newly diagnosed with keratoconus. Data were obtained on gender, age, education level, treated eyes, corneal changes, keratoconus severity, BCVA with spectacles, contact lenses and best fitted contact lens type. All patients underwent standard ophthalmic exam, refractometry and keratometry have been done, followed by a spectacles correction and lens fitting. Wilcoxon signed rank test was used for statistical analysis. Results showed that of all 2891 patients examined for the first time, 137 patients (4.74%) have been newly diagnosed with heratoconus, there was male bias (72.26%), mean age 27.7 +/- 9.9 years. Most patients had high school education (51.11%), 3.70% had present corneal changes, 50.37% had mild heratoconus. Majority had keratoconus on both eyes (36.3%) or keratoconus of right eye (26.67%). There was a statistically significant difference (p<0.001) between the BCVA obtained with contact lenses (0.82 +/- 0.21 Snellen chart) rather than spectacles (0.37 +/- 0.27 Snellen chart). The best corrected visual acuity was achieved with rigid gas permeable (RGP) lenses in majority of kera- toconus eyes (51.85%), with semi-gas permeable (SGP) lenses

  13. Distress is Interdependent in Patients and Caregivers with Newly Diagnosed Incurable Cancers.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Jamie M; Shaffer, Kelly M; Nipp, Ryan D; Fishbein, Joel N; MacDonald, James; El-Jawahri, Areej; Pirl, William F; Jackson, Vicki A; Park, Elyse R; Temel, Jennifer S; Greer, Joseph A

    2017-01-17

    Individuals with advanced, incurable cancer often experience high physical and psychological symptom burden. Family and friend caregivers are at risk for emotional distress. The aim of the study is to investigate the interrelationship of distress in patient-caregiver dyads at the time of newly diagnosed incurable cancer. From May 2011 to July 2015, within 8 weeks of diagnosis of advanced lung or noncolorectal gastrointestinal cancer, 350 patients and 275 family caregivers were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of early palliative care. Actor-partner interdependence modeling was used to examine relationships between dyad's self-reported anxiety and depressive symptoms on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale at baseline. Comparing patients with caregivers, patients reported more depressive symptoms (M diff = .84; t[274] = 3.17, p = .002, d = .22) and caregivers reported more anxiety symptoms (M diff =1.62, t[274] = 4.91, p < .001, d = .39). Dyads' anxiety symptoms were positively associated, as were depressive symptoms (rs = .21, ps ≤ .001). Actor-partner interdependence modeling showed that patients' anxiety symptoms were positively associated with their own depressive symptoms, with an equal effect for caregivers (actor effect βs = 0.52, ps < .001). Patients' own anxiety was concurrently positively associated with their caregivers' depressive symptoms, with an equal effect for caregivers to patients (partner effect βs=0.08, ps=.008). In the context of newly diagnosed incurable cancer, caregivers experience more pronounced anxiety, while patients report greater depressive symptoms. Findings indicate that anxiety and depressive symptoms are interrelated among dyads facing newly diagnosed incurable disease. Results emphasize the importance of addressing distress in both patients and caregivers. Future research should discern when dyadic versus individual psychosocial interventions would be optimal. The trial was registered with

  14. Cost-effectiveness of bevacizumab and ranibizumab for newly diagnosed neovascular macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Stein, Joshua D; Newman-Casey, Paula Anne; Mrinalini, Tavag; Lee, Paul P; Hutton, David W

    2014-04-01

    We sought to determine the most cost-effective treatment for patients with newly diagnosed neovascular macular degeneration: monthly or as-needed bevacizumab injections, or monthly or as-needed ranibizumab injections. Cost-effectiveness analysis. Hypothetical cohort of 80-year-old patients with newly diagnosed neovascular macular degeneration. Using a mathematical model with a 20-year time horizon, we compared the incremental cost-effectiveness of treating a hypothetical cohort of 80-year-old patients with newly diagnosed neovascular macular degeneration using monthly bevacizumab, as-needed bevacizumab, monthly ranibizumab, or as-needed ranibizumab. Data came from the Comparison of Age-related macular degeneration Treatment Trial (CATT), the Medicare Fee Schedule, and the medical literature. Costs, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and incremental costs per QALY gained. Compared with as-needed bevacizumab, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of monthly bevacizumab is $24,2 357/QALY. Monthly ranibizumab gains an additional 0.02 QALYs versus monthly bevacizumab at an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of >$10 million/QALY. As-needed ranibizumab was dominated by monthly bevacizumab, meaning it was more costly and less effective. In sensitivity analyses assuming a willingness to pay of $100,000/QALY, the annual risk of serious vascular events would have to be ≥2.5 times higher with bevacizumab than that observed in the CATT trial for as-needed ranibizumab to have an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of <$100,000/QALY. In another sensitivity analysis, even if every patient receiving bevacizumab experienced declining vision by 1 category (e.g., from 20/25-20/40 to 20/50-20/80) after 2 years but every patient receiving ranibizumab retained their vision level, as-needed ranibizumab would have an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $97,340/QALY. Even after considering the potential for differences in risks of serious adverse events and therapeutic

  15. Cost-effectiveness of various interventions for newly diagnosed diabetic macular edema.

    PubMed

    Stein, Joshua D; Newman-Casey, Paula Anne; Kim, David D; Nwanyanwu, Kristen Harris; Johnson, Mark W; Hutton, David W

    2013-09-01

    Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapies have revolutionized the treatment of clinically significant diabetic macular edema (CSDME); yet these agents are expensive, and whether they are cost-effective is unclear. The purpose of this study is to determine the most cost-effective treatment option for patients with newly diagnosed CSDME: focal laser photocoagulation alone (L), focal laser plus intravitreal ranibizumab (L+R), focal laser plus intravitreal bevacizumab (L+B), or focal laser plus intravitreal triamcinolone (L+T) injections. Cost-effectiveness analysis. Hypothetical cohort of 57-year-old patients with newly diagnosed CSDME. By using a Markov model with a 25-year time horizon, we compared the incremental cost-effectiveness of treating patients with newly diagnosed CSDME using L, L+R, L+B, or L+T. Data came from the DRCRnet randomized controlled trial, the Medicare fee schedule, and the medical literature. Costs, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), and incremental costs per QALY gained. Compared with L, the incremental cost-effectiveness of L+R and L+B was $89903/QALY and $11138/QALY, respectively. L+T was dominated by L. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis demonstrated that, at a willingness to pay (WTP) of $50000/QALY, L was approximately 70% likely to be the preferred therapy over L+R and L+T. However, at a WTP of $100000/QALY, more than 90% of the time, L+R therapy was the preferred therapy compared with L and L+T. In the probabilistic sensitivity analysis, L+B was found to be the preferred therapy over L and L+T for any WTP value >$10000/QALY. Sensitivity analyses revealed that the annual risk of cerebrovascular accident would have to be at least 1.5% higher with L+B than with L+R for L+R to be the preferred treatment. In another sensitivity analysis, if patients require <8 injections per year over the remainder of the 25-year time horizon, L+B would cost <$100000/QALY, whereas L+R would be cost-effective at a WTP of $100000/QALY if patients

  16. Cost-Effectiveness of Bevacizumab and Ranibizumab for Newly Diagnosed Neovascular Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Joshua D.; Newman-Casey, Paula Anne; Mrinalini, Tavag; Lee, Paul P.; Hutton, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine the most cost-effective treatment for patients with newly diagnosed neovascular macular degeneration: monthly or as-needed bevacizumab injections, or monthly or as-needed ranibizumab injections. Design Cost effectiveness analysis Participants Hypothetical cohort of 80-year-old patients with newly-diagnosed neovascular macular degeneration. Methods Using a mathematical model with a 20-year time horizon, we compared the incremental cost-effectiveness of treating a hypothetical cohort of 80-year-old patients with newly diagnosed neovascular macular degeneration using monthly bevacizumab, as-needed bevacizumab, monthly ranibizumab, or as-needed ranibizumab. Data came from the Comparison of Age-related macular degeneration Treatment Trial (CATT), the Medicare Fee Schedule, and the medical literature. Main Outcome Measures Costs, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), and incremental costs per QALY gained. Results Compared with as-needed bevacizumab, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of monthly bevacizumab is $242 357/QALY. Monthly ranibizumab gains an additional 0.02 QALYs versus monthly bevacizumab at an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of more than $10 million/QALY. As-needed ranibizumab was dominated by monthly bevacizumab, meaning it was more costly and less effective. In sensitivity analyses assuming a willingness to pay of $100 000/QALY, the annual risk of serious vascular events would have to be at least 2.5 times higher with bevacizumab than that observed in the CATT trial for as-needed ranibizumab to have an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of <$100 000/QALY. In another sensitivity analysis, even if every patient receiving bevacizumab experienced declining vision by one category (e.g., from 20/25–20/40 to 20/50–20/80) after 2 years but every patient receiving ranibizumab retained their vision level, as-needed ranibizumab would have an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $97 340/QALY. Conclusion Even after considering

  17. Day-to-day variability of fasting plasma glucose in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic subjects.

    PubMed

    Ollerton, R L; Playle, R; Ahmed, K; Dunstan, F D; Luzio, S D; Owens, D R

    1999-03-01

    To determine the day-to-day intraindividual variability of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) in newly diagnosed Caucasian type 2 diabetic subjects. A total of 193 newly diagnosed, previously untreated, Caucasian type 2 diabetic subjects (135 men, 58 women) had FPG measured on two consecutive days (FPG1, FPG2). Ethical approval and subjects' full informed consent were obtained. Subjects fasted for 12 h before each study day and rested for at least 30 min before blood was taken. Plasma glucose was analyzed by a glucose oxidase method with intra- and interassay coefficients of variation (CVs) < 2%. Variability of FPG was assessed by comparison of percentage differences (PDs): PD = 100 (FPG2 - FPG1)/FPG1, with averaged FPG (FPGaver = [FPG1 + FPG2]/2). Biological and analytical variability were determined by use of SD2total = SD2biological + SD2analytical, where SD2analytical approximately equal to 2 x (CVglucose measurement)2. Given normally distributed data with zero mean, 95% of daily percentage differences will be expected to fall within a range of +/- 2 SDtotal. Subjects were age 54 +/- 10 years (mean +/- SD) and had BMI of 29.3 +/- 5.3 kg/m2. FPG values for both days were 12.2 +/- 3.4 mmol/l (FPG1) and 12.1 +/- 3.3 mmol/l (FPG2), with a mean paired difference (95% CI) of 0.1 (0.0 to 0.3) mmol/l. The variance of these differences increased with increasing FPGaver. The PDs did not exhibit this effect and were normally distributed (mean -0.6% [-1.7 to 0.4]; SD 7.4% [6.8 to 8.3]), giving a 95% variability (2 SD) of 14.8%. Biological variability (2 SDbiological) was 13.7%. No significant difference in PD was found between men and women (mean difference 1.3% [-1.0 to 3.6]; SDmale 7.4%, SDfemale 7.3%; P = 0.62). A total of 95% of the FPG values for this group of newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic subjects varied within approximately +/- 15% on a daily basis, with approximately 14% caused by biological variability. As these results are expressed in percentage terms, subjects in

  18. Possible triggering factors and comorbidities in newly diagnosed autoimmune bullous diseases.

    PubMed

    Akarsu, Sevgi; Özbağçivan, Özlem; Dolaş, Necla; Aktan, Şebnem

    2017-06-12

    The distribution and the demographic, etiological, and clinical features of autoimmune bullous diseases (ABDs) vary according to geographic regions of the world. The limited number of reported studies in Turkey are mostly retrospective and generally include only pemphigus. The aim of our study was to evaluate the demographic data, clinical features, associated triggering factors, and comorbidities in patients newly diagnosed with ABDs. In this descriptive and prospective study, the demographic data, inhabited regions, smoking and drinking habits, presence of comorbidities, and specific and general potential triggering factors of ABDs considered by the patients were examined. Furthermore, the distribution of lesions and autoimmune bullous skin disorder intensity scores were recorded. Of the total 59 ABD patients, 26 (44.1%) were diagnosed with pemphigus, 25 (42.4%) were diagnosed with pemphigoid, and 8 (13.5%) were diagnosed with dermatitis herpetiformis. Although there were some differences between the subgroups of ABDs, the onset of the disease was associated with a triggering factor (stress, foods, physical trauma, chemical agents, ultraviolet rays, medications, infections, malignancies, and pregnancy, in a decreasing frequency) in 96.6% of the patients. Autoimmune diseases, neuropsychiatric disorders, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension were found to be statistically significantly higher in the pemphigoid group compared to the pemphigus and dermatitis herpetiformis groups. Evaluation of triggering factors and comorbidities before starting treatment may assist in controlling the disease more swiftly and reducing the side effects of treatment in the management of ABDs. However, to evaluate the frequency and significance of our findings in order to determine whether they are statistically significant or not, we suggest a multicenter prospective clinical trial, which would include control groups and a higher number of patients for each of the disease groups and

  19. Older Adults Newly Diagnosed with Symptomatic Myeloma Want to Participate in Treatment Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Tariman, Joseph D.; Doorenbos, Ardith; Schepp, Karen G.; Singhal, Seema; Berry, Donna L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives The purpose of the study was to describe the preferences for participation in decision making of older patients newly diagnosed with symptomatic myeloma and to explore the association between sociodemographic variables and decisional role preferences. Design Descriptive, cross sectional design Setting Subjects’ homes and two large academic cancer centers. Sample The convenience sample consisted of 20 older adults (60 years of age and above) with symptomatic myeloma diagnosed within the past 6 months. Methods The Control Preferences Scale was administered followed by an in-person one-time semi-structured interview. Main Research Variables Role preferences for participation in treatment decision-making, age, gender, race, work status, personal relationship status, education, and income. Findings 55% (n=11) of the subjects had preferred a shared role with the physician and 40% (n=8) had preferred to make the decisions after seriously considering the opinion of their physicians. Only one subject preferred to leave the decision to the doctor as long as the doctor considered the patient’s treatment preferences. Sociodemographic characteristics had no impact on preferences for participation in treatment decision-making. Conclusions The study findings indicate that older adults newly diagnosed with myeloma wanted to participate during treatment decision-making. Oncology nurses must respect the patient's desired role preference and oncology clinicians must listen to the patient and allow them to be autonomous in making treatment decisions if the patient so desire such control in the decision-making process. A culture of equipoise between the patient and the clinician during TDM must be cultivated in order to achieve the patient's desired level of participation. More studies that focus on supporting and involving patients diagnosed with myeloma in the decision-making process are needed in order to influence clinical practice and policy. Practice

  20. Cognition in patients with newly diagnosed brain metastasis: profiles and implications.

    PubMed

    Gerstenecker, Adam; Nabors, Louis B; Meneses, Karen; Fiveash, John B; Marson, Daniel C; Cutter, Gary; Martin, Roy C; Meyers, Christina A; Triebel, Kristen L

    2014-10-01

    Cognitive impairment is a common symptom in patients with brain metastasis, and significant cognitive dysfunction is prevalent in a majority of patients who are still able to engage in basic self-care activities. In the current study, the neurocognitive performance of 32 patients with brain metastasis and 32 demographically-matched controls was examined using a battery of standardized neuropsychological tests, with the goal of comprehensively examining the cognitive functioning of newly diagnosed brain metastasis patients. The cognition of all patients was assessed within 1 week of beginning treatment for brain metastasis. Results indicated impairments in verbal memory, attention, executive functioning, and language in relation to healthy controls. Performance in relation to appropriate normative groups was also examined. Overall, cognitive deficits were prevalent and memory was the most common impairment. Given that cognitive dysfunction was present in this cohort of patients with largely minimal functional impairment, these results have implications for patients, caregivers and health care providers treating patients with brain metastasis.

  1. Detection of Blastomyces dermatitidis antigen in patients with newly diagnosed blastomycosis.

    PubMed

    Bariola, J Ryan; Hage, Chadi A; Durkin, Michelle; Bensadoun, Eric; Gubbins, Paul O; Wheat, L Joseph; Bradsher, Robert W

    2011-02-01

    Blastomycosis is a serious and potentially fatal infection, and diagnosis can be difficult at times. We evaluated the diagnostic utility of a commercially available assay for detection of Blastomyces dermatitidis antigen, recently modified to permit quantitation, in subjects with newly diagnosed blastomycosis. Twenty-three of 27 (85.1%) subjects had detectable B. dermatitidis antigenuria. In 2 of these 23, positive results were obtained after concentration of the urine specimen. Nine of 11 (81.8%) subjects had detectable B. dermatitidis antigen in serum, including 3 subjects with negative results before treatment of serum with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and positive results after EDTA treatment. B. dermatitidis antigen was not detected in specimens from 50 control subjects but was detected in 15 patients with histoplasmosis. B. dermatitidis antigen was detected in most of the patients with blastomycosis and can be a useful tool for timely diagnosis. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Rituximab and subcutaneous cladribine in chronic lymphocytic leukemia for newly diagnosed and relapsed patients.

    PubMed

    Bertazzoni, Paola; Rabascio, Cristina; Gigli, Federica; Calabrese, Liliana; Radice, Davide; Calleri, Angelica; Gregato, Giuliana; Negri, Mara; Liptrott, Sarah J; Bassi, Simona; Nassi, Luca; Sammassimo, Simona; Laszlo, Daniele; Preda, Lorenzo; Pruneri, Giancarlo; Orlando, Laura; Martinelli, Giovanni

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of combined treatment with rituximab and subcutaneous cladribine in patients with newly diagnosed and relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Forty-three patients with active CLL or small lymphocytic lymphoma received rituximab 375 mg/m(2) on day 1 and cladribine 0.1 mg/kg subcutaneously on days 2-6. The treatment was repeated every 4 weeks for a total of four cycles. Sixteen patients were pretreated. The overall response rate was 88% (50% complete remission and 38% partial remission). The median time to treatment failure was 37.9 months. Grade 4 neutropenia developed in 5% of patients. The data indicate that combination therapy with rituximab and cladribine is a valuable and safe treatment for patients with CLL.

  3. Counseling the Patient with Potentially HPV-Related Newly Diagnosed Head and Neck Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Finnigan, John P.; Sikora, Andrew G.

    2014-01-01

    The recent emergence of a clinically distinct subset of head and neck cancers (HNC) caused by infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV) necessitates critical reevaluation of the existing counseling paradigm for patients with newly diagnosed HNC. Herein we propose a structural framework for patient counseling in which HPV testing is incorporated and the impact of HPV-status is discussed in the context of multiple medical and psychosocial domains. We strive to maintain a balance between making recommendations based on the best available scientific evidence and acknowledgment of uncertainty for both patients and providers. We anticipate that both the standard-of-care diagnostic workup and treatment, and counseling guidelines for these patients will change rapidly in the years ahead, as data from ongoing and planned prospective clinical trials become available. PMID:24488548

  4. HIV type 1 diversity from newly diagnosed patients in Santos metropolitan area/Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Sa-Filho, Dercy José; Ambar, Rafael Favero; Duarte, Natalia Brenneken; Matias, Rafael Bragança Rodrigues; Candido, Valéria; Gagliani, Luiz Henrique; Caseiro, Marcos Montani

    2009-09-01

    HIV-1 from infected subjects has been characterized in order to provide a more accurate view of the strains that are currently found in a given region. In this report, we focused on characterizing the pol gene diversity obtained from newly diagnosed patients in Santos metropolitan area, Brazil. This region is composed of nine cities and an international port. Analysis of the 33 samples revealed that 22 strains belonged to subtype B, 4 to subtype F, and 2 to subtype C; 5 strains were B/F recombinants. Our results demonstrated that 18.2% of samples were primary antiretroviral resistance genotypic mutations, with high-level resistance to reverse transcriptase inhibitors in both subtypes B and F and in recombinant forms B/F. Our data revealed that the primary antiretroviral resistance genotypic mutations should be carefully investigated in developing countries with widespread access to antiretrovirals, such as Brazil.

  5. Outcome evaluation of patients with newly diagnosed anaplastic gliomas treated in a single institution.

    PubMed

    Pessina, Federico; Navarria, Pierina; Cozzi, Luca; Tomatis, Stefano; Clerici, Elena; Ascolese, Anna Maria; Simonelli, Matteo; Perrino, Matteo; Riva, Marco; Rossi, Marco; Rudà, Roberta; Santoro, Armando; Bello, Lorenzo; Scorsetti, Marta

    2017-07-18

    To evaluate the outcome of newly diagnosed anaplastic glioma patients treated in our institution in relation to the 2016 WHO classification suggestions. This retrospective study included patients who underwent surgery plus adjuvant chemotherapy alone or concomitant and adjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Response was recorded using the Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology criteria. 123 patients were analyzed. The median progression-free survival time and the 2, 3 and 5 years progression-free survival rate were 27 months, 65.5, 21.2 and 21.2%; the 2, 3 and 5 years overall survival rate were 89.7, 83.0 and 58.4%. From the univariate/multivariate analysis, the factors conditioning survival were Karnofsky performance scale, extent of resection, IDH1 mutation status and presence of 1p/19q codeletion. The choice of adjuvant treatment have to consider molecular assessment and, in our experience, the extent of surgical resection.

  6. Ophthalmic findings of newly diagnosed leprosy patients in Istanbul Leprosy Hospital, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Cakiner, T; Karaçorlu, M A

    1998-02-01

    The objective of this study was to detect ocular lesions of newly diagnosed leprosy cases admitted to Istanbul Leprosy Hospital. The patients were categorized according to sex, age, type of leprosy and duration of the disease. Their eyes were categorized as with or without ocular findings due to leprosy. The total number of patients was 21. The mean age was 22+/-4.6 years, the duration of the disease was 36.3+/-19.6 months. Madarosis was the most common finding in this group. It was found in 15 patients (71.4%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 47.8-88.7%). As a second common finding related to corneal alterations, 13 patients had nerve thickening (61.9%, 95% CI 38.4-81.8%). None of our patients had trichiasis, episcleritis, scleritis, cataract, iris atrophy, iris pearl, abnormal vitreous or retinal findings.

  7. Hypoactivation of reward motivational system in patients with newly diagnosed hypertension grade I-II.

    PubMed

    Aftanas, L I; Brak, I V; Gilinskaya, O M; Korenek, V V; Pavlov, S V; Reva, N V

    2014-08-01

    In patients with newly diagnosed untreated grade I-II hypertension, EEG oscillations were recorded under conditions activation of the two basic motivational systems, defensive motivational system and positive reinforcement system, evoked by recall of personally meaningful emotional events. The 64-channel EEG and cardiovascular reactivity (beat-by-beat technology) were simultaneously recorded. At rest, hypertensive patients had significantly reduced platelet serotonin concentrations in comparison with healthy individuals. The patients experiencing emotional activation were characterized by significantly lower intensity of positive emotions associated with more pronounced suppression of EEG activity in the delta (2-4 Hz) and theta (ranges of frequency 4-6 and 6-8 Hz) oscillators in the parieto-occipital cortex (zones P and PO) in both hemispheres of the brain. The findings attest to insufficient function of the brain serotonin system and hypoactivation of the reward/reinforcement system in patients with primary hypertension.

  8. Functional impairments as symptoms in the symptom cluster analysis of patients newly diagnosed with advanced cancer.

    PubMed

    Fodeh, Samah J; Lazenby, Mark; Bai, Mei; Ercolano, Elizabeth; Murphy, Terrence; McCorkle, Ruth

    2013-10-01

    Symptoms and subsequent functional impairment have been associated with the biological processes of disease, including the interaction between disease and treatment in a measurement model of symptoms. However, hitherto cluster analysis has primarily focused on symptoms. This study among patients within 100 days of diagnosis with advanced cancer explored whether self-reported physical symptoms and functional impairments formed clusters at the time of diagnosis. We applied cluster analysis to self-reported symptoms and activities of daily living of 111 patients newly diagnosed with advanced gastrointestinal (GI), gynecological, head and neck, and lung cancers. Based on content expert evaluations, the best techniques and variables were identified, yielding the best solution. The best cluster solution used a K-means algorithm and cosine similarity and yielded five clusters of physical as well as emotional symptoms and functional impairments. Cancer site formed the predominant organizing principle of composition for each cluster. The top five symptoms and functional impairments in each cluster were Cluster 1 (GI): outlook, insomnia, appearance, concentration, and eating/feeding; Cluster 2 (GI): appetite, bowel, insomnia, eating/feeding, and appearance; Cluster 3 (gynecological): nausea, insomnia, eating/feeding, concentration, and pain; Cluster 4 (head and neck): dressing, eating/feeding, bathing, toileting, and walking; and Cluster 5 (lung): cough, walking, eating/feeding, breathing, and insomnia. Functional impairments in patients newly diagnosed with late-stage cancers behave as symptoms during the diagnostic phase. Health care providers need to expand their assessments to include both symptoms and functional impairments. Early recognition of functional changes may accelerate diagnosis at an earlier cancer stage. Copyright © 2013 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Newly diagnosed rheumatic heart disease among indigenous populations in the Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Mirabel, Mariana; Tafflet, Muriel; Noël, Baptiste; Parks, Tom; Axler, Olivier; Robert, Jacques; Nadra, Marie; Phelippeau, Gwendolyne; Descloux, Elodie; Cazorla, Cécile; Missotte, Isabelle; Gervolino, Shirley; Barguil, Yann; Rouchon, Bernard; Laumond, Sylvie; Jubeau, Thierry; Braunstein, Corinne; Empana, Jean-Philippe; Marijon, Eloi; Jouven, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) remains the leading acquired heart disease in the young worldwide. We aimed at assessing outcomes and influencing factors in the contemporary era. Methods Hospital-based cohort in a high-income island nation where RHD remains endemic and the population is captive. All patients admitted with newly diagnosed RHD according to World Heart Federation echocardiographic criteria were enrolled (2005–2013). The incidence of major cardiovascular events (MACEs) including heart failure, peripheral embolism, stroke, heart valve intervention and cardiovascular death was calculated, and their determinants identified. Results Of the 396 patients, 43.9% were male with median age 18 years (IQR 10–40)). 127 (32.1%) patients presented with mild, 131 (33.1%) with moderate and 138 (34.8%) with severe heart valve disease. 205 (51.8%) had features of acute rheumatic fever. 106 (26.8%) presented with at least one MACE. Among the remaining 290 patients, after a median follow-up period of 4.08 (95% CI 1.84 to 6.84) years, 7 patients (2.4%) died and 62 (21.4%) had a first MACE. The annual incidence of first MACE and of heart failure were 59.05‰ (95% CI 44.35 to 73.75) and 29.06‰ (95% CI 19.29 to 38.82), respectively. The severity of RHD at diagnosis (moderate vs mild HR 3.39 (0.95 to 12.12); severe vs mild RHD HR 10.81 (3.11 to 37.62), p<0.001) and ongoing secondary prophylaxis at follow-up (HR 0.27 (0.12 to 0.63), p=0.01) were the two most influential factors associated with MACE. Conclusions Newly diagnosed RHD is associated with poor outcomes, mainly in patients with moderate or severe valve disease and no secondary prophylaxis. PMID:26537732

  10. NRSF and BDNF polymorphisms as biomarkers of cognitive dysfunction in adults with newly diagnosed epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Warburton, Alix; Miyajima, Fabio; Shazadi, Kanvel; Crossley, Joanne; Johnson, Michael R.; Marson, Anthony G.; Baker, Gus A.; Quinn, John P.; Sills, Graeme J.

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive dysfunction is a common comorbidity in people with epilepsy, but its causes remain unclear. It may be related to the etiology of the disorder, the consequences of seizures, or the effects of antiepileptic drug treatment. Genetics may also play a contributory role. We investigated the influence of variants in the genes encoding neuron-restrictive silencer factor (NRSF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), proteins previously associated with cognition and epilepsy, on cognitive function in people with newly diagnosed epilepsy. A total of 82 patients who had previously undergone detailed neuropsychological assessment were genotyped for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across the NRSF and BDNF genes. Putatively functional SNPs were included in a genetic association analysis with specific cognitive domains, including memory, psychomotor speed, and information processing. Cross-sectional and longitudinal designs were used to explore genetic influences on baseline cognition at diagnosis and change from baseline over the first year since diagnosis, respectively. We found a statistically significant association between genotypic variation and memory function at both baseline (NRSF: rs1105434, rs2227902 and BDNF: rs1491850, rs2030324, rs11030094) and in our longitudinal analysis (NRSF: rs2227902 and BDNF: rs12273363). Psychomotor speed was also associated with genotype (NRSF rs3796529) in the longitudinal assessment. In line with our previous work on general cognitive function in the healthy aging population, we observed an additive interaction between risk alleles for the NRSF rs2227902 (G) and BDNF rs6265 (A) polymorphisms which was again consistent with a significantly greater decline in delayed recall over the first year since diagnosis. These findings support a role for the NRSF–BDNF pathway in the modulation of cognitive function in patients with newly diagnosed epilepsy. PMID:26708060

  11. Effects of glaucoma medications on the cardiorespiratory and intraocular pressure status of newly diagnosed glaucoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Waldock, A; Snape, J; Graham, C

    2000-01-01

    AIMS—To evaluate the short term cardiovascular, respiratory, and intraocular pressure (IOP) effects of four glaucoma medications in newly diagnosed glaucoma patients.
METHODS—141 newly diagnosed glaucoma patients were recruited and underwent a full ocular, cardiovascular, and respiratory examination, including an electrocardiogram (ECG) and spirometry. They were prescribed one of four topical glaucoma medications and reviewed 3 months later. One eye of each patient was randomly chosen for analysis, performed using analysis of variance and the χ2 test.
RESULTS—Latanoprost had the greatest mean IOP lowering effect in both the primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) (p = 0.005) and the "presumed" normal tension glaucoma (NTG) groups (p = 0.33), reducing the IOP by 8.9 mm Hg and 4.1 mm Hg respectively. Timolol was associated with lowered pulse rates and reductions in the spirometry measurements. 41% of patients using brimonidine complained of systemic side effects and over 55% of patients using betaxolol complained of ocular irritation. 28% of patients required an alteration in their glaucoma management.
CONCLUSIONS—Latanoprost appears to be a useful primary treatment for glaucoma patients, in view of superior IOP control and a low incidence of local and systemic side effects. Timolol causes a reduction in measurements of respiratory function, a concern in view of the potential subclinical reversible airways disease in the elderly glaucoma population. Brimonidine is associated with substantial, unpredictable systemic side effects and betaxolol causes ocular irritation and weak IOP control. Spirometry is advised in all patients receiving topical β blocker therapy to control their glaucoma.

 PMID:10873979

  12. Dyspnea and Panic Among Patients With Newly Diagnosed Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jennifer A.; Kosiba, Jesse D.; Traeger, Lara; Greer, Joseph A.; Temel, Jennifer S.; Pirl, William F.

    2014-01-01

    Context Among patients with lung cancer, dyspnea is associated with psychological distress, fatigue, and poor coping. Respiratory symptoms are also a common trigger for panic attacks in the general population. Minimal research has addressed the prevalence of panic disorder or the association of dyspnea with risk of panic disorder in lung cancer. Objectives We explored the frequency of panic disorder symptoms and the association of dyspnea with risk of panic disorder symptoms among patients with newly diagnosed non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods During 2006–2010, consecutive patients presenting for initial consultation at a thoracic oncology clinic completed a survey of current symptoms, including dyspnea and panic disorder symptoms. We evaluated the frequency of panic disorder symptoms. Logistic regression was used to test the association of dyspnea with risk of panic disorder symptoms, adjusting for age, gender, disease stage, performance status, and major depression symptoms. Results Among 624 patients (M age=63.7 [SD=12.1]; 52.6% female), 48.1% reported that breathing was at least somewhat difficult and 11.2% endorsed panic disorder symptoms. Dyspnea was independently associated with higher risk of panic disorder symptoms (OR=2.19, 95% CI=1.11–4.31, P=0.02). Younger age and major depression symptoms also were associated with higher risk (P’s<0.01). Conclusion Almost half of patients with newly diagnosed NSCLC reported dyspnea, and patients with dyspnea were over twice as likely to endorse panic disorder symptoms relative to patients without dyspnea. Results highlight the need to differentiate panic disorder symptoms among patients who report dyspnea, particularly those who are younger or experiencing major depression symptoms. PMID:24766738

  13. Quantitative and functional characteristics of endothelial progenitor cells in newly diagnosed hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Skrzypkowska, M; Myśliwska, J; Słomiński, B; Siebert, J; Gutknecht, P; Ryba-Stanisławowska, M

    2015-05-01

    Populations of peripheral blood CD34(+) cells comprise precursors of endothelial cells. These precursors are crucial to cardiovascular homeostasis. Hypertension, as one of the main risk factors for cardiovascular disease, is associated with the loss of endothelium structural integrity and its functional impairment. The aim of our study was to evaluate the subsets of endothelial precursor cells in patients with newly diagnosed arterial hypertension. Twenty-four newly diagnosed, previously untreated hypertensive patients aged 59.5 ± 12.5 years, were enrolled into the study group, whereas the control group comprised 45 healthy subjects, 55.5±10.0 years old. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) were analysed by flow cytometry. The results showed that hypertensive patients were characterized by a significantly higher percentage and number of the CD34(+) cells and simultaneously less differentiated CD34(+)CD45(dim/neg)CD133(+) progenitors. The percentage and number of CD34(+)CD45(neg)VEGFR2(+) and CD34(+)CD45(neg)CD133(+)VEGFR2(+) cells were not different from the control group. Moreover, patients had a significantly lower percentage and number of the CD34(+)CD45(neg)VEGFR2(+)CXCR4(+) and CD34(+)CD45(neg)VEGFR2(+)ICAM-1(+) cells than healthy individuals. These changes were paralleled by early symptoms of nephropathy, that is, lower glomerular filtration rate (GFR) values and borderline micro albuminuria. Our results indicate that an elevation in the number of less differentiated progenitors may be a mechanism compensating for defects of migration and adhesion, present in a more differentiated subset.

  14. Phase I Study of Vandetanib With Radiotherapy and Temozolomide for Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Drappatz, Jan; Norden, Andrew D.; Wong, Eric T.

    2010-09-01

    Purpose: Increasing evidence has suggested that angiogenesis inhibition might potentiate the effects of radiotherapy and chemotherapy in patients with glioblastoma (GBM). In addition, epidermal growth factor receptor inhibition might be of therapeutic benefit, because the epidermal growth factor receptor is upregulated in GBM and contributes to radiation resistance. We conducted a Phase I study of vandetanib, an inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 and epidermal growth factor receptor, in patients with newly diagnosed GBM combined with RT and temozolomide (TMZ). Methods and Materials: A total of 13 GBM patients were treated with vandetanib, radiotherapy, and concurrent and adjuvant TMZ, using a standard '3 + 3' dose escalation. The maximal tolerated dose was defined as the dose with <1 of 6 dose-limiting toxicities during the first 12 weeks of therapy. The eligible patients were adults with newly diagnosed GBM, Karnofsky performance status of {>=}60, normal organ function, who were not taking enzyme-inducing antiepileptic drugs. Results: Of the 13 patients, 6 were treated with vandetanib at a dose of 200mg daily. Of the 6 patients, 3 developed dose-limiting toxicities within the first 12 weeks, including gastrointestinal hemorrhage and thrombocytopenia in 1 patient, neutropenia in 1 patient, and diverticulitis with gastrointestinal perforation in 1 patient. The other 7 patients were treated with 100 mg daily, with no dose-limiting toxicities observed, establishing this dose as the maximal tolerated dose combined with TMZ and RT. Conclusion: Vandetanib can be safely combined with RT and TMZ in GBM patients. A Phase II study in which patients are randomized to vandetanib 100 mg daily with RT and TMZ or RT and TMZ alone is underway.

  15. NRSF and BDNF polymorphisms as biomarkers of cognitive dysfunction in adults with newly diagnosed epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Warburton, Alix; Miyajima, Fabio; Shazadi, Kanvel; Crossley, Joanne; Johnson, Michael R; Marson, Anthony G; Baker, Gus A; Quinn, John P; Sills, Graeme J

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive dysfunction is a common comorbidity in people with epilepsy, but its causes remain unclear. It may be related to the etiology of the disorder, the consequences of seizures, or the effects of antiepileptic drug treatment. Genetics may also play a contributory role. We investigated the influence of variants in the genes encoding neuron-restrictive silencer factor (NRSF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), proteins previously associated with cognition and epilepsy, on cognitive function in people with newly diagnosed epilepsy. A total of 82 patients who had previously undergone detailed neuropsychological assessment were genotyped for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across the NRSF and BDNF genes. Putatively functional SNPs were included in a genetic association analysis with specific cognitive domains, including memory, psychomotor speed, and information processing. Cross-sectional and longitudinal designs were used to explore genetic influences on baseline cognition at diagnosis and change from baseline over the first year since diagnosis, respectively. We found a statistically significant association between genotypic variation and memory function at both baseline (NRSF: rs1105434, rs2227902 and BDNF: rs1491850, rs2030324, rs11030094) and in our longitudinal analysis (NRSF: rs2227902 and BDNF: rs12273363). Psychomotor speed was also associated with genotype (NRSF rs3796529) in the longitudinal assessment. In line with our previous work on general cognitive function in the healthy aging population, we observed an additive interaction between risk alleles for the NRSF rs2227902 (G) and BDNF rs6265 (A) polymorphisms which was again consistent with a significantly greater decline in delayed recall over the first year since diagnosis. These findings support a role for the NRSF-BDNF pathway in the modulation of cognitive function in patients with newly diagnosed epilepsy.

  16. Olfactory dysfunction and dementia in newly diagnosed patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Domellöf, Magdalena Eriksson; Lundin, Karl-Fredrik; Edström, Mona; Forsgren, Lars

    2017-05-01

    Studies report that up to 90% of patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) have olfactory dysfunction (hyposmia). Hyposmia has also been connected to cognitive impairment and dementia in PD, but no studies of newly diagnosed patients followed longer than three years exists. The present study investigates the prevalence of olfactory dysfunction at PD diagnosis, how it evolves over time and whether hyposmia increases the risk of dementia in Parkinson's disease. Olfactory function was assessed with Brief Smell Identification Test (B-SIT) in 125 newly diagnosed patients with PD. They were followed for a maximum of 10 years (median six years) with extensive investigations at baseline, 12, 36, 60 and 96 months. Patients with B-SIT<9 were considered hyposmic. Hyposmia was found in 73% of the patients at diagnosis. During the follow up period of ten years 42 (46%) patients with hyposmia at baseline developed dementia compared to seven (21%) of the normosmic patients. Cox proportional hazards model showed that hyposmia at baseline (controlled for age, gender, UPDRS III and Mild Cognitive Impairment) increased the risk of developing dementia (hazard ratio (95%CI): 3.29 (1.44-7.52), p = 0.005). Only one of 22 patients with normal cognition and normal olfaction at baseline developed dementia. Olfactory dysfunction was common at the time of PD diagnosis and increased the risk of dementia up to ten years after PD diagnosis regardless of baseline cognitive function. Normal olfaction together with normal cognition at baseline predicted a benign cognitive course up to ten years after diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Sensitivity and specificity of the Distress Thermometer for depression in newly diagnosed breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Hegel, Mark T.; Collins, E. Dale; Kearing, Stephen; Gillock, Karen L.; Moore, Caroline P.; Ahles, Tim A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Receiving a new diagnosis of breast cancer is a distressing experience that may precipitate an episode of major depressive disorder. Efficient screening methods for detecting depression in the oncology setting are needed. This study evaluated the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) of the single-item Distress Thermometer (DT) for detecting depression in women newly diagnosed with Stage I–III breast cancer. Methods We assessed 321 patients (of 345 consecutive patients) at the time of their pre-surgical consultation at a Comprehensive Breast Cancer Program. Patients were administered the DT along with the Patient Health Questionnaire 9-Item Depression Module (PHQ-9) as a gold standard diagnostic assessment of depression status. Results Mean DT scores (11-point scale, 0–10) were significantly higher for depressed versus non-depressed patients (8.1 versus 4.4). In ROC analyses the DT showed strong discriminatory power relative to the PHQ-9-derived diagnosis of depression, with an area under the curve of 0.87. Patient age, education, marital status and stage of disease resulted in similar operating characteristics. A score of 7 represented the optimal trade-off between sensitivity (0.81) and specificity (0.85) characteristics for detecting depression. Conclusions The single-item DT performs satisfactorily relative to the PHQ-9 for detecting depression in newly diagnosed breast cancer patients. A cutoff score of 7 on the DT possesses the optimal sensitivity and specificity characteristics. The strength of these findings suggests that a careful psychosocial evaluation should follow a positive screen. PMID:17957755

  18. Higher persistence in newly diagnosed nonvalvular atrial fibrillation patients treated with dabigatran versus warfarin.

    PubMed

    Zalesak, Martin; Siu, Kimberly; Francis, Kevin; Yu, Chen; Alvrtsyan, Hasmik; Rao, Yajing; Walker, David; Sander, Stephen; Miyasato, Gavin; Matchar, David; Sanchez, Herman

    2013-09-01

    Oral anticoagulation therapy is the primary tool in reducing stroke risk in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation but is underused. Patients nonpersistent with therapy contribute to this underuse. The objective of this study was to compare persistence rates in newly diagnosed nonvalvular atrial fibrillation patients treated with warfarin versus dabigatran as their oral anticoagulation. US Department of Defense administrative claims were used to identify patients receiving warfarin or dabigatran between October 28, 2010, and June 30, 2012. Patient records were examined for a minimum of 12 months before index date to restrict the analyses to those newly diagnosed with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation and naive-to-treatment, identifying 1775 on warfarin and 3370 on dabigatran. Propensity score matching was used to identify 1745 matched pairs. Persistence was defined as time on therapy to discontinuation. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to depict persistence over time. Cox proportional hazards model was used to determine the factors significantly associated with persistence. Using a 60-day permissible medication gap, the persistence rates were higher for dabigatran than for warfarin at both 6 months (72% versus 53%) and 1 year (63% versus 39%). Patients on dabigatran with a low-to-moderate risk of stroke (CHADS2<2) or with a higher bleed risk (HEMORR2HAGES>3) had a higher likelihood of nonpersistence (hazard ratios, 1.37; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-1.60; P<0.001; and hazard ratios, 1.24; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.47; P=0.016). Patients who initiated dabigatran treatment were more persistent than patients who began warfarin treatment. Within each cohort, patients with lower stroke risk were more likely to discontinue therapy.

  19. Insulin-based versus triple oral therapy for newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes: which is better?

    PubMed

    Lingvay, Ildiko; Legendre, Jaime L; Kaloyanova, Polina F; Zhang, Song; Adams-Huet, Beverley; Raskin, Philip

    2009-10-01

    Early use of insulin after diagnosis of type 2 diabetes is met with resistance because of associated weight gain, hypoglycemia, and fear of decreased compliance and quality of life (QoL). In treatment-naive patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes, insulin and metformin were initiated for a 3-month lead-in period, then patients were randomly assigned to insulin and metformin (insulin group) or metformin, pioglitazone, and glyburide (oral group) for 36 months. Hypoglycemic events, compliance, A1C, weight, QoL, and treatment satisfaction were assessed. Of 29 patients randomly assigned into each group, 83% (insulin group) and 72% (oral group) completed this 3-year study. At study completion, A1C was 6.1 +/- 0.6% (insulin group) versus 6.0 +/- 0.8% (oral group). Weight increased similarly in both groups (P = 0.09) by 4.47 kg (95% CI 0.89-8.04 kg) (insulin group) and 7.15 kg (95% CI 4.18-10.13 kg) (orals group). Hypoglycemic events did not differ between groups (mild 0.51 event/person-month in the insulin group vs. 0.68 event/person-month in the orals group, P = 0.18 and severe 0.04 event/person-year in the insulin group vs. 0.09 event/person-year in the orals group, P = 0.53). Compliance, QoL, and treatment satisfaction were similar between groups, with 100% of patients randomly assigned to insulin willing to continue such treatment. When compared with a clinically equivalent treatment regimen, insulin-based therapy is effective and did not cause greater weight gain or hypoglycemia nor decrease compliance, treatment satisfaction, or QoL. Insulin is safe, well-accepted, and effective for ongoing treatment of patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes.

  20. Iodine-131-meta-iodobenzylguanidine therapy for patients with newly diagnosed high-risk neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Kraal, Kathelijne Cjm; van Dalen, Elvira C; Tytgat, Godelieve Am; Van Eck-Smit, Berthe Lf

    2017-04-21

    Patients with newly diagnosed high-risk (HR) neuroblastoma (NBL) still have a poor outcome, despite multi-modality intensive therapy. This poor outcome necessitates the search for new therapies, such as treatment with (131)I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine ((131)I-MIBG). To assess the efficacy and adverse effects of (131)I-MIBG therapy in patients with newly diagnosed HR NBL. We searched the following electronic databases: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; the Cochrane Library 2016, Issue 3), MEDLINE (PubMed) (1945 to 25 April 2016) and Embase (Ovid) (1980 to 25 April 2016). In addition, we handsearched reference lists of relevant articles and reviews. We also assessed the conference proceedings of the International Society for Paediatric Oncology, Advances in Neuroblastoma Research and the American Society of Clinical Oncology; all from 2010 up to and including 2015. We scanned the International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN) Register (www.isrctn.com) and the National Institutes of Health Register for ongoing trials (www.clinicaltrials.gov) on 13 April 2016. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), controlled clinical trials (CCTs), non-randomised single-arm trials with historical controls and cohort studies examining the efficacy of (131)I-MIBG therapy in 10 or more patients with newly diagnosed HR NBL. Two review authors independently performed the study selection, risk of bias assessment and data extraction. We identified two eligible cohort studies including 60 children with newly diagnosed HR NBL. All studies had methodological limitations, with regard to both internal (risk of bias) and external validity. As the studies were not comparable with regard to prognostic factors and treatment (and often used different outcome definitions), pooling of results was not possible. In one study, the objective response rate (ORR) was 73% after surgery; the median overall survival was 15 months (95% confidence interval (CI) 7 to 23

  1. Effects of latanoprost and betaxolol on cardiovascular and respiratory status of newly diagnosed glaucoma patients.

    PubMed

    Erkin, Esin F; Celik, Pinar; Kayikçioğlu, Ozcan; Deveci, Hulya Mutlu; Sakar, Ayşin

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the cardiovascular and respiratory effects of topical latanoprost 0.005% and topical betaxolol 0.25% monotherapy in newly diagnosed glaucoma patients. Fortynewly diagnosed glaucoma patients were enrolled in this prospective, observer-masked, randomized, parallel study. Patients received either latanoprost 0.005% or betaxolol 0.25% for a duration of 3 months. Baseline evaluation included intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement and cardiorespiratory examinations including pulse rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure measurements and spirometry. These measurements were repeated after 3 months. Both latanoprost and betaxolol reduced IOP significantly (p = 0.001). After 3 months of therapy, the mean pulse rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure values of the betaxolol group were reduced (p = 0.027, p = 0.07 and p = 0.016, respectively). No significant changes occurred in the cardiovascular measurements of the latanoprost group (p > 0.05). There were no significant changes in any of the spirometric measurements tested for both groups (p > 0.05). Both latanoprost and betaxolol are safe concerning respiratory functions. Betaxolol may cause small changes in the cardiovascular system, suggesting that blood pressure and pulse rates should be checked before and in regular intervals after prescribing it for the elderly. Latanoprost seems to be a safe medication in view of absence of systemic cardiovascular and respiratory side effects. Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Education and employment levels among Jamaican patients newly diagnosed with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Bertilee; Curtis-Downes, Desdemona; Gibson, Roger C

    2013-05-01

    Comparisons between persons with bipolar disorder and those with schizophrenia are not well researched in the Caribbean. To compare the educational and occupational attainments in Jamaicans diagnosed with these two disorders. Data on diagnosis, educational level, type of employment and other basic socio-demographic variables were collected from Jamaican hospital patients who were newly diagnosed with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Fisher's exact and χ2 tests, as well as binary logistic regression, were used to explore how these characteristics varied according to diagnosis. Statistical significance was taken at p < .05. Schizophrenia was associated with significantly lower educational attainment than bipolar disorder (p = .022 for educational level attained; p = .026 for completion of secondary school). The majority (87.1%) of the 93 patients included in the analysis had no specific marketable job skills. However, the proportion of persons with bipolar disorder who had such skills was three times the corresponding proportion of persons with schizophrenia. The low educational achievement among persons with schizophrenia makes education a potentially important area for interventions targeted at this group. Because gross deficiencies in job skills were common to both patient groups, improvement in job skill levels is an important goal for persons with either of these disorders.

  3. Drug treatment in patients with newly diagnosed unprovoked seizures/epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Linnéa; Wettermark, Björn; Tomson, Torbjörn

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze drug treatment in patients with newly diagnosed unprovoked seizures/epilepsy in a population-based cohort in Stockholm, Sweden. Clinical data from the Stockholm Incidence Registry of Epilepsy was cross-linked with drug dispensing data from the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register to analyze drug treatment in patients diagnosed with unprovoked seizures between 2006 and 2008. Specific questions addressed were the use of other medications at seizures onset, the proportion of patients initiated on different antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) within one year after inclusion, and the extent of switching between different AEDs during the first year. In total 367 patients were included. More than 50% had other medications prescribed at date of first seizure. All together, 262 patients received an AED within one year and 257 patients (98%) were initiated on monotherapy. One year after first prescription, 147 patients (56%) remained on the initially prescribed AED and 48 patients (18%) had switched to another AED. Among the remaining patients, 29 (11%) had died and 38 patients (15%) had discontinued AED treatment. A majority of all patients with epilepsy receive treatment within one year. Many patients use other medications and several of them are related to known comorbidities and can also be involved in drug-drug interactions. Nevertheless, most patients remained on the same AED at the end of the first year. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Acute mononeuropathy in a child with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Rangel, Maria Adriana; Baptista, Carolina; Santos, Fátima; Real, Marta Vila; Campos, Rosa Arménia; Leite, Ana Luísa

    2015-03-01

    Neuropathy is a frequent complication of diabetes mellitus (DM), increasing with the duration of the disease, poor glycemic control and advanced age. Acute presentation of a neuropathy in the setting of a newly diagnosed type 1 DM is rare and holds a diagnostic challenge. A 10-year-old girl, presented at the emergency service with complaints of polydipsia, polyuria, asthenia and weight lost over the last 15 days, accompanied by difficulties in flexing the right foot, during the previous week. The patient denied any pain, paresthesias, or altered sensibility. There was no fever documented, or recent infectious intercurrence or trauma. On physical examination, she was conscious, collaborative and space and time-orientated, had a diminished strength in the right foot, namely in the dorsiflexion, conditioning a steppage gait ipsilateral. Hyperalgesia was felt in the dorsum of the right feet to the ankle. DM type 1 was diagnosed based on serum glucose of 629 mg/dL and mild ketoacidosis. Investigation for infectious, immune and nutritional aetiologies for the mononeuropathy was negative. Electrophysiological study was suggestive of a lesion of the peroneal nerve on the popliteal cesspit, but was not conclusive. The patient started physiotherapy during her hospital stay and exhibited a slight improvement in the dorsiflexion of the foot. Four months later she was asymptomatic and with good glycaemic control. Diabetic neuropathy is a heterogeneous group that still lacks adequate comprehension. Its approach is empirical and demands exclusion of other etiologies. A definitive diagnosis is not always possible and sometimes is retrospective.

  5. “Myxedema Madness” Associated with Newly Diagnosed Hypothyroidism and Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Neal, J. Matthew; Yuhico, Rodney Joe O.

    2012-01-01

    This is the case report of a 32-year-old obese male with a history of agitation, hallucinations, and delirium, recently diagnosed with primary hypothyroidism; he gave a several month history of fatigue with nocturnal snoring and frequent awakening. Polysomnogram revealed severe OSA; initiation of CPAP and levothyroxine resulted in immediate improvement. The lack of a previous psychiatric history and acuteness of presentation was consistent with hypothyroid psychosis complicated by sleep deprivation cause by untreated OSA. Primary hypothyroidism is a common disorder often associated with depression. It is rarely associated with psychosis and was first described as “myxoedematous madness” in 1949. It has not been previously reported to cause psychosis when associated with obstructive sleep apnea. This case illustrates the need for examination of potential multiple organic causes in a patient who presents with psychosis in the critical care setting. Citation: Neal JM; Yuhico RJO. “Myxedema madness” associated with newly diagnosed hypothyroidism and obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med 2012;8(6):717-718. PMID:23243407

  6. Nondisclosure of HIV Status in a Clinical Trial Setting: Antiretroviral Drug Screening Can Help Distinguish Between Newly Diagnosed and Previously Diagnosed HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Marzinke, Mark A.; Clarke, William; Wang, Lei; Cummings, Vanessa; Liu, Ting-Yuan; Piwowar-Manning, Estelle; Breaud, Autumn; Griffith, Sam; Buchbinder, Susan; Shoptaw, Steven; del Rio, Carlos; Magnus, Manya; Mannheimer, Sharon; Fields, Sheldon D.; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Wheeler, Darrell P.; Koblin, Beryl A.; Eshleman, Susan H.; Fogel, Jessica M.

    2014-01-01

    In The HIV Prevention Trials Network 061 study, 155 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected men reported no prior HIV diagnosis; 83 of those men had HIV RNA levels of <1000 copies/mL at enrollment. Antiretroviral drug testing revealed that 65 of the 83 (78.3%) men were on antiretroviral treatment. Antiretroviral drug testing can help distinguish between newly diagnosed and previously diagnosed HIV infection. PMID:24092804

  7. A prospective observational longitudinal study of new-onset seizures and newly diagnosed epilepsy in dogs.

    PubMed

    Fredsø, N; Toft, N; Sabers, A; Berendt, M

    2017-02-16

    Seizures are common in dogs and can be caused by non-epileptic conditions or epilepsy. The clinical course of newly diagnosed epilepsy is sparsely documented. The objective of this study was to prospectively investigate causes for seizures (epileptic and non-epileptic) in a cohort of dogs with new-onset untreated seizures, and for those dogs with newly diagnosed epilepsy to investigate epilepsy type, seizure type and the course of disease over time, including the risk of seizure recurrence. Untreated client-owned dogs experiencing new-onset seizures were prospectively enrolled in a longitudinal observational study including clinical investigations and long-term monitoring at the Copenhagen University Hospital for Companion Animals. A baseline clinical assessment was followed by investigator/owner contact every eight weeks from inclusion to death or end of study. Inclusion of dogs was conducted from November 2010 to September 2012, and the study terminated in June 2014. One hundred and six dogs were included in the study. Seventy-nine dogs (74.5%) were diagnosed with epilepsy: 61 dogs (77.2%) with idiopathic epilepsy, 13 dogs (16.5%) with structural epilepsy and five dogs (6.3%) with suspected structural epilepsy. A non-epileptic cause for seizures was identified in 13 dogs and suspected in 10 dogs. Four dogs in which no cause for seizures was identified experienced only one seizure during the study. In dogs with idiopathic epilepsy 60% had their second epileptic seizure within three months of seizure onset. Twenty-six dogs with idiopathic epilepsy (43%) completed the study without receiving antiepileptic treatment. The natural course of idiopathic epilepsy (uninfluenced by drugs) was illustrated by highly individual and fluctuating seizure patterns, including long periods of remission. Cluster seizures motivated early treatment. In a few dogs with a high seizure frequency owners declined treatment against the investigators advice. Epilepsy is the most likely

  8. Emotion episodes during psychotherapy sessions among women newly diagnosed with gynecological cancers.

    PubMed

    Myers Virtue, Shannon; Manne, Sharon L; Darabos, Kathleen; Heckman, Carolyn J; Ozga, Melissa; Kissane, David; Rubin, Stephen; Rosenblum, Norman

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to describe emotion episodes during early and late psychotherapy sessions among women newly diagnosed with gynecological cancer and to examine whether the total number of emotion episodes during early and later sessions was associated with baseline psychological distress, dispositional emotion expressivity, and patient-rated therapeutic progress. The study utilized data from an ongoing study examining the efficacy of two psychotherapy interventions, a coping and communication intervention and a supportive counseling intervention, for women diagnosed with gynecological cancer. Emotion episode coding was completed for the first and sixth psychotherapy sessions for each patient randomized to receive psychotherapy (N = 173). Patients completed baseline survey measures of psychological distress and dispositional emotional expressivity and post-session ratings of therapeutic progress. The average number of emotion episodes was 7.4 in the first session and 5.2 episodes in the sixth session. In both sessions, the majority of emotion episodes contained only negative emotions and focused on a cancer-related topic. A higher number of emotion episodes in the first session was associated with higher psychological distress reported in the baseline survey (p = 0.02). A higher number of emotion episodes in the sixth session was associated with a higher number of emotion episodes in the first session (p < 0.001) and higher patient-rated progress as rated in the sixth session (p = 0.016). The findings highlight the importance of expressed emotions, particularly negative emotions about cancer-related topics, in therapeutic progress during psychotherapy among women diagnosed with gynecological cancer. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Emotion Episodes during Psychotherapy Sessions among Women Newly Diagnosed with Gynecological Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Virtue, Shannon Myers; Manne, Sharon L.; O’Neill, Kathleen; Heckman, Carolyn J.; Ozga, Melissa; Kissane, David; Rubin, Stephen; Rosenblum, Norman

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe emotion episodes during early and late psychotherapy sessions among women newly diagnosed with gynecological cancer and to examine whether the total number of emotional episodes during early and later sessions were associated with baseline psychological distress, dispositional emotion expressivity, and patient-rated therapeutic progress. Methods The study utilized data from an ongoing study examining the efficacy of two psychotherapy interventions, a coping and communication intervention (CCI) and a supportive counseling intervention (SC), for women diagnosed with gynecological cancer. Emotion episode coding was completed for the first and sixth psychotherapy session for each patient randomized to receive psychotherapy (N = 173). Patients completed baseline survey measures of psychological distress and dispositional emotional expressivity and post-session ratings of therapeutic progress. Results The average number of emotion episodes was 7.4 in the first session and 5.2 episodes in the sixth session. In both sessions, the majority of emotion episodes contained only negative emotions and focused on a cancer-related topic. A higher1number of emotion episodes in the first session was associated with higher psychological distress reported in the baseline survey (p = .02). A higher number of emotions episodes in the sixth session was associated with a higher number of emotion episodes in the first session (p < .001) and higher patient-rated progress as rated in the sixth session (p = .016). Conclusion The findings highlight the importance of expressed emotions, particularly negative emotions about cancer-related topics, in therapeutic progress during psychotherapy among women diagnosed with gynecological cancer. PMID:25521772

  10. Vitamin and Mineral Deficiencies Are Highly Prevalent in Newly Diagnosed Celiac Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wierdsma, Nicolette J.; van Bokhorst-de van der Schueren, Marian A. E.; Berkenpas, Marijke; Mulder, Chris J. J.; van Bodegraven, Ad A.

    2013-01-01

    Malabsorption, weight loss and vitamin/mineral-deficiencies characterize classical celiac disease (CD). This study aimed to assess the nutritional and vitamin/mineral status of current “early diagnosed” untreated adult CD-patients in the Netherlands. Newly diagnosed adult CD-patients were included (n = 80, 42.8 ± 15.1 years) and a comparable sample of 24 healthy Dutch subjects was added to compare vitamin concentrations. Nutritional status and serum concentrations of folic acid, vitamin A, B6, B12, and (25-hydroxy) D, zinc, haemoglobin (Hb) and ferritin were determined (before prescribing gluten free diet). Almost all CD-patients (87%) had at least one value below the lower limit of reference. Specifically, for vitamin A, 7.5% of patients showed deficient levels, for vitamin B6 14.5%, folic acid 20%, and vitamin B12 19%. Likewise, zinc deficiency was observed in 67% of the CD-patients, 46% had decreased iron storage, and 32% had anaemia. Overall, 17% were malnourished (>10% undesired weight loss), 22% of the women were underweight (Body Mass Index (BMI) < 18.5), and 29% of the patients were overweight (BMI > 25). Vitamin deficiencies were barely seen in healthy controls, with the exception of vitamin B12. Vitamin/mineral deficiencies were counter-intuitively not associated with a (higher) grade of histological intestinal damage or (impaired) nutritional status. In conclusion, vitamin/mineral deficiencies are still common in newly “early diagnosed” CD-patients, even though the prevalence of obesity at initial diagnosis is rising. Extensive nutritional assessments seem warranted to guide nutritional advices and follow-up in CD treatment. PMID:24084055

  11. Comparative Study of Adjuvant Temozolomide Six Cycles Versus Extended 12 Cycles in Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma Multiforme.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Menal; Gandhi, Ajeet Kumar; Devnani, Bharti; Kumar, Pavnesh; Sharma, Daya Nand; Julka, Pramod Kumar

    2017-05-01

    Studies have shown promising survival with the use of Extended Temozolomide (E-TMZ) as compared to Conventional six cycles of Temozolomide (C-TMZ) in malignant gliomas; however, the reports are mostly limited to retrospective studies with significant bias. This study assesses the impact of six versus 12 cycles of adjuvant Temozolomide (TMZ) on Overall Survival (OS) in newly diagnosed postoperative patients of Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM). Between January 2012 and July 2013, 40 postoperative patients of GBM between age 18-65 years and Karnofsky Performance Score (KPS) ≥70 were included. Patients were randomized to receive radiation (60 Gray in 30 fractions over six weeks) with concomitant TMZ (75 mg/m(2)/day) and adjuvant therapy with either six (C-TMZ arm) or 12 cycles (E-TMZ arm) of TMZ (150-200 mg/m(2) for five days, repeated four weekly). Twenty patients were treated in each arm. Toxicity was assessed using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) version 3.0. OS and Progression Free Survival (PFS) were calculated from the time of diagnosis. Kaplan Meier method was used for survival analysis. A p-value of <0.05 was taken as significant and SPSS version 12.0 was used for all statistical analysis. Median number of adjuvant TMZ cycles was six and 12 in C-TMZ and E-TMZ arm respectively. Overall, 5% and 15% patients respectively in C-TMZ and E-TMZ arm had haematological toxicity ≥ 3 in grade. Median follow up in C-TMZ and E-TMZ arm were 14.65 months and 19.85 months. Median PFS was 12.8 months and 16.8 months in C-TMZ and E-TMZ arm respectively (p=0.069). Median OS was 15.4 months vs. 23.8 months in C-TMZ and E-TMZ arm respectively (p=0.044). Our study showed that E-TMZ is well tolerated and leads to a significant increase in PFS as well as OS in newly diagnosed patients of GBM. Further prospective randomized studies are needed to validate the findings of our study.

  12. Incidence of Symptomatic Vertebral Fractures Among Newly Diagnosed Autoimmune Diseases Initiating Glucocorticoid Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Migita, Kiyoshi; Iwanaga, Nozomi; Imadachi, Shunsuke; Jiuchi, Yuka; Izumi, Yasumori; Tsuji, Yoshika; Kawahara, Chieko; Kawakami, Atsushi; Furukawa, Hiroshi; Tohma, Shigeto

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Few data are available regarding vertebral fracture risk in patients treated with corticosteroids including patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD). The aim of the present study was to identify risk factors for symptomatic vertebral fracture analyzed in patients with newly diagnosed autoimmune diseases. This was an observational cohort study conducted in the National Hospital Organization-EBM study group from 2006 to 2008. The study subjects were autoimmune disease patients who were newly treated with glucocorticoids (GCs). The primary endpoint was the first occurrence of vertebral fracture diagnosed by x-rays. Cox proportional-hazards regression was used to determine independent risk factors for vertebral fracture with covariates including sex, age, comorbidity, laboratory data, use of immunosuppressants, and dose of GCs. Survival was analyzed according to the Kaplan–Meier method and assessed by the log-rank test. Among 604 patients of mean age 59.5 years and mean GC dose 50.4 mg/d (first 1 months), 19 patient (3.1%) had at least 1 symptomatic vertebral fracture during 1.9 years of follow-up period. Cox regression model demonstrated that the relative risk for symptomatic vertebral fracture was independently higher in patient with ILD (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.86, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.10–7.42, P = 0.031) and in every 10-year increment of the age of disease onset (HR = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.09–2.26, P = 0.015). Kaplan–Meier analyses demonstrated that the incidence of vertebral fractures in patients with ILD was significantly higher in comparison with those without ILD. Our results indicate a higher risk of vertebral facture in patients with ILD and elderly patients during the initial GC treatment against autoimmune diseases. There is a need for further, even longer-term, prospective studies subjected patients with autoimmune disease, including ILD, under GC treatment. PMID:26166127

  13. Evolving antithrombotic treatment patterns for patients with newly diagnosed atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Camm, A John; Accetta, Gabriele; Ambrosio, Giuseppe; Atar, Dan; Bassand, Jean-Pierre; Berge, Eivind; Cools, Frank; Fitzmaurice, David A; Goldhaber, Samuel Z; Goto, Shinya; Haas, Sylvia; Kayani, Gloria; Koretsune, Yukihiro; Mantovani, Lorenzo G; Misselwitz, Frank; Oh, Seil; Turpie, Alexander G G; Verheugt, Freek W A; Kakkar, Ajay K

    2017-01-01

    Objective We studied evolving antithrombotic therapy patterns in patients with newly diagnosed non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF) and ≥1 additional stroke risk factor between 2010 and 2015. Methods 39 670 patients were prospectively enrolled in four sequential cohorts in the Global Anticoagulant Registry in the FIELD-Atrial Fibrillation (GARFIELD-AF): cohort C1 (2010–2011), n=5500; C2 (2011–2013), n=11 662; C3 (2013–2014), n=11 462; C4 (2014–2015), n=11 046. Baseline characteristics and antithrombotic therapy initiated at diagnosis were analysed by cohort. Results Baseline characteristics were similar across cohorts. Median CHA2DS2-VASc (cardiac failure, hypertension, age ≥75 (doubled), diabetes, stroke (doubled)-vascular disease, age 65–74 and sex category (female)) score was 3 in all four cohorts. From C1 to C4, the proportion of patients on anticoagulant (AC) therapy increased by almost 15% (C1 57.4%; C4 71.1%). Use of vitamin K antagonist (VKA)±antiplatelet (AP) (C1 53.2%; C4 34.0%) and AP monotherapy (C1 30.2%; C4 16.6%) declined, while use of non-VKA oral ACs (NOACs)±AP increased (C1 4.2%; C4 37.0%). Most CHA2DS2-VASc ≥2 patients received AC, and this proportion increased over time, largely driven by NOAC prescribing. NOACs were more frequently prescribed than VKAs in men, the elderly, patients of Asian ethnicity, those with dementia, or those using non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and current smokers. VKA use was more common in patients with cardiac, vascular, or renal comorbidities. Conclusions Since NOACs were introduced, there has been an increase in newly diagnosed patients with AF at risk of stroke receiving guideline-recommended therapy, predominantly driven by increased use of NOACs and reduced use of VKA±AP or AP alone. Trial registration number NCT01090362; Pre-results. PMID:27647168

  14. Phase II Trial of Hypofractionated IMRT With Temozolomide for Patients With Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma Multiforme

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, Krishna; Damek, Denise; Gaspar, Laurie E.; Ney, Douglas; Waziri, Allen; Lillehei, Kevin; Stuhr, Kelly; Kavanagh, Brian D.; Chen Changhu

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: To report toxicity and overall survival (OS) in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) treated with hypofractionated intensity-modulated radiotherapy (hypo-IMRT) with concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide (TMZ). Methods and Materials: Patients with newly diagnosed GBM after biopsy or resection and with adequate performance status and organ or bone marrow function were eligible for this study. Patients received postoperative hypo-IMRT to the surgical cavity and residual tumor seen on T1-weighted brain MRI with a 5-mm margin to a total dose of 60 Gy in 10 fractions (6 Gy/fraction) and to the T2 abnormality on T2-weighted MRI with 5-mm margin to 30 Gy in 10 fractions (3 Gy/fraction). Concurrent TMZ was given at 75 mg/m{sup 2}/day for 28 consecutive days. Adjuvant TMZ was given at 150 to 200 mg/m{sup 2}/day for 5 days every 28 days. Toxicities were defined using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0. Results: Twenty-four patients were treated, consisting of 14 men, 10 women; a median age of 60.5 years old (range, 27-77 years); and a median Karnofsky performance score of 80 (range, 60-90). All patients received hypo-IMRT and concurrent TMZ according to protocol, except for 2 patients who received only 14 days of concurrent TMZ. The median number of adjuvant TMZ cycles was 6.5 (range, 0-14).With a median follow-up of 14.8 months (range, 2.7-34.2 months) for all patients and a minimum follow-up of 20.6 months for living patients, no instances of grade 3 or higher nonhematologic toxicity were observed. The median OS was 16.6 months (range, 4.1-35.9 months). Six patients underwent repeated surgery for suspected tumor recurrence; necrosis was found in 50% to 100% of the resected specimens. Conclusion: In selected GBM patients, 60 Gy hypo-IMRT delivered in 6-Gy fractions over 2 weeks with concurrent and adjuvant TMZ is safe. OS in this small cohort of patients was comparable to that treated with current standard of care

  15. Newly diagnosed rheumatic heart disease among indigenous populations in the Pacific.

    PubMed

    Mirabel, Mariana; Tafflet, Muriel; Noël, Baptiste; Parks, Tom; Axler, Olivier; Robert, Jacques; Nadra, Marie; Phelippeau, Gwendolyne; Descloux, Elodie; Cazorla, Cécile; Missotte, Isabelle; Gervolino, Shirley; Barguil, Yann; Rouchon, Bernard; Laumond, Sylvie; Jubeau, Thierry; Braunstein, Corinne; Empana, Jean-Philippe; Marijon, Eloi; Jouven, Xavier

    2015-12-01

    Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) remains the leading acquired heart disease in the young worldwide. We aimed at assessing outcomes and influencing factors in the contemporary era. Hospital-based cohort in a high-income island nation where RHD remains endemic and the population is captive. All patients admitted with newly diagnosed RHD according to World Heart Federation echocardiographic criteria were enrolled (2005-2013). The incidence of major cardiovascular events (MACEs) including heart failure, peripheral embolism, stroke, heart valve intervention and cardiovascular death was calculated, and their determinants identified. Of the 396 patients, 43.9% were male with median age 18 years (IQR 10-40)). 127 (32.1%) patients presented with mild, 131 (33.1%) with moderate and 138 (34.8%) with severe heart valve disease. 205 (51.8%) had features of acute rheumatic fever. 106 (26.8%) presented with at least one MACE. Among the remaining 290 patients, after a median follow-up period of 4.08 (95% CI 1.84 to 6.84) years, 7 patients (2.4%) died and 62 (21.4%) had a first MACE. The annual incidence of first MACE and of heart failure were 59.05‰ (95% CI 44.35 to 73.75) and 29.06‰ (95% CI 19.29 to 38.82), respectively. The severity of RHD at diagnosis (moderate vs mild HR 3.39 (0.95 to 12.12); severe vs mild RHD HR 10.81 (3.11 to 37.62), p<0.001) and ongoing secondary prophylaxis at follow-up (HR 0.27 (0.12 to 0.63), p=0.01) were the two most influential factors associated with MACE. Newly diagnosed RHD is associated with poor outcomes, mainly in patients with moderate or severe valve disease and no secondary prophylaxis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. (18)F-FET PET Uptake Characteristics in Patients with Newly Diagnosed and Untreated Brain Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Unterrainer, Marcus; Galldiks, Norbert; Suchorska, Bogdana; Kowalew, Lara-Caroline; Wenter, Vera; Schmid-Tannwald, Christine; Niyazi, Maximilian; Bartenstein, Peter; Langen, Karl-Josef; Albert, Nathalie L

    2017-04-01

    In patients with brain metastasis, PET using labeled amino acids has gained clinical importance, mainly regarding the differentiation of viable tumor tissue from treatment-related effects. However, there is still limited knowledge concerning the uptake characteristics in patients with newly diagnosed and untreated brain metastases. Hence, we evaluated the uptake characteristics in these patients using dynamic O-(2-(18)F-fluoroethyl)-l-tyrosine ((18)F-FET) PET. Methods: Patients with newly diagnosed brain metastases without prior local therapy and (18)F-FET PET scanning were retrospectively identified in 2 centers. Static and dynamic PET parameters (maximal/mean tumor-to-brain-ratio [TBRmax/TBRmean], biologic tumor volume [BTV], and time-activity curves with minimal time to peak [TTPmin]) were evaluated and correlated with MRI parameters (maximal lesion diameter, volume of contrast enhancement) and originating primary tumor. Results: Forty-five brain metastases in 30 patients were included. Forty of 45 metastases (89%) had a TBRmax ≥ 1.6 and were classified as (18)F-FET-positive (median TBRmax, 2.53 [range, 1.64-9.47]; TBRmean, 1.86 [range, 1.63-5.48]; and BTV, 3.59 mL [range, 0.04-23.98 mL], respectively). In 39 of 45 brain metastases eligible for dynamic analysis, a wide range of TTPmin was observed (median, 22.5 min; range, 4.5-47.5 min). All (18)F-FET-negative metastases had a diameter of ≤ 1.0 cm, whereas metastases with a > 1.0 cm diameter all showed pathologic (18)F-FET uptake, which did not correlate with lesion size. The highest variability of uptake intensity was observed within the group of melanoma metastases. Conclusion: Untreated metastases predominantly show increased (18)F-FET uptake, and only a third of metastases < 1.0 cm were (18)F-FET-negative, most likely because of scanner resolution and partial-volume effects. In metastases > 1.0 cm, (18)F-FET uptake intensity was highly variable and independent of tumor size (even intraindividually). (18

  17. Vitamin D and Sunlight Exposure in Newly-Diagnosed Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan; Yang, Deyu; Yu, Yu; Shao, Gaohai; Wang, Qunbo

    2016-03-04

    Circulating vitamin D has previously been found to be lower in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), while the effects of sunlight exposure have not yet been fully investigated. Therefore, we evaluated the associations between serum vitamin D, vitamin D intake, sunlight exposure, and newly-diagnosed PD patients in a Chinese population. This case-control study measured serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels and sunlight exposure in 201 patients with newly-diagnosed PD and 199 controls without neurodegenerative diseases. Data on vitamin D intake and sunlight exposure were obtained using a self-report questionnaire. Multivariable logistic regressions were employed to evaluate the associations between serum 25(OH)D levels, sunlight exposure, and PD. Adjustments were made for sex, age, smoking, alcohol use, education, BMI, and vitamin D intake. There were significantly lower levels of serum 25(OH)D (20.6 ± 6.5 ng/mL), daily vitamin D intake (8.3 ± 3.7 g/day), and sunlight exposure (9.7 ± 4.1 h/week) in patients with PD compared to healthy controls (p < 0.05). Crude odds ratios (ORs) for PD in the quartiles of serum 25(OH)D were 1 (reference), 0.710 (0.401, 1.257), 0.631 (0.348, 1.209), and 0.483 (0.267, 0.874), respectively. Crude ORs for PD in quartiles of sunlight exposure were 1 (reference), 0.809 (0.454, 1.443), 0.623 (0.345, 1.124) and 0.533 (0.294, 0.966), respectively. A significant positive correlation between serum 25(OH)D and sunlight exposure was found, but serum 25(OH)D was not correlated with daily vitamin D intake. This study indicates that lower levels of serum 25(OH)D and sunlight exposure are significantly associated with an increased risk for PD.

  18. Risk of dementia in seniors with newly diagnosed diabetes: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Haroon, Nisha Nigil; Austin, Peter C; Shah, Baiju R; Wu, Jianbao; Gill, Sudeep S; Booth, Gillian L

    2015-10-01

    To study whether diabetes onset in late life is a risk factor for dementia. We conducted a population-based matched cohort study using provincial health data from Ontario, Canada. Seniors with (n = 225,045) and without newly diagnosed diabetes (n = 668,070) between April 1995 and March 2007 were followed until March 2012 for a new diagnosis of dementia. Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to compare the risk of dementia between groups after adjusting for baseline cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease (CKD), hypertension, and other risk factors. Over this period, we observed 169,114 new cases of dementia. Individuals with diabetes had a modestly higher incidence of dementia (2.68 vs. 2.62 per 100 person-years) than those without diabetes. In the fully adjusted Cox model, the risk of dementia was 16% higher among our subgroup with diabetes (hazard ratio [HR] 1.16 [95% CI 1.15-1.18]). Adjusted HRs for dementia were 1.20 (95% CI 1.17-1.22) and 1.14 (95% CI 1.12-1.16) among men and women, respectively. Among seniors with diabetes, the risk of dementia was greatest in those with prior cerebrovascular disease (HR 2.03; 95% CI 1.88-2.19), peripheral vascular disease (HR 1.47; 95% CI 1.19-1.82), and CKD (HR 1.44; 95% CI 1.38-1.51), and those with one or more hospital visits for hypoglycemia (HR 1.73; 95% CI 1.62-1.84). In this population-based study, newly diagnosed diabetes was associated with a 16% increase in the risk of dementia among seniors. Preexisting vascular disease and severe hypoglycemia were the greatest risk factors for dementia in seniors with diabetes. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  19. Vitamin D and Sunlight Exposure in Newly-Diagnosed Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Juan; Yang, Deyu; Yu, Yu; Shao, Gaohai; Wang, Qunbo

    2016-01-01

    Circulating vitamin D has previously been found to be lower in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD), while the effects of sunlight exposure have not yet been fully investigated. Therefore, we evaluated the associations between serum vitamin D, vitamin D intake, sunlight exposure, and newly-diagnosed PD patients in a Chinese population. This case-control study measured serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels and sunlight exposure in 201 patients with newly-diagnosed PD and 199 controls without neurodegenerative diseases. Data on vitamin D intake and sunlight exposure were obtained using a self-report questionnaire. Multivariable logistic regressions were employed to evaluate the associations between serum 25(OH)D levels, sunlight exposure, and PD. Adjustments were made for sex, age, smoking, alcohol use, education, BMI, and vitamin D intake. There were significantly lower levels of serum 25(OH)D (20.6 ± 6.5 ng/mL), daily vitamin D intake (8.3 ± 3.7 g/day), and sunlight exposure (9.7 ± 4.1 h/week) in patients with PD compared to healthy controls (p < 0.05). Crude odds ratios (ORs) for PD in the quartiles of serum 25(OH)D were 1 (reference), 0.710 (0.401, 1.257), 0.631 (0.348, 1.209), and 0.483 (0.267, 0.874), respectively. Crude ORs for PD in quartiles of sunlight exposure were 1 (reference), 0.809 (0.454, 1.443), 0.623 (0.345, 1.124) and 0.533 (0.294, 0.966), respectively. A significant positive correlation between serum 25(OH)D and sunlight exposure was found, but serum 25(OH)D was not correlated with daily vitamin D intake. This study indicates that lower levels of serum 25(OH)D and sunlight exposure are significantly associated with an increased risk for PD. PMID:26959053

  20. Circulating levels of cortistatin are correlated with metabolic parameters in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenjia; Fu, Yu; Yin, Xinhua; Liu, Yue

    2017-08-01

    Cortistatin (CST) is a recently discovered cyclic neuropeptide with multiple bioactive effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between plasma CST and various metabolic markers in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). For this study, 60 patients with newly diagnosed T2DM and 38 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were recruited. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), serum insulin and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels and a blood lipid profile were obtained with commercially available diagnostic reagents. CST plasma levels were determined using an enzyme immunoassay kit. The results showed that the plasma levels of CST were substantially lower in patients with newly diagnosed T2DM compared with the healthy controls. Plasma CST levels were positively correlated with high-density lipoprotein and negatively related to FPG, serum insulin, the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and HbA1c in all subjects. Further analysis showed that CST levels were positively correlated with systolic blood pressure and negatively correlated with FPG, serum insulin, HOMA-IR and HbA1c in patients with newly diagnosed T2DM. Moreover, logistic regression analyses indicated that plasma CST was correlated with newly diagnosed T2DM. In conclusion, patients with newly diagnosed T2DM had significantly lower plasma levels of CST than healthy controls, and plasma CST was associated with glucose metabolism and insulin resistance, indicating a potential role of CST in the development of T2DM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparative survival in patients with postresection recurrent versus newly diagnosed non-small-cell lung cancer treated with radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xu-Wei; Xu, Lu-Ying; Wang, Li; Hayman, James A; Chang, Andrew C; Pickens, Allan; Cease, Kemp B; Orringer, Mark B; Kong, Feng-Ming

    2010-03-15

    To compare the survival of postresection recurrent vs. newly diagnosed non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. The study population consisted of 661 consecutive patients with NSCLC registered in the radiation oncology databases at two medical centers in the United States between 1992 and 2004. Of the 661 patients, 54 had postresection recurrent NSCLC and 607 had newly diagnosed NSCLC. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression models were used for the survival analyses. The distribution of relevant clinical factors between these two groups was similar. The median survival time and 5-year overall survival rates were 19.8 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 13.9-25.7) and 14.8% (95% confidence interval, 5.4-24.2%) vs. 12.2 months (95% CI, 10.8-13.6) and 11.0% (95% CI, 8.5-13.5%) for recurrent vs. newly diagnosed patients, respectively (p = .037). For Stage I-III patients, no significant difference was observed in the 5-year overall survival (p = .297) or progression-free survival (p = .935) between recurrent and newly diagnosed patients. For the 46 patients with Stage I-III recurrent disease, multivariate analysis showed that chemotherapy was a significant prognostic factor for 5-year progression-free survival (hazard ratio, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.224-0.914; p = .027). Our institutional data have shown that patients with postresection recurrent NSCLC achieved survival comparable to that of newly diagnosed NSCLC patients when they were both treated with radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. These findings suggest that patients with postresection recurrent NSCLC should be treated as aggressively as those with newly diagnosed disease. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparative Survival in Patients With Postresection Recurrent Versus Newly Diagnosed Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Treated With Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Cai Xuwei; Xu Luying; Wang Li; Hayman, James A.; Chang, Andrew C.; Pickens, Allan; Cease, Kemp B.; Orringer, Mark B.; Kong, F.-M.

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: To compare the survival of postresection recurrent vs. newly diagnosed non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. Methods and Materials: The study population consisted of 661 consecutive patients with NSCLC registered in the radiation oncology databases at two medical centers in the United States between 1992 and 2004. Of the 661 patients, 54 had postresection recurrent NSCLC and 607 had newly diagnosed NSCLC. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression models were used for the survival analyses. Results: The distribution of relevant clinical factors between these two groups was similar. The median survival time and 5-year overall survival rates were 19.8 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 13.9-25.7) and 14.8% (95% confidence interval, 5.4-24.2%) vs. 12.2 months (95% CI, 10.8-13.6) and 11.0% (95% CI, 8.5-13.5%) for recurrent vs. newly diagnosed patients, respectively (p = .037). For Stage I-III patients, no significant difference was observed in the 5-year overall survival (p = .297) or progression-free survival (p = .935) between recurrent and newly diagnosed patients. For the 46 patients with Stage I-III recurrent disease, multivariate analysis showed that chemotherapy was a significant prognostic factor for 5-year progression-free survival (hazard ratio, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.224-0.914; p = .027). Conclusion: Our institutional data have shown that patients with postresection recurrent NSCLC achieved survival comparable to that of newly diagnosed NSCLC patients when they were both treated with radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. These findings suggest that patients with postresection recurrent NSCLC should be treated as aggressively as those with newly diagnosed disease.

  3. Preexisting Heart Disease Underlies Newly Diagnosed Atrial Fibrillation After Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Rizos, Timolaos; Horstmann, Solveig; Dittgen, Felix; Täger, Tobias; Jenetzky, Ekkehart; Heuschmann, Peter; Veltkamp, Roland

    2016-02-01

    Whether newly diagnosed atrial fibrillation (nAF) after stroke reflects underlying heart disease and represents an increased risk of cardioembolic stroke, or whether it is triggered by neurogenic mechanisms remains uncertain. We investigated, whether cardiovascular risk factors and echocardiographic parameters in patients with nAF are similar to patients with known AF (kAF) and differ from patients without AF. Consecutive acute ischemic stroke patients were enrolled into a prospective stroke database. All patients with echocardiography were included and univariable and multivariable testing was applied to compare clinical characteristics and echocardiographic findings among patients with nAF, kAF, and no AF. A total of 1397 patients were included (male, 62.3%; median age, 71 years). AF was present in 320 (22.9%) patients. Of those, nAF was present in 36.2% (116/320) and kAF in 63.8% (204/320). No clinical or echocardiographic factor was independently associated with detection of nAF compared with kAF but a trend toward larger left atrial diameters in patients with kAF was observed (P=0.070). In contrast, patients with nAF were more often female (P<0.001), older (P<0.001) and had a larger left atrial diameters (P<0.001) compared with patients without AF. While stroke severity in patients with nAF and kAF was similar, patients without AF had less severe strokes. Stroke patients with nAF and with kAF share common cardiovascular risk factors, have similar echocardiographic findings and suffer equally severe strokes. We conclude that preexisting heart disease is the major cause of AF that is first diagnosed after stroke. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Intention to Quit Smoking and Associated Factors in Smokers Newly Diagnosed with Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Aryanpur, Mahshid; Mortaz, Esmaeil; Hosseini, Mostafa; Jamaati, Hmidreza; Tabarsi, Payam; Soori, Hamid; Heydari, Gholam Reza; Kazempour-Dizaji, Mehdi; Emami, Habib; Mozafarian, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Several studies have shown that smoking, as a modifiable risk factor, can affect tuberculosis (TB) in different aspects such as enhancing development of TB infection, activation of latent TB and its related mortality. Since willingness to quit smoking is a critical stage, which may lead to quit attempts, being aware of smokers’ intention to quit and the related predictors can provide considerable advantages. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, subjects were recruited via a multi-stage cluster sampling method. Sampling was performed during 2012–2014 among pulmonary TB (PTB) patients referred to health centers in Tehran implementing the directly observed treatment short course (DOTS) strategy and a TB referral center. Data analysis was conducted using SPSS version 22 and the factors influencing quit intention were assessed using bivariate regression and multiple logistic regression models. Results: In this study 1,127 newly diagnosed PTB patients were studied; from which 284 patients (22%) were current smokers. When diagnosed with TB, 59 (23.8%) smokers quit smoking. Among the remaining 189 (76.2%) patients who continued smoking, 52.4% had intention to quit. In the final multiple logistic regression model, living in urban areas (OR=8.81, P=0.003), having an office job (OR= 7.34, P=0.001), being single (OR=4.89, P=0.016) and a one unit increase in the motivation degree (OR=2.60, P<0.001) were found to increase the intention to quit smoking. Conclusion: The study found that PTB patients who continued smoking had remarkable intention to quit. Thus, it is recommended that smoking cessation interventions should be started at the time of TB diagnosis. Understanding the associated factors can guide the consultants to predict patients’ intention to quit and select the most proper management to facilitate smoking cessation for each patient. PMID:27403174

  5. Brain putamen volume changes in newly-diagnosed patients with obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rajesh; Farahvar, Salar; Ogren, Jennifer A; Macey, Paul M; Thompson, Paul M; Woo, Mary A; Yan-Go, Frisca L; Harper, Ronald M

    2014-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is accompanied by cognitive, motor, autonomic, learning, and affective abnormalities. The putamen serves several of these functions, especially motor and autonomic behaviors, but whether global and specific sub-regions of that structure are damaged is unclear. We assessed global and regional putamen volumes in 43 recently-diagnosed, treatment-naïve OSA (age, 46.4 ± 8.8 years; 31 male) and 61 control subjects (47.6 ± 8.8 years; 39 male) using high-resolution T1-weighted images collected with a 3.0-Tesla MRI scanner. Global putamen volumes were calculated, and group differences evaluated with independent samples t-tests, as well as with analysis of covariance (covariates; age, gender, and total intracranial volume). Regional differences between groups were visualized with 3D surface morphometry-based group ratio maps. OSA subjects showed significantly higher global putamen volumes, relative to controls. Regional analyses showed putamen areas with increased and decreased tissue volumes in OSA relative to control subjects, including increases in caudal, mid-dorsal, mid-ventral portions, and ventral regions, while areas with decreased volumes appeared in rostral, mid-dorsal, medial-caudal, and mid-ventral sites. Global putamen volumes were significantly higher in the OSA subjects, but local sites showed both higher and lower volumes. The appearance of localized volume alterations points to differential hypoxic or perfusion action on glia and other tissues within the structure, and may reflect a stage in progression of injury in these newly-diagnosed patients toward the overall volume loss found in patients with chronic OSA. The regional changes may underlie some of the specific deficits in motor, autonomic, and neuropsychologic functions in OSA.

  6. Work Disability in Newly Diagnosed Patients with Primary Sjögren Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mandl, Thomas; Jørgensen, Tanja Schjødt; Skougaard, Marie; Olsson, Peter; Kristensen, Lars-Erik

    2017-02-01

    To study longterm work disability and possible predictors in newly diagnosed patients with primary Sjögren syndrome (pSS). Because we wanted to include only patients with full work availability potential, eligible patients were aged 18-62 years. Fifty-one patients (mean age 46 yrs, range 18-61 yrs, 50 women) diagnosed with pSS between January 2001 and December 2012 were included in the study. For each patient we randomly selected 4 reference subjects from the general population and matched for age, sex, and area of residence. We linked data to the Swedish Social Insurance Agency and calculated the proportion as well as net days of work disability in 30-day intervals from 12 months before pSS diagnosis until 24 months after . Work disability was increased in patients with pSS in comparison to general population comparators. At diagnosis, 26% of patients were work-disabled, while 37% and 41% were disabled at 12 and 24 months after diagnosis, respectively (p < 0.05 and p < 0.05 vs baseline). Prior work disability status at diagnosis (OR 15.4, 95% CI 2.9-81.9; p = 0.001), concomitant fibromyalgia (OR 10.5, 95% CI 2.0-56.0; p = 0.006), and each additional year of age (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.0-1.2; p = 0.009) were found to be associated with work disability 24 months after diagnosis. Patients with pSS showed an increased work disability, in comparison with the general population, which increased significantly during the first 2 years after diagnosis. Work disability at diagnosis, concomitant fibromyalgia, and increasing age, but not anti-SSA/anti-SSB antibodies or disease activity, were associated with longterm work disability.

  7. Alteration of cardiac autonomic function in patients with newly diagnosed epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Goit, Rajesh K; Jha, Santosh K; Pant, Bhawana N

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine if heart rate variability (HRV) showed any changes in patients with newly diagnosed epilepsy in comparison with controls. Sixty-five patients with epilepsy (38 males and 27 females), aged 30-50 years, who had never previously received treatment with antiepileptic drugs were eligible for inclusion in this study. Resting electrocardiogram (ECG) at spontaneous respiration was recorded for 5 min in supine position. Time-domain analysis, frequency-domain analysis, and Poincare plot of HRV were recorded from ECG In time-domain measures, the square root of the mean of the sum of the squares of differences between adjacent RR intervals (RMSSD) and percentage of consecutive RR intervals that differ by more than 50 msec (pNN50) were significantly less in patients with epilepsy. In frequency-domain measures, high frequency [(HF) msec(2)], HF (nu), and low frequency [LF (msec(2))] were significantly less in patients with epilepsy while LF (nu) and LF/HF were significantly high in patients with epilepsy. In Poincare plot, standard deviation perpendicular to line of Poincare plot (SD1) and standard deviation along the line of entity in Poincare plot (SD2) were significantly less in patients with epilepsy. Our results suggest that epileptic patients have an impact on the cardiac autonomic function as measured by HRV. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  8. Educatin given to parents of children newly diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: the parent's perspective.

    PubMed

    Aburn, Gemma; Gott, Meryn

    2014-01-01

    Over the last 30 years, diagnosis and treatment of childhood cancers have improved significantly due to medical research and advancements in technology. Increasingly, parents are taking on the role of providing "nursing" care for their children, including managing emergency situations as well as everyday treatment needs. This study investigated the perceptions and experiences of parents caring for newly diagnosed children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in relation to education given prior to the first discharge from hospital. Using a grounded theory approach, 12 parents of children with ALL from a tertiary pediatric hematology and oncology setting in New Zealand were interviewed using a semi-structured interview technique. Key findings of relevance to clinical practice include the importance of recognizing the emotional strain parents experience following diagnosis and the resultant impact upon how education is understood. Findings may also be applicable to other complex child health areas where education is provided, both in a local and international context. Understanding the family perspective is crucial to enabling clinicians to provide appropriate and informative education to children with ALL and their families.

  9. Carfilzomib, cyclophosphamide, and dexamethasone in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma: a multicenter, phase 2 study.

    PubMed

    Bringhen, Sara; Petrucci, Maria Teresa; Larocca, Alessandra; Conticello, Concetta; Rossi, Davide; Magarotto, Valeria; Musto, Pellegrino; Boccadifuoco, Luana; Offidani, Massimo; Omedé, Paola; Gentilini, Fabiana; Ciccone, Giovannino; Benevolo, Giulia; Genuardi, Mariella; Montefusco, Vittorio; Oliva, Stefania; Caravita, Tommaso; Tacchetti, Paola; Boccadoro, Mario; Sonneveld, Pieter; Palumbo, Antonio

    2014-07-03

    This multicenter, open-label phase 2 trial determined the safety and efficacy of carfilzomib, a novel and irreversible proteasome inhibitor, in combination with cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone (CCyd) in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM) ≥65 years of age or who were ineligible for autologous stem cell transplantation. Patients (N = 58) received CCyd for up to 9 28-day cycles, followed by maintenance with carfilzomib until progression or intolerance. After a median of 9 CCyd induction cycles (range 1-9), 95% of patients achieved at least a partial response, 71% achieved at least a very good partial response, 49% achieved at least a near complete response, and 20% achieved stringent complete response. After a median follow-up of 18 months, the 2-year progression-free survival and overall survival rates were 76% and 87%, respectively. The most frequent grade 3 to 5 toxicities were neutropenia (20%), anemia (11%), and cardiopulmonary adverse events (7%). Peripheral neuropathy was limited to grades 1 and 2 (9%). Fourteen percent of patients discontinued treatment because of adverse events, and 21% of patients required carfilzomib dose reductions. In summary, results showed high complete response rates and a good safety profile. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01346787.

  10. Evaluation of expert criteria for preoperative magnetic resonance imaging of newly diagnosed breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Behrendt, Carolyn E; Tumyan, Lusine; Gonser, Laura; Shaw, Sara L; Vora, Lalit; Paz, I Benjamin; Ellenhorn, Joshua D I; Yim, John H

    2014-08-01

    Despite 2 randomized trials reporting no reduction in operations or local recurrence at 1 year, preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasingly used in diagnostic workup of breast cancer. We evaluated 5 utilization criteria recently proposed by experts. Of women (n = 340) newly diagnosed with unilateral breast cancer who underwent bilateral MRI, most (69.4%) met at least 1 criterion before MRI: mammographic density (44.4%), under consideration for partial breast irradiation (PBI) (19.7%), genetic-familial risk (12.9%), invasive lobular carcinoma (11.8%), and multifocal/multicentric disease (10.6%). MRI detected occult malignant lesion or extension of index lesion in 21.2% of index, 3.3% of contralateral, breasts. No expert criterion was associated with MRI-detected malignant lesion, which associated instead with pre-MRI plan of lumpectomy without PBI (48.2% of subjects): Odds Ratio 3.05, 95% CI 1.57-5.91 (p adjusted for multiple hypothesis testing = 0.007, adjusted for index-vs-contralateral breast and covariates). The expert guidelines were not confirmed by clinical evidence.

  11. Cognition in patients with newly diagnosed brain metastasis: profiles and implications

    PubMed Central

    Gerstenecker, Adam; Nabors, Louis B.; Meneses, Karen; Fiveash, John B.; Marson, Daniel C.; Cutter, Gary; Martin, Roy C.; Meyers, Christina A.; Triebel, Kristen L.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is a common symptom in patients with brain metastasis, and significant cognitive dysfunction is prevalent in a majority of patients who are still able to engage in basic self-care activities. In the current study, the neurocognitive performance of 32 patients with brain metastasis and 32 demographically-matched controls was examined using a battery of standardized neuropsychological tests, with the goal of comprehensively examining the cognitive functioning of newly diagnosed brain metastasis patients. The cognition of all patients was assessed within 1 week of beginning treatment for brain metastasis. Results indicated impairments in verbal memory, attention, executive functioning, and language in relation to healthy controls. Performance in relation to appropriate normative groups was also examined. Overall, cognitive deficits were prevalent and memory was the most common impairment. Given that cognitive dysfunction was present in this cohort of patients with largely minimal functional impairment, these results have implications for patients, caregivers and health care providers treating patients with brain metastasis. PMID:25035099

  12. New Breast Cancer Recursive Partitioning Analysis Prognostic Index in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Brain Metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Niwinska, Anna; Murawska, Magdalena

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: The aim of the study was to present a new breast cancer recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) prognostic index for patients with newly diagnosed brain metastases as a guide in clinical decision making. Methods and Materials: A prospectively collected group of 441 consecutive patients with breast cancer and brain metastases treated between the years 2003 and 2009 was assessed. Prognostic factors significant for univariate analysis were included into RPA. Results: Three prognostic classes of a new breast cancer RPA prognostic index were selected. The median survival of patients within prognostic Classes I, II, and III was 29, 9, and 2.4 months, respectively (p < 0.0001). Class I included patients with one or two brain metastases, without extracranial disease or with controlled extracranial disease, and with Karnofsky performance status (KPS) of 100. Class III included patients with multiple brain metastases with KPS of {<=}60. Class II included all other cases. Conclusions: The breast cancer RPA prognostic index is an easy and valuable tool for use in clinical practice. It can select patients who require aggressive treatment and those in whom whole-brain radiotherapy or symptomatic therapy is the most reasonable option. An individual approach is required for patients from prognostic Class II.

  13. Nonmyeloablative allografting for newly diagnosed multiple myeloma: the experience of the Gruppo Italiano Trapianti di Midollo

    PubMed Central

    Rotta, Marcello; Patriarca, Francesca; Mattei, Daniele; Allione, Bernardino; Carnevale-Schianca, Fabrizio; Sorasio, Roberto; Rambaldi, Alessandro; Casini, Marco; Parma, Matteo; Bavaro, Pasqua; Onida, Francesco; Busca, Alessandro; Castagna, Luca; Benedetti, Edoardo; Iori, Anna Paola; Giaccone, Luisa; Palumbo, Antonio; Corradini, Paolo; Fanin, Renato; Maloney, David; Storb, Rainer; Baldi, Ileana; Ricardi, Umberto; Boccadoro, Mario

    2009-01-01

    Despite recent advances, allografting remains the only potential cure for myeloma. From July 1999 to June 2005, 100 newly diagnosed patients younger than 65 years were enrolled in a prospective multicenter study. First-line treatment included vincristin, adriamycin, and dexamethasone (VAD)–based induction chemotherapy, a cytoreductive autograft (melphalan 200 mg/m2) followed by a single dose of nonmyeloablative total body irradiation and allografting from an human leukocyte antigen (HLA)–identical sibling. Primary end points were the overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) from diagnosis. After a median follow-up of 5 years, OS was not reached, and EFS was 37 months. Incidences of acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) were 38% and 50%, respectively. Complete remission (CR) was achieved in 53% of patients. Profound cytoreduction (CR or very good partial remission) before allografting was associated with achievement of posttransplantation CR (hazard ratio [HR] 2.20, P = .03) and longer EFS (HR 0.33, P < .01). Conversely, development of chronic GVHD was not correlated with CR or response duration. This tandem transplantation approach allows prolonged survival and long-term disease control in patients with reduced tumor burden at the time of allografting. We are currently investigating the role of “new drugs” in intensifying pretransplantation cytoreduction and posttransplantation graft-versus-myeloma effects to further improve clinical outcomes. (http://ClinicalTrials.gov; NCT-00702247.) PMID:19064724

  14. Skeletal, neuromuscular and fitness impairments among children with newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Ness, Kirsten K.; Kaste, Sue C.; Zhu, Liang; Pui, Ching-Hon; Jeha, Sima; Nathan, Paul C.; Inaba, Hiroto; Wasilewski-Masker, Karen; Shah, Durga; Wells, Robert J.; Karlage, Robyn E.; Robison, Leslie L.; Cox, Cheryl L.

    2014-01-01

    This study describes skeletal, neuromuscular and fitness impairments among 109 children (median age 10 (range 4–18) years, 65.1% male, 63.3% white) with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), enrolled on a physical activity trial from 2009 to 2013. Outcomes were measured 7-10 days after diagnosis and compared to age- and sex-specific expected values. Associations between function and HRQL were evaluated with logistic regression. Children low values for BMD z-scores/height (mean±standard error: −0.53±0.16 vs. 0.00±0.14, p <0.01), body mass index percentile (57.6±3.15 vs. 50.0±3.27%, p=0.02), quadriceps strength (201.9±8.3 vs. 236.1±5.4 Newtons, p<0.01), six minute walk distance (385.0±13.1 vs. 628.2±7.1 meters, p < 0.001), and Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (23±2.5 vs. 50±3.4%, p < 0.001). Quadriceps weakness was associated with a 20.9-fold (95% CI 2.5–173.3) increase in poor physical HRQL. Children with newly diagnosed ALL have weakness and poor endurance and may benefit from early rehabilitation that includes strengthening and aerobic conditioning. PMID:25030039

  15. [The smoothness index of betaxolol hydrochloride in patients with newly diagnosed hypertension].

    PubMed

    Rihácek, I; Soucek, M; Frána, P

    2007-01-01

    24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) has a higher predictive value for cardiovascular diseases than occasional blood pressure (BP) measurement with sphygmomanometer. ABPM allows for the assessment of 24-hour effect of drugs administered once a day using the smoothness index (SI) method. OBJECTIVE OF WORK: Find out the 24-hour effect of betaxolol hydrochloride administered once a day by determining the smoothness index. Cohort and methodology: Examination of 30 newly diagnosed hypertonics prior to and after 3-month treatment with betaxolol hydrochloride at an average dose of 15 mg once a day. BP measurement using sphygmomanometer and ABPM (SpaceLabs 90207) according to European Society for Hypertension criteria. Determining the smoothness index from individual average hourly changes in BP after treatment by dividing the hourly values average by standard deviation. Calculation of average SI from individual patient data with standard deviation and 95% confidence interval (95% CI). The calculated SI value of betaxolol hydrochloride was 1.03 +/- 0.65 (95% CI, 0.80 to 1.26) and 1.27 +/- 0.89 (95% CI, 0.95 to 1.59) for systolic and diastolic BP, respectively. Average SI of betaxolol hydrochloride is higher than 1 when both systolic and diastolic BP is measured. Based on the above parameter, the monitored drug has a sufficient 24-hour effect and can be administered once a day.

  16. A guide for clinicians in the evaluation of emerging molecular diagnostics for newly diagnosed prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Canfield, Steven E; Kibel, Adam S; Kemeter, Michael J; Febbo, Phillip G; Lawrence, H Jeffrey; Moul, Judd W

    2014-01-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening is associated with a decline in prostate cancer-related mortality. However, screening has also led to overdiagnosis and overtreatment of clinically insignificant tumors. Recently, certain national guidelines (eg, US Preventive Services Task Force) have recommended against PSA screening, which may lead to a reverse-stage migration. Although many prostate tumors are indolent at presentation, others are aggressive and are appropriate targets for treatment interventions. Utilization of molecular markers may improve our ability to measure tumor biology and allow better discrimination of indolent and aggressive tumors at diagnosis. Many emerging commercial molecular diagnostic assays have been designed to provide more accurate risk stratification for newly diagnosed prostate cancer. Unfamiliarity with molecular diagnostics may make it challenging for some clinicians to navigate and interpret the medical literature to ascertain whether particular assays are appropriately developed and validated for clinical use. Herein, the authors provide a framework for practitioners to use when assessing new tissue-based molecular assays. This review outlines aspects of assay development, clinical and analytic validation and clinical utility studies, and regulatory issues, which collectively determine whether tests (1) are actionable for specific clinical indications, (2) measurably influence treatment decisions, and (3) are sufficiently validated to warrant incorporation into clinical practice.

  17. Primary antiretroviral drug resistance in newly human immunodeficiency virus-diagnosed individuals testing anonymously and confidentially.

    PubMed

    Markovitz, Amanda R; Thibault, Christina S; Brandauer, Peter W; Buskin, Susan E

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if anonymous and confidential testers differ in recency of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection at time of testing and prevalence of antiretroviral drug (ARV) resistance. We examined data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-sponsored Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Testing project, which performed genotypic testing on leftover HIV diagnostic serum specimens of confidentially and anonymously tested ARV-naïve persons newly diagnosed with HIV in Colorado (n = 365 at 11 sites) and King County, Washington (n = 492 at 44 sites). The serologic testing algorithm for recent HIV seroconversion was used to classify people as likely to have been recently infected or not. Type of testing, anonymous or confidential, was not significantly associated with either timing of HIV testing by serologic testing algorithm for recent HIV seroconversion or resistance rates. Mutations conferring any level of ARV resistance were present in 17% of testers, and high-level resistance mutations were present in 10%. Anonymous testers were significantly more likely to have CD4+ counts >500 cells per mm(3) (45% vs. 28%; p = 0.018), indicative of an early infection. This study indicates that anonymous testers have demographic differences relative to confidential HIV testers but were not more likely to exhibit drug resistance. Findings related to when in the course of disease anonymous testers are tested are inconsistent, but anonymous testers had higher CD4 counts, which indicates early testing and is consistent with other studies.

  18. Intellectual Impairment in Patients with Newly Diagnosed HIV Infection in Southwestern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Sunmonu, Taofiki A.; Sellner, Johann; Ogunrin, Olubunmi A.; Imarhiagbe, Frank A.; Komolafe, Morenikeji A.; Afolabi, Olusegun T.; Ilesanmi, Olayinka S.; Olanrewaju, Fatai; Oladimeji, Benedicta Y.

    2015-01-01

    Neurocognitive impairment is a detrimental complication of HIV infection. Here, we characterized the intellectual performance of patients with newly diagnosed HIV infection in southwestern Nigeria. We conducted a prospective study at Owo Federal Medical Center by using the adapted Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS). The raw scores were converted to standardized scores (z-scores) and correlated with clinical and laboratory findings. Fifty-eight HIV positive patients were recruited; 72% were in WHO stages 3 and 4. We detected a high rate of intellectual impairment in HIV positive patients and controls (63.8% and 10%, resp.; P < 0.001). HIV positive patients performed worse throughout the subtests of both verbal and performance intelligence quotients. Presence of opportunistic infections was associated with worse performance in the similarities and digit symbol tests and performance and full scale scores. Lower body weight correlated with poor performance in different WAIS subtests. The high rate of advanced disease stage warrants measures aimed at earlier diagnosis and treatment. Assessment of neurocognitive performance at diagnosis may offer the opportunity to improve functioning in daily life and counteract disease progression. PMID:26295033

  19. Providing palliative care for the newly diagnosed cancer patient: concepts and resources.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Michelle

    2008-04-01

    Palliative care has evolved from end-of-life care following exhaustion of curative therapy to care across the cancer-management continuum. Often initiated concurrently with curative care at the time of diagnosis, palliative care ensures both effective symptom management and the best possible quality of life in four key domains-physical, psychological, social, and spiritual. The significant growth and development of palliative care in the United States is evident in that one in four hospitals now has a palliative care program, palliative medicine is now recognized as an official medical subspecialty by the American Board of Medical Specialties, and national programs offer comprehensive continuing education in palliative care for nurses and physicians. The oncology nurse who provides palliative care does so as part of a multidisciplinary team that includes not only physicians but also can involve chaplains, massage therapists, pharmacists, nutritionists, and other specialists. This article provides resources and reviews and highlights pertinent palliative care issues to guide oncology nurses managing newly diagnosed cancer patients.

  20. Outcomes for newly diagnosed patients with acute myeloid leukemia dosed on actual or adjusted body weight.

    PubMed

    Bray, Whitney M; Bivona, Cory; Rockey, Michelle; Henry, Dave; Grauer, Dennis; Abhyankar, Sunil; Aljitawi, Omar; Ganguly, Siddhartha; McGuirk, Joseph; Singh, Anurag; Lin, Tara L

    2015-10-01

    Data from solid tumor malignancies suggest that actual body weight (ABW) dosing improves overall outcomes. There is the potential to compromise efficacy when chemotherapy dosages are reduced, but the impact of dose adjustment on clinical response and toxicity in hematologic malignancies is unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of utilizing a percent of ABW for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) induction chemotherapy dosing. This retrospective, single-center study included 146 patients who received 7 + 3 induction (cytarabine and anthracycline) for treatment of AML. Study design evaluated the relationship between percentage of ABW dosing and complete response (CR) rates in patients newly diagnosed with AML. Percentage of ABW dosing did not influence CR rates in patients undergoing induction chemotherapy for AML (p = 0.83); nor did it influence rate of death at 30 days or relapse at 6 months (p = 0.94). When comparing patients dosed at 90-100 % of ABW compared to <90 % ABW, CR rates were not significantly different in patients classified as poor risk (p = 0.907). All favorable risk category patients obtained CR. Preemptive dose reductions for obesity did not influence CR rates for patients with AML undergoing induction chemotherapy and did not influence the composite endpoint of death at 30 days or disease relapse at 6 months.

  1. Gender differences in disease activity and clinical features in newly diagnosed systemic lupus erythematosus patients.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Grajales, C; González, L A; Alarcón, G S; Acosta-Reyes, J

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this paper is to compare disease activity and clinical features at diagnosis in male and female patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). This was a cross-sectional study in which every male patient (n = 40) was matched with three female patients of the same age (±5 years) and racial/ethnic group; disease activity as per the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) and disease manifestations at the time of diagnosis were compared. Alopecia and anti-Ro antibodies were more frequent in female patients. No statistically significant difference in any other disease characteristics was found. However, male gender was associated with a risk of severe disease activity at the time of diagnosis (as determined by SLEDAI ≥12 score) independent of age, racial/ethnic group, anti-Ro positivity or time to criteria accrual (OR: 3.11 95% CI, 1.09-8.92; p = 0.035). In newly diagnosed SLE patients, male gender is associated with higher disease activity despite the fact that male and female patients seem to experience similar overall disease manifestations. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. ICU intervention during induction chemotherapy for adult patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Hartsock, Bobbi; Lim, Matthew J; Roth, Christine Garcia; Raptis, Nepheli; Weber, David; Sehgal, Alison; Boyiadzis, Michael; Raptis, Anastasios; Hou, Jing-Zhou; Im, Annie; Dorritie, Kathleen; Marks, Stanley; Agha, Mounzer; Lim, Seah H

    2016-09-01

    We carried out a retrospective study on newly diagnosed AML patients to identify the risk factors associated with intensive care unit (ICU) intervention. One hundred and twenty consecutive AML patients were included. The median cycle of induction therapy (IT) was 2 (range 1-4). Ten patients (8%) needed ICU intervention during IT. The median time from first IT to ICU transfer was 16days (range 2-88days). Three patients required vasopressor/s, three mechanical ventilation, and four both. The cumulative probability for ICU intervention rose progressively with increasing cycles of IT received, from 2.5% during first induction to 27.5% at fourth induction. Age, sex, presentation white cell counts and coagulation profiles, cytogenetics, pre-chemotherapy ventricular ejection fractions, and prior chemoradiation were not risk factors. Univariate analysis identified a history of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) (p=0.004) (RR=5.7; p=0.03) and positive blood cultures (BC) (p=0.03) (RR=3; p=0.06) as significant risks. Multivariate analysis found a history of IBD as the only significant factor (p=0.03), while positive BC (p=0.1) trending towards significance. AML patients with a history of IBD and positive BC are at increased risks for ICU intervention during IT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Thalidomide, clarithromycin, lenalidomide and dexamethasone therapy in newly diagnosed, symptomatic multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Mark, Tomer M; Bowman, Isaac A; Rossi, Adriana C; Shah, Manan; Rodriguez, Melissa; Quinn, Ryann; Pearse, Roger N; Zafar, Faiza; Pekle, Karen; Jayabalan, David; Ely, Scott; Coleman, Morton; Chen-Kiang, Selina; Niesvizky, Ruben

    2014-12-01

    We studied T-BiRD (thalidomide [Thalomid(®)], clarithromycin [Biaxin(®)], lenalidomide [Revlimid(®)] and dexamethasone) in symptomatic, newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. In 28-day cycles, patients received dexamethasone 40 mg/day on days 1, 8, 15, 22, clarithromycin 500 mg twice daily on days 1-28; lenalidomide 25 mg/day on days 1-21; and thalidomide 100 mg/day (50 mg/day on days 1-7 of cycle 1 only) on days 1-28. Twenty-six patients received a median of 6 cycles (range 0-41). Overall response rate (ORR) was 80% for the group and 100% in 11 patients who underwent autologous stem cell transplantation as part of first-line therapy. The 4-year overall survival rate was 74.9%, and the median progression-free survival was 35.6 months. Eight patients discontinued due to regimen toxicity. Grade 3 non hematologic toxicity affected 12 patients (46.2%). T-BiRD is a highly active regimen with potential toxicity limitations. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00538733.

  4. Outcomes in newly diagnosed epilepsy in adolescents and adults: Insights across a generation in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Brodie, Martin J

    2017-01-01

    The outpatient services at the Epilepsy Unit in the Western Infirmary, Glasgow, Scotland was set up in September 1982. From the outset patient data were collected prospectively. A focused approach to patients with newly diagnosed epilepsy was developed and a series of 4 analyses have been undertaken over the intervening years, with results from the latest still being written up for publication. A total of 16 published papers have described patient outcomes over the years, focusing on response to different drug schedules. A number of factors contributing to a poorer prognosis has been identified and follow up data over 30 years has confirmed the lack of overall improvement in prognosis despite the introduction of 14 new AEDs for the common epilepsies in the UK with different mechanisms of action over this time. Patterns of response have confirmed that a majority of patients will go into remission with around 25% of the population appearing to have refractory epilepsy de novo. Since all available options are antiseizure and not antiepilepsy drugs, some patients, who are initially well controlled, are seen to relapse over time and to develop refractory epilepsy. A new approach in identifying and treating epileptogenesis is necessary, if this disappointing scenario is to be reversed with the next generation of antiepileptic drugs.

  5. Eltrombopag and high-dose dexamethasone as frontline treatment of newly diagnosed immune thrombocytopenia in adults.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Almaguer, David; Herrera-Rojas, Miguel A; Jaime-Pérez, José C; Gómez-De León, Andrés; Cantú-Rodríguez, Olga G; Gutiérrez-Aguirre, César H; Tarín-Arzaga, Luz; Hernández-Reyes, Jesús; Ruiz-Arguelles, Guillermo J

    2014-06-19

    Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) results from platelet destruction and production suppression. Eltrombopag belongs to a new class of thrombopoietin-mimetic drugs that raise platelet counts in ITP patients. We performed a single-arm study to assess the response to a single course of dexamethasone (40 mg by mouth, days 1-4) in combination with eltrombopag (50 mg, days 5-32) in 12 adults with newly diagnosed ITP in an outpatient setting. Median follow-up was 12.5 months. After therapy (day 33), 100% of patients achieved at least ≥30 × 10(9)/L platelets. Four patients relapsed. Complete response at 6 months (platelets ≥100 × 10(9)/L) was achieved in 50% of patients and response at 6 months (platelets ≥30 <100 × 10(9)/L) was achieved in another 25%; relapse-free survival was 66.7% at 12 months (median response duration of 8.3 months). In conclusion, eltrombopag/dexamethasone is a feasible frontline therapy for ITP. This trial is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01652599.

  6. Metabolic, immunological and clinical characteristics in newly diagnosed Asian diabetes patients aged 12-40 years.

    PubMed

    Pan, C Y; So, W Y; Khalid, B A K; Mohan, V; Thai, A C; Zimmet, P; Cockram, C S; Jorgensen, L N; Yeo, J P

    2004-09-01

    To describe the clinical, biochemical and immunological characteristics of young-onset diabetes in Asia. Clinical, biochemical and immunological variables were assessed in 919 newly diagnosed (duration less than 12 months) young onset Asian diabetic patients aged between 12 and 40 years. The subjects constituted 57% Chinese, 29% Indians and 14% Malays, recruited from diabetes centres in China, Hong Kong, India, Malaysia and Singapore. The mean age (+/- sd) was 31.6 +/- 7.2 years, with the majority (66%) in the 31-40 years age group. Mean body mass index (BMI) (+/- sd) was 25.3 +/- 5.0 kg/m2 with 47% exceeding the suggested Asian cut-off point for obesity (BMI > or = 25). Ethnic difference in clinical characteristics included BMI, blood pressure, mode of treatment and degree of insulin resistance. Most patients had a clinical presentation of Type 2 diabetes. About 10% had a classical combination of ketotic presentation, presence of autoimmune-markers and documented insulin deficiency indicative of Type 1 diabetes. Forty-eight percent were receiving oral hypoglycaemic agents (OHAs) while 31% were on diet only, 18% were receiving insulin and 2% were on a combination of insulin and OHA. Young onset diabetes patients in Asia represent a heterogeneous group in terms of their clinical and biochemical characteristics and classical Type 1 diabetes is relatively uncommon. The 5-year follow up study will determine the progress of these patients and help to clarify the natural history.

  7. Outcomes for newly diagnosed patients with acute myeloid leukemia dosed on actual or adjusted body weight

    PubMed Central

    Bivona, Cory; Rockey, Michelle; Henry, Dave; Grauer, Dennis; Abhyankar, Sunil; Aljitawi, Omar; Ganguly, Siddhartha; McGuirk, Joseph; Singh, Anurag; Lin, Tara L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Data from solid tumor malignancies suggest that actual body weight (ABW) dosing improves overall outcomes. There is the potential to compromise efficacy when chemotherapy dosages are reduced, but the impact of dose adjustment on clinical response and toxicity in hematologic malignancies is unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of utilizing a percent of ABW for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) induction chemotherapy dosing. Methods This retrospective, single-center study included 146 patients who received 7 + 3 induction (cytarabine and anthracycline) for treatment of AML. Study design evaluated the relationship between percentage of ABW dosing and complete response (CR) rates in patients newly diagnosed with AML. Results Percentage of ABW dosing did not influence CR rates in patients undergoing induction chemotherapy for AML (p = 0.83); nor did it influence rate of death at 30 days or relapse at 6 months (p = 0.94). When comparing patients dosed at 90–100 % of ABW compared to <90 % ABW, CR rates were not significantly different in patients classified as poor risk (p = 0.907). All favorable risk category patients obtained CR. Conclusions Preemptive dose reductions for obesity did not influence CR rates for patients with AML undergoing induction chemotherapy and did not influence the composite endpoint of death at 30 days or disease relapse at 6 months. PMID:26231954

  8. Telomere Length and Pulse Pressure in Newly Diagnosed, Antipsychotic-Naive Patients With Nonaffective Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Egea, Emilio; Bernardo, Miguel; Heaphy, Christopher M.; Griffith, Jeffrey K.; Parellada, Eduard; Esmatjes, Enric; Conget, Ignacio; Nguyen, Linh; George, Varghese; Stöppler, Hubert; Kirkpatrick, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Recent studies suggest that in addition to factors such as treatment side effects, suicide, and poor health habits, people with schizophrenia may have an increased risk of diabetes prior to antipsychotic treatment. Diabetes is associated with an increased pulse pressure (PP) and a shortened telomere. We tested the hypothesis that prior to antipsychotic treatment, schizophrenia and related disorders are associated with a shortened telomere, as well as an increased PP. Methods: Telomere content (which is highly correlated with telomere length) and PP were measured in newly diagnosed, antipsychotic-naive patients with schizophrenia and related disorders on first clinical contact and in matched control subjects. Both groups were also administered an oral glucose tolerance test. Results: Compared with control subjects, the patients with psychosis had decreased telomere content and an increased PP. As previously reported, they also had increased glucose concentrations at 2 hours. These differences could not be attributed to differences in age, ethnicity, smoking, gender, body mass index, neighborhood of residence, socioeconomic status, aerobic conditioning, or an increased cortisol concentration in the psychotic subjects. Discussion: These results suggest that prior to antipsychotic use, nonaffective psychosis is associated with reduced telomere content and increased PP, indices that have been linked to an increased risk of diabetes and hypertension. PMID:19279086

  9. Brain Metastases in Newly Diagnosed Breast Cancer: A Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Martin, Allison M; Cagney, Daniel N; Catalano, Paul J; Warren, Laura E; Bellon, Jennifer R; Punglia, Rinaa S; Claus, Elizabeth B; Lee, Eudocia Q; Wen, Patrick Y; Haas-Kogan, Daphne A; Alexander, Brian M; Lin, Nancy U; Aizer, Ayal A

    2017-08-01

    Population-based estimates of the incidence and prognosis of brain metastases at diagnosis of breast cancer are lacking. To characterize the incidence proportions and median survivals of patients with breast cancer and brain metastases at the time of cancer diagnosis. Patients with breast cancer and brain metastases at the time of diagnosis were identified using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database of the National Cancer Institute. Data were stratified by subtype, age, sex, and race. Multivariable logistic and Cox regression were performed to identify predictors of the presence of brain metastases at diagnosis and factors associated with all-cause mortality, respectively. For incidence, we identified a population-based sample of 238 726 adult patients diagnosed as having invasive breast cancer between 2010 and 2013 for whom the presence or absence of brain metastases at diagnosis was known. Patients diagnosed at autopsy or with an unknown follow-up were excluded from the survival analysis, leaving 231 684 patients in this cohort. Incidence proportion and median survival of patients with brain metastases and newly diagnosed breast cancer. We identified 968 patients with brain metastases at the time of diagnosis of breast cancer, representing 0.41% of the entire cohort and 7.56% of the subset with metastatic disease to any site. A total of 57 were 18 to 40 years old, 423 were 41 to 60 years old, 425 were 61-80 years old, and 63 were older than 80 years. Ten were male and 958 were female. Incidence proportions were highest among patients with hormone receptor (HR)-negative human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive (1.1% among entire cohort, 11.5% among patients with metastatic disease to any distant site) and triple-negative (0.7% among entire cohort, 11.4% among patients with metastatic disease to any distant site) subtypes. Median survival among the entire cohort with brain metastases was 10.0 months. Patients with HR

  10. CPAP Adherence in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Obstructive Sleep Apnea prior to Elective Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Guralnick, Amy S.; Pant, Melissa; Minhaj, Mohammed; Sweitzer, Bobbie Jean; Mokhlesi, Babak

    2012-01-01

    period was extremely low. African American race, male gender, and depressive symptoms were independently associated with reduced CPAP usage. Further research is needed to identify and overcome barriers to CPAP acceptance and adherence in the perioperative setting. Citation: Guralnick AS; Pant M; Minhaj M; Sweitzer BJ; Mokhlesi B. CPAP adherence in patients with newly diagnosed obstructive sleep apnea prior to elective surgery. J Clin Sleep Med 2012;8(5):501-506. PMID:23066360

  11. Adherence to antihypertensive medications and cardiovascular morbidity among newly diagnosed hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Mazzaglia, Giampiero; Ambrosioni, Ettore; Alacqua, Marianna; Filippi, Alessandro; Sessa, Emiliano; Immordino, Vincenzo; Borghi, Claudio; Brignoli, Ovidio; Caputi, Achille P; Cricelli, Claudio; Mantovani, Lorenzo G

    2009-10-20

    Nonadherence to antihypertensive treatment is a common problem in cardiovascular prevention and may influence prognosis. We explored predictors of adherence to antihypertensive treatment and the association of adherence with acute cardiovascular events. Using data obtained from 400 Italian primary care physicians providing information to the Health Search/Thales Database, we selected 18,806 newly diagnosed hypertensive patients >or=35 years of age during the years 2000 to 2001. Subjects included were newly treated for hypertension and initially free of cardiovascular diseases. Patient adherence was subdivided a priori into 3 categories-high (proportion of days covered, >or=80%), intermediate (proportion of days covered, 40% to 79%), and low (proportion of days covered,

  12. Expansion of the E138A mutation in newly diagnosed HIV-infected patients in Gran Canaria.

    PubMed

    Chamizo, Francisco; Gilarranz, Raúl; Tosco, Tomás; Carrillo, Deyanira; Holguín, África; Santana, Évora; Pérez-Arellano, Jose Luís; Hernández, Michele; Francés, Adela; Cárdenes, Miguel Ángel; Zarzalejos, Jose María; Pena-López, María José

    2016-09-01

    Molecular epidemiology allows us to know local HIV transmission and to design strategies of prevention. We studied 25 HIV newly diagnosed patients with the E138A mutation since the year 2010. Most transmission networks involved young and promiscuous men who have sex with men. Recent infection was only documented in patients grouped into the smaller clusters.

  13. Motor Skills of Children Newly Diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Prior to and Following Treatment with Stimulant Medication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brossard-Racine, Marie; Shevell, Michael; Snider, Laurie; Belanger, Stacey Ageranioti; Majnemer, Annette

    2012-01-01

    Motor difficulties are common in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Although preliminary evidence has suggested that methylphenidate can improve the motor skills in children with ADHD and Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD), the effect of stimulant medication on motor performance in children newly diagnosed with…

  14. Role of MRD status in relation to clinical outcomes in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Landgren, O; Devlin, S; Boulad, M; Mailankody, S

    2016-12-01

    Driven by access to better drugs, on average, newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients have over 10 years overall survival. Using modern combination therapies-with or without the addition of high-dose melphalan and autologous stem cell transplantation-up to 80% of patients reach a complete response. As a logical and necessary step forward, clinical studies have explored strategies to detect minimal residual disease (MRD) and its correlation with clinical outcomes. In this context, MRD has been proposed as a regulatory end point for drug approval in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. To better define the role of MRD negativity in relation to clinical outcomes, we undertook a meta-analysis including published clinical trials of newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients. We applied a random effects model which weighted studies using the inverse-variance method. Studies were combined on the scale of the logarithm of the hazard ratio (HR) and the corresponding s.d. We found that MRD negativity (versus positivity) was associated with better PFS (HR=0.35; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.27-0.46; P<0.001) and overall survival (HR=0.48; 95% CI 0.33-0.70; P<0.001). Our results show that MRD negativity is a strong predictor of clinical outcomes, supportive of MRD becoming a regulatory end point for drug approval in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma.

  15. Motor Skills of Children Newly Diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Prior to and Following Treatment with Stimulant Medication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brossard-Racine, Marie; Shevell, Michael; Snider, Laurie; Belanger, Stacey Ageranioti; Majnemer, Annette

    2012-01-01

    Motor difficulties are common in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Although preliminary evidence has suggested that methylphenidate can improve the motor skills in children with ADHD and Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD), the effect of stimulant medication on motor performance in children newly diagnosed with…

  16. Overweight and obesity in children with newly diagnosed inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Pituch-Zdanowska, Aleksandra; Banaszkiewicz, Aleksandra; Dziekiewicz, Marcin; Łazowska-Przeorek, Izabella; Gawrońska, Agnieszka; Kowalska-Duplaga, Kinga; Iwańczak, Barbara; Klincewicz, Beata; Grzybowska-Chlebowczyk, Urszula; Walkowiak, Jarosław; Albrecht, Piotr

    2016-03-01

    Determination of overweight and obesity prevalence in children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) at the time of diagnosis. This was a multicenter retrospective study. The study group consisted of children with new cases of IBD diagnosed in 2005-2013 according to the Porto criteria. Hospital admission records were reviewed for demographic and clinical characteristics. BMI-for-age and gender percentile charts were used to define overweight as ≥85th BMI percentile and obesity as ≥95th BMI percentile. 675 patients were evaluated: 368 with Crohn's disease (CD) and 307 with ulcerative colitis (UC). Of these, 54.8% were boys and 45.2% were girls. There were no statistically significant differences in age, weight, height and disease activity between the CD and UC patients. The UC patients had higher BMI values than the CD patients. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was higher in the UC than the CD patients (4.89% CI95 2.76-7.93 vs. 2.45% CI95 1.12-4.59 and 8.47% CI95 5.61-12.16 vs. 1.9% CI95 0.77-3.88, respectively); the differences were statistically significant (-2.44% CI95 -5.45 to 0.49 and -6.57% CI95 -10 to -3.1, respectively). The risk of overweight/obesity was 3.5 times higher for patients with UC (OR=0.272, CI95 0.14-0.49, p=0.0004). The prevalence of overweight and obesity in newly diagnosed children with IBD was 8.4% and was higher in patients with UC than in patients with CD. The results of this study have shown that not only malnourished children may suffer from IBD but also children who are overweight or obese at the time of diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 Medical University of Bialystok. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  17. Use of deep sequencing data for routine analysis of HIV resistance in newly diagnosed patients

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Caballero, Jose-Angel; Chueca, Natalia; Alvarez, Marta; Gonzalez, Dimitri; García, Federico

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Use of deep sequencing is becoming a critical tool in clinical virology, with an important impact in the HIV field for routine diagnostic purposes. Here, we present the comparison of deep and Sanger sequencing in newly diagnosed HIV patients, and the use of DeepChek v1.3 & VisibleChek for their interpretation and integration with virological and clinical data. Patients and Methods Plasma samples from 88 newly diagnosed HIV-1-infected patients were included in the study. Median age (IQR) was 37 (27–47), median CD4 count (IQR) was 387 (220–554), and 85% were males. Median Viral Load (Log, IQR) was 5.03 (4.51–5.53). Deep sequencing was obtained using a GS-Junior (Roche). Sequences were preprocessed with the 454 AVA software; aligned reads were uploaded into the DeepChek v1.3 system (ABL SA). Sanger sequences (Trugene), were uploaded in parallel. Stanford algorithm (version 7.0) resistance interpretation to first line drugs and all the mutations (score≥5) were analyzed. For deep sequencing, 1%, 5% and 10% thresholds were chosen for resistance interpretation. Results Using VisibleChek for analysis, we were able to describe the detection of any mutation using Sanger in 37/88 patients, with a total number of 50 Stanford ≥5 mutations, K103N and E138A being the most prevalent (n=4). Using UDS-1%, we found 72/88 patients with at least one mutation (total of 206 Stanford ≥5 mutations). Using Sanger data, 9/88 patients (10.22%) showed any resistance to NNRTIs, while none showed resistance to NRTIs or PIs. Using UDS-10% increased resistance to NRTIs [3/88 (3.40%)], to NNRTIs 12/88 (13.63%), and to a lesser extent to PIs [1/88 (1.13%)]. Using UDS-5% increased resistance to NRTIs [4/88 (4.54%)] and to NNRTIs [12/88 (13.63%)], but not to PIs. Using UDS-1% increased resistance to all classes: NRTIs [14/88 (15.90%)], NNRTIs [26/88 (30.68%)], and PIs [6/88 (6.81]. Conclusions DeepChek and VisibleChek allow for an easy, reliable and rapid analysis of UDS data

  18. Use of deep sequencing data for routine analysis of HIV resistance in newly diagnosed patients.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Caballero, Jose-Angel; Chueca, Natalia; Alvarez, Marta; Gonzalez, Dimitri; García, Federico

    2014-01-01

    Use of deep sequencing is becoming a critical tool in clinical virology, with an important impact in the HIV field for routine diagnostic purposes. Here, we present the comparison of deep and Sanger sequencing in newly diagnosed HIV patients, and the use of DeepChek v1.3 & VisibleChek for their interpretation and integration with virological and clinical data. Plasma samples from 88 newly diagnosed HIV-1-infected patients were included in the study. Median age (IQR) was 37 (27-47), median CD4 count (IQR) was 387 (220-554), and 85% were males. Median Viral Load (Log, IQR) was 5.03 (4.51-5.53). Deep sequencing was obtained using a GS-Junior (Roche). Sequences were preprocessed with the 454 AVA software; aligned reads were uploaded into the DeepChek v1.3 system (ABL SA). Sanger sequences (Trugene), were uploaded in parallel. Stanford algorithm (version 7.0) resistance interpretation to first line drugs and all the mutations (score≥5) were analyzed. For deep sequencing, 1%, 5% and 10% thresholds were chosen for resistance interpretation. Using VisibleChek for analysis, we were able to describe the detection of any mutation using Sanger in 37/88 patients, with a total number of 50 Stanford ≥5 mutations, K103N and E138A being the most prevalent (n=4). Using UDS-1%, we found 72/88 patients with at least one mutation (total of 206 Stanford ≥5 mutations). Using Sanger data, 9/88 patients (10.22%) showed any resistance to NNRTIs, while none showed resistance to NRTIs or PIs. Using UDS-10% increased resistance to NRTIs [3/88 (3.40%)], to NNRTIs 12/88 (13.63%), and to a lesser extent to PIs [1/88 (1.13%)]. Using UDS-5% increased resistance to NRTIs [4/88 (4.54%)] and to NNRTIs [12/88 (13.63%)], but not to PIs. Using UDS-1% increased resistance to all classes: NRTIs [14/88 (15.90%)], NNRTIs [26/88 (30.68%)], and PIs [6/88 (6.81]. DeepChek and VisibleChek allow for an easy, reliable and rapid analysis of UDS data from HIV-1. Compared to Sanger data, UDS detected a higher

  19. Boron neutron capture therapy for newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme: an assessment of clinical potential.

    PubMed

    Sköld, K; Gorlia, T; Pellettieri, L; Giusti, V; H-Stenstam, B; Hopewell, J W

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the potential of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), with a 6-h infusion of the boron carrier l-boronophenylalanine as a fructose preparation (BPA-f), as first-line radiotherapy for newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Patient survival data from a Phase II study using BNCT were compared with retrospective data from the two arms of a Phase III study using conventional radiotherapy (RT) in the reference arm and using RT plus concomitant and adjuvant medication with temozolomide (TMZ) in the experimental arm, and were also compared with small subgroups of these patients for whom the methylation status of the MGMT (O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase) DNA repair gene was known. Differences in the baseline characteristics, salvage therapy after recurrence and levels of severe adverse events were also considered. The results indicate that BNCT offers a treatment that is at least as effective as conventional RT alone. For patients with an unmethylated MGMT DNA repair gene, a possible clinical advantage of BNCT over RT/TMZ was suggested. BNCT is a single-day treatment, which is of convenience to patients, with mild side effects, which would offer an initial 6 weeks of good-quality life during the time when patients would otherwise be undergoing daily treatments with RT and TMZ. It is suggested that the use of BNCT with a 6-h infusion of BPA-f should be explored in a stratified randomised Phase II trial in which patients with the unmethylated MGMT DNA repair gene are offered BNCT in the experimental arm and RT plus TMZ in the reference arm.

  20. The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori gastritis in newly diagnosed children with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Roka, Kleoniki; Roubani, Aikaterini; Stefanaki, Kalliopi; Panayotou, Ioanna; Roma, Eleftheria; Chouliaras, Giorgos

    2014-10-01

    Recent studies have shown that patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are less likely to be infected with Helicobacter pylori compared with non-IBD patients. We aimed to study the prevalence of H. pylori-positive and H. pylori-negative gastritis in newly diagnosed children with IBD in comparison to those with non-IBD in Greece. All children who underwent first esophagogastroduodenal endoscopy between 2002 and 2011 were retrospectively included. Four groups were studied: patients with Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC), IBD unclassified (IBDU), and non-IBD individuals (non-IBD). Helicobacter pylori infection was defined by positive culture or by positive histology and CLO test. Those children with negative or not available culture and only one positive test (histology or CLO) were further evaluated by urea breath test, and the positives were also included in the infected group. We studied 159 patients with IBD (66 CD, 34 UC, and 59 IBDU) and 1209 patients in non-IBD individuals. Helicobacter pylori gastritis was less frequent in the IBD group (3.8% vs 13.2% in the control group, p < .001), whereas IBD patients were significantly older than non-IBD children (p < .001). Children with H. pylori-negative gastritis were 3.3 times more likely to belong in the IBD group compared with H. pylori-positive patients (p = .006). Occurrence of H. pylori gastritis is less frequent in children with IBD compared with controls. Our study confirms an inverse association between H. pylori and IBD. Future studies are needed to distinguish between a true protective role of H. pylori and a confounding effect due to previous antibiotic use in children with IBD. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Repeatability of Standardized and Normalized Relative CBV in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Prah, M.A.; Stufflebeam, S.M.; Paulson, E.S.; Kalpathy-Cramer, J.; Gerstner, E.R.; Batchelor, T.T.; Barboriak, D.P.; Rosen, B.R.; Schmainda, K.M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE For more widespread clinical use advanced imaging methods such as relative cerebral blood volume must be both accurate and repeatable. The aim of this study was to determine the repeatability of relative CBV measurements in newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme by using several of the most commonly published estimation techniques. MATERIALS AND METHODS The relative CBV estimates were calculated from dynamic susceptibility contrast MR imaging in double-baseline examinations for 33 patients with treatment-naïve and pathologically proved glioblastoma multiforme (men=20; mean age=55 years). Normalized and standardized relative CBV were calculated by using 6 common postprocessing methods. The repeatability of both normalized and standardized relative CBV, in both tumor and contralateral brain, was examined for each method with metrics of repeatability, including the repeatability coefficient and within-subject coefficient of variation. The minimum sample size required to detect a parameter change of 10% or 20% was also determined for both normalized relative CBV and standardized relative CBV for each estimation method. RESULTS When ordered by the repeatability coefficient, methods using postprocessing leakage correction and ΔR2*(t) techniques offered superior repeatability. Across processing techniques, the standardized relative CBV repeatability in normal-appearing brain was comparable with that in tumor (P = .31), yet inferior in tumor for normalized relative CBV (P = .03). On the basis of the within-subject coefficient of variation, tumor standardized relative CBV estimates were less variable (13%–20%) than normalized relative CBV estimates (24%– 67%). The minimum number of participants needed to detect a change of 10% or 20% is 118–643 or 30 –161 for normalized relative CBV and 109 –215 or 28 –54 for standardized relative CBV. CONCLUSIONS The ΔR2* estimation methods that incorporate leakage correction offer the best

  2. Serial analysis of imaging parameters in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Lupo, Janine M.; Polley, Mei-Yin; Crane, Jason C.; Bian, Wei; Cha, Soonmee; Chang, Susan; Nelson, Sarah J.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the predictive value of serial MRI data in relation to clinical outcome for patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Sixty-four patients with newly diagnosed GBM underwent conventional MRI and diffusion-weighted and perfusion-weighted imaging postsurgery and prior to radiation/chemotherapy (pre-RT), immediately after RT (post-RT), and every 1–2 months thereafter until tumor progression, up to a maximum of 1 year. Tumor volumes and perfusion and diffusion parameters were calculated and subject to time-independent and time-dependent Cox proportional hazards models that were adjusted for age and MR scanner field strength. Larger volumes of the T2 hyperintensity lesion (T2ALL) and nonenhancing lesion (NEL) at pre-RT, as well as increased anatomic volumes at post-RT, were associated with worse overall survival (OS). Higher normalized cerebral blood volumes (nCBVs), normalized peak height (nPH) and normalized recirculation factors (nRF) at pre-RT, and nCBV at post-RT, in the T2ALL and NEL, were associated with shorter progression-free survival (PFS). From pre- to post-RT, there was a reduction in nCBV and nPH and an increase in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). Patients with lower nRF values at pre-RT, or a larger increase in nRF from pre-RT to post-RT, had significantly longer PFS. Time-dependent analysis showed that patterns of changes in ADC and anatomic volumes were associated with OS, while changes in nCBV, nPH, and the contrast-enhancing volume were associated with PFS. Our studies suggest that quantitative MRI variables derived from anatomic and physiological MRI provide useful information for predicting outcome in patients with GBM. PMID:21297128

  3. European Myeloma Network recommendations on the evaluation and treatment of newly diagnosed patients with multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Engelhardt, Monika; Terpos, Evangelos; Kleber, Martina; Gay, Francesca; Wäsch, Ralph; Morgan, Gareth; Cavo, Michele; van de Donk, Niels; Beilhack, Andreas; Bruno, Benedetto; Johnsen, Hans Erik; Hajek, Roman; Driessen, Christoph; Ludwig, Heinz; Beksac, Meral; Boccadoro, Mario; Straka, Christian; Brighen, Sara; Gramatzki, Martin; Larocca, Alessandra; Lokhorst, Henk; Magarotto, Valeria; Morabito, Fortunato; Dimopoulos, Meletios A.; Einsele, Hermann; Sonneveld, Pieter; Palumbo, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Multiple myeloma management has undergone profound changes in the past thanks to advances in our understanding of the disease biology and improvements in treatment and supportive care approaches. This article presents recommendations of the European Myeloma Network for newly diagnosed patients based on the GRADE system for level of evidence. All patients with symptomatic disease should undergo risk stratification to classify patients for International Staging System stage (level of evidence: 1A) and for cytogenetically defined high- versus standard-risk groups (2B). Novel-agent-based induction and up-front autologous stem cell transplantation in medically fit patients remains the standard of care (1A). Induction therapy should include a triple combination of bortezomib, with either adriamycin or thalidomide and dexamethasone (1A), or with cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone (2B). Currently, allogeneic stem cell transplantation may be considered for young patients with high-risk disease and preferably in the context of a clinical trial (2B). Thalidomide (1B) or lenalidomide (1A) maintenance increases progression-free survival and possibly overall survival (2B). Bortezomib-based regimens are a valuable consolidation option, especially for patients who failed excellent response after autologous stem cell transplantation (2A). Bortezomib-melphalan-prednisone or melphalan-prednisone-thalidomide are the standards of care for transplant-ineligible patients (1A). Melphalan-prednisone-lenalidomide with lenalidomide maintenance increases progression-free survival, but overall survival data are needed. New data from the phase III study (MM-020/IFM 07-01) of lenalidomide-low-dose dexamethasone reached its primary end point of a statistically significant improvement in progression-free survival as compared to melphalan-prednisone-thalidomide and provides further evidence for the efficacy of lenalidomide-low-dose dexamethasone in transplant-ineligible patients (2B). PMID:24497560

  4. Provider Influences on Sperm Banking Outcomes Among Adolescent Males Newly Diagnosed With Cancer.

    PubMed

    Klosky, James L; Anderson, L Elizabeth; Russell, Kathryn M; Huang, Lu; Zhang, Hui; Schover, Leslie R; Simmons, Jessica L; Kutteh, William H

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine provider communication and sociodemographic factors which associate with sperm banking outcomes in at-risk adolescents newly diagnosed with cancer. A prospective single-group quasi-experimental study design was used to test the contributions of provider factors on sperm banking outcomes. Medical providers (N = 52, 86.5% oncologists) and 99 of their at-risk adolescent patients from eight leading pediatric oncology centers in North America completed questionnaires querying provider factors and patient sperm banking outcomes. Logistic regression with single covariates was used to test each provider factor as a potential correlate of the two binary sperm banking study outcomes (collection attempt/no attempt and successful sperm bank/no bank). Multicovariate logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for specified banking outcomes. Fertility referral (OR, 9.01; 95% CI, 2.54-31.90; p < .001) and provider comfort/skills in negotiating barriers to sperm banking with families (OR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.03-3.63; p < .04) were associated with collection attempts. Adolescents who were referred for a specialized fertility consultation were also almost five times more likely to successfully bank (OR, 4.96; 95% CI, 1.54-16.00; p < .01) compared to those who were not. Provider training in communicating/managing adolescents and their families about sperm banking, and increasing utilization of fertility preservation referrals, should increase the proportion of at-risk males preserving fertility before treatment initiation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Boron neutron capture therapy for newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme: an assessment of clinical potential

    PubMed Central

    Sköld, K; Gorlia, T; Pellettieri, L; Giusti, V; H-Stenstam, B; Hopewell, J W

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the potential of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), with a 6-h infusion of the boron carrier l-boronophenylalanine as a fructose preparation (BPA-f), as first-line radiotherapy for newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Patient survival data from a Phase II study using BNCT were compared with retrospective data from the two arms of a Phase III study using conventional radiotherapy (RT) in the reference arm and using RT plus concomitant and adjuvant medication with temozolomide (TMZ) in the experimental arm, and were also compared with small subgroups of these patients for whom the methylation status of the MGMT (O6-methylguanine–DNA methyltransferase) DNA repair gene was known. Differences in the baseline characteristics, salvage therapy after recurrence and levels of severe adverse events were also considered. The results indicate that BNCT offers a treatment that is at least as effective as conventional RT alone. For patients with an unmethylated MGMT DNA repair gene, a possible clinical advantage of BNCT over RT/TMZ was suggested. BNCT is a single-day treatment, which is of convenience to patients, with mild side effects, which would offer an initial 6 weeks of good-quality life during the time when patients would otherwise be undergoing daily treatments with RT and TMZ. It is suggested that the use of BNCT with a 6-h infusion of BPA-f should be explored in a stratified randomised Phase II trial in which patients with the unmethylated MGMT DNA repair gene are offered BNCT in the experimental arm and RT plus TMZ in the reference arm. PMID:20603410

  6. Reported outcomes of children with newly diagnosed high-grade gliomas treated with nimotuzumab and irinotecan.

    PubMed

    Sirachainan, Nongnuch; Boongird, Atthaporn; Swangsilpa, Thiti; Klaisuban, Wipawi; Lusawat, Apasri; Hongeng, Suradej

    2017-06-01

    The outcome of children with high-grade gliomas (HGGs) treated with radiation and adjuvant chemotherapy remains poor. The expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been established in children with HGGs. This report demonstrated the outcomes of adjuvant nimotuzumab, an EGFR inhibitor, with irinotecan in pediatric HGGs. Children with newly diagnosed HGGs were enrolled. Two weeks after surgery, nimotuzumab with a dose of 150 mg/m(2) was given every week during radiation. After completion of radiation, a 4-week cycle of nimotuzumab (150 mg/m(2)) at week 1 and 3 and irinotecan (125 mg/m(2)) at week 1, 2, and 3 was given. Sixteen patients (5 females, 11 males), with a mean ± SD age of 8.2 ± 3.5 years were included. Tumors were located at the supratentorial region (50.0%), infratentorial region (43.8%), and both locations (6.2%). The 5-year PFS and OS were 19.9 ± 11.6 and 31.5 ± 13.0%, respectively. Median times of PFS and OS were 1.8 and 1.9 years, respectively. Prognostic factors related to good outcome were the location of tumor at the supratentorial region or outside brainstem and the extension of surgery. Side effects were minimal, with grade 1 anemia in three patients and diarrhea in one patient. Although, the adjuvant regimen of nimotuzumab and irinotecan slightly increases the overall outcome when compared to the historical study, the advantages of this protocol were minimal side effect, short period of hospitalization, and improved OS in patients who received extensive surgery.

  7. Real World Uptake, Safety Profile and Outcomes of Docetaxel in Newly Diagnosed Metastatic Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Rulach, Robert; McKay, Stephen; Neilson, Sam; White, Lillian; Wallace, Jan; Carruthers, Ross; Lamb, Carolynn; Cascales, Almudena; Marashi, Husam; Glen, Hilary; Venugopal, Balaji; Sadoyze, Azmat; Sidek, Norma; Russell, J Martin; Alhasso, Abdulla; Dodds, David; Laskey, Jennifer; Jones, Robert J; MacLeod, Nicholas

    2017-09-20

    To investigate the uptake, safety and efficacy of docetaxel chemotherapy in hormone-naïve metastatic prostate cancer (mPC) in the first year of use outside of a clinical trial. Patients in the West of Scotland Cancer Network (WoSCAN) with newly diagnosed mPC were identified from the regional multidisciplinary team (MDT) meetings and their treatment details were collected from electronic patient records. The rate of febrile neutropenia, hospitalisations, time to progression and overall survival were compared between those patients who received docetaxel and androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), or ADT alone using survival analysis. Out of 270 eligible patients, 103 received docetaxel (38.1%). 35 patients (34%) were hospitalised and there were 17 episodes of febrile neutropenia (16.5%). Two patients (1.9%) died within 30 days of chemotherapy. Patients who received ADT alone had an increased risk of progression (HR 2.03, 95% CI (1.27, 3.25), log-rank test, p= 0.002) and had an increased risk of death (HR 5.88, 95% CI 2.52, 13.72, log-rank p=0.001) compared to the docetaxel group. The risk of febrile neutropenia was nine times greater if chemotherapy was started within three weeks of ADT initiation (95% CI (1.22,77.72) p= 0.032). Docetaxel chemotherapy in hormone-naïve mPC has significant toxicities, but has a similar effect on time to progression and overall survival as seen in randomised trials. Chemotherapy should be started 3 weeks or more after androgen deprivation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. Physical activity in elderly subjects with impaired glucose tolerance and newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Baan, C A; Stolk, R P; Grobbee, D E; Witteman, J C; Feskens, E J

    1999-02-01

    The authors carried out a study to investigate the association between different indicators of physical activity and the prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and newly diagnosed diabetes (nDM) in a population-based cohort of elderly men and women in the Netherlands. A sample of participants of the Rotterdam Study (n = 1,016) aged 55-75 years who were not known to have diabetes mellitus underwent an oral glucose tolerance test. Physical activity was assessed by means of a self-administered questionnaire and expressed as time spent on activities per week. Associations with the prevalence of IGT and nDM were assessed by logistic regression analysis after adjustment for age, body mass index, waist-hip ratio, family history of diabetes, and smoking. A total of 745 subjects had normal glucose tolerance, 153 IGT, and 118 nDM. The total amount of time spent on physical activity decreased with increasing glucose intolerance. Adjusted for main confounders, vigorous activities such as bicycling (men: odds ratio (OR) = 0.26, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.14-0.49; women: OR = 0.37, 95% CI 0.18-0.78) and sports (men: OR = 0.28, 95% CI 0.11-0.74) showed an inverse association with the presence of nDM. For IGT, the associations pointed in the same direction but did not reach statistical significance. These results indicate that physical inactivity and glucose intolerance are associated among older adults similar to the way they are associated among middle-aged adults.

  9. Stereotactic radiosurgery for newly diagnosed brain metastases: comparison of three dose levels.

    PubMed

    Rades, Dirk; Hornung, Dagmar; Blanck, Oliver; Martens, Kristina; Khoa, Mai Trong; Trang, Ngo Thuy; Hüppe, Michael; Terheyden, Patrick; Gliemroth, Jan; Schild, Steven E

    2014-09-01

    Three doses were compared for local control of irradiated metastases, freedom from new brain metastases, and survival in patients receiving stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) alone for one to three newly diagnosed brain metastases. In all, 134 patients were assigned to three groups according to the SRS dose given to the margins of the lesions: 13-16 Gy (n = 33), 18 Gy (n = 18), and 20 Gy (n = 83). Additional potential prognostic factors were evaluated: age (≤ 60 vs. > 60 years), gender, Karnofsky Performance Scale score (70-80 vs. 90-100), tumor type (non-small-cell lung cancer vs. melanoma vs. others), number of brain metastases (1 vs. 2-3), lesion size (< 15 vs. ≥ 15 mm), extracranial metastases (no vs. yes), RPA class (1 vs. 2), and interval of cancer diagnosis to SRS (≤ 24 vs. > 24 months). For 13-16 Gy, 18 Gy, and 20 Gy, the 1-year local control rates were 31, 65, and 79%, respectively (p < 0.001). The SRS dose maintained significance on multivariate analysis (risk ratio: 2.25; 95% confidence interval: 1.56-3.29; p < 0.001). On intergroup comparisons of local control, 20 Gy was superior to 13-16 Gy (p < 0.001) but not to 18 Gy (p = 0.12); 18 Gy showed a strong trend toward better local control when compared with 13-16 Gy (p = 0.059). Freedom from new brain metastases (p = 0.57) and survival (p = 0.15) were not associated with SRS dose in the univariate analysis. SRS doses of 18 Gy and 20 Gy resulted in better local control than 13-16 Gy. However, 20 Gy and 18 Gy must be compared again in a larger cohort of patients. Freedom from new brain metastases and survival were not associated with SRS dose.

  10. Myeloid-derived suppressor cell accumulation and function in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Raychaudhuri, Baisakhi; Rayman, Patricia; Ireland, Joanna; Ko, Jennifer; Rini, Brian; Borden, Ernest C; Garcia, Jorge; Vogelbaum, Michael A; Finke, James

    2011-06-01

    To assess the accumulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in the peripheral blood of patients with glioma and to define their heterogeneity and their immunosuppressive function. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy control subjects and from patients with newly diagnosed glioma were stimulated with anti-CD3/anti-CD28 and T cells assessed for intracellular expression of interferon (IFN)-γ. Antibody staining of PBMCs from glioma patients and healthy donors (CD33, HLADR, CD15, and CD14) followed by 4-color flow cytometry analysis-defined MDSC levels in the peripheral blood. To assess the role of MDSCs in suppressing T cell IFNγ production, PBMCs were depleted of MDSCs using anti-CD33 and anti-CD15 antibody-coated beads prior to T cell stimulation. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to assess plasma arginase activity and the level of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). Patients with glioblastoma have increased MDSC counts (CD33+HLADR-) in their blood that are composed of neutrophilic (CD15(+); >60%), lineage-negative (CD15(-)CD14(-); 31%), and monocytic (CD14(+); 6%) subsets. After stimulation, T cells from patients with glioblastoma had suppressed IFN-γ production when compared with healthy, age-matched donor T cells. Removal of MDSCs from the PBMCs with anti-CD33/CD15-coated beads significantly restored T cell function. Significant increases in arginase activity and G-CSF levels were observed in plasma specimens obtained from patients with glioblastoma. The accumulation of MDSCs in peripheral blood in patients with glioma likely promotes T cell immune suppression that is observed in this patient population. Increased plasma levels of arginase and G-CSF may relate to MDSC suppressor function and MDSC expansion, respectively, in patients with glioma.

  11. Myeloid-derived suppressor cell accumulation and function in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Raychaudhuri, Baisakhi; Rayman, Patricia; Ireland, Joanna; Ko, Jennifer; Rini, Brian; Borden, Ernest C.; Garcia, Jorge; Vogelbaum, Michael A.; Finke, James

    2011-01-01

    To assess the accumulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in the peripheral blood of patients with glioma and to define their heterogeneity and their immunosuppressive function. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy control subjects and from patients with newly diagnosed glioma were stimulated with anti-CD3/anti-CD28 and T cells assessed for intracellular expression of interferon (IFN)–γ. Antibody staining of PBMCs from glioma patients and healthy donors (CD33, HLADR, CD15, and CD14) followed by 4-color flow cytometry analysis–defined MDSC levels in the peripheral blood. To assess the role of MDSCs in suppressing T cell IFNγ production, PBMCs were depleted of MDSCs using anti-CD33 and anti-CD15 antibody-coated beads prior to T cell stimulation. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to assess plasma arginase activity and the level of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). Patients with glioblastoma have increased MDSC counts (CD33+HLADR−) in their blood that are composed of neutrophilic (CD15+; >60%), lineage-negative (CD15−CD14−; 31%), and monocytic (CD14+; 6%) subsets. After stimulation, T cells from patients with glioblastoma had suppressed IFN-γ production when compared with healthy, age-matched donor T cells. Removal of MDSCs from the PBMCs with anti-CD33/CD15–coated beads significantly restored T cell function. Significant increases in arginase activity and G-CSF levels were observed in plasma specimens obtained from patients with glioblastoma. The accumulation of MDSCs in peripheral blood in patients with glioma likely promotes T cell immune suppression that is observed in this patient population. Increased plasma levels of arginase and G-CSF may relate to MDSC suppressor function and MDSC expansion, respectively, in patients with glioma. PMID:21636707

  12. Risk factors and characteristics of blood stream infections in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Teng; Liu, Chia-Jen; Ko, Po-Shen; Liu, Han-Tsung; Yu, Yuan-Bin; Hsiao, Liang-Tsai; Gau, Jyh-Pyng; Tzeng, Cheng-Hwai; Chiou, Tzeon-Jye; Liu, Jin-Hwang; Yang, Muh-Hwa; Huang, Ling-Ju; Liu, Chun-Yu

    2017-01-06

    Patients with multiple myeloma are generally immune-compromised either due to pronounced depression in primary antibody responses or because of anti-myeloma therapy. Infection is a major risk factor for early deaths among these patients. The impact of blood stream infections (BSI) on newly diagnosed myeloma patients has been less studied. We aimed to study the incidence and risk factors of BSI within 3 months after diagnosis of multiple myeloma in a tertiary referral center. Between November 2002 and December 2008, consecutive patients with multiple myeloma in Taipei Veterans General Hospital were retrospectively enrolled. Characteristics of patients with or without BSI were collected. Possible factors associated with development of BSI were analyzed by Cox regression. There were a total of 222 patients. The incidence of BSI within 3 months after diagnosis is 11.7%. The patients with BSI had poorer survival outcomes than those without (mortality rate: 50% vs. 20.9%, p < 0.001). Moreover, advanced International Staging System stage (stage III vs. I/II: odds ratio [OR] 2.69, p = 0.049) and poor Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status (ECOG > 2 vs. ≤ 2: OR 3.58, p = 0.005) were the independent risk factors of BSI, whereas immunoglobulin deficiency and low absolute lymphocyte count were not associated with risk of BSI development. Our study highlights the characteristic of myeloma patients with BSI and the importance of disease and host factors on risk of BSI. Myeloma patients with risks of BSI should be properly managed to reduce early mortality.

  13. Relationship between radiologic patterns, pulmonary function values and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cells in newly diagnosed sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Zeleckienė, Ingrida; Matačiūnas, Mindaugas; Puronaitė, Roma; Jurgauskienė, Laimutė; Malickaitė, Radvilė; Strumilienė, Edita; Gruslys, Vygantas; Zablockis, Rolandas; Danila, Edvardas

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to identify specious radiologic and/or physiologic prognostic marker(s), which lead to optimize of the patient follow-up frequency. Methods Eighty consecutive patients with newly diagnosed pulmonary sarcoidosis. Patients underwent chest radiography, high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) examination, pulmonary function tests (PFT), bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and lung biopsy, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cell examination. Results The reduction in PFT values seen in radiological sarcoidosis stage III was greater than that seen in stages I and II. The percentage of neutrophils in the lungs was found to increase in stages II and III. PFT indices were correlated negatively with the consolidation and ground glass opacities CT scores, but not with the micronodule or macronodule scores. The rise in the percentage of BALF lymphocytes was associated with the restriction pattern of PFT. The diagnostic value of BALF for sarcoidosis was higher when the typical radiologic patterns of stage I disease were found and that smoking decreased the diagnostic value of CD4/CD8 ratio. Conclusions This study supports the opinion that the staging of the pulmonary sarcoidosis with chest X-rays is still valuable from the prognostic point of view, because significant correlations between the radiologic stages of sarcoidosis and PFT parameters were found. Chest HRCT was significantly superior to chest X-ray in detecting mediastinal and pulmonary parenchymal changes. However, the prognostic role of HRCT needs to be better investigated evaluating serial examinations. Only consolidation and ground glass scores (neither of which are frequently found in sarcoidosis) hold prognostic value, since these were negatively correlated with PFT parameters. PMID:28203410

  14. Two-year outcomes of patients with newly diagnosed atrial fibrillation: results from GARFIELD-AF

    PubMed Central

    Bassand, Jean-Pierre; Accetta, Gabriele; Camm, Alan John; Cools, Frank; Fitzmaurice, David A.; Fox, Keith A.A.; Goldhaber, Samuel Z.; Goto, Shinya; Haas, Sylvia; Hacke, Werner; Kayani, Gloria; Mantovani, Lorenzo G.; Misselwitz, Frank; ten Cate, Hugo; Turpie, Alexander G.G.; Verheugt, Freek W.A.; Kakkar, Ajay K.

    2016-01-01

    Aims The relationship between outcomes and time after diagnosis for patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) is poorly defined, especially beyond the first year. Methods and results GARFIELD-AF is an ongoing, global observational study of adults with newly diagnosed NVAF. Two-year outcomes of 17 162 patients prospectively enrolled in GARFIELD-AF were analysed in light of baseline characteristics, risk profiles for stroke/systemic embolism (SE), and antithrombotic therapy. The mean (standard deviation) age was 69.8 (11.4) years, 43.8% were women, and the mean CHA2DS2-VASc score was 3.3 (1.6); 60.8% of patients were prescribed anticoagulant therapy with/without antiplatelet (AP) therapy, 27.4% AP monotherapy, and 11.8% no antithrombotic therapy. At 2-year follow-up, all-cause mortality, stroke/SE, and major bleeding had occurred at a rate (95% confidence interval) of 3.83 (3.62; 4.05), 1.25 (1.13; 1.38), and 0.70 (0.62; 0.81) per 100 person-years, respectively. Rates for all three major events were highest during the first 4 months. Congestive heart failure, acute coronary syndromes, sudden/unwitnessed death, malignancy, respiratory failure, and infection/sepsis accounted for 65% of all known causes of death and strokes for <10%. Anticoagulant treatment was associated with a 35% lower risk of death. Conclusion The most frequent of the three major outcome measures was death, whose most common causes are not known to be significantly influenced by anticoagulation. This suggests that a more comprehensive approach to the management of NVAF may be needed to improve outcome. This could include, in addition to anticoagulation, interventions targeting modifiable, cause-specific risk factors for death. Clinical Trial Registration http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01090362. PMID:27357359

  15. Tryptophan PET in pretreatment delineation of newly-diagnosed gliomas: MRI and histopathologic correlates.

    PubMed

    Kamson, David O; Juhász, Csaba; Buth, Amy; Kupsky, William J; Barger, Geoffrey R; Chakraborty, Pulak K; Muzik, Otto; Mittal, Sandeep

    2013-03-01

    Pretreatment delineation of infiltrating glioma volume remains suboptimal with current neuroimaging techniques. Gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted (T1-Gad) MR images often underestimate the true extent of the tumor, while T2-weighted images preferentially highlight peritumoral edema. Accumulation of α-[(11)C]methyl-L-tryptophan (AMT) on positron emission tomography (PET) has been shown in gliomas. To determine whether increased uptake on AMT-PET would detect tumor-infiltrated brain tissue outside the contrast-enhancing region and differentiate it from peritumoral vasogenic edema, volumes and spatial concordance of T1-Gad and T2 MRI abnormalities as well as AMT-PET abnormalities were analyzed in 28 patients with newly-diagnosed WHO grade II-IV gliomas. AMT-accumulating grade I meningiomas were used to define an AMT uptake cutoff threshold that detects the tumor but excludes peri-meningioma vasogenic edema. Tumor infiltration in AMT-accumulating areas was studied in stereotactically-resected specimens from patients with glioblastoma. In the 28 gliomas, mean AMT-PET-defined tumor volumes were greater than the contrast-enhancing volume, but smaller than T2 abnormalities. Volume of AMT-accumulating tissue outside MRI abnormalities increased with higher tumor proliferative index and was the largest in glioblastomas. Tumor infiltration was confirmed by histopathology from AMT-positive regions outside contrast-enhancing glioblastoma mass, while no or minimal tumor cells were found in AMT-negative specimens. These results demonstrate that increased AMT accumulation on PET detects glioma-infiltrated brain tissue extending beyond the contrast-enhanced tumor mass. While tryptophan uptake is low in peritumoral vasogenic edema, AMT-PET can detect tumor-infiltrated brain outside T2-lesions. Thus, AMT-PET may assist pretreatment delineation of tumor infiltration, particularly in high-grade gliomas.

  16. Oncological patterns of care and outcome for 952 patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma in 2004

    PubMed Central

    Bauchet, Luc; Mathieu-Daudé, Hélène; Fabbro-Peray, Pascale; Rigau, Valérie; Fabbro, Michel; Chinot, Olivier; Pallusseau, Loreleï; Carnin, Charlotte; Lainé, Karl; Schlama, Aline; Thiebaut, Agnes; Patru, Maria Cristina; Bauchet, Fabienne; Lionnet, Martine; Wager, Michel; Faillot, Thierry; Taillandier, Luc; Figarella-Branger, Dominique; Capelle, Laurent; Loiseau, Hugues; Frappaz, Didier; Campello, Chantal; Kerr, Christine; Duffau, Hugues; Reme-Saumon, Monique; Trétarre, Brigitte; Daures, Jean-Pierre; Henin, Dominique; Labrousse, François; Menei, Philippe; Honnorat, Jérome

    2010-01-01

    This report, an audit requested by the French government, describes oncological patterns of care, prognostic factors, and survival for patients with newly diagnosed and histologically confirmed glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) in France. The French Brain Tumor DataBase, which is a national multidisciplinary (neurosurgeons, neuropathologists, radiotherapists, neurooncologists, epidemiologists, and biostatisticians) network, prospectively collected initial data for the cases of GBM in 2004, and a specific data card was used to retrospectively collect data on the management and follow-up care of these patients between January 1, 2004, and December 1, 2006. We recorded 952 cases of GBM (male/female ratio 1.6, median age 63.9 years, mean preoperative Karnofsky performance status [KPS] 79). Surgery consisted of resection (RS; n = 541) and biopsy (n = 411); 180 patients did not have subsequent oncological treatment. After surgery, first-line treatment (n = 772) consisted of radiotherapy (RT) and temozolomide (TMZ) concomitant +/− adjuvant in 314 patients, RT alone in 236 patients, chemotherapy (CT) alone in 157 patients, and other treatment modalities in 65 patients. Median overall survival was 286 days (95% CI, 266–314) and was significantly affected by age, KPS, and tumor location. Median survival (days, 95% CI) associated with these main strategies, when analyzed by a surgical group, were as follows: RS + RT-TMZ(n=224): 476 (441–506), biopsy + RT-TMZ(n=90): 329 (301–413), RS + RT(n=147): 363 (331–431), biopsy + RT(n=89): 178 (153–237), RS + CT(n=61): 245 (190–361), biopsy + CT(n=96): 244 (198–280), and biopsy only(n=118): 55 (46–71). This study illustrates the usefulness of a national brain tumor database. To our knowledge, this work is the largest report of recent GBM management in Europe. PMID:20364023

  17. Biomarker Modulation Following Short Term Vorinostat in Women with Newly-Diagnosed Primary Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Stearns, Vered; Jacobs, Lisa K.; Fackler, MaryJo; Tsangaris, Theodore N.; Rudek, Michelle A.; Higgins, Michaela; Lange, Julie; Cheng, Zandra; Slater, Shannon A.; Jeter, Stacie C.; Powers, Penny; Briest, Susanne; Chao, Calvin; Yoshizawa, Carl; Sugar, Elizabeth; Espinoza-Delgado, Igor; Sukumar, Saraswati; Gabrielson, Edward; Davidson, Nancy E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Agents that target the epigenome demonstrate activity in breast cancer models. In preclinical studies, the histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat induces cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and differentiation. We evaluated biomarker modulation in breast cancer tissues obtained from women with newly-diagnosed invasive disease who received vorinostat and those who did not. Experimental Design Tumor specimens were collected from 25 women who received up to 6 doses of oral vorinostat 300 mg twice daily and from 25 untreated controls in a non-randomized study. Candidate gene expression was analyzed by RT-PCR using the Oncotype DX® 21-gene assay, and by immunohistochemistry for Ki-67 and cleaved caspase-3. Matched samples from treated women were analyzed for gene methylation by QM-MSP. Wilcoxon non-parametric tests were used to compare changes in quantitative gene expression levels pre- and post-vorinostat with changes in expression in untreated controls, and changes in gene methylation between pre- and post-vorinostat samples. Results Vorinostat was well-tolerated and there were no study-related delays in treatment. Compared to untreated controls, there were statistically significant decreases in the expression of proliferation-associated genes Ki-67 (p=0.003), STK15 (p=0.005), and Cyclin B1 (p=0.03) following vorinostat, but not in other genes by the Oncotype DX® assay, or in expression of Ki-67 or cleaved caspase-3 by immunohistochemistry. Changes in methylation were not observed. Conclusions Short term vorinostat administration is associated with a significant decrease in expression of proliferation-associated genes in untreated breast cancers. This demonstration of biological activity supports investigation of vorinostat in combination with other agents for the management of breast cancer. PMID:23719261

  18. Imbalance of Fecal Microbiota at Newly Diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes in Chinese Children

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Cui-Juan; Zhang, Qian; Yu, Miao; Xu, Jian-Ping; Zheng, Jia; Wang, Tong; Xiao, Xin-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recent studies have indicated that an imbalance of gut microbiota is associated with the development of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and there is no literature regarding it in Chinese children yet. The aim of this study was to evaluate the alteration of gut microbiota between children with newly diagnosed T1DM and healthy controls and to determine if gut microbiota could partly explain the etiology of this disease. Methods: A case-control study was carried out with 15 children with T1DM and 15 healthy children. The fecal bacteria composition was investigated by high-throughput sequencing of the V3–V4 region of the 16S rDNA gene and analyzed by the estimators of community richness (Chao) indexes. Results: There was a notable lower richness of fecal bacteria in T1DM group than controls (156.53 ± 36.96 vs. 130.0 ± 32.85, P = 0.047). At the genus level, the composition of Blautia was increased in T1DM group than control group whereas the composition of Haemophilus, Lachnospira, Dialister, and Acidaminococcus was decreased. In addition, we found that the percentage of Blautia was correlated positively with HbA1c (ρ = 0.40, P = 0.031), the numbers of T1DM autoantibodies (ρ = 0.42, P = 0.023), and the titers of tyrosine phosphatase autoantibodies (IA-2) (ρ = 0.82, P = 0.000) in the study. Conclusions: This study showed that gut microbiota was associated with the development of T1DM by affecting the autoimmunity, and the results suggested a potential therapy for T1DM via modulating the gut microbiota. PMID:27231166

  19. Exenatide treatment increases serum irisin levels in patients with obesity and newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Hu, Yanjin; Zhang, Heng; Xu, Yuan; Wang, Guang

    Irisin is a myokine secreted by skeletal muscle during exercise. Abnormal serum irisin levels are associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). This study investigated the changes in serum irisin in the obese patients with newly diagnosed T2D following glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist (exenatide) treatment. Fifty-four obese patients with T2D were treated with exenatide for 12weeks. The control group included 54 age-, sex-, and body mass index (BMI)-matched subjects with normal glucose tolerance. Patients with T2D had lower irisin than the control group (38.06 [29.29-53.79] vs. 58.01 [43.07-87.79] ng/mL, P<0.01]. Serum irisin was negatively associated with BMI (r=-0.178, P<0.05), fasting blood glucose (FBG; r=-0.170, P<0.05), and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c; r=-0.189, P<0.01) in patients with T2D. Exenatide treatment markedly increased serum irisin by 19.28ng/mL (12.59-25.98) compared to baseline (P<0.01). Increased irisin was significantly correlated with decreased FBG and HbA1c after exenatide treatment (FBG: r=-0.35; HbA1c: r=-0.37; both P<0.05). Exenatide treatment significantly increased irisin in patients with T2D. Post-treatment changes in irisin were correlated with decreases in FBG and HbA1c. The upregulation of irisin might be a novel mechanism for the beneficial effects of exenatide in type 2 diabetic patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [Is intensive functional insulin therapy the method of choice in newly diagnosed type-1 diabetes mellitus?].

    PubMed

    Araszkiewicz, Aleksandra; Zozulińska, Dorota; Trepińska, Magdalena; Wierusz-Wysocka, Bogna

    2004-11-01

    The aim of our study was a prospective evaluation of type 1 diabetic patients treated with intensive insulin therapy. We recruited 100 patients (62 males and 38 females) aged 24.3+/-6.2 years with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes. The mean observation period was 5.2+/-1.5 years. Parameters of diabetes metabolic balance, occurrence of chronic complications and patients' knowledge about the disease and the methods of its treatment were evaluated. 68% of the patients controlled their glycaemia regularly before main meals and 53% of them had a diabetic diary. In the knowledge test 20% of the subjects reached < or = 11 points, 62% 11-17 points and 18% > 17 points (mean 14.4+/-3.2 points of maximal 20 to achieve). The mean result in the questionnaire of knowledge about the disease was 28.1+/-4.9 points. Fasting glycaemia was 7.2+/-3.4 mmol/l, 2h postprandial glycaemia 9.4+/-3.6 mmol/l, HbA1c 7.5+/-1.4%, the mean C-peptide level 0.9+/-0.4 ng/ml and the number of hypoglycaemic episodes was 6/individual/month. We observed a statistically significant correlation between the level of patients' knowledge and HbA1c (r=-0.31, p<0.05). Retinopathy and nephropathy were detected in 8 (9%) and 6 (6.8%) subjects respectively. The risk of microangiopathy was connected with low knowledge (RR: 5.67; 95% CI: 2.02-15.82, p<0.0002). The study confirms the crucial role of intensive insulin therapy and systematic patients' education concerning the disease in maintaining a good metabolic control and thus reducing the risk of diabetic vascular complications.

  1. Nilotinib combined with multiagent chemotherapy for newly diagnosed Philadelphia-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae-Young; Joo, Young-Don; Lim, Sung-Nam; Kim, Sung-Doo; Lee, Jung-Hee; Lee, Je-Hwan; Kim, Dong Hwan Dennis; Kim, Kihyun; Jung, Chul Won; Kim, Inho; Yoon, Sung-Soo; Park, Seonyang; Ahn, Jae-Sook; Yang, Deok-Hwan; Lee, Je-Jung; Lee, Ho-Sup; Kim, Yang Soo; Mun, Yeung-Chul; Kim, Hawk; Park, Jae Hoo; Moon, Joon Ho; Sohn, Sang Kyun; Lee, Sang Min; Lee, Won Sik; Kim, Kyoung Ha; Won, Jong-Ho; Hyun, Myung Soo; Park, Jinny; Lee, Jae Hoon; Shin, Ho-Jin; Chung, Joo-Seop; Lee, Hyewon; Eom, Hyeon-Seok; Lee, Gyeong Won; Cho, Young-Uk; Jang, Seongsoo; Park, Chan-Jeoung; Chi, Hyun-Sook; Lee, Kyoo-Hyung

    2015-08-06

    We investigated the effects of nilotinib plus multiagent chemotherapy, followed by consolidation/maintenance or allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) for adult patients with newly diagnosed Philadelphia-positive (Ph-pos) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Study subjects received induction treatment that comprised concurrent vincristine, daunorubicin, prednisolone, and nilotinib. After achieving complete hematologic remission (HCR), subjects received either 5 courses of consolidation, followed by 2-year maintenance with nilotinib, or allo-HCT. Minimal residual disease (MRD) was assessed at HCR, and every 3 months thereafter. The molecular responses (MRs) were defined as MR3 for BCR-ABL1/G6PDH ratios ≤10(-3) and MR5 for ratios <10(-5). Ninety evaluable subjects, ages 17 to 71 years, were enrolled in 17 centers. The HCR rate was 91%; 57 subjects received allo-HCT. The cumulative MR5 rate was 94%; the 2-year hematologic relapse-free survival (HRFS) rate was 72% for 82 subjects that achieved HCR, and the 2-year overall survival rate was 72%. Subjects that failed to achieve MR3 or MR5 were 9.1 times (P = .004) or 6.3 times (P = .001) more prone to hematologic relapse, respectively, than those that achieved MR3 or MR5. MRD statuses just before allo-HCT and at 3 months after allo-HCT were predictive of 2-year HRFS. Adverse events occurred mainly during induction, and most were reversible with dose reduction or transient interruption of nilotinib. The combination of nilotinib with high-dose cytotoxic drugs was feasible, and it effectively achieved high cumulative complete molecular remission and HRFS rates. The MRD status at early postremission time was predictive of the HRFS. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00844298. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology.

  2. Baseline characteristics, chromosomal alterations, and treatment affecting prognosis of deletion 17p in newly diagnosed myeloma.

    PubMed

    Merz, Maximilian; Hielscher, Thomas; Seckinger, Anja; Hose, Dirk; Mai, Elias K; Raab, Marc S; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Jauch, Anna; Hillengass, Jens

    2016-11-01

    Deletion 17p13, del(17p), is associated with poor outcome in myeloma but some patients show long-term survival. With the current study we intended to identify factors impacting outcome of such high risk patients. We analyzed 110 newly diagnosed, symptomatic patients with del(17p) detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in CD138-purified myeloma cells to identify prognostic factors for survival. Age >65 years, ISS III, and elevated LDH negatively impacted survival. Patients with subclonal (10-60% of plasma cells) del(17p) had longer progression-free survival (PFS) than patients with del(17p) in >60% of plasma cells (26 vs. 19 months, P = 0.03). Additional gain of 1q21 was associated with shorter PFS (17 vs. 25 months, P = 0.01). Hyperdiploidy did not ameliorate impact of del(17p), but gain 19q13 predicted longer PFS (30 vs. 18 months, P = 0.01) and overall survival (50 vs. 29 months, P = 0.01). Multivariate analysis in transplant eligible patients (≤65 years) revealed better survival for patients treated with upfront autologous transplantation (hazard ratio, [95% confidence interval]: 0.15 [0.04, 0.58], P = 0.006). Application of maintenance therapy was associated with better survival in transplant-eligible patients (0.30 [0.09, 0.99], P = 0.05). We demonstrate heterogeneous outcome of patients with del(17p) according to baseline characteristics and treatment. 19q13 should be included in routine FISH panel, since gains were associated with better survival. Am. J. Hematol. 91:E473-E477, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The prognostic value of FET PET at radiotherapy planning in newly diagnosed glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Sidsel Højklint; Urup, Thomas; Grunnet, Kirsten; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Larsen, Vibeke Andrée; Jensen, Michael Lundemann; Af Rosenschöld, Per Munck; Poulsen, Hans Skovgaard; Law, Ian

    2017-03-01

    Glioblastoma patients show a great variability in progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). To gain additional pretherapeutic information, we explored the potential of O-(2-(18)F-fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine (FET) PET as an independent prognostic biomarker. We retrospectively analyzed 146 consecutively treated, newly diagnosed glioblastoma patients. All patients were treated with temozolomide and radiation therapy (RT). CT/MR and FET PET scans were obtained postoperatively for RT planning. We used Cox proportional hazards models with OS and PFS as endpoints, to test the prognostic value of FET PET biological tumor volume (BTV). Median follow-up time was 14 months, and median OS and PFS were 16.5 and 6.5 months, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, increasing BTV (HR = 1.17, P < 0.001), poor performance status (HR = 2.35, P < 0.001), O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase protein status (HR = 1.61, P = 0.024) and higher age (HR = 1.32, P = 0.013) were independent prognostic factors of poor OS. For poor PFS, only increasing BTV (HR = 1.18; P = 0.002) was prognostic. A prognostic index for OS was created based on the identified prognostic factors. Large BTV on FET PET is an independent prognostic factor of poor OS and PFS in glioblastoma patients. With the introduction of FET PET, we obtain a prognostic index that can help in glioblastoma treatment planning.

  4. Correlates and outcomes of warfarin initiation in kidney transplant recipients newly diagnosed with atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Lenihan, Colin R.; Montez-Rath, Maria E.; Shen, Jenny I.; Scandling, John D.; Turakhia, Mintu P.; Chang, Tara I.; Winkelmayer, Wolfgang C.

    2015-01-01

    In the kidney transplant population with atrial fibrillation (AF), evidence regarding the effectiveness and safety of warfarin treatment is lacking. We used fee-for-service Medicare claims to identify kidney transplant recipients with newly diagnosed AF from the United States Renal Data System. Warfarin use within 30 days of AF diagnosis was ascertained from Medicare Part D prescription claims (2007–11) or using a validated algorithm (1997–2011). The study end points were (i) the composite of death, stroke or gastrointestinal bleed, (ii) death and (iii) death-censored graft failure. Warfarin user and non-user groups were balanced using inverse probability of treatment weighting and hazard ratios were (HRs) estimated using Cox regression. Among 718 subjects with an indication for anticoagulation, 24% initiated warfarin treatment within 30 days of AF diagnosis. Age was the only independent correlate of warfarin use [odds ratio = 1.02 per year; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.01–1.04]. In the larger cohort of 6492 patients with AF, warfarin use [(23.5%) versus non-use (76.5%)] was associated with small and non-significant reductions in the composite of death, stroke or gastrointestinal bleed (HR = 0.92; 95% CI 0.83–1.02), death (HR = 0.92; 95% CI 0.82–1.02) and death-censored graft failure (HR = 0.90; 95% CI 0.76–1.08). Our study suggests the need for clinical trials of warfarin use in the kidney transplant population with AF. PMID:25335507

  5. Efficacy and safety of delayed-release dimethyl fumarate in patients newly diagnosed with relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS)

    PubMed Central

    Giovannoni, Gavin; Phillips, J Theodore; Fox, Robert J; Zhang, Annie; Meltzer, Leslie; Kurukulasuriya, Nuwan C

    2015-01-01

    Background: Delayed-release dimethyl fumarate (DMF) demonstrated efficacy and safety in the Phase 3 DEFINE and CONFIRM trials. Objective: To evaluate delayed-release DMF in newly diagnosed relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients, in a post-hoc analysis of integrated data from DEFINE and CONFIRM. Methods: Patients included in the analysis were diagnosed with RRMS within 1 year prior to study entry and naive to MS disease-modifying therapy. Results: The newly diagnosed population comprised 678 patients treated with placebo (n = 223) or delayed-release DMF 240 mg BID (n = 221) or TID (n = 234). At 2 years, delayed-release DMF BID and TID reduced the annualized relapse rate by 56% and 60% (both p < 0.0001), risk of relapse by 54% and 57% (both p < 0.0001), and risk of 12-week confirmed disability progression by 71% (p < 0.0001) and 47% (p = 0.0085) versus placebo. In a subset of patients (MRI cohort), delayed-release DMF BID and TID reduced the mean number of new or enlarging T2-hyperintense lesions by 80% and 81%, gadolinium-enhancing lesion activity by 92% and 92%, and mean number of new non-enhancing T1-hypointense lesions by 68% and 70% (all p < 0.0001 versus placebo). Flushing and gastrointestinal events were associated with delayed-release DMF. Conclusion: Delayed-release DMF improved clinical and neuroradiological outcomes relative to placebo in newly diagnosed RRMS patients. PMID:24990854

  6. Patterns of total cost and economic consequences of progression for patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Arikian, Steven R; Milentijevic, Dejan; Binder, Gary; Gibson, Craig J; Hu, X Henry; Nagarwala, Yasir; Hussein, Mohamad; Corvino, Frank A; Surinach, Andy; Usmani, Saad Z

    2015-06-01

    Few studies have addressed the cost patterns of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) before and after first relapse. This US claims analysis evaluated, from a US health plan perspective, patterns of total direct costs of care from treatment initiation to progression for patients with MM treated with novel agents, using time to next therapy (TTNT) as a proxy measure for progression. A retrospective study was conducted using a large US claims database, evaluating patients with claims for MM between 2006 and 2013. Patients with claims for stem cell transplant (SCT) were excluded. The analysis focused on patients receiving lenalidomide (LEN) or bortezomib (BORT) based treatment, for whom complete claim history was available through initiation of subsequent treatment. Average patient monthly direct costs were determined, including medical and pharmacy costs, and total cost patterns over quarterly time periods were calculated. The study population comprised 2843 patients with newly diagnosed MM (NDMM) and 1361 with relapsed MM. Total monthly cost for patients with NDMM declined steadily, from $15,734 initially to $5082 at 18+ months after therapy. Upon initiation of second-line therapy, total monthly costs rose to $13,876 and declined to $6446 18 months later. Although NDMM cost levels for individual ordinal months were similar between the LEN and BORT groups, TTNT was longer for LEN-based treatments (37 months). The BORT-treated cohort had higher average monthly total costs for NDMM and for the common time period through 37 months after initiation of therapy ($7534 vs $10,763 for LEN and BORT, respectively). Key limitations of this study, in addition to the lack of mortality and staging information available from claims data, include the definition of TTNT based on change in treatment or a defined gap in therapy prior to retreatment, which may differ from actual time of progression in some patients. For patients with NDMM receiving either LEN- or BORT-based treatment

  7. Baseline and longitudinal grey matter changes in newly diagnosed Parkinson's disease: ICICLE-PD study.

    PubMed

    Mak, Elijah; Su, Li; Williams, Guy B; Firbank, Michael J; Lawson, Rachael A; Yarnall, Alison J; Duncan, Gordon W; Owen, Adrian M; Khoo, Tien K; Brooks, David J; Rowe, James B; Barker, Roger A; Burn, David J; O'Brien, John T

    2015-10-01

    Mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease is associated with progression to dementia (Parkinson's disease dementia) in a majority of patients. Determining structural imaging biomarkers associated with prodromal Parkinson's disease dementia may allow for the earlier identification of those at risk, and allow for targeted disease modifying therapies. One hundred and five non-demented subjects with newly diagnosed idiopathic Parkinson's disease and 37 healthy matched controls had serial 3 T structural magnetic resonance imaging scans with clinical and neuropsychological assessments at baseline, which were repeated after 18 months. The Movement Disorder Society Task Force criteria were used to classify the Parkinson's disease subjects into Parkinson's disease with mild cognitive impairment (n = 39) and Parkinson's disease with no cognitive impairment (n = 66). Freesurfer image processing software was used to measure cortical thickness and subcortical volumes at baseline and follow-up. We compared regional percentage change of cortical thinning and subcortical atrophy over 18 months. At baseline, cases with Parkinson's disease with mild cognitive impairment demonstrated widespread cortical thinning relative to controls and atrophy of the nucleus accumbens compared to both controls and subjects with Parkinson's disease with no cognitive impairment. Regional cortical thickness at baseline was correlated with global cognition in the combined Parkinson's disease cohort. Over 18 months, patients with Parkinson's disease with mild cognitive impairment demonstrated more severe cortical thinning in frontal and temporo-parietal cortices, including hippocampal atrophy, relative to those with Parkinson's disease and no cognitive impairment and healthy controls, whereas subjects with Parkinson's disease and no cognitive impairment showed more severe frontal cortical thinning compared to healthy controls. At baseline, Parkinson's disease with no cognitive impairment

  8. PEG-asparaginase in BFM-90 regimen improves outcomes in adults with newly diagnosed lymphoblastic lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Wen; Ren, Hanyun; Ke, Xiaoyan; Xue, Mei; Zhang, Yongqing; Xie, Yan; Lin, Ningjing; Tu, Meifeng; Liu, Weiping; Ping, Lingyan; Ying, Zhitao; Zhang, Chen; Deng, Lijuan; Wang, Xiaopei; Song, Yuqin; Zhu, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Objective Although L-asparaginase (L-ASP) is a standard treatment for lymphoblastic lymphoma (LBL), hypersensitivity reactions by some patients limit its application. Polyethylene glycol-conjugated asparaginase (PEG-ASP) has a lower immunogenicity and is a standard treatment in all pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). In this study, we investigated the efficacy and toxicity of PEG-ASP instead of L-ASP as used in the BFM-90 regimen (PEG-ASP-BFM-90) for adult LBL. Methods Between June 2012 and July 2015, we treated 30 adult patients with newly diagnosed LBL, using PEG-ASP-BFM-90 in a prospective, multicenter and single-arm clinical study at 5 participating institutions in China. Results All the 30 patients, including 19 males and 11 females with a median age of 30 (range: 18–62) years, completed 128 times of the PEG-ASP, with the median of 4 (range: 2–6) times. Patients did not receive radiotherapy at this time. The overall response rate was 86.7% (26/30), with 50.0% (15/30) complete response and 36.7% (11/30) partial response. The 3-year overall survival was 46.0% [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 28.2%–64.8%], and the 3-year progression-free survival was 43.0% (95% CI, 25.7%–62.0%). Major adverse events were myelosuppression, reduced fibrinogen, liver dysfunction and digestive tract toxicities. No allergic reaction and no treatment-related mortality or severe complications were recorded. Conclusions Our clinical data and observed outcomes indicate that 1 dose of PEG-ASP can replace multiple doses of native L-ASP in BFM-90, with predominantly grade 3–4 neutropenia for adult LBL, and no therapy-related deaths. The effect is similar to previous reports of PEG-ASP-containing regimens for adult ALL. Major advantages include less serious allergic reactions, 2–3 weeks of action duration, and convenience for patients and physicians. PMID:28373755

  9. Role of structured individual patient education in the prevention of vascular complications in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes: the INdividual Therapeutic Education in Newly Diagnosed type 2 diabetes (INTEND) randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Coppola, Adriana; Luzi, Livio; Montalcini, Tiziana; Giustina, Andrea; Gazzaruso, Carmine

    2017-09-21

    Recent studies showed that a structured patient therapeutic education (PTE) may decrease both mortality and the development of diabetes complications. Nevertheless, no data are available in the literature on the impact of individual PTE on the complications in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients. Aim of the present randomized controlled trial is to evaluate the impact of individual PTE on the occurrence of macrovascular complications in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients when compared to usual care (UC) and group PTE. Six hundred newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients will be enrolled. The patients will be randomly assigned to one of these three groups: individual PTE, group PTE and UC. A comprehensive and complete PTE will be delivered to all the patients: PTE will include eleven themes. Primary composite endpoint of the study is occurrence of vascular complications, including cardiovascular death, non fatal coronary disease, non fatal stroke, peripheral artery disease. Secondary endpoints are: foot ulcers, amputations, sexual dysfunction, quality of life, microvascular complications, bone health, intensification of diabetes and hypertension therapy. The present trial can give precious information on the features for the most effective PTE.

  10. A consensus initiative for the assessment of patients newly diagnosed with multiple sclerosis in Spain: the eXamina Project.

    PubMed

    Meca-Lallana, Virginia; Arroyo-González, Rafael; Meca-Lallana, José; Martín-Hernández, Javier; Sánchez-de la Rosa, Rainel

    2016-10-01

    To create a national consensus checklist to assess newly diagnosed multiple sclerosis patients when considering treatment initiation in Spain. The Delphi consensus method was used. A scientific committee drafted items/domains, 52 experts evaluated their inclusion in the project checklist and 47 experts assessed checklist use in clinical practice. Forty-eight items from seven dimensions were selected: sociodemographics, n = 3; medical history, n = 10; multiple sclerosis clinical factors, n = 14; laboratory/MRI, n = 8; multiple sclerosis signs affecting treatment, n = 4; multiple sclerosis signs affecting management, n = 1; treatment-related features, n = 8. Understanding, acceptance, ease of use, effectiveness and suitability of checklist use were favorably rated by ≥75.5% of experts. This project provides a consensus checklist gathering necessary information when considering multiple sclerosis treatment in newly diagnosed patients.

  11. Body image and emotional distress in newly diagnosed cancer patients: The mediating role of dysfunctional attitudes and rumination.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianlin; Peh, Chao Xu; Mahendran, Rathi

    2017-03-01

    Body image concerns (BIC) has been reported to be associated with emotional distress for cancers across various sites. This study sought to examine two cognitive vulnerability mechanisms: dysfunctional attitudes and rumination, and their combined effects on the relationship between BIC and emotional distress in newly diagnosed Asian cancer patients. Participants were 221 newly diagnosed adult cancer patients who were assessed on BIC, rumination, dysfunctional attitudes, and emotional distress. Path analysis was used to examine the hypothesized mediation model. The hypothesized mediation model controlling for age, sex, marital status, education level, cancer type, cancer stage, and treatment modality revealed that both dysfunctional attitudes and rumination mediated the relationship between BIC and emotional distress. The present study provides evidence for a mediating role of dysfunctional attitudes and rumination between BIC and emotional distress. Psychological treatment should target dysfunctional attitudes and rumination in cancer patients experiencing BIC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The utilization of Gleason grade as the primary criterion for ordering nuclear bone scan in newly diagnosed prostate cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Ritenour, Chad W M; Abbott, John T; Goodman, Michael; Alazraki, Naomi; Marshall, Fray F; Issa, Muta M

    2009-10-02

    Utilization of nuclear bone scans for staging newly diagnosed prostate cancer has decreased dramatically due to PSA-driven stage migration. The current criteria for performing bone scans are based on limited historical data. This study evaluates serum PSA and Gleason grade in predicting positive scans in a contemporary large series of newly diagnosed prostate cancer patients. Eight hundred consecutive cases of newly diagnosed prostate cancer over a 64-month period underwent a staging nuclear scan. All subjects had histologically confirmed cancer. The relationship between PSA, Gleason grade, and bone scan was examined by calculating series of crude, stratified, and adjusted odds ratios with corresponding 95% confidence intervals. Four percent (32/800) of all bone scans were positive. This proportion was significantly lower in patients with Gleason score or=8 (18.8%, p < 0.001). Among patients with Gleason score 30 ng/ml compared to or=8, the rate was significantly higher (27.9 vs. 0%) when PSA was >10 ng/ml compared to newly diagnosed prostate cancer patients. The PSA threshold for ordering bone scans should be adjusted according to Gleason score. For patients with Gleason scores 30 ng/ml. However, for patients with a high Gleason score (8-10), we recommend a bone scan if the PSA is >10 ng/ml.

  13. Clinical utility of breast-specific gamma imaging for evaluating disease extent in the newly diagnosed breast cancer patient.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Minhao; Johnson, Nathalie; Gruner, Sam; Ecklund, G W; Meunier, Paul; Bryn, Sally; Glissmeyer, Margie; Steinbock, Kari

    2009-02-01

    Breast-specific gamma imaging (BSGI) is a functional imaging modality that has comparable sensitivity but superior specificity compared with magnetic resonance imaging, yielding fewer false-positive results and thereby improving clinical management of the newly diagnosed breast cancer patient. A retrospective review was performed from 2 community-based breast imaging centers of newly diagnosed breast cancer patients in whom BSGI was performed as part of the imaging work-up. A total of 138 patients (69 invasive ductal carcinoma, 20 invasive lobular carcinoma, 32 ductal carcinoma in situ, and 17 mixtures of invasive ductal carcinoma, invasive lobular carcinoma, or ductal carcinoma in situ and other) were reviewed. Twenty-five patients (18.1%) had a positive BSGI study at a site remote from their known cancer or more extensive disease than detected from previous imaging. Fifteen patients (10.9%) were positive for a synchronous or more extensive malignancy in the same or contralateral breast. Five patients had benign findings on pathology, 5 benign on ultrasound follow-up (false-positive rate, 7.2%). Findings converted 7 patients to mastectomy, 1 patient to neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and 7 patients were found to have previously undetected contralateral cancer. The positive predictive value for BSGI was 92.9%. BSGI detected additional or more extensive malignancy in the same or contralateral breast in 10.9% of newly diagnosed breast cancer patients. Only 7.2% incurred an additional work-up. BSGI provides accurate evaluation of remaining breast tissue in newly diagnosed breast cancer patients with few false-positive readings.

  14. Resilience, self-efficacy, coping styles and depressive and anxiety symptoms in those newly diagnosed with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Tan-Kristanto, Stef; Kiropoulos, Litza A

    2015-01-01

    High levels of depressive and anxiety symptoms have been reported by individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS). This study examined the associations between resilience, self-efficacy and coping and depressive and anxiety symptoms and whether resilience, self-efficacy and coping were predictors of depressive and anxiety symptoms in patients newly diagnosed with MS. A sample of 129 individuals newly diagnosed with MS participated in this cross-sectional study and completed an online questionnaire assessing resilience, self-efficacy, coping and depressive and anxiety symptoms. Results revealed that depressive and anxiety symptoms were significantly associated with problem-focused, emotion-focused and avoidance coping strategies, resilience and self-efficacy. Anxiety symptoms were also significantly associated with employment status and level of disability. Results from hierarchical multiple regression revealed that the resilience subscale of personal competence, the avoidance coping style of substance use and emotion-focused coping styles of venting predicted depressive symptoms and uniquely accounted for 63.8% of the variance in the depression score, F (18, 124) = 10.36, p = .000. Level of disability and employment status accounted for 13.2% of the anxiety score and avoidance coping style of denial and emotion-focused coping style of humour accounted for 36.4% of the variance in the anxiety symptom score, F (15, 112) = 6.37, p = .000. Our findings suggest that resilience and avoidance and emotion-focused coping strategies are predictive of depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms in those newly diagnosed with MS. Resilience and coping styles may be another target for interventions aimed at managing depressive and anxiety symptoms in those newly diagnosed with MS.

  15. Association between Growth Differentiation Factor 15 (GDF15) and Cardiovascular Risk in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Shin, Min Young; Kim, Ji Min; Kang, Yea Eun; Kim, Min Kyeong; Joung, Kyong Hye; Lee, Ju Hee; Kim, Koon Soon; Kim, Hyun Jin; Ku, Bon Jeong; Shong, Minho

    2016-09-01

    We investigated an association between serum Growth Differentiation Factor 15 (GDF15) level and cardiovascular risk in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). A total of 107 participants were screened for T2D and divided into a T2D group and a control group (without diabetes). We used the Framingham risk score (FRS) and the New Pooled Cohort Equation score to estimate the 10-year risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Serum GDF15 levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Correlation analyses were performed to evaluate the associations between GDF15 level and cardiovascular risk scores. The mean serum GDF15 level was elevated in the T2D group compared to the control group (P < 0.001). A positive correlation was evident between serum GDF15 level and age (r = 0.418, P = 0.001), the FRS (r = 0.457, P < 0.001), and the Pooled Cohort Equation score (r = 0.539, P < 0.001). After adjusting for age, LDL-C level, and body mass index (BMI), the serum GDF15 level was positively correlated with the FRS and the New Pooled Cohort Equation score. The serum GDF15 level is independently associated with cardiovascular risk scores of newly diagnosed T2D patients. This suggests that the level of GDF15 may be a useful predictive biomarker of cardiovascular risk in newly diagnosed T2D patients.

  16. Parenting stress as a mediator of parents' negative mood state and behavior problems in children with newly diagnosed cancer.

    PubMed

    van der Geest, Ivana M; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M; Passchier, Jan; van den Hoed-Heerschop, Corry; Pieters, Rob; Darlington, Anne-Sophie E

    2014-07-01

    The aim was to investigate the influence of parents' negative mood state and parenting stress on behavior in children with newly diagnosed cancer. A total of 123 parents (n=58 fathers, n=65 mothers) of 67 children with newly diagnosed cancer completed three questionnaires separately at the same time measuring parents' negative mood state, parenting stress, and child behavior problems. Parents' negative mood state was weakly correlated to more child behavior problems (r=0.31, p<0.01), and higher levels of parenting stress were strongly correlated to more child behavior problems (r=0.61, p<0.01). Mediation analyses indicated that the relationship between parents' negative mood state and child behavior problems (c=0.29, p=0.02 (fathers); c=0.25, p=0.04 (mothers)) became non-significant after mediating for parenting stress (c'=0.003, p=0.98 (fathers); c'=0.10, p=0.42 (mothers)). The indirect effect of parents' negative mood state and child behavior problems was only significant for fathers (95% CI [0.12; 0.51]), indicating that parenting stress mediates the effect between fathers' negative mood state and child behavior problems. This is the first study to demonstrate the mediational role of parenting stress in fathers of a child with newly diagnosed cancer. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Newly-diagnosed pediatric epilepsy is associated with elevated autoantibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase but not cardiolipin.

    PubMed

    Veri, Kadi; Uibo, Oivi; Talvik, Tiina; Talvik, Inga; Metsküla, Kaja; Napa, Aita; Vaher, Ulvi; Õiglane-Šlik, Eve; Rein, Reet; Kolk, Anneli; Traat, Aili; Uibo, Raivo

    2013-07-01

    Glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibodies (GADA) and anti-cardiolipin autoantibodies (ACA) have been detected in adult subjects with epilepsy, though the functional implications of these findings are a matter of debate. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of GADA and ACA and to investigate their clinical significance in pediatric subjects with newly-diagnosed epilepsy. For this purpose GADA and ACA were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in 208 pediatric patients with newly-diagnosed epilepsy and 128 controls. The clinical data (results of electroencephalography, magnetic resonance imaging, 6-month outcome etc.) was compared to antibody test results. Our study revealed GADA in 14 (6.7%) patients with epilepsy and in 1 (0.8%) control, which was a statistically significant difference (P=0.010; Chi-square test). The GADA-positive and -negative patients had similar clinical characteristics. The prevalence of ACA in patients with epilepsy (6.3%) was not significantly different than controls (2.6%). These results suggest that GADA is associated with epilepsy in a subgroup of newly-diagnosed pediatric patients. Further studies are required to determine the prognostic significance and pathogenic role of GADA among pediatric subjects with epilepsy.

  18. Effects of Mediterranean diet on sexual function in people with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes: The MÈDITA trial.

    PubMed

    Maiorino, Maria Ida; Bellastella, Giuseppe; Caputo, Mariangela; Castaldo, Filomena; Improta, Maria Rosaria; Giugliano, Dario; Esposito, Katherine

    To assess the long-term effect of Mediterranean diet, as compared with low-fat diet, on sexual function in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. In a randomized clinical trial, with a total follow-up of 8.1years, 215 men and women with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes were assigned to Mediterranean diet (n=108) or a low-fat diet (n=107). The primary outcome measures were changes of erectile function (IIEF) in diabetic men and of female sexual function (FSFI) in diabetic women. There was no difference in baseline sexual function in men (n=54 vs 52) or women (n=54 vs 55) randomized to Mediterranean diet or low-fat diet, respectively (P=0.287, P=0.815). Over the entire follow-up, the changes of the primary outcomes were significantly lower in the Mediterranean diet group compared with the low-fat group: IIEF and FSFI showed a significantly lesser decrease (1.22 and 1.18, respectively, P=0.024 and 0.019) with the Mediterranean diet. Baseline C-reactive protein levels predicted erectile dysfunction in men but not female sexual dysfunction in women. Among persons with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes, a Mediterranean diet reduced the deterioration of sexual function over time in both sexes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Continuous Glucose Monitoring in Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Patients Reveals a Potential Risk of Hypoglycemia in Older Men

    PubMed Central

    Li, Feng-fei; Liu, Bing-li; Zhu, Hong-hong; Li, Ting; Zhang, Wen-li; Su, Xiao-fei; Wu, Jin-dan; Wang, Xue-qin; Xu, Ning; Yu, Wei-Nan; Yuan, Qun; Qi, Guan-cheng; Ye, Lei; Lee, Kok-Onn

    2017-01-01

    Objectives. We performed continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) to define the features of patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (T2D) before and after Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion (CSII) therapy. Methods. This was a retrospective analysis. Newly diagnosed T2D patients (106) were admitted from eight centers in China. They were divided into a younger patient group (<60 years) and an older patient group (≥60 years). Each group was further divided into male and female patients. CSII therapy was maintained for 3 weeks after the glycemic target was reached. CGM was performed 2 times before and after completion of insulin treatment. Results. CGM data showed the expected significant improvement of mean amplitude glycemic excursion (MAGE) with CSII therapy. The older patients had lower hourly glucose concentrations from 0200 to 0700 o'clock compared to the younger patients at baseline. Surprisingly, in the older patient group, the male patients had a potential risk of hypoglycemia after CSII therapy, especially during periods from 2300 to 2400 and 0400 to 0600. Conclusions. Our data suggested that older male patients with newly diagnosed T2D may have lower nocturnal glucose concentrations. This may potentially increase the risk of nocturnal hypoglycemia during CSII therapy. This study was registered with Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, number CliCTR-TRC-11001218. PMID:28271075

  20. Cost Effectiveness of Medications Compared with Laser Trabeculoplasty in Patients with Newly-Diagnosed Open-Angle Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Joshua D.; Kim, David D.; Peck, Will W.; Giannetti, Steven M.; Hutton, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the most cost-effective treatment option for patients with newly-diagnosed mild open-angle glaucoma (OAG): observation only, treatment with generic topical prostaglandin analogs (PGAs) or treatment with laser trabeculoplasty (LTP) Methods Using a Markov model with a 25 year time horizon, we compared the incremental cost effectiveness of treating newly-diagnosed mild OAG with PGAs, LTP, or observation only. Results The incremental cost effectiveness of LTP over no treatment is $16824/ quality-adjusted life year (QALY). By comparison, the incremental cost effectiveness of PGAs over no treatment is $14179/QALY and it provides greater health-related quality of life relative to LTP. If PGAs are 25% less effective due to poor patient adherence, LTP can confer greater value. Conclusion PGAs and LTP are both cost-effective options for the management of newly-diagnosed mild OAG. Assuming optimal medication adherence, PGAs confer greater value compared with LTP. However, when assuming more realistic levels of medication adherence (making them 25% less effective than the documented effectiveness reported in clinical trials), at today's prices for PGAs, LTP may be a more cost effective alternative. PMID:22332202

  1. Methamphetamine Use among Newly Diagnosed HIV-Positive Young Men in North Carolina, United States, from 2000 to 2005

    PubMed Central

    Hurt, Christopher B.; Torrone, Elizabeth; Green, Kelly; Foust, Evelyn; Leone, Peter; Hightow-Weidman, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Background Methamphetamine (MA) is a new arrival to the Southeastern United States (US). Incidence of HIV is also increasing regionally, but data are limited regarding any association between this trend and MA use. We examined behavioral data from North Carolina (NC) residents newly diagnosed with HIV, collected by the Department of Health between 2000-2005. Principal Findings Among 1,460 newly diagnosed HIV-positive young men, an increasing trend was seen from 2000-2005 in MA use (p = 0.01, total n = 20). In bivariate analyses, users of MA had significantly greater odds of reporting other substance use, including alcohol, powder or crack cocaine, marijuana, and methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, “ecstasy”). They were also more likely to have reported sexual activity while traveling outside NC; sex with anonymous partners; and previous HIV testing. In a predictive model, MA use had a negative association with nonwhite race, and strong positive associations with powder cocaine, “ecstasy,” or intravenous drug use and being a university student. Conclusions Similar to trends seen in more urban parts of the US, MA use among newly diagnosed, HIV-positive young men is increasing in NC. These data are among the first to demonstrate this relationship in a region with a burgeoning epidemic of MA use. Opportunities exist for MA-related HIV risk-reduction interventions whenever young men intersect the healthcare system. PMID:20593025

  2. Prevalence and predictors of chronic kidney disease in newly diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus patients in Owerri, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Anyabolu, E. N.; Chukwuonye, I. I.; Arodiwe, E.; Ijoma, C. K.; Ulasi, I.

    2016-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a common cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study aims at identifying the prevalence and predictors of CKD in newly diagnosed HIV patients in Owerri, South East Nigeria. This was a cross-sectional study consisting of 393 newly diagnosed HIV-seropositive subjects and 136 age- and sex-matched seronegative subjects as controls. CKD was defined as 24-hour urine protein (24-HUP) ≥0.3 g and/or glomerular filtration rate (GFR) < 60 ml/min. Subjects were recruited from the HIV clinic and the Medical Outpatient Department of Federal Medical Centre, Owerri. Clinical and anthropometric data were collected. Relevant investigations were performed, including HIV screening and relevant urine and blood investigations. The mean age of the HIV subjects was 38.84 ± 10.65 years. CKD was present in 86 (22.9%) HIV subjects and 11 (8.l %) controls. Low waist circumference (WC), high serum creatinine, high spot urine protein/creatinine ratio (SUPCR), high 24-HUP/creatinine Ratio (24-HUPCR), high 24-HUP/osmolality Ratio (24-HUPOR) predicted CKD in HIV subjects. CKD prevalence is high (22.9%) among newly diagnosed HIV patients in South East Nigeria. The predictors of CKD included WC, serum creatinine, SUPCR, 24-HUPCR, and 24-HUPOR. PMID:26937072

  3. Survival time and prognostic factors in cats with newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus: 114 cases (2000-2009).

    PubMed

    Callegari, Carolina; Mercuriali, Edy; Hafner, Michaela; Coppola, Luigi M; Guazzetti, Stefano; Lutz, Thomas A; Reusch, Claudia E; Zini, Eric

    2013-07-01

    To determine overall survival time and identify prognostic factors associated with survival time in cats with newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus. Retrospective case series. 114 cats with newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus. Data for analysis included history, signalment, physical examination findings, hematologic and serum biochemical data, presence of ketoacidosis, and diagnosis of concurrent diseases at initial evaluation. The effects of possible predictors on survival time were determined by calculating hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Median survival time of diabetic cats was 516 days (range, 1 to 3,468 days); 70%, 64%, and 46% lived longer than 3, 6, and 24 months, respectively. Survival time was significantly shorter for cats with higher creatinine concentrations, with a hazard of dying approximately 5% greater for each increase of 10 μg/dL in serum creatinine concentration (adjusted HR, 1.005; 95% CI, 1.003 to 1.007). Ketoacidosis was not significantly associated with survival time (HR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.590 to 1.78). Cats with newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus had a fair to good prognosis. High serum creatinine concentration at diagnosis was associated with a poor outcome, likely because of the adverse effects of renal dysfunction. Ketoacidosis apparently was not associated with decreased survival time, suggesting that this complication should not necessarily be regarded as unfavorable.

  4. Characteristics of newly diagnosed COPD patients treated with triple inhaled therapy by general practitioners: a real world Italian study.

    PubMed

    Di Marco, Fabiano; Santus, Pierachille; Terraneo, Silvia; Peruzzi, Elena; Muscianisi, Elisa; Ripellino, Claudio; Pegoraro, Valeria

    2017-09-07

    Factors predicting prescriptions of triple therapy were investigated in a large group of general practitioners in Italy. In the population treated by identified general practitioners, a cohort of newly diagnosed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients was extracted from IMS Health Longitudinal Database during the period 2010-2013. From the diagnosis, 1-year follow-up was evaluated. Thirty-two thousand forty-six newly diagnosed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients were evaluated (57.7% male, mean age 67 years). During 2 years prior to diagnosis less than 13% of patients were requested with a pulmonology evaluation and less than 5% with a spirometry; 65.1% cases were prescribed with a respiratory drug, which in 9.6% of cases was inhaled corticosteroid/long-acting β2-agonist fixed-dose combination. Two thousand and twenty eight patients (6.3% of the newly diagnosed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients) were treated with triple therapy during the first year of follow-up, whose 858 (42.3%) starting immediately, and 762 (37.6%) following an initial treatment with inhaled corticosteroid/long-acting β2-agonist fixed-dose combination. Being older, being requested with pulmonologist evaluation or spirometry, being prescribed with a inhaled corticosteroid/long-acting β2-agonist fixed-dose combination at diagnosis resulted independent predictors of triple therapy use. ENSURING CORRECT PRESCRIPTIONS FOR EARLY-STAGE DISEASE: An improved education program for doctors promoting correct use of medication for chronic lung disease is needed in Italy. Current guidelines state that inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) should be reserved for patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but it appears that doctors do not always follow this advice. Fabiano Di Marco, at San Paolo Hospital-Università degli Studi di Milano, and co-workers analyzed data from 32,046 COPD patients newly-diagnosed by family doctors in Italy between 2010 and 2013

  5. Does Valproic Acid or Levetiracetam Improve Survival in Glioblastoma? A Pooled Analysis of Prospective Clinical Trials in Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Happold, Caroline; Gorlia, Thierry; Chinot, Olivier; Gilbert, Mark R.; Nabors, L. Burt; Wick, Wolfgang; Pugh, Stephanie L.; Hegi, Monika; Cloughesy, Timothy; Roth, Patrick; Reardon, David A.; Perry, James R.; Mehta, Minesh P.; Stupp, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Symptomatic epilepsy is a common complication of glioblastoma and requires pharmacotherapy. Several uncontrolled retrospective case series and a post hoc analysis of the registration trial for temozolomide indicated an association between valproic acid (VPA) use and improved survival outcomes in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma. Patients and Methods To confirm the hypothesis suggested above, a combined analysis of survival association of antiepileptic drug use at the start of chemoradiotherapy with temozolomide was performed in the pooled patient cohort (n = 1,869) of four contemporary randomized clinical trials in newly diagnosed glioblastoma: AVAGlio (Avastin in Glioblastoma; NCT00943826), CENTRIC (Cilengitide, Temozolomide, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma and Methylated Gene Promoter Status; NCT00689221), CORE (Cilengitide, Temozolomide, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma and Unmethylated Gene Promoter Status; NCT00813943), and Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0825 (NCT00884741). Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were compared between: (1) any VPA use and no VPA use at baseline or (2) VPA use both at start of and still after chemoradiotherapy. Results of Cox regression models stratified by trial and adjusted for baseline prognostic factors were analyzed. The same analyses were performed with levetiracetam (LEV). Results VPA use at start of chemoradiotherapy was not associated with improved PFS or OS compared with all other patients pooled (PFS: hazard ratio [HR], 0.91; 95% CI, 0.77 to 1.07; P = .241; OS: HR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.80 to 1.15; P = .633). Furthermore, PFS and OS of patients taking VPA both at start of and still after chemoradiotherapy were not different from those without antiepileptic drug use at both time points (PFS: HR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.74 to 1.15; P = .467; OS: HR, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.86 to 1.40; P = .440). Similarly, no

  6. Racial Differences in Lifestyle Modification in Men with Newly Diagnosed Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    affects of these changes on CaP prognosis. Interviews and biological samples will be collected over a period of 2 years from 125AA and 125CA diagnosed...interviews and biological samples will be collected over a period of 2 years from 125 AA and 125 CA age 40-80 years diagnosed with pathologist-confirmed...disease progression. Combining careful assessment of diet 4 and other behavioral CaP risk factors with the collection of biological samples will

  7. 3.0 Tesla vs 1.5 Tesla breast magnetic resonance imaging in newly diagnosed breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Butler, Reni S; Chen, Christine; Vashi, Reena; Hooley, Regina J; Philpotts, Liane E

    2013-08-28

    To compare 3.0 Tesla (T) vs 1.5T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging systems in newly diagnosed breast cancer patients. Upon Institutional Review Board approval, a Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant retrospective review of 147 consecutive 3.0T MR examinations and 98 consecutive 1.5T MR examinations in patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer between 7/2009 and 5/2010 was performed. Eleven patients who underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy in the 3.0T group were excluded. Mammographically occult suspicious lesions (BIRADS Code 4 and 5) additional to the index cancer in the ipsilateral and contralateral breast were identified. Lesion characteristics and pathologic diagnoses were recorded, and results achieved with both systems compared. Statistical significance was analyzed using Fisher's exact test. In the 3.0T group, 206 suspicious lesions were identified in 55% (75/136) of patients and 96% (198/206) of these lesions were biopsied. In the 1.5T group, 98 suspicious lesions were identified in 53% (52/98) of patients and 90% (88/98) of these lesions were biopsied. Biopsy results yielded additional malignancies in 24% of patients in the 3.0T group vs 14% of patients in the 1.5T group (33/136 vs 14/98, P = 0.07). Average size and histology of the additional cancers was comparable. Of patients who had a suspicious MR imaging study, additional cancers were found in 44% of patients in the 3.0T group vs 27% in the 1.5T group (33/75 vs 14/52, P = 0.06), yielding a higher positive predictive value (PPV) for biopsies performed with the 3.0T system. 3.0T MR imaging detected more additional malignancies in patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer and yielded a higher PPV for biopsies performed with the 3.0T system.

  8. The Feasibility of a Pilot Intervention for Parents of Young Children Newly Diagnosed with Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Mackey, Eleanor Race; Herbert, Linda; Monaghan, Maureen; Cogen, Fran; Wang, Jichuan; Streisand, Randi

    2016-01-01

    Objective Evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and indicators of preliminary efficacy of the pilot of a parent-focused, phone-based intervention to improve glycemic control and parental and child well-being in young children newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Methods Thirty mothers of young children ages 1–6 diagnosed with T1D for less than 6 months were randomized to either a phone-based intervention or physical activity education comparison program. Child HbA1c and parent report of depressive symptoms, stress, social support, and child quality of life were assessed at baseline, 1, 6, and 12 months post intervention. Results The program was feasible, as the majority of participants completed more than 80% of the intervention or comparison education sessions and reported high levels of satisfaction. Overall, there was a significant time by treatment intervention where the intervention group demonstrated improved social support and quality of life over time as compared to the comparison education group. The intervention demonstrated a trend towards moderating the association between baseline maternal depressive symptoms and prospective worsening of HbA1c. Conclusions Parents of young children newly diagnosed with T1D can be engaged in a phone-based program to provide support during this vulnerable period. PMID:27088065

  9. Association between high fat-low carbohydrate diet score and newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes in Chinese population.

    PubMed

    He, Yu Na; Feskens, Ej; Li, Yan Ping; Zhang, Jian; Fu, Ping; Ma, Guan Sheng; Yang, Xiao Guang

    2012-08-01

    To study the association between high fat-low carbohydrate diet score and newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes in Chinese population. Data about 20 717 subjects aged 45-59 years from the cross-sectional 2002 China National Nutrition and Health Survey were analyzed. High fat-low carbohydrate diet was scored according to the energy of carbohydrate, fat, and protein. Of the 20 717 subjects, 1 332 were diagnosed with hyperglycemia and 662 were newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. Multivariate adjusted analysis showed that the highest score of type 2 diabetes patients was 2.75 (95% CI: 2.09-3.61). The score of type 2 diabetes patients was 1.87 (95% CI: 1.35-2.58) after further adjustment for their socioeconomic status and physical activity. No significant difference was found in the odds ratio after further adjustment for BMI, blood pressure, lipid level, and energy intake. No evidence was observed for the relation between high fat-low carbohydrate-diet score in type 2 diabetes patients due to high family income, less education, physical activity, overweight, hypertension, high TG, or low HDL level. High fat-low carbohydrate diets, far different from traditional Chinese diets, are associated with the high incidence of type 2 diabetes in Chinese population. Copyright © 2012 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The association between pre-treatment serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and survival in newly diagnosed stage IV prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Digant; Trukova, Kristen; Popiel, Brenten; Lammersfeld, Carolyn; Vashi, Pankaj G

    2015-01-01

    Emerging evidence in the literature suggests a positive association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], a standard indicator of vitamin D status, and survival in certain types of cancer. We investigated this relationship in newly diagnosed stage IV prostate cancer patients. A consecutive cohort of 125 newly diagnosed stage IV prostate cancer patients underwent a baseline serum 25(OH)D evaluation prior to receiving any treatment at our institution between January 2008 and December 2011. We used the vitamin D categories of "deficient (<20 ng/ml)", "insufficient (20 to 32 ng/ml)", and "sufficient (>32 ng/ml)". Cox regression was used to evaluate the prognostic significance of serum 25(OH)D after adjusting for relevant confounders. Mean age at diagnosis was 60 years. Of the 125 patients, 32 (25.6%) were deficient, 49 (39.2%) were insufficient and 44 (35.2%) were sufficient in vitamin D at the time of diagnosis. The median survival in deficient, insufficient and sufficient cohorts was 47.8, 44.0 and 52.6 months respectively (p = 0.60). On univariate analysis, four variables demonstrated a statistically significant association with survival: nutritional status, bone metastasis, corrected serum calcium and serum albumin (p<0.05 for all). On multivariate analysis, five variables demonstrated statistically significant associations with survival: hospital location, age, bone metastasis, serum albumin and corrected serum calcium (p<0.05 for all). Serum vitamin D status was not significant on either univariate or multivariate analysis. Contrary to previously published research, we found no significant association between pre-treatment serum 25(OH)D and survival in newly diagnosed stage IV prostate cancer patients. The lack of a significant association between serum vitamin D and survival in our study could perhaps be due to the fact that the disease was far too advanced in our patients for vitamin D levels to have any impact on prognosis.

  11. Cost-effectiveness of statins for primary prevention in patients newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Folgerdiena M; Denig, Petra; Visser, Sipke T; Hak, Eelko; Postma, Maarten J

    2014-03-01

    Statins are lipid-lowering drugs that reduce the risk of cardiovascular events in patients with diabetes. The objective of this study was to determine whether statin treatment for primary prevention in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes is cost-effective, taking nonadherence, baseline risk, and age into account. A cost-effectiveness analysis was performed by using a Markov model with a time horizon of 10 years. The baseline 10-year cardiovascular risk was estimated in a Dutch population of primary prevention patients with newly diagnosed diabetes from the Groningen Initiative to Analyse Type 2 Diabetes Treatment (GIANTT) database, using the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study risk engine. Statin adherence was measured as pill days covered in the IADB.nl pharmacy research database. Cost-effectiveness was measured in costs per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) from the health care payers' perspective. For an average patient aged 60 years, the base case, statin treatment was highly cost-effective at €2245 per QALY. Favorable cost-effectiveness was robust in sensitivity analysis. Differences in age and 10-year cardiovascular risk showed large differences in cost-effectiveness from almost €100,000 per QALY to almost being cost saving. Treating all patients younger than 45 years at diabetes diagnosis was not cost-effective (weighted cost-effectiveness of almost €60,000 per QALY). Despite the nonadherence levels observed in actual practice, statin treatment is cost-effective for primary prevention in patients newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. Because of large differences in cost-effectiveness according to different risk and age groups, the efficiency of the treatment could be increased by targeting patients with relatively higher cardiovascular risk and higher ages. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Impact of initial topical medical therapy on short-term quality of life in newly diagnosed patients with primary glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Vishal; Bali, Shveta Jindal; Gupta, Sanjeev Kumar; Vashisht, Praveen; Agarwal, Tushar; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla; Dada, Tanuj

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of initial topical medical therapy on newly diagnosed glaucoma patients using the Indian Vision Function Questionnaire (IND-VFQ33). Patients and Methods: The IND-VFQ33 was used to evaluate the quality of life (QoL) in 62 newly diagnosed patients with moderate to severe primary glaucoma and 60 healthy controls. IND-VFQ33 is a 33 item QoL assessment tool with three domains: General functioning, psychosocial impact and visual symptoms. The glaucoma patients were started on medical therapy and the QoL assessment was repeated after 3 months. Results: Glaucoma patients (mean age: 55.6 ± 9.6 years, range 40–77 years) and controls (mean age: 54.9 ± 6.7 years, 42–73 years) were matched with respect to age (P = 0.72), gender (P = 0.91) and literacy (P = 0.18). Glaucoma patients had significantly worse QoL as compared to controls at baseline across all the three domains (P < 0.001). 3 months after initiation of treatment, the overall QoL life significantly worsened from baseline with a decrease in general functioning (P < 0.001) and psychosocial impact (P = 0.041). Visual acuity in better eye significantly co-related to poor QoL at baseline (P < 0.001) and at 3 months (P = 0.04). In addition, the use of >2 topical medications significantly co-related to poor QoL at 3 months (P = 0.01). Conclusions: Evaluation using the IND-VFQ33 revealed that newly diagnosed glaucoma patients have a significant worsening of QoL after initiation of topical ocular hypotensive therapy. This should be an important consideration when educating patients about the disease and its therapy. PMID:26265642

  13. Healthy Behaviour Change and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Patients - ADDITION-Cambridge Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Long, Gráinne H; Cooper, Andrew J M; Wareham, Nicholas J; Griffin, Simon J; Simmons, Rebecca K

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine whether improvements in health behaviours are associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in individuals with newly-diagnosed type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Population-based prospective cohort study of 867 newly diagnosed diabetes patients aged between 40 and 69 years from the treatment phase of the ADDITION-Cambridge study. As the results for all analyses were similar by trial arm, data were pooled and results presented for the whole cohort. Participants were identified via population-based stepwise screening between 2002 and 2006 and underwent assessment of physical activity (EPAQ questionnaire), diet (plasma vitamin C and self-report), and alcohol consumption (self-report) at baseline and one year. A composite primary CVD outcome was examined, comprised of cardiovascular mortality, non-fatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke and revascularisation. RESULTS After a mean (SD) follow-up of 5.1 (1.1) years, 6% of the cohort experienced a CVD event (12.2/1000-person years; 95% CI 9.3 to 15.9). CVD risk was inversely related to the number of positive health behaviours changed in the year following diabetes diagnosis. The relative risk (95% CI) for primary CVD event in individuals who did not change any health behavior compared to those who adopted three/four healthy behaviors was 4.17 (1.02 to 17.09), adjusting for age, sex, study group, social class occupation and prescription of cardio-protective medication (ptrend = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS Cardiovascular disease risk was inversely associated with the number of healthy behaviour changes adopted in the year following diagnosis of diabetes. Interventions that promote early achievement of these goals in newly diagnosed patients could help reduce the burden of diabetes-related morbidity and mortality. PMID:24658389

  14. Addition of Bevacizumab to Standard Radiation Therapy and Daily Temozolomide Is Associated With Minimal Toxicity in Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma Multiforme

    SciTech Connect

    Vredenburgh, James J.; Desjardins, Annick; Kirkpatrick, John P.; Reardon, David A.; Peters, Katherine B.; Herndon, James E.; Marcello, Jennifer; Bailey, Leighann; Threatt, Stevie; Sampson, John; Friedman, Allan; Friedman, Henry S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the safety of the addition of bevacizumab to standard radiation therapy and daily temozolomide for newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Methods and Materials: A total of 125 patients with newly diagnosed GBM were enrolled in the study, and received standard radiation therapy and daily temozolomide. All patients underwent a craniotomy and were at least 2 weeks postoperative. Radiation therapy was administered in 1.8-Gy fractions, with the clinical target volume for the primary course treated to a dose of 45 to 50.4 Gy, followed by a boost of 9 to 14.4 Gy, to a total dose of 59.4 Gy. Patients received temozolomide at 75 mg/m{sup 2} daily throughout the course of radiation therapy. Bevacizumab was given at 10 mg/kg intravenously every 14 days, beginning a minimum of 4 weeks postoperatively. Results: Of the 125 patients, 120 (96%) completed the protocol-specified radiation therapy. Five patients had to stop the protocol therapy, 2 patients with pulmonary emboli, and 1 patient each with a Grade 2 central nervous system hemorrhage, Grade 4 pancytopenia, and wound dehiscence requiring surgical intervention. All 5 patients ultimately finished the radiation therapy. After radiation therapy, 3 patients had progressive disease, 2 had severe fatigue and decreased performance status, 1 patient had a colonic perforation, and 1 had a rectal fissure; these 7 patients therefore did not proceed with the protocol-specified adjuvant temozolomide, bevacizumab, and irinotecan. However, 113 patients (90%) were able to continue on study. Conclusions: The addition of bevacizumab to standard radiation therapy and daily temozolomide was found to be associated with minimal toxicity in patients newly diagnosed with GBM.

  15. Nutrient intake and nutritional status of newly diagnosed patients with cancer from the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Menon, Kavitha; Razak, Shariza Abdul; Ismail, Karami A; Krishna, Bhavaraju Venkata Murali

    2014-09-30

    Cancer therapy in Malaysia primarily focuses on the clinical management of patients with cancer and malnutrition continues to be one of the major causes of death in these patients. There is a dearth of information on the nutrient intake and status of newly diagnosed patients with cancer prior to the initiation of treatment. The present study aims to assess the nutrient intake and status of newly diagnosed patients with cancer from the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a convenient sample of newly diagnosed adult patients with cancer (n = 70) attending the Oncology clinic, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia in the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Information on socio-demographic characteristics, clinical status, anthropometry, dietary intake and biochemical data including blood samples was obtained. The mean (SD) age, triceps skin fold (TSF), mid upper arm circumference (MUAC) and body mass index (BMI) of participants was 21.1(3.9) years, 17.6(7.9) mm, 24.1(5.5) cm, and 21.1(3.9) Kg/m(2), respectively; 39% participants had BMI <18.5 Kg/m(2). One-third of newly diagnosed patients with cancer were undernourished (i.e. women: MUAC <220 mm; men: <230 mm). The proportion (%) of participants with low haemoglobin (<120 g/L) and serum albumin (<38 g/dL) were 62% and 26%, respectively. The older women had significantly lower macro and micro nutrient intakes compared to men in the same age group (P <0.05). At the time of diagnosis, greater than one-third of patients with cancer from the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia were underweight and undernourished. The majority of patients with cancer had poor micronutrient intakes; the older women had a poor macro and micronutrient intakes. Before the initiation of rigorous clinical management of patients with cancer, screening for nutritional status, subsequent nutrition counseling, and interventions are essential to improve their nutritional status; consequently, response to cancer

  16. Validation of the Disease-Specific GPA for Patients With 1 to 3 Synchronous Brain Metastases in Newly Diagnosed NSCLC.

    PubMed

    Woody, Neil M; Greer, Matthew D; Reddy, Chandana A; Videtic, Gregory M M; Chao, Samuel T; Murphy, Erin S; Suh, John H; Angelov, Liliana; Barnett, Gene H; Vogelbaum, Michael A; Stephans, Kevin L

    2017-07-06

    The disease-specific graded prognostic assessment (DS-GPA) for brain metastases is a powerful prognostic tool but has not been validated for patients with synchronous brain metastases (SBM) in newly diagnosed non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We identified patients with newly diagnosed NSCLC with 1 to 3 SBM treated with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) between 1997 and 2012. We included patients whose brain metastases were treated with SRS alone or combined SRS and whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT). Patients were stratified according to NSCLC DS-GPA to evaluate the accuracy of survival estimates. One hundred sixty-four patients were treated with either SRS alone (n = 85; 52%) or SRS and WBRT (n = 79; 48%). Median overall survival (OS) stratified according to DS-GPA of 0 to 1, 1.5 to 2, 2.5 to 3, and 3.5 to 4 were 2.8, 6.7, 9.8, and 13.2 months, respectively, consistent with OS reported for brain metastases in NSCLC DS-GPA (3.0, 6.5, 11.3, and 14.8 months, respectively). No difference in median progression-free survival or OS was noted with combined use of SRS and WBRT: 6.0 versus 6.1 months (P = .81) and 8.5 versus 9.1 months (P = .093), respectively. In multivariable analysis, Karnofsky performance status (hazard ratio [HR], 0.98; P = .008), extracranial metastases (HR, 0.498; P = .0003), squamous histology (HR, 1.81; P = .02), and number of brain metastases (2 vs. 1; HR, 1.504; P = .04, and 3 vs. 1; HR, 1.66; P = .05) were significant predictors of OS. The DS-GPA accurately estimates the prognosis of patients with SBM in newly diagnosed NSCLC. Patients with synchronous brain metastasis in newly diagnosed NSCLC should be carefully stratified for consideration of aggressive therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of the American Society of Hematology guidelines on the management of newly diagnosed childhood immune thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Corinna L; Mitra, Nandita; Schapira, Marilyn M; Lambert, Michele P

    2014-10-01

    In 2011, the American Society of Hematology (ASH) published updated guidelines for the management of childhood immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) recommending management with observation alone when there are mild or no bleeding symptoms, regardless of platelet count. Little is known about practice patterns of newly diagnosed ITP in the United States. To understand the impact of management recommendations on practice patterns. Retrospective medical record review in the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, a large, urban, pediatric tertiary care hospital in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The study involved 311 pediatric patients with newly diagnosed ITP managed between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2012. Management type (observation alone vs pharmacotherapy) was determined via medical record review and electronic pharmacy data at diagnosis and within 6 months after diagnosis. Overall, 44.7% of patients were managed with observation alone at diagnosis, with a significant increase from 34.9% in 2007-2010 to 49.2% in 2011 (P < .02) and 71.1% in 2012 (P < .001). Of those treated, 99% were treated with intravenous immunoglobulin. In multivariable logistic regression, younger age (odds ratio, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.87-0.99), lower platelet count (odds ratio, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.83-0.89), and earlier period (2007-2010) of diagnosis (odds ratio, 0.17; 95% CI, 0.09-0.34) were significantly associated with increased odds of pharmacologic management. During 2010-2012, 20.8% of patients were also treated within 6 months after diagnosis. There was no significant difference by year or initial management type in those who received this later pharmacotherapy. Additionally, 19.6% of patients had documented bleeding symptoms beyond cutaneous bruising or petechiae at diagnosis. Intracranial hemorrhage at diagnosis was rare (0.6%). We demonstrated a significant practice change in the management of newly diagnosed ITP at a pediatric care tertiary care hospital in the United States surrounding

  18. Endocarditis due to Gemella haemolysans in a newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patient

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dongyan; Bateman, Thomas; Carr, Elisabeth; Foster, Paul

    2016-01-01

    An 87-year-old Caucasian woman with hypertension, diabetes mellitus type 2, and COPD was admitted with 1-week duration of back pain and weight gain. The physical examination revealed jugular venous distention, rales in the left lower lung field, and severe pitting edema over lower extremities. As workup for leukocytosis, blood cultures grew Gemella haemolysans. Subsequently, a transthoracic echocardiogram revealed vegetation on the non-coronary aortic leaflet and mild aortic stenosis. She was treated with ampicillin and gentamicin. After further investigation, the patient was diagnosed with plasma cell myeloma, the monoclonal lambda type. This is the first reported case of G. haemolysans endocarditis in a multiple myeloma patient. PMID:27609731

  19. Positive choices: outcomes of a brief risk reduction intervention for newly HIV-diagnosed men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Sikkema, Kathleen J; Abler, Laurie; Hansen, Nathan B; Wilson, Patrick A; Drabkin, Anya S; Kochman, Arlene; MacFarlane, Jessica C; DeLorenzo, Allyson; Mayer, Gal; Watt, Melissa H; Nazareth, William

    2014-09-01

    Positive choices (PC), a brief sexual risk reduction intervention conducted with newly HIV-diagnosed men who have sex with men (MSM), was evaluated for preliminary efficacy. Participants were enrolled if they reported unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) in the three months prior to HIV diagnosis (n = 102). Three months after diagnosis, participants completed baseline assessments and were randomly assigned to receive the 3-session PC intervention or the comprehensive standard of care (C-SoC) at a community health center. Participants completed assessments at 3- (post intervention), 6-, and 9- months after baseline. Compared to C-SoC participants, PC participants significantly reduced the frequency of UAI with HIV serodiscordant (HIV negative or status unknown) partners over the 9-month follow-up period. No differences by condition were found in the frequency of UAI with all partners. The findings from this trial suggest that brief risk reduction approaches for newly-diagnosed MSM integrated into HIV care can benefit secondary HIV prevention efforts.

  20. Disclosure and Nondisclosure Among People Newly Diagnosed with HIV: An Analysis from a Stress and Coping Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Wrubel, Judith; Bränström, Richard; Acree, Michael; Moskowitz, Judith Tedlie

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Disclosing HIV status to friends, family, and sex partners is often stressful. However, HIV disclosure has been associated with improved physical health, psychological well-being, and improved health behaviors. The aim of this study was to address some of the gaps in the literature regarding the disclosure process by conducting a mixed-methods study of disclosure in people newly diagnosed with HIV and the relationship of disclosure to stigma and social support. The CHAI (Coping, HIV, and Affect Interview) Study was a longitudinal cohort study that followed individuals who were newly diagnosed with HIV. The study took place from October 2004 to June 2008 in the San Francisco Bay Area. This sample includes data from 50 participants who were interviewed 1, 3, and 9 months following diagnosis with HIV. We identified four main approaches to HIV disclosure that revealed distinct differences in how participants appraised disclosure, whether disclosure was experienced as stressful, and whether disclosure or nondisclosure functioned as a way of coping with an HIV diagnosis. Implications of these findings for disclosure counseling are discussed. PMID:22256856

  1. Exploring Unprotected Anal Intercourse among Newly Diagnosed HIV Positive Men Who Have Sex with Men in China: An Ethnographic Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haochu; Holroyd, Eleanor; Lau, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Background Unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) is a major pathway towards secondary HIV transmission among men who have sex with men (MSM). We explored the socio-cultural environment and individual beliefs and experiences conducive to UAI in the context of Southern China. Methods We employed an ethnographic approach utilizing a socio-ecological framework to conduct repeated in-depth interviews with thirty one newly diagnosed HIV positive MSM as well as participant observations in Shenzhen based healthcare settings, MSM venues and NGO offices. Results Some men (6/31) reported continuing to practice UAI after an initial diagnosis of being HIV positive. For MSM who had existing lovers or stable partners, the fear of losing partners in a context of non-serostatus disclosure was testified to be a major concern. MSM with casual partners reported that anonymous sexual encounters and moral judgments played a significant role in their sexual risk behaviors. Simultaneously, self-reported negative emotional and psychological status, perception and idiosyncratic risk interpretation, as well as substance abuse informed the intrapersonal context for UAI. Conclusion UAI among these HIV positive MSM was embedded in an intrapersonal context, related to partner type, shaped by anonymous sexual encounters, psychological status, and moral judgments. It is important that prevention and intervention for secondary HIV transmission among newly diagnosed HIV positive MSM in China take into account these contextual factors. PMID:26461258

  2. Initial linkage and subsequent retention in HIV care for a newly diagnosed HIV-infected cohort in Denver, Colorado.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Edward M; Daniloff, Elaine; Thrun, Mark W; Reirden, Daniel H; Davidson, Arthur J; Johnson, Steven C; Wilmoth, Ralph; Connick, Elizabeth; Burman, William J

    2013-01-01

    This is a retrospective cohort study of 352 newly diagnosed HIV-infected individuals in Denver, from 2005 to 2007. Utilizing data from 3 health care systems, 2 clinical trials units, and statewide Colorado HIV laboratory reporting databases, we tracked initial linkage to HIV care, retention in care, loss to follow-up, and transitions between HIV care providers. After more than 2.6 years of follow-up, 256 (73%) individuals linked to HIV care within 180 days. Of the 301 individuals who eventually linked to care, 168 (56%) had at least one 180-day gap in care, while 49 (16%) had a 360-day gap. Transitions in care were common, with 131 (37%) individuals accessing care from 2 different providers and 15% having evidence of living outside of Colorado. In this newly diagnosed HIV-infected cohort, linkage to care was slow and long-term retention in care was poor. Transitions between HIV care providers were common and may impair engagement in care over time. Out-of-state migration was frequent and may cause an underestimation of engagement in care.

  3. eHealth Literacy and Partner Involvement in Treatment Decision Making for Men With Newly Diagnosed Localized Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Song, Lixin; Tatum, Kimberly; Greene, Giselle; Chen, Ronald C

    2017-03-01

    To examine how the eHealth literacy of partners of patients with newly diagnosed prostate cancer affects their involvement in decision making, and to identify the factors that influence their eHealth literacy.
. Cross-sectional exploratory study.
. North Carolina.
. 142 partners of men with newly diagnosed localized prostate cancer. 
. A telephone survey and descriptive and multiple linear regression analyses were used.
. The partners' eHealth literacy, involvement in treatment decision making, and demographics, and the health statuses of the patients and their partners. 
. Higher levels of eHealth literacy among partners were significantly associated with their involvement in getting a second opinion, their awareness of treatment options, and the size of the social network they relied on for additional information and support for treatment decision making for prostate cancer. The factor influencing eHealth literacy was the partners' access to the Internet for personal use, which explained some of the variance in eHealth literacy.
. This study described how partners' eHealth literacy influenced their involvement in treatment decision making for prostate cancer and highlighted the influencing factors (i.e., partners' access to the Internet for personal use).
. When helping men with prostate cancer and their partners with treatment decision making, nurses need to assess eHealth literacy levels to determine whether nonelectronically based education materials are needed and to provide clear instructions on how to use eHealth resources.

  4. Factors associated with newly diagnosed tic disorders among children in Taiwan: a 10-year nationwide longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chuan-Yu; Liang, Hsin-Yi; Chang, Chia-Ming; Lin, Ju-Hwa; Chang, Tsung-Kai; Tsai, Hui-Ju

    2013-08-01

    Increased attention has been paid to tic disorders clinically, yet relatively few studies have probed potential factors that account for the occurrence of tic disorders in the general population. In this study, we used data derived from the Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database to examine an array of factors related to the diagnosis of tic disorders and to further probe gender heterogeneity in clinical manifestation. Poisson regression analyses were applied to model the effects of birth cohort, period, and age, separately, on tic disorders. A total of 880 newly diagnosed tic disorders were identified from 2002 to 2009 among 100,516 youngsters in the study dataset who were born between 1997 and 2005. The results showed that a significant increase in the adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR) was observed when age increased, with the highest adjusted IRR found at age 8-9 years. Compared to the time period from 2002 to 2005, an elevated IRR was found in the time period from 2006 to 2009 (adjusted IRR: 1.37; 95% CI: 1.05-1.80). Boys tended to be more likely to receive their initial diagnosis from psychiatrists and have higher comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as compared with their girl counterparts. In conclusion, the findings indicate that the effects of age and period, respectively, influence the occurrence of newly diagnosed tic disorders. Gender difference and higher frequent comorbid ADHD in boys than in girls were observed in this study.

  5. A Nation-Wide Epidemiological Study of Newly Diagnosed Primary Spine Tumor in the Adult Korean Population, 2009–2011

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Seil; Kim, Jinhee; Chung, Chun Kee; Lee, Na Rae; Sohn, Moon Jun; Kim, Sung Hwan

    2017-01-01

    Objective This 2009–2011 nation-wide study of adult Koreans was aimed to provide characteristics, medical utilization states, and survival rates for newly diagnosed patients with primary nonmalignant and malignant spine tumors. Methods Data for patients with primary spine tumors were selected from the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service database. The data included their age, sex, health insurance type, co-morbidities, medical cost, and hospital stay duration. Hospital stay duration and medical costs per person occurring in one calendar year were used. In addition, survival rates of patients with primary malignant spine tumors were evaluated. Results The incidence rate of a primary spine tumor increased with age, and the year of diagnosis (p≤0.0001). Average annual medical costs ranged from 1627 USD (pelvis & sacrum & coccyx tumors) to 6601 USD (spinal cord tumor) for primary nonmalignant spine tumor and from 12137 USD (spinal meningomas) to 20825 USD (pelvis & sacrum & coccyx tumors) for a primary malignant spine tumor. Overall survival rates for those with a primary malignant spine tumor were 87.0%, 75.3%, and 70.6% at 3, 12, and 24 months, respectively. The Cox regression model results showed that male sex, medicare insurance were significantly positive factors affecting survival after a diagnosis of primary malignant spine tumor. Conclusion Our study provides a detailed view of the characteristics, medical utilization states, and survival rates of patients newly diagnosed with primary spine tumors in Korea. PMID:28264240

  6. Deficiency of monoclonal antibody (Leu 7) defined NK cells in newly diagnosed insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Chandy, K G; Charles, M A; Buckingham, B; Waldeck, N; Kershnar, A; Gupta, S

    1984-01-01

    Peripheral blood from 11 newly diagnosed patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) was studied for the proportion of monoclonal antibody (HNK 1, Leu 7) defined natural killer (NK) cells using a fluorescence-activated cell sorter analyzer. The proportion of Leu 7+ cells in patients with IDDM (7.0 +/- 4.0) was significantly (P less than 0.001) lower than in simultaneously studied healthy controls (16.8 +/- 7.0). A 2-yr-old boy with recent onset IDDM had a deficiency of Leu 7+ NK cells (6.1%), while his healthy identical twin had normal proportions of Leu 7+ cells (22.2%), when compared to a simultaneously studied healthy control. Two patients reexamined in remission and one other studied in remission alone, showed deficiency of Leu 7+ NK cells. This study demonstrates a quantitative deficiency of monoclonal antibody (Leu 7+) defined NK cells in newly diagnosed patients with IDDM that persists during remission of the disease and therefore appears to be independent of metabolic abnormality. The deficiency of NK cells may predispose genetically susceptible individuals to viral-induced islet cell injury, contributing to the pathogenesis of IDDM.

  7. A cost-utility analysis of alternative drug regimens for newly diagnosed severe lupus nephritis patients in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Mohara, Adun; Pérez Velasco, Román; Praditsitthikorn, Naiyana; Avihingsanon, Yingyos; Teerawattananon, Yot

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the value of four drug regimens for newly diagnosed severe LN from a societal perspective. A model-based cost-utility analysis was devised to measure lifetime costs and health outcomes. Current treatment options consisting of different combinations of i.v. CYC, AZA and MMF were compared with a baseline regimen of i.v. CYC in both the induction and maintenance phases. Resource use and costs were derived from medical records reviews and databases. Event rates were elicited from randomized controlled trials. Relative treatment effects were obtained from meta-analyses. Health utilities were obtained from a real cohort of patients to estimate the outcome of quality-adjusted life years. It was found that a treatment regimen that combined i.v. CYC in the induction phase with AZA in the maintenance phase was cost saving compared with the baseline regimen. Treatment with i.v. CYC in the induction phase and MMF in the maintenance phase and treatment with MMF in the induction phase and a reduced dose of the same in the maintenance phase turned out to be a negatively dominated regimen. In the Thai context, the combination of i.v. CYC for the induction phase followed by AZA for the maintenance phase should be considered as the first-line therapy for newly diagnosed severe LN, as it seems to be the most cost-saving regimen.

  8. Impact of a Parent-Based Interdisciplinary Intervention for Mothers on Adjustment in Children Newly Diagnosed With Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fedele, David A.; Hullmann, Stephanie E.; Chaffin, Mark; Kenner, Carole; Fisher, Mark J.; Kirk, Katherine; Eddington, Angelica R.; Phipps, Sean; McNall-Knapp, Rene Y.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine if maternal distress predicts child adjustment outcomes or if child adjustment outcomes predict maternal distress among children newly diagnosed with cancer, and if a parent-focused intervention has downstream effects on child adjustment. Methods Mothers (n = 52) were randomly assigned to a clinic-based, interdisciplinary intervention for parents of children newly diagnosed with cancer. Measures of maternal distress and child adjustment were collected at baseline, posttreatment, and follow-up. Results A lagged relationship was identified between maternal distress and child internalizing symptoms, but not externalizing symptoms. The parent intervention reduced child internalizing and externalizing symptoms at follow-up. Only the child internalizing symptoms effect was mediated by reduced maternal distress. The child externalizing symptoms effect was mediated by unobserved parent factors. Conclusions This study provides support for illness adjustment and coping models that emphasize the role of parent factors in driving child adjustment outcomes and is encouraging for future parent-focused intervention research. PMID:23471362

  9. Unmet information needs and limited health literacy in newly diagnosed breast cancer patients over the course of cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Halbach, Sarah Maria; Ernstmann, Nicole; Kowalski, Christoph; Pfaff, Holger; Pförtner, Timo-Kolja; Wesselmann, Simone; Enders, Anna

    2016-09-01

    To investigate unmet information needs in newly diagnosed breast cancer patients over the course of cancer treatment and its association with health literacy. We present results from a prospective, multicenter cohort study (PIAT). Newly diagnosed breast cancer patients (N=1060) were surveyed directly after breast cancer surgery, 10 and 40 weeks later. Pooled linear regression modeling was employed analyzing changes in unmet information needs over time and its association with health literacy. Unmet information needs on side effects and medication and medical examination results and treatment options were high and increased during the first 10 weeks after breast cancer surgery. Considering health promotion and social issues, unmet information needs started high and decreased during post-treatment. Patients with limited health literacy had higher unmet information needs. Our results indicate a mismatch in information provision and breast cancer patients' information needs. Patients with limited health literacy may be at a distinct disadvantage in having their information needs met over the course of breast cancer treatment. Strategies are needed to reduce unmet information needs in breast cancer patients considering treatment-phase and health literacy and thereby enable them to better cope with their diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Prognostic Significance of Blood Transfusion in Newly Diagnosed Multiple Myeloma Patients without Autologous Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Liping; Fu, Danhui; Zhang, Jinping; Wang, Qingqing; Ye, Yamei; Xie, Qianling

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether blood transfusions affect overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM) patients without hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. A total of 181 patients were enrolled and divided into two groups: 68 patients in the transfused group and 113 patients in the nontransfused group. Statistical analyses showed that there were significant differences in ECOG scoring, Ig isotype, platelet (Plt) counts, hemoglobin (Hb) level, serum creatinine (Scr) level, and β2-microglobulin (β2-MG) level between the two groups. Univariate analyses showed that higher International Staging System staging, Plt counts < 100 × 109/L, Scr level ≥ 177 μmol/L, serum β2-MG ≥ 5.5 μmol/L, serum calcium (Ca) ≥ 2.75 mmol/L, and thalidomide use were associated with both OS and PFS in MM patients. Age ≥ 60 was associated with OS and Ig isotype was associated with PFS in MM patients. Moreover, blood transfusion was associated with PFS but not OS in MM patients. Multivariate analyses showed that blood transfusion was not an independent factor for PFS in MM patients. Our preliminary results suggested that newly diagnosed MM patients may benefit from a liberal blood transfusion strategy, since blood transfusion is not an independent impact factor for survival. PMID:28567420

  11. Enzymatic activities of circulating plasma proteasomes in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients treated with carfilzomib, lenalidomide and dexamethasone.

    PubMed

    Manasanch, Elisabet E; de Larrea, Carlos Fernández; Zingone, Adriana; Steinberg, Seth M; Kwok, Mary; Tageja, Nishant; Bhutani, Manisha; Kazandjian, Dickran; Roschewski, Mark; Wu, Peter; Carter, George; Zuchlinski, Diamond; Mulquin, Marcia; Lamping, Liz; Costello, Rene; Burton, Deborah; Gil, Lindsay A; Figg, William D; Maric, Irina; Calvo, Katherine R; Yuan, Constance; Stetler-Stevenson, Maryalice; Korde, Neha; Landgren, Ola

    2017-03-01

    The proteasome inhibitor carfilzomib is highly effective in the treatment of multiple myeloma. It irreversibly binds the chymotrypsin-like active site in the β5 subunit of the 20S proteasome. Despite impressive response rates when carfilzomib is used in combination with immunomodulatory agents in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients; no biomarker exists to accurately predict response and clinical outcomes. We prospectively assessed the activity in peripheral blood of the chymotrypsin-like (CHYM), caspase-like (CASP) and trypsin-like (TRYP) proteolytic sites in 45 newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients treated with eight cycles of carfilzomib, lenalidomide and dexamethasone (CRd) (NCT01402284). Samples were collected per protocol and proteasome activity measured through a fluorogenic assay. Median CHYM levels after one dose of carfilzomib decreased by >70%. CHYM and CASP activity decreased throughout treatment reaching a minimum after eight cycles of treatment. Higher levels of proteasome activity associated with higher disease burden (r > 0.30; p < 0.05) and higher disease stage (0.10 < p <0.20). No association was found with the probability of achieving a complete response, minimal residual disease negativity or time to best response. Further studies evaluating proteasome activity in malignant plasma cells may help elucidate how proteasome activity can be used as a biomarker in multiple myeloma.

  12. Initial evidence that blood-borne microvesicles are biomarkers for recurrence and survival in newly diagnosed glioblastoma patients.

    PubMed

    Evans, Sydney M; Putt, Mary; Yang, Xiang-Yang; Lustig, Robert A; Martinez-Lage, Maria; Williams, Dewight; Desai, Arati; Wolf, Ronald; Brem, Steven; Koch, Cameron J

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to determine whether blood-borne microvesicles from newly diagnosed glioblastoma patients could be used as biomarkers. We collected 2.8 mL blood from 16 post-operative patients at the time that they were being simulated for chemoradiation therapy (radiation with concurrent temozolomide). Two additional samples were collected during chemoradiation therapy and a final sample was collected at the end of chemoradiation therapy. Patients continued with the therapy suggested by their physicians, based on tumor conference consensus and were followed for recurrence and overall survival. Microvesicles were isolated using serial centrifugation and stained for surface markers (Annexin V for phosphotidyl serine, CD41 for platelets, anti-EGFR for tumor cells, and CD235 for red blood cells). Flow cytometry analysis was performed. Our findings provide initial evidence that increases in Annexin V positive microvesicle levels during chemoradiation therapy are associated with earlier recurrence and shorter overall survival in newly diagnosed glioblastoma patients. The effect is dramatic, with over a four-fold increase in the hazard ratio for an individual at the 75th versus the 25th percentile. Moreover the pattern of Annexin V positive microvesicles remain significant after adjustment for confounding clinical variables that have previously been shown to be prognostic for recurrence and survival. Inclusion of neutrophil levels at the start of chemoradiation therapy in the model yielded the largest attenuation of the observed association. Further studies will be needed to verify and further investigate the association between these two entities.

  13. Untreated newly diagnosed essential hypertension is associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in a population of a hypertensive center

    PubMed Central

    Michopoulos, Spyros; Chouzouri, Vasiliki I; Manios, Efstathios D; Grapsa, Eirini; Antoniou, Zoi; Papadimitriou, Christos A; Zakopoulos, Nikolaos; Dimopoulos, Athanasios-Meletios

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Recent studies have demonstrated that hypertension (HTN) is associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in treated hypertensive patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between newly diagnosed essential HTN and NAFLD in untreated hypertensive patients. Patients and methods A consecutive series of 240 subjects (143 hypertensives and 97 normotensives), aged 30–80 years, without diabetes mellitus were enrolled in the study. Subjects with 24-hour systolic blood pressure (SBP) values ≥130 mmHg and/or diastolic BP values ≥80 mmHg were defined as hypertensives. NAFLD was defined as the presence of liver hyperechogenicity on ultrasound. Results Body mass index (P=0.002) and essential HTN (P=0.016) were independently associated with NAFLD in the multivariate logistic regression model. Furthermore, the multivariate analysis revealed that morning SBP (P=0.044) was independently associated with NAFLD. Conclusion Untreated, newly diagnosed essential HTN is independently associated with NAFLD. Ambulatory BP monitoring could be used for the diagnosis of essential HTN in patients with NAFLD. PMID:26834493

  14. Clinical, electrocardiographic and echocardiographic abnormalities in Latin American migrants with newly diagnosed Chagas disease 2005-2009, Barcelona, Spain.

    PubMed

    Valerio, L; Roure, S; Sabria, M; Balanzo, X; Valles, X; Seres, L

    2011-09-22

    Following Latin American migration, Chagas disease has inevitably appeared in non-endemic countries in Europe and elsewhere. New policies are necessary to prevent transmission in those countries but the long, often undetected chronic period of the early stages of the disease also renders epidemiological studies important. The main objective of our study was to determine the presence of clinical, electrocardiogram (ECG) and echocardiographic abnormalities in a population of Latin American migrants infected with Trypanosoma cruzi at the moment of diagnosis. We performed a hospital-based observational study of 100 adult patients with newly diagnosed Chagas infection between January 2005 and December 2009. Thirty-seven patients were classified within the Brazilian Consensus on Chagas cardiomyopathy early cardiac stages (A or B1) and 49 presented pathological findings (stage B2) according to the Panamerican Health Organization Classification. Overall, 49 patients showed ECG and/or echocardiographic alterations. The presence of ECG and ecocardiographic alterations were significantly associated (p=0.038). The most frequent ECG and echocardiographic findings were right bundle branch block (12 cases) and impaired left ventricular wall relaxation (24 cases), respectively. In conclusion, ECG and echocardiographic alterations coherent with Chagas cardiomyopathy were found in a large proportion of newly diagnosed Latin American migrants infected with T. cruzi. In the mid-term, Chagas disease might become an important cause of chronic cadiomyopathy in our attendance area.

  15. Resilience, Positive Coping, and Quality of Life Among Women Newly Diagnosed With Gynecological Cancers.

    PubMed

    Manne, Sharon L; Myers-Virtue, Shannon; Kashy, Deborah; Ozga, Melissa; Kissane, David; Heckman, Carolyn; Rubin, Stephen C; Rosenblum, Norman

    2015-01-01

    Resilience has been linked to psychological adaptation to many challenging life events. The goal was to examine 3 coping strategies--expressing positive emotions, positive reframing of the cancer experience, and cultivating a sense of peace and meaning in life--as potential mechanisms by which resilience translates to quality of life among women recently diagnosed with gynecological cancer. This cross-sectional study utilized baseline data from women diagnosed with gynecological cancer participating in an ongoing randomized clinical trial (n = 281; mean age, 55 years; 80% were white). Participants completed measures of resilience, positive emotional expression, positive reappraisal, cultivating a sense of peace and meaning, and quality of life. Univariate and multiple mediation analyses were conducted. Greater resilience was related to higher quality of life (P < .001). Multiple mediation analyses indicated that the coping strategies, as a set, accounted for 62.6% of the relationship between resilience and quality of life. When considered as a set, cultivating a sense of peace and meaning had the strongest indirect effect (b = 0.281, SE = 0.073, P < .05). The findings suggested that resilient women may report higher quality of life during gynecological cancer diagnosis because they are more likely to express positive emotions, reframe the experience positively, and cultivate a sense of peace and meaning in their lives. Interventions promoting a sense of purpose in one's life and facilitating expression of positive emotions may prove beneficial, particularly for women reporting higher levels of resilience.

  16. Cognitive Predictors of Understanding Treatment Decisions in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Brain Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Gerstenecker, Adam; Meneses, Karen; Duff, Kevin; Fiveash, John B.; Marson, Daniel C.; Triebel, Kristen L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Medical decision-making capacity is a higher-order functional skill that refers to a patient’s ability to make informed, sound decisions related to care and treatment. In a medical context, understanding is the most cognitively demanding consent standard and refers to a patient’s ability to comprehend information to the extent that informed decisions can be made. Methods The association between reasoning and cognition was examined using data from 41 patients with diagnosed brain metastasis. All diagnoses were made by a board-certified radiation oncologist and were verified histologically. In total, 41 demographically-matched, cognitively healthy controls were also included to aid in classifying patients with brain metastasis according to reasoning status (i.e., intact or impaired). Results Results indicate that measures of simple attention, verbal fluency, verbal memory, processing speed, and executive functioning were all associated with understanding, and that verbal memory and phonemic fluency were the primary cognitive predictors. Using these two primary predictors, equations can be constructed to predict the ability to understand treatment decisions in patients with brain metastasis. Conclusions Although preliminary, these data demonstrate how cognitive measures can estimate understanding as it relates to medical decision-making capacities in these patients. Clinically, these findings suggest that poor verbal memory and expressive language function could serve as “red flags” for reduced consent capacity in this patient population, and, thus, signal that a more comprehensive medical decision-making capacity evaluation is warranted. PMID:25735262

  17. Cognitive Predictors of Reasoning through Treatment Decisions in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Brain Metastases.

    PubMed

    Gerstenecker, Adam; Duff, Kevin; Meneses, Karen; Fiveash, John B; Nabors, Louis B; Triebel, Kristen L

    2015-07-01

    To examine the association between reasoning through medical treatment decisions and cognition in a sample of patients with brain metastasis. The association between reasoning and cognition was examined using data from 41 patients with diagnosed brain metastasis. All diagnoses were made by a board-certified radiation oncologist and were verified histologically. In total, 41 demographically matched, cognitively healthy controls were also included to aid in classifying patients with brain metastasis according to reasoning status (i.e., intact or impaired). Results indicate that measures of episodic memory and processing speed were associated with reasoning. Using these two predictors, actuarial equations were constructed that can be used to help screen for impaired reasoning ability in patients' with brain metastasis. The equations presented in this study have clinical significance as they can be used to help identify patients at risk for possessing a diminished ability to reason through medical treatment decisions and, thus, are in need of a more comprehensive evaluation of their medical decision-making capacity.

  18. Cognitive Predictors of Reasoning Through Treatment Decisions in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Brain Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Gerstenecker, Adam; Duff, Kevin; Meneses, Karen; Fiveash, John B.; Nabors, Louis B.; Triebel, Kristen L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between reasoning through medical treatment decisions and cognition in a sample of patients with brain metastasis. Methods The association between reasoning and cognition was examined using data from 41 patients with diagnosed brain metastasis. All diagnoses were made by a board-certified radiation oncologist and were verified histologically. In total, 41 demographically-matched, cognitively healthy controls were also included to aid in classifying patients with brain metastasis according to reasoning status (i.e., intact or impaired). Results Results indicate that measures of episodic memory and processing speed were associated with reasoning. Using these two predictors, actuarial equations were constructed that can be used to help screen for impaired reasoning ability in patients’ with brain metastasis. Conclusions The equations presented in this study have clinical significance as they can be used to help identify patients at risk for possessing a diminished ability to reason through medical treatment decisions and, thus, are in need of a more comprehensive evaluation of their medical decision-making capacity. PMID:26149751

  19. Resilience, positive coping, and quality of life among women newly diagnosed with gynecological cancers

    PubMed Central

    Manne, Sharon; Myers-Virtue, Shannon; Kashy, Deborah; Ozga, Melissa; Kissane, David; Heckman, Carolyn; Rubin, Stephen C.; Rosenblum, Norman

    2014-01-01

    Background Resilience has been linked to psychological adaptation to many challenging life events. Objective The goal was to examine three coping strategies - expressing positive emotions, positive reframing of the cancer experience, and cultivating a sense of peace and meaning in life - as potential mechanisms by which resilience translates to quality of life among women recently diagnosed with gynecological cancer. Method This cross-sectional study utilized baseline data from women diagnosed with gynecological cancer participating in an ongoing randomized clinical trial (N = 281; Mage = 55, 80% Caucasian). Participants completed measures of resilience, positive emotional expression, positive reappraisal, and cultivating a sense of peace and meaning, and quality of life. Univariate and multiple mediation analyses were conducted. Results Greater resilience was related to higher quality of life (p < .001). Multiple mediation analyses indicated that the coping strategies, as a set, accounted for 62.6% of the relationship between resilience and quality of life. When considered as a set, cultivating a sense of peace and meaning had the strongest indirect effect (b = .281, se = .073, p < .05). Conclusion The findings suggested that resilient women may report higher quality of life during gynecological cancer diagnosis because they are more likely to express positive emotions, reframe the experience positively, and cultivate a sense of peace and meaning in their lives. Implications for Practice Interventions promoting a sense of purpose in one’s life and facilitating expression of positive emotions may prove beneficial, particularly for women reporting higher levels of resilience. PMID:25521911

  20. Outpatient-shopping behavior and survival rates in newly diagnosed cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Shang-Jyh; Wang, Shiow-Ing; Liu, Chien-Hsiang; Yaung, Chih-Liang

    2012-09-01

    To evaluate the appropriateness of the definition of outpatient-shopping behavior in Taiwanese patients. Linked study of 3 databases (Taiwan Cancer Registry, National Health Insurance [NHI] claim database, and death registry database). Outpatient shopping behavior was defined as making at least 4 or 5 physician visits to confirm a cancer diagnosis. We analyzed patient-related factors and the 5-year overall survival rate of the outpatient-shopping group compared with a nonshopping group. Using the household registration database and NHI database, we determined the proportion of outpatient shopping, characteristics of patients who did and did not shop for outpatient therapy, time between diagnosis and start of regular treatment, and medical service utilization in the shopping versus the nonshopping group. Patients with higher incomes were significantly more likely to shop for outpatient care. Patients with higher comorbidity scores were 1.4 times more likely to shop for outpatient care than patients with lower scores. Patients diagnosed with more advanced cancer were more likely to shop than those who were not. Patients might be more trusting of cancer diagnoses given at higher-level hospitals. The nonshopping groups had a longer duration of survival over 5 years. Health authorities should consider charging additional fees after a specific outpatient- shopping threshold is reached to reduce this behavior. The government may need to reassess the function of the medical sources network by shrinking it from the original 4 levels to 2 levels, or by enhancing the referral function among different hospital levels.

  1. Evaluation Series on Safety and Efficacy of Nutritional Supplements in Newly Diagnosed Hyperglycemia: A Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Study

    PubMed Central

    Thacker, Hemant; Bantwal, Ganapati; Jain, Sunil; Kalra, Sanjay; Kale, Shailaja; Saboo, Banshi; Gupta, Jugal B.; Sivam, Sakthivel

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetes is endemic with developing economies contributing to the bulk of this pandemic. Despite the evidence of incremental benefit of glycemic control starting early in life, acceptance of and adherence to modern medications remain suboptimal. Aims: To determine the hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c)-lowering efficacy and safety of nutritional supplement, PreCrea®, in adult Indians with newly diagnosed hyperglycemia. Materials and Methods: Double-blind, randomized study conducted in six diabetes centers in India. A total of 193 treatment-naïve subjects with newly diagnosed hyperglycemia and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) >100 mg/dL were randomized into either PreCrea® 600 mg (n = 90) or matched placebo (n = 89) capsules twice daily, along with lifestyle modification, for 12 weeks. The main outcomes were changes in HbA1c and FPG levels, attainment of the American Diabetes Association (ADA)-defined goals for HbA1c, and clinical and biochemical measures of safety. Results: At 12 weeks, mean HbA1c in PreCrea® group reduced by 0.91% compared with 0.08% increase in the placebo group (P < .001). The reductions in the mean FPG at week 4 (P < .001) and week 12 (P = 0.04) were significant compared to the baseline. ADA goal of HbA1c <7% increased from 15.5% at the baseline to 35.6% at week 12 in PreCrea® subjects. Clinical safety and biochemical safety did not change. Hypoglycemia and weight gain were not observed with PreCrea®. Conclusions: Nearly 1% point reduction in HbA1c at week 12 with PreCrea® is comparable with most first-line glucose-lowering drugs. The safety and tolerability of PreCrea® highlights its potential as a first-line therapy in newly detected hyperglycemia. PMID:27042609

  2. 3.0 Tesla vs 1.5 Tesla breast magnetic resonance imaging in newly diagnosed breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Reni S; Chen, Christine; Vashi, Reena; Hooley, Regina J; Philpotts, Liane E

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To compare 3.0 Tesla (T) vs 1.5T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging systems in newly diagnosed breast cancer patients. METHODS: Upon Institutional Review Board approval, a Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant retrospective review of 147 consecutive 3.0T MR examinations and 98 consecutive 1.5T MR examinations in patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer between 7/2009 and 5/2010 was performed. Eleven patients who underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy in the 3.0T group were excluded. Mammographically occult suspicious lesions (BIRADS Code 4 and 5) additional to the index cancer in the ipsilateral and contralateral breast were identified. Lesion characteristics and pathologic diagnoses were recorded, and results achieved with both systems compared. Statistical significance was analyzed using Fisher’s exact test. RESULTS: In the 3.0T group, 206 suspicious lesions were identified in 55% (75/136) of patients and 96% (198/206) of these lesions were biopsied. In the 1.5T group, 98 suspicious lesions were identified in 53% (52/98) of patients and 90% (88/98) of these lesions were biopsied. Biopsy results yielded additional malignancies in 24% of patients in the 3.0T group vs 14% of patients in the 1.5T group (33/136 vs 14/98, P = 0.07). Average size and histology of the additional cancers was comparable. Of patients who had a suspicious MR imaging study, additional cancers were found in 44% of patients in the 3.0T group vs 27% in the 1.5T group (33/75 vs 14/52, P = 0.06), yielding a higher positive predictive value (PPV) for biopsies performed with the 3.0T system. CONCLUSION: 3.0T MR imaging detected more additional malignancies in patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer and yielded a higher PPV for biopsies performed with the 3.0T system. PMID:24003354

  3. [Factors associated with marital status among spouse after diagnosed in newly reported HIV cases in China, 2014].

    PubMed

    Li, J; Xu, J; Tang, H L; Han, J; Mao, Y R

    2017-02-10

    Objective: To analyze the factors associated with divorce or separation when one of the spouse diagnosed and newly reported as HIV positive, in China. Methods: Data from the Chinese HIV/AIDS Comprehensive Response Information Management System, by December 31, 2015 were used for collection on newly reported HIV cases regarding their baseline information in 2014 and follow-up within one year, among couples and above 18 year olds. HIV cases were divided into divorce/separation group and married group according to their marriage dynamics in one year after being diagnosed as HIV positive. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to analyze potential factors associated with divorce or separation after the diagnoses made. Results: A total of 31 708 HIV cases were included in this study. 22.5% (7 134/31 708) of them got divorced or separated in one year after diagnose being made. 81.6% (25 864/31 708) of them had couples tested in one year after diagnose made and 10.0% (2 599/25 864) of them got divorced or separated. Among 18.4% (5 844/31 708) of the HIV cases who did not have their couples tested in one year after the diagnoses, 77.6% (4 535/5 844) got divorced or separated. For those who did not have their couples tested in one year after the diagnose. Data from the multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that factors as those who were older than 45 (46-60 yr.: OR=1.28, 95%CI: 1.03-1.58; ≥61 yr.: OR=1.83, 95%CI: 1.41-2.37), with Han ethnicity (OR=1.56, 95%CI: 1.34-1.83), with high school education or above (OR=1.55, 95%CI: 1.27-1.90), non-farmers or non-rural laborers (OR=1.34, 95%CI: 1.17-1.54), infected through injecting drug use (OR=1.33, 95% CI: 1.03-1.71), men who had sex with men (OR=1.49, 95% CI: 1.20-1.86), or with childless (OR=2.35, 95%CI: 1.78-3.09) etc. were more likely to be divorced or separated after the diagnoses being made, among those who had their couples tested in one year after the diagnoses. Results from the multivariate logistic

  4. Increasing trends in primary NNRTI resistance among newly HIV-1-diagnosed individuals in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Rodrigues, Nahuel; Duran, Adriana; Bouzas, María Belen; Zapiola, Ines; Vila, Marcelo; Indyk, Debbie; Bissio, Emiliano; Salomon, Horacio; Dilernia, Dario A

    2013-01-01

    Objective Our objective was to estimate primary resistance in an urban setting in a developing country characterized by high antiretroviral (ARV) coverage over the diagnosed population and also by an important proportion of undiagnosed individuals, in order to determine whether any change in primary resistance occurred in the past five years. Design We carried out a multi-site resistance surveillance study according to WHO HIV resistance guidelines, using a weighted sampling technique based on annual HIV case reports per site. Methods Blood samples were collected from 197 drug-naive HIV-1-infected individuals diagnosed between March 2010 and August 2011 at 20 HIV voluntary counselling and testing centres in Buenos Aires. Clinical records of enrolled patients at the time of diagnosis were compiled. Viral load and CD4 counts were performed on all samples. The pol gene was sequenced and the resistance profile determined. Phylogenetic analysis was performed by neighbour-joining (NJ) trees and bootscanning analysis. Results We found that 12 (7.9%) of the 152 successfully sequenced samples harboured primary resistance mutations, of which K103N and G190A were the most prevalent. Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) resistance mutations were largely the most prevalent (5.9%), accounting for 75% of all primary resistance and exhibiting a significant increase (p=0.0072) in prevalence during the past 10 years as compared to our previous study performed in 1997–2000 and in 2003–2005. Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) and protease inhibitor primary resistance were low and similar to the one previously reported. Conclusions Levels of primary NNRTI resistance in Buenos Aires appear to be increasing in the context of a sustained ARV coverage and a high proportion of undiagnosed HIV-positive individuals. PMID:24093951

  5. Relationship between obstructive sleep apnea severity and sleep, depression and anxiety symptoms in newly-diagnosed patients.

    PubMed

    Macey, Paul M; Woo, Mary A; Kumar, Rajesh; Cross, Rebecca L; Harper, Ronald M

    2010-04-16

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) occurs in at least 10% of the population, and leads to higher morbidity and mortality; however, relationships between OSA severity and sleep or psychological symptoms are unclear. Existing studies include samples with wide-ranging comorbidities, so we assessed relationships between severity of OSA and common sleep and psychological disturbances in recently diagnosed OSA patients with minimal co-morbidities. We studied 49 newly diagnosed, untreated OSA patients without major co-morbidities such as mental illness, cardiovascular disease, or stroke; subjects were not using psychoactive medications or tobacco (mean +/- std age: 46.8+/-9.1 years; apnea/hyponea index [AHI]: 32.1+/-20.5 events/hour; female/male: 12/37; weight <125 kg). We evaluated relationships between the AHI and daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale; ESS), sleep quality (Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index; PSQI), depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory-II; BDI), and anxiety symptoms (Beck Anxiety Inventory; BAI), as well as sex and body mass index (BMI). AHI was similar in females and males. Mean levels of all symptoms were above normal thresholds, but AHI was not correlated with age, ESS, PSQI, BDI, or BAI; only BMI was correlated with OSA severity. No differences in mean AHI appeared when subjects were grouped by normal versus elevated values of ESS, PSQI, BDI, or BAI. Consistent with other studies, a strong link between OSA severity and psychological symptoms did not appear in these newly diagnosed patients, suggesting that mechanisms additional to the number and frequency of hypoxic events and arousals occurring with apneas contribute to adverse health effects in OSA. OSA patients presenting with mild or moderate severity, and no major co-morbidities will not necessarily have low levels of sleep or psychological disturbances.

  6. HIV-1 molecular epidemiology among newly diagnosed HIV-1 individuals in Hebei, a low HIV prevalence province in China

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xinli; Kang, Xianjiang; Liu, Yongjian; Cui, Ze; Guo, Wei; Zhao, Cuiying; Li, Yan; Chen, Suliang; Li, Jingyun; Zhang, Yuqi; Zhao, Hongru

    2017-01-01

    New human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) diagnoses are increasing rapidly in Hebei. The aim of this study presents the most extensive HIV-1 molecular epidemiology investigation in Hebei province in China thus far. We have carried out the most extensive systematic cross-sectional study based on newly diagnosed HIV-1 positive individuals in 2013, and characterized the molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 based on full length gag-partial pol gene sequences in the whole of Hebei. Nine HIV-1 genotypes based on full length gag-partial pol gene sequence were identified among 610 newly diagnosed naïve individuals. The four main genotypes were circulating recombinant form (CRF)01_AE (53.4%), CRF07_BC (23.4%), subtype B (15.9%), and unique recombinant forms URFs (4.9%). Within 1 year, three new genotypes (subtype A1, CRF55_01B, CRF65_cpx), unknown before in Hebei, were first found among men who have sex with men (MSM). All nine genotypes were identified in the sexually contracted HIV-1 population. Among 30 URFs, six recombinant patterns were revealed, including CRF01_AE/BC (40.0%), CRF01_AE/B (23.3%), B/C (16.7%), CRF01_AE/C (13.3%), CRF01_AE/B/A2 (3.3%) and CRF01_AE/BC/A2 (3.3%), plus two potential CRFs. This study elucidated the complicated characteristics of HIV-1 molecular epidemiology in a low HIV-1 prevalence northern province of China and revealed the high level of HIV-1 genetic diversity. All nine HIV-1 genotypes circulating in Hebei have spread out of their initial risk groups into the general population through sexual contact, especially through MSM. This highlights the urgency of HIV prevention and control in China. PMID:28178737

  7. HIV-1 molecular epidemiology among newly diagnosed HIV-1 individuals in Hebei, a low HIV prevalence province in China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xinli; Kang, Xianjiang; Liu, Yongjian; Cui, Ze; Guo, Wei; Zhao, Cuiying; Li, Yan; Chen, Suliang; Li, Jingyun; Zhang, Yuqi; Zhao, Hongru

    2017-01-01

    New human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) diagnoses are increasing rapidly in Hebei. The aim of this study presents the most extensive HIV-1 molecular epidemiology investigation in Hebei province in China thus far. We have carried out the most extensive systematic cross-sectional study based on newly diagnosed HIV-1 positive individuals in 2013, and characterized the molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 based on full length gag-partial pol gene sequences in the whole of Hebei. Nine HIV-1 genotypes based on full length gag-partial pol gene sequence were identified among 610 newly diagnosed naïve individuals. The four main genotypes were circulating recombinant form (CRF)01_AE (53.4%), CRF07_BC (23.4%), subtype B (15.9%), and unique recombinant forms URFs (4.9%). Within 1 year, three new genotypes (subtype A1, CRF55_01B, CRF65_cpx), unknown before in Hebei, were first found among men who have sex with men (MSM). All nine genotypes were identified in the sexually contracted HIV-1 population. Among 30 URFs, six recombinant patterns were revealed, including CRF01_AE/BC (40.0%), CRF01_AE/B (23.3%), B/C (16.7%), CRF01_AE/C (13.3%), CRF01_AE/B/A2 (3.3%) and CRF01_AE/BC/A2 (3.3%), plus two potential CRFs. This study elucidated the complicated characteristics of HIV-1 molecular epidemiology in a low HIV-1 prevalence northern province of China and revealed the high level of HIV-1 genetic diversity. All nine HIV-1 genotypes circulating in Hebei have spread out of their initial risk groups into the general population through sexual contact, especially through MSM. This highlights the urgency of HIV prevention and control in China.

  8. Long-term monotherapy with lamotrigine in newly diagnosed epilepsy in adults.

    PubMed

    Chmielewska, B; Kamiński, M L; Kawka, Z

    2001-01-01

    Lamotrigine (LTG) as both effective against a wide range of seizure types and epileptic syndromes and well tolerated drug is being used in mono--as well as in polytherapy of pharmacoresistant epilepsy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy, safety and neuropsychological functioning after LTG (mean daily dose: 316 mg) as long-term monotherapy (12 mo) in 24 young adult out-patients (22.5 ys) with newly recognised and not-previously treated epilepsy in an open, non-comparative trial. 67% of patients were responders (above 50% reduction in seizure frequency) and 42% reported seizures remission. The best were results in patients with generalised convulsive fits (87% with remission). Adverse events in the early phase of medication in 21% of patients typically concerned CNS and gastrointestinal system (headache, asthenia, insomnia, nausea, gastric aches) and resolved spontaneously without treatment discontinuation. Biochemical examinations were normal and transient leucopenia and diminishion of MCV were clinically not significant. Neurodynamic abilities, neuropsychological examination results, memory verbal and visual tests and organic evaluation in organic triada tests did not show deterioration after LTG treatment. Slight difficulties in abstractive and operative thinking and some focal symptoms of fronto-temporal origin should be considered a result of drug but also the epilepsy per se. No significant differences in latencies and amplitudes of evoked potentials (VEP, BAEP, SEP and especially ERP-300) were measured after LTG. Preliminary results obtained in this study supported good efficacy and tolerability and especially lack of unfavourable influence of LTG on neuropsychological functioning in young previously untreated patients with epilepsy.

  9. Are patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer getting appropriate DEXA scans? A District General Hospital experience.

    PubMed

    Dong, Huan; Dayananda, Pete; Preece, Shay-Anne; Carmichael, Amtul

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer patients are often at high risk of fragility fractures partly due to adjuvant endocrine therapy such as aromatase inhibitors and chemotherapy. Baseline dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scanning is recommended as a standard of care in identifying patients who are at risk so they can be commenced on bone protective therapy. NICE guideline 80 - "Early and locally advanced breast cancer"[1] states that patients with early invasive breast cancer should have a baseline DEXA scan to assess BMD before the commencement of aromatase inhibitor treatment; if patients have treatment-induced menopause or are starting ovarian ablation/suppression therapy. We have audited the performance of a DGH against these guidelines with a target of 100% concordance. During a one year period (April 2012-April 2013), 100 patients with a new diagnosis of breast cancer were selected at random from the hospital coding database. 100 patients were chosen as this was a convenient sample size. We gathered information for these patients using electronic records, letters, and imaging. This showed a poor compliance of 38% against NICE guidelines. This in turn means that patients with low BMD at diagnosis of breast cancer are being under diagnosed and under treated, resulting in increased potential morbidity associated with fragility fractures. The interventions that resulted from this audit were: dissemination of these results to surgical and oncology departments, posters summarising the guidelines put up in breast clinics, and breast MDTs to discuss the need for DEXA scans for patients with breast cancer. A re-audit was performed for patients diagnosed with early, invasive breast cancer in January 2014 where a compliance of 90% was achieved. This represents a huge improvement in compliance from the baseline measure of 38%. In order to show that this improvement could be sustained, two further cycles were performed in February and March 2014, where the compliance was 92% and 100

  10. Education given to parents of children newly diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a narrative review.

    PubMed

    Aburn, Gemma; Gott, Merryn

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, diagnosis and treatment of childhood cancers has developed significantly due to medical research and advancements in technology. As a result, prognosis has improved, and approximately 80% of children diagnosed with cancer survive into adulthood. Care has also shifted from a sole inpatient setting to include outpatient treatment where possible, and both these trends have resulted in a shift in the focus of research to the psychosocial and psychological effects of treatment on children and their families. Increasingly, parents are taking on the role of providing "nursing" care for their children, for example, managing medications and emergency situations as well as everyday treatment needs. This article critically reviews the current literature surrounding the approaches and methods used by nursing staff to educate families to perform this care within the context of a planned first discharge from hospital. Twenty-two relevant articles were identified covering different aspects of education and discharge planning, including the following: facilitation of education and discharge planning, collaboration between professional disciplines and family, responsibilities and contractual agreements, timing and approach, care planning, and the information needs of families. Only 4 articles discussed what the family felt they needed to know and be prepared for prior to discharge. This review indicates that further research is required to establish the needs of parents and caregivers with regard to education prior to their child's first discharge from hospital in the pediatric hematology and oncology setting.

  11. Perspectives of newly diagnosed advanced cancer patients receiving dignity therapy during cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Dose, Ann Marie; Rhudy, Lori M

    2017-07-21

    Dignity therapy is a psychosocial intervention that has been used primarily at the end of life to improve quality of life and other patient outcomes, but many individuals are unable to complete it due to health decline and death. The purpose of this study was to identify what individuals with advanced pancreatic or lung cancer with limited life expectancy, undergoing active cancer treatment describe during the dignity therapy intervention as important to them when not immediately facing end of life. Twenty patients undergoing chemotherapy for advanced cancer participated in a dignity therapy intervention study. Initial interviews were analyzed using descriptive content analysis. Family provided the overall context and background for emerging themes of defining events, accomplishments, and God's plan, which led to lessons learned, and resulted in messages of hope. Interviews were often autobiographical in nature and contained much reminiscence, consistent with dignity therapy's intent. Few participants spoke about their cancer diagnoses during the interview. This study adds unique insight into the use of dignity therapy for those still receiving active cancer treatment, different from work by others in which it was offered only at end of life. As part of supportive care, clinicians need to validate the importance of family to those with advanced cancer and to provide opportunities for patients to share what they have learned throughout life and to impart messages of hope to those closest to them.

  12. Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Based Radiomic Profiles Predict Patient Prognosis in Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma Before Therapy.

    PubMed

    McGarry, Sean D; Hurrell, Sarah L; Kaczmarowski, Amy L; Cochran, Elizabeth J; Connelly, Jennifer; Rand, Scott D; Schmainda, Kathleen M; LaViolette, Peter S

    2016-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is used to diagnose and monitor brain tumors. Extracting additional information from medical imaging and relating it to a clinical variable of interest is broadly defined as radiomics. Here, multiparametric MRI radiomic profiles (RPs) of de novo glioblastoma (GBM) brain tumors is related with patient prognosis. Clinical imaging from 81 patients with GBM before surgery was analyzed. Four MRI contrasts were aligned, masked by margins defined by gadolinium contrast enhancement and T2/fluid attenuated inversion recovery hyperintensity, and contoured based on image intensity. These segmentations were combined for visualization and quantification by assigning a 4-digit numerical code to each voxel to indicate the segmented RP. Each RP volume was then compared with overall survival. A combined classifier was then generated on the basis of significant RPs and optimized volume thresholds. Five RPs were predictive of overall survival before therapy. Combining the RP classifiers into a single prognostic score predicted patient survival better than each alone (P < .005). Voxels coded with 1 RP associated with poor prognosis were pathologically confirmed to contain hypercellular tumor. This study applies radiomic profiling to de novo patients with GBM to determine imaging signatures associated with poor prognosis at tumor diagnosis. This tool may be useful for planning surgical resection or radiation treatment margins.

  13. Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Based Radiomic Profiles Predict Patient Prognosis in Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma Before Therapy

    PubMed Central

    McGarry, Sean D.; Hurrell, Sarah L.; Kaczmarowski, Amy L.; Cochran, Elizabeth J.; Connelly, Jennifer; Rand, Scott D.; Schmainda, Kathleen M.; LaViolette, Peter S.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is used to diagnose and monitor brain tumors. Extracting additional information from medical imaging and relating it to a clinical variable of interest is broadly defined as radiomics. Here, multiparametric MRI radiomic profiles (RPs) of de novo glioblastoma (GBM) brain tumors is related with patient prognosis. Clinical imaging from 81 patients with GBM before surgery was analyzed. Four MRI contrasts were aligned, masked by margins defined by gadolinium contrast enhancement and T2/fluid attenuated inversion recovery hyperintensity, and contoured based on image intensity. These segmentations were combined for visualization and quantification by assigning a 4-digit numerical code to each voxel to indicate the segmented RP. Each RP volume was then compared with overall survival. A combined classifier was then generated on the basis of significant RPs and optimized volume thresholds. Five RPs were predictive of overall survival before therapy. Combining the RP classifiers into a single prognostic score predicted patient survival better than each alone (P < .005). Voxels coded with 1 RP associated with poor prognosis were pathologically confirmed to contain hypercellular tumor. This study applies radiomic profiling to de novo patients with GBM to determine imaging signatures associated with poor prognosis at tumor diagnosis. This tool may be useful for planning surgical resection or radiation treatment margins. PMID:27774518

  14. Cross-sectional assessment reveals high diabetes prevalence among newly-diagnosed tuberculosis cases

    PubMed Central

    Camerlin, Aulasa J; Rahbar, Mohammad H; Wang, Weiwei; Restrepo, Mary A; Zarate, Izelda; Mora-Guzmán, Francisco; Crespo-Solis, Jesus G; Briggs, Jessica; McCormick, Joseph B; Fisher-Hoch, Susan P

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To estimate the contribution of clinically-confirmed diabetes mellitus to tuberculosis (TB) rates in communities where both diseases are prevalent as a way to identify opportunities for TB prevention among diabetic patients. Methods This is a prospective study in which TB patients ≥ 20 years old at TB clinics in the Texas–Mexico border were tested for diabetes. The risk of tuberculosis attributable to diabetes was estimated from statistics for the corresponding adult population. Findings The prevalence of diabetes among TB patients was 39% in Texas and 36% in Mexico. Diabetes contributed 25% of the TB cases studied, whereas human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection contributed 5% or fewer. Among TB patients, fewer Mexicans than Texans were aware that they had diabetes before this study (4% and 19%, respectively). Men were also less frequently aware than women that they had diabetes (P = 0.03). Patients who knew that they had diabetes before the study had an 8-year history of the disease, on average, before being diagnosed with TB. Conclusion Patients with diabetes are at higher risk of contracting TB than non-diabetic patients. Integrating TB and diabetes control programmes worldwide would facilitate TB prevention among diabetes patients and increase the number of diabetics who learn of their condition, particularly among males. Such a strategy would lead to earlier case detection and improve the management of both TB and diabetes. PMID:21556303

  15. The experiences of support persons of people newly diagnosed with multiple sclerosis: an interpretative phenomenological study.

    PubMed

    Strickland, Karen; Worth, Allison; Kennedy, Catriona

    2015-12-01

    This study explores the experience of the diagnosis of Multiple Sclerosis for the support person and identifies the impact on their lives. At the time of diagnosis, the support person may not be readily identified in a traditional caring role; however, the diagnosis itself brings with it the possibility of changes to the roles in the relationship and possible consequences for biographical construction. A hermeneutic phenomenological study. A convenience sample of nine support persons was interviewed between December 2008-March 2010. The data were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. The participants in this study were often not readily identifiable as 'carers'; however, the diagnosis of Multiple Sclerosis implied a shift towards a caring role at some point in the future. The uncertainty surrounding the nature and progression of the condition left this identity hanging, incomplete and as such contributed to a liminal way of being. This paper reveals that biographical disruption is not limited to the person diagnosed with Multiple Sclerosis but that the support person also undergoes a transition to their sense of self to that of 'anticipatory carer'. The findings provide insight into the biographical and emotional impact of Multiple Sclerosis on the support persons early in the development of the condition. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Appropriateness of early management of newly diagnosed Crohn's disease in a European population-based cohort.

    PubMed

    Juillerat, Pascal; Pittet, Valérie; Mottet, Christian; Felley, Christian; Gonvers, Jean-Jacques; Vader, John-Paul; Burnand, Bernard; Froehlich, Florian; Wolters, Frank L; Stockbrügger, Reinhold W; Michetti, Pierre

    2010-12-01

    The European Panel on the Appropriateness of Crohn's disease Therapy (EPACT) has developed appropriateness criteria. We have applied these criteria retrospectively to the population-based inception cohort of Crohn's disease (CD) patients of the European Collaborative Study Group on Inflammatory Bowel Disease (EC-IBD). A total of 426 diagnosed CD patients from 13 European centers were enrolled at the time of diagnosis (first flare, naive patients). We used the EPACT definitions to identify 247 patients with active luminal CD. We then assessed the appropriateness of the initial drug prescription according to the EPACT criteria. Among the cohort patients 163 suffered from mild-to-moderate CD and 84 from severe CD. Among the mild-to-moderate disease group, 96 patients (59%) received an appropriate treatment, whereas for 66 patients (40%) the treatment was uncertain and in one case (1%) inappropriate. Among the severe disease group, 86% were treated medically and 14% required surgery. 59 (70%) were appropriately treated, whereas for one patient (1%) the procedure was considered uncertain and for 24 patients (29%) inappropriate. Initial treatment was appropriate in the majority of cases for non-complicated luminal CD. Inappropriate or uncertain treatment was given in a significant minority of patients, with an increased potential risk of adverse events.

  17. Prognostic significance of pretreatment serum levels of albumin, LDH and total bilirubin in patients with non-metastatic breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoan; Meng, Qing H; Ye, Yuanqing; Hildebrandt, Michelle A T; Gu, Jian; Wu, Xifeng

    2015-02-01

    Liver function tests (LFTs) have been reported as independent predictors of non-liver disease-related morbidity and mortality in general population and cancer patients. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between pretreatment serum LFTs and overall survival (OS) in non-metastatic Caucasian breast cancer patients. Seven LFTs, including albumin, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), total bilirubin and total protein, were measured in pretreatment serum from 2425 female Caucasian patients with newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed non-metastatic invasive breast cancer. Multivariate Cox model was used to estimate hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the association of individual LFTs with 5-year OS while adjusting for age, smoking status, pathological characteristics and treatment regimen. We found that serum albumin, LDH and total bilirubin were significantly associated with 5-year OS in multivariate Cox analyses. Patients with higher albumin level exhibited 45% reduced risk of death (HR = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.40-0.75) compared with those with lower albumin level. Patients with higher total bilirubin level had a nearly 40% reduction in the risk of death (HR = 0.62, 95% CI: 0.45-0.85) and patients with higher LDH levels had a 1.42-fold increased risk of death (HR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.08-1.88). Furthermore, cumulative analysis showed a significant dose-response trend of significantly increasing risk of death with increasing number of unfavorable LFT levels. Our result highlighted the potential of using pretreatment serum levels of albumin, LDH and total bilirubin as prognostic factors for OS in patients with non-metastatic breast cancer. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Imaging tests in staging and surveillance of non-metastatic breast cancer: changes in routine clinical practice and cost implications

    PubMed Central

    De Placido, S; De Angelis, C; Giuliano, M; Pizzi, C; Ruocco, R; Perrone, V; Bruzzese, D; Tommasielli, G; De Laurentiis, M; Cammarota, S; Arpino, G; Arpino, G

    2017-01-01

    Background: Although guidelines do not recommend computerised tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the staging or follow-up of asymptomatic patients with non-metastatic breast cancer, they are often requested in routine clinical practice. The aim of this study was to determine the staging and follow-up patterns, and relative costs in a large population of breast cancer patients living and treated in a Southern Italian region. Methods: We analysed the clinical computerised information recorded by 567 primary-care physicians assisting about 650 000 inhabitants in the Campania region. Patients with non-metastatic breast cancer were identified and divided into calendar years from 2001 to 2010. The number of diagnostic tests prescribed per 100 patients (N/Pts) and the mean cost per patient was determined 3 months before diagnosis and up to 1 year after diagnosis. Costs are expressed in constant 2011 euros. Results: We identified 4680 newly diagnosed cases of asymptomatic non-metastatic breast cancer. N/Pts increased significantly (P<0.0001) from 2001 to 2010. The mean number of prescribed mammograms, bone scans, abdominal ultrasound and chest X-rays (‘routine tests'), and costs was unchanged. However, the number of CT, PET scans and MRI (‘new tests')prescriptions almost quadrupled and the mean cost per patient related to these procedures significantly increased from €357 in 2001 to €830 in 2010 (P<0.0001). Conclusions: New test prescriptions and relative costs significantly and steadily increased throughout the study period. At present there is no evidence that the delivery of new tests to asymptomatic patients improves breast cancer outcome. Well-designed clinical trials are urgently needed to shed light on the impact of these tests on clinical outcome and overall survival. PMID:28170371

  19. A factorial randomised controlled trial of decision analysis and an information video plus leaflet for newly diagnosed hypertensive patients.

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Alan A; Fahey, Tom; Peters, Tim J

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a lack of evidence regarding the value of tools designed to aid decision making in patients with newly diagnosed hypertension. AIM: To evaluate two interventions for assisting newly diagnosed hypertensive patients in the decision whether to start drug therapy for reducing blood pressure. DESIGN OF STUDY: Factorial randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Twenty-one general practices in south-west England, UK. METHOD: Adults aged 32 to 80 years with newly diagnosed hypertension were randomised to receive either: (a) computerised utility assessment interview with individualized risk assessment and decision analysis; or (b) information video and leaflet about high blood pressure; or (c) both interventions; or (d) neither intervention. Outcome measures were decisional conflict, knowledge, state anxiety, intentions regarding starting treatment, and actual treatment decision. RESULTS: Of 217 patients randomised, 212 (98%) were analysed at the primary follow-up (mean age = 59 years, 49% female). Decision analysis patients had lower decisional conflict than those who did not receive this intervention (27.6 versus 38.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] for adjusted difference = -13.0 to -5.8, P < 0.001), greater knowledge about hypertension (73% versus 67%, adjusted 95% CI = 2% to 9%, P = 0.003) and no evidence of increased state anxiety (34.8 versus 36.8, adjusted 95% CI = -5.6 to 0.1, P = 0.055). Video/leaflet patients had lower decisional conflict than corresponding controls (30.3 versus 36.8, adjusted 95% CI = -7.4 to -0.6, P = 0.021), greater knowledge (75% versus 65%, adjusted 95% CI = 6% to 13%, P < 0.001) and no evidence of increased state anxiety (35.7 versus 36.1, adjusted 95% CI = -3.9 to 1.7, P = 0.46). There were no differences between either of the interventions and their respective controls in the proportion of patients prescribed antihypertensive medication (67%). CONCLUSIONS: This trial demonstrates that, among patients facing a real treatment

  20. Anti-HCV antibody among newly diagnosed HIV patients in Ughelli, a suburban area of Delta State Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Newton, Ogbodo Ekene; Oghene, Otue Akpevwe; Okonko, Iheanyi Omezuruike

    2015-09-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) share common routes of infection and as such, co-infection is expected. Co-infection of the two viruses is of great medical importance as it determines the effect of drugs used for treatment at various stages. This interplay between HIV and HCV sets the tone for the objective of this study which is to ascertain the seroprevalence of HCV among newly diagnosed HIV patients in Ughelli, a suburban area of Delta State, Nigeria. A total of 200 newly diagnosed HIV-positive patients were recruited for this study. Each of the sera was tested for anti-HCV antibody using SWE-life HCV ultra rapid test strip. Appropriate questionnaires were used to ascertain other important information which include social behaviour such as whether the patients were MSM (males), IDU, tattoo and/or have received blood transfusion in the past. The prevalence of HCV among the study population was determined to be 15.0%. A higher seroprevalence was observed among females (16.5%) than in males (13.0%). A higher seroprevalence was also observed among age groups >26 years (16.0%) than in age-groups 14-25 years (13.0%) and 2-13 years (0.0%). Of the 7 patients with tattoos, 1(14.3%) tested positive for HCV compared to 29(15.0%) with no tattoos. We found no significant correlation with transfusion, intravenous drug use (IDU), men that have sex with men (MSM), tattooing and the seroprevalence of HCV. However, significant correlation existed with age, sex and HCV prevalence. This study reports a 15.0% seroprevalence of HCV among newly diagnosed HIV patients and that is alarmingly well above several other studies done in the past in Nigeria and other countries of sub-Saharan Africa. Planned preven tion, screening, and treatment are needed to reduce further transmission and morbidity. Future studies involving HCV-RNA assays are needed.

  1. Impaired renal function and associated risk factors in newly diagnosed HIV-infected adults in Gulu Hospital, Northern Uganda.

    PubMed

    Odongo, Pancras; Wanyama, Ronald; Obol, James Henry; Apiyo, Paska; Byakika-Kibwika, Pauline

    2015-03-31

    Screening for renal diseases should be performed at the time of diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Despite the high prevalence of HIV/AIDS in Northern Uganda, little is known about the status of renal function and its correlates in the newly diagnosed HIV-infected individuals in this resource limited region. We aimed to determine the status of renal function and factors associated with impaired renal function in newly diagnosed HIV-infected adults in Northern Uganda. This was a seven month cross-sectional hospital-based study, involving newly diagnosed HIV-infected patients, 18 years and older. Patients with history of diabetes mellitus, hypertension and renal disease were excluded. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) formula (Table one). Factors associated with impaired renal function (eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m(2)) were thus sought. We enrolled 361 participants (230, 63.7% female) with Mean ± standard deviation age of 31.4 ± 9.5 years. 52, (14.4%) had impaired renal function (eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) and of this 37 (71.2%) moderate renal impairment (eGFR 30-59.9 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) while 15 (28.8%) had severe renal impairment (eGFR <30 mL/min/1.73 m(2)). Proteinuria was recorded in 189 (52.4%) participants. Of these, 154 (81.5%) had mild (1+) while 8 (4.2%) had severe (3+) proteinuria. Using logistic regression, age, CD4 cell count, and proteinuria were significantly associated with impaired renal function; age >34 years (OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.3-5.9; P =0.009), CD4 count <350 cells/μL (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.0-4.7; P =0.039) and proteinuria (OR 9.6, 95% CI 5.2-17.9; P < 0.001). The prevalence of impaired renal function was high in new HIV-infected individuals in this region with limited resources. So, screening for renal disease in HIV is recommended at the time of HIV diagnosis.

  2. Effects of sitagliptin as initial therapy in newly diagnosed elderly type 2 diabetics: A randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Xiaoyan; Cui, Xiaopei; Zhang, Jianbo; Han, Zhenxia; Xiao, Yu; Chen, Nan; Li, Baoying; Cheng, Mei; Gao, Haiqing; Tang, Kuanxiao

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the characteristics of blood glycemic excursion, incretins and pancreatic hormone secretion in elderly people with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and to study the effects of sitagliptin on glycemic excursion in these subjects. A total of 129 newly diagnosed T2DM patients were enrolled in the study from March 2012 to August 2013. Clinical data, serum incretin, pancreatic hormone and continuous glucose monitoring data were collected. Among these subjects, elderly patients (NEDM) randomly received metformin combined with sitagliptin phosphate or glimepiride for 24 weeks. The blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (GHbA1c), serum incretins and pancreatic hormone levels were determined. During the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), 30 min insulin and C-peptide levels, 120 min insulin levels and ratio of the increases of insulin and blood glucose levels after 30 min of sugar loading (∆Ins30/∆Glu30) were significantly lower in elderly patients than in middle-aged patients (P<0.05). In addition, the glucagon elevation at 30 min was higher and the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) at 30 min was lower in the elderly patients (P<0.05). Glucose excursion indices, including the standard deviation of the average blood glucose, intraday mean average glucose excursions (MAGE), and mean of daily differences (MODD), were significantly higher in the elderly patients (P<0.05). During the OGTT, insulin, C-peptide and ∆Ins30/∆Glu30 results at 30 min and GLP-1 levels at 120 min in NEDM subjects were significantly increased (P<0.05) and glucagon levels at 30 min was significantly lower after sitagliptin treatment (P<0.05) compared with glimepiride. Moreover, MAGE and MODD were significantly lower in the sitagliptin group after treatment compared to those in the glimepiride group (P<0.05). No severe hypoglycemia or cardiovascular diseases were observed. Strong blood glucose excursions occur in elderly patients with

  3. Assessment of duration until initial treatment and its determining factors among newly diagnosed oral cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Chiou, Shang-Jyh; Lin, Wender; Hsieh, Chi-Jeng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Few studies have focused on the early treatment stages of cancer, and the impact of treatment delay on oncologic outcomes is poorly defined. We used oral cancer as an example to investigate the distribution of durations until initial treatment. This study was conducted using the National Health Insurance Research Database, which is linked to Taiwan's Cancer Registry and Death Registry databases. We defined “cutoff points for first-time treatment” according to a weekly schedule and sorted the patients into 2 groups based on whether their duration until initial treatment was longer or shorter than each cutoff. We then calculated the Kaplan–Meier estimator to determine the difference in survival rates between the 2 groups and performed logistic regression to identify determining factors. The average time between diagnosis and initial treatment was approximately 22.45 days. The average survival duration was 1363 days (standard deviation: 473.06 days). Oral cancer patients had no statistically significant differences in survival until a cutoff point of 3 weeks was used (with survival duration 71 days longer if initial treatment was received within 3 weeks). Patients with higher incomes or higher Charlson comorbidity index scores and patients treated at a hospital in a region with medium urbanization had lower likelihoods of treatment delay, whereas older patients were at higher risk of treatment delay. The attitudes, beliefs, and social contexts of oral cancer patients influence the treatment-seeking behaviors of these patients. Therefore, the government should advocate the merits of the referral system for cancer treatment or improve quality assurance for cancer diagnoses across different types of hospitals. Health authorities should also educate patients or use a case manager to encourage prompt treatment within 3 weeks and should provide screening and prevention services, particularly for high-risk groups, to reduce mortality risk. PMID:27977607

  4. Predictors of Linkage to Care for Newly Diagnosed HIV-Positive Adults

    PubMed Central

    Aaron, Erika; Alvare, Tyler; Gracely, Ed J.; Riviello, Ralph; Althoff, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Linkage to care following a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diagnosis is critical. In the U.S. only 69% of patients are successfully linked to care, which results in delayed receipt of antiretroviral therapy leading to immune system dysfunction and risk of transmission to others. Methods We evaluated predictors of failure to link to care at a large urban healthcare center in Philadelphia in order to identify potential intervention targets. We conducted a cohort study between May 2007 and November 2011 at hospital-affiliated outpatient clinics, emergency departments (EDs), and inpatient units. Results Of 87 patients with a new HIV diagnosis, 63 (72%) were linked to care: 23 (96%) from the outpatient setting and 40 (63%) from the hospital setting (ED or inpatient) (p<0.01). Those who were tested in the hospital-based settings were more likely to be black (p=0.01), homeless (p=0.03), and use alcohol or drugs (p=0.03) than those tested in the outpatient clinics. Patients tested in the ED or inpatient units had a 10.9 fold (p=0.03) higher odds of failure to link compared to those diagnosed in an outpatient clinic. When testing site was controlled, unemployment (OR 12.2;p<0.01) and substance use (OR 6.4;p<0.01) were associated with failure to link. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate the comparative success of linkage to care in outpatient medical clinics versus hospital-based settings. This study both reinforces the importance of routine opt-out HIV testing in outpatient practices, and demonstrates the need to better understand barriers to linkage. PMID:26265965

  5. Is Screening Effective in Detecting Untreated Psychiatric Disorder Among Newly Diagnosed Breast Cancer Patients?

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Steven C.; Taggi, Alison; DeMichele, Angela; Coyne, James C.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND A key purpose of routine distress screening is to ensure that cancer patients receive appropriate mental health care. Most studies validating screening instruments overestimate the effectiveness of screening by not differentiating between patients with untreated disorder and those already being treated. This study adopts the novel strategy of evaluating the effectiveness of screening after correcting for disorder for which treatment is already being provided. METHODS 437 recently diagnosed breast cancer patients received in-clinic distress screening and telephone-based psychiatric interviews. Analyses were conducted using receipt of psychotropic medication for mental health difficulties in the context of a psychiatric disorder as a proxy for identification and treatment. RESULTS Rates of elevated distress (33%), MDD (8%), minor depression (6%), dysthymia (2%), or GAD (3%) were similar to those in other samples. Thirty-six percent of the sample received psychotropic medication around the time of cancer diagnosis, including 64% of those with a current psychiatric diagnosis. Although 39% of those with elevated distress had a psychiatric disorder, the positive predictive value of screening fell to 15% for an untreated psychiatric disorder and 6% had untreated depression. CONCLUSION Given high rates of existing treatment, screening may not be efficient for identifying untreated disorder. Almost two-thirds of patients with treated disorders remain symptomatic. Use of symptom scales might reasonably be expanded to surveillance of treatment response or ruling out disorder. Substantial resources would likely be required to coordinate or manage psychiatric care among patients, as would a willingness to intervene in existing relationships with other providers. PMID:21989608

  6. The JACS prospective cohort study of newly diagnosed women with breast cancer investigating joint and muscle pain, aches, and stiffness: pain and quality of life after primary surgery and before adjuvant treatment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Breast cancer affects one in eight UK women during their lifetime: many of these women now receive adjuvant chemotherapy and hormone therapy. Joint and muscle pains, aches, and stiffness are common but the natural history, aetiology and impact of these symptoms are unknown. A cohort study of newly diagnosed women with primary breast cancer was established to explore this. In this paper we present study methods and sample characteristics, describe participants’ experience of musculoskeletal pain at baseline interview, and explore its impact on quality of life. Methods Women with non-metastatic breast cancer were recruited following primary surgery into a multi-centre cohort study. They received questionnaires by post five times (baseline, 3, 6 , 9 and 12 months) to investigate prevalence, severity, location and correlates of musculoskeletal pain, and impact on quality-of-life. Pain was measured by the Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire, the Brief Pain Inventory, and MSK-specific questions, and quality of life by the SF-36 and FACIT scales. Results 543 women (mean age 57 years, range 28–87, 64% postmenopausal) were recruited following surgery for primary breast cancer from breast cancer clinics in eight hospitals. Fifteen per cent of the eligible cohort was missed; 28% declined to participate. Joint or muscle aches, pains or stiffness were reported by 69% women with 28% specifically reporting joint pain/aches/stiffness. Quality of life, as measured by the FACT-B and adjusted for age, depression, surgery and analgesic use, is significantly worse in all domains in those with musculoskeletal problems than those without. Conclusions Our findings highlights the importance of a better understanding of these symptoms and their impact on the lives of women with primary breast cancer so that healthcare professionals are better equipped to support patients and to provide accurate information to inform treatment decisions. Further papers from this study will

  7. The JACS prospective cohort study of newly diagnosed women with breast cancer investigating joint and muscle pain, aches, and stiffness: pain and quality of life after primary surgery and before adjuvant treatment.

    PubMed

    Fenlon, Deborah; Powers, Cassandra; Simmonds, Peter; Clough, Joanne; Addington-Hall, Julia

    2014-06-25

    Breast cancer affects one in eight UK women during their lifetime: many of these women now receive adjuvant chemotherapy and hormone therapy. Joint and muscle pains, aches, and stiffness are common but the natural history, aetiology and impact of these symptoms are unknown. A cohort study of newly diagnosed women with primary breast cancer was established to explore this. In this paper we present study methods and sample characteristics, describe participants' experience of musculoskeletal pain at baseline interview, and explore its impact on quality of life. Women with non-metastatic breast cancer were recruited following primary surgery into a multi-centre cohort study. They received questionnaires by post five times (baseline, 3, 6 , 9 and 12 months) to investigate prevalence, severity, location and correlates of musculoskeletal pain, and impact on quality-of-life. Pain was measured by the Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire, the Brief Pain Inventory, and MSK-specific questions, and quality of life by the SF-36 and FACIT scales. 543 women (mean age 57 years, range 28-87, 64% postmenopausal) were recruited following surgery for primary breast cancer from breast cancer clinics in eight hospitals. Fifteen per cent of the eligible cohort was missed; 28% declined to participate. Joint or muscle aches, pains or stiffness were reported by 69% women with 28% specifically reporting joint pain/aches/stiffness. Quality of life, as measured by the FACT-B and adjusted for age, depression, surgery and analgesic use, is significantly worse in all domains in those with musculoskeletal problems than those without. Our findings highlights the importance of a better understanding of these symptoms and their impact on the lives of women with primary breast cancer so that healthcare professionals are better equipped to support patients and to provide accurate information to inform treatment decisions. Further papers from this study will address these issues.

  8. Psychological distress in newly diagnosed colorectal cancer patients following microsatellite instability testing for Lynch syndrome on the pathologist's initiative.

    PubMed

    Landsbergen, K M; Prins, J B; Brunner, H G; van Duijvendijk, P; Nagengast, F M; van Krieken, J H; Ligtenberg, M; Hoogerbrugge, N

    2012-06-01

    According to the Dutch Guideline on Hereditary Colorectal Cancer published in 2008, patients with recently diagnosed colorectal cancer (CRC) should undergo microsatellite instability (MSI) testing by a pathologist immediately after tumour resection if they are younger than 50 years, or if a second CRC has been diagnosed before the age of 70 years, owing to the high risk of Lynch syndrome (MIPA). The aim of the present MIPAPS study was to investigate general distress and cancer-specific distress following MSI testing. From March 2007 to September 2009, 400 patients who had been tested for MSI after newly diagnosed CRC were recruited from 30 Dutch hospitals. Levels of general distress (SCL-90) and cancer-specific distress (IES) were assessed immediately after MSI result disclosure (T1) and 6 months later (T2). Response rates were 23/77 (30%) in the MSI-positive patients and 58/323 (18%) in the MSI-negative patients. Levels of general distress and cancer-specific distress were moderate. In the MSI-positive group, 27% of the patients had high general distress at T1 versus 18% at T2 (p = 0.5), whereas in the MSI-negative group, these percentage were 14 and 18% (p = 0.6), respectively. At T1 and T2, cancer-specific distress rates in the MSI-positive group and MSI-negative group were 39 versus 27% (p = 0.3) and 38 versus 36% (p = 1.0), respectively. High levels of general distress were correlated with female gender, low social support and high perceived cancer risk. Moderate levels of distress were observed after MSI testing, similar to those found in other patients diagnosed with CRC. Immediately after result disclosure, high cancer-specific distress was observed in 40% of the MSI-positive patients.

  9. Genetic impact on cognition and brain function in newly diagnosed Parkinson's disease: ICICLE-PD study.

    PubMed

    Nombela, Cristina; Rowe, James B; Winder-Rhodes, Sophie E; Hampshire, Adam; Owen, Adrian M; Breen, David P; Duncan, Gordon W; Khoo, Tien K; Yarnall, Alison J; Firbank, Michael J; Chinnery, Patrick F; Robbins, Trevor W; O'Brien, John T; Brooks, David J; Burn, David J; Barker, Roger A

    2014-10-01

    associated with memory encoding. This study demonstrates that neurocognitive deficits are common even in recently diagnosed patients with Parkinson's disease, and that the associated regional brain activations are influenced by genotype. These data further support the dual syndrome hypothesis of cognitive change in Parkinson's disease. Longitudinal data will confirm the extent to which these early neurocognitive changes, and their genetic factors, influence the long-term risk of dementia in Parkinson's disease. The combination of genetics and functional neuroimaging provides a potentially useful method for stratification and identification of candidate markers, in future clinical trials against cognitive decline in Parkinson's disease.

  10. Local Therapy Improves Overall Survival in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Metastatic Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Rahul R; Byun, John; Goyal, Sharad; Kim, Isaac Yi

    2017-05-01

    The role of local therapy, in the form of radiation therapy (RT) or radical prostatectomy(RP), and its association on outcomes is not well established in patients with metastatic prostate cancer. Using the National Cancer Database (NCDB), we evaluated patterns of care and outcomes among patients diagnosed with metastatic prostate cancer from 2004 to 2013 treated with local therapy (RP, intensity-modulated radiation therapy [IMRT], or 2D/3D-conformal radiation therapy [CRT]). The association between local therapy, co-variates, and outcomes was assessed in a multivariable Cox proportional hazards model and Propensity score (PS) matching was performed to balance confounding factors. Survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Among the 1,208,180 patients in the NCDB with prostate cancer, 6,051 patients met the inclusion criteria. No local therapy was used in 5,224 patients, while 622 (10.3%), 52 (0.9%), 153 (2.5%) patients received RP, IMRT, and 2D/3D-CRT, respectively. Use of local therapy was associated with younger age (≤70), lower co-morbidity score, lower T-stage, Gleason score <8, node-negative status, private, and Medicare insurance, higher income quartile, and treatment at comprehensive or academic/research programs (P < 0.05). Five-year overall survival for patients receiving local therapy was 45.7% versus 17.1% for those not receiving local therapy (P < 0.01). In multivariate analysis, RP (HR = 0.51; 95%CI, 0.45-0.59, P < 0.01) and IMRT (HR = 0.47; 95%CI, 0.31-0.72, P < 0.01) were independently associated with superior overall survival. After PS-matching, the use of local therapy (RP or IMRT) remained significantly associated with overall survival (HR = 0.35; 95%CI, 0.30-0.41, P < 0.01). The use of RP and IMRT, to treat the primary disease, was associated with improvements in overall survival for patients with metastatic prostate cancer. We have identified patient-specific variations in the use of local therapy

  11. Metabolic syndrome in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus using NCEP-ATP III, the Nnewi experience.

    PubMed

    Osuji, C U; Nzerem, B A; Dioka, C E; Onwubuya, E I

    2012-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is becoming epidemic and several studies have shown that diabetes is associated with increased co-morbidities and impaired functional health in the general adult population. Type 2 diabetes is one of the co-morbidities associated with metabolic syndrome that carries with it increased risk of cardiovascular disease and death. The purpose of this study is therefore to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus subjects seen at Nnewi South East Nigeria. This is a cross-sectional study in newly diagnosed diabetics attending a private hospital-Hope Specialist Hospital, Nnewi. One hundred and eighteen (118) newly diagnosed diabetic patients were recruited into the study consisting of those who on routine screening were found to have elevated blood glucose or were symptomatic of the disease and presented for treatment. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS version 13. Student's t-test was used for continuous variables, and a χ2 test was used for categorical variables. In the analyses a P- value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Of the 118 subjects, 25 were removed from the study because their samples were lost as a result of prolonged power outage leaving 93 subjects consisting of 47 males and 46 females. The mean (SD) and the range of age was 55.27 (12.55) years, 24-84 years; SBP 153.52 (29.83) mmHg,100-230 mmHg; DBP 94.23 (15.42) mmHg, 60-140 mmHg; TC 5.17 (1.4) mmol/L, 2.0-11.12 mmol/L; LDL-C 2.06 (1.55) mmol/L, 0.1-9.4 mmol/L; HDL-C 1.28 (0.48) mmol/L, 0.15-2.8 mmol/L; TG 1.75 (0.85) mmol/L, 0.50-5.0 mmol/L; BMI 30.30 (6.23) kg/m 2 , 17.84-49.12 kg/m 2 ; and WC of the general population mean (SD) 96.86 (7.16) cm, range 84-112 cm; for men 101.40 (3.88) cm, range 85-108 cm and for women 92.22 (6.77) cm, 84-112 cm. Metabolic syndrome was found in 62 (66.7%) subjects of which 26 (41.9%) were males and 36 (58.1%) were females (P < 0.019). The prevalence of different components of

  12. Exploring the individual patterns of spiritual well-being in people newly diagnosed with advanced cancer: a cluster analysis.

    PubMed

    Bai, Mei; Dixon, Jane; Williams, Anna-Leila; Jeon, Sangchoon; Lazenby, Mark; McCorkle, Ruth

    2016-11-01

    Research shows that spiritual well-being correlates positively with quality of life (QOL) for people with cancer, whereas contradictory findings are frequently reported with respect to the differentiated associations between dimensions of spiritual well-being, namely peace, meaning and faith, and QOL. This study aimed to examine individual patterns of spiritual well-being among patients newly diagnosed with advanced cancer. Cluster analysis was based on the twelve items of the 12-item Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-Being Scale at Time 1. A combination of hierarchical and k-means (non-hierarchical) clustering methods was employed to jointly determine the number of clusters. Self-rated health, depressive symptoms, peace, meaning and faith, and overall QOL were compared at Time 1 and Time 2. Hierarchical and k-means clustering methods both suggested four clusters. Comparison of the four clusters supported statistically significant and clinically meaningful differences in QOL outcomes among clusters while revealing contrasting relations of faith with QOL. Cluster 1, Cluster 3, and Cluster 4 represented high, medium, and low levels of overall QOL, respectively, with correspondingly high, medium, and low levels of peace, meaning, and faith. Cluster 2 was distinguished from other clusters by its medium levels of overall QOL, peace, and meaning and low level of faith. This study provides empirical support for individual difference in response to a newly diagnosed cancer and brings into focus conceptual and methodological challenges associated with the measure of spiritual well-being, which may partly contribute to the attenuated relation between faith and QOL.

  13. Psychological Disorders and Psychosocial Resources of Patients with Newly Diagnosed Bladder and Kidney Cancer: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi-Long; Liu, Li; Li, Meng-Yao; Shi, Meng; Wang, Lie

    2016-01-01

    Psychological disorders have been proven to be associated with poor physiological, psychological and immune outcomes in cancer patients. However, despite of many challenges of the changed self-image/body image and the altered sexual/urinary function, relatively little is known about psychological disorders of patients with newly diagnosed bladder and kidney cancer. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and the associated psychosocial factors among bladder/kidney cancer patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted of consecutive inpatients with bladder/kidney cancer in the First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University in Liaoning Province, northeast China. A total of 489 early-stage cancer patients eligible for this study completed questionnaires on demographic and clinical variables, depression, anxiety, PTSD, perceived social support and positive psychological variables (hope, optimism and resilience) anonymously during October 2013 and August 2014. Hierarchical regression analysis was used to examine the relationships between psychosocial resources and psychological disorders, while controlling for possible covariates. The prevalence of depression, anxiety and PTSD was 77.5%, 69.3% and 25.2%, respectively, while 24.9% of patients had psychological co-morbidity. Psychosocial resources together explained more than one-third of the variance on psychological disorders. Under standardized estimate (β) sequence, patient's perception of social support from family was significantly associated with depression, anxiety and PTSD (p < 0.01). Optimism and resilience showed integrated and independent effects on psychological disorders, and hope represented the significant association with PTSD only (p < 0.01). The high prevalence of psychological disorders in newly diagnosed patients with early-stage bladder/kidney cancer should receive more attention in Chinese medical settings. Additionally, in

  14. Stigma reduction in adolescents and young adults newly diagnosed with HIV: findings from the Project ACCEPT intervention.

    PubMed

    Harper, Gary W; Lemos, Diana; Hosek, Sybil G

    2014-10-01

    This article describes the influence of a group-based behavioral intervention for adolescents and young adults newly diagnosed with HIV (Project ACCEPT) on four dimensions of HIV-related stigma-personalized stigma, disclosure concerns, negative self-image, and concern with public attitudes about people with HIV-as measured by the Berger HIV Stigma Scale. Stigma was addressed in a holistic manner during the intervention by providing HIV/AIDS-related information, facilitating the acquisition of coping skills, and providing contact with other youth living with HIV in order to improve social support. Fifty youth (28 male, 22 female; mean age=19.24 years) newly diagnosed with HIV from four geographically diverse clinics participated in a one-group pretest-posttest design study whereby they received the intervention over a 12-week period, and completed assessments at baseline, post-intervention, and 3-month follow-up. Results from the combined sample (males and females) revealed overall reductions in stigma in three dimensions: personalized stigma, disclosure concerns, and negative self-image, although only the combined-sample effects for negative self-image were maintained at 3-month follow-up. Gender-specific analyses revealed that the intervention reduced stigma for males across all four dimensions of stigma, with all effects being maintained to some degree at the 3-month follow-up. Only personalized stigma demonstrated a decrease for females, although this effect was not maintained at the 3-month follow-up; while the other three types of stigma increased at post-intervention and 3-month follow-up. Findings are discussed in terms of gender specific outcomes and the need for a different type of intervention to reduce stigma for young women.

  15. Stigma Reduction in Adolescents and Young Adults Newly Diagnosed with HIV: Findings from the Project ACCEPT Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Lemos, Diana; Hosek, Sybil G.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This article describes the influence of a group-based behavioral intervention for adolescents and young adults newly diagnosed with HIV (Project ACCEPT) on four dimensions of HIV-related stigma—personalized stigma, disclosure concerns, negative self-image, and concern with public attitudes about people with HIV—as measured by the Berger HIV Stigma Scale. Stigma was addressed in a holistic manner during the intervention by providing HIV/AIDS-related information, facilitating the acquisition of coping skills, and providing contact with other youth living with HIV in order to improve social support. Fifty youth (28 male, 22 female; mean age=19.24 years) newly diagnosed with HIV from four geographically diverse clinics participated in a one-group pretest-posttest design study whereby they received the intervention over a 12-week period, and completed assessments at baseline, post-intervention, and 3-month follow-up. Results from the combined sample (males and females) revealed overall reductions in stigma in three dimensions: personalized stigma, disclosure concerns, and negative self-image, although only the combined-sample effects for negative self-image were maintained at 3-month follow-up. Gender-specific analyses revealed that the intervention reduced stigma for males across all four dimensions of stigma, with all effects being maintained to some degree at the 3-month follow-up. Only personalized stigma demonstrated a decrease for females, although this effect was not maintained at the 3-month follow-up; while the other three types of stigma increased at post-intervention and 3-month follow-up. Findings are discussed in terms of gender specific outcomes and the need for a different type of intervention to reduce stigma for young women. PMID:25216106

  16. Phase III randomized trial of autologous cytokine-induced killer cell immunotherapy for newly diagnosed glioblastoma in korea

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Shin-Hyuk; Lee, Jae Won; Chang, Jong-Hee; Kim, Jeong-Hoon; Lim, Young-Jin; Koh, Young-Cho; Chung, Yong-Gu; Kim, Jae-Min; Kim, Choong-Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Adoptive cell immunotherapy involves an ex vivo expansion of autologous cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells before their reinfusion into the host. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of CIK cell immunotherapy with radiotherapy-temozolomide (TMZ) for the treatment of newly diagnosed glioblastomas. Experimental design In this multi-center, open-label, phase 3 study, we randomly assigned patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma to receive CIK cell immunotherapy combined with standard TMZ chemoradiotherapy (CIK immunotherapy group) or standard TMZ chemoradiotherapy alone (control group). The efficacy endpoints were analyzed in the intention-to-treat set and in the per protocol set. Results Between December 2008 and October 2012, a total of 180 patients were randomly assigned to the CIK immunotherapy (n = 91) or control group (n = 89. In the intention-to-treat analysis set, median PFS was 8.1 months (95% confidence interval (CI), 5.8 to 8.5 months) in the CIK immunotherapy group, as compared to 5.4 months (95% CI, 3.3 to 7.9 months) in the control group (one-sided log-rank, p = 0.0401). Overall survival did not differ significantly between two groups. Grade 3 or higher adverse events, health-related quality of life and performance status between two groups did not show a significant difference. Conclusions The addition of CIK cells immunotherapy to standard chemoradiotherapy with TMZ improved PFS. However, the CIK immunotherapy group did not show evidence of a beneficial effect on overall survival. PMID:27690294

  17. Inverse Association of Plasma Chromium Levels with Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sijing; Jin, Xiaoling; Shan, Zhilei; Li, Shuzhen; Yin, Jiawei; Sun, Taoping; Luo, Cheng; Yang, Wei; Yao, Ping; Yu, Kaifeng; Zhang, Yan; Cheng, Qian; Cheng, Jinquan; Bao, Wei; Liu, Liegang

    2017-01-01

    Chromium has long been known as an enhancer of insulin action. However, the role of chromium in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in humans remains controversial. The current study aimed to examine the associations of plasma chromium levels with T2DM and pre-diabetes mellitus (pre-DM). We conducted a case-control study involving 1471 patients with newly diagnosed T2DM, 682 individuals with newly diagnosed pre-DM, and 2290 individuals with normal glucose tolerance in a Chinese population from 2009 to 2014. Plasma chromium was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Plasma chromium levels were lower in the T2DM and pre-DM groups than in the control group (median: 3.68 μg/L, 3.61 μg/L, 3.97 μg/L, respectively, p < 0.001). After adjustment for potential confounding factors, the odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for T2DM across increasing quartiles of plasma chromium levels were 1 (referent), 0.67 (0.55–0.83), 0.64 (0.51–0.79), and 0.58 (0.46–0.73), respectively (p for trend <0.001). The corresponding odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for pre-DM were 1 (referent), 0.70 (0.54–0.91), 0.67 (0.52–0.88), and 0.58 (0.43–0.78), respectively (p for trend < 0.001). Our results indicated that plasma chromium concentrations were inversely associated with T2DM and pre-DM in Chinese adults. PMID:28304331

  18. Nuclear magnetic resonance lipoprotein abnormalities in newly-diagnosed type 2 diabetes and their association with preclinical carotid atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Amor, Antonio J; Catalan, Marta; Pérez, Antonio; Herreras, Zoe; Pinyol, Montserrat; Sala-Vila, Aleix; Cofán, Montserrat; Gilabert, Rosa; Ros, Emilio; Ortega, Emilio

    2016-04-01

    Atherogenic dyslipidemia is common in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and predicts cardiovascular disease, but information on the association of its components with atherosclerosis is scarce. We aimed to assess differences in the lipoprotein profile in newly-diagnosed T2DM and matched control individuals and their associations with preclinical carotid atherosclerosis. In a case-control study, we evaluated lipoprotein profiles by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and determined carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaque presence (IMT ≥1.5 mm) by B-mode ultrasonography. We assessed 96 T2DM patients (median age 63 years, 44% women, 19% smokers, 54% hypertension, 38% dyslipidemia) and 90 non-diabetic controls matched for age, sex, and cardiovascular risk factors. In T2DM VLDL-particles (mainly large and enriched in cholesterol and triglycerides) were increased, and large HDL-particles (enriched in triglycerides and depleted in cholesterol) were reduced (p < 0.05; all comparisons). Regarding associations with preclinical atherosclerosis, VLDL triglyceride content (odds ratio [OR], 8.975; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.330-34.576), total number of VLDL particles (OR, 2.713; CI, 1.601-4.598) and VLDL size (OR, 2.044; CI, 1.320-3.166), and the ratio cholesterol/triglycerides in HDL (OR, 0.638; CI, 0.477-0.852) were associated with plaque burden (≥3 plaques) independently of confounders, including conventional lipid levels. NMR-assessed advanced lipoprotein profile identifies lipid abnormalities associated with newly-diagnosed T2DM and preclinical atherosclerosis that are not captured by the traditional lipid profile. At this early stage of diabetes, NMR lipoproteins could be useful to identify candidates for a more comprehensive cardiovascular risk prevention strategy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Application of PET/CT in treatment response evaluation and recurrence prediction in patients with newly-diagnosed multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Liu, Junru; Huang, Beihui; Chen, Meilan; Diao, Xiangwen; Li, Juan

    2017-04-11

    Multiple myeloma (MM) causes osteolytic lesions which can be detected by 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/Computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT). We prospectively involve 96 Newly diagnosed MM to take PET/CT scan at scheduled treatment time (figure 1), and 18F-FDG uptake of lesion was measured by SUVmax and T/Mmax. All MM patients took bortezomib based chemotherapy as induction and received ASCT and maintenance. All clinical features were analyzed with the PET/CT image changes, and some relationships between treatment response and FDG uptakes changes were found: Osteolytic lesions of MM uptakes higher FDG than healthy volunteers, and this trend is more obvious in extramedullary lesions. Compared to X-ray, PET/CT was more sensitive both in discoering bone as well as extramedullary lesions. In newly diagnosed MM, several adverse clinical factors were related to high FDG uptakes of bone lesions. Bone lesion FDG uptakes of MM with P53 mutation or with hypodiploidy and complex karyotype were also higher than those without such changes. In treatment response, PET/CT showed higher sensitivity in detecting tumor residual disease than immunofixation electrophoresis. But in relapse prediction, it might show false positive disease recurrences and the imaging changes might be influenced by infections and hemoglobulin levels. PET/CT is sensitive in discovering meduallary and extrameduallary lesions of MM, and the 18F-FDG uptake of lesions are related with clinical indictors and biological features of plasma cells. In evaluating treatment response and survival, PET/CT showed its superiority. But in predicting relapse or refractory, it may show false positive results.

  20. A Phase I Trial of Tipifarnib With Radiation Therapy, With and Without Temozolomide, for Patients With Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Nghiemphu, Phioanh Leia; Wen, Patrick Y.; Drappatz, Jan; Fink, Karen; Malkin, Mark G.; Lieberman, Frank S.; DeAngelis, Lisa M.; Torres-Trejo, Alejandro; Chang, Susan M.; Abrey, Lauren; Fine, Howard A.; Demopoulos, Alexis; Lassman, Andrew B.; Kesari, Santosh; Prados, Michael D.; Cloughesy, Timothy F.

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: To determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of tipifarnib in combination with conventional radiotherapy for patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma. The MTD was evaluated in three patient cohorts, stratified based on concurrent use of enzyme-inducing antiepileptic drugs (EIAED) or concurrent treatment with temozolomide (TMZ): Group A: patients not receiving EIAED and not receiving TMZ; Group A-TMZ: patients not receiving EIAED and receiving treatment with TMZ; Group B: any patients receiving EIAED but not TMZ. Patients and Methods: After diagnostic surgery or biopsy, treatment with tipifarnib started 5 to 9 days before initiating radiotherapy, twice daily, in 4-week cycles using discontinuous dosing (21 out of 28 days), until toxicity or progression. For Group A-TMZ, patients also received TMZ daily during radiotherapy and then standard 5/28 days dosing after radiotherapy. Dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) was determined over the first 10 weeks of therapy for all cohorts. Results: Fifty-one patients were enrolled for MTD determination: 10 patients in Group A, 21 patients in Group A-TMZ, and 20 patients in Group B. In the Group A and Group A-TMZ cohorts, patients achieved the intended MTD of 300 mg twice daily (bid) with DLTs including rash and fatigue. For Group B, the MTD was determined as 300 mg bid, half the expected dose. The DLTs included rash and one intracranial hemorrhage. Thirteen of the 20 patients evaluated in Group A-TMZ were alive at 1 year. Conclusion: Tipifarnib is well tolerated at 300 mg bid given discontinuously (21/28 days) in 4-week cycles, concurrently with standard chemo/radiotherapy. A Phase II study should evaluate the efficacy of tipifarnib with radiation and TMZ in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma and not receiving EIAED.

  1. Health related quality of life in patients with newly diagnosed anti-neutrophil cytoplasm antibody associated vasculitis

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Michael; Mukhtyar, Chetan; Mahr, Alfred; Herlyn, Karen; Luqmani, Raashid; Merkel, Peter A.; Jayne, David R. W.

    2011-01-01

    Background Anti-neutrophil cytoplasm antibody-associated vasculitis (AAV) can present with a broad spectrum of signs and symptoms. The relative effects of different manifestations on health related quality of life (HRQOL) is unknown. Methods We conducted an individual patient data meta-analysis of baseline Short Form 36 (SF-36) scores from four randomized controlled trials of patients with newly diagnosed AAV. We determined the associations between organ manifestations at trial entry and the SF-36 Physical Composite Score (PCS) and Mental Composite Score (MCS) using mixed effects models adjusted for demographic factors. Associations with each of the 8 domains of the SF-36 were further explored using multivariate multiple regression. Results SF-36 data was available from 346 patients. Older age (−0.11 points/year; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] −0.21 to −0.012; p=0.029) and neurologic involvement (−5.84, p<0.001) at baseline were associated with lower Physical Composite Scores. Physical Function scores were the most affected and older age (−0.25 points per year, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] −0.38 to −0.11; p<0.001) scores and neurologic involvement (−8.48 points, 95% CI −12.90 to −4.06; p<0.001) had the largest effects. The MCS was negatively affected only by chest involvement (p=0.027) but this effect was not exerted in any particular domain. Conclusions HRQOL in patients with newly diagnosed AAV are complex and incompletely explained by their organ system manifestations. PMID:21452254

  2. The relationship between circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D and survival in newly diagnosed advanced non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Vashi, Pankaj G; Edwin, Persis; Popiel, Brenten; Gupta, Digant

    2015-12-24

    Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], the major circulating form of vitamin D used for evaluating the vitamin D status of patients, has been associated with survival in a variety of cancers with conflicting evidence. We aimed to investigate this association in newly diagnosed advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. This was a consecutive cohort of 359 newly diagnosed stages III-IV NSCLC patients who underwent a baseline serum 25(OH)D evaluation prior to receiving any treatment at our institution between January 2008 and December 2010. We used the vitamin D categories of "deficient (<20 ng/ml)" and "not deficient (> = 20 ng/ml)". Cox regression was used to evaluate the prognostic significance of serum 25(OH)D after adjusting for relevant confounders. Mean age at diagnosis was 57.4 years. Of the 359 patients, 151 (42.1 %) were deficient in vitamin D at the time of diagnosis. The median survival in deficient and not deficient cohorts was 11.7 and 12.8 months respectively (p = 0.06). Season of diagnosis, performance status, smoking status and hospital location significantly predicted vitamin D status. On univariate Cox analysis, gender, stage of disease, hospital location, histologic subtype, subjective global assessment (SGA), performance status, smoking status, body mass index and serum albumin were significantly associated with survival (p <0.05 for all). On multivariate Cox analysis, six variables demonstrated statistically significant associations with survival: stage of disease, hospital location, histologic subtype, SGA, smoking status and serum albumin (p <0.05 for all). Serum vitamin D, which was borderline significant in univariate analysis, lost its significance in multivariate analysis. We found season of diagnosis, performance status and smoking history to be predictive of vitamin D status. Consistent with previously published research in advanced NSCLC, we did not find any significant association between pre-treatment serum 25(OH)D and

  3. Glipizide controlled-release tablets, with or without acarbose, improve glycaemic variability in newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Bao, Yu-Qian; Zhou, Jian; Zhou, Mi; Cheng, Yi-Jia; Lu, Wei; Pan, Xiao-Ping; Tang, Jun-Ling; Lu, Hui-Juan; Jia, Wei-Ping

    2010-05-01

    1. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of glipizide controlled-release (CR) tablets monotherapy with that of glipizide CR tablets plus acarbose on glycaemic variability in newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients using a continuous glucose-monitoring system (CGMS). 2. Forty newly diagnosed T2DM patients whose glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels ranged from 7.0% to 9.8% were randomized to either monotherapy or combination therapy. Overall glycaemic control and blood glucose variability were evaluated by CGMS parameters. 3. After 8 weeks treatment, fasting and postprandial blood glucose, HbA1c, glycated albumin (GA), mean blood glucose (MBG), mean amplitude of glycaemic excursions (MAGE), postprandial incremental area under the curve (AUC(pp)) and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance decreased significantly in both groups (P < 0.01). There was also a significant decrease in the mean of daily differences (MODD) in the combination therapy group. Mean changes in MBG, MAGE, MODD and AUC(pp) were significantly greater in the combination therapy group than in the monotherapy group (all P < 0.01), whereas no significant differences were found in the mean changes of HbA1c and GA. Multivariate regression analysis showed that the decrement in AUC(pp) was significantly associated with decreases in MAGE. 4. In conclusion, glipizide CR tablets alone or in combination with acarbose can improve overall blood glucose levels and glycaemic variability. Combination therapy using glipizide CR tablets and acarbose was more effective in reducing intraday and day-to-day glycaemic variability than glipizide CR tablet monotherapy.

  4. Bosutinib Versus Imatinib in Newly Diagnosed Chronic-Phase Chronic Myeloid Leukemia: Results From the BELA Trial

    PubMed Central

    Cortes, Jorge E.; Kim, Dong-Wook; Kantarjian, Hagop M.; Brümmendorf, Tim H.; Dyagil, Irina; Griskevicius, Laimonas; Malhotra, Hemant; Powell, Christine; Gogat, Karïn; Countouriotis, Athena M.; Gambacorti-Passerini, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Bosutinib is an oral Src/Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitor. The phase III Bosutinib Efficacy and Safety in Newly Diagnosed Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (BELA) trial compared bosutinib with imatinib in newly diagnosed, chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Patients and Methods A total of 502 patients were randomly assigned 1:1 to bosutinib 500 mg per day or imatinib 400 mg per day. Results The complete cytogenetic response (CCyR) rate at 12 months was not different for bosutinib (70%; 95% CI, 64% to 76%) versus imatinib (68%; 95% CI, 62% to 74%; two-sided P = .601); therefore, the study did not achieve its primary end point. The major molecular response (MMR) rate at 12 months was higher with bosutinib (41%; 95% CI, 35% to 47%) compared with imatinib (27%; 95% CI, 22% to 33%; two-sided P < .001). Time to CCyR and MMR was faster with bosutinib compared with imatinib (two-sided P < .001 for both). On-treatment transformation to accelerated/blast phase occurred in four patients (2%) on bosutinib compared with 10 patients (4%) on imatinib. A total of three CML-related deaths occurred on the bosutinib arm compared with eight on the imatinib arm. The safety profiles of bosutinib and imatinib were distinct; GI and liver-related events were more frequent with bosutinib, whereas neutropenia, musculoskeletal disorders, and edema were more frequent with imatinib. Conclusion This ongoing trial did not meet its primary end point of CCyR at 12 months, despite the observed higher MMR rate at 12 months, faster times to CCyR and MMR, fewer on-treatment transformations to accelerated/blast phase, and fewer CML-related deaths with bosutinib compared with imatinib. Each drug had a distinct safety profile. PMID:22949154

  5. Safety of bosutinib versus imatinib in the phase 3 BELA trial in newly diagnosed chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Gambacorti-Passerini, Carlo; Cortes, Jorge E; Lipton, Jeff H; Dmoszynska, Anna; Wong, Raymond S; Rossiev, Victor; Pavlov, Dmitri; Gogat Marchant, Karin; Duvillié, Ladan; Khattry, Navin; Kantarjian, Hagop M; Brümmendorf, Tim H

    2014-10-01

    Bosutinib, an orally active, Src/Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has demonstrated clinical activity and acceptable tolerability in chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia (CP CML). This updated analysis of the BELA trial assessed the safety profile and management of toxicities of bosutinib versus imatinib in adults with newly diagnosed (≤6 months) CP CML after >30 months from accrual completion. Among patients randomized to bosutinib 500 mg/d (n = 250) or imatinib 400 mg/d (n = 252), 248 and 251, respectively, received ≥1 dose of study treatment. Adverse events (AEs; any grade) with bosutinib versus imatinib were significantly more common for certain gastrointestinal events (diarrhea, 70% vs. 26%; P < 0.001; vomiting, 33% vs. 16%; P < 0.001), alanine aminotransferase (33% vs. 9%; P < 0.001) and aspartate aminotransferase (28% vs. 10%; P < 0.001) elevations, and pyrexia (19% vs. 12%; P = 0.046). AEs significantly less common with bosutinib included edema (periorbital, 2% vs. 14%; P < 0.001; peripheral, 5% vs. 12%; P = 0.006), musculoskeletal (myalgia, 5% vs. 12%; P = 0.010; muscle cramps, 5% vs. 22%; P < 0.001; bone pain, 4% vs. 11%; P = 0.003), increased creatine phosphokinase (8% vs. 20%; P < 0.001), neutropenia (13% vs. 30%; P < 0.001), and leukopenia (9% vs. 22%; P < 0.001). Between-group differences in the incidence of cardiac and vascular AEs were not significant. Diarrhea was typically transient, mostly Grade 1/2, occurring early during treatment, and was manageable with antidiarrheal medication. Despite higher rates of aminotransferase elevation with bosutinib, events were managed in most patients with dose modification and/or concomitant medication. Bosutinib had a manageable safety profile distinct from that of imatinib in patients with newly diagnosed CP CML. © 2014 The Authors. American Journal of Hematology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Bosutinib versus imatinib in newly diagnosed chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia: results from the BELA trial.

    PubMed

    Cortes, Jorge E; Kim, Dong-Wook; Kantarjian, Hagop M; Brümmendorf, Tim H; Dyagil, Irina; Griskevicius, Laimonas; Malhotra, Hemant; Powell, Christine; Gogat, Karïn; Countouriotis, Athena M; Gambacorti-Passerini, Carlo

    2012-10-01

    Bosutinib is an oral Src/Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitor. The phase III Bosutinib Efficacy and Safety in Newly Diagnosed Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (BELA) trial compared bosutinib with imatinib in newly diagnosed, chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). A total of 502 patients were randomly assigned 1:1 to bosutinib 500 mg per day or imatinib 400 mg per day. The complete cytogenetic response (CCyR) rate at 12 months was not different for bosutinib (70%; 95% CI, 64% to 76%) versus imatinib (68%; 95% CI, 62% to 74%; two-sided P = .601); therefore, the study did not achieve its primary end point. The major molecular response (MMR) rate at 12 months was higher with bosutinib (41%; 95% CI, 35% to 47%) compared with imatinib (27%; 95% CI, 22% to 33%; two-sided P < .001). Time to CCyR and MMR was faster with bosutinib compared with imatinib (two-sided P < .001 for both). On-treatment transformation to accelerated/blast phase occurred in four patients (2%) on bosutinib compared with 10 patients (4%) on imatinib. A total of three CML-related deaths occurred on the bosutinib arm compared with eight on the imatinib arm. The safety profiles of bosutinib and imatinib were distinct; GI and liver-related events were more frequent with bosutinib, whereas neutropenia, musculoskeletal disorders, and edema were more frequent with imatinib. This ongoing trial did not meet its primary end point of CCyR at 12 months, despite the observed higher MMR rate at 12 months, faster times to CCyR and MMR, fewer on-treatment transformations to accelerated/blast phase, and fewer CML-related deaths with bosutinib compared with imatinib. Each drug had a distinct safety profile.

  7. Clofarabine, idarubicin, and cytarabine (CIA) as frontline therapy for patients ≤60 years with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Nazha, Aziz; Kantarjian, Hagop; Ravandi, Farhad; Huang, Xuelin; Choi, Sangbum; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo; Jabbour, Elias; Borthakur, Gautam; Kadia, Tapan; Konopleva, Marina; Cortes, Jorge; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Kornblau, Steve; Daver, Naval; Pemmaraju, Naveen; Andreeff, Michael; Estrov, Zeev; Du, Min; Brandt, Mark; Faderl, Stefan

    2013-11-01

    Clofarabine is a second generation nucleoside analogue with activity in adults with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). A phase I trial of clofarabine, idarubicin, and cytarabine (CIA) in relapsed and refractory AML had shown an overall response rate (ORR) of 48%. To explore this combination further, we conducted a phase II study of (CIA) in patients with newly diagnosed AML ≤60 years. Patients ≥18-60 years with AML and adequate organ function were enrolled. Induction therapy consisted of clofarabine (C) 20 mg m⁻² IV daily (days 1-5), idarubicin (I) 10 mg m⁻² IV daily (days 1-3), and cytarabine (A) 1 g m⁻² IV daily (days 1-5). Patients in remission received up to six consolidation cycles (C 15 mg m⁻² × 3, I 8 mg m⁻² × 2, and A 0.75 g m⁻² × 3). Fifty-seven patients were evaluable. ORR was 79%. With a median follow up of 10.9 months, the median overall survival (OS) was not reached, the median event-free survival (EFS) was 13.5 months. Most toxicities were ≤grade 2. Four week mortality was 2%. In subgroup analysis, patients ≤40 years had better OS (P = 0.04) and EFS (P = 0.04) compared to patients >40 years. Compared to historical patients treated with idarubicin and cyarabine (IA), the OS and EFS were significantly longer for CIA treated patients. In multivariate analysis, CIA retained its favorable impact on OS compared to IA. Thus, CIA is an effective and safe therapy for patients ≤60 years with newly diagnosed AML.

  8. A phase II study of conventional radiation therapy and thalidomide for supratentorial, newly-diagnosed glioblastoma (RTOG 9806).

    PubMed

    Alexander, Brian M; Wang, Meihua; Yung, W K Alfred; Fine, Howard A; Donahue, Bernadine A; Tremont, Ivo W; Richards, Ray S; Kerlin, Kevin J; Hartford, Alan C; Curran, Walter J; Mehta, Minesh P

    2013-01-01

    The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) initiated the single-arm, phase II study 9806 to determine the safety and efficacy of daily thalidomide with radiation therapy in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma. Patients were treated with thalidomide (200 mg daily) from day one of radiation therapy, increasing by 100-200 to 1,200 mg every 1-2 weeks until tumor progression or unacceptable toxicity. The median survival time (MST) of all 89 evaluable patients was 10 months. When compared with the historical database stratified by recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) class, this end point was not different [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.18; 95 % CI: 0.95-1.46; P = 0.93]. The MST of RPA class III and IV patients was 13.9 versus 12.5 months in controls (HR = 0.99; 95 % CI: 0.73-1.36; P = 0.48), and 4.3 versus 8.6 months in RPA class V controls (HR = 1.63, 95 % CI: 1.17-2.27; P = 0.99). In all, 34 % of patients discontinued thalidomide because of adverse events or refusal. The most common grade 3-4 toxicities were venous thrombosis, fatigue, skin reactions, encephalopathy, and neuropathy. In conclusion, thalidomide given simultaneously with radiation therapy was safe, but did not improve survival in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma.

  9. Inverse Association of Plasma Chromium Levels with Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sijing; Jin, Xiaoling; Shan, Zhilei; Li, Shuzhen; Yin, Jiawei; Sun, Taoping; Luo, Cheng; Yang, Wei; Yao, Ping; Yu, Kaifeng; Zhang, Yan; Cheng, Qian; Cheng, Jinquan; Bao, Wei; Liu, Liegang

    2017-03-17

    Chromium has long been known as an enhancer of insulin action. However, the role of chromium in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in humans remains controversial. The current study aimed to examine the associations of plasma chromium levels with T2DM and pre-diabetes mellitus (pre-DM). We conducted a case-control study involving 1471 patients with newly diagnosed T2DM, 682 individuals with newly diagnosed pre-DM, and 2290 individuals with normal glucose tolerance in a Chinese population from 2009 to 2014. Plasma chromium was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Plasma chromium levels were lower in the T2DM and pre-DM groups than in the control group (median: 3.68 μg/L, 3.61 μg/L, 3.97 μg/L, respectively, p < 0.001). After adjustment for potential confounding factors, the odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for T2DM across increasing quartiles of plasma chromium levels were 1 (referent), 0.67 (0.55-0.83), 0.64 (0.51-0.79), and 0.58 (0.46-0.73), respectively (p for trend <0.001). The corresponding odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for pre-DM were 1 (referent), 0.70 (0.54-0.91), 0.67 (0.52-0.88), and 0.58 (0.43-0.78), respectively (p for trend < 0.001). Our results indicated that plasma chromium concentrations were inversely associated with T2DM and pre-DM in Chinese adults.

  10. Initial evidence that blood-borne microvesicles are biomarkers for recurrence and survival in newly diagnosed glioblastoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Sydney M.; Putt, Mary; Yang, Xiang-Yang; Lustig, Robert A.; Martinez-Lage, Maria; Williams, Dewight; Desai, Arati; Wolf, Ronald; Brem, Steven; Koch, Cameron J.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to determine whether blood-borne microvesicles from newly diagnosed glioblastoma patients could be used as biomarkers. We collected 2.8 mL blood from 16 post-operative patients at the time that they were being simulated for chemoradiation therapy (radiation with concurrent temozolomide). Two additional samples were collected during chemoradiation therapy and a final sample was collected at the end of chemoradiation therapy. Patients continued with the therapy suggested by their physicians, based on tumor conference consensus and were followed for recurrence and overall survival. Microvesicles were isolated using serial centrifugation and stained for surface markers (Annexin V for phosphotidyl serine, CD41 for platelets, anti-EGFR for tumor cells, and CD235 for red blood cells). Flow cytometry analysis was performed. Our findings provide initial evidence that increases in Annexin V positive microvesicle levels during chemoradiation therapy are associated with earlier recurrence and shorter overall survival in newly diagnosed glioblastoma patients. The effect is dramatic, with over a four-fold increase in the hazard ratio for an individual at the 75th versus the 25th percentile. Moreover the pattern of Annexin V positive microvesicles remain significant after adjustment for confounding clinical variables that have previously been shown to be prognostic for recurrence and survival. Inclusion of neutrophil levels at the start of chemoradiation therapy in the model yielded the largest attenuation of the observed association. Further studies will be needed to verify and further investigate the association between these two entities. PMID:26746692

  11. Serum fetuin-A concentrations are positively associated with serum VEGF levels in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhongwei; Ju, Huixiang; Sun, Mingzhong; Chen, Hongmei; Ji, Hongbin; Jiang, Dongmei; Ji, Yuqiao; Ji, Jianwei

    2015-01-01

    Fetuin-A was considered to be involved in pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. On the other hand, higher vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression is associated with diabetes and its vascular complications, but the mechanisms leading to higher VEGF levels are still not clear. To the best of our knowledge, there are no data to show the associations between fetuin-A and VEGF in patients with type 2 diabetes. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between serum fetuin-A concentrations and serum VEGF levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. We recruited 345 patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. Serum fetuin-A concentrations and serum VEGF levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. In this study, there was a significant positive correlation between serum fetuin-A concentrations and serum VEGF levels (r=0.223, P<0.001), and the correlation remained significant even after adjustment for other confounding factors in the multivariate regression model (β=0.151, P=0.006). Mantel-Haenszel (M-H) stratified analysis showed that the degree of association of high concentrations of fetuin-A with high levels of VEGF is higher than that with low levels of VEGF (odds ratio of M-H [ORM-H], 2.938; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.896-4.553). In addition, this study showed that both fetuin-A and VEGF were positively associated with fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and C-reactive protein (CRP). These data suggested that serum fetuin-A concentrations were positively associated with serum VEGF levels in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes.

  12. The effect of metformin on TSH levels in euthyroid and hypothyroid newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus type 2 patients.

    PubMed

    Dimic, D; Golubovic, M Velojic; Radenkovic, S; Radojkovic, D; Pesic, M

    Metformin is the first-line oral hypoglycemic agent in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus with a number of positive effects. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of metformin on TSH levels in euthyroid and hypothyroid newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus type 2 patients. The study included 255 newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus type 2 drug naive patients, 170 euthyroid patinets, group A, 85 hypothiroid patients, group B, and 80 euthyroid DM type 2 patients on metformin therapy for more than 5 years, group C. Patients in groups A and B began metformin treatment with a dose of 2000 mg/day. We assessed baseline TSH, FT3, FT4 levels and TPOab, in groups A , B and C, and 6 months after initiation of metformin therapy in groups A and B. There were no differences in FT3 and FT4 levels after 6 months of metformin treatment in all groups. TSH level in Group A showed some reduction after 6 months of metformin therapy, not statistically significant. The only statistically significant change in Group A is the change of TSH level after 6 months in TPOAb positive patients. There was statiscically significant decrease in TSH level after 6 months in group B. There were no significant differences of basal TSH, FT3 and FT4 levels in groups A and B compared to group C. The results show that metformin has TSH lowering effect in patients with type 2 DM and hypothyreoidism, but also in euthyroid TPOab positive, levothyroxine naive patients. We have shown that the TSH lowering effect of metformin is not dependent on long term metformin therapy (Tab. 2, Ref. 18).

  13. Clofarabine, Idarubicin, and Cytarabine (CIA) as Frontline Therapy for Patients ≤60 Years with Newly Diagnosed Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML)

    PubMed Central

    Nazha, Aziz; Ravandi, Farhad; Kantarjian, Hagop; Huang, Xuelin; Choi, Sangbum; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo; Jabbour, Elias; Borthakur, Gautam; Kadia, Tapan; Konopleva, Marina; Cortes, Jorge; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Kornblau, Steve; Andreeff, Michael; Du, Min; Brandt, Mark; Faderl, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To explore the combination of clofarabine, cytarabine, and idarubicin (CIA) in patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) 40 years. Compared to historical patients treated with IA combination, the OS and EFS were significantly higher (P = 0.005, 0.0001, respectively) for CIA treated patients. In multivariate analysis, CIA retained its superior impact on OS and EFS compared to IA. Conclusion CIA is an effective combination for patients newly diagnosed AML. Patients ≤ 40 years had better OS and EFS. CIA achieved longer OS and EFS compared to IA alone. PMID:23877926

  14. Effect of intensive insulin therapy on macular biometrics, plasma VEGF and its soluble receptor in newly diagnosed diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Cristina; Zapata, Miguel A; Losada, Eladio; Villarroel, Marta; García-Ramírez, Marta; García-Arumí, José; Simó, Rafael

    2010-07-01

    To evaluate whether intensive insulin therapy leads to changes in macular biometrics (volume and thickness) in newly diagnosed diabetic patients with acute hyperglycaemia and its relationship with serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its soluble receptor (sFlt-1). Twenty-six newly diagnosed diabetic patients admitted to our hospital to initiate intensive insulin treatment were prospectively recruited. Examinations were performed on admission (day 1) and during follow-up (days 3, 10 and 21) and included a questionnaire regarding the presence of blurred vision, standardized refraction measurements and optical coherence tomography. Plasma VEGF and sFlt-1 were assessed by ELISA at baseline and during follow-up. At study entry seven patients (26.9%) complained of blurred vision and five (19.2%) developed burred vision during follow-up. Macular volume and thickness increased significantly (p = 0.008 and p = 0.04, respectively) in the group with blurred vision at day 3 and returned to the baseline value at 10 days. This pattern was present in 18 out of the 24 eyes from patients with blurred vision. By contrast, macular biometrics remained unchanged in the group without blurred vision. We did not detect any significant changes in VEGF levels during follow-up. By contrast, a significant reduction of sFlt-1 was observed in those patients with blurred vision at day 3 (p = 0.03) with normalization by day 10. Diabetic patients with blurred vision after starting insulin therapy present a significant transient increase in macular biometrics which is associated with a decrease in circulating sFlt-1. Copyright (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Cost-Effectiveness of Bevacizumab and Ranibizumab for Newly Diagnosed Neovascular Macular Degeneration (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis)

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Joshua D.; Newman-Casey, Paula Anne; Mrinalini, Tavag; Lee, Paul P.; Hutton, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the most cost-effective treatment for patients with newly diagnosed neovascular macular degeneration: monthly or as-needed bevacizumab injections, or monthly or as-needed ranibizumab injections. Methods: Using a Markov model with a 20-year time horizon, we compared the incremental cost-effectiveness of treating a hypothetical cohort of 80-year-old patients with newly diagnosed neovascular macular degeneration using monthly bevacizumab, as-needed bevacizumab, monthly ranibizumab, or as-needed ranibizumab. Data came from the Comparison of Age-Related Macular Degeneration Treatment Trial (CATT), the Medicare Fee Schedules, and the medical literature. Results: Compared with as-needed bevacizumab, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of monthly bevacizumab is $242,357 per quality-adjusted life year (QALY). Monthly ranibizumab gains an additional 0.02 QALYs vs monthly bevacizumab at an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of more than $10 million per QALY. As-needed ranibizumab was dominated by monthly bevacizumab. In sensitivity analyses assuming a willingness to pay of $100,000 per QALY, the annual risk of serious vascular events would have to be at least 2.5 times higher with bevacizumab than that observed in the CATT trial for as-needed ranibizumab to have an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of <$100,000 per QALY. In another sensitivity analysis, even if every patient receiving bevacizumab experienced declining vision by one category (eg, from 20/25–20/40 to 20/50–20/80) after 2 years but all patients receiving ranibizumab retained their vision level, as-needed ranibizumab would have an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $97,340 per QALY. Conclusion: Even after considering the potential for differences in risks of serious adverse events and therapeutic effectiveness, bevacizumab confers considerably greater value than ranibizumab for the treatment of neovascular macular degeneration. PMID:24167325

  16. Peer-counseling for women newly diagnosed with breast cancer: A randomized community/research collaboration trial.

    PubMed

    Giese-Davis, Janine; Bliss-Isberg, Caroline; Wittenberg, Lynne; White, Jennifer; Star, Path; Zhong, Lihong; Cordova, Matthew J; Houston, Debra; Spiegel, David

    2016-08-01

    We conducted a randomized controlled trial of peer-counseling for newly diagnosed breast cancer (BC) patients as a community/research collaboration testing an intervention developed jointly by a community-based-organization serving women with cancer and university researchers. We recruited 104 women newly diagnosed with BC at any disease stage. Prior to randomization, all received a one-time visit with an oncology nurse who offered information and resources. Afterwards, we randomized half to receive a match with a Navigator with whom they could have contact for up to 6 months. We recruited, trained, and supervised 30 peer counselors who became "Navigators." They were at least one-year post-diagnosis with BC. Controls received no further intervention. We tested the effect of intervention on breast-cancer-specific well-being and trauma symptoms as primary outcomes, and several secondary outcomes. In exploratory analyses, we tested whether responding to their diagnosis as a traumatic stressor moderated outcomes. We found that, compared with the control group, receiving a peer-counseling intervention significantly improved breast-cancer-specific well-being (p=0.01, Cohen's d=0.41) and maintained marital adjustment (p=0.01, Cohen's d=0.45) more effectively. Experiencing the diagnosis as a traumatic stressor moderated outcomes: those with a peer counselor in the traumatic stressor group improved significantly more than controls on well-being, trauma and depression symptoms, and cancer self-efficacy. Having a peer counselor trained and supervised to recognize and work with trauma symptoms can improve well-being and psychosocial morbidity during the first year following diagnosis of BC. Cancer 2016;122:2408-2417. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  17. Neurologist adherence to clinical practice guidelines and costs in patients with newly diagnosed and chronic epilepsy in Germany.

    PubMed

    Strzelczyk, Adam; Bergmann, Arnfin; Biermann, Valeria; Braune, Stefan; Dieterle, Lienhard; Forth, Bernhard; Kortland, Lena-Marie; Lang, Michael; Peckmann, Thomas; Schöffski, Oliver; Sigel, Karl-Otto; Rosenow, Felix

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate physician adherence to the German Neurological Society guidelines of 2008 regarding initial monotherapy and to determine the cost-of-illness in epilepsy. This was an observational cohort study using health data routinely collected at 55 outpatient neurology practices throughout Germany (NeuroTransData network). Data on socioeconomic status, course of epilepsy, anticonvulsive treatment, and direct and indirect costs were recorded using practice software-based questionnaires. One thousand five hundred eighty-four patients with epilepsy (785 male (49.6%); mean age: 51.3±18.1years) were enrolled, of whom 507 were newly diagnosed. Initial monotherapy was started according to authorization status in 85.9%, with nonenzyme-inducing drugs in 94.3% of all AEDs. Drugs of first choice by guideline recommendations were used in 66.5%. Total annual direct costs in the first year amounted to €2194 (SD: €4273; range: €55-43,896) per patient, with hospitalization (59% of total direct costs) and anticonvulsants (30%) as the main cost factors. Annual total direct costs decreased by 29% to €1572 in the second year, mainly because of a 59% decrease in hospitalization costs. The use of first choice AEDs did not influence costs. Chronic epilepsy was present in 1077 patients, and total annual direct costs amounted to €1847 per patient, with anticonvulsants (51.0%) and hospitalization (41.0%) as the main cost factors. Potential cost-driving factors in these patients were active epilepsy and focal epilepsy syndrome. This study shows excellent physician adherence to guidelines regarding initial monotherapy in adults with epilepsy. Newly diagnosed patients show higher total direct and hospital costs in the first year upon diagnosis, but these are not influenced by adherence to treatment guidelines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Outcome of infants and young children with newly diagnosed ependymoma treated on the "Head Start" III prospective clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Venkatramani, Rajkumar; Ji, Lingyun; Lasky, Joseph; Haley, Kelley; Judkins, Alexander; Zhou, Shengmei; Sposto, Richard; Olshefski, Randal; Garvin, James; Tekautz, Tanya; Kennedy, Gloria; Rassekh, Shahrad Rod; Moore, Theodore; Gardner, Sharon; Allen, Jeffrey; Shore, Richard; Moertel, Christopher; Atlas, Mark; Dhall, Girish; Finlay, Jonathan

    2013-06-01

    This study investigates the outcome of children <10 years old with newly-diagnosed ependymoma treated on the prospective multinational "Head Start" III clinical trial. Between April 2004 and July 2009, 19 children with newly-diagnosed ependymoma were enrolled. All children were to receive five induction chemotherapy cycles followed by one consolidation cycle of myelo-ablative chemotherapy and autologous hematopoietic cell rescue. Children between 6 and 10 years of age or with residual tumor prior to consolidation were to receive irradiation thereafter. Median age of 19 children (8 female) was 20 months at diagnosis. Median follow up was 44 months. The primary site was infratentorial in 11 and supratentorial in 8 patients. Gross total resection was achieved in 10 patients. After induction chemotherapy, all three supratentorial ependymoma patients with residual disease achieved a complete response (CR), while only one of six infratentorial patients with residual disease achieved CR. Three infratentorial patients developed progressive disease during induction chemotherapy. All four infratentorial patients with residual disease who underwent autologous hematopoietic cell transplant, failed to achieve CR. Four patients received focal irradiation following chemotherapy. The 3-year event free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) for supratentorial ependymoma were 86 ± 13 % and 100 % respectively. The 3-year EFS and OS for infratentorial ependymoma were 27 ± 13 % and 73 ± 13 % respectively. The role of intensive induction and consolidation chemotherapy in deferring irradiation should be investigated further in children with supratentorial ependymoma with residual disease following surgery. This approach appears ineffective in children with infratentorial ependymoma in the absence of irradiation.

  19. Feasibility, Acceptability, and Predictive Validity of a Psychosocial Screening Program for Children and Youth Newly Diagnosed With Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, David D.; Cline, Virginia Depp; Axelrad, Marni E.; Anderson, Barbara J.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Psychosocial screening has been recommended for pediatric patients with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes and their families. Our objective was to assess a psychosocial screening protocol in its feasibility, acceptability to families, and ability to predict early emerging complications, nonadherent family behavior, and use of preventive psychology services. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 125 patients and their caregivers were asked to participate in a standardized screening interview after admission at a large urban children’s hospital with a new diagnosis of type 1 diabetes. Medical records were reviewed for subsequent diabetes-related emergency department (ED) admissions, missed diabetes clinic appointments, and psychology follow-up within 9 months of diagnosis. RESULTS Of 125 families, 121 (96.8%) agreed to participate in the screening, and a subsample of 30 surveyed caregivers indicated high levels of satisfaction. Risk factors at diagnosis predicted subsequent ED admissions with a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 98.6%. Children from single-parent households with a history of behavior problems were nearly six times more likely to be seen in the ED after diagnosis. Missed appointments were likeliest among African Americans, 65% of whom missed at least one diabetes-related appointment. Psychology services for preventive intervention were underutilized, despite the high acceptability of the psychosocial screening. CONCLUSIONS Psychosocial screening of newly diagnosed patients with type 1 diabetes is feasible, acceptable to families, and able to identify families at risk for early emerging complications and nonadherence. Challenges remain with regards to reimbursement and fostering follow-up for preventive care. PMID:21216856

  20. Genetic diversity of HIV-1 and transmitted drug resistance among newly diagnosed individuals with HIV infection in Hangzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiafeng; Guo, Zhihong; Yang, Jiezhe; Pan, Xiaohong; Jiang, Jun; Ding, Xiaobei; Zhang, Wenjun; Xia, Yan; Xu, Yun; Huang, Jingjing

    2015-10-01

    HIV transmitted drug resistance (TDR) can compromise antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-limited countries like China where ART has been scaled up and thus leads to an important public health concern. The aim of the study was to elucidate the HIV-1 genetic characteristics and TDR in Hangzhou, China. Two-hundred eleven ART-naive, newly diagnosed individuals were enrolled during January and August 2013. Specimens were classified as recent or chronic infections using the BED capture enzyme immunoassay (BED-CEIA). The pol fragment covering the entire protease and the first 300 codons of the reverse transcriptase gene was amplified by RT-PCR and nested PCR. Genotypic drug resistance (DR) and phylogenetic analysis were performed on the 200 obtained sequences. Multiple genotypes were identified, including CRF01_AE (62.0%), CRF07_BC (31.0%), subtype B (2.0%), CRF08_BC (1.5%), CRF55_01B (1.0%), CRF18_cpx (0.5%), and unique recombinant forms (URFs, 2.0%). All the four URFs were found in men who have sex with men, consisting of a recombination of CRF01_AE with subtype B or CRF07_BC. The prevalence of primary DR in newly diagnosed individuals in Hangzhou was low (4.0%). The proportion of DR mutation to protease inhibitors (PIs), nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) was 1.5%, 1.5%, and 1.0%, respectively. BED-CEIA revealed that 21.8% (45/211) of the specimens were associated with recent infections. The prevalence of TDR in recent infections was moderate (6.5%). High HIV diversity and relatively high prevalence of TDR in new infections has been found in Hangzhou, indicating an increasing challenge for future HIV prevention and treatment. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Management of newly diagnosed type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Copeland, Kenneth C; Silverstein, Janet; Moore, Kelly R; Prazar, Greg E; Raymer, Terry; Shiffman, Richard N; Springer, Shelley C; Thaker, Vidhu V; Anderson, Meaghan; Spann, Stephen J; Flinn, Susan K

    2013-02-01

    Over the past 3 decades, the prevalence of childhood obesity has increased dramatically in North America, ushering in a variety of health problems, including type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), which previously was not typically seen until much later in life. The rapid emergence of childhood T2DM poses challenges to many physicians who find themselves generally ill-equipped to treat adult diseases encountered in children. This clinical practice guideline was developed to provide evidence-based recommendations on managing 10- to 18-year-old patients in whom T2DM has been diagnosed. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) convened a Subcommittee on Management of T2DM in Children and Adolescents with the support of the American Diabetes Association, the Pediatric Endocrine Society, the American Academy of Family Physicians, and the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (formerly the American Dietetic Association). These groups collaborated to develop an evidence report that served as a major source of information for these practice guideline recommendations. The guideline emphasizes the use of management modalities that have been shown to affect clinical outcomes in this pediatric population. Recommendations are made for situations in which either insulin or metformin is the preferred first-line treatment of children and adolescents with T2DM. The recommendations suggest integrating lifestyle modifications (ie, diet and exercise) in concert with medication rather than as an isolated initial treatment approach. Guidelines for frequency of monitoring hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and finger-stick blood glucose (BG) concentrations are presented. Decisions were made on the basis of a systematic grading of the quality of evidence and strength of recommendation. The clinical practice guideline underwent peer review before it was approved by the AAP. This clinical practice guideline is not intended to replace clinical judgment or establish a protocol for the care of all children with T2

  2. Outcome Predictors in Nonoperative Management of Newly Diagnosed Subacromial Impingement Syndrome: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    TaheriAzam, Afshin; Sadatsafavi, Mohsen; Moayyeri, Alireza

    2005-01-01

    Abstract and Introduction Abstract Objective This prospective investigation is designed to determine the prognostic factors associated with the response to conservative therapy of subacromial impingement syndrome. Materials and Methods We treated 102 patients with subacromial impingement syndrome, diagnosed by physical examination and a subacromial lidocaine injection test, with a standardized conservative protocol. We followed the patients for a period of 12 months. Outcome was evaluated with Constant score and effects of 8 variables: Age, sex, pretreatment symptom duration, dominant shoulder, initial Constant score, active range of motion, acromion morphology, and acromial spur on patient outcomes were evaluated with univariate and multivariate analyses. Results Among 89 patients (44 men; mean age, 56.4 years) who finished the study, the mean difference between initial and final scores was 15.9 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 13.9–17.8). Three variables, the initial Constant score (b = .52, 95% CI: .28–.76), the duration of disease before treatment (b = −4.4, 95% CI: from −7.2 to −1.6), and acromial morphology (b = −5.3, 95% CI: from −9.8 to −.8) were found to be independent predictors of outcome (model R2 = .68). Conclusion Patients with more severe disease, a long duration of symptoms, and type II or III acromion may require more invasive therapeutic options as the first intervention. Introduction Subacromial impingement and rotator cuff tears are common causes of shoulder disability. For the first time, Neer[1] popularized the concept of this syndrome, and described it as impingement of the rotator cuff tendon below the anteroinferior part of the acromion. This impingement caused tendonitis and eventual tendon tear. He described a clinical sign in which pain was aggravated when the affected shoulder was placed in forward-flexed and internally rotated position. He also introduced an impingement test that evaluated pain relief in response to

  3. Patient, Physician and Contextual Factors Are Influential in the Treatment Decision Making of Older Adults Newly Diagnosed with Symptomatic Myeloma.

    PubMed

    Tariman, Joseph D; Doorenbos, Ardith; Schepp, Karen G; Becker, Pamela S; Berry, Donna L

    2014-01-01

    To examine patient perspectives on their personal and contextual factors relevant to TDM. The second aim was to describe physician perspectives on the TDM in older adults (≥60 y.o.) diagnosed with symptomatic MM. Descriptive, cross-sectional. A semi-structured interview schedule was administered. Directed content analysis procedures were used to develop major themes from the patient and physician participant interviews. Themes related to treatment decision making among patient participants include various decisional role preferences; several sources of information related to myeloma; contextual and patient-specific factors influence treatment decisions; negative perceptions related to the treatment decision-making process exist; strong desire to be in remission and to live a longer life; For physician participants, top themes related to decision making were: QOL or survival considerations or simultaneously considerations of treatment effectiveness, QOL and survival; screening patients for eligibility for autologous HSCT; time is a barrier to effective TDM; Various methods were used to assess patient decisional role preferences. Treatment decision making in older adults newly diagnosed with symptomatic myeloma is influenced by personal, social and contextual factors. Patients must be given the opportunity to choose the best possible treatment within the limits of the patient's personal, social and medical contexts.

  4. Epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of children with newly diagnosed inflammatory bowel disease in Wisconsin: a statewide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Kugathasan, Subra; Judd, Robert H; Hoffmann, Raymond G; Heikenen, Janice; Telega, Gregorz; Khan, Farhat; Weisdorf-Schindele, Sally; San Pablo, William; Perrault, Jean; Park, Roger; Yaffe, Michael; Brown, Christopher; Rivera-Bennett, Maria T; Halabi, Issam; Martinez, Alfonso; Blank, Ellen; Werlin, Steven L; Rudolph, Colin D; Binion, David G

    2003-10-01

    To define epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of newly diagnosed pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in a large population-based model. All pediatric gastroenterologists providing care for Wisconsin children voluntarily identified all new cases of IBD during a 2-year period. Demographic and clinical data were sent to a central registry prospectively for analysis. The incidence of IBD in Wisconsin children was 7.05 per 100,000, whereas the incidence for Crohn's disease was 4.56, more than twice the rate of ulcerative colitis (2.14). An equal IBD incidence occurred among all ethnic groups, and children from sparsely and densely populated counties were equally affected. The majority (89%) of new IBD diagnoses were nonfamilial. This study provides novel, prospective, and comprehensive information on pediatric IBD incidence within the United States. The surprisingly high incidence of pediatric IBD, the predominance of Crohn's disease over ulcerative colitis, the low frequency of patients with a family history, the equal distribution of IBD among all racial and ethnic groups, and the lack of a modulatory effect of urbanization on IBD incidence collectively suggest that the clinical spectrum of IBD is still evolving and point to environmental factors contributing to the pathogenesis.

  5. Clinical value of CA 15-3 for detection of distant metastases in newly diagnosed breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Gonssaud, Barbara; Goussot, Vincent; Berriolo-Riedinger, Alina; Saïtta-Aribau, Emeline; Coutant, Charles; Cochet, Alexandre; Fumoleau, Pierre; Riedinger, Jean-Marc

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the clinical value of CA 15-3 for detection of distant metastases (DM) in newly diagnosed breast cancer. This retrospective study focuses on a population of 1,007 patients with locally advanced breast cancer (n=561) or metastatic breast cancer (n=446) diagnosed at the CGFL (Centre Georges Francois Leclerc) from March 1998 to October 2013. These patients underwent a measurement of CA 15-3 and an assessment of extension before any treatment. The cut-off value of CA 15-3 was determined and verified on two independents subpopulations determined in drawing lots. The ROC curve shows an AUC of 0.85 (p<0.0001). At the threshold of 50 kU/L, CA 15-3 before treatment has a predictive value on the existence of DM independently of the other prognostics factors. This predictive value has been found in every molecular subtype (AUC≥ 0.70; p≤ 0,085). The rate of false negative is of 38% and depends on the number and the type of the metastatic localization. Among the 28 patients without DM and a CA 15-3> 50 kU/L, 13 have developed DM and 11 died of cancer. In conclusion, these facts confirm the independently predictive value of CA 15-3 before treatment on the existence of DM and the complementarity of the marker with the assessment of extension by imagery.

  6. 'Knowledge is power': perceived needs and preferred services of male partners of women newly diagnosed with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Terry; Jackman, Maureen; McQuestion, Maurene; Fitch, Margaret

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this qualitative exploratory study was to assess the perceived needs and preferred services of male partners of women newly diagnosed with breast cancer. Twenty-seven male partners participated in semi-structured telephone interviews. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. An inductive analysis was used to identify the patterns, themes and categories from the data. A diagnosis of breast cancer and subsequent treatment significantly affect the male partners of women diagnosed with this illness, creating 'needs' that require coping responses. To help them support their wife and family, they relied on their internal resources and informal sources of support. Many participants suggested that the health care system provides information addressing their needs to facilitate their role of caring for their wife. The findings did not support the clinical assumption that men would be interested in a men's group focused on them and their needs. The diagnosis of breast cancer significantly affected the male partners, creating the need for support services including information on a variety of topics. An information binder tailored specifically to their needs was the preferred method of facilitating their husbandly role and coping. Findings did not support the clinical assumption that men would be interested in a men's group focused on them and their needs.

  7. Family history and frontal lobe seizures predict long-term remission in newly diagnosed cryptogenic focal epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Gasparini, Sara; Ferlazzo, Edoardo; Beghi, Ettore; Tripepi, Giovanni; Labate, Angelo; Mumoli, Laura; Leonardi, Cinzia G; Cianci, Vittoria; Latella, Maria Adele; Gambardella, Antonio; Aguglia, Umberto

    2013-11-01

    Cryptogenic focal epilepsy (CFE) is a heterogeneous clinical disorder including patients with severe refractory forms and patients with a fairly good prognosis. Predictors of prognosis in CFE are poorly understood. The aim of this retrospective study is to identify long-term (5-year) prognostic predictors in patients with newly diagnosed CFE. Subjects with cryptogenic focal epilepsy (CFE) seen from April 1987 to September 2011 in two twin Epilepsy Centres located in Reggio Calabria and Catanzaro, Calabria, Southern Italy, were screened. Patients were excluded if they had psychogenic seizures, major psychiatric disorders presence of brain lesions except for non-specific white matter T2-hyperintensities, short follow-up (less than five years) or for having received the diagnosis of CFE elsewhere. One hundred and eighty-six patients, firstly diagnosed in our Centres, constituted the study sample. Survival curves were generated according to the Kaplan-Meier method and compared with the log-rank test. The endpoint was the cumulative time-dependent chance of 5-year remission after treatment start. Independent predictors of remission were tested by multivariate analysis using Cox proportional hazards function models. The accuracy of the resulting model was tested with Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curve analysis. The cumulative incidence of remission was 23%. At Kaplan-Meier analysis, the only factor predicting remission was family history of epilepsy or febrile seizures (FS; p=0.02). At Cox regression, family history and frontal lobe epilepsy showed to be independent predictors of outcome (p=0.02 and 0.03, respectively). The accuracy of these predictors was good (area under ROC curve 0.648, 95% CI 0.575-0.716). Interestingly, we also found a considerable (7 years) diagnostic delay that did not result in a worse prognosis. About one quarter of subjects with newly diagnosed CFE attains 5-year seizure remission during follow-up. Family history of epilepsy or FS

  8. Global and Regional Brain Non-Gaussian Diffusion Changes in Newly Diagnosed Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    PubMed

    Tummala, Sudhakar; Palomares, Jose; Kang, Daniel W; Park, Bumhee; Woo, Mary A; Harper, Ronald M; Kumar, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients show brain structural injury and functional deficits in autonomic, affective, and cognitive regulatory sites, as revealed by mean diffusivity (MD) and other imaging procedures. The time course and nature of gray and white matter injury can be revealed in more detail with mean kurtosis (MK) procedures, which can differentiate acute from chronic injury, and better show extent of damage over MD procedures. Our objective was to examine global and regional MK changes in newly diagnosed OSA, relative to control subjects. Two diffusion kurtosis image series were collected from 22 recently-diagnosed, treatment-naïve OSA and 26 control subjects using a 3.0-Tesla MRI scanner. MK maps were generated, normalized to a common space, smoothed, and compared voxel-by-voxel between groups using analysis of covariance (covariates; age, sex). No age or sex differences appeared, but body mass index, sleep, neuropsychologic, and cognitive scores significantly differed between groups. MK values were significantly increased globally in OSA over controls, and in multiple localized sites, including the basal forebrain, extending to the hypothalamus, hippocampus, thalamus, insular cortices, basal ganglia, limbic regions, cerebellar areas, parietal cortices, ventral temporal lobe, ventrolateral medulla, and midline pons. Multiple sites, including the insular cortices, ventrolateral medulla, and midline pons showed more injury over previously identified damage with MD procedures, with damage often lateralized. Global mean kurtosis values are significantly increased in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), suggesting acute tissue injury, and these changes are principally localized in critical sites mediating deficient functions in the condition. The mechanisms for injury likely include altered perfusion and hypoxemia-induced processes, leading to acute tissue changes in recently diagnosed OSA. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  9. Prognosis of Ischemic Stroke With Newly Diagnosed Diabetes Mellitus According to Hemoglobin A1c Criteria in Chinese Population.

    PubMed

    Jing, Jing; Pan, Yuesong; Zhao, Xingquan; Zheng, Huaguang; Jia, Qian; Li, Hao; Guan, Ling; Liu, Liping; Wang, Chunxue; Meng, Xia; He, Yan; Wang, Yilong; Wang, Yongjun

    2016-08-01

    Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) was recommended to diagnose diabetes mellitus, but whether newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus (NDDM) according to the new criteria was associated with stroke prognosis was unclear. We aimed to investigate the prognosis of ischemic stroke with NDDM according to the new criteria. Ischemic stroke without a diabetes mellitus history in the survey on Abnormal Glucose Regulation in Patients With Acute Stroke Across China were included in the analysis. NDDM was defined as fasting plasma glucose ≥7.0 mmol/L, 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test ≥11.1 mmol/L, or HbA1c ≥6.5%, and NDDM was divided into group 1, diagnosed by glucose criteria (fasting plasma glucose ≥7.0 mmol/L or 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test ≥11.1 mmol/L with/without HbA1c ≥6.5%), or group 2, diagnosed by single high HbA1c (fasting plasma glucose <7.0 mmol/L, 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test <11.1 mmol/L, and HbA1c ≥6.5%). The association between NDDM and 1-year prognosis (mortality, stroke recurrence, and poor functional outcome [modified Rankin scale score 3-6]) was estimated. Among 1251 ischemic stroke patients, 539 were NDDM and 141 of NDDM with single high HbA1c. NDDM was an independent risk factor for 1-year mortality (hazard ratio, 1.12; 95% confidence interval, 1.001-1.26), stroke recurrence (hazard ratio, 1.14; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.28), and poor functional outcome (odds ratio, 2.58; 95% confidence interval, 1.95-3.43) compared with non-diabetes mellitus. Nevertheless, NDDM with single high HbA1c was not significantly associated with 1-year prognosis for all end points (P>0.05 for all). NDDM by new criteria was associated with poor prognosis at 1 year after ischemic stroke; however, NDDM with single high HbA1c did not predict a poor prognosis. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Newly Diagnosed: Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Video Games Video Sharing Sites Webcasts/ Webinars Widgets Wikis Follow Us on New Media Virtual Office Hours ... as you age because you may have other medical problems that require medication and treatment. You will ...

  11. Clinical variables and biomarkers in prediction of cognitive impairment in patients with newly diagnosed Parkinson's disease: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Schrag, Anette; Siddiqui, Uzma Faisal; Anastasiou, Zacharias; Weintraub, Daniel; Schott, Jonathan M

    2017-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is associated with an increased incidence of cognitive impairment and dementia. Predicting who is at risk of cognitive decline early in the disease course has implications for clinical prognosis and for stratification of participants in clinical trials. We assessed the use of clinical information and biomarkers as predictive factors for cognitive decline in patients with newly diagnosed Parkinson's disease. The Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative (PPMI) study is a cohort study in patients with newly diagnosed Parkinson's disease. We evaluated cognitive performance (Montreal Cognitive Assessment [MoCA] scores), demographic and clinical data, APOE status, and biomarkers (CSF and dopamine transporter [DAT] imaging results). Using change in MoCA scores over 2 years, MoCA scores at 2 years' follow-up, and a diagnosis of cognitive impairment (combined mild cognitive impairment or dementia) at 2 years as outcome measures, we assessed the predictive values of baseline clinical variables and separate or combined additions of APOE status, DAT imaging, and CSF biomarkers. We did univariate and multivariate linear analyses with MoCA change scores between baseline and 2 years, and with MoCA scores at 2 years as dependent variables, using backwards linear regression analysis. Additionally, we constructed a prediction model for diagnosis of cognitive impairment using logistic regression analysis. 390 patients with Parkinson's disease recruited between July 1, 2010, and May 31, 2013, and for whom data on MoCA scores at baseline and 2 years were available. In multivariate analyses, baseline age, University of Pennsylvania Smell Inventory Test (UPSIT) scores, CSF amyloid - (Aβ42) to t-tau ratio, and APOE status were associated with change in MoCA scores over time. Baseline age, MoCA and UPSIT scores, and CSF Aβ42 to t-tau ratio were associated with MoCA score at 2 years (using a backwards p-removal threshold of 0·1). Accuracy of prediction of cognitive

  12. High prevalence of HIV drug resistance among newly diagnosed infants aged <18 months: results from a nationwide surveillance in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Inzaule, Seth Chekata; Osi, Samuels Jay; Akinbiyi, Gbenga; Emeka, Asadu; Khamofu, Hadiza; Mpazanje, Rex; Ilesanmi, Oluwafunke; Ndembi, Nicaise; Odafe, Solomon; Sigaloff, Kim C E; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F; Akanmu, Sulaimon

    2017-09-25

    The world-health organization recommends protease-inhibitor-based first-line regimen in infants due to risk of drug resistance from failed prophylaxis used in prevention-of-mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT). However cost and logistics impede implementation in sub-Saharan Africa and >75% of children still receive non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based regimen (NNRTI) used in PMTCT. We assessed the national pre-treatment drug resistance prevalence of HIV-infected children <18 months in Nigeria, using the WHO recommended HIV drug resistance surveillance protocol. We used remnant-dried blood spots collected between June 2014 and July 2015 from15 early-infant diagnosis facilities spread across all the six geopolitical regions of Nigeria. Sampling was through a probability-proportional to size approach. HIV drug resistance was determined by population-based sequencing. Overall, in 48% of infants (205 of 430) drug resistance mutations (DRM) were detected, conferring resistance to predominantly NNRTIs (45%). NRTI and multi-class NRTI/NNRTI resistance were present at 22% and 20% respectively, while resistance to protease inhibitors was at 2%. Among 204 infants with exposure to drugs for PMTCT, 57% had DRMs, conferring NNRTI resistance in 54% and multi-class NRTI/NNRTI resistance in 29%. DRMs were also detected in 34% of 132 PMTCT unexposed infants. A high frequency of PDR, mainly NNRTI-associated, was observed in a nationwide surveillance among newly diagnosed HIV-infected children in Nigeria. PDR prevalence was equally high in PMTCT-unexposed infants. Our results support the use of protease inhibitor-based first-line regimens in HIV-infected young children regardless of PMTCT history and underscore the need to accelerate implementation of the newly disseminated guideline in Nigeria.

  13. Sample Size Requirements for Studies of Treatment Effects on Beta-Cell Function in Newly Diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Lachin, John M.; McGee, Paula L.; Greenbaum, Carla J.; Palmer, Jerry; Gottlieb, Peter; Skyler, Jay

    2011-01-01

    Preservation of -cell function as measured by stimulated C-peptide has recently been accepted as a therapeutic target for subjects with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes. In recently completed studies conducted by the Type 1 Diabetes Trial Network (TrialNet), repeated 2-hour Mixed Meal Tolerance Tests (MMTT) were obtained for up to 24 months from 156 subjects with up to 3 months duration of type 1 diabetes at the time of study enrollment. These data provide the information needed to more accurately determine the sample size needed for future studies of the effects of new agents on the 2-hour area under the curve (AUC) of the C-peptide values. The natural log(), log(+1) and square-root transformations of the AUC were assessed. In general, a transformation of the data is needed to better satisfy the normality assumptions for commonly used statistical tests. Statistical analysis of the raw and transformed data are provided to estimate the mean levels over time and the residual variation in untreated subjects that allow sample size calculations for future studies at either 12 or 24 months of follow-up and among children 8–12 years of age, adolescents (13–17 years) and adults (18+ years). The sample size needed to detect a given relative (percentage) difference with treatment versus control is greater at 24 months than at 12 months of follow-up, and differs among age categories. Owing to greater residual variation among those 13–17 years of age, a larger sample size is required for this age group. Methods are also described for assessment of sample size for mixtures of subjects among the age categories. Statistical expressions are presented for the presentation of analyses of log(+1) and transformed values in terms of the original units of measurement (pmol/ml). Analyses using different transformations are described for the TrialNet study of masked anti-CD20 (rituximab) versus masked placebo. These results provide the information needed to accurately evaluate the

  14. Sample size requirements for studies of treatment effects on beta-cell function in newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lachin, John M; McGee, Paula L; Greenbaum, Carla J; Palmer, Jerry; Pescovitz, Mark D; Gottlieb, Peter; Skyler, Jay

    2011-01-01

    Preservation of β-cell function as measured by stimulated C-peptide has recently been accepted as a therapeutic target for subjects with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes. In recently completed studies conducted by the Type 1 Diabetes Trial Network (TrialNet), repeated 2-hour Mixed Meal Tolerance Tests (MMTT) were obtained for up to 24 months from 156 subjects with up to 3 months duration of type 1 diabetes at the time of study enrollment. These data provide the information needed to more accurately determine the sample size needed for future studies of the effects of new agents on the 2-hour area under the curve (AUC) of the C-peptide values. The natural log(x), log(x+1) and square-root (√x) transformations of the AUC were assessed. In general, a transformation of the data is needed to better satisfy the normality assumptions for commonly used statistical tests. Statistical analysis of the raw and transformed data are provided to estimate the mean levels over time and the residual variation in untreated subjects that allow sample size calculations for future studies at either 12 or 24 months of follow-up and among children 8-12 years of age, adolescents (13-17 years) and adults (18+ years). The sample size needed to detect a given relative (percentage) difference with treatment versus control is greater at 24 months than at 12 months of follow-up, and differs among age categories. Owing to greater residual variation among those 13-17 years of age, a larger sample size is required for this age group. Methods are also described for assessment of sample size for mixtures of subjects among the age categories. Statistical expressions are presented for the presentation of analyses of log(x+1) and √x transformed values in terms of the original units of measurement (pmol/ml). Analyses using different transformations are described for the TrialNet study of masked anti-CD20 (rituximab) versus masked placebo. These results provide the information needed to accurately

  15. Effect of Poor Glycemic Control in Newly Diagnosed Patients with Smear-Positive Pulmonary Tuberculosis and Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Mahishale, Vinay; Avuthu, Sindhuri; Patil, Bhagyashri; Lolly, Mitchelle; Eti, Ajith; Khan, Sujeer

    2017-01-01

    Background: There is growing evidence that diabetes mellitus (DM) is an important risk factor for tuberculosis (TB). A significant number of DM patients have poor glycemic control. This study was carried out to find the impact of poor glycemic control on newly diagnosed smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus in a tertiary care hospital. Methods: In a hospital-based prospective study, newly diagnosed smear-positive pulmonary TB with DM patients were classified as poorly controlled diabetes (HBA1C≥7%) and optimal control diabetics (HbA1c<7%). Patients were started on anti-TB treatment and followed for 2 years for severity and treatment outcome. ANOVA was used for numerical variables in the univariable analysis. Logistic regression analysis was used for multivariable analysis of treatment outcome. The significance level was kept at a P≤0.05. Results: A total of 630 individuals who met the inclusion criteria were analyzed; of which 423 patients had poor glycemic control (PGC) and 207 patients had optimal glycemic control (OGC). The average HbA1c was 10±2.6 and 5±1.50 in the PGC and OGC groups, respectively. The mean symptom score was significantly higher in the PGC group compared with patients in the OGC group (4.55±0.80 vs. 2.70±0.82, P<0.001). PGC was associated with more extensive lung disease, lung cavitation, and positive sputum smear at the baseline. In PGC, sputum smears were significantly more likely to remain positive after 2 months of treatment. PGC patients had significantly higher rates of treatment failure (adj. OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.58-0.74, P<0.001) and relapse (adj. OR 2.83, 95% CI 2.60-2.92, P<0.001). Conclusion: Poor glycemic control is associated with an increased risk of advanced and more severe TB disease in the form of lung cavitations, positive sputum smear, and slower smear conversion. It has a profound negative effect on treatment completion, cure, and relapse rates in patients with pulmonary

  16. Factors Associated With Decisions to Undergo Surgery Among Patients With Newly Diagnosed Early-Stage Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cykert, Samuel; Dilworth-Anderson, Peggye; Monroe, Michael H.; Walker, Paul; McGuire, Franklin R.; Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Edwards, Lloyd J.; Bunton, Audrina Jones

    2014-01-01

    Context Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Surgical resection for stage I or II non–small cell cancer remains the only reliable treatment for cure. Patients who do not undergo surgery have a median survival of less than 1 year. Despite the survival disadvantage, many patients with early-stage disease do not receive surgical care and rates are even lower for black patients. Objectives To identify potentially modifiable factors regarding surgery in patients newly diagnosed with early-stage lung cancer and to explore why blacks undergo surgery less often than whites. Design, Setting, and Patients Prospective cohort study with patients identified by pulmonary, oncology, thoracic surgery, and generalist practices in 5 communities through study referral or computerized tomography review protocol. A total of 437 patients with biopsy-proven or probable early-stage lung cancer were enrolled between December 2005 and December 2008. Before establishment of treatment plans, patients were administered a survey including questions about trust, patient-physician communication, attitudes toward cancer, and functional status. Information about comorbid illnesses was obtained through chart audits. Main Outcome Measure Lung cancer surgery within 4 months of diagnosis. Results A total of 386 patients met full eligibility criteria for lung resection surgery. The median age was 66 years (range, 26–90 years) and 29% of patients were black. The surgical rate was 66% for white patients (n=179/273) compared with 55% for black patients (n=62/113; P=.05). Negative perceptions of patient-physician communication manifested by a 5-point decrement on a 25-point communication scale (odds ratio [OR], 0.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.32–0.74) and negative perception of 1-year prognosis postsurgery (OR, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.14–0.50; absolute risk, 34%) were associated with decisions against surgery. Surgical rates for blacks were particularly low when they

  17. Safety of bosutinib versus imatinib in the phase 3 BELA trial in newly diagnosed chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Gambacorti-Passerini, Carlo; Cortes, Jorge E; Lipton, Jeff H; Dmoszynska, Anna; Wong, Raymond S; Rossiev, Victor; Pavlov, Dmitri; Gogat Marchant, Karin; Duvillié, Ladan; Khattry, Navin; Kantarjian, Hagop M; Brümmendorf, Tim H

    2014-01-01

    Bosutinib, an orally active, Src/Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has demonstrated clinical activity and acceptable tolerability in chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia (CP CML). This updated analysis of the BELA trial assessed the safety profile and management of toxicities of bosutinib versus imatinib in adults with newly diagnosed (≤6 months) CP CML after >30 months from accrual completion. Among patients randomized to bosutinib 500 mg/d (n = 250) or imatinib 400 mg/d (n = 252), 248 and 251, respectively, received ≥1 dose of study treatment. Adverse events (AEs; any grade) with bosutinib versus imatinib were significantly more common for certain gastrointestinal events (diarrhea, 70% vs. 26%; P < 0.001; vomiting, 33% vs. 16%; P < 0.001), alanine aminotransferase (33% vs. 9%; P < 0.001) and aspartate aminotransferase (28% vs. 10%; P < 0.001) elevations, and pyrexia (19% vs. 12%; P = 0.046). AEs significantly less common with bosutinib included edema (periorbital, 2% vs. 14%; P < 0.001; peripheral, 5% vs. 12%; P = 0.006), musculoskeletal (myalgia, 5% vs. 12%; P = 0.010; muscle cramps, 5% vs. 22%; P < 0.001; bone pain, 4% vs. 11%; P = 0.003), increased creatine phosphokinase (8% vs. 20%; P < 0.001), neutropenia (13% vs. 30%; P < 0.001), and leukopenia (9% vs. 22%; P < 0.001). Between-group differences in the incidence of cardiac and vascular AEs were not significant. Diarrhea was typically transient, mostly Grade 1/2, occurring early during treatment, and was manageable with antidiarrheal medication. Despite higher rates of aminotransferase elevation with bosutinib, events were managed in most patients with dose modification and/or concomitant medication. Bosutinib had a manageable safety profile distinct from that of imatinib in patients with newly diagnosed CP CML. Am. J. Hematol. 89:947–953, 2014. © 2014 The Authors. American Journal of Hematology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID

  18. Phase I Trial of Hypofractionated Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy With Temozolomide Chemotherapy for Patients With Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma Multiforme

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Changhu; Damek, Denise; Gaspar, Laurie E.; Waziri, Allen; Lillehei, Kevin; Kleinschmidt-DeMasters, B.K.; Robischon, Monica; Stuhr, Kelly; Rusthoven, Kyle E.; Kavanagh, Brian D.

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To determine the maximal tolerated biologic dose intensification of radiotherapy using fractional dose escalation with temozolomide (TMZ) chemotherapy in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme. Methods and Materials: Patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme after biopsy or resection and with adequate performance status, bone marrow, and organ function were eligible. The patients underwent postoperative intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with concurrent and adjuvant TMZ. All patients received a total dose of 60 Gy to the surgical cavity and residual tumor, with a 5-mm margin. IMRT biologic dose intensification was achieved by escalating from 3 Gy/fraction (Level 1) to 6 Gy/fraction (Level 4) in 1-Gy increments. Concurrent TMZ was given at 75 mg/m{sup 2}/d for 28 consecutive days. Adjuvant TMZ was given at 150-200 mg/m{sup 2}/d for 5 days every 28 days. Dose-limiting toxicity was defined as any Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3, Grade 3-4 nonhematologic toxicity, excluding Grade 3 fatigue, nausea, and vomiting. A standard 3+3 Phase I design was used. Results: A total of 16 patients were accrued (12 men and 4 women, median age, 69 years; range, 34-84. The median Karnofsky performance status was 80 (range, 60-90). Of the 16 patients, 3 each were treated at Levels 1 and 2, 4 at Level 3, and 6 at Level 4. All patients received IMRT and concurrent TMZ according to the protocol, except for 1 patient, who received 14 days of concurrent TMZ. The median number of adjuvant TMZ cycles was 7.5 (range, 0-12). The median survival was 16.2 months (range, 3-33). One patient experienced vision loss in the left eye 7 months after IMRT. Four patients underwent repeat surgery for suspected tumor recurrence 6-12 months after IMRT; 3 had radionecrosis. Conclusions: The maximal tolerated IMRT fraction size was not reached in our study. Our results have shown that 60 Gy IMRT delivered in 6-Gy fractions within 2 weeks with

  19. The AGE-RAGE Axis and Its Relationship to Markers of Cardiovascular Disease in Newly Diagnosed Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Villegas-Rodríguez, Ma. Etzabel; Uribarri, Jaime; Solorio-Meza, Sergio E.; Fajardo-Araujo, Martha E.; Cai, Weijing; Torres-Graciano, Sofía; Rangel-Salazar, Rubén; Wrobel, Kazimierz; Garay-Sevilla, Ma. Eugenia

    2016-01-01

    Aim The purpose of the study was the simultaneous measurement of all the different components of the AGE-RAGE axis as well as several non-invasive markers of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a cohort of newly diagnosed diabetic patients. Materials and Methods In 80 newly diagnosed diabetic patients we measured serum carboxymethyllysine (CML), soluble RAGE (sRAGE) and peripheral mononuclear (PMNC) RAGE and AGER1 mRNA together with ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and malondialdehyde (MDA). We also assessed cardiovascular function by measurement of flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD), intima-media thickness (IMT) and arterial stiffness. Univariant correlation analysis was used to determine correlation between the variables in the study and multiple regression analysis was used to examine the association between the AGE-RAGE axis components and FMD, IMT and arterial stiffness. Results Serum CML correlated positively with sRAGE, PMNC RAGE, HOMA-IR, ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and MDA, but inversely with PMNC AGER1. sRAGE and RAGE was positively correlated with AGER; IMT was positively correlated with HOMA-IR, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, MDA, and sRAGE and arterial stiffness had correlation with HOMA-IR, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, MDA, CML, sRAGE, AGER1 and RAGE. In multivariate analysis we found a significant relationship between CML with PMNC RAGE, HOMA-IR; sRAGE with VCAM-1 and MDA; PMNC RAGE with PMNC AGER1and CML; PMNC AGER1 with PMNC RAGE; FMD with sRAGE, CML and HbA1c; IMT with sRAGE, and arterial stiffness with sRAGE, sCML and AGER1 Conclusions We found significant and strong associations between the different components of the AGE-RAGE axis and also found significant association between AGE-RAGE axis markers, especially sRAGE with several noninvasive markers of cardiovascular disease risk. sRAGE, an easily measured parameter in blood, may potentially be used as a surrogate marker of AGEs-RAGE in patients with diabetes. PMID:27434539

  20. Utility of the Wearable Cardioverter-Defibrillator in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Cardiomyopathy: A Decade-Long Single-Center Experience.

    PubMed

    Singh, Madhurmeet; Wang, Norman C; Jain, Sandeep; Voigt, Andrew H; Saba, Samir; Adelstein, Evan C

    2015-12-15

    The wearable cardioverter-defibrillator (WCD) has emerged as a means of protecting patients with newly diagnosed nonischemic cardiomyopathy (NICM) or ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) against sudden cardiac death while awaiting re-evaluation of cardiac function. This study sought to characterize the risk of appropriate WCD therapy in newly diagnosed NICM and ICM patients according to cardiomyopathy etiology in an independent study. Medical records of all patients prescribed a WCD between June 2004 and May 2015 at our institution (n = 639) were analyzed, focusing on 254 patients with newly diagnosed NICM and 271 patients with newly diagnosed ICM. Patients with a prior implantable cardioverter-defibrillator or sustained ventricular arrhythmias were excluded (n = 114). The primary endpoint was appropriate WCD therapy. Median WCD wear time was 61 days (interquartile range [IQR]: 25 to 102 days) per patient and 22 h/day (IQR: 17 to 23 h/day). During 56.7 patient-years, 0 NICM patients received an appropriate WCD shock, whereas 3 (1.2%) received an inappropriate shock. During 46.7 patient-years, 6 (2.2%) ICM patients received an appropriate shock; 5 survived the episode, and 4 survived to hospital discharge. All 6 patients with an appropriate shock were male with QRS duration >120 ms. Two (0.7%) ICM patients received an inappropriate shock. In this independent, retrospective study, the risk of appropriate WCD therapies in patients with newly diagnosed NICM was minimal. Routine use of the WCD in this population should be prospectively evaluated. The risk of appropriate therapies in newly diagnosed ICM was comparable to that observed in prior observational studies. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [The efficacy of non-pharmacological intervention in obese patients with newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus type II].

    PubMed

    Gilis-Januszewska, A; Szurkowska, M; Szybiński, K; Głab, G; Szybiński, Z; Spodaryk, K; Urbanik, A

    2001-09-01

    In Poland like in other countries we observe an increasing number of diabetes mellitus cases with about half of the patients in whom the disease remains undiagnosed. Therefore it seems necessary to improve early diagnoses and prevention of the disease. The aim of the study was to assess the efficiency of a 3-month non-pharmacological intervention based on diet and increased physical activity in patients with newly diagnosed diabetes type 2 (diagnosis based on oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), WHO 1999). We investigated 37 newly diagnosed diabetic type 2 patients, 16 men (aged 52.4 +/- 5.4) and 21 women (aged 51.0 +/- 5.7). Anthropometric and biochemical measurements were performed before and after intervention. Two-kilometres Walking Test with an intermediate estimation of VO2max and fitness index (FI) was performed before and after intervention. Total abdominal fat volume (measured from diaphragm to pubis): visceral fat volume (VFV) and subcutaneous fat volume (SFV) (mm3) were assessed according to the standard protocol of NMR abdominal examination. Patients completed 12 weeks of supervised intervention focused on weight reduction, increase of physical activity, changes of nutritional habits. Students t-test, Mann-Whitney test and Spearman's correlation were used for statistical analysis. In women the average weight reduction was 4.7 kg (5.8% of initial body weight), whereas in men 5.9 kg (5.9% of initial body weight). In women VO2 max increased from 23.7 +/- 6.4 to 24.9 +/- 4.8 (ns), and fitness index increased from 78.7 +/- 11.7 to 83 +/- 14.7 (ns). In men VO2 max increased from 22.5 +/- 6.7 to 26.6 +/- 8.6 (ns) and fitness index increased from 55.1 +/- 12.5 to 64.8 +/- 13.7 (p < 0.05). In women the level of fasting glycaemia decreased from 6.47 +/- 1.2 to 4.84 mmol/l +/- 0.6 (p < 0.01) and the level of glycaemia at 120 minutes of OGTT decreased from 13.2 +/- 2.5 to 6.76 +/- 2.7 mmol/l (p < 0.01). The decrease of plasma glucose was accompanied by the decrease

  2. Diagnose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schauer, Wolfgang

    Die Zunahme der Elektronik im Kraftfahrzeug, die Nutzung von Software zur Steuerung des Fahrzeugs und die erhöhte Komplexität moderner Einspritzsysteme stellen hohe Anforderungen an das Diagnosekonzept, die Überwachung im Fahrbetrieb (On-Board-Diagnose) und die Werkstattdiagnose (Bild 1). Basis der Werkstattdiagnose ist die geführte Fehlersuche, die verschiedene Möglichkeiten von Onboard- und Offboard-Prüfmethoden und Prüfgeräten verknüpft. Im Zuge der Verschärfung der Abgasgesetzgebung und der Forderung nach laufender Überwachung hat auch der Gesetzgeber die On-Board-Diagnose als Hilfsmittel zur Abgasüberwachung erkannt und eine herstellerunabhängige Standardisierung geschaffen. Dieses zusätzlich installierte System wird OBD-System (On Board Diagnostic System) genannt.

  3. Newly diagnosed congenital factor VII deficiency and utilization of recombinant activated factor VII (NovoSeven®)

    PubMed Central

    Bartosh, Nicole S; Tomlin, Tara; Cable, Christian; Halka, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    This case report presents a newly diagnosed congenital factor VII deficiency treated with recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa). Congenital factor VII deficiency is a rare autosomal-recessive bleeding disorder that occurs in fewer than 1/500,000 persons. Its presentation can vary from epistaxis to hemarthroses and severe central nervous system bleeding, and correlates poorly with factor VII levels. Our patient had not had a significant hemostatic challenge prior to his presentation and therefore never had any symptomatology suggestive of this disease. He was treated with rFVIIa, and was able to undergo repair of his fractures without bleeding. Case report A 19-year-old African-American male presented to the emergency room after an altercation that resulted in significant trauma. He sustained bilateral mandibular angle fractures and orbital floor fractures, requiring urgent surgical correction. On initial evaluation, he was noted to have a prolonged prothrombin time of 40.1 seconds, with an International Normalized Ratio of 4.0, a normal activated partial thromboplastin time of 29.9 seconds, and a platelet count of 241. After receiving vitamin K and fresh frozen plasma, he was taken to the operating room for a temporary rigid maxillomandibular fixation. A 1:1 mixing study with normal plasma corrected the prothrombin time (decreasing from 40.7 to 14.7 seconds) and a factor VII assay revealed 5% of the normal factor VII level. The patient was diagnosed with congenital factor VII deficiency. Due to his coagulopathy and the extensive surgical correction needed, rFVIIa was administered and surgery was accomplished without hemorrhagic sequelae. Conclusion This case report and review describes a rare congenital disease, the history of rFVIIa use, and its mechanism. rFVIIA use in our patient provided a treatment option that allowed the necessary surgical correction, but further prospective studies on dose optimization would ensure adequate dosing with minimal risk of

  4. PERSONALITY TRAITS, ANGER AND PSYCHIATRIC SYMPTOMS RELATED TO QUALITY OF LIFE IN PATIENTS WITH NEWLY DIAGNOSED DIGESTIVE SYSTEM CANCER.

    PubMed

    Honorato, Noemi Peres; Abumusse, Luciene Vaccaro de Morais; Coqueiro, Daniel Pereira; Citero, Vanessa de Albuquerque

    2017-01-01

    The presence of psychiatric symptoms, anger, and personality characteristics are factors that affect the quality of life of newly diagnosed digestive system cancer patients. This study aims to identify which stable characteristics of the individual's personality interfere with quality of life, even when reactive emotional characteristics of falling ill are controlled. A cross-sectional study was performed at the Oncology Clinic ( Hospital das Clínicas ), Marília/SP, Brazil, in which 50 adult patients with digestive system cancer and diagnosed less than 6 months answered the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory, Temperament and Character Inventory, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and WHOQOL-BREF. Multiple regression was performed to verify if quality of life was related to stable characteristics of the subject's personality (anger trait, temperament and character) after controlling to the transient emotional aspects (anger state, psychiatric symptoms). The quality of life psychological health score was higher in presence of self-directedness character and reward dependence temperament and quality of life environment score was higher in presence of self-directedness character and lower in presence of harm avoidance temperament. The psychological well-being and the adaptive needs to the environment that favoring a better quality of life were reinforced mainly by the self-directedness character; which means that patients more autonomous cope better with the disease. On the other hand, the harm avoidance temperament (meaning the patient has fear of aversive situations) impaired the adaptive capacity to deal with the changes of the day-to-day imposed by the disease. Understanding these personality traits is important to the health professionals drive the patient to more successful treatment.

  5. Prevalence and clinical features of newly diagnosed generalized anxiety disorder patients in Spanish primary care settings: the GADAP study.

    PubMed

    García-Campayo, Javier; Caballero, Fernando; Perez, María; López, Vanessa

    2012-01-01

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is the most impairing anxiety disorder, a high percentage of patients remain undiagnosed at the primary care level. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical features of newly diagnosed GAD patients. Multicentre, cross-sectional observational study conducted in primary care settings. GAD patients were diagnosed according to the MINI psychiatric interview, and were included in the study if their score for GAD-7 was ≥10. Anxiety and depression levels, and sleep disturbances were determined by HADS and MOS-sleep scales, respectively. Data regarding pharmacological treatment and healthcare resources in the previous 3 months were collected. 2,232 patients were recruited; average GAD-7 score was 14.1 ± 2.7 (mean symptom duration 32.3 ± 43.3 months). 96.9% of patients had a comorbid medical illness, with 83.9% patients suffering from pain. Psychiatric comorbidities were present in 66.4% of patients (social anxiety 37%, major depression 19.1%). HADS-depression scores rendered 28.4% and 55.9% of patients as probable and depressive cases, respectively. Patients' sleep rated 6.2 ± 1.9 on average in a 1 to 10 visual analogue scale. Only 34.9% of patients were following non-pharmacological treatment and 86.5%, 69.4% and 49.7% were treated with benzodiazepines, antidepressants and antiepileptics, respectively. The mean number of visits to the primary care physician in the previous 3 months was 5 times. Cross-sectional design; does not allow to infer causality.

  6. A concurrent ultra-fractionated radiation therapy and temozolomide treatment: A promising therapy for newly diagnosed, inoperable glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Beauchesne, P; Quillien, V; Faure, G; Bernier, V; Noel, G; Quetin, P; Gorlia, T; Carnin, C; Pedeux, R

    2016-03-15

    We report on a phase II clinical trial to determine the effect of a concurrent ultra-fractionated radiotherapy and temozolomide treatment in inoperable glioblastoma patients. A phase II study opened; patients over 18 years of age who were able to give informed consent and had histologically proven, newly diagnosed inoperable diagnosed and supratentorial glioblastoma were eligible. Three doses of 0.75 Gy spaced apart by at least 4 hr were delivered daily, 5 days a week for six consecutive weeks for a total of 67.5 Gy. Chemotherapy was administered during the same period, which consisted of temozolomide given at a dose of 75 mg/m(2) for 7 days a week. After a 4-week break, chemotherapy was resumed for up to six cycles of adjuvant temozolomide treatment, given every 28 days, according to the standard 5-day regimen. Tolerance and toxicity were the primary endpoints; survival and progression-free survival were the secondary endpoints. In total, 40 patients were enrolled in this study, 29 men and 11 women. The median age was 58 years, and the median Karnofsky performance status was 80. The concomitant ultra-fractionated radiotherapy and temozolomide treatment was well tolerated. Complete responses were seen in four patients, and partial responses were reported in seven patients. The median survival from the initial diagnosis was 16 months. Several long-term survivors were noted. Concurrent ultra-fractionated radiation therapy and temozolomide treatment are well accepted by the patients. The results showed encouraging survival rates for these unfavorable patients.

  7. Histological classification and stage of newly diagnosed bladder cancer in a population-based study from the Northeastern United States*

    PubMed Central

    SCHNED, ALAN R.; ANDREW, ANGELINE S.; MARSIT, CARMEN J.; KELSEY, KARL T.; ZENS, MICHAEL S.; KARAGAS, MARGARET R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective There are limited data on the distribution of bladder cancers in the general population, classified by World Health Organization (WHO)/International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) criteria. This study evaluated the classification and stage of bladder cancers as part of a population-based epidemiological study of bladder cancer in the Northeastern United States. Material and methods All New Hampshire residents with bladder cancer newly diagnosed from 1998 to 2000 were identified through the state cancer registry. All slides were reviewed by a single pathologist. Tumors were classified by two sets of standard criteria. Results The retrieval rate for cases was over 90%. Of 342 cases reviewed, 15 were excluded for technical reasons or because malignancy was not definitively diagnosed. According to WHO/ISUP criteria, 25.7% of tumors were papillary urothelial neoplasms of low malignant potential (PUNLMP), 34.3% low-grade papillary carcinomas, 22.6% high-grade papillary carcinomas, 10.1% non-papillary urothelial carcinomas and 5.5% carcinoma in situ. By WHO (1973) criteria, 52.5% of tumors were grade 1, 21.4% grade 2 and 26.1% grade 3. Two-thirds of all tumors were stage Ta, 20.8% stage T1 and 7.6% stage ≥T2. 100% of PUNLMPs were non-invasive, 6.3% of low-grade carcinomas were invasive and 64.9% of high-grade carcinomas were invasive. Conclusions Compared to clinic or hospital referral-based series, this study documents a higher percentage of non-invasive tumors and a lower percentage of muscle-invasive tumors. There was also a higher percentage of PUNLMP tumors and fewer high-grade papillary carcinomas than in other series. These results may more accurately reflect prevalence data for bladder cancer grade and stage, although geographic variability may exist. PMID:18432530

  8. Low Prevalence of Transmitted Drug Resistance in Patients Newly Diagnosed with HIV-1 Infection in Sweden 2003–2010

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, Annika; Björkman, Per; Bratt, Göran; Ekvall, Håkan; Gisslén, Magnus; Sönnerborg, Anders; Mild, Mattias; Albert, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Transmitted drug resistance (TDR) is a clinical and epidemiological problem because it may contribute to failure of antiretroviral treatment. The prevalence of TDR varies geographically, and its prevalence in Sweden during the last decade has not been reported. Plasma samples from 1,463 patients newly diagnosed with HIV-1 infection between 2003 and 2010, representing 44% of all patients diagnosed in Sweden during this period, were analyzed using the WHO 2009 list of mutations for surveillance of TDR. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses were used to determine genetic subtype and to investigate the relatedness of the sequences. Eighty-two patients showed evidence of TDR, representing a prevalence of 5.6% (95% CI: 4.5%–6.9%) without any significant time trends or differences between patients infected in Sweden or abroad. Multivariable logistic regression showed that TDR was positively associated with men who have sex with men (MSM) and subtype B infection and negatively associated with CD4 cell counts. Among patients with TDR, 54 (68%) had single resistance mutations, whereas five patients had multi-drug resistant HIV-1. Phylogenetic analyses identified nine significantly supported clusters involving 29 of the patients with TDR, including 23 of 42 (55%) of the patients with TDR acquired in Sweden. One cluster contained 18 viruses with a M41L resistance mutation, which had spread among MSM in Stockholm over a period of at least 16 years (1994–2010). Another cluster, which contained the five multidrug resistant viruses, also involved MSM from Stockholm. The prevalence of TDR in Sweden 2003–2010 was lower than in many other European countries. TDR was concentrated among MSM, where clustering of TDR strains was observed, which highlights the need for continued and improved measures for targeted interventions. PMID:22448246

  9. Extended family history of autoimmune diseases and phenotype and genotype of children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Parkkola, Anna; Härkönen, Taina; Ryhänen, Samppa J; Ilonen, Jorma; Knip, Mikael

    2013-08-01

    Based on the concept of clustering autoimmunity, children with a positive family history of autoimmunity could be expected to have a different pathogenetic form of type 1 diabetes (T1D) and thus a stronger autoimmune reactivity against β-cells and an increased prevalence of the HLA-DR3-DQ2 haplotype. We tested this hypothesis in a cross-sectional observational study from the Finnish Pediatric Diabetes Register. HLA class II genotypes and β-cell autoantibodies were analyzed, and data on the extended family history of autoimmunity and clinical markers at diagnosis were collected with a structured questionnaire from 1488 children diagnosed with T1D under the age of 15 years (57% males). Only 23 children (1.5%) had another autoimmune disease (AID) known at diagnosis, and they had a milder metabolic decompensation at diabetes presentation. One-third (31.4%) had at least one relative with an AID other than T1D with affected mothers being overrepresented (8.2%) compared with fathers (2.8%). The children with a positive family history of other AIDs had higher levels of islet cell antibodies (P=0.003), and the HLA-DR3-DQ2 haplotype in the children was associated with celiac disease in the extended family (P<0.001), but not with an increased frequency of autoimmune disorders, in general. Approximately one-third of children with newly diagnosed T1D have a first- and/or second-degree relative affected by an AID. Our data do not consistently support the hypothesis of differential pathogenetic mechanisms in such children.

  10. Improved outcomes for newly diagnosed AL amyloidosis between 2000 and 2014: cracking the glass ceiling of early death.

    PubMed

    Muchtar, Eli; Gertz, Morie A; Kumar, Shaji K; Lacy, Martha Q; Dingli, David; Buadi, Francis K; Grogan, Martha; Hayman, Suzanne R; Kapoor, Prashant; Leung, Nelson; Fonder, Amie; Hobbs, Miriam; Hwa, Yi Lisa; Gonsalves, Wilson; Warsame, Rahma; Kourelis, Taxiarchis V; Russell, Stephen; Lust, John A; Lin, Yi; Go, Ronald S; Zeldenrust, Steven; Kyle, Robert A; Rajkumar, S Vincent; Dispenzieri, Angela

    2017-04-13

    In light of major advances in immunoglobulin light chain (AL) amyloidosis, we evaluated the trends in presentation, management, and outcome among 1551 newly diagnosed AL amyloidosis patients seen in our institution from 2000 to 2014. As compared with the 2 intervals 2000-2004 and 2005-2009, patients diagnosed in 2010-2014 were less likely to have >2 involved organs. Utilization of autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) was similar across all periods, about one-third of patients, but there was an increase in the use of pre-ASCT bortezomib induction and of unattenuated melphalan conditioning in 2010-2014 compared with earlier periods. Non-ASCT first-line regimen changed with 65% of patients in 2010-2014 received bortezomib-based therapy, 79% of patients in 2005-2009 received melphalan-dexamethasone, and 64% of patients in 2000-2004 received melphalan-prednisone. The rate of better than very good partial response (VGPR) was higher in more recent periods (66% vs 58% vs 51%; P = .001), a change largely driven by improved VGPR rates in the non-ASCT population. Overall survival (OS) has improved, with inflection points for improvement differing for the ASCT and non-ASCT groups. In the ASCT population, the greatest gains were after 2010 (4-year OS, 91% compared with 73% and 65%). In the non-ASCT group, greatest gains were after 2005 (4-year OS, 38%, 32%, and 16%). Fewer patients died within 6 months of diagnosis in the 2 later periods (24% vs 25% vs 37%; P < .001). Overall, outcomes among patients with AL amyloidosis have improved with earlier diagnosis, higher rates of VGPR, lower early mortality, and improved OS. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  11. Timing of entry to care by newly diagnosed HIV cases before and after the 2010 New York State HIV testing law.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Daniel E; Bian, Fuqin; Anderson, Bridget J; Smith, Lou C

    2015-01-01

    Prompt entry to care after HIV diagnosis benefits the infected individual and reduces the likelihood of further transmission of the virus. The New York State HIV Testing Law of 2010 requires diagnosing providers to refer persons newly diagnosed with HIV to follow-up medical care. This study used routinely collected HIV-related laboratory data from the New York State HIV surveillance system to assess whether the fraction of newly diagnosed cases entering care within 90 days of diagnosis increased after the implementation of the law. Laboratory data on 23,302 newly diagnosed cases showed that entry to care within 90 days rose steadily from 72.0% in 2007 to 85.4% in 2012. The rise was observed across all race/ethnic groups, ages, transmission risk groups, sexes, and regions of residence. Logistic regression analyses of entry to care pre-law and post-law, controlling for demographic characteristics, transmission risk, and geographic area, indicate that percentage of newly diagnosed cases entering care within 90 days grew more rapidly in the post-law period. This is consistent with a positive effect of the law on entry to care.

  12. Monokine induced by interferon gamma (MIG/CXCL9) is an independent prognostic factor in newly diagnosed myeloma.

    PubMed

    Bolomsky, Arnold; Schreder, Martin; Hübl, Wolfgang; Zojer, Niklas; Hilbe, Wolfgang; Ludwig, Heinz

    2016-11-01

    Immune suppression is a hallmark of multiple myeloma (MM), but data on soluble factors involved in the fate of immune effector cells are limited. The CXCR3-binding chemokine monokine induced by interferon-gamma (MIG/CXCL9) has been associated with tumor progression, immune escape, and angiogenesis in several malignancies. We here aimed to evaluate the prognostic relevance of MIG in MM. MIG serum levels were significantly elevated in newly diagnosed MM patients (n = 105) compared to patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS; n = 17) and healthy controls (n = 37). MIG expression in stromal compartments but not purified MM cells correlated with serum levels. High MIG serum levels were significantly associated with established prognostic markers (international staging system: R = 0.25, p = 0.001; age: R = 0.47, p < 0.0001; lactate-dehydrogenase: R = 0.34, p = 0.0005) and poor overall survival (OS) (median OS 17.0 months vs. not reached, p < 0.001). A similar association was found for CXCL10 and CXCL11. Multivariate regression analysis indicated MIG as an independent prognostic factor of OS.

  13. Triplet vs doublet lenalidomide-containing regimens for the treatment of elderly patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Magarotto, Valeria; Bringhen, Sara; Offidani, Massimo; Benevolo, Giulia; Patriarca, Francesca; Mina, Roberto; Falcone, Antonietta Pia; De Paoli, Lorenzo; Pietrantuono, Giuseppe; Gentili, Silvia; Musolino, Caterina; Giuliani, Nicola; Bernardini, Annalisa; Conticello, Concetta; Pulini, Stefano; Ciccone, Giovannino; Maisnar, Vladimír; Ruggeri, Marina; Zambello, Renato; Guglielmelli, Tommasina; Ledda, Antonio; Liberati, Anna Marina; Montefusco, Vittorio; Hajek, Roman; Boccadoro, Mario; Palumbo, Antonio

    2016-03-03

    Lenalidomide-dexamethasone improved outcome in newly diagnosed elderly multiple myeloma patients. We randomly assigned 662 patients who were age ≥65 years or transplantation-ineligible to receive induction with melphalan-prednisone-lenalidomide (MPR) or cyclophosphamide-prednisone-lenalidomide (CPR) or lenalidomide plus low-dose dexamethasone (Rd). The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS) in triplet (MPR and CPR) vs doublet (Rd) lenalidomide-containing regimens. After a median follow-up of 39 months, the median PFS was 22 months for the triplet combinations and 21 months for the doublet (P = .284). The median overall survival (OS) was not reached in either arms, and the 4-year OS was 67% for the triplet and 58% for the doublet arms (P = .709). By considering the 3 treatment arms separately, no difference in outcome was detected among MPR, CPR, and Rd. The most common grade ≥3 toxicity was neutropenia: 64% in MPR, 29% in CPR, and 25% in Rd patients (P < .0001). Grade ≥3 nonhematologic toxicities were similar among arms and were mainly infections (6.5% to 11%), constitutional (3.5% to 9.5%), and cardiac (4.5% to 6%), with no difference among the arms. In conclusion, in the overall population, the alkylator-containing triplets MPR and CPR were not superior to the alkylator-free doublet Rd, which was associated with lower toxicity. This study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01093196.

  14. Serum Chemerin Levels are Associated with Visceral Adiposity, Independent of Waist Circumference, in Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetic Subjects.

    PubMed

    Cheon, Dae Young; Kang, Jun Goo; Lee, Seong Jin; Ihm, Sung Hee; Lee, Eun Jig; Choi, Moon Gi; Yoo, Hyung Joon; Kim, Chul Sik

    2017-03-01

    Chemerin has been suggested to be linked to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, the relationship between visceral adiposity and chemerin levels remains unclear in subjects with T2DM. In this study, we investigated the relationship between serum chemerin levels and visceral adiposity. This study included 102 subjects newly diagnosed with T2DM. The relationships between serum chemerin levels and clinical and biochemical parameters were examined. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to determine the predictable factors of serum chemerin levels. Serum chemerin levels showed significant positive correlations with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), visceral fat thickness (VFT), insulin levels, the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and levels of triglycerides (log-transformed) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, while showing significant negative correlations with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. After adjusting for BMI and WC, VFT showed a significant relationship with serum chemerin levels (r=0.222, p=0.027). Moreover, VFT was an independent predictive factor of serum chemerin levels (β=0.242, p=0.041). We demonstrated that chemerin is linked to metabolic syndrome components. Moreover, serum chemerin levels were associated significantly with obesity, especially visceral adipose tissue, in subjects with T2DM.

  15. Body mass index (BMI): association with clinicopathological factors and outcome of women with newly diagnosed breast cancer in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Bridget; Currie, Margaret; Phillips, Elisabeth; Dachs, Gabi; Strother, Matthew; Morrin, Helen; Davey, Val; Frampton, Chris

    2017-03-03

    To identify associations of obesity with breast cancer and its outcome in a New Zealand population, including those treated with adjuvant chemotherapy. Data was collated from four regional Breast Cancer Registers, Auckland, Waikato, Wellington and Christchurch, for all women with newly diagnosed breast cancer, with weight and height recorded. Associations of body mass index (BMI) with patient and tumour characteristics, and all-cause mortality were determined. BMI was available for 5,458 new breast cancers, 27% of all registered. BMI was normal (18.5-24.9kg/m2) for 32.7%, overweight (25-29.9kg/m2) 31.1%, obese (>30kg/m2) 34.9% and 1.3% underweight (<18.5kg/m2). Median age was 55 years. Higher BMI was associated with non-European ethnicity, post-menopausal status, screen-detection, older age and tumours with higher grade, greater size and positive progesterone receptors. Mean survival for women younger than 56 years was 18.0 years for normal BMI and 14.8 years for BMI >35 (p=0.055, Log-rank). Women younger than 56 years treated with adjuvant chemotherapy had lower survival if obese compared with normal BMI (p=0.055, Log-rank). High BMI was associated with larger tumours, of higher grade, progesterone receptor positive and post-menopausal status. Obese pre-menopausal women treated with adjuvant chemotherapy had a trend to poorer outcome.

  16. Simultaneous acute shoulder arthritis and multiple mononeuropathy in a newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes patient - First case report.

    PubMed

    Kotlęga, Dariusz; Gołąb-Janowska, Monika; Zaborowski, Grzegorz; Ciećwież, Sylwester; Nowacki, Przemysław

    Diabetes is a common disorder that leads to the musculoskeletal symptoms such as the shoulder arthritis. The involvement of peripheral nervous system is one of the troublesome for the patients as it provokes chronic sensory symptoms, lower motor neuron involvement and autonomic symptoms. In the course of the disease there has been several types of neuropathies described. A 41-year-old male patient was admitted to the internal medicine department because of the general weakness, malaise, polydypsia and polyuria since several days. The initial blood glucose level was 780mg/dl. During the first day the continuous insulin infusion was administered. On the next day when he woke up, the severe pain in the right shoulder with limited movement, right upper extremity weakness and burning pain in the radial aspect of this extremity appeared. On examination right shoulder joint movement limitation was found with the muscle weakness and sensory symptoms in the upper limbs. The clinical picture indicated on the right shoulder arthritis and the peripheral nervous system symptoms such as the right musculocutaneous, supraspinatus, right radial nerve and left radial nerve damage. We present a first case report of simultaneous, acute involvement of the shoulder joint and multiple neuropathy in a patient with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes, presumably in the state of ketoacidosis.

  17. A randomized trial of dasatinib 100 mg versus imatinib 400 mg in newly diagnosed chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Kopecky, Kenneth J.; Appelbaum, Frederick R.; Kamel-Reid, Suzanne; Stock, Wendy; Malnassy, Greg; Paietta, Elisabeth; Wadleigh, Martha; Larson, Richard A.; Emanuel, Peter; Tallman, Martin; Lipton, Jeff; Turner, A. Robert; Deininger, Michael; Druker, Brian J.

    2012-01-01

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy with imatinib (IM), dasatinib (DAS), or nilotinib is very effective in chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia. Two hundred fifty-three patients with newly diagnosed chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia were randomized to IM 400 mg/day or DAS 100 mg/day. The proportion of patients achieving a complete cytogenetic remission rate was superior with DAS (84% vs 69%), as was the 12-month molecular response by the proportions of patients achieving > 3-log, > 4-log, and > 4.5-log reduction in BCR-ABL transcript levels. Overall and progression-free survival was similar in the 2 arms. Among patients who achieved hematologic CR, 3-year relapse-free survival was 91% with DAS and 88% with IM 400 mg. Grade 3 and 4 toxicities were most commonly hematologic, including thrombocytopenia in 18% and 8% of DAS and IM patients, respectively. DAS induced more complete cytogenetic response and deeper molecular responses after 12 months, compared with IM 400 mg, and with a median follow-up of 3.0 years there have been very few deaths, relapses, or progressions in the 2 arms. In summary, DAS compared with IM appeared to have more short-term cytogenetic and molecular response, more hematologic toxicity, and similar overall survival. This trial is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00070499. PMID:22915637

  18. White matter microstructural characteristics in newly diagnosed Parkinson’s disease: An unbiased whole-brain study

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Ming-Ching; Heng, Hannah S. E.; Ng, Samuel Y. E.; Tan, Louis C. S.; Chan, Ling Ling; Tan, Eng King

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a debilitating neurodegenerative disorder. Findings on specific white matter (WM) alterations in PD have been inconsistent. We hypothesized that WM changes occur in early PD patients and unbiased whole-brain analysis may provide additional evidence of pathological WM changes in PD. In this study, we examined various indexes of WM microstructure in newly diagnosed PD patients at the whole-brain level. 64 PDs with Hoehn & Yahr stage 1 (HY1PDs), 87 PDs with Hoehn & Yahr stage 2 (HYPD2s), and 60 controls (HCs) were recruited. Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) and diffusion connectometry were used to identify changes of WM pathways associated with PD. There were no significant differences in axial diffusivity, but HY1PDs exhibited greater fractional anisotropy (FA) and decreased mean and radial diffusivities (MD and RD) in callosal, projection, and association fibres than HCs and HY2PDs. Motor severity was inversely correlated with FA, but positively correlated with MD and RD in PD patients. Connectometry analysis also revealed increased WM density in the aforementioned tracts in PD patients, compared with HCs. Our study reveals WM enhancement, suggesting neural compensations in early PD. Longitudinal follow-up studies are warranted to identify the trajectory of WM changes alongside the progression of PD. PMID:27762307

  19. Impaired toll-like receptor signalling in peripheral B cells from newly diagnosed type-2 diabetic subjects.

    PubMed

    Madhumitha, Haridoss; Mohan, Viswanathan; Kumar, Nathella P; Pradeepa, Rajendra; Babu, Subash; Aravindhan, Vivekanandhan

    2015-12-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) under diabetic conditions trigger inflammation and impair immunity. In the present study, we looked at the expression of TLRs (2 and 4) and their adaptors in Normal Glucose Tolerant (NGT), Newly Diagnosed Type-2 Diabetic (NDD) and Known Type-2 Diabetic (KDM) subjects. We also estimated TLR induced cytokine secretion, cellular activation and apoptosis. Surface expression of TLR2 and 4 was significantly reduced in the B cells of the NDD subjects and was associated with decreased cellular activation and cytokine secretion (TNF-α and IL-6). This impairment was not due to B cell deficiency or apoptosis or immunosuppressive cytokine (IL-10 and TGF-β) secretion. However, the upregulation of immunomodulatory enzymes (Arg-1, HO-1 and IDO) could probably account for the reduced TLR expression. The defective TLR signalling was largely ameliorated in the KDM group which might be due to the use the anti-diabetic drugs which have anti-inflammatory effect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Efficacy of Compound Kushen Injection in Combination with Induction Chemotherapy for Treating Adult Patients Newly Diagnosed with Acute Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Honglei; Lei, Bo; Meng, Shan; Liu, Hailing; Wei, Yongchang; He, Aili; Zhang, Wanggang

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the clinical effectiveness and safety of CKI (compound Kushen injection) plus standard induction chemotherapy for treating adult acute leukemia (AL). We randomly assigned 332 patients with newly diagnosed AL to control (n = 165, receiving DA (daunorubicin and cytarabine) or hyper-CVAD (fractionated cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and dexamethasone)) or treatment (n = 167, receiving CKI and DA or hyper-CVAD) groups. Posttreatment, treatment group CD3+, CD4+, CD4+/CD8+, natural killer (NK) cell, and immunoglobulin (IgG, IgA, and IgM) levels were significantly higher than those of the control group (p < 0.05), and CD8+ levels were lower in the treatment group than in the control group (p < 0.05). Treatment group interleukin- (IL-) 4 and IL-10 levels were significantly higher compared to the control posttreatment (both p < 0.05) as were complete remission, overall response, and quality of life (QoL) improvement rates (p < 0.05). The control group had more incidences of grade 3/4 hematologic and nonhematologic toxicity (p < 0.05). Responses to induction chemotherapy, QoL improvement, and adverse events incidence between control group patients with acute myeloid leukemia and acute lymphocytic leukemia were not significantly different. CKI plus standard induction chemotherapy is effective and safe for treating AL, possibly by increasing immunologic function. PMID:27738441

  1. Testosterone in Newly Diagnosed, Antipsychotic-Naïve Men with Nonaffective Psychosis: A Test of the Accelerated Aging Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Egea, Emilio; García-Rizo, Clemente; Miller, Brian; Parellada, Eduard; Justicia, Azucena; Bernardo, Miguel; Kirkpatrick, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Objective Schizophrenia has been associated with age-related abnormalities, including abnormal glucose tolerance, increased pulse pressure, increased inflammation, abnormal stem cell signalling and shorter telomere length. These metabolic abnormalities as well as other findings suggest schizophrenia and related disorders might be associated with accelerated aging. Testosterone activity has a progressive decline with increasing age. Methods We tested the hypothesis that circulating biologically active testosterone is lower in newly diagnosed, antipsychotic-naïve male patients with nonaffective psychosis than in matched control subjects. Results Patients (n=33) were matched to control subjects (n=33) for age, gender, body mass index, socioeconomic status of the family of origin, and smoking. The free androgen index (FAI), a measure of biologically active testosterone, was significantly lower in the psychosis group [mean 57.7%, SD=26.1] than in control subjects [71.6%, 27.0; p=0.04], with an effect size of 0.53. Multivariate analysis also supported the findings. In the psychosis group, FAI had a significant negative correlation with the conceptual disorganization item (r=-0.35, p=0.049), but not with reality distortion (r=-0.21; p=0.24), negative symptoms (r=0.004; p=0.98) or depression (r=-0.014; p=0.94). Conclusion Lower testosterone is consistent with accelerated aging in nonaffective psychosis, but further testing of this hypothesis is needed. PMID:21949421

  2. Newly diagnosed panic disorder and the risk of erectile dysfunction: A population-based cohort study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yao-Ting; Chen, Hsi-Han; Lin, Ching-Heng; Lee, Shih-Hsiung; Chan, Chin-Hong; Huang, Shiau-Shian

    2016-10-30

    Previous studies indicated that panic disorder is correlated with erectile dysfunction (ED). The primary aim of this study was to explore the incidence rate of ED among panic disorder patients in an Asian country. The secondary aim was to compare the risk of ED in panic disorder patients that were treated with different kinds of antidepressants, and to explore the possible mechanism between these two disorders. We identified 1393 male patients with newly diagnosed panic disorder from the Taiwan's National Health Insurance Database. Four matched controls per case were selected for the study group by propensity score. After adjusting for age, obesity and comorbidities, the panic disorder patients had a higher hazard ratio of ED diagnosis than the controls, especially among the untreated panic disorder patients. This retrospective dynamic cohort study supports the link between ED and prior panic disorder in a large sample of panic disorder patients. This study points out the need of early antidepressant treatment for panic disorder to prevent further ED. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Depression and HIV Serostatus Disclosure to Sexual Partners Among Newly HIV-Diagnosed Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Abler, Laurie; Watt, Melissa H.; Hansen, Nathan B.; Wilson, Patrick A.; Kochman, Arlene

    2015-01-01

    Abstract HIV disclosure to sexual partners facilitates joint decision-making and risk reduction strategies for safer sex behaviors, but disclosure may be impacted by depression symptoms. Disclosure is also associated with disclosure self-efficacy, which in turn may also be influenced by depressive symptoms. This study examined the relationship between depression and HIV disclosure to partners following diagnosis among men who have sex with men (MSM), mediated by disclosure self-efficacy. Newly HIV-diagnosed MSM (n = 92) who reported sexual activity after diagnosis completed an assessment soon after diagnosis which measured depressive symptoms, and another assessment within 3 months of diagnosis that measured disclosure self-efficacy and disclosure. Over one-third of the sample reported elevated depressive symptoms soon after diagnosis and equal proportions (one-third each) disclosed to none, some, or all partners in the 3 months after diagnosis. Depressive symptoms were negatively associated with disclosure self-efficacy and disclosure to partners, while disclosure self-efficacy was positively associated with disclosure. Disclosure self-efficacy partially mediated the relationship between depression and disclosure, accounting for 33% of the total effect. These findings highlight the importance of addressing depression that follows diagnosis to enhance subsequent disclosure to sexual partners. PMID:26430721

  4. Depression and HIV Serostatus Disclosure to Sexual Partners Among Newly HIV-Diagnosed Men Who Have Sex with Men.

    PubMed

    Abler, Laurie; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Watt, Melissa H; Hansen, Nathan B; Wilson, Patrick A; Kochman, Arlene

    2015-10-01

    HIV disclosure to sexual partners facilitates joint decision-making and risk reduction strategies for safer sex behaviors, but disclosure may be impacted by depression symptoms. Disclosure is also associated with disclosure self-efficacy, which in turn may also be influenced by depressive symptoms. This study examined the relationship between depression and HIV disclosure to partners following diagnosis among men who have sex with men (MSM), mediated by disclosure self-efficacy. Newly HIV-diagnosed MSM (n=92) who reported sexual activity after diagnosis completed an assessment soon after diagnosis which measured depressive symptoms, and another assessment within 3 months of diagnosis that measured disclosure self-efficacy and disclosure. Over one-third of the sample reported elevated depressive symptoms soon after diagnosis and equal proportions (one-third each) disclosed to none, some, or all partners in the 3 months after diagnosis. Depressive symptoms were negatively associated with disclosure self-efficacy and disclosure to partners, while disclosure self-efficacy was positively associated with disclosure. Disclosure self-efficacy partially mediated the relationship between depression and disclosure, accounting for 33% of the total effect. These findings highlight the importance of addressing depression that follows diagnosis to enhance subsequent disclosure to sexual partners.

  5. Predicting Clinical Binary Outcome Using Multivariate Longitudinal Data: Application to Patients with Newly Diagnosed Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Gao, Feng; Miller, J Philip; Beiser, Julia A; Xiong, Chengjie; Gordon, Mae O

    2015-10-01

    Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is a chronic, progressive, irreversible, and potentially blinding optic neuropathy. The risk of blindness due to progressive visual field (VF) loss varies substantially from patient to patient. Early identification of those patients destined to rapid progressive visual loss is crucial to prevent further damage. In this article, a latent class growth model (LCGM) was developed to predict the binary outcome of VF progression using longitudinal mean deviation (MD) and pattern standard deviation (PSD). Specifically, the trajectories of MD and PSD were summarized by a functional principal component (FPC) analysis, and the estimated FPC scores were used to identify subgroups (latent classes) of individuals with distinct patterns of MD and PSD trajectories. Probability of VF progression for an individual was then estimated as weighted average across latent classes, weighted by posterior probability of class membership given baseline covariates and longitudinal MD/PSD series. The model was applied to the participants with newly diagnosed POAG from the Ocular Hypertension Treatment Study (OHTS), and the OHTS data was best fit by a model with 4 latent classes. Using the resultant optimal LCGM, the OHTS participants with and without VF progression could be accurately differentiated by incorporating longitudinal MD and PSD.

  6. Differences in vitamin D nutritional status between newly diagnosed cancer patients from rural or urban settings in Kentucky.

    PubMed

    Christopher, K L; Wiggins, A T; Van Meter, E M; Means, R T; Hayslip, J W; Roach, J P

    2013-01-01

    Although poor nutritional status and weight loss in cancer patients is known to affect outcomes, little is known about malnutrition differences based on geographic location. We investigated nutritional and inflammatory status of 220 newly diagnosed adults with solid tumors at the University of Kentucky's Markey Cancer Center during December 2008 through October 2011. Chi-square tests were used to determine any associations between suboptimal nutritional levels and rural-urban areas of residence. Out of the 13 lab values collected, the only significant difference between rural and urban participants was found for vitamin D resulting in more rural subjects (67.4%) having a suboptimal vitamin D status as compared to those residing in urban areas (53.3%, P = 0.04). Controlling for baseline demographics including age, race, sex, body mass index, nutritional status, and type of cancer, logistic regression analyses concluded those in rural areas had nearly a twofold increase in the odds of having a suboptimal vitamin D level compared to those in urban areas (odd's ratio = 1.97; 95% confidence interval = 1.04, 3.74). Further investigation into the rural-urban differences in vitamin D needs to be investigated in order to improve outcomes during cancer treatment.

  7. Plasma ghrelin concentrations are negatively correlated with urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaojun; Zhao, Yanyan; Wang, Qingzhu; Wu, Lina; Wang, Zhimin; Ma, Xiaokun; Ren, Gaofei; Zhang, Yinghui; Li, Zhizhen; Lu, Jieli; Bi, Yufang; Ning, Guang; Qin, Guijun

    2014-11-01

    Aging is associated with a decrease in appetite, energy intake and glucose tolerance. Experimental studies have suggested that ghrelin and obestatin play a role in glucose homeostasis and in the regulation of energy metabolism. However, few studies have been performed on the role of ghrelin and obestatin in middle-aged and old adults. In the present study, we investigated the plasma concentrations of ghrelin and obestatin in middle-aged (41-64 years) and old (65-76 years) subjects with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (NDD) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT). We also characterized the relationship among plasma ghrelin and obestatin levels and glucose/lipid metabolism. The fasting plasma ghrelin and obestatin concentrations were analyzed using enzyme immunoassay method. Plasma obestatin concentrations in diabetic subjects were significantly lower than those in NGT subjects. Plasma ghrelin were negatively associated with fasting glucose, hemoglobin A1c, urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) and positively correlated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. In addition, plasma obestatin level was correlated negatively with systolic blood pressure, triglycerides and total cholesterol. Furthermore, multiple regression analysis indicated that UACR was a significantly independent predictor of fasting plasma ghrelin levels. Collectively, ghrelin and obestatin levels may be markers reflecting glucose and lipid conditions in NDD. The lower ghrelin levels may be a potential indicator for renal dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  8. Superiority of radiobinding assay over ELISA for detection of IAAs in newly diagnosed type I diabetic children

    SciTech Connect

    Levy-Marchal, C.; Bridel, M.P.; Sodoyez-Goffaux, F.; Koch, M.; Tichet, J.; Czernichow, P.; Sodoyez, J.C. )

    1991-01-01

    Liquid- or solid-phase assays have been used for insulin autoantibody (IAA) determination, and the method of IAA measurement has not been standardized. IAAs were determined by radiobinding assay (RBA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in two large age-matched groups of nondiabetic and newly diagnosed insulin-dependent (type I) diabetic children. Positivity for IAA by RBA (greater than or equal to nondiabetic mean + 3SD) was 2 of 178 (1.1%) and 55 of 173 (32%) in nondiabetic and diabetic children, respectively. Prevalence of IAA by RBA was significantly higher in the youngest age-group (63% between 0-4 yr). Positivity for IAA by ELISA was 1 of 178 (0.6%) and 8 of 169 (4.7%) in nondiabetic and diabetic children, respectively. Concordance rates between both assays were 0 of 3 (0%) in control subjects and 5 of 58 (8.6%) in diabetic children. We conclude that RBA is more appropriate than ELISA for IAA detection at the onset of the disease. In addition, because available data suggest that IAAs detected by RBA only are high-affinity antibodies, it is tempting to speculate that IAAs reflect a mature immune reaction against endogenous insulin.

  9. Involvement in Decision Making and Satisfaction With Treatment Among Partners of Patients With Newly Diagnosed Localized Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Symes, Yael; Song, Lixin; Heineman, Rachael G; Barbosa, Brittney D; Tatum, Kimberly; Greene, Giselle; Weaver, Mark; Chen, Ronald C

    2015-11-01

    To examine partner involvement in treatment decision making for localized prostate cancer, congruence between partner involvement and patient preference, reasons for partner noninvolvement, and partner satisfaction with patient treatment
. Cross-sectional exploratory study.
 100 counties in North Carolina. 281 partners of men with newly diagnosed localized prostate cancer. Participants completed a phone survey. Logistic regression analyses were used. Partners' involvement in treatment decision making, partner satisfaction with treatment, activities of partner involvement, and reasons for noninvolvement. Of the 228 partners (81%) related to decision making, 205 (73%) were very satisfied with the treatment the patients received, and partner involvement was congruent with patient preference in 242 partners (86%). Partners reported several reasons for noninvolvement. Most partners engaged in multiple activities during treatment decision making for localized prostate cancer and were satisfied with the patient's treatment. Partner involvement was mostly congruent with patient preference. Partners' active involvement in treatment decision making for localized prostate cancer (e.g., being involved in patients' conversations with doctors) should be encouraged and facilitated for those who prefer this type of decision making. 
.

  10. High cereblon expression is associated with better survival in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma treated with thalidomide maintenance.

    PubMed

    Broyl, Annemiek; Kuiper, Rowan; van Duin, Mark; van der Holt, Bronno; el Jarari, Laila; Bertsch, Uta; Zweegman, Sonja; Buijs, Arjan; Hose, Dirk; Lokhorst, Henk M; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Sonneveld, Pieter

    2013-01-24

    Recently, cereblon (CRBN) expression was found to be essential for the activity of thalidomide and lenalidomide. In the present study, we investigated whether the clinical efficacy of thalidomide in multiple myeloma is associated with CRBN expression in myeloma cells. Patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma were included in the HOVON-65/GMMG-HD4 trial, in which postintensification treatment in 1 arm consisted of daily thalidomide (50 mg) for 2 years. Gene-expression profiling, determined at the start of the trial, was available for 96 patients who started thalidomide maintenance. In this patient set, increase of CRBN gene expression was significantly associated with longerprogression-free survival (P = .005). In contrast, no association between CRBN expression and survival was observed in the arm with bortezomib maintenance. We conclude that CRBN expression may be associated with the clinical efficacy of thalidomide. This trial has been registered at the Nederlands Trial Register (www.trialregister.nl) as NTR213; at the European Union Drug Regulating Authorities Clinical Trials (EudraCT) as 2004-000944-26; and at the International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN) as 64455289.

  11. The Effects of Hospital Length of Stay on Readmissions for Children With Newly Diagnosed Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Wedekind, Mary F; Dennis, Robyn; Sturm, Mollie; Koch, Terah; Stanek, Joseph; O'Brien, Sarah H

    2016-07-01

    Although regimens for induction therapy in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are similar across the United States, typical practice with regard to inpatient length of stay (LOS) varies by institution. US children's hospitals were categorized by typical induction LOS; and readmissions, pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) admissions, and average adjusted charges were compared for the first 30 days from initial admission. Using Pediatric Health Information System data, we extracted ALL induction admissions from 2007 to 2013. We categorized hospitals into 3 categories based on median LOS: short (≤7 d), medium (8 to 15 d), or long (≥16 d). Median LOS varied from 5 to 31 days across hospitals. Thirty-day median inpatient costs per patient ranged from $32 K for short LOS, $40 K for medium LOS, and $47 K for long LOS. Compared with short LOS hospitals (n=14), medium LOS (n=8) and long LOS hospitals (n=8) had lower odds of PICU readmissions (odds ratio [OR], 0.68; P=0.0124 and OR, 0.31; P<0.001, respectively), and long LOS hospitals had lower odds of any readmission (OR, 0.44; P<0.0001). Average LOS for children with newly diagnosed ALL varies widely by institution. Children's hospitals that typically admit new ALL patients for >7 days have fewer PICU readmissions but substantial increase in total induction inpatient costs.

  12. Increased Blood Levels of Growth Factors, Proinflammatory Cytokines, and Th17 Cytokines in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Alnek, Kristi; Kisand, Kalle; Heilman, Kaire; Peet, Aleksandr; Varik, Karin; Uibo, Raivo

    2015-01-01

    The production of several cytokines could be dysregulated in type 1 diabetes (T1D). In particular, the activation of T helper (Th) type 1 (Th1) cells has been proposed to underlie the autoimmune pathogenesis of the disease, although roles for inflammatory processes and the Th17 pathway have also been shown. Nevertheless, despite evidence for the role of cytokines before and at the onset of T1D, the corresponding findings are inconsistent across studies. Moreover, conflicting data exist regarding the blood cytokine levels in T1D patients. The current study was performed to investigate genetic and autoantibody markers in association with the peripheral blood cytokine profiles by xMap multiplex technology in newly diagnosed young T1D patients and age-matched healthy controls. The onset of young-age T1D was characterized by the upregulation of growth factors, including granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin (IL)-7, the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β (but not IL-6 or tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α), Th17 cytokines, and the regulatory cytokines IL-10 and IL-27. Ketoacidosis and autoantibodies (anti-IA-2 and -ZnT8), but not human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotype, influenced the blood cytokine levels. These findings broaden the current understanding of the dysregulation of systemic levels of several key cytokines at the young-age onset of T1D and provide a further basis for the development of novel immunoregulatory treatments in this disease.

  13. CLINICAL ACTIVITY OF SEQUENTIAL FLAVOPIRIDOL, CYTOSINE ARABINOSIDE, AND MITOXANTRONE FOR ADULTS WITH NEWLY DIAGNOSED, POOR RISK ACUTE MYELOGENOUS LEUKEMIA

    PubMed Central

    Karp, Judith E.; Blackford, Amanda; Smith, B. Douglas; Alino, Katrina; Seung, Amy Hatfield; Bolaños-Meade, Javier; Greer, Jacqueline M.; Carraway, Hetty E.; Gore, Steven D.; Jones, Richard J.; Levis, Mark J.; McDevitt, Michael A.; Doyle, L. Austin; Wright, John J.

    2009-01-01

    Flavopiridol, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, is cytotoxic to leukemic blasts. In a Phase II study, flavopiridol 50 mg/m2 was given by 1-hour infusion daily × 3 beginning Day 1 followed by 2 gm/m2/72 hr ara-C beginning Day 6 and 40 mg/m2 mitoxantrone on Day 9 (FLAM) to 45 adults with newly diagnosed acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) with multiple poor risk features. Thirty patients (67%) achieved complete remission (CR) and 4 (9%) died. Twelve (40%) received myeloablative allogeneic bone marrow transplant (BMT) in first CR. Median OS and DFS are not reached (67% alive 12.5–31 months, 58% in CR 11.4–30 months), with median follow-up 22 months. Sixteen received FLAM in CR, with median OS and DFS 9 and 13.1 months, and 36% alive at 21–31 months. Short OS and DFS correlated with adverse cytogenetics, regardless of age or treatment in CR. The addition of allogeneic BMT in CR translates into long OS and DFS in the majority of eligible patients. PMID:19962759

  14. Symptoms, Quality of Life, and Daily Activities in People With Newly Diagnosed Solid Tumors Presenting to a Medical Oncologist.