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Sample records for newly independent estonia

  1. Resume Writing in Russia and the Newly Independent States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Betsy; Sapp, David Alan; Sargsyan, Nelly

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the teaching of resume writing at one university in Russia and several institutions in the Newly Independent States (NIS). The authors explore challenges including variable cultural norms for written versus oral communication, severe financial and material hardship in the educational sector, cultural discomfort with the norms…

  2. Transmitted drug resistance is still low in newly diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus type 1 CRF06_cpx-infected patients in Estonia in 2010.

    PubMed

    Avi, Radko; Huik, Kristi; Pauskar, Merit; Ustina, Valentina; Karki, Tõnis; Kallas, Eveli; Jõgeda, Ene-Ly; Krispin, Tõnu; Lutsar, Irja

    2014-03-01

    The presence of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) in treatment-naive HIV-1-positive subjects is of concern, especially in the countries of the former Soviet Union in which the number of subjects exposed to antiretrovirals (ARV) has exponentially increased during the past decade. We assessed the rate of TDR among newly diagnosed subjects in Estonia in 2010 and compared it to that in 2008. The study included 325 subjects (87% of all subjects tested HIV positive from January 1 to December 31, 2010). Of the 244 sequenced viral genomic RNA in the reverse transcriptase (RT) region 214 were CRF06_cpx, nine were subtype A1, three (one each) were subtype B and subtype C, CRF02_AG, and CRF03_AB; 15 viruses remained unclassified as putative recombinant forms between CRF06_cpx and subtype A1. HIV-1 TDR mutations in 2010 and 2008 (n=145) occurred at similar frequency in 4.5% (95% CI 2.45; 7.98) and 5.5% (95% CI 1.8; 9.24) of the patients, respectively. In 2010, 2.5% (6/244) of the sequences harbored nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) (K103N and K101E), 1.6% (4/244) nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) (M41L, M184I, and K219E), and 0.4% (1/244) protease inhibitor (PI) (V82A) mutations. Our findings indicate that in spite of the increased consumption of ARVs the rate of TDR in Estonia has remained unchanged over the past 3 years. Similar stabilizing or even decreasing trends have been described in Western Europe and North America albeit at higher levels and in different socioeconomic backgrounds.

  3. Biobanking in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Keis, Aime

    2016-03-01

    Estonia is a democratic, parliamentary republic with a health care system that is built on the principle of compulsory, solidarity-based insurance and the all-round availability of services of private service providers. Estonia has specific biobank legislation as well as oversight via data protection laws. Its population-based biobank, the Estonian Genome Center (EGCUT), established in 2001, is one of the largest biobanks in Europe, and its database may be used only for scientific research, public health research, and statistics. The EGCUT can issue data to a third party, but only in coded form. This comprehensive database of genotypic, phenotypic, health, and genealogical information represents about 5% of Estonia's adult population, and is the largest cohort ever gathered in Estonia. Government approval is required for international data sharing, and sharing can be further limited by the requirement of ethics approval and permission from Estonian government.

  4. Power and uneven globalization: Coalitions and energy trade dependence in the newly independent states of Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linden, Corina Herron

    2000-10-01

    The economies of the European former Soviet Union were dependent upon energy subsidies in the form of virtually free oil and natural gas imports from Russia, the loss of which implied dramatic shocks to domestic production structures, and the maintenance of which implied continued policy concessions to Russia. Yet some of these states actively pursued integration into the global economy while others sought to maintain the shelter of domestic markets and Russian energy subsidies. While the economic costs of openness and restructuring would be high in all cases in the short term, it is the political costs of openness and restructuring that determine the policy of the state. Where the high costs of restructuring are borne by a politically disenfranchised group, a consensus coalition can emerge in favor of rapid restructuring and energy reorientation. Where the benefits of the status quo accrue to a well-organized coalition closely allied with the state, a consensus coalition emerges in favor of maintenance of energy subsidies from and political relationship with Russia. Where the costs of restructuring are borne broadly or by a well-organized minority group, power oscillation and fragmentation will lead to inconsistent policy and slow progress toward energy reorientation and reform. Integrating a state-in-society approach to coalition formation within the field of international political economy, the author argues that states dominated by globalist-liberalizing-nationalist coalitions were able to implement energy trade reorientation by politically disenfranchising the ethnic minorities who populated the sector most vulnerable to energy contraction, heavy industry. These "globalizers," Estonia and Latvia, bore the high costs of restructuring industries and importing energy at world prices. Belarus, dominated by pro-Moscow-statist-leftist coalitions, sought to preserve energy subsidies through political and economic reintegration with Russia. States ruled by divided

  5. Drumlins of Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rõuk, Aarend-Mihkel; Raukas, Anto

    1989-05-01

    Drumlins, megaflutings and other subglacial streamlined forms, highly variable in shape and size, are widely distributed in Estonia as well as on the bottom of the Gulf of Finland, which was also affected by continental ice. Their total number amounts to 1000. The main drumlin fields are most common in Central Estonia on lateral slopes of bedrock uplands and/or in depressions between them, and they serve as a transitional landscape type between predominantly erosional (in northern Estonia) and depositional zones (in southern Estonia) of the Scandinavian ice sheet. Nevertheless, the local details of bedrock topography and glacial and deglacial history have led to some deviations (e.g. the unique Saadjärv field of big drumlins and megaflutings is situated in a "glacier shadow", on the lee side of a bedrock upland). Being of varied composition and age, drumlins and related streamlined forms represent complex interactions between erosional, transporting and depositional processes, although the dynamics of their formation are still somewhat enigmatic. It seems that in Estonia drumlins were formed both during ice advances and retreats. In some cases there are moraine hillocks, kames and eskers and other ice disintegration features superimposed on drumlins.

  6. Materials and process engineering projects for the Sandia National Laboratories/Newly Independent States Industrial Partnering Program. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Zanner, F.J.; Moffatt, W.C.

    1995-07-01

    In July, 1994, a team of materials specialists from Sandia and US. Industry traveled to Russia and the Ukraine to select and fund projects in materials and process technology in support of the Newly Independent States/Industrial Partnering Program (NIS/IPP). All of the projects are collaborations with scientists and Engineers at NIS Institutes. Each project is scheduled to last one year, and the deliverables are formatted to supply US. Industry with information which will enable rational decisions to be made regarding the commercial value of these technologies. This work is an unedited interim compilation of the deliverables received to date.

  7. Materials and process engineering projects for the Sandia National Laboratories/Newly Independent States Industrial Partnering Program. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Zanner, F.J.; Moffatt, W.C.

    1995-07-01

    In July, 1994, a team of materials specialists from Sandia and U S Industry traveled to Russia and the Ukraine to select and fund projects in materials and process technology in support of the Newly Independent States/Industrial Partnering Program (NIS/IPP). All of the projects are collaborations with scientists and Engineers at NIS Institutes. Each project is scheduled to last one year, and the deliverables are formatted to supply US Industry with information which will enable rational decisions to be made regarding the commercial value of these technologies. This work is an unedited interim compilation of the deliverables received to date.

  8. Mitigation analysis for Estonia

    SciTech Connect

    Martins, A.; Roos, J.; Pesur, A.

    1996-09-01

    The present report provides data on the mitigation analysis of Estonia. The results for energy, forest and agricultural sectors and macro-economic analysis are given. The Government of Estonia has identified the development of energy production as the main strategical means in the movement towards market economy. Now 99% of electricity generation and about 25% of heat production in Estonia is based on oil shale combustion. To increase the efficiency of oil shale-fired power plants and decrease CO{sub 2} emissions, the State Enterprise (SE) Eesti Energia (Estonian Energy) is planning to reconstruct these power plants and introduce the Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) combustion technology for oil shale burning to replace the Pulverized Combustion (PC). According to the Estonian Forest Policy, two general objectives are of importance: sustainability in forestry and efficiency in forest management. For the reduction of greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions from agriculture, it is necessary to increase the efficiency of production resource usage. The growth of the GDP in 1995 was 2.9% as a result of large-scale privatization activities in Estonia and re-introduction of the available, but unused production capacities with the help of foreign and domestic investments. It is assumed that the medium growth rate of GDP reaches 6% in 1998.

  9. Eliminating Rabies in Estonia

    PubMed Central

    Cliquet, Florence; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Must, Kylli; Laine, Marjana; Peik, Katrin; Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Guiot, Anne-Laure; Niin, Enel

    2012-01-01

    The compulsory vaccination of pets, the recommended vaccination of farm animals in grazing areas and the extermination of stray animals did not succeed in eliminating rabies in Estonia because the virus was maintained in two main wildlife reservoirs, foxes and raccoon dogs. These two species became a priority target therefore in order to control rabies. Supported by the European Community, successive oral vaccination (OV) campaigns were conducted twice a year using Rabigen® SAG2 baits, beginning in autumn 2005 in North Estonia. They were then extended to the whole territory from spring 2006. Following the vaccination campaigns, the incidence of rabies cases dramatically decreased, with 266 cases in 2005, 114 in 2006, four in 2007 and three in 2008. Since March 2008, no rabies cases have been detected in Estonia other than three cases reported in summer 2009 and one case in January 2011, all in areas close to the South-Eastern border with Russia. The bait uptake was satisfactory, with tetracycline positivity rates ranging from 85% to 93% in foxes and from 82% to 88% in raccoon dogs. Immunisation rates evaluated by ELISA ranged from 34% to 55% in foxes and from 38% to 55% in raccoon dogs. The rabies situation in Estonia was compared to that of the other two Baltic States, Latvia and Lithuania. Despite regular OV campaigns conducted throughout their territory since 2006, and an improvement in the epidemiological situation, rabies has still not been eradicated in these countries. An analysis of the number of baits distributed and the funding allocated by the European Commission showed that the strategy for rabies control is more cost-effective in Estonia than in Latvia and Lithuania. PMID:22393461

  10. Eliminating rabies in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Cliquet, Florence; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Must, Kylli; Laine, Marjana; Peik, Katrin; Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Guiot, Anne-Laure; Niin, Enel

    2012-01-01

    The compulsory vaccination of pets, the recommended vaccination of farm animals in grazing areas and the extermination of stray animals did not succeed in eliminating rabies in Estonia because the virus was maintained in two main wildlife reservoirs, foxes and raccoon dogs. These two species became a priority target therefore in order to control rabies. Supported by the European Community, successive oral vaccination (OV) campaigns were conducted twice a year using Rabigen® SAG2 baits, beginning in autumn 2005 in North Estonia. They were then extended to the whole territory from spring 2006. Following the vaccination campaigns, the incidence of rabies cases dramatically decreased, with 266 cases in 2005, 114 in 2006, four in 2007 and three in 2008. Since March 2008, no rabies cases have been detected in Estonia other than three cases reported in summer 2009 and one case in January 2011, all in areas close to the South-Eastern border with Russia. The bait uptake was satisfactory, with tetracycline positivity rates ranging from 85% to 93% in foxes and from 82% to 88% in raccoon dogs. Immunisation rates evaluated by ELISA ranged from 34% to 55% in foxes and from 38% to 55% in raccoon dogs. The rabies situation in Estonia was compared to that of the other two Baltic States, Latvia and Lithuania. Despite regular OV campaigns conducted throughout their territory since 2006, and an improvement in the epidemiological situation, rabies has still not been eradicated in these countries. An analysis of the number of baits distributed and the funding allocated by the European Commission showed that the strategy for rabies control is more cost-effective in Estonia than in Latvia and Lithuania.

  11. National Testing of Pupils in Europe: Objectives, Organisation and Use of Results. Estonia 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mere, Kristi

    2009-01-01

    Estonia restored its independence in 1991. The creation of legislation and reorganisation of the educational system was one of the first tasks of the restored Republic of Estonia. The development of the national curriculum for basic and upper secondary schools that provided a framework substituting the previous study modules, and the creation of…

  12. Europeanization in the "Other" Europe: Writing the Nation into "Europe" Education in Slovakia and Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michaels, Deborah L.; Stevick, E. Doyle

    2009-01-01

    How is the tension between renewed nationalist and European narratives of belonging being unfolded in the curricula, discourse, and practice of civic education in Slovakia and Estonia. As two post-socialist territories that were "reborn" as independent nation-states in the 1990s, Slovakia and Estonia were confronted with pressure to…

  13. Noise induced hearing loss: research in Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe and Newly Independent States.

    PubMed

    Pawlaczyk-Luszczynska, Malgorzata; Dudarewicz, Adam; Zaborowski, Kamil; Zamojska, Malgorzata; Sliwinska-Kowalska, Mariola

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this review was to summarize the studies on noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) which were carried out in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe, South-East Europe, and former Soviet Union countries or Newly Independent States in the period from 1970 to 2012. The papers were identified by literature search of all accessible medical and other databases (Scopus, PubMed, Medline, etc.) using the terms "noise; hearing loss, NIHL" as key words and country denomination (in alphabetical order: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bulgaria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Czech Republic, Georgia, Hungary, Montenegro, Poland, Romania, Russian Federation, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, former Yugoslavia, Ukraine). This review comprises both papers published in peer-reviewed international journals and articles from local sources. The main papers' topics included the assessment of the noise hazards in occupational, and very seldom in communal environment, and the prevalence of hearing impairment in employees. Simultaneously, attempts were undertaken to establish the relationship between the degree of hearing impairment and noise exposure. The effect of combined exposures to noise and vibration and/or otoxic chemicals was assessed as well. The influence of environmental, individual, and genetic risk factors on NIHL development was intensively examined. In addition, studies concerning the role of otoacoustic emissions for NIHL monitoring and clinical examinations were conducted. Some animal researches, including molecular genetics, had been also performed. The majority of papers concerned occupational exposures, whereas only a few were dedicated to community noise.

  14. Noise and children's health: research in Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe and Newly Independent States.

    PubMed

    Paunovic, Katarina

    2013-01-01

    Many reviews have documented the adverse effects of noise on children's health, but the international scientific community was previously unfamiliar with noise research in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE), South-East Europe (SEE), and Newly Independent States (NIS). The aim of this review was to present studies on the effects of noise on children's health, conducted in aforementioned countries in the second half of the 20 th century, interpret their findings, and criticize their methodology and results wherever possible. This review focused on 30 papers published in national journals in the period from 1965 to 2000. By design, 22 studies were observational and cross-sectional, and eight studies were experimental. The outcomes under the study included auditory changes, stress reactions, sleep disturbances, school performance, upright posture, and vegetative functions. Researchers from CEE, SEE, and NIS were the pioneers in the assessment of noise-induced changes of vegetative functions and blood pressure of children in urban areas, as well as of infants exposed to noise in incubators. Future research should focus on intervention studies and follow-up of children's health in relation to noise exposure.

  15. Serum Chemerin Levels are Associated with Visceral Adiposity, Independent of Waist Circumference, in Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetic Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Cheon, Dae Young; Kang, Jun Goo; Lee, Seong Jin; Ihm, Sung Hee; Lee, Eun Jig; Choi, Moon Gi; Yoo, Hyung Joon

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Chemerin has been suggested to be linked to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, the relationship between visceral adiposity and chemerin levels remains unclear in subjects with T2DM. In this study, we investigated the relationship between serum chemerin levels and visceral adiposity. Materials and Methods This study included 102 subjects newly diagnosed with T2DM. The relationships between serum chemerin levels and clinical and biochemical parameters were examined. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to determine the predictable factors of serum chemerin levels. Results Serum chemerin levels showed significant positive correlations with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), visceral fat thickness (VFT), insulin levels, the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and levels of triglycerides (log-transformed) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, while showing significant negative correlations with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. After adjusting for BMI and WC, VFT showed a significant relationship with serum chemerin levels (r=0.222, p=0.027). Moreover, VFT was an independent predictive factor of serum chemerin levels (β=0.242, p=0.041). Conclusion We demonstrated that chemerin is linked to metabolic syndrome components. Moreover, serum chemerin levels were associated significantly with obesity, especially visceral adipose tissue, in subjects with T2DM. PMID:28120562

  16. Country report: Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaasik, Helle

    2015-12-01

    The situation of women in education, work, and research in Estonia is relatively good. Nevertheless, science (especially engineering) remains a male-dominated field. The total number of female scientists and engineers in the workforce is about two-thirds that of males. Moreover, the gender imbalance in the researcher population increases with age. Significant pay-gap and power imbalances between the genders remain both in Estonian society in general and in the fields of science and technology. In many practical situations, behavior of both men and women is still guided by gender stereotypes.

  17. Toenail onychomycosis in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Järv, H; Naaber, P; Kaur, S; Eisen, M; Silm, H

    2004-02-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the clinical features, predisposing factors and pathogens of toenail onychomycosis in Estonia. During study period we interviewed and examined 436 dermatological patients with clinical signs of toenail onychomycosis in all counties of Estonia. In 69% of cases, the clinical diagnosis of onychomycosis was confirmed by the mycological analysis. The most common clinical symptoms of onychomycosis both in mycologically proven and non-proven cases were discolorization of nail plate, hyperkeratosis and brittle nails. The number of infected toenails positively correlated with patients' age. On average, patient had 5.4 infected nails. In 78% of culture-positive cases, a dermatophyte was isolated as the causative agent, in 10% yeasts and in 7% moulds. In 6% of culture-positive cases we reported mixed infections. Trichophyton rubrum was the most common pathogen. The high occurrence of mixed infections, clinical symptoms characteristic to long lasting or chronic infection and high number of infected toenails indicate that Estonian patients have more advanced stage of toenail onychomycosis compared with other western and central European countries.

  18. Smoking Cessation Carries a Short-Term Rising Risk for Newly Diagnosed Diabetes Mellitus Independently of Weight Gain: A 6-Year Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Yi-Ting; Hsiao, Cheng-Ting; Chang, I-Jen; Lin, Yu-Chih

    2016-01-01

    Background. The effects of smoking on human metabolism are complex. Although smoking increases risk for diabetes mellitus, smoking cessation was also reported to be associated with weight gain and incident diabetes mellitus. We therefore conducted this study to clarify the association between smoking status and newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus. Methods. An analysis was done using the data of a mass health examination performed annually in an industrial park from 2007 to 2013. The association between smoking status and newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus was analyzed with adjustment for weight gain and other potential confounders. Results. Compared with never-smokers, not only current smokers but also ex-smokers in their first two years of abstinence had higher odds ratios (ORs) for newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus (never-smokers 3.6%, OR as 1; current smokers 5.5%, OR = 1.499, 95% CI = 1.147–1.960, and p = 0.003; ex-smokers in their first year of abstinence 7.5%, OR = 1.829, 95% CI = 0.906–3.694, and p = 0.092; and ex-smokers in their second year of abstinence 9.0%, OR = 2.020, 95% CI = 1.031–3.955, and p = 0.040). Conclusion. Smoking cessation generally decreased risk for newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus. However, increased odds were seen within the first 2 years of abstinence independently of weight gain. PMID:27478846

  19. Estonia: health system review.

    PubMed

    Lai, Taavi; Habicht, Triin; Kahur, Kristiina; Reinap, Marge; Kiivet, Raul; van Ginneken, Ewout

    2013-01-01

    This analysis of the Estonian health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health-care provision, health reforms and health system performance. Without doubt, the main issue has been the 2008 financial crisis. Although Estonia has managed the downturn quite successfully and overall satisfaction with the system remains high, it is hard to predict the longer-term effects of the austerity package. The latter included some cuts in benefits and prices, increased cost sharing for certain services, extended waiting times, and a reduction in specialized care. In terms of health outcomes, important progress was made in life expectancy, which is nearing the European Union (EU) average, and infant mortality. Improvements are necessary in smoking and alcohol consumption, which are linked to the majority of avoidable diseases. Although the health behaviour of the population is improving, large disparities between groups exist and obesity rates, particularly among young people, are increasing. In health care, the burden of out-of-pocket payments is still distributed towards vulnerable groups. Furthermore, the number of hospitals, hospital beds and average length of stay has decreased to the EU average level, yet bed occupancy rates are still below EU averages and efficiency advances could be made. Going forwards, a number of pre-crisis challenges remain. These include ensuring sustainability of health care financing, guaranteeing a sufficient level of human resources, prioritizing patient-centred health care, integrating health and social care services, implementing intersectoral action to promote healthy behaviour, safeguarding access to health care for lower socioeconomic groups, and, lastly, improving evaluation and monitoring tools across the health system.

  20. Research into Multilingualism in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verschik, Anna

    2005-01-01

    The present paper concentrates on several issues relevant to research into multilingualism in Estonia. It is argued that a macrosociolinguistic approach is insufficient when not counterbalanced with microsociolinguistic studies (case studies of actual linguistic behaviour, linguistic creativity, mechanisms and practices of multilingual…

  1. A Connecticut Yankee in Estonia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scahill, Edward M.

    1998-01-01

    Compares the real incomes of U.S. and Estonian workers using a procedure from Mark Twain's "A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court." Argues that the application of Twain's logic to the recent economic development of Estonia provides a colorful approach to teaching economic issues. (DSK)

  2. Burden of stroke in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Kõrv, Janika; Vibo, Riina

    2013-07-01

    Estonia is the smallest of the three Baltic countries. The decline in incidence of first-ever stroke during the 1990s has left Tartu, Estonia with a relatively low stroke incidence. However, the incidence rates for younger age groups, and the 28-day case fatality rate are higher compared with several other studies. Developments in the national health care system in recent years have been positive: the decline of mortality rate of stroke in Estonia is greater than the European Union average. However, the mortality of cardiovascular diseases is higher compared with several European countries. The prevalence of most stroke risk factors is comparable with European Union countries, while atrial fibrillation is somewhat more frequent (30%) among the patients having suffered from ischemic stroke. The management of stroke in Estonia has been in accordance with European and national stroke guidelines. Stroke units are organized in regional and central hospitals in bigger cities. A well-developed and free ambulance service, and a high priority of stroke code, enable a quick transportation of patients to the nearest hospital providing thrombolytic therapy. The number of thrombolyzed stroke cases has increased since 2003. The Estonian Stroke Initiative was founded in 2008 to improve stroke care, promote regional networks, and increase stroke knowledge among the general population and medical professionals. Since then, several activities regarding stroke awareness have been organized.

  3. When Language becomes Power: Russian-Speaking Teachers in the Bilingual General Education System in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiilo, Tatjana; Kutsar, Dagmar

    2012-01-01

    After the re-establishment of independent Estonian statehood in 1991, Russian lost its privileges as the dominant and official language in Estonia, and Estonian continued as the only official language. This paper attempts to map the position of a Russian-speaking teacher within the sociological categories of power and language, based on the…

  4. A steroid-independent regimen of bortezomib, liposomal doxorubicin and thalidomide demonstrate high response rates in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients

    PubMed Central

    Sher, Taimur; Ailawadhi, Sikander; Miller, Kena C.; Manfredi, Debbie; Wood, Margaret; Tan, Wei; Wilding, Gregory; Czuczman, Myron S.; Hernandez-Ilizaliturri, Francisco J.; Hong, Fredrick; Sood, Raman; Soniwala, Saif; Lawrence, William; Jamshed, Saad; Masood, Aisha; Iancu, Daniel; Lee, Kelvin; Chanan-Khan, Asher

    2014-01-01

    Novel agents have provided new a foundation for multiple myeloma therapies. When combined with other anti-myeloma agents, these compounds significantly enhance clinical efficacy. High-dose steroids are frequently used in anti-myeloma combination regimens; however, the doses employed are often poorly tolerated, especially in patients with concurrent comorbid conditions. We hypothesized that a steroid-independent combination regimen could be developed without significant compromise of efficacy. The availability of such a regimen will be important for patients whose concurrent ailments make them poor candidates for steroid containing anti-myeloma regimens. A phase II single institute, non-randomized clinical trial was conducted to investigate a novel steroid-free three-drug combination of bortezomib (V), pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (D), and thalidomide (T), the VDT regimen. Forty-three newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients requiring treatment were enrolled on this study. The overall response rate and complete response (CR) + near complete response (nCR) rate was 78% and 35%, respectively. Median time to progression was 29.5 months. Fatigue, rash, neuropathy, constipation and infections were the most common side effects. We concluded that VDT is a tolerable and an effective regimen capable of inducing high response rates and can be employed in patients considered to be poor candidates for steroid-based treatment regimens. PMID:21554260

  5. Estonia`s oil shale industry - meeting environmental standards of the future

    SciTech Connect

    Tanner, T.; Bird, G.; Wallace, D.

    1995-12-31

    Oil shale is Estonia`s greatest mineral resource. In the 1930s, it was used as a source of gasoline and fuel oil, but now it is mined primarily for thermal generation of electricity. With the loss of its primary market for electricity in the early 1990s and in the absence of another domestic source of fuel Estonia once again is considering the use of a larger proportion of its shale for oil production. However, existing retorting operations in Estonia may not attain western European environmental standards and desired conversion efficiencies. As a reference point, the Estonian authorities have documented existing environmental impacts. It is evaluating technologies to reduce the impacts and is setting a direction for the industry that will serve domestic needs. This paper provides a description of the existing oil shale industry in Estonia and options for the future.

  6. People living with HIV in Estonia: engagement in HIV care in 2013

    PubMed Central

    Laisaar, Kaja-Triin; Raag, Mait; Lutsar, Irja; Uusküla, Anneli

    2016-01-01

    Estonia had the highest rate of newly diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) cases in the European Union (24.6/100,000) and an estimated adult HIV prevalence of 1.3% in 2013. HIV medical care, including antiretroviral therapy (ART), is free of charge for people living with HIV (PLHIV). To maximise the health benefits of HIV treatment, universal access should be achieved. Using data from surveillance and administrative databases and the treatment cascade model, we assessed the number of people infected with HIV, diagnosed with HIV, linked to HIV care, retained in HIV care, on ART, and with suppressed viral load (HIV-RNA: < 200 copies/mL). We identified that about one quarter of the 8,628 HIV-positive people estimated to live in Estonia in 2013 had not been diagnosed with HIV, and another quarter, although aware of their HIV-positive serostatus, had not accessed HIV medical care. Although altogether only 12–15% of all PLHIV in Estonia had achieved viral suppression, the main gap in HIV care in Estonia were the 58% of PLHIV who had accessed HIV medical care at least once after diagnosis but were not retained in care in 2013. PMID:27813471

  7. People living with HIV in Estonia: engagement in HIV care in 2013.

    PubMed

    Laisaar, Kaja-Triin; Raag, Mait; Lutsar, Irja; Uusküla, Anneli

    2016-10-27

    Estonia had the highest rate of newly diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) cases in the European Union (24.6/100,000) and an estimated adult HIV prevalence of 1.3% in 2013. HIV medical care, including antiretroviral therapy (ART), is free of charge for people living with HIV (PLHIV). To maximise the health benefits of HIV treatment, universal access should be achieved. Using data from surveillance and administrative databases and the treatment cascade model, we assessed the number of people infected with HIV, diagnosed with HIV, linked to HIV care, retained in HIV care, on ART, and with suppressed viral load (HIV-RNA: < 200 copies/mL). We identified that about one quarter of the 8,628 HIV-positive people estimated to live in Estonia in 2013 had not been diagnosed with HIV, and another quarter, although aware of their HIV-positive serostatus, had not accessed HIV medical care. Although altogether only 12-15% of all PLHIV in Estonia had achieved viral suppression, the main gap in HIV care in Estonia were the 58% of PLHIV who had accessed HIV medical care at least once after diagnosis but were not retained in care in 2013.

  8. Estonia--Going Home Again: Returning to the Roots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedak-Kari, Maria

    This paper provides background on The National Library of Estonia (NLE), discusses a fellowship project for developing the National Library, and presents the impressions of the author, an Estonian American, who traveled to Estonia. The NLE looks to the West for automation, information, and institutional modeling. The NLE is Estonia's equivalent of…

  9. Environmental impact assessment in Estonia and Norway

    SciTech Connect

    Holm-Hansen, J.

    1997-11-01

    Authorities in Eastern European countries are looking for best available policy tools from the West, and policy instruments tailored for a Western context are being introduced massively in the former state socialist countries of Europe. This study examines some of the contextual factors that hamper the introduction of modern, Western tools of environmental management within previously state socialist countries. These are highlighted through a comparison of how environmental impact assessment (EIA) is put into practice in Estonia and Norway. Estonia and Norway belong to the same European Baltic-Nordic region, but the two countries have a dramatically different history for most of this century.

  10. Vocational Education and Training Reform in Estonia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    This report on vocational education and training (VET) reform in Estonia is one of a series of country reports by the European Training Foundation on the reform process in partner countries. Chapter 1 provides basic data on the country. Chapter 2 describes the present situation and recent developments in VET. It covers main features of the…

  11. Stakeholder Perspectives: CLIL Programme Management in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehisto, Peeter; Asser, Hiie

    2007-01-01

    In 2000, Estonia launched a voluntary Estonian language CLIL programme for seven year-olds in four Russian-medium schools. The programme has expanded rapidly to a total of 48 kindergartens and schools. This paper reports on research into stakeholder perspectives on programme management. In addition to surveying parents, teachers, vice-principals…

  12. OECD Reviews of School Resources: Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santiago, Paulo; Levitas, Anthony; Radó, Péter; Shewbridge, Claire

    2016-01-01

    This report for Estonia forms part of the OECD Review of Policies to Improve the Effectiveness of Resource Use in Schools. The purpose of the review is to explore how school resources can be governed, distributed, utilised and managed to improve the quality, equity and efficiency of school education. School resources are understood in a broad way,…

  13. Newly Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding Your Pathology Biopsy: The First Step Sentinel Node Biopsy Melanoma ... start this journey: Get a copy of your pathology report. We can help you understand the report ...

  14. Newly Diagnosed

    MedlinePlus

    ... of transmitting HIV to others. Do I Have AIDS? Being HIV-positive does NOT necessarily mean you ... Children Newly Diagnosed: Older Adults Related Topics on AIDS.gov Stages of HIV Infection Immune System 101 ...

  15. Fatigue is highly associated with poor health-related quality of life, disability and depression in newly-diagnosed patients with inflammatory bowel disease, independent of disease activity

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, B L; Zoëga, H; Shah, S A; LeLeiko, N; Lidofsky, S; Bright, R; Flowers, N; Law, M; Moniz, H; Merrick, M; Sands, B E

    2014-01-01

    Background Fatigue is common in Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Data on fatigue in newly diagnosed patients are unavailable. Aim To report prevalence of fatigue in newly diagnosed CD and UC patients and examine its association with health-related quality of life (HRQOL), depression and disability. Methods The Ocean State Crohn's and Colitis Area Registry (OSCCAR) is a statewide cohort of newly diagnosed inflammatory bowel disease patients in Rhode Island. Fatigue was assessed using the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue Scale. Patients were administered instruments measuring HRQOL, overall disability and work impairment, and depression. Results Fatigue was prevalent in 26.4% of 220 subjects. Cohen's d effect sizes for fatigue were large: Short-Form 36 Health Survey mental health component (CD 1.5, UC 1.4) and physical health component (CD 1.4, UC 1.4), EuroQol-5D valuation of current health state (CD 1.2, UC 1.0), Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire (CD 1.9, UC 1.6) and Patient Health Questionnaire depression scale (CD 1.8, UC 1.7). Fatigued patients reported more work impairment (Score difference: CD 29.5%, UC 23.8%) and activity impairment (score difference: CD 32.3%, UC 25.7%) on the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire. Fatigue's association with all scores remained highly significant despite controlling for disease activity. Conclusions Fatigue is strongly associated with poor HRQOL, disability and depression similarly in CD and UC even when controlling for disease activity. Fatigue's association with a wide range of patient-reported outcome measures suggests that monitoring fatigue is a simple way to screen for overall disruption in patient life. PMID:24612278

  16. Mammography use and mode of detection among breast cancer patients in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Innos, Kaire; Valvere, Vahur; Padrik, Peeter; Eelma, Evelyn; Kütner, Riina; Lehtsaar, Jaak; Tekkel, Mare

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine past mammography use and mode of detection among breast cancer (BC) patients in Estonia, a country that has low screening coverage and high BC mortality. Women newly diagnosed with primary BC in Estonia in 2008-2010 were interviewed. Determinants of past mammography use and the detection of BC by mammography were studied using multivariate logistic regression. Among 977 participants, almost half reported no mammograms prior to the detection of BC. Overall, 22% of the cases were detected by mammography (16% by screening mammography). Detection by mammography was strongly related to age, past mammography use, and obesity. Among cases detected by mammography, 10% were stage III/IV at diagnosis (32% among cases detected by other modes). This study showed low mammography utilization and high rate of self-detection of BC in Estonia. Increased detection by mammography would help diagnose the disease at an earlier stage and consequently avoid premature BC deaths. Efforts should be undertaken to increase participation in screening and improve the availability of mammography among older and high-risk women. The results are likely to be relevant for other countries and population groups with low screening coverage.

  17. High Summer Temperatures and Mortality in Estonia

    PubMed Central

    Oudin Åström, Daniel; Åström, Christofer; Rekker, Kaidi; Indermitte, Ene; Orru, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Background On-going climate change is predicted to result in a growing number of extreme weather events—such as heat waves—throughout Europe. The effect of high temperatures and heat waves are already having an important impact on public health in terms of increased mortality, but studies from an Estonian setting are almost entirely missing. We investigated mortality in relation to high summer temperatures and the time course of mortality in a coastal and inland region of Estonia. Methods We collected daily mortality data and daily maximum temperature for a coastal and an inland region of Estonia. We applied a distributed lag non-linear model to investigate heat related mortality and the time course of mortality in Estonia. Results We found an immediate increase in mortality associated with temperatures exceeding the 75th percentile of summer maximum temperatures, corresponding to approximately 23°C. This increase lasted for a couple of days in both regions. The total effect of elevated temperatures was not lessened by significant mortality displacement. Discussion We observed significantly increased mortality in Estonia, both on a country level as well as for a coastal region and an inland region with a more continental climate. Heat related mortality was higher in the inland region as compared to the coastal region, however, no statistically significant differences were observed. The lower risks in coastal areas could be due to lower maximum temperatures and cooling effects of the sea, but also better socioeconomic condition. Our results suggest that region specific estimates of the impacts of temperature extremes on mortality are needed. PMID:27167851

  18. Distribution of enterobiasis among nursery school children in SE Estonia and of other helminthiases in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Remm, Mare

    2006-11-01

    The occurrence of helminthiases in Estonia was under extensive observation from 1956 until 1989. Enterobiasis had remained the most prevalent helminthiasis in Estonia in the 1990s. After 1990, the number of helminthological studies decreased. This study was conducted to investigate the occurrence and possible risk factors of enterobiasis among nursery school children in Southeast Estonia. A total of 954 nursery school children were examined from 22 nursery schools in Tartu and Põlva counties in Estonia. Enterobius vermicularis infection was detected using the anal swab technique. The parents of tested children were asked to complete questionnaires so as to ascertain the potential risk factors in children's homes and in their families. The overall rate of being positive for E. vermicularis egg was 24.4%. The occurrence of enterobiasis among the examined nursery schools ranged from 11.8 to 46.2% and from 0 to 61.1% in nursery school groups. All nursery schools were infected. Children 5-8 years of age showed a significantly higher rate of being positive for E. vermicularis egg than the younger children. The overall infection rate was higher among boys and among children from larger families. The infection rate was related to washing of hands after closet use. The socioeconomic status of the family was not associated with the frequency of enterobiasis.

  19. Overlapping Democracies, Europe's Democratic Deficit, and National Education Policy: Estonia's School Leaders as Heirs to a Soviet Legacy or as Agents of Democracy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevick, Doyle

    2009-01-01

    Eleven years after Estonia regained independence, its government sought admission to the European Union and NATO, which pressured the country to act on issues related to the Holocaust and in particular to adopt a Holocaust education day in schools. The policy, though adopted, was deeply unpopular within the country, leading to the dilemma of…

  20. Nationwide study of childhood celiac disease incidence over a 35-year period in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Ress, Krista; Luts, Katrin; Rägo, Tiina; Pisarev, Heti; Uibo, Oivi

    2012-12-01

    The aims of the study were to analyze the trends and characteristics of the incidence and clinical presentation of childhood celiac disease (CD) from 1976 to 2010 in Estonia. The study included all children up to 19 years of age diagnosed with small bowel biopsy proven CD. During a 35-year period, CD was diagnosed in 152 children in Estonia (68 boys, median age 2.3 years). From 1976 to 1980, the age-standardized incidence rate of CD was 0.10 per 100,000 person-years. After the introduction of gliadin and endomysium antibody screening (in conjunction with activities directed to increase the physicians awareness), the incidence rate increased from 0.48 in 1986-1990 to 1.55 per 100,000 person-years in 1991-1995. After initiating screening with anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies in 2003 and routine screening for CD among all children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes in 2005, the incidence rate increased from 1.59 in 2001-2005 to 3.14 per 100,000 person-years in 2006-2010 (median age 6.8 years). Our nationwide study demonstrates a more than 30-fold increase in the incidence of childhood CD over a 35-year period in Estonia, along with changing patterns in the presentation of pediatric CD. In addition to the impact of use of novel CD screening methods, active search and rising of the awareness among doctors may have strongest effect. Both environmental and social factors could be also involved in the increase in CD incidence.

  1. Abortion in the framework of family planning in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Karro, H

    1997-01-01

    A post-independence (1992-93) decree issued by the Estonian Ministry of Social Affairs permits abortion on request up to 12 weeks of gestation and, on medical grounds, up to 20 weeks. According to reports received by the Estonian Medical Statistical Bureau, the 1994 abortion rate was 53.8/1000 women of reproductive age. Among women under 20 years of age, the abortion rate declined from 55.5/1000 in 1992 to 41.5/1000 in 1994. Only mini-abortions and abortions performed for medical reasons are free of charge; women with health insurance pay 50% of the cost of most procedures. Funds from abortion fees are used to subsidize contraception for full-time students, women in the first postpartum year, and women who had an induced abortion in the past three months. All other women must pay the full price of contraception. In 1994, only 234 out of every 1000 fertile women were using effective forms of contraception (IUDs and hormonal methods). However, the birth rate has been declining rapidly since 1990 and the rate of natural increase became negative in 1993 (-4.0). The fact that abortion but not contraception is subsidized has facilitated reliance on abortion as a family planning method. Recommended, to reduce the abortion rate and improve the family planning situation in Estonia, are improved contraceptive counseling, including pre- and post-abortion services, and school-based sex education.

  2. Directional distribution of chilling winds in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Saue, Triin

    2016-08-01

    Wind chill equivalent temperature (WCET) is used to define thermal discomfort in winter months. Directional distributions of winds, which are associated with uncomfortable weather, were composed of three climatologically different Estonian locations: Vilsandi, Kuusiku, and Jõhvi. Cases with wind chill equivalent temperature <-10 °C, which could be classified as "uncomfortable or worse," were investigated. Additional thresholds were used to measure weather risk. The 25th percentile of daily minimum WCET was tested to measure classical prevalent wind directions in Estonia: W, SW, and NW bring warm air in winter from the North Atlantic, while winds from the East-European plain (NE, E, and SE) are associated with cold air. The eastern prevalence was stronger when a lower threshold was used. A directional approach may find several applications, such as building, agricultural, landscape, or settlement planning.

  3. Directional distribution of chilling winds in Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saue, Triin

    2016-08-01

    Wind chill equivalent temperature (WCET) is used to define thermal discomfort in winter months. Directional distributions of winds, which are associated with uncomfortable weather, were composed of three climatologically different Estonian locations: Vilsandi, Kuusiku, and Jõhvi. Cases with wind chill equivalent temperature <-10 °C, which could be classified as "uncomfortable or worse," were investigated. Additional thresholds were used to measure weather risk. The 25th percentile of daily minimum WCET was tested to measure classical prevalent wind directions in Estonia: W, SW, and NW bring warm air in winter from the North Atlantic, while winds from the East-European plain (NE, E, and SE) are associated with cold air. The eastern prevalence was stronger when a lower threshold was used. A directional approach may find several applications, such as building, agricultural, landscape, or settlement planning.

  4. Descriptive epidemiology of spinal muscular atrophy type I in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Vaidla, Eve; Talvik, Inga; Kulla, Andres; Kahre, Tiina; Hamarik, Malle; Napa, Aita; Metsvaht, Tuuli; Piirsoo, Andres; Talvik, Tiina

    2006-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy is the second most frequent autosomal-recessive disorder in Europeans. There are no published epidemiological data on SMA in Estonia and other Baltic countries. The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of SMA I in Estonia. All patients with SMA I diagnosed between January 1994 and December 2003 were included in the study. The diagnosis was established on the basis of neurological evaluation, ENMG findings, molecular studies and muscle biopsy. PCR and restriction enzyme analysis was used to detect the homozygous deletion of the SMN1 gene. A total of 9 cases of SMA I were identified during this 10-year period. The incidence of SMA I in Estonia is 1 in 14,400 live births, which is similar to the result from Hungary but lower than average incidence in the world. Only one of the patients was female. Typical SMN1 gene deletion was found in all cases.

  5. New Investigations of the Alleged Meteorite from Igast, Estonia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    OKeefe, John A.; Lowman, Paul D., Jr.

    1961-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a reinvestigation of the object which allegedly fell at Igast, Estonia, in 1855, and which may be the only example of a meteorite with the chemical composition of a tektite. R is concluded that generally quoted opinions of the artificial nature of this object are based on spurious samples, specifically melted brick and quartz basalt porphyry distributed by a Russian collector. Possibly genuine specimens from this observed fall are in the British Museum, the Paris Museum, and perhaps at the University of Dorpat, Estonia. It is recommended that these specimens be re-examined and that a search for similar objects be made.

  6. Infant mortality gap in the Baltic region - Latvia, Estonia, and Lithuania - in relation to macroeconomic factors in 1996-2010.

    PubMed

    Ebela, Inguna; Zile, Irisa; Ebela, Danute Razuka; Rozenfelde, Ingrida Rumba

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE. A constant gap has appeared in infant mortality among the 3 Baltic States - Latvia, Estonia, and Lithuania - since the restoration of independence in 1991. The aim of the study was to compare infant mortality rates in all the 3 Baltic countries and examine some of the macro- and socioeconomic factors associated with infant mortality. MATERIAL AND METHODS. The data were obtained from international databases, such as World Health Organization and EUROSTAT, and the national statistical databases of the Baltic States. The time series data sets (1996-2010) were used in the regression and correlation analysis. RESULTS. In all the 3 Baltic States, a strong and significant correlation was found: Latvia (r=-0.81, P<0.01), Lithuania (r=-0.93, P<0.01), and Estonia (r=-0.91, P<0.01). There was also a correlation between infant mortality and healthcare expenditure in local currency per capita: Latvia (r=-0.81, P<0.01); Lithuania (r=-0.90, P<0.01) and Estonia (r=-0.88, P<0.01). In Latvia (r=0.87, P<0.01) and Estonia (r=0.70; P<0.01), a significant correlation between infant mortality and unemployment levels was observed from 1996 to 2008, whereas the statistical significance disappeared in the period from 1996 to 2010. In Lithuania, the relationship was not significant. CONCLUSIONS. Higher infant mortality rates and a less stable decreasing tendency in Latvia are apparently explained by less successful adaptation to a new political and economic situation and limited skills in adjusting the healthcare system to the reality of life.

  7. The ethics of Soviet medical practice: behaviours and attitudes of physicians in Soviet Estonia.

    PubMed Central

    Barr, D A

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study and report the attitudes and practices of physicians in a former Soviet republic regarding issues pertaining to patients' rights, physician negligence and the acceptance of gratuities from patients. DESIGN: Survey questionnaire administered to physicians in 1991 at the time of the Soviet breakup. SETTING: Estonia, formerly a Soviet republic, now an independent state. SURVEY SAMPLE: A stratified, random sample of 1,000 physicians, representing approximately 20 per cent of practicing physicians under the age of 65. RESULTS: Most physicians shared information with patients about treatment risks and alternatives, with the exception of cancer patients: only a third of physicians tell the patient when cancer is suspected. Current practice at the time of the survey left patients few options when physician negligence occurred; most physicians feel that under a reformed system physician negligence should be handled within the local facility rather than by the government. It was common practice for physicians to receive gifts, tips, or preferential access to scarce consumer goods from their patients. Responses varied somewhat by facility and physician nationality. CONCLUSION: The ethics of Soviet medical practice were different in a number of ways from generally accepted norms in Western countries. Physicians' attitudes about the need for ethical reform suggest that there will be movement in Estonia towards a system of medical ethics that more closely approximates those in the West. PMID:8932723

  8. [Hospital care in Estonia: thoughts on patient privacy].

    PubMed

    Schoenacker, Aline

    2017-03-01

    A student nurse is doing a work placement in a hospital in Estonia. The care techniques are identical to those with which she is familiar. However, the application of concepts of privacy and modesty is somewhat different. A reflexive analysis of the situation ensures no hasty judgements are made and enables her to think about the place of her own representations.

  9. The Russian Diaspora in Latvia and Estonia: Predicting Language Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romanov, Artemi

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on the language situation in the Russian diaspora in Latvia and Estonia and analyzes these factors that are critical in determining language outcomes for a language community within one country that speaks a majority language of another. Examines the possibility of three outcomes: language maintenance, bilingualism, and language shift in a…

  10. Beyond Linguistic Policy: The Soviet Union Versus Estonia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rannut, Mart

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of the role of non-Russian languages in the Soviet Union (USSR) focuses on the history of ethnic group languages and language policy in Estonia since the collapse of totalitarianism. A historical overview of Soviet Union language policy is offered, with attention given to the ideological goals influencing policy, and their realization…

  11. Why Do People Engage in Corruption? The Case of Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tavits, Margit

    2010-01-01

    This study uses survey data for 2004 on the general public (N = 788) and public officials (N = 791) in the young post-communist democracy of Estonia to examine individual-level determinants of corruption. The results indicate that both public officials and citizens are more likely to engage in corruption when they do not define corruption as…

  12. The live-birth prevalence of mucopolysaccharidoses in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Krabbi, Külliki; Joost, Kairit; Zordania, Riina; Talvik, Inga; Rein, Reet; Huijmans, Jan G M; Verheijen, Frans V; Õunap, Katrin

    2012-08-01

    Previous studies on the prevalence of mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) in different populations have shown considerable variations. There are, however, few data with regard to the prevalence of MPSs in Fenno-Ugric populations or in north-eastern Europe, except for a report about Scandinavian countries. A retrospective epidemiological study of MPSs in Estonia was undertaken, and live-birth prevalence of MPS patients born between 1985 and 2006 was estimated. The live-birth prevalence for all MPS subtypes was found to be 4.05 per 100,000 live births, which is consistent with most other European studies. MPS II had the highest calculated incidence, with 2.16 per 100,000 live births (4.2 per 100,000 male live births), forming 53% of all diagnosed MPS cases, and was twice as high as in other studied European populations. The second most common subtype was MPS IIIA, with a live-birth prevalence of 1.62 in 100,000 live births. With 0.27 out of 100,000 live births, MPS VI had the third-highest live-birth prevalence. No cases of MPS I were diagnosed in Estonia, making the prevalence of MPS I in Estonia much lower than in other European populations. MPSs are the third most frequent inborn error of metabolism in Estonia after phenylketonuria and galactosemia.

  13. Adoption of National Curricula by Vocational Teachers in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rekkor, Sirje; Ümarik, Meril; Loogma, Krista

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to study the adoption of national curricula by vocational teachers. In the paper, we review the process of vocational education and training curriculum reform in Estonia over the last 20 years, and, in particular, the introduction of national curricula. As teachers should be considered the key agents of curricular change, we look…

  14. Helminth fauna of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Valdmann, H; Moks, E; Talvik, H

    2004-04-01

    Thirty-seven carcasses of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) collected and examined in Estonia during 1999-2001 had helminths. Parasites identified and their prevalence included Diphyllobothrium latum (5%), Taenia pisiformis (100%), Taenia laticollis (41%), Taenia hydatigena (3%), Taenia taeniaeformis (3%), Toxocara cati (68%), and Trichinella spp. (22%). The only significant relationships (P < or = 0.05) between occurrence of helminths and host age and sex were a greater number of T. pisiformis and T. laticollis in older than in youger male lynx, and older males had a greater number of species of helminth than did younger lynx. Sixty-one fecal samples collected during snow tracking of nine lynx were examined; eggs of T. cati were identified in 38 samples, and Capillaria spp were found in eight samples. This is the first systematic investigation of parasites of lynx in Estonia.

  15. Reproduction of the stone loach, Barbatula barbatula (L.) in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Saat, Toomas; Lauringson, Gustav; Lees, Janek

    2003-01-01

    Reproduction of the stone loach was investigated in two rivers of northwestern Estonia (Vääna and Maidla, 59 degrees N). Loaches in the Vääna River were slow growing and males prevailed among older fish; in the Maidla River loaches were fast growing and females dominated among older fish. Reproduction indices (age at maturation, duration of the spawning season, number of egg batches, fecundity, oocyte diameter, annual dynamics of gonadosomatic index and oocyte diameter) of comparably sized loach of Vääna and Maidla were similar and intermediate between more southern and more northern populations. Female investment in offspring (measured as the volume of spawned eggs) in Estonia was close to that in England; however, energy was invested in a smaller number of larger eggs (larvae). Our results confirm earlier data on the remarkable variation of life history patterns of the stone loach and indicate clinal variation of several reproduction indices along a north-south axis.

  16. The verification of GIA in Estonia using GNSS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollo, Karin; Oja, Tõnis

    2014-05-01

    Estonia is situated at the South-East corner of the Fennoscandian post-glacial rebound (PGR) area, thus the impact of ongoing Glacial Isostatic Adjustment could be noticed on accurate geodetic measurements; e.g. in Estonia the uplift rates up to 4 mm/yr have been observed so far. In this contribution we use horizontal and vertical uplift rates derived from (1) the time series of several Estonian GNSS permanent reference stations (CORS), and (2) nation-wide GPS campaigns held in 1997 and 2008. Different methods and software were used to process and analyse GNSS data and time series. Slight discrepancies between the results helped to evaluate the effects of different approaches in data processing. To model the surface displacements and other geodetic quantities in response to the melting of ice sheets the open source software SELEN (Spada and Stocchi, 2007) with several ice models was used. The observed displacements of geodetic points as well as velocity estimates of CORS were compared with the predictions of latest PGR empirical models (e.g. NKG2005LU) and with the results from GIA modelling. In most cases good fit between the observations and models was found within study area. The higher discrepancies appeared in the East and South-East Estonia. Besides noise in aforementioned measurements the reason could be that almost no observed data from study area have been used in compilation of widespread (common, well-known) ice and GIA models. Keywords: GNSS measurements, postglacial rebound, glacial isostatic adjustment, Estonia. References Spada, G., Stocchi, P. (2007). SELEN: A Fortran 90 program for solving the "sea-level equation". Computers & Geosciences, 33:538-562, 2007.

  17. Dirofilaria repens Microfilaremia in Three Dogs in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Jokelainen, Pikka; Mõtsküla, Paul F; Heikkinen, Petra; Ülevaino, Epp; Oksanen, Antti; Lassen, Brian

    2016-02-01

    In Europe, the zoonotic parasite Dirofilaria repens continues to spread northward. We describe three likely autochthonous canine microfilaremic D. repens infections from Estonia, an European Union country located in the Baltic region of northern Europe. The parasite species was confirmed with sequencing. These are new northernmost D. repens findings in Europe and show that the zoonotic parasite has spread farther north. Infection with D. repens should be included in the list of differential diagnoses for human and animal hosts also in northern Europe.

  18. Children's Perspective on Learning: An International Study in Denmark, Estonia, Germany and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandberg, Anette; Broström, Stig; Johansson, Inge; Frøkjaer, Thorleif; Kieferle, Christa; Seifert, Anja; Roth, Angela; Tuul, Maire; Ugaste, Aino; Laan, Meeli

    2017-01-01

    This article explores how some children in Denmark, Estonia, Germany and Sweden describe their perspective on learning. The aim of the international study is to gain knowledge of how preschool children in Sweden, Denmark, Estonia and Germany reflect and perceive their learning in preschool and other surrounding social contexts. The results are…

  19. The Affective Dimension of Religion and Personal Happiness among Students in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Leslie J.; Elken, Ahto; Robbins, Mandy

    2012-01-01

    A sample of 150 students in Estonia (119 from a secular university and 31 from a Lutheran theological institute) completed the Oxford Happiness Measure and the Francis Scale of Attitude toward Christianity. The data show no significant correlation between these two variables; thus the findings challenge the generalizability to Estonia of the…

  20. Seasonality of alcohol-related phenomena in Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silm, Siiri; Ahas, Rein

    2005-03-01

    We studied alcohol consumption and its consequences as a seasonal phenomenon in Estonia and analysed the social and environmental factors that may cause its seasonal rhythm. There are two important questions when researching the seasonality of human activities: (1) whether it is caused by natural or social factors, and (2) whether the impact of the factors is direct or indirect. Often the seasonality of social phenomena is caused by social factors, but the triggering mechanisms are related to environmental factors like temperature, precipitation, and radiation via the circannual calendar. The indicators of alcohol consumption in the current paper are grouped as: (1) pre-consumption phenomena, i.e. production, tax and excise, sales (beer, wine and vodka are analysed separately), and (2) post-consumption phenomena, i.e. alcohol-related crime and traffic accidents and the number of people detained in lockups and admitted to alcohol treatment clinics. In addition, seasonal variability in the amount of alcohol advertising has been studied, and a survey has been carried out among 87 students of Tartu University. The analysis shows that different phenomena related to alcohol have a clear seasonal rhythm in Estonia. The peak period of phenomena related to beer is in the summer, from June to August and the low point is during the first months of the year. Beer consumption correlates well with air temperature. The consumption of vodka increases sharply at the end of the year and in June; the production of vodka does not have a significant correlation with negative temperatures. The consumption of wine increases during summer and in December. The consequences of alcohol consumption, expressed as the rate of traffic accidents or the frequency of medical treatment, also show seasonal variability. Seasonal variability of alcohol consumption in Estonia is influenced by natural factors (temperature, humidity, etc.) and by social factors (celebrations, vacations, etc.). However

  1. Thyroid nodularity and cancer among Chernobyl cleanup workers from Estonia

    SciTech Connect

    Inskip, P.D.; Boice, J.D. Jr.; Tekkel, M.

    1997-02-01

    Thyroid examinations, including palpation, ultrasound and, selectively, fine-needle aspiration biopsy, were conducted on nearly 2,000 Chernobyl cleanup workers from Estonia to evaluate the occurrence of thyroid cancer and nodular thyroid disease among men with protracted exposure to ionizing radiation. The examinations were conducted in four cities in Estonia during March-April 1995, 9 years after the reactor accident. The study population was selected from a predefined cohort of 4,833 cleanup workers from Estonia under surveillance for cancer incidence. These men had been sent to Chernobyl between 1986 and 1991 to entomb the damaged reactor, remove radioactive debris and perform related cleanup activities. A total of 2,997 men were invited for thyroid screening and 1,984 (66%) were examined. Estimates of radiation dose from external sources were obtained from military or other institutional records, and details about service dates and types of work performed while at Chernobyl were obtained from a self-administered questionnaire. Blood samples were collected for assay of chromosomal translocations in circulating lymphocytes and loss of expression of the glycophorin A (GPA) gene in erythrocytes. The primary outcome measure was the presence or absence of thyroid nodules as determined by the ultrasound examination. Of the screened workers, 1,247 (63%) were sent to Chernobyl in 1986, including 603 (30%) sent in April or May, soon after the accident. Workers served at Chernobyl for an average of 3 months. The average age was 32 years at the time of arrival at Chernobyl and 40 years at the time of thyroid examination. The mean documented radiation dose from external sources was 10.8 cGy. Biological indicators of exposure showed low correlations with documented dose, but did not indicate that the mean dose for the population was higher than the average documented dose. 47 refs., 1 fig., 9 tabs.

  2. Financing Estonia's unemployment insurance system: problems and prospects.

    PubMed

    Paas, T; Scannell, N J

    2000-01-01

    In recent years, favorable media coverage of the glowing employment situation in the United States has been the norm. History, for one, won't permit us, however, to become complacent with what appears on the books to be a rosy economic picture for the nation. Moreover, the mounting recognition that the U.S. economy is inextricably tied to those of other nations--large and small--serves to keep us vigilant. This paper allows us a comparative exploration of the employment conditions in Estonia and the problems and prospects of financing its unemployment insurance program.

  3. Chemical and isotopic properties of kukersites from Iowa and Estonia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mastalerz, Maria; Schimmelmann, A.; Hower, J.C.; Lis, G.; Hatch, J.; Jacobson, S.R.

    2003-01-01

    Kukersite samples from Estonia and Iowa were analyzed for elemental composition, functional group distribution, and carbon and hydrogen stable isotope ratios. The elemental and hydrogen isotope values, together with other analytical data, suggest a higher thermal maturity for the Iowa kukersite. The wide carbon isotopic range of 9.3??? among kukersites, with unusually negative ??13C values reaching -33.2???, indicates isotopically variable carbon sources for production of biomass, and thus major paleoceanographic differences between the environments supporting biosynthesis. ?? 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Technology experience and economics of oil shale mining in Estonia

    SciTech Connect

    Fraiman, J.; Kuzmiv, I.

    1995-11-01

    The exhaustion of fuel-energy resources became an evident problem of the European continent in the 1960s. Careful utilization of their own reserves of coal, oil, and gas (Germany, France, Spain) and assigned shares of imports of these resources make up the strategy of economic development of the European countries. The expansion of oil shale utilization is the most topical problem. The experience of mining oil shale deposits in Estonia and Russia, in terms of the practice and the economic results, is reviewed in this article. The room-and-pillar method of underground mining and the open-cut technology of clearing the ground ensure the fertility of a soil. The economics of underground and open pit oil shale mines is analyzed in terms of natural, organizational, and technical factors. These analyses are used in the planning and management of oil shale mining enterprises. The perspectives of the oil shale mining industry of Estonia and the economic expediency of multiproduction are examined. Recommendations and guidelines for future industrial utilization of oil shale are given in the summary.

  5. Newly Diagnosed: Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Children Newly Diagnosed: Older Adults Related Topics on AIDS.gov Aging with HIV/AIDS National HIV/AIDS ... an Emerging Challenge Last revised: 07/10/2015 AIDS.gov HIV/AIDS Basics • Federal Resources • Using New ...

  6. Improving the terrestial gravity dataset in South-Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oja, T.; Gruno, A.; Bloom, A.; Mäekivi, E.; Ellmann, A.; All, T.; Jürgenson, H.; Michelson, M.

    2009-04-01

    The only available gravity dataset covering the whole of Estonia has been observed from 1949 to 1958. This historic dataset has been used as a main input source for many applications including the geoid determination, the realization of the height system, the geological mapping. However, some recent studies have been indicated remarkable systematic biases in the dataset. For instance, a comparison of modern gravity control points with the historic data revealed unreasonable discrepancies in a large region in South-Estonia. However, the distribution of the gravity control was scarce, which did not allow to fully assess the quality of the historic data in the study area. In 2008 a pilot project was called out as a cooperation between Estonian Land Board, Geological Survey of Estonia, Tallinn University of Technology and Estonian University of Life Sciences to densify the detected problematic area (about 2000 km2) with new and reliable gravity data. Field work was carried out in October and November 2008, whereas GPS RTK and relative Scintrex gravimeter CG5 were used for precise positioning and gravity determinations, respectively. Altogether more than 140 new points were determined along the roads. Despite bad weather conditions and unstable observation base of the gravimeter (mostly on the bank of the road), uncertainty better than ±0.1 mGal (1 mGal = 10-5 m/s2) was estimated from the adjustment of gravimeter's readings. The separate gravity dataset of the Estonian Geological Survey were also incorporated into the gravity database of the project for further analysis. Those data were collected within several geological mapping projects in 1981-2007 and contain the data with uncertainty better than ±0.25 mGal. After the collection of new gravity data, a Kriging with proper variogram modeling was applied to form the Bouguer anomaly grids of the historic and the new datasets. The comparison of the resulting grids revealed biases up to -4 mGal at certain regions

  7. Attitudes of Major Soviet Nationalities. Volume II. The Baltics. Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1973-06-01

    was founded in 1 Tallinn, Estonia. "Estonia was chosen as an experimental for creating a general automatized planning and directing ,2 The first...Lielupe, and the Venta . The republic is, hovever, poorly supplied 4ith mineral deposits. The primary mining products are sand and sandstone, gypsum...social system, but had little time to organize o.vlt style institutions %efore the Nazi invasion of June 1941. There was, however, time to plan and

  8. Recent changes in breast cancer incidence and mortality in Estonia: Transition to the west.

    PubMed

    Baburin, Aleksei; Aareleid, Tiiu; Rahu, Mati; Reedik, Lauri; Innos, Kaire

    2016-06-01

    Background The aim of this study was to examine breast cancer (BC) incidence and mortality trends in Estonia during recent decades and to compare the pattern of these trends with other selected European countries and regions. We attempt to explain the findings in relation to changes in Estonian society and healthcare system. Methods BC incidence (1985-2012) and mortality (1985-2013) data for Estonia were obtained from the Estonian Cancer Registry and Statistics Estonia. Data for selected European countries were obtained from the EUREG database. Joinpoint regression was used to analyze age-standardized rates in Estonia by age. For international comparison of incidence and mortality rates, we used scatterplot with 95% confidence ellipses and the mortality to incidence ratio. Results The overall BC incidence continues to increase in Estonia, while mortality has been in decline since 2000. Both incidence and mortality trends varied considerably across age groups. Among women aged 60 years and older, BC incidence increased at a rate of nearly 3% per year. Significant decrease in mortality was seen only among women aged 50-59 years. Comparison of scatterplots between countries and regions revealed two clusters in Europe separated along the incidence axis. The correlation between incidence and mortality in Estonia changed its direction in the mid-1990s. Conclusion In recent years, the dynamics of BC burden in Estonia has transitioned towards the high incidence-low mortality type model, which is characteristic to Western, Northern and Southern Europe. Although overall BC incidence is much lower in Estonia than in more affluent European countries, mortality from BC is still relatively high, particularly among elderly women.

  9. An Energy Overview of the Republic of Estonia

    SciTech Connect

    anon.

    2003-10-20

    The DOE Office of Fossil Energy is maintaining a web site that is meant to provide useful business- and energy-related information about countries and regions of the world for exporters, project developers, and researchers. The site consists of more than 130 country pages (organized into seven different world regions), with each country page having its own set of links to information sources about that country. There are also more than 30 Country Energy Overviews at the web site -- each of these is a comprehensive review of a specific country's entire energy situation, including sections on Energy Policy, Oil, Natural Gas, Coal, Hydroelectric/Renewables, Nuclear Power, Energy Transmission Infrastructure, Electricity, Electric Industry Overview, Environmental Activities, Privatization, Trade, and Economic Situation. The specific country highlighted in this Country Energy Overview is Estonia. The site is designed to be dynamic. Updates to the overviews will be made as need and resources permit.

  10. Aeolian Coastal Landscapes in changes (a study from Tahkuna, Estonia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, A.

    2012-04-01

    The openness of the coast to the winds and storm waves has an important part in changing aeolian coastal landscapes as well as anthropogenic factor. The aeolian coastal landscapes are probably the most dynamic areas. Occurrence of aeolian coastal landscapes in Estonia is limited. They consist of sandy beaches, sandy beach ridges and dunes. The coastal ecosystems are strongly affected by their topography, based on the character of deposits and moisture conditions. The majority of their ecosystems are quite close to the specific natural habitat. These ecosystems are represented in the list of the European Union Habitats (Natura 2000). In recent decades human influence has changed the landscape over time in different activities (recreation, trampling, off-road driving) and their intensities, which has led to destruction or degradation of various habitats. Previously coastal landscapes were used for forestry and pasture. Nowadays one of the most serious threats to open landscape is afforestation. This study examines the relationships between landscape components during last decades. Trying to find out how much aeolian coastal landscapes are influenced by natural processes or human activities. The results are based on cartographic analysis, fieldwork data. The method of landscape complex profile was used. The profiles show a cross-sections of landforms and interrelationships between landscape components, most frequently describing the relations between soils and vegetation. In each sample point the mechanical composition of sediments, vegetation cover and soil is determined. Results show that changes in landscapes are induced by their own development as well as changes in environmental factors and human activities. Larger changes are due to increase of coastal processes activity. These processes can be observed in sandy beaches, which are easily transformed by waves. Higher sea levels during storm surges are reaching older beach formation, causing erosion and creating

  11. Antibiotic prescription preferences in paediatric outpatient setting in Estonia and Sweden.

    PubMed

    Lass, Jana; Odlind, Viveca; Irs, Alar; Lutsar, Irja

    2013-12-01

    Aims of the study were to compare the paediatric outpatient antibiotic use in two countries with low overall antibiotic consumption and antibacterial resistance levels - Sweden and Estonia - and to describe the adherence to Estonian treatment guideline. All prescriptions for systemic antibiotics for children less than 18 years during 2007 from the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register and Estonian Health Insurance Fund database were identified to conduct a descriptive drug utilisation study. The total paediatric antibiotic use was 616 and 353 per 1000 in Estonia and Sweden, respectively. The greatest between country differences occurred in the age group 2 to 6 years -Estonian children received 1184 and Swedish children 528 prescriptions per 1000. Extended spectrum penicillin amoxicillin (189 per 1000) or its combination with beta-lactamase inhibitor (81 per 1000) and a newer macrolide clarithromycin (127 per 1000) were prescribed most often in Estonia whereas narrow spectrum penicillin phenoxymethylpenicillin (169 per 1000) and older generation macrolide erythromycin (21 per 1000) predominated in Sweden. For acute bronchitis, 17 different antibiotics (most commonly clarithromycin) were prescribed in Estonia despite the guideline recommendation not to use antibiotics. The higher rate of antibiotic use especially of extended spectrum antibiotics in Estonia compared to Sweden emphasizes the need for national activities to promote appropriate use of antibiotics while treating children, even when the overall antibiotic consumption is low.

  12. Mutual Trust between Kindergarten Teachers and Mothers and Its Associations with Family Characteristics in Estonia and Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kikas, Eve; Poikonen, Pirjo-Liisa; Kontoniemi, Marita; Lyyra, Anna-Liisa; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Niilo, Airi

    2011-01-01

    Mutual trust between mothers and kindergarten teachers along with its relation to mother's educational level and child's gender was studied in two neighboring countries--Estonia and Finland. From Estonia 543 ratings of mothers and 232 ratings of teachers were collected, and, from Finland, 712 ratings of mothers and 712 ratings of teachers. Trust…

  13. Moving the Field Forward: A Micro-Meso-Macro Model for Critical Language Planning. The Case of Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skerrett, Delaney Michael

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates "de facto" language policy in Estonia. It investigates how language choices at the micro (or individual) level are negotiated within the macro (or social and historical) context: how official language policy and other features of the discursive environment surrounding language and its use in Estonia translate into…

  14. Estonianization Efforts Post-Independence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rannut, Mart

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the sociolinguistic situation in Estonia. The paper opens with a historic overview, followed by an overview of the current demographic situation and of post-Soviet language and education policies and practices. It is argued that Estonia represents a success story in terms of language policy,…

  15. Women in Physics in Estonia: Many Duties, One Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaasik, Helle

    2009-04-01

    In Estonia, women and men have equal legal rights. Women are expected to earn their living like men—and unlike men, to be the main (often the only) caregiver for the children. In the family women do most of the unpaid work, spending twice the amount of time on household duties as men. Laws about public preschool child care and child support obligations for noncustodial parents exist, but these laws are not always realized in practice. A generous policy of benefits for children under 1.5 years provides some relief for mothers. It is a challenge to balance a woman's traditional load of unpaid duties with the high demands of a science career. As in many other countries, with every step up the academic ladder the underrepresentation of women in science becomes more evident. Physics and engineering are perceived as male areas and women active in these areas are often treated as exceptions. Most obstacles met by women in science are difficult to recognize and neutralize because they are deeply informal. Activities for "gender and science" that exceed the limits of sociological study have no long tradition here and are yet finding their place in Estonian society.

  16. Hazardous substances in the aquatic environment of Estonia.

    PubMed

    Roots, Ott; Roose, Antti

    2013-09-01

    The Water Framework Directive (WFD) aims to regulate the management of European surface water bodies. Directive 2008/105/EC, which establishes the environmental quality standards of priority substances and certain other pollutants, the content of which in the surface water should be monitored, has been transposed by the Estonian Ministry of Environment 9 September 2010 Regulation No. 49. Sampled hazardous substances were selected primarily based on their toxicity, as well as their lifetime in environment and ability to accumulate in living organisms (bioaccumulation). The contents of hazardous substances and their groups determined from Estonian surface waters remained below the limits of quantifications of used analysis methods in most cases. However, the content of some heavy metals, mono- and dibasic phenols in the surface water/waste water and sewage sludge/bottom sediments can still reach the delicate levels in the Estonian oil shale region in particular. Among new substances analysed in Estonia historically first time in 2010, amounts of organotin compounds in sediments and some alkylphenols, their ethoxylates and phthalates were found in various sample matrices.

  17. Effectiveness of Environmental Impact Assessment system in Estonia

    SciTech Connect

    Heinma, Kaupo; Poder, Tonis

    2010-07-15

    To be effective, an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) system, first, has to minimize the probability that projects with significant environmental effects are implemented without EIA, and second, minimize the number of EIAs, which do not provide decision makers with essential information, so that the decision is improved as a result of EIA. The objective of this study was to find out how frequently in Estonia the projects implemented without EIA have caused significant environmental effects, and to measure the relative frequency of EIAs that have no influence on decision. An extensive survey with e-mail distributed questionnaires was carried out to reveal information from governmental agencies, local self-governments, and developers. There was no evidence that projects authorized without EIA have had environmental impacts, which could have been mitigated as a result of EIA. In contrast, about half of EIAs did not alter the decision of relevant authorities. This proportion was valid to both mandatory EIAs and those initiated on judgement basis. In our view, the proportion of no-influence EIAs was excessive and indicated the need to reconsider the provisions applying to the projects with a mandatory EIA requirement as well as judgements practice.

  18. Prevalence of MS in south Estonia. Evidence of a new border of the Fennoscandian focus.

    PubMed

    Gross, K; Kokk, A; Kaasik, A E

    1993-10-01

    A population-based study of MS was carried out in South Estonia in 1988-1989. Cases were identified from the Tartu University Hospital archives where all MS cases in South Estonia are diagnosed, from all neurologists and nursing homes of the region, and from the local Multiple Sclerosis Society. The prevalence in South Estonia is 51 per 100,000, for native Estonians 55, for Russians 29, for other nationalities 42 per 100,000. The prevalence rate in different counties was demonstrated as low as 31 per 100,000 in the County of Tartu, to 72 per 100,000 in Pôlva County; 55% of patients have retired because of their handicap and only 2 patients (1%) were living in nursing homes.

  19. High genotypic diversity found among population of Phytophthora infestans collected in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Runno-Paurson, Eve; Kiiker, Riinu; Joutsjoki, Tiina; Hannukkala, Asko

    2016-03-01

    Potato late blight, caused by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans, is one of the most important diseases of potato worldwide. This is the first study characterising Estonian P. infestans population using the SSR marker genotyping method. 70 P. infestans isolates collected during the growing season in 2004 from eight potato fields in three different regions of Estonia were characterised with nine polymorphic SSR markers. A1 and A2 mating type isolates were detected from every studied field indicating the high potential for sexual reproduction, which raises the genotypic diversity in P. infestans population. Results revealed highly diverse P. infestans population in Estonia resembling the Northern European populations. Most of the multilocus genotypes were detected only once among the collected isolates. Subpopulations collected from different geographical regions of Estonia showed no differentiation from each other but instead formed one highly diverse group.

  20. Newly Deployed Sojourner Rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This 8-image mosaic was acquired during the late afternoon (near 5pm LST, note the long shadows) on Sol 2 as part of the predeploy 'insurance panorama' and shows the newly deployed rover sitting on the Martian surface. This color image was generated from images acquired at 530,600, and 750 nm. The insurance panorama was designed as 'insurance' against camera failure upon deployment. Had the camera failed, the losslessly-compressed, multispectral insurance panorama would have been the main source of image data from the IMP.

    However, the camera deployment was successful, leaving the insurance panorama to be downlinked to Earth several weeks later. Ironically enough, the insurance panorama contains some of the best quality image data because of the lossless data compression and relatively dust-free state of the camera and associated lander/rover hardware on Sol 2.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The IMP was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal investigator.

  1. Hospitalised neonates in Estonia commonly receive potentially harmful excipients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Information on the neonatal exposure to excipients is limited. Our aim was to describe the extent of excipient intake by Estonian neonates; to classify the excipients according to potential neonatal toxicity and thereby to measure the extent of exposure of neonates to potentially harmful excipients. Methods A prospective cohort study that recorded all medicines prescribed to patients aged below 28 days admitted to Tartu University Hospital from 01.02-01.08 2008 and to Tallinn Children’s Hospital from 01.02- 01.08 2009 was conducted. Excipients were identified from Summaries of Product Characteristics and classified according to toxicity following a literature review. Results 1961 prescriptions comprising 107 medicines were written for 348/490 neonates admitted. A total of 123 excipients were found in 1620 (83%) prescriptions and 93 (87%) medicines. 47 (38%) of these excipients were classified as potentially or known to be harmful to neonates. Most neonates (97%) received at least one medicine (median number 2) with potentially or known to be harmful excipient. Parabens were the most commonly used known to be harmful excipients and sodium metabisulphite the most commonly used potentially harmful excipient, received by 343 (99%) and 297 (85%) of treated neonates, respectively. Conclusions Hospitalised neonates in Estonia are commonly receiving a wide range of excipients with their medication. Quantitative information about excipients should be made available to pharmacists and neonatologists helping them to take into account excipient issues when selecting medicines and to monitor for adverse effects if administration of medicines containing excipients is unavoidable. PMID:22931304

  2. Education Policy as Normative Discourse and Negotiated Meanings: Engaging the Holocaust in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevick, E. Doyle

    2010-01-01

    This article uses a socio-cultural approach to analyze the formation and implementation of Estonia's Holocaust Day Policy, a day of both commemoration for victims of the Holocaust and other crimes against humanity, and education about the Holocaust. It investigates both the multi-level development of the policy in light of external pressure (from…

  3. E-Learning as Innovation: Exploring Innovativeness of the VET Teachers' Community in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loogma, Krista; Kruusvall, Juri; Umarik, Meril

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the acceptance of e-learning by teachers of vocational secondary and professional higher education institutions (hereafter: VET teachers) in Estonia has been analysed. The analysis is based on questionnaire study, carried out in 2007. The theoretical framework of the article has been inspired by Everett Rogers' innovation…

  4. An Examination of the Flynn Effect in the National Intelligence Test in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiu, William

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the Flynn Effect (FE; i.e., the rise in IQ scores over time) in Estonia from Scale B of the National Intelligence Test using both classical test theory (CTT) and item response theory (IRT) methods. Secondary data from two cohorts (1934, n = 890 and 2006, n = 913) of students were analyzed, using both classical test theory (CTT)…

  5. Learning and Developing as a University Teacher: Narratives of Early Career Academics in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remmik, Marvi; Karm, Mari; Lepp, Liina

    2013-01-01

    In recent years the higher education context in Estonia, as in most European countries, has changed a lot. All changes have an impact on university teachers' practice and their work organisation, and are presenting new challenges. The current research aims at developing an understanding of Estonian early career academics' professional identity by…

  6. Economic, Educational and Cultural Predictors of Science Learning in Lithuania and Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikk, Jaan

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the research was to assess the economic, educational and cultural predictors of the TIMSS 2003 science test results in Lithuania and Estonia. The data for the research were received from the TIMSS 2003 User Guide for the International Database. The Spearman rank correlation coefficients, calculated on the students' level and the schools…

  7. Estonian Language Competencies for Peace Corps Volunteers in the Republic of Estonia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ets, Tiina K.

    This guide is designed for Estonian language training of Peace Corps workers in Estonia, is intended for use in a competency-based language training program, and reflects daily communication needs in that context. It consists of 52 lessons, each addressing a specific language competency, organized in 14 topical units. An introductory section gives…

  8. The National Status of the Preparation of School Psychologists in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kikas, Eve

    2014-01-01

    Estonia is a small republic that has undergone several big societal changes (from belonging to the Soviet Union to becoming a free republic, and the process of integrating into the European Union) during the last several decades. Psychology has been taught as a separate discipline starting from 1968, but its content has been changed from very…

  9. Exploring the Role of Migrants in Transnational Occupational Learning Processes in Estonia-Finland Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alenius, Pauliina

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the role of migrants in cross-border learning in occupational contexts. The research data included 78 semi-structured and 20 life-course interviews with people who had migrated from Estonia to Finland or who were transmigrating between these countries. The interview data were analysed qualitatively through a…

  10. Alternative Civil Enculturation: Political Disenchantment and Civic Attitudes in Minority Schools in Estonia, Latvia, and Slovakia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golubeva, Maria; Austers, Ivars

    2011-01-01

    The article investigates the ways in which minority schools in Latvia, Estonia, and Slovakia resist the dominant narratives of nation and citizenship and provide an alternative model of civil enculturation for students. It provides evidence to support the hypothesis that differences between competing narratives of statehood and nationhood among…

  11. Seroprevalence of and Risk Factors for Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Cats in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Must, Kärt; Lassen, Brian; Jokelainen, Pikka

    2015-10-01

    In Estonia, northeastern Europe, Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in humans has not declined, in contrast to many other countries. The reasons for this are unknown. Domestic cats are important hosts in the epidemiology of the parasite, but information on local feline T. gondii infections has been lacking. An epidemiological cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the seroprevalence of T. gondii and the risk factors associated with seropositivity in cats in Estonia. Surplus from blood samples that had been collected for unrelated diagnostic purposes from 306 pet cats and 184 shelter cats were analyzed for anti-T. gondii immunoglobulin G antibodies by using a direct agglutination test. Two questionnaires were designed to reveal relevant risk factors for seropositivity. The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii in cats in Estonia was 60.8%. Older age, outdoor access, hunting, living outside the city in the countryside, and not being a purebred cat were among the risk factors associated with seropositivity. T. gondii is highly prevalent in domestic cats in Estonia. This suggests that the environment has been contaminated with T. gondii. Seropositivity indicates previous oocyst shedding, and most of the cats had outdoor access. The increase in T. gondii seroprevalence with age indicates acquired infections, and most of the risk factors were lifestyle-related. Cat owners could diminish the risk of T. gondii infection and also limit the spread of the parasite by not allowing their cats to roam free.

  12. When Public Acts Like Private: The Failure of Estonia's School Choice Mechanism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poder, Kaire; Lauri, Triin

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to show the segregating effect of the market-like matching of students and schools at the basic school level. The natural experiment case is Tallinn, the capital of Estonia. The current school choice mechanism applied in this case is based on entrance tests. There are increasingly over-subscribed intra-catchment area public…

  13. The Professional Foreign Language Teacher in Estonia: Students' and Principals' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oder, Tuuli

    2008-01-01

    The Republic of Estonia as a typical country in transition is going through major changes in educational thinking. Global and European educational trends, together with local changes, the most important being a new state system, have resulted in changes in the concept of professional foreign language (FL) teaching. Common ground among various…

  14. Cost and cost-effectiveness of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis treatment in Estonia and Russia.

    PubMed

    Floyd, Katherine; Hutubessy, Raymond; Kliiman, Kai; Centis, Rosella; Khurieva, Nina; Jakobowiak, Wieslaw; Danilovits, Manfred; Peremitin, Genadi; Keshavjee, Salmaan; Migliori, Giovanni Battista

    2012-07-01

    Evidence on the cost and cost-effectiveness of treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is limited, and no published data are available from former Soviet Union countries, where rates of MDR-TB are highest globally. We evaluated the cost and cost-effectiveness of MDR-TB treatment in Estonia and Russia (Tomsk Oblast), comparing cohorts enrolled on treatment according to World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines in 2001 and 2002 with cohorts treated in previous years. Costs were assessed from a health system perspective in 2003 US$; effects were measured as cures, deaths averted and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) averted. Cure rates when WHO guidelines were followed were 61% (90 out of 149) in Estonia and 76% (76 out of 100) in Tomsk Oblast, with a cost per patient treated of US$8,974 and US$10,088, respectively. Before WHO guidelines were followed, cure rates were 52% in Estonia and 15% in Tomsk Oblast; the cost per patient treated was US$4,729 and US$2,282, respectively. Drugs and hospitalisation accounted for 69-90% of total costs. The cost per DALY averted by treatment following WHO guidelines was US$579 (range US$297-US$902) in Estonia and US$429 (range US$302-US$546) in Tomsk Oblast. Treatment of patients with MDR-TB can be cost-effective, but requires substantial additional investment in tuberculosis control in priority countries.

  15. Family- and Classroom-Related Factors and Mother-Kindergarten Teacher Trust in Estonia and Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kikas, Eve; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Pakarinen, Eija; Poikonen, Pirjo-Liisa

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the role of family-related (mother's education, depressive symptoms and child's gender) and kindergarten-related (teacher's experience, teaching practices and class size) factors in mothers' and teachers' mutual trust in Estonia and Finland. Six hundred eighteen (206 Estonian and 412 Finnish) mothers of kindergarten children…

  16. Influences on Students' Views on Religions and Education in England and Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neill, Sean; Schihalejev, Olga

    2011-01-01

    Structural modelling offers an overall pattern of relationships; this paper looks at differences in students' attitude structures between England and Estonia. Where different coherent sets of beliefs exist in a national sample, factor analysis, which focuses on sets of responses which differ between groups, should be able to separate them out.…

  17. Explaining the Difference between PISA 2009 Reading Scores in Finland and Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikk, Jaan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explain the difference between the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2009 reading results for Finland and Estonia using characteristics of teaching and learning, and characteristics of the overall development of these countries. PISA data were collected via a reading test and student questionnaires…

  18. Will Choice Hurt? Compared to What? A School Choice Experiment in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Põder, Kaire; Lauri, Triin

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the empirical analysis of the effects of a school choice policy in Estonia. The article shows that relying on markets and giving autonomy to the schools over student selection will produce admission tests, even at the elementary school level. This article's contribution is to show that a school choice policy experiment with…

  19. Between Consumerism and Protectionism: Attitudes towards Children, Consumption and the Media in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Margit; Kalmus, Veronika

    2009-01-01

    This study measures attitudes towards children's vulnerability or empowerment within consumer culture, based on data from a representative population survey (N = 1475) conducted in Estonia in 2005. The study use indices comprised of assessments of consumption practices and assertions pertaining to the "endangered vs empowered child"…

  20. Climate change scenarios and the effect of sea-level rise for Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kont, Are; Jaagus, Jaak; Aunap, Raivo

    2003-03-01

    Climate warming due to the enhanced greenhouse effect is expected to have a significant impact on natural environment and human activity in high latitudes. Mostly, it should have a positive effect on human activity. The main threats in Estonia that could be connected with sea-level rise are the flooding of coastal areas, erosion of sandy beaches and the destruction of harbour constructions. Possible climate change and its negative impacts in the coastal regions of Estonia are estimated in this paper. Climate change scenarios for Estonia were generated using a Model for the Assessment of Greenhouse-gas Induced Climate Change (MAGICC) and a regional climate change database—SCENanario GENerator (SCENGEN). Three alternative emission scenarios were combined with data from 14 general circulation model experiments. Climate change scenarios for the year 2100 indicate a significant increase in air temperature (by 2.3-4.5 °C) and precipitation (by 5-30%) in Estonia. The highest increase is expected to take place during winter and the lowest increase in summer. Due to a long coastline (3794 km) and extensive low-lying coastal areas, global climate change through sea-level rise will strongly affect the territory of Estonia. A number of valuable natural ecosystems will be in danger. These include both marine and terrestrial systems containing rare plant communities and suitable breeding places for birds. Most sandy beaches high in recreational value will disappear. However, isostatic land uplift and the location of coastal settlements at a distance from the present coastline reduce the rate of risk. Seven case study areas characterising all the shore types of Estonia have been selected for sea-level rise vulnerability and adaptation assessment. Results and estimates of vulnerability to 1.0-m sea-level rise by 2100 are presented in this paper. This is the maximum scenario according to which the actually estimated relative sea-level rise would vary from 0.9 m (SW Estonia) to 0

  1. Newly democratic Mongolia offering exploration contracts

    SciTech Connect

    Penttila, W.C. )

    1992-12-07

    This paper reports that Mongolia, formerly the Mongolian People's Republic, is working to open its exploration prospects to international operators as it emerges as the world's 15th largest independent nation. The country, about the same size as Alaska with a population of 2 million, held its first free election in July 1990. The newly elected government drafted a constitution that took effect Feb. 12, 1992. The document modifies the previous government's structures to eliminate bureaucracy and allows for political pluralism. At the same time, the government is formulating energy policies, state oil company structure, and resource development philosophy.

  2. Revegetation processes and environmental conditions in abandoned peat production fields in Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orru, M.; Orru, H.

    2009-04-01

    As a result of peat extraction, peat production has been finished in Estonia at different times in 154 peat production areas and 9,500 ha (~1% of peatlands) are abandoned, although the peat reserves are not exhausted yet; besides, several areas are not properly recultivated. In addition 12,000 ha of fens (oligotrophic peat layers) are drained and used as grasslands. If the abandoned and non-recultivated peat production areas are not vegetated, their CO2 emission is considerable and peat mineralises in such areas. The aim of the study was to find out specific ecological and geological factors, which affect recovering of peatlands and influence the recultivation. During the revision the amount and quality of the remained reserves, as well as the state of water regime, drainage network and revegetation was assessed in all 154 abandoned peat production areas. The study showed that the state of them is very variable. Some of them are covered with forest, prevailingly with birches at former drainage ditches, later supplemented by pine trees. In the others predominate grasses among plants, and various species of moss (Cladonia rei, Bryum caespiticum, Sphagnum ripariuma, Sphagnum squarrosum) occur as well. Besides, some abandoned areas are completely overgrown with cotton grass. Open abandoned peat areas, which are not covered by vegetation, are much rarer. We found out, that water regime among the factors plays most important role. Moreover abandoned peat production fields, where the environmental conditions have changed - are appropriate for growth of several moss species, which cannot inhabit the areas already occupied by other species. The most interesting discovers were: second growing site of Polia elongata in West-Estonia and Ephemerum serratum, last found in Estonia in the middle of the 19th century, was identified in central Estonia. Also Campylopus introflexus, what was unknown in Estonia. However, the changes in environmental conditions influence the peat layers

  3. Are Independent Probes Truly Independent?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camp, Gino; Pecher, Diane; Schmidt, Henk G.; Zeelenberg, Rene

    2009-01-01

    The independent cue technique has been developed to test traditional interference theories against inhibition theories of forgetting. In the present study, the authors tested the critical criterion for the independence of independent cues: Studied cues not presented during test (and unrelated to test cues) should not contribute to the retrieval…

  4. Single and double sexual standards in Finland, Estonia, and St. Petersburg.

    PubMed

    Haavio-Mannila, Elina; Kontula, Osmo

    2003-02-01

    The sexual revolution and fight for gender equality began in the West during the 1960s but did not reach the Soviet Union until the late 1980s. Using survey data from nationally representative samples from Finland in 1971, 1992, and 1999 and from two former Soviet areas, Estonia in 2000 and St. Petersburg in 1996, we investigated the following: (a) differences across decades and countries in acceptance of the sexual double standard (SDS) in attitudes toward marital infidelity and women's initiating sex; and (b) the relationship between the SDS and sexual satisfaction. Results show that Finland in the 1990s was more egalitarian than Finland in 1971, St. Petersburg in 1996, or Estonia in 2000. Egalitarian sexual attitudes were positively related to sexual satisfaction.

  5. Salam's independence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, Gordon

    2009-01-01

    In his kind review of my biography of the Nobel laureate Abdus Salam (December 2008 pp45-46), John W Moffat wrongly claims that Salam had "independently thought of the idea of parity violation in weak interactions".

  6. Estonia at the Threshold of the Fourth Decade of the AIDS Era in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Avi, Radko; DeHovitz, Jack; Uusküla, Anneli

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This article describes the trends of HIV/AIDS and related conditions in Estonia during the past decade (2000–2009), with special focus on the potential for epidemic transition. Key transmission determinants and major risk groups are examined and problems and barriers to fighting HIV/AIDS with possible applications in prevention and control are described. Estonian routine data sources and published literature were reviewed, supplemented with information from personal communication with physicians and public health specialists. For comparative European data, international HIV/AIDS and drug addiction surveillance documents, administrative data, and published literature were reviewed. In Eastern Europe (including Estonia) the predominant HIV transmission mode is injection drug use (IDU), closely followed by heterosexual transmission, an increasing risk factor for new cases. Although the contribution of cases acquired by sexual contact with high-risk partners such as IDUs is not known, characteristics of the sexual networks of IDUs may be important in determining the evolution of the HIV/AIDS epidemics in the region. In Estonia, despite major gaps in available data, the HIV/AIDS epidemic is still presumably confined to IDUs (and probably, to their sexual partners). In Eastern Europe, young women in IDU–non-IDU partnerships engaging in unprotected sex potentially serve as a bridge to the general population, yet knowledge of and research into the population characteristics and potential magnitude of bridging are limited. In Estonia, as in other Eastern European countries, HIV prevention and harm reduction initiatives should be tailored not only to the predominantly male HIV-positive IDU population, but also to their noninfected non-IDU female sexual partners. PMID:21142588

  7. The earliest giant Osprioneides borings from the Sandbian (late ordovician) of Estonia.

    PubMed

    Vinn, Olev; Wilson, Mark A; Mõtus, Mari-Ann

    2014-01-01

    The earliest Osprioneides kampto borings were found in bryozoan colonies of Sandbian age from northern Estonia (Baltica). The Ordovician was a time of great increase in the quantities of hard substrate removed by single trace makers. Increased predation pressure was most likely the driving force behind the infaunalization of larger invertebrates such as the Osprioneides trace makers in the Ordovician. It is possible that the Osprioneides borer originated in Baltica or in other paleocontinents outside of North America.

  8. How Do Preschool Children Engage Each Other in Dialogue in Finland, Estonia and Sweden?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tryggvason, Marja-Terttu; Tulviste, Tiia; De Geer, Boel

    2008-01-01

    The present study compares preschool children in Finland, Estonia and Sweden regarding linguistic structures with which children in dyads elicited talk from each other in a naturalistic play activity. Nineteen Finnish (mean age 5.1), 19 Estonian (mean age 5.4) and 17 Swedish (mean age 5.1) same-sex pairs were video-recorded by a native researcher.…

  9. Onychomycosis caused by Onychocola canadensis: the first report in Estonia and lessons to learn.

    PubMed

    Järv, Helle

    2015-02-01

    We report the first case of onychomycosis caused by Onychocola canadensis in Estonia. We believe that the number of nail infections caused by this fungus is underestimated due to the current diagnostic algorithm of non-dermatophytic onychomycosis. The need to define categories and criteria for 'proven' and 'probable' non-dermatophyte mold infections to promote more extensive studies in the future is also discussed.

  10. Estonia at the threshold of the fourth decade of the AIDS era in Europe.

    PubMed

    Laisaar, Kaja-Triin; Avi, Radko; DeHovitz, Jack; Uusküla, Anneli

    2011-08-01

    This article describes the trends of HIV/AIDS and related conditions in Estonia during the past decade (2000-2009), with special focus on the potential for epidemic transition. Key transmission determinants and major risk groups are examined and problems and barriers to fighting HIV/AIDS with possible applications in prevention and control are described. Estonian routine data sources and published literature were reviewed, supplemented with information from personal communication with physicians and public health specialists. For comparative European data, international HIV/AIDS and drug addiction surveillance documents, administrative data, and published literature were reviewed. In Eastern Europe (including Estonia) the predominant HIV transmission mode is injection drug use (IDU), closely followed by heterosexual transmission, an increasing risk factor for new cases. Although the contribution of cases acquired by sexual contact with high-risk partners such as IDUs is not known, characteristics of the sexual networks of IDUs may be important in determining the evolution of the HIV/AIDS epidemics in the region. In Estonia, despite major gaps in available data, the HIV/AIDS epidemic is still presumably confined to IDUs (and probably, to their sexual partners). In Eastern Europe, young women in IDU-non-IDU partnerships engaging in unprotected sex potentially serve as a bridge to the general population, yet knowledge of and research into the population characteristics and potential magnitude of bridging are limited. In Estonia, as in other Eastern European countries, HIV prevention and harm reduction initiatives should be tailored not only to the predominantly male HIV-positive IDU population, but also to their noninfected non-IDU female sexual partners.

  11. Survey of the Presence of Toxocara spp. Eggs in Dog Feces in Tartu, Estonia.

    PubMed

    Lassen, Brian; Jokelainen, Pikka

    2016-03-01

    Several zoonotic pathogens are shed in the feces of infected animals. If they are allowed to contaminate the environment, they cause a public health concern. In this study, we investigated the presence of Toxocara spp. eggs in dog feces in the urban area of Tartu, Estonia. Samples were collected by veterinary students in 2014 and examined using a modified concentration-flotation technique. Toxocara spp. eggs were detected by microscopy in 4 (1.7%) out of 234 canine fecal samples.

  12. Exposure to High Fluoride Drinking Water and Risk of Dental Fluorosis in Estonia

    PubMed Central

    Indermitte, Ene; Saava, Astrid; Karro, Enn

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess exposure to drinking water fluoride and evaluate the risk of dental fluorosis among the Estonian population. The study covered all 15 counties in Estonia and 93.7% of population that has access to public water supplies. In Estonia groundwater is the main source for public water supply systems in most towns and rural settlements. The content of natural fluoride in water ranges from 0.01 to 7.20 mg/L. The exposure to different fluoride levels was assessed by linking data from previous studies on drinking water quality with databases of the Health Protection Inspectorate on water suppliers and the number of water consumers in water supply systems. Exposure assessment showed that 4% of the study population had excessive exposure to fluoride, mainly in small public water supplies in western and central Estonia, where the Silurian-Ordovician aquifer system is the only source of drinking water. There is a strong correlation between natural fluoride levels and the prevalence of dental fluorosis. Risk of dental fluorosis was calculated to different fluoride exposure levels over 1.5 mg/L. PMID:19440411

  13. Three Thousand Years of Continuity in the Maternal Lineages of Ancient Sheep (Ovis aries) in Estonia

    PubMed Central

    Rannamäe, Eve; Lõugas, Lembi; Speller, Camilla F.; Valk, Heiki; Maldre, Liina; Wilczyński, Jarosław; Mikhailov, Aleksandr; Saarma, Urmas

    2016-01-01

    Although sheep (Ovis aries) have been one of the most exploited domestic animals in Estonia since the Late Bronze Age, relatively little is known about their genetic history. Here, we explore temporal changes in Estonian sheep populations and their mitochondrial genetic diversity over the last 3000 years. We target a 558 base pair fragment of the mitochondrial hypervariable region in 115 ancient sheep from 71 sites in Estonia (c. 1200 BC–AD 1900s), 19 ancient samples from Latvia, Russia, Poland and Greece (6800 BC–AD 1700), as well as 44 samples of modern Kihnu native sheep breed. Our analyses revealed: (1) 49 mitochondrial haplotypes, associated with sheep haplogroups A and B; (2) high haplotype diversity in Estonian ancient sheep; (3) continuity in mtDNA haplotypes through time; (4) possible population expansion during the first centuries of the Middle Ages (associated with the establishment of the new power regime related to 13th century crusades); (5) significant difference in genetic diversity between ancient populations and modern native sheep, in agreement with the beginning of large-scale breeding in the 19th century and population decline in local sheep. Overall, our results suggest that in spite of the observed fluctuations in ancient sheep populations, and changes in the natural and historical conditions, the utilisation of local sheep has been constant in the territory of Estonia, displaying matrilineal continuity from the Middle Bronze Age through the Modern Period, and into modern native sheep. PMID:27732668

  14. Three Thousand Years of Continuity in the Maternal Lineages of Ancient Sheep (Ovis aries) in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Rannamäe, Eve; Lõugas, Lembi; Speller, Camilla F; Valk, Heiki; Maldre, Liina; Wilczyński, Jarosław; Mikhailov, Aleksandr; Saarma, Urmas

    2016-01-01

    Although sheep (Ovis aries) have been one of the most exploited domestic animals in Estonia since the Late Bronze Age, relatively little is known about their genetic history. Here, we explore temporal changes in Estonian sheep populations and their mitochondrial genetic diversity over the last 3000 years. We target a 558 base pair fragment of the mitochondrial hypervariable region in 115 ancient sheep from 71 sites in Estonia (c. 1200 BC-AD 1900s), 19 ancient samples from Latvia, Russia, Poland and Greece (6800 BC-AD 1700), as well as 44 samples of modern Kihnu native sheep breed. Our analyses revealed: (1) 49 mitochondrial haplotypes, associated with sheep haplogroups A and B; (2) high haplotype diversity in Estonian ancient sheep; (3) continuity in mtDNA haplotypes through time; (4) possible population expansion during the first centuries of the Middle Ages (associated with the establishment of the new power regime related to 13th century crusades); (5) significant difference in genetic diversity between ancient populations and modern native sheep, in agreement with the beginning of large-scale breeding in the 19th century and population decline in local sheep. Overall, our results suggest that in spite of the observed fluctuations in ancient sheep populations, and changes in the natural and historical conditions, the utilisation of local sheep has been constant in the territory of Estonia, displaying matrilineal continuity from the Middle Bronze Age through the Modern Period, and into modern native sheep.

  15. Reducing exposure to high fluoride drinking water in Estonia-a countrywide study.

    PubMed

    Indermitte, Ene; Saava, Astrid; Karro, Enn

    2014-03-14

    Fluoride is a naturally occurring contaminant in groundwater in Estonia. There are several regions in Estonia with fluoride contents in public water supplies as high as 7 mg/L. Long-term exposure to high-fluoride drinking water may have several adverse health effects, primarily dental fluorosis. The opportunities for exposure reduction rely highly on water treatment technologies. Since 2004 public water suppliers in Estonia have made efforts to diminish fluoride content in drinking water systems. A follow-up study on a country level was carried out in 2004-2012 to analyze the changes in population exposure to excessive (over 1.5 mg/L) fluoride in drinking water and to get information about the reduction methods applied by public water supplies (PWS) to optimize the fluoride levels in public water system. The results showed that bigger PWS have been more effective in fluoride reduction measures than small PWS. The main methods used to lower the fluoride content were reverse osmosis technology and replacement of water sources with new ones (new drilled wells). As a result of all the measures taken the overall high-fluoride exposure has been reduced substantially (82%).

  16. Independent Living.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Jeanne H., Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This issue of "OSERS" addresses the subject of independent living of individuals with disabilities. The issue includes a message from Judith E. Heumann, the Assistant Secretary of the Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (OSERS), and 10 papers. Papers have the following titles and authors: "Changes in the…

  17. The updated clinical guideline development process in Estonia is an efficient method for developing evidence-based guidelines.

    PubMed

    Bero, Lisa A; Hill, Suzanne; Habicht, Jarno; Mathiesen, Mari; Starkopf, Joel

    2013-02-01

    Clinical practice guidelines are one of the tools available to improve the quality of health care. However, it may be difficult for countries to develop their own national guidelines "from scratch" because of limitations in time, expertise, and financial resources. The Estonian Health Insurance Fund (EHIF), in collaboration with other stakeholders, has launched a national effort to develop and implement evidence-based clinical practice guidelines aimed at improving the quality of care. Although the first EHIF handbook for preparing guidelines was published in 2004, there has been wide variation in the format and quality of guidelines prepared by medical specialty societies, EHIF, and other organizations in Estonia. An additional challenge to guideline development in Estonia is that it is a country with limited human resources. Therefore, revision of the Estonian guideline process was aimed at developing an efficient method for adapting current high-quality guidelines to the Estonian setting without compromising their quality. In 2010, a comprehensive assessment of guideline development in Estonia was made by the World Health Organization, EHIF, the Medical Faculty at the University of Tartu, and selected national and international experts in an effort to streamline and harmonize the principles and processes of guideline development in Estonia. This study summarizes the evaluation of and revisions to the process. Estonia has made substantial changes in its processes of clinical practice guideline development and implementation as part of an overall program aiming for systematic quality improvement in health care. This experience may be relevant to other small or resource-limited countries.

  18. Comparative Study: Impact of Family, School, and Students Factors on Students Achievements in Reading in Developed (Estonia) and Developing (Azerbaijan) Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shukakidze, Berika

    2013-01-01

    The work is based on PISA 2009 International Assessment Study. Two counties were selected: a developed country, Estonia and a developing country, Azerbaijan. The following Datum was used for statistical analysis: students average scores in reading (162 schools, 4 600 students from Azerbaijan; 17 schools, 4 923 students from Estonia). The work is…

  19. Understanding independence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annan, James; Hargreaves, Julia

    2016-04-01

    In order to perform any Bayesian processing of a model ensemble, we need a prior over the ensemble members. In the case of multimodel ensembles such as CMIP, the historical approach of ``model democracy'' (i.e. equal weight for all models in the sample) is no longer credible (if it ever was) due to model duplication and inbreeding. The question of ``model independence'' is central to the question of prior weights. However, although this question has been repeatedly raised, it has not yet been satisfactorily addressed. Here I will discuss the issue of independence and present a theoretical foundation for understanding and analysing the ensemble in this context. I will also present some simple examples showing how these ideas may be applied and developed.

  20. Hepatitis E Virus in Domestic Pigs, Wild Boars, Pig Farm Workers, and Hunters in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Anna; Tefanova, Valentina; Reshetnjak, Irina; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Geller, Julia; Lundkvist, Åke; Janson, Marilin; Neare, Kädi; Velström, Kaisa; Jokelainen, Pikka; Lassen, Brian; Hütt, Pirje; Saar, Tiiu; Viltrop, Arvo; Golovljova, Irina

    2015-12-01

    While hepatitis E is a growing health concern in Europe, epidemiological data on hepatitis E virus (HEV) in Estonia are scarce. Along with imported HEV infections, autochthonous cases are reported from European countries. Both domestic and wild animals can be a source of human cases of this zoonosis. Here, we investigated the presence of anti-HEV antibodies and HEV RNA in domestic pigs and wild boars, as well as in pig farm workers and hunters in Estonia. Anti-HEV antibodies were detected in 234/380 (61.6%) of sera from domestic pigs and in all investigated herds, and in 81/471 (17.2%) of meat juice samples from wild boars. HEV RNA was detected by real-time PCR in 103/449 (22.9%) of fecal samples from younger domestic pigs and 13/81 (16.0%) of anti-HEV-positive wild boar samples. Analysis of sera from 67 pig farm workers and 144 hunters revealed the presence of HEV-specific IgG in 13.4 and 4.2% of the samples, respectively. No HEV RNA was detected in the human serum samples. Phylogenetic analyses of HEV sequences from domestic pigs and wild boars, based on a 245 bp fragment from the open reading frame 2 showed that all of them belonged to genotype 3. The present study demonstrates the presence of HEV in Estonian domestic pig and wild boar populations, as well as in humans who have direct regular contact with these animals. Our results suggest that HEV infections are present in Estonia and require attention.

  1. Amber bearing deposit in SW Saaremaa, Estonia - sedimentary environment and palaeogeography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, Triine; Ots, Mirja; Rosentau, Alar

    2015-04-01

    The paper describes a deposit of natural amber found form Estonia. Finds of natural amber are important in the context of the Bronze Age archaeology, because the amount of Bronze Age archaeological amber found in Estonia is very small. Most of the amber is from the Late Bronze Age and is mainly discovered from the fortified settlements in Saaremaa, some also from burials of the same time. Now, the discovery of the deposit of natural amber in the island of Saaremaa makes us reconsider the general opinion that all archaeological amber items found in Estonia have been imported. The aim of this study is to clarify the origin and age of the natural amber using scientific methods. A layer of buried organic matter (BOM) containing pieces of natural amber was discovered in Holocene coastal plain on Sõrve peninsula, island of Saaremaa. The BOM layer is buried under ca 90 cm-thick sandy coastal deposits and consists of remains of coastal plants and pieces of driftwood. Palaeogeographic reconstructions and sediment composition indicate that the layer was deposited in the coastal zone and buried quickly by sandy marine sediments. According to radiocarbon dating of the seeds of Polygonum lapathifolium the formation of the BOM layer remained in the Late Bronze Age (2480 ± 30 14C yr BP). Amber finds have been characterized using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and isotope analysis of light elements (H and C) - both are referring to Baltic amber. Therefore it is probable that amber was transported to Saaremaa within organic matter from the Latvian-Lithuanian coastal zone where secondary Baltic amber deposits are widely known.

  2. Sequential population-based studies over 25 years on the incidence and survival of acute de novo leukemias in Estonia and in a well-defined region of western Sweden during 1982-2006: a survey of patients aged ≥65 years.

    PubMed

    Punab, Mari; Palk, Katrin; Varik, Mirja; Laane, Edward; Everaus, Hele; Holmberg, Erik; Hulegårdh, Erik; Wennström, Lovisa; Safai-Kutti, Soodabeh; Stockelberg, Dick; Kutti, Jack

    2013-03-01

    Estonia regained independence in 1991 after five decades of occupation by the Soviet Union. The present population-based survey was carried out over five consecutive 5-year study periods (1982-2006) on the incidence and survival of de novo acute leukemia patients aged ≥65 years at diagnosis in Estonia and in a well-defined area in western Sweden. During the study period of retrospective work (1982-1996), the first 10 years were carried out while Estonia was still under the mentorship of the Soviet Union. Over these years, Estonian hematologists did not have access to therapeutic measures readily available to Swedish hematologists, and the results for survival for western Swedish patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) far exceeded those of their Estonian counterparts. However, the results for acute lymphoblastic leukemia were equally dismal in the two countries. Subsequent prospective population-based studies were carried out during the years 1997-2006. A gradual improvement as to long-term relative survival of the Estonian AML patients was observed. When studying 2002-2006, no difference as regards relative survival at 5 years was anymore present between the two countries. Over the first 20 years of our population-based studies, it was repeatedly observed that the age-standardized incidence rate particularly for de novo AML was considerably higher for the western Swedish as compared to the Estonian cohorts. During the last 5-year study period (2002-2006), no such difference between the two countries was present, indicating that some true changes in the reporting procedure in Estonia had occurred.

  3. 'Independence' Panorama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for 'Independence' Panorama (QTVR)

    This is the Spirit 'Independence' panorama, acquired on martian days, or sols, 536 to 543 (July 6 to 13, 2005), from a position in the 'Columbia Hills' near the summit of 'Husband Hill.' The summit of 'Husband Hill' is the peak near the right side of this panorama and is about 100 meters (328 feet) away from the rover and about 30 meters (98 feet) higher in elevation. The rocky outcrops downhill and on the left side of this mosaic include 'Larry's Lookout' and 'Cumberland Ridge,' which Spirit explored in April, May, and June of 2005.

    The panorama spans 360 degrees and consists of 108 individual images, each acquired with five filters of the rover's panoramic camera. The approximate true color of the mosaic was generated using the camera's 750-, 530-, and 480-nanometer filters. During the 8 martian days, or sols, that it took to acquire this image, the lighting varied considerably, partly because of imaging at different times of sol, and partly because of small sol-to-sol variations in the dustiness of the atmosphere. These slight changes produced some image seams and rock shadows. These seams have been eliminated from the sky portion of the mosaic to better simulate the vista a person standing on Mars would see. However, it is often not possible or practical to smooth out such seams for regions of rock, soil, rover tracks or solar panels. Such is the nature of acquiring and assembling large panoramas from the rovers.

  4. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in dairy and beef cattle: Large-scale epidemiological study in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Jokelainen, Pikka; Tagel, Maarja; Mõtus, Kerli; Viltrop, Arvo; Lassen, Brian

    2017-03-15

    Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan parasite that thrives in Estonia. In this nationwide cross-sectional study, we tested sera from 3991 cattle, collected from 228 farms in 2012-2013, for anti-T. gondii immunoglobulin G antibodies using a commercial direct agglutination test. Titer of 100 was set as cut-off: samples that tested positive at the dilution 1:100 were defined as positive. The apparent animal-level seroprevalence was 18.62%. At least one seropositive animal was found on 68.86% of the farms, and seropositive cattle were detected in all counties. The seroprevalence appeared to increase with age until five years (60-71 months) of age, but had no obvious pattern in the older animals. Animals of the local Estonian Red breed had higher odds to test seropositive than did animals of the Estonian Holstein breed. Whether the farm focused on dairy or beef cattle was not associated with an animal testing T. gondii seropositive nor with finding at least one T. gondii seropositive animal on the farm. The odds of finding at least one T. gondii seropositive animal on the farm were higher if the herd size was above median (105 in dairy and mixed dairy farms; 35 in beef and mixed beef farms). The results indicate that T. gondii is endemic within the agricultural setting in Estonia and present on the majority of cattle farms.

  5. Proliferative kidney disease (PKD) agent Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae in brown trout populations in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Dash, Megha; Vasemägi, Anti

    2014-05-13

    Proliferative kidney disease (PKD) caused by the myxozoan parasite Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae is a serious parasitic disease threatening both farmed and wild salmonid populations, but very little is currently known about the distribution of the parasite in the Baltic Sea region. In this study we (1) report the development of a novel multiplex PCR method for fast and reliable screening of T. bryosalmonae; (2) use this multiplex PCR method to show that the PKD agent T. bryosalmonae is widespread in natural brown trout Salmo trutta L. populations in Estonia; (3) evaluate monthly and yearly variation of T. bryosalmonae prevalence in juvenile trout; (4) assess T. bryosalmonae prevalence in different age-classes of fish (0+ vs. 1+ and older) and report the presence of the PKD agent in the kidneys of returning sea trout spawners; and (5) suggest the freshwater bryozoan Plumatella fungosa as a putative invertebrate host of T. bryosalmonae in Estonia. Our results demonstrate a highly heterogeneous distribution of T. bryosalmonae at the micro-geographic scale, indicating that PKD could have an important negative effect on recruitment in Estonian brown trout populations.

  6. Bioerosion of Inorganic Hard Substrates in the Ordovician of Estonia (Baltica).

    PubMed

    Vinn, Olev; Wilson, Mark A; Toom, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    The earliest bioeroded inorganic hard substrates in the Ordovician of Estonia appear in the Dapingian. Hardgrounds are also known from the Sandbian and Katian. Most of the bioerosion of inorganic hard substrates occurs as the boring Trypanites Mägdefrau, 1932 along with some possible Gastrochaenolites borings. North American hardground borings are more diverse than those in Baltica. In contrast to a worldwide trend of increasing boring intensity, the Estonian record seems to show no increase in boring intensities during the Middle and Late Ordovician. Hardgrounds seem to be more common during the temperate climate interval of the Ordovician calcite sea in Estonia (seven hardgrounds during 15 my) than in the part with a tropical climate (four hardgrounds during 12 my). Bioerosion is mostly associated with carbonate hardgrounds, but cobbles and pebbles broken from the hardgrounds are also often penetrated by Trypanites borings. The general diversity of boring ichnotaxa in Baltica increased from one ichnospecies in the Cambrian to seven by the end of Ordovician, showing the effect of the GOBE on bioeroding ichnotaxa. The diversity of inorganic hard substrate borers increased by only two times. This difference can be explained by the wider environmental distribution of organic as compared to inorganic substrates in the Ordovician seas of Baltica, and their more continuous temporal availability, which may have caused increased specialization of several borers. The inorganic substrates may have been bioreroded only by the generalists among boring organisms.

  7. The cultural dimension of tightness-looseness: An analysis of situational constraint in Estonia and Greece.

    PubMed

    Realo, Anu; Linnamägi, Karmen; Gelfand, Michele J

    2015-06-01

    The importance of tightness-looseness as a dimension that explains a considerable amount of variance between cultures was demonstrated by Gelfand et al. (2011). Tight nations have many strong norms and a low tolerance of deviant behaviour, whereas loose nations have weak social norms and a high tolerance of deviant behaviour. The main aim of the current studies was to examine situational constraint in Estonia and Greece: that is, how the cultural dimension of tightness-looseness is manifested in everyday situations in those two countries. The findings of a questionnaire study (Study 1) suggested that, in general, there is higher constraint across everyday situations in Greece than in Estonia, but situational constraint in Greece is especially strong in school and organisational settings where people have hierarchically structured roles. The results of an observational study (Study 2) revealed a relatively high agreement between appropriateness of certain behaviours as judged by the respondents in Study 1 and the frequencies of observed behaviours in the two countries. Our findings suggest that the strength of situations may substantially vary both within and across cultures, and that the attitudes of the members about situational strength in their respective cultures are in concordance with observations of situations by neutral observers in how people in general behave in their culture.

  8. Composition of the essential oil of the Rhododendron tomentosum Harmaja from Estonia.

    PubMed

    Raal, Ain; Orav, Anne; Gretchushnikova, Tatjana

    2014-01-01

    Wild Rhododendron tomentosum Harmaja shoots were collected from four localities of Estonia. Essential oils, isolated from dried samples by simultaneous distillation and extraction, were analysed using GC-FID and Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methods. The yields of oils were in the range 0.14-0.87%. A total of 72 constituents, accounting for over 95% of the total oil yield, were identified. The major components in the all four oils studied were palustrol (15.9-53.5%), ledol (11.8-18.3%), γ-terpineol (0-31.2%), p-cymene (0.1-13.9%), lepalone (0.7-6.5%), lepalol (1.0-6.5%) and cyclocolorenone (1.0-6.4%). Two different chemotypes of R. tomentosum were found in Estonia and one of them was rich in palustrol (41.0-53.5%) and ledol (14.6-18.3%). The second chemotype, for the first time, was rich in γ-terpineol (24.7-31.2%) and contained less of palustrol (15.9-16.7%) and ledol (11.8-12.8%), but more p-cymene (12.5-13.9%). Also, γ-terpineol was identified for the first time in the oils of R. tomentosum.

  9. Stable isotope record of Holocene precipitation changes from Lake Nuudsaku in southern Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortney, Carolyn; Stansell, Nathan; Klein, Eric; Terasmaa, Jaanus; Dodd, Justin

    2015-04-01

    Radiocarbon dated, finely laminated lake sediments record Holocene precipitation changes from southern Estonia. Modern water isotope data suggest that Lake Nuudsaku is a mostly open system that is primarily fed by winter precipitation and groundwater, and summer precipitation plays only a secondary role in the overall hydrologic balance. Initial results indicate that changes in insolation likely drove the overall Holocene pattern with relatively wet conditions during the early Holocene, followed by arid conditions during the middle Holocene and a return to wetter conditions during the late Holocene. However, there is pronounced millennial and centennial-scale variability that cannot be explained by insolation forcing alone. Notably, there is a trend toward wetter conditions from ~4.0 to 2.0 ka, followed by a trend toward drier conditions during the last 2 millennia. This late Holocene pattern diverges from the pattern observed in records from north-central Estonia that suggest an overall trend of wetter conditions for the last ~4 ka. These initial results thus indicate that the Lake Nuudsaku sediments have the potential to yield a unique near-annual to decade-scale record of past precipitation changes from the southern Baltic region.

  10. Perspectives on Tolerance in Education Flowing from a Comparison of Religion Education in Estonia and South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Walt, Johannes L.

    2013-01-01

    The question that prompted this investigation into religion education (RE) in Estonia and in South Africa was whether two countries from such totally different parts of the world, with such vastly different populations and cultures though with somewhat parallel histories, had tackled the same or similar problems regarding the provision of RE in…

  11. Beyond Words: Dance and Movement Sessions with Young People with Social, Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodgame, Jenna

    2007-01-01

    This article details an experimental project in Estonian schools, using therapeutic dance and movement as a basis to explore beyond the boundaries of language in supporting young people to develop their creative expression. The author visited three residential schools in different areas of Estonia in September 2006 to lead sessions with groups of…

  12. Motivation for Obtaining the Doctor of Philosophy Degree in the Post-Soviet Era: The Case of Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karner, Anita; Kukemelk, Hasso; Herdlein, Richard J.

    2005-01-01

    This is essentially a qualitative study, a fact-finding activity to gather, analyze, and interpret evidence of student motivation in completing the terminal degree in Estonia. It uses a variety of interpretive research methodologies appropriate for a phenomenological approach. Thirteen doctoral candidates who defended their doctoral thesis…

  13. Bilingual Voicing: A Study of Code-Switching in the Reported Speech of Finnish Immigrants in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frick, Maria; Riionheimo, Helka

    2013-01-01

    Through a conversation analytic investigation of Finnish-Estonian bilingual (direct) reported speech (i.e., voicing) by Finns who live in Estonia, this study shows how code-switching is used as a double contextualization device. The code-switched voicings are shaped by the on-going interactional situation, serving its needs by opening up a context…

  14. Significance of action plans in the development of occupational well-being in the schools of Finland and Estonia.

    PubMed

    Laine, Sari; Saaranen, Terhi; Pertel, Tiia; Hansen, Siivi; Lepp, Kädi; Tossavainen, Kerttu

    2016-02-01

    This article is part of a long term project "Promoting the Occupational Well-Being of School Staff-Action Research Project in Finland and Estonia, 2009-2014." The purpose of this article is to describe the significance of action plans in the promotion of the occupational well-being of primary and upper secondary school staff in Finland and Estonia from 2010 to the turn of the year 2011-2012. An electronic open questionnaire was sent to occupational well-being groups in Finland (N=18) and in Estonia (N=39). In Finland, the questionnaire was responded to by 16 (n=16) occupational well-being groups, and in Estonia, by 38 (n=38) groups. The qualitative data were analyzed using the inductive-deductive method and content analysis. The obtained results indicate that the schools had named goals for action plans in all aspects of the promotion of occupational well-being in schools (worker and work, working conditions, professional competence, working community) and that these goals were mainly realized in the schools in a systematic way. Schools felt that the action plan for occupational well-being helped them to set goals for occupational well-being and that the planned actions were realized in a more systematic way than before.

  15. Sociocultural Aspects of Russian-Speaking Parents' Choice of Language of Instruction for Their Children in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemppainen, Raija Pini; Ferrin, Scott Ellis; Hite, Steven J.; Hilton, Sterling C.

    2008-01-01

    The present research was undertaken to identify sociocultural variables that influence whether Russian-speaking parents living in Estonia choose Russian, Estonian, or bilingual (Russian and Estonian) instruction for their children. To examine which sociocultural variables are related to parents' choice of language of instruction, 346…

  16. Between East and West Is North: The Loyalties and Allegiances of Russian Authors and Painters Living in EU Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouillard, Remy

    2005-01-01

    The development of the Russian intelligentsia is closely related to discourses concerning Russia's position vis-a-vis Europe and the Western world, such as those of Slavophiles and Westernisers. This paper is about Russian authors and painters who are now becoming part of Europe, as the country in which they live, Estonia, has recently entered the…

  17. University Language Policies and Language Choice among Ph.D. Graduates in Estonia: The (Unbalanced) Interplay between English and Estonian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soler-Carbonell, Josep

    2014-01-01

    The role of English as a global language and its consequences for the internationalization of higher education are matters that have increasingly drawn the attention of researchers from different fields of language and communication. In this paper, an overview of the situation in Estonia is presented. The Estonian context has not previously been…

  18. From Times of Transition to Adaptation: Background and Theoretical Approach to the Curriculum Reform in Estonia 1987-1996

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouk, Vadim

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to research the important process of the history of the educational development of Estonia, the reform of the national school curriculum which began after the teacher's congress in 1987 and ended in 1996 when government approved the document. That reform was carried out in the context of thoroughgoing and dramatic…

  19. The Unintended and Intended Academic Consequences of Educational Reforms: The Cases of Post-Soviet Estonia, Latvia and Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khavenson, Tatiana; Carnoy, Martin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we try to unravel some of the unintended and intended academic effects associated with post-Soviet educational reforms by focusing on three cases: Estonia, Latvia and Russia. We have chosen this comparison because a unique "natural experiment" in the three countries allows us to compare the changing academic performance on…

  20. Export of newly formed LSW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Katharina; Klein, Birgit; Karstensen, Johannes; Fischer, Jürgen; Baumann, Till; Kanzow, Torsten

    2015-04-01

    The Atlantic meridional overturning circulation represents the strongest mechanism for oceanic northward heat transport. This is accomplished by moving warm water northward in the upper ocean compensated by a deep return flow of cold and dense North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW). Labrador Sea Water (LSW) constitutes the shallowest component of NADW. Since LSW is also supposed to be the most sensitive NADW component to climate change it is of particular interest. LSW is formed by deep convection not only in the centre of the Labrador Sea but also near its western boundary. Recent studies have suggested that LSW formed in the boundary region enters its export route from the Labrador Sea, the Deep Western Boundary Current, faster than LSW originating from the central Labrador Sea. In this study the spatial and temporal evolution of the export of newly formed LSW is investigated. For this purpose hydrographic mooring data from an array located at the western bounndary at 53°N starting in the late 1990s until 2014 and data from the Argo float network is used. The averaged seasonal salinity cycle at the array, particularly at the moorings further onshore, shows a pronounced freshwater signal in May indicating the arrival of newly formed LSW in the boundary current. In order to learn more about its preceding pathway and the corresponding export timescale the mooring data is complemented by data from Argo floats. Besides the annual cycles of LSW formation and export, their interannual variations are important aspects affecting the large-scale circulation. For instance, in years of relatively strong convection, as in 2008 and 2012, LSW is observed to pass the boundary current array at 53°N earlier, i.e. in February and March, respectively, than in years with weak convection, as in 2007 or 2010. Besides seasonal variations in the boundary current, a possible explanation for the earlier freshwater signal in years of enhanced convection might be a shift in convection sites

  1. Newly Installed S-1 Truss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Launched October 7, 2002 aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, the STS-112 mission lasted 11 days and performed three sessions of Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA). Its primary mission was to install the Starboard (S1) Integrated Truss Structure and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart to the International Space Station (ISS). The S1 truss provides structural support for the orbiting research facility's radiator panels, which use ammonia to cool the Station's complex power system. The S1 truss, attached to the S0 (S Zero) truss installed by the previous STS-110 mission, flows 637 pounds of anhydrous ammonia through three heat rejection radiators. The truss is 45-feet long, 15-feet wide, 10-feet tall, and weighs approximately 32,000 pounds. The CETA is the first of two human-powered carts that will ride along the International Space Station's railway providing a mobile work platform for future extravehicular activities by astronauts. This is a view of the newly installed S1 Truss as photographed during the mission's first scheduled EVA. The Station's Canadarm2 is in the foreground. Visible are astronauts Piers J. Sellers (lower left) and David A. Wolf (upper right), both STS-112 mission specialists.

  2. Developing an adherence support intervention for patients on antiretroviral therapy in the context of the recent IDU-driven HIV/AIDS epidemic in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Laisaar, Kaja-Triin; Uusküla, Anneli; Sharma, Anjali; DeHovitz, Jack A; Amico, K Rivet

    2013-01-01

    There is limited data on and experience with interventions for antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence support for patients on ART in Eastern Europe. We sought to identify a feasible adherence support intervention for delivery amongst HIV-positive adults receiving care in Estonia, where the HIV/AIDS epidemic has been mainly concentrated among injection drug users (IDUs). Our application of intervention mapping (IM) strategies used existing literature, formative research and multidisciplinary team input to produce a brief clinic-based intervention entitled the Situated Optimal Adherence Intervention Estonia (sOAI Estonia) which uses both Next-Step Counseling (NSC) and Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) Model approach to facilitate integration of ART into the context and demands of daily life. We present the intervention development process, the resulting sOAI Estonia approach, and describe a randomized controlled trial (RCT) which is under way to evaluate the intervention (results due in spring 2013).

  3. Scale-Independent Relational Query Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armbrust, Michael Paul

    2013-01-01

    An increasingly common pattern is for newly-released web applications to succumb to a "Success Disaster". In this scenario, overloaded database machines and resultant high response times destroy a previously good user experience, just as a site is becoming popular. Unfortunately, the data independence provided by a traditional relational…

  4. Newly Diagnosed Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Avvisati, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) represents a medical emergency with a high rate of early mortality. As a consequence, as soon as the diagnosis is suspected based upon cytologic criteria, it is necessary to start all- trans retinoic acid (ATRA) treatment without delay. For patients with newly diagnosed APL, induction therapy with ATRA plus anthracycline based chemotherapy is recommended. At present the combination of arsenic trioxide plus ATRA should be considered for patients who are not candidates for anthracycline-based therapy. For pediatric and adult patients with APL aged < 60 years who achieve a CR with induction, I recommend 3 intensive courses of consolidation chemotherapy associated to ATRA, targeted on the basis of the risk group at diagnosis. In patients treated with a very intensive consolidation chemotherapy maintenance treatment can be omitted. However If a maintenance treatment has to be adopted I suggest the use of intermittent ATRA for 15 days every 3 months for a period of 2 years, rather than ATRA associated to chemotherapy. Moreover, taking into account the medical literature, a reduced dosage of ATRA ( 25 mg/m2) in pediatric patients and a consolidation chemotherapy of reduced intensity in elderly patients is recommended. Furthermore, in order to maximize survival, careful attention should be reserved to the coagulopathy and to the appearance of the differentiation syndrome. Finally, PCR for the PML/RARA fusion gene on a bone marrow specimen every three months for two years, and then every six months for additional three years are needed during the follow-up. PMID:22220261

  5. Optimisation strategies introduced for CR at health care centres in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Kepler, Kalle; Vladimirov, Anatoli

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, starting from 2001, conventional film-screen radiography has been rapidly replaced by digital (mostly by computed radiography, CR) techniques in Estonia. New strategies for optimisation and quality assurance for digital radiography have been introduced by the DIMOND III and SENTINEL partners recently. It includes consideration to diagnostic requirements of a given clinical situation, but also objectivation and standardisation of image quality, e.g. using CDRAD test phantom, and constancy testing. The aim of this work is to evaluate the performance of an automatic exposure control (AEC) at different sensitivities when used with the Fujifilm CR system. Image quality, using threshold contrast-detail detectability (TCDD) and signal-to-noise ratio squared related to dose (SNR2/D), was also investigated for different sensitivities and tube potential values for this combination. Based on the image evaluation data, optimum speed modes for the organ programme settings have been proposed.

  6. Content of total carotenoids in Calendula officinalis L. from different countries cultivated in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Raal, Ain; Kirsipuu, Kadri; Must, Reelika; Tenno, Silvi

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the content of total carotenoids in different collections of pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) inflorescences. Commercial seeds (42 samples) of C. officinalis were obtained from nine countries and cultivated in private gardens in three different counties of Estonia. The content of total carotenoids, determined spectrophotometrically (lambda=455 nm) varied in the investigated collections from 0.20 to 3.51%. The amount of pigments may depend on the type of plants, the importing company, the color of the ligulate and tubular florets, and the place and time of cultivation. For medicinal purposes, C. officinalis with brownish-yellow ligulate and tubular florets should be preferred. The best was found to be 'Golden Emperor' from Finland.

  7. Geochemistry of Telichian (Silurian) K-bentonites in Estonia and Latvia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiipli, T.; Soesoo, A.; Kallaste, T.; Kiipli, E.

    2008-03-01

    In the Telychian section of Estonia and Latvia K-bentonites from 45 volcanic eruptions were discovered. The thickness of K-bentonite interbeds varies from a few millimetres to 20 cm. The sodium component concentration in sanidine phenocrysts measured by XRD ranges from 20 to 48 mol% and was used for establishing correlations. The Ti, Zr, Nb, Th and Sr concentrations and ratios show temporal trends indicating fractional crystallization in magma chambers. The analysis of biotite phenocrysts revealed magnesium and iron rich biotites in bentonites. Synthesis of these geochemical data enabled a classification of bentonites into seven geochemical types, which probably originate from seven different volcanic sources. Isopach schemes indicate ash transport from the west and north-west directions.

  8. Cryptosporidiosis – an occupational risk and a disregarded disease in Estonia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cases of cryptosporidiosis have not been officially reported in Estonia after the year 2000, and the disease appears to be either under-diagnosed or under-reported. Findings Based on a human case of cryptosporidiosis contracted during faecal sampling in dairy farms, cattle considered to be sources of infection were analysed for Cryptosporidium spp. by a modified Ziehl Neelsen technique and molecular typing. C. parvum subtype IIaA16G1R1 was detected from the human case and from calves from one of nine farms enrolled in the study providing strong circumstantial evidence of zoonotic transmission from calves to humans. Conclusion Cryptosporidiosis presents an occupational risk to people with cattle contact, and may also be a risk to the human population in general. Thus increased public and medical awareness is warranted. PMID:24902957

  9. Composition of essential oil of aerial parts of Chamomilla suaveolens from Estonia.

    PubMed

    Orav, Anne; Sepp, Janne; Kailas, Tiiu; Müürisepp, Mati; Arak, Elmar; Raal, Ain

    2010-01-01

    Variations in the essential oil composition of aerial parts of pineapple weed (Chamomilla suaveolens (Pursh) Rydb.) growing wild in Estonia, were determined using GC/FID and GC/MS. Forty-four components were identified, representing over 90% of the total oil. Nine compounds have not been mentioned in the literature before. The principal biologically active compounds in C. suaveolens oils were (Z)-en-yne-dicycloether (17.0-40.7%), (E)-beta-farnesene (19.5-32.2%), geranyl isovaleriate (8.4-18.4%), palmitic acid (0.3-9.4%) and myrcene (1.1-7.9%). The investigation seems to approve the benefit of using aerial parts of pineapple weed as the substitute for flowers.

  10. On Connections Between Weather Types and the Arrival of Migratory Birds in Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sepp, M.; Päädam, K.; Palm, V.; Leito, A.

    2010-09-01

    Migration is one of the most energy-consuming activities in the lives of birds. The timing must be such that flying would not be overly strenuous and that there would be favourable conditions for feeding and nesting available at arrival. The wide year-to-year variation in the arrival dates of migratory birds suggests that birds are able to both accelerate and delay their migration according to the weather conditions in the destination area. Often, the arrival date cannot be explained by the average daily temperature or any other single meteorological parameter. Relatively simple tools for exploring the links between climate and wildlife are weather types that combine most of the meteorological variables. The aim of the present work is to study the connections between the arrival of migratory birds in Estonia and the weather types. We examine the weather types that most frequently occurred on those days when birds arrived in Tartu (located in the Eastern part of Estonian mainland) and in Kuressaare (West-Estonian archipelago). For this purpose, the arrival dates of 42 species of migratory birds were analysed and compared to the weather types of 73 classifications generated by COST 733 action (COST 733 catalogue 1.2). Since the weather type classifications were generated using ERA40 air pressure datasets, the period available for analysis is 1958-2002. We selected weather types that occurred on the arrival dates of each migratory bird species. Also, the data on two days prior to the arrival were analysed. We assume that birds "took the decision" to fly to Estonia due to the weather conditions on those two days. Frequency of the selected weather types was analysed and compared to the long term frequency of these types during the spring season (MAM). We assume that birds "prefer" those weather types whose frequency on migration days exceeds their long-term frequency. Similarly, we studied the weather types that birds seem to avoid. The results show that despite the

  11. Payment systems and incentives in primary care: implications of recent reforms in Estonia and Romania.

    PubMed

    Dan, Sorin; Savi, Riin

    2015-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, major reform in healthcare has been adopted in former communist countries in Central and Eastern Europe. More than 20 years after, reform in healthcare still draws much interest from policy makers and academics alike. One of the dynamic components of reform has been the reform of payment systems in primary care. This article looks at recent developments in payment systems and financial incentives in Estonia and Romania. We conclude that finding the appropriate mix in paying and incentivizing primary care providers in a transitional context is no easy solution for healthcare policy makers who need to carefully weigh in the advantages and inherent problems of various payment arrangements. In a transitional, rapidly changing healthcare system and society, and a context of financial stringency, the theoretical effects of payment mechanisms may be more difficult to predict and manage than it is expected.

  12. Eastern Europe and Community of Independent States.

    PubMed

    Axmann, A

    1998-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on migration, HIV/AIDS, and sexually transmitted diseases in Eastern Europe and the Community of Independent States (CIS): Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and the former Yugoslavian countries; and Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan. There is little in-depth research on the prevalence of HIV/AIDS. After the collapse of the USSR, the opening up of borders presented greater options for the spread of HIV. During 1991-1996, HIV-infected persons increased from 0.3/100,000 to 7.8/100,000. Syphilis and gonorrhea also spread in the 1990s. The increased prevalence is attributed to changes in sexual behavior due to increased travel and migration, disruption among families, and changes in sexual mores; and changes in the structure, availability, and effectiveness of health services. Many migrants in the CIS are young people. Mobile populations in the CIS include labor migrants, refugees, persons displaced by armed conflicts, repatriates, forced migrants, resettlement of formerly deported persons, and ecological migrants. It is general knowledge that migrants are poorly informed about HIV/AIDS. Condoms are not readily available in the CIS. Eastern Europe has high rates of HIV among migrant sex workers.

  13. Introducing a complex health innovation--primary health care reforms in Estonia (multimethods evaluation).

    PubMed

    Atun, Rifat Ali; Menabde, Nata; Saluvere, Katrin; Jesse, Maris; Habicht, Jarno

    2006-11-01

    All post-Soviet countries are trying to reform their primary health care (PHC) systems. The success to date has been uneven. We evaluated PHC reforms in Estonia, using multimethods evaluation: comprising retrospective analysis of routine health service data from Estonian Health Insurance Fund and health-related surveys; documentary analysis of policy reports, laws and regulations; key informant interviews. We analysed changes in organisational structure, regulations, financing and service provision in Estonian PHC system as well as key informant perceptions on factors influencing introduction of reforms. Estonia has successfully implemented and scaled-up multifaceted PHC reforms, including new organisational structures, user choice of family physicians (FPs), new payment methods, specialist training for family medicine, service contracts for FPs, broadened scope of services and evidence-based guidelines. These changes have been institutionalised. PHC effectiveness has been enhanced, as evidenced by improved management of key chronic conditions by FPs in PHC setting and reduced hospital admissions for these conditions. Introduction of PHC reforms - a complex innovation - was enhanced by strong leadership, good co-ordination between policy and operational level, practical approach to implementation emphasizing simplicity of interventions to be easily understood by potential adopters, an encircling strategy to roll-out which avoided direct confrontations with narrow specialists and opposing stakeholders in capital Tallinn, careful change-management strategy to avoid health reforms being politicized too early in the process, and early investment in training to establish a critical mass of health professionals to enable rapid operationalisation of policies. Most importantly, a multifaceted and coordinated approach to reform - with changes in laws; organisational restructuring; modifications to financing and provider payment systems; creation of incentives to enhance

  14. Assessment of potential hazards during the process of house building in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Bogovski, Sergei; Lang, Iina; Rjazanov, Vladislav; Muzyka, Vladimir; Tuulik, Viiu; Vitak, Anu

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate new working conditions in the construction industry in Estonia. Three construction sites were investigated: a dwelling house at the stage of renovation, a warehouse at the stage of excavation and preparation work, and a hotel, where we examined the working conditions of the finishers. Microclimate: air temperature, relative humidity and air velocity were determined at every workplace. Full-shift personal exposure measurements of dust and gas exposure were performed among 97 construction workers in breathing zone air. The concentration of lead in the air was analysed by AAS. Vapours of benzene, styrene and toluene concentrations were determined by gas chromatography. The noise level was measured with the help of the sound-level meter at every workplace. All microclimatic indices were sometimes below or above exposure standards for indoor work. High levels of airborne dust and increased concentrations of lead were observed during repair work. Low concentrations of organic solvents in the air were determined when using paints and some synthetic substances. The noise level exceeded the permitted limit when an excavator and powerful electric appliances were used. A questionnaire determined the prevalence of subjectively experienced musculoskeletal strain in 30% of workers. The working conditions in the construction industry in Estonia are approaching European level. However, it is necessary to improve working conditions permanently by the use of new harmless materials, personal protective equipment, and through influencing worker health by permanent education and medical watch. We consider that questionnaires are very important in the control of the work environment, in subjective health assessments, and as a source of useful proposals to improve working conditions.

  15. Tick-Borne Pathogens in Ticks Feeding on Migratory Passerines in Western Part of Estonia

    PubMed Central

    Geller, Julia; Nazarova, Lidia; Katargina, Olga; Leivits, Agu; Järvekülg, Lilian

    2013-01-01

    Abstract During southward migration in the years 2006–2009, 178 migratory passerines of 24 bird species infested with ticks were captured at bird stations in Western Estonia. In total, 249 nymphal ticks were removed and analyzed individually for the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. The majority of ticks were collected from Acrocephalus (58%), Turdus (13%), Sylvia (8%), and Parus (6%) bird species. Tick-borne pathogens were detected in nymphs removed from Acrocephalus, Turdus, and Parus bird species. TBEV of the European subtype was detected in 1 I. ricinus nymph removed from A. palustris. B. burgdorferi s.l. DNA was found in 11 ticks (4.4%) collected from Turdus and Parus species. Bird-associated B. garinii and B. valaisiana were detected in I. ricinus nymphs removed from T. merula. Rodent-associated B. afzelii was detected in 3 I. ricinus nymphs from 2 P. major birds. One of the B. afzelii-positive nymphs was infected with a mix of 2 B. afzelii strains, whereas 1 of these strains was also detected in another nymph feeding on the same great tit. The sharing of the same B. afzelii strain by 2 nymphs indicates a possible transmission of B. afzelii by co-feeding on a bird. A. phagocytophilum DNA was detected in 1 I. ricinus nymph feeding on a T. iliacus. The results of the study confirm the possible role of migratory birds in the dispersal of ticks infected with tick-borne pathogens along the southward migration route via Estonia. PMID:23590318

  16. Product environmental footprint of strawberries: Case studies in Estonia and Germany.

    PubMed

    Soode-Schimonsky, Eveli; Richter, Klaus; Weber-Blaschke, Gabriele

    2017-04-05

    The environmental impacts of strawberries have been assessed in several studies. However, these studies either present dissimilar results or only focus on single impact categories without offering a comprehensive overview of environmental impacts. We applied the product environmental footprint (PEF) methodology to broadly indicate the environmental impacts of various strawberry production systems in Germany and Estonia by 15 impact categories. Data for the 7 case studies were gathered from two farms with organic and two farms with conventional open field production systems in Estonia and from one farm with conventional open field and one farm with a polytunnel and greenhouse production system in Germany. The greenhouse production system had the highest environmental impact with a PEF of 0.0040. In the field organic production systems, the PEF was 0.0029 and 0.0028. The field conventional production systems resulted in a PEF of 0.0008, 0.0009 and 0.0002. Polytunnel PEF was 0.0006. Human toxicity cancer effects, particulate matter and human toxicity non-cancer effects resulted in the highest impact across all analysed production systems. The main contributors were electricity for cooling, heating the greenhouse and the use of agricultural machinery including fuel burning. While production stage contributed 85% of the total impact in the greenhouse, also other life cycle stages were important contributors: pre-chain resulted in 71% and 90% of impact in conventional and polytunnels, respectively, and cooling was 47% in one organic system. Environmental impact from strawberry cooling can be reduced by more efficient use of the cooling room, increasing the strawberry yield or switching from oil shale electricity to other energy sources. Greenhouse heating is the overall impact hotspot even if it based on renewable resources. A ranking of production systems based on the environmental impact is possible only if all relevant impacts are included. Future studies should aim

  17. The prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis in Estonia: an estimate based on rheumatology patients' database.

    PubMed

    Otsa, K; Tammaru, M; Vorobjov, S; Esko, M; Pärsik, E; Lang, K

    2013-04-01

    Sound epidemiological data are a basic requirement for decision making on the allocation of health care resources. Unfortunately, this is not the case in Estonia, where the paucity of epidemiological data has impeded health care planning for rheumatic conditions. The current paper presents the first effort to explore the epidemiology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in Estonia. Electronic databases of all rheumatology units of Harju County, three national and one private, were searched for the records of RA (ICD-10 diagnoses M05 and M06.0) patients who had visited a rheumatologist during 2006 or 2007. Prevalence of RA was calculated for the age 20 years and older and for subsets according to age and gender, using the numbers from the patients' database in the numerator and the corresponding population numbers in the denominator. The total number of prevalent RA cases was 1,897, of which 85 % (n = 1,605) were women. The overall crude period prevalence 2006-2007 of RA in Harju County for the age group 20 years and older was 0.46 %. RA prevalence for both sexes increased with age until the age of 70-79 years and decreased subsequently. Prevalence of RA was significantly higher for women compared with men in all age groups. The prevalence of RA among women and men 20 years and older was 0.70 % (6.68-7.37) and 0.16 % (1.42, 1.79), respectively. Age-standardized (European population) prevalence rate was 0.44 %. The results are concordant with epidemiological data on RA prevalence derived recently in other European countries.

  18. Tick-borne pathogens in ticks feeding on migratory passerines in Western part of Estonia.

    PubMed

    Geller, Julia; Nazarova, Lidia; Katargina, Olga; Leivits, Agu; Järvekülg, Lilian; Golovljova, Irina

    2013-07-01

    During southward migration in the years 2006-2009, 178 migratory passerines of 24 bird species infested with ticks were captured at bird stations in Western Estonia. In total, 249 nymphal ticks were removed and analyzed individually for the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. The majority of ticks were collected from Acrocephalus (58%), Turdus (13%), Sylvia (8%), and Parus (6%) bird species. Tick-borne pathogens were detected in nymphs removed from Acrocephalus, Turdus, and Parus bird species. TBEV of the European subtype was detected in 1 I. ricinus nymph removed from A. palustris. B. burgdorferi s.l. DNA was found in 11 ticks (4.4%) collected from Turdus and Parus species. Bird-associated B. garinii and B. valaisiana were detected in I. ricinus nymphs removed from T. merula. Rodent-associated B. afzelii was detected in 3 I. ricinus nymphs from 2 P. major birds. One of the B. afzelii-positive nymphs was infected with a mix of 2 B. afzelii strains, whereas 1 of these strains was also detected in another nymph feeding on the same great tit. The sharing of the same B. afzelii strain by 2 nymphs indicates a possible transmission of B. afzelii by co-feeding on a bird. A. phagocytophilum DNA was detected in 1 I. ricinus nymph feeding on a T. iliacus. The results of the study confirm the possible role of migratory birds in the dispersal of ticks infected with tick-borne pathogens along the southward migration route via Estonia.

  19. Newly Identified Pathogens Associated with Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Chaparro, P.J.; Gonçalves, C.; Figueiredo, L.C.; Faveri, M.; Lobão, E.; Tamashiro, N.; Duarte, P.; Feres, M.

    2014-01-01

    There is substantial evidence supporting the role of certain oral bacteria species in the onset and progression of periodontitis. Nevertheless, results of independent-culture diagnostic methods introduced about a decade ago have pointed to the existence of new periodontal pathogens. However, the data of these studies have not been evaluated together, which may generate some misunderstanding on the actual role of these microorganisms in the etiology of periodontitis. The aim of this systematic review was to determine the current weight of evidence for newly identified periodontal pathogens based on the results of “association” studies. This review was conducted and reported in accordance with the PRISMA statement. The MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases were searched up to September 2013 for studies (1) comparing microbial data of subgingival plaque samples collected from subjects with periodontitis and periodontal health and (2) evaluating at least 1 microorganism other than the already-known periodontal pathogens. From 1,450 papers identified, 41 studies were eligible. The data were extracted and registered in predefined piloted forms. The results suggested that there is moderate evidence in the literature to support the association of 17 species or phylotypes from the phyla Bacteroidetes, Candidatus Saccharibacteria, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Spirochaetes, and Synergistetes. The phylum Candidatus Saccharibacteria and the Archaea domain also seem to have an association with disease. These data point out the importance of previously unidentified species in the etiology of periodontitis and might guide future investigations on the actual role of these suspected new pathogens in the onset and progression of this infection. PMID:25074492

  20. Rabies in Estonia: situation before and after the first campaigns of oral vaccination of wildlife with SAG2 vaccine bait.

    PubMed

    Niin, Enel; Laine, M; Guiot, A L; Demerson, J M; Cliquet, F

    2008-07-04

    Despite the extermination of stray animals and the compulsory vaccination of companion animals, rabies has been widely distributed over Estonia for more than 30 years. The red fox and the raccoon dog are the rabies virus reservoirs. Through a PHARE project, successive oral vaccination campaigns, using Rabidog SAG2 baits, were implemented in the autumn of 2005 in North Estonia, and in the spring and autumn 2006 throughout the whole territory. After the autumn 2005 campaign, 73.5% of the raccoon dogs and foxes were positive for the tetracycline biomarker. After the campaigns of 2006, the seroconversion rate for rabies virus was 64% in both species. After the vaccination campaigns of 2005 and 2006, the incidence of rabies cases dramatically decreased. Of the 97 cases diagnosed in the whole of Estonia until the end of May 2006, 16 cases (16.5%) occurred within the vaccinated area. Only 17 cases were diagnosed between 1 June and 31 December 2006. In 2007, by the end of May, only two rabies cases have been registered.

  1. Risk for Heterosexual HIV Transmission Among Non-Injecting Female Partners of Injection Drug Users in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Uusküla, A; McMahon, J M; Kals, M; Talu, A; Abel-Ollo, K; Rüütel, K; Des Jarlais, D C

    2013-03-01

    The HIV epidemic in Estonia, as with other eastern European countries, is currently concentrated among injection drug users (IDUs). Non-IDUs who have IDU sex partners could serve as a potential bridge in an expanding epidemic. We applied HIV transmission modelling to data collected from non-IDU/IDU heterosexual couples in Kohtla-Järve, Estonia to estimate HIV risk from IDUs to their sex partners based on self-reported sexual behaviors shared by the couple. IDUs and their current main non-injecting sex partners were recruited for an interviewer-administered survey and HIV testing. Bernoulli modelling techniques were applied to estimate the risk of HIV transmission (incidence) among HIV negative non-injecting female partners of male IDUs. The estimated HIV incidence in this population of non-injecting women with only main sexual partners in the last 6 months ranged from 3.24 to 4.94 HIV seroconversions per 100 person years depending on the value used in the models for the per act transmission rate during acute stage infection. Non-IDUs who have IDU sex partners are at high risk for HIV and could serve as a potential bridge to a more generalized epidemic. Whether this might lead to an expansion of the HIV epidemic beyond core groups in Estonia or other Eastern European countries warrants closer study.

  2. Magnetic history of Early and Middle Ordovician sedimentary sequence, northern Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plado, J.; Preeden, U.; Pesonen, L. J.; Mertanen, S.; Puura, V.

    2010-01-01

    Alternating field and thermal demagnetization of lime- and dolostones from the Lower and Middle Ordovician (Floian to Darriwilian stages) subhorizontally bedded sequences in NW and NE Estonia reveal two characteristic magnetization components (named P and S). The intermediate-coercivity (demagnetized at 30-60 mT, up to 300-350°C) reversed polarity component P (mean of Floian Stage: Dref = 147.8 +/- 10.8°, Iref = 65.8 +/- 5.4° combined mean of Dapingian and Darriwilian stages: Dref = 166.0 +/- 8.4°, Iref = 56.1 +/- 6.5°) is regarded as the primary remanence of early diagenetic (chemical) origin. On the Baltica's apparent polar wander path (APWP), the palaeopoles (Floian: Plat = 25.0°N, Plon = 50.8°E, K = 52.7, A95 = 7.2° Dapingian and Darriwilian: Plat = 11.4°N, Plon = 39.1°E, K = 33.8, A95 = 6.7°) are placed on the Lower and Middle Ordovician segment. The poles indicate that Estonia was located at southerly latitudes, decreasing with time (Floian: ~48°S Dapingian and Darriwilian: ~37°S), when the remanence was acquired. A high-coercivity and high-unblocking-temperature component S (mean of samples: Dref = 33.7 +/- 6.3°, Iref = 51.9 +/- 5.7°) that is regarded as a secondary remanence has both normal and reversed polarities. On the European APWP, its palaeopole (Plat = 52.5°N, Plon = 157.9°E, K = 38.9, A95 = 5.3°) gives middle to late Permian age. According to mineralogical (SEM and optical microscopy) and rock magnetic (three-component induced remnant magnetization) studies, component P is carried by magnetite (coexisting with glauconite) and component S by haematite. Magnetite is of chemical origin, formed in the course of early diagenesis and/or dolomitization. During the Permian continental period haematite, the carrier of component S, was likely precipitated from oxidizing meteoric fluids in the already existing or simultaneously formed pore space between the dolomite crystals.

  3. Posttraumatic Stress among Not-Exposed Traumatically Bereaved Relatives after the MS Estonia Disaster

    PubMed Central

    Pohlkamp, Lilian; Öhlén, Joakim; Sandberg, Jonas; Brandänge, Kristina; Gustavsson, Petter

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known about posttraumatic stress (PTS) reactions in bereaved individuals following loss in disaster who were not directly exposed to disaster. The aim of the present study was to examine the course of PTS up to three years after losing relatives in the MS Estonia ferry disaster, one of the worst maritime disasters in modern times. Methods Seven postal surveys were sent out over three years post-disaster. The respondents were invited and added consecutively during the three years and 938 relatives participated in one or more of the surveys, representing 89% of the MS Estonia’s Swedish victims. The survey included the Impact of Event Scale (IES) to measure PTS. Latent growth curve modeling was used to analyze PTS over time. Results The majority of bereaved individuals had high levels of PTS. At three years post-loss, 62% of the respondents scored above the recommended cut-off value on the IES. Over time, PTS symptoms declined, but initially high symptoms of PTS were associated with a slower recovery rate. Conclusion The present finding suggests that being an indirectly-exposed disaster-bereaved close-relative can lead to very high levels of PTS which are sustained for several years. PMID:27893756

  4. Cyclic sedimentation pattern in Lake Veetka, southeast Estonia: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saarse, Leili

    2015-03-01

    A sediment core from Lake Veetka, southeast Estonia, 1077 cm in length and covering 10,500 calibrated years, was examined using loss-on-ignition, grain-size distribution and AMS 14C dating to reconstruct depositional dynamics. The studied core, recovered from the northern part of the lake, shows a cyclic pattern of organic and mineral matter concentration with cycle durations of 100-400 years. Cyclicity is displayed better in sediments laid down between 9,200 and 5,600 cal BP. Within two time windows (5,600-5,100 cal BP and from 1,200 cal BP to the present), sediment composition changed drastically on account of a high and fluctuating mineral matter content, obviously driven by different factors. Little Ice Age cooling is characterised by the highest proportion of mineral matter, and the Medieval Warm Period is typified by high organic matter content. The cyclic change of organic and mineral matter has been related to climate dynamics, most likely an alternation of wet and dry conditions, changes in the water level of the lake and differences in bioproduction

  5. Sex work in Tallinn, Estonia: the sociospatial penetration of sex work into society

    PubMed Central

    Aral, S O; Lawrence, J S St; Uusküla, A

    2006-01-01

    Background It is important to describe and understand the underlying patterns and dynamics that govern sex work in societies undergoing rapid political and social changes, its heterogeneity across populations, and its evolution through time in order to inform future research, sound policy formation, and programme delivery. Objectives To describe the socioeconomic and cultural determinants, organisational structure, distinct categories, and spatial patterning of sex work in Tallinn, Estonia, and identify recent temporal changes in sex work patterns. Methods In‐depth interviews with key informants; naturalistic observations of sex work and drug use venues, geo‐mapping of sex work sites, review of media, public policy, and commissioned reports, and analyses of existing data. Results Sex work takes place in a hierarchy of locations in Tallinn ranging from elite brothels and “love flats” to truck stops. These sites vary in terms of their public health importance and social organisation. There are full time, part time, and intermittent male and female sex workers. Among others, the taxi driver, madam and the bartender are central roles in the organisation of sex work in Tallinn. Cell phone and internet technology enable sex work to be highly dispersed and spatially mobile. Conclusion Future research and programmatic service delivery or outreach efforts should respond to the changing profile of sex work in Tallinn and its implications for STD/HIV epidemiology. PMID:16807288

  6. Mental disorders among Chernobyl cleanup workers from Estonia: A clinical assessment.

    PubMed

    Laidra, Kaia; Rahu, Kaja; Kalaus, Katri-Evelin; Tekkel, Mare; Leinsalu, Mall

    2016-09-26

    Objective: To assess, at a clinical level, the mental health of former Chernobyl cleanup workers from Estonia by comparing them with same-age controls. Method: The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) was administered during 2011-2012 to 99 cleanup workers and 100 population-based controls previously screened for mental health symptoms. Results: Logistic regression analysis showed that cleanup workers had higher odds of current depressive disorder (odds ratio [OR] = 3.07, 95% confidence interval [CI: 1.34, 7.01]), alcohol dependence (OR = 3.47, 95% CI [1.29, 9.34]), and suicide ideation (OR = 3.44, 95% CI [1.28, 9.21]) than did controls. Except for suicide ideation, associations with Chernobyl exposure became statistically nonsignificant when adjusted for education and ethnicity. Conclusion: A quarter of a century after the Chernobyl accident, Estonian cleanup workers were still at increased risk of mental disorders, which was partly attributable to sociodemographic factors. (PsycINFO Database Record

  7. Pathological gambling in Estonia: relationships with personality, self-esteem, emotional States and cognitive ability.

    PubMed

    Kaare, Pille-Riin; Mõttus, René; Konstabel, Kenn

    2009-09-01

    Due to changes in gambling accessibility during the last decade gambling has become more widespread in Estonia and the prevalence of pathological gambling has sharply increased. The present study attempts to identify psychological characteristics of Estonian pathological gamblers. It has been shown that a wide range of social, economic, and individual factors (e.g. personality traits and emotional states) predict the likelihood of becoming a pathological gambler. In the present study, pathological gamblers' (N = 33) personality traits, self-esteem, self-reported emotional states and cognitive ability were compared to the respective characteristics in a non-gambling control group (N = 42) matched for age, gender and educational level. It was found that compared to controls, pathological gamblers had higher scores on Neuroticism (especially on its immoderation facet) and lower scores on Conscientiousness (especially on its dutifulness and cautiousness facets) and on self-esteem scale. They reported more negative emotional states during the previous month (especially depression and anxiety). Finally, pathological gamblers had lower general cognitive ability. In a logistic regression model, the likelihood of being a pathological gambler was best predicted by high immoderation score and low cognitive ability.

  8. On-line field measurements of VOC emissions from a spruce tree at SMEAR Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourtsoukidis, Efstratios; Bonn, Boris; Noe, Steffen

    2013-04-01

    We have investigated VOC emissions from a Norway spruce tree (Picea abies) in a hemi-boreal mixed forest in September and October 2012, using Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry and Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry techniques, applied in a dynamic branch enclosure system that was automatically operated with an electrical compressor. Parallel to BVOC measurements a vast amount of atmospheric (CO2, CH4, H2O, CO, particles) and meteorological (temperature, relative humidity, photosynthetic active radiation, wind speed and direction, precipitation) parameters were measured in the ambient atmosphere and inside the cuvette enclosure (temperature, relative humidity, O3). Prior to the measuring period, an innovatory experimental setup was built at Järvselja forest station, in order to accomplish the detection of BVOC and minimize sampling losses. Therefore, a new inlet line, consisting of 19.4m of heated and isolated glass tube was constructed. The new inlet system applied, allowed the on-line detection and calculation of sesquiterpene (SQT) emission rates for the first time in a hemi-boreal forest site. It total, 12 atmospheric relevant BVOCs were continuously monitored for a three week period and the emission rates were derived. Along with diurnal profiles and continuous timeless, some interesting observations showed the possibility of ozone effect on SQT emissions, the possibility of radiation effect on MT emissions, the higher induced emissions due to mechanical stress and the possibility for a valid intercomparison between different spruce trees located in mountain Kleiner Feldberg (Germany) and in Järvseja forest station (Estonia).

  9. Measurement of community empowerment in three community programs in Rapla (Estonia).

    PubMed

    Kasmel, Anu; Andersen, Pernille Tanggaard

    2011-03-01

    Community empowerment approaches have been proven to be powerful tools for solving local health problems. However, the methods for measuring empowerment in the community remain unclear and open to dispute. This study aims to describe how a context-specific community empowerment measurement tool was developed and changes made to three health promotion programs in Rapla, Estonia. An empowerment expansion model was compiled and applied to three existing programs: Safe Community, Drug/HIV Prevention and Elderly Quality of Life. The consensus workshop method was used to create the measurement tool and collect data on the Organizational Domains of Community Empowerment (ODCE). The study demonstrated considerable increases in the ODCE among the community workgroup, which was initiated by community members and the municipality's decision-makers. The increase was within the workgroup, which had strong political and financial support on a national level but was not the community's priority. The program was initiated and implemented by the local community members, and continuous development still occurred, though at a reduced pace. The use of the empowerment expansion model has proven to be an applicable, relevant, simple and inexpensive tool for the evaluation of community empowerment.

  10. Content of phenolic compounds in aerial parts of Chamomilla suaveolens from Estonia.

    PubMed

    Raal, Ain; Püssa, Tõnu; Sepp, Janne; Malmiste, Birgit; Arak, Elmar

    2011-08-01

    The content of total polyphenols, flavonoids and coumarins in the aerial parts of pineapple weed (Chamomilla suaveolens (Pursh) Rydb.), growing wild in Estonia, was determined chromato-spectrophotometrically, and individual polyphenols were quantified using HPLC-DAD-MS/MS. The total content of polyphenols was rather similar in flowers (9.1-11.5%) and in whole aerial parts (8.4-10.9%) of pineapple weed. The upper one-third (1/3) and upper two-thirds (2/3) of the aerial parts contained more flavonoids (0.15 - 0.20%) than the flowers (0.12%). The content of coumarins showed no significant difference between the flowers and the upper 1/3 and 2/3 of the aerial parts. The main polyphenols in the flowers were dicaffeoylquinic acids (202-380 mkg/mL), chlorogenic acids (75-185 mkg/mL), and ferulic acid glycoside (61-124 mkg/mL). Also found were quercetin galactoside, apigenin acetylglucoside, malonylapigenin glucoside, as well as luteolin, quercetin and apigenin glycosides.

  11. Comparison of dust sampling methods in Estonia and Sweden--a field study.

    PubMed

    Berg, P; Jaakmees, V; Bodin, L

    1999-09-01

    The purpose of this field study was to compare an Estonian dust sampling method, a method also used in other former East Block countries, with a Swedish method and to estimate inter-method agreement with statistical analyses. The Estonian standard method (ESM), used to assess exposure in Estonia since the early 1950s, is based on a strategy where air samples are collected for 10 minutes every hour over a full shift. This method was compared to a Swedish standard method (SSM), a modified NIOSH method, comparable to international standards, where one air sample is collected during a full shift. The study was carried out at a cement plant that in the beginning of the 1990s was subjected to an epidemiological study, including collection of exposure data. The results of the analysis from 31 clusters of parallel samples of the two methods, when dust consisting of Portland cement was collected, showed a relatively weak correlation between the SSM and the ESM, ri = 0.81 (Pearson's intra-class correlation coefficient). A conversion factor between the two methods was estimated, where SSM is 0.69 times ESM and the limits of agreement are 0.25 and 1.84, respectively. These results indicate a substantial inter-method difference. We therefore recommend that measurements obtained from the two methods should not be used interchangeably. Because the present study is of limited extent, our findings are confined to the operations studied and further studies covering other exposure situations will be needed.

  12. Echinococcus multilocularis and other zoonotic parasites in red foxes in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Laurimaa, Leidi; Moks, Epp; Soe, Egle; Valdmann, Harri; Saarma, Urmas

    2016-09-01

    Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is the most widely distributed canid in the world and an important source of multiple zoonotic pathogens capable of causing life-threatening diseases, such as rabies and alveolar echinococcosis. Informing general public of potential risks related to foxes is becoming more important since the fox densities have increased in many countries and the species is colonizing urban areas in Europe and around the world with increasing pace, bringing zoonotic pathogens to the immediate neighbourhood of humans and their companion animals. The aim of this study was to examine the parasite fauna of red foxes in Estonia. We found in Estonian foxes a total of 17 endoparasite taxa, including ten zoonotic species. All the analysed individuals were infected and the average parasite species richness was 6·37. However, the infection rates varied to a very large extent for different parasite species, ranging from 0·9 to 91·5%. Of zoonotic species, the highest infection rate was observed for Alaria alata (90·7%), Eucoleus aerophilus (87·6%) and Uncinaria stenocephala (84·3%). The prevalence of tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, a causative agent for alveolar echinococcosis, was also relatively high (31·5%), presenting a potential risk to human health.

  13. Palaeomagnetism of Middle Ordovician Carbonate Sequence, Vaivara Sinimäed Area, Northeast Estonia, Baltica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plado, Jüri; Preeden, Ulla; JÕeleht, Argo; Pesonen, Lauri J.; Mertanen, Satu

    2016-10-01

    The hill range of Vaivara Sinimäed in northeast Estonia consists of several narrow east- to northeast-trending glaciotectonic fold structures. The folds include tilted (dips 4-75°) Middle Ordovician (early Darriwilian) layered carbonate strata that were studied by mineralogical, palaeomagnetic, and rock magnetic methods in order to specify the postsedimentational history of the area and to obtain a better control over the palaeogeographic position of Baltica during the Ordovician. Mineralogical studies revealed that (titano)magnetite, hematite, and goethite are carriers of magnetization. Based on data from 5 sites that positively passed a DC tilt test, a south-easterly downward directed component A ( D ref = 154.6°± 15.3°, I ref = 60.9°± 9.7°) was identified. The component is carried by (titano)magnetite, dates to the Middle Ordovician ( Plat = 17.9°, Plon = 47.3°, K = 46.7, A95 = 11.3°), and places Baltica at mid-southerly latitudes. Observations suggest that in sites that do not pass the tilt test, the glaciotectonic event has caused some rotation of blocks around their vertical axis.

  14. Detection and identification of Rickettsia species in Ixodes tick populations from Estonia.

    PubMed

    Katargina, Olga; Geller, Julia; Ivanova, Anna; Värv, Kairi; Tefanova, Valentina; Vene, Sirkka; Lundkvist, Åke; Golovljova, Irina

    2015-09-01

    A total of 1640 ticks collected in different geographical parts of Estonia were screened for the presence of Rickettsia species DNA by real-time PCR. DNA of Rickettsia was detected in 83 out of 1640 questing ticks with an overall prevalence of 5.1%. The majority of the ticks infected by rickettsiae were Ixodes ricinus (74 of 83), while 9 of the 83 positive ticks were Ixodes persulcatus. For rickettsial species identification, a part of the citrate synthase gltA gene was sequenced. The majority of the positive samples were identified as Rickettsia helvetica (81 out of 83) and two of the samples were identified as Rickettsia monacensis and Candidatus R. tarasevichiae, respectively. Genetic characterization based on the partial gltA gene showed that the Estonian sequences within the R. helvetica, R. monacensis and Candidatus R. tarasevichiae species demonstrated 100% similarity with sequences deposited in GenBank, originating from Rickettsia species distributed over large territories from Europe to Asia.

  15. Factors affecting re-vegetation dynamics of experimentally restored extracted peatland in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Karofeld, Edgar; Müür, Mari; Vellak, Kai

    2016-07-01

    Increasing human activity continues to threaten peatlands, and as the area of natural mires declines, our obligation is to restore their ecosystem functions. Several restoration strategies have been developed for restoration of extracted peatlands, including "The moss layer transfer method", which was initiated on the Tässi extracted peatland in central Estonia in May 2012. Three-year study shows that despite the fluctuating water table, rainfall events can compensate for the insufficient moisture for mosses. Total plant cover on the restoration area attained 70 %, of which ~60 % is comprised of target species-Sphagnum mosses. From restoration treatments, spreading of plant fragments had a significant positive effect on the cover of bryophyte and vascular plants. Higher water table combined with higher plant fragments spreading density and stripping of oxidised peat layer affected positively the cover of targeted Sphagnum species. The species composition in the restoration area became similar to that in the donor site in a natural bog. Based on results, it was concluded that the method approved for restoration in North America gives good results also in the restoration of extracted peatland towards re-establishment of bog vegetation under northern European conditions.

  16. Biomonitoring of aquatic sediments from Estonia with a fish liver cell line (PLHC-1)

    SciTech Connect

    Huuskonen, S.; Ritola, O.; Koponen, K.; Lindstroem-Seppae, P.; Tuvikene, A.

    1995-12-31

    Sediments were collected from lake Vorstjaerv and River Narva, Estonia, and extracted with dichloromethane. PLHC-1 cells were exposed to the extracts of the dry sediments. Cytotoxicity (total protein content) and CYP1A inducibility (EROD activity) was detected in the exposed cells. The contents of selected PAHs in the R. Narva sediments were also analyzed. The sediments collected from R. Narva were more toxic and caused higher EROD induction in the cells than the sediments from L. Vortsjaerv. The sediments collected from the northern part of the L. Vortsjaerv showed cytotoxicity. The sediments collected from the southern part of L. Vortsjaerv showed slight induction in EROD activity. In R. Narva, the most toxic sediments were collected downstream from the city of Narva and the Baltic Thermal Power Plant. At sublethal level of the sediment concentrations, also the highest EROD activities were seen at these downstream sites. At the sites heavily polluted with PAHs, also the EROD activities were high. The correlation between the PAH contents and EROD activities was not so evident when the sediments contained less PAHs. The PLHC-1 cells could serve as a sensitive method for screening cytotoxic and enzyme-inducing effects of the sediment extracts. This helps in evaluating the potential hazard of the compounds bound in the sediments for aquatic life. Further, the PLHC-1 cells can be used in comparing the properties of the sediments collected from different lakes and rivers.

  17. Reviving wood-pastures for biodiversity and people: A case study from western Estonia.

    PubMed

    Roellig, Marlene; Sutcliffe, Laura M E; Sammul, Marek; von Wehrden, Henrik; Newig, Jens; Fischer, Joern

    2016-03-01

    Wood-pastures are associated with high cultural and biodiversity values in Europe. However, due to their relatively low productivity, large areas of wood-pastures have been lost over the last century. In some areas, incentive schemes have been developed to revive wood-pastures. We investigated the effects of one such scheme in western Estonia. We compared the structure of grazed wood-pastures (old and restored) to those of abandoned wood-pastures and ungrazed forest stands to explore the effects of management, and conducted interviews with 24 farmers to investigate their motivations to carry out the management. We found a positive influence of active management on the semi-open structure of wood-pastures. Financial support was vital for management, but personal values related to tradition also played an important role. The interviewees differed widely in their range of motivations, suggesting that other strategies in addition to financial incentives would further improve the management of wood-pastures in the region.

  18. Comparison of dust sampling methods in Estonia and Sweden -- A field study

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, P.; Jaakmees, V.; Bodin, L.

    1999-09-01

    The purpose of this field study was to compare an Estonian dust sampling method, a method also used in other former East Block countries, with a Swedish method and to estimate inter-method agreement with statistical analyses. The Estonian standard method (ESM), used to assess exposure in Estonia since the early 1950s, is based on a strategy where air samples are collected for 10 minutes every hour over a full shift. This method was compared to a Swedish standard method (SSM), a modified NIOSH method, comparable to international standards, where one air sample is collected during a full shift. The study was carried out at a cement plant that in the beginning of the 1990s was subjected to an epidemiological study, including collection of exposure data. The results of the analysis from 31 clusters of parallel samples of the two methods, when dust consisting of Portland cement was collected, showed a relatively weak correlation between the SSM and the ESM, r{sub i} = 0.91 (Pearson's intro-class correlation coefficient). A conversion factor between the two methods was estimated, where SSM is 0.69 times ESm and the limits of agreement are 0.25 and 1.84, respectively. These results indicate a substantial intermethod difference. The authors therefore recommend that measurements obtained from the two methods should not be used interchangeably. Because the present study is of limited extent, the findings are confined to the operations studied and further studies covering other exposure situation will be needed.

  19. Independent Peer Reviews

    SciTech Connect

    2012-03-16

    Independent Assessments: DOE's Systems Integrator convenes independent technical reviews to gauge progress toward meeting specific technical targets and to provide technical information necessary for key decisions.

  20. Incorporation of public hospitals: a "silver bullet" against overcapacity, managerial bottlenecks and resource constraints? Case studies from Austria and Estonia.

    PubMed

    Fidler, Armin H; Haslinger, Reinhard R; Hofmarcher, Maria M; Jesse, Maris; Palu, Toomas

    2007-05-01

    This paper presents a new approach for incorporating public hospitals by contrasting the experience from an "old" EU country (Austria) with a new EU member state (Estonia). In the EU (including the new member states) hospital overcapacity is a serious problem, from a technical, fiscal and political perspective. Few countries have succeeded in establishing an appropriate framework for resource management and for guaranteeing long-term financial viability of their hospital network. Many countries are in search of effective policies for improved hospital management and more cost-effective resource use in the health sector. Over the past decade, experiences in Austria and Estonia have emerged as innovative examples which may provide lessons for other EU countries and beyond. This paper describes the evolution of public hospitals from public budgetary units and public management to incorporated autonomous organizations under private corporate law, resulting in a contractual relationship between (public) owners and private hospital management. Outdated and inefficient public sector structures were replaced by more agile corporate management. The arrangement allows for investments, operating costs and budgeting according to strategic business goals as opposed to political "fiat". Shielding hospitals from local political influence is an important aspect of this concept. Horizontal integration through networking of public hospitals and introducing private management helps create a new corporate culture, allowing for more flexibility to achieve efficiencies through downsizing and economies of scale. Based on contracts the new balance between ownership and managerial functions create strong incentives for a more business-like, results-oriented and consumer-friendly management. This was achieved both in Austria and Estonia in a politically sensitive way, adopting a long-term vision and by protecting the interests of hospital owners and staff.

  1. First report of the zoonotic tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis in raccoon dogs in Estonia, and comparisons with other countries in Europe.

    PubMed

    Laurimaa, Leidi; Süld, Karmen; Moks, Epp; Valdmann, Harri; Umhang, Gérald; Knapp, Jenny; Saarma, Urmas

    2015-09-15

    The raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) is an alien species in Europe and an important vector of zoonotic diseases. However, compared to the red fox (Vulpes vulpes), less attention has been paid to the raccoon dog as a potentially important host for Echinococcus multilocularis, the infective agent of alveolar echinococcosis, which is an emerging infectious disease with a high mortality rate. We examined the small intestines of 249 Estonian raccoon dogs and found 1.6% of individuals to be infected with E. multilocularis. The relatively large difference between this prevalence and that found in sympatric red foxes (31.5%) sampled during the same time period might be due to differences in diet: red foxes consume significantly more arvicolid rodents - the main intermediate hosts of the parasite - especially during the coldest period of the year when raccoon dogs hibernate. Nonetheless, given the relatively high density of raccoon dogs, our results suggest that the species also represents an important definitive host species for E. multilocularis in Estonia. Compared with other countries in Europe where E. multilocularis-infected raccoon dogs have been recorded (Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Germany, and Slovakia), the prevalence in Estonia is low. The longer hibernation period of raccoon dogs at higher latitudes may explain this pattern. Both mitochondrial and nuclear loci were analysed for Estonian isolates: based on EmsB microsatellite genotyping the Estonian isolates shared an identical genotype with E. multilocularis in northern Poland, suggesting a common history with this region. The data from more than a quarter of the mitochondrial genome (3558 bp) revealed two novel haplotypes specific to Estonia and placed them into the same haplogroup with isolates from other European regions. Considering that the raccoon dog is becoming increasingly widespread and is already relatively abundant in several countries in Europe, the role of the species must be taken into

  2. Long term effects of forest fires to soil C content and soil CO_{2} efflux in hemiboreal Scots pine forests of Estonia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köster, Kajar; Metslaid, Marek; Orumaa, Argo; Parro, Kristi; Jõgiste, Kalev; Berninger, Frank; Pumpanen, Jukka; Köster, Egle

    2016-04-01

    Fire is the primary process which organizes the physical and biological attributes of the boreal biome and influences energy flows and biogeochemical cycles, particularly the carbon (C) cycle. Especially the soil organic matter pool in boreal forests is an important C storage with a long C turnover time, but fire frequencies that are expected to increase with changing climate, can change that. We compared the initial recovery of C pools and CO2 efflux following fire disturbances in Scots pine (Pinus sylvesteris L.) stands with different time since fire. The study areas are located in hemiboreal vegetation zone, in northwestern Estonia, in Vihterpalu. Six areas (with extensive fires 200 ha and more) were chosen for study: fire in a year 1837, 1940, 1951, 1982, 1997, and 2008. In all areas we are dealing with stand replacing fires where all (or almost all) of the stand was destroyed by fire. On every area we established three permanent sample plots. Soil respiration was measured manually from all sample plots (measuring interval of two - three weeks). Manual chamber measurements are performed on 5 collars (north - south orientated and the distance between collars is 5 m) at each sample plot from May till November 2015. To characterize the soil C and N content and fine root biomass at the sites, 5 soil cores (0.5 m long and 0.05 m in diameter) were taken from each sample plot. Our results show that forest fire has a substantial effect on the C content in the top soil layer, but not in the humus layer and in mineral soil layers. Soil respiration showed similar chronological response to the time since the forest fire indicating that substantial proportion of the respiration was originating from the very top of the soil. Soil respiration values were lowest on the area where the fire was in a year 2008 and the respiration values followed also seasonal pattern being highest in August and lowest in May and November. The CO2 effluxes were lowest on newly burned area through

  3. The member of the Academy H.P. Keres and the Relativity theory in Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuusk, P.; Muursepp, P. V.; Piir, Ivar

    1987-10-01

    The first popular lecture on the Einstein theory of relativity was given in Estonia already in 1914 by Jaan Sarv (1877-1954)[1],afterwards a professor of mathematics at the Tartu University. The first student courses on special relativity were delivered by Professor of Mathematics Juri Nuut (1892-1952): non-Euclidean geometry (1930), the mathematical theory of relativity (1932/1933),the Lorenz transformations (1937). His own research work concerned the Lobachevsky geometry [7] and its application to cosmology [6]. Harald Keres qraguated from the Tartu University in 1936. He gave the first student course on general relativity (based on books [11-14]in 1940.In 1942,he got the dr.phil.nat degree form the Tartu University for his theses "Raum und Zeit in der allgemeinen Relativitatstheorie". The degree of the doctor of mathematical and physical sciences was confirmed by VAK (the All-Union Higher Attestation Commission) in 1949.In this period, he got aquainted with the leading Soviet scientists working on General Relativity, prof.V.A.Fock,Prof.D.D.Ivanenko,Prof.A.Z.Petrov,and Prof.M.F.Shirokov. After World War two all-union university courses were introduced in Tartu State University. According to the curriculum of the course the special theory of relativity is a part of electrodynamics obligatory for all students of the department of Physics. From 1947 till 1985 this course was delivered by Prof.PaulKard(1914-1985).He also published a number of text-books on the subject [15-19]. The general theory of relativity was read by Prof.H.Keres in 1951-1960 and later by his pupils R.Lias and A.Koppel [20-23] as a special course for students specializing in theoretical Physics. The first PHD-s in general relativity were made by R.Lias [27](1954) and I.Piir [28] (1955). In 1961, Prof.H.Keres was elected a member of the Academy of Sciences of the Estonian S.S.R. He left the TArtu State University and began to work in the Institute of Physics as the head of the Department of

  4. Analysis of the varved clay accumulation in the Pärnu Bay area, Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalvans, Andis; Hang, Tiit

    2015-04-01

    Varved clays are commonly found glaciolacustrine sediments representing high-resolution environmental archives of the deglaciation events. We examine varve formation in the Baltic Ice Lake at the Pärnu Bay area, Estonia, during the deglaciation of the last Scandinavian glaciation from the region. The data set of Hang and Kohv (2013) spanning 584 years is used. Analysis of the spatial variation of the seasonal layer thickness distribution based on 26 sediment cores and sub-varve resolution grain size analysis from a single section was performed. The Baltic Ice Lake water level reconstruction indicates that the water depth at the study region was up to 80 m (Rosentau et al., 2009). It is found that during the first ~130 years after the ice retreat the summer sedimentation was dominated by sediment loaded underflows emanating form the ice margin: summer layer thickness is strongly positively correlated with water depth. The winter layer thickness during this period does not demonstrate significant correlation with water depth suggesting that the simple raining-out of the suspended material from a water column was complicated by water circulation. Ice retreat from the Pandivere-Neva line of the marginal formations just north from study area took place during the interval from 96 to 130 local varve years. During the transition marked shift from proglacial to distal sedimentary environment is observed: the summer layer thickens decreased dramatically and it's thickens is markedly higher in the area close to the ice margin. The winter layer thickens becomes strongly correlated to the water depth, suggesting that the simple sedimentation model with no water circulation and addition of no new sediments is valid. The grain size data is used to estimate the "terminal grain size" - the size of the larges particles sedimented at the top of the winter layer. Provided that no significant water circulation took place during the winter, the terminal grain size will be controlled

  5. Butaclamol hydrochloride in newly admitted schizophrenics.

    PubMed

    Hollister, L E; Davis, K L; Berger, P A

    1975-01-01

    Butaclamol hydrochloride, a new type of antipsychotic drug, was evaluated by an uncontrolled study of 13 newly admitted schizophrenic patients. The drug had antipsychotic effects as well as a strong propensity for evoking extrapyramidal side effects. With the maximal daily doses of 30 mg used in this study, therapeutic results obtained were probably somewhat less than optimal.

  6. Molecular epidemiology of Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) in Estonia, and a global phylogeny of AMDV.

    PubMed

    Leimann, Aivi; Knuuttila, Anna; Maran, Tiit; Vapalahti, Olli; Saarma, Urmas

    2015-03-02

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) causes a severe disease called Aleutian disease (AD). AMDV infects primarily mustelids, but also other mammal species. Recent evidence suggests that AMDV may also affect humans. To examine AMDV in different wild animals and in farmed mink in Estonia, we collected 203 blood samples from eight mammal species in 2007-2010, of which 152 were from species living in the wild (American mink, European mink, pine marten, polecat, raccoon dog, badger, otter, and stone marten) and 51 were from farmed mink. AMDV was tested by PCR amplification of NS1 and VP2 gene fragments, and was only detected in 4 free-ranging (14.8%) and 11 farmed (21.6%) American mink. No other species was positive for AMDV. In addition, the VP2 gene fragment was sequenced for 14 farmed mink isolates from Finland for which NS1 sequences were already publicly available. None of the four Estonian AMDV isolates found in free-ranging mink had identical sequences with farmed mink. In fact, isolates from free-ranging and farmed mink belonged to different clades, suggesting that the analyzed virus isolates circulating in nature are not from escapees of current farms. Two global phylogenies were built: one based on NS1 (336 bp, 151 taxa from nine countries); the other based on a combined NS1-VP2 dataset (871 bp, 40 taxa from six countries). AMDV genotypes did not cluster according to their geographic origin, suggesting that transport of farm mink from multiple source farms has been intense. Nevertheless, one subclade in both phylogenies was comprised solely of isolates from farmed mink, while several subclades comprised isolates only from free-ranging mink, indicating that some isolates may circulate more in the wild and others among farm animals.

  7. Eutrophication History of Small Shallow Lakes in Estonia: Evidence from Multiproxy Analysis of Lake Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koff, T.; Marzecova, A.; Vandel, E.; Mikomägi, A.; Avi, E.

    2015-12-01

    Human activities have impacted aquatic systems through the release of contaminants and the regulation of surface and groundwater. Although environmental monitoring has been essential in detecting eutrophication, biodiversity loss or water quality deterioration, monitoring activities are limited in time and are thus not sufficient in their scope to identify causality and thresholds. Paleolimnological studies increasingly show that the response of lakes to climatic and human influences is complex, multidimensional, and often indirectly mediated through watershed processes. In this study we examine the history of eutrophication processes in small lakes in Estonia using the multi-proxy analysis of sediment. Study sites represent lakes with different anthropogenic stressors: urbanisation and recreational use, run-off from an oil shale mine, and fish-kills and liming measures. We have used diverse analytical methods, such as elemental analysis, stable isotopes, fossil pigments, diatoms and Cladocera remains. The information derived from sedimentary indicators broadly agrees with the historical evidence of eutrophication and pollution. Moreover, the sediment records are indispensable for identifying additional issues such as: 1) earlier onset of cultural eutrophication; 2) the significant impact of catchment erosion on the deterioration of lake quality, particularly cyanobacterial blooms; and 3) changes in sedimentation processes with significance for internal biogeochemical cycling of nutrients. Importantly, the integration of several methods has significantly improved interpretation of sedimentary data and elucidated the different strengths of various indicator types. The project findings prove to be highly relevant for both the prediction of the ecological responses of lakes to different anthropogenic impacts and the establishment of reasonable reference target conditions in restoration schemes, as well as for methodological improvements of the sediment analysis.

  8. Perceptions of Advertising in the Newly Independent States: Kazakstani Students' Beliefs about Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fullerton, Jami A.; Weir, Tom

    This study attempts to answer Andrews' (1991) question, "do perceptions of advertising in general vary cross-culturally?" Eighty-two undergraduate students from the former Soviet Union republic of Kazakstan were questioned about their beliefs about advertising. The analysis revealed predominantly negative feelings toward advertising in…

  9. Teaching the Violent Past in Secondary Schools in Newly Independent South Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skårås, Merethe; Breidlid, Anders

    2016-01-01

    This article analyses the teaching and learning of South Sudan history from 1955--2005 in secondary schools in South Sudan with a specific focus on national unity. The article draws on two periods of focused ethnography, from September to December 2014 and July to September 2015, including classroom observation and interviews with teachers,…

  10. Preliminary tests of a newly developed superconducting gravity gradiometer

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, M.; Chan, H.; Paik, H.

    1983-05-01

    The authors have recently completed a series of tests on a newly developed superconducting gravity gradiometer consisting of two 400 g niobium proof masses separated by a distance of 15 cm. The resonance frequency of the proof mass suspension systems is 25 Hz. The sensitivity of this gradiometer obtained during these tests was 1 to 2 Eotvos Hz /SUP -1/2/ (1 Eotvos = 10/sup -9/ s/sup -2/ = 1 E) below 1 Hz, and 0.2 E Hz /SUP -1/2/ between 15 and 20 Hz. Using this gradiometer, a prototype experiment has been performed to demonstrate a new source-independent null test of the inverse square law of gravitation. Results are given.

  11. Countrywide Forest Biomass Estimates from PALSAR L-Band Backscatter to Improve Greenhouse Gas Inventory in Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olesk, A.; Voormansik, K.; Luud, Aarne; Renne, M.; Zalite, K.; Noorma, M.; Reinart, A.

    2013-08-01

    Accurately estimated forest biomass and its distribution is a key parameter for forest inventories, vegetation modeling and understanding the global carbon cycle. It is also required by the United Nations and Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) to provide a comprehensive analysis on estimates of terrestrial carbon fluxes for climate change reports. To improve the understanding of the carbon balance in Estonia, where forests cover over half of the land, a methodology has been worked out to map the changes in the forest biomass in yearly basis using satellite and forest inventory data. To assess the above-ground biomass in temperate deciduous, coniferous and mixed forest of Estonia, measurements and imagery from dual polarimetric L-band SAR (Synthetic Aperature Radar) and optical remote sensing satellites were used. A country-specific model allows easily regenerating the forest biomass estimations with the newest satellite data and producing up-to-date biomass maps that can be used to assist the national inventory reporting under the Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee for a Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Kyoto Protocol.

  12. Lessons from European population genetic databases: comparing the law in Estonia, Iceland, Sweden and the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Susan M C; Helgason, Hördur Helgi; Kaye, Jane; Nõmper, Ants; Wendel, Lotta

    2005-06-01

    The advent of large-scale, population genetic databases (PGDs) in several countries around the world marks a significant development in human DNA banking and genetic research. The European countries that have led the way in the development of PGDs are Iceland, Sweden, Estonia and the U.K. In legal terms, the emergence of PGDs has been far from straightforward as such projects pose a range of difficult and complex issues for the law to address. This article canvasses the current law in Iceland, Estonia, Sweden and the U.K. on four fundamental issues of principle pertaining to PGDs, in order to illustrate the difficulties that have emerged around PGDs, highlight key areas of legal concern, and shed light on possible ways forward. It compares and contrasts the differing legal positions and lawmakers' responses to date in these four European countries that have established PGDs or are seeking to do so. The four fundamental issues examined are: (1) consent, especially for secondary research purposes; (2) ownership of biological samples, data and databases; (3) the rights of certain third parties to gain access to, and to use, PGD biological samples and data; and (4) benefit sharing, including the provision of feedback and genetic counselling to participants. This analysis may offer some guidance for policymakers in other jurisdictions where PGDs have been proposed or are being established.

  13. Re-vegetation processes in cutaway peat production fields in Estonia in relation to peat quality and water regime.

    PubMed

    Orru, Mall; Ots, Katri; Orru, Hans

    2016-12-01

    Eighty-one cutaway peat production fields with a total area of about 9000 ha exist and were studied in Estonia in 2005-2015. Only a very small number of the fields (seven) have been restored-either afforested or used for growing berries. The re-vegetation of Estonian cutaway peat production fields is mainly the result of natural processes, which are generally very slow due to an unfavourable water regime or a too thin remaining peat layer. The fields are mostly covered by cotton grass and birches. Often sparse vegetation covers 15-20% of a peat field, but some fields have turned into heaths or grasslands with plant coverage up to 60%. However, due to changes in environmental (mainly hydrological) conditions and peat characteristics (mainly peat type), these areas can also be new niches for several species. A number of moss species new to or rare in Estonia, e.g. Pohlia elongata, Ephemerum serratum, Campylopus introflexus and Bryum oblongum, were recorded.

  14. 40 CFR 268.38 - Waste specific prohibitions-newly identified organic toxicity characteristic wastes and newly...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Waste specific prohibitions-newly identified organic toxicity characteristic wastes and newly listed coke by-product and chlorotoluene... specific prohibitions—newly identified organic toxicity characteristic wastes and newly listed coke...

  15. 40 CFR 268.38 - Waste specific prohibitions-newly identified organic toxicity characteristic wastes and newly...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Waste specific prohibitions-newly identified organic toxicity characteristic wastes and newly listed coke by-product and chlorotoluene... specific prohibitions—newly identified organic toxicity characteristic wastes and newly listed coke...

  16. 40 CFR 268.38 - Waste specific prohibitions-newly identified organic toxicity characteristic wastes and newly...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Waste specific prohibitions-newly identified organic toxicity characteristic wastes and newly listed coke by-product and chlorotoluene... specific prohibitions—newly identified organic toxicity characteristic wastes and newly listed coke...

  17. 40 CFR 268.38 - Waste specific prohibitions-newly identified organic toxicity characteristic wastes and newly...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Waste specific prohibitions-newly identified organic toxicity characteristic wastes and newly listed coke by-product and chlorotoluene... specific prohibitions—newly identified organic toxicity characteristic wastes and newly listed coke...

  18. 40 CFR 268.38 - Waste specific prohibitions-newly identified organic toxicity characteristic wastes and newly...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Waste specific prohibitions-newly identified organic toxicity characteristic wastes and newly listed coke by-product and chlorotoluene... specific prohibitions—newly identified organic toxicity characteristic wastes and newly listed coke...

  19. The Occupational Well-Being of School Staff and Maintenance of Their Ability to Work in Finland and Estonia--Focus on the School Community and Professional Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saaranen, Terhi; Sormunen, Marjorita; Pertel, Tiia; Streimann, Karin; Hansen, Siivi; Varava, Liana; Lepp, Kadi; Turunen, Hannele; Tossavainen, Kerttu

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to present the baseline results of a research and development project targeted to improve the occupational well-being of school staff and maintain their ability to work, in Finland and Estonia. It reveals the most problematic factors in the various aspects of the school community and professional competence and outlines…

  20. "It's Good to Live in Jarva-Jaani but We Can't Stay Here": Youth and Belonging in Rural Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trell, Elen-Maarja; van Hoven, Bettina; Huigen, Paulus

    2012-01-01

    In the broader context of post-socialist transition and rural decline, we examine the everyday lives of young people in rural Estonia. We focus in particular on key places of belonging for youths and the practices and experiences through which rural young people develop a sense of belonging to their local places. Our aim is to identify links…

  1. Independent Study in Iowa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho Univ., Moscow.

    This guide to independent study in Idaho begins with introductory information on the following aspects of independent study: the Independent Study in Idaho consortium, student eligibility, special needs, starting dates, registration, costs, textbooks and instructional materials, e-mail and faxing, refunds, choosing a course, time limits, speed…

  2. The practical skills of newly qualified nurses.

    PubMed

    Danbjørg, Dorthe Boe; Birkelund, Regner

    2011-02-01

    This paper reports the findings from a study of newly qualified nurses and which subjects the nurses regarded as the most important in order to be able to live up to the requirements of clinical practice, and how they experience their potential for developing practical and moral skills, after the decrease in practical training. A qualitative approach guided the research process and the analysis of the data. The data was collected by participant observation and qualitative interviews with four nurses as informants. The conclusions made in this study are based on the statements and the observations of the newly qualified nurses. Our findings are discussed in relation to the Aristotelian concept and other relevant literature. The main message is that the newly qualified nurses did not feel equipped when they finished their training. This could be interpreted as a direct consequence of the decrease in practical training. Our study also underlines that the way nursing theory is perceived and taught is problematic. The interviews revealed that the nurses think that nursing theories should be applied directly in practice. This misunderstanding is probably also applicable to the teachers of the theories.

  3. Seasonal and diurnal dynamics of CO2 balance in two hemi-boreal forests in Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mander, Ülo

    2013-04-01

    Two eddy towers, one in the mixed Norway spruce - Silver birch forest in Liispõllu (58°16'N 27°16'E tower height 20 m) and another one in Scots pine forest in Soontaga (58°01'N 26°04'E; 36 m) both located in southern Estonia - were equipped with CO2/H2O analyzer for mixing ratio of CO2 (Licor 7200 Li-Cor Inc, Lincoln, NE, USA) and 3-D ultrasonic anemometer for wind measurements (Gill Windmaster Pro; Solent, Lymington, UK) and used for measurement of carbon dioxide balance and net ecosystem exchange (NEE). In Liispõllu, the studies were conducted in Auguat and September 2011 above the forest canopies and at 1.5 m above the soil surface.. In Soontaga, measurements lasted from April to October 2012. The data acquisition system consists of the LI-7550 Analyzer Interface Unit, 3G wireless router and analog-to-digital converter that were used to record turbulence and scalar signals. Signals from the sensor and anemometer were recorded 20 times sec-1. The eddy fluxes were averaged over 30 minute time intervals. The flux calculations and corrections of were done using EddyPro program. In addition, soil respiration was measured with automatic chambers in Liispõllu and with closed chambers in Soontaga twice a month from April to October 2011 and 2012. In both study areas around the towers, soil physical and chemical parameters in 3 depths, biomass of trees and understory species, C sequestration in biomass and litter decay has been measured. In Soontaga pine forest the average monthly CO2 flux varied from -59.2 to -388.8 mg m-2 h-1 showing a regular seasonal temperature-related variation. CO2 flux from lowered in spring and summer as plants consume the gas through photosynthesis and days are longer, and rise during the autumn and winter as plants go dormant, die and decay and when also the daytime is shorter. The average monthly flux over the analyzed period was -246.5 mg m-2 h-1. In consequence, the CO2 sequestration from the atmosphere was highest in June. In Liisp

  4. An Approach to Keeping Independent Colleges Independent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Area Foundation, St. Paul, Minn.

    As a result of the financial difficulties faced by independent colleges in the northwestern United States, the Northwest Area Foundation in 1972 surveyed the administrations of 80 private colleges to get a profile of the colleges, a list of their current problems, and some indication of how the problems might be approached. The three top problems…

  5. CAMS newly detected meteor showers and the sporadic background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenniskens, P.; Nénon, Q.; Gural, P. S.; Albers, J.; Haberman, B.; Johnson, B.; Morales, R.; Grigsby, B. J.; Samuels, D.; Johannink, C.

    2016-03-01

    The Cameras for Allsky Meteor Surveillance (CAMS) video-based meteoroid orbit survey adds 60 newly identified showers to the IAU Working List of Meteor Showers (numbers 427, 445-446, 506-507, and part of 643-750). 28 of these are also detected in the independent SonotaCo survey. In total, 230 meteor showers and shower components are identified in CAMS data, 177 of which are detected in at least two independent surveys. From the power-law size frequency distribution of detected showers, we extrapolate that 36% of all CAMS-observed meteors originated from ∼700 showers above the N = 1 per 110,000 shower limit. 71% of mass falling to Earth from streams arrives on Jupiter-family type orbits. The transient Geminids account for another 15%. All meteoroids not assigned to streams form a sporadic background with highest detected numbers from the apex source, but with 98% of mass falling in from the antihelion source. Even at large ∼7-mm sizes, a Poynting-Robertson drag evolved population is detected, which implies that the Grün et al. collisional lifetimes at these sizes are underestimated by about a factor of 10. While these large grains survive collisions, many fade on a 104-y timescale, possibly because they disintegrate into smaller particles by processes other than collisions, leaving a more resilient population to evolve.

  6. Identifying women at risk for delayed presentation of breast cancer: a cross-sectional study in Estonia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Survival from breast cancer remains lower in Estonia than in most other European countries. More advanced stage and larger tumors that have impact on survival may be a result of delay in seeking help for breast cancer symptoms. The aim of this study was to identify determinants of delayed presentation among breast cancer patients in Estonia. Methods The study population included women with primary breast cancer diagnosed in Estonia in 2008–2010. All data were collected using structured personal interviews carried out by trained nurses in the hospital setting. Only patients with self-discovered symptoms were included in this analysis. Patient delay was measured as time elapsing from symptom self-discovery to first medical consultation. The effect of different factors on the likelihood of prolonged delay (>90 days) was evaluated using logistic regression. Results Among 703 eligible patients, median patient delay was 16 days (interquartile range 5–54 days). Seventeen percent of the patients had their first medical consultation more than three months after self-detection of symptoms. In multivariate analysis, the risk of prolonged delay was significantly associated with age 65 years and over (OR 2.27, 95% CI 1.23–4.20), current smoking (OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.21–3.61), symptoms other than painless breast lump or breast pain (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.08–3.16), no history of mammograms (OR 1.83, 95% CI 1.13–2.95), having received no information on breast cancer during past year (OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.05–2.99), and previous benign breast problems (OR 1.65, 95% CI 1.01–2.67). Non-significant risk increase was seen with lower education. Conclusions This study provides evidence that factors associated with delayed presentation of breast cancer in Eastern Europe are similar to those observed in Western countries. The results suggest that educational messages to general population should aim at increasing awareness of “non-lump” symptoms of breast cancer and

  7. Critical thinking dispositions among newly graduated nurses

    PubMed Central

    Wangensteen, Sigrid; Johansson, Inger S; Björkström, Monica E; Nordström, Gun

    2010-01-01

    wangensteen s., johansson i.s., björkström m.e. & nordström g. (2010) Critical thinking dispositions among newly graduated nurses. Journal of Advanced Nursing66(10), 2170–2181. Aim The aim of the study was to describe critical thinking dispositions among newly graduated nurses in Norway, and to study whether background data had any impact on critical thinking dispositions. Background Competence in critical thinking is one of the expectations of nursing education. Critical thinkers are described as well-informed, inquisitive, open-minded and orderly in complex matters. Critical thinking competence has thus been designated as an outcome for judging the quality of nursing education programmes and for the development of clinical judgement. The ability to think critically is also described as reducing the research–practice gap and fostering evidence-based nursing. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive study was performed. The data were collected between October 2006 and April 2007 using the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory. The response rate was 33% (n= 618). Pearson’s chi-square tests were used to analyse the data. Results Nearly 80% of the respondents reported a positive disposition towards critical thinking. The highest mean score was on the Inquisitiveness subscale and the lowest on the Truth-seeking subscale. A statistically significant higher proportion of nurses with high critical thinking scores were found among those older than 30 years, those with university education prior to nursing education, and those working in community health care. Conclusion Nurse leaders and nurse teachers should encourage and nurture critical thinking among newly graduated nurses and nursing students. The low Truth-seeking scores found may be a result of traditional teaching strategies in nursing education and might indicate a need for more student-active learning models. PMID:20384637

  8. Value of a newly sequenced bacterial genome

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Eudes GV; Aburjaile, Flavia F; Ramos, Rommel TJ; Carneiro, Adriana R; Le Loir, Yves; Baumbach, Jan; Miyoshi, Anderson; Silva, Artur; Azevedo, Vasco

    2014-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have made high-throughput sequencing available to medium- and small-size laboratories, culminating in a tidal wave of genomic information. The quantity of sequenced bacterial genomes has not only brought excitement to the field of genomics but also heightened expectations that NGS would boost antibacterial discovery and vaccine development. Although many possible drug and vaccine targets have been discovered, the success rate of genome-based analysis has remained below expectations. Furthermore, NGS has had consequences for genome quality, resulting in an exponential increase in draft (partial data) genome deposits in public databases. If no further interests are expressed for a particular bacterial genome, it is more likely that the sequencing of its genome will be limited to a draft stage, and the painstaking tasks of completing the sequencing of its genome and annotation will not be undertaken. It is important to know what is lost when we settle for a draft genome and to determine the “scientific value” of a newly sequenced genome. This review addresses the expected impact of newly sequenced genomes on antibacterial discovery and vaccinology. Also, it discusses the factors that could be leading to the increase in the number of draft deposits and the consequent loss of relevant biological information. PMID:24921006

  9. The impact of water supply and sanitation on infant mortality: Individual-level evidence from Tartu, Estonia, 1897-1900.

    PubMed

    Jaadla, Hannaliis; Puur, Allan

    2016-07-01

    Evidence from a number of historical studies has demonstrated a strong impact of the provision of clean water on mortality risks, while no clear effect has been reported in others. We investigated the relationship between water supply, sanitation, and infant survival in Tartu, a university town in Estonia, 1897-1900. Based on data from parish registers, which were linked to the first census of the Russian Empire, the analysis reveals a clear disadvantage for infants in households using surface water, compared with families that acquired water from groundwater or artesian wells. The impact is stronger in the later stages of infancy. Competing-risk analysis shows that the effect is more pronounced for deaths caused by diseases of the digestive system. Our findings suggest that it may have been possible to improve the water supply, and consequently reduce infant mortality, before the introduction of piped water and sewage systems.

  10. High prevalence of blood-borne virus infections and high-risk behaviour among injecting drug users in Tallinn, Estonia

    PubMed Central

    Uusküla, Anneli; McNutt, Louise Anne; Dehovitz, Jack; Fischer, Krista; Heimer, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Summary The HIV epidemic in Estonia is rapidly expanding, and injection drug users (IDUs) are the major risk group contributing to the expansion. A convenience sample of 159 IDUs visiting syringe-exchange programmes (SEPs) was selected to quantify the association of HIV-risk behaviours and blood-borne infections. A high prevalence of HIV, hepatitis B core antibody (HBVcore), hepatitis B surface antigen (HbsAg) and hepatitis C virus antibodies (56, 85.1, 21.3, and 96.2%, respectively) was associated with high-risk injections, unsafe sexual behaviour and alcohol abuse. These findings emphasize the importance of evidence-based secondary prevention among the HIV-infected, especially given the uncertain sustainability of antiretroviral and substance abuse treatments. PMID:17326862

  11. Dating a small impact crater: An age of Kaali crater (Estonia) based on charcoal emplaced within proximal ejecta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losiak, A.; Wild, E. M.; Geppert, W. D.; Huber, M. S.; Jõeleht, A.; Kriiska, A.; Kulkov, A.; Paavel, K.; Pirkovic, I.; Plado, J.; Steier, P.; VäLja, R.; Wilk, J.; Wisniowski, T.; Zanetti, M.

    2016-04-01

    The estimates of the age of the Kaali impact structure (Saaremaa Island, Estonia) provided by different authors vary by as much as 6000 years, ranging from ~6400 to ~400 before current era (BCE). In this study, a new age is obtained based on 14C dating charred plant material within the proximal ejecta blanket, which makes it directly related to the impact structure, and not susceptible to potential reservoir effects. Our results show that the Kaali crater was most probably formed shortly after 1530-1450 BCE (3237 ± 10 14C yr BP). Saaremaa was already inhabited when the bolide hit the Earth, thus, the crater-forming event was probably witnessed by humans. There is, however, no evidence that this event caused significant change in the material culture (e.g., known archeological artifacts) or patterns of human habitation on Saaremaa.

  12. American Independence. Fifth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Annette

    This fifth grade teaching unit covers early conflicts between the American colonies and Britain, battles of the American Revolutionary War, and the Declaration of Independence. Knowledge goals address the pre-revolutionary acts enforced by the British, the concepts of conflict and independence, and the major events and significant people from the…

  13. Independence of Internal Auditors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montondon, Lucille; Meixner, Wilda F.

    1993-01-01

    A survey of 288 college and university auditors investigated patterns in their appointment, reporting, and supervisory practices as indicators of independence and objectivity. Results indicate a weakness in the positioning of internal auditing within institutions, possibly compromising auditor independence. Because the auditing function is…

  14. Biological characterization of African swine fever virus genotype II strains from north-eastern Estonia in European wild boar.

    PubMed

    Nurmoja, I; Petrov, A; Breidenstein, C; Zani, L; Forth, J H; Beer, M; Kristian, M; Viltrop, A; Blome, S

    2017-01-24

    Due to its impact on animal health and pig industry, African swine fever (ASF) is regarded as one of the most important viral diseases of pigs. Following the ongoing epidemic in the Transcaucasian countries and the Russian Federation, African swine fever virus was introduced into the Estonian wild boar population in 2014. Epidemiological investigations suggested two different introductions into the southern and the north-eastern part of Estonia. Interestingly, outbreak characteristics varied considerably between the affected regions. While high mortality and mainly virus-positive animals were observed in the southern region, mortality was low in the north-eastern area. In the latter, clinically healthy, antibody-positive animals were found in the hunting bag and detection of virus was rare. Two hypotheses could explain the different behaviour in the north-east: (i) the frequency of antibody detections combined with the low mortality is the tail of an older, so far undetected epidemic wave coming from the east, or (ii) the virus in this region is attenuated and leads to a less severe clinical outcome. To explore the possibility of virus attenuation, a re-isolated ASFV strain from the north-eastern Ida-Viru region was biologically characterized in European wild boar. Oronasal inoculation led to an acute and severe disease course in all animals with typical pathomorphological lesions. However, one animal recovered completely and was subsequently commingled with three sentinels of the same age class to assess disease transmission. By the end of the trial at 96 days post-initial inoculation, all animals were completely healthy and neither virus nor viral genomes were detected in the sentinels or the survivor. The survivor, however, showed high antibody levels. In conclusion, the ASFV strain from north-eastern Estonia was still highly virulent but nevertheless, one animal recovered completely. Under the experimental conditions, no transmission occurred from the survivor

  15. Comparison of thunderstorm hours registered by the lightning detection network and human observers in Estonia, 2006-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enno, S. E.

    2015-07-01

    Relationships between the lightning detection network data and human-reported thunderstorms were studied in Estonia during the period of 2006-2011. Estonia is located in northeastern Europe between 57.5° to 59.5° N and 21° to 28.5° E. Numbers of thunderstorm days (TD) and thunderstorm hours (TH) reported by 61 volunteer observers and six meteorological stations were compared to the data of the lightning detection network. Results indicated that the flash data within 9.0 km from the sites of volunteer observers should be used in order to derive TD numbers equal to human observations. Larger radius of 14.7 km was found on the basis of six meteorological stations with probably better quality of thunderstorm observations. Due to data quality issues, the daily and monthly numbers of THs reported by individual observers explained only 12-39 % of variations in the flash counts within 40 km of their observing sites. In contrast, the average TH data of all observers successfully explained 75-86 % of variations in daily and monthly flash counts within 40 km of the observation sites. The main advantage of using the average data of many human observers seems to be that in case of a dense network, the neighboring observers tend to compensate for each other's errors. In general, intense storms close to observing sites were found to be most successfully reported by human observers. The most important conclusion of the study is that although human observations of thunderstorms and automatic lightning observations are very different methods, they generally give similar results.

  16. Respiratory symptoms increase health care consumption and affect everyday life – a cross-sectional population-based study from Finland, Estonia, and Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Axelsson, Malin; Lindberg, Anne; Kainu, Annette; Rönmark, Eva; Jansson, Sven-Arne

    2016-01-01

    Background Even though respiratory symptoms are common in the adult population, there is limited research describing their impact on everyday life and association with health care consumption. Aim The main objective of this population-based study was to estimate and compare the prevalence of respiratory symptoms among adults in Finland, Estonia, and Sweden in relation to health care consumption and to identify factors influencing health care consumption. A secondary aim was to assess to which extent the presence of respiratory symptoms affect everyday life. Method In the population-based FinEsS studies consisting of random samples of subjects aged 20 to 69 years from Finland (n=1,337), Estonia (n=1,346), and Sweden (n=1,953), data on demographics, respiratory health, and health care consumption were collected by structured interviews. Prevalence was compared and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed. Results Respiratory symptoms were significantly more common in Finland (66.0%) and Estonia (65.2%) than in Sweden (54.1%). Among subjects with respiratory symptoms, the proportion reporting outpatient care during the past year was fairly similar in the three countries, while specialist consultations were more common in Finland (19.1%), and hospitalisations more common in Estonia (15.0%). Finnish and Estonian residency, female sex, and BMI>25 increased the risk for outpatient care consumption. Wheeze and attacks of shortness of breath in the past 12 months, recurrent sputum production, and cough were associated with an increased risk for health care consumption. Increasing number of respiratory symptoms increased the risk for consuming health care. A larger proportion of subjects in Estonia and Sweden experienced their everyday life being affected by respiratory symptoms compared with subjects in Finland. Conclusion Respiratory symptoms are common in Finland, Estonia, and Sweden and contribute to a negative impact on everyday life as well as increased

  17. Dating Kaali Crater (Estonia) based on charcoal emplaced within proximal ejecta blanket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losiak, Anna; Wild, Eva Maria; Huber, Matthew S.; Wisniowski, Tomasz; Paavel, Kristiina; Jõeleht, Argo; Välja, Rudolf; Plado, Jüri; Kriiska, Aivar; Wilk, Jakob; Zanetti, Michael; Geppert, Wolf D.; Kulkov, Alexander; Steier, Peter; Pirkovic, Irena

    2015-04-01

    The Kaali impact field consists of nine identified craters located on the Saaremaa Island in Estonia. The largest crater is 110 m in diameter (centered around 58°22'21.94"N, 22°40'09.91" E). It was formed by impact of an IAB iron meteoroid into Silurian dolomite target rocks covered by up to a few meters of glacial till (Veski et al. 2007). The age of the Kaali impact structure is still a matter of debate, and the estimates provided by different authors vary considerably between ~6400 BC (Raukas et al. 1995, Moora et al. 2012) and ~400 BC (Rasmussen et al. 2000, Veski et al. 2001). These ages were derived by 14C dating of marker horizons, characterized by a slightly elevated iridium content within the nearby Piila bog yielding a calibrated age of 800-400 BC (Rasmussen et al. 2000, Veski et al. 2001) and occurrences of glassy siliceous material in the Piila bog (~6400 BC: Raukas et al. 1995) or iron microspherules in an organic-rich layer of the Reo gravel pit (6400 BC: Moora et al. 2012). However, the source of the foreign material within those layers was never unequivocally connected with the Kaali crater. 14C dating of material from post-impact organic sediments within Kaali impact craters yielded ages between 1800-1500 BC (Saarse et al. 1991, Veski et al. 2004) and 1450-400 BC (Aaloe et al. 1963). These dates underestimate the age of impact as organic sediments within the crater started to form at unknown period after the impact. On the other hand, Veski et al. (2004) suggested a reservoir effect that might have caused artificially "aging" of the organic matter because the crater was emplaced within Silurian dolomite which is rich in old carbon. The aim of this study is to determine the age of the Kaali crater by 14C dating of organic material covered by the continuous layer of proximal ejecta. This research was conducted in conjunction with a new structural investigation of Kaali Main (Zanetti et al. 2015). Ten samples collected from different locations

  18. What next for newly diagnosed glioblastoma?

    PubMed Central

    Domingo-Musibay, Evidio; Galanis, Evanthia

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma is the most common primary brain tumor in adults. Despite current multimodality treatment including surgical resection and temozolomide-based chemoradiotherapy, median survival is only 14–16 months. Characterization of molecular alterations in glioblastoma has identified prognostic subgroups and therapeutic opportunities for clinical trials across glioblastoma subsets. Following a number of negative Phase III trials testing temozolomide dose intensification and angiogenesis inhibition, recent interim analysis data indicate survival prolongation with use of a device (Optune™) delivering alternating electrical field therapy in newly diagnosed glioblastoma patients. In this review, we present an overview of the data supporting the current standard of care and discuss novel experimental therapies in early and late phase clinical testing including devices, small molecule drugs, angiogenesis inhibitors, oncolytic virotherapy and immunotherapy. PMID:26558493

  19. Newly discovered insect RNA viruses in China.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yang; Wang, ZhaoWei; Liu, YongXiang; Qi, Nan; Si, Jie; Xiang, Xue; Xia, XiaoLing; Hu, YuanYang; Zhou, Xi

    2013-08-01

    Insects are a group of arthropods and the largest group of animals on Earth, with over one million species described to date. Like other life forms, insects suffer from viruses that cause disease and death. Viruses that are pathogenic to beneficial insects cause dramatic economic losses on agriculture. In contrast, viruses that are pathogenic to insect pests can be exploited as attractive biological control agents. All of these factors have led to an explosion in the amount of research into insect viruses in recent years, generating impressive quantities of information on the molecular and cellular biology of these viruses. Due to the wide variety of insect viruses, a better understanding of these viruses will expand our overall knowledge of their virology. Here, we review studies of several newly discovered RNA insect viruses in China.

  20. Michael Maier--nine newly discovered letters.

    PubMed

    Lenke, Nils; Roudet, Nicolas; Tilton, Hereward

    2014-02-01

    The authors provide a transcription, translation, and evaluation of nine newly discovered letters from the alchemist Michael Maier (1568-1622) to Gebhardt Johann von Alvensleben (1576-1631), a noble landholder in the vicinity of Magdeburg. Stemming from the final year of his life, this correspondence casts new light on Maier's biography, detailing his efforts to secure patronage amid the financial crisis of the early Thirty Years' War. While his ill-fated quest to perfect potable gold continued to form the central focus of his patronage suits, Maier also offered his services in several arts that he had condemned in his printed works, namely astrology and "supernatural" magic. Remarks concerning his previously unknown acquaintance with Heinrich Khunrath call for a re-evaluation of Maier's negotiation of the discursive boundaries between Lutheran orthodoxy and Paracelsianism. The letters also reveal Maier's substantial contribution to a work previously ascribed solely to the English alchemist Francis Anthony.

  1. Variability and trends in daily minimum and maximum temperatures and in the diurnal temperature range in Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia in 1951-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaagus, Jaak; Briede, Agrita; Rimkus, Egidijus; Remm, Kalle

    2014-10-01

    Spatial distribution and trends in mean and absolute maximum and minimum temperatures and in the diurnal temperature range were analysed at 47 stations in the eastern Baltic region (Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia) during 1951-2010. Dependence of the studied variables on geographical factors (latitude, the Baltic Sea, land elevation) is discussed. Statistically significant increasing trends in maximum and minimum temperatures were detected for March, April, July, August and annual values. At the majority of stations, the increase was detected also in February and May in case of maximum temperature and in January and May in case of minimum temperature. Warming was slightly higher in the northern part of the study area, i.e. in Estonia. Trends in the diurnal temperature range differ seasonally. The highest increasing trend revealed in April and, at some stations, also in May, July and August. Negative and mostly insignificant changes have occurred in January, February, March and June. The annual temperature range has not changed.

  2. Media independent interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The work done on the Media Independent Interface (MII) Interface Control Document (ICD) program is described and recommendations based on it were made. Explanations and rationale for the content of the ICD itself are presented.

  3. Maternal and paternal genetic diversity of ancient sheep in Estonia from the Late Bronze Age to the post-medieval period and comparison with other regions in Eurasia.

    PubMed

    Rannamäe, E; Lõugas, L; Niemi, M; Kantanen, J; Maldre, L; Kadõrova, N; Saarma, U

    2016-04-01

    Sheep were among the first domesticated animals to appear in Estonia in the late Neolithic and became one of the most widespread livestock species in the region from the Late Bronze Age onwards. However, the origin and historical expansion of local sheep populations in Estonia remain poorly understood. Here, we analysed fragments of the hypervariable D-loop of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA; 213 bp) and the Y-chromosome SRY gene (130 bp) extracted from 31 archaeological sheep bones dated from approximately 800 BC to 1700 AD. The ancient DNA data of sheep from Estonia were compared with ancient sheep from Finland as well as a set of contemporary sheep breeds from across Eurasia in order to place them in a wider phylogeographical context. The analysis shows that: (i) 24 successfully amplified and analysed mtDNA sequences of ancient sheep cluster into two haplogroups, A and B, of which B is predominant; (ii) four of the ancient mtDNA haplotypes are novel; (iii) higher mtDNA haplotype diversity occurred during the Middle Ages as compared to other periods, a fact concordant with the historical context of expanding international trade during the Middle Ages; (iv) the proportion of rarer haplotypes declined during the expansion of sheep from the Near Eastern domestication centre to the northern European region; (v) three male samples showed the presence of the characteristic northern European haplotype, SNP G-oY1 of the Y-chromosome, and represent the earliest occurrence of this haplotype. Our results provide the first insight into the genetic diversity and phylogeographical background of ancient sheep in Estonia and provide basis for further studies on the temporal fluctuations of ancient sheep populations.

  4. Internet-based recruitment system for HIV and STI screening for men who have sex with men in Estonia, 2013: analysis of preliminary outcomes.

    PubMed

    Ruutel, K; Lohmus, L; Janes, J

    2015-04-16

    The aim of the current project was to develop an Internet-based recruitment system for HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening for men who have sex with men (MSM) in Estonia in order to collect biological samples during behavioural studies. In 2013, an Internet-based HIV risk-behaviour survey was conducted among MSM living in Estonia. After completing the questionnaire, all participants were offered anonymous and free-of-charge STI testing. They could either order a urine sample kit by post to screen for chlamydia infections (including lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV)), trichomoniasis, gonorrhoea and Mycoplasma genitalium infections, or visit a laboratory for HIV, hepatitis A virus, hepatitis B virus,hepatitis C virus and syphilis screening. Of 301 participants who completed the questionnaire, 265 (88%),reported that they were MSM. Of these 265 MSM,68 (26%) underwent various types of testing. In the multiple regression analysis, Russian as the first language,previous HIV testing and living in a city or town increased the odds of testing during the study. Linking Internet-based behavioural data collection with biological sample collection is a promising approach. As there are no specific STI services for MSM in Estonia,this system could also be used as an additional option for anonymous and free-of-charge STI screening.

  5. A tale of two cities: stigma and health outcomes among people with HIV who inject drugs in St. Petersburg, Russia and Kohtla-Järve, Estonia.

    PubMed

    Burke, Sara E; Calabrese, Sarah K; Dovidio, John F; Levina, Olga S; Uusküla, Anneli; Niccolai, Linda M; Abel-Ollo, Katri; Heimer, Robert

    2015-04-01

    Experiences of stigma are often associated with negative mental and physical health outcomes. The present work tested the associations between stigma and health-related outcomes among people with HIV who inject drugs in Kohtla-Järve, Estonia and St. Petersburg, Russia. These two cities share some of the highest rates of HIV outside of sub-Saharan Africa, largely driven by injection drug use, but Estonia has implemented harm reduction services more comprehensively. People who inject drugs were recruited using respondent-driven sampling; those who indicated being HIV-positive were included in the present sample (n = 381 in St. Petersburg; n = 288 in Kohtla-Järve). Participants reported their health information and completed measures of internalized HIV stigma, anticipated HIV stigma, internalized drug stigma, and anticipated drug stigma. Participants in both locations indicated similarly high levels of all four forms of stigma. However, stigma variables were more strongly associated with health outcomes in Russia than in Estonia. The St. Petersburg results were consistent with prior work linking stigma and health. Lower barriers to care in Kohtla-Järve may help explain why social stigma was not closely tied to negative health outcomes there. Implications for interventions and health policy are discussed.

  6. A wind tunnel test of newly developed personal bioaerosol samplers.

    PubMed

    Su, Wei-Chung; Tolchinsky, Alexander D; Sigaev, Vladimir I; Cheng, Yung Sung

    2012-07-01

    In this study the performance of two newly developed personal bioaerosol samplers was evaluated. The two test samplers are cyclone-based personal samplers that incorporate a recirculating liquid film. The performance evaluations focused on the physical efficiencies that a personal bioaerosol sampler could provide, including aspiration, collection, and capture efficiencies. The evaluation tests were carried out in a wind tunnel, and the test personal samplers were mounted on the chest of a full-size manikin placed in the test chamber of the wind tunnel. Monodisperse fluorescent aerosols ranging from 0.5 to 20 microm were used to challenge the samplers. Two wind speeds of 0.5 and 2.0 m/sec were employed as the test wind speeds in this study. The test results indicated that the aspiration efficiency of the two test samplers closely agreed with the ACGIH inhalable convention within the size range of the test aerosols. The aspiration efficiency was found to be independent of the sampling orientation. The collection efficiency acquired from these two samplers showed that the 50% cutoff diameters were both around 0.6 microm. However the wall loss of these two test samplers increased as the aerosol size increased, and the wall loss of PAS-4 was considerably higher than that of PAS-5, especially in the aerosol size larger than 5 microm, which resulted in PAS-4 having a relatively lower capture efficiency than PAS-5. Overall, the PAS-5 is considered a better personal bioaerosol sampler than the PAS-4.

  7. Impaired β cell function in Chinese newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus with hyperlipidemia.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yuhang; Wang, Yufan; Huang, Qianfang; Ren, Qian; Chen, Su; Zhang, Aifang; Zhao, Li; Zhen, Qin; Peng, Yongde

    2014-01-01

    The objective is to explore the effects of hyperlipidemia on β cell function in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). 208 patients were enrolled in the study and were divided into newly diagnosed T2DM with hyperlipidemia (132 patients) and without hyperlipidemia (76 patients). Demographic data, glucose levels, insulin levels, lipid profiles, homeostasis model assessment for β cell function index (HOMA-β ), homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), and quantitative insulin-sensitivity check index (QUICKI) were compared between the two groups. We found that comparing with those of normal lipid levels, the subjects of newly diagnosed T2DM with hyperlipidemia were younger, and had declined HOMA-β . However, the levels of HOMA-β were comparable regardless of different lipid profiles (combined hyperlipidemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypercholesterolemia). Multiple stepwise linear regression analysis showed that high fasting plasma glucose (FPG), decreased fasting insulin level (FINS), and high triglyceride (TG) were independent risk factors of β cell dysfunction in newly diagnosed T2DM. Therefore, the management of dyslipidemia, together with glucose control, may be beneficial for T2DM with hyperlipidemia.

  8. Arsenic behavior in newly drilled wells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kim, M.-J.; Nriagu, J.; Haack, S.

    2003-01-01

    In the present paper, inorganic arsenic species and chemical parameters in groundwater were determined to investigate the factors related to the distribution of arsenic species and their dissolution from rock into groundwater. For the study, groundwater and core samples were taken at different depths of two newly drilled wells in Huron and Lapeer Counties, Michigan. Results show that total arsenic concentrations in the core samples varied, ranging from 0.8 to 70.7 mg/kg. Iron concentration in rock was about 1800 times higher than that of arsenic, and there was no correlation between arsenic and iron occurrences in the rock samples. Arsenic concentrations in groundwater ranged from <1 to 171 ??g/l. The arsenic concentration in groundwater depended on the amount of arsenic in aquifer rocks, and as well decreased with increasing depth. Over 90% of arsenic existed in the form of As(III), implying that the groundwater systems were in the reduced condition. The results such as high ferrous ion, low redox potential and low dissolved oxygen supported the observed arsenic species distribution. There was no noticeable difference in the total arsenic concentration and arsenic species ratio between unfiltered and filtered (0.45 ??m) waters, indicating that the particulate form of arsenic was negligible in the groundwater samples. There were correlations between water sampling depth and chemical parameters, and between arsenic concentration and chemical parameters, however, the trends were not always consistent in both wells. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Independent technical review, handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    Purpose Provide an independent engineering review of the major projects being funded by the Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. The independent engineering review will address questions of whether the engineering practice is sufficiently developed to a point where a major project can be executed without significant technical problems. The independent review will focus on questions related to: (1) Adequacy of development of the technical base of understanding; (2) Status of development and availability of technology among the various alternatives; (3) Status and availability of the industrial infrastructure to support project design, equipment fabrication, facility construction, and process and program/project operation; (4) Adequacy of the design effort to provide a sound foundation to support execution of project; (5) Ability of the organization to fully integrate the system, and direct, manage, and control the execution of a complex major project.

  10. Homebirth and independent midwifery.

    PubMed

    Harris, G

    2000-07-01

    Why do women choose to give birth at home, and midwives to work independently, in a culture that does little to support this option? This article looks at the reasons childbearing women and midwives make these choices and the barriers to achieving them. The safety of the homebirth option is supported in reference to analysis of mortality and morbidity. Homebirth practices and level of success are compared in Australia and New Zealand (NZ), in particular, and The Netherlands, England and America. The success of popularity of homebirths is analysed in terms of socio-economic status. The current situation and challenges of independent midwifery in Darwin are described.

  11. Postcard from Independence, Mo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, Jeff

    2004-01-01

    This article reports results showing that the Independence, Missori school district failed to meet almost every one of its improvement goals under the No Child Left Behind Act. The state accreditation system stresses improvement over past scores, while the federal law demands specified amounts of annual progress toward the ultimate goal of 100…

  12. Native American Independent Living.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clay, Julie Anna

    1992-01-01

    Examines features of independent living philosophy with regard to compatibility with Native American cultures, including definition or conceptualization of disability; self-advocacy; systems advocacy; peer counseling; and consumer control and involvement. Discusses an actualizing process as one method of resolving cultural conflicts and…

  13. Touchstones of Independence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roha, Thomas Arden

    1999-01-01

    Foundations affiliated with public higher education institutions can avoid having to open records for public scrutiny, by having independent boards of directors, occupying leased office space or paying market value for university space, using only foundation personnel, retaining legal counsel, being forthcoming with information and use of public…

  14. Independent Video in Britain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, David

    Maintaining the status quo as well as the attitude toward cultural funding and development that it imposes on video are detrimental to the formation of a thriving video network, and also out of key with the present social and political situation in Britain. Independent video has some quite specific advantages as a medium for cultural production…

  15. Caring about Independent Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Karen

    2010-01-01

    With the rhetoric of independence, new cash for care systems were introduced in many developed welfare states at the end of the 20th century. These systems allow local authorities to pay people who are eligible for community care services directly, to enable them to employ their own careworkers. Despite the obvious importance of the careworker's…

  16. Independence and Survival.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, H. Thomas

    Independent schools that are of viable size, well managed, and strategically located to meet competition will survive and prosper past the current financial crisis. We live in a complex technological society with insatiable demands for knowledgeable people to keep it running. The future will be marked by the orderly selection of qualified people,…

  17. Molecular Outflows from Newly Formed Massive Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kee-Tae; Kim, Won-Ju; Kim, Chang-Hee

    2015-12-01

    We map 6 massive young stellar objects (YSOs) in the CO J=2-1 line and survey 18 massive YSOs, including the six, in the hcopj, sioj, water 6_{16}-5_{23} maser, and methanol 7_{0}-6_{1} A^{+} maser lines. We detect CO bipolar outflows in all the six mapped sources. Four of them are newly discovered (ifive, ieight, inine, iten), while itwo is mapped in the CO J=2-1 line for the first time. The detected outflows are much more massive and energetic than outflows from low-mass YSOs with masses >20 M_⊙ and momenta >300 M_⊙ km/s. They have mass outflow rates (3-6)×10^{-4} M_⊙ yr^{-1}, which are at least one order of magnitude greater than those observed in low-mass YSOs. We detect hcop and SiO line emission in 18 (100%) and 4 (22%) sources, respectively. The hcop spectra show high-velocity wings in 11 (61%) sources. We detect water maser emission in 13 (72%) sources and 44 GHz methanol maser emission in 8 (44%) sources. Of the detected sources, 5 water and 6 methanol maser sources are new discoveries. iseven shows high-velocity (>30 kms) water maser lines. We find good correlations of the bolometric luminosity of the central (proto)star with the mechanical force, mechanical luminosity, and mass outflow rate of molecular outflow %L_{bol} with F_{m}, L_{m}, and dot{M}_{out} in the bolometric luminosity range of 10^{-1}-10^6 lsol, and identified 3 intermediate- or high-mass counterparts of Class O objects.

  18. Dynamics of newly established elk populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sargeant, G.A.; Oehler, M.W.

    2007-01-01

    The dynamics of newly established elk (Cervus elaphus) populations can provide insights about maximum sustainable rates of reproduction, survival, and increase. However, data used to estimate rates of increase typically have been limited to counts and rarely have included complementary estimates of vital rates. Complexities of population dynamics cannot be understood without considering population processes as well as population states. We estimated pregnancy rates, survival rates, age ratios, and sex ratios for reintroduced elk at Theodore Roosevelt National Park, North Dakota, USA; combined vital rates in a population projection model; and compared model projections with observed elk numbers and population ratios. Pregnancy rates in January (early in the second trimester of pregnancy) averaged 54.1% (SE = 5.4%) for subadults and 91.0% (SE = 1.7%) for adults, and 91.6% of pregnancies resulted in recruitment at 8 months. Annual survival rates of adult females averaged 0.96 (95% CI = 0.94-0.98) with hunting included and 0.99 (95% CI = 0.97-0.99) with hunting excluded from calculations. Our fitted model explained 99.8% of past variation in population estimates and represents a useful new tool for short-term management planning. Although we found no evidence of temporal variation in vital rates, variation in population composition caused substantial variation in projected rates of increase (??=1.20-1.36). Restoring documented hunter harvests and removals of elk by the National Park Service led to a potential rate of ?? = 1.26. Greater rates of increase substantiated elsewhere were within the expected range of chance variation, given our model and estimates of vital rates. Rates of increase realized by small elk populations are too variable to support inferences about habitat quality or density dependence.

  19. Sleep duration is a potential risk factor for newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Chao, Chi-Yuan; Wu, Jin-Shang; Yang, Yi-Ching; Shih, Chi-Chen; Wang, Ru-Hsueh; Lu, Feng-Hwa; Chang, Chih-Jen

    2011-06-01

    U-shaped patterns have been observed for the relationship between sleep duration and diabetes. In addition, prediabetes is associated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. However, there are few studies investigating the relationship between sleep duration and prediabetes/newly diagnosed diabetes. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between sleep duration and prediabetes/newly diagnosed diabetes in a Taiwanese population. After excluding the subjects with a high risk of obstructive sleep apnea, those with a positive history of diabetes, or those taking hypnotic drugs, a total of 3470 adults were recruited from a health checkup center. Each subject completed a self-administrated structured questionnaire on sleep duration and lifestyle factors. Prediabetes/diabetes was defined following the definition of the American Diabetes Association. Subjects with different sleep durations were classified into short (<6.0 hours), normal (6.0∼8.49 hours), and long sleepers (≥8.5 hours). The proportion of subjects with normal glucose tolerance, prediabetes, and newly diagnosed diabetes was 71.9%, 22.9%, and 5.2%, respectively. There were significant differences in age, sex, weight, education level, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, alcohol and coffee drinking habits, family history of diabetes, and sleep duration among the 3 glycemic groups. In multinomial regression, both short and long sleepers had a higher risk of newly diagnosed diabetes; and the odds ratio were 1.55 (95% confidence interval, 1.07-2.24) and 2.83 (1.19-6.73), respectively. However, sleep duration was not found to relate to prediabetes. In conclusion, both short and long sleep durations were independently associated with newly diagnosed diabetes, but not with prediabetes.

  20. Total flavonoid content in varieties of Calendula officinalis L. originating from different countries and cultivated in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Raal, Ain; Kirsipuu, Kadri

    2011-03-01

    Total flavonoid contents in the inflorescences of different varieties of Calendula officinalis L. were investigated. The commercial seeds (20 samples) of varieties of C. officinalis originating from eight European countries were cultivated in home gardens in two different counties of Estonia. Total flavonoid contents, determined spectrophotometrically (λ = 370 nm), varied from each other by more than three times (0.21-0.68%) in the investigated varieties. The variety with the highest flavonoid content was 'Kablouna', produced by the Finnish company Siemen (0.68%). Other varieties with high flavonoid content, such as 'Touch of Red' produced by the Latvian company Kurzemes Seklas (0.55%), 'Golden Emperor' produced by the Finnish company Suvipiha (0.50%), 'Pomyk' from Poland (0.50%), etc., may also be preferred for cultivation as natural sources, as they are also rich in flavonoids. The amount of total flavonoids depends on the variety and/or the place and time of cultivation. There appeared to be no conclusive relationship between the total flavonoid content and the colour of ligulate and tubular florets of C. officinalis.

  1. Suicidal Behavior Among People Living with HIV (PLHIV) in Medical Care in Estonia and Factors Associated with Receiving Psychological Treatment.

    PubMed

    Lemsalu, Liis; Rüütel, Kristi; Laisaar, Kaja-Triin; Lõhmus, Liilia; Raidvee, Aire; Uusküla, Anneli

    2016-09-24

    People living with HIV (PLHIV) have higher rates of suicidal behavior than the general population. This study assessed suicidal behavior (ideation and/or attempts, ever and in the past 12 months) among PLHIV receiving outpatient HIV medical care in Estonia and associations between suicidal behavior and psychological treatment. The cross-sectional study collected data from January to November 2013 using a self-report questionnaire. Eight hundred PLHIV participated, 39 % (n = 306) of whom had been suicidal. Lifetime prevalence was 36 % for suicidal ideation and 20 % for attempts. Younger age, incarceration, having ever abused alcohol and also injected drugs, having lived with HIV for more than 10 years, and being depressed were associated with lifetime suicidal behavior. Suicidal behavior within the past 12 months was reported by 20 % (n = 156) of respondents. Of these, 27 % received psychological treatment (counseling and/or psychotherapy), 20 % had taken antidepressants, and 49 % sedatives. Individuals perceiving a need for treatment were significantly more likely to receive psychological treatment when experiencing suicidal behavior (OR 25.65, 95 % CI 2.92-225.47). In conclusion, suicidal behavior is frequent among PLHIV but psychological treatment is not often received. One of the barriers to treatment is patients' lack of perceived need for help.

  2. Kärdla (Hiiumaa Island, Estonia)—the buried and well-preserved Ordovician marine impact structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suuroja, Kalle; Suuroja, Sten; All, Tarmo; Floden, Tom

    The Kärdla marine impact structure (Estonia, 58°58'N, 22°46'E) was formed at 455 Ma (Upper Ordovician), in a shallow epicontinental sea some tens of kilometres from the land and erosion area. The iron-rich projectile about 200 m in diameter approached from the west at an angle of 30-45°. The impactor penetrated about 50-m-thick water layer and the sedimentary cover and exploded in the uppermost part of the crystalline basement. A complex crater, 4 km wide and about 500 m deep, with a central uplift rising 130 m from the crater floor, was formed. The highest point of the rimwall is 110 m above the target level. The rimwall is cut by at least two resurge-excavated gullies. The variable height of the rimwall obviously results from the obliqueness of the impact. Outside the crater an elliptical area was revealed, 12-15 km in diameter, with deformed sedimentary rocks below the target level. The elliptical shape of this area may also be due to the oblique impact. Because the crater and its surroundings were buried directly after the impact, the whole complex of impact-related sediments is preserved there. They are recovered by 160 wells, six of which penetrate the entire complex of impact breccias inside the crater.

  3. Ecosystem-scale biosphere-atmosphere interactions of a hemiboreal mixed forest stand at Järvselja, Estonia.

    PubMed

    Noe, Steffen M; Kimmel, Veljo; Hüve, Katja; Copolovici, Lucian; Portillo-Estrada, Miguel; Püttsepp, Ulle; Jõgiste, Kalev; Niinemets, Ulo; Hörtnagl, Lukas; Wohlfahrt, Georg

    2011-07-15

    During two measurement campaigns, from August to September 2008 and 2009, we quantified the major ecosystem fluxes in a hemiboreal forest ecosystem in Järvselja, Estonia. The main aim of this study was to separate the ecosystem flux components and gain insight into the performance of a multi-species multi-layered tree stand. Carbon dioxide and water vapor fluxes were measured using the eddy covariance method above and below the canopy in conjunction with the microclimate. Leaf and soil contributions were quantified separately by cuvette and chamber measurements, including fluxes of carbon dioxide, water vapor, nitrogen oxides, nitrous oxide, methane, ozone, sulfur dioxide, and biogenic volatile organic compounds (isoprene and monoterpenes). The latter have been as well characterized for monoterpenes in detail. Based on measured atmospheric trace gas concentrations, the flux tower site can be characterized as remote and rural with low anthropogenic disturbances. Our results presented here encourage future experimental efforts to be directed towards year round integrated biosphere-atmosphere measurements and development of process-oriented models of forest-atmosphere exchange taking the special case of a multi-layered and multi-species tree stand into account. As climate change likely leads to spatial extension of hemiboreal forest ecosystems a deep understanding of the processes and interactions therein is needed to foster management and mitigation strategies.

  4. Ecosystem-scale biosphere-atmosphere interactions of a hemiboreal mixed forest stand at Järvselja, Estonia

    PubMed Central

    Noe, Steffen M.; Kimmel, Veljo; Hüve, Katja; Copolovici, Lucian; Portillo-Estrada, Miguel; Püttsepp, Ülle; Jõgiste, Kalev; Niinemets, Ülo; Hörtnagl, Lukas; Wohlfahrt, Georg

    2013-01-01

    During two measurement campaigns, from August to September 2008 and 2009, we quantified the major ecosystem fluxes in a hemiboreal forest ecosystem in Järvselja, Estonia. The main aim of this study was to separate the ecosystem flux components and gain insight into the performance of a multi-species multi-layered tree stand. Carbon dioxide and water vapor fluxes were measured using the eddy covariance method above and below the canopy in conjunction with the microclimate. Leaf and soil contributions were quantified separately by cuvette and chamber measurements, including fluxes of carbon dioxide, water vapor, nitrogen oxides, nitrous oxide, methane, ozone, sulfur dioxide, and biogenic volatile organic compounds (isoprene and monoterpenes). The latter have been as well characterized for monoterpenes in detail. Based on measured atmospheric trace gas concentrations, the flux tower site can be characterized as remote and rural with low anthropogenic disturbances. Our results presented here encourage future experimental efforts to be directed towards year round integrated biosphere-atmosphere measurements and development of process-oriented models of forest-atmosphere exchange taking the special case of a multi-layered and multi-species tree stand into account. As climate change likely leads to spatial extension of hemiboreal forest ecosystems a deep understanding of the processes and interactions therein is needed to foster management and mitigation strategies. PMID:24347809

  5. On the topologic structure of economic complex networks: Empirical evidence from large scale payment network of Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rendón de la Torre, Stephanie; Kalda, Jaan; Kitt, Robert; Engelbrecht, Jüri

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents the first topological analysis of the economic structure of an entire country based on payments data obtained from Swedbank. This data set is exclusive in its kind because around 80% of Estonia's bank transactions are done through Swedbank, hence, the economic structure of the country can be reconstructed. Scale-free networks are commonly observed in a wide array of different contexts such as nature and society. In this paper, the nodes are comprised by customers of the bank (legal entities) and the links are established by payments between these nodes. We study the scaling-free and structural properties of this network. We also describe its topology, components and behaviors. We show that this network shares typical structural characteristics known in other complex networks: degree distributions follow a power law, low clustering coefficient and low average shortest path length. We identify the key nodes of the network and perform simulations of resiliency against random and targeted attacks of the nodes with two different approaches. With this, we find that by identifying and studying the links between the nodes is possible to perform vulnerability analysis of the Estonian economy with respect to economic shocks.

  6. Hindcast experiments of the derecho in Estonia on 08 August, 2010: Modelling derecho with NWP model HARMONIE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toll, Velle; Männik, Aarne; Luhamaa, Andres; Rõõm, Rein

    2015-05-01

    On August 8, 2010, a derecho swept over Northern Europe, causing widespread wind damage and more than 2 million Euros in economic loss in Estonia during its most destructive stage. This paper presents a modelling study of the derecho-producing storm utilising the Hirlam Aladin Research for Mesoscale Operational Numerical Weather Prediction in Europe (HARMONIE) model. The model setup is chosen to mimic near-future, nearly kilometre-scale, operational environments in European national weather services. The model simulations are compared to remote sensing and in situ observations. The HARMONIE model is capable of reproducing the wind gust severity and precipitation intensity. Moreover, 2.5-km grid spacing is shown to be sufficient for producing a reliable signal of the severe convective storm. Storm dynamics are well simulated, including the rear inflow jet. Although the model performance is promising, a strong dependence on the initial data, a weak trailing stratiform precipitation region and an incorrect timing of the storm are identified.

  7. Decommissioning and Dismantling of Liquid Waste Storage and Liquid Waste Treatment Facility from Paldiski Nuclear Site, Estonia

    SciTech Connect

    Varvas, M.; Putnik, H.; Johnsson, B.

    2006-07-01

    The Paldiski Nuclear Facility in Estonia, with two nuclear reactors was owned by the Soviet Navy and was used for training the navy personnel to operate submarine nuclear reactors. After collapse of Soviet Union the Facility was shut down and handed over to the Estonian government in 1995. In co-operation with the Paldiski International Expert Reference Group (PIERG) decommission strategy was worked out and started to implement. Conditioning of solid and liquid operational waste and dismantling of contaminated installations and buildings were among the key issues of the Strategy. Most of the liquid waste volume, remained at the Facility, was processed in the frames of an Estonian-Finnish co-operation project using a mobile wastewater purification unit NURES (IVO International OY) and water was discharged prior to the site take-over. In 1999-2002 ca 120 m{sup 3} of semi-liquid tank sediments (a mixture of ion exchange resins, sand filters, evaporator and flocculation slurry), remained after treatment of liquid waste were solidified in steel containers and stored into interim storage. The project was carried out under the Swedish - Estonian co-operation program on radiation protection and nuclear safety. Contaminated installations in buildings, used for treatment and storage of liquid waste (Liquid Waste Treatment Facility and Liquid Waste Storage) were then dismantled and the buildings demolished in 2001-2004. (authors)

  8. THE USE OF PANAX GINSENG AND ITS ANALOGUES AMONG PHARMACY CUSTOMERS IN ESTONIA: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY.

    PubMed

    Volmer, Dasy; Raal, Ain; Kalle, Raivo; Sõukand, Renata

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the cross-sectional study was to evaluate the pattern of complementary self-treatment with P. ginseng and its analogues amongst pharmacy customers in Estonia. The study instrument consisted of multiple-choice items related to personal knowledge about and experience with the use of P. ginseng and its analogues. In total, 1233 customers participated in the study. Of study participants, 18.1% reported the use of P. ginseng and its analogues in their lives. P. ginseng preparations were used mostly according to the well- known indications (tiredness, weakness and decreased mental and physical capacity). Of P. ginseng users 44.3% reported positive treatment effects and 12.0% had experienced different side effects. With increase of age (p < 0.01) and at lower levels of education (p = 0.04), the use of ginseng or its analogues decreased. The better the users evaluated their health, the better they perceived the effect of P. ginseng preparations (p < 0.01). This study reported rather frequent use of P. ginseng and its analogues. P. ginseng could be seen in the treatment of conditions, where the use of local medicinal plants has not been established. Further research is needed to learn more about public knowledge and experiences about efficacy and safety of P. ginseng and its analogues.

  9. Combined prevention for persons who inject drugs in the HIV epidemic in a transitional country: the case of Tallinn, Estonia.

    PubMed

    Uusküla, Anneli; Des Jarlais, Don C; Raag, Mait; Pinkerton, Steven D; Feelemyer, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    The study was undertaken to assess the potential effectiveness of combined HIV prevention on the very high seroprevalence epidemic among persons who inject drugs (PWID) in Tallinn, Estonia, a transitional country. Data from community-based cross-sectional (respondent-driven sampling) surveys of PWID in 2005, 2007, 2009, and 2011 were used together with mathematical modeling of injection-associated HIV acquisition to estimate changes in injection-related HIV incidence during these periods. Utilization of one, two, or three of the interventions available in the community (needle and syringes exchange program, antiretroviral treatment [ART], HIV testing, opioid substitution treatment) was reported by 42.5%, 30.5%, and 11.5% of HIV+ and 34.7%, 36.4%, and 5.7% of HIV- PWIDs, respectively, in 2011. The modeling results suggest that the combination of needle/syringe programs and provision of ART to PWID in Tallinn substantially reduced the incidence of HIV infection in this population, from an estimated 20.7/100 person-years in 2005 to 7.5/100 person-years in 2011. In conclusion, combined prevention targeting HIV acquisition and transmission-related risks among PWID in Tallinn has paralleled the downturn of the HIV epidemic in this population.

  10. Carbon balance of an old hemi-boreal pine forest in Southern Estonia determined by different methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soosaar, Kaido; Repp, Kalev; Lõhmus, Krista; Uri, Veiko; Rannik, Kaire; Krasnova, Alisa; Ostonen, Ivika; Kukumägi, Mai; Maddison, Martin; Mander, Ülo

    2016-04-01

    The Soontaga Forest Station is located in hemi-boreal 200-years old pine forest (South Estonia; 58o01'N 26o04'E) with a second layer of spruce. The station has the instrumentation to assess the exchange of carbon dioxide (net ecosystem exchange, NEE), soil respiration, tree biomass (above and below ground biomass) and different environmental and meteorological parameters. In this study we quantified carbon balance by analyzing eddy-covariance CO2 flux data (carbon exchange) vs chamber-based measurements (ecosystem respiration) and CO2assimilation (soil and biomass). The annual NEE in this mature coniferous forest was -2.3 t C ha yr-1, showing a clear diurnal and seasonal trend. During the daytime in summer the forest sequestered CO2, while during the night and late night CO2 emitted from the ecosystem to the atmosphere. Within the growing period, the sequestration of CO2 by plants was greater than soil respiration. Thus, the ecosystem sequestered carbon. Most of the carbon is bound in tree biomass (above and below ground biomass) but as well into soil, while the sequestration in soil increases with stand age. In addition, the biomass of understory, especially belowground litter, is playing essential part in carbon input. A modelling approach of long-term C budget in the Soontaga pine forest is presented.

  11. Biodosimetry of Chernobyl cleanup workers from Estonia and Latvia using the glycophorin A in vivo somatic cell mutation assay

    SciTech Connect

    Bigbee, W.L.; Jensen, R.H.; Veidebaum, T.

    1997-02-01

    The reactor accident at Chernobyl in 1986 necessitated a massive environmental cleanup that involved over 600,000 workers from all 15 Republics of the former Soviet Union. To determine whether the whole-body radiation received by workers in the course of these decontamination activities resulted in a detectable biological response, over 1,500 blood samples were obtained from cleanup workers sent from two Baltic countries, Estonia and Latvia. Here we report the results of studies of biodosimetry using the glycophorin A (GPA) locus in vivo somatic cell mutation assay applied to 734 blood samples from these workers, to 51 control samples from unexposed Baltic populations and to 94 samples from historical U.S. controls. The data reveal inconsistent evidence that the protracted radiation exposures received by these workers resulted in a significant dose-associated increase in GPA locus mutations compared with the controls. Taken together, these data suggest that the average radiation exposure to these workers does not greatly exceed 10 cGy, the minimum levels at which radiation effects might be detectable by the assay. Although the protracted nature of the exposure may have reduced the efficiency of induction of GPA locus mutations, it is likely that the estimated physical doses for these cleanup worker populations (median reported dose 9.5 cGy) were too low to result in radiation damage to erythroid stem cells that can be detected reliably by this method. 25 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Concerns of Newly Arrived Immigrant Students: Implications for School Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Franklyn C.; Butler, S. Kent

    2003-01-01

    This article highlights the issues that concern newly arrived immigrant students from the guidance and counseling perspective, how school systems have responded to these issues, and the implications for school counselors concerning what can be done to better serve newly arrived immigrant students. (Contains 16 references.) (GCP)

  13. Agent independent task planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, William S.

    1990-01-01

    Agent-Independent Planning is a technique that allows the construction of activity plans without regard to the agent that will perform them. Once generated, a plan is then validated and translated into instructions for a particular agent, whether a robot, crewmember, or software-based control system. Because Space Station Freedom (SSF) is planned for orbital operations for approximately thirty years, it will almost certainly experience numerous enhancements and upgrades, including upgrades in robotic manipulators. Agent-Independent Planning provides the capability to construct plans for SSF operations, independent of specific robotic systems, by combining techniques of object oriented modeling, nonlinear planning and temporal logic. Since a plan is validated using the physical and functional models of a particular agent, new robotic systems can be developed and integrated with existing operations in a robust manner. This technique also provides the capability to generate plans for crewmembers with varying skill levels, and later apply these same plans to more sophisticated robotic manipulators made available by evolutions in technology.

  14. International exploration by independent

    SciTech Connect

    Bertragne, R.G.

    1992-04-01

    Recent industry trends indicate that the smaller U.S. independents are looking at foreign exploration opportunities as one of the alternatives for growth in the new age of exploration. Foreign finding costs per barrel usually are accepted to be substantially lower than domestic costs because of the large reserve potential of international plays. To get involved in overseas exploration, however, requires the explorationist to adapt to different cultural, financial, legal, operational, and political conditions. Generally, foreign exploration proceeds at a slower pace than domestic exploration because concessions are granted by a country's government, or are explored in partnership with a national oil company. First, the explorationist must prepare a mid- to long-term strategy, tailored to the goals and the financial capabilities of the company; next, is an ongoing evaluation of quality prospects in various sedimentary basins, and careful planning and conduct of the operations. To successfully explore overseas also requires the presence of a minimum number of explorationists and engineers thoroughly familiar with the various exploratory and operational aspects of foreign work. Ideally, these team members will have had a considerable amount of on-site experience in various countries and climates. Independents best suited for foreign expansion are those who have been financially successful in domestic exploration. When properly approached, foreign exploration is well within the reach of smaller U.S. independents, and presents essentially no greater risk than domestic exploration; however, the reward can be much larger and can catapult the company into the 'big leagues.'

  15. International exploration by independents

    SciTech Connect

    Bertagne, R.G. )

    1991-03-01

    Recent industry trends indicate that the smaller US independents are looking at foreign exploration opportunities as one of the alternatives for growth in the new age of exploration. It is usually accepted that foreign finding costs per barrel are substantially lower than domestic because of the large reserve potential of international plays. To get involved overseas requires, however, an adaptation to different cultural, financial, legal, operational, and political conditions. Generally foreign exploration proceeds at a slower pace than domestic because concessions are granted by the government, or are explored in partnership with the national oil company. First, a mid- to long-term strategy, tailored to the goals and the financial capabilities of the company, must be prepared; it must be followed by an ongoing evaluation of quality prospects in various sedimentary basins, and a careful planning and conduct of the operations. To successfully explore overseas also requires the presence on the team of a minimum number of explorationists and engineers thoroughly familiar with the various exploratory and operational aspects of foreign work, having had a considerable amount of onsite experience in various geographical and climatic environments. Independents that are best suited for foreign expansion are those that have been financially successful domestically, and have a good discovery track record. When properly approached foreign exploration is well within the reach of smaller US independents and presents essentially no greater risk than domestic exploration; the reward, however, can be much larger and can catapult the company into the big leagues.

  16. Modulation of intrahepatic cholesterol trafficking: evidence by in vivo antisense treatment for the involvement of sterol carrier protein-2 in newly synthesized cholesterol transport into rat bile.

    PubMed Central

    Puglielli, L; Rigotti, A; Amigo, L; Nuñez, L; Greco, A V; Santos, M J; Nervi, F

    1996-01-01

    Biliary cholesterol represents one of the two major excretory pathways for sterol elimination from the body and plays a central role in cholesterol gallstone formation. Biliary cholesterol originates from a precursor pool of preformed and newly synthesized free cholesterol. Although it has been suggested that newly synthesized and preformed biliary cholesterol are secreted by independent pathways, the specific cellular and molecular mechanisms are unknown. We used male Wistar rats to study the time-course of the appearance of newly synthesized cholesterol, phosphatidylcholine and protein into bile. The specific role of sterol carrier protein-2 (SCP-2) in the transport of newly synthesized biliary cholesterol was evaluated by an in vivo antisense oligonucleotide approach. In contrast to [14C]phosphatidylcholine and [35S]proteins, the time-course of [14C]cholesterol appearance into bile was rapid, and microtubule- and Golgi-independent. In vivo SCP-2 antisense treatment reduced and delayed the appearance of biliary [14C]cholesterol. Furthermore, hepatic SCP-2 expression increased more than 3-fold over control values in rats that had been treated with diosgenin to increase biliary secretion of newly synthesized cholesterol. These results suggest that SCP-2 is necessary for the rapid transport of newly synthesized cholesterol into bile and that hepatocytes can induce SCP-2 expression according to the rate of biliary secretion of newly synthesized cholesterol. PMID:8760350

  17. Cary Potter on Independent Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Cary

    1978-01-01

    Cary Potter was President of the National Association of Independent Schools from 1964-1978. As he leaves NAIS he gives his views on education, on independence, on the independent school, on public responsibility, on choice in a free society, on educational change, and on the need for collective action by independent schools. (Author/RK)

  18. Myth or Truth: Independence Day.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Traci

    Most Americans think of the Fourth of July as Independence Day, but is it really the day the U.S. declared and celebrated independence? By exploring myths and truths surrounding Independence Day, this lesson asks students to think critically about commonly believed stories regarding the beginning of the Revolutionary War and the Independence Day…

  19. Determinants of Newly Detected Human Papillomavirus Infection in HIV-Infected and HIV-Uninfected Injection Drug Using Women

    PubMed Central

    Phelan, Darcy F.; Gange, Stephen J.; Ahdieh-Grant, Linda; Mehta, Shruti H.; Kirk, Gregory D.; Shah, Keerti; Gravitt, Patti

    2009-01-01

    Background We sought to identify factors associated with newly detected human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in a high-risk cohort of injection drug using women in Baltimore, MD. Methods We studied 146 HIV-infected and 73 HIV-uninfected female participants in a 5-year prospective HIV natural history study. We examined the association of sexual and nonsexual risk factors and newly detected type-specific HPV infection as determined by consensus PCR between consecutive visits. Results Newly detected HPV was more common among HIV-infected versus HIV-uninfected women (30% and 6%, respectively; P <0.01). Among the entire cohort, recent crack use (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1−2.6) and HIV infection/CD4 cell count were independent predictors for new HPV detection (HIV-uninfected as reference, OR, 4.6; 95% CI, 2.3−8.9, OR, 5.4; 95% CI, 2.8−10.3, and OR, 10.9; 95% CI, 5.5−21.7 for HIV-infected CD4 >500, 200−500, and <200, respectively). Among HIV-uninfected women, recent marijuana use was an independent predictor of newly detected HPV infection (OR, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.3−9.5). Conclusions Newly detected HPV clearly increased with greater immunosuppression in HIV-infected injection drug users. Larger studies of HIV-uninfected and infected high-risk individuals are needed to clarify the independent associations of crack and marijuana use with new (or reactivated) HPV infection. PMID:19174735

  20. International conference on Functional Materials and Nanotechnologies (FM&NT-2013), 21-24 April 2013, Tartu, Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nõmmiste, Ergo; Kirm, Marco; Plank, Toomas

    2014-04-01

    The annual international conference Functional Materials and Nanotechnologies (FM&NT) was started in 2006 by scientists from the Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia. The warm welcome and open atmosphere of this scientific conference has turned it into an event where people from different countries and different fields come and meet under the shared umbrella of functional materials and nanotechnology. It is particularly important for early stage scientists who are looking for new knowledge and contacts with people from various fields to build their own network. Our Latvian colleagues, with their success in internationalization, made us neighbouring Estonians so jealous that we could not help but propose organising the conference every second year in Estonia. In a way, this conference is a continuation of the idea of the famous Baltic seminars which took place over several decades in the last century. Due to political constraints, these seminars were only open to scientists of former Eastern Europe countries, but had a great popularity and attendance from over the whole Soviet Union. Many collaborations started from the initial personal contact between scientists at these twice yearly seminars, held alternately in Latvia and Estonia. At the FM&NT 2012 conference, the decision was made that Institute of Physics, University of Tartu would organise the next event in Tartu in 2013. FM&NT-2013 was hence held in Tartu (Estonia) from 21-24 April 2013 at the Dorpat Conference Centre. The main selected topics of the conference were: (i) multifunctional materials, (ii) nanomaterials, (iii) materials for sustainable energy applications and (vi) theory. Additionally, the focus in this conference was on studies with the help of synchrotron radiation and other novel light sources such as free electron lasers. The conference provided an opportunity for 300 scientists from 21 countries to meet, establish contacts, exchange knowledge and discuss their research

  1. 35. Photocopy of photograph. Photographer unknown, 1904 NEWLY COMPLETED OFFICE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. Photocopy of photograph. Photographer unknown, 1904 NEWLY COMPLETED OFFICE, SUBSTATION, CAR BARN. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Milwaukee Light, Heat & Traction Company, 8336 West Lapham Street, West Allis, Milwaukee County, WI

  2. Diffusional spread and confinement of newly exocytosed synaptic vesicle proteins

    PubMed Central

    Gimber, Niclas; Tadeus, Georgi; Maritzen, Tanja; Schmoranzer, Jan; Haucke, Volker

    2015-01-01

    Neurotransmission relies on the calcium-triggered exocytic fusion of non-peptide neurotransmitter-containing small synaptic vesicles (SVs) with the presynaptic membrane at active zones (AZs) followed by compensatory endocytic retrieval of SV membranes. Here, we study the diffusional fate of newly exocytosed SV proteins in hippocampal neurons by high-resolution time-lapse imaging. Newly exocytosed SV proteins rapidly disperse within the first seconds post fusion until confined within the presynaptic bouton. Rapid diffusional spread and confinement is followed by slow reclustering of SV proteins at the periactive endocytic zone. Confinement within the presynaptic bouton is mediated in part by SV protein association with the clathrin-based endocytic machinery to limit diffusional spread of newly exocytosed SV proteins. These data suggest that diffusion, and axonal escape of newly exocytosed vesicle proteins, are counteracted by the clathrin-based endocytic machinery together with a presynaptic diffusion barrier. PMID:26399746

  3. Lessons Learned: Newly Hired Nurses' Perspectives on Transition Into Practice.

    PubMed

    Ziebert, Carolyn; Klingbeil, Carol; Schmitt, Catherine A; Stonek, Alice V; Totka, Joan P; Stelter, Ashley; Schiffman, Rachel F

    2016-01-01

    This descriptive qualitative study explored data from debriefs of all newly hired nurses at 3, 6, and 12 months posthire during a newly designed transition-to-practice program at a pediatric hospital. Four major themes emerged: preceptors, education process, adaptation to the organization, and role transition. Supportive factors included staged orientation, limited preceptors, mentors, regular communication with leaders, and a culture of teamwork. Stressors included too many preceptors, mentorship needs, floating, communication challenges, and organizational changes.

  4. Chandra Independently Determines Hubble Constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-08-01

    light years from Earth. These results do not rely on the traditional distance ladder. Bonamente and his colleagues find the Hubble constant to be 77 kilometers per second per megaparsec (a megaparsec is equal to 3.26 million light years), with an uncertainty of about 15%. This result agrees with the values determined using other techniques. The Hubble constant had previously been found to be 72, give or take 8, kilometers per second per megaparsec based on Hubble Space Telescope observations. The new Chandra result is important because it offers the independent confirmation that scientists have been seeking and fixes the age of the Universe between 12 and 14 billion years. Chandra X-ray Image of CL J1226.9+3332 Chandra X-ray Image of CL J1226.9+3332 "These new results are entirely independent of all previous methods of measuring the Hubble constant," said team member Marshall Joy also of MSFC. The astronomers used a phenomenon known as the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect, where photons in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) interact with electrons in the hot gas that pervades the enormous galaxy clusters. The photons acquire energy from this interaction, which distorts the signal from the microwave background in the direction of the clusters. The magnitude of this distortion depends on the density and temperature of the hot electrons and the physical size of the cluster. Using radio telescopes to measure the distortion of the microwave background and Chandra to measure the properties of the hot gas, the physical size of the cluster can be determined. From this physical size and a simple measurement of the angle subtended by the cluster, the rules of geometry can be used to derive its distance. The Hubble constant is determined by dividing previously measured cluster speeds by these newly derived distances. Chandra X-ray Image of Abell 1689 Chandra X-ray Image of Abell 1689 This project was championed by Chandra's telescope mirror designer, Leon Van Speybroeck, who passed

  5. Complementary treatment of the common cold and flu with medicinal plants--results from two samples of pharmacy customers in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Raal, Ain; Volmer, Daisy; Sõukand, Renata; Hratkevitš, Sofia; Kalle, Raivo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the current survey was to investigate the complementary self-treatment of the common cold and flu with medicinal plants among pharmacy customers in Estonia. A multiple-choice questionnaire listing 10 plants and posing questions on the perceived characteristics of cold and flu, the effectiveness of plants, help-seeking behaviour, self-treatment and sources of information, was distributed to a sample of participants in two medium size pharmacies. The participants were pharmacy customers: 150 in Tallinn (mostly Russian speaking) and 150 in Kuressaare (mostly Estonian speaking). The mean number of plants used by participants was 4.1. Of the respondents, 69% self-treated the common cold and flu and 28% consulted with a general practitioner. In general, medicinal plants were considered effective in the treatment of the above-mentioned illnesses and 56% of the respondents had used exclusively medicinal plants or their combination with OTC medicines and other means of folk medicine for treatment. The use of medicinal plants increased with age and was more frequent among female than male respondents. Among Estonian-speaking customers lime flowers, blackcurrant and camomile were more frequently used, and among Russian speaking customers raspberry and lemon fruits. Regardless of some statistically significant differences in preferred species among different age, education, sex and nationality groups, the general attitude towards medicinal plants for self-treatment of the common cold and flu in Estonia was very favourable.

  6. Climate parameters of Estonia and the Baltic Sea region derived from the high-resolution reanalysis database BaltAn65+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Männik, Aarne; Zirk, Marko; Rõõm, Rein; Luhamaa, Andres

    2015-10-01

    The high-resolution reanalysis data-base BaltAn65+ covers the period of 1965-2005. Here, this dataset is used to derive essential climate parameters for the Baltic Sea region and Estonia. In particular, monthly mean temperature and total precipitation are calculated and a trend analysis is performed to analyze the temporal evolution of these climatological parameters during the reanalysis period. Monthly, seasonal, and annual maps of the climate characteristics, including trend maps, are created for the Baltic Sea region. Time series of monthly and annually averaged temperature and precipitation sum are presented over the Baltic Sea and Estonian domains together with fitted linear trends and trend significance analysis. Then, comparison with an observational database is performed to assess the quality of the reanalysis database. Additionally, the time series are compared with official climate normals for the period of 1971-2000, as calculated by the Estonian Environment Agency (EtEA). Findings of other publications in the scientific literature dealing with the climate of similar time period for Estonia and the Baltic Sea region are discussed. The quality of the BaltAn65+ reanalysis is found to be generally good for temperature but weak for precipitation.

  7. Acute de novo Leukemia in Estonia and Western Sweden 1982-2006: Positive Trend in the Survival of Acute Leukemia over 25 Years.

    PubMed

    Hulegårdh, Erik; Punab, Mari; Holmberg, Erik; Palk, Katrin; Laane, Edward; Everaus, Hele; Wennström, Lovisa; Stockelberg, Dick

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on the incidence, treatment, and survival of de novo acute leukemia in a 25-year perspective in western Sweden and Estonia. At the beginning of our study, Estonia was a part of the Eastern bloc with planned economy, but since 1991 it is a member of the European Union and transforming into a market economy. Survival rates have steadily increased in both countries. However, a gap between their survival curves remains. Based on our data, it is difficult to explain the big difference in the 5-year relative survival in favor of western Sweden (55 vs. 22%). In Germany, there was a big difference in overall cancer survival between East and West Germany after the fall of the iron curtain, but today no difference is seen. Differences in survival are probably due to a higher proportion of intense chemotherapy regimens and a higher rate of hematopoietic stem cell transplantations in Sweden. Other important factors might be better supportive care and diagnostics as well as better adjuvant therapy. Better staff training and conditions in wards are also factors that might play an essential role.

  8. The Futures of Adult Educator(s): Agency, Identity and Ethos. Joint Conference Proceedings of the 2nd ESREA/ReNAdET Meeting and the 4th TQF Seminar (Tallinn, Estonia, November 9-11, 2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heikkinen, Anja, Ed.; Jogi, Larissa, Ed.; Jutte, Wolfgang, Ed.; Zarifis, Georgios K., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This edited volume contains the papers presented in the 2nd ESREA|ReNAdet meeting that was jointly organised with the VET & CULTURE Network in the University of Tallinn (Estonia), 9-11 November 2011. The papers that appear in the volume discuss the future (or the futures) of adult educators in respect to issues of developing their identities…

  9. Spectral reflectance patterns and temporal dynamics of common understory types in hemi-boreal forests in Järvselja, Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikopensius, Maris; Raabe, Kairi; Pisek, Jan

    2014-05-01

    The knowledge about spectral properties and seasonal dynamics of understory layers in boreal forests currently holds several gaps. This introduces severe uncertainties while modelling the carbon balance of this ecosystem, which is expected to be prone to major shifts with climate change in the future. In this work the seasonal reflectance dynamics in European hemi-boreal forests are studied. The data for this study was collected at Järvselja Training and Experimental Forestry District (Estonia, 27.26°E 58.30°N). Measurements were taken in three different stands. The silver birch (Betula Pendula Roth) stand grows on typical brown gley-soil and its understory vegetation is dominated by a mixture of several grass species. The Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stand grows on a bog with understory vegetation composed of sparse labrador tea, cotton grass, and a continuous Sphagnum moss layer. The third stand, Norway spruce (Picea abies), grows on a Gleyi Ferric Podzol site with understory vegetation either partially missing or consisting of mosses such as Hylocomium splendens or Pleurozium schreberi [1]. The sampling design was similar to the study by Rautiainen et al. [3] in northern European boreal forests. At each study site, a 100 m long permanent transect was marked with flags. In addition, four intensive study plots (1 m × 1 m) were marked next to the transects at 20 m intervals. The field campaign lasted from May to September 2013. For each site the fractional cover of understory and understory spectra were estimated ten times i.e. every 2 to 3 weeks. Results from Järvselja forest were compared with the seasonal profiles from boreal forests in Hyytiälä, Finland [2]. References [1] A. Kuusk, M. Lang, J. Kuusk, T. Lükk, T. Nilson, M. Mõttus, M. Rautiainen, and A. Eenmäe, "Database of optical and structural data for validation of radiative transfer models", Technical Report, September 2009 [2] M. Rautiainen, M. Mõttus, J. Heiskanen, A. Akujärvi, T. Majasalmi

  10. Smoking differences between employees in faculties of the University of Tartu, Estonia, and changes during the country's transition

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A previous study found marked differences in smoking between employees in various university faculties in Tartu, Estonia, soon after the disruption of communism. The present study was conducted to see whether such differences still exist and how the patterns had changed during the country's first transitional decade. Methods All employees at the University of Tartu (UT) were surveyed for smoking habits by means of a questionnaire in 1992 and 2003. The present paper is based on respondents whose faculty or workplace was known (1390 people in 1992, 1790 in 2003). Smoking differences were assessed in terms of regression-based adjusted figures. Results While 20% of the male employees smoked daily in 1992, 13% did so in 2003, the figures for females being 10% and 7%, respectively. The prevalence of men's daily smoking varied between faculties and other workplaces in the range 4-30% in 1992, and 0-24% in 2003, with corresponding ranges of 3-21% and 0-10% among females. Men in the medical faculty in both surveys, and those in the faculty of philosophy in the second survey showed higher rates than men in most other faculties, as did women in the faculty of law in the first survey and those in the faculty of philosophy in the second. The figures were usually low in the faculties of sports & exercise, physics & chemistry and mathematics. The sex pattern was reversed in the faculty of law and also in that of economics, where the women smoked more than the men. Conclusions Even in this low-smoking academic community, wide smoking differences existed between the faculties and other workplaces. Faculties where physical or mental performance is of prime importance are leading the way towards a smoke-free community, while men in the faculty of philosophy and, paradoxically, men in the medical faculty are lagging behind. The reversed sex ratio in the faculties of law and economics may indicate women's intensified drive for equality in this transitional society. We assume

  11. Prevalence of drug resistance mutations in HAART patients infected with HIV-1 CRF06_cpx in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Avi, Radko; Pauskar, Merit; Karki, Tõnis; Kallas, Eveli; Jõgeda, Ene-Ly; Margus, Tõnu; Huik, Kristi; Lutsar, Irja

    2016-03-01

    HIV-1 drug resistance mutations (DRMs) and substitutions were assessed after the failure of the first line non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) + 2 nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) treatment regimens (efavirenz [EFV] + lamivudine[3TC] + zidovudine [ZDV] vs. EFV + 3TC + ddI) among the HIV-1 CRF06_cpx infected subjects in Estonia. HIV-1 genomic RNA was sequenced; DRMs and amino acid substitutions were compared in 44 treatment naïve and 45 first-line NNRTI + 2 NRTI treatment failed patients consisting of EFV + 3TC + ZDV (n = 17) and EFV + 3TC + didanosine[ddI] (n = 21) therapy failed sub-populations. At least one DRM was found in 78% of treatment experienced patients. The most common NRTI mutations were M184V (80%), L74V (31%), L74I (17%), K219E (9%), and M184I (9%), NNRTI mutations were K103N (83%), P225H (14%), L100I (11%), and Y188L (11%), reflecting generally the similar pattern of DRMs to that seen in treatment failed subtype B viruses. Sub-population analysis revealed that EFV + 3TC + ddI failed patients had more DRMs compared to EFV + 3TC + ZDV failed patients, especially the ddI DRM L74IV and several additional NNRTI DRMs. Additionally, CRF06_cpx specific mutation E179V and substitutions R32K, K122E, and V200AE were also detected in treatment experienced population. After the failure of the first-line EFV + 3TC + ddI therapy HIV-1 CRF06_cpx viruses develop additional NRTI and NNRTI mutations compared to EFV + 3TC + ZDV regimen. Therefore the usage of EFV + 3TC + ddI in this subtype decreases the options for next regimens containing abacavir, and NNRTI class agents.

  12. Business Plans in the Newly Independent States of the Former Soviet Union. Digest Number 97-7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shipilov, Andrew

    The concept of business planning is new to business professionals in the states of the former Soviet Union. Although Russian publications on business and economics have responded to the increased demand for knowledge of business planning, Western ideas of business planning should be integrated into Russian business management concepts in order to…

  13. Health hazard evaluation report HETA 90-168-2248, Independence Police Department Indoor Range, Independence, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Rinehart, R.D.; Almaguer, D.; Klein, M.K.; Crouch, K.G.

    1992-08-01

    On February 14, 1990, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) received a request from a management representative of the Independence, Missouri, Police Department Headquarters for a Health Hazard Evaluation. The Police Department requested NIOSH to evaluate the effectiveness of a newly redesigned air handling system installed inside their indoor firing range. On August 6, 1991, NIOSH investigators met with the firing range supervisor and toured the facility. On August 8, ten personal breathing-zone (PBZ) air samples and 3 area air samples were collected on filters inside the range and the filters were subsequently analyzed for lead by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Surface lead contamination inside the firing range was measured in two locations and hand (dermal) lead contamination was measured on two instructors and two field officers. These samples were also analyzed for lead by AAS.

  14. People newly in love are more responsive to positive feedback.

    PubMed

    Brown, Cassandra L; Beninger, Richard J

    2012-06-01

    Passionate love is associated with increased activity in dopamine-rich regions of the brain. Increased dopamine in these regions is associated with a greater tendency to learn from reward in trial-and-error learning tasks. This study examined the prediction that individuals who were newly in love would be better at responding to reward (positive feedback). In test trials, people who were newly in love selected positive outcomes significantly more often than their single (not in love) counterparts but were no better at the task overall. This suggests that people who are newly in love show a bias toward responding to positive feedback, which may reflect a general bias towards reward-seeking.

  15. Characteristics of newly-formed cementum following Emdogain application.

    PubMed

    Al-Hezaimi, Khalid; Al-Askar, Mansour; Al-Rasheed, Abdulaziz

    2011-01-01

    Periodontal regenerative techniques have been proposed; however, the outcomes remain debatable. The present investigation assessed the regenerated cementum following enamel matrix derivative application in dehiscence-type defects. Buccal osseous dehiscences were surgically created on the maxillary cuspid, and the second and fourth premolars in five female beagle dogs. The treatment group (n = 15 sites) received the enamel matrix derived application, whereas the control groups (n = 15) did not. The dogs were sacrificed 4 months following treatment and the specimens were histologically and histometrically examined. The newly formed cementum was uneven in thickness and mineralization, overlapped the old cementum and exhibited functional orientation, cementocyte lacunae and collagen fibril bundles. Most of the histological specimens showed the presence of a gap between the newly formed cementum and the underlying dentin. Control sites did not exhibit any cementum formation. The present study concluded that newly formed cementum is of cellular type and exhibits multiple characteristics.

  16. Characteristics of newly-formed cementum following emdogain application

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hezaimi, Khalid; Al-Askar, Mansour; Al-Rasheed, Abdulaziz

    2011-01-01

    Periodontal regenerative techniques have been proposed; however, the outcomes remain debatable. The present investigation assessed the regenerated cementum following enamel matrix derivative application in dehiscence-type defects. Buccal osseous dehiscences were surgically created on the maxillary cuspid, and the second and fourth premolars in five female beagle dogs. The treatment group (n=15 sites) received the enamel matrix derived application, whereas the control groups (n=15) did not. The dogs were sacrificed 4 months following treatment and the specimens were histologically and histometrically examined. The newly formed cementum was uneven in thickness and mineralization, overlapped the old cementum and exhibited functional orientation, cementocyte lacunae and collagen fibril bundles. Most of the histological specimens showed the presence of a gap between the newly formed cementum and the underlying dentin. Control sites did not exhibit any cementum formation. The present study concluded that newly formed cementum is of cellular type and exhibits multiple characteristics. PMID:21449212

  17. A lower baseline glomerular filtration rate predicts high mortality and newly cerebrovascular accidents in acute ischemic stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Kai; Huang, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Qian; Yu, Zhipeng; Ding, Jianping; Song, Haiqing

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is gradually recognized as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular and cardio-/cerebrovascular disease. This study aimed to examine the association of the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and clinical outcomes at 3 months after the onset of ischemic stroke in a hospitalized Chinese population. Totally, 972 patients with acute ischemic stroke were enrolled into this study. Modified of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equations were used to calculate eGFR and define CKD. The site and degree of the stenosis were examined. Patients were followed-up for 3 months. Endpoint events included all-cause death and newly ischemic events. The multivariate logistic model was used to determine the association between renal dysfunction and patients’ outcomes. Of all patients, 130 patients (13.4%) had reduced eGFR (<60 mL/min/1.73 m2), and 556 patients had a normal eGFR (≥90 mL/min/1.73 m2). A total of 694 patients suffered from cerebral artery stenosis, in which 293 patients only had intracranial artery stenosis (ICAS), 110 only with extracranial carotid atherosclerotic stenosis (ECAS), and 301 with both ICAS and ECAS. The patients with eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73m2 had a higher proportion of death and newly ischemic events compared with those with a relatively normal eGFR. Multivariate analysis revealed that a baseline eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 increased the risk of mortality by 3.089-fold and newly ischemic events by 4.067-fold. In further analysis, a reduced eGFR was associated with increased rates of mortality and newly events both in ICAS patients and ECAS patients. However, only an increased risk of newly events was found as the degree of renal function deteriorated in ICAS patients (odds ratio = 8.169, 95% confidence interval = 2.445–14.127). A low baseline eGFR predicted a high mortality and newly ischemic events at 3 months in ischemic stroke patients. A low baseline eGFR was also a strong independent

  18. Middle Leadership and Its Challenges: A Case Study in the Secondary Independent Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvine, Paul; Brundrett, Mark

    2016-01-01

    This article presents initial findings from a case study of the challenges facing newly appointed middle leaders in an independent school in the North West of England. The research approach has included interviews with twenty-five staff from within the school. It was observed that the skills set needed for middle leadership is different to that of…

  19. Superintendents' Perceptions of the Effectiveness of Newly Hired Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehman, Lynn E.; Boyland, Lori G.; Sriver, Shawn K.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the frequency of research-based leadership strategies utilized by newly hired school principals in the workplace. Public school superintendents in Indiana were asked to respond to two open-ended research questions. Through the use of content analysis, their comments were coded for the occurrence of effective leadership…

  20. Oral Definitions of Newly Learned Words: An Error Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Sara C.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined and compared patterns of errors in the oral definitions of newly learned words. Fifteen 9- to 11-year-old children with language learning disability (LLD) and 15 typically developing age-matched peers inferred the meanings of 20 nonsense words from four novel reading passages. After reading, children provided oral definitions…

  1. Enhancing the Employability of Newly Qualified Nurses: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dray, Beattie; Burke, Linda; Hurst, Heather M.; Ferguson, Anne; Marks-Maran, Diane

    2011-01-01

    Vocationally based higher education programmes are meant to prepare people for employment in their chosen fields of study. In nursing, historically, employment after qualifying has been almost assured, with sufficient vacancies available for newly qualified nurses. Recently, however, for a number of reasons, primarily related to economic…

  2. Field Performance of a Newly Developed Upflow Filtration Device

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this research is to examine the removal capacities of a newly developed Upflow filtration device for treatment of stormwater. The device was developed by engineers at the University of Alabama through a Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) grant from the U....

  3. 30 CFR 46.6 - Newly hired experienced miner training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Newly hired experienced miner training. 46.6 Section 46.6 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING TRAINING AND RETRAINING OF MINERS ENGAGED IN SHELL DREDGING OR EMPLOYED AT SAND, GRAVEL,...

  4. 30 CFR 46.6 - Newly hired experienced miner training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Newly hired experienced miner training. 46.6 Section 46.6 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING TRAINING AND RETRAINING OF MINERS ENGAGED IN SHELL DREDGING OR EMPLOYED AT SAND, GRAVEL,...

  5. 30 CFR 46.6 - Newly hired experienced miner training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Newly hired experienced miner training. 46.6 Section 46.6 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING TRAINING AND RETRAINING OF MINERS ENGAGED IN SHELL DREDGING OR EMPLOYED AT SAND, GRAVEL,...

  6. 30 CFR 46.6 - Newly hired experienced miner training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Newly hired experienced miner training. 46.6 Section 46.6 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING TRAINING AND RETRAINING OF MINERS ENGAGED IN SHELL DREDGING OR EMPLOYED AT SAND, GRAVEL,...

  7. 30 CFR 46.6 - Newly hired experienced miner training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Newly hired experienced miner training. 46.6 Section 46.6 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING TRAINING AND RETRAINING OF MINERS ENGAGED IN SHELL DREDGING OR EMPLOYED AT SAND, GRAVEL,...

  8. The Newly Qualified Teacher in the Working Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyman, Tarja

    2014-01-01

    Focusing on the working community, this article concentrates on the newly qualified foreign language teachers' (NQT) experiences and on factors that promoted or prevented the development of professional expertise at the outset of their working life. It draws on a qualitative longitudinal study conducted at the University of Jyväskylä, Finland,…

  9. Increased gluconeogenesis in youth with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The role of increased gluconeogenesis as an important contributor to fasting hyperglycaemia at diabetes onset is not known. We evaluated the contribution of gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis to fasting hyperglycaemia in newly diagnosed youths with type 2 diabetes following an overnight fast. Basal ...

  10. Expedient arrangement of newly constructed systems for centralized heat supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeigarnik, Yu. A.; Rotinov, A. G.

    2008-11-01

    It is shown that for newly constructed combined-cycle cogeneration plants and nuclear cogeneration plants, the optimum arrangement of the centralized heat supply system is the combination of a cogeneration plant and a district heat-supply station (a boiler house).

  11. Disseminated mucormycosis in an adolescent with newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    McCrory, Michael C; Moore, Blake A; Nakagawa, Thomas A; Givner, Laurence B; Jason, Donald R; Palavecino, Elizabeth L; Ajizian, Samuel J

    2014-10-01

    We report a 16-year-old, previously healthy female who presented with disseminated mucormycosis leading to multiorgan failure and death with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus and ketoacidosis. We review previous reported cases of mucormycosis in children with diabetes to demonstrate that this uncommon invasive infection may cause significant morbidity and mortality in this population.

  12. Dilemmas of a Newly Recruited Academic Qualified Professor: A Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agrawal, Anand

    2015-01-01

    This case describes the situation of a newly recruited academic professor who volunteered to teach a course on Research Methods to first-term MBA students in a practitioner-oriented case method Business School. Research Methods is a unique course due to its relevance not only in business but also across all graduate programs. Instructional and…

  13. Self-Regulation in Newly Arrived International Adoptees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tirella, Linda Grey; Miller, Laurie C.

    2011-01-01

    Many newly arrived international adoptees (IA) have difficulties with eating, sleeping, and self-soothing/self-stimulating (SS) behaviors. However, to date the prevalence of these problems and associated risk factors have not been clearly identified. Therefore, we proposed to evaluate 387 IA for the presence of these self-regulation and behavioral…

  14. Information Centers for Newly Blind Persons in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickstein, N.; Gozovsky, M.

    1994-01-01

    This article describes the development and implementation of an innovative program of information centers in Israel that is designed to identify newly blind persons and to give them first-hand information about available services, as well as to stimulate an awareness of rehabilitation services among medical personnel. (Author/DB)

  15. Death Concerns among Individuals Newly Diagnosed with Lung Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehto, Rebecca; Therrien, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Confronting the reality of death is an important challenge for individuals facing life-threatening illness such as lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer death. Few studies, however, document the nature of death-related concerns in individuals newly diagnosed with lung cancer. The aims of this exploratory study were to examine unsolicited…

  16. Who Is Doing Well? A Typology of Newly Homeless Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milburn, Norweeta; Liang, Li-Jung; Lee, Sung-Jae; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Rosenthal, Doreen; Mallett, Shelley; Lightfoot, Marguerita; Lester, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    There is growing evidence to support developing new typologies for homeless adolescents. Current typologies focus on the risks associated with being homeless, with less consideration of the positive attributes of homeless adolescents. The authors examined both risk and protective factors in a sample of newly homeless adolescents. Using cluster…

  17. Triadic Interaction among Newly Acquainted 2-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishikawa, Fumiko; Hay, Dale F.

    2006-01-01

    Are children as young as 2 years old able to interact in groups of three? The study applied the family triad model first introduced by Parke, Power, and Gottman (1979) to the case of peer interaction. In Experiment 1, the model was refined for use in studies of peer interaction and applied to an existing dataset of 16 triads of newly acquainted…

  18. 26. View of fully flooded drydock with caisson opened. Newly ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. View of fully flooded drydock with caisson opened. Newly arrived submarine is being placed in position. Berthed submarine on right is same as that seen in photo WA-116-25. Camera is pointed S from bulkhead. - Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Drydock No. 3, Farragut Avenue, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  19. 21. Newly completed Lake Hodges Dam and Flume, 1919. Courtesy ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Newly completed Lake Hodges Dam and Flume, 1919. Courtesy of the Mandeville Department of Special Collection, Central Library, University of California, San Diego. - Lake Hodges Flume, Along San Dieguito River between Lake Hodges & San Dieguito Reservoir, Rancho Santa Fe, San Diego County, CA

  20. 23. Cross section of newly completed concrete channel and trestle ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Cross section of newly completed concrete channel and trestle supported steel flume, 1919. Courtesy of the Mandeville Department of Special Collections, Central Library, University of California, San Diego. - Lake Hodges Flume, Along San Dieguito River between Lake Hodges & San Dieguito Reservoir, Rancho Santa Fe, San Diego County, CA

  1. Newly Generated Liquid Waste Processing Alternatives Study, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Landman, William Henry; Bates, Steven Odum; Bonnema, Bruce Edward; Palmer, Stanley Leland; Podgorney, Anna Kristine; Walsh, Stephanie

    2002-09-01

    This report identifies and evaluates three options for treating newly generated liquid waste at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The three options are: (a) treat the waste using processing facilities designed for treating sodium-bearing waste, (b) treat the waste using subcontractor-supplied mobile systems, or (c) treat the waste using a special facility designed and constructed for that purpose. In studying these options, engineers concluded that the best approach is to store the newly generated liquid waste until a sodium-bearing waste treatment facility is available and then to co-process the stored inventory of the newly generated waste with the sodium-bearing waste. After the sodium-bearing waste facility completes its mission, two paths are available. The newly generated liquid waste could be treated using the subcontractor-supplied system or the sodium-bearing waste facility or a portion of it. The final decision depends on the design of the sodium-bearing waste treatment facility, which will be completed in coming years.

  2. Supporting Newly Hired Teachers of Science: Attaining Teacher Professional Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luft, Julie A.; Dubois, Shannon L.; Nixon, Ryan S.; Campbell, Benjamin K.

    2015-01-01

    National standards for teachers are becoming more common. For newly hired teachers of science (NHTS), these standards have implications for how they are prepared and supported in their early years. In order to guide educators who prepare and study teachers of science and support NHTS, this review examines 30 years of research pertaining to…

  3. Uninvited guests: traditional insect repellents in Estonia used against the clothes moth Tineola bisselliella, human flea Pulex irritons and bedbug Cimex lectularius.

    PubMed

    Sõukand, Renata; Kalle, Raivo; Svanberg, Ingvar

    2010-01-01

    Extensive folklore records from pre-modern Estonia give us an excellent opportunity to study a variety of local plant knowledge and plant use among the peasantry in various parts of the country. One important biocultural domain where plant knowledge has been crucial was in the various methods of combating different ectoparasites that cohabited and coexisted with humans and their domestic animals. Some of these methods were widely known (world-wide, Eurasia, Europe, Baltic Rim), while others were more local. Here we discuss ways of reducing clothes moths Tineola bisselliella (Hummel) (Lepidoptera: Tineidae), human fleas Pulex irritons L. (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) and bedbugs Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) with the help of plants. Various taxa used as traditional repellents have been identified. The use of plants as repellents and their toxic principles are also discussed from a comparative perspective.

  4. Uninvited Guests: Traditional Insect Repellents in Estonia used Against the Clothes Moth Tineola bisselliella, Human Flea Pulex irritons and Bedbug Cimex lectularius

    PubMed Central

    Sõukand, Renata; Kalle, Raivo; Svanberg, Ingvar

    2010-01-01

    Extensive folklore records from pre-modern Estonia give us an excellent opportunity to study a variety of local plant knowledge and plant use among the peasantry in various parts of the country. One important biocultural domain where plant knowledge has been crucial was in the various methods of combating different ectoparasites that cohabited and coexisted with humans and their domestic animals. Some of these methods were widely known (world-wide, Eurasia, Europe, Baltic Rim), while others were more local. Here we discuss ways of reducing clothes moths Tineola bisselliella (Hummel) (Lepidoptera: Tineidae), human fleas Pulex irritons L. (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) and bedbugs Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) with the help of plants. Various taxa used as traditional repellents have been identified. The use of plants as repellents and their toxic principles are also discussed from a comparative perspective. PMID:21070174

  5. Independent Learning Models: A Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickett, R. E. Y.

    Five models of independent learning are suitable for use in adult education programs. The common factor is a facilitator who works in some way with the student in the learning process. They display different characteristics, including the extent of independence in relation to content and/or process. Nondirective tutorial instruction and learning…

  6. Chromosome 1 abnormalities in elderly patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma treated with novel therapies

    PubMed Central

    Caltagirone, Simona; Ruggeri, Marina; Aschero, Simona; Gilestro, Milena; Oddolo, Daniela; Gay, Francesca; Bringhen, Sara; Musolino, Caterina; Baldini, Luca; Musto, Pellegrino; Petrucci, Maria T.; Gaidano, Gianluca; Passera, Roberto; Bruno, Benedetto; Palumbo, Antonio; Boccadoro, Mario; Omedè, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is a plasma cell disorder characterized by malignant plasma cell infiltration in the bone marrow, serum and/or urine monoclonal protein and organ damage. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of chromosome 1 abnormalities in a group of elderly patients (>65 years) with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma enrolled in the GIMEMA-MM-03-05 trial and treated with bortezomib, melphalan and prednisone or bortezomib, melphalan, prednisone and thalidomide followed by bortezomib and thalidomide maintenance. We also evaluated the link between chromosome 1 abnormalities and other clinical, genetic and immunophenotypic features by a multivariate logistic regression model. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization on immunomagnetically purified plasma cells and bone marrow multiparameter flow cytometry were employed. A multivariate Cox model showed that chromosome 1 abnormalities, age >75 years and a CD19+/CD117− immunophenotype of bone marrow plasma cells were independent risk factors for overall survival in elderly patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. Moreover, a detrimental effect of thalidomide, even when administered in association with bortezomib, was observed in patients with abnormal chromosome 1 as well as in those with 17p deletion, while the benefit of adding thalidomide to the bortezomib-melphalan-prednisone regimen was noted in patients carrying an aggressive CD19+/CD117− bone marrow plasma cell immunophenotype. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltri-als.gov as #NCT01063179. PMID:25015938

  7. Stress, social support and negative affectivity in children with newly diagnosed cancer: a prospective transactional analysis.

    PubMed

    Varni, J W; Katz, E

    1997-12-01

    Conceptually-driven investigations on the potentially modifiable predictors of individual differences among children with newly-diagnosed cancer may facilitate the identification of pediatric cancer patients at risk for maladjustment during the profound adversity associated with this life-threatening disease and aversive biomedical treatment. Within a risk and resistance theoretical framework, perceived stress and social support were investigated concurrently and prospectively within an exploratory design as predictors of negative affectivity (anxiety and depressive symptoms composite construct) in newly-diagnosed pediatric cancer patients at Time 1 (within one month after diagnosis), Time 2 (6 months postdiagnosis), and Time 3 (9 months postdiagnosis). Hierarchical multiple regression analysis findings indicate that perceived stress and social support have direct and independent effects on negative affectivity principally at the 9-month time interval. These findings are discussed in terms of the cognitive-behavioral treatment implications for enhancing child adjustment during the transition from the initial cancer diagnosis and aversive biomedical treatment to subsequent school and social reintegration.

  8. Antipsychotic medications and dental caries in newly diagnosed schizophrenia: A nationwide cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hu, Kai-Fang; Chou, Yu-Hsiang; Wen, Yen-Hsia; Hsieh, Kun-Pin; Tsai, Jui-Hsiu; Yang, Pinchen; Yang, Yi-Hsin; Lin, Chun-Hung Richard

    2016-11-30

    We investigated the association between antipsychotic medications and the risk of dental caries in patients with schizophrenia. We enroled a nationwide cohort of patients with newly diagnosed schizophrenia within 1 year of dental caries development. Exposure to antipsychotics and other medications was categorised according to their type and duration, and the association between exposure and dental caries was assessed through logistic regressions. Of the 3610 patients with newly diagnosed schizophrenia, 2149 (59.5%) exhibited an incidence of treated dental caries. Logistic regression analysis identified a younger age, female sex, high income, a 2-year history of dental caries, and exposure to first-generation antipsychotics, and antihypertensives as independent risk factors for treated dental caries in patients with schizophrenia. Hyposalivation, the adverse effect of first-generation antipsychotics and antihypertensives, was associated with an increased risk of treated dental caries. However, hypersalivation from first-generation antipsychotics for dental caries was associated with a protective factor. These findings suggest that clinicians should pay attention to the aforementioned risk factors for dental caries in patients with schizophrenia, particularly while prescribing first-generation antipsychotics and antihypertensives to such patients.

  9. In vitro cellular drug resistance and prognosis in newly diagnosed childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Kaspers, G J; Veerman, A J; Pieters, R; Van Zantwijk, C H; Smets, L A; Van Wering, E R; Van Der Does-Van Den Berg, A

    1997-10-01

    As an important determinant of the response to chemotherapy, measurements of cellular drug resistance may provide prognostically significant information, which could be useful for optimal risk-group stratification. The objective of this report is to determine the relation between in vitro resistance to 12 drugs, measured with the colorimetric methyl-thiazol-tetrazolium (MTT) assay, and long-term clinical response to chemotherapy in 152 children with newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia. At risk-group stratified analyses, in vitro resistance to prednisolone, L-asparaginase, and vincristine were each significantly (P < .01) related to the probability of disease-free survival (pDFS) after combination chemotherapy. The combination of data for prednisolone, L-asparaginase, and vincristine provided a drug-resistance profile with prognostic independent significance superior to that of any single drug or any other factor. The 3-years pDFS was 100% for the group with the most sensitive profile, 20% of all patients, 84% (SE 6%) for the group with an intermediately sensitive profile, 40% of all patients, and 43% (SE 8%) for the remaining group with the most resistant profile (P < .001). In conclusion, the extent of in vitro cellular resistance to prednisolone, L-asparaginase, and vincristine, measured using the MTT assay, was significantly related to the clinical response to combination chemotherapy. Treatment failure in newly diagnosed childhood ALL can be predicted based on cellular drug resistance data.

  10. Rapid Urbanization of Red Foxes in Estonia: Distribution, Behaviour, Attacks on Domestic Animals, and Health-Risks Related to Zoonotic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Plumer, Liivi; Davison, John; Saarma, Urmas

    2014-01-01

    Urban areas are becoming increasingly important for wildlife as diminishing natural habitats no longer represent a suitable environment for many species. Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are nowadays common in many cities worldwide, and in recent years they have colonized urban areas in Estonia. We used a public web-based questionnaire approach to evaluate the distribution and behaviour of Estonian urban foxes, to detect related problems and to assess health risks to humans and domestic animals. In total, 1205 responses were collected throughout the country. Foxes have colonized the majority of Estonian towns (33 out of 47) in a relatively short period of time, and have already established breeding dens in several towns. Despite their recent arrival, the behaviour of Estonian urban foxes is similar to that reported in longer-established urban fox populations: they are mostly active during night-time, often visit city centres and some also have dens in such locations. Certain characteristics of urban foxes serve as a basis for conflict with humans: foxes have entered houses and attacked domestic animals, killing cats and poultry. About 8% of reported foxes exhibited symptoms of sarcoptic mange, a disease that also infects domestic animals, especially dogs. The proportion of mange-infected foxes was higher in large urban areas. In addition to mange, a substantial fraction of red foxes in Estonia are known to be infected with the life-threatening tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, the causative agent of alveolar echinococcosis. Therefore, urban foxes may represent a source of serious infectious disease for pets and humans. PMID:25531399

  11. Rapid urbanization of red foxes in Estonia: distribution, behaviour, attacks on domestic animals, and health-risks related to zoonotic diseases.

    PubMed

    Plumer, Liivi; Davison, John; Saarma, Urmas

    2014-01-01

    Urban areas are becoming increasingly important for wildlife as diminishing natural habitats no longer represent a suitable environment for many species. Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are nowadays common in many cities worldwide, and in recent years they have colonized urban areas in Estonia. We used a public web-based questionnaire approach to evaluate the distribution and behaviour of Estonian urban foxes, to detect related problems and to assess health risks to humans and domestic animals. In total, 1205 responses were collected throughout the country. Foxes have colonized the majority of Estonian towns (33 out of 47) in a relatively short period of time, and have already established breeding dens in several towns. Despite their recent arrival, the behaviour of Estonian urban foxes is similar to that reported in longer-established urban fox populations: they are mostly active during night-time, often visit city centres and some also have dens in such locations. Certain characteristics of urban foxes serve as a basis for conflict with humans: foxes have entered houses and attacked domestic animals, killing cats and poultry. About 8% of reported foxes exhibited symptoms of sarcoptic mange, a disease that also infects domestic animals, especially dogs. The proportion of mange-infected foxes was higher in large urban areas. In addition to mange, a substantial fraction of red foxes in Estonia are known to be infected with the life-threatening tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, the causative agent of alveolar echinococcosis. Therefore, urban foxes may represent a source of serious infectious disease for pets and humans.

  12. Speaker independent acoustic-to-articulatory inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, An

    Acoustic-to-articulatory inversion, the determination of articulatory parameters from acoustic signals, is a difficult but important problem for many speech processing applications, such as automatic speech recognition (ASR) and computer aided pronunciation training (CAPT). In recent years, several approaches have been successfully implemented for speaker dependent models with parallel acoustic and kinematic training data. However, in many practical applications inversion is needed for new speakers for whom no articulatory data is available. In order to address this problem, this dissertation introduces a novel speaker adaptation approach called Parallel Reference Speaker Weighting (PRSW), based on parallel acoustic and articulatory Hidden Markov Models (HMM). This approach uses a robust normalized articulatory space and palate referenced articulatory features combined with speaker-weighted adaptation to form an inversion mapping for new speakers that can accurately estimate articulatory trajectories. The proposed PRSW method is evaluated on the newly collected Marquette electromagnetic articulography -- Mandarin Accented English (EMA-MAE) corpus using 20 native English speakers. Cross-speaker inversion results show that given a good selection of reference speakers with consistent acoustic and articulatory patterns, the PRSW approach gives good speaker independent inversion performance even without kinematic training data.

  13. Past storminess recorded in the internal architecture of coastal formations of Estonia in the NE Baltic Sea region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tõnisson, Hannes; Vilumaa, Kadri; Kont, Are; Sugita, Shinya; Rosentau, Alar; Muru, Merle; Anderson, Agnes

    2016-04-01

    Over the past 50 years, storminess has increased in northern Europe because of the changes in cyclonic activity. The cyclone season in the Baltic Sea area has shifted from autumn to winter; this has led to intensification of shore processes (erosion, sediment transport and accumulation) and has increased pressure to the economy (land use, coastal protection measures) of the coastal regions in the Baltic states. Therefore, studing the effects of such changes on shore processes in the past is critical for prediction of the future changes along the Baltic coasts. Beach ridge plains are found worldwide, where cyclones and storm surges affect accumulation forms. These sandy shores are highly susceptible to erosion. Due to the isostatic uplift on the NE coast of the Baltic Sea, the signs of major past events are well-preserved in the internal architecture of old coastal formations (dune ridge-swale complexes). Wave-eroded scarps in beach deposits are visible in subsurface ground-penetrating radar (GPR) records, indicating the past high-energy events. Several study areas and transects were selected on the NW coast of Estonia, using high-resolution topographic maps (LiDAR). Shore-normal subsurface surveys have been conducted with a digital GSSI SIR-3000 georadar with a 270 MHz antenna at each transect. Interpretation of GPR facies was based on hand auger and window sampler coring, which provided accurate depths of key stratigraphic boundaries and bounding surfaces. Several samples for luminescence and 14C dating were collected to determine the approximate chronology of the coastal formations along the Estonian coast. We have found that changes in storminess, including the periods of high and low intensity of storms in late Holocene, are clearly reflected in the internal patterns of ancient coastal formations. The sections with small ridges with short seaward-dipped layers (interface between wave-built and aeolian deposits) in deeper horizons are probably formed during

  14. Sequence independent amplification of DNA

    DOEpatents

    Bohlander, Stefan K.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is a rapid sequence-independent amplification procedure (SIA). Even minute amounts of DNA from various sources can be amplified independent of any sequence requirements of the DNA or any a priori knowledge of any sequence characteristics of the DNA to be amplified. This method allows, for example the sequence independent amplification of microdissected chromosomal material and the reliable construction of high quality fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) probes from YACs or from other sources. These probes can be used to localize YACs on metaphase chromosomes but also--with high efficiency--in interphase nuclei.

  15. Sequence independent amplification of DNA

    DOEpatents

    Bohlander, S.K.

    1998-03-24

    The present invention is a rapid sequence-independent amplification procedure (SIA). Even minute amounts of DNA from various sources can be amplified independent of any sequence requirements of the DNA or any a priori knowledge of any sequence characteristics of the DNA to be amplified. This method allows, for example, the sequence independent amplification of microdissected chromosomal material and the reliable construction of high quality fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) probes from YACs or from other sources. These probes can be used to localize YACs on metaphase chromosomes but also--with high efficiency--in interphase nuclei. 25 figs.

  16. Untreated newly diagnosed essential hypertension is associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in a population of a hypertensive center

    PubMed Central

    Michopoulos, Spyros; Chouzouri, Vasiliki I; Manios, Efstathios D; Grapsa, Eirini; Antoniou, Zoi; Papadimitriou, Christos A; Zakopoulos, Nikolaos; Dimopoulos, Athanasios-Meletios

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Recent studies have demonstrated that hypertension (HTN) is associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in treated hypertensive patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between newly diagnosed essential HTN and NAFLD in untreated hypertensive patients. Patients and methods A consecutive series of 240 subjects (143 hypertensives and 97 normotensives), aged 30–80 years, without diabetes mellitus were enrolled in the study. Subjects with 24-hour systolic blood pressure (SBP) values ≥130 mmHg and/or diastolic BP values ≥80 mmHg were defined as hypertensives. NAFLD was defined as the presence of liver hyperechogenicity on ultrasound. Results Body mass index (P=0.002) and essential HTN (P=0.016) were independently associated with NAFLD in the multivariate logistic regression model. Furthermore, the multivariate analysis revealed that morning SBP (P=0.044) was independently associated with NAFLD. Conclusion Untreated, newly diagnosed essential HTN is independently associated with NAFLD. Ambulatory BP monitoring could be used for the diagnosis of essential HTN in patients with NAFLD. PMID:26834493

  17. Flagellation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in newly divided cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Kun; Lee, Calvin; Anda, Jaime; Wong, Gerard

    2015-03-01

    For monotrichous bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, after cell division, one daughter cell inherits the old flagellum from its mother cell, and the other grows a new flagellum during or after cell division. It had been shown that the new flagellum grows at the distal pole of the dividing cell when the two daughter cells haven't completely separated. However, for those daughter cells who grow new flagella after division, it still remains unknown at which pole the new flagellum will grow. Here, by combining our newly developed bacteria family tree tracking techniques with genetic manipulation method, we showed that for the daughter cell who did not inherit the old flagellum, a new flagellum has about 90% chances to grow at the newly formed pole. We proposed a model for flagellation of P. aeruginosa.

  18. Intermittent individual housing increases survival of newly proliferated cells.

    PubMed

    Aberg, Elin; Pham, Therese M; Zwart, Mieke; Baumans, Vera; Brené, Stefan

    2005-09-08

    In this study, we analyzed how intermittent individual housing with or without a running wheel influenced corticosterone levels and survival of newly proliferated cells in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Female Balb/c mice, in standard or enhanced housing, were divided into groups that were individually housed with or without running wheels on every second day. Intermittent individual housing without, but not with, running wheels increased survival of proliferated cells in the dentate gyrus as compared with continuous group housing in standard or enhanced conditions. Thus, changes in housing conditions on every second day can, under certain circumstances, have an impact on the survival of newly proliferated cells in the dentate gyrus.

  19. Insulin Oedema in Newly Diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Çetinkaya, Semra; Yılmaz Ağladıoğlu, Sebahat; Peltek Kendirici, Havva Nur; Bilgili, Hatice; Yıldırım, Nurdan; Aycan, Zehra

    2010-01-01

    Despite the essential role of insulin in the management of patients with insulin deficiency, insulin use can lead to adverse effects such as hypoglycaemia and weight gain. Rarely, crucial fluid retention can occur with insulin therapy, resulting in an oedematous condition. Peripheral or generalised oedema is an extremely rare complication of insulin therapy in the absence of heart, liver or renal involvement. It has been reported in newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes, in poorly controlled type 2 diabetes following the initiation of insulin therapy, and in underweight patients on large doses of insulin. The oedema occurs shortly after the initiation of intensive insulin therapy. We describe two adolescent girls with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes, who presented with oedema of the lower extremities approximately one week after the initiation of insulin treatment; other causes of oedema were excluded. Spontaneous recovery was observed in both patients. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:21274337

  20. Characterization of newly isolated lytic bacteriophages active against Acinetobacter baumannii.

    PubMed

    Merabishvili, Maia; Vandenheuvel, Dieter; Kropinski, Andrew M; Mast, Jan; De Vos, Daniel; Verbeken, Gilbert; Noben, Jean-Paul; Lavigne, Rob; Vaneechoutte, Mario; Pirnay, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    Based on genotyping and host range, two newly isolated lytic bacteriophages, myovirus vB_AbaM_Acibel004 and podovirus vB_AbaP_Acibel007, active against Acinetobacter baumannii clinical strains, were selected from a new phage library for further characterization. The complete genomes of the two phages were analyzed. Both phages are characterized by broad host range and essential features of potential therapeutic phages, such as short latent period (27 and 21 min, respectively), high burst size (125 and 145, respectively), stability of activity in liquid culture and low frequency of occurrence of phage-resistant mutant bacterial cells. Genomic analysis showed that while Acibel004 represents a novel bacteriophage with resemblance to some unclassified Pseudomonas aeruginosa phages, Acibel007 belongs to the well-characterized genus of the Phikmvlikevirus. The newly isolated phages can serve as potential candidates for phage cocktails to control A. baumannii infections.

  1. Reduced parasympathetic tone in newly diagnosed essential hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Goit, Rajesh Kumar; Ansari, Abdul Haque

    2016-01-01

    Aim The aim of the study was to compare heart rate variability (HRV) of newly diagnosed essential hypertensive subjects with controls. Methods The study was conducted on 120 hypertensive subjects and 120 controls. Results The time-domain measures, standard deviation of all RR intervals (SDNN), the square root of the mean of the sum of the squares of differences between adjacent RR intervals (RMSSD), and percentage of consecutive RR intervals that differ by more than 50 ms (pNN50) which reflect parasympathetic activity were significantly less in hypertensive subjects. In frequency-domain measures, high frequency [HF (ms2)] and [HF (nu)], which reflects parasympathetic activity, was significantly less in hypertensive subjects while LF (nu) and LF/HF (%), which reflect sympathetic activity, were comparable between the groups. Conclusion These findings suggest that HRV is reduced in subjects with newly diagnosed essential hypertension and the parasympathetic dysregulation is present in the early stage of essential hypertension. PMID:27133323

  2. Assessment of metal retention in newly constructed highway embankments.

    PubMed

    Werkenthin, Moritz; Kluge, Björn; Wessolek, Gerd

    2016-12-01

    Newly constructed embankments should provide both a specific bearing capacity to enable trafficability in emergency cases and a sufficient pollutant retention capacity to protect the groundwater. A number of lysimeters were installed along the A115 highway to determine total and dissolved metal concentrations in road runoff and in the soil solution of newly constructed embankments. Dissolved concentrations in soil solution of the embankments did not exceed the trigger values of the German legislation. Depending on the metal, total concentrations in soil solution were more than twice as high as dissolved concentrations. The high infiltration rates lead to increased groundwater recharge beneath the embankments (up to 4100 mm a(-1)). Although metal concentrations were not problematic from the legislators' point of view, the elevated infiltration rates beside the road facilitated the transfer of high metal loads into deeper soil layers and potentially into the groundwater as well.

  3. 35. LOW OBLIQUE AERIAL VIEW LOOKING EAST OVER THE NEWLY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. LOW OBLIQUE AERIAL VIEW LOOKING EAST OVER THE NEWLY CONSTRUCTED NAVAL SUPPLY CENTER. NORTH TRAINING WALL AND FEDERAL CHANNEL ARE AT FAR RIGHT. Dated 23 April 1942. U.S. Navy photograph from the Fleet Industrial Supply Center archive (FISCO; Naval Supply Center, Oakland). Original print on file at the Port of Oakland, California. - Oakland Harbor Training Walls, Mouth of Federal Channel to Inner Harbor, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  4. The Circulation of Newly Formed Deep Water in the Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhein, M.; Kieke, D.; Steinfeldt, R.

    2012-04-01

    The circulation of newly formed deep water masses (Labrador Sea Water, LSW, and Denmark Strait Overflow Water, DSOW) is examined by discussing the distribution of two parameters (age τ and fraction F of young water) calculated from the chlorofluorocarbon data measured between 1980 and 2005 in the Atlantic. Compared to previous studies, a much larger data set was used with an improved gridding procedure, allowing to resolve the distributions in more detail.

  5. "Car seat dermatitis": a newly described form of contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Ghali, Fred E

    2011-01-01

    Over the last several years, our clinic has documented an increasing trend of contact dermatitis presenting in areas that are in direct contact with certain types of car seats composed of a shiny, nylon-like material. Our practice has encountered these cases in both atopic and nonatopic infants, with a seasonal predilection for the warmer months. This brief report highlights some of the key features of this condition and alerts the clinician to this newly described form of contact dermatitis.

  6. The probability of preservation of a newly arisen gene duplicate.

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, M; O'Hely, M; Walsh, B; Force, A

    2001-01-01

    Newly emerging data from genome sequencing projects suggest that gene duplication, often accompanied by genetic map changes, is a common and ongoing feature of all genomes. This raises the possibility that differential expansion/contraction of various genomic sequences may be just as important a mechanism of phenotypic evolution as changes at the nucleotide level. However, the population-genetic mechanisms responsible for the success vs. failure of newly arisen gene duplicates are poorly understood. We examine the influence of various aspects of gene structure, mutation rates, degree of linkage, and population size (N) on the joint fate of a newly arisen duplicate gene and its ancestral locus. Unless there is active selection against duplicate genes, the probability of permanent establishment of such genes is usually no less than 1/(4N) (half of the neutral expectation), and it can be orders of magnitude greater if neofunctionalizing mutations are common. The probability of a map change (reassignment of a key function of an ancestral locus to a new chromosomal location) induced by a newly arisen duplicate is also generally >1/(4N) for unlinked duplicates, suggesting that recurrent gene duplication and alternative silencing may be a common mechanism for generating microchromosomal rearrangements responsible for postreproductive isolating barriers among species. Relative to subfunctionalization, neofunctionalization is expected to become a progressively more important mechanism of duplicate-gene preservation in populations with increasing size. However, even in large populations, the probability of neofunctionalization scales only with the square of the selective advantage. Tight linkage also influences the probability of duplicate-gene preservation, increasing the probability of subfunctionalization but decreasing the probability of neofunctionalization. PMID:11779815

  7. The probability of preservation of a newly arisen gene duplicate.

    PubMed

    Lynch, M; O'Hely, M; Walsh, B; Force, A

    2001-12-01

    Newly emerging data from genome sequencing projects suggest that gene duplication, often accompanied by genetic map changes, is a common and ongoing feature of all genomes. This raises the possibility that differential expansion/contraction of various genomic sequences may be just as important a mechanism of phenotypic evolution as changes at the nucleotide level. However, the population-genetic mechanisms responsible for the success vs. failure of newly arisen gene duplicates are poorly understood. We examine the influence of various aspects of gene structure, mutation rates, degree of linkage, and population size (N) on the joint fate of a newly arisen duplicate gene and its ancestral locus. Unless there is active selection against duplicate genes, the probability of permanent establishment of such genes is usually no less than 1/(4N) (half of the neutral expectation), and it can be orders of magnitude greater if neofunctionalizing mutations are common. The probability of a map change (reassignment of a key function of an ancestral locus to a new chromosomal location) induced by a newly arisen duplicate is also generally >1/(4N) for unlinked duplicates, suggesting that recurrent gene duplication and alternative silencing may be a common mechanism for generating microchromosomal rearrangements responsible for postreproductive isolating barriers among species. Relative to subfunctionalization, neofunctionalization is expected to become a progressively more important mechanism of duplicate-gene preservation in populations with increasing size. However, even in large populations, the probability of neofunctionalization scales only with the square of the selective advantage. Tight linkage also influences the probability of duplicate-gene preservation, increasing the probability of subfunctionalization but decreasing the probability of neofunctionalization.

  8. Independent Schools: Landscape and Learnings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oates, William A.

    1981-01-01

    Examines American independent schools (parochial, southern segregated, and private institutions) in terms of their funding, expenditures, changing enrollment patterns, teacher-student ratios, and societal functions. Journal available from Daedalus Subscription Department, 1172 Commonwealth Ave., Boston, MA 02132. (AM)

  9. Technology for Independent Living: Sourcebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enders, Alexandra, Ed.

    This sourcebook provides information for the practical implementation of independent living technology in the everyday rehabilitation process. "Information Services and Resources" lists databases, clearinghouses, networks, research and development programs, toll-free telephone numbers, consumer protection caveats, selected publications, and…

  10. Experimental interference of independent photons.

    PubMed

    Kaltenbaek, Rainer; Blauensteiner, Bibiane; Zukowski, Marek; Aspelmeyer, Markus; Zeilinger, Anton

    2006-06-23

    Interference of photons emerging from independent sources is essential for modern quantum-information processing schemes, above all quantum repeaters and linear-optics quantum computers. We report an observation of nonclassical interference of two single photons originating from two independent, separated sources, which were actively synchronized with a rms timing jitter of 260 fs. The resulting (two-photon) interference visibility was (83+/-4)%.

  11. Independence test for sparse data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, J. E.; González-López, V. A.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper a new non-parametric independence test is presented. García and González-López (2014) [1] introduced the LIS test for the hypothesis of independence between two continuous random variables, the test proposed in this work is a generalization of the LIS test. The new test does not require the assumption of continuity for the random variables, it test is applied to two datasets and also compared with the Pearson's Chi-squared test.

  12. New opportunities seen for independents

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, G.A. )

    1990-10-22

    The collapse of gas and oil prices in the mid-1980s significantly reduced the number of independent exploration companies. At the same time, a fundamental shift occurred among major oil companies as they allocated their exploration budgets toward international operations and made major production purchases. Several large independents also embraced a philosophy of budget supplementation through joint venture partnership arrangements. This has created a unique and unusual window of opportunity for the smaller independents (defined for this article as exploration and production companies with a market value of less than $1 billion) to access the extensive and high quality domestic prospect inventories of the major and large independent oil and gas companies and to participate in the search for large reserve targets on attractive joint venture terms. Participation in these types of joint ventures, in conjunction with internally generated plays selected through the use of today's advanced technology (computer-enhanced, high-resolution seismic; horizontal drilling; etc.) and increasing process for oil and natural gas, presents the domestic exploration-oriented independent with an attractive money-making opportunity for the 1990s.

  13. The Independent Technical Analysis Process

    SciTech Connect

    Duberstein, Corey A.; Ham, Kenneth D.; Dauble, Dennis D.; Johnson, Gary E.

    2007-04-13

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) contracted with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to provide technical analytical support for system-wide fish passage information (BPA Project No. 2006-010-00). The goal of this project was to produce rigorous technical analysis products using independent analysts and anonymous peer reviewers. In the past, regional parties have interacted with a single entity, the Fish Passage Center to access the data, analyses, and coordination related to fish passage. This project provided an independent technical source for non-routine fish passage analyses while allowing routine support functions to be performed by other well-qualified entities.

  14. Inverse Association of Serum Docosahexaenoic Acid With Newly Diagnosed Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bo; Ding, Fang; Wang, Feng-Lei; Yu, Wei; Li, Duo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Observational studies on circulating fatty acid (FA) and primary prevention of hypertension have yielded inconsistent results, and the association among the Chinese population is not fully clear. The aim of the study was to discern important FAs that can discriminate hypertensive patients from normotensive persons, and investigate associations between the important FAs and risk of hypertension. We conducted a case-control study nested within a community-based cohort of 2447 Chinese participants aged 35 to 79 years who completed a baseline assessment between October 2012 and April 2013. In all, 480 patients with newly diagnosed hypertension were identified at baseline and 480 normotensive individuals were randomly selected as matched normotensive controls. Controls were individually matched to cases by age (±2 y), sex, and recruitment center, with a 1:1 case-to-control ratio. Serum FA profile was compared between cases and controls by orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analyses. Odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for newly diagnosed hypertension was estimated by a conditional logistical analysis. After adjustment for body mass index, education, profession, family history of hypertension, salt intake, heart rate, blood lipids, and fasting glucose levels, serum FA profile in hypertensive patients was typically characterized by higher 16:0 and 16:1n-7, and lower 18:2n-6 and 22:6n-3, compared with normotensive controls. Docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) and palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7) were identified as the important FA contributing most to the intergroup separations. When comparing the highest and lowest quartile of FA composition, newly diagnosed hypertension was negatively associated with 22:6n-3 (OR 0.65; 95% CI, 0.45–0.93; P for trend = 0.02), but positively associated with 16:1n-7 (OR 2.14; 95% CI, 1.46–3.12; P for trend < 0.001). The associations remained pronounced after multiple adjustments and in further stratified

  15. On the detection of newly created CN radicals and comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donn, B.; Cody, R. J.

    1977-01-01

    Laboratory investigations of CN radical formation by photodissociation of parent molecules have suggested the possibility of observing emission lines in cometary spectra from newly formed CN radicals. These laboratory studies have shown that high initial internal excitation of CN is the rule with excitation of rotational levels N up to 70. In the collisionless environment of the cometary atmosphere this initial excitation would yield a corresponding distribution for the lowest vibrational level of the ground X(2) Sigma (+) state. Our calculations show that it is feasible with present observational techniques to detect photochemically excited lines with N approx. equal to 30 in the 0-0 band of the violet system.

  16. Newly licensed registered nurse job turnover and turnover intent.

    PubMed

    Unruh, Lynn Y; Zhang, Ning Jackie

    2014-01-01

    Through survey data, this study examines job leaving behaviors of newly licensed registered nurses and identifies educational and managerial issues that need to be addressed to retain them. Within 1.5-2.5 years of graduating, one third of all respondents had left their first job, most for work-related reasons. Predictors of job leaving or intentions to leave included not having had a good orientation, information issues, having difficulties doing a good job, not being rewarded fairly, and low job satisfaction.

  17. Field Independence: Reviewing the Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Carol; Richardson, John T. E.; Waring, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Background: The construct of ?eld independence (FI) remains one of the most widely cited notions in research on cognitive style and on learning and instruction more generally. However, a great deal of confusion continues to exist around the de?nition of FI, its measurement, and the interpretation of research results, all of which have served to…

  18. Content Independence in Multimedia Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Vries, Arjen P.

    2001-01-01

    Investigates the role of data management in multimedia digital libraries, and its implications for the design of database management systems. Introduces the notions of content abstraction and content independence. Proposes a blueprint of a new class of database technology, which supports the basic functionality for the management of both content…

  19. Independent Study Course Development Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Clayton R.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses actual costs for developing independent study print courses for use in learning centers or for distance delivery, and presents a resource allocation guideline based on figures from Grant MacEwan Community College (Alberta). Topics discussed include the course writer/developer, clerical support, copyright clearance, instructional design,…

  20. Boston: Cradle of American Independence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community College Journal, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The 2005 American Association of Community Colleges Annual Convention will be held April 6-9 in Boston. While thoroughly modern, the iconic city's identity is firmly rooted in the past. As the cradle of American independence, Boston's long history is an integral part of the American fabric. Adams, Revere, Hancock are more than historical figures;…

  1. Scales of Independent Behavior (SIB).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Paulette J.

    1990-01-01

    Designed for use with individuals ages 3 months to 44 years, the Scales of Independent Behavior (SIB) measure adaptive behavior and problem behaviors in such areas as motor skills, social interaction, language, personal self-care, punctuality, destructiveness, and inattention. This paper describes the SIB's administration, scoring,…

  2. 10 Questions about Independent Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truby, Dana

    2012-01-01

    Teachers know that establishing a robust independent reading program takes more than giving kids a little quiet time after lunch. But how do they set up a program that will maximize their students' gains? Teachers have to know their students' reading levels inside and out, help them find just-right books, and continue to guide them during…

  3. Will Independent Junior Colleges Survive?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blai, Boris, Jr.

    This essay reviews the current status of private independent junior colleges in the United States. Several studies and innovative programs are cited. Because private junior colleges face shrinking enrollments and diminished funding for instruction, services, and activities, they must now stress cost-effectiveness and practical financial management…

  4. Haptic Tracking Permits Bimanual Independence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbaum, David A.; Dawson, Amanda A.; Challis, John H.

    2006-01-01

    This study shows that in a novel task--bimanual haptic tracking--neurologically normal human adults can move their 2 hands independently for extended periods of time with little or no training. Participants lightly touched buttons whose positions were moved either quasi-randomly in the horizontal plane by 1 or 2 human drivers (Experiment 1), in…

  5. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Newly Diagnosed at Autopsy in New York City, 2008-2012.

    PubMed

    Ramaswamy, Chitra; Ellman, Tanya M; Myers, Julie; Madsen, Ann; Sepkowitz, Kent; Shepard, Colin

    2015-12-01

    Background.  Studying the most extreme example of late diagnosis, new HIV diagnoses after death, may be instructive to HIV testing efforts. Using the results of routine HIV testing of autopsies performed by the Office of Chief Medical Examiner (OCME), we identified new HIV diagnoses after death in New York City (NYC) from 2008 to 2012. Methods.  Population-based registries for HIV and deaths were linked to identify decedents not known to be HIV-infected before death. Multivariable logistic regression models were constructed to determine correlates of a new HIV diagnosis after death among all persons newly diagnosed with HIV and among all HIV-infected decedents receiving an OCME autopsy. Results.  Of 264 893 deaths, 24 426 (9.2%) were autopsied by the NYC OCME. Of these, 1623 (6.6%) were infected with HIV, including 142 (8.8%) with a new HIV diagnosis at autopsy. This represents 0.8% (142 of 18 542) of all new HIV diagnoses during the 5-year period. Decedents newly diagnosed with HIV at OCME autopsy were predominantly male (73.9%), aged 13-64 years (85.9%), non-white (85.2%), unmarried (81.7%), less than college educated (83.8%), and residents of an impoverished neighborhood (62.0%). Of all HIV-infected OCME decedents aged ≥65 years (n = 71), 22.0% were diagnosed at autopsy. The strongest independent correlate of new HIV diagnosis at autopsy in both multivariable models was age ≥65 years. Conclusions.  Human immunodeficiency virus diagnoses first made after death are rare, but, when observed, these diagnoses are more commonly found among persons ≥65 years, suggesting that despite highly visible efforts to promote HIV testing community-wide, timely diagnosis among older adults living in impoverished, high-prevalence neighborhoods may require additional strategies.

  6. Comparative microRNA profiling in relation to urinary albumin excretion in newly diagnosed hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Parthenakis, F I; Marketou, M E; Kontaraki, J E; Maragoudakis, F; Maragkoudakis, S; Nakou, H; Roufas, K; Patrianakos, A; Chlouverakis, G; Malliaraki, N; Vardas, P E

    2016-11-01

    Microalbuminuria is an established early marker of endothelial dysfunction and damage. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are emerging as essential modulators of cardiovascular physiology and disease. In the present study, we sought an association between the differential expression of related miRNAs in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of untreated patients with newly diagnosed essential hypertension and the levels of urinary albumin excretion. We assessed the expression of the miRNAs miRNA-1, miRNA-133a, miRNA-26b, miRNA-208b, miRNA-499 and miRNA-21 in consecutive subjects with untreated newly diagnosed essential hypertension (aged 62.5±9.7 years) and with no indications of other organic heart disease. MiRNA expression levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were quantified by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The prevalence of microalbuminuria was 9.8%. miRNA-208b and miRNA-133a were independently correlated with 24-h urinary albumin excretion. More specifically, a strong association was found between the gene expression levels of miRNA-208b in our patients' peripheral blood cells and urinary albumin (r=0.72, P<0.001). A similar association was found for miRNA-133a (r=0.372, P<0.001). In conclusion, miRNA-208b and miRNA-133a show distinct profiling in peripheral blood cells isolated from untreated patients with recently diagnosed essential hypertension. Their gene expression levels reveal a strong correlation with urinary albumin excretion levels. Our findings provide new perspectives on the development of a new generation of biomarkers for the better monitoring of end-organ damage in hypertension.

  7. Technical Equivalency Documentation for a Newly Aquired Alpha Spectroscopy System

    SciTech Connect

    Hickman, D P; Fisher, S K; Hann, P R; Hume, R

    2007-04-25

    The response of a recently acquired Canberra{trademark} Alpha Analyst 'Blue' system (Chamber Number's 173-208) used by the Hazards Control, Radiation Safety Section, WBC/Spectroscopy Team has been studied with respect to an existing Canberra system. The existing Canberra system consists of thirty Alpha Analyst dual chambers Model XXXX comprising a total of sixty detectors (Chambers Number's 101-124 and 137-172). The existing chambers were previously compared to an older system consisting of thirty-six Model 7401 alpha spectrometry chambers (Chamber Number's 1-36) Chambers 101-124 and 137-172 are DOELAP accredited. The older system was previously DOELAP accredited for the routine Alpha Spectroscopy program used in LLNL's in vitro bioassay program. The newly acquired Alpha Analyst system operates on a network with software that controls and performs analysis of the current Alpha Analyst system (Chamber Number's 101-124 and 137-172). This exact same software is used for the current system and the newly acquired system and is DOELAP accredited. This document compares results from the existing Alpha System with the newer Alpha Analyst system.

  8. Acute Stress in Parents of Children Newly Diagnosed With Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Patiño-Fernández, Anna Maria; Pai, Ahna L.H.; Alderfer, Melissa; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Reilly, Anne; Kazak, Anne E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) and subclinical symptoms of acute stress (SAS) may be a useful framework for understanding the psychological reactions of mothers and fathers of children newly diagnosed with a pediatric malignancy. Patients and Methods Mothers (N = 129) and fathers (N = 72) of 138 children newly diagnosed with cancer completed questionnaires assessing acute distress, anxiety, and family functioning. Demographic data were also gathered. Inclusion criteria were: a confirmed diagnosis of a pediatric malignancy in a child under the age of 18 years without prior chronic or life threatening illness and fluency in English or Spanish. Results Descriptive statistics and multiple linear regressions were used to examine predictors of SAS. Fifty-one percent (N = 66) of mothers and 40% (N = 29) of fathers met DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for ASD. The majority of the sample reported experiencing at least one SAS. General anxiety, but not family functioning, was a strong predictor of SAS in both mothers and fathers even after controlling for demographic characteristics. Conclusions Immediately following their child’s diagnosis of cancer, most mothers and fathers experience SAS, with a subsample meeting criteria for ASD. More anxious parents are at heightened risk of more intense reactions. The findings support the need for evidence-based psychosocial support at diagnosis and throughout treatment for families who are at risk for acute distress reactions. PMID:17514742

  9. Technical Equivalency Documentation for a Newly Acquired Alpha Spectroscopy System

    SciTech Connect

    Hickman, D P; Fisher, S K; Zeman, R A; Hann, P R

    2005-09-28

    The response of a newly acquired Canberra{trademark} Alpha Analyst (Chamber No.'s 137-172) used by the Hazards Control, Radiation Safety Section WBC/Spectroscopy Team has been studied with respect to an existing Canberra system. The existing Canberra system consists of thirty-six Model 7401 alpha spectrometry chambers (Chamber No.'s 1-36) and has previously been DOELAP qualified for the routine Alpha Spectroscopy program used in LLNL's in vitro bioassay program. The newly acquired Alpha Analyst system operates on a network with software that controls and performs analysis of a one-year-old twenty-four chamber Alpha Analyst system (Chamber No.'s 101-124) that has also been previously evaluated and recently DOELAP accredited. The Alpha Analyst system is an automated system that is controlled by the same software and computer system as that used for the existing Canberra alpha analysis systems. This document compares results from the existing Alpha System with the newer Alpha Analyst system.

  10. HOW CAN NEWLY BORN RAPIDLY ROTATING NEUTRON STARS BECOME MAGNETARS?

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Quan; Yu, Yun-Wei

    2014-05-10

    In a newly born (high-temperature and Keplerian rotating) neutron star, r-mode instability can lead to stellar differential rotation, which winds the seed poloidal magnetic field (∼10{sup 11} G) to generate an ultra-high (∼10{sup 17} G) toroidal field component. Subsequently, by succumbing to the Tayler instability, the toroidal field could be partially transformed into a new poloidal field. Through such dynamo processes, the newly born neutron star with sufficiently rapid rotation could become a magnetar on a timescale of ∼10{sup 2} {sup –} {sup 3} s, with a surface dipolar magnetic field of ∼10{sup 15} G. Accompanying the field amplification, the star could spin down to a period of ∼5 ms through gravitational wave radiation due to the r-mode instability and, in particular, the non-axisymmetric stellar deformation caused by the toroidal field. This scenario provides a possible explanation for why the remnant neutron stars formed in gamma-ray bursts and superluminous supernovae could be millisecond magnetars.

  11. [Synthetic Drugs - An Overview of Important and Newly Emerging Substances].

    PubMed

    Betzler, F; Heinz, A; Köhler, S

    2016-11-01

    Background: Synthetic drug use and abuse are on the rise. Governmental institutions report a shift in consumption from natural drugs to synthetic drugs, and show an increase in confiscation, particularly of methamphetamine and newly identified psychoactive substances. In addition, the media report an alarming increase in the rate of consumption and casualties resulting from the use of drugs such as "crystal meth" and warn against a flood of this and other designer drugs from eastern European countries. Objectives: The present article gives an overview of current popular and widely used synthetic drugs, both classical substances (amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDMA) and new psychoactive substances ("designer drugs", "legal highs"). It addresses their pharmacology, effects, side effects, and risks. It furthermore explores newly emerging problems for the health system and clinical practice regarding the treatment of intoxication as well as withdrawal. Methods: The current scientific literature concerning synthetic drugs is summarized and official statistics and reports provided by the government are reviewed. Results: Different derivatives of amphetamine vary in their risk of harm and addictive potential. Methamphetamine, one of the most dangerous derivatives, is increasingly being consumed in certain regions of Germany. New psychoactive substances represent a heterogeneous group of substances. Since the substances are often unknown to the user, they are unpredictable in their effects and side effects.

  12. Image dependency in the recognition of newly learnt faces.

    PubMed

    Longmore, Christopher A; Santos, Isabel M; Silva, Carlos F; Hall, Abi; Faloyin, Dipo; Little, Emily

    2017-05-01

    Research investigating the effect of lighting and viewpoint changes on unfamiliar and newly learnt faces has revealed that such recognition is highly image dependent and that changes in either of these leads to poor recognition accuracy. Three experiments are reported to extend these findings by examining the effect of apparent age on the recognition of newly learnt faces. Experiment 1 investigated the ability to generalize to novel ages of a face after learning a single image. It was found that recognition was best for the learnt image with performance falling the greater the dissimilarity between the study and test images. Experiments 2 and 3 examined whether learning two images aids subsequent recognition of a novel image. The results indicated that interpolation between two studied images (Experiment 2) provided some additional benefit over learning a single view, but that this did not extend to extrapolation (Experiment 3). The results from all studies suggest that recognition was driven primarily by pictorial codes and that the recognition of faces learnt from a limited number of sources operates on stored images of faces as opposed to more abstract, structural, representations.

  13. Los Alamos Plutonium Facility newly generated TRU waste certification

    SciTech Connect

    Gruetzmacher, K.; Montoya, A.; Sinkule, B.; Maez, M.

    1997-02-01

    This paper presents an overview of the activities being planned and implemented to certify newly generated contact handled transuranic (TRU) waste produced by Los Alamos National Laboratory`s (LANL`s) Plutonium Facility. Certifying waste at the point of generation is the most important cost and labor saving step in the WIPP certification process. The pedigree of a waste item is best known by the originator of the waste and frees a site from expensive characterization activities such as those associated with legacy waste. Through a cooperative agreement with LANLs Waste Management Facility and under the umbrella of LANLs WIPP-related certification and quality assurance documents, the Plutonium Facility will be certifying its own newly generated waste. Some of the challenges faced by the Plutonium Facility in preparing to certify TRU waste include the modification and addition of procedures to meet WIPP requirements, standardizing packaging for TRU waste, collecting processing documentation from operations which produce TRU waste, and developing ways to modify waste streams which are not certifiable in their present form.

  14. Determination of Atterberg limits using newly devised mud press machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayabali, Kamil; Akturk, Ozgur; Fener, Mustafa; Ozkeser, Ali; Ustun, Ayla Bulut; Dikmen, Orhan; Harputlugil, Furkan; Asadi, Ramin

    2016-04-01

    Consistency limits are one of the most prominent parameters to be determined in geotechnical investigations. While these limits are akin to one another, different tools determine each one. Each method of determining consistency limits has its own uncertainties, the operator dependency being the top source of uncertainty. Liquid limit (LL) and plastic limit (PL) tests have a number of uncertainties affecting the test results. The very speculative nature of the bead-rolling method for the plastic limit has long been known. Besides this, its results can be barely accepted as quantitative. In the past, a number of attempts have been made to eliminate these setbacks for Atterberg limits. The scope of this investigation is to evaluate the potential of newly developed "mud press method (MPM)" to predict the two consistency limits. The material employed for this investigation covers 275 soils, whose liquid limits range from 28 to 166. The log(a) and 1/b parameters obtained from the MPM method were correlated to results of the conventional methods. The PL and LL for each soil were predicted using empirical forms and were compared with the laboratory values. Remarkably good matches were obtained between the conventionally determined test results and the predicted values for the liquid and plastic limits. The newly developed tool is superior in several aspects to the available conventional methods and tools.

  15. Chemotherapy in newly diagnosed primary central nervous system lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Hashemi-Sadraei, Nooshin; Peereboom, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) accounts for only 3% of brain tumors. It can involve the brain parenchyma, leptomeninges, eyes and the spinal cord. Unlike systemic lymphoma, durable remissions remain uncommon. Although phase III trials in this rare disease are difficult to perform, many phase II trials have attempted to define standards of care. Treatment modalities for patients with newly diagnosed PCNSL include radiation and/or chemotherapy. While the role of radiation therapy for initial management of PCNSL is controversial, clinical trials will attempt to improve the therapeutic index of this modality. Routes of chemotherapy administration include intravenous, intraocular, intraventricular or intra-arterial. Multiple trials have outlined different methotrexate-based chemotherapy regimens and have used local techniques to improve drug delivery. A major challenge in the management of patients with PCNSL remains the delivery of aggressive treatment with preservation of neurocognitive function. Because PCNSL is rare, it is important to perform multicenter clinical trials and to incorporate detailed measurements of long-term toxicities. In this review we focus on different chemotherapeutic approaches for immunocompetent patients with newly diagnosed PCNSL and discuss the role of local drug delivery in addition to systemic therapy. We also address the neurocognitive toxicity of treatment. PMID:21789140

  16. Attitudes towards war, killing, and punishment of children among young people in Estonia, Finland, Romania, the Russian Federation, and the USA.

    PubMed Central

    McAlister, A.; Sandström, P.; Puska, P.; Veijo, A.; Chereches, R.; Heidmets, L. T.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the cultural differences in moral disengagement, which lends support to attitudes used to justify violence. METHODS: We carried out classroom surveys of a total of 3122 students in the USA (Houston, TX, and Washington, DC) and in four European countries--Estonia (Tartu), Finland (Helsinki), Romania (Satu Mare) and the Russian Federation (St Petersburg). Data were also taken from a random sample telephone survey of 341 young adults (aged 18-35 years) in Texas, USA. Ten distinct groups were studied. Seven questions were common to all the surveys, using identical statements about the participants' agreement with attitudes relating to war, diplomacy, killing, and the punishment of children. FINDINGS: The US students were more likely than those in Europe to agree with the following statements: "War is necessary" (20% vs 9%), "A person has the right to kill to defend property" (54% vs 17%), and "Physical punishment is necessary for children" (27% vs 10%). Justification of war and killing was less common among females than males in all groups; other differences within the US groups and the European groups were smaller than the differences between the US and European groups. CONCLUSION: The results confirm the gap between the US and European groups in moral disengagement attitudes and tendencies that could lead to deadly violence. PMID:11417032

  17. CDKL5 Gene-Related Epileptic Encephalopathy in Estonia: Four Cases, One Novel Mutation Causing Severe Phenotype in a Boy, and Overview of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Lilles, Stella; Talvik, Inga; Noormets, Klari; Vaher, Ulvi; Õunap, Katrin; Reimand, Tiia; Sander, Valentin; Ilves, Pilvi; Talvik, Tiina

    2016-12-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) gene mutations have mainly been found in females with early infantile epileptic encephalopathy (EIEE), severe intellectual disability, and Rett-like features. To date, only 22 boys have been reported, presenting with far more severe phenotypic features. We report the first cases of CDKL5 gene-related EIEE in Estonia diagnosed using panels of epilepsy-associated genes and describe the phenotype-genotype correlations in three male and one female patient. One of the mutations, identified in a male patient, was a novel de novo hemizygous frameshift mutation (NM_003159.2:c.2225_2228del (p.Glu742Afs*41)) in exon 15 of CDKL5. All boys have a more severe phenotype than the female patient. In boys with early onset of seizures and poor development with absent or poor eye contact, CDKL5 gene-related EIEE can be suspected and epilepsy-associated genes should be analyzed for early etiological diagnosis. Early genetic diagnosis would be the cornerstone in personalized treatment in the future.

  18. Content of maternal open-ended questions and statements in reminiscing with their 4-year-olds: links with independence and interdependence orientation in European contexts.

    PubMed

    Tõugu, Pirko; Tulviste, Tiia; Schröder, Lisa; Keller, Heidi; De Geer, Boel

    2012-07-01

    Mother's open-ended questions and elaborative statements during reminiscing were analysed for their content (child agency, co-agency, non-social, and social context) in three cultural contexts. Participants were 115 mothers and their 4-year-old children: 35 dyads from Berlin, Germany, 42 from Stockholm, Sweden, and 38 from Tallinn, Estonia. Across samples the most prominent content was talk about non-social context followed by co-agency and child agency. Tallinn mothers asked the children to talk about themselves, and Berlin mothers asked the children to talk about themselves together with other people, more frequently than they talked about these contents themselves. The content was related to the cultural orientations of mothers assessed through questionnaires: the Berlin mothers whose independence/ interdependence ratio was higher talked less about other people and asked the children fewer questions about other people; the Stockholm mothers with a higher independence/interdependence ratio talked more about child agency. In Tallinn both correlations existed on a trend level. The results are discussed in the light of common conversational practices and mothers' orientation to independence and interdependence in these cultural contexts.

  19. Incidence of Symptomatic Vertebral Fractures Among Newly Diagnosed Autoimmune Diseases Initiating Glucocorticoid Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Migita, Kiyoshi; Iwanaga, Nozomi; Imadachi, Shunsuke; Jiuchi, Yuka; Izumi, Yasumori; Tsuji, Yoshika; Kawahara, Chieko; Kawakami, Atsushi; Furukawa, Hiroshi; Tohma, Shigeto

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Few data are available regarding vertebral fracture risk in patients treated with corticosteroids including patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD). The aim of the present study was to identify risk factors for symptomatic vertebral fracture analyzed in patients with newly diagnosed autoimmune diseases. This was an observational cohort study conducted in the National Hospital Organization-EBM study group from 2006 to 2008. The study subjects were autoimmune disease patients who were newly treated with glucocorticoids (GCs). The primary endpoint was the first occurrence of vertebral fracture diagnosed by x-rays. Cox proportional-hazards regression was used to determine independent risk factors for vertebral fracture with covariates including sex, age, comorbidity, laboratory data, use of immunosuppressants, and dose of GCs. Survival was analyzed according to the Kaplan–Meier method and assessed by the log-rank test. Among 604 patients of mean age 59.5 years and mean GC dose 50.4 mg/d (first 1 months), 19 patient (3.1%) had at least 1 symptomatic vertebral fracture during 1.9 years of follow-up period. Cox regression model demonstrated that the relative risk for symptomatic vertebral fracture was independently higher in patient with ILD (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.86, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.10–7.42, P = 0.031) and in every 10-year increment of the age of disease onset (HR = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.09–2.26, P = 0.015). Kaplan–Meier analyses demonstrated that the incidence of vertebral fractures in patients with ILD was significantly higher in comparison with those without ILD. Our results indicate a higher risk of vertebral facture in patients with ILD and elderly patients during the initial GC treatment against autoimmune diseases. There is a need for further, even longer-term, prospective studies subjected patients with autoimmune disease, including ILD, under GC treatment. PMID:26166127

  20. Steps to Independent Living Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobb, Nancy

    This set of six activity books and a teacher's guide is designed to help students from eighth grade to adulthood with special needs to learn independent living skills. The activity books have a reading level of 2.5 and address: (1) "How to Get Well When You're Sick or Hurt," including how to take a temperature, see a doctor, and use medicines…

  1. Prospects for an Independent Kurdistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    are mostly Sunni.25 In addition, about 5 percent of the Kurds are Yazidis, which is a “mixture of Islamic, Christian , Jewish, and pagan beliefs...significant political progress has been made by the Kurds of Iraq. The probability of ongoing ethnic and religious strife within Iraq creates an...seek independence. Figure 2 shows the ethno- religious 38 “Guide to Iraqi political parties,” BBC News, http://news.bbc.co.uk

  2. Do rats learn conditional independence?

    PubMed Central

    Timberlake, William

    2017-01-01

    If acquired associations are to accurately represent real relevance relations, there is motivation for the hypothesis that learning will, in some circumstances, be more appropriately modelled, not as direct dependence, but as conditional independence. In a serial compound conditioning experiment, two groups of rats were presented with a conditioned stimulus (CS1) that imperfectly (50%) predicted food, and was itself imperfectly predicted by a CS2. Groups differed in the proportion of CS2 presentations that were ultimately followed by food (25% versus 75%). Thus, the information presented regarding the relevance of CS2 to food was ambiguous between direct dependence and conditional independence (given CS1). If rats learnt that food was conditionally independent of CS2, given CS1, subjects of both groups should thereafter respond similarly to CS2 alone. Contrary to the conditionality hypothesis, subjects attended to the direct food predictability of CS2, suggesting that rats treat even distal stimuli in a CS sequence as immediately relevant to food, not conditional on an intermediate stimulus. These results urge caution in representing indirect associations as conditional associations, accentuate the theoretical weight of the Markov condition in graphical models, and challenge theories to articulate the conditions under which animals are expected to learn conditional associations, if ever. PMID:28386451

  3. Infarct volume after glioblastoma surgery as an independent prognostic factor

    PubMed Central

    Bette, Stefanie; Wiestler, Benedikt; Kaesmacher, Johannes; Huber, Thomas; Gerhardt, Julia; Barz, Melanie; Delbridge, Claire; Ryang, Yu-Mi; Ringel, Florian; Zimmer, Claus; Meyer, Bernhard; Boeckh-Behrens, Tobias; Kirschke, Jan S.; Gempt, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Postoperative ischemia is associated with reduced functional independence measured by karnofsky performance score (KPS), which correlates well with overall survival. Other studies suggest that postoperative hypoxia might initiate infiltrative tumor growth. Therefore, aim of this study was to analyze the impact of infarct volume on overall survival and progression free survival (PFS) of glioblastoma patients. 251 patients with surgery for a newly diagnosed glioblastoma (WHO IV) were retrospectively assessed. Pre- and postoperative KPS, date of death/last follow-up and histopathological markers were recorded. Pre- and postoperative tumor volume and the volume of postoperative infarction were manually segmented. A significant correlation of infarct volume with postoperative KPS decrease (P = 0.001) was observed. Infarct volume showed a significant impact on overall survival (P = 0.014), but not on PFS (P = 0.112) in univariate analysis. This effect increased in the subgroup of patients with near-total tumor resection (> 90%) (overall survival: P = 0.006, PFS: P = 0.066). Infarct volume remained as an independent prognostic factor for overall survival in multivariate analysis (HR 1.013 [1.000–1.026], P = 0.042) including other prognostic factors (age, extent of resection, postoperative KPS). Postoperative infarct volume significantly correlates as an independent factor with overall survival after glioblastoma surgery. Besides the influence of perioperative infarction on postoperative KPS, postoperative hypoxia might also have an effect on tumor biology initiating infiltrative growth and therefore impaired survival. PMID:27566556

  4. Stability of nucleosome placement in newly repaired regions of DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Nissen, K.A.; Lan, S.Y.; Smerdon, M.J.

    1986-07-05

    Rearrangements of chromatin structure during excision repair of UV-damaged DNA appear to involve unfolding of nucleosomal DNA while repair is taking place, followed by refolding of this DNA into a native nucleosome structure. Recently, we found that repair patches are not distributed uniformly along the DNA in nucleosome core particles immediately following their refolding into nucleosomes. Therefore, the distribution of repair patches in nucleosome core DNA was used to monitor the stability of nucleosome placement in these regions. Our results indicate that in nondividing human cells undergoing excision repair there is a slow change in the positioning of nucleosomes in newly repaired regions of chromatin, resulting in the eventual randomization of repair patches in nucleosome core DNA. Furthermore, the nonrandom placement of nucleosomes observed just after the refolding event is not re-established during DNA replication. Possible mechanisms for this change in nucleosome placement along the DNA are discussed.

  5. Ubiquitination of newly synthesized proteins at the ribosome.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Canadeo, Larissa A; Huibregtse, Jon M

    2015-07-01

    Newly synthesized proteins can be misfolded or damaged because of errors during synthesis or environmental insults (e.g., heat shock), placing a significant burden on protein quality control systems. In addition, numerous human diseases are associated with a deficiency in eliminating aberrant proteins or accumulation of aggregated proteins. Understanding the mechanisms of protein quality control and disposal pathways for misfolded proteins is therefore crucial for therapeutic intervention in these diseases. Quality control processes function at many points in the life cycle of proteins, and a subset act at the actual site of protein synthesis, the ribosome. Here we summarize recent advances in the role of the ubiquitin proteasome system in protein quality control during the process of translation.

  6. Ubiquitination of Newly Synthesized Proteins at the Ribosome

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Feng; Canadeo, Larissa A.; Huibregtse, Jon M.

    2015-01-01

    Newly synthesized proteins can be misfolded or damaged because of errors during synthesis or environmental insults (e.g., heat shock), placing a significant burden on protein quality control systems. In addition, numerous human diseases are associated with a deficiency in eliminating aberrant proteins or accumulation of aggregated proteins. Understanding the mechanisms of protein quality control and disposal pathways for misfolded proteins is therefore crucial for therapeutic intervention in these diseases. Quality control processes function at many points in the life cycle of proteins, and a subset act at the actual site of protein synthesis, the ribosome. Here we summarize recent advances in the role of the ubiquitin proteasome system in protein quality control during the process of translation. PMID:25701549

  7. Invasive procedures on newly deceased examined with an ethical eye.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    Death is a hot topic. Books on death are making the best-seller lists and their authors are on speaker circuits, TV talk shows, and at book-signing parties. No longer a taboo topic in polite conversation, our society has become voyeuristic and hell-bent on unmasking death. At the Brooklyn Academy, for example, a dance/theater troupe is performing choreographer Bill T. Jones's "Still/Here," which incorporates videotaped segments of real people who are terminally ill and talk about it. Given the nation's preoccupation with death and dying, it should come as no surprise that the issue of how the newly deceased are treated within health care institutions has become a current topic in the literature, as the following articles show.

  8. Radiation grafted adsorbents for newly emerging environmental applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoud Nasef, Mohamed; Ting, T. M.; Abbasi, Ali; Layeghi-moghaddam, Alireza; Sara Alinezhad, S.; Hashim, Kamaruddin

    2016-01-01

    Radiation induced grafting (RIG) is acquired to prepare a number of adsorbents for newly emerging environmental applications using a single route involving RIG of glycidymethacrylate (GMA) onto polyethylene-polypropylene (PE-PP) non-woven fabric. The grafted fabric was subjected to one of three functionalization reactions to impart desired ionic characters. This included treatment with (1) N-dimethyl-D-glucamine, (2) triethylamine and (3) triethylamine and alkalisation with KOH. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used to study the changes in chemical and physical structures of the obtained fibrous adsorbents. The potential applications of the three adsorbents for removal of boron from solutions, capturing CO2 from CO2/N2 mixtures and catalysing transesterification of triacetin/methanol to methyl acetate (biodiesel) were explored. The obtained fibrous adsorbents provide potential alternatives to granular resins for the investigated applications and require further development.

  9. Evaluation of a newly developed online color training system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li; Yang, Xu; Tan, Jianguo; Zhou, Jianfeng; Du, Yang; Li, Deli

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated a newly developed online color training system. The system incorporated basic color training, shade guide matching, and clinical shade selection simulation exercises. Thirty-seven dental students went through baseline Vita-Vita testing with VITA Classical shade guides and then practiced color training exercises with the system for 4 days; the same test was performed after the training program. The average correct match increased from 6.7 (41.88%) to 11.38 (71.13%) using the shade guides (P < .001) and from 9.67 (60.42%) to 13.06 (81.63%) using the color training system (P < .001). The effectiveness of the color training system in improving color-matching quality was confirmed.

  10. Scent-marking in lone wolves and newly formed pairs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rothman, R.J.; Mech, L.D.

    1979-01-01

    Scent-marking was studied in wolves (Canis lupus) along 133 km of tracks in northern Minnesota during winters of 1975 to 1976 and 1976 to 1977 and in two captive packs and four captive pairs for various periods. Lone wolves, which possess neither mates nor territories, rarely marked by raised-leg urination and defaecated and urinated less along roads and trails, where territorial pairs and packs generally marked. Newly formed pairs marked the most, eventually decreasing their rates to those of established packs. Generally, wolves that scent-marked also bred, whereas non-marking wolves usually did not breed. Scent-marking apparently is important to the success of courtship in new pairs and to reproductive synchrony in established pairs, as well as serving a territorial function.

  11. Millisecond newly born pulsars as efficient accelerators of electrons.

    PubMed

    Osmanov, Zaza; Mahajan, Swadesh; Machabeli, George; Chkheidze, Nino

    2015-09-25

    The newly born millisecond pulsars are investigated as possible energy sources for creating ultra-high energy electrons. The transfer of energy from the star rotation to high energy electrons takes place through the Landau damping of centrifugally driven (via a two stream instability) electrostatic Langmuir waves. Generated in the bulk magnetosphere plasma, such waves grow to high amplitudes, and then damp, very effectively, on relativistic electrons driving them to even higher energies. We show that the rate of transfer of energy is so efficient that no energy losses might affect the mechanism of particle acceleration; the electrons might achieve energies of the order of 10(18) eV for parameters characteristic of a young star.

  12. Millisecond newly born pulsars as efficient accelerators of electrons

    PubMed Central

    Osmanov, Zaza; Mahajan, Swadesh; Machabeli, George; Chkheidze, Nino

    2015-01-01

    The newly born millisecond pulsars are investigated as possible energy sources for creating ultra-high energy electrons. The transfer of energy from the star rotation to high energy electrons takes place through the Landau damping of centrifugally driven (via a two stream instability) electrostatic Langmuir waves. Generated in the bulk magnetosphere plasma, such waves grow to high amplitudes, and then damp, very effectively, on relativistic electrons driving them to even higher energies. We show that the rate of transfer of energy is so efficient that no energy losses might affect the mechanism of particle acceleration; the electrons might achieve energies of the order of 1018 eV for parameters characteristic of a young star. PMID:26403155

  13. Evaluation of newly formulated Dow Corning 321 dry film lubricant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, M.

    1989-01-01

    An evaluation of the newly formulated Dow Corning 321 dry film lubricant was performed. The purpose of the evaluation was to compare lubricating characteristics of Dow Corning 321 (STW4-2955, SCN No. 3) to those of Molykote 321R (STW4-2955). Ten igniter bolts were installed and torqued on test plates using the old formulation thread lubricant (Molykote 321R), and 10 bolts were installed using the new formulation (Dow Corning 321). After bolt removal, no signs of galling were found on any of the bolts or test plates threaded holes. Average torque-load values for each formulation were very close. Test results showed there are no significant differences in lubrication abilities between Molykote 321R and Dow Corning 321. It is recommended that, once current supplies of Molykote 321R are depleted, Dow Corning 321 dry film lubricant be used in place of Molykote 321R as a thread lubricant on redesigned solid rocket motor assemblies.

  14. The Spanish health care system: lessons for newly industrialized countries.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, E; Gallo de Puelles, P; Jovell, A J

    1999-06-01

    This article summarizes the organization, financing, and delivery of health care services in Spain, and discusses the elements that made it possible to maintain high levels of health among the population, while spending comparatively fewer resources on the health care system than most industrialized countries. The case of Spain is of particular interest for newly industrialized countries, because of the fast evolution that it has undergone in recent years. Considered, by United Nations' economic standards, a developing country until 1964, Spain became in a few years the fastest growing economy in the world after Japan. By the early 1970s the infant mortality rate was already lower than in Britain or the United States.

  15. Serum irisin levels and thyroid function--newly discovered association.

    PubMed

    Ruchala, Marek; Zybek, Ariadna; Szczepanek-Parulska, Ewelina

    2014-10-01

    Irisin is a newly discovered adipo-myokin, which is reported to have a significant influence on the body metabolism and thermogenesis. Other influencing factors on metabolic state are thyroid hormones, which increase heat production and control the energy balance. Due to numerous similarities in action it seems imperative to explore these substances' potential mutual influence on the body. The aim of the study is to provide the first ever, according to our knowledge, evaluation of serum irisin concentrations in patients with thyroid dysfunction and its correlation with creatine kinase (CK) levels - a serum marker of muscle damage. The studied group consisted of 20 patients with newly diagnosed thyroid disorder - hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism. Venous blood samples were analyzed for irisin, thyrotropin (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3) and CK serum concentrations. Patients' body mass index (BMI), body weight and muscle mass were evaluated using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Median serum irisin levels were lower in hypothyroid (117.30ng/ml) than hyperthyroid (161.95ng/ml) patients with a borderline statistical significance (p=0.0726). The negative correlation between irisin and TSH levels was demonstrated (r=-0.4924, p=0.0230), as well as the positive correlation between irisin and FT4 levels (r=0.4833, p=0.0360). The CK level was negatively correlated with irisin, FT4 and FT3 concentrations (r=-0.7272, p=0.0140; r=-0.9636, p=<0.0001; r=-0.8838, p=0.0007, respectively). The study demonstrates that irisin concentrations may vary according to the thyrometabolic state, which potentially could be related to the degree of muscle damage.

  16. [The newly certified 105 Japanese medical technologists in clinical microbiology].

    PubMed

    Kumasaka, Kazunari

    2002-05-01

    Interest in quality assurance(QA) in clinical laboratories in Japan has increased over the past 30 years. We have however been lagging behind countries such as the USA, Canada and the UK in QA of clinical microbiology. The main problem of QA in Japan is human resources. There are only about 400 laboratory physicians certified by the Japanese Society of Laboratory Medicine(JSLM). Almost no academics in microbiology are interested in QA and they mostly lack clinical competence. There is a small number of faculty positions, and promotions are mostly based on research productivity while medical graduates are increasingly drawn to bench work for basic, short-term research. The Japanese Society for Clinical Microbiology (JSCM) was established in 1990 in order to promote the development of clinical microbiology and its relevant fields in Japan. And 2001 was a milestone in sustained efforts of the JSLM to initiate qualifying examinations of medical technologists(MT) in clinical microbiology. 105 MT in clinical microbiology were newly certified by the Joint Committee of JSCM, JSLM, Japanese Association of Medical Technologists (JAMT) and College of Clinical Pathology of Japan(CCPJ). The certified MTs have appropriate educational background and are well motivated. With good on-the-job training, they are expected to perform effectively various tasks, including laboratory management. Recent radical changes in the health care delivery system have also had serious implications on laboratory services and QA of microbiological tests. The primary goal of the clinical microbiology laboratory is to provide accurate diagnostic testing and high-quality service at a low cost for its customers. It is believed that the Joint Committee and the newly certified MTs will contribute to narrowing the gap between Japan and other countries in clinical microbiology.

  17. Vasomotor responses of newly developed coronary collateral vessels.

    PubMed

    Kinn, J W; Altman, J D; Chang, M W; Bache, R J

    1996-08-01

    Well-developed coronary collateral vessels contain an abundant muscular media and can undergo active vasomotion. However, early after coronary occlusion, coronary collateral vessels are thin walled with little smooth muscle, suggesting that vasomotor capability might be limited. Consequently, this study determined whether newly developed coronary collateral vessels have active vasomotor activity and whether endothelial function in these newly developed vessels is impaired. Retrograde blood flow was measured as an index of coronary collateral blood flow approximately 2 wk after embolic occlusion of the anterior descending coronary artery of dogs. Agonists were administered into the left main coronary artery to reach collaterals originating from the left coronary system. Baseline retrograde blood flow was 25.1 +/- 2.7 ml/min and increased to 36.7 +/- 3.7 ml/min after nitroglycerin (6 micrograms.kg-1.min-1, P < 0.05). Cyclooxygenase blockade with indomethacin (5 mg/kg i.v.) decreased retrograde collateral blood flow to 16.8 +/- 2.3 ml/min (P < 0.05). Subsequent administration of acetylcholine increased retrograde flow to 29.4 +/- 3.7 ml/min (P < 0.05), indicating intact endothelium-mediated vasodilation. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase with NG-nitro-L-arginine further decreased coronary collateral retrograde flow to 12.0 +/- 2.8 ml/min (P < 0.05) and markedly blunted the response to acetylcholine. These findings demonstrate substantial vasomotor capability even early during coronary collateral development and indicate that both nitric oxide and cyclooxygenase-dependent endothelial mechanisms are intact.

  18. Mass-independent isotope effects.

    PubMed

    Buchachenko, Anatoly L

    2013-02-28

    Three fundamental properties of atomic nuclei-mass, spin (and related magnetic moment), and volume-are the source of isotope effects. The mostly deserved and popular, with almost hundred-year history, is the mass-dependent isotope effect. The first mass-independent isotope effect which chemically discriminates isotopes by their nuclear spins and nuclear magnetic moments rather than by their masses was detected in 1976. It was named as the magnetic isotope effect because it is controlled by magnetic interaction, i.e., electron-nuclear hyperfine coupling in the paramagnetic species, the reaction intermediates. The effect follows from the universal physical property of chemical reactions to conserve angular momentum (spin) of electrons and nuclei. It is now detected for oxygen, silicon, sulfur, germanium, tin, mercury, magnesium, calcium, zinc, and uranium in a great variety of chemical and biochemical reactions including those of medical and ecological importance. Another mass-independent isotope effect was detected in 1983 as a deviation of isotopic distribution in reaction products from that which would be expected from the mass-dependent isotope effect. On the physical basis, it is in fact a mass-dependent effect, but it surprisingly results in isotope fractionation which is incompatible with that predicted by traditional mass-dependent effects. It is supposed to be a function of dynamic parameters of reaction and energy relaxation in excited states of products. The third, nuclear volume mass-independent isotope effect is detected in the high-resolution atomic and molecular spectra and in the extraction processes, but there are no unambiguous indications of its importance as an isotope fractionation factor in chemical reactions.

  19. Independent Component Analysis of Textures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manduchi, Roberto; Portilla, Javier

    2000-01-01

    A common method for texture representation is to use the marginal probability densities over the outputs of a set of multi-orientation, multi-scale filters as a description of the texture. We propose a technique, based on Independent Components Analysis, for choosing the set of filters that yield the most informative marginals, meaning that the product over the marginals most closely approximates the joint probability density function of the filter outputs. The algorithm is implemented using a steerable filter space. Experiments involving both texture classification and synthesis show that compared to Principal Components Analysis, ICA provides superior performance for modeling of natural and synthetic textures.

  20. Endocan and Non-Dipping Circadian Pattern in Newly Diagnosed Essential Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Bilgin, Murat; Akyel, Ahmet; Felekoğlu, Mehmet Ali; Nallbani, Ali; Özdemir, Şeyda; Erden, Gönül; Öztürk, Alpaslan; Doğan, Mehmet; Yeter, Ekrem

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Non-dipper hypertension is frequently accompanied by endothelial dysfunction and activation. Previous studies suggested that endocan may be a novel endothelial dysfunction marker. This study aims to investigate the association between circadian blood pressure (BP) pattern and plasma endocan levels together with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) in patients with newly diagnosed untreated hypertension. Subjects and Methods Twenty-four hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was recorded in 35 dipper, 35 non-dipper hypertensives and 35 healthy controls. Endocan levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serum levels of hsCRP were also recorded. Results Despite similar daytime and 24-hour average BP values between dippers and non-dippers, statistically significant high nocturnal BP was accompanied by a non-dipping pattern (Systolic BP: 132±9 vs. 147±11 mmHg; Distolic BP: 80±7 vs. 91±9 mmHg, respectively, p<0.001 for both). Non-dipper patients demonstrated higher endocan levels compared to dippers and normotensives (367 (193-844) pg/mL, 254 (182-512) pg/mL and 237 (141-314) pg/ml, respectively, p<0.001). HsCRP levels were significantly higher in non-dippers than the other groups (p=0.013). In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, endocan (p=0.021) and hsCRP (p=0.044) were independently associated with a non-dipping pattern. Conclusion Elevated endocan levels were found in non-dipper groups. Endocan and hsCRP were found to be independently associated with a non-dipping pattern. We suggest that elevated levels of endocan in non-dipper hypertensive patients might be associated with a longer duration of exposure to high BP. These results point to the possible future role of endocan in selection of hypertensive patients at higher risk or target organ damage. PMID:27826342

  1. A Hard Look at Independent Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Whitelaw

    1976-01-01

    Sparked by James P. Beckford's article, "Administering the Independent Study Program" (Independent School Bulletin, February 1974, p.57), the author supplemented his comments by addressing two major aspects of independent study. The first is the notion that independent study is an educational vehicle or tool and the second is how it fits in with a…

  2. Purification and characterization of gamma poly glutamic acid from newly Bacillus licheniformis NRC20.

    PubMed

    Tork, Sanaa E; Aly, Magda M; Alakilli, Saleha Y; Al-Seeni, Madeha N

    2015-03-01

    γ-poly glutamic acid (γ-PGA) has received considerable attention for pharmaceutical and biomedical applications. γ-PGA from the newly isolate Bacillus licheniformis NRC20 was purified and characterized using diffusion distance agar plate, mass spectrometry and thin layer chromatography. All analysis indicated that γ-PGA is a homopolymer composed of glutamic acid. Its molecular weight was determined to be 1266 kDa. It was composed of L- and D-glutamic acid residues. An amplicon of 3050 represents the γ-PGA-coding genes was obtained, sequenced and submitted in genbank database. Its amino acid sequence showed high similarity with that obtained from B. licheniformis strains. The bacterium NRC 20 was independent of L-glutamic acid but the polymer production enhanced when cultivated in medium containing L-glutamic acid as the sole nitrogen source. Finally we can conclude that γ-PGA production from B. licheniformis NRC20 has many promised applications in medicine, industry and nanotechnology.

  3. Functional Evaluation and Characterization of a Newly Developed Silicone Oil-Free Prefillable Syringe System

    PubMed Central

    Yoshino, Keisuke; Nakamura, Koji; Yamashita, Arisa; Abe, Yoshihiko; Iwasaki, Kazuhiro; Kanazawa, Yukie; Funatsu, Kaori; Yoshimoto, Tsuyoshi; Suzuki, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    The functionality of a newly developed silicone oil-free (SOF) syringe system, of which the plunger stopper is coated by a novel coating technology (i-coating™), was assessed. By scanning electron microscopy observations and other analysis, it was confirmed that the plunger stopper surface was uniformly covered with the designed chemical composition. A microflow imaging analysis showed that the SOF system drastically reduced both silicone oil (SO) doplets and oil-induced aggregations in a model protein formulation, whereas a large number of subvisible particles and protein aggregations were formed when a SO system was used. Satisfactory container closure integrity (CCI) was confirmed by means of dye and microorganism penetration studies. Furthermore, no significant difference between the break loose and gliding forces was observed in the former, and stability studies revealed that the SOF system could perfectly show the aging independence in break loose force observed in the SO system. The results suggest that the introduced novel SOF system has a great potential and represents an alternative that can achieve very low subvisible particles, secure CCI, and the absence of a break loose force. In particular, no risk of SO-induced aggregation can bring additional value in the highly sensitive biotech drug market. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 103:1520–1528, 2014 PMID:24643749

  4. Indication of Gamma-Ray Emission from the Newly Discovered Dwarf Galaxy Reticulum II.

    PubMed

    Geringer-Sameth, Alex; Walker, Matthew G; Koushiappas, Savvas M; Koposov, Sergey E; Belokurov, Vasily; Torrealba, Gabriel; Evans, N Wyn

    2015-08-21

    We present a search for γ-ray emission from the direction of the newly discovered dwarf galaxy Reticulum II. Using Fermi-LAT Collaboration data, we detect a signal that exceeds expected backgrounds between ∼2-10  GeV and is consistent with annihilation of dark matter for particle masses less than a few ×10^{2}  GeV. Modeling the background as a Poisson process based on Fermi-LAT diffuse models, and taking into account trial factors, we detect emission with p value less than 9.8×10^{-5} (>3.7σ). An alternative, model-independent treatment of the background reduces the significance, raising the p value to 9.7×10^{-3} (2.3σ). Even in this case, however, Reticulum II has the most significant γ-ray signal of any known dwarf galaxy. If Reticulum II has a dark-matter halo that is similar to those inferred for other nearby dwarfs, the signal is consistent with the s-wave relic abundance cross section for annihilation.

  5. Secured Independent Tools in Peritoneoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Davila, Fausto; Dominguez, Guillermo; Manolas, Panagiotis

    2010-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Secured independent tools are being introduced to aid in peritoneoscopy. We present a simple technique for anchoring instruments, powered lights, and micro machines through the abdominal wall. Methods: We used a laparoscopic trainer, micro alligator clips with one or two 2-0 nylon tails and cables for engines and lights. The above instruments were introduced via a 12-mm or 15-mm port. Clips were placed for traction, retraction and exposure, lights for illumination, and motors for potential work. A laparoscopy port closure or suture passer was introduced percutaneously to grab and extract the tails or cables outside of the simulated abdominal cavity. The engines and lights were powered by a direct electric current (DC) plugged into exteriorized cables. Results: We used 2 to 3 clips for each, and engines performed well. Conclusion: This basic simulation adds independent instruments, lights, and engines. We replaced cannulas with threads or cables in an attempt to limit the number of ports. This technique further opens the door for innovations in wired machines in laparoscopy, single-port laparoscopy, or natural orifice surgery. PMID:20932379

  6. ]Space Shuttle Independent Assessment Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Shuttle program is one of the most complex engineering activities undertaken anywhere in the world at the present time. The Space Shuttle Independent Assessment Team (SIAT) was chartered in September 1999 by NASA to provide an independent review of the Space Shuttle sub-systems and maintenance practices. During the period from October through December 1999, the team led by Dr. McDonald and comprised of NASA, contractor, and DOD experts reviewed NASA practices, Space Shuffle anomalies, as well as civilian and military aerospace experience. In performing the review, much of a very positive nature was observed by the SIAT, not the least of which was the skill and dedication of the workforce. It is in the unfortunate nature of this type of review that the very positive elements are either not mentioned or dwelt upon. This very complex program has undergone a massive change in structure in the last few years with the transition to a slimmed down, contractor-run operation, the Shuttle Flight Operations Contract (SFOC). This has been accomplished with significant cost savings and without a major incident. This report has identified significant problems that must be addressed to maintain an effective program. These problems are described in each of the Issues, Findings or Observations summarized, and unless noted, appear to be systemic in nature and not confined to any one Shuttle sub-system or element. Specifics are given in the body of the report, along with recommendations to improve the present systems.

  7. Bone Disease in Newly Diagnosed Lupus Nephritis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Resende, Aline Lázara; dos Reis, Luciene Machado; Dias, Cristiane Bitencourt; Custódio, Melani Ribeiro; Jorgetti, Vanda; Woronik, Viktoria

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Bone loss in Lupus Nephritis (LN) patients is common and multifactorial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bone status of newly diagnosed LN patients and their correlation with inflammatory factors involved in LN physiopathology. Methods We studied 15 pre-menopausal patients with ≤2 months of diagnosed SLE and LN. Patients with prior kidney or bone disease were excluded. In addition to biochemical evaluation (including 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D] and Monocyte Chemotactic Protein (MCP1) dosage), we performed bone biopsies followed by osteoblast culture, histomorphometric and immunohistochemistry analysis. Results LN patients presented a mean age of 29.5±10 years, a proteinuria of 4.7±2.9 g/day and an estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of 37(31–87) ml/min/1,73 m2. They were on glucocorticoid therapy for 34±12 days. All patients presented vitamin D insufficiency (9.9±4.4 ng/ml, range 4–20). Urinary MCP1 correlated negatively with 25(OH)D (r = −0.53, p = 0.003) and positively with serum deoxypyridinoline (r = 0.53, p = 0.004). Osteoblasts isolated from LN bone biopsies presented a significantly higher expression of MCP-1 when compared to controls (32.0.±9.1 vs. 22.9±5.3 mean fluorescence intensities, p = 0.01). LN patients presented a significantly reduced osteoid volume, osteoid thickness, osteoid surface, mineralization surface and bone formation rate, associated with an increased eroded surface and osteoclast surface. Patient’s bone specimens demonstrated a reduced immunostaining for osteoprotegerin (0.61±0.82 vs. 1.08±0.50%, p = 0.003), and an increased expression of Receptor Activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) (1.76±0.92 vs. 0.41±0.28%, p<0.001) when compared to controls. Discussion Newly diagnosed LN patients presented a significant disturbance in bone metabolism, characterized by an impaired bone formation and mineralization, associated with an increase in resorption parameters

  8. Newly qualified teachers' visions of science learning and teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Deborah L.

    2011-12-01

    This study investigated newly qualified teachers' visions of science learning and teaching. The study also documented their preparation in an elementary science methods course. The research questions were: What educational and professional experiences influenced the instructor's visions of science learning and teaching? What visions of science learning and teaching were promoted in the participants' science methods course? What visions of science learning and teaching did these newly qualified teachers bring with them as they graduated from their teacher preparation program? How did these visions compare with those advocated by reform documents? Data sources included participants' assignments, weekly reflections, and multi-media portfolio finals. Semi-structured interviews provided the emic voice of participants, after graduation but before they had begun to teach. These data were interpreted via a combination of qualitative methodologies. Vignettes described class activities. Assertions supported by excerpts from participants' writings emerged from repeated review of their assignments. A case study of a typical participant characterized weekly reflections and final multi-media portfolio. Four strands of science proficiency articulated in a national reform document provided a framework for interpreting activities, assignments, and interview responses. Prior experiences that influenced design of the methods course included an inquiry-based undergraduate physics course, participation in a reform-based teacher preparation program, undergraduate and graduate inquiry-based science teaching methods courses, participation in a teacher research group, continued connection to the university as a beginning teacher, teaching in diverse Title 1 schools, service as the county and state elementary science specialist, participation in the Carnegie Academy for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, service on a National Research Council committee, and experience teaching a

  9. Concentration and grain-size distribution of aeolian sands in peat bogs as an indicator of past storminess in coastal areas of Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandel, Egert; Vaasma, Tiit; Tõnisson, Hannes; Sugita, Shinya; Vilumaa, Kadri; Anderson, Agnes; Terasmaa, Jaanus; Kangur, Mihkel; Pensa, Margus; Küttim, Martin; Umbleja, Liisa; Puusepp, Liisa

    2016-04-01

    Storminess in the Baltic Sea region has significantly increased over the last 50 years. As we do not have meteorological data beyond 20th century, therefore the long-term changes in storminess (e.g., frequency and magnitude of the storms) and its impact on the coastal evolution are mostly unknown. This study aims to reconstruct the extreme storm events along the coast of Estonia in late Holocene, inferred from changes in grain-size distribution and concentration of aeolian sands preserved in peat deposits. Four cores in total were collected from bogs of coastal Estonia; three from west Estonian archipelago (Hiiumaa Island and Saaremaa Island); one from the northern coast of the mainland (Juminda Peninsula). Core from Saaremaa (166 cm) covers the last 2700 years, cores from Hiiumaa (171 cm and 330 cm) cover ca 4000 years, and core from Juminda (465 cm) covers ca 8500 years. All AMS dates (77) are converted to cal yrs BP. Analyses of LOI and grain size are carried out at every centimetre in order to obtain data for mineral matter content and concentration of sand particles. The Juminda core shows a consistently low content of mineral matter (LOI < 2%) without clear peaks over the last 8000 years. The LOI results at both Hiiumaa sites show that mineral matter content gradually decreases from 4000 to 1500 cal yrs BP and then becomes the lowest in the period of 1500-1000 cal yrs BP; since then, it becomes higher (up to 10%) with fluctuations and has a clear peak around 700 cal yrs BP. At Saaremaa, the overall trend of mineral matter content is similar to that at the Hiiumaa sites: gradual decline from 2700 to 1500 cal yrs BP, lowest in 1500-1000 cal yrs BP, and relatively high over the last millennium. Concentration of mineral particles reveal clear peaks of aeolian sands at each site. At northern Hiiumaa, concentration has peaks around 3500, 3000 and 2500 cal yrs BP and is relatively high over the last 700 years. At Saaremaa, concentration has peaked at 2100, 1600 and

  10. The enrichment of natural radionuclides in oil shale-fired power plants in Estonia--the impact of new circulating fluidized bed technology.

    PubMed

    Vaasma, Taavi; Kiisk, Madis; Meriste, Tõnis; Tkaczyk, Alan Henry

    2014-03-01

    Burning oil shale to produce electricity has a dominant position in Estonia's energy sector. Around 90% of the overall electric energy production originates from the Narva Power Plants. The technology in use has been significantly renovated - two older types of pulverized fuel burning (PF) energy production units were replaced with new circulating fluidized bed (CFB) technology. Additional filter systems have been added to PF boilers to reduce emissions. Oil shale contains various amounts of natural radionuclides. These radionuclides concentrate and become enriched in different boiler ash fractions. More volatile isotopes will be partially emitted to the atmosphere via flue gases and fly ash. To our knowledge, there has been no previous study for CFB boiler systems on natural radionuclide enrichment and their atmospheric emissions. Ash samples were collected from Eesti Power Plant's CFB boiler. These samples were processed and analyzed with gamma spectrometry. Activity concentrations (Bq/kg) and enrichment factors were calculated for the (238)U ((238)U, (226)Ra, (210)Pb) and (232)Th ((232)Th, (228)Ra) family radionuclides and for (40)K in different CFB boiler ash fractions. Results from the CFB boiler ash sample analysis showed an increase in the activity concentrations and enrichment factors (up to 4.5) from the furnace toward the electrostatic precipitator block. The volatile radionuclide ((210)Pb and (40)K) activity concentrations in CFB boilers were evenly distributed in finer ash fractions. Activity balance calculations showed discrepancies between input (via oil shale) and output (via ash fractions) activities for some radionuclides ((238)U, (226)Ra, (210)Pb). This refers to a situation where the missing part of the activity (around 20% for these radionuclides) is emitted to the atmosphere. Also different behavior patterns were detected for the two Ra isotopes, (226)Ra and (228)Ra. A part of (226)Ra input activity, unlike (228)Ra, was undetectable in the

  11. Perception of emotionally loaded vocal expressions and its connection to responses to music. A cross-cultural investigation: Estonia, Finland, Sweden, Russia, and the USA

    PubMed Central

    Waaramaa, Teija; Leisiö, Timo

    2013-01-01

    The present study focused on voice quality and the perception of the basic emotions from speech samples in cross-cultural conditions. It was examined whether voice quality, cultural, or language background, age, or gender were related to the identification of the emotions. Professional actors (n2) and actresses (n2) produced non-sense sentences (n32) and protracted vowels (n8) expressing the six basic emotions, interest, and a neutral emotional state. The impact of musical interests on the ability to distinguish between emotions or valence (on an axis positivity – neutrality – negativity) from voice samples was studied. Listening tests were conducted on location in five countries: Estonia, Finland, Russia, Sweden, and the USA with 50 randomly chosen participants (25 males and 25 females) in each country. The participants (total N = 250) completed a questionnaire eliciting their background information and musical interests. The responses in the listening test and the questionnaires were statistically analyzed. Voice quality parameters and the share of the emotions and valence identified correlated significantly with each other for both genders. The percentage of emotions and valence identified was clearly above the chance level in each of the five countries studied, however, the countries differed significantly from each other for the identified emotions and the gender of the speaker. The samples produced by females were identified significantly better than those produced by males. Listener's age was a significant variable. Only minor gender differences were found for the identification. Perceptual confusion in the listening test between emotions seemed to be dependent on their similar voice production types. Musical interests tended to have a positive effect on the identification of the emotions. The results also suggest that identifying emotions from speech samples may be easier for those listeners who share a similar language or cultural background with the

  12. Dispersion of fine phosphor particles by newly developed beads mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joni, I. Made; Panatarani, C.; Maulana, Dwindra W.

    2016-02-01

    Fine phosphor Y2O3:Eu3+ particles has advanced properties compare to conventional particles applied for compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) as three band phosphor. However, suspension of fine particles easily agglomerated during preparation of spray coating of the CFL tube. Therefore, it is introduced newly developed beads mill system to disperse fine phosphor. The beads mill consist of glass beads, dispersing chamber (impellers), separator chamber, slurry pump and motors. The first important performance of beads mill is the performance of the designed on separating the beads with the suspended fine particles. We report the development of beads mill and its separation performance vary in flow rate and separator rotation speeds. The 27 kg of glass beads with 30 µm in size was poured into dispersing chamber and then water was pumped continuously through the slurry pump. The samples for the separation test was obtained every 1 hours vary in rotation speed and slurry flow rate. The results shows that the separation performance was 99.99 % obtained for the rotation speed of >1000 rpm and flow rate of 8 L/minute. The performances of the system was verified by dispersing fine phosphor Y2O3:Eu3+ particles with concentration 1 wt.%. From the observed size distribution of particles after beads mill, it is concluded that the current design of bead mill effectively dispersed fine phosphor Y2O3:Eu3+.

  13. Newly developed Sr-substituted alpha-TCP bone cements.

    PubMed

    Pina, S; Torres, P M; Goetz-Neunhoeffer, F; Neubauer, J; Ferreira, J M F

    2010-03-01

    New bone cements made of Sr-substituted brushite-forming alpha-tricalcium phosphate (alpha-TCP) were prepared and characterized in the present work. The quantitative phase analysis and structural refinement of the starting powders and of hardened cements were performed by X-ray powder diffraction and the Rietveld refinement technique. Isothermal calorimetry along with setting time analysis allowed a precise tracing of the setting process of the pastes. The pastes showed exothermic reactions within the first 10-15 min after mixing and further release of heat after about 1h. An apatitic phase formed upon immersion of the hardened cements in simulated body fluid for 15 and 30 days due to the conversion of brushite into apatite confirming their in vitro mineralization capability. The compressive strength of the wet cement specimens decreased with increasing curing time, being higher in the case of Sr-substituted CPC. The results suggest that the newly developed Sr-substituted brushite-forming alpha-TCP cements show promise for uses in orthopaedic and trauma surgery such as in filling bone defects.

  14. Performance of a newly developed implantable centrifugal blood pump.

    PubMed

    Tsukiya, T; Taenaka, Y; Tatsumi, E; Takano, H

    2001-01-01

    The performance of the newly developed implantable centrifugal blood pump was investigated in vitro. The pump was developed with the end goal of building a versatile system that includes a left ventricular assist system with an internal secondary battery or an implantable biventricular assist system with two implantable blood pumps. The hydrodynamic characteristics and efficiency of the blood pump were evaluated, and the mechanical damage to the blood caused by the blood pump was assessed through a hemolysis test using fresh goat blood. The pump could generate 120 mm Hg at a flow rate of 5 L/min and a motor speed of 2,500 rpm. The electric input power to the pump was approximately 5 watts under these working conditions. The hemolysis caused by the pump was a bit higher than that by the former model, but stayed within an acceptable range. Performance of the pump in vitro was considered sufficient for a left ventricular assist device, although further design improvement is necessary in terms of hemolysis and system efficiency to improve biocompatibility of the pump.

  15. Deep Breathing Practice Facilitates Retention of Newly Learned Motor Skills.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Goldy; Mutha, Pratik K

    2016-11-14

    Paced deep breathing practices, a core component of a number of meditation programs, have been shown to enhance a variety of cognitive functions. However, their effects on complex processes such as memory, and in particular, formation and retention of motor memories, remain unknown. Here we show that a 30-minute session of deep, alternate-nostril breathing remarkably enhances retention of a newly learned motor skill. Healthy humans learned to accurately trace a given path within a fixed time duration. Following learning, one group of subjects (n = 16) underwent the 30-minute breathing practice while another control group (n = 14) rested for the same duration. The breathing-practice group retained the motor skill strikingly better than controls, both immediately after the breathing session and also at 24 hours. These effects were confirmed in another group (n = 10) that rested for 30 minutes post-learning, but practiced breathing after their first retention test; these subjects showed significantly better retention at 24 hours but not 30 minutes. Our results thus uncover for the first time the remarkable facilitatory effects of simple breathing practices on complex functions such as motor memory, and have important implications for sports training and neuromotor rehabilitation in which better retention of learned motor skills is highly desirable.

  16. Effectiveness of duct cleaning methods on newly installed duct surfaces.

    PubMed

    Holopainen, R; Asikainen, V; Tuomainen, M; Björkroth, M; Pasanen, P; Seppänen, O

    2003-09-01

    Two kinds of air duct cleaning methods, mechanical brushing with different brushes and compressed air cleaning, were compared in the laboratory and in newly built buildings. The ducts were contaminated either with test dust or with dust originated from a construction site. The amount of dust on the duct surface was measured with the vacuum test method and estimated visually before and after the cleaning. In addition, the cleaning times of the different techniques were compared and the amount of residual oil in the ducts was measured in the laboratory test. The brushing methods were more efficient in metal ducts, and compressed air cleaning was more efficient in plastic ducts. After the duct cleaning the mean amount of residual dust on the surface of the ducts was

  17. System of cities dynamics in newly industrializing nations.

    PubMed

    Meyer, D R

    1986-01-01

    Rapid industrialization in such countries as Korea, Malaysia, and Taiwan suggests that the complex functional structures of cities in the periphery may appear early in development. This paper proposes a 4-stage framework for the dynamics of a system of cities in a developing country undergoing industrialization and encompassing both nonindustrial and industrial development. The synthesis is assessed with evidence from the newly industrializing Asian nations of Korea, Malaysia, and Taiwan. The 4 stages of cities' industrial change include 1) increasing primacy with industrial satellites, 2) increasing primacy with industrial satellites and nodal towns on a transport network, 3) rapidly increasing primacy with rapidly growing industrial satellites and nodal towns on the transport network, and 4) decreasing primacy with slowly growing industrial satellites and rapidly growing peripheral industrial towns. The 4-stage synthesis suggests that economic development in the periphery may occur even while the primate city maintains its hegemony over control and coordination functions. Peripheral industrial growth does not challenge this hegemony. The growth of industrial cities is, instead, part of a process of regional specialization in which the low cost labor in the periphery becomes an attraction for industry. These stages are not inevitable. Government efforts are necessary to develop rural areas in terms of social improvements (education and health), capital infrastructure (transportation and utilities), and fair payments to farmers for their outputs. These seem to be the lessons learned from the industrialization process in Korea, Malaysia, and Taiwan.

  18. Uninvolved immunoglobulins predicting hematological response in newly diagnosed AL amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Muchtar, Eli; Magen, Hila; Itchaki, Gilad; Cohen, Amos; Rosenfeld, Ra'ama; Shochat, Tzippy; Kornowski, Ran; Iakobishvili, Zaza; Raanani, Pia

    2016-02-01

    Immunoparesis serves as a marker for elevated risk for progression in plasma cell proliferative disorders. However, the impact of immunoparesis in AL amyloidosis has not been addressed. Immunoparesis was defined qualitatively as any decrease below the low reference levels of the uninvolved immunoglobulins and quantitatively, as the relative difference between the uninvolved immunoglobulins and the lower reference values. Forty-one newly diagnosed AL amyloidosis patients were included. Sixty-six percent of patients had a suppression of the uninvolved immunoglobulins. The median relative difference of the uninvolved immunoglobulins was 18% above the low reference levels [range (-71%)-210%]. Ninety percent of the patients were treated with novel agents-based regimens, mostly bortezomib-containing regimens. Nineteen percent of the patients did not attain response to first line treatment. Patients with relative difference of uninvolved immunoglobulins below -25% of the low reference levels were less likely to respond to first line treatment compared to patients with a relative difference of -25% and above [odds ratio for no response vs. partial response and better 30 [(95% CI 4.1-222.2), P=0.0004]. Patients who failed first line treatment were successfully salvaged with lenalidomide-based treatment. Immunoparesis, if assessed quantitatively, may serve as a predictor of response in AL amyloidosis patients treated with bortezomib-containing regimens.

  19. Deep Breathing Practice Facilitates Retention of Newly Learned Motor Skills

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Goldy; Mutha, Pratik K.

    2016-01-01

    Paced deep breathing practices, a core component of a number of meditation programs, have been shown to enhance a variety of cognitive functions. However, their effects on complex processes such as memory, and in particular, formation and retention of motor memories, remain unknown. Here we show that a 30-minute session of deep, alternate-nostril breathing remarkably enhances retention of a newly learned motor skill. Healthy humans learned to accurately trace a given path within a fixed time duration. Following learning, one group of subjects (n = 16) underwent the 30-minute breathing practice while another control group (n = 14) rested for the same duration. The breathing-practice group retained the motor skill strikingly better than controls, both immediately after the breathing session and also at 24 hours. These effects were confirmed in another group (n = 10) that rested for 30 minutes post-learning, but practiced breathing after their first retention test; these subjects showed significantly better retention at 24 hours but not 30 minutes. Our results thus uncover for the first time the remarkable facilitatory effects of simple breathing practices on complex functions such as motor memory, and have important implications for sports training and neuromotor rehabilitation in which better retention of learned motor skills is highly desirable. PMID:27841345

  20. Two ways to save a newly learned motor pattern.

    PubMed

    Roemmich, Ryan T; Bastian, Amy J

    2015-06-01

    Savings, or faster relearning after initial learning, demonstrates humans' remarkable ability to retain learned movements amid changing environments. This is important within the context of locomotion, as the ability of the nervous system to "remember" how to walk in specific environments enables us to navigate changing terrains and progressively improve gait patterns with rehabilitation. Here, we used a split-belt treadmill to study precisely how people save newly learned walking patterns. In Experiment 1, we investigated savings by systematically varying the learning and unlearning environments. Savings was predominantly influenced by 1) previous exposure to similar abrupt changes in the environment and 2) the amount of exposure to the new environment. Relearning was fastest when these two factors coincided, and we did not observe savings after the environment was introduced gradually during initial learning. In Experiment 2, we then studied whether people store explicit information about different walking environments that mirrors savings of a new walking pattern. Like savings, we found that previous exposure to abrupt changes in the environment also drove the ability to recall a previously experienced walking environment accurately. Crucially, the information recalled was extrinsic information about the learning environment (i.e., treadmill speeds) and not intrinsic information about the walking pattern itself. We conclude that simply learning a new walking pattern is not enough for long-term savings; rather, savings of a learned walking pattern involves recall of the environment or extended training at the learned state.

  1. Variation of dominance of newly arisen adaptive genes.

    PubMed

    Bourguet, D; Lenormand, T; Guillemaud, T; Marcel, V; Fournier, D; Raymond, M

    1997-11-01

    Newly arisen adaptive alleles such as insecticide resistance genes represent a good opportunity to investigate the theories put forth to explain the molecular basis of dominance and its possible evolution. Dominance levels of insecticide resistance conferred by insensitive alleles of the acetylcholinesterase gene were analyzed in five resistant strains of the mosquito Culex pipiens. Dominance levels were found to differ between strains, varying from partial recessivity to complete dominance. This variation was not explained by differences in catalytic properties of the enzyme, since four of the five resistant strains had identical inhibition properties for the insensitive acetylcholinesterase. Among these four laboratory strains and in individuals collected from natural populations, we found a correlation between increased acetylcholinesterase activities and higher dominance levels. We propose a molecular explanation for how variation in acetylcholinesterase activity may result in variation of dominance level. We also conjecture that the four resistant strains did not differ in their amino acid sequence in the catalytically active regions of acetylcholinesterase, but that the expression of the gene was regulated by either neighboring or distant sites, thereby modifying the dominance level. Under this interpretation, dominance levels may evolve in this system, since heritable variation in acetylcholinesterase activity was found.

  2. Climate change and the water cycle in newly irrigated areas.

    PubMed

    Abrahão, Raphael; García-Garizábal, Iker; Merchán, Daniel; Causapé, Jesús

    2015-02-01

    Climate change is affecting agriculture doubly: evapotranspiration is increasing due to increments in temperature while the availability of water resources is decreasing. Furthermore, irrigated areas are expanding worldwide. In this study, the dynamics of climate change impacts on the water cycle of a newly irrigated watershed are studied through the calculation of soil water balances. The study area was a 752-ha watershed located on the left side of the Ebro river valley, in Northeast Spain. The soil water balance procedures were carried out throughout 1827 consecutive days (5 years) of hydrological and agronomical monitoring in the study area. Daily data from two agroclimatic stations were used as well. Evaluation of the impact of climate change on the water cycle considered the creation of two future climate scenarios for comparison: 2070 decade with climate change and 2070 decade without climate change. The main indicators studied were precipitation, irrigation, reference evapotranspiration, actual evapotranspiration, drainage from the watershed, and irrigation losses. The aridity index was also applied. The results represent a baseline scenario in which adaptation measures may be included and tested to reduce the impacts of climate change in the studied area and other similar areas.

  3. Pre-irradiation chemotherapy for newly diagnosed high grade astrocytoma.

    PubMed

    Mathieu, N Tubiana; Genet, D; Labrousse, F; Bouillet, P; Denes, S Lavau; Martin, J; Labourey, J L; Venat, L; Clavere, P; Moreau, J J

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to determine the response rate and toxicity of a combination of Carmustine and Cisplatin administered before radiation in patients with newly diagnosed high grade astrocytoma. A good response rate has been published with this association in primary cerebral high grade tumor. This protocol was administered in a homogeneous population of 37 adult patients with measurable tumor on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or CT scan. After biopsy or subtotal resection, the patients received BCNU 40 mg/m2/d and CODP 40 mg/m2/d, for 3 days every 28 days for 3 cycles. Evaluation was performed before each cycle. Radiation therapy began 4 weeks after completing the chemotherapy or immediately if there was evidence of tumor progression on chemotherapy. Seven out of 37 (19%) demonstrated tumor regression with a median duration to progression of 11 months. Median survival was 6 months. Myelosuppression was the predominant but manageable toxicity. This work indicated that the first chemotherapy protocol gave poor results in a homogeneous group of patients, with bad prognosis.

  4. A Newly Adopted Helicopter Platform for Geophysical and Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Uwe

    2014-05-01

    The Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources in Hannover owns a Sikorsky S-76B helicopter for geophysical and remote sensing airborne surveys. This platform has been completely refurbished and in parts newly designed to be fit for easy installations of complex geophysical instruments underneath, upon and within the helicopter. The airborne platform is equipped with a modern basic navigation equipment consisting of several GNSS antennae, state of the art inertial navigation systems, laser altimeter and video camera systems. Different other modules can be added to the helicopter as a state of the art gamma spectrometer, a laser scanner, airborne gravity meters etc. within the cabin. Moreover, external sensing systems as a photogrammetric camera, infraread camera or optional mulitspectral systems can be installed on the outer skin of the cabin. Different kinds of bird systems towed underneath the helicopter can be hooked up using standard cabling, glas fibres or wireless LAN. Available birds are equipped for frequency domain electromagnetics or gradient magnetics (IPHT Jena & Supracon, Jena). Besides, large georadar systems can be installed as well. The helicopter is able as well to carry TEM-gear or system in development. Main survey targets are groundwater systems, mineral deposits and natural hazards.

  5. Psychosocial problems among newly diagnosed rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    PubMed

    Gåfvels, C; Hägerström, M; Nordmark, B; Wändell, P E

    2012-03-01

    We identified patients with newly diagnosed rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in the ages 18-65 years who needed psychosocial interventions. A total of 123 patients (90 women) were asked to participate, but 19 declined and 4 dropped out early in the study, leaving a total of 100 patients (75 women) in the sample. Questionnaires used were the Epidemiological Investigation on Rheumatoid Arthritis study questionnaire, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Sense of Coherence (SOC) scale, and the General Coping Questionnaire. Interviews showed that 46% of the included 100 patients had psychosocial problems (PSP). One third of them had problems directly related to RA. The rest had problems with their life situation in general, without or reinforced by RA. Compared to patients without psychosocial problems, PSP patients lived in more strained social situations, especially regarding personal finances and social support. More of the PSP patients were anxious, showed lower SOC scores, and also used more emotion-based coping strategies (resignation, protest, isolation and intrusion) and less problem-oriented (minimization). They also had higher scores on depression and more frequently expected that RA would negatively affect their future. PSP patients also experienced a more negative impact of the disease, a finding not confirmed by the sickness activity score judged by the rheumatologist. Thus, early in the course of RA, screening instruments should be used to identify PSP patients. Psychosocial treatment and support by medical social workers skilled in RA care should be offered.

  6. [Newly developed virusvaccines in veterinary medicine (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Wittmann, G

    1978-03-01

    Newly developed vaccines in veterinary medicine can be classified into two categories. The first category comprises inactivated vaccines produced by "classical" methods such as inactivation of the virus by formalin and the use of A1(OH)3 as adjuvant. Besides, this category also includes live vaccines from attenuated virus. Thus, all of these vaccines represent no genuinely new developments and owe their origin to the fact that the importance of several virus diseases of animals has grown in the last years, making neccessary the rapid production of corresponding vaccines. Such virus diseases are infectious bovine rhinotracheitis/vulvovaginitis, enzootic rhinopneumonitis of cattle, virus diarrhoe of calves, rhinopneumonitis of horses, kennel cough of dogs and Marek's disease of chickens. The second category comprises inactivated vaccines which represent genuinely new developments through the use of more efficient chemicals for virus inactivation (ethylenimines) and more efficient adjuvants (oil emulsions, DEAE dextran). Such vaccines were especially developed with regard to foot-and-mouth disease and Aujeszky disease in pigs, where "classical" vaccines are rather inefficient. These types of vaccines are, however, also efficient in other animal species and with other viruses. Entirely new vaccines which are more or less still in an experimental stage are vaccines made from split products of viruses e.g. from glycoproteids of rabies virus, or made from membrane constituents of cells infected with avian herpes viruses.

  7. A newly developed continuous zoom-focus endocytoscope.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Youichi; Takubo, Kaiyo; Kawada, Kenro; Higashi, Morihiro; Ishiguro, Toru; Sobajima, Jun; Fukuchi, Minoru; Ishibashi, Kei-Ichiro; Mochiki, Erito; Aida, Junko; Kawano, Tatsuyuki; Ishida, Hideyuki

    2017-02-01

    Background and study aims We report the features of a newly developed endocytoscopy system (ECS), the GIF-Y0074. Patients and methods The GIF-Y0074 offers high-definition resolution with a consecutive increase of magnification to × 500. Using ECS, we observed 32 cases of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), 11 cases of gastric cancer, and five cases of duodenal adenoma. Results The images of cells obtained using the GIF-Y0074 at maximum magnification were brighter and clearer than those obtained with previous ECS systems. For diagnosis of ESCC, clearer visualization of the nucleus made nuclear abnormality easier to recognize. Cancer cells were visualized in 10/11 cases of gastric cancer, but removal of mucus still remained a problem. Duodenal adenomas were found to have atypical cells with villi and tubules at the mucosal surface, thus assisting their histological diagnosis in vivo. Conclusion The GIF-Y0074 is an excellent ECS in terms of ease of use, satisfactory resolution, and magnification power, and therefore achieves a level of utility that makes its commercial release justifiable. This ECS heralds a new era of endoscopic and histological diagnosis.

  8. (18)F-FET PET Uptake Characteristics in Patients with Newly Diagnosed and Untreated Brain Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Unterrainer, Marcus; Galldiks, Norbert; Suchorska, Bogdana; Kowalew, Lara-Caroline; Wenter, Vera; Schmid-Tannwald, Christine; Niyazi, Maximilian; Bartenstein, Peter; Langen, Karl-Josef; Albert, Nathalie L

    2017-04-01

    In patients with brain metastasis, PET using labeled amino acids has gained clinical importance, mainly regarding the differentiation of viable tumor tissue from treatment-related effects. However, there is still limited knowledge concerning the uptake characteristics in patients with newly diagnosed and untreated brain metastases. Hence, we evaluated the uptake characteristics in these patients using dynamic O-(2-(18)F-fluoroethyl)-l-tyrosine ((18)F-FET) PET. Methods: Patients with newly diagnosed brain metastases without prior local therapy and (18)F-FET PET scanning were retrospectively identified in 2 centers. Static and dynamic PET parameters (maximal/mean tumor-to-brain-ratio [TBRmax/TBRmean], biologic tumor volume [BTV], and time-activity curves with minimal time to peak [TTPmin]) were evaluated and correlated with MRI parameters (maximal lesion diameter, volume of contrast enhancement) and originating primary tumor. Results: Forty-five brain metastases in 30 patients were included. Forty of 45 metastases (89%) had a TBRmax ≥ 1.6 and were classified as (18)F-FET-positive (median TBRmax, 2.53 [range, 1.64-9.47]; TBRmean, 1.86 [range, 1.63-5.48]; and BTV, 3.59 mL [range, 0.04-23.98 mL], respectively). In 39 of 45 brain metastases eligible for dynamic analysis, a wide range of TTPmin was observed (median, 22.5 min; range, 4.5-47.5 min). All (18)F-FET-negative metastases had a diameter of ≤ 1.0 cm, whereas metastases with a > 1.0 cm diameter all showed pathologic (18)F-FET uptake, which did not correlate with lesion size. The highest variability of uptake intensity was observed within the group of melanoma metastases. Conclusion: Untreated metastases predominantly show increased (18)F-FET uptake, and only a third of metastases < 1.0 cm were (18)F-FET-negative, most likely because of scanner resolution and partial-volume effects. In metastases > 1.0 cm, (18)F-FET uptake intensity was highly variable and independent of tumor size (even intraindividually). (18

  9. 33 CFR 106.262 - Security measures for newly-hired employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Facility Security Requirements § 106.262 Security measures for newly-hired employees....

  10. 33 CFR 106.262 - Security measures for newly-hired employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Facility Security Requirements § 106.262 Security measures for newly-hired employees....

  11. Deficiency of monoclonal antibody (Leu 7) defined NK cells in newly diagnosed insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Chandy, K G; Charles, M A; Buckingham, B; Waldeck, N; Kershnar, A; Gupta, S

    1984-01-01

    Peripheral blood from 11 newly diagnosed patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) was studied for the proportion of monoclonal antibody (HNK 1, Leu 7) defined natural killer (NK) cells using a fluorescence-activated cell sorter analyzer. The proportion of Leu 7+ cells in patients with IDDM (7.0 +/- 4.0) was significantly (P less than 0.001) lower than in simultaneously studied healthy controls (16.8 +/- 7.0). A 2-yr-old boy with recent onset IDDM had a deficiency of Leu 7+ NK cells (6.1%), while his healthy identical twin had normal proportions of Leu 7+ cells (22.2%), when compared to a simultaneously studied healthy control. Two patients reexamined in remission and one other studied in remission alone, showed deficiency of Leu 7+ NK cells. This study demonstrates a quantitative deficiency of monoclonal antibody (Leu 7+) defined NK cells in newly diagnosed patients with IDDM that persists during remission of the disease and therefore appears to be independent of metabolic abnormality. The deficiency of NK cells may predispose genetically susceptible individuals to viral-induced islet cell injury, contributing to the pathogenesis of IDDM.

  12. Newly Commissioned Green Bank Telescope Bags New Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-01-01

    Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's newly commissioned Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) have discovered a windfall of three previously undetected millisecond pulsars in a dense cluster of stars in the Milky Way Galaxy. The Green Bank Telescope The Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope "This globular cluster, known as Messier 62, has been very well studied, and it would have been an exciting discovery to find just one new pulsar. The fact that we were able to detect three new pulsars at one time is simply remarkable," said Bryan Jacoby, a graduate student at the California Institute of Technology who led the research team. Results of the discovery were recently announced in an International Astronomical Union Circular. Jacoby and his colleague Adam Chandler, also a graduate student at Caltech, used the GBT to search for new pulsars in addition to the three already known in this cluster. Their research was part of the GBT's Early Science Program, which allows scientific investigations during the testing and commissioning of the telescope. The researchers used the Berkeley-Caltech Pulsar Machine, a new instrument whose development was overseen by Donald Backer at the University of California at Berkeley, to process the signals from the GBT and record them for later analysis. After their data were analyzed, the researchers discovered the telltale signatures of three additional pulsars and their white dwarf companion stars. Pulsars are rapidly rotating neutron stars that emit intense beams of radio waves along their misaligned magnetic axes. When these beams intersect the Earth, we see the pulsar flash on and off. Due to their exquisitely steady rotation, pulsars allow astronomers to study the basic laws of physics and the ways in which these dense clusters and exotic stellar systems are formed. Astronomers study globular clusters because they are among the oldest building blocks of our Galaxy. With their very dense stellar populations, these

  13. Chemoradiotherapy of Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma With Intensified Temozolomide

    SciTech Connect

    Weiler, Markus; Hartmann, Christian; Wiewrodt, Dorothee; Herrlinger, Ulrich

    2010-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the toxicity and efficacy of chemoradiotherapy with temozolomide (TMZ) administered in an intensified 1-week on/1-week off schedule plus indomethacin in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma. Patients and Methods: A total of 41 adult patients (median Karnofsky performance status, 90%; median age, 56 years) were treated with preirradiation TMZ at 150 mg/m{sup 2} (1 week on/1 week off), involved-field radiotherapy combined with concomitant low-dose TMZ (50 mg/m{sup 2}), maintenance TMZ starting at 150 mg/m{sup 2} using a 1-week on/1-week off schedule, plus maintenance indomethacin (25 mg twice daily). Results: The median follow-up interval was 21.7 months. Grade 4 hematologic toxicity was observed in 15 patients (36.6%). Treatment-related nonhematologic Grade 4-5 toxicity was reported for 2 patients (4.9%). The median progression-free survival was 7.6 months (95% confidence interval, 6.2-10.4). The 1-year survival rate was 73.2% (95% confidence interval, 56.8-84.2%). The presence of O{sup 6}-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) gene promoter methylation in the tumor tissue was associated with significantly superior progression-free survival. Conclusion: The dose-dense regimen of TMZ administered in a 1-week on/1-week off schedule resulted in acceptable nonhematologic toxicity. Compared with data from the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/National Cancer Institute of Canada trial 26981-22981/CE.3, patients with an unmethylated MGMT gene promoter appeared not to benefit from intensifying the TMZ schedule regarding the median progression-free survival and overall survival. In contrast, data are promising for patients with a methylated MGMT promoter.

  14. Treatment for patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma in 2015.

    PubMed

    Mateos, María-Victoria; Ocio, Enrique M; Paiva, Bruno; Rosiñol, Laura; Martínez-López, Joaquín; Bladé, Joan; Lahuerta, Juan-José; García-Sanz, Ramón; San Miguel, Jesús F

    2015-11-01

    Multiple myeloma is the second most frequent haematological disease. The introduction of high-dose melphalan followed by autologous haematopoietic cell transplant (HDT/ASCT) for young patients and the availability of novel agents for young and elderly patients with multiple myeloma have dramatically changed the perspective of treatment. However, further research is necessary if we want to definitively cure the disease. Treatment goals for transplant-eligible and non-transplant-eligible patients should be to prolong survival by achieving the best possible response, while ensuring quality of life. The treatment should be individualized on the basis of host and disease features and better monitoring of the response upon use of high-sensitivity techniques for evaluating residual disease. For young patients, HDT/ASCT is a standard of care for treatment and its efficacy has been enhanced and challenged by the new drugs. For elderly patients, treatment options were limited to alkylators, but new upfront treatment combinations based on novel agents (proteasome inhibitors and immunomodulatory drugs) combined or not with alkylators have significantly improved outcomes.Extended treatment for young and elderly patients improves the quality and duration of clinical responses; however,the optimal scheme, appropriate doses and duration of long-term therapy have not yet been fully determined.This review summarises the progress in the treatment of patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma, addressing critical questions such as the optimal induction, early versus late ASCT, consolidation and/or maintenance for young patients, and how we can choose the best option for non-transplant-eligible patients.

  15. Ageing with HIV: newly diagnosed older adults in Italy.

    PubMed

    Orchi, N; Balzano, R; Scognamiglio, P; Navarra, A; De Carli, G; Elia, P; Grisetti, S; Sampaolesi, A; Giuliani, M; De Filippis, A; Puro, V; Ippolito, G; Girardi, E

    2008-04-01

    The prevalence of HIV/AIDS among people in midlife and late adulthood has been increasing in Western countries over the last decade. We analyzed data from a prospective, observational multi-centre study on individuals newly diagnosed with HIV between January 2004 and March 2007 in 10 public counselling and testing sites in Latium, Italy. At diagnosis, routine demographic, epidemiological, clinical and laboratory data are recorded, and patients are asked to complete a questionnaire investigating socio-demographic and psycho-behavioural aspects. To analyze the association of individual characteristics with age, we compared older adults (> or = 50 years) with their younger counterpart (18-49 years). To adjust for potential confounding effect of the epidemiological, clinical and behavioural characteristics, to identify factors associated with older age at HIV diagnosis, multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed. Overall, 1073 individuals were identified, 125 of whom (11.6%) were aged 50 years or above. The questionnaire was completed by 41% (440/1073). Compared with their younger counterparts, a higher proportion of older patients were males, born in Italy, reported heterosexual or unknown HIV risk exposure, were never tested for HIV before and were in a more advanced stage of HIV infection at diagnosis. In addition, older adults had a lower educational level and were more frequently living with their partners or children. With respect to psycho-behavioural characteristics, older patients were more likely to have paid money for sex and have never used recreational drugs. Interestingly, no differences were found regarding condom use, which was poor in both age groups. These findings may have important implications for the management of older adults with HIV, who should be targeted by appropriate public health actions, such as opportunistic screening and easier access to healthcare. Moreover, strategies including information on HIV and prevention of risk

  16. Therapeutic enhancement of newly derived bacteriocins against Giardia lamblia.

    PubMed

    Amer, Eglal I; Mossallam, Shereen F; Mahrous, Hoda

    2014-11-01

    Trials for identifying efficient anti-giardial agents are still ongoing. Nowadays, bacteriocins have attracted the attention as potential antimicrobial compounds. For the first time, the current study evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of bacteriocins derived from newly isolated Egyptian strains of probiotics Lactobacilli; L. acidophilus (P106) and L. plantarum (P164) against Giardia lamblia. Bacteriocins' efficacy was evaluated both in vitro; by growth inhibition and adherence assays, and in vivo; through estimation of parasite density, intestinal histopathological examination and ultrastructural analysis of Giardia trophozoites. In vivo bacteriocins' clinical safety was assessed. In vitro results proved that 50 µg of L. acidophilus bacteriocin induced reduction of the mean Giardia lamblia trophozoites by 58.3 ± 4.04%, while at lower concentrations of 10 and 20 µg of both L. acidophilus and L. plantarum, non significant reduction of the mean parasite density was achieved. In vitro trophozoites adherence was susceptible to the tested bacteriocins at all studied concentrations with variable degrees, while the highest adherence reduction was demonstrated using 50 µg of L acidophilus bacteriocin. In vivo, oral inoculation of 50 µg/mouse L. acidophilus bacteriocin for 5 successive days resulted in a noteworthy decline of the intestinal parasite density, along with amelioration of intestinal pathology of infected mice. Ultrastructural examination proved thatfive doses of L. acidophilus bacteriocin showed marked changes in cellular architecture of the trophozoites with evident disorganization of the cell membrane, adhesive disc and cytoplasmic components. This is the first reported study of the safe anti-giardial efficacy of L. acidophilus (P106) derived bacteriocin, hence highlighting its great promise as a potential therapeutic safe alternative to existing commercial drugs.

  17. Ethical erosion in newly qualified doctors: perceptions of empathy decline

    PubMed Central

    Stratta, Emily C.; Baker, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study sought to understand whether UK Foundation doctors perceived the phenomena of ethical erosion and empathy decline during their initial period of clinical practice, and if so, why this occurred. Methods This qualitative study used semi-structured interviews with nine doctors in their first year of clinical practice at Royal Bolton Hospital, UK. Participants were invited to discuss the definition of empathy, how individuals acquire and maintain empathic ability, perceptions of ethical erosion in the self and others, and how clinical experiences have influenced their empathic ability. The interviews were transcribed, and analysed to identify emergent themes. Results Each participant reported a conscious acknowledgement of empathy decline in their own and their colleagues’ early clinical experiences as doctors. Stressful working environments, the prioritisation of patients’ physical rather than psychological well-being, and the attitudes of senior colleagues were all suggested as possible causes. Some doctors believed that specialties with reduced patient contact had a culture which precluded empathy, and influenced their own practice. In addition, some described how their value judgements of patients had affected their ability to empathise. However, all doctors perceived that empathy skills were desirable in senior clinicians, and some believed that educational interventions may be useful in arresting ethical erosion.   Conclusions Newly qualified doctors are aware of ethical erosion in themselves and their colleagues as they begin clinical practice. This has serious implications for patient care. Improving working conditions may reverse this trend. Empathy skills training within undergraduate and postgraduate curricula may be a useful intervention. PMID:27608488

  18. Lamotrigine monotherapy for newly diagnosed typical absence seizures in children☆

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Gregory L.; Frank, L. Matthew; Sheth, Raj D.; Philbrook, Bryan; Wooten, John D.; Vuong, Alain; Kerls, Susan; Hammer, Anne E.; Messenheimer, John

    2008-01-01

    Summary Purpose To evaluate the efficacy, tolerability, and effects on behavior and psychosocial functioning of lamotrigine monotherapy in children with newly diagnosed typical absence seizures. Patients and methods Children meeting enrollment criteria (n = 54) received a confirmatory 24-h ambulatory electroencephalogram (EEG) and then entered a Escalation Phase of up to 20-weeks during which lamotrigine was titrated until seizures were controlled or maximum dose (10.2 mg/kg) was reached. Seizure freedom was assessed by diary review and clinic hyperventilation (clinic HV) and then confirmed by EEG with hyperventilation (HV/EEG). Patients who maintained seizure freedom for two consecutive weekly visits were entered into the Maintenance Phase (n = 30). Diary, clinic HV, and HV/EEG data were supplemented with 24-h ambulatory EEG at baseline and the ends of the Escalation and Maintenance Phases. Health outcome assessments were completed at screening and at the end of the Maintenance Phase. Results By the end of the Escalation Phase, seizure-free rates (responders) were 59% by seizure diary (n = 51), 56% by HV/EEG (n = 54) (primary endpoint), and 49% by 24-h ambulatory EEG (n = 49). During the Maintenance Phase, 89% (week 24) and 86% (week 32) remained seizure free by diary (n = 28), 78% by clinic HV (n = 27), and 81% by 24-h ambulatory EEG (n = 26). Seizure freedom was first observed beginning at the fifth week of the Escalation Phase. The most frequent adverse events were headache and cough. Health outcome scores were either improved or unchanged at the end of the Maintenance Phase. Conclusions Lamotrigine monotherapy results in complete seizure freedom in a substantial number of children with typical absence seizures. Lamotrigine was well tolerated in this study. PMID:18778916

  19. Focally enhanced gastritis in newly diagnosed pediatric inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Ushiku, Tetsuo; Moran, Christopher J; Lauwers, Gregory Y

    2013-12-01

    Although the significance of focally enhanced gastritis (FEG) as a marker of Crohn disease (CD) in adults has been contested, several studies suggest that it may be more specific of CD in pediatric patients. This study describes the detailed histologic features of FEG in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and clarifies its association with CD. A series of 119 consecutive newly diagnosed IBD patients (62 CD cases, 57 ulcerative colitis [UC] cases) with upper and lower gastrointestinal biopsies were evaluated. The histology of the gastric biopsies was reviewed blinded to final diagnoses and compared with age-matched healthy controls (n=66). FEG was present in 43% of IBD patients (CD 55% vs. UC 30%, P=0.0092) and in 5% of controls. Among CD patients, FEG was more common in younger patients (73% in children aged 10 y and below, 43% in children above 10 y of age, P=0.0358), with the peak in the 5- to 10-year age group (80%). The total number of glands involved in each FEG focus was higher in UC (6.4±5.1 glands) than in CD (4.0±3.0 glands, P=0.0409). Amongst the CD cohort, patients with FEG were more likely than those without FEG to have active ileitis (79% vs. 40%, P=0.0128) and granulomas elsewhere in the gastrointestinal tract (82% vs. 43%, P=0.0016). There was no correlation between FEG and other gastrointestinal findings of UC. We demonstrate that differences in FEG seen in pediatric CD and UC relate to not only their frequencies but also the morphology and relationship with other gastrointestinal lesions. Further, FEG is associated with disease activity and the presence of granulomas in pediatric CD.

  20. Health status of newly arrived refugees in Toronto, Ont

    PubMed Central

    Redditt, Vanessa J.; Janakiram, Praseedha; Graziano, Daniela; Rashid, Meb

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine the prevalence of selected infectious diseases among newly arrived refugee patients and whether there is variation by key demographic factors. Design Retrospective chart review. Setting Primary care clinic for refugee patients in Toronto, Ont. Participants A total of 1063 refugee patients rostered at the clinic from December 2011 to June 2014. Main outcome measures Demographic information (age, sex, and region of birth); prevalence of HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, Strongyloides, Schistosoma, intestinal parasites, gonorrhea, chlamydia, and syphilis infections; and varicella immune status. Results The median age of patients was 29 years and 56% were female. Refugees were born in 87 different countries. Approximately 33% of patients were from Africa, 28% were from Europe, 14% were from the Eastern Mediterranean Region, 14% were from Asia, and 8% were from the Americas (excluding 4% born in Canada or the United States). The overall rate of HIV infection was 2%. The prevalence of hepatitis B infection was 4%, with a higher rate among refugees from Asia (12%, P < .001). Hepatitis B immunity was 39%, with higher rates among Asian refugees (64%, P < .001) and children younger than 5 years (68%, P < .001). The rate of hepatitis C infection was less than 1%. Strongyloides infection was found in 3% of tested patients, with higher rates among refugees from Africa (6%, P = .003). Schistosoma infection was identified in 15% of patients from Africa. Intestinal parasites were identified in 16% of patients who submitted stool samples. Approximately 8% of patients were varicella nonimmune, with higher rates in patients from the Americas (21%, P < .001). Conclusion This study highlights the importance of screening for infectious diseases among refugee patients to provide timely preventive and curative care. Our data also point to possible policy and clinical implications, such as targeted screening approaches and improved access to vaccinations and

  1. In-vehicle VOCs composition of unconditioned, newly produced cars.

    PubMed

    Brodzik, Krzysztof; Faber, Joanna; Łomankiewicz, Damian; Gołda-Kopek, Anna

    2014-05-01

    The in-vehicle volatile organic compounds (VOCs) concentrations gains the attention of both car producers and users. In the present study, an attempt was made to determine if analysis of air samples collected from an unconditioned car cabin can be used as a quality control measure. The VOCs composition of in-vehicle air was analyzed by means of active sampling on Carbograph 1TD and Tenax TA sorbents, followed by thermal desorption and simultaneous analysis on flame ionization and mass detector (TD-GC/FID-MS). Nine newly produced cars of the same brand and model were chosen for this study. Within these, four of the vehicles were equipped with identical interior materials and five others differed in terms of upholstery and the presence of a sunroof; one car was convertible. The sampling event took place outside of the car assembly plant and the cars tested left the assembly line no later than 24 hr before the sampling took place. More than 250 compounds were present in the samples collected; the identification of more than 160 was confirmed by comparative mass spectra analysis and 80 were confirmed by both comparison with single/multiple compounds standards and mass spectra analysis. In general, aliphatic hydrocarbons represented more than 60% of the total VOCs (TVOC) determined. Depending on the vehicle, the concentration of aromatic hydrocarbons varied from 12% to 27% of total VOCs. The very short period between car production and sampling of the in-vehicle air permits the assumption that the entire TVOC originates from off-gassing of interior materials. The results of this study expand the knowledge of in-vehicle pollution by presenting information about car cabin air quality immediately after car production.

  2. Instrument independent diffuse reflectance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Yu, Bing; Fu, Henry L; Ramanujam, Nirmala

    2011-01-01

    Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy with a fiber optic probe is a powerful tool for quantitative tissue characterization and disease diagnosis. Significant systematic errors can arise in the measured reflectance spectra and thus in the derived tissue physiological and morphological parameters due to real-time instrument fluctuations. We demonstrate a novel fiber optic probe with real-time, self-calibration capability that can be used for UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy in biological tissue in clinical settings. The probe is tested in a number of synthetic liquid phantoms over a wide range of tissue optical properties for significant variations in source intensity fluctuations caused by instrument warm up and day-to-day drift. While the accuracy for extraction of absorber concentrations is comparable to that achieved with the traditional calibration (with a reflectance standard), the accuracy for extraction of reduced scattering coefficients is significantly improved with the self-calibration probe compared to traditional calibration. This technology could be used to achieve instrument-independent diffuse reflectance spectroscopy in vivo and obviate the need for instrument warm up and post∕premeasurement calibration, thus saving up to an hour of precious clinical time.

  3. Preprototype independent air revitalization subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, F. H.; Hallick, T. M.; Woods, R. R.

    1982-01-01

    The performance and maturity of a preprototype, three-person capacity, automatically controlled and monitored, self-contained independent air revitalization subsystem were evaluated. The subsystem maintains the cabin partial pressure of oxygen at 22 kPa (3.2 psia) and that of carbon dioxide at 400 Pa (3 mm Hg) over a wide range of cabin air relative humidity conditions. Consumption of water vapor by the water vapor electrolysis module also provides partial humidity control of the cabin environment. During operation, the average carbon dioxide removal efficiency at baseline conditions remained constant throughout the test at 84%. The average electrochemical depolarized concentrator cell voltage at the end of the parametric/endurance test was 0.41 V, representing a very slowly decreasing average cell voltage. The average water vapor electrolysis cell voltage increased only at a rate of 20 mu/h from the initial level of 1.67 V to the final level of 1.69 V at conclusion of the testing.

  4. Learning Dilemmas in Undergraduate Student Independent Essays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wendt, Maria; Åse, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    Essay-writing is generally viewed as the primary learning activity to foster independence and analytical thinking. In this article, we show that independent research projects do not necessarily lead to critical thinking. University-level education on conducting independent projects can, in several respects, counteract enhanced analytical skills.…

  5. 47 CFR 64.904 - Independent audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Independent audits. 64.904 Section 64.904... RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Allocation of Costs § 64.904 Independent audits. (a) Each carrier... independent auditor every two years, covering the prior two year period, or have a financial audit...

  6. 47 CFR 64.904 - Independent audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Independent audits. 64.904 Section 64.904... RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Allocation of Costs § 64.904 Independent audits. (a) Each carrier... independent auditor every two years, covering the prior two year period, or have a financial audit...

  7. Independence, Individualism & Connection among Share Householders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natalier, Kristin

    2007-01-01

    How do young people who are financially dependent on their parents but living in share households conceive of the concept of independence? The meanings of independence are discussed in relation to a qualitative study of young people who described themselves as independent although they accepted money on a regular basis from their parents. Their…

  8. 47 CFR 64.904 - Independent audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Independent audits. 64.904 Section 64.904... RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Allocation of Costs § 64.904 Independent audits. (a) Each carrier... independent auditor every two years, covering the prior two year period, or have a financial audit...

  9. 45 CFR 1309.44 - Independent analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Independent analysis. 1309.44 Section 1309.44... § 1309.44 Independent analysis. (a) The responsible HHS official may direct the grantee applying for funds to acquire or make major renovations to a facility to obtain an independent analysis of the...

  10. 45 CFR 1309.44 - Independent analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Independent analysis. 1309.44 Section 1309.44... § 1309.44 Independent analysis. (a) The responsible HHS official may direct the grantee applying for funds to acquire or make major renovations to a facility to obtain an independent analysis of the...

  11. 45 CFR 1309.44 - Independent analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Independent analysis. 1309.44 Section 1309.44... § 1309.44 Independent analysis. (a) The responsible HHS official may direct the grantee applying for funds to acquire or make major renovations to a facility to obtain an independent analysis of the...

  12. 45 CFR 1309.44 - Independent analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Independent analysis. 1309.44 Section 1309.44... § 1309.44 Independent analysis. (a) The responsible HHS official may direct the grantee applying for funds to acquire or make major renovations to a facility to obtain an independent analysis of the...

  13. 45 CFR 1309.44 - Independent analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Independent analysis. 1309.44 Section 1309.44... § 1309.44 Independent analysis. (a) The responsible HHS official may direct the grantee applying for funds to acquire or make major renovations to a facility to obtain an independent analysis of the...

  14. 46 CFR 62.30-5 - Independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... instrumentation systems for any vital system must be independent of each other. (2) Independent sensors are not required except that sensors for primary speed, pitch, or direction of rotation control in closed loop..., or instrumentation sensors. (3) The safety trip control of § 62.35-5(b)(2) must be independent...

  15. 11 CFR 100.113 - Independent expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Independent expenditures. 100.113 Section 100...) Definition of Expenditure (2 U.S.C. 431(9)) § 100.113 Independent expenditures. An independent expenditure that meets the requirements of 11 CFR 104.4 or part 109 is an expenditure, and such...

  16. Geomorphological evolution of a newly restored upland temporary stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marteau, Baptiste; Batalla, Ramon J.; Gibbins, Chris N.; Green, David R.; Vericat, Damià

    2015-04-01

    The river Ehen, NW England, has been designated as a Special Area of Conservation (SAC) as it hosts England's largest population of freshwater pearl mussels (M. margaritifera). One of the Ehen's main headwater tributary, Ben Gill, was diverted to Ennerdale Lake in the 1970s to help increase the volume of water available for abstraction. Concerns over this diversion on the hydrology and sediment dynamics of the Ehen has led to the reconnection of this temporary stream as part of a project designed to improve habitat conditions for mussels in the Ehen. The reconnection has involved the construction of a new section of channel, following the natural (pre-diversion) course of Ben Gill. This paper presents findings of research designed to track the morphological evolution of the newly created Ben Gill channel. The work follows a previous research in which fluvial dynamics in the Ehen were studied before the reconnection of Ben Gill. Morpho-sedimentary dynamics are analysed at multiple scales: from the movement of individual particles, to changes on channel morphology following competent flow events. Changes in the channel's grain size distributions have been investigated in different sections, while bed mobility has been assessed using a combination of radio frequency identification (RFID) tags inserted into representative particles and painted bed patches. Additionally, digital elevation models (DEMs) of the entire new channel have been constructed by means of automatic digital photogrammetry using high resolution aerial photography taken by an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). DEMs of difference (DoD) between major flow events have been used to track lateral and longitudinal changes in the channel at a spatial resolution of less than 5cm. Finally, in order to link sedimentological changes in the new channel to its impact on the main stem Ehen, morpho-sedimentary changes of a gravel bar at the confluence have been monitored combining tracers (i.e. RFID) and repeated

  17. 14 CFR 26.39 - Newly produced airplanes: Fuel tank flammability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Newly produced airplanes: Fuel tank... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CONTINUED AIRWORTHINESS AND SAFETY IMPROVEMENTS FOR TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Fuel Tank Flammability § 26.39 Newly produced airplanes: Fuel tank flammability. (a) Applicability:...

  18. 14 CFR 26.39 - Newly produced airplanes: Fuel tank flammability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Newly produced airplanes: Fuel tank... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CONTINUED AIRWORTHINESS AND SAFETY IMPROVEMENTS FOR TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Fuel Tank Flammability § 26.39 Newly produced airplanes: Fuel tank flammability. (a) Applicability:...

  19. 13 CFR 120.812 - Probationary period for newly certified CDCs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... certified CDCs. 120.812 Section 120.812 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Development Company Loan Program (504) Certification Procedures to Become A Cdc § 120.812 Probationary period for newly certified CDCs. (a) Newly certified CDCs will be on probation for a period of...

  20. 13 CFR 120.812 - Probationary period for newly certified CDCs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... certified CDCs. 120.812 Section 120.812 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Development Company Loan Program (504) Certification Procedures to Become A Cdc § 120.812 Probationary period for newly certified CDCs. (a) Newly certified CDCs will be on probation for a period of...

  1. 13 CFR 120.812 - Probationary period for newly certified CDCs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... certified CDCs. 120.812 Section 120.812 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Development Company Loan Program (504) Certification Procedures to Become A Cdc § 120.812 Probationary period for newly certified CDCs. (a) Newly certified CDCs will be on probation for a period of...

  2. 13 CFR 120.812 - Probationary period for newly certified CDCs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... certified CDCs. 120.812 Section 120.812 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Development Company Loan Program (504) Certification Procedures to Become A Cdc § 120.812 Probationary period for newly certified CDCs. (a) Newly certified CDCs will be on probation for a period of...

  3. 13 CFR 120.812 - Probationary period for newly certified CDCs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... certified CDCs. 120.812 Section 120.812 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Development Company Loan Program (504) Certification Procedures to Become A Cdc § 120.812 Probationary period for newly certified CDCs. (a) Newly certified CDCs will be on probation for a period of...

  4. Career Motivation in Newly Licensed Registered Nurses: What Makes Them Remain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Zarata Mann; Bailey, Jessica H.

    2010-01-01

    Despite vast research on newly licensed registered nurses (RNs), we don't know why some newly licensed registered nurses remain in their current jobs and others leave the nursing profession early in their career. Job satisfaction, the most significant factor emerging from the literature, plays a significant role in nurses' decisions to remain in…

  5. 33 CFR 106.262 - Security measures for newly-hired employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Security measures for newly-hired... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Facility Security Requirements § 106.262 Security measures for newly-hired employees....

  6. 33 CFR 106.262 - Security measures for newly-hired employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Security measures for newly-hired... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Facility Security Requirements § 106.262 Security measures for newly-hired employees....

  7. 33 CFR 106.262 - Security measures for newly-hired employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security measures for newly-hired... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Facility Security Requirements § 106.262 Security measures for newly-hired employees....

  8. 5 CFR 531.211 - Setting pay for a newly appointed employee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Setting pay for a newly appointed... REGULATIONS PAY UNDER THE GENERAL SCHEDULE Determining Rate of Basic Pay Setting Pay When Appointment Or Position Changes § 531.211 Setting pay for a newly appointed employee. (a) First appointment. An...

  9. 5 CFR 531.211 - Setting pay for a newly appointed employee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Setting pay for a newly appointed... REGULATIONS PAY UNDER THE GENERAL SCHEDULE Determining Rate of Basic Pay Setting Pay When Appointment Or Position Changes § 531.211 Setting pay for a newly appointed employee. (a) First appointment. An...

  10. 5 CFR 531.211 - Setting pay for a newly appointed employee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Setting pay for a newly appointed employee. 531.211 Section 531.211 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE... Position Changes § 531.211 Setting pay for a newly appointed employee. (a) First appointment. An...

  11. 5 CFR 531.211 - Setting pay for a newly appointed employee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Setting pay for a newly appointed employee. 531.211 Section 531.211 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE... Position Changes § 531.211 Setting pay for a newly appointed employee. (a) First appointment. An...

  12. PROGRESS REPORT ON THE DSSTOX DATABASE NETWORK: NEWLY LAUNCHED WEBSITE, APPLICATIONS, FUTURE PLANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Progress Report on the DSSTox Database Network: Newly Launched Website, Applications, Future Plans

    Progress will be reported on development of the Distributed Structure-Searchable Toxicity (DSSTox) Database Network and the newly launched public website that coordinates and...

  13. Prospective Study of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Parents of Children with Newly Diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landolt, Markus A.; Vollrath, Margarete; Laimbacher, Joseph; Gnehm, Hanspeter E.; Sennhauser, Felix H.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence, course, and predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in mothers and fathers of children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes. Method: Forty-nine mothers and 48 fathers of 52 children (response rate 65%) with newly diagnosed diabetes (age 6.5-15 years) were assessed at 6 weeks, 6 months, and 12…

  14. Plurilinguism in Teachers' Professionalization: Views of Newly Qualified Pedagogues of Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zascerinskis, Mihails; Aleksejeva, Ludmila; Zascerinska, Jelena

    2012-01-01

    Teachers' professionalization is promoted by language education that includes mother tongue across the curriculum, foreign languages and professional language. Aim of the research is to analyze views of newly qualified pedagogues of social work on languages of professionalization. The object of the present research is views of newly qualified…

  15. Evolution and Phylogeny of Large DNA Viruses, Mimiviridae and Phycodnaviridae Including Newly Characterized Heterosigma akashiwo Virus

    PubMed Central

    Maruyama, Fumito; Ueki, Shoko

    2016-01-01

    Nucleocytoplasmic DNA viruses are a large group of viruses that harbor double-stranded DNA genomes with sizes of several 100 kbp, challenging the traditional concept of viruses as small, simple ‘organisms at the edge of life.’ The most intriguing questions about them may be their origin and evolution, which have yielded the variety we see today. Specifically, the phyletic relationship between two giant dsDNA virus families that are presumed to be close, Mimiviridae, which infect Acanthamoeba, and Phycodnaviridae, which infect algae, is still obscure and needs to be clarified by in-depth analysis. Here, we studied Mimiviridae–Phycodnaviridae phylogeny including the newly identified Heterosigma akashiwo virus strain HaV53. Gene-to-gene comparison of HaV53 with other giant dsDNA viruses showed that only a small proportion of HaV53 genes show similarities with the others, revealing its uniqueness among Phycodnaviridae. Phylogenetic/genomic analysis of Phycodnaviridae including HaV53 revealed that the family can be classified into four distinctive subfamilies, namely, Megaviridae (Mimivirus-like), Chlorovirus-type, and Coccolitho/Phaeovirus-type groups, and HaV53 independent of the other three groups. Several orthologs found in specific subfamilies while absent from the others were identified, providing potential family marker genes. Finally, reconstruction of the evolutionary history of Phycodnaviridae and Mimiviridae revealed that these viruses are descended from a common ancestor with a small set of genes and reached their current diversity by differentially acquiring gene sets during the course of evolution. Our study illustrates the phylogeny and evolution of Mimiviridae–Phycodnaviridae and proposes classifications that better represent phyletic relationships among the family members. PMID:27965659

  16. Brain putamen volume changes in newly-diagnosed patients with obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rajesh; Farahvar, Salar; Ogren, Jennifer A; Macey, Paul M; Thompson, Paul M; Woo, Mary A; Yan-Go, Frisca L; Harper, Ronald M

    2014-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is accompanied by cognitive, motor, autonomic, learning, and affective abnormalities. The putamen serves several of these functions, especially motor and autonomic behaviors, but whether global and specific sub-regions of that structure are damaged is unclear. We assessed global and regional putamen volumes in 43 recently-diagnosed, treatment-naïve OSA (age, 46.4 ± 8.8 years; 31 male) and 61 control subjects (47.6 ± 8.8 years; 39 male) using high-resolution T1-weighted images collected with a 3.0-Tesla MRI scanner. Global putamen volumes were calculated, and group differences evaluated with independent samples t-tests, as well as with analysis of covariance (covariates; age, gender, and total intracranial volume). Regional differences between groups were visualized with 3D surface morphometry-based group ratio maps. OSA subjects showed significantly higher global putamen volumes, relative to controls. Regional analyses showed putamen areas with increased and decreased tissue volumes in OSA relative to control subjects, including increases in caudal, mid-dorsal, mid-ventral portions, and ventral regions, while areas with decreased volumes appeared in rostral, mid-dorsal, medial-caudal, and mid-ventral sites. Global putamen volumes were significantly higher in the OSA subjects, but local sites showed both higher and lower volumes. The appearance of localized volume alterations points to differential hypoxic or perfusion action on glia and other tissues within the structure, and may reflect a stage in progression of injury in these newly-diagnosed patients toward the overall volume loss found in patients with chronic OSA. The regional changes may underlie some of the specific deficits in motor, autonomic, and neuropsychologic functions in OSA.

  17. Correlates and outcomes of warfarin initiation in kidney transplant recipients newly diagnosed with atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Lenihan, Colin R.; Montez-Rath, Maria E.; Shen, Jenny I.; Scandling, John D.; Turakhia, Mintu P.; Chang, Tara I.; Winkelmayer, Wolfgang C.

    2015-01-01

    In the kidney transplant population with atrial fibrillation (AF), evidence regarding the effectiveness and safety of warfarin treatment is lacking. We used fee-for-service Medicare claims to identify kidney transplant recipients with newly diagnosed AF from the United States Renal Data System. Warfarin use within 30 days of AF diagnosis was ascertained from Medicare Part D prescription claims (2007–11) or using a validated algorithm (1997–2011). The study end points were (i) the composite of death, stroke or gastrointestinal bleed, (ii) death and (iii) death-censored graft failure. Warfarin user and non-user groups were balanced using inverse probability of treatment weighting and hazard ratios were (HRs) estimated using Cox regression. Among 718 subjects with an indication for anticoagulation, 24% initiated warfarin treatment within 30 days of AF diagnosis. Age was the only independent correlate of warfarin use [odds ratio = 1.02 per year; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.01–1.04]. In the larger cohort of 6492 patients with AF, warfarin use [(23.5%) versus non-use (76.5%)] was associated with small and non-significant reductions in the composite of death, stroke or gastrointestinal bleed (HR = 0.92; 95% CI 0.83–1.02), death (HR = 0.92; 95% CI 0.82–1.02) and death-censored graft failure (HR = 0.90; 95% CI 0.76–1.08). Our study suggests the need for clinical trials of warfarin use in the kidney transplant population with AF. PMID:25335507

  18. Evolution and Phylogeny of Large DNA Viruses, Mimiviridae and Phycodnaviridae Including Newly Characterized Heterosigma akashiwo Virus.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Fumito; Ueki, Shoko

    2016-01-01

    Nucleocytoplasmic DNA viruses are a large group of viruses that harbor double-stranded DNA genomes with sizes of several 100 kbp, challenging the traditional concept of viruses as small, simple 'organisms at the edge of life.' The most intriguing questions about them may be their origin and evolution, which have yielded the variety we see today. Specifically, the phyletic relationship between two giant dsDNA virus families that are presumed to be close, Mimiviridae, which infect Acanthamoeba, and Phycodnaviridae, which infect algae, is still obscure and needs to be clarified by in-depth analysis. Here, we studied Mimiviridae-Phycodnaviridae phylogeny including the newly identified Heterosigma akashiwo virus strain HaV53. Gene-to-gene comparison of HaV53 with other giant dsDNA viruses showed that only a small proportion of HaV53 genes show similarities with the others, revealing its uniqueness among Phycodnaviridae. Phylogenetic/genomic analysis of Phycodnaviridae including HaV53 revealed that the family can be classified into four distinctive subfamilies, namely, Megaviridae (Mimivirus-like), Chlorovirus-type, and Coccolitho/Phaeovirus-type groups, and HaV53 independent of the other three groups. Several orthologs found in specific subfamilies while absent from the others were identified, providing potential family marker genes. Finally, reconstruction of the evolutionary history of Phycodnaviridae and Mimiviridae revealed that these viruses are descended from a common ancestor with a small set of genes and reached their current diversity by differentially acquiring gene sets during the course of evolution. Our study illustrates the phylogeny and evolution of Mimiviridae-Phycodnaviridae and proposes classifications that better represent phyletic relationships among the family members.

  19. Describing a residency program developed for newly graduated nurse practitioners employed in retail health settings.

    PubMed

    Thabault, Paulette; Mylott, Laura; Patterson, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Retail health clinics are an expanding health care delivery model and an emerging new practice site for nurse practitioners (NPs). Critical thinking skills, clinical competence, interprofessional collaboration, and business savvy are necessary for successful practice in this highly independent and autonomous setting. This article describes a pilot residency partnership program aimed at supporting new graduate NP transition to practice, reducing NP turnover, and promoting academic progression. Eight new graduate NPs were recruited to the pilot and paired with experienced clinical NP preceptors for a 12-month program that focused on increasing clinical and business competence in the retail health setting. The residency program utilized technology to facilitate case conferences and targeted Webinars to enhance learning and peer-to-peer sharing and support. An on-line doctoral-level academic course that focused on interprofessional collaboration in health care, population health, and business concepts was offered. Both NPs and preceptors were highly satisfied with the academic-service residency program between MinuteClinic and Northeastern University School of Nursing in Boston, MA. New NPs particularly valued the preceptor model, the clinical case conferences, and business Webinars. Because their priority was in gaining clinical experience and learning the business acumen relevant to managing the processes of care, they did not feel ready for the doctoral course and would have preferred to take later in their practice. The preceptors valued the academic course and felt that it enhanced their precepting and leadership skills. At the time of this article, 6 months post completion of the residency program, there has been no turnover. Our experience supports the benefits for residency programs for newly graduated NPs in retail settings. The model of partnering with academia by offering a course within a service organization's educational programs can enable academic

  20. [AFM study on microtopography of NOM and newly formed hydrous manganese dioxide adsorbed on mica].

    PubMed

    Guo, Jin; Ma, Jun; Shi, Xue-hua

    2006-05-01

    With the methods of mica adsorbing, the microtopography of the newly formed hydrous manganese dioxide was perfectly captured. The tapping mode AFM study results revealed that the newly formed hydrous manganese dioxide possesses a perforated sheet (with a thickness of 0-1.75 nm) as well as some spheric particle structures compared with the hydrous manganese dioxide with 2 h aging time, which demonstrated that the newly formed hydrous manganese dioxide have a large surface area and adsorption capacity. When 1 mmol/L newly formed hydrous manganese dioxide was added, the microtopography of NOM molecules shifted from loosely dispersed pancake shape (with adsorption height of 5-8.5 nm) to densely dispersed and uniform spheric structure. NOM was prone to adsorb on the surface of the newly formed hydrous manganese dioxide, which provided a valid proof for the coagulation-aid mechanism of permanganate preoxidation.

  1. HIV prevalence and gender differences among new injection-drug-users in Tallinn, Estonia: A persisting problem in a stable high prevalence epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Uusküla, Anneli; Raag, Mait; Marsh, Kristina; Talu, Ave; Vorobjov, Sigrid; Des Jarlais, Don

    2017-01-01

    Introduction New injectors / younger drug users are an important population to target for intervention because they are often at especially high risk of HIV and HCV infection. We examined HIV prevalence and gender differences in HIV prevalence and risk behavior among new injection-drug-users in Tallinn, Estonia. Methods Respondent driven sampling (RDS) interview surveys and HIV testing were conducted in Tallinn in 2009, 2011 and 2013. We classified “new injectors” as persons who reported their first injection as occurring within three years of the study interview. Recruiting trees of the three individual RDS studies were joined to form one RDS dataset and RDS estimates for prevalence and means were derived. Bootstrap tests were used to compare data from men and women, HIV infected and uninfected. Results Among 110 new injectors (34 women and 76 men) the mean age was 24.5 (SD 7.5) years; 63% reported injecting mainly fentanyl, 34% injecting mainly amphetamine, 36% sharing syringes, 89% were sexually active, and, of these, 88% did not always use condoms in the last 6 months. HIV prevalence was 18% (95%CI 8–28%) (41% (95%CI 19–63%) among female and 7% (95%CI 2–12%) among male new injectors). Based on self-reports, 8.1% of all new injectors (and 22% of female new injectors) were HIV positive before starting to inject drugs. 40% of HIV infected reported receiving antiretroviral therapy. In multivariable analysis, gender (male: OR 0.12, 95% CI 0.03–0.45), main drug injected (fentanyl: OR 6.7, 95% CI 1.3–35.7) and syringe sharing (distributive: OR 0.11, 95% CI 0.02–0.55; and receptive: OR 3.7, 95% CI 1.0–13.5) were associated with the HIV seropositivity. Conclusions New injectors exhibit high-risk behavior and correspondingly high HIV prevalence. Sexual transmission of HIV infection, including before injection initiation, is likely to be a significant contributor to HIV risk among female new injectors. This highlights the need to identify and target new

  2. Soft-sediment deformation structures in Cambrian Series 2 tidal deposits (NW Estonia): implications for identifying endogenic triggering mechanisms in ancient sedimentary record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Põldsaar, Kairi

    2015-04-01

    Soft-sediment deformation structures (SSDS) are documented in several horizons within silt- and sandstones of the Cambrian Series 2 (Dominopolian Stage) Tiskre Formation, and some in the below-deposited argillaceous deposits of the Lükati Formation (northern part of the Baltoscandian Palaeobasin, NW Estonia). The aim of this study was to map, describe, and analyze these deformation features, discuss their deformation mechanism and possible triggers. Load structures (simple load casts, pillows, flame structures, convoluted lamination) with varying shapes and sizes occur in the Tiskre Fm in sedimentary interfaces within medium-bedded peritidal rhythmites (siltstone-argillaceous material) as well as within up to 3 m thick slightly seaward inclined stacked sandstone sequences. Homogenized beds, dish-and-pillar structures, and severely deformed bedding are also found within these stacked units and within a large tidal runoff channel infill. Autoclastic breccias and water-escape channels are rare and occur only in small-scale -- always related to thin, horizontal tidal laminae. Profound sedimentary dykes, sand volcanoes, and thrust faults, which are often related to earthquake triggered soft sediment deformation, were not observed within the studied intervals. Deformation horizon or horizons with large flat-topped pillows often with elongated morphologies occur at or near the boundary between the Tiskre and Lükati formations. Deformation mechanisms identified in this study for the various deformation types are gravitationally unstable reversed density gradient (especially in case of load features that are related to profound sedimentary interfaces) and lateral shear stress due to sediment current drag (in case of deformation structures that not related to loading at any apparent sedimentary interface). Synsedimentary liquefaction was identified as the primary driving force in most of the observed deformation horizons. Clay thixotropy may have contributed in the

  3. CPAP Adherence in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Obstructive Sleep Apnea prior to Elective Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Guralnick, Amy S.; Pant, Melissa; Minhaj, Mohammed; Sweitzer, Bobbie Jean; Mokhlesi, Babak

    2012-01-01

    period was extremely low. African American race, male gender, and depressive symptoms were independently associated with reduced CPAP usage. Further research is needed to identify and overcome barriers to CPAP acceptance and adherence in the perioperative setting. Citation: Guralnick AS; Pant M; Minhaj M; Sweitzer BJ; Mokhlesi B. CPAP adherence in patients with newly diagnosed obstructive sleep apnea prior to elective surgery. J Clin Sleep Med 2012;8(5):501-506. PMID:23066360

  4. Development Factors and Field Dependence-Independence.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-11-01

    The use of field dependence -field independence measures has been suggested for both the selection and classification of naval aviators. If measures...of field dependence -field independence are predictive of pilot proficiency, the utility of the construct for selection and classification could be...moderated by the influence of intraindividual changes in field dependence -field independence (FD-FI) over time. This report reviews (1) particulars of the

  5. Molecular Studies of HTLV-1 Infection in Newly Recognized High Risk Population

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-07-10

    AD-A269 725 -Iu 11 i!IIH1111iIIi( AD CONTRACT NO: DAMD17-91-C-1001 TITLE: MOLECULAR STUDIES OF HTLV -I INFECTION IN NEWLY RECOGNIZED HIGH RISK...34 (6/10/91 - 6/9/93) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS Molecular Studies of HTLV -I Infection in Newly Recognized High Risk Population Contract No...summarizes the two years of contract of the research aimed to define newly recognized high risk population for HTLV -I infection. To define the extent

  6. A preparative suspension culture system permitting quantitation of anchorage-independent growth by direct radiolabeling of cellular DNA.

    PubMed

    Assoian, R K; Boardman, L A; Drosinos, S

    1989-02-15

    We have developed a hybrid methylcellulose/agar suspension culture system which permits long-term colony formation of transformed mesenchymal cells. In contrast to traditional agar suspensions, our system allows for recovery of cells and direct biochemical analysis of anchorage-independent growth. The ability to readily radiolabel cellular macromolecules in these preparative cultures permits a quantitative and objective analysis of colony formation by incorporation of [3H]thymidine into newly synthesized DNA.

  7. Polarization-independent all-fiber multiwavelength-switchable filter based on a polarization-diversity loop configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yong Wook; Han, Kyung Jun; Lee, Byoungho; Jung, Jaehoon

    2003-12-01

    In this paper a polarization-independent all-fiber multiwavelength-switchable filter based on a polarization-diversity loop configuration is newly proposed. The proposed apparatus consists of a polarization beam splitter, high birefringence fibers, and polarization controllers. Our theoretical analysis shows that the apparatus exhibits unique feature which allows it to operate as a polarization-independent multiwavelength periodic filter with a good channel isolation and to make its channel wavelength switchable by varying effective birefringence of the polarization-diversity loop through the proper adjustment of the polarization controllers contained within the loop. Theoretical prediction was experimentally verified.

  8. Teaching the Declaration of Independence. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, John J.

    The Declaration of Independence is the founding document of the United States. It is part of the social studies core curriculum in U.S. schools. By the time they graduate from high school, students are expected to know the main ideas in the Declaration of Independence and their significance. This digest discusses: (1) the origins of the…

  9. The Public Stake in Independent Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Lawrence

    The importance of higher education in providing the skilled labor force needed to respond to changing technologies; the cost-efficiency of independent higher education; and implications for government, industry, and independent higher education are considered. The most readily changing technologies include computers and electronics, satellite…

  10. 33 CFR 159.93 - Independent supporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Independent supporting. 159.93 Section 159.93 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.93 Independent supporting....

  11. 33 CFR 159.93 - Independent supporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Independent supporting. 159.93 Section 159.93 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.93 Independent supporting....

  12. 33 CFR 159.93 - Independent supporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Independent supporting. 159.93 Section 159.93 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.93 Independent supporting....

  13. 33 CFR 159.93 - Independent supporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Independent supporting. 159.93 Section 159.93 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.93 Independent supporting....

  14. 33 CFR 159.93 - Independent supporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Independent supporting. 159.93 Section 159.93 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.93 Independent supporting....

  15. Hiring and Retaining Great Independent School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balossi, Matt; Hernández, Natalie R.

    2016-01-01

    While numerous studies measure teacher effectiveness in public schools, there is little research on teacher quality among independent schools. In fact, the topic of teacher quality in public schools receives widespread media coverage, funding, and special interest. In order to better understand how independent schools describe high-quality…

  16. 38 CFR 46.8 - Independent contractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Independent contractors... contractors. Independent contractors acting on behalf of the Department of Veterans Affairs are subject to the... provide the contractor with notice that a report of a clinical privileges action will be filed with...

  17. 46 CFR 62.30-5 - Independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Independence. 62.30-5 Section 62.30-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING VITAL SYSTEM AUTOMATION Reliability and Safety Criteria, All Automated Vital Systems § 62.30-5 Independence. (a) Single...

  18. 46 CFR 62.30-5 - Independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Independence. 62.30-5 Section 62.30-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING VITAL SYSTEM AUTOMATION Reliability and Safety Criteria, All Automated Vital Systems § 62.30-5 Independence. (a) Single...

  19. 46 CFR 62.30-5 - Independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Independence. 62.30-5 Section 62.30-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING VITAL SYSTEM AUTOMATION Reliability and Safety Criteria, All Automated Vital Systems § 62.30-5 Independence. (a) Single...

  20. The Independent Living Behavior Checklist: Experimental Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walls, Richard T.; And Others

    The document describes independent living skills, and provides information on how they can be measured. It is explained in an introductory chapter that the checklist is an extensive list of 343 independent living skill objectives specified in terms of conditions (antecedents or givens), behaviors, and standards. Objectives are classified and…

  1. 29 CFR 785.30 - Independent training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Independent training. 785.30 Section 785.30 Labor... POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS HOURS WORKED Application of Principles Lectures, Meetings and Training Programs § 785.30 Independent training. Of course, if an employee on...

  2. 29 CFR 785.30 - Independent training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Independent training. 785.30 Section 785.30 Labor... POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS HOURS WORKED Application of Principles Lectures, Meetings and Training Programs § 785.30 Independent training. Of course, if an employee on...

  3. 29 CFR 785.30 - Independent training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Independent training. 785.30 Section 785.30 Labor... POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS HOURS WORKED Application of Principles Lectures, Meetings and Training Programs § 785.30 Independent training. Of course, if an employee on...

  4. 29 CFR 785.30 - Independent training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Independent training. 785.30 Section 785.30 Labor... POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS HOURS WORKED Application of Principles Lectures, Meetings and Training Programs § 785.30 Independent training. Of course, if an employee on...

  5. The New Marketing Handbook for Independent Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boarding Schools, Boston, MA.

    Planning coherent, relevant marketing strategies is crucial to the survival of independent education in the United States. This handbook was created for independent school marketers; principals; and development, publications, public relations, and admissions directors. It offers checklists, sidebars, callouts, and summaries that focus on…

  6. 12 CFR 34.45 - Appraiser independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Appraiser independence. 34.45 Section 34.45 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REAL ESTATE LENDING AND APPRAISALS Appraisals § 34.45 Appraiser independence. (a) Staff appraisers. If an appraisal is prepared by...

  7. 12 CFR 34.45 - Appraiser independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Appraiser independence. 34.45 Section 34.45 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REAL ESTATE LENDING AND APPRAISALS Appraisals § 34.45 Appraiser independence. (a) Staff appraisers. If an appraisal is prepared by...

  8. 12 CFR 34.45 - Appraiser independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Appraiser independence. 34.45 Section 34.45 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REAL ESTATE LENDING AND APPRAISALS Appraisals § 34.45 Appraiser independence. (a) Staff appraisers. If an appraisal is prepared by...

  9. 12 CFR 34.45 - Appraiser independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Appraiser independence. 34.45 Section 34.45 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REAL ESTATE LENDING AND APPRAISALS Appraisals § 34.45 Appraiser independence. (a) Staff appraisers. If an appraisal is prepared by...

  10. 12 CFR 34.45 - Appraiser independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appraiser independence. 34.45 Section 34.45 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REAL ESTATE LENDING AND APPRAISALS Appraisals § 34.45 Appraiser independence. (a) Staff appraisers. If an appraisal is prepared by...

  11. 46 CFR 62.30-5 - Independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Independence. 62.30-5 Section 62.30-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING VITAL SYSTEM AUTOMATION Reliability and Safety Criteria, All Automated Vital Systems § 62.30-5 Independence. (a) Single...

  12. Teacher's Guide to Independence National Historical Park.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Philadelphia, PA. Independence National Historical Park.

    Independence National Historical Park, located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, is operated by the National Park Service. The park was authorized by an Act of Congress on June 28, 1948, and formally established on July 4, 1956. The mission of Independence National Historical Park is to preserve its stories, buildings, and artifacts as a source of…

  13. Accounting for Independent Schools. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Independent Schools, Boston, MA.

    This is a thoroughly revised edition of the 1969 publication, "Accounting for Independent Schools," a guide that attempted to codify basic accounting principles and practices for specific application to independent schools. The focus of the second edition is more on refining practices than on initiating them, and more on extending the managerial…

  14. Independence and Community in Our Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallery, David

    During the past few years a new trend in day to day schooling has developed, namely independent studies, that involves learning experience between people. This monograph presents the idea that there is a relation between independence in school programs and a desire for "community" (the coming-together of people) which is mutually nourishing.…

  15. 29 CFR 785.30 - Independent training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Independent training. 785.30 Section 785.30 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL... Lectures, Meetings and Training Programs § 785.30 Independent training. Of course, if an employee on...

  16. The Effect of Depression on Social Engagement in Newly Admitted Dutch Nursing Home Residents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achterberg, Wilco; Pot, Anne Margriet; Kerkstra, Ada; Ooms, Marcel; Muller, Martien; Ribbe, Miel

    2003-01-01

    Studies the effect of depression on social engagement among newly admitted nursing home residents. Results reveal that residents with depression were significantly more often found to have low social engagement. (Contains 26 references and 3 tables.) (GCP)

  17. Evaluation of Three Porous Pavement Systems in a Newly Constructed Parking Lot

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project examines porous pavement systems in a newly constructed parking lot next to Building 205 at the Edison Environmental Center. Porous pavement systems are one means of promoting environmental sustainability through stormwater runoff reduction. This project examines t...

  18. DETERMINATION OF NEWLY IDENTIFIED DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Metropolitan Water District of Southern California (MWDSC) is investigating the occurrence of 39 newly identified disinfection by-products (DBPs)-which were not included in the Information Collection Rule (ICR)-in drinking waters. Halomethanes (HMs), haloacetonitriles (HANs),...

  19. Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles of Campylobacter spp. Isolated from Broiler Chicken Meat of Estonian, Latvian and Lithuanian Origin at Estonian Retail Level and from Patients with Severe Enteric Infections in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Mäesaar, M; Kramarenko, T; Meremäe, K; Sõgel, J; Lillenberg, M; Häkkinen, L; Ivanova, M; Kovalenko, K; Hörman, A; Hänninen, M-L; Roasto, M

    2016-03-01

    The resistance patterns of Campylobacter spp. isolated from retail broiler chicken meat originating either from Estonia, Lithuania or Latvia collected in Estonia were determined. Additionally, in collaboration with the laboratories of several Estonian hospitals, antimicrobial susceptibility patterns were determined for Campylobacter isolates from patients with severe Campylobacter enteric infections. The isolates were identified at the species level by the PCR method. Respectively, 88.8% of the isolates were C. jejuni, and 11.2% were C. coli. In total, 126 Campylobacter isolates of broiler chicken meat and human origin were tested for minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) with the broth microdilution VetMIC(TH) method (National Veterinary Institute; Uppsala, Sweden) for a total of six antimicrobials. Resistance to one or more antimicrobials was detected in 62 (63.3%) of Campylobacter broiler chicken meat isolates and in 20 (71.4%) of human-origin isolates. Large proportions of the broiler chicken meat isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin (60.2%). Multidrug resistance (i.e. to three or more unrelated antimicrobials) was detected in five (5.1%) C. jejuni isolates. Among the human isolates, 20 (71.4%) were resistant to fluoroquinolones, and two (7.1%) C. jejuni isolates exhibited multidrug resistance. The chicken meat isolates of Estonian origin were the most susceptible. However, a high proportion of fluoroquinolone-resistant C. jejuni isolates were found in Latvian and Lithuanian products. The results of this study indicate that the problems caused by the inappropriate use of antimicrobials extend beyond the country in which a food originates; therefore, both domestic and international interventions and agreements are required to implement common policies on antimicrobial usage and to minimize the emergence of Campylobacter drug resistance.

  20. Statistical mechanics of maximal independent sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dall'Asta, Luca; Pin, Paolo; Ramezanpour, Abolfazl

    2009-12-01

    The graph theoretic concept of maximal independent set arises in several practical problems in computer science as well as in game theory. A maximal independent set is defined by the set of occupied nodes that satisfy some packing and covering constraints. It is known that finding minimum and maximum-density maximal independent sets are hard optimization problems. In this paper, we use cavity method of statistical physics and Monte Carlo simulations to study the corresponding constraint satisfaction problem on random graphs. We obtain the entropy of maximal independent sets within the replica symmetric and one-step replica symmetry breaking frameworks, shedding light on the metric structure of the landscape of solutions and suggesting a class of possible algorithms. This is of particular relevance for the application to the study of strategic interactions in social and economic networks, where maximal independent sets correspond to pure Nash equilibria of a graphical game of public goods allocation.