Science.gov

Sample records for newly organized irphep

  1. INTEGRAL BENCHMARK DATA FOR NUCLEAR DATA TESTING THROUGH THE ICSBEP AND THE NEWLY ORGANIZED IRPHEP

    SciTech Connect

    J. Blair Briggs; Lori Scott; Yolanda Rugama; Enrico Satori

    2007-04-01

    The status of the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) was last reported in a nuclear data conference at the International Conference on Nuclear Data for Science and Technology, ND-2004, in Santa Fe, New Mexico. Since that time the number and type of integral benchmarks have increased significantly. Included in the ICSBEP Handbook are criticality-alarm / shielding and fundamental physic benchmarks in addition to the traditional critical / subcritical benchmark data. Since ND 2004, a reactor physics counterpart to the ICSBEP, the International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) was initiated. The IRPhEP is patterned after the ICSBEP, but focuses on other integral measurements, such as buckling, spectral characteristics, reactivity effects, reactivity coefficients, kinetics measurements, reaction-rate and power distributions, nuclide compositions, and other miscellaneous-type measurements in addition to the critical configuration. The status of these two projects is discussed and selected benchmarks highlighted in this paper.

  2. Newly Available Reactor Physics Benchmark data in the March 2011 Edition of the IRPhEP Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Bess; J. Blair Briggs; Jim Gulliford

    2011-06-01

    The International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) was established to preserve integral reactor physics experimental data, including separate or special effects data for nuclear energy and technology applications. Numerous experiments that have been performed worldwide, represent a large investment of infrastructure, expertise, and cost, and are valuable resources of data for present and future research. These valuable assets provide the basis for recording, development, and validation of methods. If the data are compromised, it is unlikely that any of these measurements would be repeated in the future. The purpose of the IRPhEP is to provide an extensively peer-reviewed set of reactor physics-related integral data that can be used by reactor designers and safety analysts to validate the analytical tools used to design next-generation reactors and establish the safety basis for operation of these reactors. Contributors from around the world collaborate in the evaluation and review of selected benchmark experiments for inclusion in the International Handbook of Evaluated Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments (IRPhEP Handbook). Several new evaluations have been prepared for inclusion in the March 2011 edition of the IRPhEP Handbook.

  3. Benchmark Data Through The International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPHEP)

    SciTech Connect

    J. Blair Briggs; Dr. Enrico Sartori

    2005-09-01

    The International Reactor Physics Experiments Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) was initiated by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Nuclear Energy Agency’s (NEA) Nuclear Science Committee (NSC) in June of 2002. The IRPhEP focus is on the derivation of internationally peer reviewed benchmark models for several types of integral measurements, in addition to the critical configuration. While the benchmarks produced by the IRPhEP are of primary interest to the Reactor Physics Community, many of the benchmarks can be of significant value to the Criticality Safety and Nuclear Data Communities. Benchmarks that support the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), for example, also support fuel manufacture, handling, transportation, and storage activities and could challenge current analytical methods. The IRPhEP is patterned after the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) and is closely coordinated with the ICSBEP. This paper highlights the benchmarks that are currently being prepared by the IRPhEP that are also of interest to the Criticality Safety Community. The different types of measurements and associated benchmarks that can be expected in the first publication and beyond are described. The protocol for inclusion of IRPhEP benchmarks as ICSBEP benchmarks and for inclusion of ICSBEP benchmarks as IRPhEP benchmarks is detailed. The format for IRPhEP benchmark evaluations is described as an extension of the ICSBEP format. Benchmarks produced by the IRPhEP add new dimension to criticality safety benchmarking efforts and expand the collection of available integral benchmarks for nuclear data testing. The first publication of the "International Handbook of Evaluated Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments" is scheduled for January of 2006.

  4. Integral Benchmark Data for Nuclear Data Testing Through the ICSBEP & IRPhEP

    SciTech Connect

    J. Blair Briggs; John D. Bess; Jim Gulliford; Ian Hill

    2013-10-01

    The status of the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) and International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) was last discussed directly with the nuclear data community at ND2007. Since ND2007, integral benchmark data that are available for nuclear data testing have increased significantly. The status of the ICSBEP and the IRPhEP is discussed and selected benchmark configurations that have been added to the ICSBEP and IRPhEP Handbooks since ND2007 are highlighted.

  5. Integral Benchmark Data for Nuclear Data Testing Through the ICSBEP & IRPhEP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, J. B.; Bess, J. D.; Gulliford, J.

    2014-04-01

    The status of the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) and International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) was last discussed directly with the nuclear data community at ND2007. Since ND2007, integral benchmark data that are available for nuclear data testing have increased significantly. The status of the ICSBEP and the IRPhEP is discussed and selected benchmark configurations that have been added to the ICSBEP and IRPhEP Handbooks since ND2007 are highlighted.

  6. Overview of the 2014 Edition of the International Handbook of Evaluated Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments (IRPhEP Handbook)

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Bess; J. Blair Briggs; Jim Gulliford; Ian Hill

    2014-10-01

    The International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) is a widely recognized world class program. The work of the IRPhEP is documented in the International Handbook of Evaluated Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments (IRPhEP Handbook). Integral data from the IRPhEP Handbook is used by reactor safety and design, nuclear data, criticality safety, and analytical methods development specialists, worldwide, to perform necessary validations of their calculational techniques. The IRPhEP Handbook is among the most frequently quoted reference in the nuclear industry and is expected to be a valuable resource for future decades.

  7. 40 CFR 268.38 - Waste specific prohibitions-newly identified organic toxicity characteristic wastes and newly...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Waste specific prohibitions-newly identified organic toxicity characteristic wastes and newly listed coke by-product and chlorotoluene... specific prohibitions—newly identified organic toxicity characteristic wastes and newly listed coke...

  8. 40 CFR 268.38 - Waste specific prohibitions-newly identified organic toxicity characteristic wastes and newly...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Waste specific prohibitions-newly identified organic toxicity characteristic wastes and newly listed coke by-product and chlorotoluene... specific prohibitions—newly identified organic toxicity characteristic wastes and newly listed coke...

  9. 40 CFR 268.38 - Waste specific prohibitions-newly identified organic toxicity characteristic wastes and newly...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Waste specific prohibitions-newly identified organic toxicity characteristic wastes and newly listed coke by-product and chlorotoluene... specific prohibitions—newly identified organic toxicity characteristic wastes and newly listed coke...

  10. 40 CFR 268.38 - Waste specific prohibitions-newly identified organic toxicity characteristic wastes and newly...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Waste specific prohibitions-newly identified organic toxicity characteristic wastes and newly listed coke by-product and chlorotoluene... specific prohibitions—newly identified organic toxicity characteristic wastes and newly listed coke...

  11. 40 CFR 268.38 - Waste specific prohibitions-newly identified organic toxicity characteristic wastes and newly...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Waste specific prohibitions-newly identified organic toxicity characteristic wastes and newly listed coke by-product and chlorotoluene... specific prohibitions—newly identified organic toxicity characteristic wastes and newly listed coke...

  12. Growth and Expansion of the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project and the Newly Organized International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project

    SciTech Connect

    J. Blair Briggs; Lori Scott; Yolanda Rugama; Enrico Satori

    2007-05-01

    Since ICNC 2003, the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) has continued to expand its efforts and broaden its scope. Criticality-alarm / shielding type benchmarks and fundamental physics measurements that are relevant to criticality safety applications are not only included in the scope of the project, but benchmark data are also included in the latest version of the handbook. A considerable number of improvements have been made to the searchable database, DICE and the criticality-alarm / shielding benchmarks and fundamental physics measurements have been included in the database. There were 12 countries participating on the ICSBEP in 2003. That number has increased to 18 with recent contributions of data and/or resources from Brazil, Czech Republic, Poland, India, Canada, and China. South Africa, Germany, Argentina, and Australia have been invited to participate. Since ICNC 2003, the contents of the “International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments” have increased from 350 evaluations (28,000 pages) containing benchmark specifications for 3070 critical or subcritical configurations to 442 evaluations (over 38,000 pages) containing benchmark specifications for 3957 critical or subcritical configurations, 23 criticality-alarm-placement / shielding configurations with multiple dose points for each, and 20 configurations that have been categorized as fundamental physics measurements that are relevant to criticality safety applications in the 2006 Edition of the ICSBEP Handbook. Approximately 30 new evaluations and 250 additional configurations are expected to be added to the 2007 Edition of the Handbook. Since ICNC 2003, a reactor physics counterpart to the ICSBEP, The International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) was initiated. Beginning in 1999, the IRPhEP was conducted as a pilot activity by the by the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Nuclear Energy

  13. New Reactor Physics Benchmark Data in the March 2012 Edition of the IRPhEP Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Bess; J. Blair Briggs; Jim Gulliford

    2012-11-01

    The International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) was established to preserve integral reactor physics experimental data, including separate or special effects data for nuclear energy and technology applications. Numerous experiments that have been performed worldwide, represent a large investment of infrastructure, expertise, and cost, and are valuable resources of data for present and future research. These valuable assets provide the basis for recording, development, and validation of methods. If the experimental data are lost, the high cost to repeat many of these measurements may be prohibitive. The purpose of the IRPhEP is to provide an extensively peer-reviewed set of reactor physics-related integral data that can be used by reactor designers and safety analysts to validate the analytical tools used to design next-generation reactors and establish the safety basis for operation of these reactors. Contributors from around the world collaborate in the evaluation and review of selected benchmark experiments for inclusion in the International Handbook of Evaluated Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments (IRPhEP Handbook) [1]. Several new evaluations have been prepared for inclusion in the March 2012 edition of the IRPhEP Handbook.

  14. Benchmark Development in Support of Generation-IV Reactor Validation (IRPhEP 2010 Handbook)

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Bess; J. Blair Briggs

    2010-06-01

    The March 2010 edition of the International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) Handbook includes additional benchmark data that can be implemented in the validation of data and methods for Generation IV (GEN-IV) reactor designs. Evaluations supporting sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) efforts include the initial isothermal tests of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) at the Hanford Site, the Zero Power Physics Reactor (ZPPR) 10B and 10C experiments at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), and the burn-up reactivity coefficient of Japan’s JOYO reactor. An assessment of Russia’s BFS-61 assemblies at the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE) provides additional information for lead-cooled fast reactor (LFR) systems. Benchmarks in support of the very high temperature reactor (VHTR) project include evaluations of the HTR-PROTEUS experiments performed at the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI) in Switzerland and the start-up core physics tests of Japan’s High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor. The critical configuration of the Power Burst Facility (PBF) at the INL which used ternary ceramic fuel, U(18)O2-CaO-ZrO2, is of interest for fuel cycle research and development (FCR&D) and has some similarities to “inert-matrix” fuels that are of interest in GEN-IV advanced reactor design. Two additional evaluations were revised to include additional evaluated experimental data, in support of light water reactor (LWR) and heavy water reactor (HWR) research; these include reactor physics experiments at Brazil’s IPEN/MB-01 Research Reactor Facility and the French High Flux Reactor (RHF), respectively. The IRPhEP Handbook now includes data from 45 experimental series (representing 24 reactor facilities) and represents contributions from 15 countries. These experimental measurements represent large investments of infrastructure, experience, and cost that have been evaluated and preserved as benchmarks for the validation of methods and collection of

  15. [Comprehensive evaluation of improving effects of different organic wastes on a newly reclaimed cultivated land].

    PubMed

    Xu, Qiu-tong; Kong, Zhang-liang; Zhang, Ming-kui

    2016-02-01

    There are many problems such as low soil organic matter, available nutrients and microbial activity, compaction, and poor tillage properties for a newly reclaimed cultivated land, and the establishment of a fast, effective measure for improving soil fertility quality is of importance to enhance the quality and production performance of the newly cultivated land. A field experiment was carried out to observe the effect of organic wastes on soil fertility of a newly reclaimed cultivated land, and compared the differences of different types of urban organic wastes. The field experiment included nine treatments, i.e., pig manure, chicken manure, rice straw, vegetable harvest residue, urban sludge, biogas residue, manure+rice straw compost, garbage compost and control without organic fertilizer at annual application rate of 30 t . hm-2, and ran for three consecutive years. The results showed that the application of each type of the eight organic wastes had obvious effects on improving soil fertility. Among them, pig manure, chicken manure, pig manure+rice straw compost, rice straw and biogas residue were the most effective to enhance the carbon pool management index of soil. The addition of pig manure+rice straw compost and biogas residue had the best effect on increasing the soil water stable aggregates and decreasing soil bulk density. Sewage sludge, pig manure+rice straw compost and garbage compost could enhance soil water holding capacity. Pig manure, chicken manure and pig manure+rice straw compost had most obvious effect on increasing soil available nutrients. All kinds of organic wastes increased the number of soil microorganisms and the activity of enzymes. There were some risk of soil heavy metals pollution.for the long-term application of sludge, garbage compost and manure. However, the impact of short-term application of the wastes on soil environmental quality was not obvious. Overall, effects of organic wastes on soil fertility decreased in the order of pig

  16. A newly isolated organic solvent tolerant Staphylococcus saprophyticus M36 produced organic solvent-stable lipase.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yaowei; Lu, Zhaoxin; Lv, Fengxia; Bie, Xiaomei; Liu, Shu; Ding, Zhongyang; Xu, Weifeng

    2006-12-01

    Thirty-eight high lipase activity strains were isolated from soil, seawater, and Brassica napus. Among them, a novel organic solvent tolerant bacterium (strain M36) was isolated from the seawater in Jiangsu, China. Isolate M36 was able to grow at high concentration of benzene or toluene up to 40% (vol/vol), and later identified as Staphylococcus saprophyticus by biochemical test and 16s ribosomal DNA sequence. No work on Staphylococcus producing lipase with organic solvent tolerance has been reported so far. The lipase of strain M36 whose activity in liquid medium was 42 U mL(-1) at 24-h incubation time was stable in the presence of 25% (vol/vol) p-xylene, benzene, toluene, and hexane.

  17. Measurements of Volatile Organic Compounds in a Newly Built Daycare Center

    PubMed Central

    Noguchi, Miyuki; Mizukoshi, Atsushi; Yanagisawa, Yukio; Yamasaki, Akihiro

    2016-01-01

    We measured temporal changes in concentrations of total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) and individual volatile organic compounds in a newly built daycare center. The temporal changes of the TVOC concentrations were monitored with a photo ionization detector (PID), and indoor air was sampled and analyzed by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to determine the concentrations of the constituent VOCs. The measurements were performed just after completion of the building and again 3 months after completion. The TVOC concentration exceeded 1000 µg·m−3 for all the sampling locations just after completion of building, and decreased almost one tenth after 3 months, to below the guideline values of the TVOC in Japan at 400 µg·m−3. The concentrations of the target VOCs of which the indoor concentrations are regulated in Japan were below the guideline values for all the cases. The air-exchange rates were determined based on the temporal changes of the TVOC concentrations, and it was found that the countermeasure to increase the air exchange rate successfully decrease the TVOC concentration level in the rooms. PMID:27455290

  18. New Land disposal restrictions for contaminated soil and debris, and newly identified toxicity characteristic organic wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The applicability of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR) program to radioactive mixed wastes (RMW) has been clarified through US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and US Department of Energy (DOE) rulemakings and notices. However, a number of waste management concerns involving RMW and RMW-contaminated soil and debris continue to exist with respect to achieving compliance with LDR provisions and treatment standards. Consequently, DOE has become increasingly proactive in its participation in the LDR rulemaking process and in the identification of LDR compliance issues associated with its RMW inventories. Both data and recommendations from across the DOE complex have been collected and transmitted to EPA in response to proposed requirements that would implement LDR for contaminated soil and debris, and certain newly identified toxicity characteristic (TC) organic wastes. Much of this information focused on concerns related to the application of proposed regulatory approaches to RMW streams. Some highlights from the information included in these DOE responses are presented.

  19. A Case Study of the Socialization of Newly Hired Engineers: How New Engineers Learn the Social Norms of an Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korte, Russell F.

    2008-01-01

    This case-study research investigated how newly hired engineers at a large manufacturing company learned what they were expected to do during their first year on the job, as well as how they were expected to do their work and why it was done that way (the social norms of the organization). Two major findings challenge and extend the traditional…

  20. The development of the olfactory organs in newly hatched monotremes and neonate marsupials.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Nanette Yvette

    2011-08-01

    Olfactory cues are thought to play a crucial role in the detection of the milk source at birth in mammals. It has been shown that a marsupial, the tammar wallaby, can detect olfactory cues from its mother's pouch at birth. This study investigates whether the main olfactory and accessory olfactory system are similarly well developed in other marsupials and monotremes at birth/hatching as in the tammar. Sections of the head of various marsupial and two monotreme species were investigated by light microscopy. Both olfactory systems were less well developed in the kowari and Eastern quoll. No olfactory or vomeronasal or terminal nerves could be observed; the main olfactory bulb (MOB) had only two layers while no accessory olfactory bulb or ganglion terminale were visible. All other investigated marsupials and monotremes showed further developed olfactory systems with olfactory, vomeronasal and terminal nerves, a three-layered MOB, and in the marsupials a prominent ganglion terminale. The main olfactory system was further developed than the accessory olfactory system in all species investigated. The olfactory systems were the least developed in species in which the mother's birth position removed most of the difficulty in reaching the teat, placing the neonate directly in the pouch. In monotremes they were the furthest developed as Bowman glands were found underlying the main olfactory epithelium. This may reflect the need to locate the milk field each time they drink as they cannot permanently attach to it, unlike therian mammals. While it still needs to be determined how an odour signal could be further processed in the brain, this study suggests that marsupials and monotremes possess well enough developed olfactory systems to be able to detect an odour cue from the mammary area at birth/hatching. It is therefore likely that neonate marsupials and newly hatched monotremes find their way to the milk source using olfactory cues, as has been previously suggested for the

  1. The development of the olfactory organs in newly hatched monotremes and neonate marsupials

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Nanette Yvette

    2011-01-01

    Olfactory cues are thought to play a crucial role in the detection of the milk source at birth in mammals. It has been shown that a marsupial, the tammar wallaby, can detect olfactory cues from its mother's pouch at birth. This study investigates whether the main olfactory and accessory olfactory system are similarly well developed in other marsupials and monotremes at birth/hatching as in the tammar. Sections of the head of various marsupial and two monotreme species were investigated by light microscopy. Both olfactory systems were less well developed in the kowari and Eastern quoll. No olfactory or vomeronasal or terminal nerves could be observed; the main olfactory bulb (MOB) had only two layers while no accessory olfactory bulb or ganglion terminale were visible. All other investigated marsupials and monotremes showed further developed olfactory systems with olfactory, vomeronasal and terminal nerves, a three-layered MOB, and in the marsupials a prominent ganglion terminale. The main olfactory system was further developed than the accessory olfactory system in all species investigated. The olfactory systems were the least developed in species in which the mother's birth position removed most of the difficulty in reaching the teat, placing the neonate directly in the pouch. In monotremes they were the furthest developed as Bowman glands were found underlying the main olfactory epithelium. This may reflect the need to locate the milk field each time they drink as they cannot permanently attach to it, unlike therian mammals. While it still needs to be determined how an odour signal could be further processed in the brain, this study suggests that marsupials and monotremes possess well enough developed olfactory systems to be able to detect an odour cue from the mammary area at birth/hatching. It is therefore likely that neonate marsupials and newly hatched monotremes find their way to the milk source using olfactory cues, as has been previously suggested for the

  2. Purification and characterization of organic solvent stable serine alkaline protease from newly isolated Bacillus circulans M34.

    PubMed

    Sari, Esma; Loğoğlu, Elif; Öktemer, Atilla

    2015-09-01

    A protease from newly isolated Bacillus circulans M34 was purified by Q-Sepharose anion exchange chromatography and Sepharose-bacitracin affinity chromatography followed by (NH4)2SO4 precipitation. The molecular mass of the purified enzyme was determined using SDS-PAGE. The optimum pH and temperature for protease activity were 11 and 50°C, respectively. The effect of various metal ions on protease activity was investigated. Alkaline protease from Bacillus circulans M34 wase activated by Zn(2+), Cu(2+) and Co(2+) up to 31%. The purified protease was found to be stable in the organic solvents, surfactants and oxidizing agent. The substrate specificity of purified protease was investigated towards different substrates. The protease was almost completely inhibited by the serine protease inhibitor phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride. The kinetic parameters of the purified protease, maximum rate (Vmax) and Michaelis constant (Km), were determined using a Lineweaver-Burk plot.

  3. Newly Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding Your Pathology Biopsy: The First Step Sentinel Node Biopsy Melanoma ... start this journey: Get a copy of your pathology report. We can help you understand the report ...

  4. Newly Diagnosed

    MedlinePlus

    ... of transmitting HIV to others. Do I Have AIDS? Being HIV-positive does NOT necessarily mean you ... Children Newly Diagnosed: Older Adults Related Topics on AIDS.gov Stages of HIV Infection Immune System 101 ...

  5. Orchard floor management effects on nitrogen fertility and soil biological activity in a newly established organic apple orchard

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutrient supply in organic systems is dependent on mineralization of organic matter; however, the intensive cultivation commonly used to control weeds can disrupt biological processes and cause undue loss of organic matter. Here we address the often-competing goals of organic fertility and weed con...

  6. Dynamic Escherichia coli SeqA complexes organize the newly replicated DNA at a considerable distance from the replisome

    PubMed Central

    Helgesen, Emily; Fossum-Raunehaug, Solveig; Sætre, Frank; Schink, Kay Oliver; Skarstad, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    The Escherichia coli SeqA protein binds to newly replicated, hemimethylated DNA behind replication forks and forms structures consisting of several hundred SeqA molecules bound to about 100 kb of DNA. It has been suggested that SeqA structures either direct the new sister DNA molecules away from each other or constitute a spacer that keeps the sisters together. We have developed an image analysis script that automatically measures the distance between neighboring foci in cells. Using this tool as well as direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (dSTORM) we find that in cells with fluorescently tagged SeqA and replisome the sister SeqA structures were situated close together (less than about 30 nm apart) and relatively far from the replisome (on average 200–300 nm). The results support the idea that newly replicated sister molecules are kept together behind the fork and suggest the existence of a stretch of DNA between the replisome and SeqA which enjoys added stabilization. This could be important in facilitating DNA transactions such as recombination, mismatch repair and topoisomerase activity. In slowly growing cells without ongoing replication forks the SeqA protein was found to reside at the fully methylated origins prior to initiation of replication. PMID:25722374

  7. Inorganic nitrogen leaching from organic and conventional rice production on a newly claimed calciustoll in Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Meng, Fanqiao; Olesen, Jørgen E; Sun, Xiangping; Wu, Wenliang

    2014-01-01

    Characterizing the dynamics of nitrogen (N) leaching from organic and conventional paddy fields is necessary to optimize fertilization and to evaluate the impact of these contrasting farming systems on water bodies. We assessed N leaching in organic versus conventional rice production systems of the Ili River Valley, a representative aquatic ecosystem of Central Asia. The N leaching and overall performance of these systems were measured during 2009, using a randomized block experiment with five treatments. PVC pipes were installed at soil depths of 50 and 180 cm to collect percolation water from flooded organic and conventional paddies, and inorganic N (NH4-N+NO3-N) was analyzed. Two high-concentration peaks of NH4-N were observed in all treatments: one during early tillering and a second during flowering. A third peak at the mid-tillering stage was observed only under conventional fertilization. NO3-N concentrations were highest at transplant and then declined until harvest. At the 50 cm soil depth, NO3-N concentration was 21-42% higher than NH4-N in percolation water from organic paddies, while NH4-N and NO3-N concentrations were similar for the conventional and control treatments. At the depth of 180 cm, NH4-N and NO3-N were the predominant inorganic N for organic and conventional paddies, respectively. Inorganic N concentrations decreased with soil depth, but this attenuation was more marked in organic than in conventional paddies. Conventional paddies leached a higher percentage of applied N (0.78%) than did organic treatments (0.32-0.60%), but the two farming systems leached a similar amount of inorganic N per unit yield (0.21-0.34 kg N Mg(-1) rice grains). Conventional production showed higher N utilization efficiency compared to fertilized organic treatments. These results suggest that organic rice production in the Ili River Valley is unlikely to reduce inorganic N leaching, if high crop yields similar to conventional rice production are to be maintained.

  8. Inorganic Nitrogen Leaching from Organic and Conventional Rice Production on a Newly Claimed Calciustoll in Central Asia

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Fanqiao; Olesen, Jørgen E.; Sun, Xiangping; Wu, Wenliang

    2014-01-01

    Characterizing the dynamics of nitrogen (N) leaching from organic and conventional paddy fields is necessary to optimize fertilization and to evaluate the impact of these contrasting farming systems on water bodies. We assessed N leaching in organic versus conventional rice production systems of the Ili River Valley, a representative aquatic ecosystem of Central Asia. The N leaching and overall performance of these systems were measured during 2009, using a randomized block experiment with five treatments. PVC pipes were installed at soil depths of 50 and 180 cm to collect percolation water from flooded organic and conventional paddies, and inorganic N (NH4-N+NO3-N) was analyzed. Two high-concentration peaks of NH4-N were observed in all treatments: one during early tillering and a second during flowering. A third peak at the mid-tillering stage was observed only under conventional fertilization. NO3-N concentrations were highest at transplant and then declined until harvest. At the 50 cm soil depth, NO3-N concentration was 21–42% higher than NH4-N in percolation water from organic paddies, while NH4-N and NO3-N concentrations were similar for the conventional and control treatments. At the depth of 180 cm, NH4-N and NO3-N were the predominant inorganic N for organic and conventional paddies, respectively. Inorganic N concentrations decreased with soil depth, but this attenuation was more marked in organic than in conventional paddies. Conventional paddies leached a higher percentage of applied N (0.78%) than did organic treatments (0.32–0.60%), but the two farming systems leached a similar amount of inorganic N per unit yield (0.21–0.34 kg N Mg−1 rice grains). Conventional production showed higher N utilization efficiency compared to fertilized organic treatments. These results suggest that organic rice production in the Ili River Valley is unlikely to reduce inorganic N leaching, if high crop yields similar to conventional rice production are to be

  9. Enhanced Butanol Production Through Adding Organic Acids and Neutral Red by Newly Isolated Butanol-Tolerant Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Cheng; Cao, Guangli; Wang, Zhenyu; Li, Ying; Song, Jinzhu; Cong, Hua; Zhang, Junzheng; Yang, Qian

    2016-12-01

    As alternative microorganisms for butanol production with high butanol tolerant and productivity are in high demand, one excellent butanol-tolerant bacterium, S10, was isolated and identified as Clostridium acetobutylicum S10. In order to enhance the performance of butanol production, organic acids and neutral red were added during butanol fermentation. Synergistic effects were exhibited in the combinations of organic acids and neutral red to promote butanol production. Consequently, the optimal concentrations of combined acetate, butyrate, and neutral red were determined at sodium acetate 1.61 g/L, sodium butyrate 1.88 g/L, and neutral red 0.79 g/L, respectively, with the butanol yield of 6.09 g/L which was 20.89 % higher than that in control. These results indicated that combination of adding organic acid and neutral red is a potential effective measure to improve butanol production.

  10. Tracking the monthly changes of dissolved organic matter composition in a newly constructed reservoir and its tributaries during the initial impounding period.

    PubMed

    Chen, Meilian; He, Wei; Choi, Ilhwan; Hur, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the roles of inland reservoirs becomes increasingly important with respect to global carbon cycling as well as water resource management due to the unprecedented demand for construction in recent decades. In this study, the dissolved organic matter (DOM) quantity and quality in a newly constructed dam reservoir and its tributaries were monitored monthly during the initial impounding period (July to November 2014) using a size exclusion chromatography (SEC) with online organic carbon detector (OCD). The highest values were observed in the month of August with the highest precipitation for the bulk dissolved organic carbon (DOC), specific UV absorbance (SUVA), and most of the assigned size fractions (except for biopolymers) in the tributaries, indicating that allochthonous sources of DOM were dominant in the feeding stream waters of the reservoir. The bulk DOC and high molecular weight humic substance fraction (∼1 kDa) were generally co-varied with the monthly precipitation in the tributaries, while building blocks (350-500 Da), and low molecular weight (LMW) acids and neutrals showed different trends. In a dam site, the smaller molecular fractions became more abundant during the dry season (September to November), presumably due to the in-reservoir processes such as photo- and bio-degradation. Our results also revealed that storms mobilized a large amount of highly aromatic soil-derived DOM to the reservoir. A depth profile at the dam site showed the water is well mixed up to a depth of ∼20 m. The SEC-OCD data coupled with non-metric multidimensional scaling provided a clear visualization of the spatiotemporal variations in DOM composition, which shed new light on the DOM composition formed in a newly constructed dam reservoir and also on the strategies for future water treatment options.

  11. Compound-specific 15N analysis of amino acids in 15N tracer experiments provide an estimate of newly synthesised soil protein from inorganic and organic substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charteris, Alice; Michaelides, Katerina; Evershed, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Organic N concentrations far exceed those of inorganic N in most soils and despite much investigation, the composition and cycling of this complex pool of SOM remains poorly understood. A particular problem has been separating more recalcitrant soil organic N from that actively cycling through the soil system; an important consideration in N cycling studies and for the soil's nutrient supplying capacity. The use of 15N-labelled substrates as stable isotope tracers has contributed much to our understanding of the soil system, but the complexity and heterogeneity of soil organic N prevents thorough compound-specific 15N analyses of organic N compounds and makes it difficult to examine any 15N-labelled organic products in any detail. As a result, a significant proportion of previous work has either simply assumed that since the majority of soil N is organic, all of the 15N retained in the soil is organic N (e.g. Sebilo et al., 2013) or subtracted 15N-labelled inorganic compounds from bulk values (e.g. Pilbeam et al., 1997). While the latter approach is more accurate, these methods only provide an estimate of the bulk 15N value of an extremely complex and non-uniformly labelled organic pool. A more detailed approach has been to use microbial biomass extraction (Brookes et al., 1985) and subsequent N isotopic analysis to determine the 15N value of biomass-N, representing the fraction of 15N assimilated by microbes or the 15N cycling through the 'living' or 'active' portion of soil organic N. However, this extraction method can only generate estimates and some lack of confidence in its validity and reliability remains. Here, we present an alternative technique to obtain a measure of the assimilation of an applied 15N substrate by the soil microbial biomass and an estimate of the newly synthesized soil protein, which is representative of the magnitude of the active soil microbial biomass. The technique uses a stable isotope tracer and compound-specific 15N analysis, but

  12. Metformin Transport by a Newly Cloned Proton-Stimulated Organic Cation Transporter (Plasma Membrane Monoamine Transporter) Expressed in Human Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Mingyan; Xia, Li; Wang, Joanne

    2009-01-01

    Metformin is a widely used oral antihyperglycemic drug for the treatment of type II diabetes mellitus. The intestinal absorption of metformin is dose-dependent and involves an active, saturable uptake process. Metformin has been shown to be transported by the human organic cation transporters 1 and 2 (hOCT1–2). We recently cloned and characterized a novel proton-activated organic cation transporter, plasma membrane monoamine transporter (PMAT). We previously showed that PMAT transports many classic organic cations (e.g., monoamine neurotransmitters, 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium) in a pH-dependent manner and its mRNA is expressed in multiple human tissues. The goal of this study is to investigate whether metformin is a substrate of PMAT and whether PMAT plays a role in the intestinal uptake of metformin. Using Madin-Darby canine kidney cells stably expressing human PMAT, we showed that metformin is avidly transported by PMAT, with an apparent affinity (Km = 1.32 mM) comparable to those reported for hOCT1–2. Interestingly, the concentration-velocity profile of PMAT-mediated metformin uptake is sigmoidal, with a Hill coefficient of 2.64. PMAT-mediated metformin transport is greatly stimulated by acidic pH, with the uptake rate being ~4-fold higher at pH 6.6 than at pH 7.4. Using a polyclonal antibody against PMAT, we showed that the PMAT protein (58 kDa) was expressed in human small intestine and concentrated on the tips of the mucosal epithelial layer. Taken together, our results suggest that PMAT transports metformin, is expressed in human intestine, and may play a role in the intestinal absorption of metformin and possibly other cationic drugs. PMID:17600084

  13. Evaluation of Volatile Organic Compounds and Carbonyl Compounds Present in the Cabins of Newly Produced, Medium- and Large-Size Coaches in China

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yan-Yang; Lin, Yi; Zhang, Han; Ding, Dongxiao; Sun, Xia; Huang, Qiansheng; Lin, Lifeng; Chen, Ya-Jie; Chi, Yu-Lang; Dong, Sijun

    2016-01-01

    An air-conditioned coach is an important form of transportation in modern motorized society; as a result, there is an increasing concern of in-vehicle air pollution. In this study, we aimed to identify and quantify the levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and carbonyl compounds (CCs) in air samples collected from the cabins of newly produced, medium- and large-size coaches. Among the identified VOCs and CCs, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein/acetone, and isovaleraldehyde were relatively abundant in the cabins. Time was found to affect the emissions of the contaminants in the coaches. Except for benzaldehyde, valeraldehyde and benzene, the highest in-vehicle concentrations of VOCs and CCs were observed on the 15th day after coming off the assembly line, and the concentrations exhibited an approximately inverted U-shaped pattern as a function of time. Interestingly, this study also showed that the interior temperature of the coaches significantly affected the VOCs emissions from the interior materials, whereas the levels of CCs were mainly influenced by the relative humidity within the coaches. In China, guidelines and regulations for the in-vehicle air quality assessment of the coaches have not yet been issued. The results of this study provide further understanding of the in-vehicle air quality of air-conditioned coaches and can be used in the development of both specific and general rules regarding medium- and large-size coaches. PMID:27314375

  14. Short-chain flavor ester synthesis in organic media by an E. coli whole-cell biocatalyst expressing a newly characterized heterologous lipase.

    PubMed

    Brault, Guillaume; Shareck, François; Hurtubise, Yves; Lépine, François; Doucet, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Short-chain aliphatic esters are small volatile molecules that produce fruity and pleasant aromas and flavors. Most of these esters are artificially produced or extracted from natural sources at high cost. It is, however, possible to 'naturally' produce these molecules using biocatalysts such as lipases and esterases. A gene coding for a newly uncovered lipase was isolated from a previous metagenomic study and cloned into E. coli BL21 (DE3) for overexpression using the pET16b plasmid. Using this recombinant strain as a whole-cell biocatalyst, short chain esters were efficiently synthesized by transesterification and esterification reactions in organic media. The recombinant lipase (LipIAF5-2) showed good affinity toward glyceryl trioctanoate and the highest conversion yields were obtained for the transesterification of glyceryl triacetate with methanol. Using a simple cetyl-trimethylammonium bromide pretreatment increased the synthetic activity by a six-fold factor and the whole-cell biocatalyst showed the highest activity at 40°C with a relatively high water content of 10% (w/w). The whole-cell biocatalyst showed excellent tolerance to alcohol and short-chain fatty acid denaturation. Substrate affinity was equally effective with all primary alcohols tested as acyl acceptors, with a slight preference for methanol. The best transesterification conversion of 50 mmol glyceryl triacetate into isoamyl acetate (banana fragrance) provided near 100% yield after 24 hours using 10% biocatalyst loading (w/w) in a fluidized bed reactor, allowing recycling of the biocatalyst up to five times. These results show promising potential for an industrial approach aimed at the biosynthesis of short-chain esters, namely for natural flavor and fragrance production in micro-aqueous media.

  15. Newly Diagnosed: Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Children Newly Diagnosed: Older Adults Related Topics on AIDS.gov Aging with HIV/AIDS National HIV/AIDS ... an Emerging Challenge Last revised: 07/10/2015 AIDS.gov HIV/AIDS Basics • Federal Resources • Using New ...

  16. Higher cost sharing for visiting general hospitals and the changing trend in the first-visited healthcare organization among newly diagnosed hypertension patients

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jaeyong; Choi, Young; Lee, Sang Gyu; Kim, Tae Hyun; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Unnecessary use of high-quality resources in general hospitals hinders treatment of patients with urgent and complicated conditions. Thus, the Korean Government has sought to reduce general hospital visiting of patients with 52 mild diseases, including hypertension. The higher cost sharing for medical expenses and medications from general hospitals were enacted in 2009 and 2011, respectively. We determined whether these regulations were effective through evaluating changing trends in first-visited healthcare organizations and defined the first visiting healthcare organization level (primary clinics, hospital, and general hospital) as an outcome measure. Data of 32,830 mild hypertension patients from 2004 to 2013 were retrieved from the Korean National Health Insurance Service National Sample Cohort. This was a retrospective study involving a large national cohort with patient samples (representing 2% of the total Korean population) stratified on the basis of sociodemographic information. Mutinomial logistic regression were performed for the first visiting to different health organizations, compared to the first visiting to primary clinics. Patients in 2012 and 2013 had significantly lower odds (“2012”: 0.68, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.56–0.81/“2013”: 0.66, 95% CI 0.54–0.81) of first visiting general hospitals compared with those in 2008, although decreased tendencies (albeit nonsignificant) were already evident in 2010 and 2011. Thus, government health policies for cost-containment seem effective in decreasing first visiting of general hospitals among patients with mild essential hypertension. These policies have since extended to Medical Aid beneficiaries; thus, it is needed to continue monitor their results carefully. PMID:27749543

  17. Higher cost sharing for visiting general hospitals and the changing trend in the first-visited healthcare organization among newly diagnosed hypertension patients.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jaeyong; Choi, Young; Lee, Sang Gyu; Kim, Tae Hyun; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2016-10-01

    Unnecessary use of high-quality resources in general hospitals hinders treatment of patients with urgent and complicated conditions. Thus, the Korean Government has sought to reduce general hospital visiting of patients with 52 mild diseases, including hypertension. The higher cost sharing for medical expenses and medications from general hospitals were enacted in 2009 and 2011, respectively.We determined whether these regulations were effective through evaluating changing trends in first-visited healthcare organizations and defined the first visiting healthcare organization level (primary clinics, hospital, and general hospital) as an outcome measure.Data of 32,830 mild hypertension patients from 2004 to 2013 were retrieved from the Korean National Health Insurance Service National Sample Cohort. This was a retrospective study involving a large national cohort with patient samples (representing 2% of the total Korean population) stratified on the basis of sociodemographic information.Mutinomial logistic regression were performed for the first visiting to different health organizations, compared to the first visiting to primary clinics.Patients in 2012 and 2013 had significantly lower odds ("2012": 0.68, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.56-0.81/"2013": 0.66, 95% CI 0.54-0.81) of first visiting general hospitals compared with those in 2008, although decreased tendencies (albeit nonsignificant) were already evident in 2010 and 2011.Thus, government health policies for cost-containment seem effective in decreasing first visiting of general hospitals among patients with mild essential hypertension. These policies have since extended to Medical Aid beneficiaries; thus, it is needed to continue monitor their results carefully.

  18. Corrosion inhibition of mild steel in acidic media using newly synthesized heterocyclic organic molecules: Correlation between inhibition efficiency and chemical structure

    SciTech Connect

    Ouici, H. B. Guendouzi, A.; Benali, O.

    2015-03-30

    The corrosion inhibition of mild steel in 5% HCl solutions by some new synthesized organic compounds namely 3-(2-methoxyphenyl) 5-mercapto-1. 2. 4-triazole (2-MMT), 3-(3-methoxyphenyl) 5-mercapto-1. 2. 4-triazole (3-MMT) and 3-(2-hydroxyphenyl) 5-mercapto-1. 2. 4-triazole (2-HMT) was investigated using weight loss and potentiostatic polarization techniques. These measurements reveal that the inhibition efficiency obtained by these compounds increased by increasing their concentration. The inhibition efficiency follows the order 2-MMT >3-MMT >2-HMT. Polarization studies show that these compounds are of the mixed type but dominantly act as a cathodic inhibitors for mild steel in 5% HCl solutions. These inhibitors function through adsorption following Langmuir isotherm. Activation energy and Gibbs free energy for adsorption of inhibitors are calculated. Molecular modeling has been conducted to correlate the corrosion inhibition properties with the calculated quantum chemical parameters.

  19. An organic solvent-stable lipase from a newly isolated Staphylococcus aureus ALA1 strain with potential for use as an industrial biocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Ben Bacha, Abir; Moubayed, Nadine Ms; Al-Assaf, Alaa

    2016-05-01

    In this study, a new strain, ALA1, was identified as Staphylococcus aureus by biochemical tests, and its 16S ribosomal DNA sequence was isolated from dromedary milk. ALA1 lipase production was optimized in shake flask experiments and measured with varying pH (3-11), temperature (20-55 °C) and substrate concentrations. The maximum lipase production was recorded at pH 8 and 30 °C for up to 30 H of culture period for the S. aureus ALA1 strain. Among the substrates tested, selected carbon sources, xylose, nitrogen source, yeast extract, and olive oil (1%) were suitable for maximizing lipase production. The effects of surfactants were investigated and showed that Tween 20, Tween 80, and Triton X-100 prevented lipase production. Interestingly, isolate ALA1 was able to grow in high concentrations of benzene or toluene (up to 50% (v/v)). Moreover, the lipolytic activity of the S. aureus ALA1 lipase was stimulated by diethyl ether, whereas almost 100% of S. aureus ALA1 lipase activity was retained in 25% acetone, acetonitrile, benzene, 2-propanol, ethanol, methanol, or toluene. Because of its stability in organic solvent, the S. aureus ALA1 lipase was used as a biocatalyst to synthesize high levels of added value molecules. S. aureus ALA1 lipase could be considered as an ideal choice for applications in detergent formulations because of its high stability and compatibility with various surfactants, oxidizing agents, and commercial detergents.

  20. Online volatile organic compound measurements using a newly developed proton-transfer ion-trap mass spectrometry instrument during New England Air Quality Study--Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation 2004: performance, intercomparison, and compound identification.

    PubMed

    Warneke, Carsten; Kato, Shuji; De Gouw, Joost A; Goldan, Paul D; Kuster, William C; Shao, Min; Lovejoy, Edward R; Fall, Ray; Fehsenfeld, Fred C

    2005-07-15

    We have used a newly developed proton-transfer ion-trap mass spectrometry (PIT-MS) instrument for online trace gas analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during the 2004 New England Air Quality Study-Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation study. The PIT-MS instrument uses proton-transfer reactions with H3O+ ions to ionize VOCs, similarto a PTR-MS (proton-transfer reaction mass spectrometry) instrument but uses an ion trap mass spectrometer to analyze the product ions. The advantages of an ion trap are the improved identification of VOCs and a near 100% duty cycle. During the experiment, the PIT-MS instrument had a detection limit between 0.05 and 0.3 pbbv (S/N = 3 (signal-to-noise ratio)) for 2-min integration time for most tested VOCs. PIT-MS was used for ambient air measurements onboard a research ship and agreed well with a gas chromatography mass spectrometer). The comparison included oxygenated VOCs, aromatic compounds, and others such as isoprene, monoterpenes, acetonitrile, and dimethyl sulfide. Automated collision-induced dissociation measurements were used to determine the contributions of acetone and propanal to the measured signal at 59 amu; both species are detected at this mass and are thus indistinguishable in conventional PTR-MS.

  1. Newly Deployed Sojourner Rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This 8-image mosaic was acquired during the late afternoon (near 5pm LST, note the long shadows) on Sol 2 as part of the predeploy 'insurance panorama' and shows the newly deployed rover sitting on the Martian surface. This color image was generated from images acquired at 530,600, and 750 nm. The insurance panorama was designed as 'insurance' against camera failure upon deployment. Had the camera failed, the losslessly-compressed, multispectral insurance panorama would have been the main source of image data from the IMP.

    However, the camera deployment was successful, leaving the insurance panorama to be downlinked to Earth several weeks later. Ironically enough, the insurance panorama contains some of the best quality image data because of the lossless data compression and relatively dust-free state of the camera and associated lander/rover hardware on Sol 2.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The IMP was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal investigator.

  2. Partition efficiencies of newly fabricated universal high-speed counter-current chromatograph for separation of two different types of sugar derivatives with organic-aqueous two-phase solvent systems

    PubMed Central

    Shinomiya, Kazufusa; Sato, Kazuki; Yoshida, Kazunori; Tokura, Koji; Maruyama, Hiroshi; Yanagidaira, Kazuhiro; Ito, Yoichiro

    2013-01-01

    Universal high-speed counter-current chromatograph (HSCCC) was newly designed and fabricated in our laboratory. It holds a set of four column holders symmetrically around the rotary frame at a distance of 11.2 cm from the central axis. By engaging the stationary gear on the central axis of the centrifuge to the planetary gears on the column holder shaft through a set of idle gears, two pairs of diagonally located column holders simultaneously rotate about their own axes in the opposite directions: one forward (type-J planetary motion) and the other backward (type-I planetary motion) each synchronously with the revolution. Using the eccentric coil assembly, partition efficiencies produced by these two planetary motions were compared on the separation of two different types of sugar derivatives (4-methylumbelliferyl and 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indoxyl sugar derivatives) using organic-aqueous two-phase solvent systems composed of n-hexane/ethyl acetate/1-butanol/methanol/water and aqueous 0.1 M sodium tetraborate, respectively. With lower phase mobile, better peak resolution was obtained by the type-J forward rotation for both samples probably due to higher retention of the stationary phase. With upper phase mobile, however, similar peak resolutions were obtained between these two planetary motions for both sugar derivatives. The overall results indicate that the present universal HSCCC is useful for counter-current chromatographic separation since each planetary motion has its specific applications: e.g., vortex CCC by the type-I planetary motion and HSCCC by the type-J planetary motion both for separation of various natural and synthetic products. PMID:24267319

  3. Lessons Learned: Newly Hired Nurses' Perspectives on Transition Into Practice.

    PubMed

    Ziebert, Carolyn; Klingbeil, Carol; Schmitt, Catherine A; Stonek, Alice V; Totka, Joan P; Stelter, Ashley; Schiffman, Rachel F

    2016-01-01

    This descriptive qualitative study explored data from debriefs of all newly hired nurses at 3, 6, and 12 months posthire during a newly designed transition-to-practice program at a pediatric hospital. Four major themes emerged: preceptors, education process, adaptation to the organization, and role transition. Supportive factors included staged orientation, limited preceptors, mentors, regular communication with leaders, and a culture of teamwork. Stressors included too many preceptors, mentorship needs, floating, communication challenges, and organizational changes.

  4. Chthonomonas calidirosea gen. nov., sp. nov., an aerobic, pigmented, thermophilic micro-organism of a novel bacterial class, Chthonomonadetes classis nov., of the newly described phylum Armatimonadetes originally designated candidate division OP10.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kevin C-Y; Dunfield, Peter F; Morgan, Xochitl C; Crowe, Michelle A; Houghton, Karen M; Vyssotski, Mikhail; Ryan, Jason L J; Lagutin, Kirill; McDonald, Ian R; Stott, Matthew B

    2011-10-01

    An aerobic, saccharolytic, obligately thermophilic, motile, non-spore-forming bacterium, strain T49(T), was isolated from geothermally heated soil at Hell's Gate, Tikitere, New Zealand. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, T49(T) is the first representative of a new class in the newly described phylum Armatimonadetes, formerly known as candidate division OP10. Cells of strain T49(T) stained Gram-negative and were catalase-positive and oxidase-negative. Cells possessed a highly corrugated outer membrane. The major fatty acids were 16 : 0, i17 : 0 and ai17 : 0. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 54.6 mol%. Strain T49(T) grew at 50-73 °C with an optimum temperature of 68 °C, and at pH 4.7-5.8 with an optimum growth pH of 5.3. A growth rate of 0.012 h(-1) was observed under optimal temperature and pH conditions. The primary respiratory quinone was MK-8. Optimal growth was achieved in the absence of NaCl, although growth was observed at NaCl concentrations as high as 2 % (w/v). Strain T49(T) was able to utilize mono- and disaccharides such as cellobiose, lactose, mannose and glucose, as well as branched or amorphous polysaccharides such as starch, CM-cellulose, xylan and glycogen, but not highly linear polysaccharides such as crystalline cellulose or cotton. On the basis of its phylogenetic position and phenotypic characteristics, we propose that strain T49(T) represents a novel bacterial genus and species within the new class Chthonomonadetes classis nov. of the phylum Armatimonadetes. The type strain of Chthonomonas calidirosea gen. nov., sp. nov. is T49(T) ( = DSM 23976(T) = ICMP 18418(T)).

  5. Export of newly formed LSW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Katharina; Klein, Birgit; Karstensen, Johannes; Fischer, Jürgen; Baumann, Till; Kanzow, Torsten

    2015-04-01

    The Atlantic meridional overturning circulation represents the strongest mechanism for oceanic northward heat transport. This is accomplished by moving warm water northward in the upper ocean compensated by a deep return flow of cold and dense North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW). Labrador Sea Water (LSW) constitutes the shallowest component of NADW. Since LSW is also supposed to be the most sensitive NADW component to climate change it is of particular interest. LSW is formed by deep convection not only in the centre of the Labrador Sea but also near its western boundary. Recent studies have suggested that LSW formed in the boundary region enters its export route from the Labrador Sea, the Deep Western Boundary Current, faster than LSW originating from the central Labrador Sea. In this study the spatial and temporal evolution of the export of newly formed LSW is investigated. For this purpose hydrographic mooring data from an array located at the western bounndary at 53°N starting in the late 1990s until 2014 and data from the Argo float network is used. The averaged seasonal salinity cycle at the array, particularly at the moorings further onshore, shows a pronounced freshwater signal in May indicating the arrival of newly formed LSW in the boundary current. In order to learn more about its preceding pathway and the corresponding export timescale the mooring data is complemented by data from Argo floats. Besides the annual cycles of LSW formation and export, their interannual variations are important aspects affecting the large-scale circulation. For instance, in years of relatively strong convection, as in 2008 and 2012, LSW is observed to pass the boundary current array at 53°N earlier, i.e. in February and March, respectively, than in years with weak convection, as in 2007 or 2010. Besides seasonal variations in the boundary current, a possible explanation for the earlier freshwater signal in years of enhanced convection might be a shift in convection sites

  6. Newly Installed S-1 Truss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Launched October 7, 2002 aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, the STS-112 mission lasted 11 days and performed three sessions of Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA). Its primary mission was to install the Starboard (S1) Integrated Truss Structure and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart to the International Space Station (ISS). The S1 truss provides structural support for the orbiting research facility's radiator panels, which use ammonia to cool the Station's complex power system. The S1 truss, attached to the S0 (S Zero) truss installed by the previous STS-110 mission, flows 637 pounds of anhydrous ammonia through three heat rejection radiators. The truss is 45-feet long, 15-feet wide, 10-feet tall, and weighs approximately 32,000 pounds. The CETA is the first of two human-powered carts that will ride along the International Space Station's railway providing a mobile work platform for future extravehicular activities by astronauts. This is a view of the newly installed S1 Truss as photographed during the mission's first scheduled EVA. The Station's Canadarm2 is in the foreground. Visible are astronauts Piers J. Sellers (lower left) and David A. Wolf (upper right), both STS-112 mission specialists.

  7. Organics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chian, Edward S. K.; DeWalle, Foppe B.

    1978-01-01

    Presents water analysis literature for 1978. This review is concerned with organics, and it covers: (1) detergents and surfactants; (2) aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons; (3) pesticides and chlorinated hydrocarbons; and (4) naturally occurring organics. A list of 208 references is also presented. (HM)

  8. Organizers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callison, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on "organizers," tools or techniques that provide identification and classification along with possible relationships or connections among ideas, concepts, and issues. Discusses David Ausubel's research and ideas concerning advance organizers; the implications of Ausubel's theory to curriculum and teaching; "webbing," a…

  9. Newly Diagnosed Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Avvisati, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) represents a medical emergency with a high rate of early mortality. As a consequence, as soon as the diagnosis is suspected based upon cytologic criteria, it is necessary to start all- trans retinoic acid (ATRA) treatment without delay. For patients with newly diagnosed APL, induction therapy with ATRA plus anthracycline based chemotherapy is recommended. At present the combination of arsenic trioxide plus ATRA should be considered for patients who are not candidates for anthracycline-based therapy. For pediatric and adult patients with APL aged < 60 years who achieve a CR with induction, I recommend 3 intensive courses of consolidation chemotherapy associated to ATRA, targeted on the basis of the risk group at diagnosis. In patients treated with a very intensive consolidation chemotherapy maintenance treatment can be omitted. However If a maintenance treatment has to be adopted I suggest the use of intermittent ATRA for 15 days every 3 months for a period of 2 years, rather than ATRA associated to chemotherapy. Moreover, taking into account the medical literature, a reduced dosage of ATRA ( 25 mg/m2) in pediatric patients and a consolidation chemotherapy of reduced intensity in elderly patients is recommended. Furthermore, in order to maximize survival, careful attention should be reserved to the coagulopathy and to the appearance of the differentiation syndrome. Finally, PCR for the PML/RARA fusion gene on a bone marrow specimen every three months for two years, and then every six months for additional three years are needed during the follow-up. PMID:22220261

  10. High-Performance Long-Term-Stable Dopant-Free Perovskite Solar Cells and Additive-Free Organic Solar Cells by Employing Newly Designed Multirole π-Conjugated Polymers.

    PubMed

    Kranthiraja, Kakaraparthi; Gunasekar, Kumarasamy; Kim, Hyunji; Cho, An-Na; Park, Nam-Gyu; Kim, Seonha; Kim, Bumjoon J; Nishikubo, Ryosuke; Saeki, Akinori; Song, Myungkwan; Jin, Sung-Ho

    2017-04-10

    Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) and organic solar cells (OSCs) are promising renewable light-harvesting technologies with high performance, but the utilization of hazardous dopants and high boiling additives is harmful to all forms of life and the environment. Herein, new multirole π-conjugated polymers (P1-P3) are developed via a rational design approach through theoretical hindsight, further successfully subjecting them into dopant-free PSCs as hole-transporting materials and additive-free OSCs as photoactive donors, respectively. Especially, P3-based PSCs and OSCs not only show high power conversion efficiencies of 17.28% and 8.26%, but also display an excellent ambient stability up to 30 d (for PSCs only), owing to their inherent superior optoelectronic properties in their pristine form. Overall, the rational approach promises to support the development of environmentally and economically sustainable PSCs and OSCs.

  11. Partition efficiencies of newly fabricated universal high-speed counter-current chromatograph for separation of two different types of sugar derivatives with organic-aqueous two-phase solvent systems.

    PubMed

    Shinomiya, Kazufusa; Sato, Kazuki; Yoshida, Kazunori; Tokura, Koji; Maruyama, Hiroshi; Yanagidaira, Kazuhiro; Ito, Yoichiro

    2013-12-27

    A new design of universal high-speed counter-current chromatograph (HSCCC) was fabricated in our laboratory. It holds a set of four column holders symmetrically around the rotary frame at a distance of 11.2cm from the central axis. By engaging the stationary gear on the central axis of the centrifuge to the planetary gears on the column holder shaft through a set of idle gears, two pairs of diagonally located column holders simultaneously rotate about their own axes in the opposite directions: one forward (type-J planetary motion) and the other backward (type-I planetary motion) each synchronously with the revolution. Using the eccentric coil assembly, partition efficiencies produced by these two planetary motions were compared on the separation of two different types of sugar derivatives (4-methylumbelliferyl and 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indoxyl sugar derivatives) using organic-aqueous two-phase solvent systems composed of n-hexane/ethyl acetate/1-butanol/methanol/water and aqueous 0.1M sodium tetraborate, respectively. With lower phase mobile, better peak resolution was obtained by the type-J forward rotation for both samples probably due to higher retention of the stationary phase. With upper phase mobile, however, similar peak resolutions were obtained between these two planetary motions for both sugar derivatives. The overall results indicate that the present universal HSCCC is useful for counter-current chromatographic separation since each planetary motion has its specific applications: e.g., vortex CCC by the type-I planetary motion and HSCCC by the type-J planetary motion both for separation of various natural and synthetic products.

  12. Butaclamol hydrochloride in newly admitted schizophrenics.

    PubMed

    Hollister, L E; Davis, K L; Berger, P A

    1975-01-01

    Butaclamol hydrochloride, a new type of antipsychotic drug, was evaluated by an uncontrolled study of 13 newly admitted schizophrenic patients. The drug had antipsychotic effects as well as a strong propensity for evoking extrapyramidal side effects. With the maximal daily doses of 30 mg used in this study, therapeutic results obtained were probably somewhat less than optimal.

  13. The practical skills of newly qualified nurses.

    PubMed

    Danbjørg, Dorthe Boe; Birkelund, Regner

    2011-02-01

    This paper reports the findings from a study of newly qualified nurses and which subjects the nurses regarded as the most important in order to be able to live up to the requirements of clinical practice, and how they experience their potential for developing practical and moral skills, after the decrease in practical training. A qualitative approach guided the research process and the analysis of the data. The data was collected by participant observation and qualitative interviews with four nurses as informants. The conclusions made in this study are based on the statements and the observations of the newly qualified nurses. Our findings are discussed in relation to the Aristotelian concept and other relevant literature. The main message is that the newly qualified nurses did not feel equipped when they finished their training. This could be interpreted as a direct consequence of the decrease in practical training. Our study also underlines that the way nursing theory is perceived and taught is problematic. The interviews revealed that the nurses think that nursing theories should be applied directly in practice. This misunderstanding is probably also applicable to the teachers of the theories.

  14. Critical thinking dispositions among newly graduated nurses

    PubMed Central

    Wangensteen, Sigrid; Johansson, Inger S; Björkström, Monica E; Nordström, Gun

    2010-01-01

    wangensteen s., johansson i.s., björkström m.e. & nordström g. (2010) Critical thinking dispositions among newly graduated nurses. Journal of Advanced Nursing66(10), 2170–2181. Aim The aim of the study was to describe critical thinking dispositions among newly graduated nurses in Norway, and to study whether background data had any impact on critical thinking dispositions. Background Competence in critical thinking is one of the expectations of nursing education. Critical thinkers are described as well-informed, inquisitive, open-minded and orderly in complex matters. Critical thinking competence has thus been designated as an outcome for judging the quality of nursing education programmes and for the development of clinical judgement. The ability to think critically is also described as reducing the research–practice gap and fostering evidence-based nursing. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive study was performed. The data were collected between October 2006 and April 2007 using the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory. The response rate was 33% (n= 618). Pearson’s chi-square tests were used to analyse the data. Results Nearly 80% of the respondents reported a positive disposition towards critical thinking. The highest mean score was on the Inquisitiveness subscale and the lowest on the Truth-seeking subscale. A statistically significant higher proportion of nurses with high critical thinking scores were found among those older than 30 years, those with university education prior to nursing education, and those working in community health care. Conclusion Nurse leaders and nurse teachers should encourage and nurture critical thinking among newly graduated nurses and nursing students. The low Truth-seeking scores found may be a result of traditional teaching strategies in nursing education and might indicate a need for more student-active learning models. PMID:20384637

  15. Newly democratic Mongolia offering exploration contracts

    SciTech Connect

    Penttila, W.C. )

    1992-12-07

    This paper reports that Mongolia, formerly the Mongolian People's Republic, is working to open its exploration prospects to international operators as it emerges as the world's 15th largest independent nation. The country, about the same size as Alaska with a population of 2 million, held its first free election in July 1990. The newly elected government drafted a constitution that took effect Feb. 12, 1992. The document modifies the previous government's structures to eliminate bureaucracy and allows for political pluralism. At the same time, the government is formulating energy policies, state oil company structure, and resource development philosophy.

  16. The first 18 months in practice: a developmental transition model for the newly graduated nurse.

    PubMed

    Schoessler, Mary; Waldo, Mary

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present a process model of the development of a newly graduated nurse. The model is useful in helping new graduates interpret their experience during their first crucial months in practice and can be used by organizations to design developmentally appropriate support strategies. The model integrates novice to expert skill acquisition, adult learning, and transition theory.

  17. The Spanish health care system: lessons for newly industrialized countries.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, E; Gallo de Puelles, P; Jovell, A J

    1999-06-01

    This article summarizes the organization, financing, and delivery of health care services in Spain, and discusses the elements that made it possible to maintain high levels of health among the population, while spending comparatively fewer resources on the health care system than most industrialized countries. The case of Spain is of particular interest for newly industrialized countries, because of the fast evolution that it has undergone in recent years. Considered, by United Nations' economic standards, a developing country until 1964, Spain became in a few years the fastest growing economy in the world after Japan. By the early 1970s the infant mortality rate was already lower than in Britain or the United States.

  18. Value of a newly sequenced bacterial genome

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Eudes GV; Aburjaile, Flavia F; Ramos, Rommel TJ; Carneiro, Adriana R; Le Loir, Yves; Baumbach, Jan; Miyoshi, Anderson; Silva, Artur; Azevedo, Vasco

    2014-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have made high-throughput sequencing available to medium- and small-size laboratories, culminating in a tidal wave of genomic information. The quantity of sequenced bacterial genomes has not only brought excitement to the field of genomics but also heightened expectations that NGS would boost antibacterial discovery and vaccine development. Although many possible drug and vaccine targets have been discovered, the success rate of genome-based analysis has remained below expectations. Furthermore, NGS has had consequences for genome quality, resulting in an exponential increase in draft (partial data) genome deposits in public databases. If no further interests are expressed for a particular bacterial genome, it is more likely that the sequencing of its genome will be limited to a draft stage, and the painstaking tasks of completing the sequencing of its genome and annotation will not be undertaken. It is important to know what is lost when we settle for a draft genome and to determine the “scientific value” of a newly sequenced genome. This review addresses the expected impact of newly sequenced genomes on antibacterial discovery and vaccinology. Also, it discusses the factors that could be leading to the increase in the number of draft deposits and the consequent loss of relevant biological information. PMID:24921006

  19. What next for newly diagnosed glioblastoma?

    PubMed Central

    Domingo-Musibay, Evidio; Galanis, Evanthia

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma is the most common primary brain tumor in adults. Despite current multimodality treatment including surgical resection and temozolomide-based chemoradiotherapy, median survival is only 14–16 months. Characterization of molecular alterations in glioblastoma has identified prognostic subgroups and therapeutic opportunities for clinical trials across glioblastoma subsets. Following a number of negative Phase III trials testing temozolomide dose intensification and angiogenesis inhibition, recent interim analysis data indicate survival prolongation with use of a device (Optune™) delivering alternating electrical field therapy in newly diagnosed glioblastoma patients. In this review, we present an overview of the data supporting the current standard of care and discuss novel experimental therapies in early and late phase clinical testing including devices, small molecule drugs, angiogenesis inhibitors, oncolytic virotherapy and immunotherapy. PMID:26558493

  20. Newly discovered insect RNA viruses in China.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yang; Wang, ZhaoWei; Liu, YongXiang; Qi, Nan; Si, Jie; Xiang, Xue; Xia, XiaoLing; Hu, YuanYang; Zhou, Xi

    2013-08-01

    Insects are a group of arthropods and the largest group of animals on Earth, with over one million species described to date. Like other life forms, insects suffer from viruses that cause disease and death. Viruses that are pathogenic to beneficial insects cause dramatic economic losses on agriculture. In contrast, viruses that are pathogenic to insect pests can be exploited as attractive biological control agents. All of these factors have led to an explosion in the amount of research into insect viruses in recent years, generating impressive quantities of information on the molecular and cellular biology of these viruses. Due to the wide variety of insect viruses, a better understanding of these viruses will expand our overall knowledge of their virology. Here, we review studies of several newly discovered RNA insect viruses in China.

  1. Michael Maier--nine newly discovered letters.

    PubMed

    Lenke, Nils; Roudet, Nicolas; Tilton, Hereward

    2014-02-01

    The authors provide a transcription, translation, and evaluation of nine newly discovered letters from the alchemist Michael Maier (1568-1622) to Gebhardt Johann von Alvensleben (1576-1631), a noble landholder in the vicinity of Magdeburg. Stemming from the final year of his life, this correspondence casts new light on Maier's biography, detailing his efforts to secure patronage amid the financial crisis of the early Thirty Years' War. While his ill-fated quest to perfect potable gold continued to form the central focus of his patronage suits, Maier also offered his services in several arts that he had condemned in his printed works, namely astrology and "supernatural" magic. Remarks concerning his previously unknown acquaintance with Heinrich Khunrath call for a re-evaluation of Maier's negotiation of the discursive boundaries between Lutheran orthodoxy and Paracelsianism. The letters also reveal Maier's substantial contribution to a work previously ascribed solely to the English alchemist Francis Anthony.

  2. Arsenic behavior in newly drilled wells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kim, M.-J.; Nriagu, J.; Haack, S.

    2003-01-01

    In the present paper, inorganic arsenic species and chemical parameters in groundwater were determined to investigate the factors related to the distribution of arsenic species and their dissolution from rock into groundwater. For the study, groundwater and core samples were taken at different depths of two newly drilled wells in Huron and Lapeer Counties, Michigan. Results show that total arsenic concentrations in the core samples varied, ranging from 0.8 to 70.7 mg/kg. Iron concentration in rock was about 1800 times higher than that of arsenic, and there was no correlation between arsenic and iron occurrences in the rock samples. Arsenic concentrations in groundwater ranged from <1 to 171 ??g/l. The arsenic concentration in groundwater depended on the amount of arsenic in aquifer rocks, and as well decreased with increasing depth. Over 90% of arsenic existed in the form of As(III), implying that the groundwater systems were in the reduced condition. The results such as high ferrous ion, low redox potential and low dissolved oxygen supported the observed arsenic species distribution. There was no noticeable difference in the total arsenic concentration and arsenic species ratio between unfiltered and filtered (0.45 ??m) waters, indicating that the particulate form of arsenic was negligible in the groundwater samples. There were correlations between water sampling depth and chemical parameters, and between arsenic concentration and chemical parameters, however, the trends were not always consistent in both wells. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Molecular Outflows from Newly Formed Massive Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kee-Tae; Kim, Won-Ju; Kim, Chang-Hee

    2015-12-01

    We map 6 massive young stellar objects (YSOs) in the CO J=2-1 line and survey 18 massive YSOs, including the six, in the hcopj, sioj, water 6_{16}-5_{23} maser, and methanol 7_{0}-6_{1} A^{+} maser lines. We detect CO bipolar outflows in all the six mapped sources. Four of them are newly discovered (ifive, ieight, inine, iten), while itwo is mapped in the CO J=2-1 line for the first time. The detected outflows are much more massive and energetic than outflows from low-mass YSOs with masses >20 M_⊙ and momenta >300 M_⊙ km/s. They have mass outflow rates (3-6)×10^{-4} M_⊙ yr^{-1}, which are at least one order of magnitude greater than those observed in low-mass YSOs. We detect hcop and SiO line emission in 18 (100%) and 4 (22%) sources, respectively. The hcop spectra show high-velocity wings in 11 (61%) sources. We detect water maser emission in 13 (72%) sources and 44 GHz methanol maser emission in 8 (44%) sources. Of the detected sources, 5 water and 6 methanol maser sources are new discoveries. iseven shows high-velocity (>30 kms) water maser lines. We find good correlations of the bolometric luminosity of the central (proto)star with the mechanical force, mechanical luminosity, and mass outflow rate of molecular outflow %L_{bol} with F_{m}, L_{m}, and dot{M}_{out} in the bolometric luminosity range of 10^{-1}-10^6 lsol, and identified 3 intermediate- or high-mass counterparts of Class O objects.

  4. Dynamics of newly established elk populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sargeant, G.A.; Oehler, M.W.

    2007-01-01

    The dynamics of newly established elk (Cervus elaphus) populations can provide insights about maximum sustainable rates of reproduction, survival, and increase. However, data used to estimate rates of increase typically have been limited to counts and rarely have included complementary estimates of vital rates. Complexities of population dynamics cannot be understood without considering population processes as well as population states. We estimated pregnancy rates, survival rates, age ratios, and sex ratios for reintroduced elk at Theodore Roosevelt National Park, North Dakota, USA; combined vital rates in a population projection model; and compared model projections with observed elk numbers and population ratios. Pregnancy rates in January (early in the second trimester of pregnancy) averaged 54.1% (SE = 5.4%) for subadults and 91.0% (SE = 1.7%) for adults, and 91.6% of pregnancies resulted in recruitment at 8 months. Annual survival rates of adult females averaged 0.96 (95% CI = 0.94-0.98) with hunting included and 0.99 (95% CI = 0.97-0.99) with hunting excluded from calculations. Our fitted model explained 99.8% of past variation in population estimates and represents a useful new tool for short-term management planning. Although we found no evidence of temporal variation in vital rates, variation in population composition caused substantial variation in projected rates of increase (??=1.20-1.36). Restoring documented hunter harvests and removals of elk by the National Park Service led to a potential rate of ?? = 1.26. Greater rates of increase substantiated elsewhere were within the expected range of chance variation, given our model and estimates of vital rates. Rates of increase realized by small elk populations are too variable to support inferences about habitat quality or density dependence.

  5. Newly Identified Pathogens Associated with Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Chaparro, P.J.; Gonçalves, C.; Figueiredo, L.C.; Faveri, M.; Lobão, E.; Tamashiro, N.; Duarte, P.; Feres, M.

    2014-01-01

    There is substantial evidence supporting the role of certain oral bacteria species in the onset and progression of periodontitis. Nevertheless, results of independent-culture diagnostic methods introduced about a decade ago have pointed to the existence of new periodontal pathogens. However, the data of these studies have not been evaluated together, which may generate some misunderstanding on the actual role of these microorganisms in the etiology of periodontitis. The aim of this systematic review was to determine the current weight of evidence for newly identified periodontal pathogens based on the results of “association” studies. This review was conducted and reported in accordance with the PRISMA statement. The MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases were searched up to September 2013 for studies (1) comparing microbial data of subgingival plaque samples collected from subjects with periodontitis and periodontal health and (2) evaluating at least 1 microorganism other than the already-known periodontal pathogens. From 1,450 papers identified, 41 studies were eligible. The data were extracted and registered in predefined piloted forms. The results suggested that there is moderate evidence in the literature to support the association of 17 species or phylotypes from the phyla Bacteroidetes, Candidatus Saccharibacteria, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Spirochaetes, and Synergistetes. The phylum Candidatus Saccharibacteria and the Archaea domain also seem to have an association with disease. These data point out the importance of previously unidentified species in the etiology of periodontitis and might guide future investigations on the actual role of these suspected new pathogens in the onset and progression of this infection. PMID:25074492

  6. Legionnaires' disease organism, legionella (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... after an outbreak of fatal pneumonia at a Legionnaires convention. The newly described organism which caused the disease was named Legionella pneumophila, shown in this picture. (Image courtesy of ...

  7. Concerns of Newly Arrived Immigrant Students: Implications for School Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Franklyn C.; Butler, S. Kent

    2003-01-01

    This article highlights the issues that concern newly arrived immigrant students from the guidance and counseling perspective, how school systems have responded to these issues, and the implications for school counselors concerning what can be done to better serve newly arrived immigrant students. (Contains 16 references.) (GCP)

  8. [Newly developed nomenclature (Neuroscience-based Nomenclature)].

    PubMed

    Uchida, Hiroyuki; Yamawaki, Shigeto

    2016-06-01

    The current nomenclature is based on clinical indications; for example, drugs used for mania and psychosis are classified as "mood stabilizers" and "antipsychotic drugs", respectively. This discrepancy between their names and indications often confuses patients and their caregivers and sometimes leads to a misunderstanding of the effects of prescribed medications. In addition, up-to-date scientific knowledge on these drugs has not been reflected in the current nomenclature. To overcome these limitations of the current nomenclature, following an initiative of the European Congress of Neuropsychopharmacology (ECNP), a taskforce for psychotropic nomenclature was established with representatives from 5 international organizations, including the Asian College of Neuropsychopharmacology (AsCNP). The mission of this taskforce is to provide a pharmacologically-driven (rather than indication-based) nomenclature, which is now referred to as Neuroscience-based Nomenclature (NbN). The NbN project has just started. Since it always takes time to change the culture, we understand the transition will likely involve some expected and unexpected responses from the field. However, we believe that such responses and feedback will surely improve the quality of the NbN, which in turn will be beneficial for clinicians, researchers, and patients as well as their caregivers.

  9. 35. Photocopy of photograph. Photographer unknown, 1904 NEWLY COMPLETED OFFICE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. Photocopy of photograph. Photographer unknown, 1904 NEWLY COMPLETED OFFICE, SUBSTATION, CAR BARN. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Milwaukee Light, Heat & Traction Company, 8336 West Lapham Street, West Allis, Milwaukee County, WI

  10. Diffusional spread and confinement of newly exocytosed synaptic vesicle proteins

    PubMed Central

    Gimber, Niclas; Tadeus, Georgi; Maritzen, Tanja; Schmoranzer, Jan; Haucke, Volker

    2015-01-01

    Neurotransmission relies on the calcium-triggered exocytic fusion of non-peptide neurotransmitter-containing small synaptic vesicles (SVs) with the presynaptic membrane at active zones (AZs) followed by compensatory endocytic retrieval of SV membranes. Here, we study the diffusional fate of newly exocytosed SV proteins in hippocampal neurons by high-resolution time-lapse imaging. Newly exocytosed SV proteins rapidly disperse within the first seconds post fusion until confined within the presynaptic bouton. Rapid diffusional spread and confinement is followed by slow reclustering of SV proteins at the periactive endocytic zone. Confinement within the presynaptic bouton is mediated in part by SV protein association with the clathrin-based endocytic machinery to limit diffusional spread of newly exocytosed SV proteins. These data suggest that diffusion, and axonal escape of newly exocytosed vesicle proteins, are counteracted by the clathrin-based endocytic machinery together with a presynaptic diffusion barrier. PMID:26399746

  11. Chemoradiotherapy of Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma With Intensified Temozolomide

    SciTech Connect

    Weiler, Markus; Hartmann, Christian; Wiewrodt, Dorothee; Herrlinger, Ulrich

    2010-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the toxicity and efficacy of chemoradiotherapy with temozolomide (TMZ) administered in an intensified 1-week on/1-week off schedule plus indomethacin in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma. Patients and Methods: A total of 41 adult patients (median Karnofsky performance status, 90%; median age, 56 years) were treated with preirradiation TMZ at 150 mg/m{sup 2} (1 week on/1 week off), involved-field radiotherapy combined with concomitant low-dose TMZ (50 mg/m{sup 2}), maintenance TMZ starting at 150 mg/m{sup 2} using a 1-week on/1-week off schedule, plus maintenance indomethacin (25 mg twice daily). Results: The median follow-up interval was 21.7 months. Grade 4 hematologic toxicity was observed in 15 patients (36.6%). Treatment-related nonhematologic Grade 4-5 toxicity was reported for 2 patients (4.9%). The median progression-free survival was 7.6 months (95% confidence interval, 6.2-10.4). The 1-year survival rate was 73.2% (95% confidence interval, 56.8-84.2%). The presence of O{sup 6}-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) gene promoter methylation in the tumor tissue was associated with significantly superior progression-free survival. Conclusion: The dose-dense regimen of TMZ administered in a 1-week on/1-week off schedule resulted in acceptable nonhematologic toxicity. Compared with data from the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/National Cancer Institute of Canada trial 26981-22981/CE.3, patients with an unmethylated MGMT gene promoter appeared not to benefit from intensifying the TMZ schedule regarding the median progression-free survival and overall survival. In contrast, data are promising for patients with a methylated MGMT promoter.

  12. In-vehicle VOCs composition of unconditioned, newly produced cars.

    PubMed

    Brodzik, Krzysztof; Faber, Joanna; Łomankiewicz, Damian; Gołda-Kopek, Anna

    2014-05-01

    The in-vehicle volatile organic compounds (VOCs) concentrations gains the attention of both car producers and users. In the present study, an attempt was made to determine if analysis of air samples collected from an unconditioned car cabin can be used as a quality control measure. The VOCs composition of in-vehicle air was analyzed by means of active sampling on Carbograph 1TD and Tenax TA sorbents, followed by thermal desorption and simultaneous analysis on flame ionization and mass detector (TD-GC/FID-MS). Nine newly produced cars of the same brand and model were chosen for this study. Within these, four of the vehicles were equipped with identical interior materials and five others differed in terms of upholstery and the presence of a sunroof; one car was convertible. The sampling event took place outside of the car assembly plant and the cars tested left the assembly line no later than 24 hr before the sampling took place. More than 250 compounds were present in the samples collected; the identification of more than 160 was confirmed by comparative mass spectra analysis and 80 were confirmed by both comparison with single/multiple compounds standards and mass spectra analysis. In general, aliphatic hydrocarbons represented more than 60% of the total VOCs (TVOC) determined. Depending on the vehicle, the concentration of aromatic hydrocarbons varied from 12% to 27% of total VOCs. The very short period between car production and sampling of the in-vehicle air permits the assumption that the entire TVOC originates from off-gassing of interior materials. The results of this study expand the knowledge of in-vehicle pollution by presenting information about car cabin air quality immediately after car production.

  13. People newly in love are more responsive to positive feedback.

    PubMed

    Brown, Cassandra L; Beninger, Richard J

    2012-06-01

    Passionate love is associated with increased activity in dopamine-rich regions of the brain. Increased dopamine in these regions is associated with a greater tendency to learn from reward in trial-and-error learning tasks. This study examined the prediction that individuals who were newly in love would be better at responding to reward (positive feedback). In test trials, people who were newly in love selected positive outcomes significantly more often than their single (not in love) counterparts but were no better at the task overall. This suggests that people who are newly in love show a bias toward responding to positive feedback, which may reflect a general bias towards reward-seeking.

  14. Characteristics of newly-formed cementum following Emdogain application.

    PubMed

    Al-Hezaimi, Khalid; Al-Askar, Mansour; Al-Rasheed, Abdulaziz

    2011-01-01

    Periodontal regenerative techniques have been proposed; however, the outcomes remain debatable. The present investigation assessed the regenerated cementum following enamel matrix derivative application in dehiscence-type defects. Buccal osseous dehiscences were surgically created on the maxillary cuspid, and the second and fourth premolars in five female beagle dogs. The treatment group (n = 15 sites) received the enamel matrix derived application, whereas the control groups (n = 15) did not. The dogs were sacrificed 4 months following treatment and the specimens were histologically and histometrically examined. The newly formed cementum was uneven in thickness and mineralization, overlapped the old cementum and exhibited functional orientation, cementocyte lacunae and collagen fibril bundles. Most of the histological specimens showed the presence of a gap between the newly formed cementum and the underlying dentin. Control sites did not exhibit any cementum formation. The present study concluded that newly formed cementum is of cellular type and exhibits multiple characteristics.

  15. Characteristics of newly-formed cementum following emdogain application

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hezaimi, Khalid; Al-Askar, Mansour; Al-Rasheed, Abdulaziz

    2011-01-01

    Periodontal regenerative techniques have been proposed; however, the outcomes remain debatable. The present investigation assessed the regenerated cementum following enamel matrix derivative application in dehiscence-type defects. Buccal osseous dehiscences were surgically created on the maxillary cuspid, and the second and fourth premolars in five female beagle dogs. The treatment group (n=15 sites) received the enamel matrix derived application, whereas the control groups (n=15) did not. The dogs were sacrificed 4 months following treatment and the specimens were histologically and histometrically examined. The newly formed cementum was uneven in thickness and mineralization, overlapped the old cementum and exhibited functional orientation, cementocyte lacunae and collagen fibril bundles. Most of the histological specimens showed the presence of a gap between the newly formed cementum and the underlying dentin. Control sites did not exhibit any cementum formation. The present study concluded that newly formed cementum is of cellular type and exhibits multiple characteristics. PMID:21449212

  16. Superintendents' Perceptions of the Effectiveness of Newly Hired Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehman, Lynn E.; Boyland, Lori G.; Sriver, Shawn K.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the frequency of research-based leadership strategies utilized by newly hired school principals in the workplace. Public school superintendents in Indiana were asked to respond to two open-ended research questions. Through the use of content analysis, their comments were coded for the occurrence of effective leadership…

  17. Oral Definitions of Newly Learned Words: An Error Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Sara C.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined and compared patterns of errors in the oral definitions of newly learned words. Fifteen 9- to 11-year-old children with language learning disability (LLD) and 15 typically developing age-matched peers inferred the meanings of 20 nonsense words from four novel reading passages. After reading, children provided oral definitions…

  18. Enhancing the Employability of Newly Qualified Nurses: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dray, Beattie; Burke, Linda; Hurst, Heather M.; Ferguson, Anne; Marks-Maran, Diane

    2011-01-01

    Vocationally based higher education programmes are meant to prepare people for employment in their chosen fields of study. In nursing, historically, employment after qualifying has been almost assured, with sufficient vacancies available for newly qualified nurses. Recently, however, for a number of reasons, primarily related to economic…

  19. Field Performance of a Newly Developed Upflow Filtration Device

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this research is to examine the removal capacities of a newly developed Upflow filtration device for treatment of stormwater. The device was developed by engineers at the University of Alabama through a Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) grant from the U....

  20. 30 CFR 46.6 - Newly hired experienced miner training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Newly hired experienced miner training. 46.6 Section 46.6 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING TRAINING AND RETRAINING OF MINERS ENGAGED IN SHELL DREDGING OR EMPLOYED AT SAND, GRAVEL,...

  1. 30 CFR 46.6 - Newly hired experienced miner training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Newly hired experienced miner training. 46.6 Section 46.6 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING TRAINING AND RETRAINING OF MINERS ENGAGED IN SHELL DREDGING OR EMPLOYED AT SAND, GRAVEL,...

  2. 30 CFR 46.6 - Newly hired experienced miner training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Newly hired experienced miner training. 46.6 Section 46.6 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING TRAINING AND RETRAINING OF MINERS ENGAGED IN SHELL DREDGING OR EMPLOYED AT SAND, GRAVEL,...

  3. 30 CFR 46.6 - Newly hired experienced miner training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Newly hired experienced miner training. 46.6 Section 46.6 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING TRAINING AND RETRAINING OF MINERS ENGAGED IN SHELL DREDGING OR EMPLOYED AT SAND, GRAVEL,...

  4. 30 CFR 46.6 - Newly hired experienced miner training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Newly hired experienced miner training. 46.6 Section 46.6 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING TRAINING AND RETRAINING OF MINERS ENGAGED IN SHELL DREDGING OR EMPLOYED AT SAND, GRAVEL,...

  5. The Newly Qualified Teacher in the Working Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyman, Tarja

    2014-01-01

    Focusing on the working community, this article concentrates on the newly qualified foreign language teachers' (NQT) experiences and on factors that promoted or prevented the development of professional expertise at the outset of their working life. It draws on a qualitative longitudinal study conducted at the University of Jyväskylä, Finland,…

  6. Increased gluconeogenesis in youth with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The role of increased gluconeogenesis as an important contributor to fasting hyperglycaemia at diabetes onset is not known. We evaluated the contribution of gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis to fasting hyperglycaemia in newly diagnosed youths with type 2 diabetes following an overnight fast. Basal ...

  7. Expedient arrangement of newly constructed systems for centralized heat supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeigarnik, Yu. A.; Rotinov, A. G.

    2008-11-01

    It is shown that for newly constructed combined-cycle cogeneration plants and nuclear cogeneration plants, the optimum arrangement of the centralized heat supply system is the combination of a cogeneration plant and a district heat-supply station (a boiler house).

  8. Disseminated mucormycosis in an adolescent with newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    McCrory, Michael C; Moore, Blake A; Nakagawa, Thomas A; Givner, Laurence B; Jason, Donald R; Palavecino, Elizabeth L; Ajizian, Samuel J

    2014-10-01

    We report a 16-year-old, previously healthy female who presented with disseminated mucormycosis leading to multiorgan failure and death with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus and ketoacidosis. We review previous reported cases of mucormycosis in children with diabetes to demonstrate that this uncommon invasive infection may cause significant morbidity and mortality in this population.

  9. Dilemmas of a Newly Recruited Academic Qualified Professor: A Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agrawal, Anand

    2015-01-01

    This case describes the situation of a newly recruited academic professor who volunteered to teach a course on Research Methods to first-term MBA students in a practitioner-oriented case method Business School. Research Methods is a unique course due to its relevance not only in business but also across all graduate programs. Instructional and…

  10. Self-Regulation in Newly Arrived International Adoptees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tirella, Linda Grey; Miller, Laurie C.

    2011-01-01

    Many newly arrived international adoptees (IA) have difficulties with eating, sleeping, and self-soothing/self-stimulating (SS) behaviors. However, to date the prevalence of these problems and associated risk factors have not been clearly identified. Therefore, we proposed to evaluate 387 IA for the presence of these self-regulation and behavioral…

  11. Information Centers for Newly Blind Persons in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickstein, N.; Gozovsky, M.

    1994-01-01

    This article describes the development and implementation of an innovative program of information centers in Israel that is designed to identify newly blind persons and to give them first-hand information about available services, as well as to stimulate an awareness of rehabilitation services among medical personnel. (Author/DB)

  12. Death Concerns among Individuals Newly Diagnosed with Lung Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehto, Rebecca; Therrien, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Confronting the reality of death is an important challenge for individuals facing life-threatening illness such as lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer death. Few studies, however, document the nature of death-related concerns in individuals newly diagnosed with lung cancer. The aims of this exploratory study were to examine unsolicited…

  13. Who Is Doing Well? A Typology of Newly Homeless Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milburn, Norweeta; Liang, Li-Jung; Lee, Sung-Jae; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Rosenthal, Doreen; Mallett, Shelley; Lightfoot, Marguerita; Lester, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    There is growing evidence to support developing new typologies for homeless adolescents. Current typologies focus on the risks associated with being homeless, with less consideration of the positive attributes of homeless adolescents. The authors examined both risk and protective factors in a sample of newly homeless adolescents. Using cluster…

  14. Triadic Interaction among Newly Acquainted 2-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishikawa, Fumiko; Hay, Dale F.

    2006-01-01

    Are children as young as 2 years old able to interact in groups of three? The study applied the family triad model first introduced by Parke, Power, and Gottman (1979) to the case of peer interaction. In Experiment 1, the model was refined for use in studies of peer interaction and applied to an existing dataset of 16 triads of newly acquainted…

  15. 26. View of fully flooded drydock with caisson opened. Newly ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. View of fully flooded drydock with caisson opened. Newly arrived submarine is being placed in position. Berthed submarine on right is same as that seen in photo WA-116-25. Camera is pointed S from bulkhead. - Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Drydock No. 3, Farragut Avenue, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  16. 21. Newly completed Lake Hodges Dam and Flume, 1919. Courtesy ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Newly completed Lake Hodges Dam and Flume, 1919. Courtesy of the Mandeville Department of Special Collection, Central Library, University of California, San Diego. - Lake Hodges Flume, Along San Dieguito River between Lake Hodges & San Dieguito Reservoir, Rancho Santa Fe, San Diego County, CA

  17. 23. Cross section of newly completed concrete channel and trestle ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Cross section of newly completed concrete channel and trestle supported steel flume, 1919. Courtesy of the Mandeville Department of Special Collections, Central Library, University of California, San Diego. - Lake Hodges Flume, Along San Dieguito River between Lake Hodges & San Dieguito Reservoir, Rancho Santa Fe, San Diego County, CA

  18. Newly Generated Liquid Waste Processing Alternatives Study, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Landman, William Henry; Bates, Steven Odum; Bonnema, Bruce Edward; Palmer, Stanley Leland; Podgorney, Anna Kristine; Walsh, Stephanie

    2002-09-01

    This report identifies and evaluates three options for treating newly generated liquid waste at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The three options are: (a) treat the waste using processing facilities designed for treating sodium-bearing waste, (b) treat the waste using subcontractor-supplied mobile systems, or (c) treat the waste using a special facility designed and constructed for that purpose. In studying these options, engineers concluded that the best approach is to store the newly generated liquid waste until a sodium-bearing waste treatment facility is available and then to co-process the stored inventory of the newly generated waste with the sodium-bearing waste. After the sodium-bearing waste facility completes its mission, two paths are available. The newly generated liquid waste could be treated using the subcontractor-supplied system or the sodium-bearing waste facility or a portion of it. The final decision depends on the design of the sodium-bearing waste treatment facility, which will be completed in coming years.

  19. Resume Writing in Russia and the Newly Independent States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Betsy; Sapp, David Alan; Sargsyan, Nelly

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the teaching of resume writing at one university in Russia and several institutions in the Newly Independent States (NIS). The authors explore challenges including variable cultural norms for written versus oral communication, severe financial and material hardship in the educational sector, cultural discomfort with the norms…

  20. Supporting Newly Hired Teachers of Science: Attaining Teacher Professional Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luft, Julie A.; Dubois, Shannon L.; Nixon, Ryan S.; Campbell, Benjamin K.

    2015-01-01

    National standards for teachers are becoming more common. For newly hired teachers of science (NHTS), these standards have implications for how they are prepared and supported in their early years. In order to guide educators who prepare and study teachers of science and support NHTS, this review examines 30 years of research pertaining to…

  1. Westinghouse Hanford Company plan for certifying newly generated contact-handled transuranic waste

    SciTech Connect

    Lipinski, R.M.

    1994-10-01

    All transuranic (TRU) waste generators are required by US Department of Energy Order 5820.2A to package their TRU waste to comply with the Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Transuranic Waste Certification Plan was developed to ensure that TRU newly waste generated at WHC meets the WIPP-WAC and/or. The methods used at WHC to package TRU waste are described in sufficient detail to meet WIPP certification or the regulations. This document is organized to provide a brief overview of waste generation operations at WHC, along with details on data management for TRU waste. The methods used to implement this plan are discussed briefly along with the responsibilities and authorities of applicable organizations. This certification plan describes how WHC complies with all applicable regulations and requirements set forth in the latest approved revision of WIPP-DOE-069.

  2. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor: a newly described mediator of angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kermani, Pouneh; Hempstead, Barbara

    2007-05-01

    Recent studies indicate that, in addition to its neuropoietic actions, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) promotes endothelial cell survival and induces neoangiogenesis in ischemic tissues. Unlike many vascular growth factors that act on many vascular beds, BDNF activity is relatively restricted to central arteries, vessels of cardiac and skeletal muscle, and skin. Studies of newly described biologic mediators that act on large-vessel and microvascular beds in these organs will help us to better understand organ-specific vascular development, as well as to develop novel therapeutic strategies to improve the condition of patients with cardiac and peripheral vascular disease. In this review, we summarize dual proangiogenic actions of BDNF, which, through local activation of TrkB receptor, expressed on a subpopulation of endothelial cells and, in addition, by recruitment of bone marrow-derived cells, contribute to neoangiogenesis.

  3. Insights into the growth of newly formed particles in a subtropical urban environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salimi, F.; Crilley, L. R.; Stevanovic, S.; Ristovski, Z.; Mazaheri, M.; He, C.; Johnson, G.; Ayoko, G.; Morawska, L.

    2015-12-01

    The role of different chemical compounds, particularly organics, involved in the new particle formation (NPF) and its consequent growth are not fully understood. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the chemical composition of aerosol particles during NPF events in an urban subtropical environment. Aerosol chemical composition was measured along with particle number size distribution (PNSD) and several other air quality parameters at five sites across an urban subtropical environment. An Aerodyne compact Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (c-ToF-AMS) and a TSI Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) measured aerosol chemical composition (particles above 50 nm in vacuum aerodynamic diameter) and PNSD (particles within 9-414 nm in mobility diameter), respectively. Five NPF events, with growth rates in the range 3.3-4.6 nm, were detected at two of the sites. The NPF events happened on relatively warmer days with lower condensation sink (CS). Temporal percent fractions of organics increased after the particles grew enough to have a significant contribution to particle volume, while the mass fraction of ammonium and sulfate decreased. This uncovered the important role of organics in the growth of newly formed particles. Three organic markers, factors f43, f44 and f57, were calculated and the f44 vs. f43 trends were compared between nucleation and non-nucleation days. K-means cluster analysis was performed on f44 vs. f43 data and it was found that they follow different patterns on nucleation days compared to non-nucleation days, whereby f43 decreased for vehicle-emission-generated particles, while both f44 and f43 decreased for NPF-generated particles. It was found for the first time that vehicle-generated and newly formed particles cluster in different locations on f44 vs. f43 plot, and this finding can be potentially used as a tool for source apportionment of measured particles.

  4. Flagellation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in newly divided cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Kun; Lee, Calvin; Anda, Jaime; Wong, Gerard

    2015-03-01

    For monotrichous bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, after cell division, one daughter cell inherits the old flagellum from its mother cell, and the other grows a new flagellum during or after cell division. It had been shown that the new flagellum grows at the distal pole of the dividing cell when the two daughter cells haven't completely separated. However, for those daughter cells who grow new flagella after division, it still remains unknown at which pole the new flagellum will grow. Here, by combining our newly developed bacteria family tree tracking techniques with genetic manipulation method, we showed that for the daughter cell who did not inherit the old flagellum, a new flagellum has about 90% chances to grow at the newly formed pole. We proposed a model for flagellation of P. aeruginosa.

  5. Intermittent individual housing increases survival of newly proliferated cells.

    PubMed

    Aberg, Elin; Pham, Therese M; Zwart, Mieke; Baumans, Vera; Brené, Stefan

    2005-09-08

    In this study, we analyzed how intermittent individual housing with or without a running wheel influenced corticosterone levels and survival of newly proliferated cells in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Female Balb/c mice, in standard or enhanced housing, were divided into groups that were individually housed with or without running wheels on every second day. Intermittent individual housing without, but not with, running wheels increased survival of proliferated cells in the dentate gyrus as compared with continuous group housing in standard or enhanced conditions. Thus, changes in housing conditions on every second day can, under certain circumstances, have an impact on the survival of newly proliferated cells in the dentate gyrus.

  6. Insulin Oedema in Newly Diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Çetinkaya, Semra; Yılmaz Ağladıoğlu, Sebahat; Peltek Kendirici, Havva Nur; Bilgili, Hatice; Yıldırım, Nurdan; Aycan, Zehra

    2010-01-01

    Despite the essential role of insulin in the management of patients with insulin deficiency, insulin use can lead to adverse effects such as hypoglycaemia and weight gain. Rarely, crucial fluid retention can occur with insulin therapy, resulting in an oedematous condition. Peripheral or generalised oedema is an extremely rare complication of insulin therapy in the absence of heart, liver or renal involvement. It has been reported in newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes, in poorly controlled type 2 diabetes following the initiation of insulin therapy, and in underweight patients on large doses of insulin. The oedema occurs shortly after the initiation of intensive insulin therapy. We describe two adolescent girls with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes, who presented with oedema of the lower extremities approximately one week after the initiation of insulin treatment; other causes of oedema were excluded. Spontaneous recovery was observed in both patients. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:21274337

  7. Characterization of newly isolated lytic bacteriophages active against Acinetobacter baumannii.

    PubMed

    Merabishvili, Maia; Vandenheuvel, Dieter; Kropinski, Andrew M; Mast, Jan; De Vos, Daniel; Verbeken, Gilbert; Noben, Jean-Paul; Lavigne, Rob; Vaneechoutte, Mario; Pirnay, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    Based on genotyping and host range, two newly isolated lytic bacteriophages, myovirus vB_AbaM_Acibel004 and podovirus vB_AbaP_Acibel007, active against Acinetobacter baumannii clinical strains, were selected from a new phage library for further characterization. The complete genomes of the two phages were analyzed. Both phages are characterized by broad host range and essential features of potential therapeutic phages, such as short latent period (27 and 21 min, respectively), high burst size (125 and 145, respectively), stability of activity in liquid culture and low frequency of occurrence of phage-resistant mutant bacterial cells. Genomic analysis showed that while Acibel004 represents a novel bacteriophage with resemblance to some unclassified Pseudomonas aeruginosa phages, Acibel007 belongs to the well-characterized genus of the Phikmvlikevirus. The newly isolated phages can serve as potential candidates for phage cocktails to control A. baumannii infections.

  8. Reduced parasympathetic tone in newly diagnosed essential hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Goit, Rajesh Kumar; Ansari, Abdul Haque

    2016-01-01

    Aim The aim of the study was to compare heart rate variability (HRV) of newly diagnosed essential hypertensive subjects with controls. Methods The study was conducted on 120 hypertensive subjects and 120 controls. Results The time-domain measures, standard deviation of all RR intervals (SDNN), the square root of the mean of the sum of the squares of differences between adjacent RR intervals (RMSSD), and percentage of consecutive RR intervals that differ by more than 50 ms (pNN50) which reflect parasympathetic activity were significantly less in hypertensive subjects. In frequency-domain measures, high frequency [HF (ms2)] and [HF (nu)], which reflects parasympathetic activity, was significantly less in hypertensive subjects while LF (nu) and LF/HF (%), which reflect sympathetic activity, were comparable between the groups. Conclusion These findings suggest that HRV is reduced in subjects with newly diagnosed essential hypertension and the parasympathetic dysregulation is present in the early stage of essential hypertension. PMID:27133323

  9. Assessment of metal retention in newly constructed highway embankments.

    PubMed

    Werkenthin, Moritz; Kluge, Björn; Wessolek, Gerd

    2016-12-01

    Newly constructed embankments should provide both a specific bearing capacity to enable trafficability in emergency cases and a sufficient pollutant retention capacity to protect the groundwater. A number of lysimeters were installed along the A115 highway to determine total and dissolved metal concentrations in road runoff and in the soil solution of newly constructed embankments. Dissolved concentrations in soil solution of the embankments did not exceed the trigger values of the German legislation. Depending on the metal, total concentrations in soil solution were more than twice as high as dissolved concentrations. The high infiltration rates lead to increased groundwater recharge beneath the embankments (up to 4100 mm a(-1)). Although metal concentrations were not problematic from the legislators' point of view, the elevated infiltration rates beside the road facilitated the transfer of high metal loads into deeper soil layers and potentially into the groundwater as well.

  10. 35. LOW OBLIQUE AERIAL VIEW LOOKING EAST OVER THE NEWLY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. LOW OBLIQUE AERIAL VIEW LOOKING EAST OVER THE NEWLY CONSTRUCTED NAVAL SUPPLY CENTER. NORTH TRAINING WALL AND FEDERAL CHANNEL ARE AT FAR RIGHT. Dated 23 April 1942. U.S. Navy photograph from the Fleet Industrial Supply Center archive (FISCO; Naval Supply Center, Oakland). Original print on file at the Port of Oakland, California. - Oakland Harbor Training Walls, Mouth of Federal Channel to Inner Harbor, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  11. The Circulation of Newly Formed Deep Water in the Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhein, M.; Kieke, D.; Steinfeldt, R.

    2012-04-01

    The circulation of newly formed deep water masses (Labrador Sea Water, LSW, and Denmark Strait Overflow Water, DSOW) is examined by discussing the distribution of two parameters (age τ and fraction F of young water) calculated from the chlorofluorocarbon data measured between 1980 and 2005 in the Atlantic. Compared to previous studies, a much larger data set was used with an improved gridding procedure, allowing to resolve the distributions in more detail.

  12. "Car seat dermatitis": a newly described form of contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Ghali, Fred E

    2011-01-01

    Over the last several years, our clinic has documented an increasing trend of contact dermatitis presenting in areas that are in direct contact with certain types of car seats composed of a shiny, nylon-like material. Our practice has encountered these cases in both atopic and nonatopic infants, with a seasonal predilection for the warmer months. This brief report highlights some of the key features of this condition and alerts the clinician to this newly described form of contact dermatitis.

  13. The probability of preservation of a newly arisen gene duplicate.

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, M; O'Hely, M; Walsh, B; Force, A

    2001-01-01

    Newly emerging data from genome sequencing projects suggest that gene duplication, often accompanied by genetic map changes, is a common and ongoing feature of all genomes. This raises the possibility that differential expansion/contraction of various genomic sequences may be just as important a mechanism of phenotypic evolution as changes at the nucleotide level. However, the population-genetic mechanisms responsible for the success vs. failure of newly arisen gene duplicates are poorly understood. We examine the influence of various aspects of gene structure, mutation rates, degree of linkage, and population size (N) on the joint fate of a newly arisen duplicate gene and its ancestral locus. Unless there is active selection against duplicate genes, the probability of permanent establishment of such genes is usually no less than 1/(4N) (half of the neutral expectation), and it can be orders of magnitude greater if neofunctionalizing mutations are common. The probability of a map change (reassignment of a key function of an ancestral locus to a new chromosomal location) induced by a newly arisen duplicate is also generally >1/(4N) for unlinked duplicates, suggesting that recurrent gene duplication and alternative silencing may be a common mechanism for generating microchromosomal rearrangements responsible for postreproductive isolating barriers among species. Relative to subfunctionalization, neofunctionalization is expected to become a progressively more important mechanism of duplicate-gene preservation in populations with increasing size. However, even in large populations, the probability of neofunctionalization scales only with the square of the selective advantage. Tight linkage also influences the probability of duplicate-gene preservation, increasing the probability of subfunctionalization but decreasing the probability of neofunctionalization. PMID:11779815

  14. The probability of preservation of a newly arisen gene duplicate.

    PubMed

    Lynch, M; O'Hely, M; Walsh, B; Force, A

    2001-12-01

    Newly emerging data from genome sequencing projects suggest that gene duplication, often accompanied by genetic map changes, is a common and ongoing feature of all genomes. This raises the possibility that differential expansion/contraction of various genomic sequences may be just as important a mechanism of phenotypic evolution as changes at the nucleotide level. However, the population-genetic mechanisms responsible for the success vs. failure of newly arisen gene duplicates are poorly understood. We examine the influence of various aspects of gene structure, mutation rates, degree of linkage, and population size (N) on the joint fate of a newly arisen duplicate gene and its ancestral locus. Unless there is active selection against duplicate genes, the probability of permanent establishment of such genes is usually no less than 1/(4N) (half of the neutral expectation), and it can be orders of magnitude greater if neofunctionalizing mutations are common. The probability of a map change (reassignment of a key function of an ancestral locus to a new chromosomal location) induced by a newly arisen duplicate is also generally >1/(4N) for unlinked duplicates, suggesting that recurrent gene duplication and alternative silencing may be a common mechanism for generating microchromosomal rearrangements responsible for postreproductive isolating barriers among species. Relative to subfunctionalization, neofunctionalization is expected to become a progressively more important mechanism of duplicate-gene preservation in populations with increasing size. However, even in large populations, the probability of neofunctionalization scales only with the square of the selective advantage. Tight linkage also influences the probability of duplicate-gene preservation, increasing the probability of subfunctionalization but decreasing the probability of neofunctionalization.

  15. Sustainability concept for a newly built urban area in Malmö, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Gruvberger, C; Aspegren, H; Andersson, B; la Cour Jansen, J

    2003-01-01

    National goals regarding sustainable development from the Swedish government were decisive in the planning process when the newly built city district Western Harbour was established in the city of Malmö, Sweden. A systems analysis was used as a tool for evaluating different collection and treatment systems. This type of analysis does not include more subjective factors such as acceptance of organic fertilizers based on human waste and user acceptance of collection schemes. These aspects, however, will often determine the success of a technical solution. When the system for collection and treatment of old organic waste and wastewater was designed, both subjective and objective factors were considered. This meant that a centralised solution for wastewater treatment was selected. In order to facilitate a more sustainable solution for sludge management a treatment process with recovery of phosphorus will have to be introduced. Organic waste is sorted out and treated in an anaerobic digestion process. Source sorting of solid organic waste has been difficult to implement in Sweden due to inadequate sorting discipline. As a consequence two relatively new systems are tested in the area. A comprehensive evaluation will be carried out during a period of two years.

  16. Hepatic confinement of newly produced erythrocytes caused by low-temperature exposure in Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Maekawa, Shun; Iemura, Hitomi; Kuramochi, Yuko; Nogawa-Kosaka, Nami; Nishikawa, Hironori; Okui, Takehito; Aizawa, Youichi; Kato, Takashi

    2012-09-01

    Diminished erythrocyte count and erythropoiesis have been reported during hypothermia in some ectothermic animals. In this study, the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, was used to investigate the cause of hypothermia-induced anemia. We developed a new model of hypothermia at 5°C and monitored blood cell count and erythropoiesis on several days. Erythrocyte count declined by 30% on the first day following cold exposure (5°C) and mRNA expression of hemeoxygenase-1 was enhanced 10-fold; accumulation of iron as a result of heme degradation was observed in the liver. One day after low-temperature exposure, erythropoietin mRNA expression was elevated in the liver and lung compared with that at normal temperature (22°C) by qRT-PCR analysis. Examination of liver sections (i.e. the erythropoietic organ) showed an increase in o-dianisidine-positive erythrocytes in the hepatic sinusoid 5 days after the onset of low-temperature exposure compared with normal liver. Peripheral erythrocyte count remained low, indicating that newly produced erythrocytes did not migrate from the liver to the circulation during hypothermia. In conclusion, this study reveals hypothermic anemia as being associated with hepatic erythrocyte destruction; prolonged anemia during low-temperature exposure is concomitant with newly produced erythrocytes being confined to the liver and may lead to new insights into vertebrate hematopoiesis.

  17. Chromosome 1 abnormalities in elderly patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma treated with novel therapies

    PubMed Central

    Caltagirone, Simona; Ruggeri, Marina; Aschero, Simona; Gilestro, Milena; Oddolo, Daniela; Gay, Francesca; Bringhen, Sara; Musolino, Caterina; Baldini, Luca; Musto, Pellegrino; Petrucci, Maria T.; Gaidano, Gianluca; Passera, Roberto; Bruno, Benedetto; Palumbo, Antonio; Boccadoro, Mario; Omedè, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is a plasma cell disorder characterized by malignant plasma cell infiltration in the bone marrow, serum and/or urine monoclonal protein and organ damage. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of chromosome 1 abnormalities in a group of elderly patients (>65 years) with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma enrolled in the GIMEMA-MM-03-05 trial and treated with bortezomib, melphalan and prednisone or bortezomib, melphalan, prednisone and thalidomide followed by bortezomib and thalidomide maintenance. We also evaluated the link between chromosome 1 abnormalities and other clinical, genetic and immunophenotypic features by a multivariate logistic regression model. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization on immunomagnetically purified plasma cells and bone marrow multiparameter flow cytometry were employed. A multivariate Cox model showed that chromosome 1 abnormalities, age >75 years and a CD19+/CD117− immunophenotype of bone marrow plasma cells were independent risk factors for overall survival in elderly patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. Moreover, a detrimental effect of thalidomide, even when administered in association with bortezomib, was observed in patients with abnormal chromosome 1 as well as in those with 17p deletion, while the benefit of adding thalidomide to the bortezomib-melphalan-prednisone regimen was noted in patients carrying an aggressive CD19+/CD117− bone marrow plasma cell immunophenotype. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltri-als.gov as #NCT01063179. PMID:25015938

  18. Learning beyond graduation: exploring newly qualified specialists' entrance into daily practice from a learning perspective.

    PubMed

    Cuyvers, Katrien; Donche, Vincent; Van den Bossche, Piet

    2016-05-01

    The entrance of newly qualified medical specialists into daily practice is considered to be a stressful period in which curriculum support is absent. Although engaging in both personal and professional learning and development activities is recognized fundamental for lifelong professional competence, research on medical professionals' entrance into practice is scarce. This research aims to contribute to the framework of medical professionals' informal learning and outlines the results of an exploratory study on the nature of learning in daily practice beyond postgraduate training. Eleven newly qualified physicians from different specialized backgrounds participated in a phenomenographic study, using a critical incident method and a grounded theory approach. Results demonstrated that learning in the workplace is, to a large extent, informal and associated with a variety of learning experiences. Analysis shows that experiences related to diagnostics and treatments are important sources for learning. Furthermore, incidents related to communication, changing roles, policy and organization offer learning opportunities, and therefore categorized as learning experiences. A broad range of learning activities are identified in dealing with these learning experiences. More specifically, actively engaging in actions and interactions, especially with colleagues of the same specialty, are the most mentioned. Observing others, consulting written sources, and recognizing uncertainties, are also referred to as learning activities. In the study, interaction, solely or combined with other learning activities, are deemed as very important by specialists in the initial entrance into practice. These insights can be used to develop workplace structures to support the entrance into practice following postgraduate training.

  19. Executive onboarding: ensuring the success of the newly hired department chair.

    PubMed

    Ross, Warren E; Huang, Karen H C; Jones, Greg H

    2014-05-01

    The success of newly recruited medical school department chairs has become increasingly important for achievement of organizational goals. An effective onboarding program for these chairs can greatly facilitate early success, as well as satisfaction of the new hire with the position and the school. Onboarding programs can include traditional orientation items such as payroll signup and parking details, but should focus heavily on sharing organizational structure, culture, and how things get done. The goals of onboarding will be well served by implementation of three roles in the process. An Orientation Navigator can assist the new chair in the orientation phase, completing new employee documents and navigating the day-to-day challenges of working at the location. A Peer Mentor, generally a sitting chair, serves as both "buddy" and mentor, providing moral support as well as ensuring that the new chair gains an understanding of the people and processes important for getting things done. A Transition Mentor serves over a longer term as a sounding board and coach outside the peer group, assisting in a variety of ways to promote the chair's growth, development, and success as a leader. Finally, any onboarding process is significantly compromised without the active participation of the dean, meeting regularly with the chair to clarify expectations, promote assimilation, and solve problems. Successful onboarding begins with a mindfulness of the needs of the newly hired chair, and a well-designed and well-implemented plan will have wide-ranging benefits for the chair and the organization.

  20. Inverse Association of Serum Docosahexaenoic Acid With Newly Diagnosed Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bo; Ding, Fang; Wang, Feng-Lei; Yu, Wei; Li, Duo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Observational studies on circulating fatty acid (FA) and primary prevention of hypertension have yielded inconsistent results, and the association among the Chinese population is not fully clear. The aim of the study was to discern important FAs that can discriminate hypertensive patients from normotensive persons, and investigate associations between the important FAs and risk of hypertension. We conducted a case-control study nested within a community-based cohort of 2447 Chinese participants aged 35 to 79 years who completed a baseline assessment between October 2012 and April 2013. In all, 480 patients with newly diagnosed hypertension were identified at baseline and 480 normotensive individuals were randomly selected as matched normotensive controls. Controls were individually matched to cases by age (±2 y), sex, and recruitment center, with a 1:1 case-to-control ratio. Serum FA profile was compared between cases and controls by orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analyses. Odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for newly diagnosed hypertension was estimated by a conditional logistical analysis. After adjustment for body mass index, education, profession, family history of hypertension, salt intake, heart rate, blood lipids, and fasting glucose levels, serum FA profile in hypertensive patients was typically characterized by higher 16:0 and 16:1n-7, and lower 18:2n-6 and 22:6n-3, compared with normotensive controls. Docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) and palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7) were identified as the important FA contributing most to the intergroup separations. When comparing the highest and lowest quartile of FA composition, newly diagnosed hypertension was negatively associated with 22:6n-3 (OR 0.65; 95% CI, 0.45–0.93; P for trend = 0.02), but positively associated with 16:1n-7 (OR 2.14; 95% CI, 1.46–3.12; P for trend < 0.001). The associations remained pronounced after multiple adjustments and in further stratified

  1. On the detection of newly created CN radicals and comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donn, B.; Cody, R. J.

    1977-01-01

    Laboratory investigations of CN radical formation by photodissociation of parent molecules have suggested the possibility of observing emission lines in cometary spectra from newly formed CN radicals. These laboratory studies have shown that high initial internal excitation of CN is the rule with excitation of rotational levels N up to 70. In the collisionless environment of the cometary atmosphere this initial excitation would yield a corresponding distribution for the lowest vibrational level of the ground X(2) Sigma (+) state. Our calculations show that it is feasible with present observational techniques to detect photochemically excited lines with N approx. equal to 30 in the 0-0 band of the violet system.

  2. Newly licensed registered nurse job turnover and turnover intent.

    PubMed

    Unruh, Lynn Y; Zhang, Ning Jackie

    2014-01-01

    Through survey data, this study examines job leaving behaviors of newly licensed registered nurses and identifies educational and managerial issues that need to be addressed to retain them. Within 1.5-2.5 years of graduating, one third of all respondents had left their first job, most for work-related reasons. Predictors of job leaving or intentions to leave included not having had a good orientation, information issues, having difficulties doing a good job, not being rewarded fairly, and low job satisfaction.

  3. Knickkopf protein protects and organizes chitin in the newly synthesized insect exoskeleton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New cuticle synthesis and molting are complex developmental processes that all insects must undergo to allow for growth. However, little is known about how insects regulate the selective degradation of the old cuticle while leaving the new one intact. In this study we show that in the red flour beet...

  4. Comparative microRNA profiling in relation to urinary albumin excretion in newly diagnosed hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Parthenakis, F I; Marketou, M E; Kontaraki, J E; Maragoudakis, F; Maragkoudakis, S; Nakou, H; Roufas, K; Patrianakos, A; Chlouverakis, G; Malliaraki, N; Vardas, P E

    2016-11-01

    Microalbuminuria is an established early marker of endothelial dysfunction and damage. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are emerging as essential modulators of cardiovascular physiology and disease. In the present study, we sought an association between the differential expression of related miRNAs in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of untreated patients with newly diagnosed essential hypertension and the levels of urinary albumin excretion. We assessed the expression of the miRNAs miRNA-1, miRNA-133a, miRNA-26b, miRNA-208b, miRNA-499 and miRNA-21 in consecutive subjects with untreated newly diagnosed essential hypertension (aged 62.5±9.7 years) and with no indications of other organic heart disease. MiRNA expression levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were quantified by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The prevalence of microalbuminuria was 9.8%. miRNA-208b and miRNA-133a were independently correlated with 24-h urinary albumin excretion. More specifically, a strong association was found between the gene expression levels of miRNA-208b in our patients' peripheral blood cells and urinary albumin (r=0.72, P<0.001). A similar association was found for miRNA-133a (r=0.372, P<0.001). In conclusion, miRNA-208b and miRNA-133a show distinct profiling in peripheral blood cells isolated from untreated patients with recently diagnosed essential hypertension. Their gene expression levels reveal a strong correlation with urinary albumin excretion levels. Our findings provide new perspectives on the development of a new generation of biomarkers for the better monitoring of end-organ damage in hypertension.

  5. Technical Equivalency Documentation for a Newly Aquired Alpha Spectroscopy System

    SciTech Connect

    Hickman, D P; Fisher, S K; Hann, P R; Hume, R

    2007-04-25

    The response of a recently acquired Canberra{trademark} Alpha Analyst 'Blue' system (Chamber Number's 173-208) used by the Hazards Control, Radiation Safety Section, WBC/Spectroscopy Team has been studied with respect to an existing Canberra system. The existing Canberra system consists of thirty Alpha Analyst dual chambers Model XXXX comprising a total of sixty detectors (Chambers Number's 101-124 and 137-172). The existing chambers were previously compared to an older system consisting of thirty-six Model 7401 alpha spectrometry chambers (Chamber Number's 1-36) Chambers 101-124 and 137-172 are DOELAP accredited. The older system was previously DOELAP accredited for the routine Alpha Spectroscopy program used in LLNL's in vitro bioassay program. The newly acquired Alpha Analyst system operates on a network with software that controls and performs analysis of the current Alpha Analyst system (Chamber Number's 101-124 and 137-172). This exact same software is used for the current system and the newly acquired system and is DOELAP accredited. This document compares results from the existing Alpha System with the newer Alpha Analyst system.

  6. Acute Stress in Parents of Children Newly Diagnosed With Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Patiño-Fernández, Anna Maria; Pai, Ahna L.H.; Alderfer, Melissa; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Reilly, Anne; Kazak, Anne E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) and subclinical symptoms of acute stress (SAS) may be a useful framework for understanding the psychological reactions of mothers and fathers of children newly diagnosed with a pediatric malignancy. Patients and Methods Mothers (N = 129) and fathers (N = 72) of 138 children newly diagnosed with cancer completed questionnaires assessing acute distress, anxiety, and family functioning. Demographic data were also gathered. Inclusion criteria were: a confirmed diagnosis of a pediatric malignancy in a child under the age of 18 years without prior chronic or life threatening illness and fluency in English or Spanish. Results Descriptive statistics and multiple linear regressions were used to examine predictors of SAS. Fifty-one percent (N = 66) of mothers and 40% (N = 29) of fathers met DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for ASD. The majority of the sample reported experiencing at least one SAS. General anxiety, but not family functioning, was a strong predictor of SAS in both mothers and fathers even after controlling for demographic characteristics. Conclusions Immediately following their child’s diagnosis of cancer, most mothers and fathers experience SAS, with a subsample meeting criteria for ASD. More anxious parents are at heightened risk of more intense reactions. The findings support the need for evidence-based psychosocial support at diagnosis and throughout treatment for families who are at risk for acute distress reactions. PMID:17514742

  7. Technical Equivalency Documentation for a Newly Acquired Alpha Spectroscopy System

    SciTech Connect

    Hickman, D P; Fisher, S K; Zeman, R A; Hann, P R

    2005-09-28

    The response of a newly acquired Canberra{trademark} Alpha Analyst (Chamber No.'s 137-172) used by the Hazards Control, Radiation Safety Section WBC/Spectroscopy Team has been studied with respect to an existing Canberra system. The existing Canberra system consists of thirty-six Model 7401 alpha spectrometry chambers (Chamber No.'s 1-36) and has previously been DOELAP qualified for the routine Alpha Spectroscopy program used in LLNL's in vitro bioassay program. The newly acquired Alpha Analyst system operates on a network with software that controls and performs analysis of a one-year-old twenty-four chamber Alpha Analyst system (Chamber No.'s 101-124) that has also been previously evaluated and recently DOELAP accredited. The Alpha Analyst system is an automated system that is controlled by the same software and computer system as that used for the existing Canberra alpha analysis systems. This document compares results from the existing Alpha System with the newer Alpha Analyst system.

  8. HOW CAN NEWLY BORN RAPIDLY ROTATING NEUTRON STARS BECOME MAGNETARS?

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Quan; Yu, Yun-Wei

    2014-05-10

    In a newly born (high-temperature and Keplerian rotating) neutron star, r-mode instability can lead to stellar differential rotation, which winds the seed poloidal magnetic field (∼10{sup 11} G) to generate an ultra-high (∼10{sup 17} G) toroidal field component. Subsequently, by succumbing to the Tayler instability, the toroidal field could be partially transformed into a new poloidal field. Through such dynamo processes, the newly born neutron star with sufficiently rapid rotation could become a magnetar on a timescale of ∼10{sup 2} {sup –} {sup 3} s, with a surface dipolar magnetic field of ∼10{sup 15} G. Accompanying the field amplification, the star could spin down to a period of ∼5 ms through gravitational wave radiation due to the r-mode instability and, in particular, the non-axisymmetric stellar deformation caused by the toroidal field. This scenario provides a possible explanation for why the remnant neutron stars formed in gamma-ray bursts and superluminous supernovae could be millisecond magnetars.

  9. [Synthetic Drugs - An Overview of Important and Newly Emerging Substances].

    PubMed

    Betzler, F; Heinz, A; Köhler, S

    2016-11-01

    Background: Synthetic drug use and abuse are on the rise. Governmental institutions report a shift in consumption from natural drugs to synthetic drugs, and show an increase in confiscation, particularly of methamphetamine and newly identified psychoactive substances. In addition, the media report an alarming increase in the rate of consumption and casualties resulting from the use of drugs such as "crystal meth" and warn against a flood of this and other designer drugs from eastern European countries. Objectives: The present article gives an overview of current popular and widely used synthetic drugs, both classical substances (amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDMA) and new psychoactive substances ("designer drugs", "legal highs"). It addresses their pharmacology, effects, side effects, and risks. It furthermore explores newly emerging problems for the health system and clinical practice regarding the treatment of intoxication as well as withdrawal. Methods: The current scientific literature concerning synthetic drugs is summarized and official statistics and reports provided by the government are reviewed. Results: Different derivatives of amphetamine vary in their risk of harm and addictive potential. Methamphetamine, one of the most dangerous derivatives, is increasingly being consumed in certain regions of Germany. New psychoactive substances represent a heterogeneous group of substances. Since the substances are often unknown to the user, they are unpredictable in their effects and side effects.

  10. Image dependency in the recognition of newly learnt faces.

    PubMed

    Longmore, Christopher A; Santos, Isabel M; Silva, Carlos F; Hall, Abi; Faloyin, Dipo; Little, Emily

    2017-05-01

    Research investigating the effect of lighting and viewpoint changes on unfamiliar and newly learnt faces has revealed that such recognition is highly image dependent and that changes in either of these leads to poor recognition accuracy. Three experiments are reported to extend these findings by examining the effect of apparent age on the recognition of newly learnt faces. Experiment 1 investigated the ability to generalize to novel ages of a face after learning a single image. It was found that recognition was best for the learnt image with performance falling the greater the dissimilarity between the study and test images. Experiments 2 and 3 examined whether learning two images aids subsequent recognition of a novel image. The results indicated that interpolation between two studied images (Experiment 2) provided some additional benefit over learning a single view, but that this did not extend to extrapolation (Experiment 3). The results from all studies suggest that recognition was driven primarily by pictorial codes and that the recognition of faces learnt from a limited number of sources operates on stored images of faces as opposed to more abstract, structural, representations.

  11. Los Alamos Plutonium Facility newly generated TRU waste certification

    SciTech Connect

    Gruetzmacher, K.; Montoya, A.; Sinkule, B.; Maez, M.

    1997-02-01

    This paper presents an overview of the activities being planned and implemented to certify newly generated contact handled transuranic (TRU) waste produced by Los Alamos National Laboratory`s (LANL`s) Plutonium Facility. Certifying waste at the point of generation is the most important cost and labor saving step in the WIPP certification process. The pedigree of a waste item is best known by the originator of the waste and frees a site from expensive characterization activities such as those associated with legacy waste. Through a cooperative agreement with LANLs Waste Management Facility and under the umbrella of LANLs WIPP-related certification and quality assurance documents, the Plutonium Facility will be certifying its own newly generated waste. Some of the challenges faced by the Plutonium Facility in preparing to certify TRU waste include the modification and addition of procedures to meet WIPP requirements, standardizing packaging for TRU waste, collecting processing documentation from operations which produce TRU waste, and developing ways to modify waste streams which are not certifiable in their present form.

  12. Determination of Atterberg limits using newly devised mud press machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayabali, Kamil; Akturk, Ozgur; Fener, Mustafa; Ozkeser, Ali; Ustun, Ayla Bulut; Dikmen, Orhan; Harputlugil, Furkan; Asadi, Ramin

    2016-04-01

    Consistency limits are one of the most prominent parameters to be determined in geotechnical investigations. While these limits are akin to one another, different tools determine each one. Each method of determining consistency limits has its own uncertainties, the operator dependency being the top source of uncertainty. Liquid limit (LL) and plastic limit (PL) tests have a number of uncertainties affecting the test results. The very speculative nature of the bead-rolling method for the plastic limit has long been known. Besides this, its results can be barely accepted as quantitative. In the past, a number of attempts have been made to eliminate these setbacks for Atterberg limits. The scope of this investigation is to evaluate the potential of newly developed "mud press method (MPM)" to predict the two consistency limits. The material employed for this investigation covers 275 soils, whose liquid limits range from 28 to 166. The log(a) and 1/b parameters obtained from the MPM method were correlated to results of the conventional methods. The PL and LL for each soil were predicted using empirical forms and were compared with the laboratory values. Remarkably good matches were obtained between the conventionally determined test results and the predicted values for the liquid and plastic limits. The newly developed tool is superior in several aspects to the available conventional methods and tools.

  13. Chemotherapy in newly diagnosed primary central nervous system lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Hashemi-Sadraei, Nooshin; Peereboom, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) accounts for only 3% of brain tumors. It can involve the brain parenchyma, leptomeninges, eyes and the spinal cord. Unlike systemic lymphoma, durable remissions remain uncommon. Although phase III trials in this rare disease are difficult to perform, many phase II trials have attempted to define standards of care. Treatment modalities for patients with newly diagnosed PCNSL include radiation and/or chemotherapy. While the role of radiation therapy for initial management of PCNSL is controversial, clinical trials will attempt to improve the therapeutic index of this modality. Routes of chemotherapy administration include intravenous, intraocular, intraventricular or intra-arterial. Multiple trials have outlined different methotrexate-based chemotherapy regimens and have used local techniques to improve drug delivery. A major challenge in the management of patients with PCNSL remains the delivery of aggressive treatment with preservation of neurocognitive function. Because PCNSL is rare, it is important to perform multicenter clinical trials and to incorporate detailed measurements of long-term toxicities. In this review we focus on different chemotherapeutic approaches for immunocompetent patients with newly diagnosed PCNSL and discuss the role of local drug delivery in addition to systemic therapy. We also address the neurocognitive toxicity of treatment. PMID:21789140

  14. Stability of nucleosome placement in newly repaired regions of DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Nissen, K.A.; Lan, S.Y.; Smerdon, M.J.

    1986-07-05

    Rearrangements of chromatin structure during excision repair of UV-damaged DNA appear to involve unfolding of nucleosomal DNA while repair is taking place, followed by refolding of this DNA into a native nucleosome structure. Recently, we found that repair patches are not distributed uniformly along the DNA in nucleosome core particles immediately following their refolding into nucleosomes. Therefore, the distribution of repair patches in nucleosome core DNA was used to monitor the stability of nucleosome placement in these regions. Our results indicate that in nondividing human cells undergoing excision repair there is a slow change in the positioning of nucleosomes in newly repaired regions of chromatin, resulting in the eventual randomization of repair patches in nucleosome core DNA. Furthermore, the nonrandom placement of nucleosomes observed just after the refolding event is not re-established during DNA replication. Possible mechanisms for this change in nucleosome placement along the DNA are discussed.

  15. Ubiquitination of newly synthesized proteins at the ribosome.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Canadeo, Larissa A; Huibregtse, Jon M

    2015-07-01

    Newly synthesized proteins can be misfolded or damaged because of errors during synthesis or environmental insults (e.g., heat shock), placing a significant burden on protein quality control systems. In addition, numerous human diseases are associated with a deficiency in eliminating aberrant proteins or accumulation of aggregated proteins. Understanding the mechanisms of protein quality control and disposal pathways for misfolded proteins is therefore crucial for therapeutic intervention in these diseases. Quality control processes function at many points in the life cycle of proteins, and a subset act at the actual site of protein synthesis, the ribosome. Here we summarize recent advances in the role of the ubiquitin proteasome system in protein quality control during the process of translation.

  16. Ubiquitination of Newly Synthesized Proteins at the Ribosome

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Feng; Canadeo, Larissa A.; Huibregtse, Jon M.

    2015-01-01

    Newly synthesized proteins can be misfolded or damaged because of errors during synthesis or environmental insults (e.g., heat shock), placing a significant burden on protein quality control systems. In addition, numerous human diseases are associated with a deficiency in eliminating aberrant proteins or accumulation of aggregated proteins. Understanding the mechanisms of protein quality control and disposal pathways for misfolded proteins is therefore crucial for therapeutic intervention in these diseases. Quality control processes function at many points in the life cycle of proteins, and a subset act at the actual site of protein synthesis, the ribosome. Here we summarize recent advances in the role of the ubiquitin proteasome system in protein quality control during the process of translation. PMID:25701549

  17. Invasive procedures on newly deceased examined with an ethical eye.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    Death is a hot topic. Books on death are making the best-seller lists and their authors are on speaker circuits, TV talk shows, and at book-signing parties. No longer a taboo topic in polite conversation, our society has become voyeuristic and hell-bent on unmasking death. At the Brooklyn Academy, for example, a dance/theater troupe is performing choreographer Bill T. Jones's "Still/Here," which incorporates videotaped segments of real people who are terminally ill and talk about it. Given the nation's preoccupation with death and dying, it should come as no surprise that the issue of how the newly deceased are treated within health care institutions has become a current topic in the literature, as the following articles show.

  18. Radiation grafted adsorbents for newly emerging environmental applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoud Nasef, Mohamed; Ting, T. M.; Abbasi, Ali; Layeghi-moghaddam, Alireza; Sara Alinezhad, S.; Hashim, Kamaruddin

    2016-01-01

    Radiation induced grafting (RIG) is acquired to prepare a number of adsorbents for newly emerging environmental applications using a single route involving RIG of glycidymethacrylate (GMA) onto polyethylene-polypropylene (PE-PP) non-woven fabric. The grafted fabric was subjected to one of three functionalization reactions to impart desired ionic characters. This included treatment with (1) N-dimethyl-D-glucamine, (2) triethylamine and (3) triethylamine and alkalisation with KOH. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used to study the changes in chemical and physical structures of the obtained fibrous adsorbents. The potential applications of the three adsorbents for removal of boron from solutions, capturing CO2 from CO2/N2 mixtures and catalysing transesterification of triacetin/methanol to methyl acetate (biodiesel) were explored. The obtained fibrous adsorbents provide potential alternatives to granular resins for the investigated applications and require further development.

  19. Evaluation of a newly developed online color training system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li; Yang, Xu; Tan, Jianguo; Zhou, Jianfeng; Du, Yang; Li, Deli

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated a newly developed online color training system. The system incorporated basic color training, shade guide matching, and clinical shade selection simulation exercises. Thirty-seven dental students went through baseline Vita-Vita testing with VITA Classical shade guides and then practiced color training exercises with the system for 4 days; the same test was performed after the training program. The average correct match increased from 6.7 (41.88%) to 11.38 (71.13%) using the shade guides (P < .001) and from 9.67 (60.42%) to 13.06 (81.63%) using the color training system (P < .001). The effectiveness of the color training system in improving color-matching quality was confirmed.

  20. Preliminary tests of a newly developed superconducting gravity gradiometer

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, M.; Chan, H.; Paik, H.

    1983-05-01

    The authors have recently completed a series of tests on a newly developed superconducting gravity gradiometer consisting of two 400 g niobium proof masses separated by a distance of 15 cm. The resonance frequency of the proof mass suspension systems is 25 Hz. The sensitivity of this gradiometer obtained during these tests was 1 to 2 Eotvos Hz /SUP -1/2/ (1 Eotvos = 10/sup -9/ s/sup -2/ = 1 E) below 1 Hz, and 0.2 E Hz /SUP -1/2/ between 15 and 20 Hz. Using this gradiometer, a prototype experiment has been performed to demonstrate a new source-independent null test of the inverse square law of gravitation. Results are given.

  1. Scent-marking in lone wolves and newly formed pairs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rothman, R.J.; Mech, L.D.

    1979-01-01

    Scent-marking was studied in wolves (Canis lupus) along 133 km of tracks in northern Minnesota during winters of 1975 to 1976 and 1976 to 1977 and in two captive packs and four captive pairs for various periods. Lone wolves, which possess neither mates nor territories, rarely marked by raised-leg urination and defaecated and urinated less along roads and trails, where territorial pairs and packs generally marked. Newly formed pairs marked the most, eventually decreasing their rates to those of established packs. Generally, wolves that scent-marked also bred, whereas non-marking wolves usually did not breed. Scent-marking apparently is important to the success of courtship in new pairs and to reproductive synchrony in established pairs, as well as serving a territorial function.

  2. Millisecond newly born pulsars as efficient accelerators of electrons.

    PubMed

    Osmanov, Zaza; Mahajan, Swadesh; Machabeli, George; Chkheidze, Nino

    2015-09-25

    The newly born millisecond pulsars are investigated as possible energy sources for creating ultra-high energy electrons. The transfer of energy from the star rotation to high energy electrons takes place through the Landau damping of centrifugally driven (via a two stream instability) electrostatic Langmuir waves. Generated in the bulk magnetosphere plasma, such waves grow to high amplitudes, and then damp, very effectively, on relativistic electrons driving them to even higher energies. We show that the rate of transfer of energy is so efficient that no energy losses might affect the mechanism of particle acceleration; the electrons might achieve energies of the order of 10(18) eV for parameters characteristic of a young star.

  3. Millisecond newly born pulsars as efficient accelerators of electrons

    PubMed Central

    Osmanov, Zaza; Mahajan, Swadesh; Machabeli, George; Chkheidze, Nino

    2015-01-01

    The newly born millisecond pulsars are investigated as possible energy sources for creating ultra-high energy electrons. The transfer of energy from the star rotation to high energy electrons takes place through the Landau damping of centrifugally driven (via a two stream instability) electrostatic Langmuir waves. Generated in the bulk magnetosphere plasma, such waves grow to high amplitudes, and then damp, very effectively, on relativistic electrons driving them to even higher energies. We show that the rate of transfer of energy is so efficient that no energy losses might affect the mechanism of particle acceleration; the electrons might achieve energies of the order of 1018 eV for parameters characteristic of a young star. PMID:26403155

  4. Evaluation of newly formulated Dow Corning 321 dry film lubricant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, M.

    1989-01-01

    An evaluation of the newly formulated Dow Corning 321 dry film lubricant was performed. The purpose of the evaluation was to compare lubricating characteristics of Dow Corning 321 (STW4-2955, SCN No. 3) to those of Molykote 321R (STW4-2955). Ten igniter bolts were installed and torqued on test plates using the old formulation thread lubricant (Molykote 321R), and 10 bolts were installed using the new formulation (Dow Corning 321). After bolt removal, no signs of galling were found on any of the bolts or test plates threaded holes. Average torque-load values for each formulation were very close. Test results showed there are no significant differences in lubrication abilities between Molykote 321R and Dow Corning 321. It is recommended that, once current supplies of Molykote 321R are depleted, Dow Corning 321 dry film lubricant be used in place of Molykote 321R as a thread lubricant on redesigned solid rocket motor assemblies.

  5. Serum irisin levels and thyroid function--newly discovered association.

    PubMed

    Ruchala, Marek; Zybek, Ariadna; Szczepanek-Parulska, Ewelina

    2014-10-01

    Irisin is a newly discovered adipo-myokin, which is reported to have a significant influence on the body metabolism and thermogenesis. Other influencing factors on metabolic state are thyroid hormones, which increase heat production and control the energy balance. Due to numerous similarities in action it seems imperative to explore these substances' potential mutual influence on the body. The aim of the study is to provide the first ever, according to our knowledge, evaluation of serum irisin concentrations in patients with thyroid dysfunction and its correlation with creatine kinase (CK) levels - a serum marker of muscle damage. The studied group consisted of 20 patients with newly diagnosed thyroid disorder - hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism. Venous blood samples were analyzed for irisin, thyrotropin (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3) and CK serum concentrations. Patients' body mass index (BMI), body weight and muscle mass were evaluated using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Median serum irisin levels were lower in hypothyroid (117.30ng/ml) than hyperthyroid (161.95ng/ml) patients with a borderline statistical significance (p=0.0726). The negative correlation between irisin and TSH levels was demonstrated (r=-0.4924, p=0.0230), as well as the positive correlation between irisin and FT4 levels (r=0.4833, p=0.0360). The CK level was negatively correlated with irisin, FT4 and FT3 concentrations (r=-0.7272, p=0.0140; r=-0.9636, p=<0.0001; r=-0.8838, p=0.0007, respectively). The study demonstrates that irisin concentrations may vary according to the thyrometabolic state, which potentially could be related to the degree of muscle damage.

  6. [The newly certified 105 Japanese medical technologists in clinical microbiology].

    PubMed

    Kumasaka, Kazunari

    2002-05-01

    Interest in quality assurance(QA) in clinical laboratories in Japan has increased over the past 30 years. We have however been lagging behind countries such as the USA, Canada and the UK in QA of clinical microbiology. The main problem of QA in Japan is human resources. There are only about 400 laboratory physicians certified by the Japanese Society of Laboratory Medicine(JSLM). Almost no academics in microbiology are interested in QA and they mostly lack clinical competence. There is a small number of faculty positions, and promotions are mostly based on research productivity while medical graduates are increasingly drawn to bench work for basic, short-term research. The Japanese Society for Clinical Microbiology (JSCM) was established in 1990 in order to promote the development of clinical microbiology and its relevant fields in Japan. And 2001 was a milestone in sustained efforts of the JSLM to initiate qualifying examinations of medical technologists(MT) in clinical microbiology. 105 MT in clinical microbiology were newly certified by the Joint Committee of JSCM, JSLM, Japanese Association of Medical Technologists (JAMT) and College of Clinical Pathology of Japan(CCPJ). The certified MTs have appropriate educational background and are well motivated. With good on-the-job training, they are expected to perform effectively various tasks, including laboratory management. Recent radical changes in the health care delivery system have also had serious implications on laboratory services and QA of microbiological tests. The primary goal of the clinical microbiology laboratory is to provide accurate diagnostic testing and high-quality service at a low cost for its customers. It is believed that the Joint Committee and the newly certified MTs will contribute to narrowing the gap between Japan and other countries in clinical microbiology.

  7. Vasomotor responses of newly developed coronary collateral vessels.

    PubMed

    Kinn, J W; Altman, J D; Chang, M W; Bache, R J

    1996-08-01

    Well-developed coronary collateral vessels contain an abundant muscular media and can undergo active vasomotion. However, early after coronary occlusion, coronary collateral vessels are thin walled with little smooth muscle, suggesting that vasomotor capability might be limited. Consequently, this study determined whether newly developed coronary collateral vessels have active vasomotor activity and whether endothelial function in these newly developed vessels is impaired. Retrograde blood flow was measured as an index of coronary collateral blood flow approximately 2 wk after embolic occlusion of the anterior descending coronary artery of dogs. Agonists were administered into the left main coronary artery to reach collaterals originating from the left coronary system. Baseline retrograde blood flow was 25.1 +/- 2.7 ml/min and increased to 36.7 +/- 3.7 ml/min after nitroglycerin (6 micrograms.kg-1.min-1, P < 0.05). Cyclooxygenase blockade with indomethacin (5 mg/kg i.v.) decreased retrograde collateral blood flow to 16.8 +/- 2.3 ml/min (P < 0.05). Subsequent administration of acetylcholine increased retrograde flow to 29.4 +/- 3.7 ml/min (P < 0.05), indicating intact endothelium-mediated vasodilation. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase with NG-nitro-L-arginine further decreased coronary collateral retrograde flow to 12.0 +/- 2.8 ml/min (P < 0.05) and markedly blunted the response to acetylcholine. These findings demonstrate substantial vasomotor capability even early during coronary collateral development and indicate that both nitric oxide and cyclooxygenase-dependent endothelial mechanisms are intact.

  8. Additions to the ICSBEP and IRPhEP Handbooks since NCSD 2009

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Bess; J. Blair Briggs; Jim Gulliford; Ian Hill

    2013-10-01

    High-quality integral benchmark experiments have always been a priority for criticality safety. However, interest in integral benchmark data is increasing as efforts to quantify and reduce calculational uncertainties accelerate to meet the demands of future criticality safety needs to support next generation reactor and advanced fuel cycle concepts. The importance of drawing upon existing benchmark data is becoming more apparent because of dwindling availability of critical facilities worldwide and the high cost of performing new experiments. Integral benchmark data from the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments and the International Handbook of Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments are widely used. Significant Benchmark data have been added to those two handbooks since the last Nuclear Criticality Safety Division Topical Meeting in Richland, Washington (September 2009). This paper highlights those additions.

  9. RECENT ADDITIONS OF CRITICALITY SAFETY RELATED INTEGRAL BENCHMARK DATA TO THE ICSBEP AND IRPHEP HANDBOOKS

    SciTech Connect

    J. Blair Briggs; Lori Scott; Yolanda Rugama; Enrico Sartori

    2009-09-01

    High-quality integral benchmark experiments have always been a priority for criticality safety. However, interest in integral benchmark data is increasing as efforts to quantify and reduce calculational uncertainties accelerate to meet the demands of future criticality safety needs to support next generation reactor and advanced fuel cycle concepts. The importance of drawing upon existing benchmark data is becoming more apparent because of dwindling availability of critical facilities worldwide and the high cost of performing new experiments. Integral benchmark data from the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments and the International Handbook of Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments are widely used. Benchmark data have been added to these two handbooks since the last Nuclear Criticality Safety Division Topical Meeting in Knoxville, Tennessee (September 2005). This paper highlights these additions.

  10. Phase I Study of Vandetanib With Radiotherapy and Temozolomide for Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Drappatz, Jan; Norden, Andrew D.; Wong, Eric T.

    2010-09-01

    Purpose: Increasing evidence has suggested that angiogenesis inhibition might potentiate the effects of radiotherapy and chemotherapy in patients with glioblastoma (GBM). In addition, epidermal growth factor receptor inhibition might be of therapeutic benefit, because the epidermal growth factor receptor is upregulated in GBM and contributes to radiation resistance. We conducted a Phase I study of vandetanib, an inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 and epidermal growth factor receptor, in patients with newly diagnosed GBM combined with RT and temozolomide (TMZ). Methods and Materials: A total of 13 GBM patients were treated with vandetanib, radiotherapy, and concurrent and adjuvant TMZ, using a standard '3 + 3' dose escalation. The maximal tolerated dose was defined as the dose with <1 of 6 dose-limiting toxicities during the first 12 weeks of therapy. The eligible patients were adults with newly diagnosed GBM, Karnofsky performance status of {>=}60, normal organ function, who were not taking enzyme-inducing antiepileptic drugs. Results: Of the 13 patients, 6 were treated with vandetanib at a dose of 200mg daily. Of the 6 patients, 3 developed dose-limiting toxicities within the first 12 weeks, including gastrointestinal hemorrhage and thrombocytopenia in 1 patient, neutropenia in 1 patient, and diverticulitis with gastrointestinal perforation in 1 patient. The other 7 patients were treated with 100 mg daily, with no dose-limiting toxicities observed, establishing this dose as the maximal tolerated dose combined with TMZ and RT. Conclusion: Vandetanib can be safely combined with RT and TMZ in GBM patients. A Phase II study in which patients are randomized to vandetanib 100 mg daily with RT and TMZ or RT and TMZ alone is underway.

  11. Westinghouse Hanford Company plan for certifying newly generated contact -- handled transuranic waste. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Lipinski, R.M.; Backlund, E.G.

    1995-09-01

    All transuranic (TRU) waste generators are required by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A to package their TRU waste in order to comply wit the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) -- Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) or keep non-certifiable containers segregated. The Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Transuranic Waste Certification Plan was developed to ensure that TRU newly generated waste at WHC meets the DOE Order 5820.2A and the WHC-WAC which includes the State of Washington Department of Ecology -- Washington Administrative Code (DOE-WAC). The metho used at WHC to package TRU waste are described in sufficient detail to meet the regulations. This document is organized to provide a brief overview of waste generation operations at WHC. The methods used to implement this plan are discussed briefly along with the responsibilities and authorities of applicable organizations. This plan describes how WHC complies with all applicable regulations and requirements set forth in the latest approved revision of WHC-EP-0063-4.

  12. Bone Disease in Newly Diagnosed Lupus Nephritis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Resende, Aline Lázara; dos Reis, Luciene Machado; Dias, Cristiane Bitencourt; Custódio, Melani Ribeiro; Jorgetti, Vanda; Woronik, Viktoria

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Bone loss in Lupus Nephritis (LN) patients is common and multifactorial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bone status of newly diagnosed LN patients and their correlation with inflammatory factors involved in LN physiopathology. Methods We studied 15 pre-menopausal patients with ≤2 months of diagnosed SLE and LN. Patients with prior kidney or bone disease were excluded. In addition to biochemical evaluation (including 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D] and Monocyte Chemotactic Protein (MCP1) dosage), we performed bone biopsies followed by osteoblast culture, histomorphometric and immunohistochemistry analysis. Results LN patients presented a mean age of 29.5±10 years, a proteinuria of 4.7±2.9 g/day and an estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of 37(31–87) ml/min/1,73 m2. They were on glucocorticoid therapy for 34±12 days. All patients presented vitamin D insufficiency (9.9±4.4 ng/ml, range 4–20). Urinary MCP1 correlated negatively with 25(OH)D (r = −0.53, p = 0.003) and positively with serum deoxypyridinoline (r = 0.53, p = 0.004). Osteoblasts isolated from LN bone biopsies presented a significantly higher expression of MCP-1 when compared to controls (32.0.±9.1 vs. 22.9±5.3 mean fluorescence intensities, p = 0.01). LN patients presented a significantly reduced osteoid volume, osteoid thickness, osteoid surface, mineralization surface and bone formation rate, associated with an increased eroded surface and osteoclast surface. Patient’s bone specimens demonstrated a reduced immunostaining for osteoprotegerin (0.61±0.82 vs. 1.08±0.50%, p = 0.003), and an increased expression of Receptor Activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) (1.76±0.92 vs. 0.41±0.28%, p<0.001) when compared to controls. Discussion Newly diagnosed LN patients presented a significant disturbance in bone metabolism, characterized by an impaired bone formation and mineralization, associated with an increase in resorption parameters

  13. Newly qualified teachers' visions of science learning and teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Deborah L.

    2011-12-01

    This study investigated newly qualified teachers' visions of science learning and teaching. The study also documented their preparation in an elementary science methods course. The research questions were: What educational and professional experiences influenced the instructor's visions of science learning and teaching? What visions of science learning and teaching were promoted in the participants' science methods course? What visions of science learning and teaching did these newly qualified teachers bring with them as they graduated from their teacher preparation program? How did these visions compare with those advocated by reform documents? Data sources included participants' assignments, weekly reflections, and multi-media portfolio finals. Semi-structured interviews provided the emic voice of participants, after graduation but before they had begun to teach. These data were interpreted via a combination of qualitative methodologies. Vignettes described class activities. Assertions supported by excerpts from participants' writings emerged from repeated review of their assignments. A case study of a typical participant characterized weekly reflections and final multi-media portfolio. Four strands of science proficiency articulated in a national reform document provided a framework for interpreting activities, assignments, and interview responses. Prior experiences that influenced design of the methods course included an inquiry-based undergraduate physics course, participation in a reform-based teacher preparation program, undergraduate and graduate inquiry-based science teaching methods courses, participation in a teacher research group, continued connection to the university as a beginning teacher, teaching in diverse Title 1 schools, service as the county and state elementary science specialist, participation in the Carnegie Academy for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, service on a National Research Council committee, and experience teaching a

  14. Dispersion of fine phosphor particles by newly developed beads mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joni, I. Made; Panatarani, C.; Maulana, Dwindra W.

    2016-02-01

    Fine phosphor Y2O3:Eu3+ particles has advanced properties compare to conventional particles applied for compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) as three band phosphor. However, suspension of fine particles easily agglomerated during preparation of spray coating of the CFL tube. Therefore, it is introduced newly developed beads mill system to disperse fine phosphor. The beads mill consist of glass beads, dispersing chamber (impellers), separator chamber, slurry pump and motors. The first important performance of beads mill is the performance of the designed on separating the beads with the suspended fine particles. We report the development of beads mill and its separation performance vary in flow rate and separator rotation speeds. The 27 kg of glass beads with 30 µm in size was poured into dispersing chamber and then water was pumped continuously through the slurry pump. The samples for the separation test was obtained every 1 hours vary in rotation speed and slurry flow rate. The results shows that the separation performance was 99.99 % obtained for the rotation speed of >1000 rpm and flow rate of 8 L/minute. The performances of the system was verified by dispersing fine phosphor Y2O3:Eu3+ particles with concentration 1 wt.%. From the observed size distribution of particles after beads mill, it is concluded that the current design of bead mill effectively dispersed fine phosphor Y2O3:Eu3+.

  15. Newly developed Sr-substituted alpha-TCP bone cements.

    PubMed

    Pina, S; Torres, P M; Goetz-Neunhoeffer, F; Neubauer, J; Ferreira, J M F

    2010-03-01

    New bone cements made of Sr-substituted brushite-forming alpha-tricalcium phosphate (alpha-TCP) were prepared and characterized in the present work. The quantitative phase analysis and structural refinement of the starting powders and of hardened cements were performed by X-ray powder diffraction and the Rietveld refinement technique. Isothermal calorimetry along with setting time analysis allowed a precise tracing of the setting process of the pastes. The pastes showed exothermic reactions within the first 10-15 min after mixing and further release of heat after about 1h. An apatitic phase formed upon immersion of the hardened cements in simulated body fluid for 15 and 30 days due to the conversion of brushite into apatite confirming their in vitro mineralization capability. The compressive strength of the wet cement specimens decreased with increasing curing time, being higher in the case of Sr-substituted CPC. The results suggest that the newly developed Sr-substituted brushite-forming alpha-TCP cements show promise for uses in orthopaedic and trauma surgery such as in filling bone defects.

  16. Performance of a newly developed implantable centrifugal blood pump.

    PubMed

    Tsukiya, T; Taenaka, Y; Tatsumi, E; Takano, H

    2001-01-01

    The performance of the newly developed implantable centrifugal blood pump was investigated in vitro. The pump was developed with the end goal of building a versatile system that includes a left ventricular assist system with an internal secondary battery or an implantable biventricular assist system with two implantable blood pumps. The hydrodynamic characteristics and efficiency of the blood pump were evaluated, and the mechanical damage to the blood caused by the blood pump was assessed through a hemolysis test using fresh goat blood. The pump could generate 120 mm Hg at a flow rate of 5 L/min and a motor speed of 2,500 rpm. The electric input power to the pump was approximately 5 watts under these working conditions. The hemolysis caused by the pump was a bit higher than that by the former model, but stayed within an acceptable range. Performance of the pump in vitro was considered sufficient for a left ventricular assist device, although further design improvement is necessary in terms of hemolysis and system efficiency to improve biocompatibility of the pump.

  17. Deep Breathing Practice Facilitates Retention of Newly Learned Motor Skills.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Goldy; Mutha, Pratik K

    2016-11-14

    Paced deep breathing practices, a core component of a number of meditation programs, have been shown to enhance a variety of cognitive functions. However, their effects on complex processes such as memory, and in particular, formation and retention of motor memories, remain unknown. Here we show that a 30-minute session of deep, alternate-nostril breathing remarkably enhances retention of a newly learned motor skill. Healthy humans learned to accurately trace a given path within a fixed time duration. Following learning, one group of subjects (n = 16) underwent the 30-minute breathing practice while another control group (n = 14) rested for the same duration. The breathing-practice group retained the motor skill strikingly better than controls, both immediately after the breathing session and also at 24 hours. These effects were confirmed in another group (n = 10) that rested for 30 minutes post-learning, but practiced breathing after their first retention test; these subjects showed significantly better retention at 24 hours but not 30 minutes. Our results thus uncover for the first time the remarkable facilitatory effects of simple breathing practices on complex functions such as motor memory, and have important implications for sports training and neuromotor rehabilitation in which better retention of learned motor skills is highly desirable.

  18. Effectiveness of duct cleaning methods on newly installed duct surfaces.

    PubMed

    Holopainen, R; Asikainen, V; Tuomainen, M; Björkroth, M; Pasanen, P; Seppänen, O

    2003-09-01

    Two kinds of air duct cleaning methods, mechanical brushing with different brushes and compressed air cleaning, were compared in the laboratory and in newly built buildings. The ducts were contaminated either with test dust or with dust originated from a construction site. The amount of dust on the duct surface was measured with the vacuum test method and estimated visually before and after the cleaning. In addition, the cleaning times of the different techniques were compared and the amount of residual oil in the ducts was measured in the laboratory test. The brushing methods were more efficient in metal ducts, and compressed air cleaning was more efficient in plastic ducts. After the duct cleaning the mean amount of residual dust on the surface of the ducts was

  19. A wind tunnel test of newly developed personal bioaerosol samplers.

    PubMed

    Su, Wei-Chung; Tolchinsky, Alexander D; Sigaev, Vladimir I; Cheng, Yung Sung

    2012-07-01

    In this study the performance of two newly developed personal bioaerosol samplers was evaluated. The two test samplers are cyclone-based personal samplers that incorporate a recirculating liquid film. The performance evaluations focused on the physical efficiencies that a personal bioaerosol sampler could provide, including aspiration, collection, and capture efficiencies. The evaluation tests were carried out in a wind tunnel, and the test personal samplers were mounted on the chest of a full-size manikin placed in the test chamber of the wind tunnel. Monodisperse fluorescent aerosols ranging from 0.5 to 20 microm were used to challenge the samplers. Two wind speeds of 0.5 and 2.0 m/sec were employed as the test wind speeds in this study. The test results indicated that the aspiration efficiency of the two test samplers closely agreed with the ACGIH inhalable convention within the size range of the test aerosols. The aspiration efficiency was found to be independent of the sampling orientation. The collection efficiency acquired from these two samplers showed that the 50% cutoff diameters were both around 0.6 microm. However the wall loss of these two test samplers increased as the aerosol size increased, and the wall loss of PAS-4 was considerably higher than that of PAS-5, especially in the aerosol size larger than 5 microm, which resulted in PAS-4 having a relatively lower capture efficiency than PAS-5. Overall, the PAS-5 is considered a better personal bioaerosol sampler than the PAS-4.

  20. System of cities dynamics in newly industrializing nations.

    PubMed

    Meyer, D R

    1986-01-01

    Rapid industrialization in such countries as Korea, Malaysia, and Taiwan suggests that the complex functional structures of cities in the periphery may appear early in development. This paper proposes a 4-stage framework for the dynamics of a system of cities in a developing country undergoing industrialization and encompassing both nonindustrial and industrial development. The synthesis is assessed with evidence from the newly industrializing Asian nations of Korea, Malaysia, and Taiwan. The 4 stages of cities' industrial change include 1) increasing primacy with industrial satellites, 2) increasing primacy with industrial satellites and nodal towns on a transport network, 3) rapidly increasing primacy with rapidly growing industrial satellites and nodal towns on the transport network, and 4) decreasing primacy with slowly growing industrial satellites and rapidly growing peripheral industrial towns. The 4-stage synthesis suggests that economic development in the periphery may occur even while the primate city maintains its hegemony over control and coordination functions. Peripheral industrial growth does not challenge this hegemony. The growth of industrial cities is, instead, part of a process of regional specialization in which the low cost labor in the periphery becomes an attraction for industry. These stages are not inevitable. Government efforts are necessary to develop rural areas in terms of social improvements (education and health), capital infrastructure (transportation and utilities), and fair payments to farmers for their outputs. These seem to be the lessons learned from the industrialization process in Korea, Malaysia, and Taiwan.

  1. Uninvolved immunoglobulins predicting hematological response in newly diagnosed AL amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Muchtar, Eli; Magen, Hila; Itchaki, Gilad; Cohen, Amos; Rosenfeld, Ra'ama; Shochat, Tzippy; Kornowski, Ran; Iakobishvili, Zaza; Raanani, Pia

    2016-02-01

    Immunoparesis serves as a marker for elevated risk for progression in plasma cell proliferative disorders. However, the impact of immunoparesis in AL amyloidosis has not been addressed. Immunoparesis was defined qualitatively as any decrease below the low reference levels of the uninvolved immunoglobulins and quantitatively, as the relative difference between the uninvolved immunoglobulins and the lower reference values. Forty-one newly diagnosed AL amyloidosis patients were included. Sixty-six percent of patients had a suppression of the uninvolved immunoglobulins. The median relative difference of the uninvolved immunoglobulins was 18% above the low reference levels [range (-71%)-210%]. Ninety percent of the patients were treated with novel agents-based regimens, mostly bortezomib-containing regimens. Nineteen percent of the patients did not attain response to first line treatment. Patients with relative difference of uninvolved immunoglobulins below -25% of the low reference levels were less likely to respond to first line treatment compared to patients with a relative difference of -25% and above [odds ratio for no response vs. partial response and better 30 [(95% CI 4.1-222.2), P=0.0004]. Patients who failed first line treatment were successfully salvaged with lenalidomide-based treatment. Immunoparesis, if assessed quantitatively, may serve as a predictor of response in AL amyloidosis patients treated with bortezomib-containing regimens.

  2. Deep Breathing Practice Facilitates Retention of Newly Learned Motor Skills

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Goldy; Mutha, Pratik K.

    2016-01-01

    Paced deep breathing practices, a core component of a number of meditation programs, have been shown to enhance a variety of cognitive functions. However, their effects on complex processes such as memory, and in particular, formation and retention of motor memories, remain unknown. Here we show that a 30-minute session of deep, alternate-nostril breathing remarkably enhances retention of a newly learned motor skill. Healthy humans learned to accurately trace a given path within a fixed time duration. Following learning, one group of subjects (n = 16) underwent the 30-minute breathing practice while another control group (n = 14) rested for the same duration. The breathing-practice group retained the motor skill strikingly better than controls, both immediately after the breathing session and also at 24 hours. These effects were confirmed in another group (n = 10) that rested for 30 minutes post-learning, but practiced breathing after their first retention test; these subjects showed significantly better retention at 24 hours but not 30 minutes. Our results thus uncover for the first time the remarkable facilitatory effects of simple breathing practices on complex functions such as motor memory, and have important implications for sports training and neuromotor rehabilitation in which better retention of learned motor skills is highly desirable. PMID:27841345

  3. Two ways to save a newly learned motor pattern.

    PubMed

    Roemmich, Ryan T; Bastian, Amy J

    2015-06-01

    Savings, or faster relearning after initial learning, demonstrates humans' remarkable ability to retain learned movements amid changing environments. This is important within the context of locomotion, as the ability of the nervous system to "remember" how to walk in specific environments enables us to navigate changing terrains and progressively improve gait patterns with rehabilitation. Here, we used a split-belt treadmill to study precisely how people save newly learned walking patterns. In Experiment 1, we investigated savings by systematically varying the learning and unlearning environments. Savings was predominantly influenced by 1) previous exposure to similar abrupt changes in the environment and 2) the amount of exposure to the new environment. Relearning was fastest when these two factors coincided, and we did not observe savings after the environment was introduced gradually during initial learning. In Experiment 2, we then studied whether people store explicit information about different walking environments that mirrors savings of a new walking pattern. Like savings, we found that previous exposure to abrupt changes in the environment also drove the ability to recall a previously experienced walking environment accurately. Crucially, the information recalled was extrinsic information about the learning environment (i.e., treadmill speeds) and not intrinsic information about the walking pattern itself. We conclude that simply learning a new walking pattern is not enough for long-term savings; rather, savings of a learned walking pattern involves recall of the environment or extended training at the learned state.

  4. Variation of dominance of newly arisen adaptive genes.

    PubMed

    Bourguet, D; Lenormand, T; Guillemaud, T; Marcel, V; Fournier, D; Raymond, M

    1997-11-01

    Newly arisen adaptive alleles such as insecticide resistance genes represent a good opportunity to investigate the theories put forth to explain the molecular basis of dominance and its possible evolution. Dominance levels of insecticide resistance conferred by insensitive alleles of the acetylcholinesterase gene were analyzed in five resistant strains of the mosquito Culex pipiens. Dominance levels were found to differ between strains, varying from partial recessivity to complete dominance. This variation was not explained by differences in catalytic properties of the enzyme, since four of the five resistant strains had identical inhibition properties for the insensitive acetylcholinesterase. Among these four laboratory strains and in individuals collected from natural populations, we found a correlation between increased acetylcholinesterase activities and higher dominance levels. We propose a molecular explanation for how variation in acetylcholinesterase activity may result in variation of dominance level. We also conjecture that the four resistant strains did not differ in their amino acid sequence in the catalytically active regions of acetylcholinesterase, but that the expression of the gene was regulated by either neighboring or distant sites, thereby modifying the dominance level. Under this interpretation, dominance levels may evolve in this system, since heritable variation in acetylcholinesterase activity was found.

  5. Climate change and the water cycle in newly irrigated areas.

    PubMed

    Abrahão, Raphael; García-Garizábal, Iker; Merchán, Daniel; Causapé, Jesús

    2015-02-01

    Climate change is affecting agriculture doubly: evapotranspiration is increasing due to increments in temperature while the availability of water resources is decreasing. Furthermore, irrigated areas are expanding worldwide. In this study, the dynamics of climate change impacts on the water cycle of a newly irrigated watershed are studied through the calculation of soil water balances. The study area was a 752-ha watershed located on the left side of the Ebro river valley, in Northeast Spain. The soil water balance procedures were carried out throughout 1827 consecutive days (5 years) of hydrological and agronomical monitoring in the study area. Daily data from two agroclimatic stations were used as well. Evaluation of the impact of climate change on the water cycle considered the creation of two future climate scenarios for comparison: 2070 decade with climate change and 2070 decade without climate change. The main indicators studied were precipitation, irrigation, reference evapotranspiration, actual evapotranspiration, drainage from the watershed, and irrigation losses. The aridity index was also applied. The results represent a baseline scenario in which adaptation measures may be included and tested to reduce the impacts of climate change in the studied area and other similar areas.

  6. CAMS newly detected meteor showers and the sporadic background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenniskens, P.; Nénon, Q.; Gural, P. S.; Albers, J.; Haberman, B.; Johnson, B.; Morales, R.; Grigsby, B. J.; Samuels, D.; Johannink, C.

    2016-03-01

    The Cameras for Allsky Meteor Surveillance (CAMS) video-based meteoroid orbit survey adds 60 newly identified showers to the IAU Working List of Meteor Showers (numbers 427, 445-446, 506-507, and part of 643-750). 28 of these are also detected in the independent SonotaCo survey. In total, 230 meteor showers and shower components are identified in CAMS data, 177 of which are detected in at least two independent surveys. From the power-law size frequency distribution of detected showers, we extrapolate that 36% of all CAMS-observed meteors originated from ∼700 showers above the N = 1 per 110,000 shower limit. 71% of mass falling to Earth from streams arrives on Jupiter-family type orbits. The transient Geminids account for another 15%. All meteoroids not assigned to streams form a sporadic background with highest detected numbers from the apex source, but with 98% of mass falling in from the antihelion source. Even at large ∼7-mm sizes, a Poynting-Robertson drag evolved population is detected, which implies that the Grün et al. collisional lifetimes at these sizes are underestimated by about a factor of 10. While these large grains survive collisions, many fade on a 104-y timescale, possibly because they disintegrate into smaller particles by processes other than collisions, leaving a more resilient population to evolve.

  7. Pre-irradiation chemotherapy for newly diagnosed high grade astrocytoma.

    PubMed

    Mathieu, N Tubiana; Genet, D; Labrousse, F; Bouillet, P; Denes, S Lavau; Martin, J; Labourey, J L; Venat, L; Clavere, P; Moreau, J J

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to determine the response rate and toxicity of a combination of Carmustine and Cisplatin administered before radiation in patients with newly diagnosed high grade astrocytoma. A good response rate has been published with this association in primary cerebral high grade tumor. This protocol was administered in a homogeneous population of 37 adult patients with measurable tumor on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or CT scan. After biopsy or subtotal resection, the patients received BCNU 40 mg/m2/d and CODP 40 mg/m2/d, for 3 days every 28 days for 3 cycles. Evaluation was performed before each cycle. Radiation therapy began 4 weeks after completing the chemotherapy or immediately if there was evidence of tumor progression on chemotherapy. Seven out of 37 (19%) demonstrated tumor regression with a median duration to progression of 11 months. Median survival was 6 months. Myelosuppression was the predominant but manageable toxicity. This work indicated that the first chemotherapy protocol gave poor results in a homogeneous group of patients, with bad prognosis.

  8. A Newly Adopted Helicopter Platform for Geophysical and Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Uwe

    2014-05-01

    The Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources in Hannover owns a Sikorsky S-76B helicopter for geophysical and remote sensing airborne surveys. This platform has been completely refurbished and in parts newly designed to be fit for easy installations of complex geophysical instruments underneath, upon and within the helicopter. The airborne platform is equipped with a modern basic navigation equipment consisting of several GNSS antennae, state of the art inertial navigation systems, laser altimeter and video camera systems. Different other modules can be added to the helicopter as a state of the art gamma spectrometer, a laser scanner, airborne gravity meters etc. within the cabin. Moreover, external sensing systems as a photogrammetric camera, infraread camera or optional mulitspectral systems can be installed on the outer skin of the cabin. Different kinds of bird systems towed underneath the helicopter can be hooked up using standard cabling, glas fibres or wireless LAN. Available birds are equipped for frequency domain electromagnetics or gradient magnetics (IPHT Jena & Supracon, Jena). Besides, large georadar systems can be installed as well. The helicopter is able as well to carry TEM-gear or system in development. Main survey targets are groundwater systems, mineral deposits and natural hazards.

  9. Psychosocial problems among newly diagnosed rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    PubMed

    Gåfvels, C; Hägerström, M; Nordmark, B; Wändell, P E

    2012-03-01

    We identified patients with newly diagnosed rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in the ages 18-65 years who needed psychosocial interventions. A total of 123 patients (90 women) were asked to participate, but 19 declined and 4 dropped out early in the study, leaving a total of 100 patients (75 women) in the sample. Questionnaires used were the Epidemiological Investigation on Rheumatoid Arthritis study questionnaire, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Sense of Coherence (SOC) scale, and the General Coping Questionnaire. Interviews showed that 46% of the included 100 patients had psychosocial problems (PSP). One third of them had problems directly related to RA. The rest had problems with their life situation in general, without or reinforced by RA. Compared to patients without psychosocial problems, PSP patients lived in more strained social situations, especially regarding personal finances and social support. More of the PSP patients were anxious, showed lower SOC scores, and also used more emotion-based coping strategies (resignation, protest, isolation and intrusion) and less problem-oriented (minimization). They also had higher scores on depression and more frequently expected that RA would negatively affect their future. PSP patients also experienced a more negative impact of the disease, a finding not confirmed by the sickness activity score judged by the rheumatologist. Thus, early in the course of RA, screening instruments should be used to identify PSP patients. Psychosocial treatment and support by medical social workers skilled in RA care should be offered.

  10. [Newly developed virusvaccines in veterinary medicine (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Wittmann, G

    1978-03-01

    Newly developed vaccines in veterinary medicine can be classified into two categories. The first category comprises inactivated vaccines produced by "classical" methods such as inactivation of the virus by formalin and the use of A1(OH)3 as adjuvant. Besides, this category also includes live vaccines from attenuated virus. Thus, all of these vaccines represent no genuinely new developments and owe their origin to the fact that the importance of several virus diseases of animals has grown in the last years, making neccessary the rapid production of corresponding vaccines. Such virus diseases are infectious bovine rhinotracheitis/vulvovaginitis, enzootic rhinopneumonitis of cattle, virus diarrhoe of calves, rhinopneumonitis of horses, kennel cough of dogs and Marek's disease of chickens. The second category comprises inactivated vaccines which represent genuinely new developments through the use of more efficient chemicals for virus inactivation (ethylenimines) and more efficient adjuvants (oil emulsions, DEAE dextran). Such vaccines were especially developed with regard to foot-and-mouth disease and Aujeszky disease in pigs, where "classical" vaccines are rather inefficient. These types of vaccines are, however, also efficient in other animal species and with other viruses. Entirely new vaccines which are more or less still in an experimental stage are vaccines made from split products of viruses e.g. from glycoproteids of rabies virus, or made from membrane constituents of cells infected with avian herpes viruses.

  11. A newly developed continuous zoom-focus endocytoscope.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Youichi; Takubo, Kaiyo; Kawada, Kenro; Higashi, Morihiro; Ishiguro, Toru; Sobajima, Jun; Fukuchi, Minoru; Ishibashi, Kei-Ichiro; Mochiki, Erito; Aida, Junko; Kawano, Tatsuyuki; Ishida, Hideyuki

    2017-02-01

    Background and study aims We report the features of a newly developed endocytoscopy system (ECS), the GIF-Y0074. Patients and methods The GIF-Y0074 offers high-definition resolution with a consecutive increase of magnification to × 500. Using ECS, we observed 32 cases of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), 11 cases of gastric cancer, and five cases of duodenal adenoma. Results The images of cells obtained using the GIF-Y0074 at maximum magnification were brighter and clearer than those obtained with previous ECS systems. For diagnosis of ESCC, clearer visualization of the nucleus made nuclear abnormality easier to recognize. Cancer cells were visualized in 10/11 cases of gastric cancer, but removal of mucus still remained a problem. Duodenal adenomas were found to have atypical cells with villi and tubules at the mucosal surface, thus assisting their histological diagnosis in vivo. Conclusion The GIF-Y0074 is an excellent ECS in terms of ease of use, satisfactory resolution, and magnification power, and therefore achieves a level of utility that makes its commercial release justifiable. This ECS heralds a new era of endoscopic and histological diagnosis.

  12. 33 CFR 106.262 - Security measures for newly-hired employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Facility Security Requirements § 106.262 Security measures for newly-hired employees....

  13. 33 CFR 106.262 - Security measures for newly-hired employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Facility Security Requirements § 106.262 Security measures for newly-hired employees....

  14. Newly Commissioned Green Bank Telescope Bags New Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-01-01

    Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's newly commissioned Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) have discovered a windfall of three previously undetected millisecond pulsars in a dense cluster of stars in the Milky Way Galaxy. The Green Bank Telescope The Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope "This globular cluster, known as Messier 62, has been very well studied, and it would have been an exciting discovery to find just one new pulsar. The fact that we were able to detect three new pulsars at one time is simply remarkable," said Bryan Jacoby, a graduate student at the California Institute of Technology who led the research team. Results of the discovery were recently announced in an International Astronomical Union Circular. Jacoby and his colleague Adam Chandler, also a graduate student at Caltech, used the GBT to search for new pulsars in addition to the three already known in this cluster. Their research was part of the GBT's Early Science Program, which allows scientific investigations during the testing and commissioning of the telescope. The researchers used the Berkeley-Caltech Pulsar Machine, a new instrument whose development was overseen by Donald Backer at the University of California at Berkeley, to process the signals from the GBT and record them for later analysis. After their data were analyzed, the researchers discovered the telltale signatures of three additional pulsars and their white dwarf companion stars. Pulsars are rapidly rotating neutron stars that emit intense beams of radio waves along their misaligned magnetic axes. When these beams intersect the Earth, we see the pulsar flash on and off. Due to their exquisitely steady rotation, pulsars allow astronomers to study the basic laws of physics and the ways in which these dense clusters and exotic stellar systems are formed. Astronomers study globular clusters because they are among the oldest building blocks of our Galaxy. With their very dense stellar populations, these

  15. Treatment for patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma in 2015.

    PubMed

    Mateos, María-Victoria; Ocio, Enrique M; Paiva, Bruno; Rosiñol, Laura; Martínez-López, Joaquín; Bladé, Joan; Lahuerta, Juan-José; García-Sanz, Ramón; San Miguel, Jesús F

    2015-11-01

    Multiple myeloma is the second most frequent haematological disease. The introduction of high-dose melphalan followed by autologous haematopoietic cell transplant (HDT/ASCT) for young patients and the availability of novel agents for young and elderly patients with multiple myeloma have dramatically changed the perspective of treatment. However, further research is necessary if we want to definitively cure the disease. Treatment goals for transplant-eligible and non-transplant-eligible patients should be to prolong survival by achieving the best possible response, while ensuring quality of life. The treatment should be individualized on the basis of host and disease features and better monitoring of the response upon use of high-sensitivity techniques for evaluating residual disease. For young patients, HDT/ASCT is a standard of care for treatment and its efficacy has been enhanced and challenged by the new drugs. For elderly patients, treatment options were limited to alkylators, but new upfront treatment combinations based on novel agents (proteasome inhibitors and immunomodulatory drugs) combined or not with alkylators have significantly improved outcomes.Extended treatment for young and elderly patients improves the quality and duration of clinical responses; however,the optimal scheme, appropriate doses and duration of long-term therapy have not yet been fully determined.This review summarises the progress in the treatment of patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma, addressing critical questions such as the optimal induction, early versus late ASCT, consolidation and/or maintenance for young patients, and how we can choose the best option for non-transplant-eligible patients.

  16. Ageing with HIV: newly diagnosed older adults in Italy.

    PubMed

    Orchi, N; Balzano, R; Scognamiglio, P; Navarra, A; De Carli, G; Elia, P; Grisetti, S; Sampaolesi, A; Giuliani, M; De Filippis, A; Puro, V; Ippolito, G; Girardi, E

    2008-04-01

    The prevalence of HIV/AIDS among people in midlife and late adulthood has been increasing in Western countries over the last decade. We analyzed data from a prospective, observational multi-centre study on individuals newly diagnosed with HIV between January 2004 and March 2007 in 10 public counselling and testing sites in Latium, Italy. At diagnosis, routine demographic, epidemiological, clinical and laboratory data are recorded, and patients are asked to complete a questionnaire investigating socio-demographic and psycho-behavioural aspects. To analyze the association of individual characteristics with age, we compared older adults (> or = 50 years) with their younger counterpart (18-49 years). To adjust for potential confounding effect of the epidemiological, clinical and behavioural characteristics, to identify factors associated with older age at HIV diagnosis, multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed. Overall, 1073 individuals were identified, 125 of whom (11.6%) were aged 50 years or above. The questionnaire was completed by 41% (440/1073). Compared with their younger counterparts, a higher proportion of older patients were males, born in Italy, reported heterosexual or unknown HIV risk exposure, were never tested for HIV before and were in a more advanced stage of HIV infection at diagnosis. In addition, older adults had a lower educational level and were more frequently living with their partners or children. With respect to psycho-behavioural characteristics, older patients were more likely to have paid money for sex and have never used recreational drugs. Interestingly, no differences were found regarding condom use, which was poor in both age groups. These findings may have important implications for the management of older adults with HIV, who should be targeted by appropriate public health actions, such as opportunistic screening and easier access to healthcare. Moreover, strategies including information on HIV and prevention of risk

  17. Therapeutic enhancement of newly derived bacteriocins against Giardia lamblia.

    PubMed

    Amer, Eglal I; Mossallam, Shereen F; Mahrous, Hoda

    2014-11-01

    Trials for identifying efficient anti-giardial agents are still ongoing. Nowadays, bacteriocins have attracted the attention as potential antimicrobial compounds. For the first time, the current study evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of bacteriocins derived from newly isolated Egyptian strains of probiotics Lactobacilli; L. acidophilus (P106) and L. plantarum (P164) against Giardia lamblia. Bacteriocins' efficacy was evaluated both in vitro; by growth inhibition and adherence assays, and in vivo; through estimation of parasite density, intestinal histopathological examination and ultrastructural analysis of Giardia trophozoites. In vivo bacteriocins' clinical safety was assessed. In vitro results proved that 50 µg of L. acidophilus bacteriocin induced reduction of the mean Giardia lamblia trophozoites by 58.3 ± 4.04%, while at lower concentrations of 10 and 20 µg of both L. acidophilus and L. plantarum, non significant reduction of the mean parasite density was achieved. In vitro trophozoites adherence was susceptible to the tested bacteriocins at all studied concentrations with variable degrees, while the highest adherence reduction was demonstrated using 50 µg of L acidophilus bacteriocin. In vivo, oral inoculation of 50 µg/mouse L. acidophilus bacteriocin for 5 successive days resulted in a noteworthy decline of the intestinal parasite density, along with amelioration of intestinal pathology of infected mice. Ultrastructural examination proved thatfive doses of L. acidophilus bacteriocin showed marked changes in cellular architecture of the trophozoites with evident disorganization of the cell membrane, adhesive disc and cytoplasmic components. This is the first reported study of the safe anti-giardial efficacy of L. acidophilus (P106) derived bacteriocin, hence highlighting its great promise as a potential therapeutic safe alternative to existing commercial drugs.

  18. Ethical erosion in newly qualified doctors: perceptions of empathy decline

    PubMed Central

    Stratta, Emily C.; Baker, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study sought to understand whether UK Foundation doctors perceived the phenomena of ethical erosion and empathy decline during their initial period of clinical practice, and if so, why this occurred. Methods This qualitative study used semi-structured interviews with nine doctors in their first year of clinical practice at Royal Bolton Hospital, UK. Participants were invited to discuss the definition of empathy, how individuals acquire and maintain empathic ability, perceptions of ethical erosion in the self and others, and how clinical experiences have influenced their empathic ability. The interviews were transcribed, and analysed to identify emergent themes. Results Each participant reported a conscious acknowledgement of empathy decline in their own and their colleagues’ early clinical experiences as doctors. Stressful working environments, the prioritisation of patients’ physical rather than psychological well-being, and the attitudes of senior colleagues were all suggested as possible causes. Some doctors believed that specialties with reduced patient contact had a culture which precluded empathy, and influenced their own practice. In addition, some described how their value judgements of patients had affected their ability to empathise. However, all doctors perceived that empathy skills were desirable in senior clinicians, and some believed that educational interventions may be useful in arresting ethical erosion.   Conclusions Newly qualified doctors are aware of ethical erosion in themselves and their colleagues as they begin clinical practice. This has serious implications for patient care. Improving working conditions may reverse this trend. Empathy skills training within undergraduate and postgraduate curricula may be a useful intervention. PMID:27608488

  19. Lamotrigine monotherapy for newly diagnosed typical absence seizures in children☆

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Gregory L.; Frank, L. Matthew; Sheth, Raj D.; Philbrook, Bryan; Wooten, John D.; Vuong, Alain; Kerls, Susan; Hammer, Anne E.; Messenheimer, John

    2008-01-01

    Summary Purpose To evaluate the efficacy, tolerability, and effects on behavior and psychosocial functioning of lamotrigine monotherapy in children with newly diagnosed typical absence seizures. Patients and methods Children meeting enrollment criteria (n = 54) received a confirmatory 24-h ambulatory electroencephalogram (EEG) and then entered a Escalation Phase of up to 20-weeks during which lamotrigine was titrated until seizures were controlled or maximum dose (10.2 mg/kg) was reached. Seizure freedom was assessed by diary review and clinic hyperventilation (clinic HV) and then confirmed by EEG with hyperventilation (HV/EEG). Patients who maintained seizure freedom for two consecutive weekly visits were entered into the Maintenance Phase (n = 30). Diary, clinic HV, and HV/EEG data were supplemented with 24-h ambulatory EEG at baseline and the ends of the Escalation and Maintenance Phases. Health outcome assessments were completed at screening and at the end of the Maintenance Phase. Results By the end of the Escalation Phase, seizure-free rates (responders) were 59% by seizure diary (n = 51), 56% by HV/EEG (n = 54) (primary endpoint), and 49% by 24-h ambulatory EEG (n = 49). During the Maintenance Phase, 89% (week 24) and 86% (week 32) remained seizure free by diary (n = 28), 78% by clinic HV (n = 27), and 81% by 24-h ambulatory EEG (n = 26). Seizure freedom was first observed beginning at the fifth week of the Escalation Phase. The most frequent adverse events were headache and cough. Health outcome scores were either improved or unchanged at the end of the Maintenance Phase. Conclusions Lamotrigine monotherapy results in complete seizure freedom in a substantial number of children with typical absence seizures. Lamotrigine was well tolerated in this study. PMID:18778916

  20. Focally enhanced gastritis in newly diagnosed pediatric inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Ushiku, Tetsuo; Moran, Christopher J; Lauwers, Gregory Y

    2013-12-01

    Although the significance of focally enhanced gastritis (FEG) as a marker of Crohn disease (CD) in adults has been contested, several studies suggest that it may be more specific of CD in pediatric patients. This study describes the detailed histologic features of FEG in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and clarifies its association with CD. A series of 119 consecutive newly diagnosed IBD patients (62 CD cases, 57 ulcerative colitis [UC] cases) with upper and lower gastrointestinal biopsies were evaluated. The histology of the gastric biopsies was reviewed blinded to final diagnoses and compared with age-matched healthy controls (n=66). FEG was present in 43% of IBD patients (CD 55% vs. UC 30%, P=0.0092) and in 5% of controls. Among CD patients, FEG was more common in younger patients (73% in children aged 10 y and below, 43% in children above 10 y of age, P=0.0358), with the peak in the 5- to 10-year age group (80%). The total number of glands involved in each FEG focus was higher in UC (6.4±5.1 glands) than in CD (4.0±3.0 glands, P=0.0409). Amongst the CD cohort, patients with FEG were more likely than those without FEG to have active ileitis (79% vs. 40%, P=0.0128) and granulomas elsewhere in the gastrointestinal tract (82% vs. 43%, P=0.0016). There was no correlation between FEG and other gastrointestinal findings of UC. We demonstrate that differences in FEG seen in pediatric CD and UC relate to not only their frequencies but also the morphology and relationship with other gastrointestinal lesions. Further, FEG is associated with disease activity and the presence of granulomas in pediatric CD.

  1. Health status of newly arrived refugees in Toronto, Ont

    PubMed Central

    Redditt, Vanessa J.; Janakiram, Praseedha; Graziano, Daniela; Rashid, Meb

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine the prevalence of selected infectious diseases among newly arrived refugee patients and whether there is variation by key demographic factors. Design Retrospective chart review. Setting Primary care clinic for refugee patients in Toronto, Ont. Participants A total of 1063 refugee patients rostered at the clinic from December 2011 to June 2014. Main outcome measures Demographic information (age, sex, and region of birth); prevalence of HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, Strongyloides, Schistosoma, intestinal parasites, gonorrhea, chlamydia, and syphilis infections; and varicella immune status. Results The median age of patients was 29 years and 56% were female. Refugees were born in 87 different countries. Approximately 33% of patients were from Africa, 28% were from Europe, 14% were from the Eastern Mediterranean Region, 14% were from Asia, and 8% were from the Americas (excluding 4% born in Canada or the United States). The overall rate of HIV infection was 2%. The prevalence of hepatitis B infection was 4%, with a higher rate among refugees from Asia (12%, P < .001). Hepatitis B immunity was 39%, with higher rates among Asian refugees (64%, P < .001) and children younger than 5 years (68%, P < .001). The rate of hepatitis C infection was less than 1%. Strongyloides infection was found in 3% of tested patients, with higher rates among refugees from Africa (6%, P = .003). Schistosoma infection was identified in 15% of patients from Africa. Intestinal parasites were identified in 16% of patients who submitted stool samples. Approximately 8% of patients were varicella nonimmune, with higher rates in patients from the Americas (21%, P < .001). Conclusion This study highlights the importance of screening for infectious diseases among refugee patients to provide timely preventive and curative care. Our data also point to possible policy and clinical implications, such as targeted screening approaches and improved access to vaccinations and

  2. Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Murray, M. J.; Coursin, D. B.

    1993-01-01

    The multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), though newly described, has manifested itself in intensive care unit (ICU) patients for several decades. As the name implies, it is a syndrome in which more than one organ system fails. Failure of these multiple organ systems may or may not be related to the initial injury or disease process for which the patient was admitted to the ICU. MODS is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in current ICU practice. While the pathophysiology of MODS is not completely known, much evidence indicates that, during the initial injury which precipitates ICU admission, a chain of events is initiated which results in activation of several endogenous metabolic pathways. These pathways release compounds which, in and of themselves, are usually cytoprotective. However, an over exuberant activation of these endogenous systems results in an inflammatory response which can lead to development of failure in distant organs. As these organs fail, they activate and propagate the systemic inflammatory response. No therapy has proven entirely efficacious at modulating this inflammatory response and the incidence and severity of MODS. In current ICU practice, treatment is focused on prevention and treating individual organ dysfunction as it develops. With increased understanding of the pathophysiology of MODS therapy will come newer modalities which inhibit or interfere with the propagation of the endogenous systemic inflammatory response. These newer therapies hold great promise and already some are undergoing clinical investigation. PMID:7825351

  3. Geomorphological evolution of a newly restored upland temporary stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marteau, Baptiste; Batalla, Ramon J.; Gibbins, Chris N.; Green, David R.; Vericat, Damià

    2015-04-01

    The river Ehen, NW England, has been designated as a Special Area of Conservation (SAC) as it hosts England's largest population of freshwater pearl mussels (M. margaritifera). One of the Ehen's main headwater tributary, Ben Gill, was diverted to Ennerdale Lake in the 1970s to help increase the volume of water available for abstraction. Concerns over this diversion on the hydrology and sediment dynamics of the Ehen has led to the reconnection of this temporary stream as part of a project designed to improve habitat conditions for mussels in the Ehen. The reconnection has involved the construction of a new section of channel, following the natural (pre-diversion) course of Ben Gill. This paper presents findings of research designed to track the morphological evolution of the newly created Ben Gill channel. The work follows a previous research in which fluvial dynamics in the Ehen were studied before the reconnection of Ben Gill. Morpho-sedimentary dynamics are analysed at multiple scales: from the movement of individual particles, to changes on channel morphology following competent flow events. Changes in the channel's grain size distributions have been investigated in different sections, while bed mobility has been assessed using a combination of radio frequency identification (RFID) tags inserted into representative particles and painted bed patches. Additionally, digital elevation models (DEMs) of the entire new channel have been constructed by means of automatic digital photogrammetry using high resolution aerial photography taken by an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). DEMs of difference (DoD) between major flow events have been used to track lateral and longitudinal changes in the channel at a spatial resolution of less than 5cm. Finally, in order to link sedimentological changes in the new channel to its impact on the main stem Ehen, morpho-sedimentary changes of a gravel bar at the confluence have been monitored combining tracers (i.e. RFID) and repeated

  4. Rhizoxin analogs contribute to the biocontrol activity of a newly isolated pseudomonas strain.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Kasumi; Noda, Naomi; Katayose, Yuichi; Mukai, Yoshiyuki; Numa, Hisataka; Yamada, Kosumi; Someya, Nobutaka

    2015-03-01

    Two strains of Pseudomonas sp., Os17 and St29, were newly isolated from the rhizosphere of rice and potato, respectively, by screening for 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol producers. These strains were found to be the same species and were the closest to but different from Pseudomonas protegens among the sequenced pseudomonads, based on 16S ribosomal RNA gene and whole-genome analyses. Strain Os17 was as effective a biocontrol agent as reported for P. protegens Cab57, whereas strain St29 was less effective. The whole-genome sequences of these strains were obtained: the genomes are organized into a single circular chromosome with 6,885,464 bp, 63.5% G+C content, and 6,195 coding sequences for strain Os17; and with 6,833,117 bp, 63.3% G+C content, and 6,217 coding sequences for strain St29. Comparative genome analysis of these strains revealed that the complete rhizoxin analog biosynthesis gene cluster (approximately 79 kb) found in the Os17 genome was absent from the St29 genome. In an rzxB mutant, which lacks the polyketide synthase essential for the production of rhizoxin analogs, the growth inhibition activity against fungal and oomycete pathogens and the plant protection efficacy were attenuated compared with those of wild-type Os17. These findings suggest that rhizoxin analogs are important biocontrol factors of this strain.

  5. The newly identified migration inhibitory protein regulates the radial migration in the developing neocortex

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Suxiang; Kanemitsu, Yoshitaka; Fujitani, Masashi; Yamashita, Toshihide

    2014-01-01

    Neuronal migration is a crucial process in the organization of the developing cerebral cortex. Although a number of positive regulatory mechanisms of radial migration have been identified, negative cell-autonomous mechanisms have yet to be fully described. Here we report a newly identified Migration Inhibitory Protein (MINP, formerly known as 2900011O08Rik) that negatively regulates radial migration. MINP mRNA was specifically detected in the central and peripheral nervous system, and especially enriched in the cerebral cortex. MINP immunoreactivity co-localized with the neuronal marker Tuj1 and was detected in the cytoplasm of post-mitotic neurons. To elucidate the function of MINP in the developing brain, we performed in utero electroporation of MINP siRNA, MINP shRNA, or MINP-overexpressing vectors into mouse cortices and carried out in vivo migration assays. Whereas knockdown of MINP did not alter neuronal morphology, the radial migration was found accelerated by MINP knockdown, and reduced by MINP overexpression. This migration phenotype was also confirmed in vitro, indicating that MINP regulates neuronal migration in a cell-autonomous fashion. Furthermore, downregulation of MINP affected microtubule stability by interacting with tubulin that is a potential mechanism involved in the regulation of neuronal migration. PMID:25099998

  6. Genotoxicity evaluation of tannery effluent treated with newly isolated hexavalent chromium reducing Bacillus cereus.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Vineeta; Yadav, Ashutosh; Haq, Izharul; Kumar, Sharad; Bharagava, Ram Naresh; Singh, Sudheer Kumar; Raj, Abhay

    2016-12-01

    In this study, the efficiency of free and immobilized cells of newly isolated hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] reducing Bacillus cereus strain Cr1 (accession no. KJ162160) was studied in the treatment of tannery effluent. The analysis of effluents revealed high chemical oxygen demand (COD-1260 mg/L), biological oxygen demand (BOD5-660 mg/L), total dissolved solids (TDS-14000 mg/L), electrical conductivity (EC-21.5 mS/cm) and total chromium (TC-2.4 mg/L). The effluents also showed genotoxic effects to Allium cepa. Treatment of tannery effluent with isolated B. cereus strain led to considerable reduction of pollutant load. The pollutant load reduction was studied with both immobilized and free cells and immobilized cells were more effective in reducing COD (65%), BOD (80%), TDS (67%), EC (65%) and TC (92%) after 48 h. GC-MS analysis of pre and post-treatment tannery effluent samples revealed reduction of organic load after treatment with free and immobilized cells. An improvement in mitotic index and reduction in chromosomal aberrations was also observed in A. cepa grown with post-treatement effluent samples compared to untreated sample. Results demonstrate that both methods of bacterial treatment (free and immobilized) were efficient in reducing the pollutant load of tannery effluent as well as in reducing genotoxic effects, however, treatment with immobilized cells was more effective.

  7. Characterizing the information content of a newly hatched chick's first visual object representation.

    PubMed

    Wood, Justin N

    2015-03-01

    How does object recognition emerge in the newborn brain? To address this question, I examined the information content of the first visual object representation built by newly hatched chicks (Gallus gallus). In their first week of life, chicks were raised in controlled-rearing chambers that contained a single virtual object rotating around a single axis. In their second week of life, I tested whether subjects had encoded information about the identity and viewpoint of the virtual object. The results showed that chicks built object representations that contained both object identity information and view-specific information. However, there was a trade-off between these two types of information: subjects who were more sensitive to identity information were less sensitive to view-specific information, and vice versa. This pattern of results is predicted by iterative, hierarchically organized visual processing machinery, the machinery that supports object recognition in adult primates. More generally, this study shows that invariant object recognition is a core cognitive ability that can be operational at the onset of visual object experience.

  8. Desulfurization of dibenzothiophene by a newly isolated Corynebacterium sp. ZD-1 in aqueous phase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Miao-Dong; Li, Wei; Wang, Da-Hui; Shi, Yao

    2004-01-01

    Sulfur emission through fuel combustion is a global problem because it is a major cause of acid rain. Crud oil contains many heterocyclic organic sulfur compounds, among which dibenzothiophene (DBT) and DBTs bearing alkyl substitutions usually are representative compounds. A strain was isolated from refinery sludge and identified as Corynebacterium ZD-1. The behavior of DBT degradation by ZD-1 in aqueous phase was investigated. Corynebacterium ZD-1 could metabolize DBT to 2-hydroxybiphenyl(2-HBP) as the dead-end metabolite through a sulfur-specific pathway. In shake flask culture, ZD-1 had its maximal desulfurization activity in the late exponential growth phase and the specific production rate of 2-HBP was about 0.14 (mmol x kg dry cell(-1) x min(-1), mmol x KDC(-1) x min(-1)). Active resting cells for desulfurization should be prepared only in this period. 2-HBP inhibited the growth of strain ZD-1, the production of DBT degradation enzymes, and the activity of enzymes. Sulfate inhibited the production of dibenzothiophene (DBT) degradation enzymes but had no effect on the enzymes' activity. The production rates of 2-HBP at lower cell densities were higher and the maximum amount conversion of DBT to 2-HBP (0.067 mmol/L) after 8 h was gained at 9.2 g dry cell/L rather higher cell density. The results indicated that this newly isolated strain could be a promising biocatalyst for DBT desulfurization.

  9. 14 CFR 26.39 - Newly produced airplanes: Fuel tank flammability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Newly produced airplanes: Fuel tank... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CONTINUED AIRWORTHINESS AND SAFETY IMPROVEMENTS FOR TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Fuel Tank Flammability § 26.39 Newly produced airplanes: Fuel tank flammability. (a) Applicability:...

  10. 14 CFR 26.39 - Newly produced airplanes: Fuel tank flammability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Newly produced airplanes: Fuel tank... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CONTINUED AIRWORTHINESS AND SAFETY IMPROVEMENTS FOR TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Fuel Tank Flammability § 26.39 Newly produced airplanes: Fuel tank flammability. (a) Applicability:...

  11. 13 CFR 120.812 - Probationary period for newly certified CDCs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... certified CDCs. 120.812 Section 120.812 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Development Company Loan Program (504) Certification Procedures to Become A Cdc § 120.812 Probationary period for newly certified CDCs. (a) Newly certified CDCs will be on probation for a period of...

  12. 13 CFR 120.812 - Probationary period for newly certified CDCs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... certified CDCs. 120.812 Section 120.812 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Development Company Loan Program (504) Certification Procedures to Become A Cdc § 120.812 Probationary period for newly certified CDCs. (a) Newly certified CDCs will be on probation for a period of...

  13. 13 CFR 120.812 - Probationary period for newly certified CDCs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... certified CDCs. 120.812 Section 120.812 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Development Company Loan Program (504) Certification Procedures to Become A Cdc § 120.812 Probationary period for newly certified CDCs. (a) Newly certified CDCs will be on probation for a period of...

  14. 13 CFR 120.812 - Probationary period for newly certified CDCs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... certified CDCs. 120.812 Section 120.812 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Development Company Loan Program (504) Certification Procedures to Become A Cdc § 120.812 Probationary period for newly certified CDCs. (a) Newly certified CDCs will be on probation for a period of...

  15. 13 CFR 120.812 - Probationary period for newly certified CDCs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... certified CDCs. 120.812 Section 120.812 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Development Company Loan Program (504) Certification Procedures to Become A Cdc § 120.812 Probationary period for newly certified CDCs. (a) Newly certified CDCs will be on probation for a period of...

  16. Career Motivation in Newly Licensed Registered Nurses: What Makes Them Remain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Zarata Mann; Bailey, Jessica H.

    2010-01-01

    Despite vast research on newly licensed registered nurses (RNs), we don't know why some newly licensed registered nurses remain in their current jobs and others leave the nursing profession early in their career. Job satisfaction, the most significant factor emerging from the literature, plays a significant role in nurses' decisions to remain in…

  17. 33 CFR 106.262 - Security measures for newly-hired employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Security measures for newly-hired... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Facility Security Requirements § 106.262 Security measures for newly-hired employees....

  18. 33 CFR 106.262 - Security measures for newly-hired employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Security measures for newly-hired... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Facility Security Requirements § 106.262 Security measures for newly-hired employees....

  19. 33 CFR 106.262 - Security measures for newly-hired employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security measures for newly-hired... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Facility Security Requirements § 106.262 Security measures for newly-hired employees....

  20. 5 CFR 531.211 - Setting pay for a newly appointed employee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Setting pay for a newly appointed... REGULATIONS PAY UNDER THE GENERAL SCHEDULE Determining Rate of Basic Pay Setting Pay When Appointment Or Position Changes § 531.211 Setting pay for a newly appointed employee. (a) First appointment. An...

  1. 5 CFR 531.211 - Setting pay for a newly appointed employee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Setting pay for a newly appointed... REGULATIONS PAY UNDER THE GENERAL SCHEDULE Determining Rate of Basic Pay Setting Pay When Appointment Or Position Changes § 531.211 Setting pay for a newly appointed employee. (a) First appointment. An...

  2. 5 CFR 531.211 - Setting pay for a newly appointed employee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Setting pay for a newly appointed employee. 531.211 Section 531.211 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE... Position Changes § 531.211 Setting pay for a newly appointed employee. (a) First appointment. An...

  3. 5 CFR 531.211 - Setting pay for a newly appointed employee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Setting pay for a newly appointed employee. 531.211 Section 531.211 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE... Position Changes § 531.211 Setting pay for a newly appointed employee. (a) First appointment. An...

  4. PROGRESS REPORT ON THE DSSTOX DATABASE NETWORK: NEWLY LAUNCHED WEBSITE, APPLICATIONS, FUTURE PLANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Progress Report on the DSSTox Database Network: Newly Launched Website, Applications, Future Plans

    Progress will be reported on development of the Distributed Structure-Searchable Toxicity (DSSTox) Database Network and the newly launched public website that coordinates and...

  5. Prospective Study of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Parents of Children with Newly Diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landolt, Markus A.; Vollrath, Margarete; Laimbacher, Joseph; Gnehm, Hanspeter E.; Sennhauser, Felix H.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence, course, and predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in mothers and fathers of children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes. Method: Forty-nine mothers and 48 fathers of 52 children (response rate 65%) with newly diagnosed diabetes (age 6.5-15 years) were assessed at 6 weeks, 6 months, and 12…

  6. Plurilinguism in Teachers' Professionalization: Views of Newly Qualified Pedagogues of Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zascerinskis, Mihails; Aleksejeva, Ludmila; Zascerinska, Jelena

    2012-01-01

    Teachers' professionalization is promoted by language education that includes mother tongue across the curriculum, foreign languages and professional language. Aim of the research is to analyze views of newly qualified pedagogues of social work on languages of professionalization. The object of the present research is views of newly qualified…

  7. [AFM study on microtopography of NOM and newly formed hydrous manganese dioxide adsorbed on mica].

    PubMed

    Guo, Jin; Ma, Jun; Shi, Xue-hua

    2006-05-01

    With the methods of mica adsorbing, the microtopography of the newly formed hydrous manganese dioxide was perfectly captured. The tapping mode AFM study results revealed that the newly formed hydrous manganese dioxide possesses a perforated sheet (with a thickness of 0-1.75 nm) as well as some spheric particle structures compared with the hydrous manganese dioxide with 2 h aging time, which demonstrated that the newly formed hydrous manganese dioxide have a large surface area and adsorption capacity. When 1 mmol/L newly formed hydrous manganese dioxide was added, the microtopography of NOM molecules shifted from loosely dispersed pancake shape (with adsorption height of 5-8.5 nm) to densely dispersed and uniform spheric structure. NOM was prone to adsorb on the surface of the newly formed hydrous manganese dioxide, which provided a valid proof for the coagulation-aid mechanism of permanganate preoxidation.

  8. Long-term monotherapy with lamotrigine in newly diagnosed epilepsy in adults.

    PubMed

    Chmielewska, B; Kamiński, M L; Kawka, Z

    2001-01-01

    Lamotrigine (LTG) as both effective against a wide range of seizure types and epileptic syndromes and well tolerated drug is being used in mono--as well as in polytherapy of pharmacoresistant epilepsy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy, safety and neuropsychological functioning after LTG (mean daily dose: 316 mg) as long-term monotherapy (12 mo) in 24 young adult out-patients (22.5 ys) with newly recognised and not-previously treated epilepsy in an open, non-comparative trial. 67% of patients were responders (above 50% reduction in seizure frequency) and 42% reported seizures remission. The best were results in patients with generalised convulsive fits (87% with remission). Adverse events in the early phase of medication in 21% of patients typically concerned CNS and gastrointestinal system (headache, asthenia, insomnia, nausea, gastric aches) and resolved spontaneously without treatment discontinuation. Biochemical examinations were normal and transient leucopenia and diminishion of MCV were clinically not significant. Neurodynamic abilities, neuropsychological examination results, memory verbal and visual tests and organic evaluation in organic triada tests did not show deterioration after LTG treatment. Slight difficulties in abstractive and operative thinking and some focal symptoms of fronto-temporal origin should be considered a result of drug but also the epilepsy per se. No significant differences in latencies and amplitudes of evoked potentials (VEP, BAEP, SEP and especially ERP-300) were measured after LTG. Preliminary results obtained in this study supported good efficacy and tolerability and especially lack of unfavourable influence of LTG on neuropsychological functioning in young previously untreated patients with epilepsy.

  9. Phase II Trial of Hypofractionated IMRT With Temozolomide for Patients With Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma Multiforme

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, Krishna; Damek, Denise; Gaspar, Laurie E.; Ney, Douglas; Waziri, Allen; Lillehei, Kevin; Stuhr, Kelly; Kavanagh, Brian D.; Chen Changhu

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: To report toxicity and overall survival (OS) in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) treated with hypofractionated intensity-modulated radiotherapy (hypo-IMRT) with concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide (TMZ). Methods and Materials: Patients with newly diagnosed GBM after biopsy or resection and with adequate performance status and organ or bone marrow function were eligible for this study. Patients received postoperative hypo-IMRT to the surgical cavity and residual tumor seen on T1-weighted brain MRI with a 5-mm margin to a total dose of 60 Gy in 10 fractions (6 Gy/fraction) and to the T2 abnormality on T2-weighted MRI with 5-mm margin to 30 Gy in 10 fractions (3 Gy/fraction). Concurrent TMZ was given at 75 mg/m{sup 2}/day for 28 consecutive days. Adjuvant TMZ was given at 150 to 200 mg/m{sup 2}/day for 5 days every 28 days. Toxicities were defined using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0. Results: Twenty-four patients were treated, consisting of 14 men, 10 women; a median age of 60.5 years old (range, 27-77 years); and a median Karnofsky performance score of 80 (range, 60-90). All patients received hypo-IMRT and concurrent TMZ according to protocol, except for 2 patients who received only 14 days of concurrent TMZ. The median number of adjuvant TMZ cycles was 6.5 (range, 0-14).With a median follow-up of 14.8 months (range, 2.7-34.2 months) for all patients and a minimum follow-up of 20.6 months for living patients, no instances of grade 3 or higher nonhematologic toxicity were observed. The median OS was 16.6 months (range, 4.1-35.9 months). Six patients underwent repeated surgery for suspected tumor recurrence; necrosis was found in 50% to 100% of the resected specimens. Conclusion: In selected GBM patients, 60 Gy hypo-IMRT delivered in 6-Gy fractions over 2 weeks with concurrent and adjuvant TMZ is safe. OS in this small cohort of patients was comparable to that treated with current standard of care

  10. Incidence of Symptomatic Vertebral Fractures Among Newly Diagnosed Autoimmune Diseases Initiating Glucocorticoid Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Migita, Kiyoshi; Iwanaga, Nozomi; Imadachi, Shunsuke; Jiuchi, Yuka; Izumi, Yasumori; Tsuji, Yoshika; Kawahara, Chieko; Kawakami, Atsushi; Furukawa, Hiroshi; Tohma, Shigeto

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Few data are available regarding vertebral fracture risk in patients treated with corticosteroids including patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD). The aim of the present study was to identify risk factors for symptomatic vertebral fracture analyzed in patients with newly diagnosed autoimmune diseases. This was an observational cohort study conducted in the National Hospital Organization-EBM study group from 2006 to 2008. The study subjects were autoimmune disease patients who were newly treated with glucocorticoids (GCs). The primary endpoint was the first occurrence of vertebral fracture diagnosed by x-rays. Cox proportional-hazards regression was used to determine independent risk factors for vertebral fracture with covariates including sex, age, comorbidity, laboratory data, use of immunosuppressants, and dose of GCs. Survival was analyzed according to the Kaplan–Meier method and assessed by the log-rank test. Among 604 patients of mean age 59.5 years and mean GC dose 50.4 mg/d (first 1 months), 19 patient (3.1%) had at least 1 symptomatic vertebral fracture during 1.9 years of follow-up period. Cox regression model demonstrated that the relative risk for symptomatic vertebral fracture was independently higher in patient with ILD (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.86, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.10–7.42, P = 0.031) and in every 10-year increment of the age of disease onset (HR = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.09–2.26, P = 0.015). Kaplan–Meier analyses demonstrated that the incidence of vertebral fractures in patients with ILD was significantly higher in comparison with those without ILD. Our results indicate a higher risk of vertebral facture in patients with ILD and elderly patients during the initial GC treatment against autoimmune diseases. There is a need for further, even longer-term, prospective studies subjected patients with autoimmune disease, including ILD, under GC treatment. PMID:26166127

  11. Acetic Acid Bacteria, Newly Emerging Symbionts of Insects▿

    PubMed Central

    Crotti, Elena; Rizzi, Aurora; Chouaia, Bessem; Ricci, Irene; Favia, Guido; Alma, Alberto; Sacchi, Luciano; Bourtzis, Kostas; Mandrioli, Mauro; Cherif, Ameur; Bandi, Claudio; Daffonchio, Daniele

    2010-01-01

    Recent research in microbe-insect symbiosis has shown that acetic acid bacteria (AAB) establish symbiotic relationships with several insects of the orders Diptera, Hymenoptera, Hemiptera, and Homoptera, all relying on sugar-based diets, such as nectars, fruit sugars, or phloem sap. To date, the fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster and Bactrocera oleae, mosquitoes of the genera Anopheles and Aedes, the honey bee Apis mellifera, the leafhopper Scaphoideus titanus, and the mealybug Saccharicoccus sacchari have been found to be associated with the bacterial genera Acetobacter, Gluconacetobacter, Gluconobacter, Asaia, and Saccharibacter and the novel genus Commensalibacter. AAB establish symbiotic associations with the insect midgut, a niche characterized by the availability of diet-derived carbohydrates and oxygen and by an acidic pH, selective factors that support AAB growth. AAB have been shown to actively colonize different insect tissues and organs, such as the epithelia of male and female reproductive organs, the Malpighian tubules, and the salivary glands. This complex topology of the symbiosis indicates that AAB possess the keys for passing through body barriers, allowing them to migrate to different organs of the host. Recently, AAB involvement in the regulation of innate immune system homeostasis of Drosophila has been shown, indicating a functional role in host survival. All of these lines of evidence indicate that AAB can play different roles in insect biology, not being restricted to the feeding habit of the host. The close association of AAB and their insect hosts has been confirmed by the demonstration of multiple modes of transmission between individuals and to their progeny that include vertical and horizontal transmission routes, comprising a venereal one. Taken together, the data indicate that AAB represent novel secondary symbionts of insects. PMID:20851977

  12. Clinical, electrocardiographic and echocardiographic abnormalities in Latin American migrants with newly diagnosed Chagas disease 2005-2009, Barcelona, Spain.

    PubMed

    Valerio, L; Roure, S; Sabria, M; Balanzo, X; Valles, X; Seres, L

    2011-09-22

    Following Latin American migration, Chagas disease has inevitably appeared in non-endemic countries in Europe and elsewhere. New policies are necessary to prevent transmission in those countries but the long, often undetected chronic period of the early stages of the disease also renders epidemiological studies important. The main objective of our study was to determine the presence of clinical, electrocardiogram (ECG) and echocardiographic abnormalities in a population of Latin American migrants infected with Trypanosoma cruzi at the moment of diagnosis. We performed a hospital-based observational study of 100 adult patients with newly diagnosed Chagas infection between January 2005 and December 2009. Thirty-seven patients were classified within the Brazilian Consensus on Chagas cardiomyopathy early cardiac stages (A or B1) and 49 presented pathological findings (stage B2) according to the Panamerican Health Organization Classification. Overall, 49 patients showed ECG and/or echocardiographic alterations. The presence of ECG and ecocardiographic alterations were significantly associated (p=0.038). The most frequent ECG and echocardiographic findings were right bundle branch block (12 cases) and impaired left ventricular wall relaxation (24 cases), respectively. In conclusion, ECG and echocardiographic alterations coherent with Chagas cardiomyopathy were found in a large proportion of newly diagnosed Latin American migrants infected with T. cruzi. In the mid-term, Chagas disease might become an important cause of chronic cadiomyopathy in our attendance area.

  13. Molecular Studies of HTLV-1 Infection in Newly Recognized High Risk Population

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-07-10

    AD-A269 725 -Iu 11 i!IIH1111iIIi( AD CONTRACT NO: DAMD17-91-C-1001 TITLE: MOLECULAR STUDIES OF HTLV -I INFECTION IN NEWLY RECOGNIZED HIGH RISK...34 (6/10/91 - 6/9/93) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS Molecular Studies of HTLV -I Infection in Newly Recognized High Risk Population Contract No...summarizes the two years of contract of the research aimed to define newly recognized high risk population for HTLV -I infection. To define the extent

  14. Surviving at a distance: organ specific metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Obenauf, Anna C.; Massagué, Joan

    2015-01-01

    The clinical manifestation of metastasis in a vital organ is the final stage of cancer progression and the main culprit of cancer related mortality. Once established, metastasis is devastating, yet only a small proportion of the cancer cells that leave a tumor succeed at infiltrating, surviving, and ultimately overtaking a distant organ. The bottlenecks that challenge cancer cells in newly invaded microenvironments are organ specific and consequently demand distinct mechanisms for metastatic colonization. Here we review the metastatic traits that allow cancer cells to colonize distinct organ sites. PMID:26693180

  15. Mycophenolate mofetil embryopathy: A newly recognized teratogenic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Perez-Aytes, Antonio; Marin-Reina, Purificacion; Boso, Virginia; Ledo, Ana; Carey, John C; Vento, Maximo

    2017-01-01

    Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) is probably the most common employed immunosuppressant drug in recipients of solid organ transplant and in many autoimmune diseases. In vitro studies, a significant number of single clinical observations and a recent study from a group of different European teratogen information services, have provided very consistent data supporting the existence of a specific MMF embryopathy. The typical malformative pattern of MMF embryopathy includes external ear anomalies ranging from hypoplastic pinna (microtia) to complete absence of pinna (anotia); cleft lip, with or without cleft palate, and ocular anomalies as iris or chorioretinal coloboma and anophthalmia/microphthalmia. Other less frequent features are congenital heart defects, distal limbs anomalies, esophageal atresia, vertebral malformations, diaphragmatic hernia, and kidney and central nervous system anomalies. Neurodevelopmental outcome seems favorable in the small number of patients where information about this issue is available, but neurological deficits have been documented. Physicians in charge of women under MMF therapy should be aware of the potential risk of this drug to cause a specific embryopathy and the need of interrupting the treatment at least six weeks before becoming pregnant.

  16. Association of newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes and autoimmune pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Mghari, Ghizlane El; Ansari, Nawal El

    2016-01-01

    Summary Autoimmune pancreatitis is a new nosological entity in which a lymphocytic infiltration of the exocrine pancreas is involved. The concomitant onset of autoimmune pancreatitis and type 1 diabetes has been recently described suggesting a unique immune disturbance that compromises the pancreatic endocrine and exocrine functions. We report a case of type1 diabetes onset associated with an autoimmune pancreatitis in a young patient who seemed to present a type 2 autoimmune polyglandular syndrome. This rare association offers the opportunity to better understand pancreatic autoimmune disorders in type 1 diabetes. Learning points: The case makes it possible to understand the possibility of a simultaneous disturbance of the endocrine and exocrine function of the same organ by one autoimmune process. The diagnosis of type 1 diabetes should make practitioner seek other autoimmune diseases. It is recommended to screen for autoimmune thyroiditis and celiac diseases. We draw attention to consider the autoimmune origin of a pancreatitis associated to type1 diabetes. Autoimmune pancreatitis is a novel rare entity that should be known as it is part of the IgG4-related disease spectrum. PMID:27855231

  17. Mastering the professional role as a newly graduated registered nurse.

    PubMed

    Pennbrant, Sandra; Nilsson, Maria Skyvell; Öhlén, Joakim; Rudman, Ann

    2013-07-01

    Professional development is a process starting during undergraduate education and continuing throughout working life. A new nurse's transition from school to work has been described as difficult. This study aims to develop a model describing the professional development of new nurses during their first years of work. To develop this model, constant comparative analyses were performed. The method was a qualitative study of survey data on 330 registered nurses. The results showed that mastering the professional role was the result of an ongoing process building on the nurse's experiences and interactions with the surrounding environment. The professional developmental process involves the following interrelated sub-processes: evaluating and re-evaluating educational experiences, developing professional self-efficacy and developing clinical competence. These sub-processes are influenced by the following factors: social values and norms, healthcare organization, management of new nurses, co-workers, patients and significant others and the nurse's own family and friends. These factors affect professional development directly, indirectly or as mediating influences and can lead to possible outcomes, as new nurses choose to remain in or leave the profession. The results underscore the importance of developing a professional nursing role within the new working context. To facilitate this professional development, new nurses need support from their nursing-school educators and their healthcare employers. The model described here will be the subject of further measurement and testing.

  18. The Effect of Depression on Social Engagement in Newly Admitted Dutch Nursing Home Residents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achterberg, Wilco; Pot, Anne Margriet; Kerkstra, Ada; Ooms, Marcel; Muller, Martien; Ribbe, Miel

    2003-01-01

    Studies the effect of depression on social engagement among newly admitted nursing home residents. Results reveal that residents with depression were significantly more often found to have low social engagement. (Contains 26 references and 3 tables.) (GCP)

  19. Evaluation of Three Porous Pavement Systems in a Newly Constructed Parking Lot

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project examines porous pavement systems in a newly constructed parking lot next to Building 205 at the Edison Environmental Center. Porous pavement systems are one means of promoting environmental sustainability through stormwater runoff reduction. This project examines t...

  20. DETERMINATION OF NEWLY IDENTIFIED DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Metropolitan Water District of Southern California (MWDSC) is investigating the occurrence of 39 newly identified disinfection by-products (DBPs)-which were not included in the Information Collection Rule (ICR)-in drinking waters. Halomethanes (HMs), haloacetonitriles (HANs),...

  1. A newly developed snow vehicle (SM100S) for Antarctica. Part 1: Necessity and process of the development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Sadao; Kino, Atsushi; Hosoya, Masayuki; Yoshida, Jiro; Ishizawa, Kenji

    1992-11-01

    Four types of snow vehicles have so far been employed in the Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition. These snow vehicles are mainly used on the inland ice sheet and on the sea ice. As for the inland traverses, the SM50S-type snow vehicle has been used, but the research area is now expanding to the much colder area, and the deep ice coring project at Dome Fuji, East Antarctica, has recently been proposed. Therefore, a committee for the design of a new snow vehicle was organized in the special committee on logistics of the National Institute of Polar Research. The committee made the design of a new snow vehicle capable of operating under very cold and low pressure conditions. The newly developed snow vehicle was operated on the Antarctic ice sheet in the winter of 1992, and the performance was almost just as expected.

  2. Evolution and Phylogeny of Large DNA Viruses, Mimiviridae and Phycodnaviridae Including Newly Characterized Heterosigma akashiwo Virus

    PubMed Central

    Maruyama, Fumito; Ueki, Shoko

    2016-01-01

    Nucleocytoplasmic DNA viruses are a large group of viruses that harbor double-stranded DNA genomes with sizes of several 100 kbp, challenging the traditional concept of viruses as small, simple ‘organisms at the edge of life.’ The most intriguing questions about them may be their origin and evolution, which have yielded the variety we see today. Specifically, the phyletic relationship between two giant dsDNA virus families that are presumed to be close, Mimiviridae, which infect Acanthamoeba, and Phycodnaviridae, which infect algae, is still obscure and needs to be clarified by in-depth analysis. Here, we studied Mimiviridae–Phycodnaviridae phylogeny including the newly identified Heterosigma akashiwo virus strain HaV53. Gene-to-gene comparison of HaV53 with other giant dsDNA viruses showed that only a small proportion of HaV53 genes show similarities with the others, revealing its uniqueness among Phycodnaviridae. Phylogenetic/genomic analysis of Phycodnaviridae including HaV53 revealed that the family can be classified into four distinctive subfamilies, namely, Megaviridae (Mimivirus-like), Chlorovirus-type, and Coccolitho/Phaeovirus-type groups, and HaV53 independent of the other three groups. Several orthologs found in specific subfamilies while absent from the others were identified, providing potential family marker genes. Finally, reconstruction of the evolutionary history of Phycodnaviridae and Mimiviridae revealed that these viruses are descended from a common ancestor with a small set of genes and reached their current diversity by differentially acquiring gene sets during the course of evolution. Our study illustrates the phylogeny and evolution of Mimiviridae–Phycodnaviridae and proposes classifications that better represent phyletic relationships among the family members. PMID:27965659

  3. Health Risk Assessment of Inhalation Exposure to Formaldehyde and Benzene in Newly Remodeled Buildings, Beijing

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lihui; Mo, Jinhan; Sundell, Jan; Fan, Zhihua; Zhang, Yinping

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess health risks associated with inhalation exposure to formaldehyde and benzene mainly emitted from building and decoration materials in newly remodeled indoor spaces in Beijing. Methods We tested the formaldehyde and benzene concentrations in indoor air of 410 dwellings and 451 offices remodeled within the past year, in which the occupants had health concerns about indoor air quality. To assess non-carcinogenic health risks, we compared the data to the health guidelines in China and USA, respectively. To assess carcinogenic health risks, we first modeled indoor personal exposure to formaldehyde and benzene using the concentration data, and then estimated the associated cancer risks by multiplying the indoor personal exposure by the Inhalation Unit Risk values (IURs) provided by the U.S. EPA Integrated Risk Information System (U.S. EPA IRIS) and the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA), respectively. Results (1) The indoor formaldehyde concentrations of 85% dwellings and 67% offices were above the acute Reference Exposure Level (REL) recommended by the OEHHA and the concentrations of all tested buildings were above the chronic REL recommended by the OEHHA; (2) The indoor benzene concentrations of 12% dwellings and 32% offices exceeded the reference concentration (RfC) recommended by the U.S. EPA IRIS; (3) The median cancer risks from indoor exposure to formaldehyde and benzene were 1,150 and 106 per million (based on U.S. EPA IRIS IURs), 531 and 394 per million (based on OEHHA IURs). Conclusions In the tested buildings, formaldehyde exposure may pose acute and chronic non-carcinogenic health risks to the occupants, whereas benzene exposure may pose chronic non-carcinogenic risks to the occupants. Exposure to both compounds is associated with significant carcinogenic risks. Improvement in ventilation, establishment of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emission labeling systems for decorating and refurbishing materials

  4. Spatial and temporal variations in food web structure from newly-opened habitat at hydrothermal vents.

    PubMed

    Gaudron, Sylvie Marylène; Lefebvre, Sébastien; Nunes Jorge, Amandine; Gaill, Françoise; Pradillon, Florence

    2012-06-01

    To highlight the spatio-temporal variability of the food web structure of hydrothermal vent fauna from newly-opened habitat, a series of Titanium Ring for Alvinellid Colonization devices (TRACs) was deployed at TICA site on the East Pacific Rise in 2006. This experiment was conducted for periods of 4 days, 13 days and one month and deployments were aligned along a gradient from the basaltic bottom to the vent openings. δ(13)C values of colonists revealed a narrower range of carbon sources in proximity to vent openings in Alvinella pompejana habitat than in Tevnia jerichonana habitat, separated by a distance of four meters. This was possibly due to a spatial change in available food sources with a possible higher contribution of particulate organic matter (POM) to the siboglinid habitat compared to a higher contribution of microbial primary producers such as Epsilonproteobacteria in the alvinellid habitat. Temporal variability was also observed during experimentation in the form of a shift in either δ(13)C and/or δ(15)N values for A. pompejana, Lepetodrilus elevatus, dirivultid copepods and polynoid polychaetes within a one-month window showing first of all, fast tissues turnover and secondly, a possible switch in feeding strategy or food sources. Lepidonotopodium riftense and Branchinotogluma sandersi may have to alternate between detritivorous and predatory feeding strategies. In addition, through the analysis of stable isotope composition of A. pompejana and its episymbionts, we provided evidence that these attached bacteria formed part of the worms' diet during the course of these colonization experiments.

  5. Endocan and Non-Dipping Circadian Pattern in Newly Diagnosed Essential Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Bilgin, Murat; Akyel, Ahmet; Felekoğlu, Mehmet Ali; Nallbani, Ali; Özdemir, Şeyda; Erden, Gönül; Öztürk, Alpaslan; Doğan, Mehmet; Yeter, Ekrem

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Non-dipper hypertension is frequently accompanied by endothelial dysfunction and activation. Previous studies suggested that endocan may be a novel endothelial dysfunction marker. This study aims to investigate the association between circadian blood pressure (BP) pattern and plasma endocan levels together with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) in patients with newly diagnosed untreated hypertension. Subjects and Methods Twenty-four hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was recorded in 35 dipper, 35 non-dipper hypertensives and 35 healthy controls. Endocan levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serum levels of hsCRP were also recorded. Results Despite similar daytime and 24-hour average BP values between dippers and non-dippers, statistically significant high nocturnal BP was accompanied by a non-dipping pattern (Systolic BP: 132±9 vs. 147±11 mmHg; Distolic BP: 80±7 vs. 91±9 mmHg, respectively, p<0.001 for both). Non-dipper patients demonstrated higher endocan levels compared to dippers and normotensives (367 (193-844) pg/mL, 254 (182-512) pg/mL and 237 (141-314) pg/ml, respectively, p<0.001). HsCRP levels were significantly higher in non-dippers than the other groups (p=0.013). In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, endocan (p=0.021) and hsCRP (p=0.044) were independently associated with a non-dipping pattern. Conclusion Elevated endocan levels were found in non-dipper groups. Endocan and hsCRP were found to be independently associated with a non-dipping pattern. We suggest that elevated levels of endocan in non-dipper hypertensive patients might be associated with a longer duration of exposure to high BP. These results point to the possible future role of endocan in selection of hypertensive patients at higher risk or target organ damage. PMID:27826342

  6. Evolution and Phylogeny of Large DNA Viruses, Mimiviridae and Phycodnaviridae Including Newly Characterized Heterosigma akashiwo Virus.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Fumito; Ueki, Shoko

    2016-01-01

    Nucleocytoplasmic DNA viruses are a large group of viruses that harbor double-stranded DNA genomes with sizes of several 100 kbp, challenging the traditional concept of viruses as small, simple 'organisms at the edge of life.' The most intriguing questions about them may be their origin and evolution, which have yielded the variety we see today. Specifically, the phyletic relationship between two giant dsDNA virus families that are presumed to be close, Mimiviridae, which infect Acanthamoeba, and Phycodnaviridae, which infect algae, is still obscure and needs to be clarified by in-depth analysis. Here, we studied Mimiviridae-Phycodnaviridae phylogeny including the newly identified Heterosigma akashiwo virus strain HaV53. Gene-to-gene comparison of HaV53 with other giant dsDNA viruses showed that only a small proportion of HaV53 genes show similarities with the others, revealing its uniqueness among Phycodnaviridae. Phylogenetic/genomic analysis of Phycodnaviridae including HaV53 revealed that the family can be classified into four distinctive subfamilies, namely, Megaviridae (Mimivirus-like), Chlorovirus-type, and Coccolitho/Phaeovirus-type groups, and HaV53 independent of the other three groups. Several orthologs found in specific subfamilies while absent from the others were identified, providing potential family marker genes. Finally, reconstruction of the evolutionary history of Phycodnaviridae and Mimiviridae revealed that these viruses are descended from a common ancestor with a small set of genes and reached their current diversity by differentially acquiring gene sets during the course of evolution. Our study illustrates the phylogeny and evolution of Mimiviridae-Phycodnaviridae and proposes classifications that better represent phyletic relationships among the family members.

  7. Describing a residency program developed for newly graduated nurse practitioners employed in retail health settings.

    PubMed

    Thabault, Paulette; Mylott, Laura; Patterson, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Retail health clinics are an expanding health care delivery model and an emerging new practice site for nurse practitioners (NPs). Critical thinking skills, clinical competence, interprofessional collaboration, and business savvy are necessary for successful practice in this highly independent and autonomous setting. This article describes a pilot residency partnership program aimed at supporting new graduate NP transition to practice, reducing NP turnover, and promoting academic progression. Eight new graduate NPs were recruited to the pilot and paired with experienced clinical NP preceptors for a 12-month program that focused on increasing clinical and business competence in the retail health setting. The residency program utilized technology to facilitate case conferences and targeted Webinars to enhance learning and peer-to-peer sharing and support. An on-line doctoral-level academic course that focused on interprofessional collaboration in health care, population health, and business concepts was offered. Both NPs and preceptors were highly satisfied with the academic-service residency program between MinuteClinic and Northeastern University School of Nursing in Boston, MA. New NPs particularly valued the preceptor model, the clinical case conferences, and business Webinars. Because their priority was in gaining clinical experience and learning the business acumen relevant to managing the processes of care, they did not feel ready for the doctoral course and would have preferred to take later in their practice. The preceptors valued the academic course and felt that it enhanced their precepting and leadership skills. At the time of this article, 6 months post completion of the residency program, there has been no turnover. Our experience supports the benefits for residency programs for newly graduated NPs in retail settings. The model of partnering with academia by offering a course within a service organization's educational programs can enable academic

  8. Trocara virus: a newly recognized Alphavirus (Togaviridae) isolated from mosquitoes in the Amazon Basin.

    PubMed

    Travassos da Rosa, A P; Turell, M J; Watts, D M; Powers, A M; Vasconcelos, P F; Jones, J W; Klein, T A; Dohm, D J; Shope, R E; Degallier, N; Popov, V L; Russell, K L; Weaver, S C; Guzman, H; Calampa, C; Brault, A C; Lemon, A P; Tesh, R B

    2001-01-01

    This report describes Trocara virus, a newly recognized member of the genus Alphavirus, that has been isolated from Aedes serratus mosquitoes collected at two widely separated sites in the Amazon Basin. Biological, antigenic and genetic characteristics of the new virus are given. Results of these studies indicate that Trocara virus is the first member of a newly discovered antigenic complex within the family Togaviridae genus Alphavirus. The public health and veterinary importance of Trocara virus is still unknown.

  9. Maladaptive behavior reinforces a recruitment bottleneck in newly settled fishes.

    PubMed

    Fuiman, Lee A; Meekan, Mark G; McCormick, Mark I

    2010-09-01

    Settlement from the plankton ends the major dispersive stage of life for many marine organisms and exposes them to intense predation pressure in juvenile habitats. This predation mortality represents a life-history bottleneck that can determine recruitment success. At the level of individual predator-prey interactions, prey survival depends upon behavior, specifically how behavior affects prey conspicuousness and evasive ability. We conducted an experiment to identify behavioral traits and performance levels that are important determinants of which individuals survive or die soon after settlement. We measured a suite of behavioral traits on late stage, pre-settlement Ward's damsel (Pomacentrus wardi) collected using light traps. These behavioral traits included two measures of routine swimming (indicators of conspicuousness) and eight measures of escape performance to a visual startle stimulus. Fish were then released onto individual patch reefs, where divers measured an additional behavioral trait (boldness). We censused each patch reef until approximately 50% of the fish were missing (~24 h), which we assumed to be a result of predation. We used classification tree analysis to discriminate survivors from fish presumed dead based on poor behavioral performance. The classification tree revealed that individuals displaying the maladaptive combination of low escape response speed, low boldness on the reef, and high routine swimming speed were highly susceptible to predation (92.4% with this combination died within 24 h). This accounted for 55.2% of all fish that died. Several combinations of behavioral traits predicted likely survival over 24 h, but there was greater uncertainty about that prediction than there was for fish that were predicted to die. Thus maladaptive behavioral traits were easier to identify than adaptive traits.

  10. Organ Donation

    MedlinePlus

    Organ donation takes healthy organs and tissues from one person for transplantation into another. Experts say that the ... lungs Skin Bone and bone marrow Cornea Most organ and tissue donations occur after the donor has died. But some ...

  11. Micro-Brillouin scattering measurements in mature and newly formed bone tissue surrounding an implant.

    PubMed

    Mathieu, Vincent; Fukui, Kenji; Matsukawa, Mami; Kawabe, Masahiko; Vayron, Romain; Soffer, Emmanuel; Anagnostou, Fani; Haiat, Guillaume

    2011-02-01

    The evolution of implant stability in bone tissue remains difficult to assess because remodeling phenomena at the bone-implant interface are still poorly understood. The characterization of the biomechanical properties of newly formed bone tissue in the vicinity of implants at the microscopic scale is of importance in order to better understand the osseointegration process. The objective of this study is to investigate the potentiality of micro-Brillouin scattering techniques to differentiate mature and newly formed bone elastic properties following a multimodality approach using histological analysis. Coin-shaped Ti-6Al-4V implants were placed in vivo at a distance of 200 μm from rabbit tibia leveled cortical bone surface, leading to an initially empty cavity of 200 μm×4.4 mm. After 7 weeks of implantation, the bone samples were removed, fixed, dehydrated, embedded in methyl methacrylate, and sliced into 190 μm thick sections. Ultrasonic velocity measurements were performed using a micro-Brillouin scattering device within regions of interest (ROIs) of 10 μm diameter. The ROIs were located in newly formed bone tissue (within the 200 μm gap) and in mature bone tissue (in the cortical layer of the bone sample). The same section was then stained for histological analysis of the mineral content of the bone sample. The mean values of the ultrasonic velocities were equal to 4.97×10(-3) m/s in newly formed bone tissue and 5.31×10(-3) m/s in mature bone. Analysis of variance (p=2.42×10(-4)) tests revealed significant differences between the two groups of measurements. The standard deviation of the velocities was significantly higher in newly formed bone than in mature bone. Histological observations allow to confirm the accurate locations of the velocity measurements and showed a lower degree of mineralization in newly formed bone than in the mature cortical bone. The higher ultrasonic velocity measured in newly formed bone tissue compared with

  12. Transitioning organic synthesis from organic solvents to water. What's your E Factor?

    PubMed Central

    Lipshutz, Bruce H.; Ghorai, Subir

    2014-01-01

    Traditional organic chemistry, and organic synthesis in particular, relies heavily on organic solvents, as most reactions involve organic substrates and catalysts that tend to be water-insoluble. Unfortunately, organic solvents make up most of the organic waste created by the chemical enterprise, whether from academic, industrial, or governmental labs. One alternative to organic solvents follows the lead of Nature: water. To circumvent the solubility issues, newly engineered “designer” surfactants offer an opportunity to efficiently enable many of the commonly used transition metal-catalyzed and related reactions in organic synthesis to be run in water, and usually at ambient temperatures. This review focuses on recent progress in this area, where such amphiphiles spontaneously self-aggregate in water. The resulting micellar arrays serve as nanoreactors, obviating organic solvents as the reaction medium, while maximizing environmental benefits. PMID:25170307

  13. Transitioning organic synthesis from organic solvents to water. What's your E Factor?

    PubMed

    Lipshutz, Bruce H; Ghorai, Subir

    2014-08-01

    Traditional organic chemistry, and organic synthesis in particular, relies heavily on organic solvents, as most reactions involve organic substrates and catalysts that tend to be water-insoluble. Unfortunately, organic solvents make up most of the organic waste created by the chemical enterprise, whether from academic, industrial, or governmental labs. One alternative to organic solvents follows the lead of Nature: water. To circumvent the solubility issues, newly engineered "designer" surfactants offer an opportunity to efficiently enable many of the commonly used transition metal-catalyzed and related reactions in organic synthesis to be run in water, and usually at ambient temperatures. This review focuses on recent progress in this area, where such amphiphiles spontaneously self-aggregate in water. The resulting micellar arrays serve as nanoreactors, obviating organic solvents as the reaction medium, while maximizing environmental benefits.

  14. Organization and management of space grant programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheppard, Sallie; Nichols, Steve

    1990-01-01

    The 21 Space Grant Programs represent a broad range of organizational structures which operate programs ranging in size from single university organizations to organizations including up to 41 members involving a composite of industrial organizations such as state agencies, and universities. Some of the space grant awards were made to organizations already in existence with on-going programs while other awards were made to consortia newly formed for the purpose of applying to the Space Grant Program. The workshop on organization and management of Space Grant Programs provided an opportunity for directors and program representatives to discuss and compare the relative advantages and disadvantages of the various models being used. This paper offers examples of the diversity of organizations, summarizes the common concerns to be met by each organizational model, and provides a case study of the Texas Space Grant Consortium organization.

  15. Newly-formed emotional memories guide selective attention processes: Evidence from event-related potentials

    PubMed Central

    Schupp, Harald T.; Kirmse, Ursula; Schmälzle, Ralf; Flaisch, Tobias; Renner, Britta

    2016-01-01

    Emotional cues can guide selective attention processes. However, emotional stimuli can both activate long-term memory representations reflecting general world knowledge and engage newly formed memory representations representing specific knowledge from the immediate past. Here, the self-completion feature of associative memory was utilized to assess the regulation of attention processes by newly-formed emotional memory. First, new memory representations were formed by presenting pictures depicting a person either in an erotic pose or as a portrait. Afterwards, to activate newly-built memory traces, edited pictures were presented showing only the head region of the person. ERP recordings revealed the emotional regulation of attention by newly-formed memories. Specifically, edited pictures from the erotic compared to the portrait category elicited an early posterior negativity and late positive potential, similar to the findings observed for the original pictures. A control condition showed that the effect was dependent on newly-formed memory traces. Given the large number of new memories formed each day, they presumably make an important contribution to the regulation of attention in everyday life. PMID:27321471

  16. Landscape heterogeneity shapes predation in a newly restored predator-prey system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kauffman, M.J.; Varley, N.; Smith, D.W.; Stahler, D.R.; MacNulty, D.R.; Boyce, M.S.

    2007-01-01

    Because some native ungulates have lived without top predators for generations, it has been uncertain whether runaway predation would occur when predators are newly restored to these systems. We show that landscape features and vegetation, which influence predator detection and capture of prey, shape large-scale patterns of predation in a newly restored predator-prey system. We analysed the spatial distribution of wolf (Canis lupus) predation on elk (Cervus elaphus) on the Northern Range of Yellowstone National Park over 10 consecutive winters. The influence of wolf distribution on kill sites diminished over the course of this study, a result that was likely caused by territorial constraints on wolf distribution. In contrast, landscape factors strongly influenced kill sites, creating distinct hunting grounds and prey refugia. Elk in this newly restored predator-prey system should be able to mediate their risk of predation by movement and habitat selection across a heterogeneous risk landscape. ?? 2007 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  17. Landscape heterogeneity shapes predation in a newly restored predator-prey system.

    PubMed

    Kauffman, Matthew J; Varley, Nathan; Smith, Douglas W; Stahler, Daniel R; MacNulty, Daniel R; Boyce, Mark S

    2007-08-01

    Because some native ungulates have lived without top predators for generations, it has been uncertain whether runaway predation would occur when predators are newly restored to these systems. We show that landscape features and vegetation, which influence predator detection and capture of prey, shape large-scale patterns of predation in a newly restored predator-prey system. We analysed the spatial distribution of wolf (Canis lupus) predation on elk (Cervus elaphus) on the Northern Range of Yellowstone National Park over 10 consecutive winters. The influence of wolf distribution on kill sites diminished over the course of this study, a result that was likely caused by territorial constraints on wolf distribution. In contrast, landscape factors strongly influenced kill sites, creating distinct hunting grounds and prey refugia. Elk in this newly restored predator-prey system should be able to mediate their risk of predation by movement and habitat selection across a heterogeneous risk landscape.

  18. Visualization of newly synthesized neuronal RNA in vitro and in vivo using click-chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Tushev, Georgi; Sambandan, Sivakumar; Rinne, Jennifer; Epstein, Irina; Cajigas, Iván

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The neuronal transcriptome changes dynamically to adapt to stimuli from the extracellular and intracellular environment. In this study, we adapted for the first time a click chemistry technique to label the newly synthesized RNA in cultured hippocampal neurons and intact larval zebrafish brain. Ethynyl uridine (EU) was incorporated into neuronal RNA in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Newly synthesized RNA granules observed throughout the dendrites were colocalized with mRNA and rRNA markers. In zebrafish larvae, the application of EU to the swim water resulted in uptake and labeling throughout the brain. Using a GABA receptor antagonist, PTZ (pentylenetetrazol), to elevate neuronal activity, we demonstrate that newly transcribed RNA signal increased in specific regions involved in neurogenesis. PMID:27801616

  19. Selective determination of cocaine and its metabolite benzoylecgonine in environmental samples by newly developed sorbent materials.

    PubMed

    Bujak, Renata; Gadzała-Kopciuch, Renata; Nowaczyk, Alicja; Raczak-Gutknecht, Joanna; Kordalewska, Marta; Struck-Lewicka, Wiktoria; Markuszewski, Michał J; Buszewski, Bogusław

    2016-01-01

    Sewage epidemiology, as compared to crime statistics, health, medical reports or population surveys, is becoming the most objective and realistic approach to estimate drug consumption and trends in local communities. In this study we proposed newly synthesized sorbent materials for selective extraction of cocaine and benzoylecgonine from wastewater samples. The molecular modeling calculations were conducted to provide the choice of proper template and functional monomer for synthesis of extraction materials. The physicochemical properties of synthesized sorbents were studied using various techniques. The newly developed sorbent materials were applied for selective extraction of cocaine and benzoylecgonine from wastewater samples collected from different wastewater treatment plants in Poland. The obtained recoveries values in wastewater samples were 83.6(±7.1)% and 72.1(±4.8)%, for cocaine and benzoylecgonine, respectively. The newly developed sorbents comprise an alternative to conventional ones, which are not entirely suitable for highly efficient purification of environmental samples due to the presence of contaminants.

  20. Macrobenthic diversity in protected, disturbed, and newly formed intertidal wetlands of a subtropical estuary in China.

    PubMed

    Lv, Weiwei; Ma, Chang-an; Huang, Youhui; Yang, Yang; Yu, Ji; Zhang, Mingqing; Zhao, Yunlong

    2014-12-15

    In this study, intertidal macrobenthic diversity in protected, disturbed, and newly formed wetlands of Yangtze estuary was assessed using PRIMER 5.2 based on species diversity and species relatedness. We observed high diversity in nature reserves and low diversity in adjacent disturbed and newly formed wetlands. These diversity data were then integrated with historical data to detect the variation in macrobenthic diversity over the past two decades. The integrated data indicated that the intertidal macrobenthic diversity sharply decreased in heavy reclamation tidal flats whereas markedly increased in non-disturbed nature reserve and newly formed wetland. Benthic health was observed with the departure degree of average taxonomic distinctness (Δ(+)) and variation in taxonomic distinctness (Λ(+)) from the simulated 95% confidence funnel. All the habitats were subjected to different levels of human interference, except Jiuduansha and Beigangbeisha. The degradation of intertidal wetland in Yangtze estuary was mainly attributed to land reclamation, overgrazing, and overfishing.

  1. Clofarabine, idarubicin, and cytarabine (CIA) as frontline therapy for patients ≤60 years with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Nazha, Aziz; Kantarjian, Hagop; Ravandi, Farhad; Huang, Xuelin; Choi, Sangbum; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo; Jabbour, Elias; Borthakur, Gautam; Kadia, Tapan; Konopleva, Marina; Cortes, Jorge; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Kornblau, Steve; Daver, Naval; Pemmaraju, Naveen; Andreeff, Michael; Estrov, Zeev; Du, Min; Brandt, Mark; Faderl, Stefan

    2013-11-01

    Clofarabine is a second generation nucleoside analogue with activity in adults with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). A phase I trial of clofarabine, idarubicin, and cytarabine (CIA) in relapsed and refractory AML had shown an overall response rate (ORR) of 48%. To explore this combination further, we conducted a phase II study of (CIA) in patients with newly diagnosed AML ≤60 years. Patients ≥18-60 years with AML and adequate organ function were enrolled. Induction therapy consisted of clofarabine (C) 20 mg m⁻² IV daily (days 1-5), idarubicin (I) 10 mg m⁻² IV daily (days 1-3), and cytarabine (A) 1 g m⁻² IV daily (days 1-5). Patients in remission received up to six consolidation cycles (C 15 mg m⁻² × 3, I 8 mg m⁻² × 2, and A 0.75 g m⁻² × 3). Fifty-seven patients were evaluable. ORR was 79%. With a median follow up of 10.9 months, the median overall survival (OS) was not reached, the median event-free survival (EFS) was 13.5 months. Most toxicities were ≤grade 2. Four week mortality was 2%. In subgroup analysis, patients ≤40 years had better OS (P = 0.04) and EFS (P = 0.04) compared to patients >40 years. Compared to historical patients treated with idarubicin and cyarabine (IA), the OS and EFS were significantly longer for CIA treated patients. In multivariate analysis, CIA retained its favorable impact on OS compared to IA. Thus, CIA is an effective and safe therapy for patients ≤60 years with newly diagnosed AML.

  2. Clofarabine, Idarubicin, and Cytarabine (CIA) as Frontline Therapy for Patients ≤60 Years with Newly Diagnosed Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML)

    PubMed Central

    Nazha, Aziz; Ravandi, Farhad; Kantarjian, Hagop; Huang, Xuelin; Choi, Sangbum; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo; Jabbour, Elias; Borthakur, Gautam; Kadia, Tapan; Konopleva, Marina; Cortes, Jorge; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Kornblau, Steve; Andreeff, Michael; Du, Min; Brandt, Mark; Faderl, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To explore the combination of clofarabine, cytarabine, and idarubicin (CIA) in patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) organ functions were candidates. Induction therapy consisted of clofarabine (C) 22.5 mg/m2 IV daily (days 1-5), idarubicin (I) 6 mg/m2 IV daily (days 1-3), and cytarabine (A) 0.75 g/m2 IV daily (days 1-5). Patients in remission received up to 6 consolidation cycles (C 22.5 mg/m2 × 3, I 6 mg/m2 × 2, and A 0.75 g/m2 × 3). Results Fifty-seven patients were evaluable. The overall response rate was 79%. With a median follow up of 10.9 months (range, 1.6 - 23.1), the median overall survival (OS) was not reached, the median event-free survival (EFS) was 13.5 months, and the median relapse free survival was not reached. Most toxicities were ≤ grade 2. Four week mortality was 2%. In subgroup analysis, patients ≤ 40 years had better OS (P = 0.04) and EFS (P = 0.04) compared to patients > 40 years. Compared to historical patients treated with IA combination, the OS and EFS were significantly higher (P = 0.005, 0.0001, respectively) for CIA treated patients. In multivariate analysis, CIA retained its superior impact on OS and EFS compared to IA. Conclusion CIA is an effective combination for patients newly diagnosed AML. Patients ≤ 40 years had better OS and EFS. CIA achieved longer OS and EFS compared to IA alone. PMID:23877926

  3. Abdominal obesity validates the association between elevated alanine aminotransferase and newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Yueh, Chen-Yu; Yang, Yao-Hsu; Sung, Yi-Ting; Lee, Li-Wen

    2014-01-01

    To examine how elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) could be associated with newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis on a mass health examination. The odds ratios (ORs) for diabetes mellitus and newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus were compared between people with and without abdominal obesity, together with and without elevated ALT levels. 5499 people were included in this study. Two hundred fifty two (4.6%) fulfilled the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus with 178 (3.2%) undiagnosed before. Metabolic syndrome was vigorously associated with diabetes mellitus and newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus (12.4% vs. 1.4% and 9.0% vs. 0.9%), but elevated ALT alone was not. However, coexisting with obesity, elevated ALTs were robustly associated with diabetes mellitus and newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus. For the incidence of newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus, in comparison to non-obese people with normal ALT (1.7%, OR = 1), obese people especially with elevated ALT levels had significantly higher ORs (obese with ALT ≤ 40 U/L: 4.7%, OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.08-2.77, P 0.023; ALT 41-80 U/L: 6.8%, OR 2.06, 95% CI 1.20-3.55, P 0.009; ALT 81-120 U/L: 8.8%, OR 3.07, 95% CI 1.38-6.84, P 0.006; ALT > 120 U/L: 18.2%, OR 7.44, 95% CI 3.04-18.18, P < 0.001). Abdominal obesity validates the association between elevated alanine aminotransferase and diabetes mellitus and newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus. People with abdominal obesity, especially with coexisting elevated ALT levels should be screened for undiagnosed diabetes mellitus.

  4. Distinguishing Newly Born Strange Stars from Neutron Stars with g-Mode Oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Fu Weijie; Wei Haiqing; Liu Yuxin

    2008-10-31

    The gravity-mode (g-mode) eigenfrequencies of newly born strange quark stars (SQSs) and neutron stars (NSs) are studied. It is found that the eigenfrequencies in SQSs are much lower than those in NSs by almost 1 order of magnitude, since the components of a SQS are all extremely relativistic particles while nucleons in a NS are nonrelativistic. We therefore propose that newly born SQSs can be distinguished from the NSs by detecting the eigenfrequencies of the g-mode pulsations of supernovae cores through gravitational radiation by LIGO-class detectors.

  5. Distinguishing newly born strange stars from neutron stars with g-mode oscillations.

    PubMed

    Fu, Wei-Jie; Wei, Hai-Qing; Liu, Yu-Xin

    2008-10-31

    The gravity-mode (g-mode) eigenfrequencies of newly born strange quark stars (SQSs) and neutron stars (NSs) are studied. It is found that the eigenfrequencies in SQSs are much lower than those in NSs by almost 1 order of magnitude, since the components of a SQS are all extremely relativistic particles while nucleons in a NS are nonrelativistic. We therefore propose that newly born SQSs can be distinguished from the NSs by detecting the eigenfrequencies of the g-mode pulsations of supernovae cores through gravitational radiation by LIGO-class detectors.

  6. Water stress can induce quiescence in newly-germinated onion (Allium cepa L.) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Whalley, W R; Lipiec, J; Finch-Savage, W E; Cope, R E; Clark, L J; Rowse, H R

    2001-05-01

    The effect of water stress on the early seedling growth of onions was studied by placing newly-germinated seedlings in vermiculite equilibrated at different water potentials. Roots and shoots elongated more at -0.29 than at -0.64 MPa, but did not elongate at -1.66 MPa. However, roots and shoots of seedlings that had been incubated in vermiculite at -1.66 MPa for up to 35 d resumed elongation when subsequently placed on wet filter boards. This suggests that water stress can induce quiescence in newly-germinated seedlings.

  7. Co-translational Protein Processing, Folding, Targeting, and Membrane Insertion of Newly Synthesized Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehringer, Daniel; Ban, Nenad

    Newly synthesized proteins leave the ribosome through the nascent polypeptide tunnel. Through the coordinated action of the ribosome associated chaperones, nascent chain processing enzymes, the signal recognition particle, and the protein insertion machinery newly synthesized proteins are brought into their native state and proper cellular localization. The interplay of these factors during ongoing synthesis requires spatial and temporal control of their interactions with the ribosome. We used electron microscopy in combination with crystallography and biochemical methods to study the structure of bacterial ribosomes and nascent chain interacting factors.

  8. Newly Paralyzed

    MedlinePlus

    ... appropriate rehab resources near you. > How can I locate funding for rehabilitation and equipment? Financial assistance for rehabilitation and necessary medical equipment. > What do I need to know about stem cell research? Think about the potential in two ways: ...

  9. The newly recognised limb/pelvis-hypoplasia/aplasia syndrome: report of a Bedouin patient and review.

    PubMed Central

    Farag, T I; al-Awadi, S A; Marafie, M J; Bastaki, L; al-Othman, S A; Mohammed, F M; AlSuliman, I S; Murthy, D S

    1993-01-01

    A Bedouin infant born to consanguineous parents and grandparents is reported. She had Müllerian aplasia and the phenotypic features of the limb/pelvis-hypoplasia/aplasia syndrome (MIM 276820). Phenotypic variability of this newly recognised syndrome is briefly discussed. Images PMID:8423610

  10. "The Dendritic Bonding Technique": A Newly-devised Technique for the Fixation of Mesh Skin Graft.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Yoshiaki; Kishi, Kazuo

    2012-07-01

    We describe a newly designed technique for the quick, easy, and cost-effective fixation of mesh skin grafts in a range of skin conditions and patients. We fixed the skin graft using octyl-2-cyanoacrylate (Dermabond; Ethicon), which was termed "Dendritic bonding." This technique exhibits several advantages over surgical stapling and suturing with absorbable sutures.

  11. 33 CFR 104.267 - Security measures for newly hired employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: VESSELS Vessel Security Requirements § 104.267 Security... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Security measures for newly hired... the requirements in paragraph (b) of this section are met, and provided that the new hire...

  12. 33 CFR 104.267 - Security measures for newly hired employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: VESSELS Vessel Security Requirements § 104.267 Security... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Security measures for newly hired... the requirements in paragraph (b) of this section are met, and provided that the new hire...

  13. 33 CFR 104.267 - Security measures for newly hired employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: VESSELS Vessel Security Requirements § 104.267 Security... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Security measures for newly hired... the requirements in paragraph (b) of this section are met, and provided that the new hire...

  14. 33 CFR 105.257 - Security measures for newly-hired employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: FACILITIES Facility Security Requirements § 105.257 Security... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Security measures for newly-hired... the requirements in paragraph (b) of this section are met, and provided that the new hire...

  15. 33 CFR 105.257 - Security measures for newly-hired employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: FACILITIES Facility Security Requirements § 105.257 Security... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Security measures for newly-hired... the requirements in paragraph (b) of this section are met, and provided that the new hire...

  16. 33 CFR 105.257 - Security measures for newly-hired employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: FACILITIES Facility Security Requirements § 105.257 Security... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Security measures for newly-hired... the requirements in paragraph (b) of this section are met, and provided that the new hire...

  17. 33 CFR 104.267 - Security measures for newly hired employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: VESSELS Vessel Security Requirements § 104.267 Security... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Security measures for newly hired... the requirements in paragraph (b) of this section are met, and provided that the new hire...

  18. Constructing Practical Knowledge of Teaching: Eleven Newly Qualified Language Teachers' Discursive Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruohotie-Lyhty, Maria

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the professional development of 11 newly qualified foreign language teachers. It draws on a qualitative longitudinal study conducted at the University of Jyvaskyla, Finland between 2002 and 2009. The paper concentrates on the personal side of teacher development by analysing participants' discourses concerning language…

  19. Higher Education and Development: The Experience of Four Newly Industrializing Countries in Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Jasbir Sarjit

    1991-01-01

    Reviews developments in higher education in four Newly Industrialized Countries (NICs) in east Asia. Contends that improvements have resulted from policies that strengthen and develop scientific and technological capacity. Stresses the link between effective higher education and economic well-being. (CFR)

  20. The Control of Posture in Newly Standing Infants is Task Dependent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claxton, Laura J.; Melzer, Dawn K.; Ryu, Joong Hyun; Haddad, Jeffrey M.

    2012-01-01

    The postural sway patterns of newly standing infants were compared under two conditions: standing while holding a toy and standing while not holding a toy. Infants exhibited a lower magnitude of postural sway and more complex sway patterns when holding the toy. These changes suggest that infants adapt postural sway in a manner that facilitates…

  1. A new species in the newly recorded genus Trachyusa (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Alysiinae) from China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trachyusa whartoni Yao sp. nov. from Dalian, Liaoning, China is described and illustrated. Trachyusa is a newly recorded genus in China. A key to the species of Trachyusa is provided based on the keys of Belokobylskij (1998), Papp (1967), and van Achterberg and O'Connor (1990). Type specimens of the...

  2. Assessing College Students' Perceptions of a Case Teacher's Pedagogical Content Knowledge Using a Newly Developed Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jang, Syh-Jong

    2011-01-01

    Ongoing professional development for college teachers has been much emphasized. However, previous research on learning environments has seldom addressed college students' perceptions of teachers' PCK. This study aimed to evaluate college students' perceptions of a physics teacher's PCK development using a newly developed instrument and workshop…

  3. Charting the collision between a seed coat fragment and newly-designed lint cleaner grid bars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment was run to determine how a seed coat fragment (SCF) reacts after colliding with newly-designed grid bars mounted on a saw-type lint cleaner simulator. A high-speed video camera recorded the action that took place. Ten experimental grid bars were tested. The included angle of the sha...

  4. Preparing School Leaders: The Professional Development Needs of Newly Appointed Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Shun-wing; Szeto, Sing-ying Elson

    2016-01-01

    In Hong Kong, there is an acute need to provide newly appointed principals with opportunities for continuous professional development so that they could face the impact of reforms and globalization on school development. The Education Bureau has commissioned the tertiary institutions to provide structured professional development courses to cater…

  5. Self-Esteem: A Comparison between Hong Kong Children and Newly Arrived Chinese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Yiu Man; Chan, Christine Mei-Sheung

    2004-01-01

    The Self-esteem Inventory developed by Coopersmith (1967) was used to measure the self-esteem of 387 Chinese children. The sample included newly arrived mainland Chinese children and Hong Kong children. The results showed significant statistical differences when measuring the self-esteem level associated with the length of their stay in Hong Kong…

  6. [Presenile dementia (Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease). Clinical and experimental data on a newly reported case].

    PubMed

    Drăgănescu, N

    1988-01-01

    A newly recorded case of presenile dementia (Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease) is discussed. The disease is experimentally transmissible to guinea pigs, after a long incubation period. From a pathomorphological point of view the experimental disease in the guinea pig is characterized by spongiosis, proliferative glial reaction, disappearance of neurons and of Purkinje's cells.

  7. The Positioning of Students in Newly Qualified Secondary Teachers' Images of Their "Best Teaching"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haigh, Mavis; Kane, Ruth; Sandretto, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Asking newly qualified teachers (NQTs) to provide images of their "best teaching", and encouraging subsequent reflection on these images, has the potential to enhance their understanding of themselves as teachers as they explore their often unconsciously held assumptions about students and classrooms. This paper reports aspects of a…

  8. The Importance of Networks for Newly Qualified Teachers in Upper Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engvik, Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose: The interest in raising the competence of teachers through networks and network activities is increasing. This article is based on the voices of four newly qualified teachers who give us the opportunity to listen to experiences in authentic surroundings. The purpose of this article is to gain better insight into the type of…

  9. How Prepared Do Newly-Qualified Teachers Feel? Differences between Routes and Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorard, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Does it matter whether teachers are trained in schools or universities? In England, there is an ongoing change in the balance of routes to becoming a newly qualified teacher (NQT). Given this, and widely-reported problems with teacher supply, it is important to consider whether there are discernible differences between the routes in terms of their…

  10. Using Narrative to Make Sense of Transitions: Supporting Newly Arrived Children and Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulusi, Halit; Oland, Louise

    2010-01-01

    Immigration is currently high on the political agenda, yet there is a lack of information regarding the number of children who migrate to the UK and how their needs can be best met. There are many claims in the media that the influx of immigrants from newly endorsed EU countries is becoming a drain on resources, in terms of education and health…

  11. Impaired β cell function in Chinese newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus with hyperlipidemia.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yuhang; Wang, Yufan; Huang, Qianfang; Ren, Qian; Chen, Su; Zhang, Aifang; Zhao, Li; Zhen, Qin; Peng, Yongde

    2014-01-01

    The objective is to explore the effects of hyperlipidemia on β cell function in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). 208 patients were enrolled in the study and were divided into newly diagnosed T2DM with hyperlipidemia (132 patients) and without hyperlipidemia (76 patients). Demographic data, glucose levels, insulin levels, lipid profiles, homeostasis model assessment for β cell function index (HOMA-β ), homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), and quantitative insulin-sensitivity check index (QUICKI) were compared between the two groups. We found that comparing with those of normal lipid levels, the subjects of newly diagnosed T2DM with hyperlipidemia were younger, and had declined HOMA-β . However, the levels of HOMA-β were comparable regardless of different lipid profiles (combined hyperlipidemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypercholesterolemia). Multiple stepwise linear regression analysis showed that high fasting plasma glucose (FPG), decreased fasting insulin level (FINS), and high triglyceride (TG) were independent risk factors of β cell dysfunction in newly diagnosed T2DM. Therefore, the management of dyslipidemia, together with glucose control, may be beneficial for T2DM with hyperlipidemia.

  12. How Newly Qualified Primary Teachers Develop: A Case Study in Rural Eritrea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belay, Abraham; Ghebreab, Freweini; Ghebremichael, Tewolde; Ghebreselassie, Asmerom; Holmes, John; White, Goodith

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on the professional development of a small group of newly qualified teachers (NQTs) who began their careers in four rural schools in Eritrea. These teachers were monitored over a period of four years from 2001 to 2004. Their development as primary practitioners was recorded by videoing and observing their classes and by…

  13. Inverse association of plasma vanadium levels with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xia; Sun, Taoping; Liu, Jun; Shan, Zhilei; Jin, Yilin; Chen, Sijing; Bao, Wei; Hu, Frank B; Liu, Liegang

    2014-08-15

    Vanadium compounds have been proposed to have beneficial effects on the pathogenesis and complications of type 2 diabetes. Our objective was to evaluate the association between plasma vanadium levels and type 2 diabetes. We performed a case-control study involving 1,598 Chinese subjects with or without newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (December 2004-December 2007). Cases and controls were frequency-matched by age and sex. Plasma vanadium concentrations were measured and compared between groups. Analyses showed that plasma vanadium concentrations were significantly lower in cases with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes than in controls (P = 0.001). Mean plasma vanadium levels in participants with and without diabetes were 1.0 μg/L and 1.2 μg/L, respectively. Participants in the highest quartile of plasma vanadium concentration had a notably lower risk of newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (odds ratio = 0.26, 95% confidence interval: 0.19, 0.35; P < 0.001), compared with persons in the lowest quartile. The trend remained significant after adjustment for known risk factors and in further stratification analyses. Our results suggested that plasma vanadium concentrations were inversely associated with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes in this Chinese population.

  14. Polymorphic SSR markers for Plasmopara obducens (Peronosporaceae), the newly emergent downy mildew pathogen of Impatiens (Balsaminaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were developed for Plasmopara obducens, the causal agent of the newly emergent downy mildew disease of Impatiens walleriana. Methods and Results: A 151.2 Mb draft genome assembly was generated from P. obducens using Illumina technology and mined to identi...

  15. Focus Groups as Temporal Ecosystems for Newly Qualified Early Childhood Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farquhar, Sandy; Tesar, Marek

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on a focus group study of newly qualified early childhood teachers' experiences during their first year of teaching. It argues that focus groups have the potential to invite dialogical engagement in ways that support teachers' exploration of their own identities, and it emphasises the significant role group context plays in…

  16. 40 CFR 148.18 - Waste specific prohibitions-newly listed and identified wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) HAZARDOUS WASTE INJECTION RESTRICTIONS Prohibitions on Injection § 148.18 Waste specific prohibitions—newly listed and identified wastes. (a) Effective August 24... identified in paragraph (b) of this section, are prohibited from underground injection. (b) Effective May...

  17. 40 CFR 148.18 - Waste specific prohibitions-newly listed and identified wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) HAZARDOUS WASTE INJECTION RESTRICTIONS Prohibitions on Injection § 148.18 Waste specific prohibitions—newly listed and identified wastes. (a) Effective August 24... identified in paragraph (b) of this section, are prohibited from underground injection. (b) Effective May...

  18. 40 CFR 148.18 - Waste specific prohibitions-newly listed and identified wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) HAZARDOUS WASTE INJECTION RESTRICTIONS Prohibitions on Injection § 148.18 Waste specific prohibitions—newly listed and identified wastes. (a) Effective August 24... identified in paragraph (b) of this section, are prohibited from underground injection. (b) Effective May...

  19. 40 CFR 148.18 - Waste specific prohibitions-newly listed and identified wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) HAZARDOUS WASTE INJECTION RESTRICTIONS Prohibitions on Injection § 148.18 Waste specific prohibitions—newly listed and identified wastes. (a) Effective August 24... identified in paragraph (b) of this section, are prohibited from underground injection. (b) Effective May...

  20. 40 CFR 148.18 - Waste specific prohibitions-newly listed and identified wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) HAZARDOUS WASTE INJECTION RESTRICTIONS Prohibitions on Injection § 148.18 Waste specific prohibitions—newly listed and identified wastes. (a) Effective August 24... identified in paragraph (b) of this section, are prohibited from underground injection. (b) Effective May...

  1. Basic considerations in development cooperation: the application of remote sensing in developing and newly industrialized countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itten, K. I.; Specter, C. N.; Sausen, T. M.

    Questions of principle concerning applications of remote sensing technology in developing, newly industrialized, and industrialized countries are discussed in terms of such problems as scale, accuracy, timeliness, and cost. The paper concludes that successful technology transfer and applications must be based on true cooperation between local and expatriate experts. Only in this way can the promise of remote sensing be realized.

  2. Host stage preference, efficacy and fecundity of parasitoids attacking Drosophila suzukii in newly invaded areas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is an invasive species, native to Eastern and Southeastern Asia, that has recently colonized parts of North America and Europe. The severe damage caused by D. suzukii in the newly invaded areas is largely due to the absence of specialized natur...

  3. Pre-Service English Teachers' Perceptions of Newly Arrived Children from Mainland China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wing Chan, Yu; Gao, Xuesong

    2014-01-01

    The research reported here investigated pre-service English language teachers' perceptions of newly arrived immigrant children from Mainland China in Hong Kong. Seventeen participants, who had at least 10 weeks of experience working with these immigrant children during teaching practicum, participated in focus group discussions and shared their…

  4. Using newly-designed lint cleaner grid bars to remove seed coat fragments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment was conducted to remove seed coat fragments at the saw-type lint cleaner using newly-designed grid bars. The test consisted of five experimental grid bar designs and one control. The experimental grid bars had angles from the sharp toe of the grid bar (or the angle from vertical) of ...

  5. Coping with Change in ICT-Based Learning Environments: Newly Qualified Rwandan Teachers' Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukama, E.; Andersson, S. B.

    2008-01-01

    The overarching aim of this study is to investigate how newly qualified Rwandan teachers can contribute to the creation of theoretical and practical knowledge for professional development with information and communication technology (ICT). Questionnaires, focus groups and interviews were used for data collection. The findings show that novice…

  6. Choosing Teachers: Exploring Agency and Structure in the Distribution of Newly Qualified Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noyes, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    This paper theorises aspects of the distribution of newly qualified teachers in England, which is not arbitrary but patterned with differential effects upon socially distanced learners. As part of a larger project exploring the sociological strategies and stratification whereby teachers choose, and are chosen, for their first teaching post, I…

  7. 14 CFR 26.39 - Newly produced airplanes: Fuel tank flammability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Newly produced airplanes: Fuel tank flammability. 26.39 Section 26.39 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CONTINUED AIRWORTHINESS AND SAFETY IMPROVEMENTS FOR TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES...

  8. 14 CFR 26.39 - Newly produced airplanes: Fuel tank flammability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Newly produced airplanes: Fuel tank flammability. 26.39 Section 26.39 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CONTINUED AIRWORTHINESS AND SAFETY IMPROVEMENTS FOR TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES...

  9. 14 CFR 26.39 - Newly produced airplanes: Fuel tank flammability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Newly produced airplanes: Fuel tank flammability. 26.39 Section 26.39 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CONTINUED AIRWORTHINESS AND SAFETY IMPROVEMENTS FOR TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES...

  10. Assessment by Employers of Newly Graduated Civil Engineers from the Islamic University of Gaza

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enshassi, Adnan; Hassouna, Ahmed

    2005-01-01

    The evaluation process is very important to identify and recognize the strengths and the weaknesses of graduated students. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the performance of the newly graduated civil engineers from the Islamic University of Gaza in Palestine. The methodology was based on questionnaires and informal interview. The…

  11. Circulation of Newly-Acquired Materials at the Juniata College Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eyman, David H.

    Using circulation data to determine whether materials specifically acquired for the circulation collections of libraries at undergraduate institutions show heavy use, this study examined the first 3 years of shelf life of one year's book acquisitions at a small liberal arts college. Contrary to expectations of a high rate of use for newly acquired…

  12. Challenges Facing Canadian Federal Offenders Newly Released to the Community: A Concept Map

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jason D.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe the needs of newly released Canadian federal offenders as perceived by community parole supervisors. Seventy-four Canadian parole supervisors were asked to answer the following question: "What challenges do parolees face in the first 90 days after release?" The data were analyzed using…

  13. Formation of newly synthesized adeno-associated virus capsids in the cell nucleus.

    PubMed

    Bell, Peter; Vandenberghe, Luk H; Wilson, James M

    2014-06-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) particles inside the nucleus of a HEK 293 cell are shown by electron microscopy. Cells have been triple-transfected for vector production and were analyzed for capsid formation three days later. Newly assembled particle are visible as seemingly unstructured conglomerates or crystal-like arrays.

  14. A Structured Group for Gay Men Newly Diagnosed with HIV/AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smiley, Kristin A.

    2004-01-01

    The author presents a structured group model designed to help gay men newly diagnosed with HIV/AIDS. A facilitator's manual is included to outline the group's progression through eight sessions and to address the psychosocial concerns often ignited by an HIV or AIDS diagnosis. Suggestions for future group work are also provided.

  15. Evaluating the Acceptability and Feasibility of Project ACCEPT: An Intervention for Youth Newly Diagnosed with HIV

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosek, Sybil G.; Lemos, Diana; Harper, Gary W.; Telander, Kyle

    2011-01-01

    Given the potential for negative psychosocial and medical outcomes following an HIV diagnosis, Project ACCEPT, a 12-session behavioral intervention, was developed and pilot-tested for youth (aged 16-24) newly diagnosed with HIV. Fifty participants recently diagnosed with HIV were enrolled from 4 sites selected through the Adolescent Medicine…

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: newly discovered planets from WASP-South (Turner+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, O. D.; Anderson, D. R.; Cameron, A. Collier; Delrez, L.; Evans, D. F.; Gillon, M.; Hellier, C.; Jehin, E.; Lendl, M.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Segransan, D.; Smalley, B.; Smith, A. M. S.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Udry, S.; West, R. G.

    2017-02-01

    Lightcurves and radial velocity data of three newly discovered planets from the WASP-South survey. Discovery data come from the WASP-South telescope (SAAO, South Africa) with follow-up lightcurves from the TRAPPIST telescope and EulerCam on the Swiss telescope (La Silla, Chile). Radial velocity data are from the CORALIE spectrograph on the Swiss telescope. (6 data files).

  17. [Effects of stepped counseling intervention on quality of life among newly diagnosed HIV-positive patients].

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Ching-Fang; Chao, Shu-Ling; Tsai, Tsui-Ching; Chuang, Peing

    2004-04-01

    The purpose of this research was to understand how stepped counseling intervention affects quality of life in newly diagnosed HIV-positive patients. The study made use of quasi-experimental methodology that included a three-step interview process over 45 days. The theoretical framework supporting interviews with 32 newly diagnosed HIV-positive patients in northern Taiwan included a combination of rational-emotive therapy, cognitive-behavior therapy, and health education. Participants were divided into an experimental and control group of equal size. Data collection also included responses to the WHOQOL-HIV instrument at the beginning and end of each interview session. Responses were analyzed with the SPSS software package. The results showed a 25-point difference between pre- and post-test scores in the experimental group (SD = 3.2) and a 6 point difference in the control group (SD = 4.3). The results indicate that stepped counseling techniques are effective in helping this patient population to adjust to the physical, emotional, social, and environmental stresses associated with their newly diagnosis. The researchers suggest that stepped counseling be used with all newly diagnosed HIV-positive Taiwanese patients in all hospitals and clinics to promote adaptive abilities and to control the further spread of HIV.

  18. Identifying the Training Needs of Heads of Department in a Newly Established University in Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Thi Lan Huong

    2012-01-01

    Although middle-level academic managers really need training in order to perform their roles adequately in the very changing context of higher education, little formal training is provided, particularly in less developed countries. This paper identifies the training needs of Heads of Department in a newly established university in Vietnam as a…

  19. Effect of method and timing of castration on newly arrived stocker cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of castration method and timing on the performance and health of newly received stocker cattle. Two hundred and seventy-one crossbred male calves (184 bulls, 87 steers; 210 ± 14.7 kg) were purchased at auction barns and shipped in three groups. ...

  20. Learning beyond Graduation: Exploring Newly Qualified Specialists' Entrance into Daily Practice from a Learning Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuyvers, Katrien; Donche, Vincent; Van den Bossche, Piet

    2016-01-01

    The entrance of newly qualified medical specialists into daily practice is considered to be a stressful period in which curriculum support is absent. Although engaging in both personal and professional learning and development activities is recognized fundamental for lifelong professional competence, research on medical professionals' entrance…

  1. 33 CFR 66.01-13 - When must my newly manufactured equipment comply with these rules?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When must my newly manufactured equipment comply with these rules? 66.01-13 Section 66.01-13 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other...

  2. 33 CFR 66.01-13 - When must my newly manufactured equipment comply with these rules?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false When must my newly manufactured equipment comply with these rules? 66.01-13 Section 66.01-13 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other...

  3. 33 CFR 66.01-13 - When must my newly manufactured equipment comply with these rules?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false When must my newly manufactured equipment comply with these rules? 66.01-13 Section 66.01-13 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other...

  4. 33 CFR 66.01-13 - When must my newly manufactured equipment comply with these rules?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false When must my newly manufactured equipment comply with these rules? 66.01-13 Section 66.01-13 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other...

  5. 33 CFR 66.01-13 - When must my newly manufactured equipment comply with these rules?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false When must my newly manufactured equipment comply with these rules? 66.01-13 Section 66.01-13 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other...

  6. Parent Strategies for Addressing the Needs of Their Newly Adopted Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tirella, Linda G.; Tickle-Degnen, Linda; Miller, Laurie C.; Bedell, Gary

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe reflections of nine American parents on the strengths, challenges, and strategies in parenting young children newly adopted from another country. Eight mothers and one father with an adopted child aged less than 3 years and home for less than 3 months completed standardized assessments measuring the…

  7. How Schools Can Promote Healthy Development for Newly Arrived Immigrant and Refugee Adolescents: Research Priorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeely, Clea A.; Morland, Lyn; Doty, S. Benjamin; Meschke, Laurie L.; Awad, Summer; Husain, Altaf; Nashwan, Ayat

    2017-01-01

    Background: The US education system must find creative and effective ways to foster the healthy development of the approximately 2 million newly arrived immigrant and refugee adolescents, many of whom contend with language barriers, limited prior education, trauma, and discrimination. We identify research priorities for promoting the school…

  8. Perceived Stress and Coping Strategies among Newly Nurse Students in Clinical Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahfouz, Rasha; Alsahli, Haya

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed at assessing the stress level and coping strategies among students who were newly in Practicing the clinical training in different hospitals, at the Nursing College, Princess Nourah University. The study design was a descriptive analytical one. The study was conducted at the beginning of second semester in the academic year…

  9. A Comparison of Antenna Measurements in a Near-Field Range and a Newly Renovated Short-Tapered Chamber

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    ARL-TR-7828 ● SEP 2016 US Army Research Laboratory A Comparison of Antenna Measurements in a Near-Field Range and a Newly...Comparison of Antenna Measurements in a Near-Field Range and a Newly Renovated Short-Tapered Chamber by Theodore K Anthony Sensors and Electron...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Comparison of Antenna Measurements in a Near-Field Range and a Newly Renovated Short-Tapered Chamber 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER

  10. Effects of Glucose and Starch on Lactate Production by Newly Isolated Streptococcus bovis S1 from Saanen Goats

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lianmin; Luo, Yang; Liu, Shimin; Shen, Yizhao; Wang, Mengzhi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT When ruminants are fed high-concentrate diets, Streptococcus bovis proliferates rapidly and produces lactate, potentially causing rumen acidosis. Understanding the regulatory mechanisms of the metabolism of this species might help in developing dietary strategies to alleviate rumen acidosis. S. bovis strain S1 was newly isolated from the ruminal fluid of Saanen dairy goats and then used to examine the effects of glucose and starch on bacterial metabolism and gene regulation of the organic acid-producing pathway in cultures at a pH of 6.5. Glucose or starch was added to the culture medium at 1 g/liter, 3 g/liter (close to a normal range in the rumen fluid), or 9 g/liter (excessive level). Lactate was the dominant acid produced during the fermentation, and levels increased with the amount of glucose or starch in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.001). The production of formate and acetate in the fermentation media fluctuated slightly with the dose but accounted for small fractions of the total acids. The activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and α-amylase (α-AMY) increased with the starch dose (P < 0.05), but the α-AMY activity did not change with the glucose dose. The relative expression levels of the genes ldh, pfl (encoding pyruvate formate lyase), ccpA (encoding catabolite control protein A), and α-amy were higher at a dose of 9 g/liter than at 1 g/liter (P < 0.05). Expression levels of pfl and α-amy genes were higher at 3 g/liter than at 1 g/liter (P < 0.05). The fructose 1,6-diphosphate (FDP) concentration tended to increase with the glucose and starch concentrations. In addition, the S. bovis S1 isolate fermented glucose much faster than starch. We conclude that the quantities of glucose and soluble starch had a major effect on lactate production due to the transcriptional regulation of metabolic genes. IMPORTANCE This work used a newly isolated S. bovis strain S1 from the rumen fluid of Saanen goats and examined the effects of glucose and

  11. Sleep duration is a potential risk factor for newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Chao, Chi-Yuan; Wu, Jin-Shang; Yang, Yi-Ching; Shih, Chi-Chen; Wang, Ru-Hsueh; Lu, Feng-Hwa; Chang, Chih-Jen

    2011-06-01

    U-shaped patterns have been observed for the relationship between sleep duration and diabetes. In addition, prediabetes is associated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. However, there are few studies investigating the relationship between sleep duration and prediabetes/newly diagnosed diabetes. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between sleep duration and prediabetes/newly diagnosed diabetes in a Taiwanese population. After excluding the subjects with a high risk of obstructive sleep apnea, those with a positive history of diabetes, or those taking hypnotic drugs, a total of 3470 adults were recruited from a health checkup center. Each subject completed a self-administrated structured questionnaire on sleep duration and lifestyle factors. Prediabetes/diabetes was defined following the definition of the American Diabetes Association. Subjects with different sleep durations were classified into short (<6.0 hours), normal (6.0∼8.49 hours), and long sleepers (≥8.5 hours). The proportion of subjects with normal glucose tolerance, prediabetes, and newly diagnosed diabetes was 71.9%, 22.9%, and 5.2%, respectively. There were significant differences in age, sex, weight, education level, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, alcohol and coffee drinking habits, family history of diabetes, and sleep duration among the 3 glycemic groups. In multinomial regression, both short and long sleepers had a higher risk of newly diagnosed diabetes; and the odds ratio were 1.55 (95% confidence interval, 1.07-2.24) and 2.83 (1.19-6.73), respectively. However, sleep duration was not found to relate to prediabetes. In conclusion, both short and long sleep durations were independently associated with newly diagnosed diabetes, but not with prediabetes.

  12. Utility of a Newly Designed Film Holder for Premolar Bitewing Radiography

    PubMed Central

    Safi, Yaser; Esmaeelinejad, Mohammad; Vasegh, Zahra; Valizadeh, Solmaz; Aghdasi, Mohammad Mehdi; Sarani, Omid

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Bitewing radiography is a valuable technique for assessment of proximal caries, alveolar crest and periodontal status. Technical errors during radiography result in erroneous radiographic interpretation, misdiagnosis, possible mistreatment or unnecessary exposure of patient for taking a repeat radiograph. Aim In this study, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a film holder modified from the conventional one and compared it with that of conventional film holder. Materials and Methods Our study population comprised of 70 patients who were referred to the Radiology Department for bilateral premolar bitewing radiographs as requested by their attending clinician. Bitewing radiographs in each patient were taken using the newly designed holder in one side and the conventional holder in the other side. The acceptability of the two holders from the perspectives of the technician and patients was determined using a 0-20 point scale. The frequency of overlap and film positioning errors was calculated for each method. Results The conventional holder had greater acceptability among patients compared to the newly designed holder (mean score of 16.59 versus 13.37). From the technicians’ point of view, the newly designed holder was superior to the conventional holder (mean score of 17.33 versus 16.44). The frequency of overlap was lower using the newly designed holder (p<0.001) and it allowed more accurate film positioning (p=0.005). Conclusion The newly designed holder may facilitate the process of radiography for technicians and may be associated with less frequency of radiographic errors compared to the conventional holder. PMID:26675339

  13. Historic and newer persistent organic pollutants in food

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter reviews the literature published over the past five years with regard to the concentrations of historic and newly-listed persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in foods. The chemical classes selected for this review include historic POPs (dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls, and DDT) ...

  14. Perceptual Organization Based on Common Region in Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatt, Ramesh S.; Hayden, Angela; Quinn, Paul C.

    2007-01-01

    We examined whether infants organize information according to the newly proposed principle of common region, which states that elements within a region are grouped together and separated from those of other regions. In Experiment 1, 6- to 7-month-olds exhibited sensitivity to regions by discriminating between the displacement of an element within…

  15. Heterotrophic 15N2 Fixation and Distribution of Newly Fixed Nitrogen in a Rice-Flooded Soil System 1

    PubMed Central

    Eskew, David L.; Eaglesham, Allan R. J.; App, A. A.

    1981-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants growing in pots of flooded soil were exposed to a 15N2-enriched atmosphere for 3 to 13 days in a gas-tight chamber. The floodwater and soil surface were shaded with a black cloth to reduce the activity of phototrophic N2-fixing micro-organisms. The highest 15N enrichments were consistently observed in the roots, although the total quantity of 15N incorporated into the soil was much greater. The rate of 15N incorporation into roots was much higher at the heading than at the tillering stage of growth. Definite enrichments were also found in the basal node and in the lower outer leaf sheath fractions after 3 days of exposure at the heading stage. Thirteen days was the shortest time period in which definite 15N enrichment was observed in the leaves and panicle. When plants were exposed to 15N2 for 13 days just before heading and then allowed to mature in a normal atmosphere, 11.3% of the total 15N in the system was found in the panicles, 2.3% in the roots, and 80.7% in the subsurface soil. These results provide direct evidence of heterotrophic N2 fixation associated with rice roots and the flooded soil and demonstrate that part of the newly fixed N is available to the plant. PMID:16661887

  16. Transmembrane protein TMEM170A is a newly discovered regulator of ER and nuclear envelope morphogenesis in human cells.

    PubMed

    Christodoulou, Andri; Santarella-Mellwig, Rachel; Santama, Niovi; Mattaj, Iain W

    2016-04-15

    The mechanism of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) morphogenesis is incompletely understood. ER tubules are shaped by the reticulons (RTNs) and DP1/Yop1p family members, but the mechanism of ER sheet formation is much less clear. Here, we characterize TMEM170A, a human transmembrane protein, which localizes in ER and nuclear envelope membranes. Silencing or overexpressing TMEM170A in HeLa K cells alters ER shape and morphology. Ultrastructural analysis reveals that downregulation of TMEM170A specifically induces tubular ER formation, whereas overexpression of TMEM170A induces ER sheet formation, indicating that TMEM170A is a newly discovered ER-sheet-promoting protein. Additionally, downregulation of TMEM170A alters nuclear shape and size, decreases the density of nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) in the nuclear envelope and causes either a reduction in inner nuclear membrane (INM) proteins or their relocalization to the ER. TMEM170A interacts with RTN4, a member of the reticulon family; simultaneous co-silencing of TMEM170A and RTN4 rescues ER, NPC and nuclear-envelope-related phenotypes, implying that the two proteins have antagonistic effects on ER membrane organization, and nuclear envelope and NPC formation.

  17. Distribution, lithotypes and mineralogical study of newly formed thermogenic travertines in Northern Euboea and Eastern Central Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanellopoulos, Christos

    2012-12-01

    In the northwestern part of Euboea Island and the neighbouring part of the mainland in eastern central Greece, many hot springs exist. We collected and analysed the newly formed material around the hot springs. The samples were studied at the lab with X-Ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). In all cases the studied materials were thermogenic travertine presenting many different lithotypes. The studied travertine deposits consist mainly of aragonite and calcite, but in some cases, as the main mineral phase, an amorphous hydrous ferric oxyhydroxide, probably ferrihydrite (creating a laminated iron-rich travertine deposit), was identified. The lithotypes that were identified were of great variety (spicular, shrubs, etc). Some of them (pisoliths, rafts and foam rock types) are quite rare and one of them (framework type) is described for the first time. Morphological data and field observations suggest possible inorganic and organic controls on carbonate precipitation. Similar lithotypes have been recorded at Mammoth hot springs, Yellowstone National Park in USA and at Rapolano Terme, Italy.

  18. Tracing carbon and oxygen isotope signals from newly assimilated sugars in the leaves to the tree ring archive (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gessler, A.; Brandes, E.; Buchmann, N. C.; Helle, G.; Barnard, R. L.

    2009-12-01

    The analysis of δ13C and δ18O in tree ring archives offers retrospective insights into environmental conditions and ecophysiological processes. While photosynthetic carbon isotope discrimination and evaporative oxygen isotope enrichment are well understood, we lack information on how the isotope signal is altered by downstream metabolic processes. In Pinus sylvestris, we traced the isotopic signals from their origin in the leaf water (δ18O) or the newly assimilated carbon (δ13C), via phloem sugars to the tree ring, over a time scale that ranges from hours to a growing season. Seasonally variable 13C enrichment of sugars related to phloem loading and transport did lead to uncoupling between δ13C in the tree ring and the ci/ca ratio at the leaf level. In contrast, the oxygen isotope signal was transferred from the leaf water to the tree ring with an expected enrichment of 27 ‰, with time lags of approx. 2 weeks, and with a 40 % exchange between organic oxygen and xylem water oxygen during cellulose synthesis. This integrated overview of the fate of carbon and oxygen isotope signals within the model tree species P. sylvestris provides a novel physiological basis for the interpretation of δ13C and δ18O in tree ring ecology.

  19. Age-related EBV-associated B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders: diagnostic approach to a newly recognized clinicopathological entity.

    PubMed

    Shimoyama, Yoshie; Asano, Naoko; Kojima, Masaru; Morishima, Satoko; Yamamoto, Kazuhito; Oyama, Takashi; Kinoshita, Tomohiro; Nakamura, Shigeo

    2009-12-01

    EBV is prevalent among healthy individuals, and is implicated in numerous reactive and neoplastic processes in the immune system. The authors originally identified a series of senile or age-related EBV-associated B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders (LPD) bearing a resemblance to immunodeficiency-associated ones, which may be associated with immune senescence in the elderly and which are now incorporated into the 2008 World Health Organization lymphoma classification as EBV-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) of the elderly. This newly described disease is pathologically characterized by a proliferation of atypical large B cells including Reed-Sternberg-like cells with reactive components, which pose a diagnostic problem for pathologists. Clinically, this disease may present with lymphadenopathy, and is often extranodal, frequently involving the skin, gastrointestinal tract, or lung. Onset is usually after the age of 50; the median patient age is 70-79 years, and incidence continues to increase with age, providing additional support to the nosological term of EBV+ DLBCL of the elderly. These patients have a worse prognosis than those with EBV-negative DLBCL or EBV+ classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL). The aim of the present review was to summarize the clinicopathological profile of age-related EBV+ LPD and EBV+ Hodgkin lymphoma to facilitate diagnostic approach.

  20. Development of ODL in a Newly Industrialized Country According to Face-to-Face Contact, ICT, and E-Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Zyl, J. Marinda; Els, Christoffel Johannes; Blignaut, Anita Seugnet

    2013-01-01

    A large number of unqualified and under-qualified in-service teachers are holding back socio-economical development in South Africa, a newly industrialized country. Open and distance learning (ODL) provides an innovative strategy and praxis for developing and newly industrialized countries to reach their educational and socio-economical objectives…

  1. 25 CFR 292.5 - When can gaming occur on newly acquired lands under a settlement of a land claim?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true When can gaming occur on newly acquired lands under a... ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES GAMING ON TRUST LANDS ACQUIRED AFTER OCTOBER 17, 1988 Exceptions to Prohibitions on Gaming on Newly Acquired Lands Settlement of A Land Claimâ Exception § 292.5 When can gaming occur...

  2. 25 CFR 292.5 - When can gaming occur on newly acquired lands under a settlement of a land claim?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false When can gaming occur on newly acquired lands under a... ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES GAMING ON TRUST LANDS ACQUIRED AFTER OCTOBER 17, 1988 Exceptions to Prohibitions on Gaming on Newly Acquired Lands Settlement of A Land Claimâ Exception § 292.5 When can gaming occur...

  3. 25 CFR 292.5 - When can gaming occur on newly acquired lands under a settlement of a land claim?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false When can gaming occur on newly acquired lands under a... ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES GAMING ON TRUST LANDS ACQUIRED AFTER OCTOBER 17, 1988 Exceptions to Prohibitions on Gaming on Newly Acquired Lands Settlement of A Land Claimâ Exception § 292.5 When can gaming occur...

  4. 25 CFR 292.5 - When can gaming occur on newly acquired lands under a settlement of a land claim?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false When can gaming occur on newly acquired lands under a... ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES GAMING ON TRUST LANDS ACQUIRED AFTER OCTOBER 17, 1988 Exceptions to Prohibitions on Gaming on Newly Acquired Lands Settlement of A Land Claimâ Exception § 292.5 When can gaming occur...

  5. 25 CFR 292.5 - When can gaming occur on newly acquired lands under a settlement of a land claim?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When can gaming occur on newly acquired lands under a... ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES GAMING ON TRUST LANDS ACQUIRED AFTER OCTOBER 17, 1988 Exceptions to Prohibitions on Gaming on Newly Acquired Lands Settlement of A Land Claimâ Exception § 292.5 When can gaming occur...

  6. Underwhelmed and Playing It Safe: Newly Qualified Primary Teachers' Mentoring and Probationary-Related Experiences during Induction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Dan; Conway, Paul F.

    2016-01-01

    Framed within the burgeoning policy and research literature on teacher induction internationally, this paper focuses on the mentoring and probationary-related experiences of nine newly qualified primary teachers in the Republic of Ireland, during the course of their initial year of workplace practice, post-graduation. Gleaning newly qualified…

  7. 25 CFR 1000.173 - How does a newly selected Tribe/Consortium initiate the negotiation phase?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false How does a newly selected Tribe/Consortium initiate the... of Initial Annual Funding Agreements § 1000.173 How does a newly selected Tribe/Consortium initiate... selected Tribe/Consortium submits a written request to negotiate an AFA as indicated in the following...

  8. 25 CFR 1000.173 - How does a newly selected Tribe/Consortium initiate the negotiation phase?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How does a newly selected Tribe/Consortium initiate the... of Initial Annual Funding Agreements § 1000.173 How does a newly selected Tribe/Consortium initiate... selected Tribe/Consortium submits a written request to negotiate an AFA as indicated in the following...

  9. 25 CFR 1000.173 - How does a newly selected Tribe/Consortium initiate the negotiation phase?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How does a newly selected Tribe/Consortium initiate the... of Initial Annual Funding Agreements § 1000.173 How does a newly selected Tribe/Consortium initiate... selected Tribe/Consortium submits a written request to negotiate an AFA as indicated in the following...

  10. 25 CFR 1000.173 - How does a newly selected Tribe/Consortium initiate the negotiation phase?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How does a newly selected Tribe/Consortium initiate the... of Initial Annual Funding Agreements § 1000.173 How does a newly selected Tribe/Consortium initiate... selected Tribe/Consortium submits a written request to negotiate an AFA as indicated in the following...

  11. 25 CFR 1000.173 - How does a newly selected Tribe/Consortium initiate the negotiation phase?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false How does a newly selected Tribe/Consortium initiate the... of Initial Annual Funding Agreements § 1000.173 How does a newly selected Tribe/Consortium initiate... selected Tribe/Consortium submits a written request to negotiate an AFA as indicated in the following...

  12. 18 CFR 347.1 - Material to support request for newly established or changed property account depreciation studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... request for newly established or changed property account depreciation studies. 347.1 Section 347.1... REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE DEPRECIATION STUDIES § 347.1 Material to support request for newly established or changed property account depreciation studies. (a) Means of...

  13. Organic Magnetoresistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epstein, Arthur

    2009-03-01

    In recent years a broad range of magnetoresistance phenomena have been reported for organic-based semiconductors, conductors and magnets. Organic systems illustrating magnetoresistance, include molecular- and polymer-based nonmagnetic semiconductors[1], organic-based spin polarized magnetic semiconductors,[2] nonmagnetic conducting polymers, and ferromagnet/organic semiconductor/ferromagnet heterojunctions. Examples of each of these organic-based systems will be presented together with a discussion of the roles of magnetotransport mechanisms including interconversion of singlets and triplets, compression of the electronic wavefunction in presence of a magnetic field, quantum interference phenomena, effects of a ``Coulomb gap'' in π* subbands of organic magnetic semiconductors with resulting near complete spin polarization in conduction and valence bands of magnetic organic semiconductors.[2,3] Opportunities for magnetotransport in Ferromagnet/Organic Semiconductor/Ferromagnet heterojunctions will be discussed.[4] [4pt] [1] V.N. Prigodin et al., Synth. Met. 156, 757 (2006); J.D. Bergeson et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 067201 (2008) [0pt] [2] V.N. Prigodin et al., Adv. Mater. 14, 1230 (2002. [0pt] [3] J.B. Kortright et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 100, 257204 (2008). [0pt] [4] J.D. Bergeson, et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 172505 (2008).

  14. Organic aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Penner, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    Organic aerosols scatter solar radiation. They may also either enhance or decrease concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei. This paper summarizes observed concentrations of aerosols in remote continental and marine locations and provides estimates for the sources of organic aerosol matter. The anthropogenic sources of organic aerosols may be as large as the anthropogenic sources of sulfate aerosols, implying a similar magnitude of direct forcing of climate. The source estimates are highly uncertain and subject to revision in the future. A slow secondary source of organic aerosols of unknown origin may contribute to the observed oceanic concentrations. The role of organic aerosols acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) is described and it is concluded that they may either enhance or decrease the ability of anthropogenic sulfate aerosols to act as CCN.

  15. A proposal: Evolution of PCNA's role as a marker of newly replicated DNA

    PubMed Central

    Georgescu, Roxana; Langston, Lance; O'Donnell, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Processivity clamps that hold DNA polymerases to DNA for processivity were the first proteins known to encircle the DNA duplex. At the time, polymerase processivity was thought to be the only function of ring shaped processivity clamps. But studies from many laboratories have identified numerous proteins that bind and function with sliding clamps. Among these processes are mismatch repair and nucleosome assembly. Interestingly, there exist polymerases that are highly processive and do not require clamps. Hence, DNA polymerase processivity does not intrinsically require that sliding clamps evolved for this purpose. We propose that polymerases evolved to require clamps as a way of ensuring that clamps are deposited on newly replicated DNA. These clamps are then used on the newly replicated daughter strands, for processes important to genomic integrity, such as mismatch repair and the assembly of nucleosomes to maintain epigenetic states of replicating cells during development. PMID:25704660

  16. History dependent effects on phenotypic expression of a newly emerged gene.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takao; Kashiwagi, Akiko; Mori, Kotaro; Urabe, Itaru; Yomo, Tetsuya

    2004-11-01

    In this study, we investigate the history dependence of the penetrance of a newly emerged gene. Penetrance is defined as the percentage of individuals with a given genotype who exhibit the phenotype associated with that particular genotype. Here, we used the glutamine synthetase gene and its mutants with lower fitness as model genes. They were introduced into host cells of Escherichia coli deprived of the gene, and their penetrance was measured using the host having a different history: either with or without glutamine starvation. Results show that for all genes tested, the value of penetrance was higher when they were introduced into the host cell without starvation than that when introduced into the starved cell, demonstrating the history dependence of the penetrance of a newly emerged gene. In addition, genes with lower fitness showed lower penetrance, and the effect of the difference in fitness on gene penetrance also depended on the history of the host cell.

  17. Molecular evidence for central nervous system involvement in children with newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Januszkiewicz, D A; Nowak, J S

    1995-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) involvement in children with newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) would have profound implication for the prognosis and accurate stratification of CNS prophylactic therapy. Using PCR technique with specific primers for V, D and J segments of TCRD gene, the pattern of TCRD gene rearrangements in bone marrow lymphoblasts and in cells from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) have been investigated. The study involved 21 children at the time of diagnosis with B-lineage ALL. In nine of 21 patients incomplete TCRDVD gene rearrangement has been found in CSF cells, which was identical to that observed in bone marrow of the same children. It can be concluded that at least in 43 per cent of all analysed cases, there were signs of CNS involvement in newly diagnosed ALL patients.

  18. Prevalence and Predictors of Chronic Health Conditions of Inmates Newly Admitted to Maximum Security Prisons.

    PubMed

    Bai, Jennifer R; Befus, Montina; Mukherjee, Dhritiman V; Lowy, Franklin D; Larson, Elaine L

    2015-07-01

    This study estimated the prevalence of chronic medical conditions and risk predictors of 759 newly admitted inmates in two New York State maximum-security prisons. The most prevalent conditions were respiratory (34.1%), cardiovascular (17.4%), and sexually transmitted diseases (STD; 16.1%); least prevalent were HIV (3.6%), cancer (1.7%), and kidney disease (1.7%). Results of the multivariable logistic regression showed that females had higher risk for all conditions except cardiovascular and liver disease; individuals aged 40 years and older had significantly higher risk for all conditions except asthma and STD; non-Hispanic Black inmates had higher risk for respiratory disease and STD; cigarette smoking was associated with asthma; and obesity was significantly associated with diabetes, asthma, and cardiovascular conditions. These findings highlight the heavy burden of chronic illnesses among newly admitted inmates and the need to address adequate screening, prevention, and treatment services.

  19. Replication-coupled chromatin assembly of newly synthesized histones: distinct functions for the histone tail domains.

    PubMed

    Ejlassi-Lassallette, Aïda; Thiriet, Christophe

    2012-02-01

    The maintenance of the genome during replication requires the assembly of nucleosomes with newly synthesized histones. Achieving the deposition of newly synthesized histones in chromatin implies their transport from the cytoplasm to the nucleus at the replication sites. Several lines of evidence have revealed critical functions of the histone tail domains in these conserved cellular processes. In this review, we discuss the role of the amino termini of the nucleosome building blocks, H2A/H2B and H3/H4, in different model systems. The experimental data showed that H2A/H2B tails and H3/H4 tails display distinct functions in nuclear import and chromatin assembly. Furthermore, we describe recent studies exploiting the unique properties of the slime mold, Physarum polycephalum , that have advanced understanding of the function of the highly conserved replication-dependent diacetylation of H4.

  20. Visualization of the Newly Designed Jig and Fixture for Computer-Assisted Knee Replacement Surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramli, Intan Syaherra; Arshad, Haslina; Sulong, Abu Bakar; Mohd. Yahaya, Nor Hamdan; Che Haron, Che Hassan

    Surgical training systems based on virtual reality (VR) are highly desired as they offer a cost effective and efficient alternative compared to traditional training methods. Traditional surgical training methods require cadavers or plastic models which are costly. Cadavers cannot be used repeatedly and training with plastic models cannot provide the realistic experience. This paper describes a visualization to show the use of newly design jig and fixture for computer-assisted knee replacement surgery. Orthopedic surgeons found it difficult to align the existing jig with the computer-assisted device during the operation and it is time consuming to place it at the right position. A newly design jig and fixture has been proposed to solve this problem. Visualization is needed to show the surgeons on how it will be used in the computer-assisted knee replacement surgery. Virtual models used in this visualization are constructed from the actual equipment and real human dataset.

  1. Microbiological evaluation of a newly designed dental air-turbine handpiece for anti-cross contaminations.

    PubMed

    Ohsuka, S; Ohta, M; Masuda, K; Kaneda, T; Ueda, M

    1994-01-01

    The effectiveness of a newly developed anti-cross contamination device for a dental air-turbine handpiece was tested. The handpiece with or without the anti-cross contamination device was contaminated with two bacterial strains, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans, as well as two bacteriophage strains, T2 and MS2. After contamination with these microorganisms, the handpieces were disinfected with glutaraldehyde or replaced with newly autoclaved ones. Residual microorganisms inside the handpiece or an air/water supply hose line were collected and counted after overnight cultivation. The anti-cross contamination device effectively reduced the contamination level of an air-turbine handpiece to that of the negative control. No microbial contamination in the air/water supply hose line was detected with this device.

  2. Prevalence and Predictors of Chronic Health Conditions of Inmates Newly Admitted to Maximum Security Prisons

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Jennifer R.; Befus, Montina; Mukherjee, Dhritiman V.; Lowy, Franklin D.; Larson, Elaine L.

    2015-01-01

    This study estimated the prevalence of chronic medical conditions and risk predictors of 759 newly admitted inmates in two New York State maximum-security prisons. The most prevalent conditions were respiratory (34.1%), cardiovascular (17.4%), and sexually transmitted diseases (STD; 16.1%); least prevalent were HIV (3.6%), cancer (1.7%), and kidney disease (1.7%). Results of the multivariable logistic regression showed that females had higher risk for all conditions except cardiovascular and liver disease; individuals aged 40 years and older had significantly higher risk for all conditions except asthma and STD; non-Hispanic Black inmates had higher risk for respiratory disease and STD; cigarette smoking was associated with asthma; and obesity was significantly associated with diabetes, asthma, and cardiovascular conditions. These findings highlight the heavy burden of chronic illnesses among newly admitted inmates and the need to address adequate screening, prevention, and treatment services. PMID:26084947

  3. Newly formed minerals of the Fe-P-S system in Kolyma fulgurite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plyashkevich, A. A.; Minyuk, P. S.; Subbotnikova, T. V.; Alshevsky, A. V.

    2016-04-01

    Newly obtained data from microscopic, geochemical, and thermomagnetic studies of the large Kolyma fulgurite are presented here: the fulgurite was formed in the Holocene as a result of lightning affected black shale alluvium. The composition is very close to that of glass formed from a melt. The glass has elevated concentrations of Y, Zr, Nb, and REEs. The newly formed mineral phases have been identified: those are Al-Si glass, α-cristobalite, moissanite, native iron with a phosphorus admixture, nickel-less shreibersite (?), troilite, and possibly cohenite. The formation of these minerals is related to the melt fractionation and the effects of element concentration and segregation of ore components under conditions of the rock melting caused by the effect of high-energy plasma (lightning strike).

  4. Gene expression pattern of glucose transporters in the skeletal muscles of newly hatched chicks.

    PubMed

    Shimamoto, Saki; Ijiri, Daichi; Kawaguchi, Mana; Nakashima, Kazuki; Ohtsuka, Akira

    2016-07-01

    The gene expression pattern of the glucose transporters (GLUT1, GLUT3, GLUT8, and GLUT12) among pectoralis major and minor, biceps femoris, and sartorius muscles from newly hatched chicks was examined. GLUT1 mRNA level was higher in pectoralis major muscle than in the other muscles. Phosphorylated AKT level was also high in the same muscle, suggesting a relationship between AKT and GLUT1 expression.

  5. A new species in the newly recorded genus Trachyusa (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Alysiinae) from China.

    PubMed

    Yao, Junli; Kula, Robert R; Chen, Jiahua

    2015-03-16

    Trachyusa whartoni Yao sp. nov. from Dalian, Liaoning, China is described and illustrated. Trachyusa is a newly recorded genus in China. A key to the species of Trachyusa is provided based on the keys of Belokobylskij (1998), Papp (1967), and van Achterberg and O'Connor (1990). Type specimens of the new species are deposited in the Beneficial Insects Institute, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, China.

  6. Physiological and biochemical studies of newly synthesized muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in embryonic chicken heart

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, D.D.

    1986-01-01

    Exposure of either chicken embryos in ovo or cultured embryonic chicken cardiac cells in vitro to the muscarinic agonist carbachol results in a 70-90% decrease in the number of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR) expressed in cardiac cells. Block of agonist-receptor interactions in ovo with the antagonist atropine or removal of the agonist in vitro results in a gradual increase in mAChR number, reaching the control level in 14 hr. Measurements of physiological sensitivity of atria or cultured cells show that, even after the complete recovery of receptor number, the sensitivity to agonist is reduced. The sensitivity of the mAChR-mediated inhibition of adenylate cyclase is also decreased at this time. Newly synthesized mAChR which appear following affinity alkylation in cultured cells are also poorly coupled to the stimulation of /sup 86/Rb/sup +/ efflux, indicating that decreased physiological sensitivity is not due to an unknown effect of long-term agonist exposure on general cellular function, but rather reflects an intrinsic property of newly synthesized mAChR. This increase in sensitivity is also not blocked by cycloheximide. The increase in sensitivity of the mAChR-mediated responses is due neither to a lack of expression of newly synthesized mAChR on the surface nor to reduced agonist affinity of the mAChR. The diminished sensitivity and subsequent maturation observed in cells containing newly synthesized receptors is due either to a small change in mAChR, or to a change in an as-yet-undefined component of the mAChR transduction system; this alteration represents a novel locus for modulation of cholinergic signals in the heart.

  7. MGMT inactivation and clinical response in newly diagnosed GBM patients treated with Gliadel.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Rachel; Burger, Peter; Soudry, Ethan; Tyler, Betty; Chaichana, Kaisorn L; Weingart, Jon; Olivi, Alessandro; Gallia, Gary L; Sidransky, David; Quiñones-Hinojosa, Alfredo; Ye, Xiaobu; Brem, Henry

    2015-12-01

    We examined the relationship between the O(6)-methylguanine-methyltransferase (MGMT) methylation status and clinical outcomes in newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients who were treated with Gliadel wafers (Eisai, Tokyo, Japan). MGMT promoter methylation has been associated with increased survival among patients with GBM who are treated with various alkylating agents. MGMT promoter methylation, in DNA from 122 of 160 newly diagnosed GBM patients treated with Gliadel, was determined by a quantitative methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction, and was correlated with overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS). The MGMT promoter was methylated in 40 (32.7%) of 122 patients. The median OS was 13.5 months (95% confidence interval [CI] 11.0-14.5) and RFS was 9.4 months (95% CI 7.8-10.2). After adjusting for age, Karnofsky performance score, extent of resection, temozolomide (TMZ) and radiation therapy (RT), the newly diagnosed GBM patients with MGMT methylation had a 15% reduced mortality risk, compared to patients with unmethylated MGMT (hazard ratio 0.85; 95% CI 0.56-1.31; p=0.46). The patients aged over 70 years with MGMT methylation had a significantly longer median OS of 13.5 months, compared to 7.6 months in patients with unmethylated MGMT (p=0.027). A significant difference was also found in older patients, with a median RFS of 13.1 versus 7.6 months for methylated and unmethylated MGMT groups, respectively (p=0.01). Methylation of the MGMT promoter in newly diagnosed GBM patients treated with Gliadel, RT and TMZ, was associated with significantly improved OS compared to the unmethylated population. In elderly patients, methylation of the MGMT promoter was associated with significantly better OS and RFS.

  8. SEPARATION OF NEWLY FORMED BONE FROM OLDER COMPACT BONE REVEALS CLEAR COMPOSITIONAL DIFFERENCES IN BONE MATRIX

    PubMed Central

    Midura, Ronald J.; Midura, Sharon B.; Su, Xiaowei; Gorski, Jeffrey P.

    2011-01-01

    In long bone diaphyses, woven bone forms first and then transitions into a more mineralized compact bone tissue. Prior evidence suggests that the non-collagenous protein composition of woven bone may be distinct from that of more mature bone tissue, particularly with respect to a diverse group of phosphorylated, extracellular matrix proteins. To critically test this hypothesis, we developed an in situ approach to isolate newly formed bone from more mature bone within the same long bone, and combine this anatomical approach with Western blotting to make relative comparisons of 7 phosphorylated matrix proteins important for bone physiology and biomineralization. Interestingly, 75 kDa bone sialoprotein (BSP), 63 kDa osteopontin, and the 75 kDa form of bone acidic glycoprotein-75 (BAG-75) were enriched in primary bone as opposed to more mature cortical bone, while osteonectin, fetuin A, matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein (MEPE) and dentin matrix protein-1 (DMP-1) appeared to be equally distributed between these two bone tissue compartments. Analyses also revealed the presence of larger sized forms of osteopontin (and to a lesser degree BSP) mostly in newly formed bone, while larger forms of BAG-75 were mostly detected in more mature cortical bone. Smaller sized forms of DMP-1 and BAG-75 were detected in both newly formed and more mature bone tissue extracts, and they are likely the result of proteolytic processing in vivo. Intact DMP-1 (97 kDa) was only detected in unmineralized matrix extracts. These findings indicate that newly formed bone exhibits a non-collagenous matrix protein composition distinct from that of more mature compact bone even within the same long bone, and suggest that the temporal fate of individual non-collagenous proteins is variable in growing bone. PMID:21958842

  9. Time perspective and weight management behaviors in newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes: a mediational analysis.

    PubMed

    Hall, Peter A; Fong, Geoffrey T; Cheng, Alice Y

    2012-12-01

    The primary objective of the current study was to examine the extent to which domain-specific time perspective predicts weight management behaviors (dietary behavior and physical activity) among those newly diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes. A secondary objective was to test potential mediators of the hypothesized effect (behavioral intention, self-efficacy and control beliefs). A total of 204 adults newly diagnosed (≤6 months) with Type 2 diabetes participated in the study, which included a baseline assessment of domain-general and domain-specific time perspective, as well as strength of intention to perform two weight-management behaviors (dietary choice and physical activity); both weight-management behaviors were assessed again at 6 month follow-up. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed a prospective association between domain-specific time perspective and uptake of weight management behaviors. Individuals with newly diagnosed T2DM possessing a future-oriented time perspective reported making less frequent fatty food choices and greater increases in physical activity over the 6-month follow-up interval. These effects were selectively mediated by intention strength, and not competing social cognitive variables. For both behaviors, the total effects and meditational models were robust to adjustments for demographics, body composition and disease variables. A future-oriented time perspective is prospectively associated with superior uptake of weight management behaviors among those with newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes. The facilitating effect of future-oriented thinking appears to occur via enhanced strength of intentions to perform weight management behaviors.

  10. Newly observed B(5970) and the predictions of its spin and strange partners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Hao; Liu, Xiang; Matsuki, Takayuki

    2014-05-01

    Using the effective Lagrangian approach, we study the decay behavior of the newly observed B(5970) meson, which is assigned as the 2S13 state in the B meson family. A more important prediction is the detailed information of the partial and total decay widths of B(2S01), Bs(2S01), and Bs(2S13) as the spin and strange partners of B(5970), which can be tested in future experimental searches for these missing states.

  11. High pH microbial ecosystems in a newly discovered, ephemeral, serpentinizing fluid seep at Yanartaş (Chimera), Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Meyer-Dombard, D'Arcy R.; Woycheese, Kristin M.; Yargıçoğlu, Erin N.; Cardace, Dawn; Shock, Everett L.; Güleçal-Pektas, Yasemin; Temel, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Gas seeps emanating from Yanartaş (Chimera), Turkey, have been documented for thousands of years. Active serpentinization produces hydrogen and a range of carbon gases that may provide fuel for life. Here we report a newly discovered, ephemeral fluid seep emanating from a small gas vent at Yanartaş. Fluids and biofilms were sampled at the source and points downstream. We describe site conditions, and provide microbiological data in the form of enrichment cultures, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition of solids, and PCR screens of nitrogen cycle genes. Source fluids are pH 11.95, with a Ca:Mg of ~200, and sediments under the ignited gas seep measure 60°C. Collectively, these data suggest the fluid is the product of active serpentinization at depth. Source sediments are primarily calcite and alteration products (chlorite and montmorillonite). Downstream, biofilms are mixed with montmorillonite. SEM shows biofilms distributed homogeneously with carbonates. Organic carbon accounts for 60% of the total carbon at the source, decreasing downstream to <15% as inorganic carbon precipitates. δ13C ratios of the organic carbon fraction of solids are depleted (−25 to −28‰) relative to the carbonates (−11 to −20‰). We conclude that heterotrophic processes are dominant throughout the surface ecosystem, and carbon fixation may be key down channel. δ15N ratios ~3‰, and absence of nifH in extracted DNA suggest that nitrogen fixation is not occurring in sediments. However, the presence of narG and nirS at most locations and in enrichments indicates genomic potential for nitrate and nitrite reduction. This small seep with shallow run-off is likely ephemeral, but abundant preserved microterracettes in the outflow and the surrounding area suggest it has been present for some time. This site and others like it present an opportunity for investigations of preserved deep biosphere signatures, and subsurface-surface interactions

  12. Removal of technetium-99 from simulated Oak Ridge National Laboratory Newly-Generated Liquid Low-Level Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, D.E.; Osborne, P.E.; Bunch, D.H.; Fellows, R.L.; Sellers, G.F.; Shoemaker, J.L.; Bowser, K.T.; Bostick, D.T.

    1995-06-01

    We report laboratory investigations on treatment options for the removal of the radionuclide {sup 99}{Tc} (as the pertechnetate anion, {Tc}O{sub 4}{sup {minus}}) from simulated Oak Ridge National Laboratory Newly Generated Liquid Low-Level Waste. The waste stimulant is alkaline (pH 12-13), containing sodium carbonate ({approximately}0.10 mot/L) and sodium hydroxide ({approximately} 0.125 mol/L), plus a modest concentration of sodium nitrate ({approximately}0.06 mol/L). Several organic resin anion exchange media were tested; Dowex{trademark} 1-X-8 and Reillex{trademark} HPQ resins were notably effective (with equilibrium distribution coefficients {approximately}2,000 mL/g, as-received basis). We also tested steel wool as a reagent to chemically reduce and sorb {sup 99}Tc. At pH values above {approximately}10, the iron surface was passivated and became ineffective as a reagent for technetium; however, as the test solution pH value was adjusted to near-neutrality (e.g., pH 8-9), the steel was noted to be more effective than the organic resins tested. In dynamic flow conditions, steel wool packed in a column was noted to continuously leak {approximately}1--3% of the amount of {sup 99}{Tc} activity in the feed solution, although no additional increase in eluent activity was noted for the duration of the testing ({approximately}1200 bed volumes of {approximately}0.11 mg/L {sup 99}{Tc} flowed at a rate equivalent to {approximately}0.5 gal/min/ft{sup 2} of column cross sectional area). Although no breakthrough was noted (other than the 1--3 % continuous ``bleed`` noted previously) during the column operation ({approximately} 2 weeks), the steel in the column was deteriorated, causing plugging and erratic flow toward the end of the testing interval.

  13. The subject of pedagogy from theory to practice--the view of newly registered nurses.

    PubMed

    Ivarsson, Bodil; Nilsson, Gunilla

    2009-07-01

    The aim was to describe, from the newly registered nurses' perspective, specific events when using their pedagogical knowledge in their everyday clinical practice. The design was qualitative and the critical incident technique was used. Data was collected via interviews with ten newly registered nurses who graduated from the same University program 10 months earlier and are now employed at a university hospital. Two categories emerged in the analyses. The first category was "Pedagogical methods in theory" with the sub-categories Theory and the application of the course in practice, Knowledge of pedagogy and Information as a professional competence. The second category was "Pedagogical methods in everyday clinical practice" with sub-categories Factual knowledge versus pedagogical knowledge, Information and relatives, Difficulties when giving information, Understanding information received, Pedagogical tools, Collaboration in teams in pedagogical situations, and Time and giving information. By identifying specific events regarding pedagogical methods the findings can be useful for everyone from teachers and health-care managers to nurse students and newly registered nurses, to improve teaching methods in nurse education.

  14. Corticosteroids increase protein breakdown and loss in newly diagnosed pediatric Crohn disease.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Steven J; Noe, Joshua D; Denne, Scott C

    2011-11-01

    Children with Crohn disease have altered growth and body composition. Previous studies have demonstrated decreased protein breakdown after either corticosteroid or anti-TNF-α therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate whole body protein metabolism during corticosteroid therapy in children with newly diagnosed Crohn disease. Children with suspected Crohn disease and children with abdominal symptoms not consistent with Crohn disease underwent outpatient metabolic assessment. Patients diagnosed with Crohn disease and prescribed corticosteroid therapy returned in 2 wk for repeat metabolic assessment. Using the stable isotopes [d5] phenylalanine, [1-(13)C] leucine, and [(15)N(2)] urea, protein kinetics were determined in the fasting state. Thirty-one children (18 controls and 13 newly diagnosed with Crohn disease) completed the study. There were no significant differences in protein breakdown or loss between patients with Crohn disease at diagnosis and controls. After corticosteroid therapy in patients with Crohn disease, the rates of appearance of phenylalanine (32%) and leucine (26%) increased significantly, reflecting increased protein breakdown, and the rate of appearance of urea also increased significantly (273%), reflecting increased protein loss. Whole body protein breakdown and loss increased significantly after 2 wk of corticosteroid therapy in children with newly diagnosed Crohn disease, which may have profound effects on body composition.

  15. Morbillivirus infections of aquatic mammals: newly identified members of the genus.

    PubMed

    Osterhaus, A D; de Swart, R L; Vos, H W; Ross, P S; Kenter, M J; Barrett, T

    1995-05-01

    Several disease outbreaks, which have caused the deaths of many thousands of seals and dolphins during the last decade, have now been attributed to infections with newly identified Morbilliviruses. Outbreaks in the late eighties amongst harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) and grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) in northwestern Europe and amongst baikal seals (Phoca sibirica) in Siberia were caused by the newly discovered phocine distemper virus and by a strain of canine distemper virus, respectively. Although closely related these two viruses were not identical. They were more distantly related to the viruses which caused mass mortality amongst striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) in the Mediterranean sea in the early nineties. This dolphin morbillivirus was shown to be closely related to a virus that was found in harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) which had stranded at the coasts of northwestern Europe in the late eighties: porpoise morbillivirus. The present knowledge of the genetic and antigenic relationships of these apparently new members of the genus Morbillivirus with the established members of the genus is presented. In addition, the origin and epizootiological aspects of these newly discovered viruses are discussed. Finally experimental evidence that environmental pollution may have contributed to the severity and extent of these infections in recent years is presented.

  16. [Correlations between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and cytokines in patients newly diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus].

    PubMed

    Su, Jiang; Zhu, Jing; Dong, Wei; Long, Li; Long, Wubin; Chen, Xixi

    2016-12-01

    Objective To investigate the correlations between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-VitD) and serum cytokines of interferon (IFN)-α2, interleukin(IL)-6, IL-10, and IL-17A in Chinese Han patients newly diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods This study recruited 86 Chinese patients newly diagnosed with SLE and 73 healthy volunteers. The serum 25-OH-VitD was detected using ELISA. The serum levels of IFN-α2, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-17A were detected using Luminex liquichip. The associations between serum 25-OH-VitD and serum cytokines, clinical manifestations and laboratory findings were analyzed using Spearman linear correlation analysis. Results The serum 25-OH-VitD was significantly lower in SLE patients than in healthy controls. The serum 25-OH-VitD was positively correlated with serum C3, negatively correlated with serum IL-17A and 24 hour urine protein excretion, but not obviously correlated with serum IFN-α2, IL-6 and IL-10. Conclusion The serum 25-OH-VitD decreases in Chinese patients newly diagnosed with SLE and it is negatively correlated with serum IL-17A.

  17. Newly Diagnosed Anemia Increases Risk of Parkinson's disease: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Hong, Chien Tai; Huang, Yao Hsien; Liu, Hung Yi; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Chan, Lung; Chien, Li-Nien

    2016-07-14

    Anemia and low hemoglobin have been identified to increase Parkinson's disease (PD) risk. This population-based cohort study investigated PD risk in newly diagnosed anemic patients by using data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. All newly diagnosed anemic patients (n = 86,334) without a history of stroke, neurodegenerative diseases, traumatic brain injury, major operations, or blood loss diseases were enrolled. A cohort of nonanemic controls, 1:1 matched with anemic patients on the basis of the demographics and pre-existing medical conditions, was also included. Competing risk analysis was used to evaluate PD risk in anemic patients compared with that in their matched controls. The adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) of PD risk in the anemic patients was 1.36 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.22-1.52, p < 0.001). Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) patients tended to exhibit a higher PD risk (aHR: 1.49; 95% CI: 1.24-1.79, p < 0.001). Furthermore, Iron supplement did not significantly affect the PD risk: the aHRs for PD risk were 1.32 (95% CI: 1.07-1.63, p < 0.01) and 1.86 (95% CI: 1.46-2.35, p < 0.001) in IDA patients with and without iron supplementation, respectively. The population-based cohort study indicated newly diagnosed anemia increases PD risk.

  18. Bayesian network meta-analysis comparing five contemporary treatment strategies for newly diagnosed acute promyelocytic leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fenfang; Wu, Di; Ren, Yong; Duan, Chongyang; Chen, Shangwu; Xu, Anlong

    2016-07-26

    Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a curable subtype of acute myeloid leukemia. The optimum regimen for newly diagnosed APL remains inconclusive. In this Bayesian network meta-analysis, we compared the effectiveness of five regimens-arsenic trioxide (ATO) + all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), realgar-indigo naturalis formula (RIF) which contains arsenic tetrasulfide + ATRA, ATRA + anthracycline-based chemotherapy (CT), ATO alone and ATRA alone, based on fourteen randomized controlled trials (RCTs), which included 1407 newly diagnosed APL patients. According to the results, the ranking efficacy of the treatment, including early death and complete remission in the induction stage, was the following: 1. ATO/RIF + ATRA; 2. ATRA + CT; 3. ATO, and 4. ATRA. For long-term benefit, ATO/RIF + ATRA significantly improved overall survival (OS) (hazard ratio = 0.35, 95%CI 0.15-0.82, p = 0.02) and event-free survival (EFS) (hazard ratio = 0.32, 95%CI 0.16-0.61, p = 0.001) over ATRA + CT regimen for the low-to-intermediate-risk patients. Thus, ATO + ATRA and RIF + ATRA might be considered the optimum treatments for the newly diagnosed APL and should be recommended as the standard care for frontline therapy.

  19. Fractal features of soil particle size distribution in newly formed wetlands in the Yellow River Delta

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Junbao; Lv, Xiaofei; Bin, Ma; Wu, Huifeng; Du, Siyao; Zhou, Mo; Yang, Yanming; Han, Guangxuan

    2015-01-01

    The characteristic of particle size distribution (PSD) in the newly formed wetlands in coast has seldom been studied. We applied fractal-scaling theory in assessing soil particle size distribution (PSD) features of newly formed wetlands in the Yellow River Delta (YRD), China. The singular fractal dimensions (D) values ranged from 1.82 to 1.90, the capacity dimension (D0) values ranged from 0.84 to 0.93, and the entropy dimension (D1) values ranged from 0.66 to 0.84. Constrained corresponding analysis revealed that 43.5% of the variance in soil PSD can be explained by environmental factors, including 14.7% by seasonal variation, 8.6% by soil depth, and 8.0% by vegetation type. The fractal dimensions D and D1 were sensitive with fine particles with size ranging less than 126 μm, and D0 was sensitive with coarse particles with size ranging between 126 μm to 2000 μm. Fractal analysis makes full use of soil PSD information, and offers a useful approach to quantify and assess the soil physical attributes in the newly formed wetland. PMID:26014107

  20. The role of infections and coinfections with newly identified and emerging respiratory viruses in children

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Acute respiratory infections are a major cause of morbidity in children both in developed and developing countries. A wide range of respiratory viruses, including respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza A and B viruses, parainfluenza viruses (PIVs), adenovirus, rhinovirus (HRV), have repeatedly been detected in acute lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) in children in the past decades. However, in the last ten years thanks to progress in molecular technologies, newly discovered viruses have been identified including human Metapneumovirus (hMPV), coronaviruses NL63 (HcoV-NL63) and HKU1 (HcoV-HKU1), human Bocavirus (HBoV), new enterovirus (HEV), parechovirus (HpeV) and rhinovirus (HRV) strains, polyomaviruses WU (WUPyV) and KI (KIPyV) and the pandemic H1N1v influenza A virus. These discoveries have heavily modified previous knowledge on respiratory infections mainly highlighting that pediatric population is exposed to a variety of viruses with similar seasonal patterns. In this context establishing a causal link between a newly identified virus and the disease as well as an association between mixed infections and an increase in disease severity can be challenging. This review will present an overview of newly recognized as well as the main emerging respiratory viruses and seek to focus on the their contribution to infection and co-infection in LRTIs in childhood. PMID:23102237

  1. Release of oligomannoside-type glycans as a marker of the degradation of newly synthesized glycoproteins.

    PubMed Central

    Villers, C; Cacan, R; Mir, A M; Labiau, O; Verbert, A

    1994-01-01

    The N-glycosylation of proteins is accompanied by the release of soluble oligosaccharide material. Besides oligosaccharide phosphates originating from the cleavage of lipid intermediates, neutral free oligosaccharides represent the major part of this material and are heterogeneous depending on whether the reducing end has one or two N-acetylglucosamine residues. The present study focuses on the intracellular origin of neutral free oligosaccharides in a CHO cell line. Kinetic and pulse-chase experiments clearly indicate that oligosaccharides possessing a chitobiosyl unit are derived from oligosaccharide pyrophosphodolichol, whereas oligosaccharides possessing one N-acetyl-glucosamine residue are derived from newly synthesized glycoprotein. This relationship is confirmed by comparing the glycosylation pattern of lipid donors and glycoproteins with those of neutral free oligosaccharides under various incubation conditions (inhibition of protein synthesis, presence of processing inhibitors, presence or absence of glucose). Degradation of newly synthesized glycoprotein and formation of neutral oligosaccharides with one N-acetylglucosamine residue are inhibited at 16 degrees C but not affected by lysosomotropic agents such as leupeptin or NH4Cl. Together with the fact that the degradation of newly synthesized glycoproteins and the subsequent release of the glycan are recovered in permeabilized cells, these results suggest that this phenomenon occurs in the rough endoplasmic reticulum or in a closely related compartment. PMID:8129711

  2. Bioorthogonal Chemistry for the Isolation and Study of Newly Synthesized Histones and Their Modifications.

    PubMed

    Arnaudo, Anna M; Link, A James; Garcia, Benjamin A

    2016-03-18

    The nucleosome is an octamer containing DNA wrapped around one histone H3-H4 tetramer and two histone H2A-H2B dimers. Within the nucleosome, histones are decorated with post-translational modifications. Previous studies indicate that the H3-H4 tetramer is conserved during DNA replication, suggesting that old tetramers serve as a template for the modification of newly synthesized tetramers. Here, we present a method that merges bioorthogonal chemistry with mass spectrometry for the study of modifications on newly synthesized histones in mammalian cells. HeLa S3 cells are dually labeled with the methionine analog azidohomoalanine and heavy (13)C6,(15)N4 isotope labeled arginine. Heavy amino acid labeling marks newly synthesized histones while azidohomoalanine incorporation allows for their isolation using bioorthogonal ligation. Labeled mononucleosomes were covalently linked via a copper catalyzed reaction to a FLAG-GGR-alkyne peptide, immunoprecipitated, and subjected to mass spectrometry for quantitative modification analysis. Mononucleosomes containing new histones were successfully isolated using this approach. Additionally, the development of this method highlights the potential deleterious effects of azidohomoalanine labeling on protein PTMs and cell cycle progression, which should be considered for future studies utilizing bioorthogonal labeling strategies in mammalian cells.

  3. Phase I Trial of Hypofractionated Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy With Temozolomide Chemotherapy for Patients With Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma Multiforme

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Changhu; Damek, Denise; Gaspar, Laurie E.; Waziri, Allen; Lillehei, Kevin; Kleinschmidt-DeMasters, B.K.; Robischon, Monica; Stuhr, Kelly; Rusthoven, Kyle E.; Kavanagh, Brian D.

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To determine the maximal tolerated biologic dose intensification of radiotherapy using fractional dose escalation with temozolomide (TMZ) chemotherapy in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme. Methods and Materials: Patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme after biopsy or resection and with adequate performance status, bone marrow, and organ function were eligible. The patients underwent postoperative intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with concurrent and adjuvant TMZ. All patients received a total dose of 60 Gy to the surgical cavity and residual tumor, with a 5-mm margin. IMRT biologic dose intensification was achieved by escalating from 3 Gy/fraction (Level 1) to 6 Gy/fraction (Level 4) in 1-Gy increments. Concurrent TMZ was given at 75 mg/m{sup 2}/d for 28 consecutive days. Adjuvant TMZ was given at 150-200 mg/m{sup 2}/d for 5 days every 28 days. Dose-limiting toxicity was defined as any Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3, Grade 3-4 nonhematologic toxicity, excluding Grade 3 fatigue, nausea, and vomiting. A standard 3+3 Phase I design was used. Results: A total of 16 patients were accrued (12 men and 4 women, median age, 69 years; range, 34-84. The median Karnofsky performance status was 80 (range, 60-90). Of the 16 patients, 3 each were treated at Levels 1 and 2, 4 at Level 3, and 6 at Level 4. All patients received IMRT and concurrent TMZ according to the protocol, except for 1 patient, who received 14 days of concurrent TMZ. The median number of adjuvant TMZ cycles was 7.5 (range, 0-12). The median survival was 16.2 months (range, 3-33). One patient experienced vision loss in the left eye 7 months after IMRT. Four patients underwent repeat surgery for suspected tumor recurrence 6-12 months after IMRT; 3 had radionecrosis. Conclusions: The maximal tolerated IMRT fraction size was not reached in our study. Our results have shown that 60 Gy IMRT delivered in 6-Gy fractions within 2 weeks with

  4. Organic spintronics.

    PubMed

    Bergenti, I; Dediu, V; Prezioso, M; Riminucci, A

    2011-08-13

    Organic semiconductors are emerging materials in the field of spintronics. Successful achievements include their use as a tunnel barrier in magnetoresistive tunnelling devices and as a medium for spin-polarized current in transport devices. In this paper, we give an overview of the basic concepts of spin transport in organic semiconductors and present the results obtained in the field, highlighting the open questions that have to be addressed in order to improve devices performance and reproducibility. The most challenging perspectives will be discussed and a possible evolution of organic spin devices featuring multi-functional operation is presented.

  5. Organic Nomenclature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, David B.; Yindra, Laura R.

    2003-10-01

    Organic Nomenclature requires the following software, which is available for free download from the Internet: Netscape Navigator, version 6.2 or higher, or Microsoft Internet Explorer, version 5.0 or higher.

  6. Organic photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leo, Karl

    2016-08-01

    Organic photovoltaics are on the verge of revolutionizing building-integrated photovoltaics. For other applications, however, several basic open scientific questions need answering to, in particular, further improve energy-conversion efficiency and lifetime.

  7. Organic Superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Charles Mielke

    2009-02-27

    Intense magnetic fields are an essential tool for understanding layered superconductors. Fundamental electronic properties of organic superconductors are revealed in intense (60 tesla) magnetic fields. Properties such as the topology of the Fermi surface and the nature of the superconducting order parameter are revealed. With modest maximum critical temperatures~13K the charge transfer salt organic superconductors prove to be incredibly valuable materials as their electronically clean nature and layered (highly anisotropic) structures yield insights to the high temperature superconductors. Observation of de Haas-van Alphen and Shubnikov-de Haas quantum oscillatory phenomena, magnetic field induced superconductivity and re-entrant superconductivity are some of the physical phenomena observed in the charge transfer organic superconductors. In this talk, I will discuss the nature of organic superconductors and give an overview of the generation of intense magnetic fields; from the 60 tesla millisecond duration to the extreme 1000 tesla microsecond pulsed magnetic fields.

  8. Metaphors of Time and Installed Knowledge Organization Systems: Ouroboros, Architectonics, or Lachesis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennis, Joseph T.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: This paper presents three metaphors of time present in knowledge organization systems. Analysis: These three metaphors the architectonic, ouroboric, and lachesic, can be used as lenses to analyse extant or newly designed knowledge organization systems. Conclusion: A foundational view of evaluating and theorizing about knowledge…

  9. Simultaneous Real-Time Monitoring of Oxygen Consumption and Hydrogen Peroxide Production in Cells Using Our Newly Developed Chip-Type Biosensor Device

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Ankush; Kikuchi, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Kumi Y.; Suzuki, Makoto; Sugiura, Yamato; Sugai, Tomoya; Tomonori, Amano; Tada, Mika; Kobayashi, Masaki; Matsue, Tomokazu; Kasai, Shigenobu

    2016-01-01

    All living organisms bear its defense mechanism. Immune cells during invasion by foreign body undergoes phagocytosis during which monocyte and neutrophil produces reactive oxygen species (ROS). The ROS generated in animal cells are known to be involved in several diseases and ailments, when generated in excess. Therefore, if the ROS generated in cells can be measured and analyzed precisely, it can be employed in immune function evaluation and disease detection. The aim of the current study is to introduce our newly developed chip-type biosensor device with high specificity and sensitivity. It comprises of counter electrode and working electrodes I and II. The counter electrode is a platinum plate while the working electrodes I and II are platinum microelectrode and osmium-horseradish peroxidase modified gold electrode, respectively which acts as oxygen and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) detection sensors. Simultaneous measurement of oxygen consumption and H2O2 generation were measured in animal cells under the effect of exogenous addition of differentiation inducer, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. The results obtained showed considerable changes in reduction currents in the absence and presence of inducer. Our newly developed chip-type biosensor device is claimed to be a useful tool for real-time monitoring of the respiratory activity and precise detection of H2O2 in cells. It can thus be widely applied in biomedical research and in clinical trials being an advancement over other H2O2 detection techniques. PMID:27065878

  10. Histone acetyl transferase 1 is essential for mammalian development, genome stability, and the processing of newly synthesized histones H3 and H4.

    PubMed

    Nagarajan, Prabakaran; Ge, Zhongqi; Sirbu, Bianca; Doughty, Cheryl; Agudelo Garcia, Paula A; Schlederer, Michaela; Annunziato, Anthony T; Cortez, David; Kenner, Lukas; Parthun, Mark R

    2013-06-01

    Histone acetyltransferase 1 is an evolutionarily conserved type B histone acetyltransferase that is thought to be responsible for the diacetylation of newly synthesized histone H4 on lysines 5 and 12 during chromatin assembly. To understand the function of this enzyme in a complex organism, we have constructed a conditional mouse knockout model of Hat1. Murine Hat1 is essential for viability, as homozygous deletion of Hat1 results in neonatal lethality. The lungs of embryos and pups genetically deficient in Hat1 were much less mature upon histological evaluation. The neonatal lethality is due to severe defects in lung development that result in less aeration and respiratory distress. Many of the Hat1(-/-) neonates also display significant craniofacial defects with abnormalities in the bones of the skull and jaw. Hat1(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) are defective in cell proliferation and are sensitive to DNA damaging agents. In addition, the Hat1(-/-) MEFs display a marked increase in genome instability. Analysis of histone dynamics at sites of replication-coupled chromatin assembly demonstrates that Hat1 is not only responsible for the acetylation of newly synthesized histone H4 but is also required to maintain the acetylation of histone H3 on lysines 9, 18, and 27 during replication-coupled chromatin assembly.

  11. Effectiveness of the diabetes education and self management for ongoing and newly diagnosed (DESMOND) programme for people with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes: cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of a structured group education programme on biomedical, psychosocial, and lifestyle measures in people with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. Design Multicentre cluster randomised controlled trial in primary care with randomisation at practice level. Setting 207 general practices in 13 primary care sites in the United Kingdom. Participants 824 adults (55% men, mean age 59.5 years). Intervention A structured group education programme for six hours delivered in the community by two trained healthcare professional educators compared with usual care. Main outcome measures Haemoglobin A1c levels, blood pressure, weight, blood lipid levels, smoking status, physical activity, quality of life, beliefs about illness, depression, and emotional impact of diabetes at baseline and up to 12 months. Main results Haemoglobin A1c levels at 12 months had decreased by 1.49% in the intervention group compared with 1.21% in the control group. After adjusting for baseline and cluster, the difference was not significant: 0.05% (95% confidence interval −0.10% to 0.20%). The intervention group showed a greater weight loss: −2.98 kg (95% confidence interval −3.54 to −2.41) compared with 1.86 kg (−2.44 to −1.28), P=0.027 at 12 months. The odds of not smoking were 3.56 (95% confidence interval 1.11 to 11.45), P=0.033 higher in the intervention group at 12 months. The intervention group showed significantly greater changes in illness belief scores (P=0.001); directions of change were positive indicating greater understanding of diabetes. The intervention group had a lower depression score at 12 months: mean difference was −0.50 (95% confidence interval −0.96 to −0.04); P=0.032. A positive association was found between change in perceived personal responsibility and weight loss at 12 months (β=0.12; P=0.008). Conclusion A structured group education programme for patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes resulted in greater

  12. Resilience and Associated Factors among Mainland Chinese Women Newly Diagnosed with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zijing; Liu, Ye; Li, Xuelian; Li, Xiaohan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Resilience is the individual’s ability to bounce back from trauma. It has been studied for some time in the U.S., but few studies in China have addressed this important construct. In mainland China, relatively little is known about the resilience of patients in clinical settings, especially among patients with breast cancer. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the level of resilience and identify predictors of resilience among mainland Chinese women newly diagnosed with breast cancer. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted with 213 mainland Chinese women newly diagnosed with breast cancer between November 2014 and June 2015. Participants were assessed with the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC), Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS), Medical Coping Modes Questionnaire (MCMQ, including 3 subscales: confrontation, avoidance, and acceptance-resignation), Herth Hope Index (HHI), and demographic and disease-related information. Descriptive statistics, bivariate analyses and multiple stepwise regression were conducted to explore predictors for resilience. Results The average score for CD-RISC was 60.97, ranging from 37 to 69. Resilience was positively associated with educational level, family income, time span after diagnosis, social support, confrontation, avoidance, and hope. However, resilience was negatively associated with age, body mass index (BMI), and acceptance-resignation. Multiple stepwise regression analysis indicated that hope (β = 0.343, P<0.001), educational level of junior college or above (β = 0.272, P<0.001), educational level of high school (β = 0.235, P<0.001), avoidance (β = 0.220, P<0.001), confrontation (β = 0.187, P = 0.001), and age (β = -0.108, P = 0.037) significantly affected resilience and explained 50.1% of the total variance in resilience. Conclusions Women with newly diagnosed breast cancer from mainland China demonstrated particularly low resilience level, which was predicted by hope educational

  13. Studies on the hyaluronate binding properties of newly synthesized proteoglycans purified from articular chondrocyte cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Sandy, J.D.; Plaas, A.H.

    1989-06-01

    Primary cultures of rabbit articular chondrocytes have been maintained for 10 days and labeled with (35S)sulfate, (3H)leucine, and (35S)cysteine in pulse-chase protocols to study the structure and hyaluronate binding properties of newly synthesized proteoglycan monomers. Radiolabeled monomers were purified from medium and cell-layer fractions by dissociative CsCl gradient centrifugation with bovine carrier monomer, and analyzed for hyaluronate binding affinity on Sepharose CL-2B in 0.5 M Na acetate, 0.1% Triton X-100, pH 6.8. Detergent was necessary to prevent self-association of newly synthesized monomers during chromatography. Monomers secreted during a 30-min pulse labeling with (35S)sulfate had a low affinity relative to carrier. Those molecules released into the medium during the first 12 h of chase remained in the low affinity form whereas those retained by the cell layer rapidly acquired high affinity. In cultures where more than 90% of the preformed cell-layer proteoglycan was removed by hyaluronidase digestion before radiolabeling the newly synthesized low affinity monomers also rapidly acquired high affinity if retained in the cell layer. Cultures labeled with amino acid precursors were used to establish the purity of monomer preparations and to isolate core proteins for study. Leucine- or cysteine-labeled core proteins derived from either low or high affinity monomer preparations migrated as a single major species on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with electrophoretic mobility very similar to that of core protein derived from extracted proteoglycan monomer. Purified low affinity monomers were converted to the high affinity form by treatment at pH 8.6; however, this change was prevented by guanidinium-HCl at concentrations above 0.8 M.

  14. Preclinical research strategies for newly approved drugs as reflected in early publication patterns.

    PubMed

    Köster, Ursula; Nolte, Ingo; Michel, Martin C

    2016-02-01

    The present study aimed to explore early publication patterns (i.e. up to 1 year after obtaining regulatory approval) for newly registered drugs. From the website of the US Food and Drug Administration, all newly approved drugs for 6 calendar years between 1991 and 2011 were identified. Non-clinical original publications for these compounds were retrieved from PubMed and their abstracts analysed for type of study and reported data. This yielded 170 compounds for which 1954 original non-clinical publications were identified, i.e. a median/mean of 5/11.5 publications per compound; however, number of publications per compound varied widely (0-90) and this variation exhibited a non-Gaussian distribution. The earliest non-clinical publication typically was published less than 5 years before regulatory approval and more than 5 years after filing of the primary patent, but some compounds exhibited notable deviations from this pattern. Publications most often reported on efficacy related to the target indication and on potential future indications, with fewer studies addressing mechanisms of action, potency, selectivity, pharmacokinetics and toxic effects. For most compounds, data at the cellular and in vivo level were published, with fewer reports on effects on isolated tissues and even fewer at the molecular level. The preferred species for cellular studies was human, whereas for in vivo studies, it was rats and mice. In 75 % of cases, the lead author of the publication came from an academic institution, and most studies were published in classic pharmacology journals. We conclude that number, timing and scope of early non-clinical publications on newly approved drugs exhibit major variance. Factors potentially associated with such variance are explored in a companion paper.

  15. Documentation of Antipsychotic Use and Indications for Newly Diagnosed, Nonaggressive Dementia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Dhawan, Nikhil; Steele, Avila B.; Morgan, Robert O.; Snow, A. Lynn; Davila, Jessica A.; Kunik, Mark E.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of antipsychotic use among nonaggressive patients with newly diagnosed dementia and to examine indications for antipsychotic use. Method: Patients had to be veterans older than 60 years, newly diagnosed with dementia (ICD-9-CM criteria) from 2001 to 2004 at the Michael A. DeBakey Veterans Affairs Medical Center in Houston, Tex. Patients diagnosed more than 1 year before telephone screening, living in a nursing home or having a caregiver less than 8 hours a week, and/or having aggression, determined by caregiver response on the Ryden Aggression Scale, were excluded. Medical records of eligible participants were then evaluated on the basis of 5 questions: (1) Was the patient taking an antipsychotic? (2) Were neuropsychiatric symptoms documented, with or without antipsychotics? (3) Did the patient have comorbid psychiatric diagnoses? (4) Did the physician attempt to decrease or discontinue the antipsychotic? and (5) Did the physician attempt non-pharmacologic interventions? Results: A total of 173 patients were eligible for medical record evaluation. Of these, 29 (17%) had been prescribed antipsychotics. Depression, nighttime disturbance, and irritability were the most often documented neuropsychiatric symptoms; however, 31% of patients had no documented symptoms. Mood disorder was documented in 36% of patient records; however, 94 patients (54%) had no comorbid psychiatric disorder. Twelve nonpharmacologic interventions were documented for dementia symptoms. Only 2 attempts to discontinue or decrease antipsychotics for the 29 patients using them were documented. Conclusion: A sizable minority of newly diagnosed, nonaggressive dementia patients are taking antipsychotics. Physicians need greater education and awareness of the benefits of nonpharmacologic interventions. PMID:18458729

  16. PROPERTIES OF NEWLY FORMED DUST GRAINS IN THE LUMINOUS TYPE IIn SUPERNOVA 2010jl

    SciTech Connect

    Maeda, K.; Nozawa, T.; Folatelli, G.; Moriya, T. J.; Nomoto, K.; Bersten, M.; Quimby, R.; Sahu, D. K.; Anupama, G. C.; Minowa, Y.; Pyo, T.-S.; Motohara, K.; Kitagawa, Y.; Ueno, I.; Kawabata, K. S.; Yamanaka, M.; Kozasa, T.; Iye, M.

    2013-10-10

    Supernovae (SNe) have been proposed to be the main production sites of dust grains in the universe. However, our knowledge of their importance to dust production is limited by observationally poor constraints on the nature and amount of dust particles produced by individual SNe. In this paper, we present a spectrum covering optical through near-Infrared (NIR) light of the luminous Type IIn supernova 2010jl around one and a half years after the explosion. This unique data set reveals multiple signatures of newly formed dust particles. The NIR portion of the spectrum provides a rare example where thermal emission from newly formed hot dust grains is clearly detected. We determine the main population of the dust species to be carbon grains at a temperature of ∼1350-1450 K at this epoch. The mass of the dust grains is derived to be ∼(7.5-8.5) × 10{sup –4} M{sub ☉}. Hydrogen emission lines show wavelength-dependent absorption, which provides a good estimate of the typical size of the newly formed dust grains (∼< 0.1 μm, and most likely ∼< 0.01 μm). We believe the dust grains were formed in a dense cooling shell as a result of a strong SN-circumstellar media (CSM) interaction. The dust grains occupy ∼10% of the emitting volume, suggesting an inhomogeneous, clumpy structure. The average CSM density must be ∼> 3 × 10{sup 7} cm{sup –3}, corresponding to a mass loss rate of ∼> 0.02 M{sub ☉} yr{sup –1} (for a mass loss wind velocity of ∼100 km s{sup –1}). This strongly supports a scenario in which SN 2010jl and probably other luminous SNe IIn are powered by strong interactions within very dense CSM, perhaps created by Luminous-Blue-Variable-like eruptions within the last century before the explosion.

  17. Newly reported hypertension after military combat deployment in a large population-based study.

    PubMed

    Granado, Nisara S; Smith, Tyler C; Swanson, G Marie; Harris, Robin B; Shahar, Eyal; Smith, Besa; Boyko, Edward J; Wells, Timothy S; Ryan, Margaret A K

    2009-11-01

    High-stress situations, such as combat deployments, are a potential risk factor for hypertension. Although stress is postulated to increase blood pressure, the underlying role of stress on hypertension is not well established. We sought to determine the relations between combat deployment-induced stress and hypertension. The Millennium Cohort baseline questionnaire (2001-2003) was completed by 77,047 US active-duty and Reserve/National Guard members. Follow-up was completed by 55,021 responders approximately 3 years later (2004-2006). Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the 3-year risk of newly reported hypertension, adjusting for general and mental health, demographics, and occupational and behavioral characteristics. After applying exclusion criteria, our analyses included 36 061 service members. Subanalyses of deployers included 8829 participants. Newly reported hypertension was identified in 6.9% of the cohort between baseline and follow-up, many of whom had deployed on military operations in support of the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. After adjusting, deployers who experienced no combat exposures were less likely to report hypertension than nondeployers (odds ratio: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.67 to 0.89). Among deployers, those reporting multiple combat exposures were 1.33 times more likely to report hypertension compared with noncombat deployers (95% CI: 1.07 to 1.65). Although military deployers, in general, had a lower incidence of hypertension than nondeployers, deployment with multiple stressful combat exposures appeared to be a unique risk factor for newly reported hypertension.

  18. The inexorable spread of a newly arisen neo-Y chromosome.

    PubMed

    Veltsos, Paris; Keller, Irene; Nichols, Richard A

    2008-05-30

    A newly arisen Y-chromosome can become established in one part of a species range by genetic drift or through the effects of selection on sexually antagonistic alleles. However, it is difficult to explain why it should then spread throughout the species range after this initial episode. As it spreads into new populations, it will actually enter females. It would then be expected to perform poorly since it will have been shaped by the selective regime of the male-only environment from which it came. We address this problem using computer models of hybrid zone dynamics where a neo-XY chromosomal race meets the ancestral karyotype. Our models consider that the neo-Y was established by the fusion of an autosome with the ancestral X-chromosome (thereby creating the Y and the 'fused X'). Our principal finding is that sexually antagonistic effects of the Y induce indirect selection in favour of the fused X-chromosomes, causing their spread. The Y-chromosome can then spread, protected behind the advancing shield of the fused X distribution. This mode of spread provides a robust explanation of how newly arisen Y-chromosomes can spread. A Y-chromosome would be expected to accumulate mutations that would cause it to be selected against when it is a rare newly arrived migrant. The Y can spread, nevertheless, because of the indirect selection induced by gene flow (which can only be observed in models comprising multiple populations). These results suggest a fundamental re-evaluation of sex-chromosome hybrid zones. The well-understood evolutionary events that initiate the Y-chromosome's degeneration will actually fuel its range expansion.

  19. Composition of Gut Microbiota Influences Resistance of Newly Hatched Chickens to Salmonella Enteritidis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Varmuzova, Karolina; Kubasova, Tereza; Davidova-Gerzova, Lenka; Sisak, Frantisek; Havlickova, Hana; Sebkova, Alena; Faldynova, Marcela; Rychlik, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Since poultry is a very common source of non-typhoid Salmonella for humans, different interventions aimed at decreasing the prevalence of Salmonella in chickens are understood as an effective measure for decreasing the incidence of human salmonellosis. One such intervention is the use of probiotic or competitive exclusion products. In this study we tested whether microbiota from donor hens of different age will equally protect chickens against Salmonella Enteritidis infection. Newly hatched chickens were therefore orally inoculated with cecal extracts from 1-, 3-, 16-, 28-, and 42-week-old donors and 7 days later, the chickens were infected with S. Enteritidis. The experiment was terminated 4 days later. In the second experiment, groups of newly hatched chickens were inoculated with cecal extracts of 35-week-old hens either on day 1 of life followed by S. Enteritidis infection on day 2 or were infected with S. Enteritidis infection on day 1 followed by therapeutic administration of the cecal extract on day 2 or were inoculated on day 1 of life with a mixture of the cecal extract and S. Enteritidis. This experiment was terminated when the chickens were 5 days old. Both Salmonella culture and chicken gene expression confirmed that inoculation of newly hatched chickens with microbiota from 3-week-old or older chickens protected them against S. Enteritidis challenge. On the other hand, microbiota from 1-week-old donors failed to protect chickens against S. Enteritidis challenge. Microbiota from 35-week-old hens protected chickens even 24 h after administration. However, simultaneous or therapeutic microbiota administration failed to protect chickens against S. Enteritidis infection. Gut microbiota can be used as a preventive measure against S. Enteritidis infection but its composition and early administration is critical for its efficacy. PMID:27379083

  20. Initial Treatment of Men With Newly Diagnosed Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction in the Veterans Health Administration

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Bradley A.; Lu, Xin; Vaughan-Sarrazin, Mary; Kreder, Karl J.; Breyer, Benjamin N.; Cram, Peter

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine initial treatments given to men with newly diagnosed lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD) within a large integrated health care system in the United States. METHODS We used data from 2003 to 2009 from the Veteran's Health Administration to identify newly diagnosed cases of LUTD using established ICD-9CM codes. Our primary outcome was initial LUTD treatment (3 months), categorized as watchful waiting (WW), medical therapy (MT), or surgical therapy (ST); our secondary outcome was pharmacotherapy class received. We used logistic regression models to examine patient, provider, and health system factors associated with receiving MT or ST when compared with WW. RESULTS There were 393,901 incident cases of LUTD, of which 58.0% initially received WW, 41.8% MT, and 0.2% ST. Of the MT men, 79.8% received an alpha-blocker, 7.7% a 5-alpha reductase inhibitor, 3.3% an anticholinergic, and 7.3% combined therapy (alpha-blocker and 5-alpha reductase inhibitor). In our regression models, we found that age (higher), race (white/black), income (low), region (northeast/south), comorbidities (greater), prostate-specific antigen (lower), and provider (nonurologist) were associated with an increased odds of receiving MT. We found that age (higher), race (white), income (low), region (northeast/south), initial provider (urologist), and prostate-specific antigen (higher) increased the odds of receiving ST. CONCLUSION Most men with newly diagnosed LUTD in the Veteran's Health Administration receive WW, and initial surgical treatment is rare. A large number of men receiving MT were treated with monotherapy, despite evidence that combination therapy is potentially more effective in the long-term, suggesting opportunities for improvement in initial LUTD management within this population. PMID:24286603

  1. Dynamical modeling validation of parent bodies associated with newly discovered CMN meteor showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šegon, Damir; Vaubaillon, Jérémie; Gural, Peter S.; Vida, Denis; Andreić, Željko; Korlević, Korado; Skokić, Ivica

    2017-01-01

    Context. Results from previous searches for new meteor showers in the combined Croatian Meteor Network and SonotaCo meteor databases suggested possible parent bodies for several newly identified showers. Aims: We aim to perform an analysis to validate the connection between the identified showers and candidate parent bodies. Methods: Simulated particles were ejected from candidate parent bodies, a dynamical modeling was performed and the results were compared to the real meteor shower observations. Results: From the 13 analysed cases, three were found to be connected with comets, four with asteroids which are possibly dormant comets, four were inconclusive or negative, and two need more observational data before any conclusions can be drawn.

  2. Baseline CD4 Cell Counts of Newly Diagnosed HIV Cases in China: 2006–2012

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Houlin; Mao, Yurong; Shi, Cynthia X.; Han, Jing; Wang, Liyan; Xu, Juan; Qin, Qianqian; Detels, Roger; Wu, Zunyou

    2014-01-01

    Background Late diagnosis of HIV infection is common. We aim to assess the proportion of newly diagnosed HIV cases receiving timely baseline CD4 count testing and the associated factors in China. Methods Data were extracted from the Chinese HIV/AIDS Comprehensive Response Information Management System. Adult patients over 15 years old who had been newly diagnosed with HIV infection in China between 2006 and 2012 were identified. The study cohort comprised individuals who had a measured baseline CD4 count. Results Among 388,496 newly identified HIV cases, the median baseline CD4 count was 294 cells/µl (IQR: 130–454), and over half (N = 130,442, 58.8%) were less than 350 cells/µl. The median baseline CD4 count increased from 221 (IQR: 63–410) in 2006 to 314 (IQR: 159–460) in 2012. A slight majority of patients (N = 221,980, 57.1%) received baseline CD4 count testing within 6 months of diagnosis. The proportion of individuals who received timely baseline CD4 count testing increased significantly from 20.0% in 2006 to 76.9% in 2012. Factors associated with failing to receiving timely CD4 count testing were: being male (OR: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.15–1.19), age 55 years or older (OR:1.03, 95% CI: 1.00–1.06), educational attainment of primary school education or below (OR: 1.30, 95% CI: 1.28–1.32), infection with HIV through injection drug use (OR: 2.07, 95% CI: 2.02–2.12) or sexual contact and injection drug use (OR: 1.87, 95% CI: 1.76–1.99), diagnosis in a hospital (OR: 1.91, 95% CI: 1.88–1.95) or in a detention center (OR: 1.75, 95% CI: 1.70–1.80), and employment as a migrant worker (OR:1.55, 95% CI:1.53–1.58). Conclusion The proportion of newly identified HIV patients receiving timely baseline CD4 testing has increased significantly in China from 2006–2012. Continued effort is needed for further promotion of early HIV diagnosis and timely baseline CD4 cell count testing. PMID:24901790

  3. Protogalaxy interactions in newly formed clusters - Galaxy luminosities, colors, and intergalactic gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silk, J.

    1978-01-01

    The role of protogalaxy interactions in galactic evolution is studied during the formation of galaxy clusters. In the early stages of the collapse, coalescent encounters of protogalaxies lead to the development of a galactic luminosity function. Once galaxies acquire appreciable random motions, mutual collisions between galaxies in rich clusters will trigger the collapse of interstellar clouds to form stars. This provides both a source for enriched intracluster gas and an interpretation of the correlation between luminosity and color for cluster elliptical galaxies. Other observational consequences that are considered include optical, X-ray, and diffuse nonthermal radio emission from newly formed clusters of galaxies.

  4. Newly Emerging Feeding Difficulties in a 33-Year-Old Adult With CHARGE Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Alexandra; Blake, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Feeding and swallowing difficulties are common among individuals with CHARGE syndrome. Many children require gastrostomy tube feeding in their early years and often undergo a delay in feeding and oral-motor skill development. There is little information available on adults with CHARGE syndrome, and the feeding difficulties they face. The present case describes newly emerging mouth over-stuffing feeding behaviors and feeding difficulties in a 33-year-old adult with CHARGE syndrome who had not undergone feeding therapy since childhood. PMID:26668685

  5. Mendelian and non-Mendelian inheritance of newly-arisen chromosome rearrangements.

    PubMed

    Wilby, A S; Parker, J S

    1988-04-01

    Seven centric shifts and three reciprocal interchanges, all newly-arisen in natural populations, have been tested for their inheritance in the dioecious flowering plant Rumex acetosa. In backcrosses between the heterozygote and standard plants transmissions ranged from 0.36 to 0.85 per gamete for the novel chromosome. The inheritance of only four rearrangements correspond to Mendelian expectations while others exhibited either drive or drag. Drive was observed both through the egg and through the pollen indicating heterogeneity of mechanisms in the generation of non-Mendelian patterns of inheritance. This suggests that accumulation may play a significant role in the establishment of chromosomal variants in natural populations.

  6. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Newly Generated Liquid Waste Demonstration Project Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, A.K.

    2000-02-01

    A research, development, and demonstration project for the grouting of newly generated liquid waste (NGLW) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center is considered feasible. NGLW is expected from process equipment waste, decontamination waste, analytical laboratory waste, fuel storage basin waste water, and high-level liquid waste evaporator condensate. The potential grouted waste would be classed as mixed low-level waste, stabilized and immobilized to meet RCRA LDR disposal in a grouting process in the CPP-604 facility, and then transported to the state.

  7. The newly discovered eclipsing cataclysmic star 2MASS J16211735 + 4412541 and its peculiarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjurkchieva, Diana P.; Popov, Velimir A.; Vasileva, Doroteya L.; Petrov, Nikola I.

    2017-04-01

    We present our observations of the newly discovered, eclipsing cataclysmic star 2MASS J16211735 + 4412541 carried out two weeks after its outburst at the beginning of June 2016. Its main peculiarity is the big increasing of eclipse depth during outburst. We qualitatively modelled the folded light curves at quiescence and outburst in order to explain the reason for increase of the primary luminosity about two hundred times. The light curve fits revealed that such an effect can be reproduced by a flat disc whose radius and temperature are several times bigger than those of the primary at quiescence.

  8. Localized 1H NMR spectroscopy in fifty cases of newly diagnosed intracranial tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Demaerel, P.; Johannik, K.; Van Hecke, P.; Van Ongeval, C.; Verellen, S.; Marchal, G.; Wilms, G.; Plets, C.; Goffin, J.; Van Calenbergh, F. )

    1991-01-01

    Fifty patients with newly diagnosed, untreated intracranial tumors were examined with 1H nuclear magnetic resonance single-volume spectroscopy (MRS) using a 1.5 T whole-body MR system. Prior to the MRS, contrast enhanced MR and/or CT imaging studies were carried out. Histological verification was obtained in all patients except one. All tumor spectra revealed distinct abnormalities as compared with the normal brain spectra. Although most meningiomas showed a rather characteristic spectral pattern, generally features specific for the various tumor types were not observed. For instance, though a strong lactic acid signal was seen in most malignant tumors, this signal was also evident in five benign neoplasms.

  9. Immune Regulatory Effect of Newly Isolated Lactobacillus delbrueckii from Indian Traditional Yogurt.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yi-Fan; Lee, Yoon-Doo; Park, Jae-Yeon; Jeon, Boram; Jagdish, Deepa; Jang, Soojin; Chung, Dae Kyun; Kim, Hangeun

    2015-08-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are microorganisms that are believed to provide health benefits. Here, we isolated LAB from Indian fermented foods, such as traditional Yogurt and Dosa. LAB from Yogurt most significantly induced TNF-α and IL-1β production, whereas LAB from Dosa induced mild cytokine production. After 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, a Yogurt-borne lactic acid bacterium was identified and classified as Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, and it was renamed L. delbrueckii K552 for the further studies. Our data suggest that the newly isolated L. delbrueckii can be used for the treatment of immune deficiency disorders.

  10. Organizing chordates with an organizer.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Fernàndez, Jordi; D'Aniello, Salvatore; Escrivà, Hector

    2007-07-01

    Understanding how the chordate body plan originated and evolved is still controversial. The discovery by Spemann and Mangold in 1924 of the vertebrate organizer and its inductive properties in patterning the AP and DV axis was followed by a long gap until the 1960s when scientists started characterizing the molecular events responsible for such inductions. However, the evolutionary origin of the organizer itself remained obscure until very recently; did it appear together with the origin and radiation of vertebrates, or was it a chordate affair? A recent study by Yu and collaborators,1 which analyses the expression of several organizer-specific genes in amphioxus together with recent phylogenetic data that reversed the position of invertebrate extant chordates (e.g. urochordates and cephalochordates), indicates that the organizer probably appeared in early chordates. It likely had separate signalling centres generating BMP and Wnt signalling gradients along the DV and AP axis. The organizer was then lost in the urochordate lineage, most probably as an adaptation to a rapid and determinate development.

  11. Textual Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, David G.

    Aside from phonological and syntactical structures, text is organized by its dramatis personae, plot, figures, point of view, and theme. These are, respectively, the entities mentioned, the spatial-temporal and causal linkages of events, comparisons and contrasts, propositional attitudes, and correspondence to some pattern. These modes of…

  12. Classroom Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology & Learning, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Good organization skills are key to running an efficient classroom, and having the right tools makes it easier to manage all of the tasks, save time, and be more productive. Having the power of information when and where anyone need it makes a difference in how well any teacher runs the classroom and knows his or her students. A Palm handheld…

  13. Response of circulating ghrelin levels to insulin therapy in children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Soriano-Guillén, Leandro; Barrios, Vicente; Lechuga-Sancho, Alfonso; Chowen, Julie A; Argente, Jesús

    2004-05-01

    Ghrelin is secreted primarily by the stomach, although other tissues such as the pancreas synthesize a minor proportion. The discovery of a new cell type that produces ghrelin in the human pancreas and that this organ expresses GHS-R opens new perspectives in the understanding of the control of glucose metabolism. We have studied 22 children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus at four different points: at diagnosis before insulin therapy, after 48-60 h of insulin therapy, and after 1 and 4 mo of insulin treatment. At each point circulating levels of ghrelin, leptin, IGF-I, IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-1, IGFBP-2, IGFBP-3, and glucose were determined. Ghrelin levels were significantly decreased at diagnosis (573 +/- 68 pg/mL, p < 0.01) compared with controls (867 +/- 38 pg/mL) and remained decreased after insulin therapy (d 2: 595 +/- 68 pg/mL; 1 mo: 590 +/- 61 pg/mL; 4 mo: 538 +/- 67 pg/mL) with no differences before or after insulin treatment. There was a negative correlation between ghrelin levels and body mass index at all of the study points, whereas a negative correlation between ghrelin and glucose concentrations was only observed after insulin therapy. No correlation between ghrelin and HbA1c was found at any point. A positive correlation between ghrelin and IGFBP-1 was found after insulin therapy, but no correlation with other members of the IGF system or leptin was found. In conclusion, these data could indicate a possible link between glucose concentrations and ghrelin; hence, the persisting low ghrelin levels in diabetic children may suggest a defensive mechanism against hyperglycemia.

  14. A first principles study on newly proposed (Ca/Sr/Ba)Fe2Bi2 compounds with their parent compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundareswari, M.; Jayalakshmi, D. S.; Viswanathan, E.

    2016-02-01

    The structural, electronic, bonding and magnetic properties of newly proposed iron-based compounds viz., CaFe2Bi2, SrFe2Bi2, BaFe2Bi2 with their Fermi surface topology are reported here for the first time by means of first principles calculation. All these properties of newly proposed compounds are compared and analysed along with their respective parent compounds namely (Ca,Sr,Ba)Fe2As2.

  15. Newly diagnosed lung cancer patients' preferences for and beliefs about physical activity prior to chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Karvinen, Kristina H; Vallance, Jeff; Walker, Paul R

    2016-07-01

    Physical activity has been found to have a number of benefits for lung cancer patients yet very little information is available concerning physical activity beliefs and preferences for this population. The purpose of the study was to explore physical activity programming and counseling preferences and beliefs about physical activity in newly diagnosed lung cancer patients scheduled to receive chemotherapy. A total of 43 new diagnosed lung cancer patients completed a researcher-administered survey prior to commencing chemotherapy. Results indicated that only 7 participants (17%) reported meeting public health recommendations for physical activity yet the majority of participants (n = 28) indicated interest or possible interest in physical activity counseling. Many participants also indicated interest or possible interest in an exercise program (n = 29) for lung cancer survivors, preferring it to start during chemotherapy (n = 20), for it to be home based (n = 21), and moderate in intensity (n = 22). The most common behavioral belief (advantage) of physical activity was to build/maintain strength (n = 26) and the most common control belief (barrier) was fatigue (n = 11). These data suggest that physical activity counseling and programming may be well received by newly diagnosed lung cancer patients. Information about physical activity and programming preferences and beliefs from this study may be useful for the design of optimal physical activity interventions for lung cancer patients.

  16. A novel strategy for exploring the reassortment origins of newly emerging influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Tian, Deqiao; Wang, Yumin; Zheng, Tao

    2011-01-01

    In early 2009, new swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus emerged in Mexico and the United States. The emerging influenza virus had made global influenza pandemic for nearly one year. To every emerging pathogen, exploring the origin sources is vital for viral control and clearance. Influenza virus is different from other virus in that it has 8 segments, making the segment reassortment a main drive in virus evolution. In exploring reassortment evolution origins of a newly emerging influenza virus, integrated comparing of the origin sources of all the segments is necessary. If some segments have high homologous with one parental strain, lower homologous with another parental strain, while other segments are reverse, can we proposed that this emerging influenza virus may re-assort from the two parental strains. Here we try to explore the multilevel reassortment evolution origins of 2009 H1N1 influenza virus using this method. By further validating the fidelity of this strategy, this method might be useful in judging the reassortment origins of newly emerging influenza virus.

  17. A case of systemic aplasia cutis congenita: a newly recognized syndrome?

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Tokio; Kouwaki, Masanori; Kiyosawa, Shusuke; Sasada, Yoshie; Maeda, Matsuyoshi; Goto, Kenji; Koyama, Norihisa

    2008-04-01

    Aplasia cutis congenita, congenital absence of a localized area of skin, usually on the vertex of the scalp, occurs as an isolated defect, or with one or more other congenital anomalies as part of a syndrome, sequence or association. To date, more than 500 cases have been reported. A more severe and extensive form, almost complete absence of skin and subcutaneous tissue, was reported by Park et al. in 1998 [J Med Genet 35:609-611]. Until now, no other such lethal case has been reported. Here, we report the second case of systemic aplasia cutis congenita. The female was born without any skin at all, and with hypoplastic lungs, syndactyly, skull defect, esophageal atresia, intestinal malrotation, and calcifications of the hepatic capsule, as well as with other anomalies. She died about 12 hours after birth probably due to dehydration. On microscopic examination, the external surface of the body showed complete absence of the epidermis. Muscle fibers were thin. There was no evidence of skin appendages. The present case gives strong support to the suggestion that systemic aplasia cutis congenita is a newly recognized syndrome. More cases will have to be reported and studied in order to understand the etiology and establish diagnostic criteria. Thus, it is our conclusion that systemic aplasia cutis congenita might be a newly recognized syndrome.

  18. Longitudinal trends and subgroup analysis in publication patterns for preclinical data of newly approved drugs.

    PubMed

    Köster, Ursula; Nolte, Ingo; Michel, Martin C

    2016-02-01

    Having observed a large variation in the number and type of original preclinical publications for newly registered drugs, we have explored whether longitudinal trends and/or factors specific for certain drugs or their manufacturers may explain such variation. Our analysis is based on 1954 articles related to 170 newly approved drugs. The number of preclinical publications per compound declined from a median of 10.5 in 1991 to 3 in 2011. A similar trend was observed for the number of in vivo studies in general, but not in the subset of in vivo studies in animal models of disease. The percentage of compounds with studies using isolated human cells or cell lines almost doubled over time from 37 to 72%. Number of publications did not exhibit major differences between compounds intended for human versus veterinary use, therapeutic areas, small molecules versus biologicals, or innovator versus follow-up compounds; however, some companies may publish fewer studies per compound than others. However, there were qualitative differences in the types of models being used depending on the therapeutic area; specifically, compounds for use in oncology very often used isolated cells and cell lines, often from human origin. We conclude that the large variation in number and type of reported preclinical data is not easily explained. We propose that pharmaceutical companies should consistently provide a comprehensive documentation of the preclinical data they generate as part of their development programs in the public domain to enable a better understanding of the drugs they intend to market.

  19. Origin, migration and fate of newly generated neurons in the adult rodent piriform cortex.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Lee A; Ng, Kwan L; Kinyamu, Richard; Whitaker-Azmitia, Patricia; Geisert, Eldon E; Blurton-Jones, Mathew; Zhou, Qun-Yong; Ribak, Charles E

    2007-09-01

    Newly generated neurons are continuously added to the olfactory epithelium and olfactory bulbs of adult mammals. Studies also report newly generated neurons in the piriform cortex, the primary cortical projection site of the olfactory bulbs. The current study used BrdU-injection paradigms, and in vivo and in vitro DiI tracing methods to address three fundamental issues of these cells: their origin, migratory route and fate. The results show that 1 day after a BrdU-injection, BrdU/DCX double-labeled cells appear deep to the ventricular subependyma, within the white matter. Such cells appear further ventral and caudal in the ensuing days, first appearing in the rostral piriform cortex of mice at 2 days after the BrdU-injection, and at 4 days in the rat. In the caudal piriform cortex, BrdU/DCX labeled cells first appear at 4 days after the injection in mice and 7 days in rats. The time it takes for these cells to appear in the piriform cortex and the temporal distribution pattern suggest that they migrate from outside this region. DiI tracing methods confirmed a migratory route to the piriform cortex from the ventricular subependyma. The presence of BrdU/NeuN labeled cells as early as 7 days after a BrdU injection in mice and 10 days in the rat and lasting as long as 41 days indicates that some of these cells have extended survival durations in the adult piriform cortex.

  20. A Newly Designed Stent for Management of Malignant Distal Duodenal Stenosis

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Wei-Zhong Yang, Zheng-Qiang Liu, Sheng Zhou, Chun-Gao Xia, Jin-Guo Zhao, Lin-Bo Shi, Hai-Bin

    2015-02-15

    PurposeTo evaluate the clinical effectiveness of a newly designed stent for the treatment of malignant distal duodenal stenosis.MethodsFrom March 2011 to May 2013, six patients with malignant duodenal stenosis underwent fluoroscopically guided placement of the new duodenal stent consisting of braided, nested stent wires, and a delivery system with a metallic mesh inner layer. Primary diseases were pancreatic cancer in three patients, gastric cancer in two patients, and endometrial stromal sarcoma in one patient. Duodenal obstructions were located in the horizontal part in two patients, the ascending part in two patients, and the duodenojejunal flexure in two patients. Technical success, defined as the successful stent deployment, clinical symptoms before and after the procedure, and complications were evaluated.ResultsTechnical success was achieved in all patients. No major complications were observed. Before treatment, two patients could not take any food and the gastric outlet obstruction scoring system (GOOSS) score was 0; the other four patients could take only liquids orally (GOOSS score = 1). After treatment, five patients could take soft food (GOOSS score = 2) and one patient could take a full diet (GOOSS score = 3). The mean duration of primary stent patency was 115.7 days.ConclusionsThe newly designed stent is associated with a high degree of technical success and good clinical outcome and may be clinically effective in the management of malignant distal duodenal obstruction.

  1. Molecular Characterization of a Nucleopolyhedrovirus Newly Isolated from Ophiusa disjungens in China.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tong; Liu, Li; Chang, Runlei; Lang, Guojun; Xu, Wen

    2012-12-01

    Ophiusa disjungens nucleopolyhedrovirus (OpdiNPV) was newly found in Guangdong Province, China. Using BamHI, EcoRI, HindIII, PstI, XhoI, XbaI digestion, the size of the OpdiNPV genome was estimated to be 92,000 base pair. The pstI-G genomic fragment of OpdiNPV was cloned and sequenced. Searches of databases identified at least four open reading frames (ORFs) within this fragment. These ORFs encode odv-e66 (EU 623602), p87/vp80 (EU 732665), odv-ec43 (EU617337) and ac108 gene (EU 732666) respectively. The phylogenetic tree of NPVs based on the combined sequences of odv-ec43 and ac108 indicated that OpdiNPV was most closely related to Mamestra configurata NPV-A and Mamestra configurata NPV-B. The characterization of OpdiNPV in this paper would provide better understanding molecular properties of this virus and be helpful in the development of the newly isolated virus as a biopesticide or an engineered pesticide to control more species of insect pests.

  2. Characterization of five newly isolated bacteriophages active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical strains.

    PubMed

    Kwiatek, Magdalena; Mizak, Lidia; Parasion, Sylwia; Gryko, Romuald; Olender, Alina; Niemcewicz, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that causes serious infections, especially in patients with immunodeficiency. It exhibits multiple mechanisms of resistance, including efflux pumps, antibiotic modifying enzymes and limited membrane permeability. The primary reason for the development of novel therapeutics for P. aeruginosa infections is the declining efficacy of conventional antibiotic therapy. These clinical problems caused a revitalization of interest in bacteriophages, which are highly specific and have very effective antibacterial activity as well as several other advantages over traditional antimicrobial agents. Above all, so far, no serious or irreversible side effects of phage therapy have been described. Five newly purified P. aeruginosa phages named vB_PaeM_WP1, vB_PaeM_WP2, vB_PaeM_WP3, vB_PaeM_WP4 and vB_PaeP_WP5 have been characterized as potential candidates for use in phage therapy. They are representatives of the Myoviridae and Podoviridae families. Their host range, genome size, structural proteins and stability in various physical and chemical conditions were tested. The results of these preliminary investigations indicate that the newly isolated bacteriophages may be considered for use in phagotherapy.

  3. Localization and secretion of newly synthesized and stored renin: Two compartments and secretory mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Kawamura, M.; Parmentier, M.; Inagami, T. )

    1988-07-01

    Intracellular pathways of renin secretion were examined by use of rat renal cortical slices. Renin was labeled with ({sup 35}S)methionine by incubating the cortical slices for 2 h. The labeled immunoprecipitable renin was found in microsomal fraction (F1) but not in the renin granule fraction (F2). The newly synthesized and radiolabeled renin was secreted from the incubated slices into the medium. The rate of secretion of the labeled renin activity was not increased by 10{sup {minus}6} M isoproterenol, whereas secretion of total renin activity was markedly stimulated. The isoelectric focusing patterns of renin in F1 and F2 were compared with those secreted with or without isoproterenol. The pattern of F1 was similar to that secreted in the medium without stimulation. These studies suggest that a constitutive pathway exists for renin secretion from the kidney and that the constitutive (nonstimulable) pathway is responsible for the secretion of newly synthesized renin and that it is not stimulated by a {beta}-adrenergic mechanism.

  4. Progressive retinal atrophy in Schapendoes dogs: mutation of the newly identified CCDC66 gene.

    PubMed

    Dekomien, Gabriele; Vollrath, Conni; Petrasch-Parwez, Elisabeth; Boevé, Michael H; Akkad, Denis A; Gerding, Wanda M; Epplen, Jörg T

    2010-05-01

    Canine generalized progressive retinal atrophy (gPRA) is characterized by continuous degeneration of photoreceptor cells leading to night blindness and progressive vision loss. Until now, mutations in 11 genes have been described that account for gPRA in dogs, mostly following an autosomal recessive inheritance mode. Here, we describe a gPRA locus comprising the newly identified gene coiled-coil domain containing 66 (CCDC66) on canine chromosome 20, as identified via linkage analysis in the Schapendoes breed. Mutation screening of the CCDC66 gene revealed a 1-bp insertion in exon 6 leading to a stop codon as the underlying cause of disease. The insertion is present in all affected dogs in the homozygous state as well as in all obligatory mutation carriers in the heterozygous state. The CCDC66 gene is evolutionarily conserved in different vertebrate species and exhibits a complex pattern of differential RNA splicing resulting in various isoforms in the retina. Immunohistochemically, CCDC66 protein is detected mainly in the inner segments of photoreceptors in mouse, dog, and man. The affected Schapendoes retina lacks CCDC66 protein. Thus this natural canine model for gPRA yields superior potential to understand functional implications of this newly identified protein including its physiology, and it opens new perspectives for analyzing different aspects of the general pathophysiology of gPRA.

  5. Experimental study on the physical mechanism of coupling oscillation: a newly discovered oscillation in Hall thrusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Da-ren; Wei, Li-qiu; Ding, Yong-jie; Han, Ke; Yan, Guo-jun; Qi, Feng-yan

    2007-11-01

    In order to study the physical mechanism of an oscillation newly discovered by the Harbin Institute of Technology Plasma Propulsion Lab (HPPL) in the range of hundreds of kHz to several MHz, Hall thrusters with different magnetic coils are studied by changing one of the following three parameters: discharge voltage, anode flow and coil current, directly measuring the coil current and measuring plasma oscillations related to coil current oscillation with the Langmuir probe. Experimental results indicated that in the discharge process of a Hall thruster the broadband turbulence of the Hall current causes an unstable spatial magnetic field and this field causes the magnetic circuit to resonate as an equivalent high level resistance-inductance-capacitance (RLC) network. As the response of the network, the oscillation of the coil current has a large oscillating component at the natural frequencies of the network. Also, the oscillation of coil current has an effect on the discharge process at the same time, so that they reach a self-consistent equilibrium state. As a result of such a coupling, both coil current and the discharge current exhibit their oscillating component at the natural frequencies of the magnetic circuit. It is therefore concluded that the newly discovered oscillation is caused by the coupling between the magnetic circuit and the discharge circuit.

  6. Revisiting the emissions-energy-trade nexus: evidence from the newly industrializing countries.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Khalid; Shahbaz, Muhammad; Kyophilavong, Phouphet

    2016-04-01

    This paper applies Pedroni's panel cointegration approach to explore the causal relationship between trade openness, carbon dioxide emissions, energy consumption, and economic growth for the panel of newly industrialized economies (i.e., Brazil, India, China, and South Africa) over the period of 1970-2013. Our panel cointegration estimation results found majority of the variables cointegrated and confirm the long-run association among the variables. The Granger causality test indicates bidirectional causality between carbon dioxide emissions and energy consumption. A unidirectional causality is found running from trade openness to carbon dioxide emission and energy consumption and economic growth to carbon dioxide emissions. The results of causality analysis suggest that the trade liberalization in newly industrialized economies induces higher energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions. Furthermore, the causality results are checked using an innovative accounting approach which includes forecast-error variance decomposition test and impulse response function. The long-run coefficients are estimated using fully modified ordinary least square (FMOLS) method, and results conclude that the trade openness and economic growth reduce carbon dioxide emissions in the long run. The results of FMOLS test sound the existence of environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis. It means that trade liberalization induces carbon dioxide emission with increased national output, but it offsets that impact in the long run with reduced level of carbon dioxide emissions.

  7. Petrography and Mineralogy of 18 Newly Recovered Ordinary Chondrites in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, S. L.

    2015-05-01

    Petrology and mineralogy of 18 newly recovered ordinary chondrites in China are reported in this paper. Fifteen meteorites were found in Xinjiang, among which 13 meteorites were found in the Lop Nur desert, and the other 2 meteorites were found in Kumtag and Aksai Chin, respectively. Three other meteorites are observed falls in Xining, Fuhe, and Dongyang, respectively. All meteorites are equilibrated ordinary chondrites with 8 H group and 10 L group meteorites. Their petrographic types vary from 4 to 6 in the L group meteorites, with most being type 5, while all H group meteorites are classified as type 5. The features of shock metamorphism of most meteorites are moderate though a few have features of ≥S4 stage. Most Lop Nur meteorites underwent intense weathering with only two of which have weathering degree of W1 and W2. Both Kumtag and Aksai Chin meteorite have a weathering degree of W2. The newly discovered tens of meteorites in the gobi deserts east to the Taklimakan Desert indicate that this region may become an important dense meteorite collection area in Eurasia.

  8. Changes in profile of lipids and adipokines in patients with newly diagnosed hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yanyan; Wu, Xiafang; Wu, Ruirui; Sun, Xiance; Yang, Boyi; Wang, Yi; Xu, Yuanyuan

    2016-01-01

    Changes in profile of lipids and adipokines have been reported in patients with thyroid dysfunction. But the evidence is controversial. The present study aimed to explore the relationships between thyroid function and the profile of lipids and adipokines. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 197 newly diagnosed hypothyroid patients, 230 newly diagnosed hyperthyroid patients and 355 control subjects. Hypothyroid patients presented with significantly higher serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC), fasting insulin, resistin and leptin than control (p < 0.05). Hyperthyroid patients presented with significantly lower serum levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDLC and leptin, as well as higher levels of fasting insulin, resistin, adiponectin and homeostasis model insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) than control (p < 0.05). Nonlinear regression and multivariable linear regression models all showed significant associations of resistin or adiponectin with free thyroxine and association of leptin with thyroid-stimulating hormone (p < 0.001). Furthermore, significant correlation between resistin and HOMA-IR was observed in the patients (p < 0.001). Thus, thyroid dysfunction affects the profile of lipids and adipokines. Resistin may serve as a link between thyroid dysfunction and insulin resistance. PMID:27193069

  9. The Heterogeneity of Early Parkinson’s Disease: A Cluster Analysis on Newly Diagnosed Untreated Patients

    PubMed Central

    Amboni, Marianna; Picillo, Marina; Moccia, Marcello; Longo, Katia; Santangelo, Gabriella; De Rosa, Anna; Allocca, Roberto; Giordano, Flavio; Orefice, Giuseppe; De Michele, Giuseppe; Santoro, Lucio; Pellecchia, Maria Teresa; Barone, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Background The variability in the clinical phenotype of Parkinson’s disease seems to suggest the existence of several subtypes of the disease. To test this hypothesis we performed a cluster analysis using data assessing both motor and non-motor symptoms in a large cohort of newly diagnosed untreated PD patients. Methods We collected data on demographic, motor, and the whole complex of non-motor symptoms from 100 consecutive newly diagnosed untreated outpatients. Statistical cluster analysis allowed the identification of different subgroups, which have been subsequently explored. Results The data driven approach identified four distinct groups of patients, we have labeled: 1) Benign Pure Motor; 2) Benign mixed Motor-Non-Motor; 3) Non-Motor Dominant; and 4) Motor Dominant. Conclusion Our results confirmed the existence of different subgroups of early PD patients. Cluster analysis revealed the presence of distinct subtypes of patients profiled according to the relevance of both motor and non-motor symptoms. Identification of such subtypes may have important implications for generating pathogenetic hypotheses and therapeutic strategies. PMID:23936396

  10. SNPnexus: a web database for functional annotation of newly discovered and public domain single nucleotide polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Chelala, Claude; Khan, Arshad; Lemoine, Nicholas R

    2009-01-01

    Motivation: Design a new computational tool allowing scientists to functionally annotate newly discovered and public domain single nucleotide polymorphisms in order to help in prioritizing targets in further disease studies and large-scale genotyping projects. Summary: SNPnexus database provides functional annotation for both novel and public SNPs. Possible effects on the transcriptome and proteome levels are characterized and reported from five major annotation systems providing the most extensive information on alternative splicing. Additional information on HapMap genotype and allele frequency, overlaps with potential regulatory elements or structural variations as well as related genetic diseases can be also retrieved. The SNPnexus database has a user-friendly web interface, providing single or batch query options using SNP identifiers from dbSNP as well as genomic location on clones, contigs or chromosomes. Therefore, SNPnexus is the only database currently providing a complete set of functional annotations of SNPs in public databases and newly detected from sequencing projects. Hence, we describe SNPnexus, provide details of the query options, the annotation categories as well as biological examples of use. Availability: The SNPnexus database is freely available at http://www.snp-nexus.org. Contact: claude.chelala@cancer.org.uk PMID:19098027

  11. Health Profiles of Newly Arrived Refugee Children in the United States, 2006–2012

    PubMed Central

    Matheson, Jasmine; Payton, Colleen; Scott, Kevin C.; Stone, Barbara L.; Song, Lihai; Stauffer, William M.; Urban, Kailey; Young, Janine; Mamo, Blain

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. We conducted a large-scale study of newly arrived refugee children in the United States with data from 2006 to 2012 domestic medical examinations in 4 sites: Colorado; Minnesota; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; and Washington State. Methods. Blood lead level, anemia, hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, tuberculosis infection or disease, and Strongyloides seropositivity data were available for 8148 refugee children (aged < 19 years) from Bhutan, Burma, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Iraq, and Somalia. Results. We identified distinct health profiles for each country of origin, as well as for Burmese children who arrived in the United States from Thailand compared with Burmese children who arrived from Malaysia. Hepatitis B was more prevalent among male children than female children and among children aged 5 years and older. The odds of HBV, tuberculosis, and Strongyloides decreased over the study period. Conclusions. Medical screening remains an important part of health care for newly arrived refugee children in the United States, and disease risk varies by population. PMID:26562126

  12. [The low prevalence of Helicobacter pylori gastritis in newly diagnosed inflammatory bowel disease children and adolescent].

    PubMed

    Sładek, Małgorzata; Jedynak-Wasowicz, Urszula; Wedrychowicz, Andrzej; Kowalska-Duplaga, Kinga; Pieczarkowski, Stanisław; Fyderek, Krzysztof

    2007-01-01

    Data concerning prevalence rate of Helicobacter pylori gastritis in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients is conflicting. We had studied the prevalence of Hp gastritis in newly diagnosed inflammatory bowel disease children before any pharmacological treatment was introduced. Ninety four consecutive children with inflammatory bowel diseased were enrolled into study, mean age 12.9 +/- 3.75 years, including 50 with Crohn's Disease (CD) and 44 with ulcerative colitis (UC). One hundred and four patients (mean age 13.6 +/- 4.2 year) referred for diagnostic evaluation because of recurrent abdominal pain, matched for age, sex and socioeconomic status served as a control. The results revealed a highly statistically lower prevalence of Hp gastritis in children with IBD as compared with controls (9.6% vs. 38.4%, p < 0.0001). Significantly more often Hp gastritis occurred in CD than UC patients. There was no statistical difference in mean age of IBD onset between Hp gastritis positive and negative groups (14.3 +/- 3.75 vs. 13.6 +/- 4.3 yr) was found. Our results show that in newly diagnosed IBD children, Hp gastritis is not unusual, but the prevalence rate is significantly lower comparing to the control group. The low Hp gastritis rate is not related to medical treatment, since the patients were studied before any was introduced.

  13. A review of newly approved antibiotics and antibiotics reserved for resistant infections: Implications for emergency medicine.

    PubMed

    Mazer-Amirshahi, Maryann; Pourmand, Ali; May, Larissa

    2016-10-17

    Millions of patients are evaluated every year in the emergency department (ED) for bacterial infections. Emergency physicians often diagnose and prescribe initial antibiotic therapy for a variety of bacterial infections, ranging from simple urinary tract infections to severe sepsis. In life-threatening infections, inappropriate choice of initial antibiotic has been shown to increase morbidity and mortality. As such, initiation of appropriate antibiotic therapy on the part of the emergency physician is critical. Increasing rates of antibiotic resistance, drug allergies, and antibiotic shortages further complicates the choice of antibiotics. Patients may have a history of prior resistant infections or culture data indicating that common first-line antibiotics used in the ED may be ineffective. In recent years, there have been several new antibiotic approvals as well as renewed interest in second and third line antibiotics because of the aforementioned concerns. In addition, several newly approved antibiotics have the advantage of being administered once weekly or even as a single infusion, which has the potential to decrease hospitalizations and healthcare costs. This article reviews newly approved antibiotics and antibiotics used to treat resistant infections with a focus on implications for emergency medicine.

  14. The Initial Assessment of Daily Insulin Dose in Chinese Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Huan; Xu, Hua; Chen, Xie; Teng, Xiangyu; Liu, Qianjing; Liu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Background. It has been well accepted that insulin therapy is the ideal treatment for newly diagnosed diabetic patients. However, there was no study about assessment of the initial insulin dosage in new onset Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes. Research Design and Methods. 65 newly diagnosed patients with type 2 diabetes (39 males/26 females; HbA1c ≥ 11.80 ± 0.22%) were investigated. All patients had random hyperglycaemia (at 21.8 ± 3.9 mmol/L) on the first day of admission and received insulin infusion intravenously (5 U/per hour). When the blood glucose level dropped to around 10 mmol/L, patients were then transferred to continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII). The reduction of blood glucose levels in response to per unit of insulin (RBG/RI) was recorded. The target glucose level was achieved in about 3 days. The total daily insulin dose (TDD) and basal insulin dose (TBD) were calculated. Results. TDD was 45.97 ± 1.28 units and TBD was 19.00 ± 0.54 units. TBD was about 40% of the total daily insulin requirement. There was a negative correlation between the ratio of RBG/RI and TDD. Conclusions. TDD was correlated with blood glucose reduction in response to intravenous insulin infusion in Chinese new onset patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:26697503

  15. Prevalence effects in newly trained airport checkpoint screeners: trained observers miss rare targets, too.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Jeremy M; Brunelli, David N; Rubinstein, Joshua; Horowitz, Todd S

    2013-12-02

    Many socially important search tasks are characterized by low target prevalence, meaning that targets are rarely encountered. For example, transportation security officers (TSOs) at airport checkpoints encounter very few actual threats in carry-on bags. In laboratory-based visual search experiments, low prevalence reduces the probability of detecting targets (Wolfe, Horowitz, & Kenner, 2005). In the lab, this "prevalence effect" is caused by changes in decision and response criteria (Wolfe & Van Wert, 2010) and can be mitigated by presenting a burst of high-prevalence search with feedback (Wolfe et al., 2007). The goal of this study was to see if these effects could be replicated in the field with TSOs. A total of 125 newly trained TSOs participated in one of two experiments as part of their final evaluation following training. They searched for threats in simulated bags across five blocks. The first three blocks were low prevalence (target prevalence ≤ .05) with no feedback; the fourth block was high prevalence (.50) with full feedback; and the final block was, again, low prevalence. We found that newly trained TSOs were better at detecting targets at high compared to low prevalence, replicating the prevalence effect. Furthermore, performance was better (and response criterion was more "liberal") in the low-prevalence block that took place after the high-prevalence block than in the initial three low-prevalence blocks, suggesting that a burst of high-prevalence trials may help alleviate the prevalence effect in the field.

  16. EVIDENCE FOR NEWLY INITIATED RECONNECTION IN THE SOLAR WIND AT 1 AU

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Xiaojun; Ma, Yonghui; Wong, Hon-Cheng; Wang, Yi; Zuo, Pingbing; Wei, Fengsi; Feng, Xueshang; Zhou, Meng; Deng, Xiaohua E-mail: hcwong@ieee.org

    2015-08-10

    We report the first evidence for a large-scale reconnection exhaust newly initiated in the solar wind using observations from three spacecraft: ACE, Wind, and ARTEMIS P2. We identified a well-structured X-line exhaust using measurements from ARTEMIS P2 in the downstream solar wind. However, in the upstream solar wind, ACE detected the same current sheet that corresponds to the exhaust identified by ARTEMIS P2 data without showing any reconnection signals. We cannot find any reconnection signals from Wind located between ACE and ARTEMIS P2. Within the exhaust, a magnetic island is identified, which is not consistent with the quasi-steady feature as previously reported and provides further evidence that the reconnection is newly initiated. Our observations show that the entering of energetic particles, probably from Earth's bow shock, makes the crucial difference between the non-reconnecting current sheet and the exhaust. Since no obvious driving factors are responsible for the reconnection initiation, we infer that these energetic particles probably play an important role in the reconnection initiation. Theoretical analysis also shows support for this potential mechanism.

  17. Stress, social support and negative affectivity in children with newly diagnosed cancer: a prospective transactional analysis.

    PubMed

    Varni, J W; Katz, E

    1997-12-01

    Conceptually-driven investigations on the potentially modifiable predictors of individual differences among children with newly-diagnosed cancer may facilitate the identification of pediatric cancer patients at risk for maladjustment during the profound adversity associated with this life-threatening disease and aversive biomedical treatment. Within a risk and resistance theoretical framework, perceived stress and social support were investigated concurrently and prospectively within an exploratory design as predictors of negative affectivity (anxiety and depressive symptoms composite construct) in newly-diagnosed pediatric cancer patients at Time 1 (within one month after diagnosis), Time 2 (6 months postdiagnosis), and Time 3 (9 months postdiagnosis). Hierarchical multiple regression analysis findings indicate that perceived stress and social support have direct and independent effects on negative affectivity principally at the 9-month time interval. These findings are discussed in terms of the cognitive-behavioral treatment implications for enhancing child adjustment during the transition from the initial cancer diagnosis and aversive biomedical treatment to subsequent school and social reintegration.

  18. EVALUATING THE ACCEPTABILITY AND FEASIBILITY OF PROJECT ACCEPT: AN INTERVENTION FOR YOUTH NEWLY DIAGNOSED WITH HIV

    PubMed Central

    Hosek, Sybil G.; Lemos, Diana; Harper, Gary W.; Telander, Kyle

    2012-01-01

    Given the potential for negative psychosocial and medical outcomes following an HIV diagnosis, Project ACCEPT, a 12-session behavioral intervention, was developed and pilot-tested for youth (aged 16–24) newly diagnosed with HIV. Fifty participants recently diagnosed with HIV were enrolled from 4 sites selected through the Adolescent Medicine Trials Network (ATN). The majority of participants identified as African American (78%). Feasibility and acceptability data demonstrated high rates of participation and high levels of satisfaction with the intervention program from both participants and staff. Exploratory outcome data demonstrated improved levels of HIV knowledge that were sustained over time (Cohen’s effect [d] d = .52) and improvements in peer (d = .35) and formal (d = .20) social support immediately postintervention. Gender differences emerged over time in the areas of depressive symptoms, family social support, self-efficacy for sexual discussion, and personalized stigma. Project ACCEPT appears to be an acceptable and feasible intervention to implement in clinical settings for youth newly diagnosed with HIV. PMID:21517662

  19. Antipsychotic medications and dental caries in newly diagnosed schizophrenia: A nationwide cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hu, Kai-Fang; Chou, Yu-Hsiang; Wen, Yen-Hsia; Hsieh, Kun-Pin; Tsai, Jui-Hsiu; Yang, Pinchen; Yang, Yi-Hsin; Lin, Chun-Hung Richard

    2016-11-30

    We investigated the association between antipsychotic medications and the risk of dental caries in patients with schizophrenia. We enroled a nationwide cohort of patients with newly diagnosed schizophrenia within 1 year of dental caries development. Exposure to antipsychotics and other medications was categorised according to their type and duration, and the association between exposure and dental caries was assessed through logistic regressions. Of the 3610 patients with newly diagnosed schizophrenia, 2149 (59.5%) exhibited an incidence of treated dental caries. Logistic regression analysis identified a younger age, female sex, high income, a 2-year history of dental caries, and exposure to first-generation antipsychotics, and antihypertensives as independent risk factors for treated dental caries in patients with schizophrenia. Hyposalivation, the adverse effect of first-generation antipsychotics and antihypertensives, was associated with an increased risk of treated dental caries. However, hypersalivation from first-generation antipsychotics for dental caries was associated with a protective factor. These findings suggest that clinicians should pay attention to the aforementioned risk factors for dental caries in patients with schizophrenia, particularly while prescribing first-generation antipsychotics and antihypertensives to such patients.

  20. Purification and biochemical characterisation of glucoamylase from a newly isolated Aspergillus niger: relation to starch processing.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Ahmad; Khodarahmi, Reza; Mostafaie, Ali

    2014-10-15

    Herein, we investigate a glucoamylase from newly isolated Aspergillus niger. The enzyme was purified, using fractionation, followed by anion-exchange chromatography and then characterised. The molecular mass of the enzyme was estimated to be ∼62,000Da, using SDS-PAGE and 57151Da, based on mass spectrometry results. The pI of the protein, and optimum pH/temperature of enzyme activity were 4.4, 5 and 70°C, respectively and the kinetic parameters (Km, Vmax and kcat) were determined to be 0.33 (mgml(-1)), 0.095 (Uμg(-1)min(-1)) and 158.3 (s(-1)) for soluble starch, respectively. The glucoamylase nature of the enzyme was also confirmed using TLC and a specific substrate. Metal ions Fe(3+), Al(3+) and Hg(2+) had the highest inhibitory effect, while Ag(2)(+), Ca(2+), Zn(2+), Mg(2+) and Cd(2+) and EDTA showed no significant effect on the enzyme activity. In addition, thermal stability of the enzyme increased in the presence of starch and calcium ion. Based on the results, the purified glucoamylase appeared to be a newly isolated enzyme.

  1. Los Alamos Plutonium Facility newly generated tru waste certification. Final revised version 3/97

    SciTech Connect

    Gruetzmacher, K.; Montoya, A.; Sinkule, B.; Maez, M.

    1997-04-01

    This paper presents an overview of the activities being planned and implemented to certify newly generated contact handled transuranic (TRU) waste produced by Los Alamos National Laboratory`s (LANL`s) Plutonium Facility. Certifying waste at the point of generation is the most important cost and labor saving step in the WIPP certification process. The pedigree of a waste item is best known by the originator of the waste and frees a site from many of the expensive characterization activities associated with legacy waste. Through a cooperative agreement with LANLs Waste Management Facility and under the umbrella of LANLs WIPP-related certification and quality assurance documents, the Plutonium Facility will be certifying most of its own newly generated waste. Some of the challenges faced by the Plutonium Facility in preparing to certify TRU waste include the modification and addition of procedures to meet WIPP requirements, standardizing packaging for TRU waste, collecting processing documentation from operations which produce TRU waste, and developing ways to modify waste streams which are not certifiable in their present form.

  2. GABA regulates synaptic integration of newly generated neurons in the adult brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Shaoyu; Goh, Eyleen L. K.; Sailor, Kurt A.; Kitabatake, Yasuji; Ming, Guo-Li; Song, Hongjun

    2006-02-01

    Adult neurogenesis, the birth and integration of new neurons from adult neural stem cells, is a striking form of structural plasticity and highlights the regenerative capacity of the adult mammalian brain. Accumulating evidence suggests that neuronal activity regulates adult neurogenesis and that new neurons contribute to specific brain functions. The mechanism that regulates the integration of newly generated neurons into the pre-existing functional circuitry in the adult brain is unknown. Here we show that newborn granule cells in the dentate gyrus of the adult hippocampus are tonically activated by ambient GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) before being sequentially innervated by GABA- and glutamate-mediated synaptic inputs. GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the adult brain, initially exerts an excitatory action on newborn neurons owing to their high cytoplasmic chloride ion content. Conversion of GABA-induced depolarization (excitation) into hyperpolarization (inhibition) in newborn neurons leads to marked defects in their synapse formation and dendritic development in vivo. Our study identifies an essential role for GABA in the synaptic integration of newly generated neurons in the adult brain, and suggests an unexpected mechanism for activity-dependent regulation of adult neurogenesis, in which newborn neurons may sense neuronal network activity through tonic and phasic GABA activation.

  3. In vitro cellular drug resistance and prognosis in newly diagnosed childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Kaspers, G J; Veerman, A J; Pieters, R; Van Zantwijk, C H; Smets, L A; Van Wering, E R; Van Der Does-Van Den Berg, A

    1997-10-01

    As an important determinant of the response to chemotherapy, measurements of cellular drug resistance may provide prognostically significant information, which could be useful for optimal risk-group stratification. The objective of this report is to determine the relation between in vitro resistance to 12 drugs, measured with the colorimetric methyl-thiazol-tetrazolium (MTT) assay, and long-term clinical response to chemotherapy in 152 children with newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia. At risk-group stratified analyses, in vitro resistance to prednisolone, L-asparaginase, and vincristine were each significantly (P < .01) related to the probability of disease-free survival (pDFS) after combination chemotherapy. The combination of data for prednisolone, L-asparaginase, and vincristine provided a drug-resistance profile with prognostic independent significance superior to that of any single drug or any other factor. The 3-years pDFS was 100% for the group with the most sensitive profile, 20% of all patients, 84% (SE 6%) for the group with an intermediately sensitive profile, 40% of all patients, and 43% (SE 8%) for the remaining group with the most resistant profile (P < .001). In conclusion, the extent of in vitro cellular resistance to prednisolone, L-asparaginase, and vincristine, measured using the MTT assay, was significantly related to the clinical response to combination chemotherapy. Treatment failure in newly diagnosed childhood ALL can be predicted based on cellular drug resistance data.

  4. Current role of short-term intensive insulin strategies in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wen; Weng, Jianping

    2013-09-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a progressive disease characterized by worsening insulin resistance and a decline in β-cell function. Achieving good glycemic control becomes more challenging as β-cell function continues to deteriorate throughout the disease process. The traditional management paradigm emphasizes a stepwise approach, and insulin has generally been reserved as a final armament. However, mounting evidence indicates that short-term intensive insulin therapy used in the early stages of type 2 diabetes could improve β-cell function, resulting in better glucose control and more extended glycemic remission than oral antidiabetic agents. Improvements in insulin sensitivity and lipid profile were also seen after the early initiation of short-term intensive insulin therapy. Thus, administering short-term intensive insulin therapy to patients with newly diagnosed T2DM has the potential to delay the natural process of this disease, and should be considered when clinicians initiate treatment. Although the early use of insulin is advocated by some guidelines, the optimal time to initiate insulin therapy is not clearly defined or easily recognized, and a pragmatic approach is lacking. Herein we summarize the current understanding of early intensive insulin therapy in patients with newly diagnosed T2DM, focusing on its clinical benefit and problems, as well as possible biological mechanisms of action, and discuss our perspective.

  5. A Pilot Safety Study of Lenalidomide and Radiotherapy for Patients With Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma Multiforme

    SciTech Connect

    Drappatz, Jan Wong, Eric T.; Schiff, David; Kesari, Santosh; Batchelor, Tracy T.; Doherty, Lisa; LaFrankie, Debra Conrad

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To define the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of lenalidomide, an analogue of thalidomide with enhanced immunomodulatory and antiangiogenic properties and a more favorable toxicity profile, in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) when given concurrently with radiotherapy. Patients and Methods: Patients with newly diagnosed GBM received radiotherapy concurrently with lenalidomide given for 3 weeks followed by a 1-week rest period and continued lenalidomide until tumor progression or unacceptable toxicity. Dose escalation occurred in groups of 6. Determination of the MTD was based on toxicities during the first 12 weeks of therapy. The primary endpoint was toxicity. Results: Twenty-three patients were enrolled, of whom 20 were treated and evaluable for both toxicity and tumor response and 2 were evaluable for toxicity only. Common toxicities included venous thromboembolic disease, fatigue, and nausea. Dose-limiting toxicities were eosinophilic pneumonitis and transaminase elevations. The MTD for lenalidomide was determined to be 15 mg/m{sup 2}/d. Conclusion: The recommended dose for lenalidomide with radiotherapy is 15 mg/m{sup 2}/d for 3 weeks followed by a 1-week rest period. Venous thromboembolic complications occurred in 4 patients, and prophylactic anticoagulation should be considered.

  6. A Comprehensive Survey of Institutional Patient/Family Educational Practices for Newly Diagnosed Pediatric Oncology Patients.

    PubMed

    Withycombe, Janice S; Andam-Mejia, Rachel; Dwyer, Annie; Slaven, Abigail; Windt, Katherine; Landier, Wendy

    Patient/family education is an important component of nursing practice and is essential to the care of children newly diagnosed with cancer. Practices regarding patient/family education in Children's Oncology Group (COG) treatment centers have not been well described. We used an Internet-based survey to determine current patient/family educational practices at COG institutions; participation rate was 90.5% (201/222). Patient/family education was delivered primarily by an individual (rather than a team) at 43% of institutions. Advanced practice nurses had primary responsibility for providing education at 32% of institutions. "Fever" was the most frequently reported topic considered mandatory for inclusion in education for newly diagnosed patients. More than half of institutions reported using checklists and/or end-of-shift reports to facilitate health care team communication regarding patient/family education, and 77% reported using the "teach-back" method of assessing readiness for discharge. Thirty-seven percent of institutions reported delays in hospital discharge secondary to the need for additional teaching. An understanding of current practices related to patient/family education is the first step in establishing effective interventions to improve and standardize educational practices in pediatric oncology.

  7. The Stingray nebula: watching the rapid evolution of a newly born planetary nebula.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobrowsky, M.; Sahu, K. C.; Parthasarathy, M.; García-Lario, Pedro

    The formation and early evolution of planetary nebulae represent one of the most poorly understood phases of stellar evolution ( Kwok, 1987; Maddox, 1995). One of the youngest, the Stingray Nebula (He3-1357) ( Henize, 1967; Henize, 1976), shows all the tell-tale signs of a newly born planetary nebula: it has become ionized only within the past few decades ( Parthasarathy et al., 1993); the mass-loss from the central star has ceased within the past few years; and the central star is becoming hotter and fainter as expected from a star on its way to becoming a DA white dwarf ( Parthasarathy et al., 1995). The Stingray Nebula thus provides the ideal laboratory for examining the early structure and evolution of this class of objects. Images of the Stingray Nebula, obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope, show for the first time that its multiple expulsions of matter are focused by an equatorial ring and bubbles of gas located on opposite sides of the ring ( Bobrowsky et al., 1995). The position angle of the outflows has changed, possibly as a result of precessional motion induced by the presence of a companion star. This is consistent with the precessing jet model by Livio & Pringle (1996). Indeed, we have reported the discovery of a companion star in the Stingray Nebula ( Bobrowsky et al., 1998). Finally, we present evidence of the companion star dynamically distorting the gas in this newly-born planetary nebula.

  8. Impact of healthy work environments and multistage nurse residency programs on retention of newly licensed RNs.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Marlene; Halfer, Diana; Maguire, Pat; Schmalenberg, Claudia

    2012-03-01

    The objective of the study was to examine effects of nurse-confirmed healthy unit work environments and multistage nurse residency programs (NRPs) on retention rates of newly licensed RNs (NLRNs). Establishing a culture of retention and healthy clinical nurse practice environments are two major challenges confronting nurse leaders today. Nurse residency programs are a major component of NLRN work environments and have been shown to be effective in abating nurse turnover. Sample for this study consisted of 5,316 new graduates in initial RN roles in 28 Magnet® hospitals. There were no differences in retention rates by education or patient population on clinical unit. NLRN retention rate was higher in community than in academic hospitals. More than half of NLRNs were placed on units with very healthy work environments. Newly licensed RNs on units with work environments needing improvement resigned at a significantly higher rate than did other NLRNs. The quality of clinical unit work environments is the most important factor in NLRN retention.

  9. Prevalence effects in newly trained airport checkpoint screeners: Trained observers miss rare targets, too

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Jeremy M.; Brunelli, David N.; Rubinstein, Joshua; Horowitz, Todd S.

    2013-01-01

    Many socially important search tasks are characterized by low target prevalence, meaning that targets are rarely encountered. For example, transportation security officers (TSOs) at airport checkpoints encounter very few actual threats in carry-on bags. In laboratory-based visual search experiments, low prevalence reduces the probability of detecting targets (Wolfe, Horowitz, & Kenner, 2005). In the lab, this “prevalence effect” is caused by changes in decision and response criteria (Wolfe & Van Wert, 2010) and can be mitigated by presenting a burst of high-prevalence search with feedback (Wolfe et al., 2007). The goal of this study was to see if these effects could be replicated in the field with TSOs. A total of 125 newly trained TSOs participated in one of two experiments as part of their final evaluation following training. They searched for threats in simulated bags across five blocks. The first three blocks were low prevalence (target prevalence ≤ .05) with no feedback; the fourth block was high prevalence (.50) with full feedback; and the final block was, again, low prevalence. We found that newly trained TSOs were better at detecting targets at high compared to low prevalence, replicating the prevalence effect. Furthermore, performance was better (and response criterion was more “liberal”) in the low-prevalence block that took place after the high-prevalence block than in the initial three low-prevalence blocks, suggesting that a burst of high-prevalence trials may help alleviate the prevalence effect in the field. PMID:24297778

  10. Chronic health conditions reported by male inmates newly admitted to Canadian federal penitentiaries

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Lynn A.; Nolan, Amanda; Sapers, Jeremy; Power, Jenelle; Panaro, Linda; Smith, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Background International health studies have shown that inmates have higher rates of infectious diseases, chronic diseases and psychiatric disorders relative to the general population. We conducted a systematic collection of data on chronic physical health conditions reported by newly admitted inmates in Canadian federal penitentiaries. Methods Over a 6-month period from April to September 2012, we collected and analyzed data from a standardized health interview routinely conducted with consenting incoming male inmates (n = 2273). Prevalence rates of health conditions were determined and disaggregated by age (< 50 yr and ≥ 50 yr) and by Aboriginal status. Results The most common health conditions reported by respondents were head injury (34.1%), back pain (19.3%), asthma (14.7%) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection (9.4%). Rates of many health conditions were higher among inmates 50 years of age or older than among younger inmates. Compared with their non-Aboriginal counterparts, Aboriginal inmates had higher rates of head injury and HCV infection. Interpretation Our study provides a benchmark that can be used to examine health trends within Canada’s federal penitentiaries over time and points to subgroups of newly admitted inmates for whom health services may need to be concentrated. PMID:25844377

  11. Comparative description of ten transcriptomes of newly sequenced invertebrates and efficiency estimation of genomic sampling in non-model taxa

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    catalogue of annotated genes (or gene fragments) and protein families for ten newly sequenced non-model organisms, some of commercial importance (i.e., Octopus vulgaris). These comprehensive sets of genes can be readily used for phylogenetic analysis, gene expression profiling, developmental analysis, and can also be a powerful resource for gene discovery. The characterization of the transcriptomes of such a diverse array of animal species permitted the comparison of sequencing depth, functional annotation, and efficiency of genomic sampling using the same pipelines, which proved to be similar for all considered species. In addition, the datasets revealed their potential as a resource for paralogue detection, a recurrent concern in various aspects of biological inquiry, including phylogenetics, molecular evolution, development, and cellular biochemistry. PMID:23190771

  12. Risk-Factor Profile and Comorbidities in 2398 Patients With Newly Diagnosed Hypertension From the Abuja Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Ojji, Dike B.; Libhaber, Elena; Atherton, John J.; Abdullahi, Bolaji; Nwankwo, Ada; Sliwa, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Risk factors, comorbidities, and end-organ damage in newly diagnosed hypertension (HT) are poorly described in larger cohorts of urban African patients undergoing epidemiological transition. We therefore decided to characterize a large cohort of hypertensive subjects presenting to a tertiary health center in sub-Saharan Africa. It is an observational cross-sectional study. We prospectively collected detailed clinical, biochemical, electrocardiography, and echocardiography data of all subjects with HT as the primary diagnosis in patients presenting at the Cardiology Unit of the University of Abuja Teaching Hospital over an 8-year period. Of 2398 subjects, 1187 patients (49.4%) were female with a mean age of 51 ± 12.8 years. Presenting symptoms and signs were most commonly palpitation in 691 (28.8%) followed by dyspnoea on exertion in 541 (22.6%), orthopnea in 532 (22.2%), pedal oedema in 468 (19.5%), paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnoea in 332 (13.8%), whereas only 31 (1.3%) presented with chest pain. Risk factors were obesity in 671 (28%); 523 (21.8%) had total cholesterol >5.2 mmol/L, diabetes mellitus was present in 201 (8.4%) and 187 (7.8%) were smokers. End-organ damage was present in form of echocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy in 1336 (55.7%) followed by heart failure in 542 (22.6%). Arrhythmias occurred in 110 (4.6%) of cases, cerebrovascular accident in 103 (4.3%), chronic kidney disease in 26 (1.1%), hypertensive encephalopathy in 10 (0.4%), and coronary artery disease in 6 (0.26%). There were marked differences in sex as women were more obese and men presented with more advanced disease. The burden of HT and its complications in this carefully characterized African cohort is quite enormous with more than three-fourth having one form of complication. The need of effective primary and secondary preventive measures to be mapped out to tackle this problem cannot be overemphasized. PMID:26426662

  13. Leptospira interrogans at the human-wildlife interface in northern Botswana: a newly identified public health threat.

    PubMed

    Jobbins, S E; Sanderson, C E; Alexander, K A

    2014-03-01

    Leptospirosis is the most widespread zoonosis in the world. In northern Botswana, humans live in close proximity to a diversity of wildlife and peridomestic rodents and may be exposed to a variety of zoonotic pathogens. Little is known regarding the occurrence and epidemiology of L. interrogans in Africa despite the recognized global importance of this zoonotic disease and the threat it poses to public health. In Botswana, banded mongooses (Mungos mungo) live in close proximity to humans across protected and unprotected landscapes and may be a useful sentinel species for assessing the occurrence of zoonotic organisms, such as L. interrogans. We utilized PCR to screen banded mongoose kidneys for leptospiral DNA and identified 41.5% prevalence of renal carriage of L. interrogans (exact binomial 95% CI 27.7-56.7%, n = 41). Renal carriage was also detected in one Selous' mongoose (Paracynictis selousi). This is the first published confirmation of carriage of L. interrogans in either species. This is also the first report of L. interrogans occurrence in northern Botswana and the only report of this organism in a wildlife host in the country. Pathogenic Leptospira are usually transmitted indirectly to humans through soil or water contaminated with infected urine. Other avenues, such as direct contact between humans and wildlife, as well as consumption of mongooses and other wildlife as bushmeat, may pose additional exposure risk and must be considered in public health management of this newly identified zoonotic disease threat. There is a critical need to characterize host species involvement and pathogen transmission dynamics, including human-wildlife interactions that may increase human exposure potential and infection risk. We recommend that public health strategy be modified to include sensitization of medical practitioners to the presence of L. interrogans in the region, the potential for human infection, and implementation of clinical screening. This study

  14. IVS Organization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    International VLBI Service (IVS) is an international collaboration of organizations which operate or support Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) components. The goals are: To provide a service to support geodetic, geophysical and astrometric research and operational activities. To promote research and development activities in all aspects of the geodetic and astrometric VLBI technique. To interact with the community of users of VLBI products and to integrate VLBI into a global Earth observing system.

  15. Modeling personnel turnover in the parametric organization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, Edwin B.

    1991-01-01

    A model is developed for simulating the dynamics of a newly formed organization, credible during all phases of organizational development. The model development process is broken down into the activities of determining the tasks required for parametric cost analysis (PCA), determining the skills required for each PCA task, determining the skills available in the applicant marketplace, determining the structure of the model, implementing the model, and testing it. The model, parameterized by the likelihood of job function transition, has demonstrated by the capability to represent the transition of personnel across functional boundaries within a parametric organization using a linear dynamical system, and the ability to predict required staffing profiles to meet functional needs at the desired time. The model can be extended by revisions of the state and transition structure to provide refinements in functional definition for the parametric and extended organization.

  16. Organized DFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Takashi; Honma, Michio; Itoh, Hiroyuki; Iriki, Nobuyuki; Kobayashi, Sachiko; Miyazaki, Norihiko; Onodera, Toshio; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Yoshioka, Nobuyuki; Arima, Sumika; Kadota, Kazuya

    2009-04-01

    The category and objective of DFM production management are shown. DFM is not limited to an activity within a particular unit process in design and process. A new framework for DFM is required. DFM should be a total solution for the common problems of all processes. Each of them must be linked to one another organically. After passing through the whole of each process on the manufacturing platform, quality of final products is guaranteed and products are shipped to the market. The information platform is layered with DFM, APC, and AEC. Advanced DFM is not DFM for partial optimization of the lithography process and the design, etc. and it should be Organized DFM. They are managed with high-level organizational IQ. The interim quality between each step of the flow should be visualized. DFM will be quality engineering if it is Organized DFM and common metrics of the quality are provided. DFM becomes quality engineering through effective implementation of common industrial metrics and standardized technology. DFM is differential technology, but can leverage standards for efficient development.

  17. Organic superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jérome, D.

    1994-10-01

    The discovery of organic superconductors in 1980 was an happy conclusion of a search for high T c superconductors (although T c was modestly in the Kelvin range). The first generation of organic superconductors belonged to a large family of quasi-one-dimensional conducting cation radical salts. Most of them exhibit a wide range of new phenomena, including the competition between ground states, the influence of a magnetic field on the non ordered phase of a quasi-one-dimensional electron gas and the onset of spin density wave phases at high magnetic field with quantized Hall effect. The extensive study of the (TM) 2X series has shown that electron interactions are repulsive and of the order of the electron bandwidth. However, the nature of the ground states relies essentially on the balance between charge localisation boosted by the Umklapp scattering and the interchain hopping intergal. Second and third generation organic superconductors are two and three dimensional molecular conductors respectively with maximum T c of 12K (ET) 2X and 33 K (fullerides).

  18. Costs and health care resource utilization among chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients with newly acquired pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Junji; Li, Yunfeng; Tian, Haijun; Goodman, Michael J; Gabriel, Susan; Nazareth, Tara; Turner, Stuart J; Arcona, Stephen; Kahler, Kristijan H

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are at increased risk for lung infections and other pathologies (eg, pneumonia); however, few studies have evaluated the impact of pneumonia on health care resource utilization and costs in this population. The purpose of this study was to estimate health care resource utilization and costs among COPD patients with newly acquired pneumonia compared to those without pneumonia. Methods A retrospective claims analysis using Truven MarketScan® Commercial and Medicare databases was conducted. COPD patients with and without newly acquired pneumonia diagnosed between January 1, 2004 and September 30, 2011 were identified. Propensity score matching was used to create a 1:1 matched cohort. Patient demographics, comorbidities (measured by Charlson Comorbidity Index), and medication use were evaluated before and after matching. Health care resource utilization (ie, hospitalizations, emergency room [ER] and outpatient visits), and associated health care costs were assessed during the 12-month follow-up. Logistic regression was conducted to evaluate the risk of hospitalization and ER visits, and gamma regression models and two-part models compared health care costs between groups after matching. Results In the baseline cohort (N=467,578), patients with newly acquired pneumonia were older (mean age: 70 versus [vs] 63 years) and had higher Charlson Comorbidity Index scores (3.3 vs 2.6) than patients without pneumonia. After propensity score matching, the pneumonia cohort was nine times more likely to have a hospitalization (odds ratio; 95% confidence intervals [CI] =9.2; 8.9, 9.4) and four times more likely to have an ER visit (odds ratio; 95% CI =4.4; 4.3, 4.5) over the 12-month follow-up period compared to the control cohort. The estimated 12-month mean hospitalization costs ($14,353 [95% CI: $14,037–$14,690]), outpatient costs ($6,891 [95% CI: $6,706–$7,070]), and prescription drug costs ($1,104 [95% CI

  19. Transspinal direct current stimulation modulates migration and proliferation of adult newly born spinal cells in mice.

    PubMed

    Samaddar, Sreyashi; Vazquez, Kizzy; Ponkia, Dipen; Toruno, Pedro; Sahbani, Karim; Begum, Sultana; Abouelela, Ahmed; Mekhael, Wagdy; Ahmed, Zaghloul

    2017-02-01

    Direct current electrical fields have been shown to be a major factor in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, and survival, as well as in the maturation of dividing cells during development. During adulthood, spinal cord cells are continuously produced in both animals and humans, and they hold great potential for neural restoration following spinal cord injury. While the effects of direct current electrical fields on adult-born spinal cells cultured ex vivo have recently been reported, the effects of direct current electrical fields on adult-born spinal cells in vivo have not been characterized. Here, we provide convincing findings that a therapeutic form of transspinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS) affects the migration and proliferation of adult-born spinal cells in mice. Specifically, cathodal tsDCS attracted the adult-born spinal cells, while anodal tsDCS repulsed them. In addition, both tsDCS polarities caused a significant increase in cell number. Regarding the potential mechanisms involved, both cathodal and anodal tsDCS caused significant increases in expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, while expression of nerve growth factor increased and decreased, respectively. In the spinal cord, both anodal and cathodal tsDCS increased blood flow. Since blood flow and angiogenesis are associated with the proliferation of neural stem cells, increased blood flow may represent a major factor in the modulation of newly born spinal cells by tsDCS. Consequently, we propose that the method and novel findings presented in the current study have the potential to facilitate cellular, molecular, and/or bioengineering strategies to repair injured spinal cords.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Our results indicate that transspinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS) affects the migratory pattern and proliferation of adult newly born spinal cells, a cell population which has been implicated in learning and memory. In addition, our results suggest a

  20. Contact lenses as the best conservative treatment of newly diagnosed keratoconus--epidemiological retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Mrazovac, Danijela; Barisić Kutija, Marija; Vidas, Sania; Kuzman, Tomislav; Petricek, Igor; Jandroković, Sonja; Kalauz, Miro; Cerovski, Branimir

    2014-12-01

    Keratoconus is a progressive, non-inflammatory corneal ectasia characterized by thinning and weakening of the corneal stroma which results in its' protrusion. The onset is during puberty and progresses until the fourth decade of life. In earlier stages, good visual acuity can be provided with spectacles. With progression, contact lenses are considered to be a better therapy. Aim of this study was to determine if there is statistically significant difference between best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) obtained by spectacles and contact lenses in newly diagnosed keratoconus patients, as well as to determine which type of contact lenses provide better BCVA in keratoconus patients. We conducted a 5-year retrospective study of all 2891 patients attending our Contact Lens Department for the first time, searching for patients newly diagnosed with keratoconus. Data were obtained on gender, age, education level, treated eyes, corneal changes, keratoconus severity, BCVA with spectacles, contact lenses and best fitted contact lens type. All patients underwent standard ophthalmic exam, refractometry and keratometry have been done, followed by a spectacles correction and lens fitting. Wilcoxon signed rank test was used for statistical analysis. Results showed that of all 2891 patients examined for the first time, 137 patients (4.74%) have been newly diagnosed with heratoconus, there was male bias (72.26%), mean age 27.7 +/- 9.9 years. Most patients had high school education (51.11%), 3.70% had present corneal changes, 50.37% had mild heratoconus. Majority had keratoconus on both eyes (36.3%) or keratoconus of right eye (26.67%). There was a statistically significant difference (p<0.001) between the BCVA obtained with contact lenses (0.82 +/- 0.21 Snellen chart) rather than spectacles (0.37 +/- 0.27 Snellen chart). The best corrected visual acuity was achieved with rigid gas permeable (RGP) lenses in majority of kera- toconus eyes (51.85%), with semi-gas permeable (SGP) lenses

  1. Intracellular interaction of collagen-specific stress protein HSP47 with newly synthesized procollagen

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Heat shock protein 47 (HSP47), a collagen-specific stress protein, has been postulated to be a collagen-specific molecular chaperone localized in the ER. We previously demonstrated that HSP47 transiently associated with newly synthesized procollagen in the ER (Nakai, A., M. Satoh, K. Hirayoshi, and K. Nagata. 1992. J. Cell Biol. 117:903-914). In the present work, we examined the location where HSP47 binds to and dissociates from newly synthesized procollagen within the cells, and whether HSP47 associates with nascent single procollagen polypeptide chains and/or with mature triple-helix procollagen. This was accomplished by biochemical coprecipitation with anti-HSP47 and anticollagen antibodies, combined with pulse-label and chase experiments in the presence or absence of various inhibitors for protein secretion, as well as by confocal laser microscopic observation of the cells double stained with both antibodies. We further examined whether the RDEL (Arg-Asp-Glu-Leu) sequence at the COOH terminus of HSP47 can act as an ER-retention signal, as the KDEL sequence does. When the secretion of procollagen was inhibited by the presence of alpha, alpha'-dipyridyl, an iron chelator that inhibits procollagen triple-helix formation, or by the presence of brefeldin A. which inhibits protein transport between the ER and the Golgi apparatus, procollagen was found to be bound to HSP47 during the chase period in the intermediate compartment. In contrast, the dissociation of procollagen chains from HSP47 was not inhibited when procollagen secretion was inhibited by monensin or bafilomycin A1, both of which are known to be inhibitors of post-cis-Golgi transport. These findings suggest that HSP47 and procollagen dissociated between the post-ER and the cis-Golgi compartments. HSP47 was shown to bind to nascent, single- polypeptide chains of newly synthesized procollagen, as well as to the mature triple-helix form of procollagen. HSP47 with the RDEL sequence deleted was secreted out of

  2. Framing new pathways in transformative exercise for individuals with existing and newly acquired disability

    PubMed Central

    Rimmer, James; Lai, Byron

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: This paper describes a continuum of customized exercise options for people with an existing and newly acquired disability or diagnosis referred to as the Transformative Exercise Framework. Background: The period directly after rehabilitation is a critical juncture where many individuals return to life with high rates of sedentary behavior. After rehabilitation discharge, people with newly acquired disability or diagnoses often never make the transition into usage of community-based exercise services that are tailored, safe and effective. Methods: Narrative review. Results: The Transformative Exercise Framework supports a patient-to-participant, rehab-to-wellness model that emphasizes a linkage between physical and occupational therapists and community-based exercise trainers. The four focus areas – Rehabilitation, Condition-specific Exercise, Fitness and Lifetime Physical Activity – emphasize a range of options for people with newly acquired disability and diagnoses, or for people with existing disability and/or chronic health conditions who have a new injury, secondary condition or are severely deconditioned. Conclusion: The concept of transformative exercise is to support people with disabilities and diagnoses with a seamless restore–improve–prevent continuum of programs and services. This continuum connects individuals to rehabilitation and exercise professionals in a dynamic framework, which maximizes the expertise of both sets of professionals and provides the most effective interventions to achieve the greatest gains in health and function and/or to avoid future health decline.Implications for RehabilitationPatients discharged from rehabilitation should be transformed into participants in lifelong physical activity through a continuum of health services, which we refer to as Transformative Exercise.Transformative exercise is a continuum of individually tailored exercise strategies/programs that aims to improve the function of

  3. Detection of volatile organic peroxides in indoor air.

    PubMed

    Hong, J; Maguhn, J; Freitag, D; Kettrup, A

    2001-12-01

    A supercritical fluid extraction cell filled with adsorbent (Carbotrap and Carbotrap C) was used directly as a sampling tube to enrich volatile organic compounds in air. After sampling, the analytes were extracted by supercritical fluid CO2 with methanol as modifier. Collected organic peroxides were then determined by a RP-HPLC method developed and validated previously using post-column derivatization and fluorescence detection. Some volatile organic peroxides were found in indoor air in a new car and a newly decorated kitchen in the lower microg m(-3) range. tert-Butyl perbenzoate, di-tert-butyl peroxide, and tert-butylcumyl peroxide could be identified.

  4. [Meglumine acridonacetate and complex therapy of patients with newly identified advanced pulmonary tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Pravada, N S; Budritskiĭ, A M; Sukhanov, D S

    2014-01-01

    Clinical and immunological efficacy of meglumine acridonacetate (cycloferon) tablets was evaluated in complex treatment of patients with newly diagnosed advanced pulmonary tuberculosis. It was shown that the use of cycloferon according to our scheme increased the efficacy of the therapy (earlier disappearance of the disease symptoms and bacteria isolation, shorter-terms of cavern healing, more pronounced positive radiographic dynamics vs. the patients under the etiotropic therapy). The use of cycloferon normalized the number of gamma interferon receptors, increased the gamma interferon serum levels, reduced the incidence of the side effects (liver damage) due to the use of TB drugs. Such a use of cycloferon was cost effective. The use of sycloferon is possible in the complex treatment of outpatients with advanced pulmonary tuberculosis.

  5. Photophysical studies of newly derivatized mono substituted phthalocyanines grafted onto silica nanoparticles via click chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fashina, Adedayo; Amuhaya, Edith; Nyokong, Tebello

    2015-04-01

    This work reports on the synthesis, characterization and photophysical studies of newly derived phthalocyanine complexes and the phthalocyanine-silica nanoparticles conjugates. The derived phthalocyanine complexes have one terminal alkyne group. The derived phthalocyanine complexes showed improved photophysical properties (ФF, ФT, ΦΔ and τT) compared to the respective phthalocyanine complexes from which they were derived. The derived phthalocyanine complexes were conjugated to the surface of an azide functionalized silica nanoparticles via copper (1) catalyzed cyclo-addition reaction. All the conjugates showed lower triplet quantum yields ranging from 0.37 to 0.44 compared to the free phthalocyanine complexes. The triplet lifetimes ranged from 352 to 484 μs for the conjugates and from 341 to 366 μs for the free phthalocyanine complexes.

  6. Lactic acid production from sugar-cane juice by a newly isolated Lactobacillus sp.

    PubMed

    Timbuntam, Walaiporn; Sriroth, Klanarong; Tokiwa, Yutaka

    2006-06-01

    A newly isolated sucrose-tolerant, lactic acid bacterium, Lactobacillus sp. strain FCP2, was grown on sugar-cane juice (125 g sucrose l(-1), 8 g glucose l(-1) and 6 g fructose l(-1)) for 5 days and produced 104 g lactic acid l(-1) with 90% yield. A higher yield (96%) and productivity (2.8 g l(-1 )h(-1)) were obtained when strain FCP2 was cultured on 3% w/v (25 g sucrose l(-1), 2 g glucose l(-1) and 1 g fructose l(-1)) sugar-cane juice for 10 h. Various cheap nitrogen sources such as silk worm larvae, beer yeast autolysate and shrimp wastes were also used as a substitute to yeast extract.

  7. Evaluation of the probiotic characteristics of newly isolated lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Aswathy, Ravindran Girija; Ismail, Bindhumol; John, Rojan Pappy; Nampoothiri, Kesavan Madhavan

    2008-12-01

    Lactic acid bacteria were isolated from fermented vegetables, sour dough, milk products, sheep and human excreta. The newly isolated cultures were evaluated for a number of probiotic characteristics like bile salt resistance, salt tolerance in general, survival in low pH, hydrophobicity of the cell surface, resistance to low phenol concentration, antimicrobial activity and susceptibility pattern against vancomycin and erythromycin. The selected cultures were further screened for their ability to produce the nutraceticals such as folic acid and exopolysaccharide (EPS). Two potent isolates, CB2 (from cabbage) and SD2 (from sour dough) were found to produce both extracellular and intracellular folate. One of the isolates from yogurt (MC-1) and the one from whey (W3) produced significant amount of EPS with a maximum production of 8.79 +/- 0.05 g/l by MC-1.

  8. Parent strategies for addressing the needs of their newly adopted child.

    PubMed

    Tirella, Linda G; Tickle-Degnen, Linda; Miller, Laurie C; Bedell, Gary

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe reflections of nine American parents on the strengths, challenges, and strategies in parenting young children newly adopted from another country. Eight mothers and one father with an adopted child aged <3 years and home for <3 months completed standardized assessments measuring the child's social emotional development, sensory processing, and parental stress. Each parent participated in qualitative interview to discuss challenges and strategies helpful in addressing their children's needs. All parents reported challenges addressing their child's needs in the areas of sleep, feeding, attachment and self-regulation, and soothing. Parents reported similar strategies to address their child's behavioral concerns. Parents also reported on family factors and community resources that supported the success of the adoption. Although many families described their adoptive child as having challenges with multiple daily life activities, parents reported being able to create effective strategies to address many of these challenging behaviors.

  9. Seizures beget seizures in temporal lobe epilepsies: the boomerang effects of newly formed aberrant kainatergic synapses.

    PubMed

    Ben-Ari, Yehezkel; Crepel, Valérie; Represa, Alfonso

    2008-01-01

    Do temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) seizures in adults promote further seizures? Clinical and experimental data suggest that new synapses are formed after an initial episode of status epilepticus, however their contribution to the transformation of a naive network to an epileptogenic one has been debated. Recent experimental data show that newly formed aberrant excitatory synapses on the granule cells of the fascia dentate operate by means of kainate receptor-operated signals that are not present on naive granule cells. Therefore, genuine epileptic networks rely on signaling cascades that differentiate them from naive networks. Recurrent limbic seizures generated by the activation of kainate receptors and synapses in naive animals lead to the formation of novel synapses that facilitate the emergence of further seizures. This negative, vicious cycle illustrates the central role of reactive plasticity in neurological disorders.

  10. Conservative inheritance of newly synthesized DNA in double-strand break-induced gene conversion.

    PubMed

    Ira, Grzegorz; Satory, Dominik; Haber, James E

    2006-12-01

    To distinguish among possible mechanisms of repair of a double-strand break (DSB) by gene conversion in budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we employed isotope density transfer to analyze budding yeast mating type (MAT) gene switching in G2/M-arrested cells. Both of the newly synthesized DNA strands created during gene conversion are found at the repaired locus, leaving the donor unchanged. These results support suggestions that mitotic DSBs are primarily repaired by a synthesis-dependent strand-annealing mechanism. We also show that the proportion of crossing-over associated with DSB-induced ectopic recombination is not affected by the presence of nonhomologous sequences at one or both ends of the DSB or the presence of additional sequences that must be copied from the donor.

  11. A Fractional-Flow Based Compressible Multiphase Flow Model with Newly Proposed Constitutive Retentions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, C.; Yeh, G.

    2011-12-01

    In this investigation, newly proposed constitutive retentions are implemented to a fractional-flow based compressible multiphase-phase flow model. With the new model, a compressible three-phase (water, non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) and air) flow problem is simulated. In fractional-flow approaches, the three mass balance equations written in terms of three phase pressures are transformed to those in terms of the total pressure, saturation of water, and saturation of total liquid. These three governing equations are discretized with the Galerkin finite element method (FEM). The resulted matrix equation is solved with Bi-CGSTAB. Several numerical experiments are presented to examine the accuracy and robustness of the proposed model. The results show the presented fractional-flow based multiphase flow model is feasible and yields physically realistic solutions for compressible three-phase flow problems in porous media.

  12. Implementation of newly adopted technology in acute care settings: a qualitative analysis of clinical staff.

    PubMed

    Langhan, Melissa L; Riera, Antonio; Kurtz, Jordan C; Schaeffer, Paula; Asnes, Andrea G

    2015-01-01

    Technologies are not always successfully implemented into practice. This study elicited experiences of acute care providers with the introduction of technology and identified barriers and facilitators in the implementation process. A qualitative study using one-on-one interviews among a purposeful sample of 19 physicians and nurses within 10 emergency departments and intensive care units was performed. Grounded theory, iterative data analysis and the constant comparative method were used to inductively generate ideas and build theories. Five major categories emerged: decision-making factors, the impact on practice, technology's perceived value, facilitators and barriers to implementation. Barriers included negative experiences, age, infrequent use and access difficulties. A positive outlook, sufficient training, support staff and user friendliness were facilitators. This study describes strategies implicated in the successful implementation of newly adopted technology in acute care settings. Improved implementation methods and evaluation of implementation processes are necessary for successful adoption of new technology.

  13. Exploring the mental health effects of political trauma with newly arrived refugees.

    PubMed

    Shannon, Patricia J; Wieling, Elizabeth; McCleary, Jennifer Simmelink; Becher, Emily

    2015-04-01

    We explored the mental health effects of war trauma and torture as described by 111 refugees newly arrived in the United States. We used ethnocultural methodologies to inform 13 culture-specific focus groups with refugees from Bhutan (34), Burma (23), Ethiopia (27), and Somalia (27). Contrary to the belief that stigma prevents refugees from discussing mental health distress, participants readily described complex conceptualizations of degrees of mental health distress informed by political context, observation of symptoms, cultural idioms, and functional impairment. Recommendations for health care providers include assessment processes that inquire about symptoms in their political context, the degree of distress as it is culturally conceptualized, and its effect on functioning. Findings confirm the cross-cultural recognition of symptoms associated with posttraumatic stress disorder; however, refugees described significant cultural variation in expressions of distress, indicating the need for more research on culture-bound disorders and idioms of distress.

  14. How are pronunciation variants of spoken words recognized? A test of generalization to newly learned words.

    PubMed

    Pitt, Mark A

    2009-07-01

    One account of how pronunciation variants of spoken words (center-> "senner" or "sennah") are recognized is that sublexical processes use information about variation in the same phonological environments to recover the intended segments (Gaskell & Marslen-Wilson, 1998). The present study tests the limits of this phonological inference account by examining how listeners process for the first time a pronunciation variant of a newly learned word. Recognition of such a variant should occur as long as it possesses the phonological structure that legitimizes the variation. Experiments 1 and 2 identify a phonological environment that satisfies the conditions necessary for a phonological inference mechanism to be operational. Using a word-learning paradigm, Experiments 3 through 5 show that inference alone is not sufficient for generalization but could facilitate it, and that one condition that leads to generalization is meaningful exposure to the variant in an overheard conversation, demonstrating that lexical processing is necessary for variant recognition.

  15. Control of luciferase synthesis in a newly isolated strain of Photobacterium leiognathi.

    PubMed

    Katznelson, R; Ulitzur, S

    1977-12-15

    In previous studies with luminous bacteria of all different species it has been reported that the synthesis of luciferase is autoinducible: during growth at low cell densities synthesis is effectively repressed while after induction, at higher cell densities, the rate of synthesis of enzyme is up to five times the growth rate. In this paper we report on newly isolated strains of Photobacterium leiognathi which show continued luciferase synthesis irrespective of the cell density. The specific synthesis rate may nevertheless differ from the rate of growth and depends on the luciferase content of the inoculated cells. A ratio of 1 was established for cells having a maximum luciferase content varying to a ratio of about 2 for cells that contained only 1% of the maximum.

  16. Photophysical studies of newly derivatized mono substituted phthalocyanines grafted onto silica nanoparticles via click chemistry.

    PubMed

    Fashina, Adedayo; Amuhaya, Edith; Nyokong, Tebello

    2015-04-05

    This work reports on the synthesis, characterization and photophysical studies of newly derived phthalocyanine complexes and the phthalocyanine-silica nanoparticles conjugates. The derived phthalocyanine complexes have one terminal alkyne group. The derived phthalocyanine complexes showed improved photophysical properties (ФF, ФT, ΦΔ and τT) compared to the respective phthalocyanine complexes from which they were derived. The derived phthalocyanine complexes were conjugated to the surface of an azide functionalized silica nanoparticles via copper (1) catalyzed cyclo-addition reaction. All the conjugates showed lower triplet quantum yields ranging from 0.37 to 0.44 compared to the free phthalocyanine complexes. The triplet lifetimes ranged from 352 to 484 μs for the conjugates and from 341 to 366 μs for the free phthalocyanine complexes.

  17. Trail user demographics, physical activity behaviors, and perceptions of a newly constructed greenway trail.

    PubMed

    Price, Anna E; Reed, Julian A; Muthukrishnan, Suresh

    2012-10-01

    To better understand and promote physical activity on a newly constructed trail, the present study examined the demographic characteristics and physical activity behaviors of trail users; the demographic characteristics of trail users compared to the demographic profile Greenville County, South Carolina residents; trail users' purpose for using the trail; the distance trail users traveled to access the trail from their homes; channels through which trail users learned about the trail; and trail characteristics liked by trail users. Using a valid and reliable intercept survey, 1,148 trail users were interviewed. Trail users were mostly white (93.1%), male (59.1%) adults (84.2%) who reported using the trail for exercise (91%). Significant associations were identified between trail user demographic characteristics and how trail users learned about the trail and trail characteristics liked by trail users. The findings may contribute to the development of targeted health promotion efforts to promote physical activity on this and similar trails.

  18. Newly Recognized Occupational and Environmental Causes of Chronic Terminal Airways and Parenchymal Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sauler, Maor; Gulati, Mridu

    2012-01-01

    Synopsis With the introduction of new materials and changes in manufacturing practices, occupational health investigators continue to uncover associations between novel exposures and chronic forms of diffuse parenchymal lung disease and terminal airways disease. In order to discern exposure disease relationships, clinicians must maintain a high index of suspicion for the potential toxicity of occupational and environmental exposures. This article details several newly recognized chronic parenchymal and terminal airways. Diseases related to exposure to Indium, Nylon Flock, Diacetyl used in the flavorings industry, nanoparticles, and the World Trade Center disaster are reviewed. Additionally, this article will review methods in worker surveillance as well as the potential use of biomarkers in the evaluation of exposure disease relationships. PMID:23153608

  19. Detection of Blastomyces dermatitidis antigen in patients with newly diagnosed blastomycosis.

    PubMed

    Bariola, J Ryan; Hage, Chadi A; Durkin, Michelle; Bensadoun, Eric; Gubbins, Paul O; Wheat, L Joseph; Bradsher, Robert W

    2011-02-01

    Blastomycosis is a serious and potentially fatal infection, and diagnosis can be difficult at times. We evaluated the diagnostic utility of a commercially available assay for detection of Blastomyces dermatitidis antigen, recently modified to permit quantitation, in subjects with newly diagnosed blastomycosis. Twenty-three of 27 (85.1%) subjects had detectable B. dermatitidis antigenuria. In 2 of these 23, positive results were obtained after concentration of the urine specimen. Nine of 11 (81.8%) subjects had detectable B. dermatitidis antigen in serum, including 3 subjects with negative results before treatment of serum with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and positive results after EDTA treatment. B. dermatitidis antigen was not detected in specimens from 50 control subjects but was detected in 15 patients with histoplasmosis. B. dermatitidis antigen was detected in most of the patients with blastomycosis and can be a useful tool for timely diagnosis.

  20. Newly discovered reefs in the southern Abrolhos Bank, Brazil: Anthropogenic impacts and urgent conservation needs.

    PubMed

    Mazzei, E F; Bertoncini, A A; Pinheiro, H T; Machado, L F; Vilar, C C; Guabiroba, H C; Costa, T J F; Bueno, L S; Santos, L N; Francini-Filho, R B; Hostim-Silva, M; Joyeux, J-C

    2017-01-15

    The Abrolhos Bank is an area of high ecological, socio-economic importance and harbour the richest and most-extensive coral reefs in the South Atlantic. Here we report the discovery of shallow (12-25m depth) reef complex with ten large biogenic structures, intermediate between the typical mushroom-shaped pinnacles of the northern Abrolhos Bank (17°-18° S) and the small patch reefs found on the central/southern coast of the Espírito Santo State (19°-20° S). The newly discovered reefs harbour a relatively rich and abundant reef community, with 73 fish and 14 benthic cnidarian species, including endangered and commercially important ones. We discuss on urgent needs of properly mapping and understanding the ecological functioning of this reef system. Information provided here is a baseline for future impact evaluations, particularly considering the recent worst environmental disaster of Brazil from a dam collapse in Doce river that affected the region.

  1. Analysis of Inflammatory Mediators in Prediabetes and Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Patients

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Wen-Ming; Qiu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the inflammatory markers in prediabetes and newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Inflammatory markers levels were analyzed using one-way analysis of covariance and the association with prediabetes or T2DM risks was examined by logistic regression models. Our data showed increased levels of hypersensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin (IL-4), IL-10, and tryptase in prediabetes subjects and hs-CRP, immunoglobulin E (IgE), IL-4, and IL-10 in T2DM subjects. We concluded that Hs-CRP, IgE, IL-4, IL-10, and tryptase were positively associated with prediabetes or T2DM. Further large prospective studies are warranted to assess a temporal relation between inflammatory biomarkers and incidence of prediabetes or T2DM and its associated chronic diseases. PMID:27478850

  2. Efficient production of dihydroxyacetone from biodiesel-derived crude glycerol by newly isolated Gluconobacter frateurii.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Peng; Sun, Yang; Tan, Cong; Li, Hua; Zheng, Xiao-Juan; Jin, Kui-Qi; Wang, Gang

    2013-08-01

    The efficient production of dihydroxyacetone (DHA) on biodiesel-derived glycerol based media was developed. A newly isolated strain, Gluconobacter frateurii CGMCC 5397, could convert crude glycerol to DHA with high yield and productivity. In shake-flask fermentation, the DHA concentration of 73.1 gl(-1) was attained at 48 h using an optimum medium containing biodiesel-derived crude glycerol. When fed-batch fermentation was carried out in a 7-l stirred bioreactor with crude glycerol, the DHA concentration, productivity, and yield were 125.8 gl(-1), 2.6 gl(-1)h(-1), and 90.5% at 48 h, respectively. This study suggests that the inexpensive biodiesel-derived crude glycerol could be utilized for efficient production of DHA by G. frateurii.

  3. The presence of lysylpyridinoline in the hypertrophic cartilage of newly hatched chicks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orth, M. W.; Martinez, D. A.; Cook, M. E.; Vailas, A. C.

    1993-01-01

    The presence of lysylpyridinoline (LP) as a nonreducible cross-link in appreciable quantities has primarily been limited to the mineralized tissues, bone and dentin. However, the results reported here show that LP is not only present in the hypertrophic cartilage of the tibiotarsus isolated from newly hatched broiler chicks, but it is approx. 4-fold as concentrated as hydroxylysylpyridinoline (HP). Bone and articular cartilage surrounding the hypertrophic cartilage do not contain measurable quantities of LP. Purified LP has a fluorescent scan similar to purified HP and literature values, confirming that we indeed were measuring LP. Also, the cartilage lesion produced by immature chondrocytes from birds with tibial dyschondroplasia had LP but the HP:LP ratio was > 1. Thus, the low HP:LP ratio could be a marker for hypertrophic cartilage in avians.

  4. Annual accumulation over the Greenland ice sheet interpolated from historical and newly compiled observation data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shen, Dayong; Liu, Yuling; Huang, Shengli

    2012-01-01

    The estimation of ice/snow accumulation is of great significance in quantifying the mass balance of ice sheets and variation in water resources. Improving the accuracy and reducing uncertainty has been a challenge for the estimation of annual accumulation over the Greenland ice sheet. In this study, we kriged and analyzed the spatial pattern of accumulation based on an observation data series including 315 points used in a recent research, plus 101 ice cores and snow pits and newly compiled 23 coastal weather station data. The estimated annual accumulation over the Greenland ice sheet is 31.2 g cm−2 yr−1, with a standard error of 0.9 g cm−2 yr−1. The main differences between the improved map developed in this study and the recently published accumulation maps are in the coastal areas, especially southeast and southwest regions. The analysis of accumulations versus elevation reveals the distribution patterns of accumulation over the Greenland ice sheet.

  5. Notexin preferentially inhibits the release of newly synthesized acetylcholine from rat brain synaptosomal fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Gundersen, C.B.; Jenden, D.J.

    1981-01-01

    An investigation was made of the effects of the snake venom neurotoxin, notexin, on acetylcholine turnover in rat brain P2 fractions using a gas chromatographic mass spectrometric assay for acetylcholine and choline. In contrast to earlier reports, we found a stimulation of the uptake and acetylation of labeled choline by toxin-treated P2 fractions. More significantly, notexin inhibited the release of this newly synthesized transmitter. These effects were found to be dependent on the dose of the toxin and the time of exposure of the P2 fraction to notexin. Longer exposure to notexin or experiments involving resuspension of notexin-treated P2 fractions appeared to result in considerable lysis of the transmitter-containing particles. Thus, notexin may alter acetylcholine compartmentation in the nerve ending and thereby affect acetylcholine synthesis.

  6. Evaluation of apoptosis-induction by newly synthesized phthalazine derivatives in breast cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Arif, Jamal M; Kunhi, Muhammad; Bekhit, Adnan A; Subramanian, Manogaran P; Al-Hussein, Khalid; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y; Al-Khodairy, Fahad M

    2006-01-01

    Newly synthesized phthalazine derivatives including copper and platinum complexes were evaluated for cytotoxicity in human breast cancer cell lines. The cells were incubated with the compounds (100 microM) for 72 h and cytotoxicity, apoptosis and DNA content were measured by flow cytometery. Our results suggest that the parent (H1-2), copper (C1-2)- and platinum (P1-2)-derivatized compounds were relatively more active in inducing apoptosis and cell killing in both human breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 cells being the more sensitive. Other compounds showed weak or no response towards these parameters except H-5 causing 40% apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 cells. Addition of copper or platinum in the structures generally reduced the apoptotic potential. Possible roles for structure activity relationships are discussed.

  7. Newly Designed Tensile Test System for in vitro Measurement of Mechanical Properties of Cytoskeletal Filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deguchi, Shinji; Ohashi, Toshiro; Sato, Masaaki

    A tensile test system for isolated cytoskeletal filaments, which enables to control strain rate, was newly designed. A pair of piezo-driven cantilevers were used to manipulate the specimen and to measure tensile load from the deflection of one of the cantilevers. The displacements of the cantilevers were optically and electrically detected. The specimen strain, determined from the cantilever displacements, was used as a feedback signal. We proposed a servo-system for strain rate control in which a desired path for the strain transition was designated. The path was chosen as a triangular-shape waveform against time, along which the strain rate is kept constant. We measured tensile properties of a single stress fiber isolated from a smooth muscle cell with this system to obtain a stretching stiffness of 45nN per strain. Performance evaluation and the tensile test demonstrated that the system enabled to carry out strain rate-controlled tensile test.

  8. Newly graduated nurse anesthetists' experiences and views on anesthesia nursing--a phenomenographic study.

    PubMed

    Mauleon, Annika Larsson; Ekman, Sirkka-Liisa

    2002-08-01

    This qualitative study identifies and describes different ways in which newly graduated nurse anesthetists (NAs) experience and perceive nurse anesthesia. It explains different approaches to nurse anesthesia care and, thus, to clinical nursing care (in an anesthesia and surgical context), provided by new NAs. One month after graduation, all NAs who had completed an anesthesia nursing program responded to 4 open-ended questions. A phenomenographic method was used to analyze their responses. The results were divided into 3 categories, which describe nurse anesthesia from the perspectives of (1) maintaining physical well-being; (2) being protectors and advocates; and (3) ability to perform good nurse anesthesia given all the demands placed on the NAs. The results indicate that, for the new NAs, the nurse anesthesia care situation was largely influenced by context and generated feelings of inadequacy because the NAs could not provide the emotional support that they believed their patients required.

  9. Cognition in patients with newly diagnosed brain metastasis: profiles and implications.

    PubMed

    Gerstenecker, Adam; Nabors, Louis B; Meneses, Karen; Fiveash, John B; Marson, Daniel C; Cutter, Gary; Martin, Roy C; Meyers, Christina A; Triebel, Kristen L

    2014-10-01

    Cognitive impairment is a common symptom in patients with brain metastasis, and significant cognitive dysfunction is prevalent in a majority of patients who are still able to engage in basic self-care activities. In the current study, the neurocognitive performance of 32 patients with brain metastasis and 32 demographically-matched controls was examined using a battery of standardized neuropsychological tests, with the goal of comprehensively examining the cognitive functioning of newly diagnosed brain metastasis patients. The cognition of all patients was assessed within 1 week of beginning treatment for brain metastasis. Results indicated impairments in verbal memory, attention, executive functioning, and language in relation to healthy controls. Performance in relation to appropriate normative groups was also examined. Overall, cognitive deficits were prevalent and memory was the most common impairment. Given that cognitive dysfunction was present in this cohort of patients with largely minimal functional impairment, these results have implications for patients, caregivers and health care providers treating patients with brain metastasis.

  10. Ophthalmic findings of newly diagnosed leprosy patients in Istanbul Leprosy Hospital, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Cakiner, T; Karaçorlu, M A

    1998-02-01

    The objective of this study was to detect ocular lesions of newly diagnosed leprosy cases admitted to Istanbul Leprosy Hospital. The patients were categorized according to sex, age, type of leprosy and duration of the disease. Their eyes were categorized as with or without ocular findings due to leprosy. The total number of patients was 21. The mean age was 22+/-4.6 years, the duration of the disease was 36.3+/-19.6 months. Madarosis was the most common finding in this group. It was found in 15 patients (71.4%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 47.8-88.7%). As a second common finding related to corneal alterations, 13 patients had nerve thickening (61.9%, 95% CI 38.4-81.8%). None of our patients had trichiasis, episcleritis, scleritis, cataract, iris atrophy, iris pearl, abnormal vitreous or retinal findings.

  11. Asthmagenic properties of a newly developed detergent ingredient: sodium iso-nonanoyl oxybenzene sulphonate.

    PubMed Central

    Stenton, S C; Dennis, J H; Walters, E H; Hendrick, D J

    1990-01-01

    The suspicion that a newly developed detergent ingredient, sodium iso-nonanoyl oxybenzene sulphonate (SINOS), was inducing asthma among a workforce led to a series of inhalation challenge tests to determine the specificity and dose response characteristics of its asthma provoking properties. Three previously exposed workers, three non-exposed non-asthmatic controls, and three non-exposed asthmatic controls were challenged with SINOS 0.01-100 micrograms and another chemically similar surface active detergent ingredient, linear alkyl benzene sulphonate (LAS) 0.01-100 micrograms. Asthmatic symptoms, late falls in FEV1, and increases in non-specific bronchial responsiveness were seen after the inhalation of SINOS in all three workers, confirming SINOS as a cause of occupational asthma. No changes were seen after the inhalation of SINOS in either group of control subjects nor after LAS in any subject. These findings suggest that SINOS causes asthma through a specific hypersensitivity mechanism unrelated to its surface active properties. PMID:2165800

  12. Use of new biotechnology to design rational drugs against newly defined targets.

    PubMed

    Salfeld, Jochen G

    2004-02-01

    Success in drug discovery depends largely on the implementation of appropriate strategies that build on new technologies and the appropriate mix of drug-discovery platforms and research management procedures. Close collaboration between pharmaceutical companies, biotechnology companies and academic institutions during the many intricate phases of drug discovery is necessary to address the need to co-ordinate and streamline target discovery and validation activities, which typically take much longer than anticipated. Antibodies have become an important segment of newly developed therapeutics for a wide range of indications and offer the appropriate risk/benefit profile to balance drug-discovery and development portfolios for optimum success. However, as with other discovery activities, long-term commitment and experience are required to exploit these new techniques fully. Companies with experience in managing the appropriate mix of small-molecule and antibody discovery efforts while implementing novel techniques will remain at the forefront of drug development.

  13. The effects of novel and newly approved antipsychotics on serum prolactin levels: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Peuskens, J; Pani, L; Detraux, J; De Hert, M

    2014-05-01

    Since the 1970s, clinicians have increasingly become more familiar with hyperprolactinemia (HPRL) as a common adverse effect of antipsychotic medication, which remains the cornerstone of pharmacological treatment for patients with schizophrenia. Although treatment with second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) as a group is, compared with use of the first-generation antipsychotics, associated with lower prolactin (PRL) plasma levels, the detailed effects on plasma PRL levels for each of these compounds in reports often remain incomplete or inaccurate. Moreover, at this moment, no review has been published about the effect of the newly approved antipsychotics asenapine, iloperidone and lurasidone on PRL levels. The objective of this review is to describe PRL physiology; PRL measurement; diagnosis, causes, consequences and mechanisms of HPRL; incidence figures of (new-onset) HPRL with SGAs and newly approved antipsychotics in adolescent and adult patients; and revisit lingering questions regarding this hormone. A literature search, using the MEDLINE database (1966-December 2013), was conducted to identify relevant publications to report on the state of the art of HPRL and to summarize the available evidence with respect to the propensity of the SGAs and the newly approved antipsychotics to elevate PRL levels. Our review shows that although HPRL usually is defined as a sustained level of PRL above the laboratory upper limit of normal, limit values show some degree of variability in clinical reports, making the interpretation and comparison of data across studies difficult. Moreover, many reports do not provide much or any data detailing the measurement of PRL. Although the highest rates of HPRL are consistently reported in association with amisulpride, risperidone and paliperidone, while aripiprazole and quetiapine have the most favorable profile with respect to this outcome, all SGAs can induce PRL elevations, especially at the beginning of treatment, and have the

  14. Job and Professional Leaving Among Newly Licensed RNs: A Structural Equation Model.

    PubMed

    Unruh, Lynn; Zhang, Ning Jackie; Chisolm, Latarsha

    2016-01-01

    With more than 50% of the nursing workforce close to retirement, it is especially important to keep younger nurses in nursing jobs and careers. This study empirically tests a structural equation model of registered nurse (RN) intent to leave the job and profession using data from a survey of newly licensed RNs (NLRNs). Job demands, difficulties and control, intent to leave the job, and intent to leave the profession were latent variables. A number of direct, indirect, and mediating relationships were modeled. Measurement models for all latent variables and the structural model had good fit. The final model showed a path from job demands, difficulties, and control to job satisfaction to intent to leave the job to intent to leave the profession. The results suggest that the process of an NLRN intending to leave the job and profession involves a number of mediators between the work environment and this intent.

  15. Hypoactivation of reward motivational system in patients with newly diagnosed hypertension grade I-II.

    PubMed

    Aftanas, L I; Brak, I V; Gilinskaya, O M; Korenek, V V; Pavlov, S V; Reva, N V

    2014-08-01

    In patients with newly diagnosed untreated grade I-II hypertension, EEG oscillations were recorded under conditions activation of the two basic motivational systems, defensive motivational system and positive reinforcement system, evoked by recall of personally meaningful emotional events. The 64-channel EEG and cardiovascular reactivity (beat-by-beat technology) were simultaneously recorded. At rest, hypertensive patients had significantly reduced platelet serotonin concentrations in comparison with healthy individuals. The patients experiencing emotional activation were characterized by significantly lower intensity of positive emotions associated with more pronounced suppression of EEG activity in the delta (2-4 Hz) and theta (ranges of frequency 4-6 and 6-8 Hz) oscillators in the parieto-occipital cortex (zones P and PO) in both hemispheres of the brain. The findings attest to insufficient function of the brain serotonin system and hypoactivation of the reward/reinforcement system in patients with primary hypertension.

  16. Butaclamol in newly admitted chronic schizophrenic patients: a modified fixed-dose dose-range design.

    PubMed

    Clark, M L; Costiloe, J P; Wood, F; Paredes, A; Fulkerson, F G

    1977-11-01

    In a double-blind placebo controlled study of newly admitted chronic schizophrenics, an attempt was made to further evaluate the safety, acceptability, and effectiveness of BT in doses of 10, 20, and 40 mg. Significant dose related responses occurred on several behavioral variables by the first week of treatment. Maximum clinical response appeared to be at the 20-40 mg. dose level. Extrapyramidal signs occurred at all doses, but with greater severity at higher doses. Excessive daytime drowsiness occurred in all groups but with longer duration and greater intensity in the 20 mg. group. Rebound insomnia occurred after the abrupt withdrawal of BT at all dose levels suggesting the desirability of further study of its hypnotic properties.

  17. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Newly Diagnosed at Autopsy in New York City, 2008-2012.

    PubMed

    Ramaswamy, Chitra; Ellman, Tanya M; Myers, Julie; Madsen, Ann; Sepkowitz, Kent; Shepard, Colin

    2015-12-01

    Background.  Studying the most extreme example of late diagnosis, new HIV diagnoses after death, may be instructive to HIV testing efforts. Using the results of routine HIV testing of autopsies performed by the Office of Chief Medical Examiner (OCME), we identified new HIV diagnoses after death in New York City (NYC) from 2008 to 2012. Methods.  Population-based registries for HIV and deaths were linked to identify decedents not known to be HIV-infected before death. Multivariable logistic regression models were constructed to determine correlates of a new HIV diagnosis after death among all persons newly diagnosed with HIV and among all HIV-infected decedents receiving an OCME autopsy. Results.  Of 264 893 deaths, 24 426 (9.2%) were autopsied by the NYC OCME. Of these, 1623 (6.6%) were infected with HIV, including 142 (8.8%) with a new HIV diagnosis at autopsy. This represents 0.8% (142 of 18 542) of all new HIV diagnoses during the 5-year period. Decedents newly diagnosed with HIV at OCME autopsy were predominantly male (73.9%), aged 13-64 years (85.9%), non-white (85.2%), unmarried (81.7%), less than college educated (83.8%), and residents of an impoverished neighborhood (62.0%). Of all HIV-infected OCME decedents aged ≥65 years (n = 71), 22.0% were diagnosed at autopsy. The strongest independent correlate of new HIV diagnosis at autopsy in both multivariable models was age ≥65 years. Conclusions.  Human immunodeficiency virus diagnoses first made after death are rare, but, when observed, these diagnoses are more commonly found among persons ≥65 years, suggesting that despite highly visible efforts to promote HIV testing community-wide, timely diagnosis among older adults living in impoverished, high-prevalence neighborhoods may require additional strategies.

  18. Enhanced carboxymethylcellulase production by a newly isolated marine bacterium, Cellulophaga lytica LBH-14, using rice bran.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wa; Lee, Eun-Jung; Lee, Sang-Un; Li, Jianhong; Chung, Chung-Han; Lee, Jin-Woo

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this work was to establish the optimal conditions for production of carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase) by a newly isolated marine bacterium using response surface methodology (RSM). A microorganism producing CMCase, isolated from seawater, was identified as Cellulophaga lytica based 16S rDNA sequencing and the neighborjoining method. The optimal conditions of rice bran, ammonium chloride, and initial pH of the medium for cell growth were 100.0 g/l, 5.00 g/l, and 7.0, respectively, whereas those for production of CMCase were 79.9 g/l, 8.52 g/l, and 6.1. The optimal concentrations of K2HPO4, NaCl, MgSO4·7H2O, and (NH4)2SO4 for cell growth were 6.25, 0.62, 0.28, and 0.42 g/l, respectively, whereas those for production of CMCase were 3.72, 0.54, 0.70, and 0.34 g/l. The optimal temperature for cell growth and the CMCase production by C. lytica LBH-14 were 35 degrees C and 25 degrees C, respectively. The maximal production of CMCase under optimized condition for 3 days was 110.8 U/ml, which was 5.3 times higher than that before optimization. In this study, rice bran and ammonium chloride were developed as carbon and nitrogen sources for the production of CMCase by C. lytica LBH-14. The time for production of CMCase by a newly isolated marine bacterium with submerged fermentations reduced to 3 days, which resulted in enhanced productivity of CMCase and a decrease in its production cost.

  19. Newly synthesized mRNA in pea cotyledons at early stages of germination

    SciTech Connect

    Gumilevskaya, N.A.; Akhmatova, A.T.; Chumikina, L.V.; Kretovich, V.L.

    1986-01-20

    The intracellular localization and properties of the bulk of the newly synthesized RNAs in pea cotyledons after 5 h of swelling of dry embryos in the presence of (/sup 3/H) uridine were investigated. It was shown that more than 60% of the labeled RNA of the cotyledon homogenate is detected in a nucleus-free extract and is found in the postmitochondrial fraction; approx. 50% of this is present in the fraction enriched with polysomes, and only a small fraction (approx. 7%) corresponds to the monosomes and post-ribosomal particles. Structures containing the bulk of the labeled RNA are not membrane-bound; they are decomposed by treatment with RNase, sediment more rapidly than the 80S ribosomes, and have a buoyant density equal to 1.55-1.53 g/cm/sup 3/, on the basis of which they can be considered as polysomes. In the investigated period almost all the polysome-bound labeled RNA is sensitive to mild treatment with RNase, has a sedimentation coefficient from 10S to 30S, and is capable of being adsorbed on nitrocellulose filters. On the basis of the results obtained it is concluded that the predominant type of newly synthesized RNA in the cytoplasm of cells of pea cotyledons during the first hours of swelling is the mRNA-like RNAs, which are rapidly bound to the polysomes and are involved in the translation process. The synthesis and rapid utilization of this type of RNA in the polysomes are distinctly recorded in the cotyledons at all stages of germination: in the period of swelling, the lag phase, and the phase of growth.

  20. Elucidating interactions and conductivity of newly synthesised low bandgap polymer with protic and aprotic ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Attri, Pankaj; Lee, Seung-Hyun; Hwang, Sun Woo; Kim, Joong I L; Lee, Sang Woo; Kwon, Gi-Chung; Choi, Eun Ha; Kim, In Tae

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we have examined the conductivity and interaction studies of ammonium and imidazolium based ionic liquids (ILs) with the newly synthesised low bandgap polymer (Poly(2-heptadecyl-4-vinylthieno[3,4-d]thiazole) (PHVTT)). Use of low bandgap polymers is the most suitable way to harvest a broader spectrum of solar radiations for solar cells. But, still there is lack of most efficient low bandgap polymer. In order to solve this problem, we have synthesised a new low bandgap polymer and investigated its interaction with the ILs to enhance its conductivity. ILs may undergo almost unlimited structural variations; these structural variations have attracted extensive attention in polymer studies. The aim of present work is to illustrate the state of art progress of implementing the interaction of ILs (protic and aprotic ILs) with newly synthesised low bandgap polymer. In addition to this, our UV-Vis spectroscopy, confocal Raman spectroscopy and FT-IR spectroscopy results have revealed that all studied ILs (tributylmethylammonium methyl sulfate ([N1444][MeSO4] from ammonium family) and 1-methylimidazolium chloride ([Mim]Cl, and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Bmim]Cl from imidazolium family) have potential to interact with polymer. Our semi empirical calculation with help of Hyperchem 7 shows that protic IL ([Mim]Cl) interacts strongly with the low bandgap polymer through the H-bonding. Further, protic ILs shows enhanced conductivity than aprotic ILs in association with low bandgap polymer. This study provides the combined effect of low bandgap polymer and ILs that may generate many theoretical and experimental opportunities.

  1. Sensory deprivation disrupts homeostatic regeneration of newly generated olfactory sensory neurons after injury in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Kikuta, Shu; Sakamoto, Takashi; Nagayama, Shin; Kanaya, Kaori; Kinoshita, Makoto; Kondo, Kenji; Tsunoda, Koichi; Mori, Kensaku; Yamasoba, Tatsuya

    2015-02-11

    Although it is well known that injury induces the generation of a substantial number of new olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) in the adult olfactory epithelium (OE), it is not well understood whether olfactory sensory input influences the survival and maturation of these injury-induced OSNs in adults. Here, we investigated whether olfactory sensory deprivation affected the dynamic incorporation of newly generated OSNs 3, 7, 14, and 28 d after injury in adult mice. Mice were unilaterally deprived of olfactory sensory input by inserting a silicone tube into their nostrils. Methimazole, an olfactotoxic drug, was also injected intraperitoneally to bilaterally ablate OSNs. The OE was restored to its preinjury condition with new OSNs by day 28. No significant differences in the numbers of olfactory marker protein-positive mature OSNs or apoptotic OSNs were observed between the deprived and nondeprived sides 0-7 d after injury. However, between days 7 and 28, the sensory-deprived side showed markedly fewer OSNs and mature OSNs, but more apoptotic OSNs, than the nondeprived side. Intrinsic functional imaging of the dorsal surface of the olfactory bulb at day 28 revealed that responses to odor stimulation were weaker in the deprived side compared with those in the nondeprived side. Furthermore, prevention of cell death in new neurons 7-14 d after injury promoted the recovery of the OE. These results indicate that, in the adult OE, sensory deprivation disrupts compensatory OSN regeneration after injury and that newly generated OSNs have a critical time window for sensory-input-dependent survival 7-14 d after injury.

  2. Perceived social support among HIV patients newly enrolled in care in rural Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Lifson, Alan R; Workneh, Sale; Hailemichael, Abera; Demissie, Workneh; Slater, Lucy; Shenie, Tibebe

    2015-01-01

    Social support significantly enhances physical and mental health for persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We surveyed 142 rural Ethiopian HIV patients newly enrolled in care for perceived social support and factors associated with low support levels. Using the Social Provisions Scale (SPS), the mean summary score was 19.1 (possible scores = 0-48). On six SPS subscales, mean scores (possible scores = 0-8), were: Reliable Alliance (others can be counted on for tangible assistance) = 2.8, Attachment (emotional closeness providing sense of security) = 2.9, Reassurance of Worth (recognition of competence and value by others) = 3.2, Guidance (provision of advice or information by others) = 3.2, Social Integration (belonging to a group with similar interests and concerns) = 3.5, and Nurturance (belief that others rely on one for their well-being) = 3.6. In multivariate analysis, factors significantly associated with lower social support scores were: lower education level (did not complete primary school) (p = .019), lower total score on knowledge items about HIV care/treatment (p = .038), and greater number of external stigma experiences in past three months (p < .001); greater number of chronic disease symptoms was of borderline significance (p = .098). Among rural Ethiopian patients newly entering HIV care, we found moderate and varying levels of perceived social support, with lowest scores for subscales reflecting emotional closeness and reliance on others for tangible assistance. Given that patients who have recently learned their diagnosis and entered care may be an especially vulnerable group, programs to help identify and address social support needs can provide multiple benefits in facilitating the best possible physical, emotional and functional quality of life for people living with HIV.

  3. 'It is a dilemma': perspectives of nurse practitioners on health screening of newly arrived migrants.

    PubMed

    Kalengayi, Faustine K Nkulu; Hurtig, Anna-Karin; Nordstrand, Annika; Ahlm, Clas; Ahlberg, Beth M

    2015-01-01

    Background Screening newly arrived migrants from countries with high burden of communicable diseases of public health significance is part of the Swedish national strategy against the spread of these diseases. However, little is known about its implementation. Objective This study aimed at exploring caregivers' experiences in screening newly arrived migrants to generate knowledge that could inform policy and clinical practice. Design Using an interpretive description framework, we conducted semistructured interviews between November and December 2011 in four Swedish counties, with 15 purposively selected nurses with experience in screening migrants. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results Participants described a range of challenges including discordant views between migrants and the nurses about medical screening, inconsistencies in rules and practices, and conflicting policies. Participants indicated that sociocultural differences resulted in divergent expectations with migrants viewing the participants as agents of migration authorities. They also expressed concern over being given a new assignment without training and being expected to share responsibilities with staff from other agencies without adequate coordination. Finally, they indicated that existing policies can be confusing and raise ethical issues. All these were compounded by language barriers, making their work environment extremely complex and stressful. Conclusions These findings illuminate complex challenges that could limit access to, uptake, and delivery of health screening and undermine public health goals, and highlight the need for a multilevel approach. This entails avoiding the conflation of migration with health issues, harmonizing existing policies to make health care services more accessible and acceptable to migrants, and facilitating health professionals' work in promoting public health, improving interagency collaboration and the skills of all staff involved in

  4. Elucidating Interactions and Conductivity of Newly Synthesised Low Bandgap Polymer with Protic and Aprotic Ionic Liquids

    PubMed Central

    Attri, Pankaj; Lee, Seung-Hyun; Hwang, Sun Woo; Kim, Joong I. L.; Lee, Sang Woo; Kwon, Gi-Chung; Choi, Eun Ha; Kim, In Tae

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we have examined the conductivity and interaction studies of ammonium and imidazolium based ionic liquids (ILs) with the newly synthesised low bandgap polymer (Poly(2-heptadecyl-4-vinylthieno[3,4-d]thiazole) (PHVTT)). Use of low bandgap polymers is the most suitable way to harvest a broader spectrum of solar radiations for solar cells. But, still there is lack of most efficient low bandgap polymer. In order to solve this problem, we have synthesised a new low bandgap polymer and investigated its interaction with the ILs to enhance its conductivity. ILs may undergo almost unlimited structural variations; these structural variations have attracted extensive attention in polymer studies. The aim of present work is to illustrate the state of art progress of implementing the interaction of ILs (protic and aprotic ILs) with newly synthesised low bandgap polymer. In addition to this, our UV-Vis spectroscopy, confocal Raman spectroscopy and FT-IR spectroscopy results have revealed that all studied ILs (tributylmethylammonium methyl sulfate ([N1444][MeSO4] from ammonium family) and 1-methylimidazolium chloride ([Mim]Cl, and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Bmim]Cl from imidazolium family) have potential to interact with polymer. Our semi empirical calculation with help of Hyperchem 7 shows that protic IL ([Mim]Cl) interacts strongly with the low bandgap polymer through the H-bonding. Further, protic ILs shows enhanced conductivity than aprotic ILs in association with low bandgap polymer. This study provides the combined effect of low bandgap polymer and ILs that may generate many theoretical and experimental opportunities. PMID:23874829

  5. NRSF and BDNF polymorphisms as biomarkers of cognitive dysfunction in adults with newly diagnosed epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Warburton, Alix; Miyajima, Fabio; Shazadi, Kanvel; Crossley, Joanne; Johnson, Michael R; Marson, Anthony G; Baker, Gus A; Quinn, John P; Sills, Graeme J

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive dysfunction is a common comorbidity in people with epilepsy, but its causes remain unclear. It may be related to the etiology of the disorder, the consequences of seizures, or the effects of antiepileptic drug treatment. Genetics may also play a contributory role. We investigated the influence of variants in the genes encoding neuron-restrictive silencer factor (NRSF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), proteins previously associated with cognition and epilepsy, on cognitive function in people with newly diagnosed epilepsy. A total of 82 patients who had previously undergone detailed neuropsychological assessment were genotyped for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across the NRSF and BDNF genes. Putatively functional SNPs were included in a genetic association analysis with specific cognitive domains, including memory, psychomotor speed, and information processing. Cross-sectional and longitudinal designs were used to explore genetic influences on baseline cognition at diagnosis and change from baseline over the first year since diagnosis, respectively. We found a statistically significant association between genotypic variation and memory function at both baseline (NRSF: rs1105434, rs2227902 and BDNF: rs1491850, rs2030324, rs11030094) and in our longitudinal analysis (NRSF: rs2227902 and BDNF: rs12273363). Psychomotor speed was also associated with genotype (NRSF rs3796529) in the longitudinal assessment. In line with our previous work on general cognitive function in the healthy aging population, we observed an additive interaction between risk alleles for the NRSF rs2227902 (G) and BDNF rs6265 (A) polymorphisms which was again consistent with a significantly greater decline in delayed recall over the first year since diagnosis. These findings support a role for the NRSF-BDNF pathway in the modulation of cognitive function in patients with newly diagnosed epilepsy.

  6. The physical demands of Super League rugby: Experiences of a newly promoted franchise.

    PubMed

    Evans, S D; Brewer, C; Haigh, J D; Lake, M; Morton, J P; Close, G L

    2015-01-01

    The physical match demands for a newly promoted European Super League (ESL) squad were analysed over a full season using global positioning systems. Players were classified into four positional groups: outside backs (OB), pivots (PIV), middle unit forwards (MUF) and wide running forwards (WRF). MUF covered less total distance (4318 ± 570 m) than WRF (6408 ± 629 m), PIV (6549 ± 853) and OB (7246 ± 333 m) (P < 0.05) and less sprint distance (185 ± 58 m) than WRF (296 ± 82 m), PIV (306 ± 108) and OB (421 ± 89 m; P < 0.05), likely attributable to less playing time by MUF (47.8 ± 6.6 min) compared with WRF (77.0 ± 9.0 min), PIV (72.8 ± 10.6 min) and OB (86.7 ± 3.4 min; P < 0.05). Metres per minute were greater for MUF (90.8 ± 2.2 m.min(-1)) compared with OB (83.6 ± 2.8 m.min(-1)) and WRF (83.4 ± 2.4 m.min(-1); P = 0.001) although not different from PIV (90.2 ± 3.3 m.min(-1); P > 0.05). WRF (36 ± 5) and MUF (35 ± 6) were involved in more collisions than OB (20 ± 3) and PIV (23 ± 3; P < 0.05). The high-speed running and collision demands observed here were greater than that previously reported in the ESL, which may reflect increased demands placed on the lower ranked teams. The present data may be used to inform coaches if training provides the physical stimulus to adequately prepare their players for competition which may be especially pertinent for newly promoted franchises.

  7. Vitamin and Mineral Deficiencies Are Highly Prevalent in Newly Diagnosed Celiac Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wierdsma, Nicolette J.; van Bokhorst-de van der Schueren, Marian A. E.; Berkenpas, Marijke; Mulder, Chris J. J.; van Bodegraven, Ad A.

    2013-01-01

    Malabsorption, weight loss and vitamin/mineral-deficiencies characterize classical celiac disease (CD). This study aimed to assess the nutritional and vitamin/mineral status of current “early diagnosed” untreated adult CD-patients in the Netherlands. Newly diagnosed adult CD-patients were included (n = 80, 42.8 ± 15.1 years) and a comparable sample of 24 healthy Dutch subjects was added to compare vitamin concentrations. Nutritional status and serum concentrations of folic acid, vitamin A, B6, B12, and (25-hydroxy) D, zinc, haemoglobin (Hb) and ferritin were determined (before prescribing gluten free diet). Almost all CD-patients (87%) had at least one value below the lower limit of reference. Specifically, for vitamin A, 7.5% of patients showed deficient levels, for vitamin B6 14.5%, folic acid 20%, and vitamin B12 19%. Likewise, zinc deficiency was observed in 67% of the CD-patients, 46% had decreased iron storage, and 32% had anaemia. Overall, 17% were malnourished (>10% undesired weight loss), 22% of the women were underweight (Body Mass Index (BMI) < 18.5), and 29% of the patients were overweight (BMI > 25). Vitamin deficiencies were barely seen in healthy controls, with the exception of vitamin B12. Vitamin/mineral deficiencies were counter-intuitively not associated with a (higher) grade of histological intestinal damage or (impaired) nutritional status. In conclusion, vitamin/mineral deficiencies are still common in newly “early diagnosed” CD-patients, even though the prevalence of obesity at initial diagnosis is rising. Extensive nutritional assessments seem warranted to guide nutritional advices and follow-up in CD treatment. PMID:24084055

  8. Characterizing Newly Repopulated Microglia in the Adult Mouse: Impacts on Animal Behavior, Cell Morphology, and Neuroinflammation

    PubMed Central

    Elmore, Monica R. P.; Lee, Rafael J.; West, Brian L.; Green, Kim N.

    2015-01-01

    Microglia are the primary immune cell in the brain and are postulated to play important roles outside of immunity. Administration of the dual colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R)/c-Kit kinase inhibitor, PLX3397, to adult mice results in the elimination of ~99% of microglia, which remain eliminated for as long as treatment continues. Upon removal of the inhibitor, microglia rapidly repopulate the entire adult brain, stemming from a central nervous system (CNS) resident progenitor cell. Using this method of microglial elimination and repopulation, the role of microglia in both healthy and diseased states can be explored. Here, we examine the responsiveness of newly repopulated microglia to an inflammatory stimulus, as well as determine the impact of these cells on behavior, cognition, and neuroinflammation. Two month-old wild-type mice were placed on either control or PLX3397 diet for 21 d to eliminate microglia. PLX3397 diet was then removed in a subset of animals to allow microglia to repopulate and behavioral testing conducted beginning at 14 d repopulation. Finally, inflammatory profiling of the microglia-repopulated brain in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 0.25 mg/kg) or phosphate buffered saline (PBS) was determined 21 d after inhibitor removal using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), as well as detailed analyses of microglial morphologies. We find mice with repopulated microglia to perform similarly to controls by measures of behavior, cognition, and motor function. Compared to control/resident microglia, repopulated microglia had larger cell bodies and less complex branching in their processes, which resolved over time after inhibitor removal. Inflammatory profiling revealed that the mRNA gene expression of repopulated microglia was similar to normal resident microglia and that these new cells appear functional and responsive to LPS. Overall, these data demonstrate that newly repopulated microglia function similarly to the

  9. Newly diagnosed rheumatic heart disease among indigenous populations in the Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Mirabel, Mariana; Tafflet, Muriel; Noël, Baptiste; Parks, Tom; Axler, Olivier; Robert, Jacques; Nadra, Marie; Phelippeau, Gwendolyne; Descloux, Elodie; Cazorla, Cécile; Missotte, Isabelle; Gervolino, Shirley; Barguil, Yann; Rouchon, Bernard; Laumond, Sylvie; Jubeau, Thierry; Braunstein, Corinne; Empana, Jean-Philippe; Marijon, Eloi; Jouven, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) remains the leading acquired heart disease in the young worldwide. We aimed at assessing outcomes and influencing factors in the contemporary era. Methods Hospital-based cohort in a high-income island nation where RHD remains endemic and the population is captive. All patients admitted with newly diagnosed RHD according to World Heart Federation echocardiographic criteria were enrolled (2005–2013). The incidence of major cardiovascular events (MACEs) including heart failure, peripheral embolism, stroke, heart valve intervention and cardiovascular death was calculated, and their determinants identified. Results Of the 396 patients, 43.9% were male with median age 18 years (IQR 10–40)). 127 (32.1%) patients presented with mild, 131 (33.1%) with moderate and 138 (34.8%) with severe heart valve disease. 205 (51.8%) had features of acute rheumatic fever. 106 (26.8%) presented with at least one MACE. Among the remaining 290 patients, after a median follow-up period of 4.08 (95% CI 1.84 to 6.84) years, 7 patients (2.4%) died and 62 (21.4%) had a first MACE. The annual incidence of first MACE and of heart failure were 59.05‰ (95% CI 44.35 to 73.75) and 29.06‰ (95% CI 19.29 to 38.82), respectively. The severity of RHD at diagnosis (moderate vs mild HR 3.39 (0.95 to 12.12); severe vs mild RHD HR 10.81 (3.11 to 37.62), p<0.001) and ongoing secondary prophylaxis at follow-up (HR 0.27 (0.12 to 0.63), p=0.01) were the two most influential factors associated with MACE. Conclusions Newly diagnosed RHD is associated with poor outcomes, mainly in patients with moderate or severe valve disease and no secondary prophylaxis. PMID:26537732

  10. Differential stress responses among newly received calves: variations in reductant capacity and Hsp gene expression.

    PubMed

    Eitam, Harel; Vaya, Jacob; Brosh, Arieh; Orlov, Ala; Khatib, Soliman; Izhaki, Ido; Shabtay, Ariel

    2010-11-01

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRD), a major economic concern to the beef cattle industry all over the world, is triggered by physical, biological and psychological stresses. It is becoming noticeable that the key to reducing BRD appears to be centered at reducing the response to stress. The aims of the present study were to detect individual variations in the stress response of newly received young calves through their leukocyte heat shock protein (Hsp) response, selected neutrophil-related gene expression and oxidative stress, and relate them to pulmonary adhesions at slaughter, an indicative sign of clinical and subclinical episodes of BRD at an early age. Differential expression patterns of Hsp60 and Hsp70A1A were revealed in newly received calves 1 h, 5 h and 1 day after arrival, distinguishing between stress-responsive and non-stress-responsive individuals. Plasma cortisol was also indicative of stress-responsive and non-stress-responsive individuals, 1 h and 5 h after arrival. At the longer term, β-glycan levels were highest 7 days after arrival and significantly correlated with an adhesion-free phenotype at slaughter. Oxidative stress responses, measured through the oxidation products of the exogenous linoleoyl tyrosine (LT) marker, revealed that hydroperoxidation and epoxidation of membranes may readily occur. Based on the LT oxidation products and levels of β-glycan, we present a discriminant analysis model, according to which vulnerable individuals may be predicted at near 100% probability 7 days after arrival. Since clinical signs of BRD may often go undetected in feedlot calves, such a model, after its examination in large-scale experiments, may be a reliable tool for an early prediction of subclinical signs of BRD.

  11. Safety of fentanyl initiation according to past opioid exposure among patients newly prescribed fentanyl patches

    PubMed Central

    Friesen, Kevin J.; Woelk, Cornelius; Bugden, Shawn

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although a convenient opioid delivery system, transdermal fentanyl patches have caused several deaths and resulted in safety warnings reminding prescribers that fentanyl patches should be prescribed only for patients who have adequate prior exposure to opioids. We conducted a longitudinal analysis of the safety of fentanyl initiation by examining past opioid exposure among patients newly prescribed fentanyl patches. Methods: We identified all patients in the province of Manitoba who were newly prescribed fentanyl patches between Apr. 1, 2001, and Mar. 31, 2013. We converted all prior opioid use to oral morphine equivalents and determined the average daily dose in the 7–30 days before initial fentanyl patch use. Fentanyl initiation was considered unsafe if the patient’s pre-fentanyl opioid exposure was below the recommended level. Results: We identified 11 063 patients who began using fentanyl patches during the study period. Overall, fentanyl initiation was deemed unsafe in 74.1% of cases because the patient’s prior opioid exposure was inadequate. Women and patients 65 years of age and older were more likely than men and younger patients, respectively, to have inadequate prior opioid exposure (p < 0.001 for each comparison). The proportion of patients who had unsafe prescriptions for fentanyl patches decreased significantly over the study period, from 87.0% in 2001 to 50.0% in 2012 (p < 0.001). Interpretation: The safety of fentanyl initiation improved over the study period, but still half of fentanyl patch prescriptions were written for patients with inadequate prior opioid exposure. Review of prior opioid exposure may be a simple but important way to improve the safe use of fentanyl patches. PMID:27044480

  12. Views of newly-qualified GPs about their training and preparedness: lessons for extended generalist training

    PubMed Central

    Sabey, Abigail; Hardy, Holly

    2015-01-01

    Background General practice is becoming increasingly complex due to an ageing population with multiple morbidities and the shift of services from secondary to primary care, yet GP training remains largely the same. Extended training is now recommended, initially proposed as a fourth GP specialty trainee year, but more recently as a broad-based 4-year specialty training programme. Aim To explore the views of newly-qualified GPs about their training and preparedness for specific aspects of the GP’s role. Design and setting Qualitative study with newly-qualified GPs who qualified with Severn Deanery between 2007 and 2010. Method Semi-structured interviews with 18 GPs between November 2011 and April 2012. Results Gaining experience in a variety of primary care environments widens insight into patient populations as well as helping GPs develop adaptability and confidence, although this is not routinely part of GP training. However, alongside variety, having continuity with patients in practice remains important. Opportunities to be involved in the management of a practice or to take on substantial leadership roles also vary widely and this may limit preparedness and development of generalist skills. Conclusion Extended training could help prepare GPs for the current challenges of general practice. It could ensure all trainees are exposed to a greater variety of primary care settings including those outside GP practice, as well as experience of business, finance, and leadership roles. Collectively, these changes have the potential to produce GPs with both generalist and enhanced skills, who are better prepared to work collaboratively across the organisational boundaries between primary, secondary, and community care. PMID:25824188

  13. Organic superconductors.

    PubMed

    Saito, Gunzi; Yoshida, Yukihiro

    2011-06-01

    The present status of organic superconductors of charge-transfer (CT) type based on donor molecules is reviewed. Along with the superconducting phases of such materials and also of oxide superconductors, reside spin-ordered phases such as spin-density wave (SDW) and antiferromagnetic (AF) phases. We briefly describe the recent development of superconductors having a superconducting phase next to a spin-disorder state (quantum spin liquid state). In addition to the CT type superconductors, there are a few single-component superconductors under high pressure.

  14. Condensing Organic Aerosols in a Microphysical Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Y.; Tsigaridis, K.; Bauer, S.

    2015-12-01

    The condensation of organic aerosols is represented in a newly developed box-model scheme, where its effect on the growth and composition of particles are examined. We implemented the volatility-basis set (VBS) framework into the aerosol mixing state resolving microphysical scheme Multiconfiguration Aerosol TRacker of mIXing state (MATRIX). This new scheme is unique and advances the representation of organic aerosols in models in that, contrary to the traditional treatment of organic aerosols as non-volatile in most climate models and in the original version of MATRIX, this new scheme treats them as semi-volatile. Such treatment is important because low-volatility organics contribute significantly to the growth of particles. The new scheme includes several classes of semi-volatile organic compounds from the VBS framework that can partition among aerosol populations in MATRIX, thus representing the growth of particles via condensation of low volatility organic vapors. Results from test cases representing Mexico City and a Finish forrest condistions show good representation of the time evolutions of concentration for VBS species in the gas phase and in the condensed particulate phase. Emitted semi-volatile primary organic aerosols evaporate almost completely in the high volatile range, and they condense more efficiently in the low volatility range.

  15. Recent advances in organ microcirculation research.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, M; Oda, M

    1987-01-01

    This review article dealt with progress in the research of gastroenterological organ microcirculation in Japan. It must be emphasized that this remarkable progress particularly in intravital microcirculatory observations at organ level is attributable to great improvement of microscopic devices combined with computerized system, development of new techniques for measuring microcirculatory blood flow and pioneering of a variety of fluorescent and isotope-labelled tracers. Little attention has been directed toward the fact that microvascular manifestations are perhaps the earliest signs of "cells and tissues" dysfunction in disease processes. The microvasculature undergoes a substantial remodeling not only in vascular wall structures, but also in network characteristics themselves especially in chronic disease. Those microvascular alterations in an organ system, which primarily originate in adaptations to the microenvironmental changes, would lead to the chronicity and self-perpetuation of disease. As has been noted in the IVth World Congress for Microcirculation organized by the Japanese Society for Microcirculation, which was held in Tokyo, July 26-30, 1987, further progress has been made in the research of organ microcirculation in the gastroenterological and other fields. It is the cornerstone for better understanding of the pathogenesis of organ diseases to clarify the earliest alterations in the microvasculature of an organ system from a combined aspect of microhemo- and microlymphocirculation using the newly developed techniques for microcirculation study.

  16. An Overview of the International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, J. Blair; Gulliford, Jim

    2014-10-09

    Interest in high-quality integral benchmark data is increasing as efforts to quantify and reduce calculational uncertainties associated with advanced modeling and simulation accelerate to meet the demands of next generation reactor and advanced fuel cycle concepts. Two Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) activities, the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP), initiated in 1992, and the International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP), initiated in 2003, have been identifying existing integral experiment data, evaluating those data, and providing integral benchmark specifications for methods and data validation for nearly two decades. Data provided by those two projects will be of use to the international reactor physics, criticality safety, and nuclear data communities for future decades. An overview of the IRPhEP and a brief update of the ICSBEP are provided in this paper.

  17. The effect of preceptor role effectiveness on newly licensed registered nurses' perceived psychological empowerment and professional autonomy.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Chanell; Hart, Patricia L; Mareno, Nicole

    2016-03-01

    The first year turnover rate for newly licensed registered nurses is roughly 30% and increases to about 57% in the second year (Twibell et al., 2012). An effective preceptorship has been shown to better facilitate the first year transition (Hodges et al., 2008) and increase retention rates (Pine and Tart, 2007). The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between newly licensed registered nurses' perceived preceptor role effectiveness, psychological empowerment and professional autonomy. A prospective, cross-sectional, descriptive research design was used. Sixty-nine newly licensed registered nurses were recruited and surveyed. Newly licensed registered nurses were found to have moderately high levels of perceived preceptor role effectiveness, psychological empowerment, and professional autonomy. Preceptor role effectiveness had significant, moderately, positive relationships with professional autonomy and psychological empowerment. There was also a significant relationship found between professional autonomy and psychological empowerment. Results show that preceptor role effectiveness is linked to increased professional autonomy and psychological empowerment. Therefore, effective preceptorships are necessary in easing the newly licensed registered nurse's transition to practice. Strategies to ensure effective preceptorships and enhance the NRLN's transition to practice are proposed.

  18. Associations of obesity with newly diagnosed and previously known atopic diseases in Chinese adults: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Biao; Wang, Zhiqiang; Wang, Yupeng; Liu, Meina; Wang, Yongchen

    2017-01-01

    To assess the associations of obesity with newly diagnosed and previously known atopic disorders in Chinese adults. 4,629 adults aged 18 years or older were recruited in Harbin, China. Among them, 1,114 were previously diagnosed atopic cases, 1,298 were newly diagnosed cases, and 2,217 non-atopic controls. Obesity and overweight are defined according to the criteria established by the Working Group on Obesity in China. The associations of obesity with known and newly diagnosed atopic disorders were assessed using logistic regressions. Obesity was significantly associated with known atopic disorders (adjusted OR = 2.41 (95% CI: 1.81, 3.22)). The association of obesity with newly diagnosed atopic cases was not as strong as that with known cases, and was not statistically significant (adjusted OR = 1.27 (95% CI: 0.94, 1.72)). The similar pattern was observed in different allergic diseases, gender and age stratifications. The association between overweight and atopic diseases were not significant. Obesity is strongly associated with previously diagnosed atopic cases but not so with newly diagnosed atopic cases in Chinese adults. It is likely that people with atopic disorders have a higher risk of developing obesity. Our findings are important for the management of atopic disorders and chronic disease prevention among atopic disease patients. PMID:28252017

  19. Organic photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna; Krebs, Frederik C.; Chen, Hongzheng

    2013-12-01

    Energy inflation, the constant encouragement to economize on energy consumption and the huge investments in developing alternative energy resources might seem to suggest that there is a global shortage of energy. Far from it, the energy the Sun beams on the Earth each hour is equivalent to a year's supply, even at our increasingly ravenous rate of global energy consumption [1]. But it's not what you have got it's what you do with it. Hence the intense focus on photovoltaic research to find more efficient ways to harness energy from the Sun. Recently much of this research has centred on organic solar cells since they offer simple, low-cost, light-weight and large-area flexible photovoltaic structures. This issue with guest editors Frederik C Krebs and Hongzheng Chen focuses on some of the developments at the frontier of organic photovoltaic technology. Improving the power conversion efficiency of organic photovoltaic systems, while maintaining the inherent material, economic and fabrication benefits, has absorbed a great deal of research attention in recent years. Here significant progress has been made with reports now of organic photovoltaic devices with efficiencies of around 10%. Yet operating effectively across the electromagnetic spectrum remains a challenge. 'The trend is towards engineering low bandgap polymers with a wide optical absorption range and efficient hole/electron transport materials, so that light harvesting in the red and infrared region is enhanced and as much light of the solar spectrum as possible can be converted into an electrical current', explains Mukundan Thelakkat and colleagues in Germany, the US and UK. In this special issue they report on how charge carrier mobility and morphology of the active blend layer in thin film organic solar cells correlate with device parameters [2]. The work contributes to a better understanding of the solar-cell characteristics of polymer:fullerene blends, which form the material basis for some of the most

  20. The Organic Solid State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Dwaine O.; Wlygul, Frank M.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews interesting and useful electrical, magnetic, and optical properties of the organic solid state. Offers speculation as to areas of fruitful research. Discusses organic superconductors, conducting organic polymers, organic metals, and traces recent history of creation of organic metals. (JM)