Science.gov

Sample records for news emulsion liquid

  1. Research News: Emulsion Liquid Membrane Extraction in a Hollow-Fiber Contactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiencek, John M.; Hu, Shih-Yao

    2000-01-01

    This article describes how ELMs (emulsion liquid membranes) can be used for extraction. The article addresses the disadvantages of ELM extraction in a stirred contactor, and the advantages of SELMs (supported emulsion liquid membranes). The introduction of the article provides background information on liquid-liquid solvent extraction and dispersion-free solvent extraction.

  2. Research News: Emulsion Liquid Membrane Extraction in a Hollow-Fiber Contactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiencek, John M.; Hu, Shih-Yao

    2000-01-01

    This article describes how ELMs (emulsion liquid membranes) can be used for extraction. The article addresses the disadvantages of ELM extraction in a stirred contactor, and the advantages of SELMs (supported emulsion liquid membranes). The introduction of the article provides background information on liquid-liquid solvent extraction and dispersion-free solvent extraction.

  3. NEWS: Nuclear Emulsions for WIMP Search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Marco, Natalia; NEWS Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    In the field of direct Dark Matter search a different and promising approach is the directionality: the observation of the incoming apparent direction of WIMPs would in fact provide a new and unambiguous signature. The NEWS project is a very innovative approach for a high sensitivity experiment aiming at the directional detection of WIMPs: the detector is based on a novel emulsion technology called NIT (Nano Imaging Trackers) acting both as target and tracking device. In this paper we illustrate the features of a NIT-based detector and the newly developed read-out systems allowing to reach a spatial resolution of the order of 10 nm. We present the background studies and the experimental design. Finally we report about the time schedule of the experiment and the expected sensitivity for DM searches.

  4. Rejuvenation of Spent Media via Supported Emulsion Liquid Membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiencek, John M.

    2002-01-01

    The overall goal of this project was to maximize the reuseability of spent fermentation media. Supported emulsion liquid membrane separation, a highly efficient extraction technique, was used to remove inhibitory byproducts during fermentation; thus, improve the yield while reducing the need for fresh water. The key objectives of this study were: (1) Develop an emulsion liquid membrane system targeting low molecular weight organic acids which has minimal toxicity on a variety of microbial systems. (2) Conduct mass transfer studies to allow proper modeling and design of a supported emulsion liquid membrane system. (3) Investigate the effect of gravity on emulsion coalescence within the membrane unit. (4) Access the effect of water re-use on fermentation yields in a model microbial system. and (5) Develop a perfusion-type fermentor utilizing a supported emulsion liquid membrane system to control inhibitory fermentation byproducts (not completed due to lack of funds)

  5. Switching dynamics in cholesteric liquid crystal emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadda, F.; Gonnella, G.; Marenduzzo, D.; Orlandini, E.; Tiribocchi, A.

    2017-08-01

    In this work we numerically study the switching dynamics of a 2D cholesteric emulsion droplet immersed in an isotropic fluid under an electric field, which is either uniform or rotating with constant speed. The overall dynamics depend strongly on the magnitude and on the direction (with respect to the cholesteric axis) of the applied field, on the anchoring of the director at the droplet surface and on the elasticity. If the surface anchoring is homeotropic and a uniform field is parallel to the cholesteric axis, the director undergoes deep elastic deformations and the droplet typically gets stuck into metastable states which are rich in topological defects. When the surface anchoring is tangential, the effects due to the electric field are overall less dramatic, as a small number of topological defects form at equilibrium. The application of the field perpendicular to the cholesteric axis usually has negligible effects on the defect dynamics. The presence of a rotating electric field of varying frequency fosters the rotation of the defects and of the droplet as well, typically at a lower speed than that of the field, due to the inertia of the liquid crystal. If the surface anchoring is homeotropic, a periodic motion is found. Our results represent a first step to understand the dynamical response of a cholesteric droplet under an electric field and its possible application in designing novel liquid crystal-based devices.

  6. Synthetic Polymers at Interfaces: Monodisperse Emulsions Multiple Emulsions and Liquid Marbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Guanqing

    The adsorption of polymeric materials at interfaces is an energetically favorable process which is investigated in much diversified fields, such as emulsions, bubbles, foams, liquid marbles. Pickering emulsion, which is emulsion stabilized by solid particles has been investigated for over one century and preparation of Pickering emulsion with narrow size distribution is crucial for both the theoretical study of the stabilization mechanism and practical application, such as templated fabrication of colloidosomes. The precise control over the size and functionality of polymer latices allows the preparation of monodisperse Pickering emulsions with desired sizes through SPG membrane emulsification at rather rapid rate compared to microfludic production. Double or multiple emulsions have long been investigated but its rapid destabilization has always been a major obstacle in applying them into practical applications. The modern living polymerization techniques allow us to prepare polymers with designed structure of block copolymers which makes it possible to prepare ultra-stable multiple emulsions. The precise tuning of the ratio of hydrophobic part over the hydrophilic can unveil the stabilization mechanism. Liquid marble is a new type of materials of which liquid droplets are coated by dry particles. The coating of an outer layer of dry particles renders the liquid droplets non-sticky at solid surface which is useful in transportation of small amount of liquid without leakage at extreme low friction force. The property of liquid marbles relies largely on the stabilizers and the drying condition of polymeric latices is shown to have great influence on the property of liquid marbles. Firstly, an introduction to the interfacial and colloidal science with special attention to topics on emulsions, multiple emulsion and liquid marbles is given in Chapter 1. The unique features of an interface and a discussion on the definition of colloids are introduced prior to the

  7. Rejuvenation of Spent Media via Supported Emulsion Liquid Membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiencek, John M.

    2002-01-01

    The overall goal of this project is to maximize the reuseability of spent fermentation media. Supported emulsion liquid membrane separation, a highly efficient extraction technique, is used to remove inhibitory byproducts during fermentation; thus, improving the yield while reducing the need for fresh water. The key objectives of this study are: Develop an emulsion liquid membrane system targeting low molecular weight organic acids which has minimal toxicity on a variety of microbial systems; Conduct mass transfer studies to allow proper modeling and design of a supported emulsion liquid membrane system; Investigate the effect of gravity on emulsion coalescence within the membrane unit; Access the effect of water re-use on fermentation yields in a model microbial system; Develop a perfusion-type fermentor utilizing a supported emulsion liquid membrane system to control inhibitory fermentation byproducts; Work for the coming year will focus on the determination of toxicity of various solvents, selection of the emulsifying agents, as well as characterizing the mass transfer of hollow-fiber contactors.

  8. Removal of pesticides from aqueous solutions using liquid membrane emulsions

    SciTech Connect

    Norwood, V.M. III

    1991-12-31

    Extractive liquid membrane technology is based on a water-in-oil emulsion as the vehicle to effect separation. An aqueous internal reagent phase is emulsified into an organic phase containing a surfactant and optional complexing agents. The emulsion, presenting a large membrane surface area, is then dispersed in an aqueous continuous phase containing the species to be removed. The desired species is transferred from the continuous, phase through the organic liquid membrane and concentrated in the internal reagent phase. Extraction and stripping occur simultaneously rather than sequentially as in conventional solvent extraction. Experiments were conducted to assess the feasibility of using liquid membranes to extract pesticides from rinsewaters typical of those generated by fertilizer/agrichemical dealers. A liquid membrane emulsion containing 10% NaOH as the internal reagent phase was used to extract herbicides from aqueous solution at a continuous phase:emulsion ratio of 5:1. Removals of 2,4-D, MCPA, Carbaryl, Diazinon, and Atrazine were investigated.

  9. Removal of pesticides from aqueous solutions using liquid membrane emulsions

    SciTech Connect

    Norwood, V.M. III.

    1991-01-01

    Extractive liquid membrane technology is based on a water-in-oil emulsion as the vehicle to effect separation. An aqueous internal reagent phase is emulsified into an organic phase containing a surfactant and optional complexing agents. The emulsion, presenting a large membrane surface area, is then dispersed in an aqueous continuous phase containing the species to be removed. The desired species is transferred from the continuous, phase through the organic liquid membrane and concentrated in the internal reagent phase. Extraction and stripping occur simultaneously rather than sequentially as in conventional solvent extraction. Experiments were conducted to assess the feasibility of using liquid membranes to extract pesticides from rinsewaters typical of those generated by fertilizer/agrichemical dealers. A liquid membrane emulsion containing 10% NaOH as the internal reagent phase was used to extract herbicides from aqueous solution at a continuous phase:emulsion ratio of 5:1. Removals of 2,4-D, MCPA, Carbaryl, Diazinon, and Atrazine were investigated.

  10. Emulsion liquid membrane for textile dye removal: Stability study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusumastuti, Adhi; Syamwil, Rodia; Anis, Samsudin

    2017-03-01

    Although textile dyes is basically available in very low concentration; it should be removed due to the toxicity to human body and environment. Among the existing methods, emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) is a promising method by providing high interfacial area and the ability to remove a very low concentration of the solute. The optimal emulsions were produced using commercially supplied homogeniser. The drop size was measured by the aid of microscope and image J software. Initially, methylene blue in simulated wastewater was extracted using a stirrer. Methylene blue concentration was determined using spectrophotometer. The research obtained optimal emulsion at surfactant concentration of 4 wt. %, kerosene as diluent, emulsification time of 30 min, emulsification speed of 2000 rpm. The lowest membrane breakage and the longest stability time were about 0.11% and 150 min, respectively.

  11. Hierarchical organization in liquid crystal-in-liquid crystal emulsions.

    PubMed

    Mushenheim, Peter C; Abbott, Nicholas L

    2014-11-21

    We report the formation and characterization of hierarchical ordering in systems comprised of micrometer-sized droplets of thermotropic nematic liquid crystals (LCs) dispersed in continuous nematic phases of a lyotropic chromonic LC (disodium cromoglycate (DSCG)). Significantly, we find the orientations of the two LC phases to be coupled, with nematic droplets of 4'-pentyl-4-cyanobiphenyl (5CB) exhibiting a bipolar configuration with an axis of symmetry aligned orthogonal to the far-field director of the DSCG phase. We determine that this coupling of orientations does not result from either anisometric LC droplet shape or interfacial ionic phenomena but rather is consistent with the influence of van der Waals interactions that arise from the anisotropic polarizabilities of nematic 5CB (Δn = +0.18) and DSCG (Δn = -0.02) phases. We also find that it is possible to rotate and uniformly align the nematic droplets by using a weak magnetic field (B ∼ 0.3 T). An analysis of the dynamics of relaxation of the orientations of the 5CB droplets following removal of the magnetic field reveals the DSCG and 5CB droplets to be coupled by energies of ∼10(4) kT, consistent with a simple theoretical estimate of the influence of anisotropic van der Waals interactions. We also observed the nematic 5CB droplets to form dimers and larger assemblies mediated by the elasticity of the nematic DSCG. Overall, these results reveal that LC-in-LC emulsions define a new class of hierarchically ordered soft matter in which both thermotropic and lyotropic LCs are coupled in their ordering.

  12. Hierarchical Organization in Liquid Crystal-in-Liquid Crystal Emulsions

    PubMed Central

    Mushenheim, Peter C.

    2014-01-01

    We report the formation and characterization of hierarchical ordering in systems comprised of micrometer-sized droplets of thermotropic nematic liquid crystals (LCs) dispersed in continuous nematic phases of a lyotropic chromonic LC (disodium cromoglycate (DSCG)). Significantly, we find the orientations of the two LC phases to be coupled, with nematic droplets of 4′-pentyl-4-cyanobiphenyl (5CB) exhibiting a bipolar configuration with an axis of symmetry aligned orthogonal to the far-field director of the DSCG phase. We determine that this coupling of orientations does not result from either anisometric LC droplet shape or interfacial ionic phenomena but rather is consistent with the influence of van der Waals interactions that arise from the anisotropic polarizabilities of nematic 5CB (Δn = + 0.18) and DSCG (Δn = − 0.02) phases. We also find that it is possible to rotate and uniformly align the nematic droplets by using a weak magnetic field (B ∼ 0.3 T). An analysis of the dynamics of relaxation of the orientations of the 5CB droplets following removal of the magnetic field reveals the DSCG and 5CB droplets to be coupled by energies of ∼104kT, consistent with a simple theoretical estimate of the influence of anisotropic van der Waals interactions. We also observed the nematic 5CB droplets to form dimers and larger assemblies mediated by the elasticity of the nematic DSCG. Overall, these results reveal that LC-in-LC emulsions define a new class of hierarchically ordered soft matter in which both thermotropic and lyotropic LCs are coupled in their ordering. PMID:25278032

  13. Feasibility of Surfactant-Free Supported Emulsion Liquid Membrane Extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Shih-Yao B.; Li, Jin; Wiencek, John M.

    2001-01-01

    Supported emulsion liquid membrane (SELM) is an effective means to conduct liquid-liquid extraction. SELM extraction is particularly attractive for separation tasks in the microgravity environment where density difference between the solvent and the internal phase of the emulsion is inconsequential and a stable dispersion can be maintained without surfactant. In this research, dispersed two-phase flow in SELM extraction is modeled using the Lagrangian method. The results show that SELM extraction process in the microgravity environment can be simulated on earth by matching the density of the solvent and the stripping phase. Feasibility of surfactant-free SELM (SFSELM) extraction is assessed by studying the coalescence behavior of the internal phase in the absence of the surfactant. Although the contacting area between the solvent and the internal phase in SFSELM extraction is significantly less than the area provided by regular emulsion due to drop coalescence, it is comparable to the area provided by a typical hollow-fiber membrane. Thus, the stripping process is highly unlikely to become the rate-limiting step in SFSELM extraction. SFSELM remains an effective way to achieve simultaneous extraction and stripping and is able to eliminate the equilibrium limitation in the typical solvent extraction processes. The SFSELM design is similar to the supported liquid membrane design in some aspects.

  14. Role of asphaltenes in stabilizing thin liquid emulsion films.

    PubMed

    Tchoukov, Plamen; Yang, Fan; Xu, Zhenghe; Dabros, Tadeusz; Czarnecki, Jan; Sjöblom, Johan

    2014-03-25

    Drainage kinetics, thickness, and stability of water-in-oil thin liquid emulsion films obtained from asphaltenes, heavy oil (bitumen), and deasphalted heavy oil (maltenes) diluted in toluene are studied. The results show that asphaltenes stabilize thin organic liquid films at much lower concentrations than maltenes and bitumen. The drainage of thin organic liquid films containing asphaltenes is significantly slower than the drainage of the films containing maltenes and bitumen. The films stabilized by asphaltenes are much thicker (40-90 nm) than those stabilized by maltenes (∼10 nm). Such significant variation in the film properties points to different stabilization mechanisms of thin organic liquid films. Apparent aging effects, including gradual increase of film thickness, rigidity of oil/water interface, and formation of submicrometer size aggregates, were observed for thin organic liquid films containing asphaltenes. No aging effects were observed for films containing maltenes and bitumen in toluene. The increasing stability and lower drainage dynamics of asphaltene-containing thin liquid films are attributed to specific ability of asphaltenes to self-assemble and form 3D network in the film. The characteristic length of stable films is well beyond the size of single asphaltene molecules, nanoaggregates, or even clusters of nanoaggregates reported in the literature. Buildup of such 3D structure modifies the rheological properties of the liquid film to be non-Newtonian with yield stress (gel like). Formation of such network structure appears to be responsible for the slower drainage of thin asphaltenes in toluene liquid films. The yield stress of liquid film as small as ∼10(-2) Pa is sufficient to stop the drainage before the film reaches the critical thickness at which film rupture occurs.

  15. Folate ligand anchored liquid crystal microdroplets emulsion for in vitro detection of KB cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Seong H; Gupta, Kailash C; Borah, Jyoti S; Park, Soo-Young; Kim, Young-Kyoo; Lee, Joon-Hyung; Kang, Inn-Kyu

    2014-09-09

    A KB cancer cell-selective, liquid crystal microdroplets emulsion is prepared using folic acid-conjugated block copolymers (PS-b-PAA-FA) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as a mediator to induce configurational transitions in 4-cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl (5CB) liquid crystal microdroplets emulsion. The prepared liquid crystal microdroplets emulsion has shown a configurational transition from radial to bipolar on interacting with KB cancer cells, but no transition from radial to bipolar configuration is observed when liquid crystal microdroplets emulsion was allowed to interact with other normal cells such as fibroblast and osteoblast. The KB cancer cell selectivity of liquid crystal microdroplets emulsion has been considered due to the presence of KB cancer cell folate receptor-specific ligand (FA) at the surface of liquid crystal microdroplets, which allowed liquid crystal microdroplets to interact specifically with KB cancer cells. The ligand-receptor interactions have been considered responsible for triggering the configurational transitions from radial to bipolar in liquid crystal microdroplets emulsion. Thus, folate ligand anchored liquid crystal microdroplets emulsion has shown a potential to be used for in vitro detection of KB cancer cells in the early stage of tumor development.

  16. Influence of PEG-12 Dimethicone addition on stability and formation of emulsions containing liquid crystal.

    PubMed

    Andrade, F F; Santos, O D H; Oliveira, W P; Rocha-Filho, P A

    2007-06-01

    Oil/water emulsions, containing liquid crystals, were developed employing Andiroba oil, PEG-12 Dimethicone and Crodafos CES. It was evaluated the influence of silicone surfactants on the emulsions stability and on the formation of liquid crystalline phases and therefore, physicochemical characteristics, such as rheology and zeta potential, were evaluated. Emulsions were prepared by the emulsions phase inversion method. All the formulations presented lamellar liquid crystalline phases. The PEG-12 Dimethicone addition did not change microscopically the liquid crystalline phases. The emulsions containing silicone demonstrated lower viscosity than those without the additive. This is an important feature, as the silicone did not change the rheological profile; however, the addition of silicone still can be used as a viscosity controller. The formulations had their viscosity increased 15 and 150 days after their preparation. This characteristic shows that the emulsions have their organization increased along the storing time. In the analysis of zeta potential, we could verify that all formulations presented negative values between -39.7 and -70.0 mV. Within this range of values, the emulsion physical stability is high (Fig. 10). It was concluded that the addition of PEG-12 Dimethicone kept the liquid crystalline phase of the emulsion obtained with Crodafos CES, influencing in a positive way in the system stability.

  17. Emulsion-liquid-membrane extraction of copper using a hollow-fiber contactor

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, S.Y.B.; Wiencek, J.M.

    1998-03-01

    A novel extraction technique using an emulsion liquid membrane within a hollow-fiber contactor was developed and utilized to extract copper using LIX 84 extractant. Emulsion liquid membranes are capable of extracting metals from dilute waste streams to levels much below those possible by equilibrium-limited solvent extraction. Utilizing an emulsion liquid membrane within a hollow-fiber contactor retains the advantages of emulsion-liquid-membrane extraction, namely, simultaneous extraction and stripping, while eliminating problems encountered in dispersive contacting methods, such as swelling and leakage of the liquid membrane. Mathematical models for extraction in hollow-fiber contactors were developed. The models satisfactorily predict the outcome of both simple solvent extraction and emulsion-liquid-membrane extraction of copper by LIX 84 in a hollow-fiber contactor over a wide range of conditions. Emulsion-liquid-membrane extraction performs exceptionally well when the extraction is close to equilibrium limit. It is also capable of extracting a solute f/rom very dilute solutions. Stability of the liquid membrane is not crucial when used in hollow-fiber contactors; the surfactant in liquid membrane can be reduced or even eliminated without severely impairing the performance.

  18. Removal of phenols from aqueous solutions by emulsion liquid membranes.

    PubMed

    Reis, M Teresa A; Freitas, Ondina M F; Agarwal, Shiva; Ferreira, Licínio M; Ismael, M Rosinda C; Machado, Remígio; Carvalho, Jorge M R

    2011-09-15

    The present study deals with the extraction of phenols from aqueous solutions by using the emulsion liquid membranes technique. Besides phenol, two derivatives of phenol, i.e., tyrosol (2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethanol) and p-coumaric acid (4-hydroxycinnamic acid), which are typical components of the effluents produced in olive oil plants, were selected as the target solutes. The effect of the composition of the organic phase on the removal of solutes was examined. The influence of pH of feed phase on the extraction of tyrosol and p-coumaric was tested for the membrane with Cyanex 923 as an extractant. The use of 2% Cyanex 923 allowed obtaining a very high extraction of phenols (97-99%) in 5-6 min of contact time for either single solute solutions or for their mixtures. The removal efficiency of phenol and p-coumaric acid attained equivalent values by using the system with 2% isodecanol, but the removal rate of tyrosol was found greatly reduced. The extraction of tyrosol and p-coumaric acid from their binary mixture was also analysed for different operating conditions like the volume ratio of feed phase to stripping phase (sodium hydroxide), the temperature and the initial concentration of solute in the feed phase.

  19. Two-step emulsification process for water-in-oil-in-water multiple emulsions stabilized by lamellar liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Ito, Toshifumi; Tsuji, Yukitaka; Aramaki, Kenji; Tonooka, Noriaki

    2012-01-01

    Multiple emulsions, also called complex emulsions or multiphase emulsions, include water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W)-type and oil-in-water-in-oil (O/W/O)-type emulsions. W/O/W-type multiple emulsions, obtained by utilizing lamellar liquid crystal with a layer structure showing optical anisotropy at the periphery of emulsion droplets, are superior in stability to O/W/O-type emulsions. In this study, we investigated a two-step emulsification process for a W/O/W-type multiple emulsion utilizing liquid crystal emulsification. We found that a W/O/W-type multiple emulsion containing lamellar liquid crystal can be prepared by mixing a W/O-type emulsion (prepared by primary emulsification) with a lamellar liquid crystal obtained from poly(oxyethylene) stearyl ether, cetyl alcohol, and water, and by dispersing and emulsifying the mixture in an outer aqueous phase. When poly(oxyethylene) stearyl ether and cetyl alcohol are each used in a given amount and the amount of water added is varied from 0 to 15 g (total amount of emulsion, 100 g), a W/O/W-type multiple emulsion is efficiently prepared. When the W/O/W-type multiple emulsion was held in a thermostatic bath at 25°C, the droplet size distribution showed no change 0, 30, or 60 days after preparation. Moreover, the W/O/W-type multiple emulsion strongly encapsulated Uranine in the inner aqueous phase as compared with emulsions prepared by one-step emulsification.

  20. News

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-09-01

    Belfast: On the next level above Galileo Wales: 2nd All Wales Physics Teachers Meeting England: Good afternoon Natural Philosphers... Communication: Posters win prizes Careers: Physics On Course 2004 Visits: Refreshing Physics Sport: Cheating at baseball Physics on Stage: Polish performance Space: Forces that affect GPS satellites New Zealand: It’s not All Black News these days New Initiatives: NOISE Physics on Stage 3: Lively stars heading for ESA

  1. The use of emulsions, microemulsions, and hollow fiber contactors as liquid membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Wiencek, J.M.; Hu, S.Y.; Raghuraman, B.

    1995-12-01

    Liquid membranes as a generic concept have primarily involved the use of either porous solid film impregnated with a liquid carrier or emulsified systems employed in a stirred contactor. Although such systems can display high selectivities and reasonable flux, the stability of the liquid membrane to rupture (i.e. leakage) and unwanted water transport (i.e. swell) have limited their commercial application. Our lab has focused on developing improved emulsion liquid membranes. In particular, we have investigated the possibility of employing microemulsions as liquid membranes to separate metals (especially mercury) from contaminated water. Our most current work on the use of hollow fiber contactors as a means of minimizing swell and leakage in emulsion liquid membrane systems will also be presented.

  2. News

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-07-01

    AWARDS Presentations to top students; PHYSICS IN PRIMARY SCIENCE Amaze and inspire; WEB RESOURCES PhysicsClub goes live; EVENTS GIREP develops thinking; RESEARCH FRONTIERS Carbon dating may not run to time; CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT Vocational qualifications; CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT Flanders gears up for curriculum change; EXHIBITIONS Building the Universe; EVENTS Physics Discipline Network VII; SPECIAL NEWS FEATURE Progress in UK post-16 courses; Teaching Advancing Physics... the story so far; An outside observer's view of Advancing Physics; Student views of SHAP; Results from the SHAP pilot: successful and girl-friendly; AWARDS Royal visit to publisher;

  3. News

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-09-01

    EPS AWARD WINNERS Award for outreach to Physics Education authors; TEACHER TRAINING Helping teachers specialize in physics; AAPT SUMMER MEETING The science of light; AAPT SUMMER MEETING Do you believe in skepticism?; E-LEARNING Massive investment in Swedish online learning; UK SCIENCE YEAR News from Science Year; 11-16 CURRICULUM Naming the energy parts; TEACHER TRAINING Electronic Discussion Group for Trainee Teachers; PUBLICATIONS Physics on Course 2002; WALES Physics in Powys; HIGHER EDUCATION HE solutions to the physics teacher shortage; SCOTLAND The 27th Scottish Stirling Meeting; NORTHERN IRELAND Belfast physics teachers' meeting; SCOTLAND Physics Summer School, Edinburgh 2001; AAPT SUMMER MEETING Physics education research: massive growth; AAPT SUMMER MEETING Just-In-Time Teaching;

  4. Fertigation with liquid fish emulsion for organic production of highbush blueberry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Liquid fish emulsion is a common fertilizer used for organic production of highbush blueberry. The product is often applied by hand or with a sprayer but can also be injected through a drip irrigation system, otherwise referred to as fertigation. Fertigation is more efficient and less labor-intensiv...

  5. Influence of surfactant on the thermal behavior of marigold oil emulsions with liquid crystal phases.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Orlando David Henrique; da Rocha-Filho, Pedro Alves

    2007-05-01

    Vegetable oils have been largely consumed owing to the interest of pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries in using natural raw materials. The production of stable emulsions with vegetable oils challenges formulators due to its variability in composition and fatty acids constitution within batches produced. In the present work, it was studied that the influence of the size of carbon chain and the number of ethylene oxide moieties of the surfactant on the thermal behavior of eight emulsions prepared with marigold oil stabilized by liquid crystal phases. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to determine the thermal behavior of the emulsions. The ratio of bound water was calculated, being between 29.0 and 42.0%, confirming the extension of the liquid-crystalline net in the external phase. Changing the lipophilic surfactant from Ceteth-2 to Steareth-2, there was an increase in the temperature of phase transition of the liquid crystal influencing the system stability. Calorimetric study is very useful in understanding the performance of liquid crystals with the increase of temperature and to estimate emulsions stability.

  6. ASSESSMENT OF LIQUID EMULSION MEMBRANE FOR CLEAN UP OF AQUEOUS WASTE EFFLUENTS FROM HAZARDOUS ELEMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    El-Reefy, Sohair A.; Selim, Y.T.; Hassan, M.A.; Aly, H.F.

    2003-02-27

    Four liquid emulsion membrane (LEM) systems are given to remove different hazardous elements such as uranium, thorium, cobalt, copper, lead, and cadmium from different aqueous waste effluents. The optimum conditions for use of these systems are deduced. The potentiality of LEM for removal of hazardous pollutants from aqueous waste solutions is given.

  7. Phase and Topological Behavior of Lyotropic Chromonic Liquid Crystals in Double Emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Zoey S.; Jeong, Joonwoo; Tu, Fuquan; Lohr, Matt; Lee, Daeyeon; Collings, Peter J.; Lubensky, Tom C.; Yodh, A. G.

    2013-03-01

    Lyotropic chromonic liquid crystals, assembled by non-covalent interactions, have fascinating temperature- and concentration-dependent phase behavior. Using water-oil-water double emulsions, we are able control the inner droplet chromonic phase concentration by osmosis through the oil phase. We then study the configurations of the chromonic liquid crystal phases in droplets by varying the oil types, oil soluble surfactants, and inner droplet diameter. We employ polarization microscopy to observe resulting nematic and columnar phases of Sunset Yellow FCF, and we deduce the liquid crystal configuration of both phases within the droplets. Simulations based on Jones matrices confirm droplet appearance, and preliminary observations of chromonic liquid crystal shells in oil-water-oil double emulsions are reported. Supported by UPenn MRSEC DMR 11-20901 and NSF DMR 12-05463

  8. Formation and properties of reverse micellar cubic liquid crystals and derived emulsions.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Abreu, Carlos; Shrestha, Lok Kumar; Varade, Dharmesh; Aramaki, Kenji; Maestro, Alicia; Quintela, Arturo López; Solans, Conxita

    2007-10-23

    The structure of the reverse micellar cubic (I2) liquid crystal and the adjacent micellar phase in amphiphilic block copolymer/water/oil systems has been studied by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), rheometry, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Upon addition of water to the copolymer/oil mixture, spherical micelles are formed and grow in size until a disorder-order transition takes place, which is related to a sudden increase in the viscosity and shear modulus. The transition is driven by the packing of the spherical micelles into a Fd3m cubic lattice. The single-phase I2 liquid crystals show gel-like behavior and elastic moduli higher than 104 Pa, as determined by oscillatory measurements. Further addition of water induces phase separation, and it is found that reverse water-in-oil emulsions with high internal phase ratio and stabilized by I2 liquid crystals can be prepared in the two-phase region. Contrary to liquid-liquid emulsions, both the elastic modulus and the viscosity decrease with the fraction of dispersed water, due to a decrease in the crystalline fraction in the sample, although the reverse emulsions remain gel-like even at high volume fractions of the dispersed phase. A temperature induced order-disorder transition can be detected by calorimetry and rheometry. Upon heating the I2 liquid crystals, two thermal events associated with small enthalpy values were detected: one endothermic, related to the "melting" of the liquid crystal, and the other exothermic, attributed to phase separation. The melting of the liquid crystal is associated with a sudden drop in viscosity and shear moduli. Results are relevant for understanding the formation of cubic-phase-based reverse emulsions and for their application as templates for the synthesis of structured materials.

  9. Extraction with emulsion liquid membranes in a hollow-fiber contactor

    SciTech Connect

    Raghuraman, B.; Wiencek, J. . Dept. of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering)

    1993-11-01

    Aqueous streams contaminated with heavy metal ions may be produced as effluents from industrial plants or during attempts to remediate solids loaded with heavy metals, such as contaminated soils. Metals of particular concern include copper, zinc, cadmium, nickel, mercury, lead, and chromium. An extraction system for heavy metals recovery from dilute waste streams, which can accomplish both extraction and stripping in one step, is an emulsion liquid membrane (ELM). The ELM extraction in a stirred contactor has two main disadvantages. On prolonged contact with the feed stream (greater than 10 min), the emulsion swells with water, increasing the internal-phase volume and in a stirred contactor the internal-phase contents leak into the feed stream because of membrane rupture. This work focuses on the use of microporous hollow-fiber contactors (HFC) as an alternate contacting method to direct batch/continuous dispersion of emulsion liquid membranes. This method of contact will retain the primary advantage that emulsion liquid membrane separations offer, namely, extraction and stripping in a single processing step which circumvents the limits of equilibrium inherent in conventional solvent extraction. However, because hollow-fiber membranes, by their design, allow for high surface area contacting without the high shear rates typically encountered with an agitator, this will result in improved efficiency of extraction by reducing membrane swelling and leakage.

  10. Liquid Subjects: News Media and Public Political Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piotrowski, Marcelina; Ruitenberg, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between news media and political education within consumer society. We argue that political education today needs to be understood as part of consumerism and media culture, in which individuals selectively expose themselves to and scrutinize various media representations not only of…

  11. Liquid Subjects: News Media and Public Political Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piotrowski, Marcelina; Ruitenberg, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between news media and political education within consumer society. We argue that political education today needs to be understood as part of consumerism and media culture, in which individuals selectively expose themselves to and scrutinize various media representations not only of…

  12. Use of the electrically driven emulsion-phase contactor for a biphasic liquid-liquid enzyme system

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, T.C.; Cosgrove, J.M.; DePaoli, D.W.

    1995-12-31

    An alternative approach to the operation of bioprocessing systems within non-aqueous environments would require the development of reaction systems that would provide effective interfacial contact between the biocatalyst, contained within an aqueous phase, and the organic phase containing the substrate. A biphasic liquid-liquid (BLL) reactor that provides for intimate liquid-liquid contact would be the most probable approach for this application. For the BLL reactions considered in this work, the overall effectiveness of the system will depend on both compatibility of the biocatalyst with the chemical species present and intrinsic reaction and interfacial transport phenomena typically involved with liquid-liquid operations. The focus of this article is to investigate the removal and oxidation of p-cresol dissolved in toluene by aqueous-phase horseradish peroxidase. Contacting of the liquid-liquid biphasic enzyme system is carried out in an advanced solvent extraction contacting device, the electrically driven emulsion-phase contactor (EPC).

  13. Modeling of gadolinium recovery from nitrate medium with 8-hydroxyquinoline by emulsion liquid membrane.

    PubMed

    Hasan, M A; Aglan, R F; El-Reefy, S A

    2009-07-30

    The extraction equilibrium of Gd(III) from nitrate medium by 8-hydroxyquinoline (HOX) in toluene was studied. Liquid-liquid investigations were first carried out. Based on the equilibrium results, the extraction of Gd(III) from aqueous nitrate medium into an emulsion liquid membrane system (ELM) containing 8-hydroxyquinoline in toluene as extractant, HNO(3) as stripping solution, Span-80 as surfactant was studied. The stability of the prepared ELM was studied in terms of the degree of membrane breakage. The different parameters affecting the permeation of gadolinium (III) were also studied. A general permeation model for the recovery of Gd(III) by the selected membrane is presented. The internal mass transfer in the water in oil (W/O) emulsion drop, the external mass transfer around the drop, the rates of formation and decomposition of the complex at the external aqueous-organic interface were considered.

  14. Emulsion Liquid Membrane Removal of Arsenic and Strontium from Wastewater: AN Experimental and Theoretical Study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ding-Wei

    The emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) technique has been successfully applied on the removal of arsenic (As) from metallurgical wastewater and the removal of strontium (Sr) from radioactive wastewater. This study consisted of experimental work and mathematical modeling. Extraction of arsenic by an emulsion liquid membrane was firstly investigated. The liquid membrane used was composed of 2-ethylhexyl alcohol (2EHA) as the extractant, ECA4360J as the surfactant, and Exxsol D-80 solvent (or heptane) as the diluent. The sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide solutions were used as the external and internal phases, respectively. The arsenic removal efficiency reached 92% within 15 minutes in one stage. Extraction and stripping chemistries were postulated and investigated. It was observed that extraction efficiency and rate increase with the increase of acidic strength and alkali strength in the external and internal phases, respectively. It was also observed that the removal selectivity of arsenic over copper is extremely high. Strontium-90 is one of the major radioactive metals appearing in nuclear wastewater. The emulsion liquid membrane process was investigated as a separation method by using the non-radioactive ^{87}Sr as its substitute. In our study, the membrane phase was composed of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) as the extractant, ECA4360J as the surfactant and Exxsol D-80 as the diluent. A sulfuric acid solution was used in the internal phase as the stripping agent. The pH range in the external phase was determined by the extraction isotherm. Under the most favorable operating condition, the strontium removal efficiency can reach 98% in two minutes. Mass transfer of the emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) system was modeled mathematically. Our model took into account the following: mass transfer of solute across the film between the external phase and the membrane phase, chemical equilibrium of the extraction reaction at the external phase-membrane interface

  15. Playing with Emulsion Formulation to Control the Perforation of a Freely Expanding Liquid Sheet.

    PubMed

    Vernay, Clara; Ramos, Laurence; Würger, Alois; Ligoure, Christian

    2017-04-11

    A single-drop experiment based on the collision of one drop of liquid on a small solid target is used to produce liquid sheets that are visualized with a fast camera. Upon impact, the drop flattens into a sheet that is bounded by a thicker rim and radially expanding in air. Emulsion-based liquid sheets are destabilized through the nucleation of holes that perforate the sheet during its expansion. The holes grow until they merge together and form a web of ligaments, which are then destabilized into drops. We propose the perforation mechanism as a sequence of two necessary steps. The emulsion oil droplets first enter the air/water interface, and then spread at the interface. We show that the formulation of the emulsion is a critical parameter to control the perforation as the addition of salt or amphiphilic copolymers can trigger or completely inhibit the perforation mechanism. We demonstrate that the entering of the droplets at the air/water interface is the limiting step of the mechanism. Thin-film forces such as electrostatic or steric repulsion forces stabilize the thin film formed between the interface and the approaching oil droplets, thus preventing the entering of droplets at the interface and in turn inhibiting the perforation process. We theoretically rationalize the successive steps in the approach and entering of an oil droplet at the film interface and the role of salt and amphiphilic polymer in the different steps.

  16. Micronized powders of a poorly water soluble drug produced by a spray-freezing into liquid-emulsion process.

    PubMed

    Rogers, True L; Overhoff, Kirk A; Shah, Parag; Santiago, Patricia; Yacaman, Miguel J; Johnston, Keith P; Williams, Robert O

    2003-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of the emulsion composition of the feed liquid on physicochemical characteristics of drug-loaded powders produced by spray-freezing into liquid (SFL) micronization, and to compare the SFL emulsion process to the SFL solution process. Danazol was formulated with polyvinyl alcohol (MW 22,000), poloxamer 407, and polyvinylpyrrolidone K-15 in a 2:1:1:1 weight ratio (40% active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) potency based on dry weight). Emulsions were formulated in ratios up to 20:1:1:1 (87% API potency based on dry weight). Ethyl acetate/water or dichloromethane/water mixtures were used to produce o/w emulsions for SFL micronization, and a tetrahydrofuran/water mixture was used to formulate the feed solutions. Micronized SFL powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction, surface area, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, contact angle and dissolution. Emulsions containing danazol in the internal oil phase and processed by SFL produced micronized powders containing amorphous drug. The surface area increased as drug and excipient concentrations were increased. Surface areas ranged from 8.9 m(2)/g (SFL powder from solution) to 83.1 m(2)/g (SFL powder from emulsion). Danazol contained in micronized SFL powders from emulsion and solution was 100% dissolved in the dissolution media within 2 min, which was significantly faster than the dissolution of non-SFL processed controls investigated (<50% in 2 min). Micronized SFL powders produced from emulsion had similar dissolution enhancement compared to those produced from solution, but higher quantities could be SFL processed from emulsions. Potencies of up to 87% yielded powders with rapid wetting and dissolution when utilizing feed emulsions instead of solutions. Large-scale SFL product batches were manufactured using lower solvent quantities and higher drug concentrations via emulsion formulations, thus demonstrating the usefulness of the SFL micronization

  17. Optimization of cyanide extraction from wastewater using emulsion liquid membrane system by response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Xue, Juan Qin; Liu, Ni Na; Li, Guo Ping; Dang, Long Tao

    To solve the disposal problem of cyanide wastewater, removal of cyanide from wastewater using a water-in-oil emulsion type of emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) was studied in this work. Specifically, the effects of surfactant Span-80, carrier trioctylamine (TOA), stripping agent NaOH solution and the emulsion-to-external-phase-volume ratio on removal of cyanide were investigated. Removal of total cyanide was determined using the silver nitrate titration method. Regression analysis and optimization of the conditions were conducted using the Design-Expert software and response surface methodology (RSM). The actual cyanide removals and the removals predicted using RSM analysis were in close agreement, and the optimal conditions were determined to be as follows: the volume fraction of Span-80, 4% (v/v); the volume fraction of TOA, 4% (v/v); the concentration of NaOH, 1% (w/v); and the emulsion-to-external-phase volume ratio, 1:7. Under the optimum conditions, the removal of total cyanide was 95.07%, and the RSM predicted removal was 94.90%, with a small exception. The treatment of cyanide wastewater using an ELM is an effective technique for application in industry.

  18. Mixed reverse micelles facilitated downstream processing of lipase involving water-oil-water liquid emulsion membrane.

    PubMed

    Bhowal, Saibal; Priyanka, B S; Rastogi, Navin K

    2014-01-01

    Our earlier work for the first time demonstrated that liquid emulsion membrane (LEM) containing reverse micelles could be successfully used for the downstream processing of lipase from Aspergillus niger. In the present work, we have attempted to increase the extraction and purification fold of lipase by using mixed reverse micelles (MRM) consisting of cationic and nonionic surfactants in LEM. It was basically prepared by addition of the internal aqueous phase solution to the organic phase followed by the redispersion of the emulsion in the feed phase containing enzyme, which resulted in globules of water-oil-water (WOW) emulsion for the extraction of lipase. The optimum conditions for maximum lipase recovery (100%) and purification fold (17.0-fold) were CTAB concentration 0.075 M, Tween 80 concentration 0.012 M, at stirring speed of 500 rpm, contact time 15 min, internal aqueous phase pH 7, feed pH 9, KCl concentration 1 M, NaCl concentration 0.1 M, and ratio of membrane emulsion to feed volume 1:1. Incorporation of the nonionic surfactant (e.g., Tween 80) resulted in remarkable improvement in the purification fold (3.1-17.0) of the lipase. LEM containing a mixture of nonionic and cationic surfactants can be successfully used for the enhancement in the activity recovery and purification fold during downstream processing of enzymes/proteins. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  19. 4-nitrophenol removal from aqueous solutions by emulsion liquid membranes using type I facilitation.

    PubMed

    León, G; Guzmán, M A; Miguel, B

    2013-01-01

    Nitrophenols are common organic pollutants that enter the environment during the manufacture and processing of a variety of industrial products. The removal of 4-nitrophenol (4NP) from aqueous solutions by emulsion liquid membranes using the type I facilitated transport mechanism is investigated in this paper. The liquid membrane consisted of kerosene as the organic diluent, sorbitan monooleate as the emulsifying agent and sodium hydroxide as the stripping agent. The most important operational variables governing the emulsion stability and the 4NP removal process--such as the stripper agent and surfactant concentrations, the volume ratios of membrane phase/internal phase and emulsion phase/feed phase and stirring speed - were studied and the optimal conditions of the removal process were experimentally determined. Apparent initial permeabilities of the transport process in the different operational conditions were also obtained. Ninety-eight per cent of4NP was removed in 10 minutes and an apparent initial permeability of 1.2986 min(-1) was obtained in those optimal conditions.

  20. Water-in-water emulsions stabilized by non-amphiphilic interactions: polymer-dispersed lyotropic liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Simon, Karen A; Sejwal, Preeti; Gerecht, Ryan B; Luk, Yan-Yeung

    2007-01-30

    Emulsion systems involving surfactants are mainly driven by the separation of the hydrophobic interactions of the aliphatic chains from the hydrophilic interactions of amphiphilic molecules in water. In this study, we report an emulsion system that does not include amphiphilic molecules but molecules with functional groups that are completely solvated in water. These functional groups give rise to molecular interactions including hydrogen bonding, pi stacking, and salt bridging and are segregated into a dispersion of droplets forming a water-in-water emulsion. This water-in-water emulsion consists of dispersing droplets of a water-solvated biocompatible liquid crystal--disodium cromoglycate (DSCG)--in a continuous aqueous solution containing specific classes of water-soluble polymers. Whereas aqueous solutions of polyols support the formation of emulsions of spherical droplets consisting of lyotropic liquid crystal DSCG with long-term stability (for at least 30 days), aqueous solutions of polyamides afford droplets of DSCG in the shape of prolate ellipsoids that are stable for only 2 days. The DSCG liquid crystal in spherical droplets assumes a radial configuration in which the optical axis of the liquid crystal aligns perpendicular to the surface of the droplets but assumes a tangential configuration in prolate ellipsoids in which the optical axis of the liquid crystal aligns parallel to the surface of the droplet. Other classes of water-soluble polymers including polyethers, polycations, and polyanions do not afford a stable emulsion of DSCG droplets. Both the occurrence and the stability of this unique emulsion system can be rationalized on the basis of the functional groups of the polymer. The different configurations of the liquid crystal (DSCG) droplets were also found to correlate with the strength of the hydrogen bonding that can be formed by the functional groups on the polymer.

  1. Fabrication of composite polymer foam films at the liquid/liquid interface through emulsion-directed assembly and adsorption processes.

    PubMed

    Geng, Yuanyuan; Liu, Mei; Tong, Kun; Xu, Jian; Lee, Yong-Ill; Hao, Jingcheng; Liu, Hong-Guo

    2014-03-04

    The foam films of polystyrene-b-poly(acrylic acid)-b-polystyrene (PS-b-PAA-b-PS) doped with Cd(II) or Pb(II) species were fabricated at the planar liquid/liquid interfaces between a DMF/chloroform (v/v: 1/1) solution of the polymer and aqueous solutions containing cadmium acetate or lead acetate at ambient temperature. Optical microscopic observation shows the thin film is uniform on a larger length scale. Transmission electron microscopic (TEM) investigations reveal that the foam films are made up of microcapsules with the size of several hundreds of nanometers to micrometers. The walls of the microcapsules have a layered structure decorating with nanofibers and hollow nanospheres, where numerous inorganic fine nanoparticles are dispersed homogeneously. The film formation is a result of emulsion droplet-templated assembly and adsorption of the formed microcapsules at the planar liquid/liquid interface. Because of the miscibility of DMF with chloroform and water, DMF migrates to the aqueous phase while water migrates to the organic phase across the interface, resulting in the formation of a W/O emulsion, as revealed by optical microscopic observation, freeze fracture transmission electron microscopic (FF-TEM) observation, and dynamic laser scattering (DLS) investigation. The triblock copolymer molecules and the inorganic species adsorb and self-assemble around the emulsion drops, leading to the formation of the composite microcapsules. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) and FTIR spectroscopic results indicate that two kinds of Cd(II) or Pb(II) species, metal oxide or hydroxide, resulting from the hydrolysis of the metal ions and the coordinated metal ions to the carboxyl groups coexist in the formed thin films, which transform to metal sulfide completely after treating with hydrogen sulfide to get metal sulfide nanoparticle-doped polymer thin films.

  2. Emulsion-directed liquid/liquid interfacial fabrication of lanthanide ion-doped block copolymer composite thin films.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ming; Geng, Yuanyuan; Liu, Mei; Xu, Yuan; Lee, Yong-Ill; Hao, Jingcheng; Liu, Hong-Guo

    2015-01-15

    An emulsion-directed assembly and adsorption approach has been used to fabricate composite films of polystyrene-b-poly(acryl acid)-b-polystyrene (PS-b-PAA-b-PS) and Eu(3+) and La(3+) ions at the planar liquid/liquid interface of the polymer DMF/chloroform (1:1, v/v) mixed solution (lower phase) and aqueous solutions of the corresponding salts (upper phase). The lower phase gradually transformed to a water-in-oil (W/O) emulsion via spontaneous emulsification due to the "ouzo effect". Polymer molecules and the metal ions assembled around emulsion droplets that adsorbed at the planar liquid/liquid interface at last, resulting in formation of composite films. The film morphologies and structures depend on Ln(3+) ions: polymer/Eu(3+) composite films were foam films composed of microcapsules ranging in size from several hundreds of nanometers to micrometers, while polymer/La(3+) composite films were composed of hollow spheres several tens of nanometers in size. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra revealed that the coordination modes of carboxyl groups to Eu(3+) and La(3+) were bridging bidentate and ionic, respectively, in the two types of composites. These results indicate that stable microcapsules can be fabricated around droplets for polymer/Eu(3+) systems, while microcapsules of polymer/La(3+) are unstable. This leads to different film morphologies and structures. Compositions of these films were characterized using energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). In addition, foam films of polymer/Eu(3+)/2,2'-bipyridine (bpy) were fabricated using this approach, and their photoluminescence properties were investigated.

  3. Recovery of kraft lignin from pulping wastewater via emulsion liquid membrane process.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Zing-Yi; Harruddin, Norlisa; Othman, Norasikin

    2015-01-01

    Kraft lignin (KL) is a renewable source of many valuable intermediate biochemical products currently derived from petroleum. An excessive of lignin comes from pulping wastewater caused an adverse pollution problems hence affecting human and aquatic life. A comprehensive study pertaining to emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) extraction of lignin from pulping wastewater was presented. ELM formulation contains Aliquat 336 as carrier, kerosene as diluent, sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3 ) as stripping agent and Span 80 as surfactant. The emulsion stability was investigated at different surfactant concentrations, homogenizer speed and emulsification time. Modifier (2-ethyl-1-hexanol) was added to avoid segregation of third phase while improving the emulsion stability. At optimum conditions, 95% and 56% of lignin were extracted and recovered, respectively at 10 min of extraction time, 0.007 M of Aliquat 336, 0.1 M of NaHCO3 and 1:5 of treat ratio. Additional of modifier was contributed to highest recovery up to 98%. The ELM process was found to be equally feasible and quite effective in the recovery of KL from real pulping wastewater. Therefore, ELM process provides a promising alternative technology to recover KL from pulping wastewater while solving the environmental problems simultaneously.

  4. Emulsions stabilised by food colloid particles: role of particle adsorption and wettability at the liquid interface.

    PubMed

    Paunov, Vesselin N; Cayre, Olivier J; Noble, Paul F; Stoyanov, Simeon D; Velikov, Krassimir P; Golding, Matt

    2007-08-15

    We study the effect of the particle wettability on the preferred type of emulsion stabilised solely by food colloid particles. We present results obtained with the recently developed gel trapping technique (GTT) for characterisation of wettability and surface structuring of individual food colloid particles adsorbed at air-water and oil-water interfaces. This method allows us to replicate a particle monolayer onto the surface of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) without altering the position of the particles. By observing the polymer surface with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), we are able to determine the contact angle of the individual particles at the initial liquid interface. We demonstrate that the GTT can be applied to fat crystal particles, calcium carbonate particles coated with stearic acid and spray-dried soy protein/calcium phosphate particles at air-water and oil-water interfaces. Subsequently, we prepare emulsions of decane and water stabilised by the same food colloid particles and correlate the wettability data obtained for these particles to the preferred type of emulsions they stabilise.

  5. The influence of homogenization process on lasing performance in polymer-nematic liquid crystal emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamow, Alina; Sznitko, Lech; Mysliwiec, Jaroslaw

    2017-07-01

    In this letter we report on the results of studies of amplified spontaneous emission in polymer - liquid crystal emulsions based on mixtures of poly(vinyl alcohol) and 5CB nematic liquid crystal doped with three luminescent dyes: DCM, Coumarin 504 and Coumarin 540. The mixture of dyes was used in order to extend the range of stimulated emission spectra. We have investigated the emission properties of four samples with different size and distribution of liquid crystal micro droplets, controlled by the length of time exposure on ultrasounds during the homogenization process. We have designated the threshold conditions for stimulated emission occurrence and compared the emission spectra obtained below as well as above threshold conditions.

  6. Development of a Supported Emulsion Liquid Membrane System for Propionic Acid Separation in a Microgravity Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jin; Hu, Shih-Yao B.; Wiencek, John M.

    2001-01-01

    Perstractive fermentation is a good way to increase the productivity of bioreactors. Using Propionibacteria as the model system, the feasibility of using supported emulsion liquid membrane (SELM) for perstractive fermentation is assessed in this study. Five industrial solvents were considered as the solvent for preparing the SELM. The more polar a solvent is, the higher the partition coefficient. However, toxicity of a solvent also increases with its polarity. CO-1055 (industrial decanol/octanol blend) has the highest partition coefficient toward propionic acid among the solvents that has no molecular toxicity toward Propionibacteria. A preliminary extraction study was conducted using tetradecane as solvent in a hydrophobic hollow fiber contactor. The result confirmed that SELM eliminates the equilibrium limitation of conventional liquid-liquid extraction, and allows the use of a non-toxic solvent with low partition coefficient.

  7. Development of a Supported Emulsion Liquid Membrane System for Propionic Acid Separation in a Microgravity Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jin; Hu, Shih-Yao B.; Wiencek, John M.

    2001-01-01

    Perstractive fermentation is a good way to increase the productivity of bioreactors. Using Propionibacteria as the model system, the feasibility of using supported emulsion liquid membrane (SELM) for perstractive fermentation is assessed in this study. Five industrial solvents were considered as the solvent for preparing the SELM. The more polar a solvent is, the higher the partition coefficient. However, toxicity of a solvent also increases with its polarity. CO-1055 (industrial decanol/octanol blend) has the highest partition coefficient toward propionic acid among the solvents that has no molecular toxicity toward Propionibacteria. A preliminary extraction study was conducted using tetradecane as solvent in a hydrophobic hollow fiber contactor. The result confirmed that SELM eliminates the equilibrium limitation of conventional liquid-liquid extraction, and allows the use of a non-toxic solvent with low partition coefficient.

  8. Bursting of dilute emulsion-based liquid sheets driven by a Marangoni effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ligoure, Christian; Ramos, Laurence; Vernay, Clara; SoftMatter Team

    2015-11-01

    We study the destabilization mechanism of thin liquid sheets expanding in air and show that dilute oil-in-water emulsion-based sheets disintegrate through the nucleation and growth of holes that perforate the sheet. The velocity and thickness fields of the sheet are not perturbed by holes and hole opening follows a Taylor-Culick law. We find that a pre-hole, which widens and thins out the sheet with time, systematically precedes the hole nucleation. The growth dynamics of the pre-hole follows the law theoretically predicted for a liquid spreading on another liquid of higher surface tension due to Marangoni stresses. Classical Marangoni spreading experiments quantitatively corroborate those findings.

  9. Bursting of Dilute Emulsion-Based Liquid Sheets Driven by a Marangoni Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernay, Clara; Ramos, Laurence; Ligoure, Christian

    2015-11-01

    We study the destabilization mechanism of thin liquid sheets expanding in air and show that dilute oil-in-water emulsion-based sheets disintegrate through the nucleation and growth of holes that perforate the sheet. The velocity and thickness fields of the sheet outside the holes are not perturbed by holes, and hole opening follows the Taylor-Culick law. We find that a prehole, which widens and thins out the sheet with time, systematically precedes the hole nucleation. The growth dynamics of the prehole follows the law theoretically predicted for a liquid spreading on another liquid of higher surface tension due to Marangoni stresses. Classical Marangoni spreading experiments quantitatively corroborate our findings.

  10. Bursting of Dilute Emulsion-Based Liquid Sheets Driven by a Marangoni Effect.

    PubMed

    Vernay, Clara; Ramos, Laurence; Ligoure, Christian

    2015-11-06

    We study the destabilization mechanism of thin liquid sheets expanding in air and show that dilute oil-in-water emulsion-based sheets disintegrate through the nucleation and growth of holes that perforate the sheet. The velocity and thickness fields of the sheet outside the holes are not perturbed by holes, and hole opening follows the Taylor-Culick law. We find that a prehole, which widens and thins out the sheet with time, systematically precedes the hole nucleation. The growth dynamics of the prehole follows the law theoretically predicted for a liquid spreading on another liquid of higher surface tension due to Marangoni stresses. Classical Marangoni spreading experiments quantitatively corroborate our findings.

  11. Controllable formation of ionic liquid micro- and nanoparticles via a melt-emulsion-quench approach.

    PubMed

    Tesfai, Aaron; El-Zahab, Bilal; Bwambok, David K; Baker, Gary A; Fakayode, Sayo O; Lowry, Mark; Warner, Isiah M

    2008-03-01

    We present a facile, scalable, and general method for the size-variable generation of monodispersed, near-spherical solid-state (frozen) ionic liquid nanoparticles based on a novel melt-emulsion-quench approach. Simple manipulation of the internal templating droplets within oil-in-water (o/w) microemulsions also permits the formation of well-defined microspheres. This simple and rapid preparation, requiring neither specialized equipment nor harsh conditions, suggests a wealth of potential for these designer nanomaterials within the biomedical, materials, and analytical communities.

  12. Oil emulsions of fluorosilicone fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Keil, J. W.

    1985-08-27

    Emulsions of fluorosilicone fluids in mineral oil are disclosed. These emulsions are stabilized by a polydimethylsiloxane-polybutadiene copolymer or a polydimethylsiloxane-hydrogenated polybutadiene copplymer. The emulsions are an effective foam suppressant for organic liquids, especially crude petroleum.

  13. Hydrophobic zeolites for biofuel upgrading reactions at the liquid-liquid interface in water/oil emulsions.

    PubMed

    Zapata, Paula A; Faria, Jimmy; Ruiz, M Pilar; Jentoft, Rolf E; Resasco, Daniel E

    2012-05-23

    HY zeolites hydrophobized by functionalization with organosilanes are much more stable in hot liquid water than the corresponding untreated zeolites. Silylation of the zeolite increases hydrophobicity without significantly reducing the density of acid sites. This hydrophobization with organosilanes makes the zeolites able to stabilize water/oil emulsions and catalyze reactions of importance in biofuel upgrading, i.e., alcohol dehydration and alkylation of m-cresol and 2-propanol in the liquid phase, at high temperatures. While at 200 °C the crystalline structure of an untreated HY zeolite collapses in a few hours in contact with a liquid medium, the functionalized hydrophobic zeolites keep their structure practically unaltered. Detailed XRD, SEM, HRTEM, and BET analyses indicate that even after reaction under severe conditions, the hydrophobic zeolites retain their crystallinity, surface area, microporosity, and acid density. It is proposed that by preferentially anchoring hydrophobic functionalities on the external surface, the direct contact of bulk liquid water and the zeolite is hindered, thus preventing the collapse of the framework during the reaction in liquid hot water.

  14. Multiple emulsions.

    PubMed

    Yazan, Y; Seiller, M; Puisieux, F

    1993-06-01

    The purpose of this review is to update the information on multiple emulsions known to be promising delivery systems for both pharmaceuticals and cosmetic materials. The possibility of encapsulating active substances within liquid membranes may lead to interesting opportunities in both fields. Thus the formulation, manufacturing, stabilization, analysis and potential application of multiple emulsions seems to be worth surveying, putting a special emphasis on cosmetic applications.

  15. Biopolymer-based structuring of liquid oil into soft solids and oleogels using water-continuous emulsions as templates.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ashok R; Rajarethinem, Pravin S; Cludts, Nick; Lewille, Benny; De Vos, Winnok H; Lesaffer, Ans; Dewettinck, Koen

    2015-02-24

    Physical trapping of a hydrophobic liquid oil in a matrix of water-soluble biopolymers was achieved using a facile two-step process by first formulating a surfactant-free oil-in-water emulsion stabilized by biopolymers (a protein and a polysaccharide) followed by complete removal of the water phase (by either high- or low-temperature drying of the emulsion) resulting in structured solid systems containing a high concentration of liquid oil (above 97 wt %). The microstructure of these systems was revealed by confocal and cryo-scanning electron microscopy, and the effect of biopolymer concentrations on the consistency of emulsions as well as the dried product was evaluated using a combination of small-amplitude oscillatory shear rheometry and large deformation fracture studies. The oleogel prepared by shearing the dried product showed a high gel strength as well as a certain degree of thixotropic recovery even at high temperatures. Moreover, the reversibility of the process was demonstrated by shearing the dried product in the presence of water to obtain reconstituted emulsions with rheological properties comparable to those of the fresh emulsion.

  16. High internal ionic liquid phase emulsion stabilized by metal-organic frameworks.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhihao; Zhang, Jianling; Luo, Tian; Tan, Xiuniang; Liu, Chengcheng; Sang, Xinxin; Ma, Xue; Han, Buxing; Yang, Guanying

    2016-11-04

    The emulsification of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) for the two immiscible phases of water and ionic liquid (IL) was investigated for the first time. It was found that Ni-BDC (BDC = 1,4-dicarboxybenzene) can emulsify water and ILs and favor the formation of high internal phase emulsions (HIPEs) under certain experimental conditions. The microstructures of the HIPEs were characterized by confocal laser scanning microscopy using a fluorescent dye Rhodamine B, which proves that the HIPEs are the IL-in-water type. Further results reveal that the HIPE forms during the IL-in-water to water-in-IL emulsion inversion. The possibilities of the HIPE formation by other MOFs (Cu-BDC and Zn-BDC) were explored and the mechanism for HIPE formation was discussed. The MOF-stabilized HIPE was applied to the in situ synthesis of a MOF/polymer composite by HIPE polymerization. The macroporous MOF/polyacrylamide network and MOF/polystyrene microspheres were obtained from the HIPEs, respectively.

  17. Liquid Crystal-Based Emulsions for Synthesis and Non-Spherical Particles with Chemical Patches

    PubMed Central

    Mondiot, Frédéric; Wang, Xiaoguang; de Pablo, Juan J.; Abbott, Nicholas L.

    2013-01-01

    We report the use of liquid crystal (LC)-in-water emulsions for the synthesis of either spherical or non-spherical particles with chemically-distinct domains located at the poles of the particles. The approach involves the localization of solid colloids at topological defects that form predictably at surfaces of water-dispersed LC droplets. By polymerizing the LC droplets displaying the colloids at their surface defects, we demonstrate formation of both spherical and, upon extraction of the mesogen, anisotropic composite particles with colloids located at either one or both of the poles. Because the colloids protrude from the surfaces of the particles, they also define organized, chemical patches with functionality controlled by the colloid surface. PMID:23600692

  18. Electrostatics in liquids: From electrolytes and suspensions towards emulsions and patchy surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Roij, René

    2010-10-01

    These lecture notes describe ionic screening of liquid-immersed charged surfaces within the linear and the nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann theory. The classic Gouy-Chapman description of a single charged planar surface is extensively described, as well as its linearised version and the connection with charge renormalisation. We also consider effective ion-mediated electrostatic interactions between suspended colloidal particles in some detail, and in addition we study Debye-Hückel theory for bulk electrolytes. We argue that relatively straightforward extensions of these basic notions can be used to describe systems of recent interest, e.g. patchy surfaces, oil-water interfaces, and Pickering emulsions. A number of references to recent literature is included.

  19. Removal of acetic acid from simulated hemicellulosic hydrolysates by emulsion liquid membrane with organophosphorus extractants.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Cheol

    2015-09-01

    Selective removal of acetic acid from simulated hemicellulosic hydrolysates containing xylose and sulfuric acid was attempted in a batch emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) system with organophosphorus extractants. Various experimental variables were used to develop a more energy-efficient ELM process. Total operation time of an ELM run with a very small quantity of trioctylphosphine oxide as the extractant was reduced to about a third of those required to attain almost the same extraction efficiency as obtained in previous ELM works without any extractant. Under specific conditions, acetic acid was selectively separated with a high degree of extraction and insignificant loss of xylose, and its purity and enrichment ratio in the stripping phase were higher than 92% and 6, respectively. Also, reused organic membrane solutions exhibited the extraction efficiency as high as fresh organic solutions did. These results showed that the current ELM process would be quite practical.

  20. Recovery of uranium from dilute solution using liquid emulsion membrane system

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhopadhyay, S.; Ghosh, S.K.; Juvekar, V.A.

    2008-07-01

    The liquid emulsion membrane (LEM) technique has great potential for application in the nuclear industry for large interfacial area, low consumption of organics, and high recovery from dilute streams. A LEM system composed DEHPA-kerosene-SPAN80-HNO{sub 3} has been developed for recovery of uranium from dilute nitrate solution, which gives 98% extraction and 88% stripping in a single stage. An attempt has been made to understand the mechanism of the LEM process, in which phenomena like per-traction, occlusion, swelling, and leakage occur simultaneously. The effect of various parameters on these phenomena has been described with a mathematical model, which is able to explain the experimental findings. (authors)

  1. Cluster chemical reactions at mineral–liquid interface in metal leaching by photo-electroactive water-and-gas emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekisov, AG

    2017-02-01

    Possibility of cluster (inter-cluster) reactions at the interface of mineral and liquid phases in leaching of metals mainly in dispersed cluster form by photo-electrically activated water-and-gas emulsions is theoretically evaluated. The governing role of active clusters of water and clustered hydrate envelopes generated under dissolution of active oxygen forms is determined. The scope of the study covers possible processes of transformation of clustered gold in mineral substance under direct interaction with the components of the active water-and-gas emulsions.

  2. Carbonate-coordinated metal complexes precede the formation of liquid amorphous mineral emulsions of divalent metal carbonates.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Stephan E; Müller, Lars; Barrea, Raul; Kampf, Christopher J; Leiterer, Jork; Panne, Ulrich; Hoffmann, Thorsten; Emmerling, Franziska; Tremel, Wolfgang

    2011-03-01

    During the mineralisation of metal carbonates MCO3 (M=Ca, Sr, Ba, Mn, Cd, Pb) liquid-like amorphous intermediates emerge. These intermediates that form via a liquid/liquid phase separation behave like a classical emulsion and are stabilized electrostatically. The occurrence of these intermediates is attributed to the formation of highly hydrated networks whose stability is mainly based on weak interactions and the variability of the metal-containing pre-critical clusters. Their existence and compositional freedom are evidenced by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Liquid intermediates in non-classical crystallisation pathways seem to be more common than assumed.

  3. Carbonate-coordinated metal complexes precede the formation of liquid amorphous mineral emulsions of divalent metal carbonates†

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Stephan E.; Müller, Lars; Barrea, Raul; Kampf, Christopher J.; Leiterer, Jork; Panne, Ulrich; Hoffmann, Thorsten

    2011-01-01

    During the mineralisation of metal carbonates MCO3 (M = Ca, Sr, Ba, Mn, Cd, Pb) liquid-like amorphous intermediates emerge. These intermediates that form via a liquid/liquid phase separation behave like a classical emulsion and are stabilized electrostatically. The occurrence of these intermediates is attributed to the formation of highly hydrated networks whose stability is mainly based on weak interactions and the variability of the metal-containing pre-critical clusters. Their existence and compositional freedom are evidenced by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Liquid intermediates in non-classical crystallisation pathways seem to be more common than assumed. PMID:21218241

  4. Universal emulsion stabilization from the arrested adsorption of rough particles at liquid-liquid interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Zanini, Michele; Marschelke, Claudia; Anachkov, Svetoslav E.; Marini, Emanuele; Synytska, Alla; Isa, Lucio

    2017-01-01

    Surface heterogeneities, including roughness, significantly affect the adsorption, motion and interactions of particles at fluid interfaces. However, a systematic experimental study, linking surface roughness to particle wettability at a microscopic level, is currently missing. Here we synthesize a library of all-silica microparticles with uniform surface chemistry, but tuneable surface roughness and study their spontaneous adsorption at oil–water interfaces. We demonstrate that surface roughness strongly pins the particles' contact lines and arrests their adsorption in long-lived metastable positions, and we directly measure the roughness-induced interface deformations around isolated particles. Pinning imparts tremendous contact angle hysteresis, which can practically invert the particle wettability for sufficient roughness, irrespective of their chemical nature. As a unique consequence, the same rough particles stabilize both water-in-oil and oil-in-water emulsions depending on the phase they are initially dispersed in. These results both shed light on fundamental phenomena concerning particle adsorption at fluid interfaces and indicate future design rules for particle-based emulsifiers. PMID:28589932

  5. Universal emulsion stabilization from the arrested adsorption of rough particles at liquid-liquid interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanini, Michele; Marschelke, Claudia; Anachkov, Svetoslav E.; Marini, Emanuele; Synytska, Alla; Isa, Lucio

    2017-06-01

    Surface heterogeneities, including roughness, significantly affect the adsorption, motion and interactions of particles at fluid interfaces. However, a systematic experimental study, linking surface roughness to particle wettability at a microscopic level, is currently missing. Here we synthesize a library of all-silica microparticles with uniform surface chemistry, but tuneable surface roughness and study their spontaneous adsorption at oil-water interfaces. We demonstrate that surface roughness strongly pins the particles' contact lines and arrests their adsorption in long-lived metastable positions, and we directly measure the roughness-induced interface deformations around isolated particles. Pinning imparts tremendous contact angle hysteresis, which can practically invert the particle wettability for sufficient roughness, irrespective of their chemical nature. As a unique consequence, the same rough particles stabilize both water-in-oil and oil-in-water emulsions depending on the phase they are initially dispersed in. These results both shed light on fundamental phenomena concerning particle adsorption at fluid interfaces and indicate future design rules for particle-based emulsifiers.

  6. Comparison of bulk, emulsion, thin sheet supported, and hollow fiber supported liquid membranes in macrocycle-mediated cation separations

    SciTech Connect

    Izatt, R.M.; Lamb, J.D.; Bruening, R.L.

    1988-10-01

    The advantages, disadvantages, and possible applications of macrocycle-mediated bulk, emulsion, supported and hollow fiber liquid membranes have been investigated. The relative transport rates of the alkali metal cations and of Zn(II), Cd(II) and Hg(II) in single and competitive cation experiments are studied and compared in the different membrane types. The four membrane types demonstrate similar selectivities but significantly different cation fluxes under comparable conditions using analogous macrocyclic carriers. The degree of distribution of the macrocycle to the organic membrane which is necessary for significant transport varies dramatically among the membrane types, each of which requires unique solvent characteristics. In the experiments, either 18-crown-6, dicyclohexano-18-crown-6, or 4,4'(5)bis(1-hydroxyheptylcyclohexano)-18-crown-6 were incorporated into bulk (chloroform, methylene chloride), emulsion (toluene), supported (phenylhexane) and hollow fiber (phenylhexane or 1-octanol) liquid membranes with the membrane solvents shown in parentheses.

  7. Layer-by-layer encapsulated nano-emulsion of ionic liquid loaded with functional material for extraction of Cd(2+) ions from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Elizarova, Iuliia S; Luckham, Paul F

    2017-04-01

    Ionic liquids can serve as an environmentally-friendly replacement for solvents in emulsions, therefore they are considered suitable to be used as an emulsified medium for various active materials one of which are extractors of metal ions. Increasing the extraction efficiency is considered to be one of the key objectives when working with such extraction systems. One way to improve the extraction efficiency is to increase the contact area between the extractant and the working ionic solution. This can be accomplished by creating a nano-emulsion of ionic liquid containing such an extractant. Since emulsification of ionic liquid is not always possible in the sample itself, there is a necessity of creating a stable emulsion that can be added externally and on demand to samples from which metal ions need to be extracted. We propose a method of fabrication of a highly-stable extractant-loaded ionic liquid-in-water nano-emulsion via a low-energy phase reversal emulsification followed by continuous layer-by-layer polyelectrolyte deposition process to encapsulate the nano-emulsion and enhance the emulsion stability. Such a multilayered stabilized nano-emulsion was tested for extraction of Cd(2+) and Ca(2+) ions in order to determine its extraction efficiency and selectivity. It was found to be effective in the extraction of Cd(2+) ions with near 100% cadmium removal, as well as being selective since no Ca(2+) ions were extracted. The encapsulated emulsion was removed from samples post-extraction using two methods - filtration and magnetic separation, both of which were shown to be viable under different circumstances - larger and mechanically stronger capsules could be removed by filtration, however magnetic separation worked better for both smaller and bigger capsules. The long-term stability of nano-emulsion was also tested being a very important characteristic for its proposed use: it was found to be highly stable after four months of storage time.

  8. Colloidal particles as liquid dispersion stabilizer: Pickering emulsions and materials thereof

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Véronique; Destribats, Mathieu; Backov, Rénal

    2014-10-01

    Solid stabilized emulsions, also referred to as Pickering emulsions, are very diverse owing to the large variety of available colloidal particles from naturally occurring to synthesized ones, from hard to very deformable ones and from spheres to more complex shaped particles. Here we illustrate this variety and, despite this huge diversity, we aim at highlighting the common features. We discuss next the remaining open questions that, in our point of view, should sustain special efforts in the future and we illustrate elaboration of original materials based on Pickering emulsions. xml:lang="fr"

  9. The efficient removal of thallium from sintering flue gas desulfurization wastewater in ferrous metallurgy using emulsion liquid membrane.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li; Xiao, Jiangping; Shen, Yi; Liu, Xian; Li, Wensong; Wang, Weiyan; Yang, Yunquan

    2017-09-08

    The removal of thallium ions in flue gas desulfurization wastewater from ferrous metallurgic industry was studied by emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) method using 2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid-2-ethylhexyl ester (P507) as carrier, aviation kerosene (AK) as organic solvent, polyisobutylene succinimide (T154) as surfactant, polyisobutylene (PIB) as additive, and sulfuric acid as internal reagent. Some important influence parameters such as concentrations of carrier, surfactant and stripping agent, agitation speed, extraction time, volume ratios of feed solution to emulsion phase and internal phase to membrane phase, and their effects on the removal efficiency of Tl in the ELM process were investigated and optimized. Under the optimum operating conditions of 2% of carrier, 5% of surfactant, 0.5 M of stripping agent, 350 rpm of agitation speed, 12.5:1 of volume ratio of feed solution to emulsion phase, and 3:1 volume ratio of membrane to internal phase, the maximum extraction efficiency of thallium reached 99.76% within 15-min reaction time. The ICP-MS analysis indicated that the thallium concentration in treated wastewater was below 5 μg/L and could meet the emission standard demand for industrial wastewater enacted by the local government of Hunan province of China. Meanwhile, the extraction of impurity ions calcium and magnesium in the ELM system was investigated. The result showed that an acidic environment would be in favor of the removal of Tl from calcium and magnesium contained in wastewater. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  10. Modeling of facilitated transport of phenylalanine by emulsion liquid membranes with di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid as a carrier

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, X.; Liu, D.

    1998-12-01

    A mathematical model is developed in this paper to simulate the facilitated transport of phenylalanine (Phe) in emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) systems with di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid as a carrier. The model takes into account the mass transfer in both the external aqueous phase and the organic membrane phase interfacial reaction as well as membrane breakage during agitation. The model is tested by comparing theoretical predications with experimental results using Phe extraction by ELM processes. It is found that the model is valid for simulating the facilitated transport of Phe with ELM under various experimental conditions.

  11. Equilibrium orientations of non-spherical and chemically anisotropic particles at liquid-liquid interfaces and the effect on emulsion stability.

    PubMed

    Ballard, Nicholas; Bon, Stefan A F

    2015-06-15

    The effective stabilization of emulsions by solid particles, a phenomenon known as Pickering stabilization, is well known to be highly dependent on the wettability and the adhesion energy of the stabilizer employed at the liquid-liquid interface. We present a user-friendly computational model that can be used to determine equilibrium orientations and the adhesion energy of colloidal particles at interfaces. The model determines the free energy profile of particle adsorption at liquid-liquid interfaces using a triangular tessellation scheme. We demonstrate the use of the model, using a variety of anisotropic particles and demonstrate its ability to predict and explain experimental observations of particle behaviour at interfaces. In particular, we show that the concept of hydrophilic lipophilic balance commonly applied to molecular surfactants is insufficient to explain the complexity of the activity of colloidal particles at interfaces. In addition, we show the importance of the knowledge of the free energy adsorption profile of single particles at interfaces and the impact on overall free energy of emulsification of packed ensembles of particles. The delicate balance between optimization of adhesion energy, adsorption dynamics and particle packing is shown to be of great importance in the formation of thermodynamically stable emulsions. In order to use the model, the code is implemented by freely available software that can be readily deployed on personal computers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Liquid Fuel Emulsion Jet-in-Crossflow Penetration and Dispersion Under High Pressure Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, Guillermo Andres

    The current work focuses on the jet-in-crossflow penetration and dispersion behavior of water-in-oil emulsions in a high pressure environment. Both fuel injection strategies of using a water-in-oil emulsion and a jet-in-crossflow have demonstrated unique benefits in improving gas turbine performance from an emissions and efficiency standpoint. A jet-in-crossflow is very practical for use in gas turbine engines, rocket propulsion, and aircraft engines since it utilizes already available crossflow air to atomize fuel. Injecting water into a combustion chamber in the form of a water-in-oil emulsion allows for pollutant emissions reduction while reducing efficiency loses that may result from using a separate water or steam injection circuit. Dispersion effects on oil droplets are expected, therefore investigating the distribution of both oil and water droplets in the crossflow is an objective in this work. Understanding the synchronization and injection behavior of the two strategies is of key interest due to their combined benefits. A water-to-oil ratio and an ambient pressure parameter are developed for emulsion jet-in-crossflow trajectories. To this end, a total of 24 emulsion jet-in-crossflow tests were performed with varying ambient pressures of 2-8 atm and momentum flux ratios of 50, 85, and 120. Sobel edge filtering was applied to each averaged image obtained from a high speed video of each test case. Averaged and filtered images were used to resolve top and bottom edges of the trajectory in addition to the overall peak intensity up to 40 mm downstream of the injection point. An optimized correlation was established and found to differ from literature based correlations obtained under atmospheric pressure conditions. Overall it was found that additional parameters were not necessary for the top edge and peak intensity correlations, but a need for a unique emulsion bottom edge and width trajectory correlation was recognized. In addition to investigating emulsion

  13. Effect of emulsifiers and their liquid crystalline structures in emulsions on dermal and transdermal delivery of hydroquinone, salicylic acid and octadecenedioic acid.

    PubMed

    Otto, A; Wiechers, J W; Kelly, C L; Dederen, J C; Hadgraft, J; du Plessis, J

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of emulsifiers and their liquid crystalline structures on the dermal and transdermal delivery of hydroquinone (HQ), salicylic acid (SA) and octadecenedioic acid (DIOIC). Emulsions containing liquid crystalline phases were compared with an emulsion without liquid crystals. Skin permeation experiments were performed using Franz-type diffusion cells and human abdominal skin dermatomed to a thickness of 400 mum. The results indicate that emulsifiers arranging in liquid crystalline structures in the water phase of the emulsion enhanced the skin penetration of the active ingredients with the exception of SA. SA showed a different pattern of percutaneous absorption, and no difference in dermal and transdermal delivery was observed between the emulsions with and without liquid crystalline phases. The increase in skin penetration of HQ and DIOIC could be attributed to an increased partitioning of the actives into the skin. It was hypothesized that the interaction between the different emulsifiers and active ingredients in the formulations varied and, therefore, the solubilization capacities of the various emulsifiers and their association structures.

  14. From water-in-oil to oil-in-water emulsions to optimize the production of fatty acids using ionic liquids in micellar systems.

    PubMed

    Santos, Luísa D F; Coutinho, João A P; Ventura, Sónia P M

    2015-01-01

    Biocatalysis is nowadays considered as one of the most important tools in green chemistry. The elimination of multiple steps involved in some of the most complex chemical synthesis, reducing the amounts of wastes and hazards, thus increasing the reaction yields and decreasing the intrinsic costs, are the major advantages of biocatalysis. This work aims at improving the enzymatic hydrolysis of olive oil to produce valuable fatty acids through emulsion systems formed by long alkyl chain ionic liquids (ILs). The optimization of the emulsion and the best conditions to maximize the production of fatty acids were investigated. The stability of the emulsion was characterized considering the effect of several parameters, namely, the IL and its concentration and different water/olive oil volumetric ratios. ILs from the imidazolium and phosphonium families were evaluated. The results suggest that the ILs effect on the hydrolysis performance varies with the water concentration and the emulsion system formed, that is, water-in-oil or oil-in-water emulsion. Although at low water concentrations, the presence of ILs does not present any advantages for the hydrolysis reaction, at high water contents (in oil-in-water emulsions), the imidazolium-based IL acts as an enhancer of the lipase catalytic capacity, super-activating 1.8 times the enzyme, and consequently promoting the complete hydrolysis of the olive oil for the highest water contents [85% (v/v)]. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  15. Water with low concentration of surfactant in dispersed solvent-assisted emulsion dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for the determination of fungicides in wine.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Wan-Chi; Chu, Shang-Ping; Kong, Po-Hsin; Huang, Chun-Kai; Chen, Jung-Hsuan; Chen, Pai-Shan; Huang, Shang-Da

    2014-09-17

    A sample preparation method, dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction assisted by an emulsion with low concentration of a surfactant in water and dispersed solvent coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, was developed for the analysis of the fungicides cyprodinil, procymidone, fludioxonil, flusilazole, benalaxyl, and tebuconazole in wine. A microsyringe was used to withdraw and discharge a mixture of extraction solvent and 240 μL of an aqueous solution of Triton X-100 (the dispersed agent) four times within 10 s to form a cloudy emulsion in the syringe. This emulsion was then injected into a 5 mL wine sample spiked with all of the above fungicides. The total extraction time was approximately 0.5 min. Under optimum conditions using 1-octanol (12 μL) as extraction solvent, the linear range of the method in analysis of all six fungicides was 0.05-100 μg L(-1), and the limit of detection ranged from 0.013 to 0.155 μg L(-1). The absolute recoveries (n = 3) and relative recoveries (n = 3) were 30-83 and 81-108% for white wine at 0.5, 5, and 5 μg L(-1), and 30-92 and 81-110% for red wine, respectively. The intraday (n = 7) and interday (n = 6) relative standard deviations ranged from 4.4 to 8.8% and from 4.3 to 11.2% at 0.5 μg L(-1), respectively. The method achieved high enrichment factors. It is an alternative sample preparation technique with good performance.

  16. Ocean sequestration of carbon dioxide: modeling the deep ocean release of a dense emulsion of liquid Co2-in-water stabilized by pulverized limestone particles.

    PubMed

    Golomb, D; Pennell, S; Ryan, D; Barry, E; Swett, P

    2007-07-01

    The release into the deep ocean of an emulsion of liquid carbon dioxide-in-seawater stabilized by fine particles of pulverized limestone (CaCO3) is modeled. The emulsion is denser than seawater, hence, it will sink deeper from the injection point, increasing the sequestration period. Also, the presence of CaCO3 will partially buffer the carbonic acid that results when the emulsion eventually disintegrates. The distance that the plume sinks depends on the density stratification of the ocean, the amount of the released emulsion, and the entrainment factor. When released into the open ocean, a plume containing the CO2 output of a 1000 MW(el) coal-fired power plant will typically sink hundreds of meters below the injection point. When released from a pipe into a valley on the continental shelf, the plume will sink about twice as far because of the limited entrainment of ambient seawater when the plume flows along the valley. A practical system is described involving a static mixer for the in situ creation of the CO2/seawater/pulverized limestone emulsion. The creation of the emulsion requires significant amounts of pulverized limestone, on the order of 0.5 tons per ton of liquid CO2. That increases the cost of ocean sequestration by about $13/ ton of CO2 sequestered. However, the additional cost may be compensated by the savings in transportation costs to greater depth, and because the release of an emulsion will not acidify the seawater around the release point.

  17. Potential intake of vitamins "A" and "D" through branded intravenous lipid emulsions: Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Analysis.

    PubMed

    Forchielli, Maria Luisa; Conti, Matteo; Patrono, Daniela; Mancini, Rita; Pession, Andrea; Puggioli, Cristina; Bersani, Germana

    2017-04-01

    No data exist for vitamin A group and vitamin D2/D3 content in branded intravenous lipid emulsions (ILEs). Our goal is to evaluate and quantify their concentrations in different ILEs to assess whether they are clinically relevant. Analyses were carried out in triplicates on six ILEs: 1) 30% soybean oil-based, 2) 20% olive-soybean oil based, 3) 10 + 10% soybean - MCT coconut oil based, 4) 20% soybean-olive-MCT-fish oil based, 5) 20% soybean-MCT-fish oil based and 6) 10% pure fish oil based, respectively. Retinol group (vitamin A) and ergo-chole-calciferol (vitamin D2/D3) were analyzed and quantified by a quali-quantitative Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method after potassium hydroxide alkaline hydrolysis, hexane extraction, reverse phase-liquid chromatography and specific multiple-reaction-monitoring (MRM) detection. On average, measured retinol content was in the range of 200-1000 μg/L in ILEs (1,2, and 3), whereas it was higher (1000-2000 μg/L) in the ILEs containing fish-oil. Vitamin D content was in the range of 1-10 μg/L in the fish-oil based ILEs, but undetectable in those ILEs containing purely vegetable oils. This study shows that vitamin A and D contents are variably present in ILEs based on their different lipid sources. Both contents should be explicitly mentioned in the products.

  18. Liquid and vapour water transfer through whey protein/lipid emulsion films.

    PubMed

    Kokoszka, Sabina; Debeaufort, Frederic; Lenart, Andrzej; Voilley, Andree

    2010-08-15

    Edible films and coatings based on protein/lipid combinations are among the new products being developed in order to reduce the use of plastic packaging polymers for food applications. This study was conducted to determine the effect of rapeseed oil on selected physicochemical properties of cast whey protein films. Films were cast from heated (80 degrees C for 30 min) aqueous solutions of whey protein isolate (WPI, 100 g kg(-1) of water) containing glycerol (50 g kg(-1) of WPI) as a plasticiser and different levels of added rapeseed oil (0, 1, 2, 3 and 4% w/w of WPI). Measurements of film microstructure, laser light-scattering granulometry, differential scanning calorimetry, wetting properties and water vapour permeability (WVP) were made. The emulsion structure in the film suspension changed significantly during drying, with oil creaming and coalescence occurring. Increasing oil concentration led to a 2.5-fold increase in surface hydrophobicity and decreases in WVP and denaturation temperature (T(max)). Film structure and surface properties explain the moisture absorption and film swelling as a function of moisture level and time and consequently the WVP behaviour. Small amounts of rapeseed oil favourably affect the WVP of WPI films, particularly at higher humidities. Copyright (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Research News

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research News Share this page Facebook Twitter Email Research News Research News Quarterly Updates Research Call Archive ... Clinical Trials in MS Learn More Become a Research Champion An MS Research Revolution Support MS Research ...

  20. Removal of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs ibuprofen and ketoprofen from water by emulsion liquid membrane.

    PubMed

    Dâas, Attef; Hamdaoui, Oualid

    2014-02-01

    In this work, the removal of the worldwide non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs ibuprofen (IBP) and ketoprofen (KTP) by emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) was carried out. An ELM system is made up of hexane as diluent, Span 80 as the surfactant and sodium carbonate as the inner aqueous solution. Effect of experimental conditions that affect the extraction of IBP such as surfactant concentration, emulsification time, sulfuric acid concentration in external phase, acid type in external phase, internal phase concentration, type of internal phase, stirring speed, volume ratio of internal phase to membrane phase, treatment ratio, IBP initial concentration, diluent type and salt was investigated. The obtained results showed that by appropriate selection of the operational parameters, it was possible to extract nearly all of IBP molecules from the feed solution even in the presence of high concentration of salt. Under optimum operating conditions, the efficiencies of IBP removal from distilled water (99.3 %), natural mineral water (97.3 %) and sea water (94.0 %) were comparable, which shows that the ELM treatment process represents a very interesting advanced separation process for the removal of IBP from complex matrices such as natural and sea waters. Under the optimized experimental conditions, approximately 97.4 % KTP was removed in less than 20 min of contact time.

  1. Emulsions for interfacial filtration.

    SciTech Connect

    Grillet, Anne Mary; Bourdon, Christopher Jay; Souza, Caroline Ann; Welk, Margaret Ellen; Hartenberger, Joel David; Brooks, Carlton, F.

    2006-11-01

    We have investigated a novel emulsion interfacial filter that is applicable for a wide range of materials, from nano-particles to cells and bacteria. This technology uses the interface between the two immiscible phases as the active surface area for adsorption of targeted materials. We showed that emulsion interfaces can effectively collect and trap materials from aqueous solution. We tested two aqueous systems, a bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution and coal bed methane produced water (CBMPW). Using a pendant drop technique to monitor the interfacial tension, we demonstrated that materials in both samples were adsorbed to the liquid-liquid interface, and did not readily desorb. A prototype system was built to test the emulsion interfacial filter concept. For the BSA system, a protein assay showed a progressive decrease in the residual BSA concentration as the sample was processed. Based on the initial prototype operation, we propose an improved system design.

  2. Recovery of bitumen from bituminous oil-in-water emulsions

    SciTech Connect

    Seitzer, W.H.

    1984-06-26

    Bitumen recovery from a tar sands emulsion or other bituminous oil-in-water emulsion is increased by milling the emulsion for a time sufficient to cause a bitumen-rich liquid fraction to rise to the surface, and separating such fraction. Addition of water to the starting emulsion or during milling further enhances the recovery of bitumen.

  3. Water with low concentration of surfactant in dispersed solvent-assisted emulsion dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for the determination of organochlorine pesticides in aqueous samples.

    PubMed

    Li, Yee; Chen, Pai-Shan; Huang, Shang-Da

    2013-07-26

    A novel sample preparation method, "water with low concentration of surfactant in dispersed solvent-assisted emulsion dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (WLSEME)", coupled with gas chromatography using an electron capture detector (GC-ECD) was developed for the analysis of the organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), heptachlor, α-endosulfan, 4,4-DDE, 2,4-DDD and endrin, in aqueous samples. A microsyringe is used to withdrew and discharge 10-12μL of the extraction solvent and 60-120μL of water as the dispersed solvent (containing 1mgL(-1), Tween 80) 4 times within 10s to form a cloudy emulsified solution in the syringe. This is then injected into an 8mL aqueous sample spiked with all above OCPs. Dodecyl acetate and 2-dodecanol were both selected as extraction solvents to optimize their conditions separately. The total extraction time was about 0.5min. Under optimum conditions, using dodecyl acetate (12μL) as extraction solvent, the linear range of the method was 10-1000ngL(-1) for all OCPs, and the the limits of detection (LODs) ranged from 1 to 5ngL(-1). The absolute recoveries and relative recoveries were from 20.8 to 43.5% and 83.2 to 109.8% for lake water, and 19.9-49.2% and 85.4-115.9% for seawater respectively. In the second method, 2-dodecanol as extraction solvent, the linear range was from 5 to 5000ngL(-1) for the target compounds, and the LODs were between 0.5 and 2ngL(-1). The absolute recoveries and relative recoveries ranged from 25.7 to 42.2% and 96.3-111.2% for sea water, and 22.4-41.9% and 90.7-107.9% for stream water. This could solve several problems, which commonly occur in ultrasound-assisted emulsification micro-extraction (USAEME), dispersive liquid-liquid micro-extraction (DLLME) and other assisted emulsification methods. These problems include analyte degradation, increased solubility of the extraction solvent and analyte, and high toxicity and large volume of the organic solvent used.

  4. Thermocapillary Motion in an Emulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pukhnachov, Vladislav V.; Voinov, Oleg V.

    1996-01-01

    The phenomenological model for the motion of an emulsion or a gas-liquid mixture exposed to thermocapillary forces and micro-acceleration is formulated. The analytical and numerical investigation of one-dimensional flows for these media is fulfilled, the structure of discontinuous motion is studied. The stability conditions of a space-uniform state and of the interface between an emulsion and a pure liquid are obtained.

  5. Smart magnetic ionic liquid-based Pickering emulsions stabilized by amphiphilic Fe3O4 nanoparticles: Highly efficient extraction systems for water purification.

    PubMed

    Yang, Huirong; Zhang, Hongxia; Peng, Junxia; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Du, Guanqun; Fang, Yu

    2017-01-01

    This study presents the general method to formulate magnetically responsive ionic liquid (IL)-based Pickering emulsions that are stabilized by amphiphilic Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The magnetic nanoparticle stabilizer (MN-CHOL) was synthesized using the surface-initiated ATRP method with further modification that uses a specially designed cholesteryl derivative, and characterized by FT-IR, XPS, TGA, and magnetization measurements. It is confirmed that the resulting MN-CHOL shows a stronger interfacial activity, efficiently emulsifying C4mim [PF6] and water, and resultantly forming stable Pickering emulsions without the help of any co-surfactant. Due to its super paramagnetism and high saturation magnetization, MN-CHOL attached on the IL interface enables droplets of IL to be moved very conveniently on their target for as many times by an external magnetic field without demulsification, indicating high controllability and excellent stability. The resulting Pickering emulsion is a good extraction system that efficiently separates chlorobenzene, phenol, and methyl orange from aqueous solution. Subsequently, the simple magnetic separation was applied, to produce purified water due as a result of the rapid removal of organic pollutants from contaminated water.

  6. Research News

    MedlinePlus

    ... Studies Participate in Genetic Studies Donate to Tissue Banks d Research News & Progress Research News ECTRIMS 2016 ... Other Research Studies Learn More Donate to Tissue Banks Learn More Progressive MS Research Learn More Clinical ...

  7. Relationships between the properties of self-emulsifying pellets and of the emulsions used as massing liquids for their preparation.

    PubMed

    Nikolakakis, Ioannis; Panagopoulou, Athanasia; Salis, Andrea; Malamataris, Stavros

    2015-02-01

    Self-emulsifying pellets were prepared using microcrystalline cellulose, emulsions of caprylic/capric triglyceride, and three Cremophors (ELP, RH40, and RH60) at 1.5 and 2.3 weight ratios, and two drugs (furosemide and propranolol) of different lipophilicity. Droplet size, zeta potential (ζ) and viscosity of emulsions, and pellet size, shape, friability, tensile strength, disintegration, and drug migration in pellets were determined. Evaluation of reconstituted emulsions was based on droplet size and ζ. Factorial design and 3-way ANOVA was applied to estimate the significance of the effects of the drug, surfactant and oil/surfactant ratio. It was found that droplet size, viscosity and ζ of emulsions, and size, shape, and friability of pellets were affected by the studied factors and were significant interactions between their effects on pellet size and friability. Migration of drug towards the pellet surface was higher for the less lipophilic furosemide and higher oil content. Linear relationships were found between the emulsion viscosity and the shape parameters of the pellets (for the aspect ratio R (2) = 0.796 for furosemide and R (2) = 0.885 for propranolol and for the shape factor, e R R (2) = 0.740 and R (2) = 0.960, respectively). For all the formulations examined, an exponential relationship was found between migration (M%) and the product of viscosity (η) and solubility of drug in oil/surfactant mixture (S) (M% = 98.1e-0.016 [η•S], R (2) = 0.856), which may be useful in formulation work.

  8. Programmed emulsions for sodium reduction in emulsion based foods.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Natalie; Hewson, Louise; Fisk, Ian; Wolf, Bettina

    2015-05-01

    In this research a microstructure approach to reduce sodium levels in emulsion based foods is presented. If successful, this strategy will enable reduction of sodium without affecting consumer satisfaction with regard to salty taste. The microstructure approach comprised of entrapment of sodium in the internal aqueous phase of water-in-oil-in-water emulsions. These were designed to destabilise during oral processing when in contact with the salivary enzyme amylase in combination with the mechanical manipulation of the emulsion between the tongue and palate. Oral destabilisation was achieved through breakdown of the emulsion that was stabilised with a commercially modified octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA)-starch. Microstructure breakdown and salt release was evaluated utilising in vitro, in vivo and sensory methods. For control emulsions, stabilised with orally inert proteins, no loss of structure and no release of sodium from the internal aqueous phase was found. The OSA-starch microstructure breakdown took the initial form of oil droplet coalescence. It is hypothesised that during this coalescence process sodium from the internalised aqueous phase is partially released and is therefore available for perception. Indeed, programmed emulsions showed an enhancement in saltiness perception; a 23.7% reduction in sodium could be achieved without compromise in salty taste (p < 0.05; 120 consumers). This study shows a promising new approach for sodium reduction in liquid and semi-liquid emulsion based foods.

  9. Coal desulfurization during the combustion of coal/oil/water emulsions: an economic alternative clean liquid fuel. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-04-01

    This report presents the Phase II results of a combustion program designed to assess the feasibility of utilizing coal/oil/water (COW) emulsions as a fuel for fire tube package boilers. Also examined was the effect of the addition of alkaline absorbents to the fuel for sulfur dioxide capture. Presented are the findings of testing involving optimizing sulfur dioxide removal while still maintaining a rheologically favorable fuel. Overall performance of COW as a boiler fuel was evaluated over long term operation. Emphasis was placed on burner design as well as coal characteristics. Three different bituminous coals were used during this program. Results indicate that COW emulsions may be a feasible alternative for oil in industrial fire tube boilers if the major problem, deposition buildup, can be resolved. This appears possible with a proper soot blower design. Soda ash is a viable means for obtaining at least 80% removal, using a 1:1 molar ratio. However, the deposition problem with soda ash indicated that stack injection may be a more feasible approach.

  10. Altering Emulsion Stability with Heterogeneous Surface Wettability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Qiang; Zhang, Yali; Li, Jiang; Lammertink, Rob G. H.; Chen, Haosheng; Tsai, Peichun Amy

    2016-06-01

    Emulsions-liquid droplets dispersed in another immiscible liquid-are widely used in a broad spectrum of applications, including food, personal care, agrochemical, and pharmaceutical products. Emulsions are also commonly present in natural crude oil, hampering the production and quality of petroleum fuels. The stability of emulsions plays a crucial role in their applications, but controlling the stability without external driving forces has been proven to be difficult. Here we show how heterogeneous surface wettability can alter the stability and dynamics of oil-in-water emulsions, generated by a co-flow microfluidic device. We designed a useful methodology that can modify a micro-capillary of desired heterogeneous wettability (e.g., alternating hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions) without changing the hydraulic diameter. We subsequently investigated the effects of flow rates and heterogeneous wettability on the emulsion morphology and motion. The experimental data revealed a universal critical timescale of advective emulsions, above which the microfluidic emulsions remain stable and intact, whereas below they become adhesive or inverse. A simple theoretical model based on a force balance can be used to explain this critical transition of emulsion dynamics, depending on the droplet size and the Capillary number-the ratio of viscous to surface effects. These results give insight into how to control the stability and dynamics of emulsions in microfluidics with flow velocity and different wettability.

  11. News Media

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    News, New York City, NY Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism , New York City, NY Wall Street Journal OnLine, New York City, NY Fox News...organizations conduct reporting operations. The Wall Street Journal Online is a notable exception in that it has a full staff of reporters who...Subscription-only income sites will still only apply to niche markets, such as the business sector served by the Wall Street Journal Online, but innovative

  12. News and Trading Rules

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    best to utilize the data – slotting the message volume in as a replacement for trading volume is not a strong effort to extract useful forecasting ...using message board traffic to help forecast trading volume. This could be used to help gain an idea of the future liquidity of a stock. 120 Chapter 5...developed in [36] to forecast price spikes based on news stories [35]. Other than that, little work that explicitly builds text processing into trading

  13. NEWS: Institute news

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-07-01

    Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Leeds. Physics at Work Exhibition: 12-14 September, University of Cambridge The year 2000 Exhibition will be the 16th organized by Brenda Jennison. The exhibition will be held at the Cavendish Laboratory and further details can be obtained from Brenda at the University (tel: 01223 332888, fax: 01223 332894 or e-mail: bmj10@cam.ac.uk). News on GNVQ science The Institute of Physics and the Royal Society of Chemistry are currently financing the compilation of a directory of resources to assist teachers in identifying and selecting suitable materials for teaching the new GNVQ science specifications. Work on the first part of the directory will soon be completed and it is hoped to publish the material in both print and electronic forms before the end of the summer term. This first part covers resources - all evaluated by practising GNVQ teachers - supporting the teaching of the compulsory units for Advanced GNVQ Science. A small team comprising a physics teacher, a chemistry teacher and a biology teacher, all involved with GNVQ programmes and led by Dr Ken Gadd, has carried out the work. They have established a network of teachers around the country to help with the evaluation of curriculum materials. The next part of the project will be to examine the feasibility of providing a similar listing for the optional units at this level. Future development, depending on the availability of funds, will extend the project to Intermediate level programmes in science, including the Part One, once its structure has been agreed at QCA. Further information about the Directory and the next phase of development will be available in the autumn. Activities Physics on Stage The future of science, technology and the ensuing wealth creation potential for Britain will depend on the quality of science education in schools today. Yet the numbers studying physics, which underpins science and engineering, are falling. This problem is currently

  14. New insight into microgel-stabilized emulsions using transmission X-ray microscopy: nonuniform deformation and arrangement of microgels at liquid interfaces.

    PubMed

    Geisel, Karen; Henzler, Katja; Guttmann, Peter; Richtering, Walter

    2015-01-13

    Microgel-covered interfaces, e.g., in emulsions, have attracted much interest lately. Different imaging techniques have been used to image these interfaces, either flat or curved, to investigate their properties and appearance. Techniques such as cryogenic scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM) and confocal microscopy have provided valuable insight into microgel-covered systems but still have some disadvantages such as part of the microgels being trapped in vitrified liquid or the need for fluorescent markers. Some of these disadvantages can be overcome by using transmission X-ray microscopy (TXM), which has the advantage of allowing the investigation of adsorbed and free microgels simultaneously. We used TXM to acquire tomographic image series of microgel-covered droplets and calculated 3D reconstructions from these image stacks. As a result, we could show that microgels deform anisotropically and penetrate the oil droplets in the hydrated state. Additionally, 3D reconstruction gives an idea of the arrangement of microgels adsorbed to oil droplets and reveals that droplet stabilization is possible without full coverage of the interface with polymer segments.

  15. Fake News

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederiksen, Linda

    2017-01-01

    In a politically and digitally polarized environment, identifying and evaluating fake news is more difficult than ever before. Librarians who have been teaching information and media literacy skills for decades understand the role we can and must play in this environment.

  16. NEWS REPORT

    DTIC Science & Technology

    system for marketing new products. NEWS is designed to distinguish the variables and relations that are usually of interest for market -planning by...reference to data availability and the decisions that might be made advertising promotions and product properties. Other uses and possible further

  17. NEWS REPORT

    DTIC Science & Technology

    System for marketing new products. NEWS is designed to distinguish the variables and relations that are usually of interest for market -planning by...reference to data availability and the decisions that might be made advertising promotions and product properties. Other uses and possible further

  18. Rehabilitation News.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Journal of Rehabilitation Research, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Rehabilitation news items include, among others: a midpoint review of the implementation of the World Programme of Action Concerning Disabled Persons, an international study on the impact of new technologies on employment of disabled people, and a U.S. project to investigate disability service provision and innovations in other countries. (JDD)

  19. Computer News

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Activities: Classroom Projects and Curriculum Ideas, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article presents several news stories about computers and technology. (1) Applied Science Associates of Narragansett, Rhode Island is providing computer modeling technology to help locate the remains to the USS Bonhomme Richard, which sank in 1779 after claiming a Revolutionary War victory. (2) Whyville, the leading edu-tainment virtual world…

  20. Computer News

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Activities: Classroom Projects and Curriculum Ideas, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article presents several news stories about computers and technology. (1) Applied Science Associates of Narragansett, Rhode Island is providing computer modeling technology to help locate the remains to the USS Bonhomme Richard, which sank in 1779 after claiming a Revolutionary War victory. (2) Whyville, the leading edu-tainment virtual world…

  1. What's News?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Renee

    2005-01-01

    News analysis and entertainment media is part of a media literacy that helps students access, analyze, evaluate and create messages using media in various forms. Media literacy is a key asset in a democracy as well as a bridge to reading comprehension, as skillful media use and script-reading activities can support the English acquisition skills,…

  2. The atomization of water-oil emulsions

    SciTech Connect

    Broniarz-Press, L.; Ochowiak, M.; Rozanski, J.; Woziwodzki, S.

    2009-09-15

    The paper presents the results of experimental studies on atomization of the emulsions flowing through twin-fluid atomizers obtained by the use of the digital microphotography method. The main elements of the test installation were: nozzle, reservoir, pump and measurement units of liquid flow. The photographs were taken by a digital camera with automatic flash at exposure time of 1/8000 s and subsequently analyzed using Image Pro-Plus. The oils used were mineral oils 20-90, 20-70, 20-50 and 20-30. The studies were performed at flow rates of liquid phase changed from 0.0014 to 0.011 (dm{sup 3}/s) and gas phase changed from 0.28 to 1.4 (dm{sup 3}/s), respectively. The analysis of photos shows that the droplets being formed during the liquid atomization have very different sizes. The smallest droplets have diameters of the order of 10 {mu}m. The experimental results showed that the changes in physical properties of a liquid phase lead to the significant changes in the spray characteristics. The analysis of the photos of water and emulsions atomization process showed that the droplet sizes are dependent on gas and liquid flow rates, construction of nozzle and properties of liquid. The differences between characteristics of atomization for water and emulsions have been observed. Analysis of photos on forming the droplets in air-water and air-emulsions systems showed that droplets are bigger in air-emulsion system (at the same value of gas to liquid mass ratio). The values of Sauter mean diameter (SMD) increased with increase of volume fraction of oil in emulsion. The droplet size increased with emulsion viscosity. (author)

  3. Altering Emulsion Stability with Heterogeneous Surface Wettability

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Qiang; Zhang, Yali; Li, Jiang; Lammertink, Rob G. H.; Chen, Haosheng; Tsai, Peichun Amy

    2016-01-01

    Emulsions–liquid droplets dispersed in another immiscible liquid–are widely used in a broad spectrum of applications, including food, personal care, agrochemical, and pharmaceutical products. Emulsions are also commonly present in natural crude oil, hampering the production and quality of petroleum fuels. The stability of emulsions plays a crucial role in their applications, but controlling the stability without external driving forces has been proven to be difficult. Here we show how heterogeneous surface wettability can alter the stability and dynamics of oil-in-water emulsions, generated by a co-flow microfluidic device. We designed a useful methodology that can modify a micro-capillary of desired heterogeneous wettability (e.g., alternating hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions) without changing the hydraulic diameter. We subsequently investigated the effects of flow rates and heterogeneous wettability on the emulsion morphology and motion. The experimental data revealed a universal critical timescale of advective emulsions, above which the microfluidic emulsions remain stable and intact, whereas below they become adhesive or inverse. A simple theoretical model based on a force balance can be used to explain this critical transition of emulsion dynamics, depending on the droplet size and the Capillary number–the ratio of viscous to surface effects. These results give insight into how to control the stability and dynamics of emulsions in microfluidics with flow velocity and different wettability. PMID:27256703

  4. Coal desulfurization during the combustion of coal/oil/water emulsions: an economic alternative liquid fuel. Final quarterly report, September 26-December 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Dooher, J.P.

    1981-01-01

    Combustion tests were performed using a Cleaver-Brooks 350 hp fire-tube boiler-furnace to determine the efficiency of sulfur dioxide removal using soda ash and micronized additives. A high sulfur, 4% western Kentucky coal, pulverized to 78% through 200 mesh was mixed with medium weight No. 4 oil and water to form the emulsions. Soda ash and micronized limestone and hydrated lime were added to the emulsion for SO/sub 2/ removal. Baseline combustion tests were first conducted on emulsions without additives. Thermal efficiencies of over 88% were obtained. The best SO/sub 2/ removal was with soda ash, with 80% and 78% removal. There were problems with ash deposition in pass 2 during these tests. Fuel preparation problems were encountered with high particle content micronized limestone and hydrated lime emulsions. The successful fuels had poor SO/sub 2/ removal results.

  5. Lipid Emulsion Added to a Liquid High-Carbohydrate Diet and Voluntary Running Exercise Reduce Lipogenesis and Ameliorate Early-Stage Hepatic Steatosis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kuan-Hsun; Hao, Lei; Smith, Philip B; Rogers, Connie J; Patterson, Andrew D; Ross, A Catharine

    2017-05-01

    Background: The use of parenteral nutrition formulas is often associated with the development of hepatic steatosis. We have shown previously that the addition of a lipid emulsion (LE) rich in n-6 (ω-6) fatty acids (FAs) ameliorated triglyceride (TG) accumulation in the livers of nonobese mice fed a high-carbohydrate diet (HCD) for 5 wk. However, it remains unclear how rapidly this condition develops and whether it can be prevented by LE with or without a running wheel for voluntary exercise (Exe).Objective: We investigated in an 8-d study whether mice develop steatosis and whether the administration of LE with or without Exe reduces the concentration of total FAs and prevents an increase in the expression of genes in the liver associated with lipogenesis.Methods: Male C57BL/6 mice aged 5 wk were randomized into 5 groups: standard feed pellet (SFP); a liquid HCD (77% of total energy from carbohydrates and 0.5% from fat); HCD + Exe; HCD + 13.5% LE (67% carbohydrates and 13.5% fat); or HCD + 13.5% LE + Exe. Hepatic TG concentration, lipogenic genes, and total FAs were measured on day 8.Results: Oil Red O staining and TG quantification showed hepatic TG accumulation on day 8; the addition of 13.5% LE either with or without Exe suppressed the TG accumulation compared with HCD (P < 0.005). With the use of quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis, the expression concentrations of lipogenic genes [ATP-citrate lyase, acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase 1, FA synthase (Fasn), and stearoyl coenzyme A desaturase 1 (Scd1)] in the HCD + 13.5% LE group were 26-60% of HCD (P < 0.01) and 11-38% of HCD in the HCD + 13.5% LE + Exe group (P < 0.001), with interactions for Fasn and Scd1 (P < 0.05). With the use of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, the HCD + 13.5% LE group had lower monounsaturated fatty acids (38.7% of HCD) but higher polyunsaturated fatty acids (164% of HCD) (P < 0.001).Conclusions: In short-term studies designed to resemble the

  6. News of the Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Lifer, Evan; Olson, Renee; Margolis, Rick; Glick, Andrea; Milliot, Jim

    1999-01-01

    Includes the following reports: "'LJ' (Library Journal) News Report: Libraries Success at Funding Books and Bytes"; "'SLJ' (School Library Journal) News Report: We're in the Money!"; and "'PW' (Publishers Weekly) News Reports". (AEF)

  7. News Media

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    profanity, sex , and violence in entertainment programs.2 The government has never seriously sought to regulate the content of the news since the Alien and...Podcasting is a web-based broadcast medium in which computer files are placed online and then automatically downloaded onto the subscriber’s MP3 ...en.wikipedia.org>. 32 The term is a bit of a misnomer because an iPod is not necessarily required to receive a podcast – any MP3 player will suffice. 33

  8. Coal desulfurization during the combustion of coal/oil/water emulsions: an economic alternative liquid fuel. Final quarterly report, January 1, 1981-March 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Dooher, J.P.

    1981-05-01

    Combustion tests were performed using a Cleaver-Brooks 350 hp fire-tube boiler-furnace to determine the efficiency of sulfur dioxide removal using soda ash and micronized additives. A high sulfur, 4.7% Ohio bituminous coal, ground to 92% through 200 mesh, was mixed with medium weight No. 4 oil and water to form the emulsions. Soda ash and micronized dolomite were added to the emulsion for SO/sub 2/ removal. An emulsion, without additives, was first tested and a thermal efficiency of 88% was obtained. The best SO/sub 2/ removal was with soda ash with from 82% to 96% removal. There were problems with ash deposition and slagging in the second pass. Fuel preparation problems were encountered with high particle content micronized dolomite emulsions. The successful dolomite fuels had poor SO/sub 2/ removal results. The long term testing on a coal/oil/water emulsion without any additives has begun and no major problems have been encountered.

  9. Using emulsion inversion in industrial processes.

    PubMed

    Salager, Jean-Louis; Forgiarini, Ana; Márquez, Laura; Peña, Alejandro; Pizzino, Aldo; Rodriguez, María P; Rondón-González, Marianna

    2004-05-20

    Emulsion inversion is a complex phenomenon, often perceived as an instability that is essentially uncontrollable, although many industrial processes make use of it. A research effort that started 2 decades ago has provided the two-dimensional and three-dimensional description, the categorization and the theoretical interpretation of the different kinds of emulsion inversion. A clear-cut phenomenological approach is currently available for understanding its characteristics, the factors that influence it and control it, the importance of fine-tuning the emulsification protocol, and the crucial occurrence of organized structures such as liquid crystals or multiple emulsions. The current know-how is used to analyze some industrial processes involving emulsion inversion, e.g. the attainment of a fine nutrient or cosmetic emulsion by temperature or formulation-induced transitional inversion, the preparation of a silicone oil emulsion by catastrophic phase inversion, the manufacture of a viscous polymer latex by combined inversion and the spontaneous but enigmatic inversion of emulsions used in metal working operations such as lathing or lamination.

  10. Emulsion Droplet Combustion in Microgravity: Water/Heptane Emulsions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avedisian, C. Thomas

    1997-01-01

    This presentation reviews a series of experiments to further examine parametric effects on sooting processes of droplet flames in microgravity. The particular focus is on a fuel droplet emulsified with water, specifically emulsions of n-heptane as the fuel-phase and water as the dispersed phase. Water was selected as the additive because of its anticipated effect on soot formation, and the heptane fuel phase was chosen to theoretically reduce the likelihood of microexplosions because its boiling point is nearly the same as that of water: 100 C for water and 98 C for heptane. The water content was varied while the initial droplet diameter was kept within a small range. The experiments were carried out in microgravity to reduce the effects of buoyancy and to promote spherical symmetry in the burning process. Spherically symmetric droplet burning is a convenient starting point for analysis, but experimental data are difficult to obtain for this situation as evidenced by the fact that no quantitative data have been reported on unsupported emulsion droplet combustion in a convection-free environment. The present study improves upon past work carried out on emulsion droplet combustion in microgravity which employed emulsion droplets suspended from a fiber. The fiber can be instrusive to the emulsion droplet burning process as it can promote coalescence of the dispersed water phase and heterogeneous nucleation on the fiber. Prior work has shown that the presence of water in liquid hydrocarbons can have both beneficial and detrimental effects on the combustion process. Water is known to reduce soot formation and radiation heat transfer to combustor walls Gollahalli (1979) reduce flame temperatures and thereby NOx emissions, and encourage secondary droplet atomization or microexplosion. Water also tends to retard ignition and and promote early extinction. The former effect restricted the range of water volume fractions as discussed below.

  11. Emulsion Droplet Combustion in Microgravity: Water/Heptane Emulsions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avedisian, C. Thomas

    1997-01-01

    This presentation reviews a series of experiments to further examine parametric effects on sooting processes of droplet flames in microgravity. The particular focus is on a fuel droplet emulsified with water, specifically emulsions of n-heptane as the fuel-phase and water as the dispersed phase. Water was selected as the additive because of its anticipated effect on soot formation, and the heptane fuel phase was chosen to theoretically reduce the likelihood of microexplosions because its boiling point is nearly the same as that of water: 100 C for water and 98 C for heptane. The water content was varied while the initial droplet diameter was kept within a small range. The experiments were carried out in microgravity to reduce the effects of buoyancy and to promote spherical symmetry in the burning process. Spherically symmetric droplet burning is a convenient starting point for analysis, but experimental data are difficult to obtain for this situation as evidenced by the fact that no quantitative data have been reported on unsupported emulsion droplet combustion in a convection-free environment. The present study improves upon past work carried out on emulsion droplet combustion in microgravity which employed emulsion droplets suspended from a fiber. The fiber can be instrusive to the emulsion droplet burning process as it can promote coalescence of the dispersed water phase and heterogeneous nucleation on the fiber. Prior work has shown that the presence of water in liquid hydrocarbons can have both beneficial and detrimental effects on the combustion process. Water is known to reduce soot formation and radiation heat transfer to combustor walls Gollahalli (1979) reduce flame temperatures and thereby NOx emissions, and encourage secondary droplet atomization or microexplosion. Water also tends to retard ignition and and promote early extinction. The former effect restricted the range of water volume fractions as discussed below.

  12. Zero-Valent Metal Emulsion for Reductive Dehalogenation of DNAPLS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhart, Debra R. (Inventor); Clausen, Christian (Inventor); Geiger, Cherie L. (Inventor); Quinn, Jacqueline (Inventor); Brooks, Kathleen (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A zero-valent metal emulsion is used to dehalogenate solvents, such as pooled dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs), including trichloroethylene (TCE). The zero-valent metal emulsion contains zero-valent metal particles, a surfactant, oil and water. The preferred zero-valent metal particles are nanoscale and microscale zero-valent iron particles

  13. Zero-Valent Metal Emulsion for Reductive Dehalogenation of DNAPLs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhart, Debra R. (Inventor); Clausen, Christian (Inventor); Gelger, Cherie L. (Inventor); Quinn, Jacqueline (Inventor); Brooks, Kathleen (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A zero-valent metal emulsion is used to dehalogenate solvents, such as pooled dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs), including trichloroethylene (TCE). The zero-valent metal emulsion contains zero-valent metal particles, a surfactant, oil and water, The preferred zero-valent metal particles are nanoscale and microscale zero-valent iron particles.

  14. Zero-Valent Metal Emulsion for Reductive Dehalogenation of DNAPLS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhart, Debra R. (Inventor); Clausen, Christian (Inventor); Geiger, Cherie L. (Inventor); Quinn, Jacqueline (Inventor); Brooks, Kathleen (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A zero-valent metal emulsion is used to dehalogenate solvents, such as pooled dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs), including trichloroethylene (TCE). The zero-valent metal emulsion contains zero-valent metal particles, a surfactant, oil and water. The preferred zero-valent metal particles are nanoscale and microscale zero-valent iron particles

  15. Hexagonal phase based gel-emulsion (O/H1 gel-emulsion): formation and rheology.

    PubMed

    Alam, Mohammad Mydul; Aramaki, Kenji

    2008-11-04

    The formation, stability, and rheological behavior of a hexagonal phase based gel-emulsion (O/H1 gel-emulsion) have been studied in water/C12EO8/hydrocarbon oil systems. A partial phase behavior study indicates that the oil nature has no effect on the phase sequences in the ternary phase diagram of water/C12EO8/oil systems but the domain size of the phases or the oil solubilization capacity considerably changes with oil nature. Excess oil is in equilibrium with the hexagonal phase (H1) in the ternary phase diagram in the H1+O region. The O/H1 gel-emulsion was prepared (formation) and kept at 25 degrees C to check stability. It has been found that the formation and stability of the O/H1 gel-emulsion depends on the oil nature. After 2 min observation (formation), the results show that short chain linear hydrocarbon oils (heptane, octane) are more apt to form a O/H1 gel-emulsion compared to long chain linear hydrocarbon oils (tetradecane, hexadecane), though the stability is not good enough in either system, that is, oil separates within 24 h. Nevertheless, the formation and stability of the O/H1 gel-emulsion is appreciably increased in squalane and liquid paraffin. It is surmised that the high transition temperature of the H1+O phase and the presence of a bicontinuous cubic phase (V1) might hamper the formation of a gel-emulsion. It has been pointed out that the solubilization of oil in the H1 phase could be related to emulsion stability. On the other hand, the oil nature has little or no effect on the formation and stability of a cubic phase based gel-emulsion (O/I1 gel-emulsion). From rheological measurements, it has found that the rheogram of the O/H1 gel-emulsion indicates gel-type structure and shows shear thinning behavior similar to the case of the O/I1 gel-emulsion. Rheological data infer that the O/I1 gel-emulsion is more viscous than the O/H1 gel-emulsion at room temperature but the O/H1 gel-emulsion shows consistency at elevated temperature.

  16. Measuring News Media Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maksl, Adam; Ashley, Seth; Craft, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    News media literacy refers to the knowledge and motivations needed to identify and engage with journalism. This study measured levels of news media literacy among 500 teenagers using a new scale measure based on Potter's model of media literacy and adapted to news media specifically. The adapted model posits that news media literate individuals…

  17. Measuring News Media Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maksl, Adam; Ashley, Seth; Craft, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    News media literacy refers to the knowledge and motivations needed to identify and engage with journalism. This study measured levels of news media literacy among 500 teenagers using a new scale measure based on Potter's model of media literacy and adapted to news media specifically. The adapted model posits that news media literate individuals…

  18. News Media Industry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    news of the day. To fill air time, “ infotainment ” found its way into the news. As the media and its advertisers came to realize the drawing power...of this content, the news gradually became more entertainment oriented. Today, we have an entire generation of adults who grew up with “ infotainment ...References Anderson, B. (2004). “News Flash: Journalism, Infotainment and the Bottom-Line Business of Broadcast News.” Jossey-Bass, pp

  19. Development and validation of a simple high-performance liquid chromatography analytical method for simultaneous determination of phytosterols, cholesterol and squalene in parenteral lipid emulsions.

    PubMed

    Novak, Ana; Gutiérrez-Zamora, Mercè; Domenech, Lluís; Suñé-Negre, Josep M; Miñarro, Montserrat; García-Montoya, Encarna; Llop, Josep M; Ticó, Josep R; Pérez-Lozano, Pilar

    2017-08-30

    A simple analytical method for simultaneous determination of phytosterols, cholesterol and squalene in lipid emulsions was developed owing to increased interest in their clinical effects. Method development was based on commonly used stationary (C18 , C8 and phenyl) and mobile phases (mixtures of acetonitrile, methanol and water) under isocratic conditions. Differences in stationary phases resulted in peak overlapping or coelution of different peaks. The best separation of all analyzed compounds was achieved on Zorbax Eclipse XDB C8 (150 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm; Agilent) and ACN-H2 O-MeOH, 80:19.5:0.5 (v/v/v). In order to achieve a shorter time of analysis, the method was further optimized and gradient separation was established. The optimized analytical method was validated and tested for routine use in lipid emulsion analyses. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Latest nuclear emulsion technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rokujo, Hiroki; Kawahara, Hiroaki; Komatani, Ryosuke; Morishita, Misaki; Nakano, Toshiyuki; Otsuka, Naoto; Yoshimoto, Masahiro

    2017-06-01

    Nuclear emulsion is a extremely high-resolution 3D tracking detector. Since the discovery of the pion by C.F. Powell et al. in 1946, experiments with nuclear emulsions have contributed to the development of particle physics. (e.g. the OPERA collaboration reported the discovery of νμ * ντ oscillations in appearance mode in 2015) The technology of nuclear emulsion still keeps making progress. Since 2010, we have introduced a system of nuclear emulsion gel production to our laboratory in Nagoya University, and have started self-development of the new gel, instead of from the photographic film companies. Moreover, a faster automated emulsion scanning system is developed. Its scanning speed reaches 4000 cm2/h, and the load for analyzing becomes more and more lighter. In this presentation, we report the status of nuclear emulsion technologies for cosmic ray experiments.

  1. Surfactant-enhanced cellulose nanocrystal Pickering emulsions.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhen; Ballinger, Sarah; Pelton, Robert; Cranston, Emily D

    2015-02-01

    The effect of surfactants on the properties of Pickering emulsions stabilized by cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) was investigated. Electrophoretic mobility, interfacial tension, confocal microscopy and three-phase contact angle measurements were used to elucidate the interactions between anionic CNCs and cationic alkyl ammonium surfactants didecyldimethylammonium bromide (DMAB) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). Both surfactants were found to adsorb onto CNCs with concentration-dependent morphology. At low concentrations, individual surfactant molecules adsorbed with alkyl tails pointing outward leading to hydrophobic CNCs. At higher concentrations, above the surfactant's apparent critical micelle concentration, surfactant aggregate morphologies on CNCs were inferred and the hydrophobicity of CNCs decreased. DMAB, which has two alkyl tails, rendered the CNCs more hydrophobic than CTAB which has only a single alkyl tail, at all surfactant concentrations. The change in CNC wettability from surfactant adsorption was directly linked to emulsion properties; adding surfactant increased the emulsion stability, decreased the droplet size, and controlled the internal phase of CNC Pickering emulsions. More specifically, a double transitional phase inversion, from oil-in-water to water-in-oil and back to oil-in-water, was observed for emulsions with CNCs and increasing amounts of DMAB (the more hydrophobic surfactant). With CNCs and CTAB, no phase inversion was induced. This work represents the first report of CNC Pickering emulsions with surfactants as well as the first CNC Pickering emulsions that can be phase inverted. The ability to surface modify CNCs in situ and tailor emulsions by adding surfactants may extend the potential of CNCs to new liquid formulations and extruded/spray-dried materials.

  2. Tuneable Rheological Properties of Fluorinated Pickering Emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chacon Orellana, Laura Andreina; Riechers, Birte; Caen, Ouriel; Baret, Jean-Christophe

    Pickering emulsions are an appealing approach to stabilize liquid-liquid dispersions without surfactants. Recently, amphiphilic silica nanoparticles have been proposed as an alternative to surfactants for droplet microfluidics applications, where aqueous drops are stabilized in fluorinated oils. This system, proved to be effective in preventing the leakage of resorufin, a model dye that was known to leak in surfactant-stabilized drops. The overall capabilities of droplet-based microfluidics technology is highly dependent on the dynamic properties of droplets, interfaces and emulsions. Therefore, fluorinated pickering emulsions dynamic properties need to be characterized, understood and controlled to be used as a substitute of already broadly studied emulsions for droplet microfluidics applications. In this study, fluorinated pickering emulsions have been found to behave as a Herschel Bulkley fluid, representing a challenge for common microfluidic operations as re-injection and sorting of droplets. We found that this behavior is controlled by the interaction between the interfacial properties of the particle-laden interface and the bulk properties of the two phases

  3. News & Announcements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-08-01

    News from Journal House

    National Chemistry Week (NCW)

    National Chemistry Week Celebrating Chemistry and Art is the theme of NCW 2001, to be held November 4-10, 2001. As you make plans for participating in the celebrations in your area, keep in mind that JCE is developing special materials on this theme, which will appear in our October issue: Classroom Activities, a comprehensive Illustrated Resource Paper, Report from Online, specially written brief articles illustrated in color, articles related to the theme, and CLIPs (Chemical Laboratory Information Profiles).

    Awards Announced

    Passer Award

    Passer Award recipients from the April 1 closing date are:
    • George Bennett, Millikin University, Decatur, IL
    • Daniel Berger, Bluffton College, Bluffton, OH
    • Karen Dunlap, Sierra College, Rocklin, CA
    • Myung-Hoon Kim, Georgia Perimeter College, Dunwoody, GA
    • Cheryl Longfellow, Philadelphia University, Philadelphia, PA
    • Jerry Maas, Oakton Community College, Des Plaines, IL
    • Tim Royappa, University of West Florida, Pensacola, FL

    Visiting Scientist Award, Western Connecticut Section

    Diane Bunce, The Catholic University of America, has been selected as the 2001 Visiting Scientist of the Western Connecticut Section of the ACS. The award, presented annually since 1967, brings an outstanding chemical educator to visit high schools in Fairfield County, CT. In May, Bunce visited three high schools, Christian Heritage School, Fairfield High School, and Greenwich High School, where she interacted with teachers and students and presented lectures and demonstrations to several chemistry classes. She was also keynote speaker at the ACS local section's Education Night. The awardee is selected by a committee of university and high school teachers, industrial chemists, and the previous Visiting Scientist

  4. National Cancer Institute News

    MedlinePlus

    ... Workshop NCI Annual Fact Book NCI Visuals Online Social Media @NCIMedia NCI YouTube Subscribe to NCI News Releases ... posts Subscribe Events Scientific Meetings and Lectures Conferences Social Media Events News Archive 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013 ...

  5. 2004 News Media Industry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    Content and credibility vary, and few online news organizations conduct reporting operations. The Wall Street Journal Online is a notable...served by the Wall Street Journal Online, but innovative advertising schemes coupled with rising market shares should propel the more traditional news...Votes to Scrap New Media Rules.” Wall Street Journal (Sep 17, 2003). Downie, Leonard Jr. and Robert G. Kaiser. The News About the News: American

  6. Study on Formation of High Performance Ice Slurry by Emulsion in Ice Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Koji; Oikawa, Ken; Okada, Masashi; Teraoka, Yoshikazu; Kawagoe, Tetsuo

    This study is focused on an emulsion as a new thermal storage material for ice storage. Two types of emulsions are made of oil-water mixture with a little additive. Oils used are silicone, light and lump oils. Water contents of emulsions are 70,80 and 90 %. The additive is amino group modified silicone oil, and there is no depression of freezing point for the emulsions because of its hydrophobic property. In order to know structures of emulsions, those electric resistances were measured. And components of liquids separating from emulsions were investigated. From above results, it was found that one was W/O type and the other was O/W type. And then, adaptability of two emulsions to the ice storage was discussed, and then, it was found that a high performance ice slurry could be formed by the W/O type emulsion.

  7. NASA News Center

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-10-31

    The NASA News Center, seen here, is the hub of news operations for the media, providing information and contacts about Space Shuttle processing and other activities around KSC. News Center staff also conduct media tours, escorting journalists and photo/videographers to key sites such as the launch pads and Vehicle Assembly Building as needed.

  8. News & Announcements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-01-01

    News from Journal House

    Guidelines for Submission The Journal's current Guide to Submissions can be found on pages 29-30 of this issue. They have been streamlined a bit and also include a handy check list. This information is also available on JCE Online at http://jchemed.chem.wisc.edu/Journal/Authors/. Wanted: Demo Checkers The Tested Demonstrations column needs people who like to try out demos. Column editor Ed Vitz is looking for additional volunteers to serve as "checkers" for manuscripts that have been submitted to the Journal for possible publication as Tested Demonstrations. A checker is expected to perform two functions: to review the manuscript for accuracy and novelty, and to attempt to perform the demonstration according to the procedure supplied by the author. Checkers may suggest important improvements in demonstration procedures, and for their efforts they are cited in the byline when the manuscript is published. For instance, the demo showing the yellow cascading precipitates (lead iodide) made from potassium iodide and lead nitrate was submitted by Wobbe de Vos and checked by Kim Kostka. The (yellow) cascading precipitates are from "Using Large Glass Cylinders To Demonstrate Chemical Reactions" that appeared in the April 1999 issue of JCE. We prefer that checkers begin the review process (which may in some cases involve procuring supplies) very soon after being contacted so that their review can be completed in the timely manner that authors deserve. Checkers are usually teachers who routinely present lecture demonstrations in their classes in either high school or colleges. We try not to call on checkers more often than once a year, which is one of the reasons for this request. Another is that we lose many highly valued, experienced checkers to retirement or other endeavors. Prospective checkers may want to look at a copy of the JCE Tested Demonstration Evaluation Form. It can be found on the Web at http://www.kutztown.edu/ vitz

  9. Dielectrophoresis of reverse phase emulsions.

    PubMed

    Flores-Rodriguez, N; Bryning, Z; Markx, G H

    2005-08-01

    Reverse miniemulsions, emulsions of droplets of size 200 nm-1 microm of a polar liquid dispersed in an apolar continuous liquid phase, exhibit strong electrokinetic responses in low-frequency electric fields. The electrokinetic behaviour of a reverse miniemulsion, previously developed for use as electronic paper, has been investigated under static and flow conditions, in uniform and non-uniform electric fields. Results reveal that when using frequencies lower than 10 Hz strong aggregation of the droplets occurs. In uniform electric fields, under static conditions, droplets reversibly aggregate into honeycomb-like or irregular aggregates. Under flow conditions, droplets aggregate into approximately equidistant streams. In non-uniform electric fields the droplets reversibly aggregate in high-field regions, and can be guided along regions of high field strength in a flow. The potential of the technique for the formation of structured materials is discussed.

  10. News & Announcements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-08-01

    News from Journal House Perspective on JCE Online Recently a reader asked us for a perspective on JCE Onlinehow the chemical education community is receiving it and how the Journal staff itself views it. We share our responses below. Subscriber Numbers How many people subscribe to JCE Online+? As of June 1, 1999, our records show that 13% of individual JCE subscriptions in the USA include JCE Online+. This percentage has increased significantly during the past year- in June 1998 it was approximately 4% and December 1998 about 7%. Almost all subscribers to JCE Online subscribe to print as well. Since JCE Online has only very recently been made available to institutional subscribers, there are no numbers to report. There has been considerable interest in online from libraries. Given that JCE Online+ is a fairly recent subscriber option and that many subscribers have a wait-and-see approach to any new option, we feel that the numbers above are quite high. The steady growth is encouraging. Online Usage How many people visit our Web site? Statistics for the period January 1, 1999, through May 31, 1999, that may be of interest include:

    Total Pages Served 361,115

    Total Visits 138,377

    Total Unique Visitors 51,744

    Total Repeat Visitors 11,536

    Average Visit Length 03:05

    Average Requests/Visit 10.8

    Average Pages/Visit 2.6

    Average Daily Visits 916 Online Rationale and Expectations JCE Online is a very important part of the whole Journal, but we do not expect it to supplant print: online and print are very different media. Usage of JCE Online is growing steadily; our subscribers are realizing what we have learned: it is not possible to deliver the Journal in the print medium alone- print is no longer adequate to accomplish our mission. Examples of things not possible in print include:

    ·JCE Index to all 76

  11. Nanoscale and Microscale Iron Emulsions for Treating DNAPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geiger, Cherie L.

    2002-01-01

    This study demonstrated the feasibility of using emulsified nanoscale and microscale iron particles to enhance dehalogenation of (Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid) DNAPL free-phase. The emulsified system consisted of a surfactant-stabilized, biodegradable oil-in-water emulsion with nanoscale or microscale iron particles contained within the emulsion droplets. It was demonstrated that DNAPLs, such as trichloroethene (TCE), diffuse through the oil membrane of the emulsion particle whereupon they reach an aqueous interior and the surface of an iron particle where dehalogenation takes place. The hydrocarbon reaction by-products of the dehalogenation reaction, primarily ethene (no chlorinated products detected), diffuse out of the emulsion droplet. This study also demonstrated that an iron-emulsion system could be delivered in-situ to the DNAPL pool in a soil matrix by using a simulated push well technique. Iron emulsions degraded pure TCE at a rate comparable to the degradation of dissolved phase TCE by iron particles, while pure iron had a very low degradation rate for free-phase TCE. The iron-emulsion systems can be injected into a sand matrix where they become immobilized and are not moved by flowing water. It has been documented that surfactant micelles possess the ability to pull pooled TCE into emulsion droplets where degradation of TCE takes place.

  12. Polymerization in emulsion microdroplet reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, Nick J.

    The goal of this research project is to utilize emulsion droplets as chemical reactors for execution of complex polymerization chemistries to develop unique and functional particle materials. Emulsions are dispersions of immiscible fluids where one fluid usually exists in the form of drops. Not surprisingly, if a liquid-to-solid chemical reaction proceeds to completion within these drops, the resultant solid particles will possess the shape and relative size distribution of the drops. The two immiscible liquid phases required for emulsion polymerization provide unique and complex chemical and physical environments suitable for the engineering of novel materials. The development of novel non-ionic fluorosurfactants allows fluorocarbon oils to be used as the continuous phase in a water-free emulsion. Such emulsions enable the encapsulation of almost any hydrocarbon compound in droplets that may be used as separate compartments for water-sensitive syntheses. Here, we exemplify the promise of this approach by suspension polymerization of polyurethanes (PU), in which the liquid precursor is emulsified into droplets that are then converted 1:1 into polymer particles. The stability of the droplets against coalescence upon removal of the continuous phase by evaporation confirms the formation of solid PU particles. These results prove that the water-free environment of fluorocarbon based emulsions enables high conversion. We produce monodisperse, cross-linked, and fluorescently labeled PU-latexes with controllable mesh size through microfluidic emulsification in a simple one-step process. A novel method for the fabrication of monodisperse mesoporous silica particles is presented. It is based on the formation of well-defined equally sized emulsion droplets using a microfluidic approach. The droplets contain the silica precursor/surfactant solution and are suspended in hexadecane as the continuous oil phase. The solvent is then expelled from the droplets, leading to

  13. News & Announcements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-02-01

    News from Journal House

    Journal Ambassadors, 1999 What do the people listed below have in common? A search of our records indicates that each has been a participant in our Journal Ambassador program during 1999.
    • Guy Anderson
    • Jim Becvar
    • Jerry Bell
    • Jim Birk
    • Diane Bunce
    • Ann Cartwright
    • Thomas Clark
    • Jane Crosby
    • Maria Dean
    • Art Ellis
    • Donald Elswick
    • Tommy Franklin
    • Babu George
    • Paul Heath
    • Angela Hoffman
    • Lynn Hogue
    • J. J. Lagowski
    • Frank Lambert
    • Dorothy Lehmkuhl
    • George Lelevre
    • Scott Luaders
    • Jane McMullen
    • Marci Merritt
    • Carl Minnier
    • Richard Narske
    • Ron Perkins
    • Gabriel Pinto
    • Dick Potts
    • Herb Retcofsky
    • Jerry Sarquis
    • Elke Schoffers
    • Sara Selfe
    • Uni Susskind
    • J. Mark Tolman
    • John Varine
    • Dawn Wakeley
    • Marla White
    Those who are a part of this program take materials about the Journal to workshops, outreach programs, seminars, regional meetings, award nights, short courses, and other events at home and abroad, places where people who are interested in chemical education gather. Given about three weeks notice, we can outfit you with a variety of materials that will help others get tuned in to the good things that are happening in chemical education. We can send you an assortment of Journal issues, subscription forms, our Publications/Software Catalog, reprints from the Viewpoints series, copies of Classroom Activities, or JCE Gift Award Certificates, assuming that supplies are available. Of course we can arrange for the group to have temporary access to JCE Online. We can send you a brochure about the Ambassador program or answer any questions - just ask: email to jce@chem.wisc.edu; phone 1-800-991-5534 (U.S.) or 608-262-5153 (non-U.S.); fax 608-265-8094. If by chance you were a Journal Ambassador in 1999 but your name was not included, just let us know so that you can be recognized in a future column. Gift

  14. Superhydrophobic cellulose-based bionanocomposite films from Pickering emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayer, Ilker S.; Steele, Adam; Martorana, Philip J.; Loth, Eric; Miller, Lance

    2009-04-01

    Inherently superhydrophobic and flexible cellulose-based bionanocomposites were fabricated from solid stabilized (Pickering) emulsions. Emulsions were formed by dispersing cyclosiloxanes in water stabilized by layered silicate particles and were subsequently modified by blending into a zinc oxide nanofluid. The polymer matrix was a blend of cellulose nitrate and fluoroacrylic polymer (Zonyl 8740) precompatibilized in solution. Coatings were spray cast onto aluminum substrates from polymer blends dispersed in modified Pickering emulsions. No postsurface treatment was required to induce superhydrophobicity. Effect of antiseptic additives on bionanocomposite superhydrophobicity is also discussed. Replacing cellulose nitrate with commercial liquid bandage solutions produced identical superhydrophobic coatings.

  15. Hearing bad news.

    PubMed

    Morse, Janice

    2011-09-01

    Personal reports of receiving bad news provide data that describes patients' comprehension, reflections, experienced emotions, and an interpretative commentary with the wisdom of hindsight. Analysis of autobiographical accounts of "hearing bad news" enables the identification of patterns of how patients found out diagnoses, buffering techniques used, and styles of receiving the news. I describe how patients grapple with the news, their somatic responses to hearing, and how they struggle and strive to accept what they are hearing. I discuss metaphors used within the languages of hearing bad news. Finally, I discuss implications for a change of focus in the breaking bad news research agenda, that is, from the physician's "performance" to a patient-focused agenda.

  16. Magnetoresistive Emulsion Analyzer

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Gungun; Baraban, Larysa; Han, Luyang; Karnaushenko, Daniil; Makarov, Denys; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio; Schmidt, Oliver G.

    2013-01-01

    We realize a magnetoresistive emulsion analyzer capable of detection, multiparametric analysis and sorting of ferrofluid-containing nanoliter-droplets. The operation of the device in a cytometric mode provides high throughput and quantitative information about the dimensions and magnetic content of the emulsion. Our method offers important complementarity to conventional optical approaches involving ferrofluids, and paves the way to the development of novel compact tools for diagnostics and nanomedicine including drug design and screening. PMID:23989504

  17. Institute news

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-11-01

    : Heriot-Watt University 4 Nov: Strathclyde University 17 Nov: York University 24 Nov: Bristol University 1 Dec: Open University 7 Dec: Kent University 14 Dec: Cardiff University 15 Dec: University of Wales, Swansea 24 Jan: Reading University 10 Feb: Abingdon School 16 Feb: Plymouth University 2 Mar: Sheffield University 7 Mar: CLRC Daresbury Laboratory 8 Mar: Liverpool University 9 Mar: Manchester 10 Mar: Lancaster University 15 Mar: Surrey University 16 Mar: Brighton University 17 Mar: St Vincent College, Gosport 22 Mar: Leeds University 23 Mar: Loughborough Grammar School 24 Mar: Oakham School 30 Mar: St Peter's School, Wolverhampton 18 May: University of Hertfordshire 11 Jul: Science Museum 12 Jul: Royal Institution The assistance of the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, CLRC Daresbury Laboratory and DERA Malvern is acknowledged in staging this year's events. Courses, lectures and competitions `Physics in perspective', the study course for sixth-formers and college students, will take place in London on 6 - 8 February 2000, offering insights into many different aspects of physics. The programme commences during the afternoon of Sunday 6 February at King's College London with a Balloon debate, followed by Brian O'Rourke's talk on the `Physics of Formula 1 cars'. On Monday 7 February at the Royal Institution, John Avison (former Honorary Editor of Physics Education) will develop the `Thinking physics' theme by presenting the audience with varied topics in an unusual and challenging way. The second talk of the afternoon, by Professor Roy Sambles, will cover `Lasers, light and liquid crystals'. On the final day (Tuesday 8 February), again at the Royal Institution, Sara Ellison will lead the audience in `Heavenly pursuits', whilst later Dr Colin Wright will entertain with `Juggling - theory and practice'. Futher information and bookings for the course can be made by contacting Mrs Leila Solomon at The Institute of Physics, 76 Portland Place, London W1N 3DH

  18. Emulsions Containing Perfluorocarbon Support Cell Cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ju, Lu-Kwang; Lee, Jaw Fang; Armiger, William B.

    1990-01-01

    Addition of emulsion containing perfluorocarbon liquid to aqueous cell-culture medium increases capacity of medium to support mammalian cells. FC-40 Fluorinert (or equivalent) - increases average density of medium so approximately equal to that of cells. Cells stay suspended in medium without mechanical stirring, which damages them. Increases density enough to prevent cells from setting, and increases viscosity of medium so oxygen bubbled through it and nutrients stirred in with less damage to delicate cells.

  19. Emulsions Containing Perfluorocarbon Support Cell Cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ju, Lu-Kwang; Lee, Jaw Fang; Armiger, William B.

    1990-01-01

    Addition of emulsion containing perfluorocarbon liquid to aqueous cell-culture medium increases capacity of medium to support mammalian cells. FC-40 Fluorinert (or equivalent) - increases average density of medium so approximately equal to that of cells. Cells stay suspended in medium without mechanical stirring, which damages them. Increases density enough to prevent cells from setting, and increases viscosity of medium so oxygen bubbled through it and nutrients stirred in with less damage to delicate cells.

  20. Emulsion package and method of mixing the emulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, R.G.; Brenneman, S.; Clancy, J.J.

    1984-08-28

    A coal tar emulsion driveway sealer is packaged in a sealed bag. The volume of sealer is less than half the capacity of the bag and the bag is substantially completely evacuated but for the sealer. The separated sealer is mixed by compressing the sides of the bag to induce turbulent flow of the paste and liquid for hydraulic mixing thereof. The sealer may be dispensed at a controlled rate without spattering by cutting a corner from the bag to provide a pour spout. The bag with the sealer may be contained in a carton. The bag membrane comprises an aluminum layer vapor deposited on polyester. Those two layers are sandwiched between layers of EVA copolymer.

  1. With News Search Engines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunn, Holly

    2005-01-01

    Although there are many news search engines on the Web, finding the news items one wants can be challenging. Choosing appropriate search terms is one of the biggest challenges. Unless one has seen the article that one is seeking, it is often difficult to select words that were used in the headline or text of the article. The limited archives of…

  2. The News Media Industry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-06-05

    growth and economic viability of the Internet news model. One newspaper executive notes, “It’s hard to second-guess history, but if many people could...share and profitability serve as the metrics that measure the overall economic viability of the news media industry, the old adages of “fair and

  3. With News Search Engines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunn, Holly

    2005-01-01

    Although there are many news search engines on the Web, finding the news items one wants can be challenging. Choosing appropriate search terms is one of the biggest challenges. Unless one has seen the article that one is seeking, it is often difficult to select words that were used in the headline or text of the article. The limited archives of…

  4. Working with News Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosenbaugh, Dick

    To work effectively with personnel in the news media, one needs to assist them in doing their job by getting accurate information to them (in plenty of time for their deadline) and in providing information about meetings (when they do not have a reporter to cover the event). Familiarity aids in communication with news media personnel so one should…

  5. DEP actuation of emulsion jets and dispensing of sub-nanoliter emulsion droplets.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Ravi; Kaler, Karan V I S

    2009-10-07

    Liquid Dielectrophoresis (L-DEP) has been successfully leveraged at microscopic scales and shown to provide a controllable means of on-chip precision dispensing and manipulation of sub-nanoliter single emulsion droplets. In this paper, we report on the dynamics of a DEP actuated emulsion jet prior to break-up and compare its characteristic behavior based on the lumped parameter model of Jones et al. (R. Ahmed and T. B. Jones, J. Micromech. Microeng., 2007, 17, 1052). Furthermore, features and aspects of these emulsion jets, their break-up and formation of sub-nanoliter emulsion droplets is studied in further detail. Applications of the proposed scheme in dispensing encapsulated sub-nanoliter droplets is envisioned in various fields including microTAS, on-chip handling and storage of cells and other biological samples for longer duration in controlled environments as well as solving the more general encapsulation issues in surface microfluidic devices. Scalability of the proposed scheme is shown by producing controlled sample-oil single emulsion droplets (aqueous samples in oil) in the range of 50-400 picoliters.

  6. Microgravity as a tool for studies on emulsion stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liggieri, Libero; Ferrari, Michele; Passerone, Alberto; Ravera, Francesca; Loglio, Giuseppe; Pandolfini, Piero; Steinchen, Annie; Antoni, Michael; Sanfeld, Albert; Miller, Reinhard; Fainerman, Valentin B.; Grigoriev, Dmitri O.; Kovalchuk, Vladimir I.; Krägel, Jürgen; Makievski, Alexander V.; Clausse, Danièle; Komunjer, Ljepsa; Gomez, F.; Noik, Christine; Dalmazzone, Christine; di Lullo, Alberto; del Gaudio, Lucilla; Leser, Martin E.; Michel, Martin

    2005-10-01

    The definition of methodologies for the stabilisation or destabilisation of liquid disperse systems, such as foams and emulsions, is an important scientific and technological goal, with spin-offs for a vast number of technologies, processes and products. Progresses in this area require intensive investigation and modelling of the processes occurring on different timescales and dimensions: the physical chemistry of liquid interfaces and films, droplet interaction and internal dynamics of the emulsion. Through the damping of convection and the suppression of buoyancy, microgravity conditions provide unique opportunities for studies: a purely diffusive environment for the investigation of transport and adsorption of surface active molecules and the possibility of studying droplet coalescence and aggregation processes decoupled from sedimentation or creaming. The fundamental and Applied Studies in Emulsion Stability (FASES) MAP project was set up to study the links between the properties of droplet interfaces and films, and the basic mechanisms (aggregation and coalescence) involved in the destabilisation of emulsions. Key microgravity experiments will provide data and/or tests of the developed models, in conjunction with extensive ground investigations. To this end, two International Space Station facilities are under development: Facility for Adsorption and Surface Tension study (FASTER) to investigate the physical chemistry of the single interfaces and liquid-liquid films, and the FASES Experiment Container for the Fluid Science Laboratory to investigate emulsion dynamics and the drops interaction.

  7. Emulsion of aqueous-based nonspherical droplets in aqueous solutions by single-chain surfactants: templated assembly by nonamphiphilic lyotropic liquid crystals in water.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Nisha; Shetye, Gauri S; Bandyopadhyay, Debjyoti; Gobalasingham, Nemal; Seo, JinAm; Wang, Jo-Han; Theiler, Barbara; Luk, Yan-Yeung

    2012-07-24

    Single-chain surfactants usually emulsify and stabilize oily substances into droplets in an aqueous solution. Here, we report a coassembly system, in which single types of anionic or non-ionic surfactants emulsify a class of water-soluble nonamphiphilic organic salts with fused aromatic rings in aqueous solutions. The nonamphiphilic organic salts are in turn promoted to form droplets of water-based liquid crystals (chromonic liquid crystals) encapsulated by single-chain surfactants. The droplets, stabilized against coalescence by encapsulated in a layer (or layers) of single chain surfactants, are of both nonspherical tactoid (elongated ellipsoid with pointy ends) and spherical shapes. The tactoids have an average long axis of ∼9 μm and a short axis of ∼3.5 μm with the liquid crystal aligning parallel to the droplet surface. The spherical droplets are 5-10 μm in diameter and have the liquid crystal aligning perpendicular to the droplet surface and a point defect in the center. Cationic and zwitterionic surfactants studied in this work did not promote the organic salt to form droplets. These results illustrate the complex interplay of self-association and thermodynamic incompatibility of molecules in water, which can cause new assembly behavior, including potential formation of vesicles or other assemblies, from surfactants that usually form only micelles. These unprecedented tactoidal shaped droplets also provide potential for the fabrication of new soft organic microcapsules.

  8. Pickering emulsions stabilized by paraffin wax and Laponite clay particles.

    PubMed

    Li, Caifu; Liu, Qian; Mei, Zhen; Wang, Jun; Xu, Jian; Sun, Dejun

    2009-08-01

    Emulsions containing wax in dispersed droplets stabilized by disc-like Laponite clay particles are prepared. Properties of the emulsions prepared at different temperatures are examined using stability, microscopy and droplet-size analysis. At low temperature, the wax crystals in the oil droplets can protrude through the interface, leading to droplet coalescence. But at higher temperatures, the droplet size decreases with wax concentration. Considering the viscosity of the oil phase and the interfacial tension, we conclude that the wax is liquid-like during the high temperature emulsification process, but during cooling wax crystals appear around the oil/water interface and stabilize the droplets. The oil/water ratio has minimal effect on the emulsions between ratios of 3:7 and 7:3. The Laponite is believed to stabilize the emulsions by increasing the viscosity of the continuous phase and also by adsorbing at the oil/water interface, thus providing a physical barrier to coalescence.

  9. Is Crime News Coverage Excessive?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graber, Doris A.

    1979-01-01

    Reports on the frequency and manner in which various crime and noncrime news topics were presented in selected newspapers and television newscasts in 1976. Examines news flow data to determine whether news output was inflexible, and whether crime news coverage distorted the amount of real-life crime. (PD)

  10. Water Power Program News

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-19

    News stories about conventional hydropower and marine and hydrokinetic technologies from the U.S. Department of Energy, the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, the Wind and Water Power Program, and other federal agencies.

  11. National PKU News

    MedlinePlus

    ... and History Staff & Board How Much Phe Guthrie-Koch Scholarship Books Resources Support Us Contact Us Donors ... new Amino Acid Analysis Results This Year’s Guthrie-Koch PKU Scholarship Winners © 2016 National PKU News

  12. News and Events

    Cancer.gov

    The latest news from the Office of Cancer Nanotechnology Research and the Alliance, as well as upcoming and past events attended by the Office of Cancer Nanotechnology Research staff, and relevant upcoming scientific meetings.

  13. CCG - News & Events

    Cancer.gov

    NCI's Center for Cancer Genomics (CCG) has been widely recognized for its research efforts to facilitiate advances in cancer genomic research and improve patient outcomes. Find the latest news about and events featuring CCG.

  14. Shooting the News.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araiza, Alfredo E.

    1989-01-01

    Offers advice to photojournalists for using the camera to sensitively portray news events. Suggest ways to avoid negative stereotypes, and for using photography to truthfully illustrate factual situations. (LS)

  15. Parkinson's Disease Foundation News

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the News Parkinson's HelpLine Learn More Educational Materials Do you want to know more about Parkinson's? PDF's materials provide information about symptoms, medications, resources & more. Order ...

  16. Figuring Out Health News

    MedlinePlus

    ... watching or reading a news report about a new drug or treatment, see if it tells you whether ... good or bad effect on their health. For new drugs or treatments, randomized, controlled clinical trials are the ...

  17. In the News.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reece, Lauren

    2000-01-01

    A board member in an Iowa district explains the importance of presenting 4-minute summaries of educational news and trends at board meetings. In choosing items for presentation, she considers relevance, context, perspective, terminology, awareness, and national political developments. (MLH)

  18. Green Power Community News

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page features news about EPA's Green Power Communities. GPCs are a subset of the Green Power Partnership; municipalities or tribal governments where government, businesses, and residents collectively use enough green power to meet GPP requirements.

  19. Dynamically reconfigurable complex emulsions via tunable interfacial tensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarzar, Lauren D.; Sresht, Vishnu; Sletten, Ellen M.; Kalow, Julia A.; Blankschtein, Daniel; Swager, Timothy M.

    2015-02-01

    Emulsification is a powerful, well-known technique for mixing and dispersing immiscible components within a continuous liquid phase. Consequently, emulsions are central components of medicine, food and performance materials. Complex emulsions, including Janus droplets (that is, droplets with faces of differing chemistries) and multiple emulsions, are of increasing importance in pharmaceuticals and medical diagnostics, in the fabrication of microparticles and capsules for food, in chemical separations, in cosmetics, and in dynamic optics. Because complex emulsion properties and functions are related to the droplet geometry and composition, the development of rapid, simple fabrication approaches allowing precise control over the droplets' physical and chemical characteristics is critical. Significant advances in the fabrication of complex emulsions have been made using a number of procedures, ranging from large-scale, less precise techniques that give compositional heterogeneity using high-shear mixers and membranes, to small-volume but more precise microfluidic methods. However, such approaches have yet to create droplet morphologies that can be controllably altered after emulsification. Reconfigurable complex liquids potentially have great utility as dynamically tunable materials. Here we describe an approach to the one-step fabrication of three- and four-phase complex emulsions with highly controllable and reconfigurable morphologies. The fabrication makes use of the temperature-sensitive miscibility of hydrocarbon, silicone and fluorocarbon liquids, and is applied to both the microfluidic and the scalable batch production of complex droplets. We demonstrate that droplet geometries can be alternated between encapsulated and Janus configurations by varying the interfacial tensions using hydrocarbon and fluorinated surfactants including stimuli-responsive and cleavable surfactants. This yields a generalizable strategy for the fabrication of multiphase emulsions with

  20. Dynamically reconfigurable complex emulsions via tunable interfacial tensions

    PubMed Central

    Zarzar, Lauren D.; Sresht, Vishnu; Sletten, Ellen M.; Kalow, Julia A.; Blankschtein, Daniel; Swager, Timothy M.

    2015-01-01

    Emulsification is a powerful, well-known technique for mixing and dispersing immiscible components within a continuous liquid phase. Consequently, emulsions are central components of medicine, food and performance materials. Complex emulsions, including multiple emulsions and Janus droplets which contain hemispheres of differing material, are of increasing importance1 in pharmaceuticals and medical diagnostics2, in the fabrication of microparticles and capsules3–5 for food6, in chemical separations7, in cosmetics8, and in dynamic optics9. Because complex emulsion properties and functions are related to the droplet geometry and composition, the development of rapid, simple fabrication approaches allowing precise control over the droplets’ physical and chemical characteristics is critical. Significant advances in the fabrication of complex emulsions have been made using a number of procedures, ranging from large-scale, less precise techniques that give compositional heterogeneity using high-shear mixers and membranes10, to small-volume but more precise microfluidic methods11,12. However, such approaches have yet to create droplet morphologies that can be controllably altered after emulsification. Reconfigurable complex liquids potentially have greatly increased utility as dynamically tunable materials. Here we describe an approach to the one-step fabrication of three- and four-phase complex emulsions with highly controllable and reconfigurable morphologies. The fabrication makes use of the temperature-sensitive miscibility of hydrocarbon, silicone and fluorocarbon liquids, and is applied to both the microfluidic and the scalable batch production of complex droplets. We demonstrate that droplet geometries can be alternated between encapsulated and Janus configurations by varying the interfacial tensions using hydrocarbon and fluorinated surfactants including stimuli-responsive and cleavable surfactants. This yields a generalizable strategy for the fabrication of

  1. Formulation, stability and degradation kinetics of intravenous cinnarizine lipid emulsion.

    PubMed

    Shi, Shuai; Chen, Hao; Cui, Yue; Tang, Xing

    2009-05-21

    Cinnarizine was loaded in the lipid emulsion to develop an intravenous formulation with good physical and chemical stability. High-pressure homogenization was used to prepare the lipid emulsion. The factors influencing the stability of cinnarizine lipid emulsion, such as different drug loading methods, pH, temperature, sterilization methods and sterilization time were monitored by high-performance liquid chromatograph. The degradation of cinnarizine in aqueous solution and lipid emulsion both followed apparent first-order kinetics. A possible degradation mechanism was postulated by the bell-shaped pH-rate profile of cinnarizine. Localization of the drug in the interfacial lecithin layer significantly improved the chemical stability of cinnarizine and its stabilizing mechanism was thoroughly discussed and proved. The activation energy of cinnarizine in lipid emulsion was calculated to be 51.27 kJ/mol which was similar to that in aqueous solution. This indicates that the stabilizing effect of the drug carrier on cinnarizine was not an alteration of the degradation reaction. In addition, shelf-life of cinnarizine in lipid emulsion was estimated to be 1471.6 days at 4 degrees C, which is much longer compared with 19.8 days in aqueous solution. The final products were stable enough to resist a 121 degrees C rotating steam sterilization for 15 min.

  2. Chemical stability of teniposide in aqueous and parenteral lipid emulsions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Cui, Yue; Tang, Xing

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the degradation kinetics of teniposide in lipid emulsion and aqueous solution. The chemical stability of teniposide in lipid emulsion and aqueous solution at various pH values and temperatures was monitored by high-performance liquid chromatography. In addition, the viscosities of emulsion at different temperatures were investigated. The degradation of teniposide both in emulsion and in aqueous solution was shown to follow pseudo-first-order degradation kinetics. The t (1/2) values of teniposide lipid emulsion (TLE) and the aqueous solution were 80 and 2.6 days at 10 degrees C, respectively. Under the most stable pH range of 6.0-6.5, stability of teniposide in the emulsion increased more than 30-fold compared with that in aqueous solution. Furthermore, there was a difference between the shelf life of TLE actually measured (29 days) at 10 degrees C and the one deduced (15 days) from the degradation data of high temperatures by Arrhenius equation. It could be hypothesized that the difference was due to a slower diffusion of teniposide from oil phase to aqueous phase at the lower temperatures, which would be a speed-limited process in the degradation of TLE. The results of viscosity test confirmed the presumption.

  3. Analyzing Benzene and Cyclohexane Emulsion Droplet Collisions on Ultramicroelectrodes.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Deng, Haiqiang; Dick, Jeffrey E; Bard, Allen J

    2015-11-03

    We report the collisions of single emulsion oil droplets with extremely low dielectric constants (e.g., benzene, ε of 2.27, or cyclohexane, ε of 2.02) as studied via emulsion droplet reactor (EDR) on an ultramicroelectrode (UME). By applying appropriate potentials to the UME, we observed the electrochemical effects of single-collision signals from the bulk electrolysis of single emulsion droplets. Different hydrophobic redox species (ferrocene, decamethyl-ferrocene, or metalloporphyrin) were trapped in a mixed benzene (or cyclohexane) oil-in-water emulsion using an ionic liquid as the supporting electrolyte and emulsifier. The emulsions were prepared using ultrasonic processing. Spike-like responses were observed in each i-t response due to the complete electrolysis of all of the above-mentioned redox species within the droplet. On the basis of these single-particle collision results, the collision frequency, size distribution, i-t decay behavior of the emulsion droplets, and possible mechanisms are analyzed and discussed. This work demonstrated that bulk electrolysis can be achieved in a few seconds in these attoliter reactors, suggesting many applications, such as analysis and electrosynthesis in low dielectric constant solvents, which have a much broader potential window.

  4. FINE GRAIN NUCLEAR EMULSION

    DOEpatents

    Oliver, A.J.

    1962-04-24

    A method of preparing nuclear track emulsions having mean grain sizes less than 0.1 microns is described. The method comprises adding silver nitrate to potassium bromide at a rate at which there is always a constant, critical excess of silver ions. For minimum size grains, the silver ion concentration is maintained at the critical level of about pAg 2.0 to 5.0 during prectpitation, pAg being defined as the negative logarithm of the silver ion concentration. It is preferred to eliminate the excess silver at the conclusion of the precipitation steps. The emulsion is processed by methods in all other respects generally similar to the methods of the prior art. (AEC)

  5. Holographic DESA emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duenkel, Lothar; Eichler, Juergen; Schneeweiss, Claudia; Ackermann, Gerhard

    2005-04-01

    The DESA material is an ultra-fine grained silver bromide emulsion referring to the name of its four inventors (D)uenkel, (E)ichler, (S)chneeweiss, (A)ckermann of the University of Applied Sciences in Berlin, Germany. The thickness of the dried layer is between 5 and 7.5 μm, and the mean grain size is by about 15 nm, as determined by TEM. During manufacturing, emulsion precipitation and coating are separated strictly from spectral and chemical sensitization. Thus, a high performance could be obtained. Resolution is estimated higher than 8000 lp/mm. Sensitivity amounts to 80 up to 120 μJoules/cm2 for maximum diffraction efficiency by recording Denisyuk white-light reflection holograms at 632,8 nm (HeNe laser). The paper provides an insight into fundamentals of the ultra-fine grained silver halide technology together with new challenges for further developments under theoretical and practical aspects.

  6. Formation and stability of polychlorinated biphenyl Pickering emulsions.

    PubMed

    Roy-Perreault, Andréanne; Kueper, Bernard H; Rawson, Jim

    2005-03-01

    An emulsion stabilized by colloidal suspensions of finely divided solids is known as a Pickering emulsion. The potential for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to form Pickering emulsions ex situ when in contact with powdered solids, such as clays and metal oxides, is investigated here. Bentonite, iron oxide and magnesium oxide dispersions proved to be robust Pickering emulsion stabilizers, whereas manganese oxide dispersions were not. Batch experiments revealed that emulsions can be formed using a moderately low energy input and can be stabilized with solid concentrations as low as 0.5 wt.%. For the base conditions (volumetric oil fraction (phi(oil))=30 vol.%; solid concentration (chi)=2 wt.%), the formed emulsions were indefinitely stable and the initial average droplet diameters varied from 80 to 258 mum, depending on the solid used in the colloidal dispersion. The average droplet size varied at early time, but for most conditions stabilized to a steady-state value 1 week after preparation. The effect of Ostwald ripening was limited. At greater than 0.5 wt.% concentration, the efficiency of the solid dispersion as a stabilizer was dependant on the volumetric oil fraction but not on the solid concentration. Generally, systems with volumetric oil fractions outside of the 20-70 vol.% range were unstable. The emulsions' droplet stability, average droplet size and size distribution were observed to vary as a function of the amount of energy provided to the system, the volumetric oil fraction, and the concentration of the solid in the aqueous dispersion. It is hypothesized that drilling through fractured rock in the immediate vicinity of dense, non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) PCBs may provide both the energy and solid material necessary to form Pickering emulsions.

  7. Surface tension and quasi-emulsion of cavitation bubble cloud.

    PubMed

    Bai, Lixin; Chen, Xiaoguang; Zhu, Gang; Xu, Weilin; Lin, Weijun; Wu, Pengfei; Li, Chao; Xu, Delong; Yan, Jiuchun

    2017-03-01

    A quasi-emulsion phenomenon of cavitation structure in a thin liquid layer (the thin liquid layer is trapped between a radiating surface and a hard reflector) is investigated experimentally with high-speed photography. The transformation from cloud-in-water (c/w) emulsion to water-in-cloud (w/c) emulsion is related to the increase of cavitation bubble cloud. The acoustic field in the thin liquid layer is analyzed. It is found that the liquid region has higher acoustic pressure than the cloud region. The bubbles are pushed from liquid region to cloud region by the primary Bjerknes forces. The rate of change of CSF increased with the increase of CSF. The cavitation bubbles on the surface of cavitation cloud are attracted by the cavitation bubbles inside the cloud due to secondary Bjerknes forces. The existence of surface tension on the interface of liquid region and cloud region is proved. The formation mechanism of disc-shaped liquid region and cloud region are analysed by surface tension and incompressibility of cavitation bubble cloud.

  8. Biofilm Formation in Microscopic Double Emulsion Droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Connie; Weitz, David

    2012-02-01

    In natural, medical, and industrial settings, there exist surface-associated communities of bacteria known as biofilms. These highly structured films are composed of bacterial cells embedded within self-produced extracellular matrix, usually composed of exopolysaccharides, proteins, and nucleic acids; this matrix serves to protect the bacterial community from antibiotics and environmental stressors. Here, we form biofilms encapsulated within monodisperse, microscopically-sized double emulsion droplets using microfluidics. The bacteria self-organize at the inner liquid-liquid droplet interfaces, multiply, and differentiate into extracellular matrix-producing cells, forming manifold three-dimensional shell-within-a-shell structures of biofilms, templated upon the inner core of spherical liquid droplets. By using microfluidics to encapsulate bacterial cells, we have the ability to view individual cells multiplying in microscopically-sized droplets, which allows for high-throughput analysis in studying the genetic program leading to biofilm development, or cell signaling that induces differentiation.

  9. Science News of the Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science News, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Highlights major science news stories of 1982 reported in "Science News." Categories include space/astronomy, biology, chemistry, medicine, energy, physics, anthropology/paleontology, earth sciences, technology, behavior, science/society, and the environment. (JN)

  10. Science News of the Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science News, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Highlights important 1983 news stories reported in Science News. Stories are categorized under: anthropology/paleontology; behavior; biology; chemistry; earth sciences; energy; environment; medicine; physics; science and society; space sciences and astronomy; and technology and computers. (JN)

  11. Science News of the Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science News, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Highlights major science news stories of 1982 reported in "Science News." Categories include space/astronomy, biology, chemistry, medicine, energy, physics, anthropology/paleontology, earth sciences, technology, behavior, science/society, and the environment. (JN)

  12. Science News of the Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science News, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Highlights important 1983 news stories reported in Science News. Stories are categorized under: anthropology/paleontology; behavior; biology; chemistry; earth sciences; energy; environment; medicine; physics; science and society; space sciences and astronomy; and technology and computers. (JN)

  13. News | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    News about scientific advances in cancer prevention, program activities, and new projects are included here in NCI press releases and fact sheets, articles from the NCI Cancer Bulletin, and Clinical Trial News from the NCI website.

  14. Do you want the good news or the bad news first? The nature and consequences of news order preferences.

    PubMed

    Legg, Angela M; Sweeny, Kate

    2014-03-01

    Information often comes as a mix of good and bad news, prompting the question, "Do you want the good news or the bad news first?" In such cases, news-givers and news-recipients differ in their concerns and considerations, thus creating an obstacle to ideal communication. In three studies, we examined order preferences of news-givers and news-recipients and the consequences of these preferences. Study 1 confirmed that news-givers and news-recipients differ in their news order preferences. Study 2 tested two solutions to close the preference gap between news-givers and recipients and found that both perspective-taking and priming emotion-protection goals shift news-givers' delivery patterns to the preferred order of news-recipients. Study 3 provided evidence that news order has consequences for recipients, such that opening with bad news (as recipients prefer) reduces worry, but this emotional benefit undermines motivation to change behavior.

  15. 2002 Industry Studies: News Media

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    market, and with shrinking audiences and an increasing emphasis on profits, the news media has increasingly become an “ infotainment ” medium— providing...using infotainment is the only way to restore profitability to the struggling news divisions. A senior executive in the news business disagrees and...more infotainment news with a heavy dose of sensationalism. Reacting to these changes, journalists and critics have become increasingly vocal with

  16. Cyclodextrin stabilised emulsions and cyclodextrinosomes.

    PubMed

    Mathapa, Baghali G; Paunov, Vesselin N

    2013-11-07

    We report the preparation of o/w emulsions stabilised by microcrystals of cyclodextrin-oil inclusion complexes. The inclusion complexes are formed by threading cyclodextrins from the aqueous phase on n-tetradecane or silicone oil molecules from the emulsion drop surface which grow further into microrods and microplatelets depending on the type of cyclodextrin (CD) used. These microcrystals remain attached on the surface of the emulsion drops and form densely packed layers which resemble Pickering emulsions. The novelty of this emulsion stabilisation mechanism is that molecularly dissolved cyclodextrin from the continuous aqueous phase is assembled into colloid particles directly onto the emulsion drop surface, i.e. molecular adsorption leads to effective Pickering stabilisation. The β-CD stabilised tetradecane-in-water emulsions were so stable that we used this system as a template for preparation of cyclodextrinosomes. These structures were produced solely through formation of cyclodextrin-oil inclusion complexes and their assembly into a crystalline phase on the drop surface retained its stability after the removal of the core oil. The structures of CD-stabilised tetradecane-in-water emulsions were characterised using optical microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, cross-polarised light microscopy and WETSEM while the cyclodextrinosomes were characterised by SEM. We also report the preparation of CD-stabilised emulsions with a range of other oils, including tricaprylin, silicone oil, isopropyl myristate and sunflower oil. We studied the effect of the salt concentration in the aqueous phase, the type of CD and the oil volume fraction on the type of emulsion formed. The CD-stabilised emulsions can be applied in a range of surfactant-free formulations with possible applications in cosmetics, home and personal care. Cyclodextrinosomes could find applications in pharmaceutical formulations as microencapsulation and drug delivery vehicles.

  17. Physical stability of R-(+)-Limonene emulsions stabilized by Ulva fasciata algae polysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Shao, Ping; Ma, Huiling; Qiu, Qiang; Jing, Weiping

    2016-11-01

    The physical stability of R-(+)-Limonene emulsions stabilized by Ulva fasciata polysaccharide (UFP) was investigated in this study. Emulsion physical stability was evaluated under different polysaccharide concentrations (1%-5%, wt/wt) and pH values (3.0-11.0). The stability of R-(+)-Limonene emulsions was demonstrated by droplet size distribution, rheological properties, zeta potential and visual phase separation. R-(+)-Limonene emulsions displayed monomodal droplet size distributions, high absolute values of zeta potential and good storage stability when 3% (wt/wt) UFP was used. The rheological properties and stability of R-(+)-Limonene emulsions appeared to be dependent on polysaccharide concentration. The emulsion stability was impacted by pH. Higher zeta potential (-52.6mV) and smaller mean droplet diameter (2.45μm) were achieved in neutral liquid environment (pH 7.0). Extreme acidity caused the flocculation of emulsions, which was manifested as phase separation, while emulsions were quite stable in an alkaline environment. Through comparing the stabilities of emulsions stabilized by different emulsifiers (i.e. UFP, GA and Gelatin), the result suggested that UFP was the best emulsifying agent among them. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. TV News Flow Studies Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hjarvard, Stig

    1995-01-01

    Compares different theoretical approaches to the study of international news. Finds many comparative studies of the foreign news output of national broadcasters and few studies analyzing the actual flow of television news between actors at the wholesale level and the flow between wholesale and retail level. Suggests a better framework for the…

  19. Filtering for Medical News Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watters, Carolyn; Zheng, Wanhong; Milios, Evangelos

    2002-01-01

    Describes recent work to provide a filtering service for readers interested in medically related news articles from online news sources. The first task is to filter out nonmedical news items; the remaining articles are then assigned MeSH headings for context and then further categorized by intended audience level. (Author/LRW)

  20. Science News of the Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science News, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Presented is a review of important science news stories reported in Science News during 1976. Most items include a volume and page number reference to the issue of Science News in which the article appeared. Items are grouped under general major headings such as: space, astronomy, medicine, chemistry, etc. (SL)

  1. TV News Flow Studies Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hjarvard, Stig

    1995-01-01

    Compares different theoretical approaches to the study of international news. Finds many comparative studies of the foreign news output of national broadcasters and few studies analyzing the actual flow of television news between actors at the wholesale level and the flow between wholesale and retail level. Suggests a better framework for the…

  2. Political News and Political Consciousness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schertges, Claudia

    2007-01-01

    This article deals with mass media in modern democratic societies, using the example of Israeli news reports in German television (TV) news. Central to this interest are processes of mediating politics: political socialisation and education; that is to say, empowering citizens via TV news to participate in democratic processes. The article…

  3. Science News of the Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science News, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Presented is a review of important science news stories reported in Science News during 1976. Most items include a volume and page number reference to the issue of Science News in which the article appeared. Items are grouped under general major headings such as: space, astronomy, medicine, chemistry, etc. (SL)

  4. Crime News Coverage in Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graber, Doris A.

    According to one sociological model, news is a product of socially determined notions of who and what is important and the organizational structures that result for routinizing news collection; events that deviate from these notions are ignored. This report describes a study of crime news coverage in the media that used this model to examine the…

  5. Blended news delivery in healthcare: a framework for injecting good news into bad news conversations.

    PubMed

    Legg, Angela M; Sweeny, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Clinicians often inject good news into bad news delivery, and they do so for a variety of reasons. We present a framework that draws from research in the fields of health and social psychology to shed light on situations in which clinicians add superfluous good news into bad news conversations in an effort to ease the conversation or mitigate patients' distress, a broad strategy we refer to as blended news delivery. Our framework includes predictors of clinicians' use of blended news delivery, characteristics of blended news and outcomes of this strategy for both patients and clinicians. This framework addresses a common aspect of health communication and can direct future research on ideal strategies for and likely consequences of blended news delivery and communication more broadly.

  6. Preparation of Fine Oxide Powders by Emulsion Precipitation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-31

    anionic and non-ionic commercial emulsifying agents were tried, including Aerosol-OT, Arlacel 83, Span 60, Span 80, Tween 80 , Tween 85, Pluronic L62 and...w/o type emulsion with all three organic liquids, while other o/w or w/o type emulsions are produced by Tween 80 and Tween 85, depending upon the...of 72 v/o toluene; aqueous 25 v/o 0.4M Y(N03 )3 and 3 v/o * emulsifier (1.6 Span 60 + 1.4 Tween 80 ), which was stirred for 15 minutes with a magnetic

  7. Perplexity analysis of obesity news coverage.

    PubMed

    McFarlane, Delano J; Elhadad, Noémie; Kukafka, Rita

    2009-11-14

    An important task performed during the analysis of health news coverage is the identification of news articles that are related to a specific health topic (e.g. obesity). This is often done using a combination of keyword searching and manual encoding of news content. Statistical language models and their evaluation metric, perplexity, may help to automate this task. A perplexity study of obesity news was performed to evaluate perplexity as a measure of the similarity of news corpora to obesity news content. The results of this study showed that perplexity increased as news coverage became more general relative to obesity news (obesity news approximately 187, general health news approximately 278, general news approximately 378, general news across multiple publishers approximately 382). This indicates that language model perplexity can measure the similarity news content to obesity news coverage, and could be used as the basis for an automated health news classifier.

  8. Parent News Offline, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Anne S., Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This document is comprised of the two issues in volume 4 of "Parent News Offline," a publication of the National Parent Information Network (NPIN) designed to introduce those without Internet access to the activities and information available through NPIN. The Spring 2002 issue contains the following articles: (1) "Middle College…

  9. Parent News Offline, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Anne S., Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This document is comprised of the two issues in volume 2 of "Parent News Offline," a publication of the National Parent Information Network (NPIN) designed to introduce those without Internet access to the activities and information available through NPIN. The Spring 2000 issue contains the following articles: (1) "'Zero Tolerance':…

  10. Parent News Offline, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Anne S., Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This document is comprised of the two issues in volume 3 of "Parent News Offline," a publication of the National Parent Information Network (NPIN) designed to introduce those without Internet access to the activities and information available through NPIN. The Spring 2001 issue contains the following articles: (1) "What To Consider…

  11. Parent News Offline, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Anne S., Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This document is comprised of the two issues in volume 5 of "Parent News Offline," a publication of the National Parent Information Network (NPIN) designed to introduced those without Internet Access to the activities and information available through NPIN. The Spring 2003 issue contains the following articles: (1) "Summer Academic…

  12. Parent News Offline, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Anne S., Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This document is comprised of the two issues published in volume 1 (1999) of "Parent News Offline," a newsletter of the National Parent Information Network (NPIN), designed to introduce those without Internet access to the activities and information available through NPIN. The spring 1999 issue contains the following articles: (1)…

  13. E News: Report highlights

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    Three technologies are highlighted in this issue: a rooftop ice storage system for small commercial loads; chlorofluorocarbon-free electric chillers and their expected market; and the FlashBake oven, a commercial-sized oven that uses high intensity quartz lamps to cook food quickly. Regular columns on Member News and Work in Progress are included.

  14. Making News Connections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swiderek, Bobbi

    1998-01-01

    Describes how one teacher uses news articles to teach connections between the present-day real world and the books that her students read. Notes that her intent is to help readers transfer concepts from one domain (their reading) to another (real life). Offers the example of how this was done with the book "The Giver" by Lois Lowry. (SR)

  15. Antarctic news clips, 1991

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-08-01

    Published stories are presented that sample a year's news coverage of Antarctica. The intent is to provide the U.S. Antarctic Program participants with a digest of current issues as presented by a variety of writers and popular publications. The subject areas covered include the following: earth science; ice studies; stratospheric ozone; astrophysics; life science; operations; education; antarctic treaty issues; and tourism

  16. COBE Video News

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This videotape was produced for hand-out to both local and national broadcast media as a prelude to the launch of the Cosmic Background Explorer. The tape consists of short clips with multi-channel sound to facilitate news media editing.

  17. Inexpensive News Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briscoe, Ellen D.; Wall, Catherine

    1992-01-01

    Describes consumer or business-oriented online services that provide access to current news information and offers a less expensive alternative to standard online databases. Online clipping services are discussed, their costs are examined, and profiles of five services are compared: CompuServe, CompuServe as a gateway to IQuest, DELPHI, DIALCOM,…

  18. The News, Fall 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, Ray, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This fall 2002 newsletter from the Community College League of California contains several articles, news stories, and the brochure from the 2002 Annual Convention, "Celebrating the Way California LEARNS." Articles include: (1) "Nursing Shortage Poses Dilemma for Colleges: Access vs. Efficiency," a discussion of the debate over…

  19. NewsWire, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrom, Elizabeth, Ed.; Bingham, Margaret, Ed.; Bowman, Gloria, Ed.; Shoemaker, Dan, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This document presents the 3 2002 issues of the newsletter "NewsWire," (volume 5). Issue Number One focuses on collaborative Web projects. This issue begins with descriptions of four individual projects: "iEARN"; "Operation RubyThroat"; "Follow the Polar Huskies!"; and "Log in Your Animal Roadkill!" Features that follow include: "Bringing the…

  20. Television News Without Pictures?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graber, Doris A.

    1987-01-01

    Describes "gestalt" coding procedures that concentrate on the meanings conveyed by audio-visual messages rather than on coding individual pictorial elements shown in a news story. Discusses the totality of meaning that results from the interaction of verbal and visual story elements, external settings, and the decoding proclivities of…

  1. Figuring Out Health News

    MedlinePlus

    ... Put keywords from the news report into a search engine and see what comes up. The results will give you lots of different perspectives — particularly if the issue is big ... the sites that show up in search results may not have the most accurate and ...

  2. Rubberized asphalt emulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkes, E.

    1986-09-02

    A method is described of making a rubberized asphalt composition which comprises the steps of: (a) combining asphalt with a hydrocarbon oil having a flash point of 300/sup 0/F. or more to provide a homogenous asphalt-oil mixture or solution, (b) then combining the asphalt-oil mixture with a particulate rubber at a temperature sufficient to provide a homogenous asphalt-rubber-oil gel, and (c) emulsifying the asphalt-rubber-oil gel by passing the gel, water, and an emulsifying agent through a colloid mill to provide an emulsion.

  3. NO news is no new news

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fotheringham, C.J.; Keeley, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    In the paper 'NO News', Preston et al. (2004) make a number of erroneous assumptions regarding nitrogen oxide chemistry. These authors also present some very significant misinterpretations of previous research into the effects of various nitrogen oxides on germination of post-fire followers. Methodological differences between the study by Preston et al. (2004) and previous work are also problematic, such as using NO-donors in solution versus the use of direct application of various nitrogen oxides in the gaseous phase. A closer review of these studies, with the proper understanding of nitrogen oxide chemistry, and interpretations of the available literature, would lead to the conclusion that, contrary to the authors' assertions, the Preston et al. (2004) study supports, rather than refutes, earlier findings by Keeley and Fotheringham (1997, 1998a, b, 2000). ?? CAB International 2005.

  4. PNRS: personalized news retrieval system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrova, Nevenka; Elenbaas, Herman; McGee, Thomas

    1999-08-01

    Personal News Retrieval System is a client-server application that delivers news segments on demand in a variety of information networks. At the server side, the news stories are segmented out from the digitized TV broadcast then classified and filtered based on consumers' preferences. At the client side, the user can access the preferred video news through the Web and watch stored video news in preferred order. Browsing preferences can be set based on anchorperson, broadcaster, category, location, top- stories and keywords. This system can be used to set up a news service run by content providers or independent media distribution companies. However, in the news era of enhanced PC/TV appliances, it is foreseeable that the whole system can run in the living room on a personal device. This paper describes the chosen server architecture, limitation of the system and solutions that can be implemented in the future.

  5. Performance of sonication and microfluidization for liquid-liquid emulsification.

    PubMed

    Maa, Y F; Hsu, C C

    1999-05-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate and compare liquid-liquid emulsions (water-in-oil and oil-in-water) prepared using sonication and microfluidization. Liquid-liquid emulsions were characterized on the basis of emulsion droplet size determined using a laser-based particle size analyzer. An ultrasonic-driven benchtop sonicator and an air-driven microfluidizer were used for emulsification. Sonication generated emulsions through ultrasound-driven mechanical vibrations, which caused cavitation. The force associated with implosion of vapor bubbles caused emulsion size reduction and the flow of the bubbles resulted in mixing. An increase in viscosity of the dispersion phase improved the sonicator's emulsification capability, but an increase in the viscosity of the dispersed phase decreased the sonicator's emulsification capability. Although sonication might be comparable to homogenization in terms of emulsification efficiency, homogenization was relatively more effective in emulsifying more viscous solutions. Microfluidization, which used a high pressure to force the fluid into microchannels of a special configuration and initiated emulsification via a combined mechanism of cavitation, shear, and impact, exhibited excellent emulsification efficiency. Of the three methodologies, sonication generated more heat and might be less suitable for emulsion systems involving heat-sensitive materials. Homogenization is in general a more effective liquid-liquid emulsification method. The results derived from this study can serve as a basis for the evaluation of large-scale liquid-liquid emulsification in the microencapsulation process.

  6. Sensory evaluation of sodium chloride-containing water-in-oil emulsions.

    PubMed

    Rietberg, Matthew R; Rousseau, Dérick; Duizer, Lisa

    2012-04-25

    The sensory perception of water-in-oil emulsions containing a saline-dispersed aqueous phase was investigated. Manipulating saltiness perception was achieved by varying the mass fraction aqueous phase (MFAP), initial salt load, and surfactant concentration [(polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PgPr)] of the emulsions, with formulations based on a central composite design. Saltiness and emulsion thickness were evaluated using a trained sensory panel, and collected data were analyzed using response surface analysis. Emulsion MFAP was the most important factor correlated with increased salt taste intensity. Emulsifier concentration and interactions between NaCl and PgPr had only minor effects. Emulsions more prone to destabilization were perceived as saltier irrespective of their initial salt load. The knowledge gained from this study provides a powerful tool for the development of novel sodium-reduced liquid-processed foods.

  7. Investigation of different emulsion systems for dermal delivery of nicotinamide.

    PubMed

    Tuncay, Sakine; Özer, Özgen

    2013-01-01

    Nicotinamide (NA) has been shown to have beneficial effects on several skin diseases such as tumor, acne vulgaris, photodamage, cellulite and atopic dermatitis. The purpose of this study was to develop a multiple emulsion and a microemulsion formulation as delivery systems for NA. A two-step process was used to prepare the W/O/W multiple emulsion. Optimum microemulsion formulation was selected by using construction of pseudo-ternary phase diagram. The physicochemical properties such as droplet size and viscosity measurements, stability studies were also evaluated. Ex-vivo permeation studies were performed with Franz-type diffusion cells and the samples were analysed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The permeation data showed that there was no significant difference between multiple emulsion and microemulsion (p > 0.05). Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) was also measured. As a result of TEWL studies, a slight increase of TEWL values was observed for microemulsion formulation on rat skin when compared with multiple emulsion and commercial formulation. The results suggested that microemulsion and multiple emulsion formulations could be new and alternative dosage forms for topical application of NA.

  8. Double emulsion formation through hierarchical flow-focusing microchannel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azarmanesh, Milad; Farhadi, Mousa; Azizian, Pooya

    2016-03-01

    A microfluidic device is presented for creating double emulsions, controlling their sizes and also manipulating encapsulation processes. As a result of three immiscible liquids' interaction using dripping instability, double emulsions can be produced elegantly. Effects of dimensionless numbers are investigated which are Weber number of the inner phase (Wein), Capillary number of the inner droplet (Cain), and Capillary number of the outer droplet (Caout). They affect the formation process, inner and outer droplet size, and separation frequency. Direct numerical simulation of governing equations was done using volume of fluid method and adaptive mesh refinement technique. Two kinds of double emulsion formation, the two-step and the one-step, were simulated in which the thickness of the sheath of double emulsions can be adjusted. Altering each dimensionless number will change detachment location, outer droplet size and droplet formation period. Moreover, the decussate regime of the double-emulsion/empty-droplet is observed in low Wein. This phenomenon can be obtained by adjusting the Wein in which the maximum size of the sheath is discovered. Also, the results show that Cain has significant influence on the outer droplet size in the two-step process, while Caout affects the sheath in the one-step formation considerably.

  9. Content-based analysis of news video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Junqing; Zhou, Dongru; Liu, Huayong; Cai, Bo

    2001-09-01

    In this paper, we present a schema for content-based analysis of broadcast news video. First, we separate commercials from news using audiovisual features. Then, we automatically organize news programs into a content hierarchy at various levels of abstraction via effective integration of video, audio, and text data available from the news programs. Based on these news video structure and content analysis technologies, a TV news video Library is generated, from which users can retrieve definite news story according to their demands.

  10. ACOUSTICAL STANDARDS NEWS

    PubMed Central

    Stremmel, Neil B.; Struck, Christopher J.

    2017-01-01

    American National Standards (ANSI Standards) developed by Accredited Standards Committees S1, S2, S3, S3/SC 1, and S12 in the areas of acoustics, mechanical vibration and shock, bioacoustics, animal bioacoustics, and noise, respectively, are published by the Acoustical Society of America (ASA). In addition to these standards, ASA publishes a catalog of Acoustical American National Standards. To receive a copy of the latest Standards catalog, please contact Neil Stremmel. Comments are welcomed on all material in Acoustical Standards News. This Acoustical Standards News section in JASA, as well as the national catalog of Acoustical Standards and other information on the Standards Program of the Acoustical Society of America, are available via the ASA home page: http://acousticalsociety.org. PMID:28599517

  11. The Science News Metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christian, Carol A.; Davidson, Greg

    2006-01-01

    Scientists, observatories, academic institutions and funding agencies persistently review the usefulness and productivity of investment in scientific research. The Science News Metrics was created over 10 years ago to review NASA's performance in this arena. The metric has been useful for many years as one facet in measuring the scientific discovery productivity of NASA-funded missions. The metric is computed independently of the agency and has been compiled in a consistent manner. Examination of the metric yields year-by-year insight into NASA science successes in a world wide context. The metric has shown that NASA's contribution to worldwide top science news stories has been approximately 5% overall with the Hubble Space Telescope dominating the performance.

  12. Geophysics News 1990

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Stephen

    The last two years have witnessed many major geophysical events such as the Loma Prieta earthquake, new insights into plate motions, new seismic and mid-ocean ridge observational programs, and new views of a distant planet. AGU's Public Information Committee, chaired by Debra Knopman of the U.S. Geological Survey, was asked by the American Institute of Physics to prepare a series of articles on the major topics in geophysics for publication in Physics News in 1990. Several of those papers did appear in the AIP publication. In the absence of a comparable publication devoted solely to a summary of news in geophysics, AGU is publishing the 20 articles solicited by the Public Information Committee as a booklet, Geophysics News 1990, that is being distributed to the media. The articles are also being published in Eos starting with this issue and continuing for the next several weeks. The topics covered in these articles range from the world's deepest rocks to the powerful blast waves from major solar flares.

  13. Contact: Releasing the news

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinotti, Roberto

    The problem of mass behavior after man's future contacts with other intelligences in the universe is not only a challenge for social scientists and political leaders all over the world, but also a cultural time bomb as well. In fact, since the impact of CETI (Contact with Extraterrestrial Intelligence) on human civilization, with its different cultures, might cause a serious socio-anthropological shock, a common and predetermined worldwide strategy is necessary in releasing the news after the contact, in order to keep possible manifestations of fear, panic and hysteria under control. An analysis of past studies in this field and of parallel historical situations as analogs suggests a definite "authority crisis" in the public as a direct consequence of an unexpected release of the news, involving a devastating "chain reaction" process (from both the psychological and sociological viewpoints) of anomie and maybe the collapse of today's society. The only way to prevent all this is to prepare the world's public opinion concerning contact before releasing the news, and to develop a long-term strategy through the combined efforts of scientists, political leaders, intelligence agencies and the mass media, in order to create the cultural conditions in which a confrontation with ETI won't affect mankind in a traumatic way. Definite roles and tasks in this multi-level model are suggested.

  14. A facile method for preparation of emulsion using the high gravity technique.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Mei, Ran Andy; Yang, Zhongqiang

    2017-11-15

    This study demonstrates a new process for preparation of oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion using the high gravity technique. This involves a mixture of oil and water that are passed through a rotating packed bed, under a high shear force, from which oil is emulsified into tiny droplets and subsequently dispersed in water. The process is cycled in order to break the droplets repeatedly and achieve an emulsion with small size and low polydispersity index (PDI). The advantage of the high gravity technique is that the emulsions with a desired size and polydispersity can be rapidly obtained by tuning experimental parameters, such as relative centrifugal force (RCF), cycle times (CT), liquid flow rate (VL) and surfactant concentration (Csurfactant). The size of emulsions is shown to decrease with increasing RCF, CT, VL and Csurfactant. The PDI of emulsion prepared by high gravity technique is also much improved in comparison to that prepared by conventional sonication, which is further confirmed with dynamic light scattering and confocal imaging characterization. To provide an additional perspective on the high gravity technique as a tool to make O/W emulsions, uniformly distributed liquid crystal droplets were prepared by using the high gravity technique, which have been well studied for their in situ chemical and biological detection. In short, the high gravity technique for preparing emulsions is facile, fast and can be potentially applied for large scale industry applications. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Waste management news: Nalco unveils commitment to waste minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-01

    On September 27, 1989, Nalco Chemical Company held a press event in Detroit, Michigan, to announce the Company's growing commitment to waste minimization. The Nalco HEC Management Services Program was described as instrumental in the Company's efforts to provide waste minimization products and services to the automotive industry. The HEC Management Services Program is a unique waste minimization process. This program combines technology, sales and service in water treatment. The HEC Management Services Program uses an emulsion in place of conventional water/chemical paint spray booth programs. The emulsion is able to attract paint overspray, keep it in a liquid form, and prevent the resulting sludge from being sticky and tacky. This, in turn, improves paint spray booth efficiencies, negates the need for paint sludge landfilling and provides a clean, manageable system with minimal maintenance costs. With this program, spent emulsion is transported to RTR, Inc., a facility in Detroit, Michigan, designed exclusively for recycling HEC spent emulsion. The recovered oil/emulsion is returned to the spray booth as a recycled product while the paint solids and various solvents are processed as waste-derived fuels.

  16. Drug delivery monitoring by photoacoustic tomography with an ICG encapsulated double emulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xueding; Rajian, Justin R.; Fabiilli, Mario L.; Fowlkes, J. Brian; Carson, Paul L.

    2012-02-01

    We successfully encapsulated ICG in an ultrasound-triggerable perfluorocarbon double emulsion that prevents ICG from binding with plasma proteins. Photoacoustic spectral measurements on point target as well as 2-D photoacoustic images of blood vessels revealed that the photoacoustic spectrum changes significantly in blood when the ICG-loaded emulsion undergoes acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV), which is the conversion of liquid droplets into gas bubbles using ultrasound. Other than providing a new photoacoustic contrast agent, the ICG encapsulated double emulsion, when imaged with photoacoustic tomography, could facilitate spatial and quantitative monitoring of ultrasound initiated drug delivery.

  17. Electromagnetic Scale Models Using Emulsions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-04-01

    microwave range; the solutions have a nearly constant permittivity and a conductivity that is adjustable by varying the salt concentration. Mixtures of...emulsion. At this point, complete demulsification has occurred. The emulsion can then be reformed only by subjecting it to the process (homogenization...130-137, June 1986. [17] A. Stogryn, "Equations for calculating the dielectric constant of saline water," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory and Tech

  18. A Survey of Electronic News Gathering and Television News Coverage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Vernon A.; DiCioccio, John P.

    A 1977 national survey of 216 television stations that use electronic news gathering (ENG) and of 224 stations that still use only film for camera reporting showed little difference in the types of news the two kinds of operations covered, although stations using ENG shot more stories than did those still using only film. The persons making…

  19. News Discourse: The Paratextual Structure of News Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frandsen, Finn

    This paper examines the paratextual structure of news texts, i.e., the headline system (superheadline, main headline, and subheadline) and the lead. In the first part of the paper T. A. van Dijk's interdisciplinary theory (1988) of "news in the press" is reviewed with special reference to the status and function assigned to the paratext.…

  20. Agenda-Setting by Electronic Text News.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heeter, Carrie; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examines the agenda-setting impacts of electronic text news (ETN) and reactions to ETN as a news medium. Finds that electronic news viewers have nearly the same agenda as do users of traditional media. (MM)

  1. From a bouncing compound drop to a double emulsion.

    PubMed

    Terwagne, D; Gilet, T; Vandewalle, N; Dorbolo, S

    2010-07-20

    We show that a double emulsion (oil in water in oil) can be created starting from a compound droplet (surfactant solution in oil). The compound drop bounces on a vertically vibrated liquid surface. When the amplitude of the vibration exceeds a threshold value, the oil layer penetrates the water content and leaves a tiny oil droplet within. As this phenomenon occurs at each vigorous impact, the compound drop progressively transforms into a double emulsion. The emulsification threshold, which is observed to depend on the forcing frequency but not on the drop size, is rationalized by investigating the impact of compound drops onto a static liquid surface. The droplet creation occurs when the kinetic energy released at impact is larger than the energy required to deform the compound drop, namely when the Weber number is higher than a given threshold value.

  2. Innovative Applications Of Food Related Emulsions.

    PubMed

    S, Kiokias; T, Varzakas

    2016-02-06

    Research on oxidative stability of multiple emulsions is very scarce. Given that this is a relevant topic that must be ascertained before the successful application of multiple emulsions in foods (especially when a combination of highly unsaturated oils is used as a lipid phase), this review mainly focus on various aspects of the multiple emulsions. Fat replacement in meat products using emulsions is critically discussed along with innovative applications of natural antioxidants in food based emulsions and multiple emulsions based on bioactive compounds/encapsulation as well as confectionery products.

  3. Neutron - Alpha irradiation response of superheated emulsion detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felizardo, M.; Morlat, T.; Girard, T. A.; Kling, A.; Fernandes, A. C.; Marques, J. G.; Carvalho, F.; Ramos, A. R.

    2017-08-01

    We report new experimental investigations of the response of single superheated emulsion detectors with small droplet (<30 μm radii) size distributions to both α- and neutron irradiations. Analysis of the results in terms of the underlying detector physics yields a toy model which reasonably reproduces the observations, and identifies the initial energy of the α in the liquid and distribution of droplet sizes as primarily responsible for the detector capacity to distinguish between nuclear recoil and α events.

  4. Recycling the news

    SciTech Connect

    Sager, K.A.

    1997-09-01

    With its infamous bureaucracy, legions of news organizations, and the prominence of the federal government, Washington, D.C., and its environs generate literally tons of paper every day. Paper represents almost 40% of the waste stream, according to the US EPA. The agency`s figures show that more than 80 million tpy of paper are generated, and with such a significant portion of this waste capable of being recycled, it is essential that the nation`s capital have enough paper recycling facilities. Capital Fiber (Springfield, VA.), a large-scale intermediate paper processing facility, is an example of one such facility. Its primary material is old newspapers (ONP), and its operations consist of receiving, sorting, and consolidating waste paper for baling and resale. The company is a joint venture between daily newspaper giant the Washington Post (Washington, D.C.), which owns 80%, and the Canusa Corp. (Baltimore), a waste paper brokerage firm, which owns the other 20% of Capitol Fiber. Capital Fiber`s Springfield facility handles nine grades of paper, including pre-consumer and post-consumer ONP, blank news (newspaper trimmings that have not been printed on), old corrugated containers (OCC), sorted white ledger and sorted office waste, and various wrappers, supermixes, and other mixed grades. Within each of these categories are various sub-grades of paper, and the facility also takes old telephone books, computer paper, and flyleaf, the extra tim cut from periodicals. But, not surprisingly, the predominant material is ONP.

  5. NEWS: Web's wonders!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-07-01

    Introducing this month's collection of useful websites for physics teachers. If you have any suggestions for this column then please send them to us at ped@ioppublishing.co.uk Dave Pickersgill has drawn our attention to the following: www.sheffcol.ac.uk/links/ which has annotated, classified and searchable links to over 1700 educational sites. Included are around 500 science links. Members of the American Association of Physics Teachers were recently informed of a website for those hoping to arouse interest and knowledge of astronomy in their students. Space.com, a comprehensive space news website, had launched `spaceKids', a new channel specifically targeted at children complete with a gallery of space images, space and science news, stories, a space question and answer section hosted by a team of science teachers, interactive games, weekly polls and competitions. The website can be found at www.spacekids.com Those fascinated by all aspects of nuclear fusion should take a look at the General Atomics educational site: FusionEd.gat.com as well as the national site fusion.gat.com/PlasmaOutreach

  6. School Violence and the News

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old School Violence and the News KidsHealth > For Parents > School Violence and the News A A A What's in ... violencia escolar y las noticias Incidents of school violence are terrible and frightening, but fortunately they are ...

  7. What Turns Events into News?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tukachinsky, Riva

    2013-01-01

    "The New York Times" is known for its slogan ''All the News That's Fit to Print.'' But how do gatekeepers decide which events meet this criterion? Although some individuals might believe that the news constitutes an undistorted reflection of the social reality, students in communication courses have the…

  8. Science News of the Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science News, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Reviews important science news stories reported during 1984 in "Science News" magazine. These stories are in the categories of: anthropology and paleontology; behavior; biology; chemistry; computers; mathematics; earth science; the environment; medicine; physics; science and society; space sciences and astronomy; and technology. (JN)

  9. Media Choices for Specialized News.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Herbert H.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examines preferred media sources for four categories of special news--medicine, science, business, and consumer economics. Found that respondents ranked the media in the following order as preferred sources of specialized news: (1) local television affiliates, (2) local newspapers, (3) magazines, (4) radio, (5) cable networks, and (6) national…

  10. Science News of the Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science News, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Reviews important science news stories reported during 1984 in "Science News" magazine. These stories are in the categories of: anthropology and paleontology; behavior; biology; chemistry; computers; mathematics; earth science; the environment; medicine; physics; science and society; space sciences and astronomy; and technology. (JN)

  11. Science News of the Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science News, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Provides a review of science news stories reported in "Science News" during 1987. References each item to the volume and page number in which the subject was addressed. Contains references on astronomy, behavior, biology, biomedicine, chemistry, earth sciences, environment, mathematics and computers, paleontology and anthropology, physics, science…

  12. Science News of the Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science News, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Presented is a review of important science news stories of 1989 as reported in the pages of "Science News." Topics include anthropology, astronomy, behavior, biology, biomedicine, chemistry, environment, food science, math and computers, paleobiology, physics, science and society, space sciences, and technology. (CW)

  13. Science News of the Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science News, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Presented is a review of important science news stories of 1989 as reported in the pages of "Science News." Topics include anthropology, astronomy, behavior, biology, biomedicine, chemistry, environment, food science, math and computers, paleobiology, physics, science and society, space sciences, and technology. (CW)

  14. Science News of the Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science News, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Reviews major science news stories of 1988 as reported in the pages of Science News. Covers the areas of anthropology, astronomy, behavior, biology, biomedicine, chemistry, earth sciences, environment, food science, mathematics and computers, paleobiology, physics, science and society, space sciences, and technology. (YP)

  15. What Turns Events into News?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tukachinsky, Riva

    2013-01-01

    "The New York Times" is known for its slogan ''All the News That's Fit to Print.'' But how do gatekeepers decide which events meet this criterion? Although some individuals might believe that the news constitutes an undistorted reflection of the social reality, students in communication courses have the…

  16. Black Adolescents and the News.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Larry J.; Fleming, Dan B.

    1984-01-01

    Compared Black and White students' news acquisition habits and knowledge of current events on the State, national, and international levels. Among 8th graders, Blacks ranked lower than Whites in knowledge, but no significant differences between groups were found among 11th graders. All students were deficient in their knowledge of State news. (GC)

  17. Science News of the Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science News, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Provides a review of science news stories reported in "Science News" during 1987. References each item to the volume and page number in which the subject was addressed. Contains references on astronomy, behavior, biology, biomedicine, chemistry, earth sciences, environment, mathematics and computers, paleontology and anthropology, physics, science…

  18. News Flow between the Americas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Robert L.; And Others

    As part of an international study of world news flow undertaken by the International Association for Mass Communication Research, a content analysis was conducted of foreign news stories in the largest circulation newspapers in Mexico, Brazil, and Argentina, as well as in six papers in the United States, and of material from the files of…

  19. Race Relations in News Magazines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroman, Carolyn A.

    A content analysis was made of all issues of "Newsweek,""Time," and "U. S. News and World Report" published during 1978 to identify the picture of race relations that was presented to the public. Among the findings were the following: (1) "Newsweek" gave the most well-rounded coverage, "U. S. News"…

  20. Viscoelastic properties of sterically stabilised emulsions and their stability.

    PubMed

    Tadros, Tharwat

    2015-08-01

    The interaction forces between emulsion droplets containing adsorbed polymeric surfactants and the theory of steric stabilisation are briefly described. The results for the viscoelastic properties of O/W emulsions that are stabilised with partially hydrolysed poly(vinyl acetate) that is commonly referred to as poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) with 4% vinyl acetate are given. The effect of the oil volume fraction, addition of electrolytes and increasing temperature is described. This allows one to obtain various parameters such as the adsorbed layer thickness, the critical flocculation concentration of electrolyte (CFC) and critical flocculation temperature (CFT) at constant electrolyte concentration. The viscoelastic properties of O/W emulsions stabilised with an A-B-A block copolymer of polyethylene oxide (A) and polypropylene oxide (B) are described. These emulsions behave as viscoelastic liquids showing a cross-over-point between G' (the elastic component of the complex modulus) and G″ (the viscous component of the complex modulus) at a characteristic frequency. Plots of G' and G″ versus oil volume fraction ϕ show the transition from predominantly viscous to predominantly elastic response at a critical volume fraction ϕ(c). The latter can be used to estimate the adsorbed layer thickness of the polymeric surfactants. Results are also shown for W/O emulsions stabilised with an A-B-A block copolymer of polyhydroxystearic acid (PHS, A) and polyethylene oxide (PEO, B). The viscosity volume fraction curves could be fitted to the Dougherty-Krieger equation for hard-spheres. The results could be applied to give an estimate of the adsorbed layer thickness Δ which shows a decrease with increase of the water volume fraction. This is due to the interpenetration and/or compression of the PHS layers on close approach of the water droplets on increasing the water volume fraction. The last section of the review gives an example of O/W emulsion stability using an AB(n) graft

  1. Effect of oil phase transition on freeze/thaw-induced demulsification of water-in-oil emulsions.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chang; He, Gaohong; Dong, Chunxu; Liu, Hongjing; Xiao, Gongkui; Liu, YuanFa

    2008-05-20

    Recently, there has been an increasing interest in the breakage of water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions by the freeze/thaw method. Most of the previous works focused on the phase transition of the water droplet phase. This paper emphasizes the effect of continuous oil phase transition. A series of oils with different freezing points were used as oil phases to produce model emulsions, which were then frozen and thawed. The emulsion whose oil phase froze before the water droplet phase did (OFBW) on cooling was readily demulsified with a dewatering ratio as high as over 80%, but the emulsion whose oil phase did not freeze when the water droplet phase did (NOFBW) was relatively hard to break. The difference in demulsification performance between them resulted from the distinction between their demulsification mechanisms via the analyses of the emulsion stability, emulsion crystallization/melting behaviors, oil phase physical properties, and wettability of the frozen oil phase, etc. For the OFBW emulsion, the first-frozen oil phase was ruptured by the volume expansion of the subsequently frozen droplet phase, and meanwhile, some liquid droplet phase was drawn into the fine gaps/crevices of the frozen oil phase to bridge droplets, which were considered to be essential to the emulsion breakage, whereas for the NOFBW emulsion, the demulsification was attributed to the collision mechanism proposed in our previous work. The findings may provide some criteria for selecting a proper oil phase in the emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) process and then offer an alternative approach to recycle the oil phase for continuous operation. This work may also be useful for emulsion stability against temperature cycling.

  2. Optimizing organoclay stabilized Pickering emulsions.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yannan; Threlfall, Mhairi; van Duijneveldt, Jeroen S

    2011-04-15

    Oil-in-water emulsions were prepared using montmorillonite clay platelets, pre-treated with quaternary amine surfactants. In previous work, cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) has been used. In this study, two more hydrophilic quaternary amine surfactants, Berol R648 and Ethoquad C/12, were used and formed Pickering emulsions, which were more stable than the emulsions prepared using CTAB coated clay. The droplets were also more mono-disperse. The most hydrophilic surfactant Berol R648 stabilizes the emulsions best. Salt also plays an important role in forming a stable emulsion. The droplet size decreases with surfactant concentration and relatively mono-disperse droplets can be obtained at moderate surfactant concentrations. The time evolution of the droplet size indicates a good stability to coalescence in the presence of Berol R648. Using polarizing microscopy, the clay platelets were found to be lying flat at the water oil interface. However, a significant fraction (about 90%) of clay stayed in the water phase and the clay particles at the water-oil interface formed stacks, each consisting of four clay platelets on average.

  3. Transdermal delivery of forskolin from emulsions differing in droplet size.

    PubMed

    Sikora, Elżbieta; Llinas, Meritxell; Garcia-Celma, Maria Jose; Escribano, Elvira; Solans, Conxita

    2015-02-01

    The skin permeation of forskolin, a diterpene isolated from Coleus forsholii, was studied using oil in water (O/W) emulsions as delivery formulations and also an oil solution for comparative purposes. Two forskolin-loaded emulsions of water/Brij 72:Symperonic A7/Miglyol 812:Isohexadecane, at 0.075 wt% forskolin concentration were prepared with the same composition and only differing in droplet size (0.38 μm and 10 μm). The emulsions showed high kinetic stability at 25 °C. In vitro study of forskolin penetration through human skin was carried out using the MicroettePlus(®) system. The concentration of the active in the receptor solution (i.e. ethanol/phosphate buffer 40/60, v/v) was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. The obtained results showed that forskolin permeation from the emulsions and the oil solution, through human skin, was very high (up to 72.10%), and no effect of droplet size was observed.

  4. [Making of compound Rhizoma Acori Tatarinowii naphtha emulsion].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Guo-shen; Li, Jun-zhi

    2006-05-01

    To determine an ideal recipe and technique for making of compound Rhizoma Acori Tatarinowii naphtha emulsion (CRATNE) , diameter for the granule in 10 to approximately 20 microm. CRATNE was made by two-step emulsification and the recipe was evaluated to investigate the effect of diameter for the granule on stir time and stir speed and oxygen ventilated. The percentages of diameter for the granule in 10 to approximately 20 microm was 72%. Emulsion was made on recipe No. 4 [ Rhizoma Acori Tatarimowii naphtha (ml): liquid paraffin (ml): Sorbian monooleate (g): 0.5% gelatin solution (ml): distilled water (ml) is 1.05: 16: 7: 1: 16] and compound emulsion is made on recipe No. 4 [fore emulsion (g): Tween-80 (g): distilled water (ml) is 10: 1: 9]. Recipe No. 4 was the best one if stiring at low speed through magnetic force mixer was used. Stir time was 1 min. The oxygen was ventilated with a flow rate of 2 L/min for CRATNE. Ventilation time was 1 h. The percentages of diameter for the granule in 10 to approximately 12 microm increased from 72% to 79%. was type W/O/W. The diameter of CRATNE for the granule is in 10 to approximately 20 microm, can be made following above-mentioned methods.

  5. Study on the Stability of DeoxyArbutin in an Anhydrous Emulsion System

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chih-Chien; Yang, Chao-Hsun; Chang, Nai-Fang; Wu, Pey-Shiuan; Chen, Yi-Shyan; Lee, Shu-Mei; Chen, Chiu-Wen

    2011-01-01

    The skin-whitening agent, deoxyArbutin, is a potent tyrosinase inhibitor that is safer than hydroquinone and arbutin. However, it is thermolabile in aqueous solutions, where it decomposes to hydroquinone. Pharmaceutical and cosmetic emulsions are normally oil-in-water (o/w) or water-in-oil (w/o) systems; however, emulsions can be formulated with no aqueous phase to produce an anhydrous emulsion system. An anhydrous emulsion system could offer a stable vehicle for compounds that are sensitive to hydrolysis or oxidation. Therefore, to enhance the stability of deoxyArbutin in formulations, we chose the polyol-in-silicone, anhydrous emulsion system as the basic formulation for investigation. The quantity of deoxyArbutin and the accumulation of hydroquinone in both hydrous and anhydrous emulsions at various temperatures were analyzed through an established high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method. The results indicated that water increased the decomposition of deoxyArbutin in the formulations and that the polyol-in-silicone, oil-based, anhydrous emulsion system provided a relatively stable surrounding for the deoxyArbutin that delayed its degradation at 25 °C and 45 °C. Moreover, the composition of the inner hydrophilic phase, containing different amounts of glycerin and propylene glycol, affected the stability of deoxyArbutin. Thus, these results will be beneficial when using deoxyArbutin in cosmetics and medicines in the future. PMID:22016637

  6. Influence of Steam Injection and Water-in-Oil Emulsions on Diesel Fuel Combustion Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Meagan

    Water injection can be an effective strategy for reducing NOx because water's high specific heat allows it to absorb heat and lower system temperatures. Introducing water as an emulsion can potentially be more effective at reducing emissions than steam injection due to physical properties (such as microexplosions) that can improve atomization and increase mixing. Unfortunately, the immiscibility of emulsions makes them difficult to work with so they must be mixed properly. In this effort, a method for adequately mixing surfactant-free emulsions was established and verified using high speed cinematography. As the water to fuel mass ratio (W/F) increased, emulsion atomization tests showed little change in droplet size and spray angle, but a shorter overall breakup point. Dual-wavelength planar laser induced fluorescence (D-PLIF) patternation showed an increase in water near the center of the spray. Steam injection flames saw little change in reaction stability, but emulsion flames experienced significant losses in stability that limited reaction operability at higher W/F. Emulsions were more effective at reducing NOx than steam injection, likely because of liquid water's latent heat of vaporization and the strategic injection of water into the flame core. OH* chemiluminescence showed a decrease in heat release for both methods, though the decrease was greater for emulsions. Both methods saw decreases in flame length for W/F 0.15. Lastly, flame imaging showed a shift towards a redder appearance with the addition or more water, as well as a reduction in flame flares.

  7. Characterization of starch Pickering emulsions for potential applications in topical formulations.

    PubMed

    Marku, Diana; Wahlgren, Marie; Rayner, Marilyn; Sjöö, Malin; Timgren, Anna

    2012-05-30

    The aim of this work has been to characterize starch based Pickering emulsions as a first step to evaluate their possible use as vehicles for topical drug delivery. A minor phase study of emulsions with high oil content has been performed. Emulsion stability against coalescence over eight weeks and after mild centrifugation treatment has been studied. The particle size, rheological properties and in vitro skin penetration of emulsions containing three different oils (Miglyol, paraffin and sheanut oil) was investigated. It was shown that it is possible to produce oil in water starched stabilised Pickering emulsions with oil content as high as 56%. Furthermore, this emulsions show good stability during storage over eight weeks and towards mild centrifugation. The particle size of the systems are only dependent on the ratio between oil and starch and for liquid oils the type of oil do not affect the particle size. The type of oil also affects the cosmetic and rheological properties of the creams but did not affect the transdermal diffusion in in vitro tests. However, it seems as if the Pickering emulsions affected the transport over the skin, as the flux was twice that of what has been previously reported for solutions.

  8. Baclofen, raclopride, and naltrexone differentially reduce solid fat emulsion intake under limited access conditions.

    PubMed

    Rao, R E; Wojnicki, F H E; Coupland, J; Ghosh, S; Corwin, R L W

    2008-06-01

    Previous work in rats has demonstrated that an Intermittent (Monday, Wednesday, Friday) schedule of access promotes binge-type consumption of 100% vegetable shortening during a 1-h period of availability. The present study used novel shortening-derived stable solid emulsions of various fat concentrations. These emulsions were the consistency of pudding and did not demonstrate oil and water phase separation previously reported with oil-based liquid emulsions. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were grouped according to schedule of access (Daily or Intermittent) to one of three concentrations (18%, 32%, 56%) of solid fat emulsion. There were no significant Intermittent vs. Daily differences in amount consumed, due to high intakes in all groups. This indicated the acceptability of the emulsions. Baclofen (GABA(B) agonist) and raclopride (D2-like antagonist) both significantly reduced emulsion intake in all Daily groups, but only in the 56% fat Intermittent group. Naltrexone (opioid antagonist), in contrast, significantly reduced 32% and 56% fat emulsion intake in the Intermittent, as well as the Daily groups. These results indicate that the fat intake-reducing effects of GABA(B) activation and D(2) blockade depend upon fat concentration and schedule of fat access, while the fat intake-reducing effects of opioid blockade depend upon fat concentration but not schedule of access.

  9. BACLOFEN, RACLOPRIDE, AND NALTREXONE DIFFERENTIALLY REDUCE SOLID FAT EMULSION INTAKE UNDER LIMITED ACCESS CONDITIONS

    PubMed Central

    RE, Rao; FHE, Wojnicki; J, Coupland; S, Ghosh; RLW, Corwin

    2009-01-01

    Previous work in rats has demonstrated that an Intermittent (Monday, Wednesday, Friday) schedule of access promotes binge-type consumption of 100% vegetable shortening during a 1-hour period of availability. The present study used novel shortening-derived stable solid emulsions of various fat concentrations. These emulsions were the consistency of pudding and did not demonstrate oil and water phase separation previously reported with oil-based liquid emulsions. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were grouped according to schedule of access (Daily or Intermittent) to one of three concentrations (18%, 32%, 56%) of solid fat emulsion. There were no significant Intermittent vs. Daily differences in amount consumed, due to high intakes in all groups. This indicated the acceptability of the emulsions. Baclofen (GABA-B agonist) and raclopride (D2-like antagonist) both significantly reduced emulsion intake in all Daily groups, but only in the 56% fat Intermittent group. Naltrexone (opioid antagonist), in contrast, significantly reduced 32% and 56% fat emulsion intake in the Intermittent, as well as the Daily groups. These results indicate that the fat intake reducing effects of GABAB activation and D2 blockade depend upon fat concentration and schedule of fat access, while the fat intake reducing effects of opioid blockade depend upon fat concentration but not schedule of access. PMID:18353432

  10. Phytonadione Content in Branded Intravenous Fat Emulsions.

    PubMed

    Forchielli, Maria Luisa; Conti, Matteo; Motta, Roberto; Puggioli, Cristina; Bersani, Germana

    2017-03-01

    Intravenous fat emulsions (IVFE) with different fatty acid compositions contain vitamin E as a by-product of vegetable and animal oil during the refining processes. Likewise, other lipid-soluble vitamins may be present in IVFE. No data, however, exist about phytonadione (vitamin K1) concentration in IVFE information leaflets. Therefore, our aim was to evaluate the phytonadione content in different IVFE. Analyses were carried out in triplicate on 6 branded IVFE as follows: 30% soybean oil (100%), 20% olive-soybean oil (80%-20%), 20% soybean-medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) coconut oil (50%-50%), 20% soybean-olive-MCT-fish oil (30%-25%-30%-15%), 20% soybean-MCT-fish oil (40%-50%-10%), and 10% pure fish oil (100%). Phytonadione was analyzed and quantified by a quali-quantitative liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method after its extraction from the IVFE by an isopropyl alcohol-hexane mixture, reverse phase-liquid chromatography, and specific multiple-reaction monitoring for phytonadione and vitamin d3 (as internal standard). This method was validated through specificity, linearity, and accuracy. Average vitamin K1 content was 500, 100, 90, 100, 95, and 70 µg/L in soybean oil, olive-soybean oil, soybean-MCT coconut oil, soybean-olive-MCT-fish oil, soybean-MCT-fish oil, and pure fish oil intravenous lipid emulsions (ILEs), respectively. The analytical LC-MS method was extremely effective in terms of specificity, linearity ( r = 0.99), and accuracy (coefficient of variation <5%). Phytonadione is present in IVFE, and its intake varies according to IVFE type and the volume administered. It can contribute to daily requirements and become clinically relevant when simultaneously infused with multivitamins during long-term parenteral nutrition. LC-MS seems adequate in assessing vitamin K1 intake in IVFE.

  11. International News Flows in the Post-Cold War World: Mapping the News and the News Producers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sreberny-Mohammadi, Annabelle

    1995-01-01

    Reviews the global political environment, major global news providers, and technologies of global news production. Argues for a multinational comparative mapping of international news representation in the 1990s. Outlines a major international venture to update and elaborate the 1979 UNESCO/IAMCR study of foreign news in the media of 29 countries,…

  12. International News Flows in the Post-Cold War World: Mapping the News and the News Producers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sreberny-Mohammadi, Annabelle

    1995-01-01

    Reviews the global political environment, major global news providers, and technologies of global news production. Argues for a multinational comparative mapping of international news representation in the 1990s. Outlines a major international venture to update and elaborate the 1979 UNESCO/IAMCR study of foreign news in the media of 29 countries,…

  13. Dynamics of Polydisperse Coarsening Emulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirenda, Nic; Hicock, Harry; Feitosa, Klebert; Crocker, John

    2014-03-01

    Soft glassy materials display complex fluid behavior characterized by a yield stress and distinctive elastic and viscous moduli. The complexity emerges from the disordered structure and interactions between the athermal particles. Here we study the dynamics of an optically clear and neutrally buoyantly emulsion whose droplets coarsen driven by Laplace pressure induced diffusion. The emulsion displays an anomalous loss modulus typical of coarsening foam systems. We use confocal microscopy to image the droplets, measure their size and centroid location, and track their evolution in time. The relaxation process of the coarsening emulsion is found to be marked by a continuous, slow structural evolution interspersed by sudden droplet swaps. We characterize the time scales of each process and the statistics of droplet rearrangements. We acknowledge support from Research Corporation and NSF-DMR-1229383.

  14. [The making of AIDS news].

    PubMed

    Spink, M J; Medrado, B; Menegon, V M; Lyra, J; Lima, H

    2001-01-01

    This study is part of the overall research effort on the role of the media in making sense of events in late modernity. The main objective is to investigate the context in which news about AIDS is produced at the interface between norms for producing news (as expressed by professional journalists) and an analysis of news stories published in four mainstream Brazilian newspapers. The results are organized in three broad topics: (a) the construction of news about AIDS; (b) the visibility of AIDS news during the study period; and (c) factors that facilitate or hinder the production of AIDS news. Important factors include exclusiveness of the story and/or novelty of the content, the notion of hot (or cold) news, and the specific contents. The authors also emphasize the inevitable chance elements associated with organizational characteristics and daily journalism. They conclude by pointing to recent changes in both the shape of the AIDS epidemic and the communications dynamics resulting from recent developments in the electronic media.

  15. Rosmarinus officinalis L. extract and some of its active ingredients as potential emulsion stabilizers: a new approach to the formation of multiple (W/O/W) emulsion.

    PubMed

    Cizauskaite, Ugne; Ivanauskas, Liudas; Jakštas, Valdas; Marksiene, Ruta; Jonaitiene, Laimute; Bernatoniene, Jurga

    2016-09-01

    Nowadays, novel topical formulations loaded with natural functional actives are under intense investigations. Therefore, the aim of our study was to evaluate how the rosemary extract and some of its active ingredients [rosmarinic acid (RA), ursolic acid (UA) and oleanolic acid (OA)] affect technological characteristics of multiple emulsion. Formulation has been prepared by adding investigated solutions (10%) in water/oil/water (W/O/W) multiple emulsion consisting of different lipophilic phases: olive oil and liquid paraffin, with 0.5% emulsifying agent (complex of sodium polyacrylate and polysorbate 20) under constant stirring with mechanical stirrer at room temperature. The emulsion parameters were evaluated using centrifugation test, freeze-thaw cycle test, microscopical and texture analyses. Rosemary's triterpenic saponins UA and OA showed the highest emulsion stabilizing properties: they decreased CI from 3.26% to 10.23% (p < 0.05). According to obtained interfacial tension data, the effect of rosemary active ingredients is not surfactant-like. Even though emulsifier itself at low concentration intends to form directly the multiple emulsion, the obtained results indicate that rosemary extract containing active ingredients does not only serve as functional cosmetic agent due to a number of biological activities, but also offer potential advantages as a stabilizer and an enhancer of W/O/W emulsions formation for dermopharmaceutical and cosmetic preparations.

  16. Welcome to the VGP news

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipman, Peter W.; Smith, Joseph V.

    Beginning with this issue of Eos, the Volcanology, Geochemistry, and Petrology Section of AGU will publish brief and timely scientific reports, highlights of conferences, statements of opinion, section news, and other topical information approximately every 3 months in a new section of Eos called “The VGP News.”Material for The VGP News will be handled by Eos Editor Bruce R. Doe. VGP Section President J. V. Smith has appointed the following editorial group to work with Doe: Peter W. Lipman, VGP Secretary, U.S. Geological Survey, MS 913, Federal Center, Denver, CO 80225 (telephone: 303-234-2901)

  17. Frequency-dependent compressibility in emulsions: Probing interfaces using Isakovich's sound absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemar, Y.; Hocquart, R.; Palierne, J. F.

    1998-05-01

    The average compressibility of an emulsion acquires a frequency-dependent, relaxing behavior due to the thermoconduction between adjacent phases heated through thermo-mechanical coupling. Introducing the relaxing compressibility into the sound propagation equations, we extend Isakovitch's theory of sound absorption to emulsions of an arbitrary number of liquids with the same density. The sound propagation speed and attenuation are found to be isotropic, even if the emulsion morphology is anisotropic. In the limit of frequencies greater than the inverse heat diffusion time, both the relaxing part of the compressibility and the sound attenuation are proportional to a single parameter depending linearly on the emulsion interfacial area per unit volume, thus giving easy access to this quantity in non-transparent systems.

  18. Study and modeling of the rheological properties of concentrated water-in-oil emulsions

    SciTech Connect

    Koroleva, M.Yu.; Yurtov, E.V.

    1994-07-01

    Study of the rheological curves of concentrated water-in-oil emulsions indicates that such systems behave like non-Newtonian pseudo-plastic liquids. A number of mathematical models for rheological curves: Chong, Frankel-Acrivos, Ostwald-Weil, Bingham, Stainer, Ferry, Haven, Ellis, and Meter models are considered. The regions of the model adequacy for rheological curves of emulsions with different contents of the dispersed phase are determined. It was shown that only the Ellis model adequately describes the complete rheological curves of concentrated water-in-oil emulsions of the studied composition. Therefore, this model can be applied to the prediction of the viscosity values for emulsions with various phase ratios.

  19. Index to NASA News Releases 1995

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This issue of the index to NASA News Releases contains a listing of news releases distributed by the Office of Public Affairs, NASA Headquarters, during 1995. The index is arranged in six sections: Subject index, Personal name index, News release number index, Accession number index, Speeches, and News releases.

  20. LATIN--Latin American Regional News Agency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, John Spicer

    The establishment of a regional news agency for Latin America to improve the balance of news flow and increase the transmission of news more applicable to regional problems has often been proposed. Despite wide acceptance of the concept, the birth of the Third World's first regional news agency, Agencia Latinoamericana de Informacion (LATIN), has…

  1. 7 CFR 28.904 - Market news.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Market news. 28.904 Section 28.904 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Cotton Classification and Market News Service for Producers Classification and Market News Services § 28.904 Market news. The Director shall cause to be distributed to producers of...

  2. 7 CFR 28.904 - Market news.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Market news. 28.904 Section 28.904 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Cotton Classification and Market News Service for Producers Classification and Market News Services § 28.904 Market news. The Director shall cause to be distributed to producers of...

  3. Young Adolescents' Intentional Use of Science News

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Pei-Ying; Chang, Wen-Hua; Chen, Sufen; Chang, Huey-Por

    2014-01-01

    Profiling adolescent students' intentional use of science news reports can inform science news-infused instruction. This study reports on the development and validation of a Views of Science News Instruction Questionnaire (VSNIQ) designed to explore Grade 7 (12-13 years old) students' views of reasoning with respect to science news. Forty items…

  4. The Diffusion of "Shocking" Good News.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haroldsen, Edwin O.; Harvey, Kenneth

    1979-01-01

    A study of the diffusion of news about the Mormon Church's approval of Blacks for the priesthood revealed that "shocking" good news can ignite the interpersonal communications system, that news has more credibility when obtained from media than when obtained interpersonally, and that people use mass media to verify news obtained…

  5. 7 CFR 28.904 - Market news.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Market news. 28.904 Section 28.904 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Cotton Classification and Market News Service for Producers Classification and Market News Services § 28.904 Market news. The Director shall cause to be distributed to producers of...

  6. MedlinePlus FAQ: News Coverage

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/faq/news.html Question: I saw a news article on MedlinePlus but now I can't ... this page, please enable JavaScript. Answer: The health news page displays the most recent news. MedlinePlus displays ...

  7. 7 CFR 28.904 - Market news.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Market news. 28.904 Section 28.904 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Cotton Classification and Market News Service for Producers Classification and Market News Services § 28.904 Market news. The Director shall cause to be distributed to producers of...

  8. 7 CFR 28.904 - Market news.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Market news. 28.904 Section 28.904 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Cotton Classification and Market News Service for Producers Classification and Market News Services § 28.904 Market news. The Director shall cause to be distributed to producers of...

  9. The Diffusion of "Shocking" Good News.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haroldsen, Edwin O.; Harvey, Kenneth

    1979-01-01

    A study of the diffusion of news about the Mormon Church's approval of Blacks for the priesthood revealed that "shocking" good news can ignite the interpersonal communications system, that news has more credibility when obtained from media than when obtained interpersonally, and that people use mass media to verify news obtained…

  10. A Comparison of Bad News on Radio and Television Using the News Morbidity Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskins, Jack B.

    A reliable "news morbidity" scale was developed to measure the prevalence of bad and good news on radio and television; the scale was then used in a pilot study of one city's news output. The news morbidity scale is a seven-step scale ranging from "extremely bad" to "extremely good" news. A sample of 945 television…

  11. The characterization of molecular organization of multilamellar emulsions containing pseudoceramide and type III synthetic ceramide.

    PubMed

    Park, B D; Youm, J K; Jeong, S K; Choi, E H; Ahn, S K; Lee, S H

    2003-10-01

    To investigate the molecular organization and phase behavior of physiologic lipid mixtures that contain either newly synthesized pseudoceramide or type III synthetic ceramide, various analytical techniques were used. The phase transition temperatures detected in differential scanning calorimetry analysis were 51.19 and 50.52 for the pseudoceramide-containing physiologic lipid mixture and synthetic type III ceramide-containing lipid mixture, respectively. From the small angle XRD patterns, the multilamellar emulsion-pseudoceramide showed 11.5 nm and 7.61 nm lamellar phases, while the multilamellar emulsion-synthetic ceramide showed only a 7.61 nm lamellar phase. The nonceramide containing lipid mixture did not show any distinct repeat pattern. Lateral packing distances of multilamellar emulsion-pseudoceramide and multilamellar emulsion-synthetic ceramide were measured as 0.4119 and 0.4110 nm at 30, respectively, which indicated the presence of hexagonal lattice. On the contrary, non-multilamellar emulsion did not show any definite repeat pattern. Transmission electron microscopy observation showed nearly comparable lamellar structures in all of the tested emulsions compared to the structure of human stratum corneum intercellular lipid. Decrease of water contents resulted in phase transition into liquid phase for all the tested emulsions, whereas phase transition into orthorhombic phase was observed only in multilamellar emulsion-pseudoceramide. From these results, we concluded that the molecular organization of multilamellar emulsion-pseudoceramide was characterized as the lateral hexagonal phase and both the long and short periodicity lamellar phases, which showed structural similarity with the native human stratum corneum intercellular lipid.

  12. Synthesis of nanocrystalline CeO{sub 2} particles by different emulsion methods

    SciTech Connect

    Supakanapitak, Sunisa; Boonamnuayvitaya, Virote; Jarudilokkul, Somnuk

    2012-05-15

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles were synthesized using three different methods of emulsion: (1) reversed micelle (RM); (2) emulsion liquid membrane (ELM); and (3) colloidal emulsion aphrons (CEAs). Ammonium cerium nitrate and polyoxyethylene-4-lauryl ether (PE4LE) were used as cerium and surfactant sources in this study. The powder was calcined at 500 Degree-Sign C to obtain CeO{sub 2}. The effect of the preparation procedure on the particle size, surface area, and the morphology of the prepared powders were investigated. The obtained powders are highly crystalline, and nearly spherical in shape. The average particle size and the specific surface area of the powders from the three methods were in the range of 4-10 nm and 5.32-145.73 m{sup 2}/g, respectively. The CeO{sub 2} powders synthesized by the CEAs are the smallest average particle size, and the highest surface area. Finally, the CeO{sub 2} prepared by the CEAs using different cerium sources and surfactant types were studied. It was found that the surface tensions of cerium solution and the type of surfactant affect the particle size of CeO{sub 2}. - Graphical Abstract: The emulsion droplet size distribution and the TEM images of CeO{sub 2} prepared by different methods: reversed micelle (RM), emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) and colloidal emulsion aphrons (CEAs). Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nano-sized CeO{sub 2} was successfully prepared by three different emulsion methods. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The colloidal emulsion aphrons method producing CeO{sub 2} with the highest surface area. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The surface tensions of a cerium solution have slightly effect on the particle size. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The size control could be interpreted in terms of the adsorption of the surfactant.

  13. Increasing Learning from TV News.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perloff, Richard M.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Describes an experiment that manipulated two variables, repetition and pausing for viewer "digestion" of information in a news telecast. Concludes that the use of repetition increased viewers' retention of information, but that pauses did not. (FL)

  14. Increasing Learning from TV News.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perloff, Richard M.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Describes an experiment that manipulated two variables, repetition and pausing for viewer "digestion" of information in a news telecast. Concludes that the use of repetition increased viewers' retention of information, but that pauses did not. (FL)

  15. Tips on Writing News Articles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Shannon

    1975-01-01

    The author offers journalism tips to vocational agriculture teachers involved in public relations coverage through newspaper articles. Specific suggestions cover headlines, leading paragraphs, localization of the story, organization, and format of a news release. (EA)

  16. Microbial Control News - November 2011

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This is the first of a column in the Society for Invertebrate Pathology Newsletter. Entitled "Microbial Control News" this article summarizes regulatory actions in the U.S. and Canada regarding microbial insect pest control agents....

  17. Good News About Childhood Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Good News About Childhood Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents For ... 85 percent for the most common form of childhood cancer (acute lymphoblastic leukemia or ALL). During the last ...

  18. Emulsion Chamber Technology Experiment (ECT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, John C.; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki

    1996-01-01

    The experimental objective of Emulsion Chamber Technology (ECT) was to develop space-borne emulsion chamber technology so that cosmic rays and nuclear interactions may subsequently be studied at extremely high energies with long exposures in space. A small emulsion chamber was built and flown on flight STS-62 of the Columbia in March 1994. Analysis of the several hundred layers of radiation-sensitive material has shown excellent post-flight condition and suitability for cosmic ray physics analysis at much longer exposures. Temperature control of the stack was 20 +/-1 C throughout the active control period and no significant deviations of temperature or pressure in the chamber were observed over the entire mission operations period. The unfortunate flight attitude of the orbiter (almost 90% Earth viewing) prevented any significant number of heavy particles (Z greater than or equal to 10) reaching the stack and the inverted flow of shower particles in the calorimeter has not allowed evaluation of absolute primary cosmic ray-detection efficiency nor of the practical time limits of useful exposure of these calorimeters in space to the level of detail originally planned. Nevertheless, analysis of the observed backgrounds and quality of the processed photographic and plastic materials after the flight show that productive exposures of emulsion chambers are feasible in low orbit for periods of up to one year or longer. The engineering approaches taken in the ECT program were proven effective and no major environmental obstacles to prolonged flight are evident.

  19. Controlling molecular transport in minimal emulsions

    PubMed Central

    Gruner, Philipp; Riechers, Birte; Semin, Benoît; Lim, Jiseok; Johnston, Abigail; Short, Kathleen; Baret, Jean-Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Emulsions are metastable dispersions in which molecular transport is a major mechanism driving the system towards its state of minimal energy. Determining the underlying mechanisms of molecular transport between droplets is challenging due to the complexity of a typical emulsion system. Here we introduce the concept of ‘minimal emulsions', which are controlled emulsions produced using microfluidic tools, simplifying an emulsion down to its minimal set of relevant parameters. We use these minimal emulsions to unravel the fundamentals of transport of small organic molecules in water-in-fluorinated-oil emulsions, a system of great interest for biotechnological applications. Our results are of practical relevance to guarantee a sustainable compartmentalization of compounds in droplet microreactors and to design new strategies for the dynamic control of droplet compositions. PMID:26797564

  20. Controlling molecular transport in minimal emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruner, Philipp; Riechers, Birte; Semin, Benoît; Lim, Jiseok; Johnston, Abigail; Short, Kathleen; Baret, Jean-Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Emulsions are metastable dispersions in which molecular transport is a major mechanism driving the system towards its state of minimal energy. Determining the underlying mechanisms of molecular transport between droplets is challenging due to the complexity of a typical emulsion system. Here we introduce the concept of `minimal emulsions', which are controlled emulsions produced using microfluidic tools, simplifying an emulsion down to its minimal set of relevant parameters. We use these minimal emulsions to unravel the fundamentals of transport of small organic molecules in water-in-fluorinated-oil emulsions, a system of great interest for biotechnological applications. Our results are of practical relevance to guarantee a sustainable compartmentalization of compounds in droplet microreactors and to design new strategies for the dynamic control of droplet compositions.

  1. Carbon Dioxide-Water Emulsions for Enhanced Oil Recovery and Permanent Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, David; Golomb, Dan; Shi, Guang; Shih, Cherry; Lewczuk, Rob; Miksch, Joshua; Manmode, Rahul; Mulagapati, Srihariraju; Malepati, Chetankurmar

    2011-09-30

    This project involves the use of an innovative new invention Particle Stabilized Emulsions (PSEs) of Carbon Dioxide-in-Water and Water-in-Carbon Dioxide for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) and Permanent Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide. The EOR emulsion would be injected into a semi-depleted oil reservoir such as Dover 33 in Otsego County, Michigan. It is expected that the emulsion would dislocate the stranded heavy crude oil from the rock granule surfaces, reduce its viscosity, and increase its mobility. The advancing emulsion front should provide viscosity control which drives the reduced-viscosity oil toward the production wells. The make-up of the emulsion would be subsequently changed so it interacts with the surrounding rock minerals in order to enhance mineralization, thereby providing permanent sequestration of the injected CO{sub 2}. In Phase 1 of the project, the following tasks were accomplished: 1. Perform laboratory scale (mL/min) refinements on existing procedures for producing liquid carbon dioxide-in-water (C/W) and water-in-liquid carbon dioxide (W/C) emulsion stabilized by hydrophilic and hydrophobic fine particles, respectively, using a Kenics-type static mixer. 2. Design and cost evaluate scaled up (gal/min) C/W and W/C emulsification systems to be deployed in Phase 2 at the Otsego County semi-depleted oil field. 3. Design the modifications necessary to the present CO{sub 2} flooding system at Otsego County for emulsion injection. 4. Design monitoring and verification systems to be deployed in Phase 2 for measuring potential leakage of CO{sub 2} after emulsion injection. 5. Design production protocol to assess enhanced oil recovery with emulsion injection compared to present recovery with neat CO{sub 2} flooding. 6. Obtain Federal and State permits for emulsion injection. Initial research focused on creating particle stabilized emulsions with the smallest possible globule size so that the emulsion can penetrate even low-permeability crude

  2. The emulsion chamber technology experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, John C.

    1992-01-01

    Photographic emulsion has the unique property of recording tracks of ionizing particles with a spatial precision of 1 micron, while also being capable of deployment over detector areas of square meters or 10's of square meters. Detectors are passive, their cost to fly in Space is a fraction of that of instruments of similar collecting. A major problem in their continued use has been the labor intensiveness of data retrieval by traditional microscope methods. Two factors changing the acceptability of emulsion technology in space are the astronomical costs of flying large electronic instruments such as ionization calorimeters in Space, and the power and low cost of computers, a small revolution in the laboratory microscope data-taking. Our group at UAH made measurements of the high energy composition and spectra of cosmic rays. The Marshall group has also specialized in space radiation dosimetry. Ionization calorimeters, using alternating layers of lead and photographic emulsion, to measure particle energies up to 10(exp 15) eV were developed. Ten balloon flights were performed with them. No such calorimeters have ever flown in orbit. In the ECT program, a small emulsion chamber was developed and will be flown on the Shuttle mission OAST-2 to resolve the principal technological questions concerning space exposures. These include assessments of: (1) pre-flight and orbital exposure to background radiation, including both self-shielding and secondary particle generation; the practical limit to exposure time in space can then be determined; (2) dynamics of stack to optimize design for launch and weightlessness; and (3) thermal and vacuum constraints on emulsion performance. All these effects are cumulative and affect our ability to perform scientific measurements but cannot be adequately predicted by available methods.

  3. Analysis of emulsion stability in acrylic dispersions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahuja, Suresh

    2012-02-01

    Emulsions either micro or nano permit transport or solubilization of hydrophobic substances within a water-based phase. Different methods have been introduced at laboratory and industrial scales: mechanical stirring, high-pressure homogenization, or ultrasonics. In digital imaging, toners may be formed by aggregating a colorant with a latex polymer formed by batch or semi-continuous emulsion polymerization. Latex emulsions are prepared by making a monomer emulsion with monomer like Beta-carboxy ethyl acrylate (β-CEA) and stirring at high speed with an anionic surfactant like branched sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonates , aqueous solution until an emulsion is formed. Initiator for emulsion polymerization is 2-2'- azobis isobutyramide dehydrate with chain transfer agent are used to make the latex. If the latex emulsion is unstable, the resulting latexes produce a toner with larger particle size, broader particle size distribution with relatively higher latex sedimentation, and broader molecular weight distribution. Oswald ripening and coalescence cause droplet size to increase and can result in destabilization of emulsions. Shear thinning and elasticity of emulsions are applied to determine emulsion stability.

  4. Steroidal Compounds in Commercial Parenteral Lipid Emulsions

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhidong; Harvey, Kevin A.; Pavlina, Thomas; Dutot, Guy; Hise, Mary; Zaloga, Gary P.; Siddiqui, Rafat A.

    2012-01-01

    Parenteral nutrition lipid emulsions made from various plant oils contain steroidal compounds, called phytosterols. During parenteral administration of lipid emulsions, phytosterols can reach levels in the blood that are many fold higher than during enteral administration. The elevated phytosterol levels have been associated with the development of liver dysfunction and the rare development of liver failure. There is limited information available in the literature related to phytosterol concentrations in lipid emulsions. The objective of the current study was to validate an assay for steroidal compounds found in lipid emulsions and to compare their concentrations in the most commonly used parenteral nutrition lipid emulsions: Liposyn® II, Liposyn® III, Lipofundin® MCT, Lipofundin® N, Structolipid®, Intralipid®, Ivelip® and ClinOleic®. Our data demonstrates that concentrations of the various steroidal compounds varied greatly between the eight lipid emulsions, with the olive oil-based lipid emulsion containing the lowest levels of phytosterols and cholesterol, and the highest concentration of squalene. The clinical impression of greater incidences of liver dysfunction with soybean versus MCT/LCT and olive/soy lipid emulsions may be reflective of the levels of phytosterols in these emulsions. This information may help guide future studies and clinical care of patients with lipid emulsion-associated liver dysfunction. PMID:23016123

  5. Oil-in-water emulsions for encapsulated delivery of reactive iron particles.

    PubMed

    Berge, Nicole D; Ramsburg, C Andrew

    2009-07-01

    Treatment of dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) source zones using suspensions of reactive iron particles relies upon effective transport of the nano- to submicrometer scale iron particles within the subsurface. Recognition that poor subsurface transport of iron particles results from particle-particle and particle-soil interactions permits development of strategies which increase transport. In this work, experiments were conducted to assess a novel approach for encapsulated delivery of iron particles within porous media using oil-in-water emulsions. Objectives of this study included feasibility demonstration of producing kinetically stable, iron-containing, oil-in-water emulsions and evaluating the transport of these iron-containing, oil-in-water emulsions within water-saturated porous media. Emulsions developed in this study have mean droplet diameters between 1 and 2 microm, remain kinetically stable for > 1.5 h, and possess densities (0.996-1.00 g/mL at 22 degrees C) and dynamic viscosities (2.4-9.3 mPa x s at 22 degrees C and 20 s(-1)) that are favorable to transport within DNAPL source zones. Breakthrough curves and post-experiment extractions from column experiments conducted with medium and fine sands suggest little emulsion retention (< 0.20% wt) at a Darcy velocity of 0.4 m/day. These findings demonstrate that emulsion encapsulation is a promising method for delivery of iron particles and warrants further investigation.

  6. Intravenous Lipid Emulsions in Parenteral Nutrition123

    PubMed Central

    Fell, Gillian L; Nandivada, Prathima; Gura, Kathleen M; Puder, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Fat is an important macronutrient in the human diet. For patients with intestinal failure who are unable to absorb nutrients via the enteral route, intravenous lipid emulsions play a critical role in providing an energy-dense source of calories and supplying the essential fatty acids that cannot be endogenously synthesized. Over the last 50 y, lipid emulsions have been an important component of parenteral nutrition (PN), and over the last 10–15 y many new lipid emulsions have been manufactured with the goal of improving safety and efficacy profiles and achieving physiologically optimal formulations. The purpose of this review is to provide a background on the components of lipid emulsions, their role in PN, and to discuss the lipid emulsions available for intravenous use. Finally, the role of parenteral fat emulsions in the pathogenesis and management of PN-associated liver disease in PN-dependent pediatric patients is reviewed. PMID:26374182

  7. Pickering emulsions for skin decontamination.

    PubMed

    Salerno, Alicia; Bolzinger, Marie-Alexandrine; Rolland, Pauline; Chevalier, Yves; Josse, Denis; Briançon, Stéphanie

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed at developing innovative systems for skin decontamination. Pickering emulsions, i.e. solid-stabilized emulsions, containing silica (S-PE) or Fuller's earth (FE-PE) were formulated. Their efficiency for skin decontamination was evaluated, in vitro, 45min after an exposure to VX, one of the most highly toxic chemical warfare agents. Pickering emulsions were compared to FE (FE-W) and silica (S-W) aqueous suspensions. PE containing an oil with a similar hydrophobicity to VX should promote its extraction. All the formulations reduced significantly the amount of VX quantified on and into the skin compared to the control. Wiping the skin surface with a pad already allowed removing more than half of VX. FE-W was the less efficient (85% of VX removed). The other formulations (FE-PE, S-PE and S-W) resulted in more than 90% of the quantity of VX removed. The charge of particles was the most influential factor. The low pH of formulations containing silica favored electrostatic interactions of VX with particles explaining the better elimination from the skin surface. Formulations containing FE had basic pH, and weak interactions with VX did not improve the skin decontamination. However, these low interactions between VX and FE promote the transfer of VX into the oil droplets in the FE-PE.

  8. Impact of acoustic cavitation on food emulsions.

    PubMed

    Krasulya, Olga; Bogush, Vladimir; Trishina, Victoria; Potoroko, Irina; Khmelev, Sergey; Sivashanmugam, Palani; Anandan, Sambandam

    2016-05-01

    The work explores the experimental and theoretical aspects of emulsification capability of ultrasound to deliver stable emulsions of sunflower oil in water and meat sausages. In order to determine optimal parameters for direct ultrasonic emulsification of food emulsions, a model was developed based on the stability of emulsion droplets in acoustic cavitation field. The study is further extended to investigate the ultrasound induced changes to the inherent properties of raw materials under the experimental conditions of sono-emulsification.

  9. Optical Long Baseline Interferometry News

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, P. R.; Malbet, F.

    2005-12-01

    The Optical Long Baseline Interferometry News is a website and forum for scientists, engineers, and students who share an interest in long baseline stellar interferometry. It was established in 1995 and is the focus of activity of the IAU Working Group on Optical/Infrared Interferometry. Here you will find links to projects devoted to stellar interferometry, news items, recent papers and preprints, and resources for further research. The email news forum was established in 2001 to complement the website and to facilitate exchanges and collaborations. The forum includes an email exploder and an archived list of discussions. You are invited to explore the forum and website at http://olbin.jpl.nasa.gov. Work by PRL was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  10. Recent Studies of Pickering Emulsions: Particles Make the Difference.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jie; Ma, Guang-Hui

    2016-09-01

    In recent years, emulsions stabilized by micro- or nanoparticles (known as Pickering emulsions) have attracted much attention. Micro- or nanoparticles, as the main components of the emulsion, play a key role in the preparation and application of Pickering emulsions. The existence of particles at the interface between the oil and aqueous phases affects not only the preparation, but also the properties of Pickering emulsions, affording superior stability, low toxicity, and stimuli-responsiveness compared to classical emulsions stabilized by surfactants. These advantages of Pickering emulsions make them attractive, especially in biomedicine. In this review, the effects of the characteristics of micro- and nanoparticles on the preparation and properties of Pickering emulsions are introduced. In particular, the preparation methods of Pickering emulsions, especially uniform-sized emulsions, are listed. Uniform Pickering emulsions are convenient for both mechanistic research and applications. Furthermore, some biomedical applications of Pickering emulsions are discussed and the problems hindering their clinical application are identified.

  11. Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 (Fgf21) Gene Expression Is Elevated in the Liver of Mice Fed a High-Carbohydrate Liquid Diet and Attenuated by a Lipid Emulsion but Is Not Upregulated in the Liver of Mice Fed a High-Fat Obesogenic Diet123

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Lei; Huang, Kuan-Hsun; Ito, Kyoko; Sae-tan, Sudathip; Lambert, Joshua D; Ross, A Catharine

    2016-01-01

    Background: Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a regulator of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism; however, the regulation of Fgf21 gene expression by diet remains incompletely understood. Objective: We investigated the effect of a high-carbohydrate (HC) liquid diet, with and without supplementation with a lipid emulsion (LE), and of a high-fat diet (HFD) compared with a low-fat diet (LFD) on the regulation of Fgf21 gene expression in the liver of intact mice. Methods: C57BL/6 male mice were fed standard feed pellets (SFPs), a purified HC liquid diet (adequate in calories and protein), or an HC liquid diet containing an LE at either 4% or 13.5% of energy for 5 wk (Expt. 1) or 1 wk (Expt. 2). In Expt. 3, mice were fed a purified LFD (∼10% fat) or HFD (∼60% fat) or were fed an HFD and given access to a running wheel for voluntary exercise for 16 wk. Results: Fgf21 mRNA in liver and FGF21 protein in plasma were increased by 3.5- to 7-fold in HC mice compared with SFP mice (P < 0.001), whereas the LE dose-dependently attenuated the induction of Fgf21 expression (P < 0.05). After 16 wk, hepatic Fgf21 mRNA did not differ between LFD and HFD mice but was dramatically reduced in the HFD+exercise group to <20% of the level in the HFD group (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: In mice, hepatic Fgf21 expression was upregulated by 1 and 5 wk of feeding a lipogenic HC diet but not by 16 wk of feeding an obesogenic HFD, whereas the addition of fat as an LE to the HC formula significantly reduced Fgf21 gene expression and the plasma FGF21 protein concentration. Our results support a strong and reversible response of hepatic Fgf21 expression to shifts in dietary glucose intake. PMID:26764334

  12. Tailored microstructure of colloidal lipid particles for Pickering emulsions with tunable properties.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Anja; Sprakel, Joris; Schroën, Karin; Berton-Carabin, Claire C

    2017-05-03

    Sub-micron colloidal lipid particles (CLPs) can successfully be used as Pickering stabilizers in oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions, leading to an enhanced physical stability compared to conventional emulsifier-stabilized emulsions. Varying the lipid solid-liquid ratio leads to particles with distinct nanostructure and morphology, resulting in tunable emulsion stabilization performance. Our CLPs are produced by hot high pressure homogenization of high melting point fats in water, and subsequent cooling to induce lipid crystallization. Lath-like tripalmitin and palm stearin CLPs form jammed, cohesive interfacial layers that prevent relaxation of emulsion droplets, and form a three-dimensional network in the continuous aqueous phase. CLPs consisting of a mixture of solid tripalmitin and liquid tricaprylin are polycrystalline platelet-like particles that form O/W emulsions with spherical and bridged droplets covered by a thin particle layer. Our results present a versatile approach to interfacial design that also opens up new perspectives for development of novel delivery systems for active ingredients.

  13. Imaging gastric structuring of lipid emulsions and its effect on gastrointestinal function: a randomized trial in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Steingoetter, Andreas; Radovic, Tijana; Buetikofer, Simon; Curcic, Jelena; Menne, Dieter; Fried, Michael; Schwizer, Werner; Wooster, Tim J

    2015-04-01

    Efficient fat digestion requires fat processing within the stomach and fat sensing in the intestine. Both processes also control gastric emptying and gastrointestinal secretions. We aimed to visualize the influence of the intragastric stability of fat emulsions on their dynamics of gastric processing and structuring and to assess the effect this has on gastrointestinal motor and secretory functions. Eighteen healthy subjects with normal body mass index (BMI) were studied on 4 separate occasions in a double-blind, randomized, crossover design. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data of the gastrointestinal tract and blood triglycerides were recorded before and for 240 min after the consumption of the following 4 different fat emulsions: lipid emulsion 1 (LE1; acid stable, 0.33 μm), lipid emulsion 2 (LE2; acid stable, 52 μm), lipid emulsion 3 (LE3; acid unstable, solid fat, 0.32 μm), and lipid emulsion 4 (LE4; acid unstable, liquid fat, 0.38 μm). Intragastric emulsion instability was associated with a change in gastric emptying. Acid-unstable emulsions exhibited biphasic and faster emptying profiles than did the 2 acid-stable emulsions (P ≤ 0.0001). When combined with solid fat (LE3), different dynamics of postprandial gallbladder volume were induced (P ≤ 0.001). For acid-stable emulsions, a reduction of droplet size by 2 orders of magnitude [LE1 (0.33 μm) compared with LE2 (52 μm)] delayed gastric emptying by 38 min. Although acid-stable (LE1 and LE2) and redispersible (LE4) emulsions caused a constant increase in blood triglycerides, no increase was detectable for LE3 (P < 0.0001). For LE3, MRI confirmed the generation of large fat particles during gastric processing, which emptied into and progressed through the small intestine. MRI allows the detailed characterization of the in vivo fate of lipid emulsions. The acute effects of lipid emulsions on gastric emptying, gallbladder volume, and triglyceride absorption are dependent on microstructural changes

  14. Spreading of Emulsions on Glass Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad Karim, Alireza; Kavehpour, Pirouz

    2012-11-01

    The wettability of emulsions is an important factor with explicit influence in an extensive variety of industrial applications ranging from the petroleum to food industries. Surprisingly, there is no comprehensive study of emulsion spreading to date; this is due to the complexity of the structure of the emulsions and non-homogeneity of the dispersed phase bubbles in size as well as distribution through the emulsion. The spreading of water/silicone oil emulsions on glass substrates was investigated. The emulsions were prepared with varying volume fractions of water dispersed in silicone oil, with addition of small amounts of surfactant to stabilize the emulsion structure. The time dependent variation of dynamic contact angle, base diameter, and the spreading rate of the droplets of an emulsion are different from a pure substance. The effect of water/silicone oil weight percentage as well as the droplet size and dispersed phase bubble size were also investigated. The weight percentage of water/silicone oil emulsion and droplet size did not have significant influence on the spreading dynamics; however the dispersed phase drop size affected the spreading dynamics substantially.

  15. Shear dynamics of an inverted nematic emulsion.

    PubMed

    Tiribocchi, A; Da Re, M; Marenduzzo, D; Orlandini, E

    2016-10-04

    Here we study theoretically the dynamics of a 2D and a 3D isotropic droplet in a nematic liquid crystal under a shear flow. We find a large repertoire of possible nonequilibrium steady states as a function of the shear rate and of the anchoring of the nematic director field at the droplet surface. We first discuss homeotropic anchoring. For weak anchoring, we recover the typical behaviour of a sheared isotropic droplet in a binary fluid, which rotates, stretches and can be broken by the applied flow. For intermediate anchoring, new possibilities arise due to elastic effects in the nematic fluid. We find that in this regime the 2D droplet can tilt and move in the flow, or tumble incessantly at the centre of the channel. For sufficiently strong anchoring, finally, one or both of the topological defects which form close to the surface of the isotropic droplet in equilibrium detach from it and get dragged deep into the nematic state by the flow. In 3D, instead, the Saturn ring associated with the normal anchoring disclination line can be deformed and shifted downstream by the flow, but remains always localized in the proximity of the droplet, at least for the parameter range we explored. Tangential anchoring in 2D leads to a different dynamic response, as the boojum defects characteristic of this situation can unbind from the droplet under a weaker shear with respect to the normal anchoring case. Our results should stimulate further experiments with inverted liquid crystal emulsions under shear, as most of the predictions can be testable in principle by monitoring the evolution of liquid crystalline orientation patterns or by tracking the position and shape of the droplet over time.

  16. Slowly and rapidly digested fat emulsions are equally satiating but their triglycerides are differentially absorbed and metabolized in humans.

    PubMed

    Keogh, Jennifer B; Wooster, Tim J; Golding, Matthew; Day, Li; Otto, Bärbel; Clifton, Peter M

    2011-05-01

    Little is known about the effect of dietary fat emulsion microstructure on plasma TG concentrations, satiety hormones, and food intake. The aim of this study was to structure dietary fat to slow digestion and flatten postprandial plasma TG concentrations but not increase food intake. Emulsions were stabilized by egg lecithin (control), sodium sterol lactylate, or sodium caseinate/monoglyceride (CasMag) with either liquid oil or a liquid oil/solid fat mixture. In a randomized, double-blind, crossover design, 4 emulsions containing 30 g of fat in a 350-mL preload were consumed by 10 men and 10 women (BMI = 25.1 ± 2.8 kg/m(2); age = 58.8 ± 4.8 y). Pre- and postprandial plasma TG, cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and peptide YY (PYY) concentrations and food intake were measured. In a second experiment in a subset of the participants (n = 8, 4 men and 4 women), (13)C-labeled mixed TG was incorporated into 2 different emulsions and breath (13)C was measured over 6 h. In the first experiment, the postprandial rise in plasma TG concentrations following the CasMag-stabilized emulsion containing 30% solid fat was lower than all other emulsions at 90 and 120 min (P < 0.05). Plasma CCK (P < 0.0001), GLP-1 (P < 0.01), and PYY (P < 0.001) concentrations were also reduced following this emulsion compared with control. Food intake at a test meal, eaten 3 h after the preload, did not differ among the emulsions. In the second experiment, when measured by the (13)C breath test, 25% of the TG in the CasMag emulsion was absorbed and metabolized compared with control. In conclusion, fat can be structured to decrease its effect on plasma TG concentrations without increasing food intake.

  17. GOES-R Prelaunch News Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-17

    Sandra Smalley, director, Joint Agency Satellite Division, NASA Headquarters, speaks to members of the news media during a Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R) prelaunch news conference in the Kennedy Space Center's Press Site auditorium in Florida.

  18. GOES-R Prelaunch News Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-17

    Scott Messer, program manager, NASA Missions, United Launch Alliance, speak to members of the news media during a Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R) prelaunch news conference in the Kennedy Space Center's Press Site auditorium in Florida.

  19. In the News: Current Events Websites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byerly, Greg; Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews Web sites for current events news that are appropriate for students of various ages. Discusses the possibilities for second language learning and curriculum connections and lists television sites, news magazines, classroom magazines, newspapers, and lesson plans. (LRW)

  20. Professionalism and Awards in Television News Photography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Conrad; Hubbard, Tom

    1987-01-01

    Tests the hypothesis that photojournalists with high professionalism scores are more likely to win news photography awards. Suggests that television news photography awards recognize skills gained through experience rather than specific professional values. (MM)

  1. In the News: Current Events Websites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byerly, Greg; Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews Web sites for current events news that are appropriate for students of various ages. Discusses the possibilities for second language learning and curriculum connections and lists television sites, news magazines, classroom magazines, newspapers, and lesson plans. (LRW)

  2. Heat Transfer in Boiling Dilute Emulsion with Strong Buoyancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeburg, Eric Thomas

    Little attention has been given to the boiling of emulsions compared to that of boiling in pure liquids. The advantages of using emulsions as a heat transfer agent were first discovered in the 1970s and several interesting features have since been studied by few researchers. Early research focuses primarily on pool and flow boiling and looks to determine a mechanism by which the boiling process occurs. This thesis looks at the boiling of dilute emulsions in fluids with strong buoyant forces. The boiling of dilute emulsions presents many favorable characteristics that make it an ideal agent for heat transfer. High heat flux electronics, such as those seen in avionics equipment, produce high heat fluxes of 100 W/cm2 or more, but must be maintained at low temperatures. So far, research on single phase convection and flow boiling in small diameter channels have yet to provide an adequate solution. Emulsions allow the engineer to tailor the solution to the specific problem. The fluid can be customized to retain the high thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity of the continuous phase while enhancing the heat transfer coefficient through boiling of the dispersed phase component. Heat transfer experiments were carried out with FC-72 in water emulsions. FC-72 has a saturation temperature of 56 °C, far below that of water. The parameters were varied as follows: 0% ≤ epsilon ≤ 1% and 1.82 x 1012 ≤ RaH ≤ 4.42 x 1012. Surface temperatures along the heated surface reached temperature that were 20 °C in excess of the dispersed phase saturation temperature. An increase of ˜20% was seen in the average Nusselt numbers at the highest Rayleigh numbers. Holography was used to obtain images of individual and multiple FC-72 droplets in the boundary layer next to the heated surface. The droplet diameters ranged from 0.5 mm to 1.3 mm. The Magnus effect was observed when larger individual droplets were injected into the boundary layer, causing the droplets to be pushed

  3. Development of stable Pickering emulsions/oil powders and Pickering HIPEs stabilized by gliadin/chitosan complex particles.

    PubMed

    Yuan, D B; Hu, Y Q; Zeng, T; Yin, S W; Tang, C H; Yang, X Q

    2017-06-21

    In this paper, we demonstrate the use of gliadin/chitosan complex particles (GCCPs) as particulate stabilizers of oil-in-water emulsions of natural oils and water. For this purpose, we fabricated GCCPs through a facile anti-solvent procedure and demonstrated their usage in the formation of Pickering emulsions and Pickering high internal phase emulsions (HIPEs). The GCCPs can be used to produce surfactant-free o/w Pickering emulsions and Pickering HIPEs; unfortunately these emulsions were labile to coalescence. NaCl addition and/or pH regulation, and the combination were used to modify the surface wettability of the complex particles to achieve stable emulsions. The microstructures, e.g., interfacial frameworks, GCCP partition between the continuous phase and interfacial region, and the state of the droplets, of Pickering emulsions were visualized by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), confirming that the inclusion of NaCl and slightly adjusting pH toward 4.0 and/or 5.0 benefited the adsorption and accumulation of colloid particles at the droplet surface to form an engineered interfacial structure, bridging droplets together through a percolating layer of colloidal particles at the oil/water interface. A schematic representation for the formation route of the emulsions is proposed to relate the physical performance and rheological property with the interfacial structures and aggregate behaviors in the Pickering system stabilized by the complex particles. Interestingly, direct freeze-drying of the emulsions transformed unstable Pickering emulsions into stable oil powders. This study opens a promising route based on Pickering HIPEs or oil powders to structure liquid oils into solid-like fats without artificial trans-fat, which outlines new directions for future fundamental research.

  4. Experimental study of the thermophoretic mobility of a colloidal emulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyos, Mauricio; van Batten, Charles; Amato, Samuel; Martin, Michel

    1997-11-01

    We have studied the thermophoretic migration of a pharmaceutical oil-in-water emulsion flowing in a Hele-Shaw cell, under the effect of a thermal gradient applied perpendicularly to the flow. Under this strong thermal gradient (several thousands =B0c/cm), a small volume (20 microlitters) of emulsion, migrates toward one wall; simultaneously, a diffusive flow is created in opposite direction to drops migration, leading to the establishment of an equilibrium exponential concentration distribution in the thickness of the cell. The cloud of drops is transported all along the cell by a vector liquid (water) which has a parabolic flow velocity profile. The axial velocity of the droplets depends on their interaction with the thermal field. The parameter determined by the axial sample velocity is the Soret coefficient of the emulsion, defined by the ratio between the thermal diffusion coefficient (thermophoretic mobility) and the particle diffusion coefficient, the last given by the Stokes-Einstein relationship. We have obtained experimentally that the Soret coefficient increases with the size d of droplets as d0.6, while the thermal diffusion coefficient decreases with d as d-0.4. We have also determined by means of a thermogravitational technique that droplets migrate toward the cold wall.

  5. Boiling of an emulsion in a yield stress fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guéna, Geoffroy; Wang, Ji; D'Espinose, Jean-Baptiste; Lequeux, François; Talini, Laurence

    2010-11-01

    We report the boiling behavior of pentane emulsified in a yield stress fluid, a colloidal clay (Laponite) suspension. We have observed that a superheated state is easily reached: the emulsion, heated more than 50°C above the alkane boiling point, does not boil. Superheating is made possible by the suppression of heterogeneous nucleation in pentane, resulting from the emulsification process, a phenomenon evidenced decades ago in studies of the superheating of two phase fluids. We have furthermore studied the growth of isolated bubbles nucleated in the emulsion. The rate of increase of the bubble radius with time depends on both the temperature and emulsion volume fraction but, rather unexpectedly, does not depend on the fluid rheology. We show that the bubbles grow by diffusion of the alkane through the aqueous phase between liquid droplets and bubbles, analogously to an Ostwald ripening process. The peculiarity of the process reported here is that a layer depleted in oil droplets forms around the bubble, layer to which the alkane concentration gradient is confined. We successfully describe our experimental results with a simple transfer model.

  6. Boiling of an emulsion in a yield stress fluid.

    PubMed

    Guéna, Geoffroy; Wang, Ji; d'Espinose, Jean-Baptiste; Lequeux, François; Talini, Laurence

    2010-11-01

    We report the boiling behavior of pentane emulsified in a yield stress fluid, a colloidal clay (Laponite) suspension. We have observed that a superheated state is easily reached: the emulsion, heated more than 50 °C above the alkane boiling point, does not boil. Superheating is made possible by the suppression of heterogeneous nucleation in pentane, resulting from the emulsification process, a phenomenon evidenced decades ago in studies of the superheating of two phase fluids. We have furthermore studied the growth of isolated bubbles nucleated in the emulsion. The rate of increase of the bubble radius with time depends on both the temperature and emulsion volume fraction but, rather unexpectedly, does not depend on the fluid rheology. We show that the bubbles grow by diffusion of the alkane through the aqueous phase between liquid droplets and bubbles, analogously to an Ostwald ripening process. The peculiarity of the process reported here is that a layer depleted in oil droplets forms around the bubble, layer to which the alkane concentration gradient is confined. We successfully describe our experimental results with a simple transfer model.

  7. Emotional Mining: Tagging Emoticons to Online News

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasinathan, Vinothini; Mustapha, Aida; Zhi Yong, Lee; Aida Zamnah, Z. A.

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents an emotion mining system, which assigns emoticons to newspaper articles into a pre-defined emotion category based on the underlying emotion in the news. Next, the system makes recommendation to the reader by tagging the news headline with the respective emoticons. Users are then able to decide whether to read the news based on the emoticons provided. The system also provides a filter for the users to choose the category of news to read following the emoticons.

  8. Double emulsions: a tool for probing thin-film metastability.

    PubMed

    Pays, K; Giermanska-Kahn, J; Pouligny, B; Bibette, J; Leal-Calderon, F

    2001-10-22

    We study the kinetics of the release of monodisperse water-in-oil-in-water double emulsions in the regime dominated by coalescence of the internal aqueous droplets onto the globule interface. By measuring the rate of release of adsorbed droplets, we directly determine the average lifetime of the thin film that forms between the small internal droplets and the globule surface. Therefore, the activation energy and the natural frequency of the hole nucleation process within the adhesive thin liquid films are unambiguously deduced.

  9. Making the News: Jobs in TV Journalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csorny, Lauren

    2009-01-01

    What do TV news workers do each day? For many of them, contributing to daily news broadcasts has changed greatly over the years. This evolution will likely continue for years to come. And more changes to news production are expected, according to Tom Weir, an associate professor at the University of South Carolina's School of Journalism and Mass…

  10. Perceptions of Advertising Influence on Broadcast News.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Hubert W.; Barnes, Beth E.

    2001-01-01

    Finds that while students (studying broadcast journalism or advertising) and practitioners (station news directors and agency media directors) were in agreement on the majority of opinion statements discussing advertising's influence on broadcast news content, except students were less bothered by advertising's influence on news content than were…

  11. An Economic Theory of News Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McManus, John

    Over the years, journalists, social scientists, and government commissions have defined news in a variety of ways, but their definitions consistently lack the notion that, above all, news is a commodity and must sell. Within the journalism profession, and particularly in television news, the potential for conflict between a media corporation's…

  12. Muffled Drums: The News Media in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hachten, William A.

    This book examines the news media of modern Africa--newspapers, radio, television, news agencies, and magazines. The first half of the book presents a general overview of African news media, including the following topics: the context of Africa as related to the media, the background of each form of media, government involvement, the patterns of…

  13. News Resources on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notess, Greg R.

    1996-01-01

    Describes up-to-date news sources that are presently available on the Internet and World Wide Web. Highlights include electronic newspapers; AP (Associated Press) sources and Reuters; sports news; stock market information; New York Times; multimedia capabilities, including CNN Interactive; and local and regional news. (LRW)

  14. Technology: News Readers and Other Handy Utilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Horn, Royal

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how there are advantages and disadvantages to using an Internet News Reader instead of a Web browser. The major advantage is that one can read the headlines and short summaries of news articles from dozens of sources quickly. Another advantage the author points out to news readers is that one gets a short…

  15. Perceptions of Advertising Influence on Broadcast News.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Hubert W.; Barnes, Beth E.

    2001-01-01

    Finds that while students (studying broadcast journalism or advertising) and practitioners (station news directors and agency media directors) were in agreement on the majority of opinion statements discussing advertising's influence on broadcast news content, except students were less bothered by advertising's influence on news content than were…

  16. "...And Now A Story about Today's News."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornstein, Harvey A.

    The news media plays an important role in shaping opinions about the character of American society. Through the news, people learn about the prevalence of human benevolence or malevolence. The author conducted several tests to evaluate the effects of news on individuals of various ages and backgrounds. Experimental groups were told that they would…

  17. News Resources on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notess, Greg R.

    1996-01-01

    Describes up-to-date news sources that are presently available on the Internet and World Wide Web. Highlights include electronic newspapers; AP (Associated Press) sources and Reuters; sports news; stock market information; New York Times; multimedia capabilities, including CNN Interactive; and local and regional news. (LRW)

  18. Wordplay in English Online News Headlines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monsefi, Roya; Mahadi, Tengku Sepora Tengku

    2016-01-01

    Within the endless stream of information available on the news media market, news headline language is characterised by several linguistic, pragmatic, rhetorical and functional features that distinguish it from other varieties of language that are not specialised. In the present study, the rhetorical features of English news headlines, through…

  19. NEWS: Eclipse matters (still)!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-05-01

    This collection of snippets has as its theme the 1999 Solar Eclipse, and covers items that might be of interest to eclipse watchers and their associates. Much information can be obtained from the national web site at http://www.eclipse.org.uk. Set up by the CLRC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, on behalf of the UK Eclipse Group, the site is intended to keep viewers abreast of developments during the countdown to the eclipse. The list of contents includes: about eclipses; eclipse pictures; eclipse science; safety advice; latest news; and local information. There is also a wealth of images and video footage, so the site has been organized with the visitor having a small PC and modem in mind, so that the key information can be accessed as quickly as possible. Free colour leaflets containing useful details for eclipse watchers can be obtained from the Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council. `The Sun - our local star' and `Neutrinos' are additions to PPARC's series introducing key areas of its science. They answer such questions as what the Sun is, what eclipses are, why the Sun is important and where neutrinos come from. They support the National Curriculum Key Stages 3 and 4 plus A-level physics. The A5 leaflets open out into an A2 sized double-sided wall chart and bulk quantitites are available for class sets, visitor centres, exhibitions, open days etc. A full list of PPARC materials can be found at the website http://www.pparc.ac.uk or by order from Mark Wells, PPARC, Polaris House, North Star Avenue, Swindon SN2 1SZ (fax: 01793 442002). A message has been received from George Care, Head of Physics in the Science Department at Mounts Bay School, Penzance, which we now pass on to our readers. During his application for electronic access to Physics Education via the Institute of Physics Affiliated Schools and Colleges scheme, George notes that his school is on the track of the eclipse this summer and he has invited us to pass on the details to anyone who

  20. How to Tell Bad News

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Nicholas J.

    2012-01-01

    Therapists, physicians, police officers, and emergency staff often are the messengers of bad news. They have to tell a patient, a parent, or a loved one about a death, an accident, a school shooting, a life-threatening diagnosis, a terrorist attack, or a suicide. Usually the messenger bears a heavy responsibility but has little training and seeks…

  1. How to Tell Bad News

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Nicholas J.

    2012-01-01

    Therapists, physicians, police officers, and emergency staff often are the messengers of bad news. They have to tell a patient, a parent, or a loved one about a death, an accident, a school shooting, a life-threatening diagnosis, a terrorist attack, or a suicide. Usually the messenger bears a heavy responsibility but has little training and seeks…

  2. Science News of the Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science News, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Highlights important 1985 science stories appearing in "Science News" under these headings: anthropology and paleontology, astronomy, behavior, biology, biomedicine, chemistry, computers and mathematics, earth sciences, environment, physics, science and society, space sciences, and technology. Each entry includes the volume and page…

  3. Intonation Patterns in News Broadcasts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nihalani, Paroo; Lin, Tay Po

    1998-01-01

    A study investigated the importance of three elements of intonation (tone units, key, prominence) in three readers of English radio news. Results indicate intonation is used to present the structure of information as the speaker intends it to be interpreted. Intonation functions can be categorized simply under a few discourse functions easily…

  4. Science News of the Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science News, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Presents a review of important science articles of 1974 as reported in the pages of "Science News." References are given relating to the volume and page number in which the main article appeared. Life-sciences, physical sciences, earth science, environmental science, humanities and technology research are reviewed. (EB)

  5. Science News of the Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science News, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Highlights important 1985 science stories appearing in "Science News" under these headings: anthropology and paleontology, astronomy, behavior, biology, biomedicine, chemistry, computers and mathematics, earth sciences, environment, physics, science and society, space sciences, and technology. Each entry includes the volume and page…

  6. Science News of the Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science News, 1990

    1990-01-01

    This is a review of important science news stories of 1990 as reported in the pages of this journal. Areas covered include anthropology, astronomy, behavior, biology, biomedicine, chemistry, computers and math, earth sciences, environment, food science, materials science, paleobiology, physics, science and society, and space sciences. (CW)

  7. Science News of the Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science News, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Presents a review of important science articles of 1974 as reported in the pages of "Science News." References are given relating to the volume and page number in which the main article appeared. Life-sciences, physical sciences, earth science, environmental science, humanities and technology research are reviewed. (EB)

  8. Get Writing With "Weekend News!"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Patricia A.

    This "weekend news" writing activity gives students the opportunity to recall personal events and write about them. The writing is done in a nonthreatening environment, which helps students develop writing fluency and apply what they already know about spelling and other language conventions. Students create a set of criteria with which to…

  9. Science News of the Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science News, 1990

    1990-01-01

    This is a review of important science news stories of 1990 as reported in the pages of this journal. Areas covered include anthropology, astronomy, behavior, biology, biomedicine, chemistry, computers and math, earth sciences, environment, food science, materials science, paleobiology, physics, science and society, and space sciences. (CW)

  10. Broadcast News: An Interdisciplinary Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Carol; Sassi, Brenda

    Fourth graders in the Meroby School, Mexico, Maine, produce a weekly news program that is transmitted to all classrooms via closed circuit television. The classroom teacher is in charge of day-to-day preparation, working on the writing and the necessary skills with students. Teachers and students use their creativity to come up with new…

  11. Myth, Method and International News.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lule, Jack

    Defining myth as a cultural narrative in symbolic form that articulates a world view and offers consensus with that view, this paper uses a brief "New York Times" report on the Soviet shooting down of South Korean airline flight 007 as the basis for comparison of international news and myth. Following a review of the literature on myth…

  12. Campus Child Care News, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Marion F., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This document is comprised of the three 1998 issues of a newsletter disseminating information on the National Coalition for Campus Child Care Centers (NCCCC) and providing a forum for news, research, and information concerning campus child care centers. The February issue contains stories on the White House Conference on Child Care, registration…

  13. Effects of protein level and fat/oil on emulsion stability, texture, microstructure and color of meat batters.

    PubMed

    Youssef, M K; Barbut, S

    2009-06-01

    Beef meat batters formulated with increasing protein level (10-15%) and containing 25% beef fat were compared to batters prepared with 25% canola oil. Emulsion stability of the canola oil treatments was higher (less separation during cooking) at the 10-13% protein level compared to the beef fat treatments. However, above 13% protein this was reversed and the canola oil treatments showed high fat and liquid separation, which did not occur at all in the beef fat treatments. This indicates differences in stabilization of fat versus oil in such meat emulsions. Hardness of the cooked meat batters showed significantly (P<0.05) higher values when the protein level was raised, and was higher in canola oil than in beef fat meat emulsions at similar protein levels. Products' chewiness were higher in the canola oil treatments compared to the beef fat emulsions. Lightness decreased and redness increased in canola oil batters as the protein level was raised. The micrographs revealed the formation of larger fat globules in the beef fat emulsions compared to the canola oil meat emulsions. The canola oil treatment with 14% protein started to show fat globule coalescence, which could be related to the reduced emulsion stability.

  14. Dispersed droplets as active fillers in fat-crystal network-stabilized water-in-oil emulsions.

    PubMed

    Rafanan, Ruby; Rousseau, Dérick

    2017-09-01

    We show that the rigidity and microstructure of water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions depend on the ability of oil-soluble emulsifiers to enhance the crystallization of fats on the surface of dispersed aqueous droplets. In test emulsions consisting of hydrogenated soy oil (HSO) in liquid canola oil (CO) and a dispersed aqueous phase representing up to 20wt% of the emulsion, use of glycerol monooleate (GMO) promoted oil-water interfacial crystallization whereas polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR) resulted in HSO crystallization in the continuous phase only. By removing the confounding effects of droplet size and solid fat content, GMO-covered emulsion droplets were shown to behave as active fillers as they interacted with the surrounding fat crystal matrix and increased emulsion rigidity. By contrast, the PGPR-stabilized droplets only weakly associated with the matrix and did not significantly alter emulsion rheology, hence these were inactive fillers. This study shows that by simply changing emulsifier type, it is possible to alter the magnitude of the association between the dispersed droplets and surrounding fat crystals and, by extension, tailor the texture and rigidity of fat crystal-stabilized water-in-oil emulsions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Metallic nanoshells on porphyrin-stabilized emulsions

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Haorong; Song, Yujiang; Shelnutt, John A; Medforth, Craig J

    2013-10-29

    Metal nanostructures formed by photocatalytic interfacial synthesis using a porphyrin-stabilized emulsion template and the method for making the nanostructures. Catalyst-seeded emulsion droplets are employed as templates for hollow-nanoshell growth. The hollow metal nanospheres may be formed with or without inclusions of other materials.

  16. Flows of Wet Foamsand Concentrated Emulsions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemer, Martin B.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this project was is to advance a microstructural understanding of foam and emulsion flows. The dynamics of individual surfactant-covered drops and well as the collective behavior of dilute and concentrated was explored using numerical simulations. The long-range goal of this work is the formulation of reliable microphysically-based statistical models of emulsion flows.

  17. Kinetics of crosslinking in emulsion polymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Ghielmi, A.; Fiorentino, S.; Morbidelli, M.

    1996-12-31

    A mathematical model for evaluating the chain length distribution of nonlinear polymers produced in emulsions is presented. The heterogeneous emulsion polymerization process is described. The aim of the analysis is the distribution of active polymer chains and pairs of chains with a given growth time in latex particles in state.

  18. Suppression of Ostwald ripening in active emulsions.

    PubMed

    Zwicker, David; Hyman, Anthony A; Jülicher, Frank

    2015-07-01

    Emulsions consisting of droplets immersed in a fluid are typically unstable since they coarsen over time. One important coarsening process is Ostwald ripening, which is driven by the surface tension of the droplets. Stability of emulsions is relevant not only in complex fluids but also in biological cells, which contain liquidlike compartments, e.g., germ granules, Cajal bodies, and centrosomes. Such cellular systems are driven away from equilibrium, e.g., by chemical reactions, and thus can be called active emulsions. In this paper, we study such active emulsions by developing a coarse-grained description of the droplet dynamics, which we analyze for two different chemical reaction schemes. We first consider the simple case of first-order reactions, which leads to stable, monodisperse emulsions in which Ostwald ripening is suppressed within a range of chemical reaction rates. We then consider autocatalytic droplets, which catalyze the production of their own droplet material. Spontaneous nucleation of autocatalytic droplets is strongly suppressed and their emulsions are typically unstable. We show that autocatalytic droplets can be nucleated reliably and their emulsions stabilized by the help of chemically active cores, which catalyze the production of droplet material. In summary, different reaction schemes and catalytic cores can be used to stabilize emulsions and to control their properties.

  19. Suppression of Ostwald ripening in active emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwicker, David; Hyman, Anthony A.; Jülicher, Frank

    2015-07-01

    Emulsions consisting of droplets immersed in a fluid are typically unstable since they coarsen over time. One important coarsening process is Ostwald ripening, which is driven by the surface tension of the droplets. Stability of emulsions is relevant not only in complex fluids but also in biological cells, which contain liquidlike compartments, e.g., germ granules, Cajal bodies, and centrosomes. Such cellular systems are driven away from equilibrium, e.g., by chemical reactions, and thus can be called active emulsions. In this paper, we study such active emulsions by developing a coarse-grained description of the droplet dynamics, which we analyze for two different chemical reaction schemes. We first consider the simple case of first-order reactions, which leads to stable, monodisperse emulsions in which Ostwald ripening is suppressed within a range of chemical reaction rates. We then consider autocatalytic droplets, which catalyze the production of their own droplet material. Spontaneous nucleation of autocatalytic droplets is strongly suppressed and their emulsions are typically unstable. We show that autocatalytic droplets can be nucleated reliably and their emulsions stabilized by the help of chemically active cores, which catalyze the production of droplet material. In summary, different reaction schemes and catalytic cores can be used to stabilize emulsions and to control their properties.

  20. Non-aqueous Isorefractive Pickering Emulsions

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Non-aqueous Pickering emulsions of 16–240 μm diameter have been prepared using diblock copolymer worms with ethylene glycol as the droplet phase and an n-alkane as the continuous phase. Initial studies using n-dodecane resulted in stable emulsions that were significantly less turbid than conventional water-in-oil emulsions. This is attributed to the rather similar refractive indices of the latter two phases. By utilizing n-tetradecane as an alternative oil that almost precisely matches the refractive index of ethylene glycol, almost isorefractive ethylene glycol-in-n-tetradecane Pickering emulsions can be prepared. The droplet diameter and transparency of such emulsions can be systematically varied by adjusting the worm copolymer concentration. PMID:25844544

  1. Destabilization of emulsions by natural minerals.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Songhu; Tong, Man; Wu, Gaoming

    2011-09-15

    This study developed a novel method to destabilize emulsions and recycle oils, particularly for emulsified wastewater treatment. Natural minerals were used as demulsifying agents, two kinds of emulsions collected from medical and steel industry were treated. The addition of natural minerals, including artificial zeolite, natural zeolite, diatomite, bentonite and natural soil, could effectively destabilize both emulsions at pH 1 and 60 °C. Over 90% of chemical oxygen demand (COD) can be removed after treatment. Medical emulsion can be even destabilized by artificial zeolite at ambient temperature. The mechanism for emulsion destabilization by minerals was suggested as the decreased electrostatic repulsion at low pH, the enhanced gathering of oil microdroplets at elevated temperature, and the further decreased surface potential by the addition of minerals. Both flocculation and coalescence were enhanced by the addition of minerals at low pH and elevated temperature.

  2. Aging mechanism in model Pickering emulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fouilloux, Sarah; Malloggi, Florent; Daillant, Jean; Thill, Antoine

    We study the stability of a model Pickering emulsion system. A special counter-flow microfluidics set-up was used to prepare monodisperse Pickering emulsions, with oil droplets in water. The wettability of the monodisperse silica nanoparticles (NPs) could be tuned by surface grafting and the surface coverage of the droplets was controlled using the microfluidics setup. A surface coverage as low as 23$\\%$ is enough to stabilize the emulsions and we evidence a new regime of Pickering emulsion stability where the surface coverage of emulsion droplets of constant size increases in time, in coexistence with a large amount of dispersed phase. Our results demonstrate that the previously observed limited coalescence regime where surface coverage tends to control the average size of the final droplets must be put in a broader perspective.

  3. Emulsion based cast booster - a priming system

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, R.N.; Mishra, A.K.

    2005-07-01

    This paper explores the potential of emulsion based cast booster to be used as primer to initiate bulk delivered emulsion explosives used in mines. An attempt has been made for comparative study between conventional cast booster and emulsion based cast booster in terms of the initiation process developed and their capability to develop and maintain the stable detonation process in the column explosives. The study has been conducted using a continuous velocity of detonation (VOD) measuring instrument. During this study three blasts have been monitored. In each blast two holes have been selected for study, the first hole being initiated with conventional cast booster while the other one with emulsion based cast booster. The findings of the study advocates that emulsion based cast booster is capable of efficient priming of bulk delivered column explosive with stable detonation process in the column. Further, the booster had advantages over the conventional PETN/TNT based cast booster. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab., 1 photo.

  4. Temporal and Cross Correlations in Business News

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuno, T.; Takei, K.; Ohnishi, T.; Watanabe, T.

    We empirically investigate temporal and cross correlations inthe frequency of news reports on companies, using a dataset of more than 100 million news articles reported in English by around 500 press agencies worldwide for the period 2003--2009. Our first finding is that the frequency of news reports on a company does not follow a Poisson process, but instead exhibits long memory with a positive autocorrelation for longer than one year. The second finding is that there exist significant correlations in the frequency of news across companies. Specifically, on a daily time scale or longer the frequency of news is governed by external dynamics, while on a time scale of minutes it is governed by internal dynamics. These two findings indicate that the frequency of news reports on companies has statistical properties similar to trading volume or price volatility in stock markets, suggesting that the flow of information through company news plays an important role in price dynamics in stock markets.

  5. Development and Assessment of Oil-in-Water Emulsions for Encapsulation of Reactive Iron Particles for Subsurface Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berge, N. D.; Taghavy, A.; Ramsburg, A.

    2007-12-01

    Reactive iron particles hold promise for use in the destruction of contaminants in the subsurface environment. Application of these nano- to submicron-scale particles, however, may be limited by poor subsurface transport and non-uniform distribution of the reactive material. Delivery issues are particularly important when evaluating the efficacy of iron-based technologies for treatment of dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) source zones. Current approaches for the delivery of reactive iron particles within DNAPL source zones are hindered by particle agglomeration, flow bypassing, and presence of non-target reactions. Encapsulation of the reactive particles within an oil-in-water emulsion is a novel approach that may overcome these limitations. Development of kinetically-stable, iron-laden, oil-in-water emulsions commenced by identifying surfactant-based coatings to increase the stability of commercially-available iron particles within non-polar organic phases (e.g., soy oil). A phase inversion technique was employed to disperse approximately 10% wt of the iron-laden, organic phase within a continuous aqueous phase containing nonionic emulsifiers. Emulsions were designed to ensure emulsifier proportions yielded hydrophilic-lipophilic balances affiliated with oil-in-water emulsions. Micrographs of the oil-in-water emulsions suggest that the average diameter of the oil droplets is approximately one micrometer. The presence of iron within oil droplets was confirmed in the micrographs and supported by an absence of iron agglomeration within the continuous phase. Bulk characteristics of each emulsion (density and viscosity) were used in conjunction with interfacial tension measurements in total trapping number analyses to assess the propensity of these emulsions to mobilize an entrapped trichloroethene (TCE)-DNAPL. Results suggest that the emulsions described herein should not cause significant mobilization of entrapped TCE-DNAPL in fine-to-medium grain sandy media

  6. Effects of Emulsion Composition on Pulmonary Tobramycin Delivery During Antibacterial Perfluorocarbon Ventilation.

    PubMed

    Orizondo, Ryan A; Fabiilli, Mario L; Morales, Marissa A; Cook, Keith E

    2016-06-01

    The effectiveness of inhaled aerosolized antibiotics is limited by poor ventilation of infected airways. Pulmonary delivery of antibiotics emulsified within liquid perfluorocarbon [antibacterial perfluorocarbon ventilation (APV)] may solve this problem through better airway penetration and improved spatial uniformity. However, little work has been done to explore emulsion formulation and the corresponding effects on drug delivery during APV. This study investigated the effects of emulsion formulation on emulsion stability and the pharmacokinetics of antibiotic delivery via APV. Gravity-driven phase separation was examined in vitro by measuring emulsion tobramycin concentrations at varying heights within a column of emulsion over 4 hours for varying values of fluorosurfactant concentration (Cfs = 5-48 mg/mL H2O). Serum and pulmonary tobramycin concentrations in rats were then evaluated following pulmonary tobramycin delivery via aerosol or APV utilizing sufficiently stable emulsions of varying aqueous volume percentage (Vaq = 1%-5%), aqueous tobramycin concentration (Ct = 20-100 mg/mL), and Cfs (15 and 48 mg/mL H2O). In vitro assessment showed sufficient spatial and temporal uniformity of tobramycin dispersion within emulsion for Cfs ≥15 mg/mL H2O, while lower Cfs values showed insufficient emulsification even immediately following preparation. APV with stable emulsion formulations resulted in 5-22 times greater pulmonary tobramycin concentrations at 4 hours post-delivery relative to aerosolized delivery. Concentrations increased with emulsion formulations utilizing increased Vaq (with decreased Ct) and, to a lesser extent, increased Cfs. The emulsion stability necessary for effective delivery is retained at Cfs values as low as 15 mg/mL H2O. Additionally, the pulmonary retention of antibiotic delivered via APV is significantly greater than that of aerosolized delivery and can be most effectively increased by increasing Vaq and decreasing

  7. Effects of Emulsion Composition on Pulmonary Tobramycin Delivery During Antibacterial Perfluorocarbon Ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Orizondo, Ryan A.; Fabiilli, Mario L.; Morales, Marissa A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: The effectiveness of inhaled aerosolized antibiotics is limited by poor ventilation of infected airways. Pulmonary delivery of antibiotics emulsified within liquid perfluorocarbon [antibacterial perfluorocarbon ventilation (APV)] may solve this problem through better airway penetration and improved spatial uniformity. However, little work has been done to explore emulsion formulation and the corresponding effects on drug delivery during APV. This study investigated the effects of emulsion formulation on emulsion stability and the pharmacokinetics of antibiotic delivery via APV. Methods: Gravity-driven phase separation was examined in vitro by measuring emulsion tobramycin concentrations at varying heights within a column of emulsion over 4 hours for varying values of fluorosurfactant concentration (Cfs = 5–48 mg/mL H2O). Serum and pulmonary tobramycin concentrations in rats were then evaluated following pulmonary tobramycin delivery via aerosol or APV utilizing sufficiently stable emulsions of varying aqueous volume percentage (Vaq = 1%–5%), aqueous tobramycin concentration (Ct = 20–100 mg/mL), and Cfs (15 and 48 mg/mL H2O). Results: In vitro assessment showed sufficient spatial and temporal uniformity of tobramycin dispersion within emulsion for Cfs ≥15 mg/mL H2O, while lower Cfs values showed insufficient emulsification even immediately following preparation. APV with stable emulsion formulations resulted in 5–22 times greater pulmonary tobramycin concentrations at 4 hours post-delivery relative to aerosolized delivery. Concentrations increased with emulsion formulations utilizing increased Vaq (with decreased Ct) and, to a lesser extent, increased Cfs. Conclusions: The emulsion stability necessary for effective delivery is retained at Cfs values as low as 15 mg/mL H2O. Additionally, the pulmonary retention of antibiotic delivered via APV is significantly greater than that of aerosolized delivery and can be

  8. Physical Properties of Polyester Fabrics Treated with Nano, Micro and Macro Emulsion Silicones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parvinzadeh, M.; Hajiraissi, R.

    2007-08-01

    The processing of textile to achieve a particular handle is one of the most important aspects of finishing technology. Fabrics softeners are liquid composition added to washing machines during the rinse cycle to make clothes feel better to the touch. The first fabric softeners were developed by the textile industry during the early twentieth century. In this research polyester fabrics were treated with nano, micro and macro emulsion silicone softeners. Some of the physical properties of the treated fabric samples are discussed. The drapeability of treated samples was improved after treatment with nano silicone softeners. The colorimetric measurement of softener-treated fabrics is evaluated with a reflectance spectrophotometer. Moisture regain of treated samples is increased due to coating of silicone softeners. There is some increase in the weight of softener-treated samples. Samples treated with nano emulsion silicones gave better results compared to micro- and macro-emulsion treated ones.

  9. Arresting relaxation in Pickering Emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atherton, Tim; Burke, Chris

    2015-03-01

    Pickering emulsions consist of droplets of one fluid dispersed in a host fluid and stabilized by colloidal particles absorbed at the fluid-fluid interface. Everyday materials such as crude oil and food products like salad dressing are examples of these materials. Particles can stabilize non spherical droplet shapes in these emulsions through the following sequence: first, an isolated droplet is deformed, e.g. by an electric field, increasing the surface area above the equilibrium value; additional particles are then adsorbed to the interface reducing the surface tension. The droplet is then allowed to relax toward a sphere. If more particles were adsorbed than can be accommodated by the surface area of the spherical ground state, relaxation of the droplet is arrested at some non-spherical shape. Because the energetic cost of removing adsorbed colloids exceeds the interfacial driving force, these configurations can remain stable over long timescales. In this presentation, we present a computational study of the ordering present in anisotropic droplets produced through the mechanism of arrested relaxation and discuss the interplay between the geometry of the droplet, the dynamical process that produced it, and the structure of the defects observed.

  10. [On bitumen emulsions in water].

    PubMed

    Rivas, Hercilio; Gutierrez, Xiomara; Silva, Felix; Chirinos, Manuel

    2003-01-01

    The most important factors, controlling the process of emulsification of highly viscous hydrocarbons in water, which are responsible for keeping the stability and other properties of these systems, are discused in this article. The effect of non-ionic surfactants, such as nonil phenol ethoxilated compounds on the interfacial behavior of bitumen/water systems is analyzed. The effect of the natural surfactants in presence or in absence of electrolytes is also analyzed. The procedures followed in order to obtain the optimal conditions of formulation and formation of bitumen in water emulsions, are discussed and the effect of some parameters on the mean droplet diameter and distribution are also considered. It was found that keeping constant mixing speed and time of mixing, the mean droplet diameter decreases as the bitumen concentration increases. Emulsion stability, which can be monitored by following the changes in mean droplet diameters and viscosity as a function of the storage time, is deeply affected by the type and concentration of surfactant.

  11. Water-in-oil emulsions prepared by peptide-silicone hybrid polymers as active interfacial modifier: effects of silicone oil species on dispersion stability of emulsions.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Kenichi; Iijima, Satoshi; Ikeda, Ryosuke; Endo, Takeshi; Yamazaki, Takahiro; Yamashita, Yuji; Natsuisaka, Makoto; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko; Sakamoto, Kazutami

    2013-01-01

    We have recently proposed a new general concept regarding amphiphilic materials that have been named as "active interfacial modifier (AIM)." In emulsion systems, an AIM is essentially insoluble in both water and organic solvents; however, it possesses moieties that are attracted to each of these immiscible liquid phases. Hence, an AIM practically stays just at the interface between the two phases and makes the resulting emulsion stable. In this study, the effects of silicone oil species on the dispersion stability of water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions in the presence of an AIM sample were evaluated in order to understand the destabilization mechanism in such emulsion systems. The AIM sample used in this study is an amphiphilic polymer consisting of a silicone backbone modified with hydrocarbon chains and hydrolyzed silk peptides. The Stokes equation predicts that the sedimentation velocity of water droplets dispersed in a continuous silicone oil phase simply depends on the expression (ρ - ρ₀)/η assuming that the droplet size is constant (where ρ is the density of the dispersed water phase, ρ₀ is the density of the continuous silicone oil phase, and η is the viscosity of the oil phase). The experimental results shown in this paper are consistent with the Stokes prediction: i.e., in the low-viscous genuine or quasi-Newtonian fluid region, the dispersion stability increases in the following order: dodecamethylpentasiloxane (DPS) < decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D₅) ≤ dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D₆). This order agrees well with the order obtained by using the expression (ρ - ρ₀)/η as DPS > D₅ > D₆. This indicates that our emulsion system experiences destabilization through sedimentation, but hardly any coalescence occurs owing to the presence of an additional third phase consisting of the AIM that stabilizes the silicone oil/water interface in the emulsions.

  12. Electric field-driven, magnetically-stabilized ferro-emulsion phase contactor

    DOEpatents

    Scott, T.C.

    1990-07-17

    Methods and systems are disclosed for interfacial surface area contact between a dispersed phase liquid and a continuous phase liquid in counter-current flow for purposes such as solvent extraction. Initial droplets of a dispersed phase liquid material containing ferromagnetic particles functioning as a packing'' are introduced to a counter-current flow of the continuous phase. A high intensity pulsed electric field is applied so as to shatter the initial droplets into a ferromagnetic emulsion comprising many smaller daughter droplets having a greater combined total surface area than that of the initial droplets in contact with the continuous phase material. A magnetic field is applied to control the position of the ferromagnetic emulsion for enhanced coalescence of the daughter droplets into larger reformed droplets. 2 figs.

  13. Electric field-driven, magnetically-stabilized ferro-emulsion phase contactor

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Timothy C.

    1990-01-01

    Methods and systems for interfacial surface area contact between a dispersed phase liquid and a continuous phase liquid in counter-current flow for purposes such as solvent extraction. Initial droplets of a dispersed phase liquid material containing ferromagnetic particles functioning as a "packing" are introduced to a counter-current flow of the continuous phase. A high intensity pulsed electric field is applied so as to shatter the initial droplets into a ferromagnetic emulsion comprising many smaller daughter droplets having a greater combined total surface area than that of the initial droplets in contact with the continuous phase material. A magnetic field is applied to control the position of the ferromagnetic emulsion for enhanced coalescence of the daughter droplets into larger reformed droplets.

  14. Kinetic Release of Alkalinity from Particle-Containing Oil-in-Water Emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, K.; Chapra, S. C.; Ramsburg, A.

    2014-12-01

    Oil-in-water emulsions are typically employed during remediation to promote biotic reduction of contaminants. Emulsions, however, hold promise for encapsulated delivery of many types of active ingredients required for successful site remediation or long-term site stewardship. Our research is currently focused on using alkalinity-containing particles held within oil-in-water emulsions to sustain control of subsurface pH. Here we describe results from laboratory experiments and mathematical modeling conducted to quantify the kinetics associated with the emulsion delivery and alkalinity release process. Kinetically stable oil-in-water emulsions containing (~60 nmCaCO3 or ~100 nm MgO particles) were previously developed using soybean oil and Gum Arabic as a stabilizing agent. Batch and column experiments were employed to assess the accessibility and release of the alkalinity from the emulsion. Successive additions of HCl were used in batch systems to produce several pH responses (pH rebounds) that were subsequently modeled to elucidate release mechanisms and rates for varying emulsion compositions and particle types. Initial results suggest that a linear-driving-force model is generally able to capture the release behavior in the batch system when the temporally-constant, lumped mass-transfer coefficient is scaled by the fraction of particle mass remaining within the droplets. This result suggests that the rate limiting step in the release process may be the interphase transfer of reactive species at the oil-water interface. 1-d column experiments were also completed in order to quantify the extent and rate of alkalinity release from emulsion droplets retained in a sandy medium. Alkalinity release from the retained droplets treated a pH 4 influent water for 25-60 pore volumes (the duration depended on particle type and mass loading), and the cessation in treatment corresponded to exhaustion of the particle mass held within the oil. Column experiments were simulated

  15. Fundamental study of cold heat-storage system of O/W-type emulsion having cold latent-heat-dispersion material. Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Inaba, Hideo; Morita, Shinichi; Nozu, Shigeru

    1995-02-01

    This paper deals with thermal properties of an oil (tetradecane, C{sub 14}H{sub 30}, melting point 278.9K)/water emulsion as a latent heat-storage material having a low melting point. The measured results of the physical properties of the test emulsion, that is, thermal conductivity, specific heat, latent heat, and density, are discussed for the temperature region of solid and liquid phases of the dispersion material (tetradecane). It is clarified that Eucken`s equation can be applied to the estimation of the thermal conductivity of the emulsion. Moreover, it is established that tetradecane as the dispersion material exhibits a supercooling phenomenon which influences the thermal properties. Useful correlation equations of the thermal properties for the emulsion were proposed in terms of temperature and concentration ratio of the emulsion constituents.

  16. The research about microscopic structure of emulsion membrane in O/W emulsion by NMR and its influence to emulsion stability.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yiqiao; Chen, Jisheng; Zhang, Shu; Fan, Kaiyan; Chen, Gang; Zhuang, Zerong; Zeng, Mingying; Chen, De; Lu, Longgui; Yang, Linlin; Yang, Fan

    2016-03-16

    This paper discussed the influence of microstructure of emulsion membrane on O/W emulsion stability. O/W emulsions were emulsified with equal dosage of egg yolk lecithin and increasing dosage of co-emulsifier (oleic acid or HS15). The average particle size and centrifugal stability constant of emulsion, as well as interfacial tension between oil and water phase were determined. The microstructure of emulsion membrane had been studied by (1)H/(13)C NMR, meanwhile the emulsion droplets were visually presented with TEM and IFM. With increasing dosage of co-emulsifier, emulsions showed two stable states, under which the signal intensity of characteristic group (orient to lipophilic core) of egg yolk lecithin disappeared in NMR of emulsions, but that (orient to aqueous phase) of co-emulsifiers only had some reduction at the second stable state. At the two stable states, the emulsion membranes were neater in TEM and emulsion droplets were rounder in IFM. Furthermore, the average particle size of emulsions at the second stable state was bigger than that at the first stable state. Egg yolk lecithin and co-emulsifier respectively arranged into monolayer and bilayer emulsion membrane at the two stable states. The microstructure of emulsion membrane was related to the stability of emulsion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. News and Announcements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-05-01

    and faithful supporter of this Journal, died February 25, 1999, at his home in Lafayette, California, at the age of 86. At the Fall 1998 ACS Meeting in Boston he suffered a serious fall following a stroke, from which he never recovered. One of his last photographs, taken the previous day at a Journal luncheon, appears on page 1360 of the November 1998 issue. His commentary on his long career in chemistry and education appears on page 1520 of the December 1998 issue. Seaborg was a Nobel laureate, discoverer of elements, scientific advisor to presidents, former chancellor of the University of California, former chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission, chairman of the steering committee of the CHEM Study project, founder of Lawrence Hall of Science, , the list goes on and on. He was at the same time a passionate supporter of education. Seaborg published fourteen articles in the Journal between 1951 and 1998. He was interviewed in 1975 by David Ridgway as part of the Impact series (JCE 1975, 52, 70), and that interview is highly recommended reading (see supplement to this article). He received the 1994 ACS George C. Pimentel Award in Chemical Education; his award address was published in the ACS Division of Chemical Education's CHED Newsletter, Fall 1995. Memorial articles with details of his life and his scientific contributions have appeared in The New York Times (Saturday, February 27, 1999, page 1) and Chemical & Engineering News (March 8, 1999, page 29). But there is also the spirit of the man, what he believed in, what he tried to do, what he hoped he had accomplished. A sense of that can be gained from the excerpts that are reprinted below, taken first from the Impact interview and then from the award address. Ridgway: On reflection, now, out of your many contributions to chemistry, is there one that you feel has had more of an impact than others? Seaborg: The discovery of plutonium would answer that question. The impact there is probably nearly as great as any

  18. News and Announcements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-02-01

    News from Journal House Conceptual Questions and Challenge Problems Many readers are trying to modify the way they teach and in so doing are trying to write new types of questions and problems. The Journal has a new online resource, the JCE Internet Conceptual Questions and Challenge Problems Web site, http://jchemed.chem.wisc.edu/JCEWWW/Resources/CQandChP/index.html . The site is a source of questions and problems that can be used in teaching and assessing conceptual understanding and problem solving in chemistry. Here you can find a library of free-response and multiple-choice conceptual questions and challenge problems, tips for writing these questions and problems, and a discussion of types of concept questions. This site is intended to be a means of sharing conceptual questions and challenge problems among chemical educators. It will be as inclusive as possible, and to achieve this readers need to share their questions and alert the authors to references or Web sites. The screen captures shown below should provide a feeling for what you will find when you visit the site. The authors, William R. Robinson and Susan C. Nurrenbern, welcome additions to the library of conceptual questions or other comments or suggestions. Contact them by email, fax, or regular mail. William R. Robinson and Susan C. Nurrenbern, Department of Chemistry, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907-1393. Bill: phone: 765/494-5453; fax: 765/494-0239; email: wrrobin@purdue.edu. Sue: phone: 765/494-0823; fax: 765/494-0239; email: nurrenbe@purdue.edu. fax: 765/494-0239. 1998 Ford Foundation Fellowships The National Research Council has announced the recipients of the 1998 fellowships for minority scholars. Three categories of fellowships were awarded: 50 to beginning graduate students, 33 to students writing their dissertations, and 28 to recent Ph.D. recipients. There were about 1,000 applicants. For information about the next competition contact the Fellowship Office of the National

  19. Gelation of Soy Milk with Hagfish Exudate Creates a Flocculated and Fibrous Emulsion- and Particle Gel

    PubMed Central

    Böni, Lukas; Rühs, Patrick A.; Windhab, Erich J.; Fischer, Peter; Kuster, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Hagfish slime is an ultra dilute, elastic and cohesive hydrogel that deploys within milliseconds in cold seawater from a glandularly secreted exudate. The slime is made of long keratin-like fibers and mucin-like glycoproteins that span a network which entraps water and acts as a defense mechanism against predators. Unlike other hydrogels, the slime only confines water physically and is very susceptible to mechanical stress, which makes it unsuitable for many processing operations and potential applications. Despite its huge potential, little work has been done to improve and functionalize the properties of this hydrogel. To address this shortcoming, hagfish exudate was mixed with a soy protein isolate suspension (4% w/v) and with a soy emulsion (commercial soy milk) to form a more stable structure and combine the functionalities of a suspension and emulsion with those of the hydrogel. Hagfish exudate interacted strongly with the soy systems, showing a markedly increased viscoelasticity and water retention. Hagfish mucin was found to induce a depletion and bridging mechanism, which caused the emulsion and suspension to flocculate, making “soy slime”, a cohesive and cold-set emulsion- and particle gel. The flocculation network increases viscoelasticity and substantially contributes to liquid retention by entrapping liquid in the additional confinements between aggregated particles and protein fibers. Because the mucin-induced flocculation resembles the salt- or acid-induced flocculation in tofu curd production, the soy slime was cooked for comparison. The cooked soy slime was similar to conventional cooked tofu, but possessed a long-range cohesiveness from the fibers. The fibrous, cold-set, and curd-like structure of the soy slime represents a novel way for a cold coagulation and fiber incorporation into a suspension or emulsion. This mechanism could be used to efficiently gel functionalized emulsions or produce novel tofu-like structured food products. PMID

  20. Gelation of Soy Milk with Hagfish Exudate Creates a Flocculated and Fibrous Emulsion- and Particle Gel.

    PubMed

    Böni, Lukas; Rühs, Patrick A; Windhab, Erich J; Fischer, Peter; Kuster, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Hagfish slime is an ultra dilute, elastic and cohesive hydrogel that deploys within milliseconds in cold seawater from a glandularly secreted exudate. The slime is made of long keratin-like fibers and mucin-like glycoproteins that span a network which entraps water and acts as a defense mechanism against predators. Unlike other hydrogels, the slime only confines water physically and is very susceptible to mechanical stress, which makes it unsuitable for many processing operations and potential applications. Despite its huge potential, little work has been done to improve and functionalize the properties of this hydrogel. To address this shortcoming, hagfish exudate was mixed with a soy protein isolate suspension (4% w/v) and with a soy emulsion (commercial soy milk) to form a more stable structure and combine the functionalities of a suspension and emulsion with those of the hydrogel. Hagfish exudate interacted strongly with the soy systems, showing a markedly increased viscoelasticity and water retention. Hagfish mucin was found to induce a depletion and bridging mechanism, which caused the emulsion and suspension to flocculate, making "soy slime", a cohesive and cold-set emulsion- and particle gel. The flocculation network increases viscoelasticity and substantially contributes to liquid retention by entrapping liquid in the additional confinements between aggregated particles and protein fibers. Because the mucin-induced flocculation resembles the salt- or acid-induced flocculation in tofu curd production, the soy slime was cooked for comparison. The cooked soy slime was similar to conventional cooked tofu, but possessed a long-range cohesiveness from the fibers. The fibrous, cold-set, and curd-like structure of the soy slime represents a novel way for a cold coagulation and fiber incorporation into a suspension or emulsion. This mechanism could be used to efficiently gel functionalized emulsions or produce novel tofu-like structured food products.

  1. Breaking of double emulsions based on electrohydrodynamics principles.

    PubMed

    Spasic, Aleksandar M; Jovanovic, Jovan M; Manojlovic, Vaso; Jovanovic, Mica

    2016-10-01

    This research focuses on the modeling of the liquid-liquid dispersed system, including particular insight on the electrocoalescence (EC) process that occurs during the breaking of double emulsions. The representative system, used in this work, was taken from the pilot plant for solvent extraction of uranium from wet phosphoric acid. The chosen framework required for elucidation of the EC process is based on the electrohydrodynamic (EHD) principles. During the model development it was necessary to consider several theoretical concepts for easier understanding and description of the related events. The first is the concept of entities, and corresponding classification of finely dispersed systems. The second concept is an introduction of almost forgotten basic electrodynamics element the memdiode or memristor as a current controlled device, and corresponding memristive systems. Hence, the conclusions that may be withdrawn from the presented results and findings could enable easier designing of the solutions for a breaking of double emulsions problems, that is, the entrainment problems that may arise in some pilot or industrial plants. Finally, the perspectives and the remaining challenges, considering the here discussed concepts and model based on the EHD principles, are mentioned.

  2. Electrocoagulation of cutting oil emulsions using aluminium plate electrodes.

    PubMed

    Bensadok, K; Benammar, S; Lapicque, F; Nezzal, G

    2008-03-21

    The treatment of very concentrated oil-water emulsions by electrocoagulation (EC) was experimentally investigated as a pre-treatment step prior to a membrane process. The oil-water emulsion was prepared from a cutting mineral oil B22 currently used for drilling and machining operations. The electrocoagulation progress was followed by the measurement of COD, turbidity and pH in a batch process with recirculation of the liquid. This study is mainly focused on the effects of operating parameters such as initial pH, current density, oil concentration and recirculation rate, on the de-emulsification efficiency. Kinetic curves showed that the EC process exhibits two phases: a "reactive phase" during which the COD and the turbidity removals increase with electrolysis, and a stationary phase for which further aluminium dissolution is useless in the pollution abatement. The results showed that the treatment efficiency increases with increasing current density, but decreases with oil concentration. It appears that treatment of the considered cutting oil is completed through dissolution of around 10mgAl/g oil, with a slight positive effect of the liquid flow rate. Best results are also obtained with initial pH near 7.

  3. Influence of nanoscale particle roughness on the stability of Pickering emulsions.

    PubMed

    San-Miguel, Adriana; Behrens, Sven H

    2012-08-21

    The wetting behavior of solid surfaces can be altered dramatically by introducing surface roughness on the nanometer scale. Some of nature's most fascinating wetting phenomena are associated with surface roughness; they have inspired both fundamental research and the adoption of surface roughness as a design parameter for man-made functional coatings. So far the attention has focused primarily on macroscopic surfaces, but one should expect the wetting properties of colloidal particles to be strongly affected by roughness, too. Particle wettability, in turn, is a key parameter for the adsorption of particles at liquid interfaces and for the industrially important use of particles as emulsion stabilizers; yet, the consequence of particle roughness for emulsion stability remains poorly understood. In order to investigate the matter systematically, we have developed a surface treatment, applicable to micrometer-sized particles and macroscopic surfaces alike, that produces surface coatings with finely tunable nanoscale roughness and identical surface chemistry. Coatings with different degrees of roughness were characterized with regard to their morphology, charging, and wetting properties, and the results were correlated with the stability of emulsions prepared with coated particles of different roughness. We find that the maximum capillary pressure, a metric of the emulsions' resistance to droplet coalescence, varies significantly and in a nonmonotonic fashion with particle roughness. Surface topography and contact angle hysteresis suggest that particle roughness benefits the stability of our emulsions as long as wetting occurs homogeneously (Wenzel regime), whereas the transition toward heterogeneous wetting (Cassie-Baxter regime) is associated with a loss of stability.

  4. Effect of fat nature and aroma compound hydrophobicity on flavor release from complex food emulsions.

    PubMed

    Relkin, Perla; Fabre, Marjorie; Guichard, Elisabeth

    2004-10-06

    Complex food emulsions containing either hydrogenated palm kernel oil (vegetable fat) or anhydrous milk fat (animal fat) were flavored by using different aroma compounds. The fats differed by their fatty acid and triacylglycerol compositions and by their melting behavior, while the aroma compounds (ethyl butanoate, ethyl hexanoate, methyl hexanoate, mesifurane, linalool, diacetyl, cis-3-hexen-1-ol, and gamma-octalactone) differed by their hydrophobicity. Application of differential scanning calorimetry to fat samples in bulk and emulsified forms indicated differences in the ratio of solid-to-liquid between temperatures ranging from 10 to 35 degrees C. Solid-phase microextraction coupled with GC-MS analysis indicated that flavor release from food emulsions containing animal or vegetable fat differed depending on both the fat nature and flavor compound hydrophobicity. The release of diacetyl was higher for emulsions containing animal fat, whereas the release of esters was higher for emulsions containing vegetable fat. The release of cis-3-hexenol, linalool, gamma-octalactone, and mesifurane (2,5-dimethyl-4-methoxy-(2H)-furan-3-one) was very similar for the two fatty systems. The above results were discussed not only in terms of aroma compound hydrophobicity, but also in terms of structural properties of the emulsions as affected by the lipid source.

  5. Temperature-induced protein release from water-in-oil-in-water double emulsions.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Edith C; Staton, Jennifer A; John, Vijay T; Papadopoulos, Kyriakos D

    2008-07-15

    A model water-in-oil-in-water (W1/O/W2) double emulsion was prepared by a two-step emulsification procedure and subsequently subjected to temperature changes that caused the oil phase to freeze and thaw while the two aqueous phases remained liquid. Our previous work on individual double-emulsion globules1 demonstrated that crystallizing the oil phase (O) preserves stability, while subsequent thawing triggers coalescence of the droplets of the internal aqueous phase (W1) with the external aqueous phase (W2), termed external coalescence. Activation of this instability mechanism led to instant release of fluorescently tagged bovine serum albumin (fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-BSA) from the W 1 droplets and into W2. These results motivated us to apply the proposed temperature-induced globule-breakage mechanism to bulk double emulsions. As expected, no phase separation of the emulsion occurred if stored at temperatures below 18 degrees C (freezing point of the model oil n-hexadecane), whereas oil thawing readily caused instability. Crucial variables were identified during experimentation, and found to greatly influence the behavior of bulk double emulsions following freeze-thaw cycling. Adjustment of these variables accounted for a more efficient release of the encapsulated protein.

  6. Temperature-Induced Protein Release from Water-in-Oil-in-Water Double Emulsions

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Edith C.; Staton, Jennifer A.; John, Vijay T.; Papadopoulos, Kyriakos D.

    2009-01-01

    A model water-in-oil-in-water (W1/O/W2) double emulsion was prepared by a two-step emulsification procedure and subsequently subjected to temperature changes that caused the oil phase to freeze and thaw while the two aqueous phases remained liquid. Our previous work on individual double-emulsion globules1 demonstrated that crystallizing the oil phase (O) preserves stability, while subsequent thawing triggers coalescence of the droplets of the internal aqueous phase (W1) with the external aqueous phase (W2), termed external coalescence. Activation of this instability mechanism led to instant release of fluorescently tagged bovine serum albumin (fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-BSA) from the W1 droplets and into W2. These results motivated us to apply the proposed temperature-induced globule-breakage mechanism to bulk double emulsions. As expected, no phase separation of the emulsion occurred if stored at temperatures below 18 °C (freezing point of the model oil n-hexadecane), whereas oil thawing readily caused instability. Crucial variables were identified during experimentation, and found to greatly influence the behavior of bulk double emulsions following freeze-thaw cycling. Adjustment of these variables accounted for a more efficient release of the encapsulated protein. PMID:18543998

  7. Catalytic Emulsion Based on Janus Nanosheets for Ultra-Deep Desulfurization.

    PubMed

    Xia, Lixin; Zhang, Hairan; Wei, Zhichao; Jiang, Yi; Zhang, Ling; Zhao, Jie; Zhang, Junhui; Dong, Li; Li, Erni; Ruhlmann, Laurent; Zhang, Qian

    2017-02-03

    Catalytic Janus nanosheets were synthesized by using an anion-exchange reaction between heteropolyacids (HPAs) and the modified ionic-liquid (IL) moieties of Janus nanosheets. Their morphology and surface properties were characterized by using SEM, energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), FTIR spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies. Because of their inherent Janus structure, the nanosheets exhibited good amphipathic character with ILs and oil to form a stable ILs-in-oil emulsion. Therefore, these Janus nanosheets can be used as both emulsifiers and catalysts to perform emulsive desulfurization. During this process, sulfur-containing compounds at the interface could be easily oxidized and efficiently removed from a model oil. Application of this Janus emulsion brings an efficient, useful, and green procedure to the desulfurization process. Compared with the desulfurization catalyzed by using HPAs in a conventional two-phase system, the sulfur removal of dibenzothiophene (DBT) achieved in a Janus emulsion system was improved from 68 to 97 % within 1.5 h. Moreover, this emulsion system could be demulsified easily by simple centrifugation to recover both the nanosheets and the ILs. Owing to the good structural stability of the Janus nanosheets, the sulfur removal efficiency of DBT could still reach 99.9 % after the catalytic nanosheets had been recycled at least six times.

  8. Influence of emulsification process on the properties of Pickering emulsions stabilized by layered double hydroxide particles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nana; Zhang, Li; Sun, Dejun

    2015-04-28

    This paper reports the influence of emulsification process on the packing of layered double hydroxide (LDH) particles at the aqueous/oil phase interface and the properties of the resulting Pickering emulsions. Emulsions prepared by ultrasonication display superior long-term stability and gel-like characteristics at the dispersed phase volume fraction well below the random close packing limit, whereas emulsions with same compositions prepared by vortex mixing show some extent of sedimentation and liquid-like behaviors. Rheological measurements demonstrate that the zero-shear elastic modulus and yield stress of gel-like emulsions exhibit power-law dependences on particle concentration and independence on aqueous/oil phase ratio. The microstructural origin of this behavior is investigated by optical microscopy, revealing the droplets become strongly adhesive and a heterogeneous percolating network is formed among neighboring droplets. Fluorescent confocal microscopy measurements further confirm that the droplet adhesion is due to particle layers bridging opposite interfaces. In contrast, homogeneous, isolated, and densely packed droplets are present in emulsions prepared by vortex mixing, which results in these systems being dominantly viscous like the suspending fluid. This study shows that the emulsification process can be used as a trigger to modify long-term stability and rheology of solid-stabilized multiphase mixtures, which greatly expands their potential technological applications.

  9. Effects of oil on aqueous foams: electrical conductivity of foamed emulsions.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yong-Li; Shan, Cheng; Wang, Yao; Deng, Qiang

    2014-10-06

    Three-phase foams containing dispersed oils (also called foamed emulsion) are usually encountered in such areas as enhanced oil recovery, food foams, and in foams containing antifoams. The presence of oil causes these complex fluids to exhibit extraordinary properties in contrast to aqueous foams. We experimentally investigated, for the first time, the conductive properties of the foamed emulsions and found that the electrical conductivity increases monotonically with the volumetric liquid fraction, presenting a linear relationship. Combined with the analysis on the foaming capacity and microstructure of this complex fluid, the conductive mechanism is revealed. In these foamed emulsions, the whole conductive network is comprised of two levels of structural hierarchy, which displays a different mechanism from those of the conventional aqueous foams. The lamella of emulsions is taken as primary electrical channel, whereas the secondary electrical channel occurs in the lamella between two bubbles. This conductive behaviour is attributed to the microstructure properties of the foamed emulsions. We believe that such findings are potentially important for a better understanding of the fundamentals of these tri-phase dispersion systems.

  10. Expedition 9 Russian News Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-20

    NASA Deputy Administrator Fred Gregory, second from right, and Russian Federal Space Agency Deputy General-Director Nikolai Moiseev, center, answer questions from reporters along with other Russian space officials at a news conference, Wednesday, April 21, 2004, at the Russian Mission Control Center outside Moscow following the docking of the Expedition 9 crew and a European Space Agency astronaut to the International Space Station in a Russian Soyuz spacecraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  11. Expedition 9 Russian News Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-20

    NASA Deputy Administrator Fred Gregory, far right, and Russian Federal Space Agency Deputy General-Director Nikolai Moiseev, second from right, answer questions from reporters along with other Russian space officials at a news conference, Wednesday, April 21, 2004, at the Russian Mission Control Center outside Moscow following the docking of the Expedition 9 crew and a European Space Agency astronaut to the International Space Station in a Russian Soyuz spacecraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  12. High acyl gellan as an emulsion stabilizer.

    PubMed

    Vilela, Joice Aline Pires; da Cunha, Rosiane Lopes

    2016-03-30

    High acyl gellan (0.01-0.2% w/w) was used as stabilizer in oil in water emulsions containing 30% (w/w) of sunflower oil and prepared under different process conditions. Stable emulsions to phase separation could be obtained using high acyl gellan (HA) content above 0.05% (w/w), while low acyl gellan (LA) prepared at the same conditions could not stabilize emulsions. Emulsions properties depended on the process used to mix the oil and gellan dispersion since high pressure homogenization favored stabilization while very high energy density applied by ultrasound led to systems destabilization. Emulsions prepared using high pressure homogenization showed zeta potential values ranging from -50 up to -59 mV, suggesting that electrostatic repulsion could be contributing to the systems stability. Rheological properties of continuous phase were also responsible for emulsions stabilization, since HA gellan dispersions showed high viscosity and gel-like behavior. The high viscosity of the continuous phase could be associated to the presence of high acyl gellan microgels/aggregates. Disentanglement of these aggregates performed by ultrasound strongly decreased the viscosity and consequently affected the emulsions behavior, reducing the stability to phase separation.

  13. Ethylcellulose: a new type of emulsion stabilizer.

    PubMed

    Melzer, Eva; Kreuter, Jörg; Daniels, Rolf

    2003-07-01

    Cellulose ethers, in particular hypromellose, represent an interesting alternative when emulsions have to be stabilized avoiding conventional low molecular weight surfactants. So far this option has been only described for the formulation of oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions. Since surfactant-free water-in-oil (w/o) emulsions seem to be also attractive as drug carriers, ethyl cellulose, an oil-soluble cellulose derivative, was studied for its ability to stabilize w/o emulsions. Measurements of the interfacial tension confirmed that ethylcellulose was positively adsorbed at the water/oil interface with diverse lipids. Appearance of model emulsions was dependent on the processing temperature. At low temperatures (15 degrees C) cream-like o/w emulsions were obtained. Processing at 30 degrees C yielded fluid w/o-lotions. Investigation of the microstructure showed that the surface of the emulsion droplets was covered with particles which formed a mechanical barrier. These colloidal particles were shown to be a precipitate of ethylcellulose which forms when the polymer which was dissolved in the lipid phase comes into contact with water. Thus, ethylcellulose was demonstrated to represent a new type of particulate polymeric emulsifier.

  14. Latest Developments in Nuclear Emulsion Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morishima, Kunihiro

    Nuclear emulsion is high sensitive photographic film used for detection of three-dimensional trajectory of charged particles. These trajectories are recorded as tracks consist of a lot of silver grains. The size of silver grain is about 1 μm, so that nuclear emulsion has submicron three-dimensional spatial resolution, which gives us a few mrad three-dimensional angular resolution. The important technical progress was speed-up of the read-out technique of nuclear emulsions built with optical microscope system. We succeeded in developing a high-speed three-dimensional read-out system named Super Ultra Track Selector (S-UTS) with the operating read-out speed of approximately 50 cm2/h. Nowadays we are developing the nuclear emulsion gel independently in Nagoya University by introducing emulsion gel production machine. Moreover, we are developing nuclear emulsion production technologies (gel production, poring and mass production). In this paper, development of nuclear emulsion technologies for the OPERA experiment, applications by the technologies and current development are described.

  15. Method for demulsification of bitumen emulsions

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, D.R.; Entire, E.E.; Gipson, R.M.

    1984-07-03

    A process for recovering bitumen from oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions is disclosed wherein water soluble demulsifiers are used. These demulsifiers are polymers of specific quaternary ammonium monomers or co-polymers of these quaternary ammonium monomers wth other types of monomers wherein the greater portion of the co-polymer is comprised of the quaternary ammonium monomers. To resolve the bitumonous petroleum emulsions, the process is carried out between 25/sup 0/ and 160/sup 0/ C. wherein the demulsifier of the invention is contacted with the bituminous emulsion.

  16. Pump safety tests regarding emulsion explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Perlid, H.

    1996-12-31

    In the handling of emulsion explosives pumping is a key operation. A number of serious accidents has shown that pumping can be a risky operation and should be carefully considered and investigated. This is the background behind a series of pump tests carried out by Nitro Nobel. This paper refers to pump safety tests with an eccentric screw pump (progressive cavity) and emulsion explosives. A selection of emulsions unsensitized as well as sensitized were tested. The tests were performed in a circulation system against dead head and as dry pumping.

  17. Drop impact experiment as a model experiment to investigate the role of oil-in-water emulsions in controlling the drop size distribution of an agricultural spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernay, Clara; Ramos, Laurence; Ligoure, Christian; Douzals, Jean-Paul; Goyal, Rajesh; Castaing, Jean-Christophe

    2014-11-01

    Agricultural spraying involves atomizing a liquid stream through a hydraulic nozzle forming a liquid sheet, which is then destabilized into droplets. Solution adjuvants as dilute oil-in-water emulsions are known to influence the spray drop size distribution. To elucidate the mechanisms causing the changes on the drop size distribution, we investigate the influence of emulsions on the destabilization mechanisms of liquid sheets. Model laboratory experiments based on the collision of a liquid drop on a small target are used to produce and visualize liquid sheets. With emulsion, the sheet is destabilized by the nucleation of holes in the sheet that perforate it during its expansion. The physico-chemical parameters of the emulsion, such as the concentration and the emulsion drop size distribution, are varied to rationalize their influence on the destabilization mechanisms. The results obtained with the drop impact experiments are compared to the measurement of the spray drop size distribution. The very good correlation between the number of nucleation events and the volume fraction of small drops in the spray suggests that experiments on liquid sheet are appropriate model experiments to gain an understanding of the physical mechanisms governing the spray drop size distribution.

  18. Giving bad news: a qualitative research exploration.

    PubMed

    Aein, Fereshteh; Delaram, Masoumeh

    2014-06-01

    The manner in which healthcare professionals deliver bad news affects the way it is received, interpreted, understood, and dealt with. Despite the fact that clinicians are responsible for breaking bad news, it has been shown that they lack skills necessary to perform this task. The purpose of this study was to explore Iranian mothers' experiences to receive bad news about their children cancer and to summarize suggestions for improving delivering bad news by healthcare providers. A qualitative approach using content analysis was adopted. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 mothers from two pediatric hospitals in Iran. Five major categories emerged from the data analysis, including dumping information, shock and upset, emotional work, burden of delivering bad news to the family members, and a room for multidisciplinary approach. Effective communication of healthcare team with mothers is required during breaking bad news. Using multidisciplinary approaches to prevent harmful reactions and providing appropriate support are recommended.

  19. The Changing Landscape of Science News

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riordon, James

    2011-03-01

    Social media are revolutionizing the ways that people communicate and the ways they get their news. Traditional news outlets are in decline, and no subject area is declining faster than science news. Every day there are fewer professional science journalists working in traditional media. On the other hand, ever greater numbers of scientists, science enthusiasts, and online journalists are turning to blogs, podcasts, eBooks, twitter feeds, and social media sites like Facebook and Tumbler to spread news about science. I will present an overview of the state of science journalism and speculate on the likely directions it seems to be heading. I will also offer some general guidelines to help scientists understand what makes a good science news story, as well as suggesting ways that they can get their work in the news.

  20. Decompressing Emulsion Droplets Favors Coalescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bremond, Nicolas; Thiam, Abdou R.; Bibette, Jérôme

    2008-01-01

    The destabilization process of an emulsion under flow is investigated in a microfluidic device. The experimental approach enables us to generate a periodic train of droplet pairs, and thus to isolate and analyze the basic step of the destabilization, namely, the coalescence of two droplets which collide. We demonstrate a counterintuitive phenomenon: coalescence occurs during the separation phase and not during the impact. Separation induces the formation of two facing nipples in the contact area that hastens the connection of the interfaces prior to fusion. Moreover, droplet pairs initially stabilized by surfactants can be destabilized by forcing the separation. Finally, we note that the fusion mechanism is responsible for a cascade of coalescence events in a compact system of droplets where the separation is driven by surface tension.

  1. How to Write News for Broadcast and Print Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dary, David

    This book is a primer on the techniques of news writing and the application of those principles to print and broadcast journalism. Chapters include: "The News Media," which presents a brief history of journalism and the foundations on which it is based; "What Is News?"; "Gathering News," which discusses news beats, reporters' qualifications, and…

  2. To Kill a Messenger; Television News and the Real World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, William

    From his vantage point as News Director of CBS News in Washington, the author examines the role of television news in our society and gives an insider's view of the day-to-day process of selecting and presenting news. Highlighting the book are in-depth discussions of past and recent news events. The Nixon "Checkers" speech, John…

  3. How to Write News for Broadcast and Print Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dary, David

    This book is a primer on the techniques of news writing and the application of those principles to print and broadcast journalism. Chapters include: "The News Media," which presents a brief history of journalism and the foundations on which it is based; "What Is News?"; "Gathering News," which discusses news beats, reporters' qualifications, and…

  4. Impact of fat and water crystallization on the stability of hydrogenated palm oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by a nonionic surfactant.

    PubMed

    Thanasukarn, Parita; Pongsawatmanit, Rungnaphar; McClements, D Julian

    2006-05-17

    The influence of (0-40 wt %) sucrose and (0 and 150 mmol/kg) sodium chloride on the physical properties of 20 wt % hydrogenated palm oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by 2 wt % Tween 20 after crystallization of the oil phase only or both the oil and water phases has been examined. Emulsion stability was assessed by differential scanning calorimetry measurements of fat destabilization after cooling-heating cycles and by measurements of mean particle size, percent destabilized fat, and percent free oil obtained from gravitational separation after isothermal storage (at -40 to +37 degrees C). At storage temperatures where the oil phase was partially crystalline and the water was completely liquid, the emulsions were unstable to droplet coalescence and oiling off because of partial coalescence. Both NaCI and sucrose increased the extent of partial coalescence in the emulsions. At storage temperatures where both oil and water crystallized, the emulsions were completely destabilized. The stability of the emulsions to freezing and thawing could be improved somewhat by adding sucrose (>20 wt %). Emulsions stabilized by whey proteins were shown to have better freeze-thaw stability than those stabilized by Tween 20, especially in the presence of sucrose. These results may help formulate food emulsions with improved freeze-thaw stability.

  5. Use of olive oil-in-water gelled emulsions in model turkey breast emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serdaroğlu, M.; Öztürk, B.

    2017-09-01

    Today, gelled emulsion systems offer a novel possibility in lipid modification of meat products. In this study, we aimed to investigate the quality characteristics of model turkey emulsions that were prepared with olive oil-in-water gelled emulsion (GE) as partial or total beef fat replacer. The results indicated that while most of the GE treatments showed equivalent emulsion characteristics in terms of emulsion stability, water-holding capacity and cook yield, utilization of 100% GE as the lipid source could increase total expressible fluid of the model turkey emulsion and thus negatively affect the quality. Utilization of GE was effective in total fat reduction, as the model turkey emulsions formulated with more than 50% GE had significantly lower fat content compared to full-beef fat control model emulsion. However, beef fat replacement with GE produced considerable changes in colour parameters. Finally, it was concluded that utilization of GE as a partial beef fat replacer has good potential to enhance stability and reduce total fat in turkey meat emulsion products.

  6. Concentrated emulsion pathway to novel composite polymeric membranes and their use in pervaporation

    SciTech Connect

    Ruckenstein, E.; Sun, F.

    1995-10-01

    Pervaporation is becoming recognized as an energy-efficient alternative to distillation and other separation methods of liquid mixtures, especially in cases in which the traditional separation techniques are not efficient, such as the separation of azeotropic mixtures, close-boiling-point components, isomeric components, and recovery or removal of trace organic substances from aqueous solutions. Novel composite polymeric membranes have been prepared, using concentrated emulsions as precursors, and employed in the pervaporation of various liquid mixtures. In order to improve the stability of the concentrated emulsion, the hydrophilicity and/or the hydrophobicity of the phases involved must be increased by replacing them with their solutions in water and/or in a hydrocarbon, respectively. Another possibility of improving the stability is to increase the viscosity of the phases, by partial polymerization of one or both phases before preparing the concentrated emulsion. The emulsion gel was subsequently transformed into a polymer composite by polymerizing both phases. The dispersed phase should be selected to yield a hydrophobic (hydrophilic) polymer which is compatible with the components selected for separation and incompatible with the other components, while the continuous phase should be selected to yield a hydrophilic (hydrophobic) polymer which is incompatible with all of the components of the mixture, and thus it can ensure the integrity of the membrane. As examples, several composite polymeric membranes were designed, prepared, and employed in the separation by pervaporation of water-ethanol,aromatics-paraffinics, and aromatics-alcohol mixtures.

  7. Influence of propylene glycol on aqueous silica dispersions and particle-stabilized emulsions.

    PubMed

    Binks, Bernard P; Fletcher, Paul D I; Thompson, Michael A; Elliott, Russell P

    2013-05-14

    We have studied the influence of adding propylene glycol to both aqueous dispersions of fumed silica nanoparticles and emulsions of paraffin liquid and water stabilized by the same particles. In the absence of oil, aerating mixtures of aqueous propylene glycol and particles yields either stable dispersions, aqueous foams, climbing particle films, or liquid marbles depending on the glycol content and particle hydrophobicity. The presence of glycol in water promotes particles to behave as if they are more hydrophilic. Calculations of their contact angle at the air-aqueous propylene glycol surface are in agreement with these findings. In the presence of oil, particle-stabilized emulsions invert from water-in-oil to oil-in-water upon increasing either the inherent hydrophilicity of the particles or the glycol content in the aqueous phase. Stable multiple emulsions occur around phase inversion in systems of low glycol content, and completely stable, waterless oil-in-propylene glycol emulsions can also be prepared. Accounting for the surface energies at the respective interfaces allows estimation of the contact angle at the oil-polar phase interface; reasonable agreement between measured and calculated phase inversion conditions is found assuming no glycol adsorption on particle surfaces.

  8. The Cognitive Information Effect of Televised News

    PubMed Central

    Lăzăroiu, George; Pera, Aurel; Ştefănescu-Mihăilă, Ramona O.; Bratu, Sofia; Mircică, Nela

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to summarize the key findings which prove that the biased perceptions of viewers may provide an inaccurate image of the informational validity of televised news. The news may generate distorted recollections of what occurred in particular reported events if displayed routines influence viewers not to pay attention to the essential features of a narrative. Elaborating on Fiske and Hartley (2010), Zelizer (2010), and Gunter (2015), we indicate that the character of the news setting has altered and individuals’ news consumption routines have changed in adapting to media advancements. The news may be undergone at various psychological stages by news publics. Televised news may transmit information undeviatingly to publics that may (not) be committed successfully to memory. Our paper shows that individuals’ skills to handle information that is displayed in a linguistic configuration are influenced by their abilities in the utilization of certain symbol systems that are employed to represent notions and meanings. Televised news may shape what individuals grasp, influence their perceptions, convictions, and views regarding prevailing events and matters, and transmit knowledge and interpretation. If news stories can be jotted down in a linguistic style that sidesteps making needless processing demands and captivate news users by facilitating them to make connections with former knowledge, they may be more worthy of note and more edifying. We conclude that news narratives present a cognitive demanding task to individuals, displaying novel information regarding evolving events in a multifarious format. Broadcast news exhibits intricate contents, displaying configurations that employ excessively the cognitive abilities for information processing of viewers. PMID:28740475

  9. Educating children's nurses for communicating bad news.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Doreen; Corkin, Doris; Coad, Jane; Hollis, Rachel

    2013-10-01

    Some parents are unhappy with the way news is broken to them. This article seeks to educate and inform the reflective practitioner on a series of communication strategies to enhance their skills. This is important because the way news is disclosed can affect the way news is accepted and the level of support the family will require. The importance of clarity, honesty and empathy is emphasised.

  10. Multilingual Video and Audio News Alerting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    Multilingual Video and Audio News Alerting David D. Palmer, Patrick Bray, Marc Reichman, Katherine Rhodes, Noah White Virage Advanced...enable searching of multilingual video news sources by a monolingual speaker. In addition to full search capabilities, the system also enables real...DATE 2004 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2004 to 00-00-2004 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Multilingual Video and Audio News Alerting 5a

  11. The Cognitive Information Effect of Televised News.

    PubMed

    Lăzăroiu, George; Pera, Aurel; Ştefănescu-Mihăilă, Ramona O; Bratu, Sofia; Mircică, Nela

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to summarize the key findings which prove that the biased perceptions of viewers may provide an inaccurate image of the informational validity of televised news. The news may generate distorted recollections of what occurred in particular reported events if displayed routines influence viewers not to pay attention to the essential features of a narrative. Elaborating on Fiske and Hartley (2010), Zelizer (2010), and Gunter (2015), we indicate that the character of the news setting has altered and individuals' news consumption routines have changed in adapting to media advancements. The news may be undergone at various psychological stages by news publics. Televised news may transmit information undeviatingly to publics that may (not) be committed successfully to memory. Our paper shows that individuals' skills to handle information that is displayed in a linguistic configuration are influenced by their abilities in the utilization of certain symbol systems that are employed to represent notions and meanings. Televised news may shape what individuals grasp, influence their perceptions, convictions, and views regarding prevailing events and matters, and transmit knowledge and interpretation. If news stories can be jotted down in a linguistic style that sidesteps making needless processing demands and captivate news users by facilitating them to make connections with former knowledge, they may be more worthy of note and more edifying. We conclude that news narratives present a cognitive demanding task to individuals, displaying novel information regarding evolving events in a multifarious format. Broadcast news exhibits intricate contents, displaying configurations that employ excessively the cognitive abilities for information processing of viewers.

  12. Structuring of colloidal particles at interfaces and the relationship to food emulsion and foam stability.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Eric

    2015-07-01

    We consider the influence of spherical colloidal particles on the structure and stabilization of dispersions, emulsions and foams. Emphasis is placed on developments in the use of the methods of liquid state theory and computer simulation to understand short-range structuring of concentrated colloidal dispersions and ordering of particle layers near surfaces and within liquid films. Experimental information on the structuring of surfactant micelles and caseinate particles in thin liquid films is described, including an assessment of the effect of particle polydispersity on depletion interactions and kinetic structural stabilization. We specifically discuss the relevance of some of these structural concepts to the stability of food colloids.

  13. An alkyl polyglucoside-mixed emulsifier as stabilizer of emulsion systems: the influence of colloidal structure on emulsions skin hydration potential.

    PubMed

    Savic, Snezana; Lukic, Milica; Jaksic, Ivana; Reichl, Stephan; Tamburic, Slobodanka; Müller-Goymann, Christel

    2011-06-01

    To be considered as a suitable vehicle for drugs/cosmetic actives, an emulsion system should have a number of desirable properties mainly dependent on surfactant used for its stabilization. In the current study, C(12-14) alkyl polyglucoside (APG)-mixed emulsifier of natural origin has been investigated in a series of binary (emulsifier concentration 10-25% (w/w)) and ternary systems with fixed emulsifier content (15% (w/w)) with or without glycerol. To elucidate the systems' colloidal structure the following physicochemical techniques were employed: polarization and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction (WAXD and SAXD), thermal analysis (DSC and TGA), complex rheological, pH, and conductivity measurements. Additionally, the emulsion vehicles' skin hydration potential was tested in vivo, on human skin under occlusion. In a series of binary systems with fixed emulsifier/water ratios ranging from 10/90 to 25/75 the predominance of a lamellar mesophase was found, changing its character from a liquid crystalline to a gel crystalline type. The same was observed in gel emulsions containing equal amounts of emulsifier and oil (15% (w/w)), but varying in glycerol content (0-25%). Different emulsion samples exhibited different water distribution modes in the structure, reflecting their rheological behavior and also their skin hydration capacity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Military Installations and Local News: Effects on Military News Coverage.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-08

    Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Indiana University, 1978. 20Stempel, Guido H ., and Culbertson, Hugh M., "The Prominence and Dominance of News Sources in...COVERAGE Captain Stephanie L. Hoehne HQDA MILPERCEN (DAPC-OPA- E ) 200 Stovall Street Alexandria, VA 22332 ,o. DTIIEI:LIcrE .Ib. 8 April, 1986 MAYO0 7...OR_____.__OTU __ -6. PERFORMING 0Rr,. REPORT NUMBER 7. AU THOR(a) 8. CONTfr.’T’ID1% GRANT NUMBER( e ) STEPHANIE L. HOEHNE ’"" C L, MPC 9. PERFORMING

  15. News: Good chemical manufacturing process criteria

    EPA Science Inventory

    This news column covers topics relating to manufacturing criteria, machine to machine technology, novel process windows, green chemistry indices, business resilience, immobilized enzymes, and Bt crops.

  16. News: Good chemical manufacturing process criteria

    EPA Science Inventory

    This news column covers topics relating to manufacturing criteria, machine to machine technology, novel process windows, green chemistry indices, business resilience, immobilized enzymes, and Bt crops.

  17. Multi-body coalescence in Pickering emulsions.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tong; Wang, Haitao; Jing, Benxin; Liu, Fang; Burns, Peter C; Na, Chongzheng

    2015-01-12

    Particle-stabilized Pickering emulsions have shown unusual behaviours such as the formation of non-spherical droplets and the sudden halt of coalescence between individual droplets. Here we report another unusual behaviour of Pickering emulsions-the simultaneous coalescence of multiple droplets in a single event. Using latex particles, silica particles and carbon nanotubes as model stabilizers, we show that multi-body coalescence can occur in both water-in-oil and oil-in-water emulsions. The number of droplets involved in the nth coalscence event equals four times the corresponding number of the tetrahedral sequence in close packing. Furthermore, coalescence is promoted by repulsive latex and silica particles but inhibited by attractive carbon nanotubes. The revelation of multi-body coalescence is expected to help better understand Pickering emulsions in natural systems and improve their designs in engineering applications.

  18. Aging properties of Kodak type 101 emulsions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dohne, B.; Feldman, U.; Neupert, W.

    1984-01-01

    Aging tests for several batches of Kodak type 101 emulsion show that storage conditions significantly influence how well the film will maintain its sensitometric properties, with sensitivity and density increasing to a maximum during this period. Any further aging may result in higher fog levels and sensitivity loss. It is noted that storage in an environment free of photographically active compounds allows film property optimization, and that film batches with different sensitivities age differently. Emulsions with maximum 1700-A sensitivity are 2.5 times faster than those at the low end of the sensitivity scale. These sensitive emulsions exhibit significantly accelerated changes in aging properties. Their use in space applications requires careful consideration of time and temperature profiles, encouraging the use of less sensitive emulsions when the controllability of these factors is limited.

  19. Autoxidation of unsaturated lipids in food emulsion.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yue-E; Wang, Wei-Dong; Chen, Hong-Wei; Li, Chao

    2011-05-01

    Unsaturated lipids having various physiological roles are of significance in biochemistry, nutrition, medicine, and food. However, the susceptibility of lipids to oxidation is a major cause of quality deterioration in food emulsions. The reaction mechanism and factors that influence oxidation are appreciably different for emulsified lipids and bulk lipids. This article gives a brief overview of the current knowledge on autoxidation of oil-in-water food emulsions, especially those that contain unsaturated lipids, which are important in the food industry. Autoxidation of unsaturated lipids in oil-in-water emulsion is discussed, and so also their oxidation mechanism, the major factors influencing oxidation, determination measures, research status, and the problems encountered in recent years. Some effective strategies for controlling lipid oxidation in food emulsion have been presented in this review.

  20. Aging properties of Kodak type 101 emulsions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dohne, B.; Feldman, U.; Neupert, W.

    1984-01-01

    Aging tests for several batches of Kodak type 101 emulsion show that storage conditions significantly influence how well the film will maintain its sensitometric properties, with sensitivity and density increasing to a maximum during this period. Any further aging may result in higher fog levels and sensitivity loss. It is noted that storage in an environment free of photographically active compounds allows film property optimization, and that film batches with different sensitivities age differently. Emulsions with maximum 1700-A sensitivity are 2.5 times faster than those at the low end of the sensitivity scale. These sensitive emulsions exhibit significantly accelerated changes in aging properties. Their use in space applications requires careful consideration of time and temperature profiles, encouraging the use of less sensitive emulsions when the controllability of these factors is limited.

  1. The effect of butter grains on physical properties of butter-like emulsions.

    PubMed

    Rønholt, Stine; Buldo, Patrizia; Mortensen, Kell; Andersen, Ulf; Knudsen, Jes C; Wiking, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Milk fat exists as globules in its natural state in milk. The potential of using globular fat to modulate the rheological properties and crystallization behavior in butter-like emulsions was studied in the present work. We conducted a comparative study of butter-like emulsions, with a fat phase consisting of 0, 10, 25, 50, or 100% anhydrous milk fat (AMF), the remaining fat being butter grains, and all samples containing 20% water, to obtain systematic variation in the ratio of globular fat. All emulsions were studied over 4wk of storage at 5°C. By combining small and large deformation rheology, we conducted a detailed characterization of the rheological behavior of butter-like emulsions. We applied differential scanning calorimetry to monitor thermal behavior, confocal laser scanning microscopy for microstructural analysis, and low-field pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry to measure solid fat content. By combining these techniques, we determined that increasing the fraction of globular fat (by mixing with butter grains) decreases the hardness of butter-like emulsions up to an order of magnitude at d 1. However, no difference was observed in thermal behavior as a function of butter grain content, as all emulsions containing butter grains revealed 2 endothermal peaks corresponding to the high (32.7°C ± 0.6) and medium (14.6°C ± 0.1) melting fractions of fatty acids. In terms of microstructure, decreasing the amount of butter grains in the emulsions resulted in formation of a denser fat crystal network, corresponding to increased hardness. Moreover, microstructural analysis revealed that the presence of butter grains resulted in faster formation of a continuous fat crystal network compared with the 100% AMF sample, which was dominated by crystal clusters surrounded by liquid oil. During storage, hardness remained stable and no changes in thermal behavior were observed, despite an increase in solid fat content of up to 5%. After 28d of storage, we

  2. Television News Sources and News Channels: A Study in Agenda-Building.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkowitz, Dan

    Noting that media agenda-setting research has seldom examined how the initial media agenda develops, a study examined the connection between news sources and agenda setting by means of a content analysis of sources and channels appearing in network television news and local television news. The findings were compared to similar studies of…

  3. The Usefulness of a News Media Literacy Measure in Evaluating a News Literacy Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maksl, Adam; Craft, Stephanie; Ashley, Seth; Miller, Dean

    2017-01-01

    A survey of college students showed those who had taken a news literacy course had significantly higher levels of news media literacy, greater knowledge of current events, and higher motivation to consume news, compared with students who had not taken the course. The effect of taking the course did not diminish over time. Results validate the News…

  4. News and the overloaded consumer: factors influencing information overload among news consumers.

    PubMed

    Holton, Avery E; Chyi, Hsiang Iris

    2012-11-01

    News producers continue to increase their volume of production and delivery platforms in an effort to reach and maintain news consumers. However, consumers may not necessarily find more news desirable. Previous studies have suggested that information surplus can lead to negative outcomes for consumers, but research of outcomes related to news production and consumption has been scant. This study explores novel areas of news surplus and overload, empirically examining factors associated with the degree of perceived overload across a broad spectrum of news delivery platforms. The findings reveal that the majority of today's news consumers feel overloaded with the amount of news they are confronted with. Gender, news interest, and the use of specific news platforms and outlets predict the degree of that overload. News access through platforms and outlets such as computers, e-readers, and Facebook is positively associated with overload, whereas other platforms such as television and the iPhone are negatively associated with overload. Implications for media psychology and news consumption are discussed.

  5. Shear-stabilized emulsion flooding process

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, C.W.; Reed, R.L.

    1982-06-29

    Additional amounts of crude oil are recovered from a subterranean formation by flooding with a translucent emulsion comprising an upper- or middle-phase microemulsion as an external phase and a polymer-containing brine solution as an internal phase. The translucent emulsion tends to coalesce into its component phases under conditions of no shear, but is stabilized by low shears such as those imposed on fluids flowing through a subterranean formation.

  6. Effect of soybean lecithin on iron-catalyzed or chlorophyll-photosensitized oxidation of canola oil emulsion.

    PubMed

    Choe, Jeesu; Oh, Boyoung; Choe, Eunok

    2014-11-01

    The effect of soybean lecithin addition on the iron-catalyzed or chlorophyll-photosensitized oxidation of emulsions consisting of purified canola oil and water (1:1, w/w) was studied based on headspace oxygen consumption using gas chromatography and hydroperoxide production using the ferric thiocyanate method. Addition levels of iron sulfate, chlorophyll, and soybean lecithin were 5, 4, and 350 mg/kg, respectively. Phospholipids (PLs) during oxidation of the emulsions were monitored by high performance liquid chromatography. Addition of soybean lecithin to the emulsions significantly reduced and decelerated iron-catalyzed oil oxidation by lowering headspace oxygen consumption and hydroperoxide production. However, soybean lecithin had no significant antioxidant effect on chlorophyll-photosensitized oxidation of the emulsions. PLs in soybean lecithin added to the emulsions were degraded during both oxidation processes, although there was little change in PL composition. Among PLs in soybean lecithin, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylinositol were degraded the fastest in the iron-catalyzed and the chlorophyll-photosensitized oxidation, respectively. The results suggest that addition of soybean lecithin as an emulsifier can also improve the oxidative stability of oil in an emulsion. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  7. Solid-state nanoparticle coated emulsions for encapsulation and improving the chemical stability of all-trans-retinol.

    PubMed

    Ghouchi-Eskandar, Nasrin; Simovic, Spomenka; Prestidge, Clive A

    2012-02-28

    Submicron oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions stabilised with conventional surfactants and silica nanoparticles were prepared and freeze-dried to obtain free-flowing powders with good redispersibility and a three-dimensional porous matrix structure. Solid-state emulsions were characterised for visual appearance, particle size distribution, zeta potential and reconstitution properties after freeze-drying with various sugars and at a range of sugar to oil ratios. Comparative degradation kinetics of all-trans-retinol from freeze-dried and liquid emulsions was investigated as a function of storage temperatures. Optimum stability was observed for silica-coated oleylamine emulsions at 4 °C in their wet state. The half-life of all-trans-retinol was 25.66 and 22.08 weeks for silica incorporation from the oil and water phases respectively. This was ∼4 times higher compared to the equivalent solid-state emulsions with drug half-life of 6.18 and 6.06 weeks at 4 °C. Exceptionally, at a storage temperature of 40 °C, the chemical stability of the drug was 3 times higher in the solid-state compared to the wet emulsions which confirmed that freeze-drying is a promising approach to improve the chemical stability of water-labile compounds provided that the storage conditions are optimised.

  8. Fabrication and characterization of Pickering emulsions and oil gels stabilized by highly charged zein/chitosan complex particles (ZCCPs).

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Juan; Yin, Shou-Wei; Wu, Lei-Yan; Qi, Jun-Ru; Guo, Jian; Yang, Xiao-Quan

    2016-12-15

    Herein, we reported a facile method to fabricate ultra-stable, surfactant- and antimicrobial-free Pickering emulsions by designing and modulating emulsions' interfaces via zein/chitosan colloid particles (ZCCPs). Highly charged ZCCPs with neutral wettability were produced by a facile anti-solvent procedure. The ZCCPs were shown to be effective Pickering emulsifiers because the emulsions formed were highly resistant to coalescence over a 9-month storage period. The ZCCPs were adsorbed irreversibly at the interface during emulsification, forming a hybrid network framework in which zein particles were embedded within the chitosan network, yielding ultra-stable food-grade zein/chitosan colloid particles stabilized Pickering emulsions (ZCCPEs). Moreover, stable surfactant-free oil gels were obtained by a one-step freeze-drying process of the precursor ZCCPEs. This distinctive interfacial architecture accounted for the favourable physical performance, and potentially oxidative and microbial stability of the emulsions and/or oil gels. This work opens up a promising route via a food-grade Pickering emulsion-template approach to transform liquid oil into solid-like fats with zero trans-fat formation.

  9. Pickering emulsions stabilized by charged nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ridel, Laure; Bolzinger, Marie-Alexandrine; Gilon-Delepine, Nicole; Dugas, Pierre-Yves; Chevalier, Yves

    2016-09-28

    The stabilization of o/w Pickering emulsions in cases of weak adsorption of solid particles at the surface of oil droplets is addressed. Though the adsorption is usually very strong and irreversible when partial wetting conditions are fulfilled, electrostatic repulsions between charged solid particles act against the adsorption. The regime of weak adsorption was reached using charged silica nanoparticles at high pH and low ionic strength. O/w Pickering emulsions of the diisopropyl adipate oil were stabilized by colloidal nanoparticles of Ludox® AS40 consisting of non-aggregated particles of bare silica (hydrophilic). The combination of stability assessment, droplet size and electrokinetic potential measurements at various pH values, adsorption isotherms and cryo-SEM observations of the adsorbed layers disclosed the specificities of the stabilization of Pickering emulsions by adsorption of solid nanoparticles against strong electrostatic repulsions. Not only the long-term stability of emulsions was poor under strong electrostatic repulsions at high pH, but emulsification failed since full dispersion of oil could not be achieved. Emulsion stability was ensured by decreasing electrostatic repulsions by lowering the pH from 9 to 3. Stable emulsions were stabilized by a monolayer of silica particles at 54% coverage of the oil droplet surface at low silica content and an adsorption regime as multilayers was reached at higher concentrations of silica although there was no aggregation of silica in the bulk aqueous phase.

  10. Conditions for equilibrium solid-stabilized emulsions.

    PubMed

    Kraft, Daniela J; de Folter, Julius W J; Luigjes, Bob; Castillo, Sonja I R; Sacanna, Stefano; Philipse, Albert P; Kegel, Willem K

    2010-08-19

    Particular types of solid-stabilized emulsions can be thermodynamically stable as evidenced by their spontaneous formation and monodisperse droplet size, which only depends on system parameters. Here, we investigate the generality of these equilibrium solid-stabilized emulsions with respect to the basic constituents: aqueous phase with ions, oil, and stabilizing particles. From systematic variations of these constituents, we identify general conditions for the spontaneous formation of monodisperse solid-stabilized emulsions droplets. We conclude that emulsion stability is achieved by a combination of solid particles as well as amphiphilic ions adsorbed at the droplet surface, and low interfacial tensions of the bare oil-water interface of order 10 mN/m or below. Furthermore, preferential wetting of the colloidal particles by the oil phase is necessary for thermodynamic stability. We demonstrate the sufficiency of these basic requirements by extending the observed thermodynamic stability to emulsions of different compositions. Our findings point to a new class of colloid-stabilized meso-emulsions with a potentially high impact on industrial emulsification processes due to the associated large energy savings.

  11. Method for treating tar sands emulsion and apparatus therefor

    SciTech Connect

    Bialek, R.F.

    1986-04-15

    A method is described for resolving a hot bitumen emulsion comprised primarily of bitumen, water and chemical diluents. The method consists of: providing separate but communicated emulsion mixing, and emulsion settling chamber, passing the hot bitumen emulsion through a first elongated mixing passage in the mixing chamber wherein a rapidly flowing stream of recycled emulsion is combined with a minor portion of unrecycled bitumen emulsion, to form a combined bitumen emulsion stream, thereafter passing the combined bitumen emulsion stream into an elongated discontinuous mixing passage comprised of vertically arranged and interconnected mixing passages within the emulsion mixer, where in the combined bitumen emulsion stream passes at a slower rate than in the first elongated mixing passage, passing the combined bitumen emulsion stream into an overflow passage communicated with the second elongated mixing passage, introducing a part of the combined emulsion stream from the overflow passage into the emulsion settling chamber, recycling the remainder of the combined emulsion stream from the overflow passage into the first elongated mixing passage, and removing separated flows of bitumen and water from the settling chamber.

  12. Media Literacy, News Literacy, or News Appreciation? A Case Study of the News Literacy Program at Stony Brook University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This case study provides practical and theoretical insights into the Stony Brook news literacy program, which is one of the most ambitious and well-funded curricular experiments in modern journalism education and media literacy. Analysis of document, interview, and observation data indicates that news literacy educators sought to teach students…

  13. Media Literacy, News Literacy, or News Appreciation? A Case Study of the News Literacy Program at Stony Brook University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This case study provides practical and theoretical insights into the Stony Brook news literacy program, which is one of the most ambitious and well-funded curricular experiments in modern journalism education and media literacy. Analysis of document, interview, and observation data indicates that news literacy educators sought to teach students…

  14. Acoustic and electroacoustic spectroscopy for characterizing concentrated dispersions and emulsions.

    PubMed

    Dukhin, A S; Goetz, P J

    2001-09-03

    We describe two different techniques (acoustics and electroacoustics), both of which employ ultrasound instead of light for extracting information about the properties of liquid-based dispersions. Ultrasound can propagate through samples that are not transparent for light, which open up many new applications not possible with classical light scattering methods. Acoustic and electroacoustic techniques offer a unique opportunity to characterize concentrated dispersion, emulsions and microemulsions in their natural states. Elimination of a dilution step required for most other techniques (light scattering, sedimentation, electrophoresis) is crucial for an adequate characterization of liquid dispersions, especially when the high concentration leads to structured systems. As with any macroscopic method, ultrasonic techniques characterize the sample in two steps. The first step is to measure some macroscopic property. The second step involves some theoretical treatment of the measured raw data which yields the desired information. Acoustic spectroscopy deals with measuring the attenuation of ultrasound within a certain frequency range. Electroacoustic spectroscopy has two implementations depending on the driving force. We emphasize here on the so-called Colloid Vibration Current (CVI) which is generated by the sound wave as it passes through the dispersion. A review of the theoretical basis of acoustics and electroacoustics is given, with emphasis on models that have been applied to concentrated systems. Recently, new theories have been developed for both acoustics and electroacoustics using a 'coupled phase model' and 'cell model concept'. The coupled phase model is widely used for describing a relative motion of the particles and liquid in the sound wave. The cell model approach opens the way to include both particle-particle interactions and polydispersity into the theoretical model. Experimental evidence is presented that shows that this new approach is successful in

  15. 40 CFR 467.20 - Applicability; description of the rolling with emulsions subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... rolling with emulsions subcategory. 467.20 Section 467.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Rolling With Emulsions Subcategory § 467.20 Applicability; description of the rolling with emulsions... the rolling with emulsions subcategory. ...

  16. 40 CFR 467.20 - Applicability; description of the rolling with emulsions subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... rolling with emulsions subcategory. 467.20 Section 467.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Rolling With Emulsions Subcategory § 467.20 Applicability; description of the rolling with emulsions... the rolling with emulsions subcategory. ...

  17. The physicochemical stability and in vitro bioaccessibility of beta-carotene in oil-in- water sodium caseinate emulsions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Beta-carotene (BC), the most important dietary source of provitamin A, is necessary for optimum human health. BC is insoluble or only slightly soluble in most liquids but its bioavailability improves when ingested with fat. Therefore lipid emulsions are ideal matrices for BC delivery. BC (0.1%) in ...

  18. Biodegradable and magnetic core-shell composite particle prepared by emulsion solvent diffusion method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oka, Chiemi; Ushimaru, Kazunori; Horiishi, Nanao; Tsuge, Takeharu; Kitamoto, Yoshitaka

    2016-02-01

    The present paper describes optimization of preparation conditions of a core-shell composite particle, and its heat generation by alternating magnetic fields. The composite particles are prepared with a modified emulsion solvent diffusion method, which is combined with Pickering emulsion stabilized by magnetic nanoparticles. In this method, the magnetic nanoparticles act as an emulsifier, and its amount and size are crucial to morphology of the composite particles. The magnetic nanoparticles of 8-9 nm would be strongly adsorbed at a liquid-liquid interface rather than the larger nanoparticles. At the optimized concentration of the magnetic nanoparticle’s suspension for the preparation, small and uniform composite particles are obtained since the amount of the nanoparticles is enough to prevent coalescence of droplets during the formation of the composites. The heat generation by alternating magnetic fields emerged certainly. This result suggests the composite particles have a property as a heat-generating carrier for hyperthermia treatment.

  19. Palm oil anionic surfactants based emulsion breaker (Case study of emulsions breaker at Semanggi Field production wells)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhpidah; Hambali, E.; Suryani, A.; Kartika, I. A.

    2017-05-01

    The presence of emulsion in oil production process is undesirable. The emulsion will increase the production costs, transportation and costs related to emulsion separation process between water and oil. The development of palm oil-based surfactant as an emulsion breaker needs to be conducted given the availability of abundant raw materials in Indonesia and as an alternative to petroleum-based surfactant. The purpose of this study is to produce palm oil-based emulsion breaker, assessing the effect of additive application to the emulsion breaker and analyze the performance of the emulsion breaker. This research was conducted by formulating palm oil anionic surfactant in water formation with the addition of co-surfactant additive and co-solvent. Palm oil anionic surfactant-based emulsion breaker with 0.5% concentration in water can reduce 50% of emulsions with the interfacial tension (IFT) of 2.33x10-2 dyne/cm. The addition of co-solvent (toluene: xylene) is able to remove the emulsion formed with a lower IFT namely 10-3 dyne / cm. The resulting emulsion breaker is capable to remove the emulsion between water and oil. The performance test of emulsion breaker show that the emulsion is able to maintain its performance at reservoir temperature with no indicate of plugging and the value generated incremental oil recovery values is 13%.

  20. Phase behavior, formation, and rheology of cubic phase and related gel emulsion in Tween 80/water/oil systems.

    PubMed

    Alam, Mohammad Mydul; Ushiyama, Kousuke; Aramaki, Kenji

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the phase behavior, formation, and rheology of the cubic phase (I(1)) and related O/I(1) gel emulsion in water/Tween 80/oil systems using squalane, liquid paraffin (LP), and decane as oil components. In the phase behavior study, the phase sequences were similar for squalane and LP systems, while a lamellar liquid crystal (L(alpha)) was observed for decane system. In all the systems the addition of oil to W(m) or H(1) phase induced the I(1) phase, which can solubilize some amounts of oil followed by the appearance of I(1)+O phase. The formation of the O/I(1) gel emulsion has been studied at a fixed w/s (50/50) and we found that 30 wt% decane, 70 wt% squalane, and 60 wt% LP can form the gel emulsion. The water/Tween 80/squalane system has been taken as a model system to study viscoelastic properties of the I(1) phase and O/I(1) gel emulsion. The I(1) phase shows a typical hard gel cubic structure under the frequency and the values of the complex viscosity, /eta*/ and the elastic modulus, G ' increase with the addition of squalane, which could be due to the neighboring micellar interaction. On the other hand, the decreasing values of the viscoelastic parameters in the O/I(1) gel emulsion simply relate to the volume fraction of the I(1) phase in the system.

  1. News

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-03-01

    Microscopy: Schools to gain remote access to Oxford University-based SEM Canada: Perimeter Institute calls international applicants to its 2005 summer school ASE: ASE 2005 refreshes the teaching parts that other conferences cannot reach Scotland: Glasgow hosts Kelvin exhibition Climate Analysis: Met Office sets up project to predict climate change Wales: Welsh teachers meet at Christ College, Brecon ESERA: ESERA 2005 unveils its conference programme Higher Education: Educators address school-university transition Christmas Lecture Series: Royal Institution supports Christmas Lecture series with interactive CD-ROM Events: UK’s Science Week kicks off in March Grants: PPARC and IOP to provide grants worth up to £400 Camera Competition: Congratulations go to camera winners Teachers’ TV: Teachers’ channel hits the small screen Physics and Music: Foster and Liebeck presentation combines physics and music Science on Stage: SOS gears up for Geneva festival Nanoworld: Hirsch lecture at Oxford focuses on the nanoworld GIREP: GIREP conference aims to raise physics’ profile Course: STELAR offers free radio-communication course

  2. News

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-09-01

    11-14 Curriculum: Supporting Physics Teaching (11-14) Europe: Sci-tech couldn't be without it! Art-Science: Makrolab in Mountain Year Digital Curriculum: Should the BBC learn from the past? Scotland: Teachers get Rocket Science Malaysia: Controversy over the language medium for science teaching UK Science: Next stage of Science Year announced Special Educational Needs: Science for special needs students Folk Physics: Good vibrations Environment: IoM3 - a move towards sustainability? UK Primary Science: The threat of afternoon science

  3. News

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-05-01

    Cyber Workshop: The Teacher Network visits Second Life Festival: Alarm clock rings for European science Grant Project: The reality of university science Student Physics: Young physicists' tournament in Korea Environment: Climate change documentary to be shown in every secondary school in England and Wales Centenary: Glasgow celebrates life of Kelvin

  4. News

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-09-01

    Meeting: Brecon hosts 'alternative-style' Education Group Conference Meeting: Schools' Physics Group meeting delivers valuable teaching update Saturn Mission: PPARC’s Saturn school resource goes online Funding: Grant scheme supports Einstein Year activities Meeting: Liverpool Teachers’ Conference revives enthusiasm for physics Loan Scheme: Moon samples loaned to schools Awards: Schoolnet rewards good use of ICT in learning Funding: PPARC provides cash for science projects Workshop: Experts in physics education research share knowledge at international event Bulgaria: Transit of Venus comes to town Conference: CERN weekend provides lessons in particle physics Summer School: Teachers receive the summer-school treatment

  5. News

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-05-01

    Physics on Stage: Physics on the political stage Women in Physics: Allez les girls! Curriculum: Students want ethics debate in school science Physics on Stage: Buzzing around the tulips Events: GIREP 2002 Competition: Schumacher in the shower! Higher Education: Universities consider conceptual physics courses Resources: Evaluation of Advancing Physics Research Frontiers: Physics Teachers @ CERN 2002 UK Curriculum: Preparing useful citizens China: Changing the approach NSTA Annual Convention: Innovations and simplicity Europe: European Community Science and Society Action Plan Citizenship: ASE-Wellcome Trust citizenship education initiative

  6. News

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davenhall, Clive

    2012-06-01

    Herschel papers catalogued and accessible; Maskelyne papers accepted for the nation; centenary of the Hamburg Observatory; oldest astrologer's board found; Groupe Flammarion sold; ancient sundial found; keeping time (modern folk song about John Harrison).

  7. News

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davenhall, Clive

    2010-07-01

    Webb-Share update; Astro-cymru update; Copernicus reburied; Tycho to be exhumed; Caledonian anniversary 1: chair of astronomy at Glasgow; Caledonian anniversary II: James Ferguson: Fifty years of weather satellites; H.G. Wells remembered.

  8. News

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-01-01

    Physics on Stage: Physics on Stage focuses on life Women in Physics: DNA posters highlight the role of women Physics on Stage: Not just fair but better than ever Physics on Stage: Food inspires teaching of physics Physics on Stage: Powerful performances dispel the myth of boring physics Physics Songs: Physics inspires some of our readers to sing Physics on Stage: Awards recognize achievements of science teachers in Europe Curriculum: Japan tests Advancing Physics UK Assessment System: Assessment overhaul is overdue Future Physicists: Ambassadors are bringing physics alive Physics at work: Physics at work still going strong Teaching Teachers: US coalition helps new teachers Forthcoming Events

  9. News

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-11-01

    Spain: ESERA conference debates the teacher researcher relationship Media: Teachers’ TV Associates now launched Slovenia: GIREP seminar: ‘formal’ and ‘informal’ educators work together in Ljubljana Award: Faculty honours rollercoaster designer OECD: Global survey to assess school leavers’ abilities Competition: Opportunity to win revision aid for your class Scotland: Annual meeting UK: Humour and controversy at energy day Training: Teachers get to grips with telescopes Scotland: Educators flock to Stirling 2005

  10. News

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-11-01

    IRELAND New courses for high-tech Ireland; SCIENCE YEAR Science Year launched with a jump; THE NETHERLANDS School science teachers face uncertainty; KOREA Embedding physics in a cultural context; TEACHING RESOURCES Teacher, get your hook; ICT RESOURCES Stock-take of ICT progress; INTERNET Teachers to test-drive new physics gateway; NEW ZEALAND Physics is valued in New Zealand; JAPAN Advancing Physics in Japan; HIGHER EDUCATION Networking works in Cologne; INSTITUTE MATTERS IoP demands a better deal for physics teachers; AUSTRALIA Physics numbers decline: educators blame the low impact curriculum; SCIENCE FOR THE PUBLIC More than sixty seconds in Glasgow; INTERNET A gift selection of papers from IoP; TEACHING STYLES I know what you did last summer;

  11. News

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-11-01

    Particle Physics: LHC switch-on inspires pupils Science Fair: Science takes centre stage in Spain Conference: Czech and Slovak physicists get together Curriculum: UK needs independent curriculum body Conference: Edmonton enjoys a physics-show treat

  12. News

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-05-01

    Solar Eclipse: Total eclipse aficionados seek out the best observation spots Schools Lecture: Demonstration lectures: what can go wrong will go wrong… Germany: Bridging the education gap Bangladesh: Workshop on science education assists battle against poverty Australia: Teachers gather to share experiences Meeting: Give the examination boards a grilling US Workshops: Workshops demonstrate some excellent teaching apparatus World Year of Physics: WYP events and activities are a great success in New Zealand

  13. News

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-05-01

    SHAP Awards: SHAP students come out on top APECS Seminar: Able Pupils Experience Challenging Science project gets support SHAP Awards : Teachers get awards too Institute Awards: Musical squares: musical pair continue to share their adventures in sound Meeting: Rugby School hosts Schools’ Physics Group Meeting Germany: German didactics group puts on a full programme for spring meeting Radio Communication: GB4FUN: mobile radio shack hits the airwaves and is a hit with schools Saturn: Cassini Huygens mission: Saturn here we come! World Year of Physics: Conference continues with its preparations for 2005 Resources: New resources on radioactive materials available JG was supported by KBN grant no 2 P03A 020 24.

  14. News

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-07-01

    Radioactivity: Olympic Games: dirty and decaying? Awards: SciCast rewards the best in scientific short films Conference: Teachers conference is big in Boston Workshop: Experts and teachers mingle in Mexico Awards: Olympiad holds lavish ceremony Cinema: Indiana Jones has a skull full of physics Conference: ESERA announces Turkish delight for 2009 Forthcoming Events

  15. News

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-11-01

    Resources: Online schools video library GIREP Seminar: A seminar not a conference New Teaching Resource: Free living for teachers Space: NASA proposes MEER - Momentum Exchange Electrodynamic-Reboost Electronic Teaching Materials: Superconductivity motivates need for upper secondary curriculum subjects Gifted and Talented: Seminars seek challenges Space: Comet chasing Particle Physics: Playing with single electrons Physics on Stage: Teachers explore the meaning of life Physics on Stage: Greek national event Physics on Stage: Physics on the Slovak stage Physics on Stage: Clubbing in Germany Physics on Stage: The Sun's star performance Higher Education: Physics: so refreshing USA: Broadening the Base AAPT Summer Meeting: US teachers in good form Astronomy: High school astronomy in the Czech Republic Space: Express to Mars Particle Physics: Journey to the centre of the Earth? ASE 2004: Flight from the ASE Physics Songs: A powerful melody Teacher Training: European training looks for ideal model

  16. News

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-11-01

    Astronomy: Trust founder receives heavenly honour Africa: UK teaching methods make the difference in Rwandan schools Spaced Out: UK-based scale model places Jodrell Bank at the centre of our solar system Teaching Support: Teacher Network makes its mark in the classroom Correction Art on Stage: Galileo lacks momentum Meeting: Teachers are inspired by US gathering Online Study: PPLATO Foundation promotes new avenue to university study Conference: GIREP '04 creates atmosphere of 'curiosity and enthusiasm' Meeting: SonSD meeting allows exchange of teaching ideas Competition: Win a digital camera! Physics in Perspective: Events highlight how rewarding physics can be Meeting: ASE conference to deliver the best of Physics Education

  17. News

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-07-01

    Croatia: Rijeka’s 2005 science festival attracts an enthusiastic crowd The Middle East: METSMaC conference reaches out to teachers around the Gulf and beyond Spain: Física en Acción 5: a Spanish festival that will have you cycling the tightrope Czech Republic: Astronomy lessons for everyone Sussex Planetarium: Planetarium sets its sights high TV series: Einstein gets animated for C4 cartoon series Memorial: Honouring the great: memorial to Robert Hooke is unveiled at Westminster Abbey Awards: SHAP awards prizes for exceptional student work Group meeting: IOP’s Education Group to meet in September Forthcoming Events

  18. News

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-01-01

    Einstein year: Einstein is brought back to life for a year of educational events Workshop: Students reach out for the Moon Event: Masterclasses go with a bang Workshop: Students search for asteroids on Einstein's birthday Scotland: Curriculum for Excellence takes holistic approach Conference: Reporting from a mattress in Nachod Conference: 'Change' is key objective at ICPE conference 2005 Lecture: Institute of Physics Schools Lecture series Conference: Experience showcase science in Warwick National network: Science Learning Centre opens Meeting: 30th Stirling Physics Meeting breaks records Competition: Win a digital camera! Forthcoming Events

  19. News

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-07-01

    Meetings: Physics Teachers@CERN 2003 Education Group Annual Conference: Observations by a first-time participant... Summer Workshop: Making Music Competition: Physics in the fast lane Bristol Festival of Physics: Ice cream ice-breakers Online Resources: Old favourites go online UK Curriculum: What does society want? UK Curriculum: Assessment of Science Learning 14-19 Forthcoming Events

  20. News

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-05-01

    LINKS WITH PRIMARY SCIENCE SAD Physics; PHYSICS RESEARCH In a hurry...; PHYSICS COMMUNITY Scottish Stirling Meeting; PHYSICS AT CONGRESS Global warming forecasts rise in skin cancer; EVENTS 2001 SET week; E-MAIL DISCUSSIONS Learning in science; STUDENT ACTIVITY Paperclip Physics; CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT Perspectives on Science; AWARDS Award for causing chaos; PHYSICS AT CONGRESS Physics and public heath: Do electrical power lines cause cancer? HIGHER EDUCATION First-year course development; INTERSCHOOL COLLABORATION Monitoring geomagnetic storms; CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT UK course goes international; PHYSICS IN SCIENCE YEAR Website launched

  1. News

    PubMed Central

    Riedmann, Eva M.

    2012-01-01

    Two new combination pediatric vaccines advancing to use in infants Oncolytic viruses successfully delivered intravenously Cuba eliminates hepatitis B among minors under 15 Alzheimer's vaccine trial a success Study: Shingles vaccine safe for patients on immune-suppressing drugs Therapeutic cancer vaccine against metastatic renal cell carcinoma enters Phase 3 Pfizer’s Men B vaccine shows promise in Phase 2 Biovest initiates formal regulatory approval process for BiovaxID in Europe PMID:22914446

  2. News

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davenhall, Clive

    2011-09-01

    Townsend Observatory destroyed; BAA Lunar Section archives; Astro-Cymru; Royal star identified; Formation of Johannes Kepler Working Group; Tycho Brahe exhumed; Ancient observatory discovered in Iran...; ... and in Mexico; Calling all ex-occupants of interplanetary craft.

  3. News

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-05-01

    Schools lecture: Institute of Physics roadshow is a lecture series with a difference Rugby Meeting: 17th Annual Meeting for Teachers of Physics boasts an impressive schedule Courses: Year-12 pupils go to Open University Camera Competition: Enter now to win a new camera! Conference: Teachers invited to CERN in September New Zealand: Royal Society of New Zealand tackles fear of physics Bulgaria: Fairies, witches and extraterrestrials: how to teach science using theatre Schools lecture: Institute seeks speaker for its annual lecture series Competition: Critical thinking is encouraged by global warming competition Scotland: Two good reasons to visit Scotland this summer Competition: Test your knowledge Free Event: June IOP conference Conference: Also in Liverpool…

  4. News

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-01-01

    MASTERCLASSES Researchers help motivate school students; HIGHER EDUCATION Undergraduate physics inquiry launched Sir Peter; PUBLIC UNDERSTANDING OF SCIENCE Chemists take the lead to get science groups pulling together; RESEARCH FRONTIERS Spintronic Chips; LOWER SECONDARY CURRICULUM Why do we teach physics? TEACHING COMMUNITY e-Teachers; AWARDS Nobel Prize; HIGHER EDUCATION Project Phoenics; PARTICLE PHYSICS LEP Closure; TEACHER TRAINING Training salary fails to attract recruits; EVENTS Physics moves into the spotlight

  5. Space Shuttle Status News Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Richard Gilbech, External Tank "Tiger Team" Lead, begins this space shuttle news conference with detailing the two major objectives of the team. The objectives include: 1) Finding the root cause of the foam loss on STS-114; and 2) Near and long term improvements for the external tank. Wayne Hale, Space Shuttle Program Manager, presents a chart to explain the external tank foam loss during STS-114. He gives a possible launch date for STS-121 after there has been a repair to the foam on the External Tank. He further discusses the changes that need to be made to the surrounding areas of the plant in New Orleans, due to Hurricane Katrina. Bill Gerstemaier, NASA Associate Administrator for Space Operations, elaborates on the testing of the external tank foam loss. The discussion ends with questions from the news media about a fix for the foam, replacement of the tiles, foam loss avoidance, the root cause of foam loss and a possible date for a new external tank to be shipped to NASA Kennedy Space Center.

  6. Space Shuttle Status News Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Richard Gilbech, External Tank "Tiger Team" Lead, begins this space shuttle news conference with detailing the two major objectives of the team. The objectives include: 1) Finding the root cause of the foam loss on STS-114; and 2) Near and long term improvements for the external tank. Wayne Hale, Space Shuttle Program Manager, presents a chart to explain the external tank foam loss during STS-114. He gives a possible launch date for STS-121 after there has been a repair to the foam on the External Tank. He further discusses the changes that need to be made to the surrounding areas of the plant in New Orleans, due to Hurricane Katrina. Bill Gerstemaier, NASA Associate Administrator for Space Operations, elaborates on the testing of the external tank foam loss. The discussion ends with questions from the news media about a fix for the foam, replacement of the tiles, foam loss avoidance, the root cause of foam loss and a possible date for a new external tank to be shipped to NASA Kennedy Space Center.

  7. The NEWS Water Cycle Climatology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodell, Matthew; Beaudoing, Hiroko Kato; L'Ecuyer, Tristan; William, Olson

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Energy and Water Cycle Study (NEWS) program fosters collaborative research towards improved quantification and prediction of water and energy cycle consequences of climate change. In order to measure change, it is first necessary to describe current conditions. The goal of the first phase of the NEWS Water and Energy Cycle Climatology project was to develop "state of the global water cycle" and "state of the global energy cycle" assessments based on data from modern ground and space based observing systems and data integrating models. The project was a multi-institutional collaboration with more than 20 active contributors. This presentation will describe the results of the water cycle component of the first phase of the project, which include seasonal (monthly) climatologies of water fluxes over land, ocean, and atmosphere at continental and ocean basin scales. The requirement of closure of the water budget (i.e., mass conservation) at various scales was exploited to constrain the flux estimates via an optimization approach that will also be described. Further, error assessments were included with the input datasets, and we examine these in relation to inferred uncertainty in the optimized flux estimates in order to gauge our current ability to close the water budget within an expected uncertainty range.

  8. How to follow the NEWS.

    PubMed

    Kellett, John; Murray, Alan

    2014-01-01

    it is not known how best to respond to changes in the National Early Warning Score (NEWS) after hospital admission. This report manipulates and extrapolates previously published data on the trajectories of the abbreviated early warning score (AbEWS i.e. NEWS that does not include mental status). trajectories of averaged AbEWS for patients for their first 5 days in hospital and their last 5 days in hospital were combined to obtain an approximation of what happens to the average patient while in hospital. the trajectories of patients admitted with a low score are different from those admitted with a high score. Patients should be observed for 12 to 24 hours before their outcome can be predicted. The score of most patients who die in hospital trends upward on the second or third day after admission. Patients admitted with a score of 0-2 who raise their score to >=3 have a ten-fold increase in-hospital mortality. the trajectories of early warning scores after admission are of prognostic importance, and escalation protocols should relate changes in the score to its initial value on admission.

  9. Library Media Specialists: Doing the News!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, Daniel D.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses Newspapers in Education (NIE) Week and how it can relate to school library media specialists. Highlights include the convergence of news media, including news on the Web; ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center) resources, including lesson plans; relevant books; Web sites; and Web journalism. (LRW)

  10. Broadcast Journalism; An Introduction to News Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Mark W.

    The important features of writing news for radio and television are covered in this book. Ways to write colorful, accurate, and timely stories are explained with the emphasis on the differences between broadcast and newspaper stories. Other subjects treated are sources of news (including explanations of how the Associated Press copy works and how…

  11. Network Evening News Coverage of Environmental Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Michael R.; And Others

    Focusing on ABC, NBC, and CBS's evening news broadcasts from January 1984 through February 1986, a study examined network news coverage of environmental risk--defined as manmade chemical, biological, and physical agents that create risk in the indoor, outdoor, and occupational environments. Using the Vanderbilt University "Television News…

  12. Transmission of News in the Turkish Village.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haroldsen, Edwin O.; Blake, Reed H.

    In the traditional Turkish village, the coffee house acts as a modern-day parish pump in news transmission. Within the coffee house, there is evidence of a two-step flow of communication. The role of the influential person in this study is the same as that in other studies: as a mediator and interpreter of news. In social characteristics, however,…

  13. GOES-R Prelaunch News Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-17

    From left, Sandra Smalley, director, Joint Agency Satellite Division, NASA Headquarters; Omar Baez, launch director, NASA Kennedy; and Scott Messer, program manager, NASA Missions, United Launch Alliance, speak to members of the news media during a Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R) prelaunch news conference in the Kennedy Space Center's Press Site auditorium in Florida.

  14. GOES-R Prelaunch News Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-17

    From left, Stephen Volz, assistant administrator for satellite and information services, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA); and Greg Mandt, GOES-R system program director, NOAA, speak to members of the news media during a Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R) prelaunch news conference in the Kennedy Space Center's Press Site auditorium.

  15. GOES-R Prelaunch News Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-17

    Clay Flinn, launch weather officer, 4th Weather Squadron, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, speaks to members of the news media during a Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R) prelaunch news conference in the Kennedy Space Center's Press Site auditorium in Florida.

  16. GOES-R Prelaunch News Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-17

    From left, Stephen Volz, assistant administrator for satellite and information services, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA); Greg Mandt, GOES-R system program director, NOAA; and Sandra Smalley, director, Joint Agency Satellite Division, NASA Headquarters, speak to members of the news media during a Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R) prelaunch news conference in the Kennedy Space Center's Press Site auditorium.

  17. NIH News in Health: September 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wein, Harrison, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    News in Health, is a monthly newsletter that provides practical health news and information. As college students arrive on campus this fall, it is a time of new experiences, new friendships and making memories that will last a lifetime. Unfortunately for many, it can also be a time of excessive drinking and dealing with its aftermath--vandalism,…

  18. Program Management Collection. "LINCS" Resource Collection News

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Literacy Information and Communication System, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This edition of "'LINCS' Resource Collection News" features the Program Management Collection, which covers the topics of Assessment, Learning Disabilities, and Program Improvement. Each month Collections News features one of the three "LINCS" (Literacy Information and Communication System) Resource Collections--Basic Skills, Program Management,…

  19. Kids, Crime, and Local Television News

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yanich, Danilo

    2005-01-01

    The vast majority of crime reporting occurs on local television news and in newspapers. Although crimes are extraordinary events, they assume an ordinariness that only daily reporting can give them. The obvious question is what does the news tell us about crime. This article compares the coverage of adult crime and the coverage of what the author…

  20. Satellite News Feeds: Protecting a Transient Interest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atwater, Tony; And Others

    Satellite news gathering (SNG) has been widely adopted in broadcast journalism in recent years, and appears likely to grow in importance as local television news operations increase their reliance on it. However, because the technology for SNG is so new, information transmitted through SNG systems is not adequately protected under current laws.…

  1. Radio: The Style of News Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Allan

    1982-01-01

    Examines the language style of news and the factors that influence it, with data drawn from extensive research on radio news in Auckland, New Zealand. Study of newscasters' language style shows that newscasters will alter their style of speech depending upon who they think is listening. (PD)

  2. Children's Fright Reactions to Television News.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantor, Joanne; Nathanson, Amy I.

    1996-01-01

    Finds that 37% of a random sample of children had been frightened by a news story on television; percentage of children frightened by news increased from kindergarten to the elementary school years, whereas the tendency to be frightened by fantastic, unreal content showed a decreasing trend; and tendency to respond with fright to violence between…

  3. Scandal Clouds News Corporation's Move into Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quillen, Ian

    2011-01-01

    When News Corporation announced last fall its entry into the education technology market, some observers said the media conglomerate led by Rupert Murdoch was a bad fit for education. Between the ownership of conservative-leaning outlets like Fox News and a reputation for identifying opportunities to generate lots of revenue very quickly, News…

  4. Science News and the Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCullough, Laura

    2006-01-01

    Using "Science News" as a teaching tool promotes writing about science, talking about science, and broadening students' views about what science is. This article describes an ongoing assignment in which students choose one article from "Science News" each week and write a brief summary and explanation of why they picked that article. (Contains 1…

  5. News Research for Better Newspapers. Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Chilton R., Ed.

    This volume is a compilation of the summaries of news-editorial research reported in the American Newspaper Publishers Association News Research Bulletins during 1967. Of the 44 studies reported in this volume, twenty were done by universities, ten by individuals, nine by research agencies, and five by other organizations. The studies are arranged…

  6. Kids, Crime, and Local Television News

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yanich, Danilo

    2005-01-01

    The vast majority of crime reporting occurs on local television news and in newspapers. Although crimes are extraordinary events, they assume an ordinariness that only daily reporting can give them. The obvious question is what does the news tell us about crime. This article compares the coverage of adult crime and the coverage of what the author…

  7. News Research for Better Newspapers, Volume Five.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Chilton R., Comp.

    The findings of research studies that come from a variety of sources and concern newspapers, some aspects of television news, and news media audiences are summarized briefly. Among the topics are audience characteristics, content of stories, readership, headlines and makeup, editorial policy, and editorial administration and personnel. Most of the…

  8. Library Media Specialists: Doing the News!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, Daniel D.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses Newspapers in Education (NIE) Week and how it can relate to school library media specialists. Highlights include the convergence of news media, including news on the Web; ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center) resources, including lesson plans; relevant books; Web sites; and Web journalism. (LRW)

  9. Computational Methods for Analyzing Health News Coverage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFarlane, Delano J.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers that investigate the media's coverage of health have historically relied on keyword searches to retrieve relevant health news coverage, and manual content analysis methods to categorize and score health news text. These methods are problematic. Manual content analysis methods are labor intensive, time consuming, and inherently…

  10. Broadcast Journalism; An Introduction to News Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Mark W.

    The important features of writing news for radio and television are covered in this book. Ways to write colorful, accurate, and timely stories are explained with the emphasis on the differences between broadcast and newspaper stories. Other subjects treated are sources of news (including explanations of how the Associated Press copy works and how…

  11. Workforce Competitiveness Collection. "LINCS" Resource Collection News

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Literacy Information and Communication System, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This edition of "'LINCS' Resource Collection News" features the Workforce Competitiveness Collection, covering the topics of workforce education, English language acquisition, and technology. Each month Collections News features one of the three "LINCS" (Literacy Information and Communication System) Resource Collections--Basic…

  12. The Production and Teaching of Broadcast News.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, Gale F.

    1987-01-01

    Presents description of local-area network of personal computers installed in the Broadcast News Laboratory at the University of Texas at Austin to help produce and teach broadcast news. Highlights include development and design of the system, software and hardware considerations, and the use of tutorials for writing and technical concepts. (LRW)

  13. Developing a News Media Literacy Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashley, Seth; Maksl, Adam; Craft, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Using a framework previously applied to other areas of media literacy, this study developed and assessed a measurement scale focused specifically on critical news media literacy. Our scale appears to successfully measure news media literacy as we have conceptualized it based on previous research, demonstrated through assessments of content,…

  14. Scandal Clouds News Corporation's Move into Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quillen, Ian

    2011-01-01

    When News Corporation announced last fall its entry into the education technology market, some observers said the media conglomerate led by Rupert Murdoch was a bad fit for education. Between the ownership of conservative-leaning outlets like Fox News and a reputation for identifying opportunities to generate lots of revenue very quickly, News…

  15. Dynamic film and interfacial tensions in emulsion and foam systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Y.H.; Koczo, K.; Wasan, D.T.

    1997-03-01

    In concentrated fluid dispersions the liquid films are under dynamic conditions during film rupture or drainage. Aqueous foam films stabilized with sodium decylsulfonate and aqueous emulsion films stabilized with the nonionic Brij 58 surfactant were formed at the tip of a capillary and the film tension was measured under static and dynamic conditions. In the stress relaxation experiments the response of the film tension to a sudden film area expansion was studied. These experiments also allowed the direct measurement of the Gibbs film elasticity. In the dynamic film tension experiments, the film area was continuously increased by a constant rate and the dynamic film tension was monitored. The measured film tensions were compared with the interfacial tensions of the respective single air/water and oil/water interfaces, which were measured using the same radius of curvature, relative expansion, and expansion rate as in the film studies. It was found that under dynamic conditions the film tension is higher than twice the single interfacial tension (IFT) and a mechanism was suggested to explain the difference. When the film, initially at equilibrium, is expanded and the interfacial area increases, a substantial surfactant depletion occurs inside the film. As a result, the surfactant can be supplied only from the adjoining meniscus (Plateau border) by surface diffusion, and the film tension is controlled by the diffusion and adsorption of surfactant in the meniscus. The results have important implications for the stability and rheology of foams and emulsions with high dispersed phase ratios (polyhedral structure).

  16. LET dependence of bubbles evaporation pulses in superheated emulsion detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Fulvio, Angela; Huang, Jean; Staib, Lawrence; d'Errico, Francesco

    2015-06-01

    Superheated emulsion detectors are suspensions of metastable liquid droplets in a compliant inert medium. Upon interaction with ionizing radiation, the droplets evaporate, generating visible bubbles. Bubble expansion associated with the boiling of the droplets is accompanied by pressure pulses in both the sonic and ultrasonic frequency range. In this work, we analyzed the signal generated by bubble evaporation in the frequency and time domain. We used octafluoropropane (R-218) based emulsions, sensitive to both photons and neutrons. The frequency content of the detected pulses appears to extend well into the hundreds of kHz, beyond the range used in commercial devices to count bubbles as they are formed (typically 1-10 kHz). Kilohertz components characterize the early part of the waveforms, potentially containing information about the energetics of the explosive bubble initial growth phase. The power spectral density of the acoustic signal produced by neutron-induced evaporation shows a characteristic frequency pattern in the 200-400 kHz range, which is not observed when bubbles evaporate upon gamma ray-induced irradiation. For practical applications, detection of ultrasonic pulses associated with the boiling of the superheated drops can be exploited as a fast readout method, negligibly affected by mechanical ambient noise.

  17. Health content in local television news.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheng; Gantz, Walter

    2007-01-01

    Local television news is an important source of health information for the public. Yet little is known about coverage of health issues on local television newscasts. This study examined 1,863 news stories that aired on 4 English-language channels and 1 Spanish channel in 7 U.S. markets during a composite week in 2000. About 10% of news stories focused on health topics. Specific illnesses/diseases and healthy living issues received the most frequent coverage. Health news stories generally were less than 1 min long. Most health news stories were neutral in tone. Few offered contrasting viewpoints or follow-up information. Many stories were likely to require a 10th grade education to be understood. Implications for health professionals, policy makers, and health communication researchers are discussed.

  18. Emulsion Mapping in Pork Meat Emulsion Systems with Various Lipid Types and Brown Rice Fiber

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Young-Boong; Park, Jinhee

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate emulsion mapping between emulsion stability and cooking yields, apparent viscosity, and hardness of reduced-fat pork emulsion systems. The reduced-fat emulsion systems were supplemented with different lipid types and brown rice bran fiber (BRF) concentrations. Compared to the control with 30% back fat, lower emulsion stability and higher cooking yield of meat emulsion systems were observed in T1 (30% back fat+1% BRF), T2 (30% back fat+2% BRF), T3 (30% back fat+3% BRF), T4 (30% back fat+6% BRF), and T15 (10% back fat+10% canola oil+2% BRF). Lower emulsion stability and higher apparent viscosity were observed in T1, T2, T3, T4, and T8 (20% back fat+3% BRF) compared to the control. Lower emulsion stability and higher hardness was detected in all treatments compared with the control, except T5 (20% back fat), T10 (10% back fat+10% canola oil+2% BRF), T11 (10% back fat+10% olive oil+2% BRF), T12 (10% back fat+10% grape seed oil+2% BRF), and T13 (10% back fat+10% soybean oil+2% BRF). This approach has been found particularly useful for highlighting differences among the emulsified properties in emulsion meat products. Thus, the results obtained with emulsion mapping are useful in making emulsified meat products of desired quality characteristics, partially replacing pork back fat with a mix of 10% back fat, 10% canola oil and 2% BRF was most similar to the control with 30% pork back fat. PMID:26761836

  19. Emulsion Mapping in Pork Meat Emulsion Systems with Various Lipid Types and Brown Rice Fiber.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Young-Boong; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Jeong, Tae-Jun; Park, Jinhee; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate emulsion mapping between emulsion stability and cooking yields, apparent viscosity, and hardness of reduced-fat pork emulsion systems. The reduced-fat emulsion systems were supplemented with different lipid types and brown rice bran fiber (BRF) concentrations. Compared to the control with 30% back fat, lower emulsion stability and higher cooking yield of meat emulsion systems were observed in T1 (30% back fat+1% BRF), T2 (30% back fat+2% BRF), T3 (30% back fat+3% BRF), T4 (30% back fat+6% BRF), and T15 (10% back fat+10% canola oil+2% BRF). Lower emulsion stability and higher apparent viscosity were observed in T1, T2, T3, T4, and T8 (20% back fat+3% BRF) compared to the control. Lower emulsion stability and higher hardness was detected in all treatments compared with the control, except T5 (20% back fat), T10 (10% back fat+10% canola oil+2% BRF), T11 (10% back fat+10% olive oil+2% BRF), T12 (10% back fat+10% grape seed oil+2% BRF), and T13 (10% back fat+10% soybean oil+2% BRF). This approach has been found particularly useful for highlighting differences among the emulsified properties in emulsion meat products. Thus, the results obtained with emulsion mapping are useful in making emulsified meat products of desired quality characteristics, partially replacing pork back fat with a mix of 10% back fat, 10% canola oil and 2% BRF was most similar to the control with 30% pork back fat.

  20. WIMP tracking with cryogenic nuclear emulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, M.; Naka, T.; Furuya, S.; Asada, T.; Katsuragawa, T.; Yoshimoto, M.; Umemoto, A.; Machii, S.; Ichiki, H.; Sato, O.; Hoshino, Y.

    2017-02-01

    Directional dark matter search experiments enable us to reveal the presence of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles. A promising detector for a directional measurement is a fine-grained nuclear emulsion consisting of fine crystals of silver bromide with 20 nm or 40 nm size. A critical task for the success of the experiment is to remove background tracks of electrons coming from stopping beta rays of 14C decays in the nuclear emulsion. An electron rejection power of at least 10-10 is needed in order to start a 10 kg experiment. We present a novel cryogenic approach to reject the electron background that makes use of the phonon effect in nuclear emulsion. For the proof of principle, we have been investigating the sensitivity of fine-grained nuclear emulsions as a function of temperature by exposing to gamma rays and ion beams with an ion implant system in the range of 77-300 K. Results of gamma ray exposure indicate that the electron rejection power is estimated to be better than 3 ×10-9 at 77 K. Results of ion exposure imply that fine-grained nuclear emulsion is sensitive to ions which are light and heavy and ion tracks' angle can be measured.

  1. High pressure-resistant nonincendive emulsion explosive

    DOEpatents

    Ruhe, Thomas C.; Rao, Pilaka P.

    1994-01-01

    An improved emulsion explosive composition including hollow microspheres/bulking agents having high density and high strength. The hollow microspheres/bulking agents have true particle densities of about 0.2 grams per cubic centimeter or greater and include glass, siliceous, ceramic and synthetic resin microspheres, expanded minerals, and mixtures thereof. The preferred weight percentage of hollow microspheres/bulking agents in the composition ranges from 3.0 to 10.0 A chlorinated paraffin oil, also present in the improved emulsion explosive composition, imparts a higher film strength to the oil phase in the emulsion. The emulsion is rendered nonincendive by the production of sodium chloride in situ via the decomposition of sodium nitrate, a chlorinated paraffin oil, and sodium perchlorate. The air-gap sensitivity is improved by the in situ formation of monomethylamine perchlorate from dissolved monomethylamine nitrate and sodium perchlorate. The emulsion explosive composition can withstand static pressures to 139 bars and dynamic pressure loads on the order of 567 bars.

  2. Liquid membrane extraction of cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Berends, A.M.; Breembroek, G.R.M.; Witkamp, G.J.; Rosmalen, G.M van

    1996-12-31

    Three Liquid Membrane extraction designs are compared by their experimental extraction performance of cadmium ions from an aqueous phase with tri-laurylamine dissolved in an aliphatic kerosene. The compared designs are Emulsion Liquid Membrane (ELM), Flat Sheet Supported Liquid Membrane (FSSLM) and Hollow Fiber Supported Liquid Membrane (HFSLM4) extraction units. The results demonstrated that ELM possesses the best extraction performance per volume of equipment, but that HFSLM is a good alternative because of its less complicated design and greater flexibility. 2 refs., 7 figs.

  3. Stimuli-responsive Pickering emulsions: recent advances and potential applications.

    PubMed

    Tang, Juntao; Quinlan, Patrick James; Tam, Kam Chiu

    2015-05-14

    Pickering emulsions possess many advantages over traditional surfactant stabilized emulsions. For example, Pickering emulsions impart better stability against coalescence and, in many cases, are biologically compatible and environmentally friendly. These characteristics open the door for their use in a variety of industries spanning petroleum, food, biomedicine, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. Depending on the application, rapid, but controlled stabilization and destabilization of an emulsion may be necessary. As a result, Pickering emulsions with stimuli-responsive properties have, in recent years, received a considerable amounts of attention. This paper provides a concise and comprehensive review of Pickering emulsion systems that possess the ability to respond to an array of external triggers, including pH, temperature, CO2 concentration, light intensity, ionic strength, and magnetic field. Potential applications for which stimuli-responsive Pickering emulsion systems would be of particular value, such as emulsion polymerization, enhanced oil recovery, catalyst recovery, and cosmetics, are discussed.

  4. Quantitative morphological characterization of bicontinuous Pickering emulsions via interfacial curvatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeves, Matthew; Stratford, Kevin; Thijssen, Job H. J.

    Bicontinuous Pickering emulsions (bijels) are a physically interesting class of soft materials with many potential applications including catalysis, microfluidics and tissue engineering. They are created by arresting the spinodal decomposition of a partially-miscible liquid with a (jammed) layer of interfacial colloids. Porosity $L$ (average interfacial separation) of the bijel is controlled by varying the radius ($r$) and volume fraction ($\\phi$) of the colloids ($L \\propto r/\\phi$). However, to optimize the bijel structure with respect to other parameters, e.g. quench rate, characterizing by $L$ alone is insufficient. Hence, we have used confocal microscopy and X-ray CT to characterize a range of bijels in terms of local and area-averaged interfacial curvatures. In addition, the curvatures of bijels have been monitored as a function of time, which has revealed an intriguing evolution up to 60 minutes after bijel formation, contrary to previous understanding.

  5. Coalescence of Pickering Emulsion Droplets Induced by an Electric Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guo; Tan, Peng; Chen, Shuyu; Huang, Jiping; Wen, Weijia; Xu, Lei

    2013-02-01

    Combining high-speed photography with electric current measurement, we investigate the electrocoalescence of Pickering emulsion droplets. Under a high enough electric field, the originally stable droplets coalesce via two distinct approaches: normal coalescence and abnormal coalescence. In the normal coalescence, a liquid bridge grows continuously and merges two droplets together, similar to the classical picture. In the abnormal coalescence, however, the bridge fails to grow indefinitely; instead, it breaks up spontaneously due to the geometric constraint from particle shells. Such connecting-then-breaking cycles repeat multiple times, until a stable connection is established. In depth analysis indicates that the defect size in particle shells determines the exact merging behaviors: when the defect size is larger than a critical size around the particle diameter, normal coalescence will show up, while abnormal coalescence will appear for coatings with smaller defects.

  6. Coalescence of Pickering emulsion droplets induced by electric-field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guo; Tan, Peng; Chen, Shuyu; Huang, Jiping; Wen, Weijia; Xu, Lei

    2013-03-01

    Combining high-speed photography with electric current measurement, we investigate the coalescence of Pickering emulsion droplets. Under high enough electric field, the originally-stable droplets coalesce via two distinct approaches: normal coalescence and abnormal coalescence. In the normal coalescence, a liquid bridge grows continuously and merges two droplets together, similar to the classical picture. In the abnormal coalescence, however, the bridge fails to grow indefinitely; instead it breaks up spontaneously due to the geometric constraint from particle shells. Such connecting-then-breaking cycles repeat multiple times, until a stable connection is established. In depth analysis indicates that the defect size in particle shells determines the exact merging behaviors: when the defects are larger than a critical size, normal coalescence will show up; while abnormal coalescence will appear for smaller defects. This project is supported by the Hong Kong GRF Grant (Project No. CUHK404211).

  7. Kids Landing in ERs After Drinking Parents' E-Cig Nicotine Liquid

    MedlinePlus

    ... Landing in ERs After Drinking Parents' E-Cig Nicotine Liquid In one case, a 6-year-old ... News) -- A case study highlights the danger liquid nicotine for electronic cigarettes poses to children. Doctors in ...

  8. The effect of surfactant crystallization on partial coalescence in O/W emulsions.

    PubMed

    Goibier, Lucie; Lecomte, Sophie; Leal-Calderon, Fernando; Faure, Chrystel

    2017-08-15

    Partial coalescence is a ubiquitous instability in emulsions whose dispersed phase is partially crystallized. When emulsions are stabilized with proteins, interfacial stiffness and long-range repulsive surface forces hinder this type of instability. The addition of low molecular weight surfactants modifies the interfacial properties and surface forces, generally promoting partial coalescence. In the present work, various surfactants (Tween® 80, palmitic acid and monoglycerides) differing in their crystallization temperature were probed for their ability to induce partial coalescence in model O/W emulsions stabilized by sodium caseinate. The initially fluid emulsions were submitted to a tempering cycle leading to the gelation of the system. The extent of partial coalescence was evaluated by measuring the bulk storage modulus. DSC was used to determine the melting range of the oil phase and surfactants, while polarized microscopy, Raman imaging, and surface rheology measurements were performed to characterize the oil/water interface. The experimental conditions in terms of droplet size, surfactant-to-protein molar ratio and tempering history favoring partial coalescence were first explored in presence of Tween® 80. We show that partial coalescence is rather marginal when crystallizable surfactants are added, and pronounced with liquid surfactants. The phenomena underlying this result, especially interfacial crystallization of surfactants, are evidenced and discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Development of cetyl dimethicone based water-in-oil emulsion containing botanicals: Physical characteristics and stability.

    PubMed

    Waqas, Muhammad Khurram; Akhtar, Naveed; Shah, Pervaiz Akhtar; Danish, Muhammad Zeeshan; Shah, Arshad Ali; Braga, Valdir de Andrade; Khan, Barkat Ali

    2016-01-01

    The aim of current research was to develop a water-in-oil emulsion containing grape seed extract for application in cosmeceuticals. Finally grinded dried grape seeds powder was extracted with hydro alcoholic mixture. Emulsions consisting of different concentrations of cetyl dimethicone (Abile EM90), the nonionic emulsifier, liquid paraffin as oily phase and water as aqueous phase were developed. Color, odor, pH, viscosity, liquefaction, phase separation, centrifugation and thermal stability of the formulated emulsions were observed at various storage temperatures i.e. 8±0.5°C, 25±0.5°C, 40±0.5°C and 40°C±0.5°C with 70% RH. The stable formulation consist of 16% mineral oil, 4% of ABIL EM 90(®), 4% grape seeds extract, 1% rose oil and 75% distilled water. All the results derived from this study showed good stability over the three months study period which indicates w/o emulsion can be used as carrier of 4% grape seeds extract to enhance desired effects when applied topically.

  10. Aqueous tert-butanol mixtures: A model for molecular-emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kežić, Bernarda; Perera, Aurélien

    2012-07-01

    By analogy with micro-emulsion, we introduce the molecular-emulsion picture to describe particular aqueous mixtures. The analogy is set by introducing the equivalent of the Teubner-Strey structure factor, the latter which is traditionally used to describe the structure of micro-emulsions. The main difference resides in the fact that the size of the oil and water domains are not in the micrometer, but in the nanometer scale. This implies that the molecular size and the molecular geometry cannot be neglected anymore. The introduction of this analogy is used to settle the problem of properly describing with computer simulations highly micro-heterogeneous aqueous mixtures. In particular, the issue of whether or not the Kirkwood-Buff integrals represent solely concentration fluctuations is settled by showing the contribution of the micro-heterogeneity to these integrals through the presence of an associated pre-peak in the structure factors. Both the Optimized Potentials for Liquid State (OPLS) and Transferable Potential for Phase Equilibria-United Atoms (TraPPE-UA) force fields for tert-butanol turn out to be remarkably good in describing the structure of the corresponding aqueous mixtures, when the above-mentioned analogy with micro-emulsion is introduced to correct for the computational artifacts in the Kirkwood-Buff integrals.

  11. SonicBAT News Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-17

    In the Kennedy Space Center's Press Site auditorium, Laura Henning, public information officer for the Canaveral National Seashore, speaks to members of the media at a news conference to discuss upcoming flight tests to study the effects of sonic booms. Kennedy is partnering with Armstrong, Langley and Space Florida for a program called SonicBAT for Sonic Booms in Atmospheric Turbulence. Starting in August, NASA F-18 jets will take off from the Shuttle Landing Facility and fly at supersonic speeds while agency researchers on the ground measure the effects of low-altitude turbulence on sonic booms. The study could lead to technology mitigating the annoying sonic booms making possible supersonic flights over populated areas.

  12. SonicBAT News Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-17

    In the Kennedy Space Center's Press Site auditorium, Dale Ketcham chief of Strategic Alliances for Space Florida, speaks to members of the media at a news conference to discuss upcoming flight tests to study the effects of sonic booms. Kennedy is partnering with Armstrong, Langley and Space Florida for a program called SonicBAT for Sonic Booms in Atmospheric Turbulence. Starting in August, NASA F-18 jets will take off from the Shuttle Landing Facility and fly at supersonic speeds while agency researchers on the ground measure the effects of low-altitude turbulence on sonic booms. The study could lead to technology mitigating the annoying sonic booms making possible supersonic flights over populated areas.

  13. SonicBAT News Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-17

    In the Kennedy Space Center's Press Site auditorium, Larry Cliatt, SonicBAT Fluid Mechanics at Armstrong Flight Research Center in California, speaks to members of the media at a news conference to discuss upcoming flight tests to study the effects of sonic booms. Kennedy is partnering with Armstrong, Langley and Space Florida for a program called SonicBAT for Sonic Booms in Atmospheric Turbulence. Starting in August, NASA F-18 jets will take off from the Shuttle Landing Facility and fly at supersonic speeds while agency researchers on the ground measure the effects of low-altitude turbulence on sonic booms. The study could lead to technology mitigating the annoying sonic booms making possible supersonic flights over populated areas.

  14. SonicBAT News Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-17

    In the Kennedy Space Center's Press Site auditorium, Peter Coen, SonicBAT Mission Analysis at NASA’s Langley Research Center in Virginia, speaks to members of the media at a news conference to discuss upcoming flight tests to study the effects of sonic booms. Kennedy is partnering with Armstrong, Langley and Space Florida for a program called SonicBAT for Sonic Booms in Atmospheric Turbulence. Starting in August, NASA F-18 jets will take off from the Shuttle Landing Facility and fly at supersonic speeds while agency researchers on the ground measure the effects of low-altitude turbulence on sonic booms. The study could lead to technology mitigating the annoying sonic booms making possible supersonic flights over populated areas.

  15. SonicBAT News Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-17

    In the Kennedy Space Center's Press Site auditorium, Matthew Kamlet of NASA Communications at the Armstrong Flight Research Center in California, speaks to members of the media at a news conference to discuss upcoming flight tests to study the effects of sonic booms. Kennedy is partnering with Armstrong, Langley and Space Florida for a program called SonicBAT for Sonic Booms in Atmospheric Turbulence. Starting in August, NASA F-18 jets will take off from the Shuttle Landing Facility and fly at supersonic speeds while agency researchers on the ground measure the effects of low-altitude turbulence on sonic booms. The study could lead to technology mitigating the annoying sonic booms making possible supersonic flights over populated areas.

  16. Relating emulsion stability to interfacial properties for pharmaceutical emulsions stabilized by Pluronic F68 surfactant.

    PubMed

    Powell, Kristin Conrad; Damitz, Robert; Chauhan, Anuj

    2017-04-15

    We explore mechanisms of emulsion stability for several systems using Pluronic F68 and a range of oils commonly used in pharmaceutics and cosmetics. We report measurements of dynamic emulsion drop size, zeta potential, and creaming time, as well as dynamic interfacial tension and interfacial viscoelasticity. Experiments show that with 1wt% Pluronic F68, soybean oil emulsions were the most stable with no creaming over six months, followed by isopropyl myristate, octanoic acid, and then ethyl butyrate. The eventual destabilization occurred due to the rising of large drops which formed through Ostwald ripening and coalescence. While Ostwald ripening is important, it is not the dominant destabilization mechanism for the time scale of interest in pharmaceutical emulsions. The more significant destabilization mechanism, coalescence, is reduced through surfactant adsorption, which decreases surface tension, increases surface elasticity, and adds a stearic hindrance to collisions. Though the measured values of elasticity obtained using a standard oscillatory pendant drop method did not correlate to emulsion stability, this is because the frequencies for the measurements were orders of magnitude below those relevant to coalescence in emulsions. However, we show that the high frequency elasticity obtained by fitting the surface tension data to a Langmuir isotherm has very good correlation with the emulsion stability, indicating that the elasticity of the interface plays a key role in stabilizing these pharmaceutical formulations. Further, this study highlights how these important high frequency elasticity values can be easily estimated from surface isotherms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Cancer News Coverage and Information Seeking

    PubMed Central

    NIEDERDEPPE, JEFF; FROSCH, DOMINICK L.; HORNIK, ROBERT C.

    2010-01-01

    The shift toward viewing patients as active consumers of health information raises questions about whether individuals respond to health news by seeking additional information. This study examines the relationship between cancer news coverage and information seeking using a national survey of adults aged 18 years and older. A Lexis-Nexis database search term was used to identify Associated Press (AP) news articles about cancer released between October 21, 2002, and April 13, 2003. We merged these data to the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS), a telephone survey of 6,369 adults, by date of interview. Logistic regression models assessed the relationship between cancer news coverage and information seeking. Overall, we observed a marginally significant positive relationship between cancer news coverage and information seeking (p < 0.07). Interaction terms revealed that the relationship was apparent only among respondents who paid close attention to health news (p < 0.01) and among those with a family history of cancer (p < 0.05). Results suggest that a notable segment of the population actively responds to periods of elevated cancer news coverage by seeking additional information, but they raise concerns about the potential for widened gaps in cancer knowledge and behavior between large segments of the population in the future. PMID:18300068

  18. Cancer news coverage and information seeking.

    PubMed

    Niederdeppe, Jeff; Frosch, Dominick L; Hornik, Robert C

    2008-03-01

    The shift toward viewing patients as active consumers of health information raises questions about whether individuals respond to health news by seeking additional information. This study examines the relationship between cancer news coverage and information seeking using a national survey of adults aged 18 years and older. A Lexis-Nexis database search term was used to identify Associated Press (AP) news articles about cancer released between October 21, 2002, and April 13, 2003. We merged these data to the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS), a telephone survey of 6,369 adults, by date of interview. Logistic regression models assessed the relationship between cancer news coverage and information seeking. Overall, we observed a marginally significant positive relationship between cancer news coverage and information seeking (p < 0.07). Interaction terms revealed that the relationship was apparent only among respondents who paid close attention to health news (p < 0.01) and among those with a family history of cancer (p < 0.05). Results suggest that a notable segment of the population actively responds to periods of elevated cancer news coverage by seeking additional information, but they raise concerns about the potential for widened gaps in cancer knowledge and behavior between large segments of the population in the future.

  19. Improved Capacitive Liquid Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waldman, Francis A.

    1992-01-01

    Improved capacitive sensor used to detect presence and/or measure thickness of layer of liquid. Electrical impedance or admittance of sensor measured at prescribed frequency, and thickness of liquid inferred from predetermined theoretical or experimental relationship between impedance and thickness. Sensor is basically a three-terminal device. Features interdigitated driving and sensing electrodes and peripheral coplanar ground electrode that reduces parasitic effects. Patent-pending because first to utilize ground plane as "shunting" electrode. System less expensive than infrared, microwave, or refractive-index systems. Sensor successfully evaluated in commercial production plants to characterize emulsions, slurries, and solutions.

  20. Breaking bad news in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Konstantis, Apostolos; Exiara, Triada

    2015-01-01

    In a regional hospital, many patients are newly diagnosed with cancer. Breaking the bad news in these patients and their relatives is a tough task. Many doctors are not experienced in talking to patients about death or death-related diseases. In recent years, there have been great efforts to change the current situation. The aim of this study was to investigate the experience and education of medical personnel in breaking bad news in a secondary hospital. 59 doctors from General Hospital of Komotini, Greece were included in the study. All the doctors were in clinical specialties that treated cancer patients. A brief questionnaire was developed based on current guidelines such as Baile/SPIKES framework and the ABCDE mnemonic. Residents are involved in delivering bad news less frequently than specialists. Only 21 doctors (35.59%) had specific training on breaking bad news. 20 doctors (33.90%) were aware of the available techniques and protocols on breaking bad news. 47 doctors (79.66%) had a consistent plan for breaking bad news. 57 (96.61%) delivered bad news in a quiet place, 53 (89.83%) ensured no interruptions and enough time, 53 (89.83%) used simple words and 54 (91.53%) checked for understanding and did not rush through the news. 46 doctors (77.97%) allowed relatives to determine patient's knowledge about the disease. There were low rates of specific training in breaking bad news. However, the selected location, the physician's speech and their plan were according to current guidelines.